Science.gov

Sample records for administrative region china

  1. Establishment of Nature Reserves in Administrative Regions of Mainland China

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ziliang; Cui, Guofa

    2015-01-01

    Nature reserves are widely considered as one available strategy for protecting biodiversity, which is threatened by habitat fragmentation, and wildlife extinction. The Chinese government has established a goal of protecting 15% of its land area by 2015. We quantitated the characteristics and distribution of nature reserves in mainland China and evaluated the expansion process for national nature reserves. National nature reserves occupy 64.15% of the total area of nature reserves. Steppe and meadow ecosystem, ocean and seacoast ecosystem, and wild plant nature reserves represent lower percentages, particularly in national nature reserves, in which they comprised 0.76%, 0.54%, and 0.69%, respectively, of the area. Furthermore, medium and small nature reserves compose 92.32% of all nature reserves. The land area under any legal protection has reached 14.80%, although only 9.78% is strictly protected. However, if 9 super-large national nature reserves, located in Southwest and Northwest China were removed, the percentage of strictly protected area decreases to 2.66% of the land area of China. The areas contained in nature reserves in each province are not proportional to the areas of the provinces, particularly for national nature reserves, with higher protection rates in Southwest and Northwest China than in other regions. Of the 31 provinces, 22 provinces feature strict protection of less than 4% of their areas by national nature reserves; these provinces are mainly located in East, Central, South, and North China. Moreover, the unevenness indexes of the distribution of nature reserves and national nature reserves are 0.39 and 0.58, respectively. The construction of nature reserves has entered a steady development stage after a period of rapid expansion in mainland China. In recent years, the total area of national nature reserves has increased slowly, while the total area of nature reserves has not increased, although the number of nature reserves continues

  2. Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China [4 April 1990].

    PubMed

    1990-04-09

    On December 19, 1984, the Chinese and British Governments signed the joint declaration allowing the Peoples' Republic of China to resume sovereignty over Hong Kong effective July 1, 1997. To assure the prosperity and stability of Hong Kong, China will establish a Hong Kong Special Administrative Region allowing the socialist system and the policies practiced in Hong Kong to co-exist under the principle of "one country, two systems" as elaborated by the Chinese Government in the Sino-British joint declaration. Under the laws of China, the following Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China is enacted, prescribing the systems to be practiced in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, necessary in order to assure implementation of the policies of China toward Hong Kong. The law covers: 1) General Principles, allowing the previous capitalist system to remain unchanged for 50 years, etc. 2) It establishes the relationship between the Central Authorities and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region; e.g., China will defend Hong Kong, Hong Kong will possess independent judicial power. Chapter 3 defines the fundamental rights and duties of Hong Kong residents, and defines in chapter 4) the political structure that includes the Chief Executive, the Executive Authorities, the Legislature, the Judiciary, the District Organizations, and Public Servants. Chapter 5 contains information about the economy, public finance, monetary affairs, trade, industry, commerce, land leases, shipping, and civil aviation. Chapter 6 deals with education, science, culture, sports, religion, and labor and social services. Chapter 7 defines the responsibilities for external affairs. Chapter 8 specifies the interpretation and amendment of the Basic Law, ending with chapter 9 Supplementary Provisions, selection of the Chief Executive, formation of the Legislative Council, voting procedures, and the national laws to be applied in the Hong Kong

  3. Healthy life expectancy in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China.

    PubMed Central

    Law, C. K.; Yip, P. S. F.

    2003-01-01

    Sullivan's method and a regression model were used to calculate healthy life expectancy (HALE) for men and women in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong SAR) of China. These methods need estimates of the prevalence and information on disability distributions of 109 diseases and HALE for 191 countries by age, sex and region of the world from the WHO's health assessment of 2000. The population of Hong Kong SAR has one of the highest healthy life expectancies in the world. Sullivan's method gives higher estimates than the classic linear regression method. Although Sullivan's method accurately calculates the influence of disease prevalence within small areas and regions, the regression method can approximate HALE for all economies for which information on life expectancy is available. This paper identifies some problems of the two methods and discusses the accuracy of estimates of HALE that rely on data from the WHO assessment. PMID:12640475

  4. An outbreak of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in a boarding school in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China)

    PubMed Central

    Kwok-ming, Poon; Yuen-kong, Wan; Shuk-kwan, Chuang; Lai-key, Kwok; Sik-on, Pak

    2014-01-01

    Background In November 2012, an outbreak of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) skin and soft tissue infections affecting students at a boarding school in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China) was detected. Methods A case was defined as any student or staff notified with MRSA infection from 25 October 2012 to 5 July 2013 with the clinical isolate being of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type IV or V and positive for Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene. We conducted field investigations, advised on control measures and enhanced surveillance for skin and soft tissue infections at the school. Decolonization therapies were offered to all cases and contacts, and carrier screening was conducted. Results There were five cases; two (40%) were hospitalized and three (60%) required surgical treatments. Initial screening comprised 240 students and 81 staff members. Overall, four cases (80%) plus eight other students (3.3%) were carriers, with eight of 12 (66.7%) from the same dormitory. All staff members screened negative. After intensified control measures, the number of students screened positive for CA-MRSA decreased from nine to one with no more cases identified in the school. Conclusion Identification of carriers, decolonization therapy, monitoring of cases and contacts and strengthening of environmental and personal hygiene were control measures that helped contain this CA-MRSA outbreak in a boarding school in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China). PMID:24734211

  5. The effects of income level, income distribution, education and urbanization on fertility rates among 28 administrative regions of China.

    PubMed

    Lee, B S

    1990-07-01

    Conflicting empirical evidence on the role of income distribution on fertility rates is the impetus for this 1982 study of providence-specific Chinese Census data, excluding Tibet. The findings support the prior thesis of Repetto but utilize the micromethods and per household income measures of the competing findings of Boulier. It is cautioned that in the Chinese analysis equal income distribution depresses fertility, but China may not reflect world wide patterns. China did not have until recently a market incentive system, and there are income measurement problems. The data are per capita economic output not per capita income, and those high output areas which did not produce low fertility may actually have had households with low incomes. The importance of this research is in establishing that cross-province data are a useful tool in understanding the influence of income distribution on fertility. As with most developing countries, women's education, for instance, at least junior high education explained the largest variation of fertility differences among the 28 provinces. The urbanization variable when controlling for income was positive, unlike the other developing countries. The 1949 Chinese government's spatial industrial policy encouraged urbanization and industrialization in rural areas and family planning programs such that highly urbanized provinces have low population density. A variety of variables on income level, income distribution, education, and urbanization are discussed. OLSQ regressions were generated utilizing such independent variables as output per capita in yuan (YOUTHPC80), the square of YOUTHPC80 (YOUTHPC802), YOUTHPC80 multiplied by the average family size in each province (YOUTHPH80), and the squared value of YOUTHPH80.

  6. Reform and Development of Educational Administration System in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Qiang; Wu, Zhongyuan

    2008-01-01

    The paper mainly introduces the development of the educational administration agency in China, including the evolution of the educational administration agency, the Course of instituting legal system of education in China, the missions of the now Minister of Education, questions emerged in the development of the educational administration system,…

  7. [Climatic suitability of single cropping rice planting region in China].

    PubMed

    Duan, Ju-Qi; Zhou, Guang-Sheng

    2012-02-01

    To clarify the leading climate factors affecting the distribution of single cropping rice planting region in China at national and annual temporal scales and to reveal the potential distribution and climatic suitability divisions of this planting region in China could not only provide scientific basis for optimizing the allocation of single cropping rice production, modifying planting pattern, and introducing fine varieties, but also ensure the food security of China. In this paper, the potential climate factors affecting the single cropping rice distribution in China at regional and annual scales were selected from related literatures, and the single cropping rice geographic information from the national agro-meteorological observation stations of China Meteorological Administration (CMA), together with the maximum entropy model (MaxEnt) and spatial analyst function of Arc-GIS software, were adopted to clarify the leading climate factors affecting the potential distribution of single cropping rice planting region in China, and to construct a model about the relationships between the potential distribution of the planting region and the climate. The results showed that annual precipitation, moisture index, and days of not less than 18 degrees C stably were the leading climate factors affecting the potential distribution of single cropping rice planting region in China, with their cumulative contribution rate reached 94.5% of all candidate climate factors. The model constructed in this paper could well simulate the potential distribution of single cropping rice planting region in China. According to the appearance frequency, the low, medium and high climatic suitability divisions of single cropping rice planting region in China were clarified, and the climate characteristics of the planting region in each climatic suitability division were analyzed.

  8. Administration of Education in the Asia Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Raja Roy; Guruge, A. W. P.

    1977-01-01

    Analyzed are inadequacies of the educational administrative structures of Asian countries. Recommendations are made for improvement in administrator education, on-the-job training, and exposure to management problems in a variety of related fields. (Author/DB)

  9. 40 CFR 108.4 - Investigation by Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Investigation by Regional Administrator. 108.4 Section 108.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS EMPLOYEE PROTECTION HEARINGS § 108.4 Investigation by Regional Administrator. Upon receipt of...

  10. 40 CFR 108.4 - Investigation by Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Investigation by Regional Administrator. 108.4 Section 108.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS EMPLOYEE PROTECTION HEARINGS § 108.4 Investigation by Regional Administrator. Upon receipt of...

  11. Regional patterns of soil organic carbon stocks in China.

    PubMed

    Yu, D S; Shi, X Z; Wang, H J; Sun, W X; Chen, J M; Liu, Q H; Zhao, Y C

    2007-11-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is of great importance in the global carbon cycle. Distribution patterns of SOC in various regions of China constitute a nation-wide baseline for studies on soil carbon changes. This paper presents an integrated and multi-level study on SOC stock patterns of China, and presents baseline SOC stock estimates by great administrative regions, river watersheds, soil type regions and ecosystem. The assignment is done by means of a recently completed 1: 1,000,000 scale soil database of China, which is the most detailed and reliable one in China at the present time. SOC densities of 7292 soil profiles collected across China in the middle of the 1980s were calculated and then linked to corresponding polygons in a digital soil map, resulting in a SOC Density Map of China on a 1: 1,000,000 scale, and a 1 km x 1 km grid map. Corresponding maps of administrative regions, river watersheds, soil types (ST), and ecosystems in China were also prepared with an identical resolution and coordinate control points, allowing GIS analyses. Results show that soils in China cover an area of 9.281 x 10(6)km(2) in total, with a total SOC stock of 89.14 Pg (1 Pg=10(15)g) and a mean SOC density of 96.0 t C/ha. Confidence limits of the SOC stock and density in China are estimated as [89.23 Pg, 89.08 Pg] and [96.143 t C/ha, 95.981 t C/ha] at 95% probability, respectively. The largest total SOC stock (23.60 Pg) is found in South-west China while the highest mean SOC density (181.9 t C/ha) is found in north-east China. The total SOC stock and the mean SOC density in the Yangtze river watershed are 21.05 Pg and 120.0 t C/ha, respectively, while the corresponding figures in the Yellow river watershed are 8.46 Pg and 104.3 t C/ha, respectively. The highest total SOC stocks are found in Inceptisols (34.39 Pg) with SOC density of 102.8 t C/ha. The lowest and highest mean SOC densities are found on Entisols (28.1 t C/ha), and on Histosols (994.728.1 t C/ha), respectively

  12. Regional characteristics of dust storms in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Weihong; Tang, Xu; Quan, Linsheng

    2004-09-01

    Regional characteristics of dust storms in northern China are analyzed using a rotated empirical orthogonal function (REOF), based on the annual days of dust storms from 1954 to 1998. The relationships between regional dust storms corresponding to other factors such as precipitation and temperature are explored. The results show that five leading modes of dust storms exist in the following areas: the Taklamakan Desert (Tarim Basin) over the Xinjiang region (far northwestern China), the eastern part of Inner Mongolia (North China), the Tsaidam Basin, the Tibetan Plateau, and the upper reaches of the Yellow River (Gobi Desert). These areas are associated with an arid climate and frequent winds. For the first mode in the Tarim Basin, most dust storms appear in the 1980s, while dust storms become less frequent in the 1990s. The second mode (North China) shows the highest frequency of dust storms in the mid-1960s but the frequency decreases afterward. The third mode indicates a decreasing trend of annual dust storms after the mid-1960s but with a high interannual variability. The fourth mode also shows a decreasing trend but with a low interannual variability. The fifth mode displays a high frequency of dust storms in the 1970s followed by a decreasing trend. For the five modes of dust storm distribution, four of the centers are located in desert regions. The annual dust storms of a selected station in each mode region are shown to compare the coefficient time series of these modes. The negative correlation between the prior winter temperature and dust storm frequency is identified for most stations. There is no consistency in the correlation between the dust storm frequency and the annual rainfall as well as the prior winter rainfall at these stations. The activity of dust storms in northern China are directly linked to the cyclone activity, especially for the interdecadal variability.

  13. 51. Roof plans, General Services Administration, Construction Management Division, Region ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Roof plans, General Services Administration, Construction Management Division, Region 2, New York, October 29, 1976. Scale 1/31=1. - U.S. Navy Fleet Supply Base, Storehouse No. 1, 830 Third Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  14. EPA Regional Administrator Tours Mining Areas with New Mexico Officials

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (July 24, 2015) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Regional Administrator Ron Curry toured areas of New Mexico and the Navajo Nation where progress in cleaning up legacy contamination from uranium mines is being made. He was joined

  15. Regional inequality in China's health care expenditures.

    PubMed

    Chou, Win Lin; Wang, Zijun

    2009-07-01

    This paper has two parts. The first part examines the regional health expenditure inequality in China by testing two hypotheses on health expenditure convergence. Cross-section regressions and cluster analysis are used to study the health expenditure convergence and to identify convergence clusters. We find no single nationwide convergence, only convergence by cluster. In the second part of the paper, we investigate the long-run relationship between health expenditure inequality, income inequality, and provincial government budget deficits (BD) by using new panel co-integration tests with health expenditure data in China's urban and rural areas. We find that the income inequality and real provincial government BD are useful in explaining the disparity in health expenditure prevailing between urban and rural areas. In order to reduce health-spending inequality, one long-run policy suggestion from our findings is for the government to implement more rapid economic development and stronger financing schemes in poorer rural areas.

  16. Plant conservation priorities of Xinjiang region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L. P.; Cui, W. H.; Wang, T.; Tian, S.; Xing, W. J.; Yin, L. K.; Abdusalih, N.; Jiang, Y. M.

    2017-02-01

    As an important region in the Silk Road, Xinjiang is getting a good chance of developing economy. However at the same time, its natural environment is facing a big challenge. To better protect the plant diversity, it is urgent to make a thorough conservation plan. With a full database of vascular and medicinal plant distributions and nature reserve plant lists and boundaries in Xinjiang of China, we analysed the plant diversity hotspots, protection gaps and proposed the plant conservation priorities of this region. Differed from the widely accepted viewpoints that lots of plants were not included in nature reserves, we found that most of the plants ( > 90%) were actually included in the current nature reserves. We believe that compared with establishing more nature reserves, improving the management of the existing ones is also important. Furthermore, the very few unprotected plants ( < 10%) were distributed mostly in the regions of Aletai, Tacheng, Zhaosu, Manasi, Qitai and Hetian which could be the future conservation priorities.

  17. Temporary migration and regional development in China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Z

    1999-05-01

    "A new approach to migration in developing countries is used in this paper, which integrates into the migration process the experiences of moving to cities, working in urban areas, and returning to the countryside. As a result, rural labor migration is directly linked to rural development through remittances, as well as through physical and human capital brought back by return migrants. Migration information is mainly drawn from China's 1995 1% National Population Survey.... It has been found that patterns of temporary migration are mainly shaped by the magnetic force of the growth-pole region. Job opportunities created there in labor-intensive industries have attracted large numbers of migrants, first from the surrounding rural areas and then from the peripheral regions, enhancing migration propensity in both areas."

  18. 75 FR 64695 - First Administrative Review of Sodium Hexametaphosphate From the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... International Trade Administration First Administrative Review of Sodium Hexametaphosphate From the People's... of the antidumping duty order on sodium hexametaphosphate (``sodium hex'') from the People's Republic... Review of Sodium Hexametaphosphate from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Preliminary Results...

  19. Implementation of a Regional Program of Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repin, S. A.; Serikov, G. N.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the development and implementation of an educational administrative program in the Cheliabinsk Oblast region of post-Soviet Russia. The system attempted to assign appropriate responsibilities at the local level while maintaining a unified national system of education. Briefly discusses other problems concerning educational support and…

  20. Training of Educational Administrators in China. Occasional Paper in Educational Planning, Management and Statistics No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuquan, Zhang

    China has recently developed a national infrastructure of institutional units, from the central to county level, for the training of educational administrators. The range, scope, and dimensions of educational administrative training as conducted in China in 1985 are described in this document. Contents include an introduction to the Chinese system…

  1. Deb Thomas, Acting Regional Administrator for EPA's Mountains & Plains (Region 8)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Region 8 administrator oversees the implementation and enforcement of the federal environmental rules and regulations in the states of Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah and Wyoming.

  2. 77 FR 6060 - Second Administrative Review of Sodium Hexametaphosphate From the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... International Trade Administration Second Administrative Review of Sodium Hexametaphosphate From the People's... time limit for the preliminary results of the administrative review of sodium hexametaphosphate (``sodium hex'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). The review covers the period March 1,...

  3. 76 FR 73599 - Second Administrative Review of Sodium Hexametaphosphate From the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... International Trade Administration Second Administrative Review of Sodium Hexametaphosphate From the People's... time limit for the preliminary results of the administrative review of sodium hexametaphosphate (``sodium hex'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). The review covers the period March 1,...

  4. 75 FR 19613 - First Administrative Review of Sodium Hexametaphosphate from the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... Administrative Review of Sodium Hexametaphosphate from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Preliminary... first administrative review of the antidumping duty order on sodium hexametaphosphate (``sodium hex... published in the Federal Register a notice of initiation of an administrative review of sodium hex from...

  5. 76 FR 60803 - Fourth Administrative Review of Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Fourth Administrative Review of Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade...

  6. 77 FR 34343 - Honey From the People's Republic of China: Final Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... International Trade Administration Honey From the People's Republic of China: Final Rescission of Antidumping... period December 1, 2009, through November 30, 2010, of the antidumping duty order on honey from the... rescission of this review. \\1\\ See Honey from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Rescission of...

  7. A Regional Categorization for "New-Type Urbanization" in China.

    PubMed

    Fang, Chuanglin; Ma, Haitao; Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Regional differences in the character of urbanization in China are substantial. The promotion of what has been termed "new-type urbanization" cannot, as a result of these regional differences, be expected to follow a universal approach--rather, such a development must objectively adhere to locational and category-specific principles and adopt differentiated urbanization development models. Regional categorization is often used in geography, but is rarely deployed in research addressing human and social problems relating to urbanization. In March 2014, China published the National New-type Urbanization Plan (2014-2020), which calls for the scientific and reasonable planning of "new-type urbanization," and appropriate regional categorizations are urgently needed in order to guide this reform. Responding to this challenge, this research engaged in the design of a "dominantly quantitative analysis, qualitatively supplemented" method in order to divide China into 5 main regions and 47 sub-regions in terms of new-type urbanization. The paper discusses the features and key problems of each region. This study introduces a new method for regional categorization, thereby remedying the lack of regional categorization in relation to "new-type urbanization" in China, and ultimately promoting the development of regional categorization in the humanities as a valuable reference for healthy and sustainable Chinese urbanization.

  8. Natural conditions and administrative settings for concentrating photovoltaics in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Ling; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Leutz, Ralf

    2012-10-01

    It is an inevitable trend for China to develop green technologies to help the country to produce cleaner energy and to consume it more efficiently, under the pressure of energy security concern, the nation's emissions trajectory and sustainable economic development. The abundant solar resources in West China provide a big potential to utilize the solar energy. Under the promotion of key incentive policies including both feed-in-tariff (FIT) mechanisms and government rebate programs, China has become a major global solar force in photovoltaic (PV) industry both in manufacturing and in the installation of flat-plate products, with 16 GW production and 2.75 GW installation achieved in the year 2011. As a branch of PV technology, concentrating photovoltaics (CPV) technology with several years' development history in China is presently moving from pilot facilities to commercial-scale applications. Several MW-CPV power plants have been installed by both domestic and western companies in China, factories with several hundred-MW production capacity are being planned or built. Sustainable performance and reliability improvement of CPV modules, a vertical integration of supply chain in CPV industry aiming at a cost reduction, a sufficient grid infrastructure for facilitating the West-East and North-South electricity transmission will promote Chinese CPV market to actually initiate, develop and mature.

  9. 76 FR 12338 - Silicon Metal From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... International Trade Administration Silicon Metal From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping...''), a domestic producer of silicon metal, requested an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on silicon metal from the PRC with respect to the following companies: Jiangxi Gangyuan...

  10. China, The Regional Hegemon with Global Reach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-07

    courtship of cash-strapped countries such as Spain, pledging to buy their bonds and expand business ties.28 In January 2011, Vice Prime Minister Li...Jacques, When China Rules the World (New York, NY: Penguin , 2009), 347. 80 Ibid., 6. 81 Ibid., 348. 82 Evan Medeiros, China’s International Behavior

  11. 75 FR 24880 - Administrative Review of Honey from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... International Trade Administration Administrative Review of Honey from the People's Republic of China: Final... antidumping duty order on honey from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'').\\1\\ We gave interested parties... of Honey from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

  12. China's laws, rights, and administrative structures in occupational safety and health: a comparison with the United States.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yinling; Xu, Lingzhong; Shao, Hua; Wang, He

    2014-11-01

    China has achieved rapid economic development, but faces tremendous challenges in occupational safety and health (OSH). We describe China's laws, rights, and administrative structures in OSH and in workers' compensation. The article compares these with comparable laws, rights, and administrative structures in the United States. We hope this comparison may provide useful lessons for continued OSH development and improvement in China.

  13. Climatic characteristics and regionalization of fogs in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, T. Y.; Chen, S. C.; Han, S. Q.; Shan, X. L.; Meng, L. H.

    2017-01-01

    Using trend coefficient method, vector analysis method, and monitored meteorological data across China, climatic characteristics and spatial pattern of fogs in China were investigated. The results show that most fogs occur in southeastern China. Thin fogs usually occur in fog-rare regions and dense fogs take place in fog-prone regions. The number of annual fog days in most regions of China exhibits a decreasing trend from 1980 to 2010. It also found that the regions with more fog days correspond to the lower concentration degree of fogs, and vice versa. In terms of the national scale, the concentration periods of fogs are mainly in November, December, and January in China. We further classified the occurrence frequencies of fogs into five spatial distribution patterns over a single year according to the spatial distribution characteristics of fogs occurrence frequencies of 36 dekads, namely, a whole year can be correspondingly divided into five phases. Based on this, multi-year average fog-prone regions in the five phases are obtained. Our results also identify the high incidence periods of fogs in different fog-prone regions.

  14. Site location optimization of regional air quality monitoring network in China: methodology and case study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Junyu; Feng, Xiaoqiong; Liu, Panwei; Zhong, Liuju; Lai, Senchao

    2011-11-01

    Regional air quality monitoring networks (RAQMN) are urgently needed in China due to increasing regional air pollution in city clusters, arising from rapid economic development in recent decades. This paper proposes a methodological framework for site location optimization in designing a RAQMN adapting to air quality management practice in China. The framework utilizes synthetic assessment concentrations developed from simulated data from a regional air quality model in order to simplify the optimal process and to reduce costs. On the basis of analyzing various constraints such as cost and budget, terrain conditions, administrative district, population density and spatial coverage, the framework takes the maximum approximate degree as an optimization objective to achieve site location optimization of a RAQMN. An expert judgment approach was incorporated into the framework to help adjust initial optimization results in order to make the network more practical and representative. A case study was used to demonstrate the application of the framework, indicating that it is feasible to conduct site optimization for a RAQMN design in China. The effects of different combinations of primary and secondary pollutants on site location optimization were investigated. It is suggested that the network design considering both primary and secondary pollutants could better represent regional pollution characteristics and more extensively reflect temporal and spatial variations of regional air quality. The work shown in this study can be used as a reference to guide site location optimization of a RAQMN design in China or other regions of the world.

  15. Regional Consortia for E-Resources: A Case Study of Deals in the South China Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chunrong, Luo; Jingfen, Wang; Zhinong, Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse the current situation and the social and economic benefits from the consortia acquisitions of electronic resources by the China Academic Library and Information System (CALIS) South China Regional Centre and to recommend improvements for consortia acquisitions. Design/methodology/approach: Analyses…

  16. Gifted Education in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tommis, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Despite its close geographical, economic, and political ties with mainland China, Hong Kong has not followed the same trajectory on gifted education but instead has preferred to adopt a more Western approach to the definitions and provision for gifted learners (Shi & Zixiu, 2000; Zou, Yang, & Greene, 2007). Hong Kong is, on most measures…

  17. Regional ground deformation and its controlling measures in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhifang; Zhu, Haisheng; Huang, Yong

    2006-12-01

    With the development of construction of China Cities, there exist a lot of environmental geological problems involved in the geofracture, land subsidence, collapse, landslide, devolution, mudrock flow, floating sand, piping and soft ground deformation. Of big cities whose population is over one million in China, about 30 cities appears the land subsidence region. Other cities locate in the regions of collapse yellow earth or expand soil of strong swell-shrink charasteristic, soft ground and karst. In the paper, the cause and hazard of regionality ground deformation is summed up. The causes of regional land deformation caused by the natural geological effect and activities of human being are analyzed. According to the length of deformation course and endanger of society, economy and life, land deformation involves three types, that is, the delay, rapid and break land deformation. And the concrete countermeasure and method are provided.

  18. Rise of China in the Caribbean: Impacts for Regional Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-13

    Caribbean security, this study seeks to explore China’s motives and ascertain whether any gradual erosion of US geopolitical influence in the region may...geopolitical interests and Caribbean security, this study seeks to explore China’s motives and ascertain whether any gradual erosion of US geopolitical...affect current regional security arrangements? Will the expansion of China and the perceived erosion of US geopolitical influence in the Caribbean

  19. Fukien region, China (summary): terrain intelligence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1944-01-01

    Population of the Fukien region is estimated from census figures (1928-1935) for Fukien, Kiangsi, Chekiang, and Kwangtung Pro vlnces at 15 to 20 ipillion. At the coast are several important cities: Min-hou (390,363 inhabitants), Ssu-ming (219,974), Pfu-tlien, Chin-chiang, and Lung-chfi. Nmerous towns and villages are scattered throughout the region. - B. Climate is wann humid temperate in the north and hmid subtropical in the south. Typhoons occur in late summer, especially in the area from Min-hu north. Precipitation averages 40 to 80 inches per year; It is generally highest in the interior. Mean monthly tamperature range is 55O to 850 F at coast; greater range inland

  20. A regional climate simulation study with land cover dynamics in Northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hanjie; Ju, Yongmao; Li, Jianyun; Qiu, Guoyu

    2007-09-01

    A social-economic database based on the Governmental Statistical Annals, county-to-county investigation, literature verification, as well as the satellite identification was completed recently by the Remote Sensing and GIS Research Center, Beijing Normal University of China. The GIS Operational System handing this database not only provides details of the social, ecological, and economic information of the Northern China's 13 provinces since earlier 1950s, but also gives out predictions of these information by 2050 with different sceneries concerning the population increase, land use variation, governmental policy adjusting, administrating capability, science and technology development, National GDP increment, as well as world climate change. Aims at further regional climate simulation study, there is a special module nested in the GIS Operational System that interprets the county-level administrative data-units to a 60 × 60 km numerical mesh-grid suitable for climate model. By incorporating the land use dynamics provided by the above database, the new generation of the Regional Integrate Environment Modeling System (RIEMS2.0) was used for climate simulation study. The preliminary simulation studies show that: (1) the regional climate will be affected by the LULC variation because the equilibrium of water and heat transfer in the air-vegetation interface is changed; (2) the integrate impact of the LULC variation on climate (such as temperature, humidity and net long-wave radiation, precipitation) is not only limited to the Northern China where LULC varies, but also to the whole numerical domain where the LULC does not vary at all; (3) the ecological construction engineering implemented in Northern China including the Green-Great Wall construction engineering, the replace farming with forestry and grass movement, and the natural forest conservation etc has shown and will work positively on the eco-environment improvement, particularly shown as the increased

  1. When Inclusion Is Innovation: An Examination of Administrator Perspectives on Inclusion in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Bi Ying; Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth

    2011-01-01

    This article examines administrator perspectives of innovative services for the inclusion of young children with disabilities in regular preschool classrooms in China. Twelve directors from 12 pilot inclusion preschools in Beijing participated in this study. Qualitative interview results revealed the following subthemes: definition, advocacy,…

  2. A Time of Challenge: Physical Plant Administration in the People's Republic of China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, William D.

    1986-01-01

    As China undertakes substantial planned educational growth, the challenges of university physical plant administration include adaptation of space utilization analysis and planning techniques, improved economies of scale, increased dependence on community support for housing and other services, increased efficiency in construction, more preventive…

  3. 20 CFR 658.423 - Handling of other complaints by the Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... System Federal Js Complaint System § 658.423 Handling of other complaints by the Regional Administrator. Whenever the regional office receives a JS-related complaint and the appropriate official determines...

  4. 20 CFR 658.423 - Handling of other complaints by the Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... System Federal Js Complaint System § 658.423 Handling of other complaints by the Regional Administrator. Whenever the regional office receives a JS-related complaint and the appropriate official determines...

  5. 20 CFR 658.423 - Handling of other complaints by the Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... System Federal Js Complaint System § 658.423 Handling of other complaints by the Regional Administrator. Whenever the regional office receives a JS-related complaint and the appropriate official determines...

  6. Spatial analysis on China's regional air pollutants and CO2 emissions: emission pattern and regional disparity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Liang; Liang, Hanwei

    2014-08-01

    China has suffered from serious air pollution and CO2 emission. Challenges of emission reduction policy not only come from technology advancement, but also generate from the fact that, China has pronounced disparity between regions, in geographical and socioeconomic. How to deal with regional disparity is important to achieve the reduction target effectively and efficiently. This research conducts a spatial analysis on the emission patterns of three air pollutants named SO2, NOx and PM2.5, and CO2, in China's 30 provinces, applied with spatial auto-correlation and multi regression modeling. We further analyze the regional disparity and inequity issues with the approach of Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient. Results highlight that: there is evident cluster effect for the regional air pollutants and CO2 emissions. While emission amount increases from western regions to eastern regions, the emission per GDP is in inverse trend. The Lorenz curve shows an even larger unequal distribution of GDP/emissions than GDP/capita in 30 regions. Certain middle and western regions suffers from a higher emission with lower GDP, which reveal the critical issue of emission leakage. Future policy making to address such regional disparity is critical so as to promote the emission control policy under the “equity and efficiency” principle.

  7. Regional energy planning: Some suggestions to public administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sozzi, R.

    A methodology is proposed to estimate the relevant data and to improve the energy efficiency in regional energy planning. The quantification of the regional energy system is subdivided in three independent parameters which are separetely estimated: energy demand, energy consumption, and transformation capacity. Definitions and estimating procedures are given. The optimization of the regional planning includes the application, wherever possible, of the technologies which centralize the space-heating energy production or combine the production of electric energy with space-heating energy distribution.

  8. 20 CFR 658.702 - Initial action by the Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., ETA staff shall review the State agency's efforts as documented by the State agency at the end of the... to State Agencies § 658.702 Initial action by the Regional Administrator. (a) The ETA Regional... are elevated to ETA after the exhaustion of State agency administrative remedies, the...

  9. 20 CFR 658.702 - Initial action by the Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... JS regulations. (b) Wherever a Regional Administrator discovers or is apprised of possible State agency violations of JS regulations by the review and assessment activities under subpart G of this part... a State agency has violated JS regulations. (c) The Regional Administrator shall accept...

  10. 20 CFR 658.702 - Initial action by the Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... compliance with JS regulations. (b) Wherever a Regional Administrator discovers or is apprised of possible State agency violations of JS regulations by the review and assessment activities under subpart G of... that a State agency has violated JS regulations. (c) The Regional Administrator shall accept...

  11. 20 CFR 658.702 - Initial action by the Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... compliance with JS regulations. (b) Wherever a Regional Administrator discovers or is apprised of possible State agency violations of JS regulations by the review and assessment activities under subpart G of... that a State agency has violated JS regulations. (c) The Regional Administrator shall accept...

  12. 20 CFR 658.702 - Initial action by the Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... compliance with JS regulations. (b) Wherever a Regional Administrator discovers or is apprised of possible State agency violations of JS regulations by the review and assessment activities under subpart G of... that a State agency has violated JS regulations. (c) The Regional Administrator shall accept...

  13. Assessing corporate social responsibility in China's sports lottery administration and its influence on consumption behavior.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai; Zhang, James J; Mao, Luke Lunhua; Min, Sophia D

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and examine consumer perception of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in China's sports lottery industry, and the effect of perceived CSR initiatives on sports lottery consumption behavior. Research participants (N = 4,980), selected based on a computer-generated, randomly stratified multistage sampling process, comprised Chinese residents who had purchased sports lottery tickets in the past 12 months. They completed a questionnaire that was derived from a qualitative research process. A factor analysis extracted two factors associated with perceptions of CSR in China's sports lottery administration: Regulatory and Prevention Responsibilities and Product Development Responsibility. Logistic regression analyses revealed that these two factors were influential of consumer behavior (i.e., relative and absolute expenditure, purchasing frequency, and time commitment). This study represents an initial effort to understand the dimensions of perceived CSR associated with Chinese sports lottery. The findings signify the importance of enforcing CSR in sports lottery administration.

  14. 75 FR 1336 - First Administrative Review of Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... International Trade Administration First Administrative Review of Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the People... first administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain polyester staple fiber (``PSF'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). See Certain Polyester Staple Fiber from the...

  15. Regional and Global Impacts of Megacity Air Pollution in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Renyi

    2014-05-01

    Air quality has deteriorated in many megacities of China because of their rapid economic developments. For example, as the world's second largest economy, China has experienced severe air pollution, with aerosols or fine particulate matter less than 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5) reaching unprecedented high levels across many cities in recent winters. In addition to the impacts of aerosols on air chemistry, visibility, and human health, intense aerosol pollution is believed to exert profound impacts on the regional and global atmosphere and climate. In the first part of the talk, perspectives are provided on formation and transformation of haze in China. In the second part the long-term impacts of aerosols on precipitation and lightning over a megacity area in China will be presented, on the basis of atmospheric observations and simulations using a cloud-resolving WRF model. Our results reveal that elevated aerosol loading suppresses light and moderate precipitation, but enhances heavy precipitation. Also, we demonstrate climatically modulated mid-latitude cyclones by Asian pollution over past three decades, using a novel hierarchical modeling approach and observational analysis. Our results unambiguously reveal a large impact of the Asian pollutant outflows on the global general circulation and climate.

  16. EPA Regional Administrator Highlights the Benefits of Reducing Food Waste in South Bend

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (SOUTH BEND, IND. - November 5, 2015) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Regional Administrator Susan Hedman joined South Bend Mayor Pete Buttigieg today at Ivy Tech Community College's culinary school to highlight the benefits of diverting food waste fr

  17. Multi-regional input-output analysis for China's regional CH4 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Li, Jiashuo; Peng, Beihua

    2014-03-01

    China is the largest CH4 emitter in the world. Given the importance of CH4 in greenhouse gas emission inventories, the characteristics of China's CH4 emissions at different scales deserve to be fully understood. Presented in this paper is an interprovincial input-output embodiment analysis of China's regional CH4 emissions in 2007, based on the most recently available multi-regional input-output table, and relevant CH4 emissions data. The results show that the eastern, central and western areas contribute to 48.2%, 28.6%, and 23.3% of the national total embodied emissions, respectively. Guangdong has the highest level of embodied CH4 emissions among all of the 30 regions. The Agriculture sector produces the most embodied CH4 emissions in final demand, followed by the Construction, Food Production and Tobacco Processing, and Other Service Activities sectors. Significant net transfers of embodied CH4 emission flows are identified from the central and western areas to the eastern area via interregional trade. Shanxi is the largest interregional exporter of embodied CH4 emissions. In contrast, Guangdong is the largest interregional importer. Energy activities, agricultural activities, and waste management comprise 65.6%, 30.7%, and 3.7% of the total embodied CH4 emissions in interregional trade, respectively. By using consumption-based accounting principles, the emission magnitudes, per capita emissions, and emission intensities of most eastern regions increase remarkably, while those of some central and western regions decrease largely. To achieve regional CH4 emission mitigation, comprehensive mitigation measures should be designed under consideration of regional transfer of emission responsibility.

  18. Long-term regional precipitation disparity in northwestern China and its driving forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H. F.; Pei, Q.; Zhang, D. D.; Choi, K. P. K.

    2014-08-01

    Subject to the unique physical setting of northwestern China (NW China), precipitation in the region is characterized by salient regional differences. Yet, the long-term regional precipitation disparity in NW China still remains insufficiently-explored. In the present study, we base on historical documentation to reconstruct the precipitation indices of two macro regions in NW China between AD580-1979 to address the following issues: (1) determine the multi-decadal to centennial regional precipitation disparity in NW China, a topic which has not been systematically examined in previous paleo-climate/paleo-environment studies; and (2) find the major driving forces behind it. Wavelet analysis, which is ideal for analyzing non-stationary systems, is applied. Our results show that there is significant regional discrepancy of precipitation change in NW China over extended period. Although there is significant association between the regional precipitation disparity in NW China and various modes of atmospheric circulation, the association is characterized by a regime shift during the transition from the Medieval Warm Period to the Little Ice Age. Most importantly, the low-frequency cycle of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation is found to be the most prominent pacemaker of regional precipitation disparity in NW China at the multi-decadal to centennial timescales. Our findings help to demonstrate which atmospheric circulation is primarily responsible for the long-term regional precipitation disparity in NW China, which may have important implications for water resource management in NW China in the near future.

  19. Large cutting tools in the Danjiangkou Reservoir Region, central China.

    PubMed

    Kuman, Kathleen; Li, Chaorong; Li, Hao

    2014-11-01

    Handaxe-bearing sites in China are currently known to occur in a number of alluvial basins, the best known being Dingcun, Bose and Luonan. Bose in the south and Luonan in central China on the northern margin of the Qinling Mountains are most familiar to English-speaking researchers. Here we document the Danjiangkou Reservoir Region (DRR) as another major area for large cutting tools (LCTs), located in central China on the southeastern edge of the Qinling Mountains. Large cutting tools are preserved in three terraces of the Han and Dan Rivers in Hubei and Henan Provinces, with dates from ca. 0.8 Ma (millions of years ago) (Terrace 4) to the first half of the Middle Pleistocene (Terrace 3), and possibly to the Late Pleistocene (Terrace 2). This paper reports on LCTs discovered in Terraces 3 and 2, with a majority from the older terrace (and one specimen from Terrace 4). Regional environments during the Middle Pleistocene were relatively warm, humid and stable. Despite the poor quality of raw materials (predominantly quartz phyllite and trachyte for the LCTs), good examples of both handaxes and cleavers are present, plus two types of picks. The LCT technology is compared and contrasted with other Asian industries and with the Acheulean. Overall the DRR LCTs show both technological and morphological similarities with Acheulean LCTs, with some differences that are mainly attributed to raw material properties, subsistence ecology, and 'cultural drift.' The DRR LCTs expand the range of morphological variability of the East Asian material and highlight the need for greater reliance on technological analysis and raw material evaluation for best comparison of Chinese assemblages with the Acheulean tradition.

  20. 7 CFR Exhibit J to Subpart G of... - Locations and Telephone Numbers of Federal Emergency Management Administration's Regional Offices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Management Administration's Regional Offices J Exhibit J to Subpart G of Part 1940 Agriculture Regulations of... Part 1940—Locations and Telephone Numbers of Federal Emergency Management Administration's Regional... floodplain information, ask for the Natural and Technological Hazards Division....

  1. Badlands in humid regions - redbed desertification in Nanxiong Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Luobin; Hua, Peng; Simonson, Scott

    2016-04-01

    The redbed badlands in Nanxiong City, China, well represent badlands in humid regions. The erosion rate in humid regions is much higher than that in arid regions and can reach 1 cm per month during the summer. The purpose of this study is to introduce the research of badlands in China, which have not been extensively studied so far, and to compare the badlands between arid and humid regions. Furthermore, the aim is to study the impact of mineralogical and chemical composition on the disintegration of soft rock in Nanxiong Basin badlands. For the purpose of this study field observations, sampling, and digging profiles were done. The mineralogical and chemical compositions of the Nanxiong Basin badland lithologies were determined by XRD, XRF and thin sections. Weathering resistance, process of weathering, and disintegration features were studied by weathering experiments under natural conditions. Weathering profiles can be easily divided into four layers: regolith, a strongly weathered layer, a poorly weathered layer, and an unweathered sediment. The depth of the weathering profile is influenced by the weathering resistance of the soft rock. Weathering resistance affects the erosion rate and evolution of landforms in badlands by influencing the rate from unweathered rock to regolith. Analyzed sediments have high content of illite and illite-smectite interstratifications. This composition of clay minerals together with poor sediment consolidation jointly leads to weathering prone sediment. The weathering and disintegration of soft rock in Nanxiong Basin badlands has a close relationship with rainfall. Sheet erosion, a kind of solid-liquid phase flow, formed in the regolith of the badland during rainfall events and can be the most instrumental to erosion. The mineral composition and liquidity plasticity index were also analyzed, and the results show that the regolith are low liquid limit silts with liquid limit of 21%-25%, plastic limit of 13%-18% and plasticity index

  2. Regional economic impacts of changes in electricity rates resulting from Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, T.; Griffes, P.; Edwards, B.K.

    1995-03-01

    This technical memorandum describes an analysis of regional economic impacts resulting from changes in retail electricity rates due to six power marketing programs proposed by Western Area Power Administration (Western). Regional economic impacts of changes in rates are estimated in terms of five key regional economic variables: population, gross regional product, disposable income, employment, and household income. The REMI (Regional Impact Models, Inc.) and IMPLAN (Impact Analysis for Planning) models simulate economic impacts in nine subregions in the area in which Western power is sold for the years 1993, 2000, and 2008. Estimates show that impacts on aggregate economic activity in any of the subregions or years would be minimal for three reasons. First, the utilities that buy power from Western sell only a relatively small proportion of the total electricity sold in any of the subregions. Second, reliance of Western customers on Western power is fairly low in each subregion. Finally, electricity is not a significant input cost for any industry or for households in any subregion.

  3. Amplitude path corrections for regional phases in China

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, W.S.; Velasco, A.A.; Taylor, S.R.; Randall, G.E.

    1998-12-31

    The authors investigate the effectiveness of amplitude path corrections for regional phases on seismic event discrimination and magnitude estimation. Waveform data from digital stations in China for regional, shallow (< 50 km) events were obtained from the IRIS Data Management Center (DMC) for years 1986 to 1996 using the USGS Preliminary Determination of Epicenters (PDE) and the Chinese State Seismological Bureau (SSB) catalogs. For each event, the amplitudes for each regional phase (P{sub n}, P{sub g}, S{sub n}, L{sub g}) were measured, as well as the P{sub g} and L{sub g} coda. Measured amplitudes were corrected for source scaling using estimates of m{sub b} and for distance using a power law that accounts for attenuation and spreading. The amplitude residuals were interpolated and mapped as 2-D amplitude correction surfaces. The authors employ several methods to create the amplitude correction surfaces: a waveguide method, and two interpolation methods (Baysian kriging and a circular moving window mean smoother). They explore the sensitivities of the surfaces to the method and to regional propagation, and apply these surfaces to correct amplitude data to reduce scatter in discrimination ratios and magnitude estimates.

  4. Analysis of current laboratory animal science policies and administration in China.

    PubMed

    Kong, Qi; Qin, Chuan

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory animal science (LAS) advances scientific understanding of the care and use of animals that play a key role in research supporting the development of biomedicine. LAS has developed quickly in China in recent decades, and this report provides an analysis of the current status of the countrys LAS policies and administration. National and provincial laws, regulations, guidelines, and standards apply to quality control and licensing, quarantine and infectious disease control, breeding and husbandry, transgenic animals, staff qualifications, animal welfare, and imports, exports, and transportation. Regulation and oversight of lab animal use are the responsibility of the national Ministry of Science and Technology, provincial departments of science and technology, and institutional animal care and use committees. We begin with an explanation of the rationale behind this paper and then offer a brief history of policy-related activities and achievements. We then present various policies, discuss their implementation, and hypothesize about future policy developments. With the improvement of policies under an integrated, multitiered administration, the use of high-quality lab animals in Chinese scientific research is increasing and many more papers describing animal experiments performed in China are being published in international journals.

  5. Source and Path Effects on Regional Phases in China

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, W.S., Randall, G.E., Hartse, H.E., Taylor, S.R., Patton, H.J.

    1997-12-31

    As part of the CTBT Research and Development regional characterization effort, we are assembling, organizing and analyzing geological, geophysical,and seismic data for inclusion in a knowledge base for China. We have collected seismic data from 11 Chinese Digital Seismic Network (CDSN) stations as well as IRIS stations AAK, TLY, ULN and NIL from adjoining regions. Using the published event locations and origin times, we identify Pn, Pg, Sn, and Lg phases,construct travel time curves, and estimate apparent velocities from broadband and short period seismograms. Following this, we collect amplitudes of regional seismic phases and associated noise levels using bandpassed waveforms. Studies of path specific propagation of the seismic phases have mapped blockages and have generated corrections useful in reducing scatter in magnitude estimates and in discriminant ratios. Such path corrections reduce RMS distance and mb- corrected Lg amplitude to as much as 60% of its original level (log{sub 10} domain). Path corrections are less effective with Pn data. We also study source scaling effects on these data which will allow us to refine path corrections further.

  6. Station Calibration and Regionalization in China and Surrounding Areas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    which was related to the foundering of the Kula-Pacific plates beneath the Eastern Asia continental margin since the late Mesozoic time (Ren et al., 1987...China and southern Tibet where Indian Shield under thrusts it. Lg propagates efficiently throughout most eastern and northern China but is highly...P-wave velocity and anisotropy at the surface of the mantle. Raypaths for these data cover most of central and Eastern China. Tibet and Western China

  7. Different Regions, Diverse Classrooms? a Study of Primary Classrooms in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaught, Carmel; Lok, Beatrice; Yin, Hongbiao; Lee, John Chi-Kin; Song, Huan

    2014-01-01

    Classroom experience is shaped by a number of factors. In this paper, we report a classroom observation study in China, illustrating regional variation in students' classroom learning experiences. Through comparing and contrasting observed classroom practices in three different regions in China (Chongqing, Hong Kong and Shanghai), the paper…

  8. Regional Disparities in the Allocation of China's Higher Education Resources from the Perspective of Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Bao

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to analyze the changing circumstances of the regional disparities in the allocation of China's higher educational resources before and after the increase in college enrollments, as well as the mechanisms that have affected these circumstances. The conclusions are that regional disparities in the allocation of China's funding…

  9. Rational regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars in China

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jun; Pan, Yong-Bao; Xu, Liping; Grisham, Michael Paul; Zhang, Hua; Que, Youxiong

    2015-01-01

    Knowing yield potential and yield stability of sugarcane cultivars is of significance in guiding sugarcane breeding and rationalising regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars. In the present study, a heritability-adjusted genotype main effect plus genotype × environment (HA-GGE) biplot program was used to analyze the cane and sucrose yields of 44 newly released sugarcane cultivars at eight pilot test sites. The cane and sucrose yields of nine cultivars were higher than those of the control cultivar ROC22. From the perspective of cane yield, cultivars FN 40 and YZ 06–407 were well adapted to a wider range of conditions and produced relatively high cane yields in several pilot sites. From the perspective of sucrose yield, cultivars LC 03–1137, FN 38, FN 41, MT 01–77 and LC 05–136 were well adapted to a wide range of conditions and produced relatively high sucrose yields. Based on these results, three high yielding and widely adapted cultivars, namely, FN 39, LC 05–136, and YZ 05–51 were recommended for production in three major Chinese sugarcane planting areas. The results will provide a theoretical basis for recommending the effective use and rational regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars in China. PMID:26499905

  10. Rational regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars in China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jun; Pan, Yong-Bao; Xu, Liping; Grisham, Michael Paul; Zhang, Hua; Que, Youxiong

    2015-10-26

    Knowing yield potential and yield stability of sugarcane cultivars is of significance in guiding sugarcane breeding and rationalising regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars. In the present study, a heritability-adjusted genotype main effect plus genotype × environment (HA-GGE) biplot program was used to analyze the cane and sucrose yields of 44 newly released sugarcane cultivars at eight pilot test sites. The cane and sucrose yields of nine cultivars were higher than those of the control cultivar ROC22. From the perspective of cane yield, cultivars FN 40 and YZ 06-407 were well adapted to a wider range of conditions and produced relatively high cane yields in several pilot sites. From the perspective of sucrose yield, cultivars LC 03-1137, FN 38, FN 41, MT 01-77 and LC 05-136 were well adapted to a wide range of conditions and produced relatively high sucrose yields. Based on these results, three high yielding and widely adapted cultivars, namely, FN 39, LC 05-136, and YZ 05-51 were recommended for production in three major Chinese sugarcane planting areas. The results will provide a theoretical basis for recommending the effective use and rational regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars in China.

  11. Hantaviruses in Rodents and Humans, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng-Xian; Gao, Na; Wang, Jian-Bo; Zhao, Zhi-Wei; Li, Ming-Hui; Chen, Hua-Xin; Zou, Yang; Plyusnin, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Surveys were carried out in 2003–2006 to better understand the epidemiology of hantaviruses in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China (Inner Mongolia). Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) was first reported in this region in 1955 and has been an important public health problem here since then. During 1955–2006, 8,309 persons with HFRS were reported in Inner Mongolia (average incidence rate 0.89/100,000), and 261 (3.14%) died. Before the 1990s, all HFRS cases occurred in northeastern Inner Mongolia. Subsequently, HFRS cases were registered in central (1995) and western (1999) Inner Mongolia. In this study, hantaviral antigens were identified in striped field mice (Apodemus agrarius) from northeastern Inner Mongolia and in Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) from middle and western Inner Mongolia. Phylogenetic analysis of hantaviral genome sequences suggests that HFRS has been caused mainly by Hantaan virus in northeastern Inner Mongolia and by Seoul virus in central and western Inner Mongolia. PMID:19523286

  12. 40 CFR 233.13 - Memorandum of Agreement with Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Memorandum of Agreement with Regional Administrator. 233.13 Section 233.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... coordination with respect to compliance monitoring and enforcement activities. (4) Provisions...

  13. 40 CFR 123.24 - Memorandum of Agreement with the Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements of § 123.43. (4) Provisions on the State's compliance monitoring and enforcement program... Regional Administrator. 123.24 Section 123.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS STATE PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS State Program Submissions § 123.24 Memorandum...

  14. 20 CFR 658.422 - Handling of non-JS-related complaints by the Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Handling of non-JS-related complaints by the... Federal Js Complaint System § 658.422 Handling of non-JS-related complaints by the Regional Administrator. (a) Each non-JS-related complaint filed by an MSFW alleging violations of employment related...

  15. 20 CFR 658.422 - Handling of non-JS-related complaints by the Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Handling of non-JS-related complaints by the... Federal Js Complaint System § 658.422 Handling of non-JS-related complaints by the Regional Administrator. (a) Each non-JS-related complaint filed by an MSFW alleging violations of employment related...

  16. 20 CFR 658.422 - Handling of non-JS-related complaints by the Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Handling of non-JS-related complaints by the... Complaint System Federal Js Complaint System § 658.422 Handling of non-JS-related complaints by the Regional Administrator. (a) Each non-JS-related complaint filed by an MSFW alleging violations of employment related...

  17. 20 CFR 658.422 - Handling of non-JS-related complaints by the Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Handling of non-JS-related complaints by the... Complaint System Federal Js Complaint System § 658.422 Handling of non-JS-related complaints by the Regional Administrator. (a) Each non-JS-related complaint filed by an MSFW alleging violations of employment related...

  18. 20 CFR 658.422 - Handling of non-JS-related complaints by the Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Handling of non-JS-related complaints by the... Complaint System Federal Js Complaint System § 658.422 Handling of non-JS-related complaints by the Regional Administrator. (a) Each non-JS-related complaint filed by an MSFW alleging violations of employment related...

  19. Regional and local new particle formation events observed in the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Liang; Wang, Honglei; Zhou, Luyu; An, Junlin; Tang, Lili; Lu, Chunsong; Yan, Wenlian; Liu, Ruiyang; Kong, Shaofei; Chen, Mindong; Lee, Shanhu; Yu, Huan

    2017-02-01

    To study the spatial inhomogeneity of new particle formation (NPF) in the polluted atmosphere of China, we conducted simultaneous measurements at an urban site near a petrochemical industrial area and a regional background site in the Yangtze River Delta region from September to November 2015. At the urban site we observed a type of local NPF event (number of events: n = 5), in which nucleation was limited to a small area but persisted for 6.8 h on average during the daytime. Formation rates of 5 nm particles (J5) were found to be correlated positively with the H2SO4 proxy (log J5 versus log[H2SO4] slope near 1) in both local and regional events. Furthermore, J5 was enhanced by the anthropogenic volatile organic carbon (VOC) plumes from nearby industrial area in the local events compared to the regional events. Size-dependent aerosol dynamics calculation showed that in comparison with the observed regional events, the local events were featured with high nucleation rate (J1.3 > 1000 cm-3 s-1), high growth rate of sub-3 nm particles (GRsub-3 > 20 nm h-1), and high number concentration of nucleation mode particles (mean peak N5-20: 6 × 104 cm-3). Considering these features, the local NPF events of anthropogenic origin may also be an important contributor to cloud condensation nuclei concentrations in urban and regional scales. In addition, the comparison of simultaneous regional NPF events between the two sites (number of events: n = 7) suggested that regional NPF intensity may be underestimated by the single-point measurement at an urban site, due to the heterogeneity of air masses.

  20. China's Push for Energy Raises Regional Security Concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-09-01

    China's increasing demand for energy is leading to a push to further exploit its own energy resources deposits, a leveraging of its growth market for favorable energy pricing, and conflicts with neighboring countries. Energy experts discussed China's efforts to bolster its energy resources, during a 17 September forum on energy and security issues in China and the Asia Pacific at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars in Washington, D. C.

  1. [Regional differences and development tendency of livestock manure pollution in China].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Huan-Guang; Liao, Shao-Pan; Jing, Yue; Luan, Jiang

    2013-07-01

    The rapid development of livestock production in China has brought livestock manure pollution as a serious environment problem, even threatens China's agriculture sustainable development. On the basis of public statistical data and field research data, this paper analyzed the magnitude of livestock manure excretion and pollution of China and different provinces in 2010, and predicted development tendencies of livestock manure excretion and pollution in 2020 through the Decision Support System for China's Agricultural Sustainable Development (CHINAGRO). The result shows that total livestock manure excretion of China in 2010 is 1 900 million tons, and livestock manure pollution is 227 million tons, while per hectare arable land of livestock manure pollution is 1.86 tons. Provinces in the southeast China, such as Guangdong and Fujian, are areas with high pressure of livestock manure pollution. Model simulation shows that China's total amount of livestock manure pollution will increase to 298 million tons in 2020 without government intervention. The pressure of livestock manure pollution will become higher in most regions of China, especially in east and south regions. The situation in central and western region is better than that in east regions although the pollution pressure will also increase in those areas. Policy intervention such as taxes and subsidies should be adopted to reduce the discharge of livestock manure pollution, and encourage livestock production transfer from eastern areas to the central and western regions.

  2. Regional Design Approach in Designing Climatic Responsive Administrative Building in the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haja Bava Mohidin, Hazrina Binti; Ismail, Alice Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to explicate on the study of modern administrative building in Malaysia which portrays regional design approach that conforms to the local context and climate by reviewing two case studies; Perdana Putra (1999) and former Prime Minister's Office (1967). This paper is significant because the country's stature and political statement was symbolized by administrative building as a national icon. In other words, it is also viewed as a cultural object that is closely tied to a particular social context and nation historical moment. Administrative building, therefore, may exhibit various meanings. This paper uses structuralism paradigm and semiotic principles as a methodological approach. This paper is of importance for practicing architects and society in the future as it offers new knowledge and understanding in identifying the suitable climatic consideration that may reflect regionalist design approach in modern administrative building. These elements then may be adopted in designing public buildings in the future with regional values that are important for expressing national culture to symbolize the identity of place and society as well as responsive to climate change.

  3. Spatiotemporal urban land use changes in the Changzhutan Region of Hunan Province in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Changzhutan region in the north-central part of Hunan Province in China has experienced a rapid urbanization in the past few decades that has led to substantial changes in its environment. In 2007, the National Development and Reform Commission of China designated the metropolitan district of Ch...

  4. School Psychology in China (PRC), Hong Kong and Taiwan: A Cross-Regional Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Yi; Kuo, Yi-Lung; Van Dyke, Don C.

    2008-01-01

    Although China (People's Republic of China [PRC]), Hong Kong and Taiwan have many similarities in language, culture, values, Confucian traditions, family systems and other social-environmental variables, school psychological services in the three regions are distinctly different in both history and practice. Few studies in the psychology…

  5. [Medication administration practices in elderly residential facilities in Ile de France Region in 2014: findings and room for improvement].

    PubMed

    de Saunière, Anne; Bonneau, Laetitia; Donio, Valérie; Godinot, Valérie; Flouzat, Jean-Philippe; Bensasson, Géraldine; Code, Christelle; Galay, Guillaume; Pige, Dominique

    2016-11-25

    The institutions expressed great interest in medication administration systems and tools designed to monitor all stages of medication administration. A dozen simple and pragmatic improvement actions were identified and listed in the Ile-de-France Regional Health Agency action plan to improve medication administration management of in EHPAD..

  6. School-Site Administrators: A California County and Regional Perspective on Labor Market Trends. Issues & Answers. REL 2010-No. 084

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Melissa Eiler; Fong, Anthony B.; Makkonen, Reino

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the differences among California's counties and regions in their needs for new school-site administrators in the coming decade, as driven by a combination of projected administrator retirements and projected student enrollment changes. The projected need for new school-site administrators, based solely on these combined…

  7. Design and compilation of the digital atlas of regional development in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zongyi; Cao, Tianjing; Jing, Bai

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, the overall design of "The digital atlas of regional development in China," topical design, structural design, map groups and the laws reflected, and the function of "E-Atlas" were discussed.

  8. Unified-planning, graded-administration, and centralized-controlling: a management modality for treating acquired immune deficiency syndrome with Chinese medicine in Henan Province of China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li-Ran; Guo, Hui-jun; Liu, Zhi-bin; Li, Qiang; Yang, Ji-ping; He, Ying

    2015-04-01

    Henan Province in China has a major epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Chinese medicine (CM) has been used throughout the last decade, and a management modality was developed, which can be described by unified-planning, graded-administration, and centralized-controlling (UGC). The UGC modality has one primary concept (patient-centered medicine from CM theory), four basic foundations (classifying administrative region, characteristics of CM on disease treatment, health resource conditions, and distribution of patients living with HIV), six important relationships (the "three uniformities and three combinations," and the six relationships therein guide the treatment of AIDS with CM), and four key sections (management, operation, records, and evaluation). In this article, the authors introduce the UGC modality, which could be beneficial to developing countries or resource-limited areas for the management of chronic infectious disease.

  9. Regional Inequality of Higher Education in China and the Role of Unequal Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickenbach, Frank; Liu, Wan-Hsin

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade the scale of higher education in China has expanded substantially. Regional development policies have attempted to make use of scale expansion as a tool to reduce inequality of higher education among regions with different development levels by providing poor regions with preferential treatment and support. This paper analyzes…

  10. Variations in satellite-derived carbon dioxide over different regions of China from 2003 to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yuyue; Ke, Changqing; Zhan, Wenfeng; Li, Haidong; Yao, Ling

    2017-02-01

    Variations of CO2 mole fraction (XCO2) on a global or country-wide scale have been widely examined, while the regional differences within China remain unclear because of the huge differences in the stage of economic development and climatic diversities. In this study, the variations of monthly and yearly XCO2 from 2003 to 2011 are analyzed for the entire China and its six geographical regions. Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) data, which are mainly sensitive in the mid-troposphere, were used. During 2003-2011, the mean annual XCO2 increased from 375.7 ± 3.3 to 392.5 ± 3.5 ppm, at a rate of +2.10 ppm/year, which is similar to the previous rate during 2003-2008 (+2.09 ppm/year). However, there are two new findings for different regions of China. First, the XCO2 growth rate and its seasonal amplitude were higher in Northern China than in Southern China. The growth rates of XCO2 over North-East, North, and North-West during 2003-2011 are 2.18, 2.17, and 2.13 ppm/year, respectively, while they are 2.03, 2.05, and 2.09 ppm/year over South-East, Central, and South-West, respectively. The seasonal CO2 fluctuations over the North-East and North are larger than other regions. Second, the highest monthly mean XCO2 of mid-troposphere occurs during April to May for different regions of China in 2003-2011, while the lowest XCO2 is September for southern China and January for northern China. These results offer valuable insights into the regional differences of XCO2 within China.

  11. Quantification of regional leachate variance from municipal solid waste landfills in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Kjeldsen, Peter; Shao, Li-Ming; He, Pin-Jing

    2015-12-01

    The quantity of leachate is crucial when assessing pollution emanating from municipal landfills. In most cases, existing leachate quantification measures only take into account one source - precipitation, which resulted in serious underestimation in China due to its waste properties: high moisture contents. To overcome this problem, a new estimation method was established considering two sources: (1) precipitation infiltrated throughout waste layers, which was simulated with the HELP model, (2) water squeezed out of the waste itself, which was theoretically calculated using actual data of Chinese waste. The two sources depended on climate conditions and waste characteristics, respectively, which both varied in different regions. In this study, 31 Chinese cities were investigated and classified into three geographic regions according to landfill leachate generation performance: northwestern China (China-NW) with semi-arid and temperate climate and waste moisture content of about 46.0%, northern China (China-N) with semi-humid and temperate climate and waste moisture content of about 58.2%, and southern China (China-S) with humid and sub-tropical/tropical climate and waste moisture content of about 58.2%. In China-NW, accumulated leachate amounts were very low and mainly the result of waste degradation, implying on-site spraying/irrigation or recirculation may be an economic approach to treatment. In China-N, water squeezed out of waste by compaction totaled 22-45% of overall leachate amounts in the first 40 years, so decreasing the initial moisture content of waste arriving at landfills could reduce leachate generation. In China-S, the leachate generated by infiltrated precipitation after HDPE geomembranes in top cover started failing, contributed more than 60% of the overall amounts over 100 years of landfilling. Therefore, the quality and placing of HDPE geomembranes in the top cover should be controlled strictly for the purpose of mitigation leachate generation.

  12. Loco-regional administration of nanomedicines for the treatment of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Garrastazu Pereira, Gabriela; Lawson, Amanda Jane; Buttini, Francesca; Sonvico, Fabio

    2016-10-01

    Lung cancer poses one of the most significant challenges to modern medicine, killing thousands every year. Current therapy involves surgical resection supplemented with chemotherapy and radiotherapy due to high rates of relapse. Shortcomings of currently available chemotherapy protocols include unacceptably high levels of systemic toxicity and low accumulation of drug at the tumor site. Loco-regional delivery of nanocarriers loaded with anticancer agents has the potential to significantly increase efficacy, while minimizing systemic toxicity to anticancer agents. Local drug administration at the tumor site using nanoparticulate drug delivery systems can reduce systemic toxicities observed with intravenously administered anticancer drugs. In addition, this approach presents an opportunity for sustained delivery of anticancer drug over an extended period of time. Herein, the progress in the development of locally administered nanomedicines for the treatment of lung cancer is reviewed. Administration by inhalation, intratumoral injection and means of direct in situ application are discussed, the benefits and drawbacks of each modality are explored.

  13. China’s Regional and Global Grand Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-16

    almost the same. Is it just like the image in Richard Lewis’s book, a single eyelid with a Qing Dynasty skull cap?1 The image of China and the Chinese, in...satellite countries, and the sovereignty of its coastline cities. It became worse after the Qing Dynasty won the Sino-French War in 1885. The incompetent... dynasty won the war but submitted the suzerainty in Vietnam to the French. These images didn’t change despite the founding of the Republic of China in

  14. tPA Prescription and Administration Errors within a Regional Stroke System

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Lee S; Tkach, Aleksander; Lingenfelter, Erin M; Dehoney, Sarah; Rollo, Jeannie; de Havenon, Adam; DeWitt, Lucy Dana; Grantz, Matthew Ryan; Wang, Haimei; Wold, Jana J; Hannon, Peter M; Weathered, Natalie R; Majersik, Jennifer J

    2015-01-01

    Background IV tPA utilization in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) requires weight-based dosing and a standardized infusion rate. In our regional network, we have tried to minimize tPA dosing errors. We describe the frequency and types of tPA administration errors made in our comprehensive stroke center (CSC) and at community hospitals (CHs) prior to transfer. Methods Using our stroke quality database, we extracted clinical and pharmacy information on all patients who received IV tPA from 2010–11 at the CSC or CH prior to transfer. All records were analyzed for the presence of inclusion/exclusion criteria deviations or tPA errors in prescription, reconstitution, dispensing, or administration, and analyzed for association with outcomes. Results We identified 131 AIS cases treated with IV tPA: 51% female; mean age 68; 32% treated at CSC, 68% at CH (including 26% by telestroke) from 22 CHs. tPA prescription and administration errors were present in 64% of all patients (41% CSC, 75% CH, p<0.001), the most common being incorrect dosage for body weight (19% CSC, 55% CH, p<0.001). Of the 27 overdoses, there were 3 deaths due to systemic hemorrhage or ICH. Nonetheless, outcomes (parenchymal hematoma, mortality, mRS) did not differ between CSC and CH patients nor between those with and without errors. Conclusion Despite focus on minimization of tPA administration errors in AIS patients, such errors were very common in our regional stroke system. Although an association between tPA errors and stroke outcomes was not demonstrated, quality assurance mechanisms are still necessary to reduce potentially dangerous, avoidable errors. PMID:26698642

  15. China.

    PubMed

    1983-12-01

    school. China's goal is to provide universal elementary school education by 1990. Since 1978 the premise of China's economic policy has been that consumer welfare, economic productivity, and political stability are indivisible. Emphasis has been placed on raising personal income and consumption and on introducing new productivity incentive and management systems. Since early 1982 China has placed increasing importance on building closer ties with the 3rd world. China's armed forces total about 4.2 million. In February 1981 the Reagan Administration reaffirmed the US commitment to respect the principles of the 1979 Communique on the Establishment of Diplomatic relations.

  16. A Regional Categorization for “New-Type Urbanization” in China

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Chuanglin; Ma, Haitao; Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Regional differences in the character of urbanization in China are substantial. The promotion of what has been termed “new-type urbanization” cannot, as a result of these regional differences, be expected to follow a universal approach—rather, such a development must objectively adhere to locational and category-specific principles and adopt differentiated urbanization development models. Regional categorization is often used in geography, but is rarely deployed in research addressing human and social problems relating to urbanization. In March 2014, China published the National New-type Urbanization Plan (2014–2020), which calls for the scientific and reasonable planning of “new-type urbanization,” and appropriate regional categorizations are urgently needed in order to guide this reform. Responding to this challenge, this research engaged in the design of a “dominantly quantitative analysis, qualitatively supplemented” method in order to divide China into 5 main regions and 47 sub-regions in terms of new-type urbanization. The paper discusses the features and key problems of each region. This study introduces a new method for regional categorization, thereby remedying the lack of regional categorization in relation to “new-type urbanization” in China, and ultimately promoting the development of regional categorization in the humanities as a valuable reference for healthy and sustainable Chinese urbanization. PMID:26237405

  17. Integrating global socio-economic influences into a regional land use change model for China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xia; Gao, Qiong; Peng, Changhui; Cui, Xuefeng; Liu, Yinghui; Jiang, Li

    2014-03-01

    With rapid economic development and urbanization, land use in China has experienced huge changes in recent years; and this will probably continue in the future. Land use problems in China are urgent and need further study. Rapid land-use change and economic development make China an ideal region for integrated land use change studies, particularly the examination of multiple factors and global-regional interactions in the context of global economic integration. This paper presents an integrated modeling approach to examine the impact of global socio-economic processes on land use changes at a regional scale. We develop an integrated model system by coupling a simple global socio-economic model (GLOBFOOD) and regional spatial allocation model (CLUE). The model system is illustrated with an application to land use in China. For a given climate change, population growth, and various socio-economic situations, a global socio-economic model simulates the impact of global market and economy on land use, and quantifies changes of different land use types. The land use spatial distribution model decides the type of land use most appropriate in each spatial grid by employing a weighted suitability index, derived from expert knowledge about the ecosystem state and site conditions. A series of model simulations will be conducted and analyzed to demonstrate the ability of the integrated model to link global socioeconomic factors with regional land use changes in China. The results allow an exploration of the future dynamics of land use and landscapes in China.

