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Sample records for administrative region china

  1. Establishment of nature reserves in administrative regions of mainland China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ziliang; Cui, Guofa

    2015-01-01

    Nature reserves are widely considered as one available strategy for protecting biodiversity, which is threatened by habitat fragmentation, and wildlife extinction. The Chinese government has established a goal of protecting 15% of its land area by 2015. We quantitated the characteristics and distribution of nature reserves in mainland China and evaluated the expansion process for national nature reserves. National nature reserves occupy 64.15% of the total area of nature reserves. Steppe and meadow ecosystem, ocean and seacoast ecosystem, and wild plant nature reserves represent lower percentages, particularly in national nature reserves, in which they comprised 0.76%, 0.54%, and 0.69%, respectively, of the area. Furthermore, medium and small nature reserves compose 92.32% of all nature reserves. The land area under any legal protection has reached 14.80%, although only 9.78% is strictly protected. However, if 9 super-large national nature reserves, located in Southwest and Northwest China were removed, the percentage of strictly protected area decreases to 2.66% of the land area of China. The areas contained in nature reserves in each province are not proportional to the areas of the provinces, particularly for national nature reserves, with higher protection rates in Southwest and Northwest China than in other regions. Of the 31 provinces, 22 provinces feature strict protection of less than 4% of their areas by national nature reserves; these provinces are mainly located in East, Central, South, and North China. Moreover, the unevenness indexes of the distribution of nature reserves and national nature reserves are 0.39 and 0.58, respectively. The construction of nature reserves has entered a steady development stage after a period of rapid expansion in mainland China. In recent years, the total area of national nature reserves has increased slowly, while the total area of nature reserves has not increased, although the number of nature reserves continues

  2. Establishment of Nature Reserves in Administrative Regions of Mainland China

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ziliang; Cui, Guofa

    2015-01-01

    Nature reserves are widely considered as one available strategy for protecting biodiversity, which is threatened by habitat fragmentation, and wildlife extinction. The Chinese government has established a goal of protecting 15% of its land area by 2015. We quantitated the characteristics and distribution of nature reserves in mainland China and evaluated the expansion process for national nature reserves. National nature reserves occupy 64.15% of the total area of nature reserves. Steppe and meadow ecosystem, ocean and seacoast ecosystem, and wild plant nature reserves represent lower percentages, particularly in national nature reserves, in which they comprised 0.76%, 0.54%, and 0.69%, respectively, of the area. Furthermore, medium and small nature reserves compose 92.32% of all nature reserves. The land area under any legal protection has reached 14.80%, although only 9.78% is strictly protected. However, if 9 super-large national nature reserves, located in Southwest and Northwest China were removed, the percentage of strictly protected area decreases to 2.66% of the land area of China. The areas contained in nature reserves in each province are not proportional to the areas of the provinces, particularly for national nature reserves, with higher protection rates in Southwest and Northwest China than in other regions. Of the 31 provinces, 22 provinces feature strict protection of less than 4% of their areas by national nature reserves; these provinces are mainly located in East, Central, South, and North China. Moreover, the unevenness indexes of the distribution of nature reserves and national nature reserves are 0.39 and 0.58, respectively. The construction of nature reserves has entered a steady development stage after a period of rapid expansion in mainland China. In recent years, the total area of national nature reserves has increased slowly, while the total area of nature reserves has not increased, although the number of nature reserves continues

  3. Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China [4 April 1990].

    PubMed

    1990-04-01

    On December 19, 1984, the Chinese and British Governments signed the joint declaration allowing the Peoples' Republic of China to resume sovereignty over Hong Kong effective July 1, 1997. To assure the prosperity and stability of Hong Kong, China will establish a Hong Kong Special Administrative Region allowing the socialist system and the policies practiced in Hong Kong to co-exist under the principle of "one country, two systems" as elaborated by the Chinese Government in the Sino-British joint declaration. Under the laws of China, the following Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China is enacted, prescribing the systems to be practiced in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, necessary in order to assure implementation of the policies of China toward Hong Kong. The law covers: 1) General Principles, allowing the previous capitalist system to remain unchanged for 50 years, etc. 2) It establishes the relationship between the Central Authorities and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region; e.g., China will defend Hong Kong, Hong Kong will possess independent judicial power. Chapter 3 defines the fundamental rights and duties of Hong Kong residents, and defines in chapter 4) the political structure that includes the Chief Executive, the Executive Authorities, the Legislature, the Judiciary, the District Organizations, and Public Servants. Chapter 5 contains information about the economy, public finance, monetary affairs, trade, industry, commerce, land leases, shipping, and civil aviation. Chapter 6 deals with education, science, culture, sports, religion, and labor and social services. Chapter 7 defines the responsibilities for external affairs. Chapter 8 specifies the interpretation and amendment of the Basic Law, ending with chapter 9 Supplementary Provisions, selection of the Chief Executive, formation of the Legislative Council, voting procedures, and the national laws to be applied in the Hong Kong

  4. Healthy life expectancy in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China.

    PubMed Central

    Law, C. K.; Yip, P. S. F.