  18. A review of accessibility of administrative healthcare databases in the Asia-Pacific region

    PubMed Central

    Milea, Dominique; Azmi, Soraya; Reginald, Praveen; Verpillat, Patrice; Francois, Clement

    2015-01-01

    Objective We describe and compare the availability and accessibility of administrative healthcare databases (AHDB) in several Asia-Pacific countries: Australia, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, China, Thailand, and Malaysia. Methods The study included hospital records, reimbursement databases, prescription databases, and data linkages. Databases were first identified through PubMed, Google Scholar, and the ISPOR database register. Database custodians were contacted. Six criteria were used to assess the databases and provided the basis for a tool to categorise databases into seven levels ranging from least accessible (Level 1) to most accessible (Level 7). We also categorised overall data accessibility for each country as high, medium, or low based on accessibility of databases as well as the number of academic articles published using the databases. Results Fifty-four administrative databases were identified. Only a limited number of databases allowed access to raw data and were at Level 7 [Medical Data Vision EBM Provider, Japan Medical Data Centre (JMDC) Claims database and Nihon-Chouzai Pharmacy Claims database in Japan, and Medicare, Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS), Centre for Health Record Linkage (CHeReL), HealthLinQ, Victorian Data Linkages (VDL), SA-NT DataLink in Australia]. At Levels 3–6 were several databases from Japan [Hamamatsu Medical University Database, Medi-Trend, Nihon University School of Medicine Clinical Data Warehouse (NUSM)], Australia [Western Australia Data Linkage (WADL)], Taiwan [National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD)], South Korea [Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA)], and Malaysia [United Nations University (UNU)-Casemix]. Countries were categorised as having a high level of data accessibility (Australia, Taiwan, and Japan), medium level of accessibility (South Korea), or a low level of accessibility (Thailand, China, Malaysia, and Singapore). In some countries, data may be available but

  19. Responses of terrestrial ecosystems' net primary productivity to future regional climate change in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dongsheng; Wu, Shaohong; Yin, Yunhe

    2013-01-01

    The impact of regional climate change on net primary productivity (NPP) is an important aspect in the study of ecosystems' response to global climate change. China's ecosystems are very sensitive to climate change owing to the influence of the East Asian monsoon. The Lund-Potsdam-Jena Dynamic Global Vegetation Model for China (LPJ-CN), a global dynamical vegetation model developed for China's terrestrial ecosystems, was applied in this study to simulate the NPP changes affected by future climate change. As the LPJ-CN model is based on natural vegetation, the simulation in this study did not consider the influence of anthropogenic activities. Results suggest that future climate change would have adverse effects on natural ecosystems, with NPP tending to decrease in eastern China, particularly in the temperate and warm temperate regions. NPP would increase in western China, with a concentration in the Tibetan Plateau and the northwest arid regions. The increasing trend in NPP in western China and the decreasing trend in eastern China would be further enhanced by the warming climate. The spatial distribution of NPP, which declines from the southeast coast to the northwest inland, would have minimal variation under scenarios of climate change.

  20. Implementing China's circular economy concept at the regional level: a review of progress in Dalian, China.

    PubMed

    Geng, Yong; Zhu, Qinghua; Doberstein, Brent; Fujita, Tsuyoshi

    2009-02-01

    The circular economy (CE) concept was introduced in China to address environmental degradation and resource scarcity associated with rapid economic development. Chosen as a demonstration city, Dalian has implemented the CE strategy as a means of conserving water, materials, energy and land. This paper outlines some of the regional CE initiatives that have been successful to date in Dalian, including those focusing on conserving energy and water resources and others focusing on reduced industrial emissions. The paper details the approach used in implementing the CE concept in Dalian, tracing the foci and goals of the program, and the sectoral approach used to implement a CE. Although Dalian municipality has achieved many successes in implementing a CE, our paper identifies several challenges that, until recently, have held back complete implementation. These include: the lack of incentives for older industries to 'green' their operations, the lack of financial support to expand the CE concept, and a broad-based need for heightened public awareness and participation in CE initiatives. Our paper then identifies several responses by Dalian municipality to overcome these challenges, including pricing and tax reforms that serve as conservation incentives, the provision of financial support for CE promotion through budget reorganization, and the organization of CE training programs. Our paper concludes that, although CE initiatives have been successful in Dalian, more is possible and more is needed before Dalian can be designated a true 'eco-city'. The approach used by Dalian can provide guidance for other Chinese cities, although it is recognized that each city must tailor its own approach for differing contexts and conditions.

  1. An assessment of precipitation and surface air temperature over China by regional climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xueyuan; Tang, Jianping; Niu, Xiaorui; Wang, Shuyu

    2016-12-01

    An analysis of a 20-year summer time simulation of present-day climate (1989-2008) over China using four regional climate models coupled with different land surface models is carried out. The climatic means, interannual variability, linear trends, and extremes are examined, with focus on precipitation and near surface air temperature. The models are able to reproduce the basic features of the observed summer mean precipitation and temperature over China and the regional detail due to topographic forcing. Overall, the model performance is better for temperature than that of precipitation. The models reasonably grasp the major anomalies and standard deviations over China and the five subregions studied. The models generally reproduce the spatial pattern of high interannual variability over wet regions, and low variability over the dry regions. The models also capture well the variable temperature gradient increase to the north by latitude. Both the observed and simulated linear trend of precipitation shows a drying tendency over the Yangtze River Basin and wetting over South China. The models capture well the relatively small temperature trends in large areas of China. The models reasonably simulate the characteristics of extreme precipitation indices of heavy rain days and heavy precipitation fraction. Most of the models also performed well in capturing both the sign and magnitude of the daily maximum and minimum temperatures over China.

  2. Trans-boundary Air Quality and Health Impacts of Emissions in Various Regions in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Y.; Yim, S. H. L.

    2015-12-01

    In last few decades, China has gone through a rapid development, resulting in urbanization and industrialization. However, the abundant economic achievements were gained at the cost of a sharp deterioration of air quality. Previous research has reported the adverse health outcome from outdoor air pollution in China. Nevertheless, the trans-boundary air quality and health impacts due to emissions in various regions in China have yet fully understood. Our study aims to comprehensively apportion the attribution of emissions in seven regions in China, which are defined based on their geographical locations, to air pollutions, as well as the resultant health impacts in their local areas and other regions, provinces, and cities in China. A regional air quality model is applied to simulate the physical and chemical processes of various pollutants in the atmosphere. The resultant health outcome, such as premature death, is estimated by using the concentration-response functions reported in the literature. We anticipate that our results would serve as a critical reference for research community and policy makers to mitigate the air quality and health impacts of emissions in China.

  3. Regional atmospheric visibility characteristics and its effect on radiation in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. C.; Hao, T. Y.; Shi, J.; Shan, X. L.

    2017-01-01

    Spatial and temporal characteristics of atmospheric visibility in China were investigated by using monitored meteorological data. The results show that The atmospheric lowest visibility (<10km) occurrence frequency in China can be observed in the east of Sichuan, Chongqing, and the east of Guizhou. The visibility in most regions of China exhibits a decreasing trend from 1980 to 2010. It is also found that fog is major weather phenomenon affecting visibility in China. The second is precipitation except the Northwest and Inner Mongolia, where sand and dust is the major weather phenomenon affecting visibility. Our results also identify the total radiation under the condition of low visibility is less than that under the condition of normal, meanwhile, the atmospheric scattered radiation increase. Net radiation in the condition of low visibility is less than that in the normal condition in most cases over China.

  4. Characteristics of Venture Capital Network and Its Correlation with Regional Economy: Evidence from China

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yonghong; Zhang, Qi; Shan, Lifei; Li, Sai-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Financial networks have been extensively studied as examples of real world complex networks. In this paper, we establish and study the network of venture capital (VC) firms in China. We compute and analyze the statistical properties of the network, including parameters such as degrees, mean lengths of the shortest paths, clustering coefficient and robustness. We further study the topology of the network and find that it has small-world behavior. A multiple linear regression model is introduced to study the relation between network parameters and major regional economic indices in China. From the result of regression, we find that, economic aggregate (including the total GDP, investment, consumption and net export), upgrade of industrial structure, employment and remuneration of a region are all positively correlated with the degree and the clustering coefficient of the VC sub-network of the region, which suggests that the development of the VC industry has substantial effects on regional economy in China. PMID:26340555

  5. Promoting University and Industry Links at the Regional Level: Comparing China's Reform and International Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Po, Yang; Cai, Yuzhuo; Lyytinen, Anu; Hölttä, Seppo

    2016-01-01

    This paper intends to learn from international experiences in order to facilitating China's ongoing regional university transformation with an ultimate goal to enhance the role of university in regional economic development and innovation. In so doing, this paper compares major models of universities of applied sciences (UAS) around the world from…

  6. Seeking Solutions though the Mirror of Finnish Experience: Policy Recommendations for Regional University Transformation in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Yuzhuo; Yang, Po; Lyytinen, Anu; Hölttä, Seppo

    2015-01-01

    China has recently launched a radical reform to transform over 600 regional universities into application and technology oriented institutions. The reform is a response to diverse labour market demands, regional economic development and the suboptimal structure of the higher education system, and uses international experiences as a reference.…

  7. Inverse modeling of the terrestrial carbon flux in China with flux covariance among inverted regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Jiang, F.; Chen, J. M.; Ju, W.; Wang, H.

    2011-12-01

    Quantitative understanding of the role of ocean and terrestrial biosphere in the global carbon cycle, their response and feedback to climate change is required for the future projection of the global climate. China has the largest amount of anthropogenic CO2 emission, diverse terrestrial ecosystems and an unprecedented rate of urbanization. Thus information on spatial and temporal distributions of the terrestrial carbon flux in China is of great importance in understanding the global carbon cycle. We developed a nested inversion with focus in China. Based on Transcom 22 regions for the globe, we divide China and its neighboring countries into 17 regions, making 39 regions in total for the globe. A Bayesian synthesis inversion is made to estimate the terrestrial carbon flux based on GlobalView CO2 data. In the inversion, GEOS-Chem is used as the transport model to develop the transport matrix. A terrestrial ecosystem model named BEPS is used to produce the prior surface flux to constrain the inversion. However, the sparseness of available observation stations in Asia poses a challenge to the inversion for the 17 small regions. To obtain additional constraint on the inversion, a prior flux covariance matrix is constructed using the BEPS model through analyzing the correlation in the net carbon flux among regions under variable climate conditions. The use of the covariance among different regions in the inversion effectively extends the information content of CO2 observations to more regions. The carbon flux over the 39 land and ocean regions are inverted for the period from 2004 to 2009. In order to investigate the impact of introducing the covariance matrix with non-zero off-diagonal values to the inversion, the inverted terrestrial carbon flux over China is evaluated against ChinaFlux eddy-covariance observations after applying an upscaling methodology.

  8. Prevalence of honeybee viruses in different regions of China and Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ding, G; Fondevila, N; Palacio, M A; Merke, J; Martinez, A; Camacho, B; Aignasse, A; Figini, E; Rodriguez, G; Lv, L; Liu, Z; Shi, W

    2016-12-01

    Honeybees are threatened by various pathogens and parasites. More than 18 viruses have been described in honeybees and many of them have been detected in China and Argentina. In China, both Apis cerana and Apis mellifera are raised. In Argentina, beekeepers raise different ecotypes of A. mellifera: European honeybees (in both temperate and subtropical regions) and Africanised honeybees (in subtropical areas only). A thorough study was carried out in both China and Argentina to analyse the current virus presence and distribution in different climatic zones and gather information on different bee species/subspecies. Adult honeybees were collected from apiaries in temperate and subtropical regions of China (including areas with exclusive populations of A. mellifera, areas where A. mellifera and A. cerana co-exist, and areas with exclusive populations of A. cerana) and Argentina. Six viruses, namely, deformed wing virus (DWV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), sacbrood virus (SBV), chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV) and Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) were detected in China, both in A. cerana and in A. mellifera, while four viruses (DWV, BQCV, CBPV and ABPV) were present in Argentina. Interestingly, multiple infections were commonly found in China, with up to five different viruses co-circulating in some colonies without apparent abnormalities. In this study, no Chinese samples were positive for slow bee paralysis virus. The most prevalent viruses were BQCV (China) and DWV (Argentina). Kashmir bee virus was absent from samples analysed for both countries.

  9. Urban drought: a potential environmental hotspot in the western region development of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Qian; Glantz, Michael H.; Song, Lianchun; Sun, Guowu; Pan, Xiaoling

    2003-07-01

    A large-scale economic development program in western China has begun since 1999. Fast urbanization is expected with urban population increasing dramatically. Western China is mostly in arid and semi-arid climate zone and water resources are very limited. It suggests that an early warning system specifically designed to deal with urban droughts should be developed. Thresholds on identifying the water related hotspots must be determined based on different regions and economic sectors.

  10. Quantifying regional vegetation cover variability in North China during the Holocene: implications for climate feedback.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo; Yin, Yi; Liu, Hongyan; Hao, Qian

    2013-01-01

    Validating model simulations of vegetation-climate feedback needs information not only on changes in past vegetation types as reconstructed by palynologists, but also on other proxies such as vegetation cover. We present here a quantitative regional vegetation cover reconstruction for North China during the Holocene. The reconstruction was based on 15 high-quality lake sediment profiles selected from 55 published sites in North China, along with their modern remote sensing vegetation index. We used the surface soil pollen percentage to build three pollen-vegetation cover transfer models, and used lake surface sediment pollen data to validate their accuracy. Our results showed that vegetation cover in North China increased slightly before its maximum at 6.5 cal ka BP and has since declined significantly. The vegetation decline since 6.5 cal ka BP has likely induced a regional albedo change and aerosol increase. Further comparison with paleoclimate and paleovegetation dynamics in South China reproduced the regional cooling effect of vegetation cover decline in North China modelled in previous work. Our discussion demonstrates that, instead of reconstructing vegetation type from a single site, reconstructing quantitative regional vegetation cover could offer a broader understanding of regional vegetation-climate feedback.

  11. Quantifying Regional Vegetation Cover Variability in North China during the Holocene: Implications for Climate Feedback

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guo; Yin, Yi; Liu, Hongyan; Hao, Qian

    2013-01-01

    Validating model simulations of vegetation-climate feedback needs information not only on changes in past vegetation types as reconstructed by palynologists, but also on other proxies such as vegetation cover. We present here a quantitative regional vegetation cover reconstruction for North China during the Holocene. The reconstruction was based on 15 high-quality lake sediment profiles selected from 55 published sites in North China, along with their modern remote sensing vegetation index. We used the surface soil pollen percentage to build three pollen-vegetation cover transfer models, and used lake surface sediment pollen data to validate their accuracy. Our results showed that vegetation cover in North China increased slightly before its maximum at 6.5 cal ka BP and has since declined significantly. The vegetation decline since 6.5 cal ka BP has likely induced a regional albedo change and aerosol increase. Further comparison with paleoclimate and paleovegetation dynamics in South China reproduced the regional cooling effect of vegetation cover decline in North China modelled in previous work. Our discussion demonstrates that, instead of reconstructing vegetation type from a single site, reconstructing quantitative regional vegetation cover could offer a broader understanding of regional vegetation-climate feedback. PMID:23977110

  12. Current State of Economic Returns from Education in China's Ethnic Regions and Explorations into Ways of Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lijun, Zhang; Fei, Wang

    2010-01-01

    Economic development and social progress in China's ethnic minority regions depend on improvements in population attributes brought about by education. Developing education in China's ethnic regions is a project of fundamental significance for realizing sustainable economic and social development in the ethnic regions. Improving the economic…

  13. Assessment of regional human health risks from lead contamination in Yunnan province, southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lu; Cheng, Hongguang; Liu, Xuelian; Xie, Jing; Li, Qian; Zhou, Tan

    2015-01-01

    Identification and management the 'critical risk areas' where hotspot lead exposures are a potential risk to human health, become a major focus of public health efforts in China. But the knowledge of health risk assessment of lead pollution at regional and national scales is still limited in China. In this paper, under the guidance of 'sources-pathways-receptors' framework, regional human health risk assessment model for lead contamination was developed to calculate the population health risk in Yunnan province. And the cluster and AHP (analytic hierarchy process) analysis was taken to classify and calculate regional health risk and the decomposition of the regional health risk in the greatest health risk region, respectively. The results showed that Yunnan province can be divided into three areas. The highest health risk levels, located in northeastern Yunnan, including Kunming, Qujing, Zhaotong region. In those regions, lead is present at high levels in air, food, water and soil, and high population density which pose a high potential population risk to the public. The current study also reveals that most regional health risk was derived from the child receptors (age above 3 years) 4.3 times than the child receptors (age under 3 years), and ingestion of lead-contaminated rice was found to be the most significant contributor to the health risk (accounting for more than 49% health risk of total). This study can provide a framework for regional risk assessment in China and highlighted some indicators and uncertainties.

  14. Previous Employment and Job Satisfaction Conditions: The Case of Regional Administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amalia, Myronaki; Nikolaos, Antonakas

    2009-08-01

    In the present work we study the different dimensions of satisfaction and the way of constitution of satisfaction of an important sample of the employees in the Regional administration of Crete and in their connection with the variable of the previous employment. We found statistically important differences for the components of satisfaction from the life, collaboration in and outside from the department, in the social satisfaction and the variable of the years in the service (labour group with <5 years in the service, group with 5-9 years in the service and labour group with 10-15 years in the service). The group with total few years in the work <5, presented smaller social and labour satisfaction than the other previous employment groups. In the other hand the group with many years in the service presents bigger satisfaction than the other groups. Finally, is important to note that the sample present some interesting characteristics.

  15. Dynamism of household carbon emissions (HCEs) from rural and urban regions of northern and southern China.

    PubMed

    Maraseni, Tek Narayan; Qu, Jiansheng; Yue, Bian; Zeng, Jingjing; Maroulis, Jerry

    2016-10-01

    China contributes 23 % of global carbon emissions, of which 26 % originate from the household sector. Due to vast variations in both climatic conditions and the affordability and accessibility of fuels, household carbon emissions (HCEs) differ significantly across China. This study compares HCEs (per person) from urban and rural regions in northern China with their counterparts in southern China. Annual macroeconomic data for the study period 2005 to 2012 were obtained from Chinese government sources, whereas the direct HCEs for different types of fossil fuels were obtained using the IPCC reference approach, and indirect HCEs were calculated by input-output analysis. Results suggest that HCEs from urban areas are higher than those from rural areas. Regardless of the regions, there is a similarity in per person HCEs in urban areas, but the rural areas of northern China had significantly higher HCEs than those from southern China. The reasons for the similarity between urban areas and differences between rural areas and the percentage share of direct and indirect HCEs from different sources are discussed. Similarly, the reasons and solutions to why decarbonising policies are working in urban areas but not in rural areas are discussed.

  16. Simultaneous determination of oxyresveratrol and resveratrol in rat bile and urine by HPLC after oral administration of Smilax china extract.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-lian; Zhang, Jin-qiang; Chena, Guang-tong; Lu, Zhi-qiang; Sha, Na; Guo, De-an

    2009-06-01

    Oxyresveratrol (trans-2,4,3',5'-tetrahydroxystilbene, OXY) and resveratrol (trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene, RES) are the two most important constituents of the traditional Chinese medicine Smilax china. A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed to determine OXY and RES in rat bile and urine after oral administration of Smilax china extract. The biological samples were analyzed by HPLC on Aglient Zorbax SB-C18 column (250 x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) at a wavelength 320 nm and at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The method was accurate and reproducible for determination. The cumulative excretion of OXY and RES was 0.29% and 0.97% in bile samples, 0.84% and 0.65% in urine samples, respectively.

  17. Geography and Similarity of Regional Cuisines in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yu-Xiao; Huang, Junming; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhang, Qian-Ming; Zhou, Tao; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    2013-01-01

    Food occupies a central position in every culture and it is therefore of great interest to understand the evolution of food culture. The advent of the World Wide Web and online recipe repositories have begun to provide unprecedented opportunities for data-driven, quantitative study of food culture. Here we harness an online database documenting recipes from various Chinese regional cuisines and investigate the similarity of regional cuisines in terms of geography and climate. We find that geographical proximity, rather than climate proximity, is a crucial factor that determines the similarity of regional cuisines. We develop a model of regional cuisine evolution that provides helpful clues for understanding the evolution of cuisines and cultures. PMID:24260166

  18. Geography and similarity of regional cuisines in China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yu-Xiao; Huang, Junming; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhang, Qian-Ming; Zhou, Tao; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    2013-01-01

    Food occupies a central position in every culture and it is therefore of great interest to understand the evolution of food culture. The advent of the World Wide Web and online recipe repositories have begun to provide unprecedented opportunities for data-driven, quantitative study of food culture. Here we harness an online database documenting recipes from various Chinese regional cuisines and investigate the similarity of regional cuisines in terms of geography and climate. We find that geographical proximity, rather than climate proximity, is a crucial factor that determines the similarity of regional cuisines. We develop a model of regional cuisine evolution that provides helpful clues for understanding the evolution of cuisines and cultures.

  19. Establishing eutrophication assessment standards for four lake regions, China.

    PubMed

    Huo, Shouliang; Ma, Chunzi; Xi, Beidou; Su, Jing; Zan, Fengyu; Ji, Danfeng; He, Zhuoshi

    2013-10-01

    The trophic status assessment of lakes in different lake regions may provide important and fundamental information for lake trophic state classification and eutrophication control. In this study, a region-specific lake eutrophication assessment standard was established through a frequency distribution method based on chlorophyll-a concentration. The assessment standards under the oligotrophic state for lakes in the Eastern plain, Yungui Plateau, Northeast Plain and Mountain Mongolia-Xinjiang regions are total phosphorus of 0.068, 0.005, 0.011, 0.005 mg/L; total nitrogen of 1.00, 0.16, 0.37, 0.60 mg/L; Secchi depth of 0.60, 8.00, 1.55, 3.00 m; and COD(Mn) of 2.24, 1.00, 5.11, 4.00 mg/L, respectively. Moreover, a region-specific comprehensive trophic level index was developed to provide an understandable assessment method for the public. The results indicated that the frequency distribution analysis based on chlorophyll-a combined with trophic level index provided a useful metric for the assessment of the lake trophic status. In addition, the difference of eutrophication assessment standards in different lake regions was analyzed, which suggested that the sensitivities of algae to nutrients and the assessment standard of trophic status possessed significant regional differences for the four lake ecoregions. Lake eutrophication assessment standards would contribute to maximizing the effectiveness of future management strategies, to control and minimize lake eutrophication problems.

  20. The seed plant flora of the Mount Jinggangshan region, southeastern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Liao, Wenbo; Chen, Chunquan; Fan, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    The Mount Jinggangshan region is located between Jiangxi and Hunan provinces in southeastern China in the central section of the Luoxiao Mountains. A detailed investigation of Mount Jinggangshan region shows that the seed plant flora comprises 2,958 species in 1,003 genera and 210 families (Engler's system adjusted according to Zhengyi Wu's concept). Among them, 23 species of gymnospermae belong to 17 genera and 9 families, and 2,935 species of angiosperms are in 986 genera and 201 families. Moreover, they can also be sorted into woody plants (350 genera and 1,295 species) and herbaceous plants (653 genera and 1,663 species). The dominant families are mainly Fagaceae, Lauraceae, Theaceae, Hamamelidaceae, Magnoliaceae, Ericaceae, Styracaceae, Aquifoliaceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Aceraceae, Rosaceae, Corylaceae, Daphniphyllaceae, Symplocaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Pinaceae, Taxodiaceae, Cupressaceae and Taxaceae. Ancient and relic taxa include Ginkgo biloba, Fokieniahodginsii, Amentotaxusargotaenia, Disanthuscercidifolia subsp. longipes, Hamamelismollis, Manglietiafordiana, Magnoliaofficinalis, Tsoongiodendronodorum, Fortuneariasinensis, Cyclocaryapaliurus, Eucommiaulmoides, Sargentodoxacuneata, Bretschneiderasinensis, Camptothecaacuminata, Tapisciasinensis, etc. The flora of Mount Jinggangshan region includes 79 cosmopolitan genera and 924 non-cosmopolitan genera, which are 7.88% and 92.12% of all genera. The latter includes 452 tropical genera (48.92%) and 472 temperate genera (51.08%). The temperate elements include 44 genera endemic to China, accounting for 4.76% of all genera. Among 1,003 genera, 465 have only a single species and 401 are oligotypic genera (with 2-5 species). These genera account for 86.34% of all genera. The floristic analysis indicates that the flora of Mount Jinggangshan region is closely related to the flora of Mount Wuyishan region in southeastern China. The flora of Mount Jinggangshan region also contains many elements of central and southern China

  1. The Seed Plant Flora of the Mount Jinggangshan Region, Southeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Liao, Wenbo; Chen, Chunquan; Fan, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    The Mount Jinggangshan region is located between Jiangxi and Hunan provinces in southeastern China in the central section of the Luoxiao Mountains. A detailed investigation of Mount Jinggangshan region shows that the seed plant flora comprises 2,958 species in 1,003 genera and 210 families (Engler’s system adjusted according to Zhengyi Wu’s concept). Among them, 23 species of gymnospermae belong to 17 genera and 9 families, and 2,935 species of angiosperms are in 986 genera and 201 families. Moreover, they can also be sorted into woody plants (350 genera and 1,295 species) and herbaceous plants (653 genera and 1,663 species). The dominant families are mainly Fagaceae, Lauraceae, Theaceae, Hamamelidaceae, Magnoliaceae, Ericaceae, Styracaceae, Aquifoliaceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Aceraceae, Rosaceae, Corylaceae, Daphniphyllaceae, Symplocaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Pinaceae, Taxodiaceae, Cupressaceae and Taxaceae. Ancient and relic taxa include Ginkgo biloba, Fokieniahodginsii, Amentotaxusargotaenia, Disanthuscercidifolia subsp. longipes, Hamamelismollis, Manglietiafordiana, Magnoliaofficinalis, Tsoongiodendronodorum, Fortuneariasinensis, Cyclocaryapaliurus, Eucommiaulmoides, Sargentodoxacuneata, Bretschneiderasinensis, Camptothecaacuminata, Tapisciasinensis, etc. The flora of Mount Jinggangshan region includes 79 cosmopolitan genera and 924 non-cosmopolitan genera, which are 7.88% and 92.12% of all genera. The latter includes 452 tropical genera (48.92%) and 472 temperate genera (51.08%). The temperate elements include 44 genera endemic to China, accounting for 4.76% of all genera. Among 1,003 genera, 465 have only a single species and 401 are oligotypic genera (with 2-5 species). These genera account for 86.34% of all genera. The floristic analysis indicates that the flora of Mount Jinggangshan region is closely related to the flora of Mount Wuyishan region in southeastern China. The flora of Mount Jinggangshan region also contains many elements of central and southern

  2. Observation-based Understanding of the Cloud Properties over East China Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, C.

    2015-12-01

    Cloud properties over East China are described based on observations from satellite (MODIS), ground site and aircraft. Based on satellite observations, 10-year averaged cloud fraction over the whole China region is around 66%, similar to the average value of global, with the largest cloud occurrence in Summer; the cloud fraction increases slightly during last 10 years; more clouds are found at southeast region than at northwest region; cloud droplet effective radius shows the smallest values around 10 um at mid-latitude regions and largest values at high latitude regions; further PDF analysis shows that cloud droplet effective radius demonstrates a bimodal distribution with maximum occurrences around 10-16 um. Ground site observations show that cloud fraction at Taihu site is around 65% for 2013, consistent with that found by MODIS at the closest grid to the site; more clouds are found at night than during day. In-situ aircraft observations over Huanghua city show that cloud droplet effective radius increases with height, with values from 3-5 um at low altitude, 7-9 um at mid altitude, to 10-13 um at high altitude. While the aircraft observation sample volume is limited, the in-situ observed cloud properties demonstrate that cloud droplet re increases with height, consistent with many findings by in-situ aircraft at other locations. The consistency of satellite observed cloud droplet re between East China and other regions is likely caused by the fact that the cloud properties observed by satellite is more representative of those clouds at high altitudes which are weakly affected by the aerosols within the boundary layers. On the other hand, the cloud droplet re at the cloud bases over East China is much smaller than those found at other locations, likely demonstrating the significant impacts by the heavy aerosol loadings at this region. Further studies with more site and aircraft observations over East China are needed.

  3. Responses of Terrestrial Ecosystems’ Net Primary Productivity to Future Regional Climate Change in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Dongsheng; Wu, Shaohong; Yin, Yunhe

    2013-01-01

    The impact of regional climate change on net primary productivity (NPP) is an important aspect in the study of ecosystems’ response to global climate change. China’s ecosystems are very sensitive to climate change owing to the influence of the East Asian monsoon. The Lund–Potsdam–Jena Dynamic Global Vegetation Model for China (LPJ-CN), a global dynamical vegetation model developed for China’s terrestrial ecosystems, was applied in this study to simulate the NPP changes affected by future climate change. As the LPJ-CN model is based on natural vegetation, the simulation in this study did not consider the influence of anthropogenic activities. Results suggest that future climate change would have adverse effects on natural ecosystems, with NPP tending to decrease in eastern China, particularly in the temperate and warm temperate regions. NPP would increase in western China, with a concentration in the Tibetan Plateau and the northwest arid regions. The increasing trend in NPP in western China and the decreasing trend in eastern China would be further enhanced by the warming climate. The spatial distribution of NPP, which declines from the southeast coast to the northwest inland, would have minimal variation under scenarios of climate change. PMID:23593325

  4. Effects of fluoxetine administration on regional galanin expression in obese Zucker rat hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Churruca, Itziar; Portillo, María P; Gutiérreza, Arantza; Casis, Luis; Macarulla, María Teresa; Zarate, Jon; Echevarría, Enrique

    2004-06-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the potential involvement of hypothalamic galanin system in the anorectic mechanism of fluoxetine in obese Zucker rats. Male obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats were administered fluoxetine (10 mg/kg; i.p.) daily for two weeks. The control group was given 0.9% NaCl solution. Significant decreases in food intake, final body weight and total body fat were observed after fluoxetine treatment. Although fluoxetine-treated rats showed a decrease in urine elimination, this effect was not enough to compensate decreased water intake, leading to dehydration, as showed by decreased body water content. Chronic fluoxetine administration increased the numbers of galanin positively immunostained neural cells in medial and lateral preoptic areas, lateral hypothalamic area and paraventricular nucleus (rostral and magnocellular regions), without changes in dorsomedial, ventromedial, supraoptic, suprachiasmatic and arcuate nuclei. Taken into account that galanin stimulates appetite, these results could represent rather a compensatory response against reduced food intake than a direct anorectic mechanism. Changes in the magnocellular region of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus suggest a role for galanin neural circuits at this level in fluoxetine-induced hydro-osmotic impairment.

  5. EPA Regional Administrator to kick off Run for Clean Air as part of Philadelphia Earth Day festivities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    PHILADELPHIA, Pa. (April 17, 2015) - EPA Mid-Atlantic Regional Administrator Shawn M. Garvin will get regional Earth Day festivities started Saturday morning as he opens ceremonies for the Run for Clean Air presented by Toyota Hybrids in front of th

  6. Environmental Determinants of Woody Plant Diversity at a Regional Scale in China

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Understanding what drives the geographic variation of species richness across the globe is a fundamental goal of ecology and biogeography. Environmental variables have been considered as drivers of global diversity patterns but there is no consensus among ecologists on what environmental variables are primary drivers of the geographic variation of species richness. Here, I examine the relationship of woody plant species richness at a regional scale in China with sixteen environmental variables representing energy availability, water availability, energy-water balance, seasonality, and habitat heterogeneity. I found that temperature seasonality is the best predictor of woody species richness in China. Other important environmental variables include annual precipitation, mean temperature of the coldest month, and potential evapotranspiration. The best model explains 85% of the variation in woody plant species richness at the regional scale in China. PMID:24086642

  7. Trends in temperature extremes over nine integrated agricultural regions in China, 1961-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xushu; Wang, Zhaoli; Zhou, Xiaowen; Lai, Chengguang; Chen, Xiaohong

    2016-06-01

    By characterizing the patterns of temperature extremes over nine integrated agricultural regions (IARs) in China from 1961 to 2011, this study performed trend analyses on 16 extreme temperature indices using a high-resolution (0.5° × 0.5°) daily gridded dataset and the Mann-Kendall method. The results show that annually, at both daytime and nighttime, cold extremes significantly decreased but warm extremes significantly increased across all IARs. Overall, nighttimes tended to warm faster than daytimes. Diurnal temperature ranges (DTR) diminished, apart from the mid-northern Southwest China Region and the mid-Loess Plateau Region. Seasonally, DTR widely diminished across all IARs during the four seasons except for spring. Higher minimum daily minimum temperature (TNn) and maximum daily maximum temperature (TXx), in both summer and winter, were recorded for most IARs except for the Huang-Huai-Hai Region; in autumn, all IARs generally encountered higher TNn and TXx. In all seasons, warming was observed at daytime and nighttime but, again, nighttimes warmed faster than daytimes. The results also indicate a more rapid warming trend in Northern and Western China than in Southern and Eastern China, with accelerated warming at high elevations. The increases in TNn and TXx might cause a reduction in agriculture yield in spring over Northern China, while such negative impact might occur in Southern China during summer. In autumn and winter, however, the negative impact possibly occurred in most of the IARs. Moreover, increased TXx in the Pearl River Delta and Yangtze River Delta is possibly related to rapid local urbanization. Climatically, the general increase in temperature extremes across Chinese IARs may be induced by strengthened Northern Hemisphere Subtropical High or weakened Northern Hemisphere Polar Vortex.

  8. Rational regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowing yield potential and yield stability of sugarcane cultivars is of significance in guiding sugarcane breeding and the rational regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars. In the present study, a heritability-adjusted genotype main effect plus genotype × environment (HA-GGE) biplot program wa...

  9. The Administrative Mode and Academic Corruption at China's State-Run Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bin, Wang; Qichun, Chen

    2007-01-01

    Institutions of higher learning, as social organizations, rely on their administrations to harmonize their resources and coordinate relations. Meanwhile, institutions of higher learning are also important links in political socialization, and state forces intervene to a certain extent in school administration and regulate their developmental…

  10. Sources of excess urban carbonaceous aerosol in the Pearl River delta region, China

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbonaceous aerosol is one of the important constituents of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Southern China, including the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region and Hong Kong (HK). During the study period (October and December of 2002, and March and June of 2003), the monthly average...

  11. Factors Associated with the Utilization and Quality of Prenatal Care in Western Rural Regions of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dongxu, Wang; Yuhui, Shi; Stewart, Donald; Chun, Chang; Chaoyang, Li

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to identify key features of prenatal care utilization and quality in western regions of China and to determine the factors affecting the quality of prenatal care. Design/methodology/approach: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted. The instrument for the study was a 10-stem respondent-administered, structured…

  12. Evaluation of the Contributions of Four Components of Gross Domestic Product in Various Regions in China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sanmang; Lei, Yalin; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    Four major components influence the growth of the gross domestic product in Chinese provinces: consumption, investment, transnational exports, and inter-provincial exports. By splitting a competitive input-output table into a non-competitive input-output table, this study used an input-output model to measure the contributions of the four components of gross domestic product in various regions in China. We found that international exports drove the growth of the gross domestic product more strongly in the eastern region than in other regions. Investment and inter-provincial exports were the major impetus for gross domestic product growth in the central and western regions. We also found that consumption played a minimal role in driving the growth of the gross domestic product in all regions in China. According to these findings, although various regions can share much in terms of policies to transform the impetus for economic growth, there should be different foci for different regions. Their shared policy is to increase the role of final consumption in stimulating economic growth. Region-specific policies mandate that the eastern region should strengthen the driving force provided by international exports and that the central and western regions should strengthen indigenous growth capabilities by improving scientific innovation, industrial support, and institutional innovation. PMID:25915927

  13. Evaluation of the contributions of four components of gross domestic product in various regions in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sanmang; Lei, Yalin; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    Four major components influence the growth of the gross domestic product in Chinese provinces: consumption, investment, transnational exports, and inter-provincial exports. By splitting a competitive input-output table into a non-competitive input-output table, this study used an input-output model to measure the contributions of the four components of gross domestic product in various regions in China. We found that international exports drove the growth of the gross domestic product more strongly in the eastern region than in other regions. Investment and inter-provincial exports were the major impetus for gross domestic product growth in the central and western regions. We also found that consumption played a minimal role in driving the growth of the gross domestic product in all regions in China. According to these findings, although various regions can share much in terms of policies to transform the impetus for economic growth, there should be different foci for different regions. Their shared policy is to increase the role of final consumption in stimulating economic growth. Region-specific policies mandate that the eastern region should strengthen the driving force provided by international exports and that the central and western regions should strengthen indigenous growth capabilities by improving scientific innovation, industrial support, and institutional innovation.

  14. Brain regions mediating α3β4 nicotinic antagonist effects of 18-MC on nicotine self-administration.

    PubMed

    Glick, Stanley D; Sell, Elizabeth M; McCallum, Sarah E; Maisonneuve, Isabelle M

    2011-11-01

    18-Methoxycoronaridine (18-MC), a putative anti-addictive agent, has been shown to decrease the self-administration of several drugs of abuse in rats. 18-MC is a potent antagonist at α3β4 nicotinic receptors. Consistent with high densities of α3β4 nicotinic receptors being located in the medial habenula and the interpeduncular nucleus, 18-MC has been shown to act in these regions to decrease both morphine and methamphetamine self-administration. The present study was conducted to determine if 18-MC's effect on nicotine self-administration is mediated by acting in these same brain regions. Because moderate densities of α3β4 receptors occur in the dorsolateral tegmentum, ventral tegmental area, and basolateral amygdala, these brain areas were also examined as potential sites of action of 18-MC. Local administration of 18-MC into either the medial habenula, the basolateral amygdala or the dorsolateral tegmentum decreased nicotine self-administration. Surprisingly, local administration of 18-MC into the interpeduncular nucleus increased nicotine self-administration while local administration of 18-MC into the ventral tegmental area had no effect on nicotine self-administration. Similar effects were produced by local administration of either mecamylamine or conotoxin AuIB. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that 18-MC decreases nicotine self-administration by indirectly modulating the dopaminergic mesolimbic pathway via blockade of α3β4 nicotinic receptors in the medial habenula, basolateral amygdala, and dorsolateral tegmentum. The data also suggest that an action of 18-MC in the interpeduncular nucleus may attenuate aversive and/or depressive effects of nicotine.

  15. Etiology of Childhood Infectious Diarrhea in a Developed Region of China: Compared to Childhood Diarrhea in a Developing Region and Adult Diarrhea in a Developed Region

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Wang, Jing; Sun, Hao; Xia, Shengli; Duan, Ran; Liang, Junrong; Xiao, Yuchun; Qiu, Haiyan; Shan, Guangliang; Jing, Huaiqi

    2015-01-01

    In China, great differences in economy, social characteristics and hygiene exist between developing and developed regions. A comparative study of infectious diarrhea between two regions was needed. Three groups of diarrheal patients were collected: children ≤5 year-olds from Beijing (developed region) and Henan Province (developing region), and adults over 18 year-olds from Beijing. A questionnaire was used to survey and feces samples were examined for 16 enteropathogens. We enrolled 1422 children and 1047 adults from developed region and 755 children from developing region. Virus positive rates were 32.98% for children and 23.67% for adults in developed region. The most prevalent pathogen for children was rotavirus whereas for adults was norovirus. Bacterial isolation rates were 13.92% for children from developed region, while 29.14% for children from the developing regions. For the greatest difference, Shigella accounted for 50.79% and was the dominant pathogen in the developing region, whereas in the developed region it was only 1.45%. There was no significant relationship between the local levels of development with diarrheogenic Escherichia coli (DEC) categories. But it was seen the notable differences between the population with different age: enteropathogenic E.coli (EPEC) and enteroaggregative E.coli (EAggEC) were the primary classes of DEC in children from both regions, whereas it was enterotoxigenic E.coli (ETEC) in adults. The symptoms of Shigella and Salmonella infection, such as bloody stools, white blood cells (WBC) and red blood cells (RBC) positivity and fever were similar in children, which may lead to the misidentification. Yersinia enterocolitica and shiga toxin-producing E.coli (STEC) infections were firstly reported in Beijing. There was a large difference in etiology of bacterial diarrhea between children in developing and developed regions of China. PMID:26528820

  16. Etiology of Childhood Infectious Diarrhea in a Developed Region of China: Compared to Childhood Diarrhea in a Developing Region and Adult Diarrhea in a Developed Region.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Wang, Jing; Sun, Hao; Xia, Shengli; Duan, Ran; Liang, Junrong; Xiao, Yuchun; Qiu, Haiyan; Shan, Guangliang; Jing, Huaiqi

    2015-01-01

    In China, great differences in economy, social characteristics and hygiene exist between developing and developed regions. A comparative study of infectious diarrhea between two regions was needed. Three groups of diarrheal patients were collected: children ≤5 year-olds from Beijing (developed region) and Henan Province (developing region), and adults over 18 year-olds from Beijing. A questionnaire was used to survey and feces samples were examined for 16 enteropathogens. We enrolled 1422 children and 1047 adults from developed region and 755 children from developing region. Virus positive rates were 32.98% for children and 23.67% for adults in developed region. The most prevalent pathogen for children was rotavirus whereas for adults was norovirus. Bacterial isolation rates were 13.92% for children from developed region, while 29.14% for children from the developing regions. For the greatest difference, Shigella accounted for 50.79% and was the dominant pathogen in the developing region, whereas in the developed region it was only 1.45%. There was no significant relationship between the local levels of development with diarrheogenic Escherichia coli (DEC) categories. But it was seen the notable differences between the population with different age: enteropathogenic E.coli (EPEC) and enteroaggregative E.coli (EAggEC) were the primary classes of DEC in children from both regions, whereas it was enterotoxigenic E.coli (ETEC) in adults. The symptoms of Shigella and Salmonella infection, such as bloody stools, white blood cells (WBC) and red blood cells (RBC) positivity and fever were similar in children, which may lead to the misidentification. Yersinia enterocolitica and shiga toxin-producing E.coli (STEC) infections were firstly reported in Beijing. There was a large difference in etiology of bacterial diarrhea between children in developing and developed regions of China.

  17. 76 FR 12940 - Honey from the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ....; Baiste Trading Co., Ltd.; Cheng Du Wai Yuan Bee Products Co., Ltd.; Chengdu Stone Dynasty Art Stone; Damco China Limited Qingdao Branch; Eurasia Bee's Products Co., Ltd.; Feidong Foreign Trade Co., Ltd... Mongolia Altin Bee-Keeping; Inner Mongolia Youth Trade Development Co., Ltd.; Jiangsu Cereals,...

  18. Professionalization and the Training of University Administrators in China: A Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geng, Yiqun; Yeager, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Compared to the training of higher education management professionals in the US, the training of their counterparts in China is relatively modest, with few programs offered at the graduate level. Further, few concrete solutions have been proposed for tackling the challenge of preparing managerial professionals for the sound development of higher…

  19. Characteristics of the precipitation recycling ratio and its relationship with regional precipitation in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Lijuan; Zhong, Linhao; Ke, Zongjian

    2017-02-01

    A dynamic recycling model (DRM) with an analytical moisture trajectory tracking method, together with Japan Meteorological Agency 25-year reanalysis data, is used to study the regional precipitation recycling process across China, by calculating the regional recycling ratio ( ρ r ) at the daily time scale during 1979-2010. The distribution of ρ r shows that, in western China, especially the Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding areas, precipitation is strongly dependent on the recycling process associated with regional evaporation. In Southeast China, however, the contribution from the recycling processes is much smaller due to the influence of the summer monsoon. A precipitation threshold value of about 4 mm/day is obtained from detailed analysis of both extreme and all-range ρ r years. According to this threshold, China is classified into three types of sub-regions: low-precipitation sub-regions (mainly in the northwest), high-precipitation sub-regions (mainly in the south), and medium-precipitation sub-regions (mainly in the northeast). It is found that ρ r correlates positively with precipitation, as well as convective precipitation ( P CP) and large-scale precipitation ( P LP) in the low-precipitation sub-regions. However, negative ρ r ˜ P LP correlations are found in the high-precipitation sub-regions and nonsignificant correlations exist in the medium-precipitation sub-regions. As P CP is mainly locally generated due to mid-latitude mesoscale systems and the cumulus parameterization used in producing the reanalysis, the recycling ratio positively correlates to the ratio P CP/ P LP in almost all sub-regions, particularly in the Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding areas. The correlation between radiation flux and ρ r suggests more net radiation supports more evaporation and higher ρ r , especially in the high-precipitation sub-regions. The influence of clouds on shortwave radiation is crucial, since evaporation is suppressed when the amount of cloudiness

  20. Factors Affecting Regional Per-Capita Carbon Emissions in China Based on an LMDI Factor Decomposition Model

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Feng; Long, Ruyin; Chen, Hong; Li, Xiaohui; Yang, Qingliang

    2013-01-01

    China is considered to be the main carbon producer in the world. The per-capita carbon emissions indicator is an important measure of the regional carbon emissions situation. This study used the LMDI factor decomposition model–panel co-integration test two-step method to analyze the factors that affect per-capita carbon emissions. The main results are as follows. (1) During 1997, Eastern China, Central China, and Western China ranked first, second, and third in the per-capita carbon emissions, while in 2009 the pecking order changed to Eastern China, Western China, and Central China. (2) According to the LMDI decomposition results, the key driver boosting the per-capita carbon emissions in the three economic regions of China between 1997 and 2009 was economic development, and the energy efficiency was much greater than the energy structure after considering their effect on restraining increased per-capita carbon emissions. (3) Based on the decomposition, the factors that affected per-capita carbon emissions in the panel co-integration test showed that Central China had the best energy structure elasticity in its regional per-capita carbon emissions. Thus, Central China was ranked first for energy efficiency elasticity, while Western China was ranked first for economic development elasticity. PMID:24353753

  1. Factors affecting regional per-capita carbon emissions in China based on an LMDI factor decomposition model.

    PubMed

    Dong, Feng; Long, Ruyin; Chen, Hong; Li, Xiaohui; Yang, Qingliang

    2013-01-01

    China is considered to be the main carbon producer in the world. The per-capita carbon emissions indicator is an important measure of the regional carbon emissions situation. This study used the LMDI factor decomposition model-panel co-integration test two-step method to analyze the factors that affect per-capita carbon emissions. The main results are as follows. (1) During 1997, Eastern China, Central China, and Western China ranked first, second, and third in the per-capita carbon emissions, while in 2009 the pecking order changed to Eastern China, Western China, and Central China. (2) According to the LMDI decomposition results, the key driver boosting the per-capita carbon emissions in the three economic regions of China between 1997 and 2009 was economic development, and the energy efficiency was much greater than the energy structure after considering their effect on restraining increased per-capita carbon emissions. (3) Based on the decomposition, the factors that affected per-capita carbon emissions in the panel co-integration test showed that Central China had the best energy structure elasticity in its regional per-capita carbon emissions. Thus, Central China was ranked first for energy efficiency elasticity, while Western China was ranked first for economic development elasticity.

  2. Ethno-botanical survey of edible wild fruits in Benguet, Cordillera administrative region, the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Chua-Barcelo, Racquel Tan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To conduct a survey on the common name/s, traditional uses and cultural importance of the edible wild fruits in different municipalities of Benguet, Cordillera administrative region. Methods Interviews using questionnaires with barangay leaders and indigenous people were conducted with 176 key informants from June 2011 to July 2013. Results A total of 36 fruit species were found in different municipalities of Benguet. These fruit species belong to 27 genera and 20 families. Among the 13 municipalities of Benguet, Kibungan has the highest number of species. There are many uses of wild fruits which ranged from food (snack/dessert/table food), forage (especially for birds, monkeys and wild animals such as cloud rat and grass eaters), offertory, processed/preserved (as jam, jellies, candies, juice and wine), condiment or ingredient (for cooking), source of dye or ink, decoration (to garnish food) and as medicine to common ailments or health problems. Based on the inventory and calculated cultural importance index, Garcinia binucao (balokok) belonging to Clusiaceae is the most abundant fruit, hence it is the commonly used fruit for various purposes such as food, forage, processing/preservation and condiment/ingredient; Vaccinium myrtoides (ayusip) for offerings and as source of dye/ink; Saurauia elegans (uyok) for decoration, and, Antidesma bunius (bugnay) for medicine. Conclusions Benguet province in the Cordillera region provides a diversity of edible wild fruits. The data gathered from the study signifies that collection, processing and utilization of edible wild fruits are still part of the daily activities of the people in Benguet. PMID:25183144

  3. Regionality of record-breaking low temperature events in China and its associated circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Xueyuan; Zhang, Yaocun; Huang, Danqing; Huang, Ying

    2016-03-01

    Extreme cold events frequently occur around the world in recent several years and arouse widespread concern. In this study, 17 record-breaking event processes (RBEPs) of low temperature during 1981-2012 are identified by using daily minimum temperature at 1897 meteorological stations in China. These RBEPs are classified into two types based on the occurring area at northern or southern China to compositely examine the associated circulations. Although the correspondence between Arctic oscillation (AO) and RBEPs is not linearly stable, there still exist relationship between them, i.e. under AO negative phase the RBEPs tend to occur at northern China, nor the southern part, where the RBEPs prefer to happen under AO positive phase. In the RBEPs occurring at southern China, the continent high pressure over Mongolia area is extremely intensified and the East Asian polar front jet stream is enhanced accompanied with strong synoptic-scale eddy kinetic energy transports. Correspondingly, the cold air masses break out and unobstructed southward intrude to low latitudes, causing severe cooling effect in southern China. In the RBEPs occurring at northern China, however, the extremely intensified high pressure over northern Siberian area, combining with the northward enhanced subtropical jet stream, lead to the cold air mass accumulation and blockage at mid-latitudes and therefore RBEPs of low temperature at this area. Further study implies that interdecadal change of the AO phase and differences of synoptic-scale eddy activity might synthetically attribute to the different regional preference of those RBEPs of low temperature that are mostly located at southern China in 1990s but concentrated in northern China in 2000s.

  4. Source regional contributions to PM2.5 in a megacity in China using an advanced source regional apportionment method.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ying-Ze; Chen, Gang; Wang, Hai-Ting; Huang-Fu, Yan-Qi; Shi, Guo-Liang; Han, Bo; Feng, Yin-Chang

    2016-03-01

    To quantify contributions of individual source categories from diverse regions to PM2.5, PM2.5 samples were collected in a megacity in China and analyzed through a newly developed source regional apportionment (SRA) method. Levels, compositions and seasonal variations of speciated PM2.5 dataset were investigated. Sources were determined by Multilinear Engine 2 (ME2) model, and results showed that the PM2.5 in Tianjin was mainly influenced by secondary sulphate & secondary organic carbon SOC (percent contribution of 26.2%), coal combustion (24.6%), crustal dust & cement dust (20.3%), secondary nitrate (14.9%) and traffic emissions (14.0%). The SRA method showed that northwest region R2 was the highest regional contributor to secondary sources, with percent contributions to PM2.5 being 9.7% for secondary sulphate & SOC and 6.0% for secondary nitrates; the highest coal combustion was from local region R1 (6.2%) and northwest R2 (8.0%); the maximum contributing region to crustal & cement dust was southeast region R4 (5.0%); and contributions of traffic emissions were relatively spatial homogeneous. The seasonal variation of regional source contributions was observed: in spring, the crustal and cement dust contributed a higher percentage and the R4 was an important contributor; the secondary process attributed an increase fraction in summer; the mixed coal combustion from southwest R5 enhanced in autumn.

  5. Regional risk assessment approaches to land planning for industrial polluted areas in China: the Hulunbeier region case study.

    PubMed

    Li, Daiqing; Zhang, Chen; Pizzol, Lisa; Critto, Andrea; Zhang, Haibo; Lv, Shihai; Marcomini, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    The rapid industrial development and urbanization processes that occurred in China over the past 30years has increased dramatically the consumption of natural resources and raw materials, thus exacerbating the human pressure on environmental ecosystems. In result, large scale environmental pollution of soil, natural waters and urban air were recorded. The development of effective industrial planning to support regional sustainable economy development has become an issue of serious concern for local authorities which need to select safe sites for new industrial settlements (i.e. industrial plants) according to assessment approaches considering cumulative impacts, synergistic pollution effects and risks of accidental releases. In order to support decision makers in the development of efficient and effective regional land-use plans encompassing the identification of suitable areas for new industrial settlements and areas in need of intervention measures, this study provides a spatial regional risk assessment methodology which integrates relative risk assessment (RRA) and socio-economic assessment (SEA) and makes use of spatial analysis (GIS) methodologies and multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) techniques. The proposed methodology was applied to the Chinese region of Hulunbeier which is located in eastern Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, adjacent to the Republic of Mongolia. The application results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed methodology in the identification of the most hazardous and risky industrial settlements, the most vulnerable regional receptors and the regional districts which resulted to be the most relevant for intervention measures since they are characterized by high regional risk and excellent socio-economic development conditions.

  6. Support of NASA quality requirements by defense contract administration services regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrar, Hiram D.

    1966-01-01

    Defense Contract Administration Services Regions (DCASR) quality assurance personnel performing under NASA Letters of Delegation must work closely with the assigned technical representative of the NASA centers. It is realized that technical personnel from the NASA Centers cannot make on-site visits as frequently as they would like to. However, DCASR quality assurance personnel would know the assigned NASA technical representative and should contact him when problems arise. The technical representative is the expert on the hardware and should be consulted on any problem area. It is important that the DCASR quality assurance personnel recommend to the delegating NASA Center any new or improved methods of which they may be aware which would assist in achieving the desired quality and reliability in NASA hardware. NASA expects assignment of competent personnel in the Quality Assurance functional area and is not only buying the individual's technical skill, but also his experience. Suggestions by field personnel can many times up-grade the quality or the hardware.

  7. Regional responsiveness of the tibia to intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone as affected by skeletal unloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halloran, B. P.; Bikle, D. D.; Harris, J.; Tanner, S.; Curren, T.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1997-01-01

    To determine whether the acute inhibition of bone formation and deficit in bone mineral induced by skeletal unloading can be prevented, we studied the effects of intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) administration (8 micrograms/100 g/day) on growing rats submitted to 8 days of skeletal unloading. Loss of weight bearing decreased periosteal bone formation by 34 and 51% at the tibiofibular junction and tibial midshaft, respectively, and reduced the normal gain in tibial mass by 35%. Treatment with PTH of normally loaded and unloaded animals increased mRNA for osteocalcin (+58 and +148%, respectively), cancellous bone volume in the proximal tibia (+41 and +42%, respectively), and bone formation at the tibiofibular junction (+27 and +27%, respectively). Formation was also stimulated at the midshaft in unloaded (+47%, p < 0.05), but not loaded animals (-3%, NS). Although cancellous bone volume was preserved in PTH-treated, unloaded animals, PTH did not restore periosteal bone formation to normal nor prevent the deficit in overall tibial mass induced by unloading. We conclude that the effects of PTH on bone formation are region specific and load dependent. PTH can prevent the decrease in cancellous bone volume and reduce the decrement in cortical bone formation induced by loss of weight bearing.

  8. Constellation design and performance analysis for regional satellite navigation system in China area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yuling; Zhang, Xuejun; Huang, Zhigang

    2005-11-01

    Based on the idea of covering China area, a novel constellation is proposed, consisting of one geostationary satellite and five inclined elliptic orbit geosynchronous satellites in this paper. Through a number of simulation tests, the orbital elements of each satellite are designed concretely. Moreover, its coverage performance is also evaluated under some factors, such as the geometric dilution of precision (GDOP), orbital perturbation, space transmission loss and eclipse. What's more, this constellation is compared with other constellations. Finally, Simulation results show, in this constellation, the number of satellites is small, and the navigation precision is relatively high. Therefore, this is a kind of high performance and economic regional navigation system for China.

  9. Regional frequency analysis of observed sub-daily rainfall maxima over eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hemin; Wang, Guojie; Li, Xiucang; Chen, Jing; Su, Buda; Jiang, Tong

    2017-02-01

    Based on hourly rainfall observational data from 442 stations during 1960-2014, a regional frequency analysis of the annual maxima (AM) sub-daily rainfall series (1-, 2-, 3-, 6-, 12-, and 24-h rainfall, using a moving window approach) for eastern China was conducted. Eastern China was divided into 13 homogeneous regions: Northeast (NE1, NE2), Central (C), Central North (CN1, CN2), Central East (CE1, CE2, CE3), Southeast (SE1, SE2, SE3, SE4), and Southwest (SW). The generalized extreme value performed best for the AM series in regions NE, C, CN2, CE1, CE2, SE2, and SW, and the generalized logistic distribution was appropriate in the other regions. Maximum return levels were in the SE4 region, with value ranges of 80-270 mm (1-h to 24-h rainfall) and 108-390 mm (1-h to 24-h rainfall) for 20- and 100 yr, respectively. Minimum return levels were in the CN1 and NE1 regions, with values of 37-104 mm and 53-140 mm for 20 and 100 yr, respectively. Comparing return levels using the optimal and commonly used Pearson-III distribution, the mean return-level differences in eastern China for 1-24-h rainfall varied from -3-4 mm to -23-11 mm (-10%-10%) for 20-yr events, reaching -6-26 mm (-10%-30%) and -10-133 mm (-10%-90%) for 100-yr events. In view of the large differences in estimated return levels, more attention should be given to frequency analysis of sub-daily rainfall over China, for improved water management and disaster reduction.

  10. An exotic terrane in the Sulu UHP region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, W.; Zhang, R.; Tsujimori, T.; Liou, J. G.

    2004-12-01

    The Haiyangsuo region of about 15 km2 along the coast in the NE part of the Triassic Sulu UHP terrane occurs three major rock types: amphibolitized metagabbro, gneiss and granitic dikes. Three different gneisses were observed in the field: A) Light color felsic gneiss is the dominant country rock and contains Qtz, Pl, Ms and Bi. B) Dark color plagioclase-amphibole gneiss occurs as thin layers within country rock; C) Granulite facies rock occurs as discontinuous lens. The amphibolitized metagabbros intrude into the gneisses as massive bodies (several m to hundreds of m in size) and thin dikes. Both metamorphic intrusives and gneisses are cross-cut by granitic dikes. The amphibolitized metagabbro was divided into three types: coronal metagabbro, transitional rock and garnet amphibolite: 1) Coronal metagabbro preserves gabbroic texture and primary assemblage of Opx+Cpx+Pl+Amp+Ilm. Most pyroxene grains are partially rimmed by thin corona of Amp+Ab+Qtz. Garnet occurs as fine-grained coronas at interface between plagioclase, pyroxene or ilmenite. 2) Transitional rocks contain similar assemblage and texture but most orthopyroxenes were partially or totally replaced by Amp+Qtz; garnet increases in content and size. Some gabbroic textures are preserved, but calcic plagioclase was replaced by zoisite, albite and muscovite. 3) Garnet amphibolite occurs at the margins of intrusive bodies and boudins where only minor relict clinopyroxenes preserve. Garnet coronal chains are not clear any more. Granitic dikes show pronounced deformation with mylonitic texture and contain 40-50% quartz porphyroclasts. Zircon separates from 2 metagabbros, 4 gneisses and 1 granitic rock were dated by using Stanford SHRIMP-RG. Metagabbroic zircons are angular and fractured shapes. The upper-intercept ages of gneisses rang from 1730 to about 2400 Ma, indicating variable protoith age. The 2 garnet amphibolites have upper-intercept ages 1734±5Ma and 1735±21Ma respectively. They are much older than

  11. Land Use and Regional Climate in Eastern China over the Past 300 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.

    2015-12-01

    Historical documents of Qing Dynasty to present from 15-17provinces in the eastern China are used to reconstruction of historical crop cover in eastern China and the crop ratio at years of 1724,1784,1820,1873,1887,1893,1913,1933,1986,and 1995 by comparing with present crop land types and crop ratio. Then they are Interpolated from the political unit ( counties) to the grid in 0.5°×0.5° horizontal resolution in the area of 19°N to 45°N and 103°E to126°E. Based on and compared with modern vegetation distribution, the Chinese Natural Resources Database, historical documents, and local chronicles , the historical vegetation in eastern China are reconstructed. Furthermore, RegCM3 is sued to do sensitive simulation of climatic effect of land cover change in the eastern China by using reconstructed vegetation in this study and those from GLCC (USGS) data for area out off the study area. According to simulation results and temperature anomalies data from Wang et al. (19 98), and Ge et al. (2003), the possible effects of land use change on regional climate are discussed. From this study we found that (1)The crop land cover and ratio changed significantly since 1724, and the fast increasing periods are 1724-1820 and 1933-1980. the average highest ratios are at 1887 and around 1980 in the eastern China.(2) With the crop land extending the vegetation type were changed in the most part of eastern China: some primary forest (coniferous and rainforest) are replaced by plantation (broadleaf forest) in the last 50 years in eastern China.(3) Urbanization caused decrease of crop land in the past 20 years in the developed area, such as lower reaches of Yangtze River. Current urban area is about 10% compared with 0.05% in Qing Dynasty in eastern China.(4)The simulation results show that in the centennial time scale, the trend of precipitation change during the past 300 years is 'more-less-more' in the part of North China. The difference of precipitation between 1995 and 1724

  12. The air quality and health impacts of domestic trans-boundary pollution in various regions of China.

    PubMed

    Gu, Y; Yim, S H L

    2016-12-01

    Air pollution is one of the most pressing environmental problems in China. Literature has reported that outdoor air pollution leads to adverse health problems every year in China. Recent measurement studies found the important regional nature of particulates in China. Trans-boundary air pollution within China has yet to be fully understood. This study aimed to comprehensively understand the processes of domestic trans-boundary air pollution in China and to apportion the impacts of emissions in different regions on air quality and public health. We applied a state-of-the-art air quality model to simulate air quality in China and then adapted a form of integrated concentration-response function for China to estimate the resultant amount of premature mortality due to exposures to PM2.5. Our findings show that domestic trans-boundary impacts (TBI), on average, account for 27% of the total PM2.5 in China. We estimated that outdoor air pollution caused ~870,000 (95% CI: 130,000-1500,000) premature mortalities in China in 2010, of which on average 18% are attributed to TBI. Among all the regions, North China is the largest contributor to TBI due to 41% of the health impacts of its emissions occurring in other regions. Taiwan (TW) is the smallest contributor to TBI occurring in China, contributing 2% of the national TBI, while TBI causes 22% of the premature mortalities due to outdoor air pollution in TW. Our findings pinpoint the significant impacts of TBI on public health in China, indicating the need for cross-region cooperation to mitigate the air quality impacts and the nation's resultant health problems.

  13. Quantifying baseline emission factors of air pollutants in China's regional power grids.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wenjia; Wang, Can; Jin, Zhugang; Chen, Jining

    2013-04-16

    Drawing lessons from the clean development mechanism (CDM), this paper developed a combined margin methodology to quantify baseline emission factors of air pollutants in China's regional power grids. The simple average of baseline emission factors of SO2, NOX, and PM2.5 in China's six power grids in 2010 were respectively 1.91 kg/MWh, 1.83 kg/MWh and 0.32 kg/MWh. Several low-efficient mitigation technologies, such as low nitrogen oxide burner (LNB), were suggested to be replaced or used together with other technologies in order to virtually decrease the grid's emission factor. The synergies between GHG and air pollution mitigation in China's power sector was also notable. It is estimated that in 2010, that every 1% CO2 reduction in China's power generation sector resulted in the respective coreduction of 1.1%, 0.5%, and 0.8% of SO2, NOX, and PM2.5. Wind is the best technology to achieve the largest amount of coabatement in most parts of China. This methodology is recommended to be used in making comprehensive air pollution control strategies and in cobenefits analysis in future CDM approval processes.

  14. Heavy metal contamination status and source apportionment in sediments of Songhua River Harbin region, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Tian, Yu; Zhang, Jun; Zuo, Wei; Zhan, Wei; Zhang, Jian

    2016-07-09

    The Songhua River represents one of the seven major river systems in China. It flows through Harbin city with 66 km long, locating in the northern China with a longer winter time. This paper aimed to study concentration distributions, stability, risk assessment, and source apportionment of heavy metals including chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and nickel (Ni) in 11 selected sections of the Songhua River Harbin region. Results showed that Cr, Cd, Pb, Hg, and As exceeded their respective geochemical background values in sediments of most monitoring sections. Compared with other important rivers and lakes in China, Cr, Hg, Cd, and As pollutions in surface sediments were above medium level. Further analysis of chemical speciation indicated that Cr and As in surface sediments were relatively stable while Pb and Cd were easily bioavailable. Correlation analysis revealed sources of these metals except As might be identical. Pollution levels and ecological risks of heavy metals in surface sediments presented higher in the mainstream region (45° 47.0' N ~ 45° 53.3' N, 126° 37.0' E ~ 126° 42.1' E). Source apportionment found Hejiagou and Ashi River were the main contributors to metal pollution of this region. Thus, anthropogenic activities along the Hejiagou and Ashi River should be restricted in order to protect the Songhua River Harbin region from metal contamination.

  15. Regionally-varying combustion sources of the January 2013 severe haze events over eastern China.

    PubMed

    Andersson, August; Deng, Junjun; Du, Ke; Zheng, Mei; Yan, Caiqing; Sköld, Martin; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2015-02-17

    Thick haze plagued northeastern China in January 2013, strongly affecting both regional climate and human respiratory health. Here, we present dual carbon isotope constrained (Δ(14)C and δ(13)C) source apportionment for combustion-derived black carbon aerosol (BC) for three key hotspot regions (megacities): North China Plain (NCP, Beijing), the Yangtze River Delta (YRD, Shanghai), and the Pearl River Delta (PRD, Guangzhou) for January 2013. BC, here quantified as elemental carbon (EC), is one of the most health-detrimental components of PM2.5 and a strong climate warming agent. The results show that these severe haze events were equally affected (∼ 30%) by biomass combustion in all three regions, whereas the sources of the dominant fossil fuel component was dramatically different between north and south. In the NCP region, coal combustion accounted for 66% (46-74%, 95% C.I.) of the EC, whereas, in the YRD and PRD regions, liquid fossil fuel combustion (e.g., traffic) stood for 46% (18-66%) and 58% (38-68%), respectively. Taken together, these findings suggest the need for a regionally-specific description of BC sources in climate models and regionally-tailored mitigation to combat severe air pollution events in East Asia.

  16. Environmental characteristics of regional groundwater in relation to fluoride poisoning in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong; Zhu, Wan Hua

    1991-07-01

    More and more data indicated that high- or low-fluoride-bearing drinking water led to endemic diseases in which fluoride poisoning was caused by high levels of fluoride (fluoride ion content >1.0 mg/I) in drinking water. Fluoride poisoning in North China is characterized by pathological changes of bones and teeth. Much attention has been devoted to the study of fluoride-bearing groundwater in North China because regionally groundwater has been the main source of water supply, and fluoride poisoning has developed to the extent that it affects human health seriously. Results from the studies in North China summarized in this article indicate that regional high-fluoride-bearing groundwater has a regular distribution corresponding with the development of endemic fluoride poisoning and has something to do with paleogeographic and paleoclimatic conditions, geology, and hydrogeology, especially with types of hydrogeochemistry, pH value of groundwater, degree of mineralization, and so forth. High-fluoride-bearing groundwater in relation to fluorosis occurs mainly in North China, and many effective measures have been taken to reduce the fluoride content in drinking water and to cure the disease after analyzing the distribution and environmental characteristics of high-fluoride-bearing groundwater.

  17. Recent progress on land cover change and its regional climatic effects over China during historical times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, J.; He, F.; Lin, S.

    2009-04-01

    Land cover change has been demonstrated as an important forcing driver of climate change, and many studies have been conducted that simulate the climatic effects of human-induced land cover change at global and regional scales. Land cover in China has undergone large-scale modifications, mainly through deforestation and desertification, over the last several thousand years, and the extents to which these changes have influenced climate change have increasingly attracted scientists' attention. The simulations of regional climatic effects caused by land cover changes which based on different datasets--historical reconstruction and potential land cover data--show that the human-induced land cover changes over China since 1700AD have led to the enhancement on the East Asian Winter Monsoon and cooling in winter overall, with warming over most of China but cooling at somewhere (e.g. northern China or the Middle-Lower Yangtze Valley) in summer. However, the different simulations by different models show different effects on annual mean temperature, annual precipitation and East Asian Summer Monsoon. These differences among these simulations are shown to have resulted from the disparities in the classifications of land cover types among different land cover dataset used, in the extent of land cover.

  18. 77 FR 48966 - Saccharin From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ...: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review and Intent To Rescind in Part, 77 FR 21966... metalworking fluids. There are four primary chemical compositions of saccharin: (1) Sodium saccharin (American Chemical Society Chemical Abstract Service (``CAS'') Registry 128-44-9); (2) calcium saccharin...

  19. Quantifying the Intra-Regional Precipitation Variability in Northwestern China over the Past 1,400 Years

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Harry F.; Pei, Qing; Zhang, David D.; Choi, Kan P. K.

    2015-01-01

    There has been a surge of paleo-climatic/environmental studies of Northwestern China (NW China), a region characterized by a diverse assortment of hydro-climatic systems. Their common approach, however, focuses on “deducing regional resemblance” rather than “exploring regional variance.” To date, efforts to produce a quantitative assessment of long-term intra-regional precipitation variability (IRPV) in NW China has been inadequate. In the present study, we base on historical flood/drought records to compile a decadal IRPV index for NW China spanned AD580–1979 and to find its major determinants via wavelet analysis. Results show that our IRPV index captures the footprints of internal hydro-climatic disparity in NW China. In addition, we find distinct ~120–200 year periodicities in the IRPV index over the Little Ice Age, which are attributable to the change of hydro-climatic influence of ocean-atmospheric modes during the period. Also, we offer statistical evidence of El Niño Southern Oscillation (Indo-Pacific warm pool sea surface temperature and China-wide land surface temperature) as the prominent multi-decadal to centennial (centennial to multi-centennial) determinant of the IRPV in NW China. The present study contributes to the quantitative validation of the long-term IRPV in NW China and its driving forces, covering the periods with and without instrumental records. It may help to comprehend the complex hydro-climatic regimes in the region. PMID:26154711

  20. Quantifying the Intra-Regional Precipitation Variability in Northwestern China over the Past 1,400 Years.

    PubMed

    Lee, Harry F; Pei, Qing; Zhang, David D; Choi, Kan P K

    2015-01-01

    There has been a surge of paleo-climatic/environmental studies of Northwestern China (NW China), a region characterized by a diverse assortment of hydro-climatic systems. Their common approach, however, focuses on "deducing regional resemblance" rather than "exploring regional variance." To date, efforts to produce a quantitative assessment of long-term intra-regional precipitation variability (IRPV) in NW China has been inadequate. In the present study, we base on historical flood/drought records to compile a decadal IRPV index for NW China spanned AD580-1979 and to find its major determinants via wavelet analysis. Results show that our IRPV index captures the footprints of internal hydro-climatic disparity in NW China. In addition, we find distinct ~120-200 year periodicities in the IRPV index over the Little Ice Age, which are attributable to the change of hydro-climatic influence of ocean-atmospheric modes during the period. Also, we offer statistical evidence of El Niño Southern Oscillation (Indo-Pacific warm pool sea surface temperature and China-wide land surface temperature) as the prominent multi-decadal to centennial (centennial to multi-centennial) determinant of the IRPV in NW China. The present study contributes to the quantitative validation of the long-term IRPV in NW China and its driving forces, covering the periods with and without instrumental records. It may help to comprehend the complex hydro-climatic regimes in the region.

  1. Simulation of 1986 South China Sea Monsoon with a Regional Climate Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W. -K.; Lau, W. K.-M.; Jia, Y.; Juang, H.; Wetzel, P.; Qian, J.; Chen, C.

    1999-01-01

    A Regional Land-Atmosphere Climate Simulation System (RELACS) project is being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. One of the major goals of RELACS is to use a regional scale model with improved physical processes and in particular land-related processes, to understand the role of the land surface and its interaction with convection and radiation as well as the water/energy cycles in the IndoChina/South China Sea (SCS) region. The Penn State/NCAR MM5 atmospheric modeling system, a state of the art atmospheric numerical model designed to simulate regional weather and climate, has been successfully coupled to the Parameterization for Land-Atmosphere-Cloud Exchange (PLACE) land surface model. The original MM5 model (without PLACE) includes the option for either a simple slab soil model or a five-layer soil model (MRF) in which the soil moisture availability evolves over time. However, the MM5 soil models do not include the effects of vegetation, and thus important physical processes such as evapotranspiration and interception are precluded. The PLACE model incorporates vegetation type and has been shown in international comparisons to accurately predict evapotranspiration and runoff over a wide variety of land surfaces. The coupling of MM5 and PLACE creates a numerical modeling system with the potential to more realistically simulate atmosphere and land surface processes including land-sea interaction, regional circulations such as monsoons, and flash flood events. In addition, the Penn State/NCAR MM5 atmospheric modeling system has been: (1) coupled to the Goddard Ice Microphysical scheme; (2) coupled to a turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) scheme; (3) modified to ensure cloud budget balance; and (4) incorporated initialization with the Goddard EOS data sets at NASA/Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres. The improved MM5 with two nested domains (60 and 20 km horizontal resolution) was used to simulate convective activity over IndoChina and the South China Sea

  2. 41 CFR 105-54.309 - Added responsibilities of service and staff office heads and regional administrators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Added responsibilities of service and staff office heads and regional administrators. 105-54.309 Section 105-54.309 Public... 54.3-Advisory Committee Procedures § 105-54.309 Added responsibilities of service and staff...

  3. 41 CFR 105-54.309 - Added responsibilities of service and staff office heads and regional administrators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Added responsibilities of service and staff office heads and regional administrators. 105-54.309 Section 105-54.309 Public... 54.3-Advisory Committee Procedures § 105-54.309 Added responsibilities of service and staff...

  4. 41 CFR 105-54.309 - Added responsibilities of service and staff office heads and regional administrators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Added responsibilities of service and staff office heads and regional administrators. 105-54.309 Section 105-54.309 Public... 54.3-Advisory Committee Procedures § 105-54.309 Added responsibilities of service and staff...

  5. 41 CFR 105-54.309 - Added responsibilities of service and staff office heads and regional administrators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Added responsibilities of service and staff office heads and regional administrators. 105-54.309 Section 105-54.309 Public... 54.3-Advisory Committee Procedures § 105-54.309 Added responsibilities of service and staff...

  6. 41 CFR 105-54.309 - Added responsibilities of service and staff office heads and regional administrators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Added responsibilities of service and staff office heads and regional administrators. 105-54.309 Section 105-54.309 Public... 54.3-Advisory Committee Procedures § 105-54.309 Added responsibilities of service and staff...

  7. MEDIA ADVISORY: EPA Region 10 Administrator McLerran speaks at Alaska Forum on the Environment today in Anchorage

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (Anchorage - February 8, 2016) Today, U.S. EPA Region 10 Administrator Dennis McLerran will give a keynote address opening the 2016 Alaska Forum on the Environment, in Anchorage, focusing on EPA's work in rural Alaska and ongoing federal commitments highli

  8. Ecological Model to Predict Potential Habitats of Oncomelania hupensis, the Intermediate Host of Schistosoma japonicum in the Mountainous Regions, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hong-Ru; Liu, Lu; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Yang, Guo-Jing

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis japonica is a parasitic disease that remains endemic in seven provinces in the People’s Republic of China (P.R. China). One of the most important measures in the process of schistosomiasis elimination in P.R. China is control of Oncomelania hupensis, the unique intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum. Compared with plains/swamp and lake regions, the hilly/mountainous regions of schistosomiasis endemic areas are more complicated, which makes the snail survey difficult to conduct precisely and efficiently. There is a pressing call to identify the snail habitats of mountainous regions in an efficient and cost-effective manner. Methods Twelve out of 56 administrative villages distributed with O. hupensis in Eryuan, Yunnan Province, were randomly selected to set up the ecological model. Thirty out of the rest of 78 villages (villages selected for building model were excluded from the villages for validation) in Eryuan and 30 out of 89 villages in Midu, Yunnan Province were selected via a chessboard method for model validation, respectively. Nine-year-average Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Land Surface Temperature (LST) as well as Digital Elevation Model (DEM) covering Eryuan and Midu were extracted from MODIS and ASTER satellite images, respectively. Slope, elevation and the distance from every village to its nearest stream were derived from DEM. Suitable survival environment conditions for snails were defined by comparing historical snail presence data and remote sensing derived images. According to the suitable conditions for snails, environment factors, i.e. NDVI, LST, elevation, slope and the distance from every village to its nearest stream, were integrated into an ecological niche model to predict O. hupensis potential habitats in Eryuan and Midu. The evaluation of the model was assessed by comparing the model prediction and field investigation. Then, the consistency rate of model validation was calculated

  9. Managing the three-rivers headwater region, china: from ecological engineering to social engineering.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yiping

    2013-09-01

    The three-rivers headwater region (THRHR) of Qinghai province, China plays a key role as source of fresh water and ecosystem services for central and eastern China. Global warming and human activities in the THRHR have threatened the ecosystem since the 1980s. Therefore, the Chinese government has included managing of the THRHR in the national strategy since 2003. The State Integrated Test and Demonstration Region of the THRHR highlights the connection with social engineering (focus on improving people's livelihood and well-being) in managing nature reserves. Based on this program, this perspective attempts a holistic analysis of the strategic role of the THRHR, requirements for change, indices of change, and approaches to change. Long-term success of managing nature reserves requires effective combination of ecological conservation, economic development, and social progress. Thus, the philosophy of social engineering should be employed as a strategy to manage the THRHR.

  10. Regional evaporation estimates in the eastern monsoon region of China: Assessment of a nonlinear formulation of the complementary principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaomang; Liu, Changming; Brutsaert, Wilfried

    2016-12-01

    The performance of a nonlinear formulation of the complementary principle for evaporation estimation was investigated in 241 catchments with different climate conditions in the eastern monsoon region of China. Evaporation (Ea) calculated by the water balance equation was used as the reference. Ea estimated by the calibrated nonlinear formulation was generally in good agreement with the water balance results, especially in relatively dry catchments. The single parameter in the nonlinear formulation, namely αe as a weak analog of the alpha parameter of Priestley and Taylor (), tended to exhibit larger values in warmer and humid near-coastal areas, but smaller values in colder, drier environments inland, with a significant dependency on the aridity index (AI). The nonlinear formulation combined with the equation relating the one parameter and AI provides a promising method to estimate regional Ea with standard and routinely measured meteorological data.

  11. A Study of Mobile Trough Genesis Over The Yellow Sea-East China Sea Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-21

    Mongolian Plateau. The maximum that extends over the Yellow Sea and East China Sea is the only region of enhanced mobile trough formation which is...Gammon used PTD to further investigate mobile troughs and extratropical cyclones. An investigation of mobile trough formation over the Mongolian Plateau...over the Mongolian plateau. The results from the previous studies provide a measure of confidence for this research. Two case studies were chosen using

  12. Mass measles immunization campaign: experience in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China.

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Shuk Kwan; Lau, Yu Lung; Lim, Wei Ling; Chow, Chun Bong; Tsang, Thomas; Tse, Lai Yin

    2002-01-01

    After the 1988 measles outbreak, annual notification rates for measles in Hong Kong SAR between 1989 and 1999 were 0.4-4.9 per 100 000, with peaks in 1992, 1994 and 1997. The first half-year incidence rates per 100 000 were 2.3 in 1997, 0.5 in 1995 and 1.2 in 1996. Monthly notification rates increased from a baseline of <10 cases to 59 in May 1997. Serological surveillance showed only 85.5% of children aged 1-19 years had measles antibodies. An epidemic, mainly because of failure of the first dose to produce immunity, seemed imminent in mid-1997. A mass immunization campaign targeted children aged 1-19 from July to November 1997. The overall coverage was 77%. The rate of adverse events was low. After the campaign, measles notification fell to 0.9 per 100 000 in 1998. A two-dose strategy and supplementary campaigns will maintain measles susceptibility at levels low enough to make measles elimination our goal. PMID:12163924

  13. 20 CFR 658.423 - Handling of other complaints by the Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... LABOR ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS GOVERNING THE JOB SERVICE SYSTEM Job Service Complaint System Federal Js... office receives a JS-related complaint and the appropriate official determines that the nature and...

  14. 20 CFR 658.423 - Handling of other complaints by the Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... LABOR ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS GOVERNING THE JOB SERVICE SYSTEM Job Service Complaint System Federal Js... office receives a JS-related complaint and the appropriate official determines that the nature and...

  15. Four new species of Tanycarpa (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae) from the Palaearctic Region and new records of species from China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four new species, Tanycarpa gymnonotum Yao sp. n., Tanycarpa similis Yao sp. n., Tanycarpa areolata Yao sp. n., and Tanycarpa lineata Yao sp. n., are described from the Palaearctic Region of China, and Tanycarpa chors Belokobylskij is newly recorded from China. Significant range extensions are given...

  16. Synthetic seismograms at regional distances for May 1995 earthquake and explosion sources in Western China

    SciTech Connect

    App, F.N.; Bos, R.J.; Kamm, J.R.

    1996-08-01

    Waveforms recorded at several regional seismic stations at varying azimuths form explosion and earthquake sources in western China exhibit marked variation from station to station. We have performed two-dimensional finite difference simulations of these events, using moment tensor sources and simple crustal structure models, to generate synthetic seismograms at these locations. The synthetic seismograms at three locations exhibit behavior that is qualitatively consistent with the data, while computational results at a fourth station differ from the data. We discuss these results, the assumptions of the simulations, and the limitations of this type of modeling in the context of regional seismic propagation.

  17. Comparison of the regional CO2 mole fraction filtering approaches at a WMO/GAW regional station in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, S. X.; Tans, P. P.; Steinbacher, M.; Zhou, L. X.; Luan, T.

    2015-12-01

    The identification of atmospheric CO2 observation data which are minimally influenced by very local emissions/removals is essential for trend analysis, for the estimation of regional sources and sinks, and for the modeling of long-range transport of CO2. In this study, four approaches are used to filter the atmospheric CO2 observation records from 2009 to 2011 at one World Meteorological Organization/Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO/GAW) regional station (Lin'an, LAN) in China. The methods are based on the concentration of atmospheric black carbon (BC), on a statistical approach (robust extraction of baseline signal, REBS), on CH4 as an auxiliary tracer (AUX), and on meteorological parameters (MET). All approaches do suitably well to capture the seasonal CO2 cycle at LAN. Differences are observed in the average regional mole fractions with annual values in the REBS method at least 1.7 ± 0.2 ppm higher than the other methods. The BC method may underestimate the regional CO2 mole fractions during the winter-spring period and should be treated with caution. The REBS method is a purely statistical method and it may also introduce errors on the regional CO2 mole fraction evaluations, as the filtered trend may be influenced by the "noisy" raw data series. Although there are correlations between CH4 and CO2 mole fractions at LAN, the different source/sink regimes may introduce bias on the regional CO2 estimation in the AUX method, typically in summer. Overall, the MET method seems to be the most favorable because it mainly focuses on the influence of potential local sources and sinks, and considers diurnal variations and meteorological conditions. Using the MET method, the annual growth rate of regional CO2 at LAN is determined to be 3.1 ± 0.01 ppm yr-1 (standard error) from 2009 to 2011.

  18. Study of the regional CO2 mole fractions filtering approach at a WMO/GAW regional station in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, S. X.; Tans, P. P.; Steinbacher, M.; Zhou, L. X.; Luan, T.

    2015-07-01

    The identification of atmospheric CO2 observation data which is minimally influenced by very local emissions/removals is essential for the estimation of trend analysis, regional sources and sinks, and for modeling of long-range transport of CO2. In this study, four approaches are used to filter the atmospheric CO2 observation records from 2009 to 2011 at one World Meteorological Organization/Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO/GAW) regional station (Lin'an, LAN) in China. The methods are based on the atmospheric black carbon concentration (BC), on a statistical approach (REBS), on CH4 as auxiliary tracer (AUX) and on meteorological parameters (MET). All approaches do suitably well to capture the seasonal CO2 cycle at LAN. Differences are observed in the average regional mole fractions with annual values in the REBS method at least 1.7 ± 0.2 ppm higher than the other methods. The BC method may underestimate the regional CO2 mole fractions during winter-spring period and should be treated with caution. The REBS method is a purely statistical method and it may also introduce errors on the regional CO2 mole fractions evaluations, as the filtered trend may be deviated by the "noisy" raw data series. Although there are correlations between CH4 and CO2 mole fractions at LAN, the different source/sink regimes may introduce bias on the regional CO2 estimation in the AUX method, typically in summer. Overall, the MET method seems to be the most favorable because it mainly focuses on the influence of potential local sources and sinks and considers diurnal variations, local topography, and meteorological conditions. Using the MET method, the annual growth rate of regional CO2 at LAN is determined to be 3.1 ± 0.01 ppm yr-1 (standard error) from 2009 to 2013.

  19. Effects of double cropping on summer climate of the North China Plain and neighbouring regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) is one of the most important agricultural regions in Asia and produces up to 50% of the cereal consumed in China each year. To meet increasing food demands without expanding croplands, annual agricultural practice in much of the NCP has changed from single to double cropping. The impact of double cropping on the regional climate, through biophysical feedbacks caused by changes in land surface conditions, remains largely unknown. Here we show that observed surface air temperatures during the inter-cropping season (June and July) are 0.40 °C higher over double cropping regions (DCRs) than over single cropping regions (SCRs), with increases in the daily maximum temperature as large as 1.02 °C. Using regional climate modelling, we attribute the higher temperatures in DCRs to reduced evapotranspiration during the inter-cropping period. The higher surface temperatures in June and July affect low-level circulation and, in turn, rainfall associated with the East Asian monsoon over the NCP and neighbouring countries. These findings suggest that double cropping in the NCP can amplify the magnitude of summertime climate changes over East Asia.

  20. Regional Risk Evaluation of Flood Disasters for the Trunk-Highway in Shaanxi, China.

    PubMed

    Qi, Hong-Liang; Tian, Wei-Ping; Li, Jia-Chun

    2015-10-29

    Due to the complicated environment there are various types of highway disasters in Shaanxi Province (China). The damages caused are severe, losses are heavy, and have rapidly increased over the years, especially those caused by flood disasters along the rivers in mountainous areas. Therefore, research on risk evaluations, which play important roles in the prevention and mitigation of highway disasters are very important. An evaluation model was established based on the superposition theory of regional influencing factors to highway flood disasters. Based on the formation mechanism and influencing factors of highway flood disasters, the main influencing factors were selected. These factors include rainstorms, terrain slopes, soil types, vegetation coverage and regional river density, which are based on evaluation indexes from climate conditions and underlying surface of the basin. A regional risk evaluation of highway flood disasters in Shaanxi was established using GIS. The risk index was divided into five levels using statistical methods, in accordance with the regional characteristics of highway flood disasters. Considering the difference in upfront investments, road grade, etc, between expressways and trunk-highways in China, a regional risk evaluation of trunk-highway flood disasters was completed. The evaluation results indicate that the risk evaluation is consistent with the actual situation.

  1. Regional Risk Evaluation of Flood Disasters for the Trunk-Highway in Shaanxi, China

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Hong-Liang; Tian, Wei-Ping; Li, Jia-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Due to the complicated environment there are various types of highway disasters in Shaanxi Province (China). The damages caused are severe, losses are heavy, and have rapidly increased over the years, especially those caused by flood disasters along the rivers in mountainous areas. Therefore, research on risk evaluations, which play important roles in the prevention and mitigation of highway disasters are very important. An evaluation model was established based on the superposition theory of regional influencing factors to highway flood disasters. Based on the formation mechanism and influencing factors of highway flood disasters, the main influencing factors were selected. These factors include rainstorms, terrain slopes, soil types, vegetation coverage and regional river density, which are based on evaluation indexes from climate conditions and underlying surface of the basin. A regional risk evaluation of highway flood disasters in Shaanxi was established using GIS. The risk index was divided into five levels using statistical methods, in accordance with the regional characteristics of highway flood disasters. Considering the difference in upfront investments, road grade, etc, between expressways and trunk-highways in China, a regional risk evaluation of trunk-highway flood disasters was completed. The evaluation results indicate that the risk evaluation is consistent with the actual situation. PMID:26528994

  2. Process analysis of regional aerosol pollution during spring in the Pearl River Delta region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Qi; Lan, Jing; Liu, Yiming; Wang, Xuemei; Chan, Pakwai; Hong, Yingying; Feng, Yerong; Liu, Yexin; Zeng, Yanjun; Liang, Guixiong

    2015-12-01

    A numerical simulation analysis was performed for three air pollution episodes in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region during March 2012 using the third-generation air quality modeling system Models-3/CMAQ. The results demonstrated that particulate matter was the primary pollutant for all three pollution episodes and was accompanied by relatively low visibility in the first two episodes. Weather maps indicate that the first two episodes occurred under the influence of warm, wet southerly air flow systems that led to high humidity throughout the region. The liquid phase reaction of gaseous pollutants resulted in the generation of fine secondary particles, which were identified as the primary source of pollution in the first two episodes. The third pollution episode occurred during a warming period following a cold front. Relative humidity was lower during this episode, and coarse particles were the major pollution contributor. Results of process analysis indicated that emissions sources, horizontal transport and vertical transport were the primary factors affecting pollutant concentrations within the near-surface layer during all three episodes, while aerosol processes, cloud processes, horizontal transport and vertical transport had greater influence at approximately 900 m above ground. Cloud processes had a greater impact during the first two pollution episodes because of the higher relative humidity. In addition, by comparing pollution processes from different cities (Guangzhou and Zhongshan), the study revealed that the first two pollution episodes were the result of local emissions within the PRD region and transport between surrounding cities, while the third episode exhibited prominent regional pollution characteristics and was the result of regional pollutant transport.

  3. Estimation of PFOS emission from domestic sources in the eastern coastal region of China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shuangwei; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Tieyu; Liu, Shijie; Jones, Kevin; Sweetman, Andy

    2013-09-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and related chemicals (collectively "PFOS equivalents") have been released to the environment through widespread consumer use and disposal of PFOS-containing products like carpet, leather, textiles, paper, food containers, household cleansers, etc. Accordingly, in addition to PFOS-related industries, domestic activities may also considerably contribute to the PFOS emissions in the eastern coastal region of China, which has been characterized by high industrial input. In the present study, domestic emissions of PFOS equivalents derived from municipal wastewater treatment plants were estimated at the county level, using a regression model of domestic emission density with population density and per capita disposable income as independent variables. The total emission load of PFOS equivalents from domestic sources in the eastern coastal region of China was 381kg in 2010, and large cities were prominent as the emission centers. The domestic emission density averaged 0.37g/km(2)·a for the entire study area. Generally, the Beijing-Tianjin area, Pearl River Delta and Yangtze River Delta, as the most populous and economically developed areas in China, showed significantly higher emission density. Geographical variations within individual provinces were noteworthy. The average per capita discharge load of PFOS equivalents arising from domestic activities was 1.91μg/day per capita in the eastern coastal region of China, which is consistent with previous estimates in Korea, but lower than those calculated for developed countries. In comparison, the spatial distributions of provincial PFOS emissions from domestic and industrial sources were similar to each other; however, the latter was much larger for all the provinces.

  4. Molecular systematics of the Labeonini inhabiting the karst regions in southwest China (Teleostei, Cypriniformes)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Lan-Ping; Chen, Xiao-Yong; Yang, Jun-Xing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The major phylogenetic pattern of the cyprinid tribe Labeonini has been revealed by previous molecular studies; however, the relationships within a clade that mainly inhabits the karst regions, which we refer to as the “karst group”, in southwest China remain unresolved due to the low taxon sampling. This group includes more than 50% of the genera and species of Labeonini in China. Moreover, more than 90% of the genera of this group are endemic to China. In addition, some new genera and species of Labeonini have been discovered from these karst regions, but their taxonomic validity and phylogenetic position have not been examined. In this contribution, partial sequences of four nuclear (exon 3 of recombination activating protein 1, rhodopsin, early growth response protein 2B gene and interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein gene) and three mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b, cytochrome oxidase subunit I and 16S ribosomal RNA) from 36 ingroup taxa and 25 outgroup taxa were analyzed to provide a hypothesis of the phylogenetic relationships within the labeonins of the karst regions in China. We propose that the monophyly of Parasinilabeo, Ptychidio, Rectoris and Semilabeo are supported. A new genus, Prolixicheilus, is erected for Pseudogyrinocheilus longisulcus. Cophecheilus bamen is the sister to Prolixicheilus longisulcus. Ptychidio, Pseudocrossocheilus, Semilabeo, Rectoris and Stenorynchoacrum are closely related with high support values. Sinocrossocheilus, Pseudogyrinocheilus, Paraqianlabeo, Hongshuia, Discogobio and Discocheilus form a clade together with high support. Considering molecular results and morphological differences, Parasinilabeo longicorpus and Ptychidio macrops might be the synonyms of Parasinilabeo assimilis and Ptychidio jordani respectively. Comprehensive taxonomic revisions of the two genera Parasinilabeo and Ptychidio may be necessary. PMID:27667927

  5. Molecular systematics of the Labeonini inhabiting the karst regions in southwest China (Teleostei, Cypriniformes).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lan-Ping; Chen, Xiao-Yong; Yang, Jun-Xing

    2016-01-01

    The major phylogenetic pattern of the cyprinid tribe Labeonini has been revealed by previous molecular studies; however, the relationships within a clade that mainly inhabits the karst regions, which we refer to as the "karst group", in southwest China remain unresolved due to the low taxon sampling. This group includes more than 50% of the genera and species of Labeonini in China. Moreover, more than 90% of the genera of this group are endemic to China. In addition, some new genera and species of Labeonini have been discovered from these karst regions, but their taxonomic validity and phylogenetic position have not been examined. In this contribution, partial sequences of four nuclear (exon 3 of recombination activating protein 1, rhodopsin, early growth response protein 2B gene and interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein gene) and three mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b, cytochrome oxidase subunit I and 16S ribosomal RNA) from 36 ingroup taxa and 25 outgroup taxa were analyzed to provide a hypothesis of the phylogenetic relationships within the labeonins of the karst regions in China. We propose that the monophyly of Parasinilabeo, Ptychidio, Rectoris and Semilabeo are supported. A new genus, Prolixicheilus, is erected for Pseudogyrinocheilus longisulcus. Cophecheilus bamen is the sister to Prolixicheilus longisulcus. Ptychidio, Pseudocrossocheilus, Semilabeo, Rectoris and Stenorynchoacrum are closely related with high support values. Sinocrossocheilus, Pseudogyrinocheilus, Paraqianlabeo, Hongshuia, Discogobio and Discocheilus form a clade together with high support. Considering molecular results and morphological differences, Parasinilabeo longicorpus and Ptychidio macrops might be the synonyms of Parasinilabeo assimilis and Ptychidio jordani respectively. Comprehensive taxonomic revisions of the two genera Parasinilabeo and Ptychidio may be necessary.

  6. [Spatial pattern of vegetation landscape diversity in longitudinal Range-Gorge Region, southwestern China].

    PubMed

    Pan, Tao; Wu, Shao-hong; Dai, Er-fu; Zhao, Dong-sheng; Yin, Yun-he

    2010-12-01

    Based on the China 1:1000000 vegetation type map, and by using GIS spatial analysis, the spatial pattern of major vegetation landscape diversity indices and its relationships with environmental factors in Longitudinal Range-Gorge Region (LRGR) were analyzed. The proper scale for studying the vegetation landscape diversity in LRGR was 2000 m. In the study region, an obvious regional difference was observed in the vegetation landscape diversity indices, exhibiting typical longitudinal "corridor" and latitudinal "barrier" characteristics. The correlations between the vegetation landscape diversity indices and environmental elements were significant, and the regional difference in the environmental elements was the main factor controlling the spatial pattern of vegetation landscape diversity indices. The "corridor-barrier" function of the longitudinal range-gorge terrain made a spatial redistribution of hydro-thermal conditions, being the main cause of the special pattern of the vegetation landscape diversity in LRGR.

  7. The Ordered Network Structure and Prediction Summary for M≥7 Earthquakes in Xinjiang Region of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Men, Ke-Pei; Zhao, Kai

    2014-12-01

    M ≥7 earthquakes have showed an obvious commensurability and orderliness in Xinjiang of China and its adjacent region since 1800. The main orderly values are 30 a × k (k = 1,2,3), 11 ~ 12 a, 41 ~ 43 a, 18 ~ 19 a, and 5 ~ 6 a. In the guidance of the information forecasting theory of Wen-Bo Weng, based on previous research results, combining ordered network structure analysis with complex network technology, we focus on the prediction summary of M ≥ 7 earthquakes by using the ordered network structure, and add new information to further optimize network, hence construct the 2D- and 3D-ordered network structure of M ≥ 7 earthquakes. In this paper, the network structure revealed fully the regularity of seismic activity of M ≥ 7 earthquakes in the study region during the past 210 years. Based on this, the Karakorum M7.1 earthquake in 1996, the M7.9 earthquake on the frontier of Russia, Mongol, and China in 2003, and two Yutian M7.3 earthquakes in 2008 and 2014 were predicted successfully. At the same time, a new prediction opinion is presented that the future two M ≥ 7 earthquakes will probably occur around 2019 - 2020 and 2025 - 2026 in this region. The results show that large earthquake occurred in defined region can be predicted. The method of ordered network structure analysis produces satisfactory results for the mid-and-long term prediction of M ≥ 7 earthquakes.

  8. A Report on the 1968 Adult Basic Education Institute for Administrators in Region VIII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Glenn S.

    A project to improve the leadership competency of personnel responsible for program development and implementation in ABE is presented. The intent of the program planners was to help the ABE administrator discover new patterns of need, to search for new teaching formats and content, and to reassess the relationships which exist in the world of…

  9. Guidelines for Federal Aviation Administration Regional Aviation Education Coordinators and Aviation Education Facilitators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickler, Mervin K., Jr.

    This publication is designed to provide both policy guidance and examples of how to work with various constituencies in planning and carrying out appropriate Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) aviation education activities. Information is provided on the history of aerospace/aviation education, FAA educational materials, aerospace/aviation…

  10. A phylogenetically informed delineation of floristic regions within a biodiversity hotspot in Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Rong; Kraft, Nathan J B; Yang, Jie; Wang, Yuhua

    2015-03-30

    Traditional attempts to delineate floristic regions typically focus on species distributions, often ignoring the rich context that phylogenetic relationships can provide. In this study, we explore how phylogenetic relatedness, taxonomic composition, and regional phylogenetic structure change across a global biodiversity hotspot region, Yunnan, located in southwestern China. We propose a system of floristic regions within Yunnan by combining data on the distributions and phylogenetic relationships of 1,983 genera of native seed plants. We identified eight distinct floristic regions in Yunnan, which were grouped into two larger northern and southern geographical units. Phylogenetic relatedness was well correlated with taxonomic composition between floras in Yunnan. Across the Yunnan region we examined, the central Yunnan region shows the lowest level of spatial turnover in phylogenetic relationships and taxonomic composition of the floristic assemblages. Using null model analyses, we found evidence of nonrandom phylogenetic structure across the region, in which four areas show higher phylogenetic turnover than expected given the underlying taxonomic composition between sites. Our results show that the integration of phylogenetic information can provide valuable insight in floristic assessments, and help us to better understand the structure of a global biodiversity hotspot.

  11. A phylogenetically informed delineation of floristic regions within a biodiversity hotspot in Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rong; Kraft, Nathan J. B.; Yang, Jie; Wang, Yuhua

    2015-01-01

    Traditional attempts to delineate floristic regions typically focus on species distributions, often ignoring the rich context that phylogenetic relationships can provide. In this study, we explore how phylogenetic relatedness, taxonomic composition, and regional phylogenetic structure change across a global biodiversity hotspot region, Yunnan, located in southwestern China. We propose a system of floristic regions within Yunnan by combining data on the distributions and phylogenetic relationships of 1,983 genera of native seed plants. We identified eight distinct floristic regions in Yunnan, which were grouped into two larger northern and southern geographical units. Phylogenetic relatedness was well correlated with taxonomic composition between floras in Yunnan. Across the Yunnan region we examined, the central Yunnan region shows the lowest level of spatial turnover in phylogenetic relationships and taxonomic composition of the floristic assemblages. Using null model analyses, we found evidence of nonrandom phylogenetic structure across the region, in which four areas show higher phylogenetic turnover than expected given the underlying taxonomic composition between sites. Our results show that the integration of phylogenetic information can provide valuable insight in floristic assessments, and help us to better understand the structure of a global biodiversity hotspot. PMID:25820037

  12. Modeling wet deposition of acid substances over the PRD region in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xingcheng; Fung, Jimmy Chi Hung; Wu, Dongwei

    2015-12-01

    The Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in southern China has suffered heavily from acid rain in the last 10 years due to the anthropogenic emission of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. Several measurement-based studies about this issue have been conducted to analyze the chemical composition of precipitation in this area. However, no detailed, high resolution numerical simulation regarding this topic has ever been done in this region. In this study, the WRF-SMOKE-CMAQ system was applied to simulate the wet deposition of acid substances (SO42- and NO3-) in the PRD region from 2009 to 2011 with a resolution of 3 km. The simulation output agreed well with the observation data. Our results showed that Guangzhou was the city most affected by acid rain in this region. The ratio of non-sea-salt sulfate to nitrate indicated that the acid rain in this region belonged to the sulfate-nitrate mixed type. The source apportionment result suggests that point source and super regional source are the ones that contribute the pollutants most in the rain water over PRD Region. The sulfate and nitrate input to some reservoirs via wet deposition was also estimated based on the model simulation. Our results suggest that further cross-city cooperation and emission reduction are needed to further curb acid rain in this region.

  13. Identifying the regional-scale groundwater-surface water interaction on the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xihua; Zhang, Guangxin; Xu, Y Jun; Sun, Guangzhi

    2015-11-01

    Assessment on the interaction between groundwater and surface water (GW-SW) can generate information that is critical to regional water resource management, especially for regions that are highly dependent on groundwater resources for irrigation. This study investigated such interaction on China's Sanjiang Plain (10.9 × 10(4) km(2)) and produced results to assist sustainable regional water management for intensive agricultural activities. Methods of hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA), and statistical analysis were used in this study. One hundred two water samplings (60 from shallow groundwater, 7 from deep groundwater, and 35 from surface water) were collected and grouped into three clusters and seven sub-clusters during the analyses. The PCA analysis identified four principal components of the interaction, which explained 85.9% variance of total database, attributed to the dissolution and evolution of gypsum, feldspar, and other natural minerals in the region that was affected by anthropic and geological (sedimentary rock mineral) activities. The analyses showed that surface water in the upper region of the Sanjiang Plain gained water from local shallow groundwater, indicating that the surface water in the upper region was relatively more resilient to withdrawal for usage, whereas in the middle region, there was only a weak interaction between shallow groundwater and surface water. In the lower region of the Sanjiang Plain, surface water lost water to shallow groundwater, indicating that the groundwater was vulnerable to pollution by pesticides and fertilizers from terrestrial sources.

  14. Dynamical downscaling of regional climate over eastern China using RSM with multiple physics scheme ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peishu, Zong; Jianping, Tang; Shuyu, Wang; Lingyun, Xie; Jianwei, Yu; Yunqian, Zhu; Xiaorui, Niu; Chao, Li

    2016-06-01

    The parameterization of physical processes is one of the critical elements to properly simulate the regional climate over eastern China. It is essential to conduct detailed analyses on the effect of physical parameterization schemes on regional climate simulation, to provide more reliable regional climate change information. In this paper, we evaluate the 25-year (1983-2007) summer monsoon climate characteristics of precipitation and surface air temperature by using the regional spectral model (RSM) with different physical schemes. The ensemble results using the reliability ensemble averaging (REA) method are also assessed. The result shows that the RSM model has the capacity to reproduce the spatial patterns, the variations, and the temporal tendency of surface air temperature and precipitation over eastern China. And it tends to predict better climatology characteristics over the Yangtze River basin and the South China. The impact of different physical schemes on RSM simulations is also investigated. Generally, the CLD3 cloud water prediction scheme tends to produce larger precipitation because of its overestimation of the low-level moisture. The systematic biases derived from the KF2 cumulus scheme are larger than those from the RAS scheme. The scale-selective bias correction (SSBC) method improves the simulation of the temporal and spatial characteristics of surface air temperature and precipitation and advances the circulation simulation capacity. The REA ensemble results show significant improvement in simulating temperature and precipitation distribution, which have much higher correlation coefficient and lower root mean square error. The REA result of selected experiments is better than that of nonselected experiments, indicating the necessity of choosing better ensemble samples for ensemble.

  15. Regional/Urban Air Quality Modeling Assessment over China Using the Models-3/CMAQ System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, J. S.; Jang, C. C.; Streets, D. G.; Li, Z.; Wang, L.; Zhang, Q.; Woo, J.; Wang, B.

    2004-12-01

    China is the world's most populous country with a fast growing economy that surges in energy comsumption. It has become the second largest energy consumer after the United States although the per capita level is much lower than those found in developed or developing countries. Air pollution has become one of the most important problems of megacities such as Beijing and Shanghai and has serious impacts on public health, causes urban and regional haze. The Models-3/CMAQ modeling application that has been conducted to simulate multi-pollutants in China is presented. The modeling domains cover East Asia (36-kmx36-km) including Japan, South Korea, Korea DPR, Indonesia, Thailand, India and Mongolia, East China (12-kmx12-km) and Beijing/Tianjing, Shanghai (4-kmx4-km). For this study, the Asian emission inventory based on the emission estimates of the year 2000 that supported the NASA TRACE-P program is used. However, the TRACE-P emission inventory was developed for a different purpose such as global modeling. TRACE-P emission inventory may not be practical in urban area. There is no China national emission inventory available. Therefore, TRACE-P emission inventory is used on the East Asia and East China domains. The 8 districts of Beijing and Shanghai local emissions inventory are used to replace TRACE-P in 4-km domains. The meteorological data for the Models-3/CMAQ run are extracted from MM5. The model simulation is performed during the period January 1-20 and July 1-20, 2001 that presented the winter and summer time for China areas. The preliminary model results are shown O3 concentrations are in the range of 80 -120 ppb in the urban area. Lower urban O3 concentrations are shown in Beijing areas, possibly due to underestimation of urban man-made VOC emissions in the TRACE-P inventory and local inventory. High PM2.5 (70ug/m3 in summer and 150ug/m3 in winter) were simulated over metropolitan & downwind areas with significant secondary constituents. More comprehensive

  16. Co-integration Model of Logistics Infrastructure Investment and Regional Economic Growth in Central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Kai; Gan, Xiao-qing; Gao, Kuo

    The speed of logistics infrastructures investment in Central China is still lower than other regions since the rise of the central region strategy was put forward. And the ration of freight turnover was also being down. The analysis with the relations among the central region of the logistics investment, logistics value-added and GDP, found that three variables exists co-integration relation. And found that the investment in logistics infrastructure was the Granger reason of the GDP, the investment in logistics infrastructure and logistics value-added was the Granger reason for each other. According to the analysis, some countermeasures be put forward as following: accelerate the speed of logistics investment, optimize logistics environment, promote the logistics capability, reduce logistics cost, and so on.

  17. Regional study on investment for transmission infrastructure in China based on the State Grid data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wendong; Wu, Xudong; Wu, Xiaofang; Xi, Qiangmin; Ji, Xi; Li, Guoping

    2016-06-01

    Transmission infrastructure is an integral component of safeguarding the stability of electricity delivery. However, existing studies of transmission infrastructure mostly rely on a simple review of the network, while the analysis of investments remains rudimentary. This study conducted the first regionally focused analysis of investments in transmission infrastructure in China to help optimize its structure and reduce investment costs. Using State Grid data, the investment costs, under various voltages, for transmission lines and transformer substations are calculated. By analyzing the regional profile of cumulative investment in transmission infrastructure, we assess correlations between investment, population, and economic development across the regions. The recent development of ultra-high-voltage transmission networks will provide policy-makers new options for policy development.

  18. Regional study on investment for transmission infrastructure in China based on the State Grid data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wendong; Wu, Xudong; Wu, Xiaofang; Xi, Qiangmin; Ji, Xi; Li, Guoping

    2017-03-01

    Transmission infrastructure is an integral component of safeguarding the stability of electricity delivery. However, existing studies of transmission infrastructure mostly rely on a simple review of the network, while the analysis of investments remains rudimentary. This study conducted the first regionally focused analysis of investments in transmission infrastructure in China to help optimize its structure and reduce investment costs. Using State Grid data, the investment costs, under various voltages, for transmission lines and transformer substations are calculated. By analyzing the regional profile of cumulative investment in transmission infrastructure, we assess correlations between investment, population, and economic development across the regions. The recent development of ultra-high-voltage transmission networks will provide policy-makers new options for policy development.

  19. Regional contribution to PM1 pollution during winter haze in Yangtze River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lili; Yu, Hongxia; Ding, Aijun; Zhang, Yunjiang; Qin, Wei; Wang, Zhuang; Chen, Wentai; Hua, Yan; Yang, Xiaoxiao

    2016-01-15

    To quantify regional sources contributing to submicron particulate matter (PM1) pollution in haze episodes, on-line measurements combining two modeling methods, namely, positive matrix factorization (PMF) and backward Lagrangian particle dispersion modeling (LPDM), were conducted for the period of one month in urban Nanjing, a city located in the western part of Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region of China. Several multi-day haze episodes were observed in December 2013. Long-range transport of biomass burning from the southwestern YRD region largely contributed to PM1 pollution with more than 25% of total organics mass in a lasting heavy haze. The LPDM analysis indicates that regional transport is a main source contributing to secondary low-volatility production. The high-potential source regions of secondary low-volatility production are mainly located in areas to the northeast of the city. High aerosol pollution was mainly contributed by regional transport associated with northeastern air masses. Such regional transport on average accounts for 46% of total NR-PM1 with sulfate and aged low-volatility organics being the largest fractions (>65%).

  20. The spatial relationship analysis of regional development potential and resource and environment carrying capacity in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Xu, Jianhua; Zeng, Gang; Shen, Qi; Hu, Qing

    2008-10-01

    The main goal in this study is to explore the spatial relationship of Chinese regional development potential (DP) and resource & environment carrying capacity (REC) in 2000 and 2006 by using meta-synthesis of spatial statistical analysis and GIS technique. The results show that: The spatial distribution trend of DP and REC are overall gradient descending from coastal to inland, then to the western provinces. They all demonstrate that spatial agglomeration with global significant, namely high-DP regions aggregated in the east, low-DP regions aggregated in the west. The high-REC of central, eastern and southern China are improved and aggregated, but the low-REC aggregated in northwest. Chinese regional DP and REC are divided into five different kinds of regions based on the results of k-means clustering analysis and spatial clustering, which demonstrate that each area's DP and REC's spatial association measure is not very obviously. Compared to the high-DP region, the low-DP region is more restricted to the REC.

  1. Reduction in NO(x) emission trends over China: regional and seasonal variations.

    PubMed

    Gu, Dasa; Wang, Yuhang; Smeltzer, Charles; Liu, Zhen

    2013-11-19

    We analyzed satellite observations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) over China from 2005 to 2010 in order to estimate the top-down anthropogenic nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission trends. Since NOx emissions were affected by the economic slowdown in 2009, we removed one year of abnormal data in the analysis. The estimated average emission trend is 4.01 ± 1.39% yr(-1), which is slower than the trend of 5.8-10.8% yr(-1) reported for previous years. We find large regional, seasonal, and urban-rural variations in emission trends. The average NOx emission trend of 3.47 ± 1.07% yr(-1) in warm season (June-September) is less than the trend of 5.03 ± 1.92% yr(-1) in cool season (October-May). The regional annual emission trends decrease from 4.76 ± 1.61% yr(-1) in North China Plain to 3.11 ± 0.98% yr(-1) in Yangtze River Delta and further down to -4.39 ± 1.81% yr(-1) in Pearl River Delta. The annual emission trends of the four largest megacities, Shanghai, Beijing, Guangzhou, and Shenzhen are -0.76 ± 0.29%, 0.69 ± 0.27%, -4.46 ± 1.22%, and -7.18 ± 2.88% yr(-1), considerably lower than the regional averages or surrounding rural regions. These results appear to suggest that a number of factors, including emission control measures of thermal power plants, increased hydro-power usage, vehicle emission regulations, and closure or migration of high-emission industries, have significantly reduced or even reversed the increasing trend of NOx emissions in more economically developed megacities and southern coastal regions, but their effects are not as significant in other major cities or less economically developed regions.

  2. Spatial oscillation of the particle pollution in eastern China during winter: Implications for regional air quality and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Minghui; Chen, Liangfu; Li, Rong; Wang, Lili; Wang, Jun; Wang, Zifeng; Tang, Guiqian; Tao, Jinhua

    2016-11-01

    We provided a large-scale observational insight into spatial variations of the particle pollution in eastern China during winter based on recently extended air quality monitoring networks. Severe particle pollution with PM2.5 >150 μg/m3 prevailed in most areas of eastern China during December 2015, when red alert of haze pollution was released in many places. It was found that two distinct pollution processes existed in eastern China during winter. In the fringe areas such as Beijing and Shanghai in eastern China, most of air pollution events were characterized by abrupt peak values and short duration. By comparison, particle pollution in the interior exhibited obvious accumulation and decline processes with much higher PM2.5 concentration. Regional observations in ground networks show notable spatial oscillation of particle pollutants in eastern China, which is the main driver of the abrupt particle pollution in fringe areas. Despite common alternation of northerly and southerly airflows within planetary boundary layer (PBL), particle pollution in central part of eastern China was under the influence of regional accumulated pollutants due to lack of persistent strong winds. In addition, spatial oscillation of particle pollutants weakened with low PBL (<400-600 m). Our results demonstrate that spatial variations of particle pollutants in the central part of northern China play a significant role in regulating air quality in eastern China.

  3. Comparison of two drought indices in studying regional meteorological drought events in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongmei; Ren, Fumin; Zhao, Yilei; Li, Yunjie

    2017-02-01

    The composite-drought index (CI), improved weighted average of precipitation index (IWAP), and the objective identification technique for regional extreme events (OITREE) were employed to detect China's regional meteorological drought events (CRMDEs) during 1961-2010. Compared with existing references, CI and IWAP both showed strong ability in identifying CRMDEs. Generally, the results of CI and IWAP were consistent, especially for extreme and severe CRMDEs. During 1961-2010, although the frequencies of extreme and severe CRMDEs based on CI and IWAP both showed weak decreasing trends, the two mean-integrated indices both showed increasing but not significant trends. However, the results of IWAP were more reasonable than CI's in two aspects. Firstly, the monthly frequency of extreme and severe CRMDEs based on IWAP showed a clear seasonal variation, which coincided with the seasonal variation of the East Asian monsoon over central-eastern China, whereas the frequency based on CI presented a much weaker seasonal variation. Secondly, the two sets of results were sometimes inconsistent with respect to the start and end times of a CRMDE, and CRMDEs based on CI generally showed two unreasonable phenomena: (1) under non-drought conditions, a severe drought stage could suddenly occur in a large area; and (2) during the following period, drought could alleviate gradually in cases of non-precipitation. Comparative analysis suggested that the IWAP drought index possesses obvious advantages in detecting and monitoring regional drought events.

  4. 78 FR 65641 - Recommendation From the Western Area Power Administration To Pursue Regional Transmission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... formal negotiations with the Southwest Power Pool (SPP), a Regional Transmission Organization (RTO... other stakeholders regarding its recommendation to pursue formal negotiations with SPP regarding... forward with formal negotiations with SPP will result in detailed membership discussions consistent...

  5. Impacts of seasonal and regional variability in biogenic VOC emissions on surface ozone in the Pearl River Delta region, China

    SciTech Connect

    Situ, S.; Guenther, Alex B.; Wang, X. J.; Jiang, X.; Turnipseed, A.; Wu, Z.; Bai, J.; Wang, X.

    2013-12-05

    In this study, the BVOC emissions in November 2010 over the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in southern China have been estimated by the latest version of a Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC) emission model (MEGAN v2.1). The evaluation of MEGAN performance at a representative forest site within this region indicates MEGAN can estimate BVOC emissions reasonably well in this region except overestimating isoprene emission in autumn for reasons that are discussed in this manuscript. Along with the output from MEGAN, the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to estimate the impacts of BVOC emissions on surface ozone in the PRD region. The results show BVOC emissions increase the daytime ozone peak by *3 ppb on average, and the max hourly impacts of BVOC emissions on the daytime ozone peak is 24.8 ppb. Surface ozone mixing ratios in the central area of Guangzhou- Foshan and the western Jiangmen are most sensitive to BVOC emissions BVOCs from outside and central PRD influence the central area of Guangzhou-Foshan and the western Jiangmen significantly while BVOCs from rural PRD mainly influence the western Jiangmen. The impacts of BVOC emissions on surface ozone differ in different PRD cities, and the impact varies in different seasons. Foshan and Jiangmen being most affected in autumn, result in 6.0 ppb and 5.5 ppb increases in surface ozone concentrations, while Guangzhou and Huizhou become more affected in summer. Three additional experiments concerning the sensitivity of surface ozone to MEGAN input variables show that surface ozone is more sensitive to landcover change, followed by emission factors and meteorology.

  6. A new Early Oligocene peradectine marsupial (Mammalia)from the Burqin region of Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Xijun; Meng, Jin; Wu, Wenyu; Ye, Jie

    2007-03-01

    Tertiary marsupial records are very scarce in Asia. A new peradectine marsupial, Junggaroperadectes burqinensis gen. et sp. nov., is reported from the Early Oligocene Keziletuogayi Formation in the Burqin region, Xinjiang, China. This new species is based on a single right upper M2. The tooth possesses a straight centrocrista, a characteristic of peradectines. Its main cusps lean buccally, with the paracone being smaller and lower than the metacone. The conules and stylar cusps are weakly developed. These characters distinguish J. burqinensis from Euro-American Tertiary peradectines, but they also imply a close phylogenetic relationship to Siamoperadectes and Sinoperadectes, two Asian Early Miocene peradectines.

  7. [Ecological footprint of farmers and herdsmen in Tibet Autonomous Region, China].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhong-rui; Xie, Chuan-qi; Wu, Tong; Xiang, Wen-hua; Fang, Jiang-ping

    2015-04-01

    Based on relevant statistical yearbook and with an integrated method, the ecological footprint and ecological carrying capacity of farmers and herdsmen during the period from 2000 to 2012 in Tibet Autonomous Region, China were studied. The results showed that the ecological status of farmers and herdsmen were in a surplus state during the study period, but the surplus amount exhibited a decreasing tendency. The ecological capacity decreased from 7.49 hm2 in 2000 to 6.35 hm2 in 2012, with a decrease of 15.3%, while the ecological footprint increased gradually from 1.03 hm2 in 2000 to 1.26 hm2 in 2012.

  8. Genetic Diversity of Sitobion avenae (Homoptera: Aphididae) Populations from Different Geographic Regions in China

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Juan-Juan; Shang, Qing-Li; Desneux, Nicolas; Gao, Xi-Wu

    2014-01-01

    Sitobion avenae is a major agricultural pest of wheat in China. Using microsatellite markers, we studied the potential gene flow, genetic diversity, genetic differentiation, and genetic structure of seven S. avenae populations from different regions of China (Beijing, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Shandong, and Shanxi provinces). The populations from Henan, Shandong, and Jiangsu showed high levels of genic and genotypic diversity. By contrast, the genic diversity in the Beijing and Hebei populations was much lower. Despite this low genic diversity, the genotypic diversity of the Beijing population was higher than that of all of the other populations, except those from Jiangsu and Shandong. Overall, the genetic divergence among the seven S. avenae populations tested was high, though there was almost no differentiation between the Shandong and Henan populations. We observed significant negative correlation between the strength of gene flow and the geographic distances among populations. Based on genetic analysis, the seven S. avenae populations studied can be divided into four distinct clusters; (i) Hubei, (ii) Shanxi, (iii) Beijing and Hebei, and (iv) Shandong, Henan, and Jiangsu. The present results provide a basis for potentially optimizing integrated pest management (IPM) programs in China, through adapting control methods that target biological traits shared by various populations of the same genotype. PMID:25356548

  9. Molecular Epidemiology and Characterization of Genotypes of Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates from Regions of South China.

    PubMed

    Ying, Jun; Lu, Junwan; Zong, Li; Li, Ailing; Pan, Ruowang; Cheng, Cong; Li, Kunpeng; Chen, Liqiang; Ying, Jianchao; Tou, Huifen; Zhu, Chuanxin; Xu, Teng; Yi, Huiguang; Li, Jinsong; Ni, Liyan; Xu, Zuyuan; Bao, Qiyu; Li, Peizhen

    2016-05-20

    The aim of this study was to analyze the molecular epidemiologic characteristics of Acinetobacter baumannii. A total of 398 isolates were collected in 7 regions of South China from January to June of 2012. Drug sensitivity was tested toward 15 commonly used antibiotics; thus, 146 multi-drug-resistant strains (resistant to more than 7 drugs) were identified, representing 36.7% of all isolates. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were used for molecular subtyping. According to the PFGE results (with a cutoff of 70% similarity for the DNA electrophoretic bands), 146 strains were subdivided into 15 clusters, with cluster A being the largest (33.6%, distributed in all districts except Jiaxing). Cluster B was also widespread and included 14.4% of all strains. In addition, MLST results revealed 11 sequence types (ST), with ST208 being the most prevalent, followed by ST191 and ST729. Furthermore, 4 novel alleles and 6 novel STs were identified. Our results showed that multi-drug-resistant A. baumannii in South China shares the origin with other widespread strains in other countries. The nosocomial infections caused by A. baumannii have been severe in South China. Continuous monitoring and judicious antibiotic use are required.

  10. Genetic diversity of Sitobion avenae (Homoptera: Aphididae) populations from different geographic regions in China.

    PubMed

    Xin, Juan-Juan; Shang, Qing-Li; Desneux, Nicolas; Gao, Xi-Wu

    2014-01-01

    Sitobion avenae is a major agricultural pest of wheat in China. Using microsatellite markers, we studied the potential gene flow, genetic diversity, genetic differentiation, and genetic structure of seven S. avenae populations from different regions of China (Beijing, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Shandong, and Shanxi provinces). The populations from Henan, Shandong, and Jiangsu showed high levels of genic and genotypic diversity. By contrast, the genic diversity in the Beijing and Hebei populations was much lower. Despite this low genic diversity, the genotypic diversity of the Beijing population was higher than that of all of the other populations, except those from Jiangsu and Shandong. Overall, the genetic divergence among the seven S. avenae populations tested was high, though there was almost no differentiation between the Shandong and Henan populations. We observed significant negative correlation between the strength of gene flow and the geographic distances among populations. Based on genetic analysis, the seven S. avenae populations studied can be divided into four distinct clusters; (i) Hubei, (ii) Shanxi, (iii) Beijing and Hebei, and (iv) Shandong, Henan, and Jiangsu. The present results provide a basis for potentially optimizing integrated pest management (IPM) programs in China, through adapting control methods that target biological traits shared by various populations of the same genotype.

  11. Predictability and prediction of summer rainfall in the arid and semi-arid regions of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Wen; Wang, Bin

    2016-09-01

    Northwest China (NWC) is an arid and semi-arid region where climate variability and environmental changes are sensitive to precipitation. The present study explores sources and limits of predictability of summer precipitation over NWC using the predictable mode analysis (PMA) of percentage of rainfall anomaly data. Two major modes of NWC summer rainfall variability are identified which are tied to Eurasian continental scale precipitation variations. The first mode features wet northern China corresponding to dry central Siberia and wet Mongolia, which is mainly driven by tropical Pacific sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA). The second mode features wet western China reflecting wet Central Asia and dry Ural-western Siberia, which strongly links to Indian Ocean SSTA. Anomalous land warming over Eurasia also provides important precursors for the two modes. The cross-validated hindcast results demonstrate these modes can be predicted with significant correlation skills, suggesting that they may be considered as predictable modes. The domain averaged temporal correlation coefficient (TCC) skill during 1979 to 2015 using 0-month (1-month) lead models is 0.39 (0.35), which is considerably higher than dynamical models' multi-model ensemble mean skill (-0.02). Maximum potential attainable prediction skills are also estimated and discussed. The result illustrates advantage of PMA in predicting rainfall over dry land areas and large room for dynamical model improvement. However, secular changes of predictors need to be detected continuously in order to make practical useful prediction.

  12. Under regional characteristics of rural China: a clearer view on the performance of the New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dan; Tsegai, Daniel; Litaker, David; von Braun, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    The New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) was implemented in 2003 in response to the poor state of health care in rural China. Considering the substantial differences in regional socioeconomics, preferences for health care needs, and concurrent implementation of other health-related policies, the extent to which the impact of the NCMS differs in rural communities across China is unclear. The objective of this paper, therefore, was to explore the variation in the determinants of household enrolment and the impact of enrolment on health care utilization and medical expenditures in three large geographic regions in China. A quasi-experiment study was designed based on the panel data of the China Health and Nutrition Survey. The bounding approach was used to conduct a robust check of impact estimation under the assumption of unobserved bias. A major finding is that household income plays no significant role for enrolment, which indicates the equity of program coverage in income terms. However, regional circumstances matter. In the generally poorer western regions, households with a high ratio of migrant workers are less attracted to the NCMS program, and adoption of the program is related to the regional infrastructure environment variables in the eastern and western regions. The NCMS has improved medical care utilization for poor income groups and regions (western regions). The NCMS's impact on reducing the incidence of catastrophic expenditures is not shown for all regions.

  13. Regional variation in Moho depth and Poisson's ratio beneath eastern China and its tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zigen; Chen, Ling; Li, Zhiwei; Ling, Yuan; Li, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Eastern China comprises a complex amalgamation of geotectonic blocks of different ages and undergone significant modification of lithosphere during the Meso-Cenozoic time. To better characterize its deep structure, we conducted H-κ stacking of receiver functions using teleseismic data collected from 1143 broadband stations and produced a unified and detailed map of Moho depth and average Poisson's ratio (σ) of eastern China. A coexistence of modified and preserved crust with generally in Airy-type isostatic equilibrium was revealed in eastern China, which correlates well with regional geological and tectonic features. Crust is obviously thicker to the west of the North-South Gravity Lineament but exhibits complex variations in σ with an overall felsic to intermediate bulk crustal composition. Moho depth and σ values show striking differences as compared to the surrounding areas in the rifts and tectonic boundary zones, where earthquakes usually occur. Systematic comparison of Moho depth and σ values demonstrated that there are both similarities and differences in the crustal structure among the Northeast China, North China Craton, South China, and the Qinling-Dabie Orogen as well as different areas within these blocks, which may result from their different evolutionary histories and strong tectonic-magma events since the Mesozoic. Using new data from dense temporary arrays, we observed a change of Moho depth by ∼3 km and of σ by ∼0.04 beneath the Tanlu Fault Zone and an alteration of Moho depth by ∼5 km and of σ by ∼0.05 beneath the Xuefeng Mountains. In addition, striking E-W difference in crustal structure occur across the Xuefeng Mountains: to the east, the Moho depth is overall <35 km and σ has values of <0.26; to the west, the Moho depth is generally >40 km and σ shows complex and large-range variation with values between 0.22 and 0.32. These, together with waveform inversion of receiver functions and SKS shear-wave splitting measurements

  14. Ecological restoration and its effects on a regional climate: the source region of the Yellow River, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhouyuan; Liu, Xuehua; Niu, Tianlin; Kejia, De; Zhou, Qingping; Ma, Tianxiao; Gao, Yunyang

    2015-05-19

    The source region of the Yellow River, China, experienced degradation during the 1980s and 1990s, but effective ecological restoration projects have restored the alpine grassland ecosystem. The local government has taken action to restore the grassland area since 1996. Remote sensing monitoring results show an initial restoration of this alpine grassland ecosystem with the structural transformation of land cover from 2000 to 2009 as low- and high-coverage grassland recovered. From 2000 to 2009, the low-coverage grassland area expanded by over 25% and the bare soil area decreased by approximately 15%. To examine the relationship between ecological structure and function, surface temperature (Ts) and evapotranspiration (ET) levels were estimated to study the dynamics of the hydro-heat pattern. The results show a turning point in approximately the year 2000 from a declining ET to a rising ET, eventually reaching the 1990 level of approximately 1.5 cm/day. We conclude that grassland coverage expansion has improved the regional hydrologic cycle as a consequence of ecological restoration. Thus, we suggest that long-term restoration and monitoring efforts would help maintain the climatic adjustment functions of this alpine grassland ecosystem.

  15. Scenarios of Building Energy Demand for China with a Detailed Regional Representation

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Sha; Eom, Jiyong; Zhou, Yuyu; Evans, Meredydd; Clarke, Leon E.

    2014-02-07

    Building energy consumption currently accounts for 28% of China’s total energy use and is expected to continue to grow induced by floorspace expansion, income growth, and population change. Fuel sources and building services are also evolving over time as well as across regions and building types. To understand sectoral and regional difference in building energy use and how socioeconomic, physical, and technological development influence the evolution of the Chinese building sector, this study developed a building energy use model for China downscaled into four climate regions under an integrated assessment framework. Three building types (rural residential, urban residential, and commercial) were modeled specifically in each climate region. Our study finds that the Cold and Hot Summer Cold Winter regions lead in total building energy use. The impact of climate change on heating energy use is more significant than that of cooling energy use in most climate regions. Both rural and urban households will experience fuel switch from fossil fuel to cleaner fuels. Commercial buildings will experience rapid growth in electrification and energy intensity. Improved understanding of Chinese buildings with climate change highlighted in this study will help policy makers develop targeted policies and prioritize building energy efficiency measures.

  16. Bioavailability of dissolved organic carbon linked with the regional carbon cycle in the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Shuchai; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Jing

    2016-02-01

    The regional carbon cycle on continental shelves has created great interest recently due to the enigma of whether these areas are a carbon sink or a source. It is vital for a precise carbon cycle model to take the bioavailability of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) into account, as it impacts the sink and source capacity, especially on dynamic shelves such as the East China Sea. Nine bio-decomposition experiments were carried out to assess differences in the bioavailability of DOC. Samples were collected from different water masses in the East China Sea, such as the Coastal Current, the Taiwan Current, and the Kuroshio Current, as well as from the Changjiang (Yangtze River), the main contributor of terrestrial DOC in the East China Sea. This study aimed to quantify and qualify bioavailable DOC (BDOC) in the East China Sea. Both the degradation constant of BDOC and the carbon output from microorganisms have been quantitatively evaluated. Qualitatively, excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectra (EEMs) were used to evaluate the intrinsic reasons for BDOC variation. By using EEMs in conjunction with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), five individual fluorescent components were identified in this study: three humic-like and two protein-like components (P1, P2). The highest P1 and P2 fluorescence intensities were recorded in the coastal water during a phytoplankton algal bloom, while the lowest intensities were recorded in the Changjiang estuary. Quantitatively, BDOC observed during the incubation ranged from 0 to 26.1 μM. The DOC degradation rate constant varied from 0 to 0.027 (d-1), and was lowest in the Changjiang and highest in algal bloom water and warm shelf water (the Taiwan current). The Taiwan Current and mixed shelf water were the major contributors of BDOC flux to the open ocean, and the East China Sea was a net source of BDOC to the ocean. The results verified the importance of BDOC in regional carbon cycle modeling. Combining the data of BDOC and EEMs

  17. Progress and prospects of climate change impacts on hydrology in the arid region of northwest China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yaning; Li, Zhi; Fan, Yuting; Wang, Huaijun; Deng, Haijun

    2015-05-01

    The arid region of Northwest China, located in the central Asia, responds sensitively to global climate change. Based on the newest research results, this paper analyzes the impacts of climate change on hydrology and the water cycle in the arid region of Northwest China. The analysis results show that: (1) In the northwest arid region, temperature and precipitation experienced "sharply" increasing in the past 50 years. The precipitation trend changed in 1987, and since then has been in a state of high volatility, during the 21st century, the increasing rate of precipitation was diminished. Temperature experienced a "sharply" increase in 1997; however, this sharp increasing trend has turned to an apparent hiatus since the 21st century. The dramatic rise in winter temperatures in the northwest arid region is an important reason for the rise in the average annual temperature, and substantial increases in extreme winter minimum temperature play an important role in the rising average winter temperature; (2) There was a significant turning point in the change of pan evaporation in the northwest arid area in 1993, i.e., in which a significant decline reversed to a significant upward trend. In the 21st century, the negative effects of global warming and increasing levels of evaporation on the ecology of the northwest arid region have been highlighted; (3) Glacier change has a significant impact on hydrology in the northwest arid area, and glacier inflection points have appeared in some rivers. The melting water supply of the Tarim River Basin possesses a large portion of water supplies (about 50%). In the future, the amount of surface water will probably remain at a high state of fluctuation.

  18. Surveillance of Schistosoma japonicum Infection in Domestic Ruminants in the Dongting Lake Region, Hunan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinming; Zhu, Chunxia; Shi, Yaojun; Li, Hao; Wang, Lanpin; Qin, Shangtian; Kang, Saie; Huang, Yanpin; Jin, Yamei; Lin, Jiaojiao

    2012-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis japonica is prevalent in Asian countries and it remains a major public health problem in China. The major endemic foci are the marsh and lake regions of southern China, particularly the Dongting Lake region bordering Hunan and Hubei provinces, and the Poyang Lake region in Jiangxi province. Domestic ruminants, especially bovines, have long been considered to play a major role in the transmission of Schistosoma japonicum to humans. Methods and Findings A miracidial hatching technique was used to investigate the prevalence of S. japonicum infections in domestic ruminants and field feces collected from two towns located to the south and east of Dongting Lake, Hunan province, between 2005 and 2010. The overall prevalence of infection was not significantly reduced from 4.93% in 2005 to 3.64% in 2008, after which it was maintained at this level. Bovines comprised 23.5–58.2% of the total infected ruminants, while goats comprised 41.8–76.5%. Infection rates in cattle and goats were significantly higher than those found in buffalo in most study years. The prevalence in buffalo younger than three years was significantly higher than that in those aged over three years. All the positive field samples of feces were derived from bovines in Nandashan. In Matang Town, 61.22% of the positive field feces were from bovines, while the rest were from goats. The positive rates for field feces were approximately the same in April and November/October. Conclusions The present study found that bovines and goats are major sources of S. japonicum infection in the Dongting lake region and there was age-related resistance in buffalo. Both bovines and goats should be treated equally when controlling S. japonicum infections in the Dongting lake region. It is essential to conduct an additional mass treatment in late March or early April, in addition to the original treatment scheme. PMID:22359638

  19. Desert disturbance assessments of regional oil exploitation by Aster and ETM+ images in Taklimakan Desert China.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Wei; Hao, Fang-Hua; Fu, Yongshuo; Zhang, Jiaxun

    2008-09-01

    To feed its rapidly growing energy demand, oil exploitation in China has never been more intensive. The most obvious characteristics of oil exploitation are progressive and regional, which can be monitored by remote sensing, such as land use and cover change, either perpetual or temporary, during oil field development such as construction of oil well, roads, transportation systems and other facilities. In this paper, the oil field located on the north edge of Taklimakan Desert, in the Tarim River watershed in northwest of China. The disturbance effects of regional oil exploitation were the main content of regional environmental managements and monitoring. Based on Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Aster images, analyzed regional land use and landscape change from 2001 to 2003. By the comparison, it can be concluded that the ecological quality was deteriorating in these 3 years. The woodland was degrading to grass and desert. The area of woodland dropped from 9.06 km(2) in 2001 to 3.24 km(2) in 2003 with a 64.23% decrease. At the same time, the area of shrubbery lessened 18.23%. On the other hand, the whole area of desert and Saline soils inflated from 15.08 km(2) in 2001 to 25.36 km(2) in 2003. The patch number of bare land did climb dramatically, but single patch area increased. The research demonstrated that desert and Saline soils patches were activated by the human behavior and climate change. The information from the ETM+ and Aster images was proved be an effective and efficient way to be applied in regional environmental managements.

  20. Characterization of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome in rural regions of Zhejiang, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Ye, Ling; Ojcius, David M; Lou, Xiuyu; Wang, Chengwei; feng, Cen; Sun, Yi; Wang, Zhongfa; Li, Shibo; Zhang, Yanjun

    2014-01-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) infections have recently been found in rural regions of Zhejiang. A severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) surveillance and sero-epidemiological investigation was conducted in the districts with outbreaks. During the study period of 2011-2014, a total of 51 SFTSV infection cases were identified and the case fatality rate was 12% (6/51). Ninety two percent of the patients (47/51) were over 50 years of age, and 63% (32/51) of laboratory confirmed cases occurred from May to July. Nine percent (11/120) of the serum samples from local healthy people without symptoms were found to be positive for antibodies to the SFTS virus. SFTSV strains were isolated by culture using Vero, and the whole genomic sequences of two SFTSV strains (01 and Zhao) were sequenced and submitted to the GenBank. Homology analysis showed that the similarity of the target nucleocapsid gene from the SFTSV strains from different geographic areas was 94.2-100%. From the constructed phylogenetic tree, it was found that all the SFTSV strains diverged into two main clusters. Only the SFTSV strains from the Zhejiang (Daishan) region of China and the Yamaguchi, Miyazakj regions of Japan, were clustered into lineage II, consistent with both of these regions being isolated areas with similar geographic features. Two out of eight predicted linear B cell epitopes from the nucleocapsid protein showed mutations between the SFTSV strains of different clusters, but did not contribute to the binding ability of the specific SFTSV antibodies. This study confirmed that SFTSV has been circulating naturally and can cause a seasonal prevalence in Daishan, China. The results also suggest that the molecular characteristics of SFTSV are associated with the geographic region and all SFTSV strains can be divided into two genotypes.

  1. The statistical significance test of regional climate change caused by land use and land cover variation in West China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. J.; Shi, W. L.; Chen, X. H.

    2006-05-01

    The West Development Policy being implemented in China is causing significant land use and land cover (LULC) changes in West China. With the up-to-date satellite database of the Global Land Cover Characteristics Database (GLCCD) that characterizes the lower boundary conditions, the regional climate model RIEMS-TEA is used to simulate possible impacts of the significant LULC variation. The model was run for five continuous three-month periods from 1 June to 1 September of 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, and 1997, and the results of the five groups are examined by means of a student t-test to identify the statistical significance of regional climate variation. The main results are: (1) The regional climate is affected by the LULC variation because the equilibrium of water and heat transfer in the air-vegetation interface is changed. (2) The integrated impact of the LULC variation on regional climate is not only limited to West China where the LULC varies, but also to some areas in the model domain where the LULC does not vary at all. (3) The East Asian monsoon system and its vertical structure are adjusted by the large scale LULC variation in western China, where the consequences axe the enhancement of the westward water vapor transfer from the east east and the relevant increase of wet-hydrostatic energy in the middle-upper atmospheric layers. (4) The ecological engineering in West China affects significantly the regional climate in Northwest China, North China and the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River; there are obvious effects in South, Northeast, and Southwest China, but minor effects in Tibet.

  2. Spatial Analysis of Regional Factors and Lung Cancer Mortality in China, 1973-2013.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiaoping; Wang, Limin; Zhu, Li

    2017-02-21

    Background: China's lung cancer crude death rate has increased 6.9-fold from 1973 to 2014. During this time, the country experienced extremely rapid economic growth and social change. It is important to understand the effects of risk factors on lung cancer mortality (LCM) for better allocation of limited resources of cancer prevention and control in China.Methods: Using three nationwide mortality surveys from 1973 to 2005, Global Health Data Exchange data in 2013, three nationwide smoking surveys from 1984 to 2013, four population censuses from 1964 to 2000, and other datasets, we have compiled datasets and developed spatial random effect models to assess the association of various area-level-contributing factors on LCM. Spatial scan statistics are used to detect high-risk clusters of LCM.Results: LCM is higher in urban and more industrialized areas (RR = 1.17) compared with those in rural areas. The level of industrial development's effect is higher for men, which accounts for about 70% of all LCM. Smoking is positively associated with regional variation of LCM rates, and the effect is higher for women than for men.Conclusions: The geographic pattern of high LCM in China is different from that of Western countries. LCM is positively associated with higher socioeconomic status, with more urbanized areas at a higher level of industrial development.Impact: There is a need to further explore additional risk in the high-risk clusters. The study is about China, but this situation may happen in other countries experiencing rapid industrialization and other developing countries. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(4); 1-9. ©2017 AACR.See all the articles in this CEBP Focus section, "Geospatial Approaches to Cancer Control and Population Sciences."

  3. Distribution, regional sources and deposition fluxes of organochlorine pesticides in precipitation in Guangzhou, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, De-Yin; Peng, Ping'an; Xu, Yi-Gang; Sun, Cui-Xiang; Deng, Hong-Mei; Deng, Yun-Yun

    2010-07-01

    We analyzed rainwater collected from multiple sites, Guangzhou, China, from March to August 2005, with the aim to characterize the distribution, regional sources and deposition fluxes of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in South China. Eight species of organochlorine pesticide were detected, including hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), and endosulfans. Volume-weighted mean monthly total concentrations varied from 3.65 ± 0.95 to 9.37 ± 2.63 ng L - 1 , and the estimated total wet deposition flux was about 11.43 ± 3.27 µg m - 2 during the monitoring period. Pesticides were mainly detected in the dissolved phase. Distribution coefficients between particulate and dissolved phases in March and April were generally higher than in other months. HCHs, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT in precipitation were attributed to both the residues and present usage of insecticides in Pearl River Delta. The concentrations of p,p'-DDD + p,p'-DDT were relatively high from April to August, which were related to the usage of antifouling paints containing DDT for fishing ships in seaports of the South China Sea in summer. In contrast, endosulfans were relatively high in March, which was related to their seasonal atmospheric transport from cotton fields in eastern China by the Asian winter monsoon. The consistency of the variation of endosulfans, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT concentrations with the alternation of summer and winter monsoon suggested that the Asian monsoon played an important role in the long-range transport of OCPs. In addition, the wet deposition of OCPs may influence not only Pearl River water but also the surface land distributions of pesticides in the Guangzhou area, especially for endosulfans, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT.

  4. Effect of acute and chronic administration of methamphetamine on activator protein-1 binding activities in the rat brain regions.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, K; Ishihara, T; Kashihara, K

    1996-10-31

    The activator protein-1 (AP-1) binding activities in the three brain regions (striatum, nucleus accumbens, cingulate cortex) increased after a single methamphetamine (METH, 4 mg/kg) injection and reached maximum levels after 180 min. Pretreatment with SCH 23390 (0.5 mg/kg), a selective dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, significantly inhibited the enhanced AP-1 binding activities induced by acute METH (4 mg/kg) administration. In chronic experiments, rats were pretreated with METH (4 mg/kg) or saline for 14 days. The AP-1 binding activities after a 1-week abstinence from chronic administration of MAP increased significantly in all the brain regions compared with those of the saline-treated controls, whereas after a 4-week abstinence, the AP-1 binding activity decreased significantly in the cingulate cortex, but not striatum or nucleus accumbens, compared with the saline-treated control group. A METH challenge after a 4-week abstinence period induced significantly more intense stereotypy, but lower AP-1 binding activities in all the brain regions of rats treated with repeated METH than repeated saline injections. The super-shift assay revealed that after a 1- or 4-week abstinence, there was no significant difference between the Fos-related antigens (Fras) contents of the saline- and METH-treated groups in any brain region examined, and that the Jun family protein levels of the METH-treated group increased significantly in the striatum and nucleus accumbens after a 1-, but not 4-, week abstinence. These results suggest that chronic METH administration leads to delayed decay of the induced AP-1 binding activities and Jun component levels after abstinence for up to 1 week, but results in no change in or decreases these activities and attenuates METH challenge-induced AP-1 binding activities after abstinence for 4 weeks.

  5. Regional Interstate Planning Project Program . . . Vol. V. Educational Administrative Renewal. Seminar Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Jake, Ed.; Dearmin, Evalyn, Ed.

    The Regional Interstate Planning Project (RIPP) is composed of representatives from ten state departments of education who meet periodically to discuss topical educational issues of general concern. RIPP member states include Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, and Oklahoma. This particular booklet reports…

  6. Geological hazards in loess terrain, with particular reference to the loess regions of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derbyshire, Edward

    2001-06-01

    The considerable morphodynamic energy provided by the continuing tectonic evolution of Asia is expressed in high erosional potentials and very high rates of sediment production that make this continent unequalled as a terrestrial source of primary silt. Many of these environments are hazardous, threatening human occupation, health and livelihood, especially in regions of dense population such as the loess lands of north China. Dry loess can sustain nearly vertical slopes, being perennially under-saturated. However, when locally saturated, it disaggregates instantaneously. Such hydrocompaction is a key process in many slope failures, made worse by an underlying mountainous terrain of low-porosity rocks. Gully erosion of loess may yield very high sediment concentrations (>60% by weight). Characteristic vertical jointing in loess influences the hydrology. Enlarged joints develop into natural sub-surface piping systems, which on collapse, produce a "loess karst" terrain. Collapsible loess up to 20 m thick is common on the western Loess Plateau. Foundation collapse and cracked walls are common, many rapid events following periods of unusually heavy monsoonal rain. Slope failure is a major engineering problem in thick loess terrain, flow-slide and spread types being common. The results are often devastating in both urban and rural areas. An associated hazard is the damming of streams by landslides. The human population increases the landslide risk in China, notably through imprudent land-use practices including careless water management. A number of environmentally related endemic diseases arise from the geochemistry of loess and its groundwaters, including fluorosis, cretinism, Kaschin-Beck Disease, Keshan Disease and goitre. The Chinese desert margins also have a major atmospheric dust problem. The effect of such dust upon human health in these extensive regions, including many large cities, has yet to be evaluated, but pneumoconiosis is thought to affect several

  7. Carbon Storage in an Extensive Karst-distributed Region of Southwestern China based on Multiple Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, C.; Wu, Y.; Yang, H.; Ni, J.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate estimation of carbon storage is crucial to better understand the processes of global and regional carbon cycles and to more precisely project ecological and economic scenarios for the future. Southwestern China has broadly and continuously distribution of karst landscapes with harsh and fragile habitats which might lead to rocky desertification, an ecological disaster which has significantly hindered vegetation succession and economic development in karst regions of southwestern China. In this study we evaluated the carbon storage in eight political divisions of southwestern China based on four methods: forest inventory, carbon density based on field investigations, CASA model driven by remote sensing data, and BIOME4/LPJ global vegetation models driven by climate data. The results show that: (1) The total vegetation carbon storage (including agricultural ecosystem) is 6763.97 Tg C based on the carbon density, and the soil organic carbon (SOC) storage (above 20cm depth) is 12475.72 Tg C. Sichuan Province (including Chongqing) possess the highest carbon storage in both vegetation and soil (1736.47 Tg C and 4056.56 Tg C, respectively) among the eight political divisions because of the higher carbon density and larger distribution area. The vegetation carbon storage in Hunan Province is the smallest (565.30 Tg C), and the smallest SOC storage (1127.40 Tg C) is in Guangdong Province; (2) Based on forest inventory data, the total aboveground carbon storage in the woody vegetation is 2103.29 Tg C. The carbon storage in Yunnan Province (819.01 Tg C) is significantly higher than other areas while tropical rainforests and seasonal forests in Yunnan contribute the maximum of the woody vegetation carbon storage (account for 62.40% of the total). (3) The net primary production (NPP) simulated by the CASA model is 68.57 Tg C/yr, while the forest NPP in the non-karst region (account for 72.50% of the total) is higher than that in the karst region. (4) BIOME4 and LPJ

  8. Feasibility of estimating rice planting area of hilly region in southern China using remote sensing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Geying; Yang, Xingwei

    1998-08-01

    The objective of the study (Zhejiang province as study area) was to estimate rice planting area of hilly region in southern part of China by remote sensing technique with NOAA/AVHRR data. The research contents mainly concerned contrast tests on practical approaches, both digital elevation model (DEM) and digital slope model (DSM) derived from the digital relief map were used for the purpose of improving the classification accuracy of AVHRR imagery in large-area hilly region. The results indicated that the accuracy of maximum-likelihood (MLH) classification could satisfy the professional requirements of estimating rice planting area and fuzzy supervised classification based on unmixing AVHRR imagery has better classification accuracy and stability than MLH. In addition, the results through using both DEM and DSM as ancillary categorization data suggests DSM may improve the results of extracting paddy field signatures from AVHRR, particularly may improve the spatial accuracy, while DEM contribute nothing to improve the accuracy mentioned above.

  9. Differentiation of mint (Mentha haplocalyx Briq.) from different regions in China using gas and liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wenjiang; Ni, Yongnian; Kokot, Serge

    2015-02-01

    In this study, complex substances such as Mint (Mentha haplocalyx Briq.) samples from different growing regions in China were analyzed for phenolic compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and for the volatile aroma compounds by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Chemometrics methods, e.g. principal component analysis, back-propagation artificial neural networks, and partial least squares discriminant analysis, were applied to resolve complex chromatographic profiles of Mint samples. A total of 49 aroma components and 23 phenolic compounds were identified in 79 Mint samples. Principal component analysis score plots from gas chromatography with mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection data sets showed a clear distinction among Mint from three different regions in China. Classification results showed that satisfactory performance of prediction ability for back-propagation artificial neural networks and partial least squares discriminant analysis. The major compounds that contributed to the discrimination were chlorogenic acid, unknown 3, kaempherol 7-O-rutinoside, salvianolic acid L, hesperidin, diosmetin, unknown 6 and pebrellin in Mint according to regression coefficients of the partial least squares discriminant analysis model. This study indicated that the proposed strategy could provide a simple and rapid technique to distinguish clearly complex profiles from samples such as Mint.

  10. Physical and virtual water transfers for regional water stress alleviation in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xu; Liu, Junguo; Liu, Qingying; Tillotson, Martin R; Guan, Dabo; Hubacek, Klaus

    2015-01-27

    Water can be redistributed through, in physical terms, water transfer projects and virtually, embodied water for the production of traded products. Here, we explore whether such water redistributions can help mitigate water stress in China. This study, for the first time to our knowledge, both compiles a full inventory for physical water transfers at a provincial level and maps virtual water flows between Chinese provinces in 2007 and 2030. Our results show that, at the national level, physical water flows because of the major water transfer projects amounted to 4.5% of national water supply, whereas virtual water flows accounted for 35% (varies between 11% and 65% at the provincial level) in 2007. Furthermore, our analysis shows that both physical and virtual water flows do not play a major role in mitigating water stress in the water-receiving regions but exacerbate water stress for the water-exporting regions of China. Future water stress in the main water-exporting provinces is likely to increase further based on our analysis of the historical trajectory of the major governing socioeconomic and technical factors and the full implementation of policy initiatives relating to water use and economic development. Improving water use efficiency is key to mitigating water stress, but the efficiency gains will be largely offset by the water demand increase caused by continued economic development. We conclude that much greater attention needs to be paid to water demand management rather than the current focus on supply-oriented management.

  11. Physical and virtual water transfers for regional water stress alleviation in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xu; Liu, Junguo; Liu, Qingying; Tillotson, Martin R.; Guan, Dabo; Hubacek, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Water can be redistributed through, in physical terms, water transfer projects and virtually, embodied water for the production of traded products. Here, we explore whether such water redistributions can help mitigate water stress in China. This study, for the first time to our knowledge, both compiles a full inventory for physical water transfers at a provincial level and maps virtual water flows between Chinese provinces in 2007 and 2030. Our results show that, at the national level, physical water flows because of the major water transfer projects amounted to 4.5% of national water supply, whereas virtual water flows accounted for 35% (varies between 11% and 65% at the provincial level) in 2007. Furthermore, our analysis shows that both physical and virtual water flows do not play a major role in mitigating water stress in the water-receiving regions but exacerbate water stress for the water-exporting regions of China. Future water stress in the main water-exporting provinces is likely to increase further based on our analysis of the historical trajectory of the major governing socioeconomic and technical factors and the full implementation of policy initiatives relating to water use and economic development. Improving water use efficiency is key to mitigating water stress, but the efficiency gains will be largely offset by the water demand increase caused by continued economic development. We conclude that much greater attention needs to be paid to water demand management rather than the current focus on supply-oriented management. PMID:25583516

  12. Assessing the impact of urbanization on regional net primary productivity in Jiangyin County, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, C; Liu, M; An, S; Chen, J M; Yan, P

    2007-11-01

    Urbanization is one of the most important aspects of global change. The process of urbanization has a significant impact on the terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycle. The Yangtze Delta region has one of the highest rates of urbanization in China. In this study, carried out in Jiangyin County as a representative region within the Yangtze Delta, land use and land cover changes were estimated using Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery. With these satellite data and the BEPS process model (Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator), the impacts of urbanization on regional net primary productivity (NPP) and annual net primary production were assessed for 1991 and 2002. Landsat-based land cover maps in 1991 and 2002 showed that urban development encroached large areas of cropland and forest. Expansion of residential areas and reduction of vegetated areas were the major forms of land transformation in Jiangyin County during this period. Mean NPP of the total area decreased from 818 to 699 gCm(-2)yr(-1) during the period of 1991 to 2002. NPP of cropland was only reduced by 2.7% while forest NPP was reduced by 9.3%. Regional annual primary production decreased from 808 GgC in 1991 to 691 GgC in 2002, a reduction of 14.5%. Land cover changes reduced regional NPP directly, and the increasing intensity and frequency of human-induced disturbance in the urbanized areas could be the main reason for the decrease in forest NPP.

  13. Habitat assessment for giant pandas in the Qinling Mountain region of China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feng, Tian-Tian; Van Manen, Frank T.; Zhao, Na-Xun; Li, Ming; Wei, Fu-Wen

    2009-01-01

    Because habitat loss and fragmentation threaten giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), habitat protection and restoration are important conservation measures for this endangered species. However, distribution and value of potential habitat to giant pandas on a regional scale are not fully known. Therefore, we identified and ranked giant panda habitat in Foping Nature Reserve, Guanyinshan Nature Reserve, and adjacent areas in the Qinling Mountains of China. We used Mahalanobis distance and 11 digital habitat layers to develop a multivariate habitat signature associated with 247 surveyed giant panda locations, which we then applied to the study region. We identified approximately 128 km2 of giant panda habitat in Foping Nature Reserve (43.6% of the reserve) and 49 km2 in Guanyinshan Nature Reserve (33.6% of the reserve). We defined core habitat areas by incorporating a minimum patch-size criterion (5.5 km2) based on home-range size. Percentage of core habitat area was higher in Foping Nature Reserve (41.8% of the reserve) than Guanyinshan Nature Reserve (26.3% of the reserve). Within the larger analysis region, Foping Nature Reserve contained 32.7% of all core habitat areas we identified, indicating regional importance of the reserve. We observed a negative relationship between distribution of core areas and presence of roads and small villages. Protection of giant panda habitat at lower elevations and improvement of habitat linkages among core habitat areas are important in a regional approach to giant panda conservation.

  14. Regional and Global Climate Response to Anthropogenic SO2 Emissions from China in Three Climate Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasoar, M.; Voulgarakis, Apostolos; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Shindell, Drew T.; Bellouin, Nicholas; Collins, William J.; Faluvegi, Greg; Tsigaridis, Kostas

    2016-01-01

    We use the HadGEM3-GA4, CESM1, and GISS ModelE2 climate models to investigate the global and regional aerosol burden, radiative flux, and surface temperature responses to removing anthropogenic sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from China. We find that the models differ by up to a factor of 6 in the simulated change in aerosol optical depth (AOD) and shortwave radiative flux over China that results from reduced sulfate aerosol, leading to a large range of magnitudes in the regional and global temperature responses. Two of the three models simulate a near-ubiquitous hemispheric warming due to the regional SO2 removal, with similarities in the local and remote pattern of response, but overall with a substantially different magnitude. The third model simulates almost no significant temperature response. We attribute the discrepancies in the response to a combination of substantial differences in the chemical conversion of SO2 to sulfate, translation of sulfate mass into AOD, cloud radiative interactions, and differences in the radiative forcing efficiency of sulfate aerosol in the models. The model with the strongest response (HadGEM3-GA4) compares best with observations of AOD regionally, however the other two models compare similarly (albeit poorly) and still disagree substantially in their simulated climate response, indicating that total AOD observations are far from sufficient to determine which model response is more plausible. Our results highlight that there remains a large uncertainty in the representation of both aerosol chemistry as well as direct and indirect aerosol radiative effects in current climate models, and reinforces that caution must be applied when interpreting the results of modelling studies of aerosol influences on climate. Model studies that implicate aerosols in climate responses should ideally explore a range of radiative forcing strengths representative of this uncertainty, in addition to thoroughly evaluating the models used against

  15. Regional and global temperature response to anthropogenic SO2 emissions from China in three climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasoar, Matthew; Voulgarakis, Apostolos; Lamarque, Jean-François; Shindell, Drew T.; Bellouin, Nicolas; Collins, William J.; Faluvegi, Greg; Tsigaridis, Kostas

    2016-08-01

    We use the HadGEM3-GA4, CESM1, and GISS ModelE2 climate models to investigate the global and regional aerosol burden, radiative flux, and surface temperature responses to removing anthropogenic sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from China. We find that the models differ by up to a factor of 6 in the simulated change in aerosol optical depth (AOD) and shortwave radiative flux over China that results from reduced sulfate aerosol, leading to a large range of magnitudes in the regional and global temperature responses. Two of the three models simulate a near-ubiquitous hemispheric warming due to the regional SO2 removal, with similarities in the local and remote pattern of response, but overall with a substantially different magnitude. The third model simulates almost no significant temperature response. We attribute the discrepancies in the response to a combination of substantial differences in the chemical conversion of SO2 to sulfate, translation of sulfate mass into AOD, cloud radiative interactions, and differences in the radiative forcing efficiency of sulfate aerosol in the models. The model with the strongest response (HadGEM3-GA4) compares best with observations of AOD regionally, however the other two models compare similarly (albeit poorly) and still disagree substantially in their simulated climate response, indicating that total AOD observations are far from sufficient to determine which model response is more plausible. Our results highlight that there remains a large uncertainty in the representation of both aerosol chemistry as well as direct and indirect aerosol radiative effects in current climate models, and reinforces that caution must be applied when interpreting the results of modelling studies of aerosol influences on climate. Model studies that implicate aerosols in climate responses should ideally explore a range of radiative forcing strengths representative of this uncertainty, in addition to thoroughly evaluating the models used against

  16. Four new species of Tanycarpa (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae) from the Palaearctic Region and new records of species from China.

    PubMed

    Yao, Junli; Kula, Robert R; Wharton, Robert A; Chen, Jiahua

    2015-05-14

    Four new species of Tanycarpa (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae), T. gymnonotum Yao sp. n., T. similis Yao sp. n., T. areolata Yao sp. n., and T. lineata Yao sp. n., are described from the Palaearctic Region of China, and T. chors Belokobylskij is newly recorded from China. Significant range extensions are given for T. bicolor (Nees von Esenbeck), T. gracilicornis (Nees von Esenbeck), and T. mitis Stelfox. A key to the Palaearctic species of Tanycarpa is provided.

  17. China’s Great Game in Central Asia: Implications to U.S. Policy in the Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    Based on this adversarial relationship the border areas of western China were closed off and relations between Central Asia (under the control of...the Soviet Union) and China were virtually ended. By the late 1980s a cooling off of hostilities between the two nations led to a renovation of...of the U.S. presence in the region. The two events that changed this perception were the Tulip Revolution in Kyrgyzstan in March 2005, and the

  18. Estimation of regional evapotranspiration for clear sky days over the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Y.; Stisen, S.; Sandholt, I.; Jensen, K. H.

    2009-04-01

    The triangle method combined with thermal inertia for estimation of regional evapotranspiration based on Feng Yun-2C(FY-2C) satellite data and MODIS products over the North China Plain is presented. FY-2C, China's first operational geostationary meteorological satellite which features 5 spectral bands (1 VIS and 4 IR), can acquire one full disc image of China (60° N - 60° S ,45° E - 165° E) per hour every day. Two thermal red channels (IR1: 10.3-11.3 μm) and (IR2:11.5-12.5 μm) were used for surface temperature estimation using a split window algorithm originally proposed for the MSG-SEVIRI sensor assuming the channel response function range of the two split-window channels for MSG SEVIRI and FY-2C are similar and that the center of channels are the same. For application of the improved triangle method taking thermal inertia into account, the surface-air temperature gradient in the Ts-NDVI space, was replaced by the surface temperature temporal change estimated from the Land Surface Temperature at hours 8:00 and 12:00 in local time (ΔTs). Combined with the 16 days composite MODIS Vegetation Indices product (MOD 13) at spatial resolution of 5 km, evaporative fraction was estimated by interpolation in the ΔTs-NDVI triangular-shaped parameter space. Subsequently, regional actual evapotranspiration was estimated based on the derived evaporative fraction and available energy estimated from satellite data. In the piedmont plain with high NDVI and low ΔTs, evapotranspiration rate is high because of irrigation of winter wheat. In the coastal plain NDVI is low and also ΔTs is low as high evapotranspiration rates are sustained water supply from shallow water table. Ground-based measurements of evapotranspiration were retrieved from a lysimeter at the Luancheng eco-agricultural station of China Academy of Sciences. These data are representative for evapotranspiration in the piedmont plain and were used for validation of the actual evapotranspiration retrievals from

  19. Differential regional development of tolerance to increase in dopamine turnover upon repeated neuroleptic administration.

    PubMed

    Scatton, B

    1977-12-15

    Repeated treatment with haloperidol and sulpiride induced tolerance to the increases in homovanillic and dihydroxyphenyl acetic acids in the striatum, nucleus accumbens, tuberculum olfactorium and frontal cortex of the rat. The threshold dose inducing this effect appeared to be lower in the striatum than in the limbic regions. Similar results were found in the frontal cortex by measuring dopamine utilization. Moreover, tolerance developed earlier in the striatum than in the limbic areas. The possible reasons are discussed for the differential development of tolerance in the various DA areas investigated.

  20. [Comprehensive evaluation of eco-tourism resources in Yichun forest region of Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Huang, Maozhu; Hu, Haiqing; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Lijun

    2006-11-01

    By using analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and Delphi method, a total of 30 representative evaluation factors in the aspects of tourism resources quantity, environmental quantity, tourism conditions, and tourism functions were chosen to build up a comprehensive quantitative evaluation model to evaluate the eco-tourism resources of Yichun forest region in Northeast China. The results showed that in Yichun forest region, the natural eco-tourism resources were superior to the humanity resources. On the regional distribution of favorable level eco-tourism resources quantity, 4 sites were very prominent, i.e., north (Jiayin) -center (Yichun) -east (Jinshantun) -south (Tieli). As for the distribution of eco-tourism resources type, it was basically in the sequence of north (Jiayin, Tangwang River, Wuying) -center (Yichun, Shangganling) -east (Jinshantun, Meixi) -south (Teli, Dailing). Based on the above analyses, Yichun forest region could be divided into four tourism areas, i.e., the south, the east, the central, and the north. Aimed at the special features of each area, the initial development directions were introduced.

  1. Mercury emission inventory and its spatial characteristics in the Pearl River Delta region, China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Junyu; Ou, Jiamin; Mo, Ziwei; Yin, Shasha

    2011-12-15

    A 3 km × 3 km gridded mercury emission inventory in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region for 2008 was compiled from the best available emission factors and official statistical data. The inventory presented a comprehensive estimation of anthropogenic mercury sources and roughly estimated the emissions from natural sources. The total mercury emissions in the PRD region for the year of 2008 are estimated to be 17,244 kg, of which 85% released as Hg(0), 11% as Hg(2+), and 4% as Hg(P). Anthropogenic activities are dominant sources, accounting for 91% of the total emissions, while natural sources constitute the remaining emissions. Ranking by cities, Foshan produces the largest mercury emissions, followed by Dongguan, Guangzhou and Jiangmen. Coal combustion, municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration, fluorescent lamp and battery production are dominant contributors, responsible for 28%, 21%, 19% and 16% of the anthropogenic emissions, respectively. The high contribution of MSW incineration results from the rapid growth of MSW incineration in this region, reflecting a new trend of mercury emissions in China, especially in the fast developing regions. This implies the urgent need for further investigation of mercury emissions and the importance of controlling mercury emissions from MSW incineration.

  2. Using species distribution modeling to delineate the botanical richness patterns and phytogeographical regions of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ming-Gang; Slik, J. W. Ferry; Ma, Ke-Ping

    2016-03-01

    The millions of plant specimens that have been collected and stored in Chinese herbaria over the past ~110 years have recently been digitized and geo-referenced. Here we use this unique collection data set for species distribution modeling exercise aiming at mapping & explaining the botanical richness; delineating China’s phytogeographical regions and investigating the environmental drivers of the dissimilarity patterns. We modeled distributions of 6,828 woody plants using MaxEnt and remove the collection bias using null model. The continental China was divided into different phytogeographical regions based on the dissimilarity patterns. An ordination and Getis-Ord Gi* hotspot spatial statistics were used to analysis the environmental drivers of the dissimilarity patterns. We found that the annual precipitation and temperature stability were responsible for observed species diversity. The mechanisms causing dissimilarity pattern seems differ among biogeographical regions. The identified environmental drivers of the dissimilarity patterns for southeast, southwest, northwest and northeast are annual precipitation, topographic & temperature stability, water deficit and temperature instability, respectively. For effective conservation of China’s plant diversity, identifying the historical refuge and protection of high diversity areas in each of the identified floristic regions and their subdivisions will be essential.

  3. New debris flow mitigation measures in southern Gansu, China: a case study of the Zhouqu Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Muqi; Meng, Xingmin; Li, Yajun

    2014-05-01

    A devastating debris flow occurred in Zhouqu of Gansu Province, China, on 8th August 2010, resulting in a catastrophic disaster, with 1463 people being perished. The debris flow valleys, as other numerous debris valleys in the mountainous region, had preventive engineering constructions, such as check dames, properly designed based on common engineering practices for safe guiding the town located right on the debris flow fan. However, failures of such preventive measures often cause even heavier disasters than those that have no human interactions, as the mitigations give a false safety impression. Given such a weird situation and in order to explore a much more effective disaster prevention strategy against debris flows in the mountainous region, this paper makes a comparative study based on two cases in the area of which one had preventive structures and one hasn't. The result shows that inappropriate mitigation measures that have commonly been applying in the disaster reduction practices in the region are of questionable. It is concluded that going with the nature and following with the natural rules are the best strategy for disaster reduction in the region. Key words: debris flow disasters, disaster reduction strategy, preventive measures

  4. Using species distribution modeling to delineate the botanical richness patterns and phytogeographical regions of China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ming-Gang; Slik, J. W. Ferry; Ma, Ke-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The millions of plant specimens that have been collected and stored in Chinese herbaria over the past ~110 years have recently been digitized and geo-referenced. Here we use this unique collection data set for species distribution modeling exercise aiming at mapping & explaining the botanical richness; delineating China’s phytogeographical regions and investigating the environmental drivers of the dissimilarity patterns. We modeled distributions of 6,828 woody plants using MaxEnt and remove the collection bias using null model. The continental China was divided into different phytogeographical regions based on the dissimilarity patterns. An ordination and Getis-Ord Gi* hotspot spatial statistics were used to analysis the environmental drivers of the dissimilarity patterns. We found that the annual precipitation and temperature stability were responsible for observed species diversity. The mechanisms causing dissimilarity pattern seems differ among biogeographical regions. The identified environmental drivers of the dissimilarity patterns for southeast, southwest, northwest and northeast are annual precipitation, topographic & temperature stability, water deficit and temperature instability, respectively. For effective conservation of China’s plant diversity, identifying the historical refuge and protection of high diversity areas in each of the identified floristic regions and their subdivisions will be essential. PMID:26928763

  5. China.

    PubMed

    1980-05-01

    China's census, scheduled for July 1, 1981, will be preceded by a pilot census at the end of the next month. According to Mr. Y.C. Yu, Statistician in the Demographic and Social Statistics Branch of the UN, the pretest will be held in Wu Xi, a resort area of about 1.6 million persons about a 2-hour train ride west of Shanghai. Mr. Yu and Mr. Varon Kannisto will be UN observers of the pilot census. The method of enumeration will be similar to that used in the 1953 and 1964 censuses, said Mr. Yu. Each head of household will report to an enumeration station to provide information on the characteristics of household members. The questionnaire will contain about 13 items, which will be asked of 100% of the population. The 5 million enumerators will be teachers, accountants, and others, generally residents of the local area in which they will act as enumerators. Census data will be processed by computers in each of the 29 provinces and autonomous regions. The UNFPA is providing computers, data entry and ancillary equipment, software and supplies, advisory services, and training in census methods and data processing. The computers supplied by IBM will be the 4300 series; a model 4341 will be installed at the State Statistical Bureau in Beijing and 15 model 4331s will go to individual provinces. Results of earlier censuses were processed manually and with the abacus. UNFPA also plans to provide support for the analysis of census data and for their dissemination to appropriate organizations and departments in China.

  6. Chronic heroin self-administration desensitizes mu opioid receptor-activated G-proteins in specific regions of rat brain.

    PubMed

    Sim-Selley, L J; Selley, D E; Vogt, L J; Childers, S R; Martin, T J

    2000-06-15

    In previous studies from our laboratory, chronic noncontingent morphine administration decreased mu opioid receptor-activated G-proteins in specific brainstem nuclei. In the present study, mu opioid receptor binding and receptor-activated G-proteins were examined after chronic heroin self-administration. Rats were trained to self-administer intravenous heroin for up to 39 d, achieving heroin intake up to 366 mg. kg(-1). d(-1). mu opioid-stimulated [(35)S]GTPgammaS and [(3)H]naloxone autoradiography were performed in adjacent brain sections. Agonist-stimulated [(35)S]GTPgammaS autoradiography also examined other G-protein-coupled receptors, including delta opioid, ORL-1, GABA(B), adenosine A(1), cannabinoid, and 5-HT(1A). In brains from heroin self-administering rats, decreased mu opioid-stimulated [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding was observed in periaqueductal gray, locus coeruleus, lateral parabrachial nucleus, and commissural nucleus tractus solitarius, as previously observed in chronic morphine-treated animals. In addition, decreased mu opioid-stimulated [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding was found in thalamus and amygdala after heroin self-administration. Despite this decrease in mu-activated G-proteins, [(3)H]naloxone binding demonstrated increased mu opioid receptor binding in several brain regions after heroin self-administration, and there was a significant decrease in mu receptor G-protein efficiency as expressed as a ratio between agonist-activated G-proteins and mu receptor binding. No effects on agonist-stimulated [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding were found for any other receptor examined. The effect of chronic heroin self-administration to decrease mu-stimulated [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding varied between regions and was highest in brainstem and lowest in the cortex and striatum. These results not only provide potential neuronal mechanisms that may contribute to opioid tolerance and dependence, but also may explain why various chronic effects of opioids develop to different degrees.

  7. The Mesoscale Heavy Rainfall Observing System (MHROS) over the middle region of the Yangtze River in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Chunguang; Wan, Rong; Wang, Bin; Dong, Xiquan; Li, Hongli; Wang, Xiaokang; Xu, Guirong; Wang, Xiaofang; Wang, Yehong; Xiao, Yanjiao; Zhou, Zhimin; Fu, Zhikang; Wan, Xia; Zhang, Wengang; Peng, Tao; Leng, Liang; Stenz, Ronald; Wang, Junchao

    2015-10-01

    The Mesoscale Heavy Rainfall Observing System (MHROS), supported by the Institute of Heavy Rain (IHR), Chinese Meteorology Administration, is one of the major systems to observe mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) over the middle region of the Yangtze River in China. The IHR MHROS consists of mobile C-POL and X-POL precipitation radars, millimeter wavelength cloud radar, fixed S-band precipitation radars, GPS network, microwave radiometers, radio soundings, wind profiler radars, and disdrometers. The atmospheric variables observed or retrieved by these instruments include the profiles of atmospheric temperature, moisture, wind speed and direction, vertical structures of MCS clouds and precipitation, atmospheric water vapor, and cloud liquid water. These quality-controlled observations and retrievals have been used in mesoscale numerical weather prediction to improve the accuracy of weather forecasting and MCS research since 2007. These long-term observations have provided the most comprehensive data sets for researchers to investigate the formation-dissipation processes of MCSs and for modelers to improve their simulations of MCSs. As the first paper of a series, we briefly introduce the IHR MHROS and describe the specifications of its major instruments. Then, we provide an integrative analysis of the IHR MHROS observations for a heavy rain case on 3-5 July 2014 as well as the application of IHR MHROS observations in improving the model simulations. In a series of papers, we will tentatively answer several key scientific questions related to the MCS and Meiyu frontal systems over the middle region of the Yangtze River using the IHR MHROS observations.

  8. Tsunami Simulations for Regional Sources in the South China and Adjoining Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okal, Emile A.; Synolakis, Costas E.; Kalligeris, Nikos

    2011-06-01

    We present 14 scenarios of potential tsunamis in the South China Sea and its adjoining basins, the Sulu and Sulawezi Seas. The sources consist of earthquake dislocations inspired by the the study of historical events, either recorded (since 1900) or described in historical documents going back to 1604. We consider worst-case scenarios, where the size of the earthquake is not limited by the largest known event, but merely by the dimension of the basin over which a coherent fault may propagate. While such scenarios are arguably improbable, they may not be impossible, and as such must be examined. For each scenario, we present a simulation of the tsunami's propagation in the marine basin, exclusive of its interaction with the coastline. Our results show that the South China, Sulu and Sulawezi Seas make up three largely independent basins where tsunamis generated in one basin do not leak into another. Similarly, the Sunda arc provides an efficient barrier to tsunamis originating in the Indian Ocean. Furthermore, the shallow continental shelves in the Java Sea, the Gulf of Thailand and the western part of the South China Sea significantly dampen the amplitude of the waves. The eastern shores of the Malay Peninsula are threatened only by the greatest—and most improbable—of our sources, a mega-earthquake rupturing all of the Luzon Trench. We also consider two models of underwater landslides (which can be triggered by smaller events, even in an intraplate setting). These sources, for which there is both historical and geological evidence, could pose a significant threat to all shorelines in the region, including the Malay Peninsula.

  9. Trace elements in particulate matter from metropolitan regions of Northern China: Sources, concentrations and size distributions.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuepeng; Tian, Shili; Li, Xingru; Sun, Ying; Li, Yi; Wentworth, Gregory R; Wang, Yuesi

    2015-12-15

    Public concerns over airborne trace elements (TEs) in metropolitan areas are increasing, but long-term and multi-site observations of size-resolved aerosol TEs in China are still lacking. Here, we identify highly elevated levels of atmospheric TEs in megacities and industrial sites in a Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration relative to background areas, with the annual mean values of As, Pb, Ni, Cd and Mn exceeding the acceptable limits of the World Health Organization. Despite the spatial variability in concentrations, the size distribution pattern of each trace element was quite similar across the region. Crustal elements of Al and Fe were mainly found in coarse particles (2.1-9 μm), whereas the main fraction of toxic metals, such as Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd and Pb, was found in submicron particles (<1.1 μm). These toxic metals were enriched by over 100-fold relative to the Earth's crust. The size distributions of Na, Mg, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Mo and Ba were bimodal, with two peaks at 0.43-0.65 μm and 4.7-5.8 μm. The combination of the size distribution information, principal component analysis and air mass back trajectory model offered a robust technique for distinguishing the main sources for airborne TEs, e.g., soil dust, fossil fuel combustion and industrial emissions, at different sites. In addition, higher elemental concentrations coincided with westerly flow, indicating that polluted soil and fugitive dust were major sources of TEs on the regional scale. However, the contribution of coal burning, iron industry/oil combustion and non-ferrous smelters to atmospheric metal pollution in Northern China should be given more attention. Considering that the concentrations of heavy metals associated with fine particles in the target region were significantly higher than those in other Asian sites, the implementations of strict environmental standards in China are required to reduce the amounts of these hazardous pollutants released into the atmosphere.

  10. Integrated water resources management and water users' associations in the arid region of northwest China: a case study of farmers' perceptions.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao-Jun; Xiong, You-Cai; Li, Yong-Jin; Wang, Jian-Xin; Li, Feng-Min; Wang, Hai-Yang; Li, Lan-Lan

    2014-12-01

    Water scarcity is a critical policy issue in the arid regions of northwest China. The local government has widely adopted integrated water resources management (IWRM), but lacks support from farmers and farm communities. We undertook a case study in the Minqin oasis of northwest China to examine farmers' responses to IWRM and understand why farmer water users' associations (WUAs) are not functioning effectively at the community level. Results of quantitative and qualitative surveys of 392 farmers in 27 administrative villages showed that over 70% of farmers disapprove of the IWRM market-based reforms. In particular, the failure of farmer WUAs can be attributed to overlapping organizational structures between the WUAs and the villagers' committees; mismatches between the organizational scale of the WUAs and practical irrigation management by the farmers themselves; marginalization of rural women in water decision-making processes; and the inflexibility of IWRM implementation. An important policy implication from this study is that rebuilding farmer WUAs is key to overcoming the difficulties of IWRM. The current water governance structure, which is dominated by administrative systems, must be thoroughly reviewed to break the vicious cycle of tension and distrust between farmers and the government.

  11. Recognition of key regions for restoration of phytoplankton communities in the Huai River basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Changsen; Liu, Changming; Xia, Jun; Zhang, Yongyong; Yu, Qiang; Eamus, Derek

    2012-02-01

    SummaryHealthy phytoplankton communities are the basis of healthy water ecosystems, and form the foundation of many freshwater food webs. Globally many freshwater ecosystems are degraded because of intensive human activities, so water ecosystem restoration is a burning issue worldwide. Selection of key regions for phytoplankton-related restoration is crucial for an effective aquatic eco-restoration. This paper presents a practical method for identification of key regions for phytoplankton-related restoration, using random forests (RFs) method to cluster sites based on dominance, biodiversity, water chemistry and ecological niche. We sampled phytoplankton for species richness and relative abundance and water quality in the Huai River basin (HRB), China to determine the phytoplankton communities' composition and structure and characterize of their ecological niches. A wider mean niche breadth of a species usually leads to a greater overlap with the niche of other species. Using these data and water quality indices, we identified the key regions for phytoplankton-related river restoration activities. Results indicate that our method for recognition of key regions is effective and practical and its application to the HRB identified the Northern Plain area as the key region for restoration. This area is severely polluted and contributes significantly to the HRB phytoplankton communities. Phytoplankton in this region is highly adaptable to environmental change and therefore will be relatively unharmed by environmental instability induced by restoration measures. During restoration, indices of water temperature, total phosphorus and chemical oxygen demand can be altered with little negative influence on phytoplankton communities, but measures that increase ammonia-nitrogen concentration would be highly detrimental. These results will provide valuable information for policy makers and stakeholders in water ecosystem restoration and sustainable basin management in the HRB.

  12. Monitoring and Assessment of Regional Air Quality in China Using Space Observations (MarcoPolo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der A, Ronald; Ding, Jieying; Mijling, Bas; Bai, Jianhui

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we will present the FP7-project ’MarcoPolo’. The main objective of Marco Polo is to improve air quality monitoring, modelling and forecasting over China using satellite data. Within the preceeding DRAGON project AMFIC it was concluded that modelling of air quality are hampered by the rapidly changing emission data due to economic growth in China. In addition, air quality policies could not directly be related to changes in emissions. Therefore, within the MarcoPolo project, the focus will be placed on emission estimates from space and the refinement of these emission estimates by spatial downscaling and by source sector apportionment. A wide range of satellite data will be used from various satellite instruments to derive emission estimates for NOx, SO2, PM and biogenic sources. By combining these emission data with known information from the ground, a new emission database for MarcoPolo will be constructed. The improved emission inventory will be input to the regional and local air quality models.

  13. Monitoring and Assessment of Regional Air Quality in China Using Space Observations (MarcoPolo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van der A, Ronald; Ding, Jieying; Mijling, Bas; Bai, Jianhui

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we will present the FP7-project 'MarcoPolo'. The main objective of Marco Polo is to improve air quality monitoring, modelling and forecasting over China using satellite data. Within the preceeding DRAGON project AMFIC it was concluded that modelling of air quality are hampered by the rapidly changing emission data due to economic growth in China. In addition, air quality policies could not directly be related to changes in emissions. Therefore, within the MarcoPolo project, the focus will be placed on emission estimates from space and the refinement of these emission estimates by spatial downscaling and by source sector apportionment. A wide range of satellite data will be used from various satellite instruments to derive emission estimates for NOx, SO2, PM and biogenic sources. By combining these emission data with known information from the ground, a new emission database for MarcoPolo will be constructed. The improved emission inventory will be input to the regional and local air quality models.

  14. Total gaseous mercury in Pearl River Delta region, China during 2008 winter period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zheng; Xia, Chonghuan; Wang, Xinming; Xiang, Yunrong; Xie, Zhouqing

    2011-02-01

    Total gaseous mercury (TGM) was monitored at Wanqingsha, a rural site in the central Pearl River Delta region, south China from 23 November to 22 December, 2008. TGM ranged 0.50-18.67 ng m -3 with an average of 2.94 ng m -3. TGM was found to present a diurnal cycle with the maximum at 7:00-8:00 and the minimum at 14:00-16:00 (local time). The afternoon minimum in TGM were likely related to increased vertical mixing and the TGM oxidation by ozone, which was observed to negative correlation with TGM. A sudden increase in TGM from 6:00-7:00 could be due to activation of local surface emission sources by rising air temperature. Similar variations in TGM and trace gases including CO and SO 2 suggested potential anthropogenic sources contribution as well. Wind-rose patterns further indicated that the westerly wind might carry high concentration of TGM from the high mercury emission areas of Southwest China and/or local anthropogenic emission sources.

  15. Regional Variations of Public Perception on Contaminated Industrial Sites in China and Its Influencing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaonuo; Jiao, Wentao; Xiao, Rongbo; Chen, Weiping; Bai, Yanying

    2016-01-01

    Public involvement is critical in sustainable contaminated site management. It is important for China to improve public knowledge and participation, foster dialogue between urban managers and laypeople, and accelerate the remediation and redevelopment processes in contaminated site management. In this study, we collected 1812 questionnaires from nine cities around China through face-to-face interviews and statistically analyzed the perception of residents concerning contaminated sites. The results show that respondents’ concern about soil pollution was lower than for other environmental issues and their knowledge of soil contamination was limited. The risks posed by contaminated industrial sites were well recognized by respondents, but they were unsatisfied with the performance of local agencies regarding information disclosure, publicity and education and public participation. Respondents believed that local governments and polluters should take the primary responsibility for contaminated site remediation. Most of them were unwilling to pay for contaminated site remediation and preferred recreational or public service redevelopment. Moreover, our research indicated that public perception varied among different cities. This variation was mainly determined by implementations of policy instruments and additionally affected by remediation technology, pollutant type, regional policy response and living distance. PMID:27070632

  16. Regional Variations of Public Perception on Contaminated Industrial Sites in China and Its Influencing Factors.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaonuo; Jiao, Wentao; Xiao, Rongbo; Chen, Weiping; Bai, Yanying

    2016-04-08

    Public involvement is critical in sustainable contaminated site management. It is important for China to improve public knowledge and participation, foster dialogue between urban managers and laypeople, and accelerate the remediation and redevelopment processes in contaminated site management. In this study, we collected 1812 questionnaires from nine cities around China through face-to-face interviews and statistically analyzed the perception of residents concerning contaminated sites. The results show that respondents' concern about soil pollution was lower than for other environmental issues and their knowledge of soil contamination was limited. The risks posed by contaminated industrial sites were well recognized by respondents, but they were unsatisfied with the performance of local agencies regarding information disclosure, publicity and education and public participation. Respondents believed that local governments and polluters should take the primary responsibility for contaminated site remediation. Most of them were unwilling to pay for contaminated site remediation and preferred recreational or public service redevelopment. Moreover, our research indicated that public perception varied among different cities. This variation was mainly determined by implementations of policy instruments and additionally affected by remediation technology, pollutant type, regional policy response and living distance.

  17. Simulating cold regions hydrological processes using a modular model in the west of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jian; Pomeroy, John W.; Zhang, Wei; Cheng, Guodong; Wang, Genxu; Chen, Chong

    2014-02-01

    The Cold Regions Hydrological Model platform (CRHM), a flexible object-oriented modeling system, was devised to simulate cold regions hydrological processes and predict streamflow by its capability to compile cold regions process modules into purpose-built models. In this study, the cold regions hydrological processes of two basins in western China were evaluated using CRHM models: Binggou basin, a high alpine basin where runoff is mainly caused by snowmelt, and Zuomaokong basin, a steppe basin where the runoff is strongly affected by soil freezing/thawing. The flexibility and modular structure of CRHM permitted model structural intercomparison and process falsification within the same model framework to evaluate the importance of snow energy balance, blowing snow and frozen soil infiltration processes to successful modeling in the cold regions of western China. Snow accumulation and ablation processes were evaluated at Binggou basin by testing and comparing similar models that contained different levels of complexity of snow redistribution and ablation modules. The comparison of simulated snow water equivalent with observations shows that the snow accumulation/ablation processes were simulated much better using an uncalibrated, physically based energy balance snowmelt model rather than with a calibrated temperature index snowmelt model. Simulated seasonal snow sublimation loss was 138 mm water equivalent in the alpine region of Binggou basin, which accounts for 47 % of 291 mm water equivalent of snowfall, and half of this sublimation loss is attributed to 70 mm water equivalent of sublimation from blowing snow particles. Further comparison of simulated results through falsification of different snow processes reveals that estimating blowing snow transport processes and sublimation loss is vital for accurate snowmelt runoff calculations in this region. The model structure with the energy balance snowmelt and blowing snow components performed well in reproducing the

  18. Attribution analysis of runoff decline in a semiarid region of the Loess Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Binquan; Liang, Zhongmin; Zhang, Jianyun; Wang, Guoqing; Zhao, Weimin; Zhang, Hongyue; Wang, Jun; Hu, Yiming

    2016-12-01

    Climate variability and human activities are two main contributing attributions for runoff changes in the Yellow River, China. In the loess hilly-gully regions of the middle Yellow River, water shortage has been a serious problem, and this results in large-scale constructions of soil and water conservation (SWC) measures in the past decades in order to retain water for agricultural irrigation and industrial production. This disturbed the natural runoff characteristics. In this paper, we focused on a typical loess hilly-gully region (Wudinghe and Luhe River basins) and investigated the effects of SWC measures and climate variability on runoff during the period of 1961-2013, while the SWC measures were the main representative of human activities in this region. The nonparametric Mann-Kendall test was used to analyze the changes of annual precipitation, air temperature, potential evapotranspiration (PET), and runoff. The analysis revealed the decrease in precipitation, significant rise in temperature, and remarkable runoff reduction with a rate of more than 0.4 mm per year. It was found that runoff capacity in this region also decreased. Using the change point detection methods, the abrupt change point of annual runoff series was found at 1970, and thus, the study period was divided into the baseline period (1961-1970) and changed period (1971-2013). A conceptual framework based on four statistical runoff methods was used for attribution analysis of runoff decline in the Wudinghe and Luhe River basins (-37.3 and -56.4%, respectively). Results showed that runoff reduction can be explained by 85.2-90.3% (83.3-85.7%) with the SWC measures in the Wudinghe (Luhe) River basin while the remaining proportions were caused by climate variability. The findings suggested that the large-scale SWC measures demonstrated a dominant influence on runoff decline, and the change of precipitation extreme was also a promoting factor of the upward trending of SWC measures' contribution to

  19. [Ecological effect of hygroscopic and condensate water on biological soil crusts in Shapotou region of China].

    PubMed

    Pan, Yan-Xia; Wang, Xin-Ping; Zhang, Ya-Feng; Hu, Rui

    2013-03-01

    By the method of field experiment combined with laboratory analysis, this paper studied the ecological significance of hygroscopic and condensate water on the biological soil crusts in the vegetation sand-fixing area in Shapotou region of China. In the study area, 90% of hygroscopic and condensate water was within the 3 cm soil depth, which didn' t affect the surface soil water content. The hygroscopic and condensate water generated at night involved in the exchange process of soil surface water and atmosphere water vapor, made up the loss of soil water due to the evaporation during the day, and made the surface soil water not reduced rapidly. The amount of the generated hygroscopic and condensate water had a positive correlation with the chlorophyll content of biological soil crusts, indicating that the hygroscopic and condensate water could improve the growth activity of the biological soil crusts, and thus, benefit the biomass accumulation of the crusts.

  20. Magnesium Contamination in Soil at a Magnesite Mining Region of Liaoning Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Tai, Peidong; Jia, Chunyun; Li, Xiaojun; Li, Peijun; Xiong, Xianzhe

    2015-07-01

    Magnesite is the world's most important source material for magnesia refractory production, and Haicheng City in Liaoning Province, China has been called "the magnesium capital of the world." However, magnesite mining in these areas has caused serious environmental problems. Field investigations have shown that the soil profile of many sites in the mining region are contaminated by magnesium, and the magnesium-enriched crusts that have formed on the soil surface have affected ecologically important soil functions, particularly reduced water penetration rate. Laboratory experiment revealed that anionic polyacrylamide and calcium dihydrogen phosphate can be used to improve soil condition, and have positive effects on soil function. The findings of this study are of significance in the magnetite mining areas, providing clear options for the remediation of soils that should be carried out immediately.

  1. Malachite green and chloramphenicol in aquatic products from regions around Dongting Lake in Hunan, China.

    PubMed

    He, Jiang; Cui, Jingzhen

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic products are important sources of animal proteins in human diet, especially in developing countries. As such, the safety of aquatic products is of primary concern. In this study, a standard method is used to detect malachite green (MG) and chloramphenicol (CAP) and to analyse the contents of these banned chemicals in turtle, mandarin fish and grass carp sampled from the region surrounding Dongting Lake area in Hunan, China. Results showed that 10.6% of the samples were MG-positive, most of them turtles. CAP was found in 8.3% of the samples, mostly in mandarin fish. These data indicated that these banned substances are still used in the surveyed area. Hence, adequate strategies must be implemented by the local government to control these banned substances.

  2. Field Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Target Region in Xiemisitai Mountain, Xinjiang Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q. J.; Wei, Y. M.; Chen, Y.; Ma, X. L.; Zhou, H. Y.

    2017-02-01

    A fine mineral identification model using the field Hyperspectral remote sensing was proposed to solve the problem of low mineral identification accuracy. Results show that the accuracy was improved by spectral noises removal, endmember optimization and mineral absorptions enhancement. A regional endmember library was established to improve the reliability by systematically considering of the mineral assemblage relationships. A fine mineral identification system (FMIS) was developed to help geologists to quickly identify minerals and it was applied in the Xiemisitai Mountain, Xinjiang province, China in 2014 to newly find copper mineralized points. The improved model and the FMIS system are therefore not only of great significance to improve efficiency and save cost in remote sensing mineral exploration, but also of great economic value of the local economy development in the future.

  3. [Influence factors of deposition induced by melt water erosion in Naqu region, China].

    PubMed

    Feng, Jun-yuan; Cai, Qiang-guo; Li, Zhao-xia; Sun, Li-ying

    2015-02-01

    Melt water erosion is one of the important soil erosion forms caused by the melt water from glacier and snow in high altitude cold areas of China. This paper investigated the influencing factors of deposition caused by melt water erosion in Naqu region. Alluvial fan ratio was presented as an index to characterize the degree of the deposition induced by melt water erosion. Minimum polygon was determined based on spatial overlay technology of Geographic Information System (GIS). The regression equation between the deposition index and the influencing factors was established through the stepwise regression analysis based on minimum polygon. Key influencing factors were identified according to the stepwise regression equation. The results showed that large amounts of alluvial fan were observed in Naqu region; extensive alluvial fans were centered at gentle slope areas in the central part of Naqu region with great spatial differences; alluvial fans were mainly distributed at valley exits, most of which were at large scale with vast differences in area and thickness. Wind speed, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), K value of soil erodibility, annual temperature range and the steep slope area ratio were identified as the key influencing factors on the deposition induced by melt water erosion in the studied area. Index of deposition was positively correlated with the wind speed and NDVI, and showed negative relationships with the K value of soil erodibility, the annual temperature range and steep slope area ratio.

  4. Climate and land use controls on soil organic carbon in the loess plateau region of China.

    PubMed

    Dang, Yaai; Ren, Wei; Tao, Bo; Chen, Guangsheng; Lu, Chaoqun; Yang, Jia; Pan, Shufen; Wang, Guodong; Li, Shiqing; Tian, Hanqin

    2014-01-01

    The Loess Plateau of China has the highest soil erosion rate in the world where billion tons of soil is annually washed into Yellow River. In recent decades this region has experienced significant climate change and policy-driven land conversion. However, it has not yet been well investigated how these changes in climate and land use have affected soil organic carbon (SOC) storage on the Loess Plateau. By using the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM), we quantified the effects of climate and land use on SOC storage on the Loess Plateau in the context of multiple environmental factors during the period of 1961-2005. Our results show that SOC storage increased by 0.27 Pg C on the Loess Plateau as a result of multiple environmental factors during the study period. About 55% (0.14 Pg C) of the SOC increase was caused by land conversion from cropland to grassland/forest owing to the government efforts to reduce soil erosion and improve the ecological conditions in the region. Historical climate change reduced SOC by 0.05 Pg C (approximately 19% of the total change) primarily due to a significant climate warming and a slight reduction in precipitation. Our results imply that the implementation of "Grain for Green" policy may effectively enhance regional soil carbon storage and hence starve off further soil erosion on the Loess Plateau.

  5. Source contributions and regional transport of primary particulate matter in China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianlin; Wu, Li; Zheng, Bo; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Chang, Qing; Li, Xinghua; Yang, Fumo; Ying, Qi; Zhang, Hongliang

    2015-12-01

    A source-oriented CMAQ was applied to determine source sector/region contributions to primary particulate matter (PPM) in China. Four months were simulated with emissions grouped to eight regions and six sectors. Predicted elemental carbon (EC), primary organic carbon (POC), and PPM concentrations and source contributions agree with measurements and have significant spatiotemporal variations. Residential is a major contributor to spring/winter EC (50-80%), POC (60%-90%), and PPM (30-70%). For summer/fall, industrial contributes 30-50% for EC/POC and 40-60% for PPM. Transportation is more important for EC (20-30%) than POC/PPM (<5%). Open burning is important in summer/fall of Guangzhou and Chongqing. Dust contributes to 1/3-1/2 in spring/fall of Beijing, Xi'an and Chongqing. Based on sector-region combination, local residential/transportation and residential/industrial from Heibei are major contributors to spring PPM in Beijing. In summer/fall, local industrial is the largest. In winter, residential/industrial from local and Hebei account for >90% in Beijing.

  6. VOCs and OVOCs distribution and control policy implications in Pearl River Delta region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louie, Peter K. K.; Ho, Josephine W. K.; Tsang, Roy C. W.; Blake, Donald R.; Lau, Alexis K. H.; Yu, Jian Zhen; Yuan, Zibing; Wang, Xinming; Shao, Min; Zhong, Liuju

    2013-09-01

    Ambient air measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) were conducted and characterised during a two-year grid study in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of southern China. The present grid study pioneered the systematic investigation of the nature and characteristics of complex VOC and OVOC sources at a regional scale. The largest contributing VOCs, accounting over 80% of the total VOCs mixing ratio, were toluene, ethane, ethyne, propane, ethene, butane, benzene, pentane, ethylbenzene, and xylenes. Sub-regional VOC spatial characteristics were identified, namely: i) relatively fresh pollutants, consistent with elevated vehicular and industrial activities, around the PRD estuary; and ii) a concentration gradient with higher mixing ratios of VOCs in the west as compared with the eastern part of PRD. Based on alkyl nitrate aging determination, a high hydroxyl radical (OH) concentration favoured fast hydrocarbon reactions and formation of locally produced ozone. The photochemical reactivity analysis showed aromatic hydrocarbons and alkenes together consisted of around 80% of the ozone formation potential (OFP) among the key VOCs. We also found that the OFP from OVOCs should not be neglected since their OFP contribution was more than one-third of that from VOCs alone. These findings support the choice of current air pollution control policy which focuses on vehicular sources but warrants further controls. Industrial emissions and VOCs emitted by solvents should be the next targets for ground-level ozone abatement.

  7. Green Space Changes and Planning in the Capital Region of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xuegong; Duan, Xiaofeng; Sun, Haiqing; Sun, Qiang

    2011-03-01

    Green space plays an important role in complex urban ecosystems and provides significant ecosystem services with environmental, aesthetic, recreational and economic benefits. Beijing is the capital city of China and has a large population of about 15.81 million. Construction of green spaces is an important part of sustainable development in Beijing. To attain the sustainable development of Beijing as a capital city, an international city, a historical cultural city, and a living amenity city, this article attempts to develop a comprehensive plan of green space development both at the municipal and regional levels. At the municipal level of Beijing, based on the study of green space changes, and taking physical geographic conditions and historical context into account, we propose to establish green barriers in the mountainous area, and plan a comprehensive green space pattern composed of one city, two rings, three networks, eight water areas, nine fields, and several patches in the plain area. At the regional level of the Capital Circle Region, integrating the characteristics and causes of main environmental issues, we design a macroscopic pattern—"barriers by mountains in the northwest," "seaward open spaces in the southeast," "grassland-forest-field-coast zones," and "green-blue symphony"—for ecological restoration and green space construction. Finally, we discuss the principles necessary to implement green space planning considering adaptation to local conditions, composite function exploitation, interregional equity and integrated planning.

  8. Aerosol direct radiative forcing in desert and semi-desert regions of northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Jinyuan; Gong, Chongshui; Wang, Shigong; Wang, Yuesi

    2016-05-01

    The optical properties of dust aerosols were measured using narrow-band data from a portable sun photometer at four desert and semi-desert stations in northwestern China from 2004 to 2007. Ground-based and satellite observations indicated absorbing dust aerosol loading over the region surrounded by eight large-scale deserts. Radiation forcing was identified by using the Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (SBDART) model. The ranges of annual mean aerosol optical depth (AOD), Angström exponents, and single-scattering albedo (SSA) were from 0.25 to 0.35, from - 0.73 to 1.18, and from 0.77 to 0.86, respectively. The ranges of annual mean aerosol direct radiative forcing values at the top of the atmosphere (TOA), mid-atmosphere, and on the surface were from 3.9 to 12.0, from 50.0 to 53.1, and from - 39.1 to - 48.1 W/m2, respectively. The aerosols' optical properties and radiative characteristics showed strong seasonal variations in both the desert and semi-desert regions. Strong winds and relatively low humidity will lead dust aerosols in the atmosphere to an increase, which played greatly affected these optical properties during spring and winter in northwestern China. Based on long-term observations and retrieved data, aerosol direct radiative forcing was confirmed to heat the atmosphere (50-53 W/m2) and cool the surface (- 39 to - 48 W/m2) above the analyzed desert. Radiative forcing in the atmosphere in spring and winter was 18 to 21 W/m2 higher than other two seasons. Based on the dust sources around the sites, the greater the AOD, the more negative the forcing. The annual averaged heating rates for aerosols close to the ground (1 km) were approximately 0.80-0.85 K/day.

  9. The effect of deforestation on the regional temperature in Northeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Lingxue; Zhang, Shuwen; Tang, Junmei; Liu, Tingxiang; Bu, Kun; Yan, Fengqin; Yang, Chaobin; Yang, Jiuchun

    2015-05-01

    Land cover change, as one of the most important driving forces to climate change, has become the research focus of the global environmental change research and global land project. More researchers studied on the global influence of Land-Use and Land-Cover Change and proved that land use change occurred at different temperature zones may produce different climate effects. For example, deforestation in tropical areas would lead to higher temperatures as the decreasing of evapotranspiration caused by the reduction of roughness and the decreasing of drag coefficient and leaf area index while, in boreal areas, similar deforestation would cause lower temperature as the increasing of albedo particularly during winter with the snow cover. However, the impact of deforestation in the temperate regions on the climate still existed uncertainty and the impacts of deforestation at different humidity conditions on climate has not explored yet. From this perspective, this article used Weather Research and Forecasting model to simulate the impact of deforestation on the temperature of Northeastern China. In this study, we designed two scenarios in July and December, respectively: One was simulated without human intervention, and the second one was simulated with the current forest covers. The results showed that the temperature in both summer and winter showed a decreasing trend when the conversion of forest to farmland occurred in northeastern China. In order to further explore the humidity impacts on the temperature, we performed sample analysis on humid, sub-humid, and semi-arid regions. According to the results, the maximum variation of temperature was found in humid areas, especially in December when the temperature decreased around 4-5 °C, while the change in semi-arid and sub-humid areas is relatively small.

  10. Organic carbon storage in four ecosystem types in the karst region of southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuguo; Liu, Changcheng; Wang, Shijie; Guo, Ke; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Xinshi; Li, Guoqing

    2013-01-01

    Karst ecosystems are important landscape types that cover about 12% of the world's land area. The role of karst ecosystems in the global carbon cycle remains unclear, due to the lack of an appropriate method for determining the thickness of the solum, a representative sampling of the soil and data of organic carbon stocks at the ecosystem level. The karst region in southwestern China is the largest in the world. In this study, we estimated biomass, soil quantity and ecosystem organic carbon stocks in four vegetation types typical of karst ecosystems in this region, shrub grasslands (SG), thorn shrubbery (TS), forest - shrub transition (FS) and secondary forest (F). The results showed that the biomass of SG, TS, FS, and F is 0.52, 0.85, 5.9 and 19.2 kg m(-2), respectively and the corresponding organic cabon storage is 0.26, 0.40, 2.83 and 9.09 kg m(-2), respectively. Nevertheless, soil quantity and corresponding organic carbon storage are very small in karst habitats. The quantity of fine earth overlaying the physical weathering zone of the carbonate rock of SG, TS, FS and F is 38.10, 99.24, 29.57 and 61.89 kg m(-2), respectively, while the corresponding organic carbon storage is only 3.34, 4.10, 2.37, 5.25 kg m(-2), respectively. As a whole, ecosystem organic carbon storage of SG, TS, FS, and F is 3.81, 4.72, 5.68 and 15.1 kg m(-2), respectively. These are very low levels compared to other ecosystems in non-karst areas. With the restoration of degraded vegetation, karst ecosystems in southwestern China may play active roles in mitigating the increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere.

  11. Organic Carbon Storage in Four Ecosystem Types in the Karst Region of Southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shijie; Guo, Ke; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Xinshi; Li, Guoqing

    2013-01-01

    Karst ecosystems are important landscape types that cover about 12% of the world's land area. The role of karst ecosystems in the global carbon cycle remains unclear, due to the lack of an appropriate method for determining the thickness of the solum, a representative sampling of the soil and data of organic carbon stocks at the ecosystem level. The karst region in southwestern China is the largest in the world. In this study, we estimated biomass, soil quantity and ecosystem organic carbon stocks in four vegetation types typical of karst ecosystems in this region, shrub grasslands (SG), thorn shrubbery (TS), forest - shrub transition (FS) and secondary forest (F). The results showed that the biomass of SG, TS, FS, and F is 0.52, 0.85, 5.9 and 19.2 kg m−2, respectively and the corresponding organic cabon storage is 0.26, 0.40, 2.83 and 9.09 kg m−2, respectively. Nevertheless, soil quantity and corresponding organic carbon storage are very small in karst habitats. The quantity of fine earth overlaying the physical weathering zone of the carbonate rock of SG, TS, FS and F is 38.10, 99.24, 29.57 and 61.89 kg m−2, respectively, while the corresponding organic carbon storage is only 3.34, 4.10, 2.37, 5.25 kg m−2, respectively. As a whole, ecosystem organic carbon storage of SG, TS, FS, and F is 3.81, 4.72, 5.68 and 15.1 kg m−2, respectively. These are very low levels compared to other ecosystems in non-karst areas. With the restoration of degraded vegetation, karst ecosystems in southwestern China may play active roles in mitigating the increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. PMID:23451047

  12. Nitrogen and phosphorus use efficiencies and losses in the food chain in China at regional scales in 1980 and 2005.

    PubMed

    Ma, L; Velthof, G L; Wang, F H; Qin, W; Zhang, W F; Liu, Z; Zhang, Y; Wei, J; Lesschen, J P; Ma, W Q; Oenema, O; Zhang, F S

    2012-09-15

    Crop and animal production in China has increased significantly during the last decades, but at the cost of large increases in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) losses, which contribute to ecosystem degradation and human health effects. This information is largely based on scattered field experiments, surveys and national statistics. As a consequence, there is as yet no comprehensive understanding of the changes in N and P cycling and losses at regional and national scales. Here, we present the results of an integrated assessment of the N and P use efficiencies (NUE and PUE) and N and P losses in the chain of crop and animal production, food processing and retail, and food consumption at regional scale in 1980 and 2005, using a uniform approach and databases. Our results show that the N and P costs of food production-consumption almost doubled between 1980 and 2005, but with large regional variation. The NUE and PUE of crop production decreased dramatically, while NUE and PUE in animal production increased. Interestingly, NUE and PUE of the food processing sector decreased from about 75% to 50%. Intake of N and P per capita increased, but again with large regional variation. Losses of N and P from agriculture to atmosphere and water bodies increased in most regions, especially in the east and south of the country. Highest losses were estimated for the Beijing and Tianjin metropolitan regions (North China), Pearl River Delta (South China) and Yangzi River Delta (East China). In conclusion, the changes and regional variations in NUE and PUE in the food chain of China are large and complex. Changes occurred in the whole crop and animal production, food processing and consumption chain, and were largest in the most populous areas between 1980 and 2005.

  13. Patterns and structures of land use change in the Three Rivers Headwaters Region of China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jingbiao; Wang, Yi Chen; Guo, Luo; Xue, Dayuan

    2015-01-01

    Located in Qinghai Province of China, the Three Rivers Headwaters Region is the source region of the Yangtze, Yellow and Lantsang Rivers, and plays an important role in biodiversity conservation and regulating water supply. Despite many efforts on land use change in Qinghai, knowledge of the spatial variation of land use change is still lacking. This study examines the patterns of land use change across various watersheds, prefectures and the temple surroundings. Remote sensing images of 1987, 1997 and 2007 were analyzed to derive land use distributions; patterns and structures of the landscape were then quantified with landscape metrics. The results illustrated that the Yangtze River headwater region had more diverse and more evenly distributed landscape, while the Lantsang and the Yellow headwater regions showed a decline in landscape diversity. Comparison of the land use patterns of four prefectures revealed that Yushu Prefecture experienced an increase in landscape diversity from 1987 to 2007 while the land use patches in Guoluo Prefecture exhibited more aggregated patterns than other prefectures. Analysis of the spatial variations of land use change in the temple surroundings illustrated that 19.7% and 35.9% of the temples in Guoluo and Yushu Prefectures, respectively, encountered land use change for their immediate areas within 2 km. Comparison of the surroundings of temples and human settlements found that land use change was not evenly distributed, and that greater land use change had occurred for the surroundings of human settlements. Such findings provided insights into the spatial variation of land use change in the Three Rivers Headwaters Region.

  14. Effects of Conservation Policies on Forest Cover Change in Giant Panda Habitat Regions, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu; Viña, Andrés; Yang, Wu; Chen, Xiaodong; Zhang, Jindong; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Liang, Zai; Liu, Jianguo

    2014-01-01

    After long periods of deforestation, forest transition has occurred globally, but the causes of forest transition in different countries are highly variable. Conservation policies may play important roles in facilitating forest transition around the world, including China. To restore forests and protect the remaining natural forests, the Chinese government initiated two nationwide conservation policies in the late 1990s -- the Natural Forest Conservation Program (NFCP) and the Grain-To-Green Program (GTGP). While some studies have discussed the environmental and socioeconomic effects of each of these policies independently and others have attributed forest recovery to both policies without rigorous and quantitative analysis, it is necessary to rigorously quantify the outcomes of these two conservation policies simultaneously because the two policies have been implemented at the same time. To fill the knowledge gap, this study quantitatively evaluated the effects of the two conservation policies on forest cover change between 2001 and 2008 in 108 townships located in two important giant panda habitat regions -- the Qinling Mountains region in Shaanxi Province and the Sichuan Giant Panda Sanctuary in Sichuan Province. Forest cover change was evaluated using a land-cover product (MCD12Q1) derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). This product proved to be highly accurate in the study region (overall accuracy was ca. 87%, using 425 ground truth points collected in the field), thus suitable for the forest change analysis performed. Results showed that within the timeframe evaluated, most townships in both regions exhibited either increases or no changes in forest cover. After accounting for a variety of socioeconomic and biophysical attributes, an Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression model suggests that the two policies had statistically significant positive effects on forest cover change after seven years of implementation, while

  15. Prediction of Bulk Density of Soils in the Loess Plateau Region of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yunqiang; Shao, Ming'an; Liu, Zhipeng; Zhang, Chencheng

    2013-08-01

    Soil bulk density (BD) is a key soil physical property that may affect the transport of water and solutes and is essential to estimate soil carbon/nutrients reserves. However, BD data are often lacking in soil databases due to the challenge of directly measuring BD, which is considered to be labor intensive, time consuming, and expensive especially for the lower layers of deep soils such as those of the Chinese Loess Plateau region. We determined the factors that were closely correlated with BD at the regional scale and developed a robust pedotransfer function (PTF) for BD by measuring BD and potentially related soil and environmental factors at 748 selected sites across the Loess Plateau of China (620,000 km2) at which we collected undisturbed and disturbed soil samples from two soil layers (0-5 and 20-25 cm). Regional BD values were normally distributed and demonstrated weak spatial variation (CV = 12 %). Pearson's correlation and stepwise multiple linear regression analyses identified silt content, slope gradient (SG), soil organic carbon content (SOC), clay content, slope aspect (SA), and altitude as the factors that were closely correlated with BD and that explained 25.8, 6.3, 5.8, 1.4, 0.3, and 0.3 % of the BD variation, respectively. Based on these closely correlated variables, a reasonably robust PTF was developed for BD using multiple linear regression, which performed equally with the artificial neural network method in the current study. The inclusion of topographic factors significantly improved the predictive capability of the BD PTF and in which SG was an important input variable that could be used in place of SA and altitude without compromising its capability for predicting BD. Thus, the developed PTF with only four input variables (clay, silt, SOC, SG), including their common transformations and interactive terms, predicted BD with reasonable accuracy and is thus useful for most applications on the Loess Plateau of China. More attention should be

  16. Analysis of a winter regional haze event and its formation mechanism in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, X. J.; Zhao, P. S.; Xu, J.; Meng, W.; Pu, W. W.; Dong, F.; He, D.; Shi, Q. F.

    2013-01-01

    A regional haze episode occurred in the Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei province (BTH) area in the North China Plain (NCP) from 16 to 19 January 2010. The chemical and optical properties of aerosols and the meteorological condition were investigated in this study with intensive measurement of aerosol and trace gases from 14 to 23 January 2010 at five sites. The episode was caused by the combination of anthropogenic emissions and surface air stagnation under a high pressure system followed by a low pressure system. The concentrations of PM2.5 and trace gases increased significantly on a regional scale during this episode. The increased aerosol scattering coefficient (σsp), absorption coefficient (σap), and aerosol optical depth (AOD) showed the importance of aerosol extinction during this haze episode. The increase of secondary inorganic pollutants (SO42-, NO3-, NH4+) was observed simultaneously at four sites, especially in the plain area of BTH, which could be identified as a common characteristic of pollution haze in east China. The organic matter (OM) was different from secondary inorganic pollutants, which increased more significantly at Chengde (CD) site than the other three sites in plain area. The sulfate and nitrate in PM2.5 were mainly formed through the heterogeneous reaction process in the urban area. The secondary organic aerosols in PM2.5 only existed during haze days at CD but in both haze and normal days at the other three sites. The chemical characteristics of aerosols in PM2.5 indicated that the secondary formation of aerosol was one important mechanism in the formation of haze episode. The strong temperature inversion and descending air motions in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) allowed pollutants to accumulate in a shallow layer. The weak surface wind speed produced high pollutants concentration within these source regions. The accumulation of pollutants was one main factor in the haze formation. The enhanced southwest wind in the last period of

  17. Effects of Conservation Policies on Forest Cover Change in Giant Panda Habitat Regions, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu; Viña, Andrés; Yang, Wu; Chen, Xiaodong; Zhang, Jindong; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Liang, Zai; Liu, Jianguo

    2013-07-01

    After long periods of deforestation, forest transition has occurred globally, but the causes of forest transition in different countries are highly variable. Conservation policies may play important roles in facilitating forest transition around the world, including China. To restore forests and protect the remaining natural forests, the Chinese government initiated two nationwide conservation policies in the late 1990s -- the Natural Forest Conservation Program (NFCP) and the Grain-To-Green Program (GTGP). While some studies have discussed the environmental and socioeconomic effects of each of these policies independently and others have attributed forest recovery to both policies without rigorous and quantitative analysis, it is necessary to rigorously quantify the outcomes of these two conservation policies simultaneously because the two policies have been implemented at the same time. To fill the knowledge gap, this study quantitatively evaluated the effects of the two conservation policies on forest cover change between 2001 and 2008 in 108 townships located in two important giant panda habitat regions -- the Qinling Mountains region in Shaanxi Province and the Sichuan Giant Panda Sanctuary in Sichuan Province. Forest cover change was evaluated using a land-cover product (MCD12Q1) derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). This product proved to be highly accurate in the study region (overall accuracy was ca. 87%, using 425 ground truth points collected in the field), thus suitable for the forest change analysis performed. Results showed that within the timeframe evaluated, most townships in both regions exhibited either increases or no changes in forest cover. After accounting for a variety of socioeconomic and biophysical attributes, an Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression model suggests that the two policies had statistically significant positive effects on forest cover change after seven years of implementation, while

  18. Neuropeptide Y administration acutely increases hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor immunoreactivity: lack of effect in other rat brain regions

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, D.A.; George, S.R.

    1987-12-21

    The effect of acute central administration of Neuropeptide Y (NPY) to adult male rats on the brain content of corticotropin-releasing factor immunoreactivity (CRF-ir) was investigated. The brain regions studied included frontal cortex, hippocampus, medulla-pons, midbrain-thalamus, cerebellum, neurointermediate lobe of pituitary, median eminence and the remaining hypothalamus. CRF-ir was determined in each of these regions using radioimmunoassay specific for rat CRF. CRF-ir was found to be significantly increased in the major site of CRF localization in the brain, the hypothalamus, in NPY-treated rats as compared to vehicle-treated controls either 15 minutes (p<0.025) or 45 minutes (p<0.005) post-injection. This increase was localized to the median eminence (p<0.05 after 15 minutes, p<0.01 after 45 minutes). No statistically significant differences were noted in any of the other brain regions assessed. Plasma adrenocorticotropin levels were also found to increase following NPY treatment, an effect which became significant after 45 minutes (p<0.05). These data show that NPY can alter the content of hypothalamic CRF and may play a role in its regulation. 33 references, 4 figures.

  19. Measurement of aerosol chemical, physical and radiative properties in the Yangtze delta region of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jin; Bergin, M. H.; Yu, X.; Liu, G.; Zhao, J.; Carrico, C. M.; Baumann, K.

    In order to understand the possible influence of aerosols on the environment in the agricultural Yangtze delta region of China, a one-month field sampling campaign was carried out during November 1999 in Linan, China. Measurements included the aerosol light scattering coefficient at 530 nm, σsp, measured at both dry relative humidity (RH<40%) and under ambient conditions (sample RH=63±19%), and the absorption coefficient at 565 nm, σap, for aerosol particles having diameters <2.5 μm (PM 2.5). At the same time, daily filter samples of PM 2.5 as well as aerosol particles having diameters <10 μm (PM 10) were collected and analyzed for mass, major ion, organic compound (OC), and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations in order to determine which anthropogenic chemical species were primarily responsible for aerosol light extinction. The aerosol loading in the rural Yangtze delta region was comparable to highly polluted urban areas, with mean and standard deviation (S.D.) values for σsp, σap and PM 2.5 of 353 Mm -1 (202 Mm -1), 23 Mm -1 (14 Mm -1) and 90 μg m -3 (47 μg m -3), respectively. A clear diurnal pattern was observed in σsp and σap with minimum values occurring in the middle of the day, most likely associated with the maximum midday mixing height. The ratio of the change in light scattering coefficient at ambient RH to that at controlled RH (RH<40%), Fσsp (RH), indicates that condensed water typically contributed ˜40% to the light scattering budget in this region. The mass scattering efficiency of the dry aerosol, E scat_2.5, and mass absorption efficiency of EC, E abs_2.5, have mean and S.D. values of 4.0 m 2 g -1 (0.4 m 2 g -1) and 8.6 m 2 g -1 (7.0 m 2 g -1), respectively. PM 2.5 concentrations in Linan and two other locations in the Yangtze delta, Sheshan and Changshu (which have monthly mean values ranging from ˜80 to 110 μg m -3), are all significantly higher than the proposed 24-h average US PM 2.5 NAAQS of 65 μg m -3. Organic compounds are

  20. Impacts of regional transport on black carbon in Huairou, Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuqin; de Foy, Benjamin; Schauer, James J; Olson, Michael R; Zhang, Yang; Li, Zhengqiang; Zhang, Yuanxun

    2017-02-01

    The 22(nd) Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Conference was held near Yanqi Lake, Huairou, in Beijing, China during November 10-11, 2014. To guarantee haze-free days during the APEC Conference, the Beijing government and the governments of the surrounding provinces implemented a series of controls. Three months of Aethalometer 880 nm black carbon (BC) measurements were examined to understand the hourly fluctuations in BC concentrations that resulted from emission controls and meteorology changes. Measurements were collected at the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences near the APEC Conference site and in Central Beijing at the Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Synoptic conditions are successfully represented through analysis of backward trajectories in six cluster groups. The clusters are identified based on air mass transport from various areas such as Inner Mongolia, Russia, three northeastern provinces, and Hebei industrial areas, to the measurement sites. Air pollution control measures during the APEC Conference significantly reduced BC at the conference site (Huairou) and in Central Beijing, with greater reductions in BC concentrations at the conference site than in Central Beijing. The highest BC concentrations in Huairou were associated with air masses originating from Central Beijing rather than from the Hebei industrial region. The success of the control measures implemented in Beijing and the surrounding regions demonstrates that BC concentrations can be effectively reduced to protect human health and mitigate regional climate forcing. This study also demonstrates the need for regional strategies to reduce BC concentrations, since urban areas like Beijing are sources as well as downwind receptors of emissions.

  1. Genotype-specific microsatellite (SSR) markers for the sugarcane germplasm in the Karst region of Guizhou, China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is the first report on SSR-based molecular evaluation of genetic variability among sugarcane genotypes from the Karst region of China that provides useful information for local sugarcane improvement. Eighteen sugarcane genotypes including 13 active cultivars and five elite QT-series clones bred l...

  2. The Present Situation, Problems, Countermeasures of Compulsory Education in the Rural Area of Western Region in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Hui

    2005-01-01

    The present condition of rural education in the western region of China is not optimistic. Existing problems include lacking education investment, poor school-running conditions, simplified running pattern and laggard concept of education. The countermeasures are: firstly, governments at all level especially the center one should increase input to…

  3. Regional expression of inducible heat shock protein-70 mRNA in the rat brain following administration of convulsant drugs.

    PubMed

    Planas, A M; Soriano, M A; Ferrer, I; Rodríguez Farré, E

    1994-11-01

    Expression of inducible heat shock protein-70 mRNA (hsp-70 mRNA) was studied in the rat brain following systemic administration of different convulsant agents: an L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel agonist, (+/-)-BAY K 8644 (BAY-K); the excitotoxic glutamate agonists kainic acid and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA); and the GABAA receptor complex antagonists pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and lindane (gamma-hexaclorocyclohexane). BAY-K induced minimal hsp-70 mRNA expression in the hippocampus of convulsant rats, localized in the dentate gyrus and the pyramidal cell layer of Ammon's horn. Kainic acid treatment in rats, showing severe limbic convulsions, caused intense expression of hsp-70 mRNA and protein (HSP-70). Expression was localized in select cerebral regions, notably the pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampal CA3 field of Ammon's horn and the piriform cortex, and also the subicular complex and the amygdala, and, to a lesser extent, the entorhinal cortex, the pyramidal cell layer of CA1, several thalamic nuclei, and the parietal cortex. In contrast, systemic administration of NMDA, PTZ or lindane led to no detectable induction of hsp-70 mRNA in the rat brain, despite producing convulsions. Histological examination revealed cell injury only following kainic acid treatment. Damage was most apparent in the piriform and entorhinal cortices, pyramidal cell layer of the CA1 field, and cortical amygdaloid nuclei. BAY-K, NMDA, PTZ and lindane did not lead to any observable histopathological changes. These results show that convulsions of different aetiology do not inevitably induce hsp-70 mRNA expression or cell damage. Intense expression of hsp-70 mRNA was generally associated with regions that later showed variable degrees of nerve cell damage, although hsp-70 mRNA expression was not always predictive of subsequent cell death or survival.

  4. China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie

    China has the longest continuous civilization in the world--about 4000 years. Another reason to study China is its sheer size in both area and population. This text gives students the opportunity to explore those aspects of Chinese life which have changed in recent years. The extensive history and religion sections allow these changes to be seen…

  5. Spatial distribution and source apportionment of PFASs in surface sediments from five lake regions, China

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yanjie; Huo, Shouliang; Xi, Beidou; Hu, Shibin; Zhang, Jingtian; He, Zhuoshi

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been found in environment globally. However, studies on PFAS occurrence in sediments of lakes or reservoirs remain relatively scarce. In this study, two hundred and sixty-two surface sediment samples were collected from forty-eight lakes and two reservoirs all over China. Average PFAS concentrations in surface sediments from each lake or reservoir varied from 0.086 ng/g dw to 5.79 ng/g dw with an average of 1.15 ng/g dw. Among five lake regions, average PFAS concentrations for the lakes from Eastern Plain Region were the highest. Perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluoroundecanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were the predominant PFASs in surface sediments. The significant positive correlations between PFAS concentrations and total organic carbon, total nitrogen and total phosphorus contents in sediments revealed the influences of sedimentary characteristics on PFAS occurrence. A two-dimensional hierarchical cluster analysis heat map was depicted to analyze the possible origins of sediments and individual PFAS. The food-packaging, textile, electroplating, firefighting and semiconductor industry emission sources and the precious metals and coating industry emission sources were identified as the main sources by two receptor models, with contributions of 77.7 and 22.3% to the total concentrations of C4-C14- perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids and PFOS, respectively. PMID:26947748

  6. Visual range trends in the Yangtze River Delta Region of China, 1981-2005.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lina; Jia, Gensuo; Zhang, Renjian; Che, Huizheng; Fu, Congbin; Wang, Tijian; Zhang, Meigen; Jiang, Hong; Yan, Peng

    2011-08-01

    Visual range (VR) data from 1981 to 2005 were examined for 20 meteorological monitoring sites in the Yangtze River Delta Region of China. Cumulative percentile analysis was used to construct VR trend. The 25-yr average domain-average 50% VR was approximately 21.9 +/- 1.9 km. Domain-average 50% VR decreased from 1981 to 2005 with a trend of -2.41 km/decade. The worst 20% and 50% and best 20% VR and variation rates for the 20 sites were analyzed. The 50% VR of the town, county-level city, and prefecture-level city sites were 24.1, 21.5, and 19.4 km, respectively. The best 20% VR decreased fastest with a rate of -3.5 km/decade. Regional median VR decreased from the coastal sites to the inland sites. Ridit analysis and cumulative percentile were adopted to study the VR variation properties between economically developed areas (e.g., Nanjing and Hangzhou) and remote areas (e.g., Lvsi). The two analyses show that VR decreased in Nanjing and Hangzhou but remained constant in Lvsi from 1981 to 2005.

  7. Spatial distribution and source apportionment of PFASs in surface sediments from five lake regions, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yanjie; Huo, Shouliang; Xi, Beidou; Hu, Shibin; Zhang, Jingtian; He, Zhuoshi

    2016-03-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been found in environment globally. However, studies on PFAS occurrence in sediments of lakes or reservoirs remain relatively scarce. In this study, two hundred and sixty-two surface sediment samples were collected from forty-eight lakes and two reservoirs all over China. Average PFAS concentrations in surface sediments from each lake or reservoir varied from 0.086 ng/g dw to 5.79 ng/g dw with an average of 1.15 ng/g dw. Among five lake regions, average PFAS concentrations for the lakes from Eastern Plain Region were the highest. Perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluoroundecanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were the predominant PFASs in surface sediments. The significant positive correlations between PFAS concentrations and total organic carbon, total nitrogen and total phosphorus contents in sediments revealed the influences of sedimentary characteristics on PFAS occurrence. A two-dimensional hierarchical cluster analysis heat map was depicted to analyze the possible origins of sediments and individual PFAS. The food-packaging, textile, electroplating, firefighting and semiconductor industry emission sources and the precious metals and coating industry emission sources were identified as the main sources by two receptor models, with contributions of 77.7 and 22.3% to the total concentrations of C4-C14- perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids and PFOS, respectively.

  8. Driving mechanism and sources of groundwater nitrate contamination in the rapidly urbanized region of south China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianqian; Sun, Jichao; Liu, Jingtao; Huang, Guanxing; Lu, Chuan; Zhang, Yuxi

    2015-11-01

    Nitrate contamination of groundwater has become an environmental problem of widespread concern in China. We collected 899 groundwater samples from a rapidly urbanized area, in order to identify the main sources and driving mechanisms of groundwater nitrate contamination. The results showed that the land use has a significant effect on groundwater nitrate concentration (P<0.001). Landfill leakage was an important source of nitrate in groundwater in the PRD (Pearl River Delta) region, since landfill yielded the highest nitrate concentration (38.14 mg/L) and the highest ratio of exceeded standard (42.50%). In this study, the driving mechanism of groundwater nitrate contamination was determined to be urban construction and the secondary and tertiary industrial development, and population growth. This study revealed that domestic wastewater and industrial wastewater were the main sources of groundwater nitrate pollution. Therefore, the priority method for relieving groundwater nitrate contamination is to control the random discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater in regions undergoing rapid urbanization. Capsule abstract. The main driving mechanism of groundwater nitrate contamination was determined to be urban construction and the secondary and tertiary industrial development, and population growth.

  9. Regional inequity in financing New Cooperative Medical Scheme in Jiangsu, China.

    PubMed

    Dai, Baozhen; Zhou, Lulin; Mei, Y John; Zhan, Changchun

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the regional inequity in the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) financing in Jiangsu, China. Counties were classified into three categories according to socio-economic development level: South Jiangsu, Middle Jiangsu and North Jiangsu. Five counties (Changshu, Danyang, Gaoyou, Jiangyan and Ganyu) were selected on the basis of the following criteria: (i) NCMS had been implemented before 2005; (ii) county governments were willing and able to collaborate with the research team; and (iii) counties had different socio-economic development status representing the low, medium and high level of socio-economic development in Jiangsu. As shown in this study, local governments in Jiangsu took the major NCMS financing responsibilities (75.2% in 2009), and local governments (county and lower) subsidies ranged from 220 RMB per capita in South Jiangsu to 18 RMB per capita in North Jiangsu in 2009, with a larger contribution (73.3%) in South than that in Middle (40.0%) and North Jiangsu (18.0%). For achieving more equity in NCMS financing and carrying NCMS forward, we propose that provincial and municipal governments should increase their contribution to NCMS for balancing the regional inequity in subsidies from county and lower-level governments, and the risk pool of NCMS should be promoted to a higher level (e.g., provincial).

  10. Driving mechanism and sources of groundwater nitrate contamination in the rapidly urbanized region of south China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qianqian; Sun, Jichao; Liu, Jingtao; Huang, Guanxing; Lu, Chuan; Zhang, Yuxi

    2015-11-01

    Nitrate contamination of groundwater has become an environmental problem of widespread concern in China. We collected 899 groundwater samples from a rapidly urbanized area, in order to identify the main sources and driving mechanisms of groundwater nitrate contamination. The results showed that the land use has a significant effect on groundwater nitrate concentration (P < 0.001). Landfill leakage was an important source of nitrate in groundwater in the PRD (Pearl River Delta) region, since landfill yielded the highest nitrate concentration (38.14 mg/L) and the highest ratio of exceeded standard (42.50%). In this study, the driving mechanism of groundwater nitrate contamination was determined to be urban construction and the secondary and tertiary industrial development, and population growth. This study revealed that domestic wastewater and industrial wastewater were the main sources of groundwater nitrate pollution. Therefore, the priority method for relieving groundwater nitrate contamination is to control the random discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater in regions undergoing rapid urbanization. Capsule abstract. The main driving mechanism of groundwater nitrate contamination was determined to be urban construction and the secondary and tertiary industrial development, and population growth.

  11. Analysis of a severe prolonged regional haze episode in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mengya; Cao, Chunxiang; Li, Guoshuai; Singh, Ramesh P.

    2015-02-01

    A severe prolonged regional haze episode occurred over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) from 2 to 14 December 2013. In this paper, we have discussed the probable cause of haze episode and aerosol characteristics. Analysis of visibility and meteorological parameters suggest that the meteorological conditions play a very important role in the accumulation of aerosol particles that cause haze. The height of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) is considered as one of the key factors together with other factors in the haze formation. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) clearly shows accumulation process of air pollutants from vehicular, industrial and anthropogenic sources are major contributors for the haze formation. The aerosol optical properties (aerosol optical depth - AOD, Ångström exponent - α and Ultra Violet Aerosol Index - UVAI) are analyzed to study the temporal and spatial variations of aerosol loadings. The results show concentrations of fine mode particles during the haze episode, the dust could have been also entered in the region from the northwestern China. Analysis of vertical aerosol profiles indicate that dust aerosols concentrated in the lower part of the haze layers.

  12. Distribution of the Crustal Magnetic Field in Sichuan-Yunnan Region, Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Chunhua; Kang, Guofa; Gao, Guoming

    2014-01-01

    Based on the new and higher degree geomagnetic model NGDC-720-V3, we have investigated the spatial distribution, the altitude decay characteristics of the crustal magnetic anomaly, the contributions from different wavelength bands to the anomaly, and the relationship among the anomaly, the geological structure, and the geophysical field in Sichuan-Yunnan region of China. It is noted that the most outstanding feature in this area is the strong positive magnetic anomaly in Sichuan Basin, a geologically stable block. Contrasting with this feature, a strong negative anomaly can be seen nearby in Longmen Mountain block, an active block. This contradiction implies a possible relationship between the magnetic field and the geological activity. Completely different feature in magnetic field distribution is seen in the central Yunnan block, another active region, where positive and negative anomalies distribute alternatively, showing a complex magnetic anomaly map. Some fault belts, such as the Longmen Mountain fault, Lijiang-Xiaojinhe fault, and the Red River fault, are the transitional zones of strong and weak or negative and positive anomalies. The corresponding relationship between the magnetic anomaly and the geophysical fields was confirmed. PMID:25243232

  13. Regional distribution of longevity population and chemical characteristics of natural water in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Lin; Luo, Kun-Li; Lin, Xiao-Xu; Gao, Xing; Ni, Run-Xiang; Wang, Shao-Bin; Tian, Xing-Lei

    2014-03-01

    Xinjiang Province, China is recognized for the longevity of its inhabitants. To study the temporal and spatial variation of longevity region and chemical characteristics of natural water of longevity region in Xinjiang, three population censuses on county-level and 51 natural water samples from Hotan Prefecture, Xinjiang were collected and analyzed. 103 natural water samples were collected from the public papers. Population statistics on county-level showed that the number of centenarians per 100,000 inhabitants (OC) in Southern Xinjiang was 7.4(year 1990), 4.9(year 2000) and 2.1 times (year 2010) more than that of Northern Xinjiang, respectively. And distribution of the longevity index (LI%), centenarity index (CI%) and number of centenarians per 10,000 over 65 year-old subjects (UC) on county-level decreased from south to north. Natural water in Northern Xinjiang was mainly fresh soft water, and it was mainly fresh hard water and brackish hard water in Southern Xinjiang. Water quality of natural water in Northern Xinjiang was superior compare to that of Southern Xinjiang, while number of centenarians 65 year-old & over per 10,000 subjects in Northern Xinjiang were less than that of Southern Xinjiang before 2010. The research indicates that keeping on drinking water with high total hardness (TH) and Mg/Ca ratio might be good for the health.

  14. Water resources and development of women in arid regions in northern China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, W W

    1995-05-01

    The total land area in China affected by desertification has grown over time due mainly to rapid population growth and environmental degradation. Arid and semi-arid regions now comprise approximately one-third of the country's land area. Women in arid areas suffer from the harsh environment as well as from discriminatory attitudes tied to the general expectations of women's role in society. Discrimination against women, high rates of illiteracy, poor health care, society's failure to recognize women's work, and insufficient social services result in illness, poverty, and low social status among women. The material poverty and lack of knowledge and education among women living in arid areas are discussed, as well as what women can do to alleviate poverty and improve the environment in arid areas. With regard to policies which could lead to sustainable development, the author discusses improving women's education in arid regions, public policies designed to improve women's conditions, ways to involve women in environmental protection, encouraging migration to reduce environmental degradation, and improving childbearing conditions.

  15. Seasonal and diurnal variations in methane emissions from Wuliangsu Lake in arid regions of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Xiaonan; Wang, Xiaoke; Mu, Yujing; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    CH 4 emissions have been widely studied in various wetlands, such as boreal peatlands, rice paddies, and tropical swamps. However, little investigation has been carried out for CH 4 emissions from lakes or wetlands in arid regions where these freshwaters play a vital role in providing ecosystem services for local people. To quantify the spatial and temporal variations of CH 4 flux and understand its key controlling factors in shallow lakes in arid regions of Western China, CH 4 fluxes from Wuliangsu Lake were measured at different vegetation zones and water depths with a static chamber technique during a growing season from April to October in 2003. Results showed that the average emission flux of CH 4 from submerged plant ( Potamogeton pectinatus) growing zones was 2.16 mg CH 4 m -2 h -1, which was 85.8% lower than that from emergent macrophyte ( Phragmites australis) growing zones. CH 4 emissions increased with increasing water depth in Phragmites Community. Significant seasonal and diurnal variations of CH 4 emission were observed for P. australis during the plant growth stage, for P. pectinatus growing zones, however, the variations were minor. In addition to vegetation cover and water depth, bottom silt temperature and light intensity were also important factors influencing seasonal and diurnal variations of CH 4 flux from Phargmites growing zone.

  16. Inferring Invasion History of Red Swamp Crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) in China from Mitochondrial Control Region and Nuclear Intron Sequences.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanhe; Guo, Xianwu; Chen, Liping; Bai, Xiaohui; Wei, Xinlan; Zhou, Xiaoyun; Huang, Songqian; Wang, Weimin

    2015-06-29

    Identifying the dispersal pathways of an invasive species is useful for adopting the appropriate strategies to prevent and control its spread. However, these processes are exceedingly complex. So, it is necessary to apply new technology and collect representative samples for analysis. This study used Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) in combination with traditional genetic tools to examine extensive sample data and historical records to infer the invasion history of the red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, in China. The sequences of the mitochondrial control region and the proPOx intron in the nuclear genome of samples from 37 sites (35 in China and one each in Japan and the USA) were analyzed. The results of combined scenarios testing and historical records revealed a much more complex invasion history in China than previously believed. P. clarkii was most likely originally introduced into China from Japan from an unsampled source, and the species then expanded its range primarily into the middle and lower reaches and, to a lesser extent, into the upper reaches of the Changjiang River in China. No transfer was observed from the upper reaches to the middle and lower reaches of the Changjiang River. Human-mediated jump dispersal was an important dispersal pathway for P. clarkii. The results provide a better understanding of the evolutionary scenarios involved in the rapid invasion of P. clarkii in China.

  17. Gold deposits in the Xiaoqinling-Xiong'ershan region, Qinling mountains, central China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mao, J.; Goldfarb, R.J.; Zhang, Z.; Xu, W.; Qiu, Y.; Deng, J.

    2002-01-01

    The gold-rich Xiaoqinling-Xiong'ershan region in eastern Shaanxi and western Henan provinces, central China, lies about 30-50 km inland of the southern margin of the North China craton. More than 100 gold deposits and occurrences are concentrated in the Xiaoqinling (west), Xiaoshan (middle), and Xiong'ershan (east) areas. Late Archean gneiss of the Taihua Group, and Middle Proterozoic metavolcanic rocks of the Xiong'er Group are the main host rocks for the deposits. Mesozoic granitoids (ca. 178-104 Ma) are present in most gold districts, but deposits are typically hosted in the Precambrian basement rocks hundreds of meters to as far as 10 km from the intrusions and related hornfels zones. Deposits in the Xiaoqinling and Xiaoshan areas are best classified as orogenic gold deposits, with ores occurring in a number of distinct belts both in quartz veins and disseminated in altered metamorphic rocks. Alteration assemblages are dominated by quartz, sericite, pyrite, and carbonate minerals. The ore-forming fluids were low salinity, CO2-rich, and characterized by isotopically heavy ??18O. Four deposits (Dongchuang, Wenyu, Yangzhaiyu, and Dahu) in the Xiaoqinling area each contain resources of about 1 Moz Au. Some of the gold deposits in the Xiong'ershan area represent more shallowly emplaced tellurium-enriched orogenic systems, which include resources of approximately 1-1.5 Moz Au at Shanggong and Beiling (or Tantou). Others are epithermal deposits (e.g., Qiyugou and Dianfang) that are hosted in volcanic breccia pipes. Isotopic dates for all gold deposits, although often contradictory, generally cluster between 172-99 Ma and are coeval with emplacement of the post-kinematic granitoids. The gold deposits formed during a period of relaxation of far-field compressional stresses, clearly subsequent to the extensive Paleozoic-early Mesozoic accretion of are terranes and the Yangtze craton onto the southern margin of the North China craton. Hydrothermal and magmatic events

  18. Heavy Metal Pollution in a Soil-Rice System in the Yangtze River Region of China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhouping; Zhang, Qiaofen; Han, Tiqian; Ding, Yanfei; Sun, Junwei; Wang, Feijuan; Zhu, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals are regarded as toxic trace elements in the environment. Heavy metal pollution in soil or rice grains is of increasing concern. In this study, 101 pairs of soil and rice samples were collected from the major rice-producing areas along the Yangtze River in China. The soil properties and heavy metal (i.e., Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr) concentrations in the soil and rice grains were analyzed to evaluate the heavy metal accumulation characteristics of the soil-rice systems. The results showed that the Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr concentrations in the soil ranged from 0.10 to 4.64, 0.01 to 1.46, 7.64 to 127.56, and 13.52 to 231.02 mg·kg−1, respectively. Approximately 37%, 16%, 60% and 70% of the rice grain samples were polluted by Cd, Hg, Pb, and Cr, respectively. The degree of heavy metal contamination in the soil-rice systems exhibited a regional variation. The interactions among the heavy metal elements may also influence the migration and accumulation of heavy metals in soil or paddy rice. The accumulation of heavy metals in soil and rice grains is related to a certain extent to the pH and soil organic matter (SOM). This study provides useful information regarding heavy metal accumulation in soil to support the safe production of rice in China. The findings from this study also provide a robust scientific basis for risk assessments regarding ecological protection and food safety. PMID:26703698

  19. Heavy Metal Pollution in a Soil-Rice System in the Yangtze River Region of China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhouping; Zhang, Qiaofen; Han, Tiqian; Ding, Yanfei; Sun, Junwei; Wang, Feijuan; Zhu, Cheng

    2015-12-22

    Heavy metals are regarded as toxic trace elements in the environment. Heavy metal pollution in soil or rice grains is of increasing concern. In this study, 101 pairs of soil and rice samples were collected from the major rice-producing areas along the Yangtze River in China. The soil properties and heavy metal (i.e., Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr) concentrations in the soil and rice grains were analyzed to evaluate the heavy metal accumulation characteristics of the soil-rice systems. The results showed that the Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr concentrations in the soil ranged from 0.10 to 4.64, 0.01 to 1.46, 7.64 to 127.56, and 13.52 to 231.02 mg·kg(-)¹, respectively. Approximately 37%, 16%, 60% and 70% of the rice grain samples were polluted by Cd, Hg, Pb, and Cr, respectively. The degree of heavy metal contamination in the soil-rice systems exhibited a regional variation. The interactions among the heavy metal elements may also influence the migration and accumulation of heavy metals in soil or paddy rice. The accumulation of heavy metals in soil and rice grains is related to a certain extent to the pH and soil organic matter (SOM). This study provides useful information regarding heavy metal accumulation in soil to support the safe production of rice in China. The findings from this study also provide a robust scientific basis for risk assessments regarding ecological protection and food safety.

  20. The impact of China's vehicle emissions on regional air quality in 2000 and 2020: a scenario analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikawa, E.; Kurokawa, J.; Takigawa, M.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Horowitz, L. W.; Ohara, T.

    2011-04-01

    The number of vehicles in China has been increasing rapidly. We evaluate the impact of current and possible future vehicle emissions from China on Asian air quality. We modify the Regional Emission Inventory in Asia (REAS) for China's road transport sector in 2000 using updated Chinese data for vehicle numbers, annual mileage and emission factors. We develop two scenarios for 2020: a scenario where emission factors remain the same as they were before any regulation was implemented (business-as-usual, BAU), and a scenario where Euro 3 vehicle emission standards are applied to all vehicles (except motorcycles and rural vehicles). The Euro 3 scenario is an approximation of what may be the case in 2020 as, starting in 2008, all new gasoline and diesel vehicles in China (except motorcycles) were required to meet the Euro 3 emission standards. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF/Chem), we examine the regional air quality response to China's vehicle emissions in 2000 and in 2020 for the BAU and Euro 3 scenarios. We evaluate the 2000 model results with observations in Japan, China, Korea, and Russia. Under BAU in 2020, emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) from China's vehicles more than double compared to the 2000 baseline. If all vehicles meet the Euro 3 regulations in 2020, however, these emissions are reduced by more than 50% relative to BAU. The implementation of stringent vehicle emission standards leads to a large, simultaneous reduction of the surface ozone (O3) mixing ratios and particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations. In the Euro 3 scenario, surface O3 is reduced by more than 10 ppbv and surface PM2.5 is reduced by more than 10 μg m-3 relative to BAU in Northeast China in all seasons. In spring, surface O3 mixing ratios and PM2.5 concentrations in neighboring countries are also reduced by more than 3 ppbv and 1

  1. Scenario analysis to vehicular emission reduction in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiurui; Fu, Liwei; Ji, Muse; Lang, Jianlei; Chen, Dongsheng; Cheng, Shuiyuan

    2016-09-01

    Motor vehicle emissions are increasingly becoming one of the important factors affecting the urban air quality in China. It is necessary and useful to policy makers to demonstrate the situation given the relevant pollutants reduction measures are taken. This paper predicted the reduction potentials of conventional pollutants (PM10, NOx, CO, HC) under different control strategies and policies in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region during 2011-2020. There are the baseline and 5 control scenarios designed, which presented the different current and future possible vehicular emissions control measures. Future population of different kinds of vehicles were predicted based on the Gompertz model, and vehicle kilometers travelled estimated as well. After that, the emissions reduction under the different scenarios during 2011-2020 could be estimated using emission factors and activity level data. The results showed that, the vehicle population in the BTH region would continue to grow up, especially in Tianjin and Hebei. Comparing the different scenarios, emission standards updating scenario would achieve a substantial reduction and keep rising up for all the pollutants, and the scenario of eliminating high-emission vehicles can reduce emissions more effectively in short-term than in long-term, especially in Beijing. Due to the constraints of existing economical and technical level, the reduction effect of promoting new energy vehicles would not be significant, especially given the consideration of their lifetime impact. The reduction effect of population regulation scenario in Beijing cannot be ignorable and would keep going up for PM10, CO and HC, excluding NOx. Under the integrated scenario considering all the control measures it would achieve the maximum reduction potential of emissions, which means to reduce emissions of PM10, NOx, CO, HC, by 56%, 59%, 48%, 52%, respectively, compared to BAU scenario for the whole BTH region in 2020.

  2. Atmospheric molecular hydrogen (H2) at the Shangdianzi regional background station in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, Tian; Fang, Shuangxi; Yao, Bo; Wang, Hongyang; Dong, Fan; Shi, Qingfeng; Zhou, Liyan; Zhou, Huaigang

    2016-11-01

    Atmospheric molecular hydrogen (H2) mole fractions have been continuously measured at the Shangdianzi regional station in China. In this study, we present the atmospheric H2 time series from January 2015 to April 2016, and investigate the diurnal and seasonal cycles, and the impact of meteorological factors on the observed values. Atmospheric H2 mole fractions at Shangdianzi vary from a minimum of 381 ppb (parts per billion, 10-9 dry air mole fraction) to a maximum of 1535 ppb, with a median of 510 ppb and a mean (± standard deviation) of 555 ± 113 ppb during the observation period. The results indicate that H2 mole fractions at Shangdianzi are frequently influenced by local sources and sinks. Regionally representative conditions account for 44.7% of the total records with a mean mole fraction of 488 ± 20 ppb. The highest regionally representative H2 mole fraction is observed in July, while the lowest is observed in October. Peak-to-trough amplitude in the seasonal cycle is 63 ± 3 ppb. H2 mole fractions show nighttime depletion in all seasons, with the lowest values in the morning (7:00-10:00 local time). The H2 mole fractions are also influenced by local surface wind direction at Shangdianzi. Winds from NW-NNW-N-NNE-NE-ENE-E directions are always associated with negative contribution to atmospheric H2 loading, whereas winds from SSW-SW-WSW-W directions generally enhance the H2 values. The results of trajectory clustering analysis demonstrate that air masses from a southerly direction induce high H2 mole fractions. Conversely, mean H2 mole fractions are low when air masses are from the north, northwest, and east directions.

  3. Impact of anthropogenic aerosols on regional climate change in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, B.; Liou, K. N.; He, C.; Lee, W. L.; Gu, Y.; Li, Q.; Leung, L. R.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols affect regional climate significantly through radiative (direct and semi-direct) and indirect effects, but the magnitude of these effects over megacities are subject to large uncertainty. In this study, we evaluated the effects of anthropogenic aerosols on regional climate change in Beijing, China using the online-coupled Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry Model (WRF/Chem) with the Fu-Liou-Gu radiation scheme and a spatial resolution of 4km. We further updated this radiation scheme with a geometric-optics surface-wave (GOS) approach for the computation of light absorption and scattering by black carbon (BC) particles in which aggregation shape and internal mixing properties are accounted for. In addition, we incorporated in WRF/Chem a 3D radiative transfer parameterization in conjunction with high-resolution digital data for city buildings and landscape to improve the simulation of boundary-layer, surface solar fluxes and associated sensible/latent heat fluxes. Preliminary simulated meteorological parameters, fine particles (PM2.5) and their chemical components agree well with observational data in terms of both magnitude and spatio-temporal variations. The effects of anthropogenic aerosols, including BC, on radiative forcing, surface temperature, wind speed, humidity, cloud water path, and precipitation are quantified on the basis of simulation results. With several preliminary sensitivity runs, we found that meteorological parameters and aerosol radiative effects simulated with the incorporation of improved BC absorption and 3-D radiation parameterizations deviate substantially from simulation results using the conventional homogeneous/core-shell configuration for BC and the plane-parallel model for radiative transfer. Understanding of the aerosol effects on regional climate change over megacities must consider the complex shape and mixing state of aerosol aggregates and 3D radiative transfer effects over city landscape.

  4. Telemagmatic metamorphism superimposed on regional metamorphism: Evidence from coals in central China

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Y. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-02-01

    Coal (Lower Permian No. 1) in north-central Henan province, central China, exhibits a zoned rank distribution. The rank varies between high-volatile bituminous and anthracite. Highest rank coal occurs in a northwest-southeast trending zone that cuts across the center of the study area. Coal rank decreases from this central zone towards both the northeast and southwest. Core data indicate that the anthracite is currently overlain by over 4,600 m of sedimentary cover, which represents more or less continuous sedimentation during the Permian and Triassic. In the lower rank area to the southwest, erosion has removed all but approximately 1,000 m of strata. The rank distribution in this area has been attributed to regional metamorphism by previous workers as the higher coal rank coincides with the thicker strata. However, this study reveals that anthracite in the area has a much higher vitrinite reflectance, between 3--6% (Ro max, in oil), with some locations exhibiting reflectances greater than 6%. Petrographically, the anthracite is characterized by well developed pores (5--10 [mu]m in diameter) and mosaic structure. It is suggested that the higher heat flow is due to the presence of deep-seated plutons. It is proposed that coal metamorphism in this area involved three stages: (1) Pre-orogenic (early Permian-late Triassic). Regional metamorphism produced coals of subbituminous to high-volatile bituminous rank; (2) Orogenic (early Jurassic-late Cretaceous). Telemagmatic metamorphism resulted in zones of higher rank coal (medium volatile through anthracite rank); (3) Post-orogenic (Tertiary-Quaternary). Shallow burial depth due to the tectonic uplift followed by erosion had a negligible effect on coal rank. It is suggested, therefore, that coalification in this area is the result of regional metamorphism overprinted by telemagmatic metamorphism.

  5. Formation and evolution mechanism of regional haze: a case study in the megacity Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X. G.; Li, J.; Qu, Y.; Han, T.; Hou, L.; Gu, J.; Chen, C.; Yang, Y.; Liu, X.; Yang, T.; Zhang, Y.; Tian, H.; Hu, M.

    2013-05-01

    The main objective of this study is to investigate the formation and evolution mechanism of the regional haze in megacity Beijing by analyzing the process of a severe haze that occurred 20-27 September 2011. Mass concentration and size distribution of aerosol particles as well as aerosol optical properties were concurrently measured at the Beijing urban atmospheric environment monitoring station. Gaseous pollutants (SO2, NO-NO2-NOx, O3, CO) and meteorological parameters (wind speed, wind direction, and relative humidity) were simultaneously monitored. Meanwhile, aerosol spatial distribution and the height of planetary boundary layer (PBL) were retrieved from the signal of satellite and LIDAR (light detection and ranging). Concentrations of NO, NO2, SO2, O3, and CO observed during 23-27 September had exceeded the national ambient air quality standards for residents. The mass concentration of PM2.5 gradually accumulated during the measurement and reached at 220 μg m-3 on 26 September, and the corresponding atmospheric visibility was only 1.1 km. The daily averaged AOD in Beijing increased from ~ 0.16 at λ = 500 nm on 22 September and reached ~ 3.5 on 26 September. The key factors that affected the formation and evolution of this haze episode were stable anti-cyclone synoptic conditions at the surface, decreasing of the height of PBL, heavy pollution emissions from urban area, number and size evolution of aerosols, and hygroscopic growth for aerosol scattering. This case study may provide valuable information for the public to recognize the formation mechanism of the regional haze event over the megacity, which is also useful for the government to adopt scientific approach to forecast and eliminate the occurrence of regional haze in China.

  6. Catalogue of Workforce Information Sources: Decision Making Assistance for Regional Economic Development. U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Labor, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In early 2006, The U.S. Department of Labor (DOL), Employment and Training Administration (ETA) began an initiative called Workforce Innovation in Regional Economic Development (WIRED) to help regions create competitive conditions, integrate economic and workforce development activities, and demonstrate that talent development can successfully…

  7. A multisource observation study of the severe prolonged regional haze episode over eastern China in January 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hong; Tan, Sai-Chun; Wang, Yu; Jiang, Chao; Shi, Guang-yu; Zhang, Meng-Xiang; Che, Hui-Zheng

    2014-06-01

    By employing visibility observation, PM10, SO2 and NO2 concentration, MODIS AOD at 550 nm, CARSNET AOD at 440 nm, CALIPSO extinction coefficient at 532 nm, we studied the air pollution condition of a severe haze episode occurred on 6-16 January 2013 over eastern China. The study found that this severe pollution episode of large area haze was accompanied with low visibility, high PM10 and AOD in eastern China. The most polluted regions is the Jing-Jin-Ji and its near southern neighboring region including central and south Hebei, west Shandong and north Henan province in the whole China Mainland. The haze pollutants were spread to the offshore area of 125°E to the east of China, and even affected to the west of 140°E. The PM10 variation trend shows a strong linkage among the big cities in Jing-Jin-Ji and their near surrounding cities, indicating the possible inter-transport and influence among them. The suburb area of megacity suffered the similar serious pollution with urban region during this kind of severe haze episode. Most aerosol pollutants concentrated in boundary layer below 1500 m vertical height, in particular, the vertical heights of 100-800 m above the ground are peaks of the aerosol pollutants.

  8. Carbon dioxide and methane supersaturation in lakes of semi-humid/semi-arid region, Northeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Zhidan; Song, Kaishan; Zhao, Ying; Jin, Xiuliang

    2016-08-01

    Understanding concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in lakes is an important part of a comprehensive global carbon budget. We estimated data on the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and CH4 (pCH4) from sampling with 95 lakes in semi-humid/semi-arid region of Northeastern China during ice-free period. Both pCO2 and pCH4 varied greatly among the study sites. p(CO2) values in these lakes ranged from 21.9 to 30,152.3 μatm (n = 403), and 91% of lakes in this survey were supersaturated with CO2. p(CH4) values ranged from 12.6 to 139,630.7 μatm with all sites in this study of CH4 sources to the atmosphere during the ice-free period. The collected urban lakes samples exhibited higher pCO2 and pCH4 than wild lakes samples. Either the mean value of p(CO2) or p(CH4) in saline waters is higher than in fresh waters. Correlation analysis implied that the partial pressure of the GHGs (CO2 and CH4) showed statistically correlations with water environment indicators like pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and chlorophyll a (Chla). However, the most of the relationships showed a high degree of scatter, only pH might be used as the predictor of the gas partial pressure based on the result of this study (rpCO2 = -0.437, p < 0.01, n = 382; rpCH4 = -0.265, p < 0.01, n = 400). Furthermore, salinity could be a good predictor for p(CO2) and p(CH4) in 83 freshwater lakes in our study (rpCO2 = 0.365, rpCH4 = 0.323, p < 0.01, n = 348). The mean CO2 flux increased with the decreasing lake area size. The calculated annual areal carbon emission rate is 560.2 g C m-2 from 95 lakes in Northeastern China. We could not extrapolate carbon emission from these lakes to the boreal region or a wider scale because of the change of environmental conditions.

  9. Light Absorption of Brown Carbon Aerosol in the Pearl River Delta Region of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X.

    2015-12-01

    X.F. Huang, J.F. Yuan, L.M. Cao, J. Cui, C.N. Huang, Z.J. Lan and L.Y. He Key Laboratory for Urban Habitat Environmental Science and Technology, School of Environment and Energy, Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen 518055, ChinaCorresponding author. Tel.: +86 755 26032532; fax: +86 755 26035332. E-mail address: huangxf@pku.edu.cn (X. F. Huang). Abstract: The strong spectral dependence of light absorption of brown carbon (BrC) aerosol has been recognized in recent decades. The Absorption Angstrom Exponent (AAE) of ambient aerosol was widely used in previous studies to attribute light absorption of brown carbon at shorter wavelengths, with a theoretical assumption that the AAE of black carbon (BC) aerosol equals to unit. In this study, the AAE method was improved by statistical extrapolation based on ambient measurements in the polluted seasons in typical urban and rural areas in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of China. A three-wavelength photoacoustic soot spectrometer (PASS-3) and an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) were used to explore the relationship between the ambient measured AAE and the ratio of organic aerosol to BC aerosol, in order to extract the more realistic AAE by pure BC aerosol, which were found to be 0.86, 0.82 and 1.02 at 405nm and 0.70, 0.71, and 0.86 at 532nm in the campaigns of urban-winter, urban-fall, and rural-fall, respectively. Roadway tunnel experiment results further supported the effectiveness of the obtained AAE for pure BC aerosol. In addition, biomass burning experiments proved higher spectral dependence of more-BrC environment and further verified the reliability of the instruments' response. Then, the average light absorption contribution of BrC aerosol was calculated to be 11.7, 6.3 and 12.1% (with total relative uncertainty of 7.5, 6.9 and 10.0%) at 405nm and 10.0, 4.1 and 5.5% (with total relative uncertainty of 6.5, 8.6 and 15.4%) at 532nm of the three campaigns, respectively. These results indicate that the

  10. Identifying risk factors of avian infectious diseases at household level in Poyang Lake region, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qian; Zhou, Jieting; Jiang, Zhiben; Xu, Bing

    2014-09-01

    Poultry kept in backyard farms are susceptible to acquiring and spreading infectious diseases because of free ranging and poor biosecurity measures. Since some of these diseases are zoonoses, this is also a significant health concern to breeders and their families. Backyard farms are common in rural regions of China. However, there is lack of knowledge of backyard poultry in the country. To obtain first-hand information of backyard poultry and identify risk factors of avian infectious diseases, a cross-sectional study was carried out at household level in rural regions around Poyang Lake. A door-to-door survey was conducted to collect data on husbandry practices, trading practices of backyard farmers, and surrounding environments of backyard farms. Farms were categorized into cases and controls based on their history of poultry death. Data were collected for 137 farms, and the association with occurrence of poultry death event was explored by chi-square tests. Results showed that vaccination implementation was a protective factor (odds ratio OR=0.40, 95% confidence interval CI: 0.20-0.80, p=0.01), while contact with other backyard flocks increased risk (OR=1.72, 95% CI: 0.79-3.74, p=0.16). A concept of "farm connectivity" characterized by the density of particular land-use types in the vicinity of the farm was proposed to characterize the degree of contact between poultry in one household farm and those in other household farms. It was found that housing density in a 20-m buffer zone of the farmhouse was most significantly associated with poultry death occurrence (OR=1.08, 95% CI: 1.02-1.17, p=0.03), and was in agreement with observation of villagers. Binary logistic regression was applied to evaluate the relationship between poultry death event and density of land-use types in all buffer zones. When integrated with vaccination implementation for poultry, prediction accuracy of poultry death event reached 72.0%. Results combining questionnaire survey with

  11. Impacts of urbanization on nitrogen deposition in the Pearl River Delta region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Fan, Q.

    2015-12-01

    The Pearl River Delta (PRD) region is one of the most advanced economic districts in China, which has experienced remarkable economic development and urbanization in the past two decades. Accompanied with the rapid economy development and urbanization, the PRD region encountered both severe nitrogen pollution and deposition. In this study, the characteristics of nitrogen deposition and impacts of urbanization on nitrogen deposition in the PRD region were investigated by combining the methods of field study and numerical model. According to the field measurements, the total dry and wet atmospheric deposition of reactive N at a urban site (SYSU) was up to 55.0 kg ha-1 yr-1 in 2010, slightly lower than the results at a rural forest site (DHS) (57.6 kg ha-1 yr-1). Wet deposition was the main form of the total deposition (64-76%). Organic nitrogen (ON) was found to be dominant in the total N deposition, with a contribution of 53% at DHS and 42% at SYSU. NH4+-N and NO3--N accounted for a similar portion of the total N deposition (23-29%). Atmospheric nitrogen deposition was further simulated by using the improved WRF-Chem model. The simulated N deposition flux was high in the north of PRD (i.e., Guangzhou, Foshan, Zhaoqing) and relative low in the east (Huizhou) and south (Zhuhai), with an average N deposition flux of about 24 kg ha-1 yr-1 for the whole PRD. The distribution of N dry deposition was mainly controlled by the concentration of reactive N compounds and precipitation governed the wet deposition distribution. The modeling results also indicate that the PRD area is the source region in which the emissions exceed the deposition while the outside area of the PRD is the receptor region in which the deposition exceeds emissions. The impact of emission change and land use change due to urbanization was also investigated using the WRF-Chem model. The results showed that atmospheric N deposition exhibits a direct response to emission change while the land use change

  12. Assessing spatial distribution of soil erosion in a karst region in southwestern China: A case study in Jinfo Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, H. Y.; Pan, X. Y.; Zhou, W. Z.

    2017-01-01

    Soil erosion is serious with rocky desertification areas appearing in mountainous Karst regions in southwest China due to a conspicuous contradiction between man and the land resource. Land use and land cover play significant roles in regional soil erosion by water. This paper aimed to quantify regional soil erosion and to explore relationships between soil erosion and land use/land cover in order to locate high risk areas requiring soil conservation. Based on GIS, the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) was employed for erosion assessment for a typical Karst region, Jinfo Mountain region in southwest China, using local parameters. Spatial distribution of topsoil erosion was analyzed and relationships between soil erosion and land use/land cover changes (LULC) were statistically explored and discussed for regional erosion control. The overall values were under 25 t.ha.a, with the medium erosion areas accounting for 12.7% and the intense and very intense erosion areas totalled about 6%. The relations between soil erosion and LULC are complicated in this Karst mountainous region. Generally, the amount of ground cover, soil conservation measures, and cultivation disturbance have played critical roles in topsoil loss in the Jinfo mountain region. The reduced ground cover levels accompanying greater cultivation disturbance lead to higher erosion intensity in each landscape, and vice versa.

  13. Regional atmospheric emissions determined from measurements at Jeju Island, Korea: Halogenated compounds from China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jooil; Li, Shanlan; Kim, Kyung-Ryul; Stohl, Andreas; Mühle, Jens; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Park, Mi-Kyung; Kang, Dong-Jin; Lee, Gangwoong; Harth, Christina M.; Salameh, Peter K.; Weiss, Ray F.

    2010-06-01

    High-frequency in-situ measurements of a wide range of halogenated compounds including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and other chlorinated and brominated compounds have been made at Gosan (Jeju Island, Korea). Regional emissions of HCFC-22 (CHClF2) calculated from inverse modeling were combined with interspecies correlation methods to estimate national emissions for China, a major emitter of industrial halogenated gases. Our results confirm the signs of successful phase-out of primary ozone-depleting species such as CFCs, halons and many chlorinated or brominated compounds, along with substantial emissions of replacement HCFCs. Emissions derived for HFCs, PFCs, and SF6 were compared to published estimates and found to be a significant fraction of global totals. Overall, Chinese emissions of the halogenated compounds discussed here represent 19(14-17)% and 20(15-26)% of global emissions when evaluated in terms of their Ozone Depletion Potentials and 100-year Global Warming Potentials, respectively.

  14. Seventeenth century organic agriculture in China: II. Energy flows through an agroecosystem in Jiaxing Region

    SciTech Connect

    Dazhong, W.; Pimentel, D.

    1986-03-01

    The energy flows in a seventeenth century agroecosystem in Jiaxing Region of eastern China were analyzed on the basis of historical data. The agroecosystem included cropping, mulberry-silkworm livestock, and fishing systems. In terms of energy, the agroecosystem was sustainable. Human labor provided all the power with inputs of about 3700 hr per hectare of farmland. Most or 70% of the labor was expended in the cropping system. Human and animal manure provided most of the nutrients for crop and mulberry production. About two-thirds of the total manure was used in crop production and one-third in the mulberry plantations. The only fossil energy input was a few hand tools. Approximately 55% of the grain was consumed directly by local residents, about one-third of the grain was used to make an alcohol drink and produce distillers' grains, which was fed to pigs, and only 2% of the grains were exported outside the agroecosystem. About two-thirds of the harvested crop residues were used as household fuel, while the remainder was returned to the field as an organic fertilizer. Pork accounted for 85% and silk cocoons 14% of the total animal products produced. Even though the agroecosystem was generally sustainable in terms of energy, the major environmental problem was that two-thirds of the harvested crop residues were used for household fuel. This reduced nutrient cycling in the system. Insufficient land was available to produce fuelwood; thus, crop residues were the primary source of fuel for the people.

  15. Analytical characterization of Hempseed (seed of Cannabis sativa L.) oil from eight regions in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tianpeng; He, Jinfeng; Zhang, Jianchun; Zhang, Hua; Qian, Ping; Hao, Jianxiong; Li, Lite

    2010-06-01

    In this study, eight cultivars of hempseed were collected from different regions of China for analysis of physiochemical properties and chemical composition, as well as for seed indexes and proximate composition of seed kernel. The results indicated that Yunma No. 1 and Bama Huoma, with more than 50% oil and 30% protein in dehulled seed, could be considered as oil extraction material and protein source with respect to kernel yield. Iodine values ranging from 153.6 to 169.1 g/100 g reflected the high degree of unsaturation. The concentration of unsaturated fatty acids exceeded 90%, higher than most conventional vegetable oils. Moreover, polyunsaturated fatty acids ranged from 76.26% to 82.75% and were mainly composed of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid with a ratio close to 3:1. γ-Tocopherol was found at an average concentration of 28.23 mg/100 g of hempseed oil. The results indicated that hempseed oil is a potentially valuable vegetable oil.

  16. The Influence of Landscape Features on Road Development in a Loess Region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Xiaoli; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Rui

    2011-10-01

    Many ecologists focus on the effects of roads on landscapes, yet few consider how landscapes affect road systems. In this study, therefore, we quantitatively evaluated how land cover, topography, and building density affected the length density, node density, spatial pattern, and location of roads in Dongzhi Yuan, a typical loess region in China. Landscape factors and roads were mapped using images from SPOT satellite (Système Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre), initiated by the French space agency and a digital elevation model (DEM). Detrended canonical correspondence analysis (DCCA), a useful ordination technique to explain species-environment relations in community ecology, was applied to evaluate the ways in which landscapes may influence roads. The results showed that both farmland area and building density were positively correlated with road variables, whereas gully density and the coefficient of variation (CV of DEM) showed negative correlations. The CV of DEM, farmland area, grassland area, and building density explained variation in node density, length density, and the spatial pattern of roads, whereas gully density and building density explained variation in variables representing road location. In addition, node density, rather than length density, was the primary road variable affected by landscape variables. The results showed that the DCCA was effective in explaining road-landscape relations. Understanding these relations can provide information for landscape managers and transportation planners.

  17. The influence of landscape features on road development in a loess region, China.

    PubMed

    Bi, Xiaoli; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Rui

    2011-10-01

    Many ecologists focus on the effects of roads on landscapes, yet few consider how landscapes affect road systems. In this study, therefore, we quantitatively evaluated how land cover, topography, and building density affected the length density, node density, spatial pattern, and location of roads in Dongzhi Yuan, a typical loess region in China. Landscape factors and roads were mapped using images from SPOT satellite (Système Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre), initiated by the French space agency and a digital elevation model (DEM). Detrended canonical correspondence analysis (DCCA), a useful ordination technique to explain species-environment relations in community ecology, was applied to evaluate the ways in which landscapes may influence roads. The results showed that both farmland area and building density were positively correlated with road variables, whereas gully density and the coefficient of variation (CV of DEM) showed negative correlations. The CV of DEM, farmland area, grassland area, and building density explained variation in node density, length density, and the spatial pattern of roads, whereas gully density and building density explained variation in variables representing road location. In addition, node density, rather than length density, was the primary road variable affected by landscape variables. The results showed that the DCCA was effective in explaining road-landscape relations. Understanding these relations can provide information for landscape managers and transportation planners.

  18. [Natural regeneration of young Excentrodendron hsienmu in karst mountainous region in Southwest Guangxi, China].

    PubMed

    Ou, Zhi-Yang; Su, Zhi-Yao; Peng, Yu-Hua; Hu, Qin-Fei; Huang, Xiao-Rong

    2013-09-01

    A field survey was conducted in the karst mountainous region in Pingguo County of Southwest Guangxi, China to explore the structural characteristics, spatial distribution pattern, and growth dynamics of young Excentrodendron hsienmu as well as the main environmental factors affecting the natural regeneration of the E. hsienmu population. In the study area, the population structure of the young E. hsienmu was stable, and exhibited a clumped spatial pattern for the seedlings and seedling sprouts. The ground diameter growth and height growth of the young E. hsienmu presented the same variation trend, i. e., the ground diameter increased with increasing height. The ground diameter growth and height growth of the E. hsienmu seedlings were limited by population density, i. e., decreased with increasing population density. The correlation analysis showed that the trees more than 2.5 m in height and the shrubs were the major stand factors affecting the natural regeneration of young E. hsienmu, while the herbs had no significant correlation with the regeneration. The percentage of covered rock also had no significant effects on the regeneration. Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA showed that there existed significant differences in the height and ground diameter of young E. hsienmu at different slope degrees and slope positions. The population density, height, and ground diameter had significant differences across slope aspects. The natural regeneration of young E. hsienmu was comprehensively affected by the species biological characteristics, intraspecific competition, interspecific competition, heterogeneous habitat, and anthropogenic disturbances.

  19. Crustal radial anisotropy in Northeast China and its implications for the regional tectonic extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhen; Yang, Yingjie; Chen, Y. John

    2016-10-01

    We obtain high-resolution Rayleigh and Love wave phase velocity maps from ambient noise tomography using data recorded by NECESSArray in Northeast China. The resulting radial anisotropic model from the joint inversion of Rayleigh and Love wave dispersion curves reveals strong relationship between the crustal radial anisotropy and tectonic provinces, that is, strong positive anisotropy (Vsh > Vsv) beneath the Songliao Basin and weak radial anisotropy beneath the Xinmeng Belt and Changbaishan Region. The Songliao Basin experienced widespread crustal extension during the late Mesozoic. We interpret the lower crustal anisotropy beneath the Songliao Basin as a result of ductile deformation during the rifting stage, which may lead to the alignment of anisotropic minerals and the observed strong radial anisotropy at present. In the northern Songliao Basin, where thick syn-rift and post-rift sediments (≥4 km) are believed to be present, we observe a broader lateral distribution of anisotropy with stronger amplitude compared with the southern basin. We suggest that the broader distribution of crustal radial anisotropy in the northern basin could be the consequence of outward lower crustal flow driven by the sedimentary loading during the post-rift stage, which is also proposed by previous numerical modeling.

  20. [Species diversity and colony characteristics of bumblebees in the Hebei region of North China].

    PubMed

    An, Jian-Dong; Huang, Jia-Xing; Williams, Paul H; Wu, Jie; Zhou, Bing-Feng

    2010-06-01

    Based on the 1893 specimens collected from Hebei Province, Beijing City, and Tianjin City in 2005-2009, and the specimens deposited in the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, this paper analyzed the species diversity and colony characteristics of bumblebees in the Hebei region of North China. A total of 32 species belonging to 8 subgenera of Bombus were recorded, with 32 species in Hebei Province, 18 species in Beijing, and 5 species in Tianjin. The bumblebee in Taihang Mountains, Yanshan Mountains, and Bashang Plateau had the highest richness and abundance, and its food-plant included 80 species of 21 families, among which, Compositae, Leguminosae, and Labiatae were most important. Five bumblebee species, i. e., Bombus hypocrita, B. ignitus, B. patagiatus, B. pyrosoma, and B. picipes, had the largest colony, with more than 110 workers, 160 drones, and 30 young queens produced per colony. The success in rearing colonies of each of the 5 species by queens was > 50%, demonstrating that these 5 species had the potential to be mass-reared, with important applied value for crop pollination.

  1. Social vulnerability of rural households to flood hazards in western mountainous regions of Henan province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D. L.; Li, Y.

    2015-11-01

    Evaluating social vulnerability is a crucial issue in risk and disaster management. In this study, a household social vulnerability index (HSVI) to flood hazards was developed and used to assess the social vulnerability of rural households in western mountainous regions of Henan province, China. Eight key indicators were indentified through interactive discussions with multidisciplinary specialists and local farmers, and their weights were determined using principle component analysis (PCA). The results showed that (1) the ratio of perennial working in other places, hazard-related training and illiteracy ratio (15+) were the most dominant factors to social vulnerability. (2) The numbers of high, moderate and low vulnerable households were 14, 64 and 16, respectively, which accounted for 14.9, 68.1, and 17.0 % of the total interviewed rural households, respectively. (3) The correlation coefficient between household social vulnerability scores and casualties in a storm flood in July 2010 was significant at 0.05 significance level (r = 0.248), which indicated that the selected indicators and their weights were valid. (4) Some mitigation strategies to reduce the household social vulnerability to flood hazards were proposed based on the assessment results. The results provide useful information for rural households and local governments to prepare, mitigate and response to flood hazards.

  2. Pollen analysis of natural honeys from the central region of Shanxi, North China.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao-Yan; Yao, Yi-Feng; Yang, Wu-De

    2012-01-01

    Based on qualitative and quantitative melissopalynological analyses, 19 Chinese honeys were classified by botanical origin to determine their floral sources. The honey samples were collected during 2010-2011 from the central region of Shanxi Province, North China. A diverse spectrum of 61 pollen types from 37 families was identified. Fourteen samples were classified as unifloral, whereas the remaining samples were multifloral. Bee-favoured families (occurring in more than 50% of the samples) included Caprifoliaceae (found in 10 samples), Laminaceae (10), Brassicaceae (12), Rosaceae (12), Moraceae (13), Rhamnaceae (15), Asteraceae (17), and Fabaceae (19). In the unifloral honeys, the predominant pollen types were Ziziphus jujuba (in 5 samples), Robinia pseudoacacia (3), Vitex negundo var. heterophylla (2), Sophora japonica (1), Ailanthus altissima (1), Asteraceae type (1), and Fabaceae type (1). The absolute pollen count (i.e., the number of pollen grains per 10 g honey sample) suggested that 13 samples belonged to Group I (<20,000 pollen grains), 4 to Group II (20,000-100,000), and 2 to Group III (100,000-500,000). The dominance of unifloral honeys without toxic pollen grains and the low value of the HDE/P ratio (i.e., honey dew elements/pollen grains from nectariferous plants) indicated that the honey samples are of good quality and suitable for human consumption.

  3. Geology of the Chinese nuclear test site near Lop Nor, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matzko, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    The Chinese underground nuclear test site in the Kuruktag and Kyzyltag mountains of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of northwest China, is the location of sixteen underground tests that occurred between 1969 and 1992. The largest test to date, conducted on 21 May 1992, had a reported yield of about one megaton. Geophysical properties of the rocks and a large-scale geologic map of part of the test area were published by the Chinese in 1986 and 1987 and are the first site-specific data available for this test site. In areas of low relief, underground nuclear testing has occurred below the water table, in shafts drilled vertically into dense, low porosity Paleozoic granitic and metasedimentary rocks. Additional testing in areas of more rugged terrain has occurred in horizontal tunnels, probably above the water table. At least one of these tunnels was driven into granite. The upper 50 m of the rock in the area of the vertical tests is weathered and fractured; these conditions have been shown to influence the magnitude of the disturbance of the land surface after a nuclear explosion. These descriptions suggest hard rock coupling at depth and a closer resemblance to the former Soviet test site in eastern Kazakhstan than to the U.S. test site in Nevada. ?? 1994.

  4. Raman microscopy of hand stencils rock art from the Yabrai Mountain, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernanz, Antonio; Chang, Jinlong; Iriarte, Mercedes; Gavira-Vallejo, Jose M.; de Balbín-Behrmann, Rodrigo; Bueno-Ramírez, Primitiva; Maroto-Valiente, Angel

    2016-07-01

    A series of rock art pictographs in the form of hand stencils discovered in two sites of the Yabrai Mountain, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (China) has been studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electronic microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy for the first time. These studies have made possible to characterise the materials present. The minerals α-quartz, phlogopite, albite and microcline have been identified in the granitic rocks supporting the paintings. Calcite and dolomite micro-particles detected on the rock surface have been attributed to desert dust. Accretions of gypsum, anhydrite and whewellite have also been identified on the rock surface. Haematite is the pigment used in the red pictographs, whereas well-crystallised graphite has been used in the black ones. The use of crystalline graphite instead of amorphous carbon (charcoal, soot or bone black) as a black pigment in rock art is an interesting novelty. Overlapped hands are proposed as a new type of hand stencils to make an unusual pictorial symbol in rock art that has been found in these sites.

  5. Seventeenth century organic agriculture in China: I. Cropping systems in Jiaxing Region

    SciTech Connect

    Dazhong, W.; Pimentel, D.

    1986-03-01

    The cropping systems of seventeenth century traditional organic agriculture in the Jiaxing Region of eastern China required about 2000 hr of labor per hectare for rice production. Rice and related grain crops were produced employing only human power. The input was about 200 times that for most mechanized grain production today. The charcoal or fossil energy input to produce simple hand tools accounted for only 1-2% total energy in the crop systems. Organic wastes including manures, pond sediments, and green manure crops supplied most of the nutrients. Rice yields, ranging as high as 6700-8400 kg/ha, were similar to some of the highest yields today. The energy output/input ratio ranged from 9 for compost-fertilized rice to 12 for green manure-fertilized rice production. These ratios were 2-10 times higher than most mechanized rice production systems of today. Knowledge of the crop and soil system enabled the early Chinese farms to maintain high crop yields and sustain highly productive soils.

  6. Analysis of the serum reproductive system related autoantibodies of infertility patients in Tianjin region of China

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Yan; Xu, Yanying; Wang, Jianmei; Wang, Fang; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Yujuan; Zhang, Bumei

    2015-01-01

    Object: Reproductive system related autoantibodies have been proposed to be associated with natural infertility. However, large scale systematic analysis of these of antibodies has not been conducted. The aim of this study is to analyze the positive rate of antisperm antibody (ASAb), anti-endometrium antibody (EMAb), anti-ovary antibody (AOAb), anti-zona pellucida antibody (AZP) and anticardiolipin antibody (ACA) in infertility patients in Tianjin region of China. Methods: 1305 male and 1711 female primary infertility patients and 1100 female secondary infertility patients were included in this study, as well as 627 healthy female controls. The above autoantibodies were tested and the positive rates in each group were calculated. Results: the positive rate of ASAb were significantly higher in primary infertility female than that in male, further analysis revealed that primary infertility population all exhibit significant higher positive rate of EMAb, AOAb, AZP and ACA compared with control group. Furthermore, the positive rates of all the antibodies in primary infertility female were significantly higher than those in secondary infertility female. Conclusions: Our study thus indicates that these autoantibodies might be associated with immunological related primary infertility and may have clinical significance in its diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26550366

  7. Pollen Analysis of Natural Honeys from the Central Region of Shanxi, North China

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiao-Yan; Yao, Yi-Feng; Yang, Wu-De

    2012-01-01

    Based on qualitative and quantitative melissopalynological analyses, 19 Chinese honeys were classified by botanical origin to determine their floral sources. The honey samples were collected during 2010–2011 from the central region of Shanxi Province, North China. A diverse spectrum of 61 pollen types from 37 families was identified. Fourteen samples were classified as unifloral, whereas the remaining samples were multifloral. Bee-favoured families (occurring in more than 50% of the samples) included Caprifoliaceae (found in 10 samples), Laminaceae (10), Brassicaceae (12), Rosaceae (12), Moraceae (13), Rhamnaceae (15), Asteraceae (17), and Fabaceae (19). In the unifloral honeys, the predominant pollen types were Ziziphus jujuba (in 5 samples), Robinia pseudoacacia (3), Vitex negundo var. heterophylla (2), Sophora japonica (1), Ailanthus altissima (1), Asteraceae type (1), and Fabaceae type (1). The absolute pollen count (i.e., the number of pollen grains per 10 g honey sample) suggested that 13 samples belonged to Group I (<20,000 pollen grains), 4 to Group II (20,000–100,000), and 2 to Group III (100,000–500,000). The dominance of unifloral honeys without toxic pollen grains and the low value of the HDE/P ratio (i.e., honey dew elements/pollen grains from nectariferous plants) indicated that the honey samples are of good quality and suitable for human consumption. PMID:23185358

  8. Regional differences in awareness of tobacco advertising and promotion in China: findings from the ITC China Survey

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin; Yong, Hua-Hie; Borland, Ron; Wu, Xi; Li, Qiang; Wu, Changbao; Foong, Kin

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine whether levels of, and factors related to, awareness of tobacco advertising and promotion differ across six cities in China. Methods Data from wave 1 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey (April to August 2006) were analysed. The ITC China Survey employed a multistage sampling design in Beijing, Shenyang, Shanghai, Changsha, Guangzhou and Yinchuan. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with a total of 4763 smokers and 1259 non-smokers. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with awareness of tobacco advertising and promotion. Results The overall levels of noticing advertisements varied considerably by city. Cities reporting lower levels of advertising tended to report higher levels of point of sale activity. Noticing tobacco industry promotions was associated with more positive attitudes to tobacco companies. Conclusion The awareness of tobacco advertising and promotional activities was not homogeneous across the six Chinese cities, suggesting variations in the tobacco industry's activities and the diversity of implementing a central set of laws to restrict tobacco promotion. This study clearly demonstrates the need to work with the implementation agencies if national laws are to be properly enforced. PMID:20008156

  9. Regional variation in the temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition in China's forests and grasslands.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; He, Nianpeng; Zhu, Jianxing; Xu, Li; Yu, Guirui; Niu, Shuli; Sun, Xiaomin; Wen, Xuefa

    2017-01-05

    How to assess the temperature sensitivity (Q10 ) of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition and its regional variation with high accuracy is one of the largest uncertainties in determining the intensity and direction of the global carbon (C) cycle in response to climate change. In this study, we collected a series of soils from 22 forest sites and 30 grassland sites across China to explore regional variation in Q10 and its underlying mechanisms. We conducted a novel incubation experiment with periodically changing temperature (5-30 °C), while continuously measuring soil microbial respiration rates. The results showed that Q10 varied significantly across different ecosystems, ranging from 1.16 to 3.19 (mean 1.63). Q10 was ordered as follows: alpine grasslands (2.01) > temperate grasslands (1.81) > tropical forests (1.59) > temperate forests (1.55) > subtropical forests (1.52). The Q10 of grasslands (1.90) was significantly higher than that of forests (1.54). Furthermore, Q10 significantly increased with increasing altitude and decreased with increasing longitude. Environmental variables and substrate properties together explained 52% of total variation in Q10 across all sites. Overall, pH and soil electrical conductivity primarily explained spatial variation in Q10 . The general negative relationships between Q10 and substrate quality among all ecosystem types supported the C quality temperature (CQT) hypothesis at a large scale, which indicated that soils with low quality should have higher temperature sensitivity. Furthermore, alpine grasslands, which had the highest Q10 , were predicted to be more sensitive to climate change under the scenario of global warming.

  10. Characteristics of soil moisture in relation to microtopography in the Loess region of Northern Shaanxi, China.

    PubMed

    Bo, Yaojun; Zhu, Qingke; Zhao, Weijun

    2014-07-01

    Soil moisture is the primary factor limiting plant growth and vegetation rehabilitation in the loess region of northern Shaanxi, China. This 5-year (2008-2012) study investigated methods of selecting appropriate microsites for vegetation restoration based on efficient use of soil moisture; 5-year data were compared with 56 years of precipitation data using standardized precipitation index. In addition, the effects of microtopography on the spatiotemporal variations of soil moisture were analyzed at the Wuqi Ecological Station of Beijing Forestry University. Results showed that average annual precipitation during last 5 years fell by 12.4% during the growing season compared with 1957-2012 data and soil moisture content at depth of 0-160 cm under went dramatic changes and became relatively low in July and August. Soil moisture content varied in different microtopographical units as follows: gullies > gently-sloped terraces > collapsed soils > undisturbed slopes (control) > furrows > escarpments. The vertical distribution of soil moisture content in different microtopographical units showed dramatic changes at depth of 0-40 cm. Soil moisture content of gently-sloped terraces, gullies, collapsed areas, furrows, and undisturbed slopes was highest at depth of 80-160 cm with a level of instability at depth of 40-80 cm. For gently-sloped terraces and gullies, soil moisture content followed the order of 40-80 cm > 0-40 cm; for collapsed areas, furrows, and undisturbed slopes, soil moisture content follows the order of 0-40 cm > 40-80 cm. For escarpments, soil moisture content varied with depth in a different pattern: 0-40 cm > 80-160 cm > 40-80 cm. This study is of theoretical significance and will help guide the sustainable development of ecological restoration and vegetation rehabilitation in the Loess region.

  11. Epidemiology of Hemoglobinopathies in the Huzhou Region, Zhejiang Province, Southeast China.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhong-Ying; Shen, Guo-Song; Zhang, Su; He, Ping-Ya

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to report the frequency of thalassemia traits and other hemoglobinopathies in Huzhou City, Zhejiang Province, People's Republic of China (PRC), and for the future management of hemoglobinopathies. A total of 8578 pregnant women in the Huzhou region was analyzed for thalassemia traits and other hemoglobinopathies from July 1 2012 to November 30 2015. Complete blood count (CBC), and hemoglobin (Hb) variant analyses were performed with automatic counters and capillary electrophoresis (CE). High resolution melting (HRM) analysis was applied for genetic diagnosis of thalassemia. The prevalence of patients with the α-thalassemia (α-thal) trait was 1.01% (87/8578). β-Thalassemia (β-thal) was carried by 112 women with a frequency of 1.3%. The carrier rate of thalassemia genes in the studied samples was nearly 2.32%. We excluded those without iron studies, with 159 cases as our sample, a total of 63/159 cases (39.6%) also had iron deficiencies. Moreover, Hb E (HBB: c.79G > A), and Hb D-Punjab (HBB: c.364G > C) were the most common Hb variants after thalassemia trait with frequencies of 0.16 and 0.06%, respectively. Only two Hb S (HBB: c.20A > T) carriers were detected in 20 months of screening time. Hb A1c results could be confidently reported on all cases except the Hb D-Punjab and Hb E variants. This study provided a detailed prevalence and molecular characterization of thalassemia in the Huzhou region, and will contribute toward the development of prevention strategies and reducing excessive health care costs in this area, allowing better management of hemoglobinopathies.

  12. The farmers' perceptions of ANPS pollution and its influencing factors in Poyang Lake Region, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meiqiu; Chen, Mengjiao; Lu, Yanfei; Wang, Liguo; Huang, Yujiao

    2016-01-01

    Individual farmers represent the main management entities of agricultural production under the family-contract responsibility system in China, and thus play crucial roles in the prevention and control of agricultural nonpoint source (ANPS) pollution. The analysis of the farmers' perceptions of ANPS pollution as well as the factors affecting their perceptions can provide valuable information for relevant policy-making to preserve high quality water in Poyang Lake and regional quality of arable land. Through a survey titled 'Farmers' perceptions of ANPS pollution and farming behaviors in the Poyang Lake Region', the data related to the perceptions of farmers on ANPS pollution were collected. The factors that affect their awareness of ANPS pollution were identified with the method of boosted regression trees (BRT). The results indicated that the farmers had awareness of the risk of ANPS pollution to some extent, but they lacked adequate scientific knowledge. Generally, they had no consciousness about how to prevent and control ANPS pollution and did not understand techniques needed for proper scientifically sound application of fertilizers and pesticides. The main factors that influenced their perceptions of ANPS pollution are (from high to low): the ratio of total income which comes from farming, per capita farmland, age, education level, and household income. Some measures targeted to improve the prevention and control of ANPS pollution were proposed: developing modern agricultural techniques and promoting large-scale farming, increasing public campaigns related to ANPS pollution prevention and control with the goal of raising the level of awareness of farmers, and reforming the methods used to promote science and technology in agriculture and encourage the proper use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides.

  13. High regional climate sensitivity over continental China constrained by glacial-recent changes in temperature and the hydrological cycle

    PubMed Central

    Eagle, Robert A.; Risi, Camille; Mitchell, Jonathan L.; Eiler, John M.; Seibt, Ulrike; Neelin, J. David; Li, Gaojun; Tripati, Aradhna K.

    2013-01-01

    The East Asian monsoon is one of Earth’s most significant climatic phenomena, and numerous paleoclimate archives have revealed that it exhibits variations on orbital and suborbital time scales. Quantitative constraints on the climate changes associated with these past variations are limited, yet are needed to constrain sensitivity of the region to changes in greenhouse gas levels. Here, we show central China is a region that experienced a much larger temperature change since the Last Glacial Maximum than typically simulated by climate models. We applied clumped isotope thermometry to carbonates from the central Chinese Loess Plateau to reconstruct temperature and water isotope shifts from the Last Glacial Maximum to present. We find a summertime temperature change of 6–7 °C that is reproduced by climate model simulations presented here. Proxy data reveal evidence for a shift to lighter isotopic composition of meteoric waters in glacial times, which is also captured by our model. Analysis of model outputs suggests that glacial cooling over continental China is significantly amplified by the influence of stationary waves, which, in turn, are enhanced by continental ice sheets. These results not only support high regional climate sensitivity in Central China but highlight the fundamental role of planetary-scale atmospheric dynamics in the sensitivity of regional climates to continental glaciation, changing greenhouse gas levels, and insolation. PMID:23671087

  14. High regional climate sensitivity over continental China constrained by glacial-recent changes in temperature and the hydrological cycle.

    PubMed

    Eagle, Robert A; Risi, Camille; Mitchell, Jonathan L; Eiler, John M; Seibt, Ulrike; Neelin, J David; Li, Gaojun; Tripati, Aradhna K

    2013-05-28

    The East Asian monsoon is one of Earth's most significant climatic phenomena, and numerous paleoclimate archives have revealed that it exhibits variations on orbital and suborbital time scales. Quantitative constraints on the climate changes associated with these past variations are limited, yet are needed to constrain sensitivity of the region to changes in greenhouse gas levels. Here, we show central China is a region that experienced a much larger temperature change since the Last Glacial Maximum than typically simulated by climate models. We applied clumped isotope thermometry to carbonates from the central Chinese Loess Plateau to reconstruct temperature and water isotope shifts from the Last Glacial Maximum to present. We find a summertime temperature change of 6-7 °C that is reproduced by climate model simulations presented here. Proxy data reveal evidence for a shift to lighter isotopic composition of meteoric waters in glacial times, which is also captured by our model. Analysis of model outputs suggests that glacial cooling over continental China is significantly amplified by the influence of stationary waves, which, in turn, are enhanced by continental ice sheets. These results not only support high regional climate sensitivity in Central China but highlight the fundamental role of planetary-scale atmospheric dynamics in the sensitivity of regional climates to continental glaciation, changing greenhouse gas levels, and insolation.

  15. Multiple Comparison Analysis of Two New Genomic Sequences of ILTV Strains from China with Other Strains from Different Geographic Regions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Kong, Congcong; Wang, Yunfeng

    2015-01-01

    To date, twenty complete genome sequences of ILTV strains have been published in GenBank, including one strain from China, and nineteen strains from Australian and the United States. To investigate the genomic information on ILTVs from different geographic regions, two additional individual complete genome sequences of WG and K317 strains from China were determined. The genomes of WG and K317 strains were 153,505 and 153,639 bp in length, respectively. Alignments performed on the amino acid sequences of the twelve glycoproteins showed that 13 out of 116 mutational sites were present only among the Chinese strain WG and the Australian strains SA2 and A20. The phylogenetic tree analysis suggested that the WG strain established close relationships with the Australian strain SA2. The recombination events were detected and confirmed in different subregions of the WG strain with the sequences of SA2 and K317 strains as parental. In this study, two new complete genome sequences of Chinese ILTV strains were used in comparative analysis with other complete genome sequences of ILTV strains from China, the United States, and Australia. The analysis of genome comparison, phylogenetic trees, and recombination events showed close relationships among the Chinese strain WG and the Australian strains SA2. The information of the two new complete genome sequences from China will help to facilitate the analysis of phylogenetic relationships and the molecular differences among ILTV strains from different geographic regions.

  16. Anthropogenic air pollution observed near dust source regions in northwestern China during springtime 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Can; Tsay, Si-Chee; Fu, Joshua S.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Ji, Qiang; Bell, Shaun W.; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Wu; Huang, Jianping; Li, Zhanqing; Chen, Hongbin

    2010-04-01

    Trace gases and aerosols were measured in Zhangye (39.082°N, 100.276°E, 1460 m a.s.l.), a rural site near the Gobi deserts in northwestern China during spring 2008. Primary trace gases (CO: 265 ppb; SO2: 3.4 ppb; NOy*: 4.2 ppb; hereafter results given as means of hourly data) in the area were lower than in eastern China, but still indicative of marked anthropogenic emissions. Sizable aerosol mass concentration (153 μg/m3) and light scattering (159 Mm-1 at 500 nm) were largely attributable to dust emissions, and aerosol light absorption (10.3 Mm-1 at 500 nm) was dominated by anthropogenic pollution. Distinct diurnal variations in meteorology and pollution were induced by the local valley terrain. Strong daytime northwest valley wind cleaned out pollution and was replaced by southeast mountain wind that allowed pollutants to build up overnight. In the afternoon, aerosols had single scattering albedo (SSA, 500 nm) of 0.95 and were mainly of supermicron particles, presumably dust, while at night smaller particles and SSA of 0.89-0.91 were related to pollution. The diverse local emission sources were characterized: the CO/SO2, CO/NOy, NOy/SO2 (by moles), and BC/CO (by mass) ratios for small point sources such as factories were 24.6-54.2, 25.8-35.9, 0.79-1.31, and 4.1-6.1 × 10-3, respectively, compared to the corresponding inventory ratios of 43.7-71.9, 23.7-25.7, 1.84-2.79, and 3.4-4.0 × 10-3 for the industrial sector in the area. The mixing between dust and pollution can be ubiquitous in this region. During a dust storm shown as an example, pollutants were observed to mix with dust, causing discernible changes in both SSA and aerosol size distribution. Further interaction between dust and pollutants during transport may modify the properties of dust particles that are critical for their large-scale impact on radiation, clouds, and global biogeochemical cycles.

  17. Pacific slab beneath northeast China revealed by regional and teleseismic waveform modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WANG, X.; Chen, Q. F.; Wei, S.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate velocity and geometry of the slab is essential for better understanding of the thermal, chemical structure of the mantle earth, as well as geodynamics. Recent tomography studies show similar morphology of the subducting Pacific slab beneath northeast China, which was stagnant in the mantle transition zone with thickness of more than 200km and an average velocity perturbation of ~1.5% [Fukao and Obayashi, 2013]. Meanwhile, waveform-modeling studies reveal that the Pacific slab beneath Japan and Kuril Island has velocity perturbation up to 5% and thickness up to 90km [Chen et al., 2007; Zhan et al., 2014]. These discrepancies are probably caused by the smoothing and limited data coverage in the tomographic inversions. Here we adopted 1D and 2D waveform modeling methods to study the fine structure of Pacific slab beneath northeast China using dense regional permanent and temporary broadband seismic records. The residual S- and P-wave travel time, difference between data and 1D synthetics, shows significant difference between the eastern and western stations. S-wave travel time residuals indicate 5-10s earlier arrivals for stations whose ray path lies within the slab, compared with those out of the slab. Teleseimic waveforms were used to rule out the major contribution of the possible low velocity structure above 200km. Furthermore, we use 2D finite-difference waveform modeling to confirm the velocity perturbation and geometry of the slab. Our result shows that the velocity perturbation in the slab is significantly higher than those reported in travel-time tomography studies. ReferencesChen, M., J. Tromp, D. Helmberger, and H. Kanamori (2007), Waveform modeling of the slab beneath Japan, J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth, 112(B2), 19, doi:10.1029/2006jb004394.Fukao, Y., and M. Obayashi (2013), Subducted slabs stagnant above, penetrating through, and trapped below the 660 km discontinuity, J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth, 118(11), 5920-5938, doi:10.1002/2013jb010466

  18. Anthropogenic Air Pollution Observed Near Dust Source Regions in Northwestern China During Springtime 2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Can; Tsay, Si-Chee; Fu, Joshua S.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Ji, Qiang; Bell, Shaun W.; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Wu; Huang, Jianping; Li, Zhanqing; Chen, Hongbin

    2010-01-01

    Trace gases and aerosols were measured in Zhangye (39.082degN, 100.276degE, 1460 m a.s. 1.), a rural site near the Gobi deserts in northwestern China during spring 2008. Primary trace gases (CO:265 ppb; SO2:3.4 ppb; NO(*y): 4.2 ppb; hereafter results given as means of hourly data) in the area were lower than in eastern China, but still indicative of marked anthropogenic emissions. Sizable aerosol mass concentration (153 micro-g/cu m) and light scattering (159/Mm at 500 nm) were largely attributable to dust emissions, and aerosol light absorption (10.3/Mm at 500 nm) was dominated by anthropogenic pollution. Distinct diurnal variations in meteorology and pollution were induced by the local valley terrain. Strong daytime northwest valley wind cleaned out pollution and was replaced by southeast mountain wind that allowed pollutants to build up overnight. In the afternoon, aerosols had single scattering albedo (SSA, 500 mn) of 0.95 and were mainly of supermicron particles, presumably dust, while at night smaller particles and SSA of 0.89-0.91 were related to Pollution. The diverse local emission sources were characterized: the CO/SO2, CO/NO(y), NO(y)/SO2 (by moles), and BC/CO (by mass) ratios for small point sources such as factories were 24.6-54.2, 25.8-35.9, 0.79-1.31, and 4.1-6.1 x 10(exp -3), respectively, compared to the corresponding inventory ratios of 43.7-71.9, 23.7-25.7, 1.84-2.79, and 3.4-4.0 x 10(exp -3) for the industrial sector in the area. The mixing between dust and pollution can be ubiquitous in this region. During a dust storm shown as an example, pollutants were observed to mix with dust, causing discernible changes in both SSA and aerosol size distribution. Further interaction between dust and pollutants during transport may modify the properties of dust particles that are critical for their large-scale impact on radiation, clouds, and global biogeochemical cycles.

  19. Health hazard evaluation report HETA 85-062-1652, Veterans Administration Center and Regional Office, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, D.E.; Chrostek, W.

    1986-01-01

    Concern among employees that asbestos exposure at the Veterans Administration Center and Regional Office in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania may be causing relatively high rates of cancer deaths culminated in a NIOSH evaluation of the facility. Medical and personnel records were incomplete, but death certificates were obtained for 10 of 20 presumed cancer victims. Three had died of lung cancer, two of colon cancer, and one each of gastric, small intestine, pancreas, and breast cancer. The sampling was too small to draw any conclusions concerning a cancer cluster. Bulk samples of steam pipes and damaged ceiling tiles were taken from the areas of concern. Three of the five bulk samples showed chrysotile asbestos. Ceiling tile and pipe covering contained 30-40% chrysotile asbestos. No asbestos was found in dust settled on a file cabinet. Air fiber concentrations were below the limit of detection (3000 fibers per cubic meter) in the 12 samples taken. Air samples indicated that adequate outside air is entering the working areas of the building. The authors conclude that a potential hazard from asbestos existed if pipes or ceiling tiles were damaged or disturbed.

  20. Transmission Risk from Imported Plasmodium vivax Malaria in the China-Myanmar Border Region.

    PubMed

    Wang, Duoquan; Li, Shengguo; Cheng, Zhibin; Xiao, Ning; Cotter, Chris; Hwang, Jimee; Li, Xishang; Yin, Shouqin; Wang, Jiazhi; Bai, Liang; Zheng, Zhi; Wang, Sibao

    2015-10-01

    Malaria importation and local vector susceptibility to imported Plasmodium vivax infection are a continuing risk along the China-Myanmar border. Malaria transmission has been prevented in 3 border villages in Tengchong County, Yunnan Province, China, by use of active fever surveillance, integrated vector control measures, and intensified surveillance and response.

  1. Investigating Regional Disparities of China's Human Development with Cluster Analysis: A Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yongheng; Hu, Angang

    2008-01-01

    This paper adopts both one-dimensional and multi-dimensional cluster analysis to analyze China's HDI data for 1982, 1995, 1999, and 2003, and to classify China's provinces into four tiers based on the three basic developmental aspects embedded in HDI. The classifications by cluster analysis depends on the observations' similarities with respect to…

  2. Pollution situation and possible markers of different sources in the Ordos Region, Inner Mongolia, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjie; Wang, Wei; Chen, Jianhua; Liu, Hongjie; Dai, Tianyou; Yang, Xiao-Yang; Zhang, Fan; Lin, Jun; Wang, Zifa

    2010-01-01

    In order to investigate the pollution situation for a fast-developing industrial area at its first stage, a systematic study on the gaseous and particulate pollution in the Ordos Region of Inner Mongolia was performed during 9-24 September 2005. The gases SO(2), NO(x), O(3), CO, and the particulates PM(10) and PM(2.5) were sampled at five sites in Ordos. Species measured in aerosol were 21 elements, 10 ions, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and the acid-buffering capacity of particulates. Possible markers of sources for different transport directions were firstly investigated, which was a new attempt for clarification of regional transport with different directions. None of the gases exceeded the national standards of China. PM(2.5) contributed most to PM(10) at the background site, indicating the greatest contribution of regional transport. Organic matter, crustal material, and sulfate ion were the three dominant species of aerosol, followed by EC, NO(3)(-), NH(4)(+), trace elements, and other ions. The acidity of PM(2.5) was higher than that of PM(10), and the buffering capacity in PM(10) was higher than that in PM(2.5). Four peaks of pollution aerosol were observed during the 3-week study sampling period, separated by periods of cleaner air. Back-trajectories revealed that the peaks came from the south and the cleaner air from the north. It is the first time to find different markers for aerosols from different transport directions in Ordos. S and Pb, as well as SO(4)(2-), NO(3)(-), and NH(4)(+) appeared to be good markers of southern aerosol in the Ordos, since all showed four clear peaks on days dominated by southern direction. Extremely high peaks of Al and Ti on the 16th and 17th, especially at the dust-monitoring site, indicated good markers for soil dust. Ca and Mg showed earlier peaks on the 16th at the western site, indicating possible markers for western aerosol.

  3. Biogenic voc emissions development and its impacts on regional o3 in PRD, china

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuemei; Shuping, Situ; Guenther, Alex; Chen, Fei; Wu, Zhiyong

    2010-05-01

    The new Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) has been coupled with WRF-Chem to investigate the influence of biogenic violate organic carbon (BVOC ) emissions on the regional distribution of O3 and SOA concentration in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), China. MEGAN first estimate an emission factor which represents the net above-canopy emission rate expected at optimal conditions, and use a number of environmental correction factor based on photosynthetically activated radiation (PAR) and leaf temperature to adjust the emission rate due to deviations from optimal conditions. Total emissions are the sum of emissions estimated for each plant functional type (PFT) in a given grid cell. Our model simulations estimated showed: (1) Total annual BVOCs emissions were 339.01× 106 kg, which is 40.68% of annual AVOCs emissions and 28.91% of total VOCs emission in PRD in 2006. Isoprene, monoterpene, sesquiterpene and OVOCs contributed about 31.94%, 39.23%, 3.27% and 25.56% of the estimated total annual emissions respectively. α- pinene and β- pinene were the major components in monoterpene, which contributed 28.09% and 26.98% to the total annual monoterpene emissions respectively;β-caryophyllene andα-farnesene were two important sesquiterpene, and they contributed to 22.31% and 18.76% of the annual sesquiterpene emissions.(2) BVOCs emissions have large variations in their spatial distributions, which were mainly resulted from the differences in the geographical distribution of vegetation. Their emission amounts were larger in the places where urbanization were relative lower and plants distributions were higher.(3) Emissions of terpenoids had significant annual and diurnal variations and the largest emission rate occurred at 13:00 local time while the amount of emission in summer is the largest.(4) There were significant terpenoids emission rate (≥1.21.2 kg km-2h-1) in the remote areas in PRD region where the emissions of AVOCs were low, and

  4. Historical development of crop-related water footprints and inter-regional virtual water flows within China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, La; Mekonnen, Mesfin M.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2015-04-01

    China is facing water-related challenges, including an uneven distribution of water resources, both temporally and spatially, and an increasing competition over the limited water resources among different sectors. This issue has been widely researched and was finally included into the National Plan 2011 (the 2011 No. 1 Document by the State Council of China). However, there is still lack of information on how population growth and rapid urbanization have affected the water resources in China over the last decades. The current study aims at investigating (i) the intra-annual variation of green and blue water footprints (WFs) of crop production in China over the period 1978-2009 at a spatial resolution of 5 by 5 arc-minute; (ii) the yearly virtual water (VW) balances of 31 provinces within China, related water savings for the country, as well as the VW flows among eight economic regions resulting from inter-regional crop trade over the same period; and (iii) the development of the WF related to crop consumption by Chinese consumers. Results show that, over the period 1978-2009, the total WF related to crop production within China increased by only 4%), but regional changes were significant. From the 1980s to the 2000s, the shift of the cropping centre from the South to the North resulted in an increase of about 16% in the blue WF and 19% in the green WF in the North and a reduction of the blue and green WF in the South by 11% and 3%, respectively. China as a whole was a net virtual water importer related to crop trade, thus saving domestic water resources. China's inter-regional crop trade generated a blue water 'loss' annually by transferring crops from provinces with relatively low crop water productivity to provinces with relatively high productivity. Over the decades, the original VW flow from the South coastal region to the Northeast was reversed. Rice was the all-time dominant crop in the inter-regional VW flows (accounting for 34% in 2009), followed by wheat

  5. Effect of meteorological parameters and regions on accumulation pattern of phenolic compounds in different mulberry cultivars grown in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiufang; Zhang, Xiaoxu; Jin, Qing; Gu, Liwei; Liu, Xuanjun; Li, Jingming; Ni, Yuanying

    2017-05-01

    The compositions of phenolic compounds in 10 cultivars of two mulberry species (Morus atropurpurea Roxb. and Morus alba Linn.) grown in four regions of China were analysed using HPLC-TOF-MS. Results showed that a total of 27 phenolic compounds were identified in these mulberry cultivars. The Taiwan cultivar from the Jiangsu region showed the highest concentration of hydroxycinnamic acids, quercetin derivatives, and anthocyanins. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that six mulberry cultivars grown in the region of Jiangsu, Ningxia, and Guangdong were differentiated regarding their species feature and regional characteristics. Cyanidin rhamnosylglucoside, 4-caffeoylquinic acid, dihydroquercetin, and quercetin were further screened out to be the key compounds for the differentiation of these cultivars. The correlation between the regional climate feature (including rainfall, humidity, and temperature) and the accumulation of phenolic compounds in these mulberry cultivars was established.

  6. Ambient air benzene at background sites in China's most developed coastal regions: exposure levels, source implications and health risks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhou; Wang, Xinming; Zhang, Yanli; Lü, Sujun; Huang, Zhonghui; Huang, Xinyu; Wang, Yuesi

    2015-04-01

    Benzene is a known human carcinogen causing leukemia, yet ambient air quality objectives for benzene are not available in China. The ambient benzene levels at four background sites in China's most developed coastal regions were measured from March 2012 to February 2013. The sites are: SYNECP, in the Northeast China Plain (NECP); YCNCP, in the North China Plain (NCP); THYRD, in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and DHPRD, in the Pearl River Delta (PRD). It was found that the mean annual benzene levels (578-1297 ppt) at the background sites were alarmingly higher, especially when compared to those of 60-480 pptv monitored in 28 cities in the United States. Wintertime benzene levels were significantly elevated at both sites (SYNECP and YCNCP) in northern China due to heating with coal/biofuels. Even at these background sites, the lifetime cancer risks of benzene (1.7-3.7E-05) all exceeded 1E-06 set by USEPA as acceptable for adults. At both sites in northern China, good correlations between benzene and CO or chloromethane, together with much lower toluene/benzene (T/B) ratios, suggested that benzene was largely related to coal combustion and biomass/biofuel burning. At the DHPRD site in the PRD, benzene revealed a highly significant correlation with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), indicating that its source was predominantly from vehicle emissions. At the THYRD site in the YRD, higher T/B ratios and correlations between benzene and tetrachloroethylene, or MTBE, implied that benzene levels were probably affected by both traffic-related and industrial emissions.

  7. Characterization of Regional Influenza Seasonality Patterns in China and Implications for Vaccination Strategies: Spatio-Temporal Modeling of Surveillance Data

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hongjie; Alonso, Wladimir J.; Feng, Luzhao; Tan, Yi; Shu, Yuelong; Yang, Weizhong; Viboud, Cécile

    2013-01-01

    Background The complexity of influenza seasonal patterns in the inter-tropical zone impedes the establishment of effective routine immunization programs. China is a climatologically and economically diverse country, which has yet to establish a national influenza vaccination program. Here we characterize the diversity of influenza seasonality in China and make recommendations to guide future vaccination programs. Methods and Findings We compiled weekly reports of laboratory-confirmed influenza A and B infections from sentinel hospitals in cities representing 30 Chinese provinces, 2005–2011, and data on population demographics, mobility patterns, socio-economic, and climate factors. We applied linear regression models with harmonic terms to estimate influenza seasonal characteristics, including the amplitude of annual and semi-annual periodicities, their ratio, and peak timing. Hierarchical Bayesian modeling and hierarchical clustering were used to identify predictors of influenza seasonal characteristics and define epidemiologically-relevant regions. The annual periodicity of influenza A epidemics increased with latitude (mean amplitude of annual cycle standardized by mean incidence, 140% [95% CI 128%–151%] in the north versus 37% [95% CI 27%–47%] in the south, p<0.0001). Epidemics peaked in January–February in Northern China (latitude ≥33°N) and April–June in southernmost regions (latitude <27°N). Provinces at intermediate latitudes experienced dominant semi-annual influenza A periodicity with peaks in January–February and June–August (periodicity ratio >0.6 in provinces located within 27.4°N–31.3°N, slope of latitudinal gradient with latitude −0.016 [95% CI −0.025 to −0.008], p<0.001). In contrast, influenza B activity predominated in colder months throughout most of China. Climate factors were the strongest predictors of influenza seasonality, including minimum temperature, hours of sunshine, and maximum rainfall. Our main study

  8. Will joint regional air pollution control be more cost-effective? An empirical study of China's Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dan; Xu, Yuan; Zhang, Shiqiu

    2015-02-01

    By following an empirical approach, this study proves that joint regional air pollution control (JRAPC) in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region will save the expense on air pollution control compared with a locally-based pollution control strategy. The evidences below were found. (A) Local pollutant concentration in some of the cities is significantly affected by emissions from their surrounding areas. (B) There is heterogeneity in the marginal pollutant concentration reduction cost among various districts as a result of the cities' varying contribution of unit emission reduction to the pollutant concentration reduction, and their diverse unit cost of emission reduction brought about by their different industry composition. The results imply that the cost-efficiency of air pollution control will be improved in China if the conventional locally based regime of air pollution control can shift to a regionally based one.

  9. Diffuse nutrient losses and the impact factors determining their regional differences in four catchments from North to South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yongyong; Zhou, Yujian; Shao, Quanxi; Liu, Hongbin; Lei, Qiuliang; Zhai, Xiaoyan; Wang, Xuelei

    2016-12-01

    Diffuse nutrient loss mechanism is complicated and shows remarkably regional differences due to spatial heterogeneities of underlying surface conditions, climate and agricultural practices. Moreover, current available observations are still hard to support the identification of impact factors due to different time or space steps. In this study, an integrated water system model (HEQM) was adopted to obtain the simulated loads of diffuse components (carriers: runoff and sediment; nutrient: total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP)) with synchronous scales. Multivariable statistical analysis approaches (Analysis of Similarity and redundancy analysis) were used to assess the regional differences, and to identify impact factors as well as their contributions. Four catchments were selected as our study areas, i.e., Xiahui and Zhangjiafen Catchments of Miyun Basin in North China, Yuliang and Tunxi Catchments of Xin'anjiang Basin in South China. Results showed that the model performances of monthly processes were very good for runoff and good for sediment, TN and TP. The annual average coefficients of all the diffuse components in Xin'anjiang Basin were much greater than those in Miyun Basin, and showed significantly regional differences. All the selected impact factors interpreted 72.87-82.16% of the regional differences of carriers, and 62.72-71.62% of those of nutrient coefficients, respectively. For individual impact factor categories, the critical category was geography, followed by land-use/cover, carriers, climate, as well as soil and agricultural practices in Miyun Basin, or agricultural practices and soil in Xin'anjiang Basin. For individual factors, the critical factors were locations for the carrier regional differences, and carriers or chemical fertilizer for the nutrient regional differences. This study is expected to promote further applications of integrated water system model and multivariable statistical analysis in the diffuse nutrient studies, and

  10. Spatial Distributed Seismicity Model of Seismic Hazard Mapping in the North-China Region: A Comparison with the GSHAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Q.; Shi, B.; Meng, L.

    2010-12-01

    The North China is one of the most seismically active regions in the mainland China. The moderate to large earthquakes have occurred here throughout history, resulting in huge losses of human life and properties. With the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) approach, we investigate the influence of different seismic environments, incorporating both near surface soil properties and distributed historical and modern seismicity. A simplified seismic source model, derived with the consideration of regional active fault distributions, is presented for the North China region. The spatial distributed seismicity model of PSHA is used to calculate the level of ground motion likely to be exceeded in a given time period. Following Frankel (1995) approach of circular Gaussian smoothing procedure, in the PSHA’s calculation, we proposed the fault-rupture-oriented elliptical Gaussian smoothing with the assumptions that earthquakes occur on faults or fault zones of past earthquakes to delineate the potential seismic zones (Lapajine et al., 2003). This is combined with regional active fault strike directions and the seismicity distribution patterns. Next Generation Attenuation model ((NGA), Boore et al., 2007) is used in generating hazard map for PGA with 2%, 5%, and 10 % probability of being exceeded in 50 years, and the resultant hazard map is compared with the result given by Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Project (GSHAP). There is general agreement for PGA distribution patterns between the results of this study and the GSHAP map that used the same seismic source zones. However, peak ground accelerations predicted in this study are typically 10-20% less than those of the GSHAP, and the seismic source models, such as fault distributions and regional seismicity used in the GSHAP seem to be oversimplified. We believe this study represents an improvement on prior seismic hazard evaluations for the region. In addition to the updated input data, we believe that, by

  11. Observation of regional air pollutant transport between the megacity Beijing and the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingruo; Ye, Chunxiang; Liu, Jun; Zhu, Yi; Wang, Junxia; Tan, Ziqiang; Lin, Weili; Zeng, Limin; Zhu, Tong

    2016-11-01

    Megacities have strong interactions with the surrounding regions through transport of air pollutants. It has been frequently addressed that the air quality of Beijing is influenced by the influx of air pollutants from the North China Plain (NCP). Estimations of air pollutant cross-boundary transport between Beijing and the NCP are important for air quality management. However, evaluation of cross-boundary transport using long-term observations is very limited. Using the observational results of the gaseous pollutants SO2, NO, NO2, O3, and CO from August 2006 to October 2008 at the Yufa site, a cross-boundary site between the megacity Beijing and the NCP, together with meteorological parameters, we explored a method for evaluating the transport flux intensities at Yufa, as part of the "Campaign of Air Quality Research in Beijing and Surrounding Region 2006-2008" (CAREBeijing 2006-2008). The hourly mean ± SD (median) concentration of SO2, NO, NO2, NOx, O3, Ox, and CO was 15 ± 16 (9) ppb, 12 ± 25 (3) ppb, 24 ± 19 (20) ppb, 36 ± 39 (23) ppb, 28 ± 27 (21) ppb, 52 ± 24 (45) ppb, and 1.6 ± 1.4 (1.2) ppm during the observation period, respectively. The bivariate polar plots showed the dependence of pollutant concentrations on both wind speed and wind direction, and thus inferred their dominant transport directions. Surface flux intensity calculations further demonstrated the regional transport influence of Beijing and the NCP on Yufa. The net surface transport flux intensity (mean ± SD) of SO2, NO, NO2, NOx, O3, Ox, and CO was 6.2 ± 89.5, -4.3 ± 29.5, -0.6 ± 72.3, -4.9 ± 93.0, 14.7 ± 187.8, 14.8 ± 234.9, and 70 ± 2830 µg s-1 m-2 during the observation period, respectively. For SO2, CO, O3, and Ox the surface flux intensities from the NCP to Yufa surpassed those from Beijing to Yufa in all seasons except winter, with the strongest net fluxes largely in summer, which were about 4-8 times those of other seasons. The surface transport flux intensity of NOx

  12. Analysis of an extremely dense regional fog event in Eastern China using a mesoscale model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chune; Yang, Jun; Qiu, Mingyan; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Su; Li, Zihua

    2010-03-01

    An unusually dense regional advection-radiation fog event over Anhui and the surrounding provinces in eastern China during Dec. 25-27, 2006, was investigated. At its mature stage, the fog covered most Anhui and parts of the surrounding provinces, reducing visibility to 100 m or less. It lasted more than 36 consecutive hours in some places. A mesoscale meteorological model (MM5), together with back-trajectory analysis, was used to investigate this fog event. The observations from a field station as well as hundreds of routine stations, along with two sets of visibility computing methods, were used to quantitatively and objectively validate the MM5 simulated liquid water content (LWC) and visibility. The verifications demonstrate that MM5 has a better fog predictability for the first day compared to the second day forecast, and better fog predictability compared to dense fog predictability with regard to the probability of detection (POD) and the threat score (TS). The new visibility algorithm that uses both LWC and number density of fog droplets significantly outperforms the conventional LWC-only based one in the fog prediction in terms of the POD score, especially for dense fog prediction. The objective verification in this work is the first time conducted for MM5 fog prediction, with which we can better understand the performance of simulated temporal and spatial fog coverage. The back-trajectory and sensitivity experiments confirm that subsidence and the steady warm and moist advections from southeast and southwest maintained the dense fog while the northwesterly dry wind resulted in dissipation of the fog.

  13. Impacts of reforestation approaches on runoff control in the hilly red soil region of Southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Hua; Chen, Falin; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Tu, Naimei; Xu, Weihua; Wang, Xiaoke; Miao, Hong; Li, Xiquan; Tian, Yuxin

    2008-07-01

    SummaryVegetation structure and soil properties are not only correlated with forest management practices, but also affect soil and water loss significantly. To estimate the long-term influences of regenerating forest cover on soil and water loss from degraded land, the runoff and soil loss in the context of different forest restoration approaches, including a control plot (CL) and plantations of slash pine (Pinus elliottii), Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata), tea-oil camellia (Camellia oleifera), and natural secondary forest, were monitored in runoff plots over a 4-year period (2000-2003) in a hilly red soil region in Southern China. Relevant ecological factors and management intensity, were also measured. The results indicated that the four forest restoration approaches decreased surface runoff by 63.0-88.1% and soil erosion by 75.5-97.1% compared to the control. Moreover, runoff and soil erosion in tea-camellia plantation (TCP) and natural secondary forest (NSF) plots were significantly lower than with other treatments. Canopy cover, litter fall, plant roots, plant life forms, soil properties, and vegetation structure are important ecological factors that determine the magnitude of soil loss. Vegetation structure and plant life forms are the main factors reducing surface runoff and the movement of sediments. Effective control of soil and water loss in NSF and TCP are closely related to multiply stratified communities and the presence of specific plant life forms (the herbaceous keystone species Dicranopteris linearis), respectively. In addition, the above mentioned factors were sensitive to forest management patterns, including improper mechanical cultivation. Management practices should attempt to minimize disturbances to these factors to control runoff and soil erosion in each forest management unit. In particular, mechanical cultivation should loosen the soil around the base of a tree only, instead of over the entire ground surface, in the early stages of

  14. Application of Genetic Algorithm to Predict Optimal Sowing Region and Timing for Kentucky Bluegrass in China

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Tingting; Jiang, Bo; Guo, Jiangfeng; Lu, Hongfei; Du, Liqun

    2015-01-01

    Temperature is a predominant environmental factor affecting grass germination and distribution. Various thermal-germination models for prediction of grass seed germination have been reported, in which the relationship between temperature and germination were defined with kernel functions, such as quadratic or quintic function. However, their prediction accuracies warrant further improvements. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relative prediction accuracies of genetic algorithm (GA) models, which are automatically parameterized with observed germination data. The seeds of five P. pratensis (Kentucky bluegrass, KB) cultivars were germinated under 36 day/night temperature regimes ranging from 5/5 to 40/40°C with 5°C increments. Results showed that optimal germination percentages of all five tested KB cultivars were observed under a fluctuating temperature regime of 20/25°C. Meanwhile, the constant temperature regimes (e.g., 5/5, 10/10, 15/15°C, etc.) suppressed the germination of all five cultivars. Furthermore, the back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) algorithm was integrated to optimize temperature-germination response models from these observed germination data. It was found that integrations of GA-BP-ANN (back propagation aided genetic algorithm artificial neural network) significantly reduced the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) values from 0.21~0.23 to 0.02~0.09. In an effort to provide a more reliable prediction of optimum sowing time for the tested KB cultivars in various regions in the country, the optimized GA-BP-ANN models were applied to map spatial and temporal germination percentages of blue grass cultivars in China. Our results demonstrate that the GA-BP-ANN model is a convenient and reliable option for constructing thermal-germination response models since it automates model parameterization and has excellent prediction accuracy. PMID:26154163

  15. Sphingomonas qilianensis sp. nov., Isolated from Surface Soil in the Permafrost Region of Qilian Mountains, China.

    PubMed

    Piao, Ai-Lian; Feng, Xiao-Min; Nogi, Yuichi; Han, Lu; Li, Yonghong; Lv, Jie

    2016-04-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, non-motile and rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated X1(T), was isolated from the permafrost region of Qilian Mountains in northwest of China. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain X1(T) was a member of the genus Sphingomonas and shared the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Sphingomonas oligophenolica JCM 12082(T) (96.9%), followed by Sphingomonas glacialis CGMCC 1.8957(T) (96.7%) and Sphingomonas alpina DSM 22537(T) (96.4%). Strain X1(T) was able to grow at 15-30 °C, pH 6.0-10.0 and with 0-0.3% NaCl (w/v). The DNA G+C content of the isolate was 64.8 mol%. Strain X1(T)-contained Q-10 as the dominant ubiquinone and C(18:1)ω7c, C(16:1)ω7c, C(16:0) and C(14:0) 2-OH as the dominant fatty acids. The polar lipid profile of strain XI(T)-contained sphingoglycolipid, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified glycolipid and two unidentified phospholipid. Due to the phenotypic and genetic distinctiveness and other characteristic studied in this article, we consider X1(T) as a novel species of the genus Sphingomonas and propose to name it Sphingomonas qilianensis sp. nov. The type strain is X1(T) (=CGMCC 1.15349(T) = KCTC 42862(T)).

  16. Molecular epidemiological survey of haemoglobinopathies in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of southern China.

    PubMed

    Xiong, F; Sun, M; Zhang, X; Cai, R; Zhou, Y; Lou, J; Zeng, L; Sun, Q; Xiao, Q; Shang, X; Wei, X; Zhang, T; Chen, P; Xu, X

    2010-08-01

    Accurate and up-to-date data on the frequency of haemoglobinopathies among the populations of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, where haemoglobinopathies are most endemic in China, are required. In our study, a total of 5789 samples obtained from members of the Han, Zhang, and Yao ethnic groups in six geographical areas of Guangxi Province were analysed systematically in terms of both haematological and molecular parameters. The results presented that the total heterozygote frequency of thalassaemias and other haemoglobinopathies was 24.51%, of which 17.55% was due to alpha-thalassaemia, 6.43% to beta-thalassaemia, 0.38% to structural haemoglobin variants, and 0.16% to delta-thalassaemia. The mutational spectrum among the local population for each type of disorder was described, including the first report on the true prevalence of three silent alpha thalassemia defects, -alpha(3.7)/(4.78%), -alpha(4.2)/(1.61%) and Hb Westmead (alpha(WS)alpha/) (1.57%) and of delta-thalassemia resulting from five novel and two rare mutations never before identified in Chinese individuals. Comparison of the frequencies of alpha-globin mutations among the ethnic groups showed that there was a statistically significant difference between the Han (15.71%) and Zhuang (20.12%), and between the Han (15.71%) and Yao (20.84%) ethnic groups. In addition, we have performed the first extensive study of haematological parameters of the Hb Westmead mutation using a group of Chinese subjects with compound heterozygosity for this variant and an alpha-thalassaemia deletion. The knowledge gained in this study will enable us to estimate the health burden in this high-risk population and to elucidate the various genetic alterations that underlie haemoglobinopathies.

  17. Social vulnerability of rural households to flood hazards in western mountainous regions of Henan province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Delin; Li, Yue

    2016-05-01

    Evaluating social vulnerability is a crucial issue in risk and disaster management. In this study, a household social vulnerability index (HSVI) to flood hazards was developed and used to assess the social vulnerability of rural households in western mountainous regions of Henan province, China. Eight key indicators were identified using existing literature and discussions with experts from multiple disciplines and local farmers, and their weights were determined using principle component analysis (PCA) and an expert scoring method. The results showed that (1) the ratio of perennial work in other places, hazard-related training and illiteracy ratio (15+) were the most dominant factors of social vulnerability. (2) The numbers of high, moderate and low vulnerability households were 14, 64 and 16, respectively, which accounted for 14.9, 68.1 and 17.0 % of the total interviewed rural households, respectively. (3) The correlation coefficient between household social vulnerability scores and casualties in a storm flood in July 2010 was significant at 0.05 significance level (r = 0.748), which indicated that the selected indicators and their weights were valid. (4) Some mitigation strategies to reduce household social vulnerability to flood hazards were proposed, which included (1) improving the local residents' income and their disaster-related knowledge and evacuation skills, (2) developing emergency plans and carrying out emergency drills and training, (3) enhancing the accuracy of disaster monitoring and warning systems and (4) establishing a specific emergency management department and comprehensive rescue systems. These results can provide useful information for rural households and local governments to prepare, mitigate and respond to flood hazards, and the corresponding strategies can help local households to reduce their social vulnerability and improve their ability to resist flood hazard.

  18. Spatiotemporal filtering for regional GPS network in China using independent component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Feng; Yang, Yuanxi; Zeng, Anmin; Zhao, Bin

    2017-04-01

    Removal of the common mode error (CME) is a routine procedure in postprocessing regional GPS network observations, which is commonly performed using principal component analysis (PCA). PCA decomposes a network time series into a group of modes, where each mode comprises a common temporal function and corresponding spatial response based on second-order statistics (variance and covariance). However, the probability distribution function of a GPS time series is non-Gaussian; therefore, the largest variances do not correspond to the meaningful axes, and the PCA-derived components may not have an obvious physical meaning. In this study, the CME was assumed statistically independent of other errors, and it was extracted using independent component analysis (ICA), which involves higher-order statistics. First, the ICA performance was tested using a simulated example and compared with PCA and stacking methods. The existence of strong local effects on some stations causes significant large spatial responses and, therefore, a strategy based on median and interquartile range statistics was proposed to identify abnormal sites. After discarding abnormal sites, two indices based on the analysis of the spatial responses of all sites in each independent component (east, north, and vertical) were used to define the CME quantitatively. Continuous GPS coordinate time series spanning ˜ 4.5 years obtained from 259 stations of the Tectonic and Environmental Observation Network of Mainland China (CMONOC II) were analyzed using both PCA and ICA methods and their results compared. The results suggest that PCA is susceptible to deriving an artificial spatial structure, whereas ICA separates the CME from other errors reliably. Our results demonstrate that the spatial characteristics of the CME for CMONOC II are not uniform for the east, north, and vertical components, but have an obvious north-south or east-west distribution. After discarding 84 abnormal sites and performing spatiotemporal

  19. Bioactive and total endotoxins in atmospheric aerosols in the Pearl River Delta region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jessica Y. W.; Hui, Esther L. C.; Lau, Arthur P. S.

    2012-02-01

    Endotoxin, a toxic and pyrogenic substance in gram-negative bacteria in atmospheric aerosols was measured over a period of one year at Nansha, Guangzhou and Hong Kong in the Pearl River Delta region, China. Atmospheric aerosols were collected by high-volume samplers. The bioactive endotoxin levels in the samples were determined using the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay after extraction with pyrogen-free water while the total endotoxin levels were measured by quantifying the biomarker, 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OHFAs) with GC-MS. Results showed that there was no significant difference (0.19 < p < 0.81) in the bioactive endotoxin level in PM 10 among sites (average concentrations ranged from 0.34 to 0.39 EU m -3). However, Hong Kong showed a significantly lower ( p < 0.05) total endotoxin level in PM 10 (average of 17.4 ng m -3) compared with Nansha's 29.4 ng m -3 and Guangzhou's 32.7 ng m -3. The bioactive endotoxins were found to be associated with the coarse mode (PM 2.5-10) of the particulates of natural origins while the total endotoxins were associated more with the fine mode (PM 2.5) of the particulates of anthropogenic origins. When normalized with particulate mass, the endotoxin loading is much higher in summer as a result of the increased growth of the bacteria when climatic conditions are favorable. The chemically determined total endotoxins were 3-4 orders of magnitude higher than the bioactive endotoxins quantified using the LAL assay. Correlation analyses between the bioactive endotoxins and 3-OHFAs with different carbon length were analyzed. Results showed that the correlations detected vary among sites and particulate sizes. Although no generalization between the total and bioactive endotoxins can be drawn from the study, the levels reported in this study suggests that the discrepancies between the two measurement approaches, and the bioactive potential of 3-OHFAs with individual carbon chains deserve further investigation.

  20. Spatiotemporal filtering for regional GPS network in China using independent component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Feng; Yang, Yuanxi; Zeng, Anmin; Zhao, Bin

    2016-11-01

    Removal of the common mode error (CME) is a routine procedure in postprocessing regional GPS network observations, which is commonly performed using principal component analysis (PCA). PCA decomposes a network time series into a group of modes, where each mode comprises a common temporal function and corresponding spatial response based on second-order statistics (variance and covariance). However, the probability distribution function of a GPS time series is non-Gaussian; therefore, the largest variances do not correspond to the meaningful axes, and the PCA-derived components may not have an obvious physical meaning. In this study, the CME was assumed statistically independent of other errors, and it was extracted using independent component analysis (ICA), which involves higher-order statistics. First, the ICA performance was tested using a simulated example and compared with PCA and stacking methods. The existence of strong local effects on some stations causes significant large spatial responses and, therefore, a strategy based on median and interquartile range statistics was proposed to identify abnormal sites. After discarding abnormal sites, two indices based on the analysis of the spatial responses of all sites in each independent component (east, north, and vertical) were used to define the CME quantitatively. Continuous GPS coordinate time series spanning ˜ 4.5 years obtained from 259 stations of the Tectonic and Environmental Observation Network of Mainland China (CMONOC II) were analyzed using both PCA and ICA methods and their results compared. The results suggest that PCA is susceptible to deriving an artificial spatial structure, whereas ICA separates the CME from other errors reliably. Our results demonstrate that the spatial characteristics of the CME for CMONOC II are not uniform for the east, north, and vertical components, but have an obvious north-south or east-west distribution. After discarding 84 abnormal sites and performing spatiotemporal

  1. Variation characteristics of regional synchronous wind in Hami, Xinjiang of Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Linhong; Song, Lili; Li, Gang; Xin, Yu

    2015-04-01

    From several towers in Hami, Xinjiang of Northwest China, built by the national wind power resources professional observation network, we selected three towers with synchronous 10-min average wind speed data for one year (May 2011-April 2012) under strict quality control. The towers are located where large-scale wind power development is projected. We analyzed the frequency and variation of extreme wind speed at low wind condition (LWC), rated wind condition (RWC), and cut-out wind condition (CWC), which may significantly impact the electric power grid configuration in large-scale wind power development. The correlation between duration and frequency of LWC/RWC/CWC is obtained. Major findings are: 1) The frequency of CWC is the lowest among all conditions, its synchronous rate at all three towers tends to be zero, and the frequency of LWC is always greater than that of RWC. 2) Among the three towers, the synchronous rate of RWC steadily increases with height, and LWC differs little between different levels. The synchronous rate of LWC concentrates in winter, while that of RWC mainly occurs in spring and summer. Diurnal variation of LWC/RWC during the entire year is significantly different. 3) During the study year, the longest durations of synchronous LWC and RWC among the three towers are up to 640 and 700 min, respectively. The duration and frequency of LWC/RWC can be quantitatively well described by a logarithmic function. Consequently, the synchronous rates of LWC and RWC over any duration in the region can be easily calculated by using the fitting function equation from observed data. These results are of value to the planning of large-scale wind power transmission and grid dispatching in this area.

  2. Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in water and sediment from the coastal regions of Shandong peninsula, China.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yi; Wang, Shiliang; Cao, Xuezhi; Cao, Yuanxin; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Hui; Liu, Jinfeng

    2017-03-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been observed in various environmental matrices globally in recent years. In this study, the levels, spatial distribution tendencies, and partitioning characteristics of the target 12 PFAAs were investigated in water and sediment from the coastal regions of Shandong peninsula in China, and two sediment core samples were also collected to study the vertical and historical variation of PFAAs. The ranges (means) of total PFAA concentrations were 23.69-148.48 ng/L (76.11 ng/L) in the water and 1.30-11.17 ng/g (5.93 ng/g) in the surface sediment, respectively. Among the target 12 PFAAs, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the dominant component in water, followed by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA). PFOS, perfluoroundecanoic acid, and PFOA were the dominant components in sediment. For their spatial distribution, higher levels of PFAAs were found at the locations close to much developed cities. The PFAA concentrations showed an overall decreasing tendency with depth increase in the two sediment cores, which indicates that the extent of PFAAs pollution is aggravating trend in recent years. Results of the partition coefficient (K d ) show that the compounds with longer carbon chains (C ≥ 7) generally had higher K d values, which suggest that long-chain PFAAs are prone to be adsorbed by sediment. In addition, the Log K d of PFHxA, PFOA, and PFOS were significantly and positively correlated to the salinity of the water. The results of risk assessment suggest appreciable risk of PFAAs to the local ecosystem.

  3. A new species of Poemenia Holmgren with a key to species known from China and the Eastern Palaearctic Region (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Poemeniinae)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shu-Ping; Sheng, Mao-Ling; Chen, Tian-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Poemeniinae, Poemenia quercusia Sun & Sheng, sp. n., is described and illustrated. Specimens were reared from twigs of Quercus wutaishanica Blume in Haicheng, Liaoning province, P.R. China. A key to species known from China and the Eastern Palaearctic Region is provided. PMID:28331395

  4. Brain regions mediating alpha3beta4 nicotinic antagonist effects of 18-MC on methamphetamine and sucrose self-administration.

    PubMed

    Glick, Stanley D; Sell, Elizabeth M; Maisonneuve, Isabelle M

    2008-12-03

    The novel iboga alkaloid congener 18-methoxycoronaridine (18-MC) is a putative anti-addictive agent that has been shown, in rats, to decrease the self-administration of several drugs of abuse. Previous work has established that 18-MC is a potent antagonist at alpha3beta4 nicotinic receptors. Because high densities of alpha3beta4 nicotinic receptors occur in the medial habenula and the interpeduncular nucleus and moderate densities occur in the dorsolateral tegmentum, ventral tegmental area, and basolateral amygdala, the present study was conducted to determine if 18-MC could act in these brain areas to modulate methamphetamine self-administration in rats. Local administration of 18-MC into either the medial habenula, the interpeduncular area or the basolateral amygdala decreased methamphetamine self-administration. Similar results were produced by local administration into the same brain areas of two other alpha3beta4 nicotinic antagonists, mecamylamine and alpha-conotoxin AuIB. Local administration of 18-MC, or the other antagonists, into the dorsolateral tegmentum or the ventral tegmental area had no effect on methamphetamine self-administration. In contrast, local administration of 18-MC and the other antagonists decreased sucrose self-administration when administered into the dorsolateral tegmentum or basolateral amygdala but had no effect when infused into the medial habenula, interpeduncular nucleus, or ventral tegmental area. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that 18-MC decreases methamphetamine self-administration by indirectly modulating the dopaminergic mesolimbic pathway via blockade of alpha3beta4 nicotinic receptors in the habenulo-interpeduncular pathway and the basolateral amygdala. The data also suggest that the basolateral amygdala along with a different pathway involving alpha3beta4 receptors in the dorsolateral tegmentum mediate the effect of 18-MC on sucrose self-administration.

  5. Intensity of regionally applied tastes in relation to administration method: an investigation based on the "taste strips" test.

    PubMed

    Manzi, Brian; Hummel, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    To compare various methods to apply regional taste stimuli to the tongue. "Taste strips" are a clinical tool to determine gustatory function. How a patient perceives the chemical environment in the mouth is a result of many factors such as taste bud distribution and interactions between the cranial nerves. To date, there have been few studies describing the different approaches to administer taste strips to maximize taste identification accuracy and intensity. This is a normative value acquisition pilot and single-center study. The investigation involved 30 participants reporting a normal sense of smell and taste (18 women, 12 men, mean age 33 years). The taste test was based on spoon-shaped filter paper strips impregnated with four taste qualities (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter) at concentrations shown to be easily detectable by young healthy subjects. The strips were administered in three methods (held stationary on the tip of the tongue, applied across the tongue, held in the mouth), resulting in a total of 12 trials per participant. Subjects identified the taste from a list of four descriptors, (sweet, sour, salty, bitter) and ranked the intensity on a scale from 0 to 10. Statistical analyses were performed on the accuracy of taste identification and rated intensities. The participants perceived in order of most to least intense: salt, sour, bitter, sweet. Of the four tastes, sour consistently was least accurately identified. Presenting the taste strip inside the closed mouth of the participants produced the least accurate taste identification, whereas moving the taste strip across the tongue led to a significant increase in intensity for the sweet taste. In this study of 30 subjects at the second concentration, optimized accuracy and intensity of taste identification was observed through administration of taste strips laterally across the anterior third of the extended tongue. Further studies are required on more subjects and the additional concentrations

  6. Simulation of regional temperature change effect of land cover change in agroforestry ecotone of Nenjiang River Basin in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tingxiang; Zhang, Shuwen; Yu, Lingxue; Bu, Kun; Yang, Jiuchun; Chang, Liping

    2016-02-01

    The Northeast China is one of typical regions experiencing intensive human activities within short time worldwide. Particularly, as the significant changes of agriculture land and forest, typical characteristics of pattern and process of agroforestry ecotone change formed in recent decades. The intensive land use change of agroforestry ecotone has made significant change for regional land cover, which had significant impact on the regional climate system elements and the interactions among them. This paper took agroforestry ecotone of Nenjiang River Basin in China as study region and simulated temperature change based on land cover change from 1950s to 1978 and from 1978 to 2010. The analysis of temperature difference sensitivity to land cover change based on Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model showed that the land cover change from 1950s to 1978 induced warming effect over all the study area, including the change of grassland to agriculture land, grassland to deciduous broad-leaved forest, and deciduous broad-leaved forest to shrub land. The land cover change from 1978 to 2010 induced cooling effect over all the study area, including the change of deciduous broad-leaved forest to agriculture land, grassland to agriculture land, shrub land to agriculture land, and deciduous broad-leaved forest to grassland. In addition, the warming and cooling effect of land cover change was more significant in the region scale than specific land cover change area.

  7. Marketing Strategies Used to Promote Master of Business Administration Programs in Colleges and Universities in the Middle Atlantic Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Paul F.

    Enrollments in Masters of Business Administration (MBA) programs and the use and effectiveness of marketing techniques for managing MBA enrollments were investigated in 1984. A 94-item questionnaire completed by 56 MBA programs offered at colleges and universities in the Middle Atlantic States addressed administration, awareness of marketing and…

  8. Comparison between New-Onset and Old-Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes with Ketosis in Rural Regions of China.

    PubMed

    Du, Shichun; Yang, Xia; Shi, Degang; Su, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) with ketosis was common because of late diagnosis and lacking adequate treatment in rural regions of China. This study aimed to provide the data of T2D with ketosis among inpatients in a south-west border city of China. Methods. Data of 371 patients of T2D with ketosis who were hospitalized between January 2011 and July 2015 in Baoshan People's Hospital, Yunnan, China, were analyzed. New-onset and old-diagnosed T2D patients presenting with ketosis were compared according to clinical characteristics, laboratory results, and chronic diabetic complications. Results. Overall, the blood glucose control was poor in our study subjects. Male predominated in both groups (male prevalence was 68% in new-onset and 64% in old-diagnosed groups). Overweight and obesity accounted for 50% in new-onset and 46% in old-diagnosed cases. Inducements of ketosis were 13.8% in new-onset and 38.7% in old-diagnosed patients. Infections were the first inducements in both groups. The prevalence of chronic complications of diabetes was common in both groups. Conclusions. More medical supports were needed for the early detection and adequate treatment of diabetes in rural areas of China.

  9. Spatial distribution and source apportionment of water pollution in different administrative zones of Wen-Rui-Tang (WRT) river watershed, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liping; Mei, Kun; Liu, Xingmei; Wu, Laosheng; Zhang, Minghua; Xu, Jianming; Wang, Fan

    2013-08-01

    Water quality degradation in river systems has caused great concerns all over the world. Identifying the spatial distribution and sources of water pollutants is the very first step for efficient water quality management. A set of water samples collected bimonthly at 12 monitoring sites in 2009 and 2010 were analyzed to determine the spatial distribution of critical parameters and to apportion the sources of pollutants in Wen-Rui-Tang (WRT) river watershed, near the East China Sea. The 12 monitoring sites were divided into three administrative zones of urban, suburban, and rural zones considering differences in land use and population density. Multivariate statistical methods [one-way analysis of variance, principal component analysis (PCA), and absolute principal component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR) methods] were used to investigate the spatial distribution of water quality and to apportion the pollution sources. Results showed that most water quality parameters had no significant difference between the urban and suburban zones, whereas these two zones showed worse water quality than the rural zone. Based on PCA and APCS-MLR analysis, urban domestic sewage and commercial/service pollution, suburban domestic sewage along with fluorine point source pollution, and agricultural nonpoint source pollution with rural domestic sewage pollution were identified to the main pollution sources in urban, suburban, and rural zones, respectively. Understanding the water pollution characteristics of different administrative zones could put insights into effective water management policy-making especially in the area across various administrative zones.

  10. Evaluating the trans fatty acid, CLA, PUFA and erucic acid diversity in human milk from five regions in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Fan, Yawei; Zhang, Zhiwu; Yu, Hai; An, Yin; Kramer, John K G; Deng, Zeyuan

    2009-03-01

    Human milk was obtained from 97 healthy lactating women from five different regions in China. Twenty-four hour dietary questionnaire identified the foods consumed that showed distinct differences in food types between cities. The southern and central regions had higher levels of total trans fatty acids (TFA) and conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) in human milk than the northern region. The major isomers in human milk from the northern region were vaccenic and rumenic acids, whereas the other regions had a random distribution of these isomers. This was consistent with the isomer distribution in the refined vegetable oils used and their increased formation during high temperature stir-frying. The human milk composition showed little evidence that partially hydrogenated fats were consumed, except eight mothers in Guangzhou who reported eating crackers, plus four other mothers. The TFA concentration in these human milk samples was higher (2.06-3.96%). The amount of n-6 (1.70-2.24%) and n-3 (0.60-1.47%) highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) in human milk and the resultant ratio (1.43-2.95) showed all mothers in China had an adequate supply of HUFA in their diet. Rapeseed oil was consumed evidenced by erucic acids in human milk. The levels of erucic acid were below internationally accepted limits for human consumption. The levels of undesirable TFA and CLA isomers in human milk are a concern. Efforts to decrease the practice of high temperature stir-frying using unsaturated oils, and a promotion to increase consumption of dairy and ruminant products should be considered in China.

  11. EPA Regional Administrator and American Indian Environmental Office Director Present Recognition of Innovation to Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium's LEO Network

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (Anchorage - February 10, 2016) Today, U.S. EPA Region 10 Administrator Dennis McLerran and EPA American Indian Environmental Office National Director JoAnn Chase will present a Recognition of Innovation award to the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium'

  12. Administration in Nursing, 1982-1992: Regional Planning for the Coming Decade. Midwest Alliance in Nursing Fall Workshop (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, September 22-24, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minckley, Barbara B., Ed.

    Focusing on issues affecting the development of nursing leadership in the Midwest, the papers in these proceedings attempt to move forward the implementation of an effective program for enhancing skills needed by nurse administrators. The proceedings contain: (1) "Regional Plan for Development of Nursing Leadership Potential 1982-92," by Rozella…

  13. Recommendations for the Future Development and Organization of Professional Materials Libraries in Educational Planning Region 12 of Michigan Based Upon the Perceived Needs of Administrators and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bournazos, Florence Irene

    To facilitate planning for future development of professional materials libraries in Educational Planning Region 12 of Michigan, a study was undertaken to: (1) identify the perceived needs of administrators and teachers for materials and services in professional libraries, and (2) determine the present status of holdings and services.…

  14. Effect of land use and land cover change on soil erosion and the spatio-temporal variation in Liupan Mountain Region, southern Ningxia, China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Liupan Mountains are located in the southern Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region of China, which forms an important dividing line between landforms and bio-geographic regions. The populated part of the Liupan Mountains region has suffered tremendous ecological damages over time due to population press...

  15. 76 FR 47238 - Ninth Administrative Review of Honey From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ...: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade... Honey Producers Association and the Sioux Honey Association. ] Extension of Time Limits for the... the statutory time period is not practicable. The Department requires more time to gather and...

  16. Geological characteristics and ore-forming process of the gold deposits in the western Qinling region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiajun; Liu, Chonghao; Carranza, Emmanuel John M.; Li, Yujie; Mao, Zhihao; Wang, Jianping; Wang, Yinhong; Zhang, Jing; Zhai, Degao; Zhang, Huafeng; Shan, Liang; Zhu, Laimin; Lu, Rukui

    2015-05-01

    The western Qinling, belonging to the western part of the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu orogen between the North China Block and South China Block, is one of the most important gold regions in China. Isotopic dates suggest that the Mesozoic granitoids in the western Qinling region emplaced during the Middle-Late Triassic, and the deposits formed during the Late Triassic. Almost all gold deposits in the western Qinling region are classified as orogenic, Carlin-type, and Carlin-like gold deposits, and they are the products of Qinling Orogenesis caused by the final collision between the North China Block and the South China Block. The early subduction of the Mian-Lue oceanic crust and the latter collision between South Qinling Terrane and the South China Block along the Mian-Lue suture generated lithosphere-scale thermal anomalies to drive orogen-scale hydrothermal systems. The collision-related magmatism also provided heat source for regional ore-forming fluids in the Carlin-like gold deposits. Orogenic gold deposits such as Huachanggou, Liziyuan, and Baguamiao lie between the Shang-Dan and Mian-Lue sutures and are confined to WNW-trending brittle-ductile shear zones in Devonian and Carboniferous greenschist-facies metasedimentary rocks that were highly-deformed and regionally-metamorphosed. These deposits are typical orogenic gold deposits and formed within a Late Triassic age. The deposits show a close relationship between Au and Ag. Ores contain mainly microscopic gold, and minor electrum and visible gold, along with pyrite. The ore-forming fluids were main metamorphic fluids. Intensive tectonic movements caused by orogenesis created fluid-migrating channels for precipitation locations. Although some orogenic gold deposits occur adjacent to granitoids, mineralization is not synchronous with magmatism; that is, the granitoids have no genetic relations to orogenic gold deposits. As ore-forming fluids converged into dilated fractures during the extension stage of orogenesis

  17. Research on reconstructing spatial distribution of historical cropland over 300 years in traditional cultivated regions of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xuhong; Jin, Xiaobin; Guo, Beibei; Long, Ying; Zhou, Yinkang

    2015-05-01

    Constructing a spatially explicit time series of historical cultivated land is of upmost importance for climatic and ecological studies that make use of Land Use and Cover Change (LUCC) data. Some scholars have made efforts to simulate and reconstruct the quantitative information on historical land use at the global or regional level based on "top-down" decision-making behaviors to match overall cropland area to land parcels using land arability and universal parameters. Considering the concentrated distribution of cultivated land and various factors influencing cropland distribution, including environmental and human factors, this study developed a "bottom-up" model of historical cropland based on constrained Cellular Automaton (CA). Our model takes a historical cropland area as an external variable and the cropland distribution in 1980 as the maximum potential scope of historical cropland. We selected elevation, slope, water availability, average annual precipitation, and distance to the nearest rural settlement as the main influencing factors of land use suitability. Then, an available labor force index is used as a proxy for the amount of cropland to inspect and calibrate these spatial patterns. This paper applies the model to a traditional cultivated region in China and reconstructs its spatial distribution of cropland during 6 periods. The results are shown as follows: (1) a constrained CA is well suited for simulating and reconstructing the spatial distribution of cropland in China's traditional cultivated region. (2) Taking the different factors affecting spatial pattern of cropland into consideration, the partitioning of the research area effectively reflected the spatial differences in cropland evolution rules and rates. (3) Compared with "HYDE datasets", this research has formed higher-resolution Boolean spatial distribution datasets of historical cropland with a more definitive concept of spatial pattern in terms of fractional format. We conclude that

  18. Study on Climate and Grassland Fire in HulunBuir, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Meifang; Zhao, Jianjun; Guo, Xiaoyi; Zhang, Zhengxiang; Tan, Gang; Yang, Jihong

    2017-01-01

    Grassland fire is one of the most important disturbance factors of the natural ecosystem. Climate factors influence the occurrence and development of grassland fire. An analysis of the climate conditions of fire occurrence can form the basis for a study of the temporal and spatial variability of grassland fire. The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of monthly time scale climate factors on the occurrence of grassland fire in HulunBuir, located in the northeast of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in China. Based on the logistic regression method, we used the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) active fire data products named thermal anomalies/fire daily L3 Global 1km (MOD14A1 (Terra) and MYD14A1 (Aqua)) and associated climate data for HulunBuir from 2000 to 2010, and established the model of grassland fire climate index. The results showed that monthly maximum temperature, monthly sunshine hours and monthly average wind speed were all positively correlated with the fire climate index; monthly precipitation, monthly average temperature, monthly average relative humidity, monthly minimum relative humidity and the number of days with monthly precipitation greater than or equal to 5 mm were all negatively correlated with the fire climate index. We used the active fire data from 2011 to 2014 to validate the fire climate index during this time period, and the validation result was good (Pearson’s correlation coefficient was 0.578), which showed that the fire climate index model was suitable for analyzing the occurrence of grassland fire in HulunBuir. Analyses were conducted on the temporal and spatial distribution of the fire climate index from January to December in the years 2011–2014; it could be seen that from March to May and from September to October, the fire climate index was higher, and that the fire climate index of the other months is relatively low. The zones with higher fire climate index are mainly distributed in Xin

  19. Geology, geochemistry and genesis of the Eocene Lailishan Sn deposit in the Sanjiang region, SW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hua-Wen; Pei, Qiu-Ming; Zhang, Shou-Ting; Zhang, Lin-Kui; Tang, Li; Lin, Jin-Zhan; Zheng, Luo

    2017-04-01

    The Lailishan deposit is an important tin deposit that is genetically associated with an Early Eocene biotite granite in the western Yunnan metallogenic belt in the Sanjiang region, SW China. This study reports new zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic data, whole-rock elements, mica Ar-Ar age and C-H-O-S-Pb isotope for the Lailishan Sn deposit. The mineralization-related biotite granite crystallized during the Early Eocene (50.5 Ma), with its zircon εHf(t) values ranging from -11.5 to -7.6 and two-stage Hf model ages (TDM2) ranging from 1.60 to 1.85 Ga. The rocks are peraluminous with A/CNK values of 0.99-1.08. The granites display high Si, Al and K contents but low Mg, Fe and Ca contents. The rocks show flat chondrite-normalized REE patterns with strong Eu negative anomalies. These characteristics indicate that the magma originated from a continental crustal source. The hydrothermal muscovite exhibits an Ar-Ar plateau age of 50.4 ± 0.2 Ma. The δ18O and δD values of hydrothermal quartz from the deposit range from -7.32‰ to 4.01‰ and from -124.9‰ to -87.1‰, respectively. The δ13CPDB and δ18OSMOW values of calcite range from -11.3‰ to -3.7‰ and from +2.2‰ to +12.7‰, respectively. The sulfur isotopic compositions (δ34SV-CDT) range from +3.3‰ to +8.6‰ for sulfide separates, and the lead isotopic ratios 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb range from 18.668 to 18.746, from 15.710 to 15.743 and from 39.202 to 39.295, respectively. These isotopic compositions are similar to those of magma-derived fluids, indicating that the ore-forming fluids and materials mainly originated from magmatic rocks with some input from meteoric water. This evidence suggests that the tin mineralization is closely linked to the Lailishan I-type granites. In combination with previous data, it is proposed in this study that widespread early Eocene magmatism resulted from the slab breakoff of the subducting Neo-Tethyan slab at ca. 55 Ma.

  20. Study on Climate and Grassland Fire in HulunBuir, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meifang; Zhao, Jianjun; Guo, Xiaoyi; Zhang, Zhengxiang; Tan, Gang; Yang, Jihong

    2017-03-17

    Grassland fire is one of the most important disturbance factors of the natural ecosystem. Climate factors influence the occurrence and development of grassland fire. An analysis of the climate conditions of fire occurrence can form the basis for a study of the temporal and spatial variability of grassland fire. The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of monthly time scale climate factors on the occurrence of grassland fire in HulunBuir, located in the northeast of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in China. Based on the logistic regression method, we used the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) active fire data products named thermal anomalies/fire daily L3 Global 1km (MOD14A1 (Terra) and MYD14A1 (Aqua)) and associated climate data for HulunBuir from 2000 to 2010, and established the model of grassland fire climate index. The results showed that monthly maximum temperature, monthly sunshine hours and monthly average wind speed were all positively correlated with the fire climate index; monthly precipitation, monthly average temperature, monthly average relative humidity, monthly minimum relative humidity and the number of days with monthly precipitation greater than or equal to 5 mm were all negatively correlated with the fire climate index. We used the active fire data from 2011 to 2014 to validate the fire climate index during this time period, and the validation result was good (Pearson's correlation coefficient was 0.578), which showed that the fire climate index model was suitable for analyzing the occurrence of grassland fire in HulunBuir. Analyses were conducted on the temporal and spatial distribution of the fire climate index from January to December in the years 2011-2014; it could be seen that from March to May and from September to October, the fire climate index was higher, and that the fire climate index of the other months is relatively low. The zones with higher fire climate index are mainly distributed in Xin Barag

  1. Effects of leachate accumulation on landfill stability in humid regions of China

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Jianguo; Yang Yong; Yang Shihui; Ye Bin; Zhang Chang

    2010-05-15

    Leachate levels are important to landfill stability and safety. High leachate or water levels often lead to landfill instability, which can cause accidents. Here a case study of a landfill located in a humid region of southern China is presented. Leachate distribution and quality were systematically analyzed, and the effect of leachate level on waste-mass stability was assessed. Boreholes were drilled in the field, samples were analyzed in the laboratory, and a simulation was performed. In addition, the safety and stability of the landfill was evaluated. The leachate level in the landfill was 9-19 m, which was higher than the top of the dam crest (8-20 m). Leachate accounted for more than 1/4 of the total landfill storage capacity. The contaminant concentration of the leachate samples collected directly from the waste body was very high, with large variation among the samples. The mean concentrations of NH{sub 3}-N, BOD, and COD from the waste body were 5404, 14,136, and 22,691 mg/L, nearly 2.7, 2.4, and 1.8 times the mean concentrations in the leachate pond, respectively. Three series of shear strength parameters were used in a slope stability analysis, and a limit equilibrium method was used to calculate the factor of safety (Fs). The analysis showed that Fs could be affected by potential anisotropy in the shear strength of the waste. The minimum values of Fs corresponding to series I were 1.84 and 1.17 for units I and II, respectively. The Fs value of unit II was significantly lower than the safe design value (1.25). In addition, Fs decreased with increase in the normalized height of the leachate level, h/H, where h is the height of the leachate mound and H is the maximum thickness of the landfill. If the h/H values of units I and II are kept below 50% and 40%, respectively, a safe design value of 1.25 for Fs can be guaranteed. Therefore, some measures to prevent risk should be considered.

  2. Epidemiology of Pediatric Ocular Trauma in the Chaoshan Region, China, 2001–2010

    PubMed Central

    Cao, He; Li, Liping; Zhang, Mingzhi; Li, Hongni

    2013-01-01

    Background Ocular trauma is the leading cause of monocular visual disability and noncongenital unilateral blindness in children. This study describes the epidemiology and medical care associated with nonfatal pediatric (≤17 years of age) eye injury-related hospitalization in the largest industrial base for plastic toy production in China. Methods A population-based retrospective study of patients hospitalized for ocular and orbital trauma in the ophthalmology departments of 3 major tertiary hospitals from 1st January 2001 to 31st December 2010 was performed. Results The study included 1035 injured eyes from 1018 patients over a 10-year period: 560 (54.1%) eyes exhibited open globe injuries, 402 (38.8%) eyes suffered closed globe injuries, 10 (1.0%) eyes suffered chemical injuries and 8 (0.8%) eyes exhibited thermal injuries, representing an average annual hospitalization rate of 0.37 per 10,000 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36–0.38) due to pediatric eye injury in the Chaoshan region. The mean patient age was 9.2±4.4 years with a male-to-female ratio of 3.3∶1 (P = 0.007). Children aged 6 to 11 years accounted for the highest percentage (40.8%, 416/1018) of hospitalization, 56.7% (236/416) of whom were hospitalized for open globe wounds. Injury occurred most frequently at home (73.1%). Open globe wounds cost the single most expensive financial burden (60.8%) of total charges with $998±702 mean charges per hospitalization. Conclusions Open globe wounds occurred at home are earmarked for the priorities to prevention strategies. Higher public awareness of protecting primary schoolchildren from home-related eye injuries should be strengthened urgently by legislation or regulation since the traditional industrial mode seems to remain the pattern for the foreseeable future. Further research that provide detailed information on the specific inciting agents of pediatric eye injuries are recommended for facilitating the development and targeting of appropriate

  3. Estimated emissions of chlorofluorocarbons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons, and hydrofluorocarbons based on an interspecies correlation method in the Pearl River Delta region, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Fang, Xuekun; Martin, Jonathan W; Zhai, Zihan; Su, Shenshen; Hu, Xia; Han, Jiarui; Lu, Sihua; Wang, Chen; Zhang, Jianbo; Hu, Jianxin

    2014-02-01

    Although many studies have been conducted in recent years on the emissions of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) at the large regional (such as East Asia) and national scales, relatively few studies have been conducted for cities or metropolitan areas. In this study, 192 air samples were collected in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of China in November 2010. The atmospheric mixing ratios of six halocarbons were analyzed, including trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11, CCl3F), dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12, CCl2F2), monochlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22, CHClF2), 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane (HCFC-141b, CH3CCl2F), 1-dichloro-1,1-fluoroethane (HCFC-142b, CH3CClF2), and 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a, CH2FCF3), and their emissions were estimated based on an interspecies correlation method using HCFC-22 as the reference species. The results showed no significant change in the regional concentration and emission of CFC in the past 10years, suggesting that the continuous regional emission of CFC has had no significant effect on the CFC regional concentration in the PRD region. Concentrations and emissions of HCFCs and HFCs are significantly higher compared to previous research in the PRD region (P<0.05). The largest emission was for HCFC-22, most likely due to its substitution for CFC-12 in the industrial and commercial refrigeration subsector, and the rapid development of the room air-conditioner and extruded polystyrene subsectors. The PRD's ODP-weighted emissions of the target HCFCs provided 9% (7-12%) of the national emissions for the corresponding species. The PRD's GWP-weighted emissions of the target HCFCs and HFC-134a account for 10% (7-12%) and 8% (7-9%), respectively, of the national emissions for the corresponding species, and thus are important contributions to China's total emissions.

  4. Estimation of the contribution of exports to the provincial economy: an analysis based on China's multi-regional input-output tables.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sanmang; Li, Shantong; Lei, Yalin

    2016-01-01

    This paper developed an estimation model for the contribution of exports to a country's regional economy based on the Chenery-Moses model and conducted an empirical analysis using China's multi-regional input-output tables for 1997, 2002, and 2007. The results indicated that China's national exports make significantly different contributions to the provincial economy in various regions, with the greatest contribution being observed in the eastern region and the smallest in the central region. The provinces are also subjected to significantly different export spillover effects. The boosting effect for the eastern provinces is primarily generated from local exports, whereas the western provinces primarily benefit from the export spillover effect from the eastern provinces. The eastern provinces, such as Guangdong, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, and Shanghai, are the primary sources of export spillover effects, and Guangdong is the largest source of export spillover effects for almost all of the provinces in China.

  5. Early Mixed Farming of Millet and Rice 7800 Years Ago in the Middle Yellow River Region, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianping; Lu, Houyuan; Gu, Wanfa; Wu, Naiqin; Zhou, Kunshu; Hu, Yayi; Xin, Yingjun; Wang, Can

    2012-01-01

    The Peiligang Culture (9000-7000 cal. yr BP) in the Middle Yellow River region, North China, has long been considered representative of millet farming. It is still unclear, however, if broomcorn millet or foxtail millet was the first species domesticated during the Peiligang Culture. Furthermore, it is also unknown whether millet was cultivated singly or together with rice at the same period. In this study, phytolith analysis of samples from the Tanghu archaeological site reveals early crop information in the Middle Yellow River region, China. Our results show that broomcorn millet was the early dry farming species in the Peiligang Culture at 7800 cal. yr BP, while rice cultivation took place from 7800 to 4500 cal. yr BP. Our data provide new evidence of broomcorn millet and rice mixed farming at 7800 cal. yr BP in the Middle Yellow River region, which has implications for understanding the domestication process of the two crops, and the formation and continuance of the Ancient Yellow River Civilization. PMID:23284907

  6. Impacts of grassland types and vegetation cover changes on surface air temperature in the regions of temperate grassland of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xiangjin; Liu, Binhui; Li, Guangdi; Yu, Pujia; Zhou, Daowei

    2016-10-01

    The sensitivity of surface air temperature response to different grassland types and vegetation cover changes in the regions of temperate grassland of China was analyzed by observation minus reanalysis (OMR) method. The basis of the OMR approach is that reanalysis data are insensitive to local surface properties, so the temperature differences between surface observations and reanalysis can be attributed to land effects. Results showed that growing-season air temperature increased by 0.592 °C/decade in the regions of temperate grassland of China, with about 31 % of observed warming associated with the effects of grassland types and vegetation cover changes. For different grassland types, the growing-season OMR trend was the strongest for temperate desert steppe (0.259 °C/decade) and the weakest for temperate meadow (0.114 °C/decade). Our results suggest that the stronger intraseasonal changes of grassland vegetation are present, the more sensitive the OMR trend responds to the intraseasonal vegetation cover changes. In August and September, the OMR of temperate meadow showed a weak cooling trend. For temperate meadow, about 72.2 and 72.6 % of surface cooling were explained by both grassland type and increase of vegetation cover for August and September, respectively. For temperate steppe and temperate desert steppe, due to the limited soil moisture and little evaporative cooling feedback, the vegetation changes have no significant effect on the surface air temperature. These results indicate that the impact of grassland types and vegetation cover changes should be considered when projecting further climate change in the temperate grassland region of China.

  7. Strategic Forum. August 2013. The Rebalance to Asia: U.S.-China Relations and Regional Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    ing a temporary ban on exports of rare earth elements to Japan and import restrictions on Philippine bananas .12 China also took a tough line on its...Asia Summit. 18 See the fact sheets from the U.S. Trade Representative’s office, available at <www.ustr.gov/tpp>; and Jeffrey J. Schott, Barbara

  8. First report of sunflower white mold caused by Sclerotinia minor Jagger in Inner Mongolia region, China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the 2014 growing season, sunflower plants with symptoms of basal stem rot and whole plant wilt were observed in sunflower fields in Inner Mongolia, China. The average disease incidence was between 10-15%. Tiny (0.30 to 2.68 mm) black sclerotia were usually observed on the stem of infected pla...

  9. Regional Education Profile: Asia. China, Hong Kong, Macau, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of International Education, New York, NY.

    Developments in international education in Asia during 1985 are considered in three essays presented in the Biennial International Education Seminars conducted by the Institute of International Education. Countries covered by the essays and the authors are: China, Hong Kong, and Thailand (Jay Henderson); Macau (Josef Silny and Jay Henderson); and…

  10. Southeast Asian Perspectives on the Rise of China: Regional Security after 9/11

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    of China as a great opportunity, with concomitant security chal- lenges, rather than as a serious threat. From an economic standpoint, Rodolfo Severino ...November 2002), 2. 10. “ASEAN and China—Partners In Competition,” remarks by Rodolfo C. Severino , Secretary-General of the Association of Southeast Asian

  11. Survey Ranking of Job Competencies by Perceived Employee Importance: Comparing China's Three Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Jin

    2006-01-01

    The acquisition of skills that match job requirements has become an issue in human resource development. A uniform but vague list of desirable skills often provided by policymakers or advocated by scholars is used as a guide in education and training programs in China. Using survey data, this study analyzes the core skills that workforces in China…

  12. Injection device-related risk management toward safe administration of medications: experience in a university teaching hospital in The People’s Republic of China

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ling-ling; Li, Wei; Song, Ping; Zhou, Quan

    2014-01-01

    The use of injection devices to administer intravenous or subcutaneous medications is common practice throughout a variety of health care settings. Studies suggest that one-half of all harmful medication errors originate during drug administration; of those errors, about two-thirds involve injectables. Therefore, injection device management is pivotal to safe administration of medications. In this article, the authors summarize the relevant experiences by retrospective analysis of injection device-related near misses and adverse events in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, People’s Republic of China. Injection device-related near misses and adverse events comprised the following: 1) improper selection of needle diameter for subcutaneous injection, material of infusion sets, and pore size of in-line filter; 2) complications associated with vascular access; 3) incidents induced by absence of efficient electronic pump management and infusion tube management; and 4) liquid leakage of chemotherapeutic infusion around the syringe needle. Safe injection drug use was enhanced by multidisciplinary collaboration, especially among pharmacists and nurses; drafting of clinical pathways in selection of vascular access; application of approaches such as root cause analysis using a fishbone diagram; plan–do–check–act and quality control circle; and construction of a culture of spontaneous reporting of near misses and adverse events. Pharmacists must be professional in regards to medication management and use. The depth, breadth, and efficiency of cooperation between nurses and pharmacists are pivotal to injection safety. PMID:24669192

  13. Injection device-related risk management toward safe administration of medications: experience in a university teaching hospital in The People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ling-Ling; Li, Wei; Song, Ping; Zhou, Quan

    2014-01-01

    The use of injection devices to administer intravenous or subcutaneous medications is common practice throughout a variety of health care settings. Studies suggest that one-half of all harmful medication errors originate during drug administration; of those errors, about two-thirds involve injectables. Therefore, injection device management is pivotal to safe administration of medications. In this article, the authors summarize the relevant experiences by retrospective analysis of injection device-related near misses and adverse events in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, People's Republic of China. Injection device-related near misses and adverse events comprised the following: 1) improper selection of needle diameter for subcutaneous injection, material of infusion sets, and pore size of in-line filter; 2) complications associated with vascular access; 3) incidents induced by absence of efficient electronic pump management and infusion tube management; and 4) liquid leakage of chemotherapeutic infusion around the syringe needle. Safe injection drug use was enhanced by multidisciplinary collaboration, especially among pharmacists and nurses; drafting of clinical pathways in selection of vascular access; application of approaches such as root cause analysis using a fishbone diagram; plan-do-check-act and quality control circle; and construction of a culture of spontaneous reporting of near misses and adverse events. Pharmacists must be professional in regards to medication management and use. The depth, breadth, and efficiency of cooperation between nurses and pharmacists are pivotal to injection safety.

  14. Changes in regional meteorology induced by anthropogenic heat and their impacts on air quality in South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Min; Zhu, Kuanguang; Wang, Tijian; Feng, Wen; Gao, Da; Li, Mengmeng; Li, Shu; Zhuang, Bingliang; Han, Yong; Chen, Pulong; Liao, Jingbiao

    2016-12-01

    Anthropogenic heat (AH) emissions from human activities can change the urban circulation and thereby affect the air pollution in and around cities. Based on statistic data, the spatial distribution of AH flux in South China is estimated. With the aid of the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF/Chem), in which the AH parameterization is developed to incorporate the gridded AH emissions with temporal variation, simulations for January and July in 2014 are performed over South China. By analyzing the differences between the simulations with and without adding AH, the impact of AH on regional meteorology and air quality is quantified. The results show that the regional annual mean AH fluxes over South China are only 0.87 W m-2, but the values for the urban areas of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region can be close to 60 W m-2. These AH emissions can significantly change the urban heat island and urban-breeze circulations in big cities. In the PRD city cluster, 2 m air temperature rises by 1.1° in January and over 0.5° in July, the planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) increases by 120 m in January and 90 m in July, 10 m wind speed is intensified to over 0.35 m s-1 in January and 0.3 m s-1 in July, and accumulative precipitation is enhanced by 20-40 % in July. These changes in meteorological conditions can significantly impact the spatial and vertical distributions of air pollutants. Due to the increases in PBLH, surface wind speed and upward vertical movement, the concentrations of primary air pollutants decrease near the surface and increase in the upper levels. But the vertical changes in O3 concentrations show the different patterns in different seasons. The surface O3 concentrations in big cities increase with maximum values of over 2.5 ppb in January, while O3 is reduced at the lower layers and increases at the upper layers above some megacities in July. This phenomenon can be attributed to the fact that chemical effects can play a

  15. Internationalization, Regionalization, and Soft Power: China's Relations with ASEAN Member Countries in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Rui

    2012-01-01

    Since the late 1980s, there has been a resurgence of regionalism in world politics. Prospects for new alliances are opened up often on a regional basis. In East and Southeast Asia, regionalization is becoming evident in higher education, with both awareness and signs of a rising ASEAN+3 higher education community. The quest for regional influence…

  16. Regional disparities in the burden of disease attributable to unsafe water and poor sanitation in China

    PubMed Central

    Carlton, Elizabeth J; McDowell, Julia Z; Li, Huazhong; Luo, Wei; Remais, Justin V

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the disease burden attributable to unsafe water and poor sanitation and hygiene in China, to identify high-burden groups and to inform improvement measures. Methods The disease burden attributable to unsafe water and poor sanitation and hygiene in China was estimated for diseases resulting from exposure to biologically contaminated soil and water (diarrhoeal disease, helminthiases and schistosomiasis) and vector transmission resulting from inadequate management of water resources (malaria, dengue and Japanese encephalitis). The data were obtained from China’s national infectious disease reporting system, national helminthiasis surveys and national water and sanitation surveys. The fraction of each health condition attributable to unsafe water and poor sanitation and hygiene in China was estimated from data in the Chinese and international literature. Findings In 2008, 327 million people in China lacked access to piped drinking water and 535 million lacked access to improved sanitation. The same year, unsafe water and poor sanitation and hygiene accounted for 2.81 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and 62 800 deaths in the country, and 83% of the attributable burden was found in children less than 5 years old. Per capita DALYs increased along an east–west gradient, with the highest burden in inland provinces having the lowest income per capita. Conclusion Despite remarkable progress, China still needs to conduct infrastructural improvement projects targeting provinces that have experienced slower economic development. Improved monitoring, increased regulatory oversight and more government transparency are needed to better estimate the effects of microbiologically and chemically contaminated water and poor sanitation and hygiene on human health. PMID:22893741

  17. Comparison of Insecticide Susceptibilities of Empoasca vitis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) from Three Main Tea-Growing Regions in China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qi; Yu, Hua-Yang; Niu, Chun-Dong; Yao, Rong; Wu, Shun-Fan; Chen, Zhuo; Gao, Cong-Fen

    2015-06-01

    Empoasca vitis (Göthe) is an important insect pest in tea-growing areas of China, and chemical control is the main tactic for the management of this pest. Due to the pressure of increasing insecticide resistance and more stringent food safety regulations, development of sound IPM strategies for E. vitis is an urgent matter. This study comparatively evaluated four field populations of E. vitis from three different tea-growing regions in China for their susceptibilities to eight insecticides using a simple leaf-dip methodology. E. vitis was found to be most sensitive to indoxacarb (LC50<0.5 mg/liter) and least sensitive to isoprocarb (LC50>5 mg/liter) and sophocarpidine (LC50>95 mg/liter, a botanical pesticide) regardless of populations. Population (geographical) variations were higher for indoxacarb and imidacloprid than other compounds. Judging by the 95% fiducial limits of LC50 values, all populations had similar susceptibilities to chlorfenapyr, bifenthrin, and acetamiprid or imidacloprid. Correlation analysis suggested that chlorfenapyr and indoxacarb or isoprocarb may have a high risk of cross resistance. Considering potency (LC50) and maximum residual levels, chlorfenapyr and bifenthrin are good insecticide options followed by acetamiprid and indoxacarb. These results provide valuable information to intelligently select insecticides for IPM programs that are efficacious against E. vitis while also managing insecticide resistance and maximum residual levels for tea production in China.

  18. Quantifying the effect of ecological restoration on soil erosion in China's Loess Plateau region: an application of the MMF approach.

    PubMed

    Li, Changbin; Qi, Jiaguo; Feng, Zhaodong; Yin, Runsheng; Guo, Biyun; Zhang, Feng; Zou, Songbing

    2010-03-01

    Land degradation due to erosion is one of the most serious environmental problems in China. To reduce land degradation, the government has taken a number of conservation and restoration measures, including the Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP), which was launched in 1999. A logical question is whether these measures have reduced soil erosion at the regional level. The objective of this article is to answer this question by assessing soil erosion dynamics in the Zuli River basin in the Loess Plateau of China from 1999 to 2006. The MMF (Morgan, Morgan and Finney) model was used to simulate changes in runoff and soil erosion over the period of time during which ecological restoration projects were implemented. Some model variables were derived from remotely sensed images to provide improved land surface representation. With an overall accuracy rate of 0.67, our simulations show that increased ground vegetation cover, especially in forestlands and grasslands, has reduced soil erosion by 38.8% on average from 1999 to 2006. During the same time period, however, the change in rainfall pattern has caused a 13.1% +/- 4.3% increase in soil erosion, resulting in a net 25.7% +/- 8.5% reduction in soil erosion. This suggests that China's various ecological restoration efforts have been effective in reducing soil loss.

  19. Multi-year simulations and experimental seasonal predictions for rainy seasons in China by using a nested regional climate model (RegCM_NCC). Part I: Sensitivity study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yihui; Shi, Xueli; Liu, Yiming; Liu, Yan; Li, Qingquan; Qian, Yongfu; Miao, Manqian; Zhai, Guoqing; Gao, Kun

    2006-05-01

    A modified version of the NCAR/RegCM2 has been developed at the National Climate Center (NCC), China Meteorological Administration, through a series of sensitivity experiments and multi-year simulations and hindcasts, with a special emphasis on the adequate choice of physical parameterization schemes suitable for the East Asian monsoon climate. This regional climate model is nested with the NCC/IAP (Institute of Atmospheric Physics) T63 coupled GCM to make an experimental seasonal prediction for China and East Asia. The four-year (2001 to 2004) prediction results are encouraging. This paper is the first part of a two-part paper, and it mainly describes the sensitivity study of the physical process parameterization represented in the model. The systematic errors produced by the different physical parameterization schemes such as the land surface processes, convective precipitation, cloud-radiation transfer process, boundary layer process and large-scale terrain features have been identified based on multi-year and extreme flooding event simulations. A number of comparative experiments has shown that the mass flux scheme (MFS) and Betts-Miller scheme (BM) for convective precipitation, the LPMI (land surface process model I) and LPMII (land surface process model II) for the land surface process, the CCM3 radiation transfer scheme for cloud-radiation transfer processes, the TKE (turbulent kinetic energy) scheme for the boundary layer processes and the topography treatment schemes for the Tibetan Plateau are suitable for simulations and prediction of the East Asia monsoon climate in rainy seasons. Based on the above sensitivity study, a modified version of the RegCM2 (RegCM_NCC) has been set up for climate simulations and seasonal predictions.

  20. Temporal trends of main reproductive characteristics in ten urban and rural regions of China: the China Kadoorie Biobank study of 300 000 women

    PubMed Central

    Lewington, Sarah; Li, LiMing; Murugasen, Serini; Hong, Lai-san; Yang, Ling; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Collins, Rory; Chen, Junshi; He, Hui; Wu, Ming; He, Tianyou; Ren, Xiaolan; Meng, Jinhuai; Peto, Richard; Chen, Zhengming

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chinese women’s reproductive patterns have changed significantly over the past several decades. However, relatively little is known about the pace and characteristics of these changes either overall or by region and socioeconomic status. Methods: We examined the cross-sectional data from the China Kadoorie Biobank cohort study that recruited 300 000 women born between 1930 and 1974 (mean age: 51 years) from 10 socially diverse urban and rural regions of China. Temporal trends in several self-reported reproductive characteristics, and effect modification of these trends by area and education (as a surrogate for socioeconomic status), were examined. Results: The overall mean age at menarche was 15.4 (standard deviation 1.9) years, but decreased steadily over the 45 birth cohorts from 16.1 to 14.3 years, except for an anomalous increase of ∼1 year for women exposed to the 1958-61 famine in early adolescence. Similarly large changes were seen for other characteristics: mean parity fell (urban: 4.9 to 1.1; rural: 5.9 to 1.4); mean age at first birth increased (urban: 19.0 to 25.9 years; rural: 18.3 to 23.8 years); and birth spacing increased after 1980 to over 5 years. Breastfeeding declined after 1950 in urban and, after 1980, in rural women; and 68% of urban and 48% of rural women experienced a terminated pregnancy. Mean age at menopause increased from 47.9 to 49.3 years. Conclusions There have been striking changes in reproductive factors over time and between areas among these Chinese women. Their effects on major chronic diseases should be investigated. PMID:24639443

  1. La Red Regional Replad: Una Estrategia Innovadora para la Capacitacion de Administradores Educacionales (The Regional Network Replad: An Innovative Strategy for the Training and Preparation of Educational Administrators).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez Espinoza, Jorge

    This document presents an overview, analysis, and historical assessment of the Major Project for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean. Conferences, regional meetings, and outcomes from the inception of the project in 1979 are described. This project stresses the establishment of a regional network for exchange of information, experiences,…

  2. A Case Study of Two Regional State Universities Qualifying as Learning Organizations Based on Administration and Staff Viewpoints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Tammy Morrison

    2011-01-01

    This case study of 2 state universities qualifying as learning organizations, based on administration and staff viewpoints, was completed using a qualitative methodology. The idea of what a learning organization is can be different depending on who or what is being analyzed. For this study, the work of theorists including W. Edwards Deming,…

  3. Paleozoic-early Mesozoic gold deposits of the Xinjiang Autonomous Region, northwestern China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rui, Z.; Goldfarb, R.J.; Qiu, Y.; Zhou, T.; Chen, R.; Pirajno, F.; Yun, G.

    2002-01-01

    The late Paleozoic-early Mesozoic tectonic evolution of Xinjiang Autonomous Region, northwestern China provided a favorable geological setting for the formation of lode gold deposits along the sutures between a number of the major Eastern Asia cratonic blocks. These sutures are now represented by the Altay Shan, Tian Shan, and Kunlun Shan ranges, with the former two separated by the Junggar basin and the latter two by the immense Tarim basin. In northernmost Xinjiang, final growth of the Altaid orogen, southward from the Angara craton, is now recorded in the remote mid- to late Paleozoic Altay Shan. Accreted Early to Middle Devonian oceanic rock sequences contain typically small, precious-metal bearing Fe-Cu-Zn VMS deposits (e.g. Ashele). Orogenic gold deposits are widespread along the major Irtysh (e.g. Duyolanasayi, Saidi, Taerde, Kabenbulake, Akexike, Shaerbulake) and Tuergen-Hongshanzui (e.g. Hongshanzui) fault systems, as well as in structurally displaced terrane slivers of the western Junggar (e.g. Hatu) and eastern Junggar areas. Geological and geochronological constraints indicate a generally Late Carboniferous to Early Permian episode of gold deposition, which was coeval with the final stages of Altaid magmatism and large-scale, right-lateral translation along older terrane-bounding faults. The Tian Shan, an exceptionally gold-rich mountain range to the west in the Central Asian republics, is only beginning to be recognized for its gold potential in Xinjiang. In this easternmost part to the range, northerly- and southerly-directed subduction/accretion of early to mid-Paleozoic and mid- to late Paleozoic oceanic terranes, respectively, to the Precambrian Yili block (central Tian Shan) was associated with 400 to 250 Ma arc magmatism and Carboniferous through Early Permian gold-forming hydrothermal events. The more significant resulting deposits in the terranes of the southern Tian Shan include the Sawayaerdun orogenic deposit along the Kyrgyzstan border and

  4. Spatiotemporal patterns and source implications of aromatic hydrocarbons at six rural sites across China's developed coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhou; Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Xinming; Lü, Sujun; Huang, Zhonghui; Huang, Xinyu; Yang, Weiqiang; Wang, Yuesi; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are important anthropogenic precursors of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosols. Here we measured ambient aromatic hydrocarbons from March 2012 to February 2014 at six rural sites in China's developed coastal regions. On average, benzene (B) comprised > 50% of total benzene (B), toluene (T), ethylbenzene (E), and xylenes (X) (BTEX) at sites in the Northeast China Plain (NECP) or in the North China Plain (NCP), whereas T, E, and X accounted for > 77% of total BTEX at sites in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and the Pearl River Delta in the south. BTEX at the northern sites was significantly correlated (p < 0.01) with combustion tracer-carbon monoxide (CO) but weakly correlated with traffic marker-methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), suggesting that their main sources were coal and biofuel/biomass burning with substantially elevated B levels during the winter heating period. In contrast, BTEX at the southern sites originated mainly from traffic-related and/or industrial emission sources, as indicated by the poor correlations with CO but highly significant (p < 0.01) correlations with MTBE and tetrachloroethylene, an industrial emission tracer. The B/CO emission ratios from measurement agreed within a factor of 2 with that of a previous widely used emission inventory of China, but the T/CO ratio at the NECP site and the o-X/CO ratio at the NCP site were 29% and 38% of that in the inventory, respectively; the E/CO and X/CO ratios at the YRD site were 3.2-3.5 fold that in the emission inventory.

  5. Virulence and molecular diversity of the Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici population in Xinjiang in relation to other regions of western China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, wheat stripe rust caused severe yield losses in western China, especially the Xinjiang Autonomous Region. The population of the stripe rust fungus, Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), in the vast region had not been well studied. To determine the population structure and comp...

  6. The Fracturing of China? Ethnic Separatism and Political Violence in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    Fletcher, "The Heyday of the Ch’ing Order in Mongolia, Sinkiang , and Tibet," in The Cambridge History of China, Vol. 10 Late Ch’ing, 1800-1911, Part I...Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: A Political History of Republican Sinkiang 1911-1949, (New York: 1996), 11-12; Millward and Tursun, 68...Whiting and General Sheng Shih-ts’ai, Sinkiang : Pawn or Pivot? (East Lansing, MI: 1958), 137. 86 Millward and Tursun, 80. 33

  7. China’s Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region: Cornucopia or Achilles Heel.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    modernizations , the government’s first order of business was to reorganize econ- omic management from top to bottom and to implement centralized planning...into Chinese society. Secondly, and more important, was the question of how China was going to pay for "imported" modernization . In view of the Chinese ...political climate in either country. In total, there are over ten different nationalities in Xinjiang. The Chinese officially recognize the Uygur, Kazakh

  8. Scramble in the South China Sea: Regional Conflict and U.S. Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-14

    of Fisheries and Aquaculture 2012 (Bangkok, Thailand, 2012), 59. 11. International Crisis Group, Stirring Up the South China Sea (II), 16-17. 12...Herberg, “The Rise of Energy and Resource Nationalism in Asia,” 124. 47. Richard L . Armitage and Joseph Nye, Jr., “CSIS Commission on Smart Power...Bibliography Armitage, Richard L . and Joseph Nye, Jr., CSIS Commission on Smart Power. Washington, D.C.: Center for Strategic

  9. Study of the sensitivity of a regional model in response to land cover change over northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Helin; Fu, Congbin

    1998-10-01

    Changing land surface types may have important consequences for the climate system. Predicting even the local, immediate effects of changing land surface types on the local energy and water balance has been difficult, because the land surface parameterization schemes used previously in climate models have been inadequate and the resolution of GCMs (global circulation models) has been too coarse to describe mesoscale forcings such as vegetation gradient adequately and to yield accurate regional climate detail. Grassland is a major ecosystem in northern China, playing a crucial role in the surface energy and water budget. Inclusion of a biosphere and atmosphere transfer scheme (BATS) into the National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) regional climate model (RegCM) permits an exploratory study of the possible effects of land cover change. Based on the observation of desertification processes in this area, an experiment with seven-day integration was designed in which all of the grassland in northern China is replaced by desert. The results show that, with the conversion of grassland into the desert, the surface hydrological cycle over northern China is weakened, with less precipitation and, in particular, a reduction in evaporation; the surface heat budget also changes, especially with the reduction in latent heat flux being much more than the reduction of net radiation, which results in an increase in surface temperature. These results are relevant to changes of parameters in BATS owing to changing land surface. Some detailed patterns of the effects of changing land surface on local energy and water balance have been simulated.

  10. A Model for coupled heat and moisture transfer in permafrost regions of three rivers source areas, Qinghai, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, X. L.; Xiang, X. H.; Wang, C. H.; Shao, Q. Q.

    2012-04-01

    Soil freezing occurs in winter in many parts of the world. The transfer of heat and moisture in freezing and thawing soil is interrelated, and this heat and moisture transport plays an important role in hydrological activity of seasonal frozen region especially for three rivers sources area of China. Soil freezing depth and ice content in frozen zone will significantly influence runoff and groundwater recharge. The purpose of this research is to develop a numerical model to simulate water and heat movement in the soil under freezing and thawing conditions. The basic elements of the model are the heat and water flow equations, which are heat conduction equation and unsaturated soil fluid mass conservation equation. A full-implicit finite volume scheme is used to solve the coupled equations in space. The model is calibrated and verified against the observed moisture and temperature of soil during freezing and thawing period from 2005 to 2007. Different characters of heat and moisture transfer are testified, such as frozen depth, temperature field of 40 cm depth and topsoil moisture content, et al. The model is calibrated and verified against observed value, which indicate that the new model can be used successfully to simulate numerically the coupled heat and mass transfer process in permafrost regions. By simulating the runoff generation process and the driven factors of seasonal changes, the agreement illustrates that the coupled model can be used to describe the local phonemes of hydrologic activities and provide a support to the local Ecosystem services. This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51009045; 40930635; 41001011; 41101018; 51079038), the National Key Program for Developing Basic Science (No. 2009CB421105), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 2009B06614; 2010B00414), the National Non Profit Research Program of China (No. 200905013-8; 201101024; 20101224).

  11. Latitudinal concordance between biogeographic regionalization, community structure, and richness patterns: a study on the reptiles of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Youhua; Srivastava, Diane S.

    2015-02-01

    Latitudinal patterns in species richness may be affected by both continuous variations in macroecological factors as well as discrete change between biogeographic regions. We examined whether latitudinal reptilian richness and community structure in China were best explained by three macroecological patterns (mid-domain effects, Rapoport's rule effects, or environmental correlates) within or across the ranges of biogeographic realms. The results showed that (1) there was a weak mid-domain effect within the Oriental Realm. However, the mid-domain effect was detected neither at the overall regional scale nor in the Palaearctic Realm. (2) Rapoport's rule was only weakly supported for reptilian fauna in China at lower latitudinal areas. (3) Environmental variables were more strongly correlated with species' latitudinal community structure and richness patterns at the scale of biogeographic realms. Based on the faunal similarity of reptilian community across latitudinal bands, we proposed a latitudinal delineation scheme at 34° N for dividing East Asia into Oriental and Palaearctic biogeographic realms. At last, at the functional group level, we also evaluated the relevant ecological patterns for lizard and snake species across different latitudinal bins, showing that the distributions of lizards presented strong mid-domain effects at the latitudinal ranges within the Oriental Realm and over the whole range but did not support Rapoport's rule. In comparison, snake species supported Rapoport's rule at low latitudinal zones but did not present any remarkable mid-domain effects at any spatial extents. In conclusion, biogeographic realms are an appropriate scale for studying macroecological patterns. Reptilian latitudinal richness patterns of China were explained by a combination of environmental factors and geometric constraints, while the latitudinal community structure patterns were greatly affected by environmental gradients. Functional guilds present differentiated

  12. Changes in Climate over the South China Sea and Adjacent Regions: Response to and Feedback on Global Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Song

    2016-04-01

    El Niño-Southern Oscillation and the Asian monsoon have experienced significant long-term changes in the past decades. These changes, together with other factors, have in turn led to large climate change signals over the South China Sea and adjacent regions including Southeast Asia, the western Pacific, and the tropical Indian Ocean. An attribution analysis of the feedback processes of these signals indicate the predominant importance of water vapor and cloud radiative feedbacks. Experiments with multiple earth system models also show that these regional climate change signals exert significant influences on global climate. The increases in atmospheric heating over Southeast Asia and sea surface temperature in the adjacent oceans in the past decades have weakened the Indian and African monsoons, led to a drying effect over East Asia, and generated wave-train patterns in both the northern and southern hemispheres, explaining several prominent climate features in and outside Southeast Asia.

  13. Antibiotics in the coastal environment of the Hailing Bay region, South China Sea: Spatial distribution, source analysis and ecological risks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Liu, Shan; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Zhou, Guang-Jie; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; Yue, Wei-Zhong; Sun, Kai-Feng; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2015-06-15

    In this study, the occurrence and spatial distribution of 38 antibiotics in surface water and sediment samples of the Hailing Bay region, South China Sea, were investigated. Twenty-one, 16 and 15 of 38 antibiotics were detected with the concentrations ranging from <0.08 (clarithromycin) to 15,163ng/L (oxytetracycline), 2.12 (methacycline) to 1318ng/L (erythromycin-H2O), <1.95 (ciprofloxacin) to 184ng/g (chlortetracycline) in the seawater, discharged effluent and sediment samples, respectively. The concentrations of antibiotics in the water phase were correlated positively with chemical oxygen demand and nitrate. The source analysis indicated that untreated domestic sewage was the primary source of antibiotics in the study region. Fluoroquinolones showed strong sorption capacity onto sediments due to their high pseudo-partitioning coefficients. Risk assessment indicated that oxytetracycline, norfloxacin and erythromycin-H2O posed high risks to aquatic organisms.

  14. Emergy measures of carrying capacity and sustainability of a target region for an ecological restoration programme: a case study in Loess Hilly Region, China.

    PubMed

    Dang, Xiaohu; Liu, Guobin

    2012-07-15

    Evaluating the sustainability of a target region for an ecological restoration programme is challenging because it involves different aspects of human society and environment as well as multiple disciplines. Carrying capacity provides a useful measure of the sustainability of a given region where an ecological restoration programme is implemented. In this article, the Yangou catchment, a geomorphic unit, was used as a case study in the Loess Hilly Region of China, where emergy synthesis was used to measure the environmental resources base. The specific standard of living in terms of emergy was employed to calculate carrying capacity over the period 1998-2005 and to assess the sustainability of the Yangou catchment where an ecological restoration programme was carried out. The results of the evaluation indicated that after implementing the ecological restoration programme, there was some improvement in the environmental aspects of the Yangou catchment during the study period, suggesting that the ecological restoration programme alleviated ecological degradation. However, several emergy-based indices and the support areas also illustrated that the ecological restoration programme was not successful enough in terms of preservation and utilisation of environmental resources to enhance sustainability. This indicates that further actions are necessary on conserving environmental resources, improving the emergy input structure for agricultural production and in lifestyle changes for the local people in living in the Yangou catchment.

  15. The Influence of Land Use on the Grassland Fire Occurrence in the Northeastern Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yiping; Zhao, Jianjun; Guo, Xiaoyi; Zhang, Zhengxiang; Tan, Gang; Yang, Jihong

    2017-01-01

    Grassland, as one of the most important ecosystems on Earth, experiences fires that affect the local ecology, economy and society. Notably, grassland fires occur frequently each year in northeastern China. Fire occurrence is a complex problem with multiple causes, such as natural factors, human activities and land use. This paper investigates the disruptive effects of grassland fire in the northeastern Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. In this study, we relied on thermal anomaly detection from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor to identify fire occurrences, and land use data were acquired by Landsat Thematic Mapper/Enhanced Thematic Mapper (TM/ETM). We discussed the relationship between land use and the spatial distribution of grassland fires. The results showed that the impact of land use on grassland fires was significant. Spatially, approximately 80% of grassland fires were clustered within 10 km of cultivated land, and grassland fires generally occurred in areas of intense human activity. The correlation between the spatial distribution of grassland fires and the land use degree in 2000, 2005 and 2010 was high, with R2 values of 0.686, 0.716, 0.633, respectively (p < 0.01). These results highlight the importance of the relationship between land use and grassland fire occurrence in the northeastern Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. This study provides significance for local fire management and prevention. PMID:28241476

  16. Object-based change detection in rapid urbanization regions with remotely sensed observations: a case study of Shenzhen, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lihuang; Dong, Guihua; Wang, Wei-Min; Yang, Lijun; Liang, Hong

    2013-10-01

    China, the most populous country on Earth, has experienced rapid urbanization which is one of the main causes of many environmental and ecological problems. Therefore, the monitoring of rapid urbanization regions and the environment is of critical importance for their sustainable development. In this study, the object-based classification is employed to detect the change of land cover in Shenzhen, which is located in South China and has been urbanized rapidly in recent three decades. First, four Landsat TM images, which were acquired on 1990, 2000 and 2010, respectively, are selected from the image database. Atmospheric corrections are conducted on these images with improved dark-object subtraction technique and surface meteorological observations. Geometric correction is processed with ground control points derived from topographic maps. Second, a region growing multi-resolution segmentation and a soft nearest neighbour classifier are used to finish object-based classification. After analyzing the fraction of difference classes over time series, we conclude that the comparison of derived land cover classes with socio-economic statistics demonstrates the strong positive correlation between built-up classes and urban population as well as gross GDP and GDPs in second and tertiary industries. Two different mechanisms of urbanization, namely new land development and redevelopment, are revealed. Consequently, we found that, the districts of Shenzhen were urbanized through different mechanisms.

  17. Changes in snow cover over China in the 21st century as simulated by a high resolution regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ying; Gao, Xuejie; Wu, Jia; Giorgi, Filippo

    2011-10-01

    On the basis of the climate change simulations conducted using a high resolution regional climate model, the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) Regional Climate Model, RegCM3, at 25 km grid spacing, future changes in snow cover over China are analyzed. The simulations are carried out for the period of 1951-2100 following the IPCC SRES A1B emission scenario. The results suggest good performances of the model in simulating the number of snow cover days and the snow cover depth, as well as the starting and ending dates of snow cover to the present day (1981-2000). Their spatial distributions and amounts show fair consistency between the simulation and observation, although with some discrepancies. In general, decreases in the number of snow cover days and the snow cover depth, together with postponed snow starting dates and advanced snow ending dates, are simulated for the future, except in some places where the opposite appears. The most dramatic changes are found over the Tibetan Plateau among the three major snow cover areas of Northeast, Northwest and the Tibetan Plateau in China.

  18. The Influence of Land Use on the Grassland Fire Occurrence in the Northeastern Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiping; Zhao, Jianjun; Guo, Xiaoyi; Zhang, Zhengxiang; Tan, Gang; Yang, Jihong

    2017-02-23

    Grassland, as one of the most important ecosystems on Earth, experiences fires that affect the local ecology, economy and society. Notably, grassland fires occur frequently each year in northeastern China. Fire occurrence is a complex problem with multiple causes, such as natural factors, human activities and land use. This paper investigates the disruptive effects of grassland fire in the northeastern Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. In this study, we relied on thermal anomaly detection from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor to identify fire occurrences, and land use data were acquired by Landsat Thematic Mapper/Enhanced Thematic Mapper (TM/ETM). We discussed the relationship between land use and the spatial distribution of grassland fires. The results showed that the impact of land use on grassland fires was significant. Spatially, approximately 80% of grassland fires were clustered within 10 km of cultivated land, and grassland fires generally occurred in areas of intense human activity. The correlation between the spatial distribution of grassland fires and the land use degree in 2000, 2005 and 2010 was high, with R² values of 0.686, 0.716, 0.633, respectively (p < 0.01). These results highlight the importance of the relationship between land use and grassland fire occurrence in the northeastern Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. This study provides significance for local fire management and prevention.

  19. Genotypic Diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Clinical Isolates in the Multiethnic Area of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Li, Junlian; Liu, Jiao; Lian, Lulu; Lu, Bing; Yu, Qin; Zhang, Jingrui; Qi, Yingcheng

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. We studied the genetic diversity of clinical isolates from patients with tuberculosis in the multiethnic area of Xinjiang autonomous region in China. A total of 311 clinical M. tuberculosis isolates were collected in 2006 and 2011 and genotyped by two genotyping methods. All isolates were grouped into 68 distinct spoligotypes using the spoligotyping method. The Beijing family was dominant, followed by T1 and CAS. MIRU-VNTR results showed that a total of 195 different VNTR types were identified. Ten of the 15 loci were highly or moderately discriminant according to their HGDI scores, and 13 loci had good discriminatory power in non-Beijing family strains, whereas only two loci had good discriminatory power in Beijing family strains. Chi-square tests demonstrated that there were no correlations between four characteristics (sex, age, type of case, and treatment history) and the Beijing family. In summary, Beijing family strains were predominant in Xinjiang, and the VNTR-15China locus-set was suitable for genotyping all Xinjiang strains, but not for the Beijing family strains. Thus, these data suggested that different genotype distributions may exist in different regions; MLVA locus-sets should be adjusted accordingly, with newly added loci to increase resolution if necessary. PMID:28337447

  20. Regional risk assessment for point source pollution based on a water quality model of the Taipu River, China.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hong; Qian, Xin; Yin, Hong; Gao, Hailong; Wang, Yulei

    2015-02-01

    Point source pollution is one of the main threats to regional environmental health. Based on a water quality model, a methodology to assess the regional risk of point source pollution is proposed. The assessment procedure includes five parts: (1) identifying risk source units and estimating source emissions using Monte Carlo algorithms; (2) observing hydrological and water quality data of the assessed area, and evaluating the selected water quality model; (3) screening out the assessment endpoints and analyzing receptor vulnerability with the Choquet fuzzy integral algorithm; (4) using the water quality model introduced in the second step to predict pollutant concentrations for various source emission scenarios and analyzing hazards of risk sources; and finally, (5) using the source hazard values and receptor vulnerability scores to estimate overall regional risk. The proposed method, based on the Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP), was applied in the region of the Taipu River, which is in the Taihu Basin, China. Results of source hazard and receptor vulnerability analysis allowed us to describe aquatic ecological, human health, and socioeconomic risks individually, and also integrated risks in the Taipu region, from a series of risk curves. Risk contributions of sources to receptors were ranked, and the spatial distribution of risk levels was presented. By changing the input conditions, we were able to estimate risks for a range of scenarios. Thus, the proposed procedure may also be used by decisionmakers for long-term dynamic risk prediction.

  1. How heterogeneous coseismic slip affects regional probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment: A case study in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Linlin; Switzer, Adam D.; Chan, Chung-Han; Wang, Yu; Weiss, Robert; Qiu, Qiang

    2016-08-01

    Rupture complexity, typically in the form of heterogeneous slip distribution pattern, significantly affects the local tsunami wave field. However, the effect of rupture complexity is not commonly considered in any form of tsunami hazard assessment. Taking rupture complexity into account significantly increases the computational load, particularly in regional-scaled probabilistic tsunami hazard assessments (PTHAs) that usually require a large number of simulations based on synthetic scenarios. In this study, we investigate how the heterogeneous slip distribution affects the regional-scaled PTHA by taking the South China Sea (SCS) as an example. By doing this, we update PTHA for the SCS by incorporating the best available information of seismic tsunamigenic sources along the Manila megathrust. We integrate a stochastic source model into a Monte Carlo-type simulation, in which a broad range of slip distribution patterns is generated for large numbers of synthetic earthquake events. Green's function technique is employed to efficiently calculate the nearshore tsunami wave amplitude along the SCS coastlines. Our result suggests that for a relatively small and confined region like the SCS, the commonly used approach based on the uniform slip model significantly underestimates tsunami hazard not only in the near-source region like west Luzon, as expected, but also in the relative far field, such as south China and central Vietnam. Additionally, our sensitivity test of the patch size effects suggests that large patch size is unable to adequately resolve the details of heterogeneous seafloor deformation, and such approaches considerably underestimate the potential tsunami hazard for the SCS coasts.

  2. Immune factors and fatty acid composition in human milk from river/lake, coastal and inland regions of China.

    PubMed

    Urwin, Heidi J; Zhang, Jian; Gao, Yixiong; Wang, Chunrong; Li, Lixiang; Song, Pengkun; Man, Qingqing; Meng, Liping; Frøyland, Livar; Miles, Elizabeth A; Calder, Philip C; Yaqoob, Parveen

    2013-06-01

    Breast milk fatty acid composition may be affected by the maternal diet during gestation and lactation. The influence of dietary and breastmilk fatty acids on breast milk immune factors is poorly defined. We determined the fatty acid composition and immune factor concentrations of breast milk from women residing in river/lake, coastal and inland regions of China, which differ in their consumption of lean fish and oily fish. Breast milk samples were collected on days 3–5 (colostrum), 14 and 28 post-partum (PP) and analysed for soluble CD14 (sCD14), transforming growth factor (TGF)-b1, TGF-b2, secretory IgA (sIgA) and fatty acids. The fatty acid composition of breast milk differed between the regions and with time PP. The concentrations of all four immune factors in breast milk decreased over time, with sCD14, sIgA and TGF-b1 being highest in the colostrum in the river and lake region. Breast milk DHA and arachidonic acid (AA) were positively associated, and g-linolenic acid and EPA negatively associated, with the concentrations of each of the four immune factors. In conclusion, breast milk fatty acids and immune factors differ between the regions in China characterised by different patterns of fish consumption and change during the course of lactation. A higher breast milk DHA and AA concentration is associated with higher concentrations of immune factors in breast milk, suggesting a role for these fatty acids in promoting gastrointestinal and immune maturation of the infant.

  3. Regional Analysis of Building Distributed Energy Costs and CO2 Abatement: A U.S. - China Comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Mendes, Goncalo; Feng, Wei; Stadler, Michael; Steinbach, Jan; Lai, Judy; Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Ding, Yan; Zhao, Jing; Tian, Zhe; Zhu, Neng

    2014-04-09

    The following paper conducts a regional analysis of the U.S. and Chinese buildings? potential for adopting Distributed Energy Resources (DER). The expected economics of DER in 2020-2025 is modeled for a commercial and a multi-family residential building in different climate zones. The optimal building energy economic performance is calculated using the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER CAM) which minimizes building energy costs for a typical reference year of operation. Several DER such as combined heat and power (CHP) units, photovoltaics, and battery storage are considered. The results indicate DER have economic and environmental competitiveness potential, especially for commercial buildings in hot and cold climates of both countries. In the U.S., the average expected energy cost savings in commercial buildings from DER CAM?s suggested investments is 17percent, while in Chinese buildings is 12percent. The electricity tariffs structure and prices along with the cost of natural gas, represent important factors in determining adoption of DER, more so than climate. High energy pricing spark spreads lead to increased economic attractiveness of DER. The average emissions reduction in commercial buildings is 19percent in the U.S. as a result of significant investments in PV, whereas in China, it is 20percent and driven by investments in CHP. Keywords: Building Modeling and Simulation, Distributed Energy Resources (DER), Energy Efficiency, Combined Heat and Power (CHP), CO2 emissions 1. Introduction The transition from a centralized and fossil-based energy paradigm towards the decentralization of energy supply and distribution has been a major subject of research over the past two decades. Various concerns have brought the traditional model into question; namely its environmental footprint, its structural inflexibility and inefficiency, and more recently, its inability to maintain acceptable reliability of supply. Under such a troubled setting

  4. Lithospheric stress and uppermantle dynamics in mainland China due to mantle flow based on combination of global- and regional-scale seismic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Tao

    2016-12-01

    In order to explore the importance of mantle flow to lithospheric stress field in mainland China, seismic tomography_based mantle flow models are used to predict the most compressive principal horizontal stress directions (MCPHSDs). Considered that regional-scale seismic tomography models have higher horizontal resolution to map the mantle structure, while global-scale models can present the information out of the imaging domains of regional-scale models although this information has relatively poor horizontal resolution, the combined global- and regional-scale seismic tomography_based mantle flow models (hereafter called combined models) are mainly used in this paper. After the comparison of the observed and our predicted MCPHSDs, it is suggested that (1) a combined model, compared with a only global-scale seismic tomography_based model, could improve greatly the predictions in some regions of mainland China such as Sichuan-Yunnan, South China and North China blocks; (2) the mantle flow model driven by both plate motions and mantle density heterogeneity (hereafter called plate-density-driven model), compared with the flow model driven only by mantle density heterogeneity (hereafter called density-driven model), has much better predictions in the eastern China; (3) the presence of density variations above 250 km could better dramatically the predictions in the eastern China; and (4) sublithospheric mantle flow causes the lithosphere under compression in mainland China, and plays an important role in forming the lithospheric stress in Alashan, Qaidam, western Tibetan and eastern Tarim blocks as well as the east of the eastern China.

  5. Regional c-Fos and FosB/ΔFosB expression associated with chronic methamphetamine self-administration and methamphetamine-seeking behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Cornish, J L; Hunt, G E; Robins, L; McGregor, I S

    2012-03-29

    The regional expression of the transcription factors c-Fos and FosB/ΔFosB was examined in rats given acute exposure to intravenous methamphetamine (METH) or repeated intravenous METH self-administration. One group of rats self-administered METH via lever pressing in 2 h sessions every day for 3 weeks and on a final test day received self-administered METH as usual. A second group with the same METH self-administration history received saline infusions on the test day, to induce drug-seeking behavior. Other rats were trained with infusions of intravenous saline that were yoked to the passive delivery of METH in the other two groups. On test day, half of these yoked rats received passive METH infusions for the first time, whereas the others received saline as usual. The results showed that acute METH produced a characteristic signature of Fos expression with elevations in striatal, cortical, and extended amygdala regions. Importantly, rats with a 3-week history of METH self-administration displayed similar regional Fos expression to rats receiving METH for the first time. Rats seeking, but not receiving, METH on the test day had augmented Fos in the lateral hypothalamus, septum, and vertical limb of the diagonal band of Broca, suggesting a primary role for these regions in METH-seeking behavior. Both acute and chronic METH activated orexin-positive cells in the perifornical area of the hypothalamus. FosB/ΔFosB was elevated in the lateral hypothalamus, posterior ventral tegmental area, central amygdala, and dorsal raphe of all the rats with a history of METH self-administration. This occurred regardless of whether they received METH on test day, suggesting presence of the long-lived FosB isoform, ΔFosB. Overall, these results show persistent upregulated regional brain Fos and FosB/ΔFosB expression with chronic METH self-administration and indicate a role for the lateral hypothalamus and lateral septum in METH-seeking behavior.

  6. Cost-Effectiveness of the ‘One4All’ HIV Linkage Intervention in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China

    PubMed Central

    Min, Jeong Eun; Gu, Diane; Montaner, Julio S. G.; Wu, Zunyou; Nosyk, Bohdan

    2016-01-01

    Background In Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China, an estimated 80% of newly-identified antiretroviral therapy (ART)-eligible patients are not engaged in ART. Delayed ART uptake ultimately translates into high rates of HIV morbidity, mortality, and transmission. To enhance HIV testing receipt and subsequent treatment uptake in Guangxi, the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) executed a cluster-randomized trial to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a streamlined HIV testing algorithm (the One4All intervention) in 12 county-level hospitals. Objective To determine the incremental cost-effectiveness of the One4All intervention delivered at county hospitals in Guangxi, China, compared to the current standard of care (SOC). Perspective Health System. Time Horizon 1-, 5-and 25-years. Methods We adapted a dynamic, compartmental HIV transmission model to simulate HIV transmission and progression in Guangxi, China and identify the economic impact and health benefits of implementing the One4All intervention in all Guangxi hospitals. The One4All intervention algorithm entails rapid point-of-care HIV screening, CD4 and viral load testing of individuals presenting for HIV screening, with same-day results and linkage to counselling. We populated the model with data from the One4All trial (CTN-0056), China CDC HIV registry and published reports. Model outcomes were HIV incidence, mortality, costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of the One4All intervention compared to SOC. Results The One4All testing intervention was more costly than SOC (CNY 2,182 vs. CNY 846), but facilitated earlier ART access, resulting in delayed disease progression and mortality. Over a 25-year time horizon, we estimated that introducing One4All in Guangxi would result in 802 averted HIV cases and 1629 averted deaths at an ICER of CNY 11,678 per QALY gained. Sensitivity analysis revealed that One4All remained

  7. Volatile organic compounds from vegetation in southern Yunnan Province, China: Emission rates and some potential regional implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geron, Chris; Owen, Sue; Guenther, Alex; Greenberg, Jim; Rasmussen, Rei; Hui Bai, Jian; Li, Qing-Jun; Baker, Brad

    Little information is currently available regarding emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in southern Asia. To address the need for BVOC emission estimates in regional atmospheric chemistry simulations, 95 common plant species were screened for emissions of BVOC in and near the Xishuangbanna Tropical Biological Gardens in southern Yunnan Province, Peoples' Republic of China in February 2003. In situ measurements with leaf cuvettes and branch bag enclosures were used in combination with portable gas chromatography, flame ionization, photoionization, and mass spectral detection to identify and quantify BVOC emissions. Forty-four of the species examined emitted isoprene at rates exceeding 20 μg C g -1 (leaf dry weight) h -1. An emphasis was placed on the genus Ficus, which is important in the region and occupies a wide range of ecological niches. Several species in the footprint of a nearby flux tower were also examined. Several palm species and an abundant fern ( Cyclosorus parasiticus) emitted substantial amounts of isoprene, and probably accounted for observed daytime mean isoprene fluxes from the understory of a Hevea brasiliensis plantation of 1.0 and 0.15 mg C m -2 h -1 during the wet and dry seasons, respectively. These measurements verify that both the forest floor and canopy in this region can be sources of isoprene. Monoterpene emissions exceeded 1.0 μg-C g -1 (leaf dry weight) h -1 from only 4 of 38 species surveyed, including some Ficus species and H. brasiliensis. However most of the trees of the latter species were sparsely foliated due to dry season senescence, and emission factors are approximately an order of magnitude lower than those reported during the wet season. BVOC emission rates and physiology of many species are impacted by reduced moisture availability, especially Mangifera indica. South Asia is a region undergoing rapid landuse change and forest plantation establishment, with large increases in area of high BVOC

  8. Seasonal variation in blood pressure and its relationship with outdoor temperature in 10 diverse regions of China: the China Kadoorie Biobank

    PubMed Central

    LEWINGTON, Sarah; LI, LiMing; SHERLIKER, Paul; GUO, Yu; MILLWOOD, Iona; BIAN, Zheng; WHITLOCK, Gary; YANG, Ling; COLLINS, Rory; CHEN, Junshi; WU, Xianping; WANG, Shaojie; HU, Yihe; JIANG, Li; YANG, Liqiu; LACEY, Ben; PETO, Richard; CHEN, Zhengming

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Mean blood pressure varies moderately with outdoor air temperature in many Western populations. Substantial uncertainty exists, however, about the strength of the relationship in other populations, and the relevance to it of age, adiposity, medical treatment, climate and housing conditions. Methods To investigate the relationship of blood pressure with season and outdoor temperature, we analysed cross-sectional data from the China Kadoorie Biobank study of 506 673 adults aged 30-79 recruited from ten diverse urban and rural regions in China. Analyses related mean blood pressure – overall and in various subgroups – to mean local outdoor temperature. Results The mean difference in systolic blood pressure (SBP) between summer (June-August) and winter (December-February) was 10 mmHg overall, and was more extreme, on average, in rural than in urban areas (12 vs. 8 mmHg; p for interaction<0.0001). Above 5°C, SBP was strongly inversely associated with outdoor temperature in all ten areas studied, with 5.7 (SE 0.04) mmHg higher SBP per 10°C lower outdoor temperature. The association was stronger in older people and in those with lower body mass index. At lower temperatures there was no evidence of an association among participants who reported having home central heating. Conclusions Blood pressure was strongly inversely associated with outdoor temperature in Chinese adults across a range of climatic conditions, although access to home central heating appeared to remove much of the association during the winter months. Seasonal variation in blood pressure should be considered in the clinical management of hypertension. PMID:22688260

  9. Soil organic carbon of an intensively reclaimed region in China: Current status and carbon sequestration potential.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xunfei; Zhan, Yu; Wang, Fei; Ma, Wanzhu; Ren, Zhouqiao; Chen, Xiaojia; Qin, Fangjin; Long, Wenli; Zhu, Zhenling; Lv, Xiaonan

    2016-09-15

    Land reclamation has been highly intensive in China, resulting in a large amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) loss to the atmosphere. Evaluating the factors which drive SOC dynamics and carbon sequestration potential in reclaimed land is critical for improving soil fertility and mitigating global warming. This study aims to determine the current status and factors important to the SOC density in a typical reclaimed land located in Eastern China, where land reclamation has been undergoing for centuries. A total of 4746 topsoil samples were collected from 2007 to 2010. The SOC density of the reclaimed land (3.18±0.05kgCm(-2); mean±standard error) is significantly lower than that of the adjacent non-reclaimed land (5.71±0.04kgCm(-2)) (p<0.05). A Random Forest model is developed and it captures the relationships between the SOC density and the environmental/anthropogenic factors (R(2)=0.59). The soil pH, land use, and elevation are the most important factors for determining SOC dynamics. In contrast, the effect of the reclamation age on the SOC density is negligible, where SOC content in the land reclaimed during years 1047-1724 is as low as that reclaimed during years 1945-2004. The scenario analysis results indicate that the carbon sequestration potential of the reclaimed lands may achieve a maximum of 5.80±1.81kgCO2m(-2) (mean±SD) when dryland is converted to flooded land with vegetable-rice cropping system and soil pH of ~5.9. Note that in some scenarios the methane emission substantially offsets the carbon sequestration potential, especially for continuous rice cropping system. With the optimal setting for carbon sequestration, it is estimated that the dryland reclaimed in the last 50years in China is able to sequester 0.12milliontons CO2 equivalent per year.

  10. An analysis of chemical composition of different rain types in `Minnan Golden Triangle' region in the southeastern coast of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shaocai; Gao, Chentie; Cheng, Zhemian; Cheng, Xiaojian; Cheng, Shuentian; Xiao, Jian; Ye, Wenxian

    The pollutants from anthropogenic activities can affect precipitation composition and subsequently affect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we reported the results from the simultaneous collection and chemical analysis (including F -, Cl -, NO 3-, SO 42-, HCOO -, CH 3COO -, Na +, NH 4+, K +, Ca 2+, Mg 2+, pH) of spring rain, mold rain and typhoon rain during 1990 and 1991 in the region of Xiamen, Quanzhou, Zhangzhou and Tongan, which is called `Minnan Golden Triangle' and is a rapidly growing urban area in the southeastern Coast of China. It was found that the average pHs of spring rain, mold rain and typhoon rain in 1990 in this region were 4.51, 4.93 and 5.14, respectively. Obviously, the spring rain was the most acidic in the three types of rains in this region. The average concentrations of formic and acetic acids in Xiamen mold rain were 5.67 and 2.91 μeq/l, respectively, and the average maximum contribution of organic acids to free acidity was in the range of 2.8% to 100% (average 66.3%). The regression equations between acidity and ions showed that SO 42, NO 3-, NH 4+ and organic acids (formic and acetic) made the major contribution to the precipitation acidity in this region. The chemical characteristics of different precipitation types in this region indicated that spring rain had the character of continental origin, but the mold rain and typhoon rain had more effects from ocean. Since spring rain, mold rain, and typhoon rain were caused by precipitation cloud approaching to this region from different directions and had different acidity, and the average pH of cloud rainwater on the mountain site was 4.90, it is suggested that acid rain in this region might be mainly caused by long-range transport of pollutants from the southern Chinese mainland, and the local pollution sources were less as significant.

  11. Relationships between regional economic sectors and water use in a water-scarce area in China: A quantitative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weiping; Gao, Lei; Liu, Pin; Hailu, Atakelty

    2014-07-01

    Northern China has been facing severe water scarcity as a result of vigorous economic growth, population expansion and changing lifestyles. A typical case is Shandong province whose water resources per capita is approximately only a sixth of the national average and a twentieth of the global average. It is useful to assess the implications of the province’s growth and trade patterns for water use and water conservation strategies. This study quantitatively analyses relationships between regional economic sectors and water use in Shandong using an input-output model for virtual water resources. The changes in key indicators for 1997-2007 are tracked and the effects of water-saving policies on these changes are examined. The results highlight the benefits of applying a virtual water trade analysis on a water-scarce region where water resources exhibit highly heterogeneous temporal and geographical distributions. The net export of virtual water in Shandong was initially large, but this declined over the years and the province has recently become a net importer. Between 1997 and 2002, water use in most sectors increased due to rapid urbanisation and industrialisation. Since then, water use in all Shandong economic sectors exhibit a downward trend despite continued increases in goods and services net exports, a trend which can be attributed to the vigorous implementation of water-saving policies and measures, especially water use quotas. Economic sectors consume water directly and indirectly and understanding the pattern of virtual water trade implied by sectoral relationships is important for managing water scarcity problems. This study fills the knowledge gap in the existing literature created by the lack of case studies that dynamically assess virtual water trade and analyse the effects of water-saving policies and measures. The study draws policy recommendations that are relevant for future water planning in Shandong and other regions in northern China.

  12. Genetic variation between Schistosoma japonicum lineages from lake and mountainous regions in China revealed by resequencing whole genomes.

    PubMed

    Yin, Mingbo; Liu, Xiao; Xu, Bin; Huang, Jian; Zheng, Qi; Yang, Zhong; Feng, Zheng; Han, Ze-Guang; Hu, Wei

    2016-09-01

    Schistosoma infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Schistosomiasis japonica is endemic in mainland China along the Yangtze River, typically distributed in two geographical categories of lake and mountainous regions. Study on schistosome genetic diversity is of interest in respect of understanding parasite biology and transmission, and formulating control strategy. Certain genetic variations may be associated with adaptations to different ecological habitats. The aim of this study is to gain insight into Schistosoma japonicum genetic variation, evolutionary origin and associated causes of different geographic lineages through examining homozygous Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) based on resequenced genome data. We collected S. japonicum samples from four sites, three in the lake regions (LR) of mid-east (Guichi and Tonglin in Anhui province, Laogang in Hunan province) and one in mountainous region (MR) (Xichang in Sichuan province) of south-west of China, resequenced their genomes using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology, and made use of the available database of S. japonicum draft genomic sequence as a reference in genome mapping. A total of 14,575 SNPs from 2059 genes were identified in the four lineages. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed significant genetic variation exhibited between the different geographical lineages, and further revealed that the MR Xichang lineage is phylogenetically closer to LR Guich lineage than to other two LR lineages, and the MR lineage might be evolved from LR lineages. More than two thirds of detected SNPs were nonsynonymous; functional annotation of the SNP-containing genes showed that they are involved mainly in biological processes such as signaling and response to stimuli. Notably, unique nonsynonymous SNP variations were detected in 66 genes of MR lineage, inferring possible genetic adaption to mountainous ecological condition.

  13. Impacts of Atmospheric Mercury Deposition on Human Multimedia Exposure: Projection from Observations in the Pearl River Delta Region, South China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Minjuan; Deng, Sixin; Dong, Hanying; Dai, Wei; Pang, Jiongming; Wang, Xuemei

    2016-10-04

    A preliminary projection was performed to determine human multimedia exposure to mercury (Hg) based on deposition flux observations and to identify the impacts of atmospheric Hg deposition in Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, South China. The Monte Carlo technique was used to propagate the variability throughout the projection. The regional specific probability density functions (PDFs) of the studied parameters were regressed from the provincial/national published data, except when the data were deficient. The atmospheric Hg deposition flux ranged from 43.70 to 321.19 μg/m(2)/year and did not significantly contribute to Hg accumulation in the regional topsoil, freshwater bodies, and most food items except fish. The consumption of fish and milk/dairy products was the major contributor to the total exposure for adults (>18 years)/6- to 12-year children and 0- to 6-year children, respectively. The projected concentrations and exposure levels were the results combining MeHg and inorganic Hg (Hg(2+)). Under the 30-year projection, the probability of risks caused by Hg deposition (combining Hg(2+) and MeHg) was the highest for 0- to 6-year children, followed by 6- to 12-year children and adults. The ground effects driven by precipitation had a significantly greater effect relative to the mass transport effects in this region.

  14. Agricultural water supply/demand changes under projected future climate change in the arid region of northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ying; Shen, Yanjun

    2016-09-01

    The water resources in the arid region of northwestern China, which are impacted by climate change, tend to be more unstable, and the environment and ecosystems will suffer from severe water shortage. In this paper, potential future climate trends were predicted based on CMIP5 simulations in this region. The water availability and agricultural water demand under future climate change scenarios were estimated. Impacted by increases in temperature, the irrigation water demand will increase by 4.27-6.15 billion m3 in this region over the next 60 years, compared to the demand of 32.75 billion m3 during 1971-2000. However, the annual runoff will only increase by 4.8-8.5 billion m3, which is equivalent to or even less than the increased irrigation water demand. In fact, the increased demand for industrial, domestic and ecological water were not considered here. Thus, the water supply/demand contradiction will result in more severe water shortages in the future. According to a comparison with simulated irrigation water demand under three adaptation strategy scenarios, we should take effective measures such as improving the efficiency of irrigation water utilization, reducing crop planting areas and adjusting crop planting structures to alleviate the impacts of future climate changes and human activities on the water supply and water use in this region.

  15. Development of Relative Risk Model for Regional Groundwater Risk Assessment: A Case Study in the Lower Liaohe River Plain, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xianbo; Zuo, Rui; Teng, Yanguo; Wang, Jinsheng; Wang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Increasing pressure on water supply worldwide, especially in arid areas, has resulted in groundwater overexploitation and contamination, and subsequent deterioration of the groundwater quality and threats to public health. Environmental risk assessment of regional groundwater is an important tool for groundwater protection. This study presents a new approach for assessing the environmental risk assessment of regional groundwater. It was carried out with a relative risk model (RRM) coupled with a series of indices, such as a groundwater vulnerability index, which includes receptor analysis, risk source analysis, risk exposure and hazard analysis, risk characterization, and management of groundwater. The risk map is a product of the probability of environmental contamination and impact. The reliability of the RRM was verified using Monte Carlo analysis. This approach was applied to the lower Liaohe River Plain (LLRP), northeastern China, which covers 23604 km2. A spatial analysis tool within GIS which was used to interpolate and manipulate the data to develop environmental risk maps of regional groundwater, divided the level of risk from high to low into five ranks (V, IV, III, II, I). The results indicate that areas of relative risk rank (RRR) V cover 2324 km2, covering 9.8% of the area; RRR IV covers 3986 km2, accounting for 16.9% of the area. It is a new and appropriate method for regional groundwater resource management and land use planning, and is a rapid and effective tool for improving strategic decision making to protect groundwater and reduce environmental risk. PMID:26020518

  16. Development of relative risk model for regional groundwater risk assessment: a case study in the lower Liaohe River Plain, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianbo; Zuo, Rui; Teng, Yanguo; Wang, Jinsheng; Wang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Increasing pressure on water supply worldwide, especially in arid areas, has resulted in groundwater overexploitation and contamination, and subsequent deterioration of the groundwater quality and threats to public health. Environmental risk assessment of regional groundwater is an important tool for groundwater protection. This study presents a new approach for assessing the environmental risk assessment of regional groundwater. It was carried out with a relative risk model (RRM) coupled with a series of indices, such as a groundwater vulnerability index, which includes receptor analysis, risk source analysis, risk exposure and hazard analysis, risk characterization, and management of groundwater. The risk map is a product of the probability of environmental contamination and impact. The reliability of the RRM was verified using Monte Carlo analysis. This approach was applied to the lower Liaohe River Plain (LLRP), northeastern China, which covers 23604 km2. A spatial analysis tool within GIS which was used to interpolate and manipulate the data to develop environmental risk maps of regional groundwater, divided the level of risk from high to low into five ranks (V, IV, III, II, I). The results indicate that areas of relative risk rank (RRR) V cover 2324 km2, covering 9.8% of the area; RRR IV covers 3986 km2, accounting for 16.9% of the area. It is a new and appropriate method for regional groundwater resource management and land use planning, and is a rapid and effective tool for improving strategic decision making to protect groundwater and reduce environmental risk.

  17. City-specific vehicle emission control strategies to achieve stringent emission reduction targets in China's Yangtze River Delta region.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Zhao, Bin; Wu, Xiaomeng; Shu, Jiawei; Hao, Jiming

    2017-01-01

    The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region is one of the most prosperous and densely populated regions in China and is facing tremendous pressure to mitigate vehicle emissions and improve air quality. Our assessment has revealed that mitigating vehicle emissions of NOx would be more difficult than reducing the emissions of other major vehicular pollutants (e.g., CO, HC and PM2.5) in the YRD region. Even in Shanghai, where the emission control implemented are more stringent than in Jiangsu and Zhejiang, we observed little to no reduction in NOx emissions from 2000 to 2010. Emission-reduction targets for HC, NOx and PM2.5 are determined using a response surface modeling tool for better air quality. We design city-specific emission control strategies for three vehicle-populated cities in the YRD region: Shanghai and Nanjing and Wuxi in Jiangsu. Our results indicate that even if stringent emission control consisting of the Euro 6/VI standards, the limitation of vehicle population and usage, and the scrappage of older vehicles is applied, Nanjing and Wuxi will not be able to meet the NOx emissions target by 2020. Therefore, additional control measures are proposed for Nanjing and Wuxi to further mitigate NOx emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles.

  18. Monitoring recent trends in the area of aeolian desertified land using Landsat images in China's Xinjiang region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; Yan, C. Z.; Song, X.; Xie, J. L.

    2012-03-01

    China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region is located in a region with an arid climate, and suffers from severe aeolian desertification. Aeolian desertified land (ADL) is widely distributed in the region and strongly constrains sustainable socioeconomic development. In this study, we used Landsat MSS, TM, and ETM images from 1975, 1990, 2000, and 2010 to classify the intensity of aeolian desertification in four categories (slight, moderate, severe, and extremely severe). Using these data, we developed an ADL database and use it to discuss the evolution of ADL during the study period, along with the desertification and restoration processes and the causes of the desertification. We found 47,833 km2 of ADL in 2010, most of which (more than 57%) was rated as extremely severe or severe. The area of ADL increased by 2228 km2 between 1975 and 1990 (by 4.67%). In contrast, some areas of ADL have been restored, so that the area of ADL has decreased since 1990: by 930 km2 from 1990 to 2000 (1.86%) and by 1223 km2 from 2000 to 2010 (2.49%). Based on the analysis of effects of climate changes and human activities in the region, aeolian desertification was principally driven by human activities in this area; climatic variations had less effect on the area of severe desertification. And the driving force need for more detailed quantitative analysis with more frequent remotely sensed data.

  19. Platform margins, reef facies, and microbial carbonates; a comparison of Devonian reef complexes in the Canning Basin, Western Australia, and the Guilin region, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jian-Wei; Webb, Gregory E.; Jell, John S.

    2008-05-01

    Devonian reef complexes were well developed in Western Australia and South China, but no detailed direct comparison has been made between reef building in the two regions. The regions differ in several respects, including tectonic, stratigraphic and palaeoceanographic-palaeogeographic settings, and the reef building styles reflect minor differences in reef builders and reef facies. Similarities and differences between the two reef complexes provide insights into the characteristics of platform margins, reef facies and microbial carbonates of both regions. Here we present a comparison of platform margin types from different stratigraphic positions in the Late Devonian reef complex of the Canning Basin, Western Australia and Middle and Late Devonian margin to marginal slope successions in Guilin, South China. Comparisons are integrated into a review of the reefal stratigraphy of both regions. Reef facies, reef complex architecture, temporal reef builder associations, 2nd order stratigraphy and platform cyclicity in the two regions were generally similar where the successions overlap temporally. However, carbonate deposition began earlier in South China. Carbonate complexes were also more widespread in South China and represent a thicker succession overall. Platforms in the Canning Basin grew directly on Precambrian crystalline basement or early Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks, but in South China, carbonate complexes developed conformably on older Devonian siliciclastic strata. Pre-Frasnian reef facies in South China had more abundant skeletal frameworks than in Canning Basin reefs of equivalent age, and Famennian shoaling margins containing various microbial reefs may have been more common and probably more diverse in South China. However, Late Devonian platform margin types have been documented more completely in the Canning Basin. Deep intra-platform troughs (deep depressions containing non-carbonate pelagic sediments — Nandan-type successions) that developed along

  20. Model study of the impact of biogenic emission on regional ozone and the effectiveness of emission reduction scenarios over eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhiwei; Ueda, Hiromasa; Matsuda, Kazuhide

    2005-02-01

    The impact of biogenic emission on regional ozone and emission control scenarios has been numerically studied through a series of sensitivity model simulations. A typical episode with elevated ozone over eastern China from 12 to 16 August 2001 was investigated by using a tropospheric chemistry and transport model (TCTM), driven by a non-hydrostatic mesoscale model MM5. The meteorological conditions during this period were characterized by high-pressure systems associated with low wind speeds, high temperatures and clear skies. Afternoon ozone concentrations exceeding 80 parts per billion (ppb) occurred over broad areas of eastern China. There is a generally good agreement between simulation and observation, indicating that the TCTM is able to represent major physical and chemical processes of tropospheric ozone and well reproduce the diurnal and day-to-day variability associated with synoptic conditions. The sensitivity analysis reveals a significant influence of biogenic hydrocarbons on regional ozone. Ozone levels are apparently enhanced by biogenic emission over large areas of eastern China. The largest increase up to 30 ppb in daytime average concentration is found in portions of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, Yangtze Delta and northeast China. However, the response of ozone to biogenic emission varies spatially, showing more sensitivity in polluted areas than that in clean rural areas. The regimes limited by nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic carbon (VOC) in eastern China are further investigated with respect to biogenic emission. Ozone shows a clear tendency to shift from VOC limitation to NOx limitation as it moves from urban and industrial areas to rural areas. Most of the rural areas in southern China tend to be NOx limited, whereas most of the northern parts of China appear to be VOC limited. By considering biogenic emission, ozone tends to become more NOx limited and less VOC limited, both in extent and intensity, over eastern china

  1. The Regional Climate Effects of Replacing Farmland and Re-greening the Desertification Lands with Forest or Grass in West China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Weilai; Wang, Hanjie

    2003-01-01

    The West Development Policy being implemented in China causes significant land use and land cover (LULC) changes in West China, of which the two most important types of LULC change are replacing farmland and re-greening the desertification land with forest or grass. This paper modifies the prevailing regional climate model (RCM) by updating its lower boundary conditions with the up-to-date satellite database of the Global Land Cover Characteristics Database (GLCCD) created by the United States Geological Survey and the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. The modified RCM is used to simulate the possible regional climate changes due to the LULC variations. The preliminary results can be summarized as that the two main types of LULC variation, replacing farmland and greening the desertification lands with forest or grass in west China, will affect the regional climate mostly in northwest and north China, where the surface temperature will decrease and the precipitation will increase. The regional climate adjustments in South, Southwest China and on the Tibet Plateau are uncertain.

  2. Maize dwarf mosaic disease in different regions of China is caused by Sugarcane mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Jiang, J X; Zhou, X P

    2002-12-01

    Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) was detected in all 62 maize samples collected from eight maize-growing provinces in China showing dwarf mosaic symptoms by immunocapture reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV), Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV) and Johnsongrass mosaic virus (JGMV), however, were not detected in any of the samples by RT-PCR. Eleven cDNA fragments of approximately 0.8 kilobases covering most of the coat protein (CP) gene of SCMV were sequenced and sequence analysis indicates that these eleven isolates share 98.1 to 100 % identity at the amino acid level. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis of the CP genes from the eleven Chinese isolates as well as 21 SCMV subgroup virus isolates indicate that the eleven Chinese virus isolates were closely related to SCMV with 97.0 to 98.1 % sequence identity at the amino acid level, while relatively lower sequence identity was found with MDWV, SrMV or JGMV. The results indicate that the Chinese isolates are members of the SCMV species, and thus, SCMV can be considered as the most common and important potyvirus infecting maize in China.

  3. Regional distribution of halogenated organophosphate flame retardants in seawater samples from three coastal cities in China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Mengyang; Li, Jun; Zhang, Beibei; Cui, Qinglan; Wei, Si; Yu, Hongxia

    2014-09-15

    Thirteen samples of seawater were collected from Yellow Sea and East China Sea near Qingdao, Lianyungang, and Xiamen, China. They were analyzed for halogenated organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs). The compounds selected for detection were Tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), Tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCPP), Tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP), and Tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (TDBPP). The total concentrations ranged from 91.87 to 1392 ng/L and the mean concentrations of these four chemicals were 134.44, 84.12, 109.28, and 96.70 ng/L, respectively. TCEP exhibited the highest concentrations, although concentrations of TCPP and TDCPP were also fairly high in Lianyungang and Xiamen. Generally, Lianyungang was the most heavily polluted district, with very high concentrations of TCEP at LYG-2 (550.54 ng/L) and LYG-4 (617.92 ng/L). The main sources of halogenated OPFRs were municipal and industrial effluents of wastewater treatment plants in the nearby economic and industrial zones.

  4. Temporal variation and regional transfer of heavy metals in the Pearl (Zhujiang) River, China.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Gengchong; Li, Ying; Tong, Yindong; Yang, Lei; Zhu, Yan; Zhang, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Heavy metals are highly persistent in water and have a particular significance in ecotoxicology. Heavy metals loading from the Pearl River are likely to cause significant impacts on the environment in the South China Sea and the West Pacific. In this study, using monthly monitoring data from a water quality monitoring campaign during 2006-2012, the temporal variation and spatial transfer of six heavy metals (lead (Pb), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), and mercury (Hg)) in the Pearl River were analyzed, and the heavy metal fluxes into the sea were calculated. During this period, the annual heavy metal loads discharged from the Pearl River into the South China Sea were 5.8 (Hg), 471.7 (Pb), 1524.6 (Cu), 3819.6 (Zn), 43.9 (Cd), and 621.9 (As) tons, respectively. The metal fluxes showed a seasonal variation with the maximum fluxes occurring from June to July. There is a close association between metal fluxes and runoff. The analysis of the heavy metal transfer from the upstream to the downstream revealed that the transfer from the upstream accounted for a major portion of the heavy metals in the Pearl River Delta. Therefore, earlier industry relocation efforts in the Pearl River watershed may have limited effect on the water quality improvement in surrounding areas. It is suggested that watershed-based pollution control measures focusing on wastewater discharge in both upstream and downstream areas should be developed and implemented in the future.

  5. Assessment of Regional Sustainability Based on Modified Ecological Footprint: A Case Study of Suzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Haizhen; Li, Aimei; Ye, Tian

    2010-11-01

    Ecological Footprint (EF) is an effective method to measure quantitatively sustainable development. However original EF analysis of sustainability at the regional scale provides easily misinterpreted information, which could not reflect truly the pressure of the regional population on the local ecosystem due to the regional import and export. A regional ecosystem could support the local population consumption entirely depending on import, while shift the ecological pressure to other regions and the local ecosystems is thus well preserved. To assess sustainability of a region exactly, two concepts of the consumptive EF and productive EF were put forward. As we acknowledged that original EF only measures human demand for biological goods and services, and does not capture other aspects of social or economic sustainability. Therefore, to assess comprehensively regional sustainability, we attempted to combine several social indicators including unit GDP (Gross Domestic Product) EF, integrated development satisfaction, comprehensive pressure index with the indicator of EF. Also the application to a municipal was discussed. The time series of EF of study area were accounted and the sustainable development status were assessed from 1993 to 2002. Based on the result of EF analysis and the realities of study area, the feasibility of amendments proposed were assessed. Results showed that the amendments proposed were reasonable and feasible, and the resized model could better evaluate the sustainability of a region.

  6. Thoughts on "Two Exemptions and One Subsidy" (TEOS) in China's Western Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiangyang, Tian

    2008-01-01

    The policy of "two exemptions and one subsidy" (TEOS), which is a "popular sentiment" project, has brought life to the western region's rural education and light to impoverished families. In addition to launching the battle for the "two basics" in the western region, the overall popularization of distance education…

  7. Trends of deposition fluxes and loadings of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in the artificial Three Northern Regions Shelter Forest across northern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Huang, Tao; Zhang, Leiming; Gao, Hong; Shen, Yanjie; Ma, Jianmin

    2015-12-01

    This study provides the first estimate of dry deposition fluxes of criteria air pollutants (SO2 and NOx) across the Three Northern Regions Shelter Forest (TNRSF) region in Northern China and their long-term trends from 1982 to 2010 using the inferential method. Dry deposition velocities of SO2 and NOx increased in many places of the TNRSF up to 118.2% for SO2 and 112.1% for NOx over the last three decades due to the increased vegetation coverage over the TNRSF. The highest atmospheric deposition fluxes of SO2 and NOx were found in the Central-North China region, followed by the Northeast and the Northwest China regions of the TNRSF. A total of 820,000 t SO2 and 218,000 t NOx was estimated to be removed from the atmosphere through dry deposition process over the TNRSF from 1982 to 2010. About 50% of the total removal occurred in the Central-North China region. The estimated total SO2 and NOx dry deposition fluxes from 1982 to 2010 between a TNRSF site in this region and an adjacent farmland outside the TNRSF showed that the fluxes of these two chemicals at the TNRSF site were the factors of 2-3 greater than their fluxes in the farmland.

  8. Case study of the effects of atmospheric aerosols and regional haze on agriculture: An opportunity to enhance crop yields in China through emission controls?

    PubMed Central

    Chameides, W. L.; Yu, H.; Liu, S. C.; Bergin, M.; Zhou, X.; Mearns, L.; Wang, G.; Kiang, C. S.; Saylor, R. D.; Luo, C.; Huang, Y.; Steiner, A.; Giorgi, F.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of atmospheric aerosols and regional haze from air pollution on the yields of rice and winter wheat grown in China is assessed. The assessment is based on estimates of aerosol optical depths over China, the effect of these optical depths on the solar irradiance reaching the earth’s surface, and the response of rice and winter wheat grown in Nanjing to the change in solar irradiance. Two sets of aerosol optical depths are presented: one based on a coupled, regional climate/air quality model simulation and the other inferred from solar radiation measurements made over a 12-year period at meteorological stations in China. The model-estimated optical depths are significantly smaller than those derived from observations, perhaps because of errors in one or both sets of optical depths or because the data from the meteorological stations has been affected by local pollution. Radiative transfer calculations using the smaller, model-estimated aerosol optical depths indicate that the so-called “direct effect” of regional haze results in an ≈5–30% reduction in the solar irradiance reaching some of China’s most productive agricultural regions. Crop-response model simulations suggest an ≈1:1 relationship between a percentage increase (decrease) in total surface solar irradiance and a percentage increase (decrease) in the yields of rice and wheat. Collectively, these calculations suggest that regional haze in China is currently depressing optimal yields of ≈70% of the crops grown in China by at least 5–30%. Reducing the severity of regional haze in China through air pollution control could potentially result in a significant increase in crop yields and help the nation meet its growing food demands in the coming decades. PMID:10570123

  9. Different Effects of Regional Species Pool on Plant Diversity between Forest and Grassland Biomes in Arid Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Li, Liping; Liu, Yining; Wang, Xiangping; Fang, Jingyun; Wang, Qingchun; Zhang, Bengang; Xiao, Peigen; Mohammat, Anwar; Terwei, André

    2015-01-01

    Species pool hypothesis is broadly known and frequently tested in various regions and vegetation types. However it has not been tested in the arid Xinjiang region of China due to lack of data. Here with systematic data from references and field survey, we comprehensively examined species pool hypothesis in this region. Took species richness in 0.1° × 0.1° grid cells as regional species richness (RSR) which were obtained from the distribution maps of vascular plant species, and took species diversity of 190 and 103 plots in forest and grassland biomes across Xinjiang as local species richness (LSR), together with the digitalized soil pH and climate data, we tested the species pool hypothesis in this region. We found that: (1) the average RSR was higher in mountains than that in basins and it was negatively correlated with soil pH in mountains while positively correlated with soil pH in basins in Xinjiang; (2) RSR showed a positive correlation with mean annual precipitation (MAP) while showed a hump-shaped pattern with mean annual temperature (MAT); and the changing patterns of LSR were different for forest and grassland along the geographical and climate gradients; (3) LSR of forest was more affected by RSR than by climate, while on the contrary, LSR of grassland was more affected by climate than by RSR. Our results validated the species pool hypothesis in revealing that RSR had a significant role in shaping LSR patterns in addition to climate. We concluded that the relative effects of climate vs. RSR on LSR differed markedly between the forest and grassland communities across Xinjiang. Our results also showed that RSR revealed a contrasting relationship with soil pH in mountains and in basins, which might reflect differences in evolutionary processes of various habitats. In summary, our research systematically analyzed the correlation of species richness in regional and local scales in Xinjiang which provides more insights into the understanding of species pool

  10. Temporal trends and spatial variations of ozone-depleting substances (ODS) in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Xinming; Blake, Donald; Simpson, Isobel

    2014-05-01

    Long-term observation of mixing ratios of ozone-depleting substances (ODS) in ambient air can help to assess the implementation of the Montreal Protocol and Its Amendments in regional and national scales. Here we present our measurement of ODS such as CFCs, HCFCs, halons and other halocarbons in ambient air since 2000 in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, one of the most densely populated and highly industrialized regions that was supposed to be a hotspot for ODS emission in China. These halocarbons in the PRD region were found to have 5-348% enhancements when compared to their global background levels. CFC-12 and CFC-11 in the region, for example, were 37-56% and 12-43%, respectively, above their global background levels. CFC replacement compounds showed even larger enhancements. In average mixing ratios of HCFC-22, HCFC-141b, and HCFC-142b were 89%, 87%, and 86% above their background levels of 148 ppt, 12.1 ppt, and 12.1 ppt in the year of 2000, respectively; and 72%, 125%, and 52% over their background levels of 205 ppt, 20.2 ppt, and 20.0 ppt in the year of 2009, respectively. During 2000-2009, CFCs in the PRD region showed decline trends with the decreasing rates of -3.0, -5.9, and -9.4 ppt/yr for CFC-12, CFC-11, and CFC-113, respectively; these rates were faster than that at the global background sites, which were -0.91, -2.12, and -0.69 ppt/yr, respectively. The CFCs substitutes HCFC-22, HCFC-141b, and HCFC-142b, however, showed increasing trends with the increasing rates of 8.0, 2.6, and 0.9 ppt/yr, respectively. HFC-134a, a refrigerant used for mobile air conditioning, showed rapid increase with a rate of 15 ppt/yr from 2000 to 2009 in the region. As for other halocarbons, methyl chloroform and carbon tetrachloride decreased with rates of 21 and 1 ppt/yr during the period. The mixing ratios of methyl chloride in the region showed unusual rapid increase at a rate of 64 ppt/yr when compared to its increasing rate of 1.3 ppt/yr at the global background

  11. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration hydrographic survey data used in a U.S. Geological Survey regional geologic framework study along the Delmarva Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Brothers, Laura L.; Thieler, E. Robert; Danforth, William W.; Parker, Castle E.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey obtained raw Reson multibeam data files from Science Applications International Corporation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration for 20 hydrographic surveys and extracted backscatter data using the Fledermaus Geocoder Toolbox from Quality Positioning Service. The backscatter mosaics produced by the U.S. Geological Survey for the inner continental shelf of the Delmarva Peninsula using National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration data increased regional geophysical surveying efficiency, collaboration among government agencies, and the area over which geologic data can be interpreted by the U.S. Geological Survey. This report describes the methods by which the backscatter data were extracted and processed and includes backscatter mosaics and interpolated bathymetric surfaces.

  12. Evaluation of the radioactive contamination in fungi genus Boletus in the region of Europe and Yunnan Province in China.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Zalewska, Tamara; Krasińska, Grażyna; Apanel, Anna; Wang, Yuanzhong; Pankavec, Sviatlana

    2015-10-01

    Numerous species of wild-grown mushrooms are among the most vulnerable organisms for contamination with radiocesium released from a radioactive fallout. A comparison was made on radiocesium as well as the natural gamma ray-emitting radionuclide ((40)K) activity concentrations in the fruiting bodies of several valued edible Boletus mushrooms collected from the region of Europe and Yunnan Province in China. Data available for the first time for Boletus edulis collected in Yunnan, China, showed a very weak contamination with (137)Cs. Radiocesium concentration activity of B. edulis samples that were collected between 2011 and 2014 in Yunnan ranged from 5.2 ± 1.7 to 10 ± 1 Bq kg(-1) dry matter for caps and from 4.7 ± 1.3 to 5.5 ± 1.0 Bq kg(-1) dry matter for stipes. The mushrooms Boletus badius, B. edulis, Boletus impolitus, Boletus luridus, Boletus pinophilus, and Boletus reticulatus collected from the European locations between 1995 and 2010 showed two to four orders of magnitude greater radioactivity from (137)Cs compared to B. edulis from Yunnan. The nuclide (40)K in B. badius was equally distributed between the caps and stipes, while for B. edulis, B. impolitus, B. luridus, B. pinophilus, and B. reticulatus, the caps were richer, and for each mushroom, activity concentration seemed to be more or less species-specific.

  13. HIV testing in re-education through labour camps in Guangxi Autonomous Region, China (a cross-sectional survey)

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Lorraine; Reekie, Joanne; Liu, Wei; Chen, Yi; Wu, Zunyou; Li, Jianghong; Zhang, Lei; Wand, Handan; Donovan, Basil; Butler, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Objective HIV testing is mandatory in re-education-through-labour camps (laojiaosuo) in China yet no studies have reported on the process. Methods The survey response rate was 100% although 29 detainees were excluded because they were under 18 years of age. A cross-sectional face-to-face survey was conducted in three labour camps in Guangxi, located in the south-western region of China. Results Of the 755 detainees surveyed, 725 (96%) reported having a blood test in the labour camps of whom 493 (68%) thought this included an HIV test. 61 detainees self-reported they were HIV infected, their status confirmed by medical records, if available. Of these, 53 (87%) recalled receiving post-test HIV education, and 15 (25%) were currently receiving HIV antiretroviral therapy. Pretest education on HIV was provided to 233/725 (32%) detainees. The study further reports on detainees’ reactions and feelings towards non-disclosure and disclosure of their HIV test results in the labour camps. Conclusions Mandatory testing is almost universal in the labour camps although a proportion of detainees were unaware that this included an HIV test. HIV test results should be disclosed to all labour camp detainees to reduce their distress of not knowing and prevent misconceptions about their HIV status. Labour camps provide another opportunity to implement universal treatment (‘Test and Treat’) to prevent the spread of HIV. PMID:25739879

  14. Pollution of intensively managed greenhouse soils by nutrients and heavy metals in the Yellow River Irrigation Region, Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiaole; Cao, Jing; Tang, Rangyun; Zhang, Shengqiang; Dong, Fang

    2014-11-01

    The present study aimed to assess the potential ecological risk of heavy metals and nutrient accumulation in polytunnel greenhouse soils in the Yellow River irrigation region (YRIR), Northwest China, and to identify the potential sources of these heavy metals using principal component analysis. Contents of available nitrogen (AN), phosphorus (AP), and potassium (AK) in the surface polytunnel greenhouse soils (0-20 cm) varied from 13.42 to 486.78, from 39.10 to 566.97, and from 21.64 to 1,156.40 mg kg(-1), respectively, as well as AP, soil organic matter (SOM) and AK contents tended to increase significantly at the 0-20- and 20-40-cm soil layers. Heavy metal accumulations occurred in the polytunnel greenhouse soils as compared to arable soils, especially at a depth of 20 cm where Cd, Zn and Cu contents were significantly higher than arable soil. Cd and As were found to be the two main polluting elements in the greenhouse soils because their contents exceeded the thresholds established for greenhouse vegetable production HJ333-2006 in China and the background of Gansu province. It has been shown that Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn at the 0-20-cm soil layer were derived mainly from agricultural production activities, whereas contents of Cr and Ni at the same soil layer were determined by 'natural' factors and As originated from natural sources, deposition and irrigation water.

  15. Comparison of the Kriging and neural network methods for modeling foF2 maps over North China region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chunhua; Zhou, Chen; Liu, Jing; Lan, Ting; Yang, Guobin; Zhao, Zhengyu; Zhu, Peng; Sun, Hengqing; Cui, Xiao

    2015-07-01

    The F2 layer critical frequency of the ionosphere (foF2) is one of the most significant parameters for studying the ionosphere. To investigate the large-scale characteristics of the ionosphere over particular regions, modeling foF2 is an effective method. In this paper, we use both the Kriging (KG) and neural network (NN) methods to reconstruct foF2 maps over North China. The neural network is trained by the genetic algorithm (GA) to avoid the 'local minimum' phenomenon in most NN applications. We then carry out a comparison between foF2 provided by both the KG and NN methods with vertical model operation of ionosonde data including Beijing, Qingdao, Suzhou, and Changchun. All of the foF2 data used in the comparison are obtained from the oblique and vertical mode operation of ionosonde from the China Ground-based Seismo-ionospheric Monitoring Network. To allow for a possible seasonal and diurnal variation, data obtained from summer, winter, and equinox months are applied in the present comparison. In addition, we make a comparison during a magnetic storm period. The results of our comparisons demonstrate that both the KG and NN methods are appropriate tools for modeling foF2 maps. However, when the data set is spare, the performance of the NN method is better than the KG method. On the other hand, the KG method is more robust than the NN method during a magnetic storm.

  16. Factors controlling accumulation of soil organic carbon along vegetation succession in a typical karst region in Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shujuan; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Kelin; Pan, Fujing; Yang, Shan; Shu, Shiyan

    2015-07-15

    Vegetation succession enhances the accumulation of carbon in the soil. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation in different vegetation types in the karst region of Southwest China. The goal of this study was to identify and prioritize the effects of environmental parameters, including soil physico-chemical properties, microbial biomass, enzyme activities, and litter characteristics, on SOC accumulation along a vegetation succession sere (grassland, shrubland, secondary forest, and primary forest) in the karst landscape of Southwest China. Relationships between these parameters and SOC were evaluated by redundancy analysis. The results showed that SOC accumulation was significantly different among vegetation types (P<0.01) and increased with vegetation succession (from 29.10g·kg(-1) in grassland to 73.92g·kg(-1) in primary forest). Soil biochemistry and physical characteristics significantly affected the accumulation of SOC. Soil microbial biomass showed a predominant effect on SOC in each of the four vegetation types. In addition, the soil physical property (especially the silt content) was another controlling factor in the early stages (grassland), and urease activity and saccharase activity were important controlling factors in the early-middle and middle-late stages, respectively. Litter characteristics only showed mild effects on SOC accumulation. Variation partitioning analysis showed that the contribution of sole main factors to SOC variation decreased, while the interaction effect among parameters increased along the succession gradient.

  17. Prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in university students from the region of Anhui (China).

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaohua; Chen, Yan; He, Lianping; Jin, Yuelong; Tian, Li; Lu, Mi; Lu, Wei; Ding, Lingling; Guo, Daoxia; Wang, Linghong; Nie, Zhognhua; Yao, Yingshui

    2014-12-16

    Antecedentes: El sobrepeso y la obesidad son epidemia en todo el mundo.Nuestro estudio anterior halló que la prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en estudiantes de primaria es alto. Objetivo: Hemos tratado de estimar si la prevalencia del sobrepeso y la obesidad entre los estudiantes universitarios es todavía alta en China. Métodos: Un estudio transversal fue diseñado para recoger los exámenes de salud de rutina datos para estudiantes universitarios en 2013.La altura y el peso de los estudiantes fueron medidos, y el IMC se calcula con la altura y el peso, así como para estimar la prevalencia de insuficiencia ponderal y obesidad de la Universidad los estudiantes utilizando dos referencias [Grupo de trabajo sobre la obesidad referencias en China (2004) y la Organización Mundial de la salud (OMS) criterios (2000)]. Resultados: Dependiendo de la China referencias utilizadas, la prevalencia global de bajo peso, sobrepeso (obesidad) y la obesidad en estudiantes universitarios masculinos fueron 14,2%, el 14,7% y 4,2%, respectivamente; en mujeres estudiantes universitarios fueron el 27,5%, 4,4% y 0,6%, respectivamente. Dependiendo de los que referencias utilizadas, la prevalencia global de bajo peso, sobrepeso (obesidad) y la obesidad en estudiantes universitarios masculinos fueron 14,2%, 11,5% y 2,5%, respectivamente, en mujeres estudiantes universitarios fueron el 27,5%, 2,4% y 0,3%, respectivamente.Una observación interesante es que la prevalencia de insuficiencia ponderal de los estudiantes universitarios tiene una tendencia al aumento, sobre todo en mujeres. Conclusión: El estudio demostró que la prevalencia de la insuficiencia ponderal en estudiantes universitarios, especialmente en mujeres estudiantes se ha convertido en un problema de salud crítico.Related Departamento de la escuela y el Gobierno deben prestar más atención a la salud física del alumno.

  18. Modeling for regional ecosystem sustainable development under uncertainty--A case study of Dongying, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, K; Li, Y P; Huang, G H; You, L; Jin, S W

    2015-11-15

    In this study, a superiority-inferiority two-stage stochastic programming (STSP) method is developed for planning regional ecosystem sustainable development. STSP can tackle uncertainties expressed as fuzzy sets and probability distributions; it can be used to analyze various policy scenarios that are associated with different levels of economic penalties when the promised targets are violated. STSP is applied to a real case of planning regional ecosystem sustainable development in the City of Dongying, where ecosystem services valuation approaches are incorporated within the optimization process. Regional ecosystem can provide direct and indirect services and intangible benefits to local economy. Land trading mechanism is introduced for planning the regional ecosystem's sustainable development, where wetlands are buyers who would protect regional ecosystem components and self-organization and maintain its integrity. Results of regional ecosystem activities, land use patterns, and land trading schemes have been obtained. Results reveal that, although large-scale reclamation projects can bring benefits to the local economy development, they can also bring with negative effects to the coastal ecosystem; among all industry activities oil field is the major contributor with a large number of pollutant discharges into local ecosystem. Results also show that uncertainty has an important role in successfully launching such a land trading program and trading scheme can provide more effective manner to sustain the regional ecosystem. The findings can help decision makers to realize the sustainable development of ecological resources in the process of rapid industrialization, as well as the integration of economic and ecological benefits.

  19. 75 FR 5946 - First Antidumping Duty Administrative Review of Sodium Hexametaphosphate from the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... International Trade Administration First Antidumping Duty Administrative Review of Sodium Hexametaphosphate from... administrative review of sodium hexametaphosphate from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''), covering the... Administrative Review of Sodium Hexametaphosphate from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

  20. 75 FR 14568 - First Antidumping Duty Administrative Review of Sodium Hexametaphosphate from the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... International Trade Administration First Antidumping Duty Administrative Review of Sodium Hexametaphosphate from... administrative review of sodium hexametaphosphate from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''), covering the... Administrative Review of Sodium Hexametaphosphate from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

  1. Emissions of oxygenated volatile organic compounds from open crop burning in Yangtze River Delta region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimoto, H.; Kudo, S.; Pan, X.; Inomata, S.; Saito, S.; Kanaya, Y.; Wang, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were made by gas chromatography/flame ionization detection/mass spectrometry (GC/FID/MS) and proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) at Rudong, a rural area of Central East China in June 2010. During the campaign we identified several plumes originated from open biomass burning by the simultaneous enhancements of carbon monoxide and acetonitrile. Based on positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis, the contribution of biomass burning was in the range from 60 to 80% for the plumes. We found that oxygenated VOCs were predominant for these events. The emission ratios of OVOCs to CO for open crop burnings derived in this work were found to be high. Combined with the updated CO emissions of 12.7 Tg per year from crop burning, we estimated OVOC emissions from crop burning can be about 1.2 Tg per year, accounting for substantial amount of VOCs emitted from crop burning.

  2. Assessment of organochlorine pesticide contamination in waterbirds from an agricultural region, Central China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ying; Qi, Shihua; Yuan, Linxi; Liu, Hongxia; Xing, Xinli

    2016-10-25

    Twenty-one organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in the muscle of six predominant waterbird species from Jianghan Plain, Hubei Province, Central China. Among OCPs, DDTs were the most prevalent compounds, with average concentration ranging from 31.1 to 1445 ng/g lipid weight. Little egrets (Egretta garzetta) and Chinese pond herons (Ardeola bacchus) showed significantly higher concentrations of OCPs (p < 0.05) due to their dietary habits and migratory patterns. There were no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) for most OCPs between sex and age groups. The accumulation profiles of HCHs and DDTs suggested that these OCPs in Jianghan Plain were largely derived from historical usage. Risk assessment indicated that heptachlor could be likely to pose adverse health effects on people consuming ducks in Jianghan Plain.

  3. Large Water Management Projects and Schistosomiasis Control, Dongting Lake Region, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yue-Sheng; Zhao, Zheng-Yuan; He, Yong-Kang; Ellis, Magda K.; McManus, Donald P.

    2007-01-01

    Construction of the Three Gorges Dam across the Yangtze River will substantially change the ecology of the Dongting Lake in southern China. In addition, the Central and Hunan Provinces’ governmental authorities have instigated a Return Land to Lake Program that will extend the Dongting Lake surface area from the current 2,681 km2 to 4,350 km2.The previous construction of embankments and the large silt deposits made by the Yangtze River and other connecting rivers have contributed to frequent disastrous flooding. As a consequence of the 2 water projects, >2 million persons and their domestic animals are being resettled. This article provides an overview of the historical background of these 2 large water management projects, the associated population movement, and their impact on future transmission and control of schistosomiasis in the Dongting Lake area. The dam will likely substantially extend the range of the snail habitats and increase schistosome transmission and schistosomiasis cases. PMID:18214167

  4. Ethnic stratification amid China's economic transition: evidence from the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaogang; Song, Xi

    2014-03-01

    This paper analyzes a sample from the 2005 mini-census of Xinjiang to examine ethnic stratification in China's labor markets, with a special focus on how ethnic earnings inequality varies by employment sector. We show that Han and Uyghur Chinese dominated different economic sectors. Excluding those in agriculture, Uyghurs were more likely to work in government or institutions than either Han locals or migrants, and also more likely to become self-employed. The Han-Uyghur earnings gap was negligible within government/public institutions, but increased with the marketization of the employment sector. It was the largest among the self-employed, followed by employees in private enterprises and then employees in public enterprises. Han migrants in economic sectors enjoyed particular earnings advantages and hukou registration status had no impact on earnings attainment except in government/public institutions. These findings have important implications for understanding social and economic sources of increasing ethnic conflicts in Xinjiang in recent years.

  5. Risk Factors for Vibrio parahaemolyticus Infection in a Southern Coastal Region of China

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yuxue; Li, Yinghui; Wu, Shuyu; Mou, Jin; Xu, Zengkang; Cui, Rilin; Klena, John D.; Shi, Xiaolu; Lu, Yan; Qiu, Yaqun; Lin, Yiman; Xie, Xu; Ma, Hanwu; Li, Zhongjie; Yu, Hongjie; Varma, Jay K.; Ran, Lu; Hu, Qinghua; Cheng, Jinquan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of the study were to identify dietary and medical risk factors for Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VP) infection in the coastal city Shenzhen in China. Methods In April–October 2012, we conducted a case–control study in two hospitals in Shenzhen, China. Laboratory-confirmed VP cases (N = 83) were matched on age, sex, and other social factors to healthy controls (N = 249). Subjects were interviewed using a questionnaire on medical history; contact with seawater; clinical symptoms and outcome; travel history over the past week; and dietary history 3 days prior to onset. Laboratory tests were used to culture, serotype, and genotype VP strains. We used logistic regression to calculate the odds ratios for the association of VP infection with potential risk factors. Results In multivariate analysis, VP infection was associated with having pre-existing chronic disease (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 6.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5–23.7), eating undercooked seafood (aOR, 8.0; 95% CI, 1.3–50.4), eating undercooked meat (aOR, 29.1; 95% CI, 3.0–278.2), eating food from a street food vendor (aOR, 7.6; 95% CI, 3.3–17.6), and eating vegetable salad (aOR, 12.1; 95% CI, 5.2–28.2). Conclusions Eating raw (undercooked) seafood and meat is an important source of VP infection among the study population. Cross-contamination of VP in other food (e.g., vegetables and undercooked meat) likely plays a more important role. Intervention should be taken to lower the risks of cross-contamination with undercooked seafood/meat, especially targeted at people with low income, transient workers, and people with medical risk factors. PMID:26287765

  6. Analysis of several heavy metals in wild edible mushrooms from regions of China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin-Hua; Zhou, Hong-Bo; Qiu, Guan-Zhou

    2009-08-01

    The metal (Cu, Ni, Cd, Hg, As, Pb) contents in wild edible mushrooms collected from three different sites in China were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry and atomic fluorescence spectrometry. All element concentrations were determined on a dry weight basis. A total of 11 species was studied, five being from the urban area and six from rural areas in China. The As content ranged from 0.44 to 1.48 mg/kg. The highest As content was seen in Macrolepiota crustosa from the urban area, and the lowest in Russula virescens from rural areas. A high Ni concentration (1.35 mg/kg) was found in Calvatia craniiformis from the urban area. The lowest Ni level was 0.11 mg/kg, for the species R. virescens and Cantharellus cibarius. The Cu content ranged from 39.0 to 181.5 mg/kg. The highest Cu content was seen in Agaricus silvaticus and the lowest in C. cibarius. The Pb content ranged from 1.9 to 10.8 mg/kg. The highest Pb value was found in C. craniiformis. The Cd content ranged from 0.4 to 91.8 mg/kg. The highest Cd value was found in M. crustosa. The Hg content ranged from 0.28 to 3.92 mg/kg. The highest Hg level was found in Agaricus species. The levels of the heavy metals Cd, Pb, and Hg in the studied mushroom species from urban area can be considered high. The metal-to-metal correlation analysis supported they were the same source of contamination. High automobile traffic was identified as the most likely source of the contamination. Based upon the present safety standards, consumption of those mushrooms that grow in the polluted urban area should be avoided.

  7. A new regional total electron content empirical model in northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jiandi; Wang, Zhengtao; Jiang, Weiping; Zhao, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Bingbing

    2016-10-01

    Using total electron content (TEC) data over one and a half solar cycles (1999-2015) provided by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE), this paper proposes a new empirical TEC model for northeast China (40-50N, 120-130E). The model, called TECM-NEC, involves the multiplication of four separable components, including diurnal variation, seasonal variation, geomagnetic field dependency, and solar dependency. Diurnal variation is composed of three parts: the typical daily variation of TEC; corrections of Mid-latitude Summer Nighttime Anomaly (MSNA) that depend on geographic location, season, and local time; and corrections of day-to-night ratio under different seasons and solar activities. Four sub-harmonics of the year with annual, semiannual, four-, and three-month periods are used to describe seasonal variations. For geomagnetic variation, geomagnetic latitude is based on the latest International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF12) model. Compared with similar empirical models, the solar proxy index F10.7P = (F10.7 + F10.7A)/2, where F10.7A is the 81-day running mean of daily F10.7, is chosen as having linear relationship with TEC for the model. This model has 43 coefficients, which are determined by nonlinear least squares fitting (NLSF) technique. The TECM-NEC model fits with the TEC/CODE input data with a bias of 0.03TECU and a RMS deviation of 2.76TECU. The proposed TECM-NEC model can reproduce the MSNA and nighttime TEC enhancements phenomenon over northeast China.

  8. Long-term trend of chemical composition of atmospheric precipitation at a regional background station in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Pu, Weiwei; Quan, Weijun; Ma, Zhiqiang; Shi, Xuefeng; Zhao, Xiujuan; Zhang, Linna; Wang, Zhenfa; Wang, Wenyan

    2017-02-15

    Understanding the trend of chemical composition of precipitation is of great importance for air pollution control strategies in Northern China. A comprehensive study on the long-term chemical compositions of precipitation was carried out from 2003 to 2014 at the Shangdianzi (SDZ) regional background station in northern China. All samples were analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity and major ions (F(-), Cl(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-), NH4(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), K(+) and Na(+)). The average pH during this period was 4.53±0.35, which is considerably lower than those reported in other background stations in China (Linan, Waliguan and Longfengshan). NH4(+), SO4(2-), Ca(2+) and NO3(-) were the dominant ions in precipitation, with concentrations (volume-weighted mean) of 212.99μeqL(-1), 200.20μeqL(-1), 116.88μeqL(-1) and 98.56μeqL(-1), respectively. The ion concentrations at SDZ were much higher than those of other background stations and megacities in China. A significantly increasing trend was observed for NO3(-) (7.26%year(-1)), and a decreasing trend was observed for SO4(2-)/NO3(-), suggesting that the precipitation of SDZ evolved from a sulfuric acid type to a mixed type dominated by both sulfuric and nitric acid. The source identification indicated that SO4(2-), NO3(-), NH4(+) and F(-) were dominated by secondary sources, Mg(2+), Ca(2+) and Na(+) mostly originated from natural sources, and K(+) and Cl(-) probably associated with anthropogenic sources. Long-range transport of air masses could influence the acidity, electrical conductivity and ion concentrations of precipitation at SDZ. The higher acidity and ion concentrations mainly occurred in the southerly and westerly trajectory pathways and partially in northwest pathways. Anthropogenic pollutants and crustal sources along these pathways were significant contributors to the chemical composition of precipitation in SDZ.

  9. Alternative Zoning Scenarios for Regional Sustainable Land Use Controls in China: A Knowledge-Based Multiobjective Optimisation Model

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yin; Liu, Dianfeng; Liu, Yaolin; He, Jianhua; Hong, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    Alternative land use zoning scenarios provide guidance for sustainable land use controls. This study focused on an ecologically vulnerable catchment on the Loess Plateau in China, proposed a novel land use zoning model, and generated alternative zoning solutions to satisfy the various requirements of land use stakeholders and managers. This model combined multiple zoning objectives, i.e., maximum zoning suitability, maximum planning compatibility and maximum spatial compactness, with land use constraints by using goal programming technique, and employed a modified simulated annealing algorithm to search for the optimal zoning solutions. The land use zoning knowledge was incorporated into the initialisation operator and neighbourhood selection strategy of the simulated annealing algorithm to improve its efficiency. The case study indicates that the model is both effective and robust. Five optimal zoning scenarios of the study area were helpful for satisfying the requirements of land use controls in loess hilly regions, e.g., land use intensification, agricultural protection and environmental conservation. PMID:25170679

  10. Alternative zoning scenarios for regional sustainable land use controls in China: a knowledge-based multiobjective optimisation model.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yin; Liu, Dianfeng; Liu, Yaolin; He, Jianhua; Hong, Xiaofeng

    2014-08-28

    Alternative land use zoning scenarios provide guidance for sustainable land use controls. This study focused on an ecologically vulnerable catchment on the Loess Plateau in China, proposed a novel land use zoning model, and generated alternative zoning solutions to satisfy the various requirements of land use stakeholders and managers. This model combined multiple zoning objectives, i.e., maximum zoning suitability, maximum planning compatibility and maximum spatial compactness, with land use constraints by using goal programming technique, and employed a modified simulated annealing algorithm to search for the optimal zoning solutions. The land use zoning knowledge was incorporated into the initialisation operator and neighbourhood selection strategy of the simulated annealing algorithm to improve its efficiency. The case study indicates that the model is both effective and robust. Five optimal zoning scenarios of the study area were helpful for satisfying the requirements of land use controls in loess hilly regions, e.g., land use intensification, agricultural protection and environmental conservation.

  11. The impact of educational videotapes on water contact behaviour of primary school students in the Dongting Lakes region, China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, L; Manderson, L; Tempongko, M S; Wei, W; Aiguo, P

    2000-08-01

    Multimedia has become increasingly important in educational programmes in schools in all societies, and has potential value for health education. We developed a video and a comic book on the transmission and prevention of schistosomiasis for use in primary schools in endemic areas of China. The material was designed to increase children's knowledge of schistosomiasis as an environmental disease and to encourage them to reduce their contact with unsafe water sources. To test the effectiveness of the video and booklet, a quasi-experimental study was conducted among 1,739 children in 50 primary schools in the Dongting Lake region. A self-administered questionnaire pre- and post-intervention showed a significant increase in knowledge about schistosomiasis in the intervention schools. Significantly, this change was associated with a decrease in contact with unsafe water sources, as established from water contact observations. This behavioural change suggests the value of short, targeted educational interventions to decrease risk of infection.

  12. China’s Air Defense Identification Zone: Concept, Issues at Stake and Regional Impact

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-23

    By Alex Calvo Introduction. News in the Indian-Pacific Ocean Region have been dominated in the past couple of weeks by Beijing’s 23 November...News in the Indian-Pacific Ocean Region have been dominated in the past couple of weeks by Beijing’s 23 November announcement of an Air Defense...and “This is 86 Nicholas Szechenyi, Victor Cha, Bonnie S. Glaser , Michael J. Green, and

  13. Phylogenetic analysis of Newcastle disease viruses isolated from wild birds in the Poyang Lake region of China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Shengtao; Wang, Tiecheng; Gao, Xiaolong; Ying, Ying; Li, Xue; Li, Yongcheng; Li, Yuanguo; Ma, Jinzhu; Sun, Heting; Chu, Dong; Xu, Yu; Yang, Songtao; Li, Qihan; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

    2015-09-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes a highly contagious viral disease in poultry and wild birds, and it can cause significant economic loss worldwide. Eight viral strains were isolated by inoculating embryonated chicken eggs from the Poyang Lake region of China with swab samples. All eight of the NDV isolates were identified as class I genotype 3 strains, but they diverged notablely from class II viruses. Further analysis revealed that all eight NDV isolates were lentogenic strains containing the (112)ERQER↓L(117) motif at the F protein cleavage site. The strains were highly identical and were more species specific (chicken and waterfowl) than site specific (Nanchang and Duchang regions). The close phylogenetic proximity of these isolates indicates that viral transmission may happen between poultry and wild birds. Our study demonstrates that lentogenic class I NDVs exist in clinically healthy wild waterfowl and poultry within the Poyang Lake region. Active surveillance of these viruses to determine their evolution and origin is one of the most realistic strategies for preventing and controlling NDV outbreaks.

  14. How to reach haze control targets by air pollutants emission reduction in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region of China?

    PubMed

    Xu, Feng; Xiang, Nan; Higano, Yoshiro

    2017-01-01

    Currently, Haze is one of the greatest environmental problems with serious impacts on human health in China, especially in capital region (Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region). To alleviate this problem, the Chinese government introduced a National Air Pollution Control Action Plan (NAPCAP) with air pollutants reduction targets by 2017. However, there is doubt whether these targets can be achieved once the plan is implemented. In this work, the effectiveness of NAPCAP is analyzed by developing models of the statistical relationship between PM2.5 concentrations and air pollutant emissions (SO2, NOx, smoke and dust), while taking into account wind and neighboring transfer impacts. The model can also identify ways of calculating the intended emission levels in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area. The results indicate that haze concentration control targets will not be attained by following the NAPCAP, and that the amount of progress needed to meet the targets is unrealistic. A more appropriate approach to reducing air emissions is proposed, which addresses joint regional efforts.

  15. Quantitative Assessment of Desertification Using Landsat Data on a Regional Scale – A Case Study in the Ordos Plateau, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Duanyang; Kang, Xiangwu; Qiu, Dongsheng; Zhuang, Dafang; Pan, Jianjun

    2009-01-01

    Desertification is a serious threat to the ecological environment and social economy in our world and there is a pressing need to develop a reasonable and reproducible method to assess it at different scales. In this paper, the Ordos Plateau in China was selected as the research region and a quantitative method for desertification assessment was developed by using Landsat MSS and TM/ETM+ data on a regional scale. In this method, NDVI, MSDI and land surface albedo were selected as assessment indicators of desertification to represent land surface conditions from vegetation biomass, landscape pattern and micrometeorology. Based on considering the effects of vegetation type and time of images acquired on assessment indictors, assessing rule sets were built and a decision tree approach was used to assess desertification of Ordos Plateau in 1980, 1990 and 2000. The average overall accuracy of three periods was higher than 90%. The results showed that although some local places of Ordos Plateau experienced an expanding trend of desertification, the trend of desertification of Ordos Plateau was an overall decrease in from 1980 to 2000. By analyzing the causes of desertification processes, it was found that climate change could benefit for the reversion of desertification from 1980 to 1990 at a regional scale and human activities might explain the expansion of desertification in this period; however human conservation activities were the main driving factor that induced the reversion of desertification from 1990 to 2000. PMID:22573984

  16. How to reach haze control targets by air pollutants emission reduction in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region of China?

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Feng; Xiang, Nan; Higano, Yoshiro

    2017-01-01

    Currently, Haze is one of the greatest environmental problems with serious impacts on human health in China, especially in capital region (Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region). To alleviate this problem, the Chinese government introduced a National Air Pollution Control Action Plan (NAPCAP) with air pollutants reduction targets by 2017. However, there is doubt whether these targets can be achieved once the plan is implemented. In this work, the effectiveness of NAPCAP is analyzed by developing models of the statistical relationship between PM2.5 concentrations and air pollutant emissions (SO2, NOx, smoke and dust), while taking into account wind and neighboring transfer impacts. The model can also identify ways of calculating the intended emission levels in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei area. The results indicate that haze concentration control targets will not be attained by following the NAPCAP, and that the amount of progress needed to meet the targets is unrealistic. A more appropriate approach to reducing air emissions is proposed, which addresses joint regional efforts. PMID:28282464

  17. Precipitation Interpolation by Multivariate Bayesian Maximum Entropy Based on Meteorological Data in Yun- Gui-Guang region, Mainland China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chaolin; Zhong, Shaobo; Zhang, Fushen; Huang, Quanyi

    2016-11-01

    Precipitation interpolation has been a hot area of research for many years. It had close relation to meteorological factors. In this paper, precipitation from 91 meteorological stations located in and around Yunnan, Guizhou and Guangxi Zhuang provinces (or autonomous region), Mainland China was taken into consideration for spatial interpolation. Multivariate Bayesian maximum entropy (BME) method with auxiliary variables, including mean relative humidity, water vapour pressure, mean temperature, mean wind speed and terrain elevation, was used to get more accurate regional distribution of annual precipitation. The means, standard deviations, skewness and kurtosis of meteorological factors were calculated. Variogram and cross- variogram were fitted between precipitation and auxiliary variables. The results showed that the multivariate BME method was precise with hard and soft data, probability density function. Annual mean precipitation was positively correlated with mean relative humidity, mean water vapour pressure, mean temperature and mean wind speed, negatively correlated with terrain elevation. The results are supposed to provide substantial reference for research of drought and waterlog in the region.

  18. The study on variation of influential regions in China from a perspective of asymmetry economic information flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chunxia; Tang, Minxuan; Cao, Yongjian; Chen, Yanhua; Deng, Qiangqiang

    2015-10-01

    Based on the annual GDP (Gross Domestic Product) in 27 Chinese provinces and autonomous regions, the asymmetric economic information flows between different regions are calculated by the symbolic transfer entropy method and corresponding economic information flow networks are built over two periods, one is before the reform and opening up policy, the other is after that. By analyzing such networks, the obtained results are as follows. First, before the policy, balanced development strategy weakens or cuts off the ties between adjacent areas, resulting in a slow regional economic development, does not conform to the law of scientific development. Second, with introducing market mechanisms and promoting the reform and opening up policy, increasing economic activities have gradually shifted from coast to inland of China over Period II. Last but not least, there has a dramatic alternation of the influential centers that Jilin, Beijing and Jiangsu become new influential centers. Especially, at Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolis circle Beijing becomes an influential center after the policy.

  19. Genetic diversity of mitochondrial control region (D-Loop) polymorphisms in Coilia ectenes taihuensis inhabiting Taihu Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J J; Duan, J R; Zhou, Y F; Peng, J Y; Fang, D A

    2017-03-16

    Coilia ectenes is a commercially important fishery species in China. C. ectenes taihuensis is an endemic and dominant species found in Taihu Lake of China. When compared with C. ectenes, C. ectenes taihuensis lacks anadromous behavior, and can independently grow and reproduce in Taihu Lake. In this study, the mitochondrial DNA control region (D-loop) sequences were employed to investigate the genetic diversity and population structure of C. ectenes taihuensis. Sixty-eight individuals collected from 4 localities in Taihu Lake were examined. Results indicated that in the 887-bp D-loop region, seventy-seven (8.68%) sites were variant, contributing to 53 distinct haplotypes. Although the population haplotype diversity (Hd = 0.971 to 1.000) was generally high, the nucleotide diversity (π = 0.616 to 0.731%) was relatively low among the 4 populations. Additionally, the genetic distances ranged from 0.62 to 0.74% within the populations and from 0.67 to 0.74% between the populations. The neighbor-joining tree indicated that a distinct distribution of phylogenetic structure existed among haplotypes. Analysis of molecular variance and FST statistics suggested that a divergence existed among populations in 4 localities, indicating that gene communication might have occurred among those populations. Furthermore, neutral tests and analysis of mismatch distribution reflected that C. ectenes taihuensis might have undergone a population expansion during the evolution process. Our study showed the population genetic diversity and structure of C. ectenes taihuensis. Results from this study might be helpful in the development and protection of fishery resource within the localities in Taihu L