    2003-01-01

    Sullivan's method and a regression model were used to calculate healthy life expectancy (HALE) for men and women in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong SAR) of China. These methods need estimates of the prevalence and information on disability distributions of 109 diseases and HALE for 191 countries by age, sex and region of the world from the WHO's health assessment of 2000. The population of Hong Kong SAR has one of the highest healthy life expectancies in the world. Sullivan's method gives higher estimates than the classic linear regression method. Although Sullivan's method accurately calculates the influence of disease prevalence within small areas and regions, the regression method can approximate HALE for all economies for which information on life expectancy is available. This paper identifies some problems of the two methods and discusses the accuracy of estimates of HALE that rely on data from the WHO assessment. PMID:12640475

  5. The effects of income level, income distribution, education and urbanization on fertility rates among 28 administrative regions of China.

    PubMed

    Lee, B S

    1990-07-01

    Conflicting empirical evidence on the role of income distribution on fertility rates is the impetus for this 1982 study of providence-specific Chinese Census data, excluding Tibet. The findings support the prior thesis of Repetto but utilize the micromethods and per household income measures of the competing findings of Boulier. It is cautioned that in the Chinese analysis equal income distribution depresses fertility, but China may not reflect world wide patterns. China did not have until recently a market incentive system, and there are income measurement problems. The data are per capita economic output not per capita income, and those high output areas which did not produce low fertility may actually have had households with low incomes. The importance of this research is in establishing that cross-province data are a useful tool in understanding the influence of income distribution on fertility. As with most developing countries, women's education, for instance, at least junior high education explained the largest variation of fertility differences among the 28 provinces. The urbanization variable when controlling for income was positive, unlike the other developing countries. The 1949 Chinese government's spatial industrial policy encouraged urbanization and industrialization in rural areas and family planning programs such that highly urbanized provinces have low population density. A variety of variables on income level, income distribution, education, and urbanization are discussed. OLSQ regressions were generated utilizing such independent variables as output per capita in yuan (YOUTHPC80), the square of YOUTHPC80 (YOUTHPC802), YOUTHPC80 multiplied by the average family size in each province (YOUTHPH80), and the squared value of YOUTHPH80. PMID:12283836

  6. Age-specific prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection in young pregnant women, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China

    PubMed Central

    Sahota, Daljit S; Law, Lai-Wa; Cheng, Yvonne KY; Leung, Tak-Yeung

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate the age-specific prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in young pregnant women in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR), China, and to determine whether an increase in prevalence occurs during adolescence. Methods HBV prevalence was quantified using data from routine antenatal screening for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in 10 808 women aged 25 years or younger born in Hong Kong SAR and managed at a single hospital between 1998 and 2011. The effect on prevalence of maternal age, parity and birth before or after HBV vaccine availability in 1984 was assessed, using Spearman’s correlation and multiple logistic regression analysis. Findings Overall, 7.5% of women were HBsAg-positive. The prevalence ranged from 2.3% to 8.4% in those aged ≤ 16 and 23 years, respectively. Women born in or after 1984 and those younger than 18 years of age were less likely to be HBsAg-positive (odds ratio, OR: 0.679; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.578–0.797) and (OR: 0.311; 95% CI: 0.160–0.604), respectively. For women born before 1984, there was no association between HBsAg carriage and being younger than 18 years of age (OR: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.262–1.370) Logistic regression analysis showed that the prevalence of HBsAg carriage was influenced more by the woman being 18 years old or older (adjusted OR, aOR: 2.80; 95% CI: 1.46–5.47) than being born before 1984 (aOR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.21–1.67). Conclusion Immunity to HBV in young pregnant women who had been vaccinated as neonates decreased in late adolescence. PMID:25378739

  7. Regional emissions of air pollutants in China.

    SciTech Connect

    Streets, D. G.

    1998-10-05

    As part of the China-MAP program, sponsored by the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration, regional inventories of air pollutants emitted in China are being characterized, in order that the atmospheric chemistry over China can be more fully understood and the resulting ambient concentrations in Chinese cities and the deposition levels to Chinese ecosystems be determined with better confidence. In addition, the contributions of greenhouse gases from China and of acidic aerosols that counteract global warming are being quantified. This paper presents preliminary estimates of the emissions of some of the major air pollutants in China: sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), and black carbon (C). Emissions are estimated for each of the 27 regions of China included in the RAINS-Asia simulation model and are subsequently distributed to a 1{degree} x 1{degree} grid using appropriate disaggregation factors. Emissions from all sectors of the Chinese economy are considered, including the combustion of biofuels in rural homes. Emissions from larger power plants are calculated individually and allocated to the grid accordingly. Data for the period 1990-1995 are being developed, as well as projections for the future under alternative assumptions about economic growth and environmental control.

  8. Regional location in western China

    SciTech Connect

    Cogbill, A.H.; Steck, L.K.

    1996-10-01

    Accurately locating seismic events in western China using only regional seismic stations is a challenge. Not only is the number of seismic stations available for locating events small, but most stations available to researchers are often over 10{degree} distant. Here the authors describe the relocation, using regional stations, of both nuclear and earthquake sources near the Lop Nor test site in western China. For such relocations, they used the Earthquake Data Reports provided by the US Geological Survey (USGS) for the reported travel times. Such reports provide a listing of all phases reported to the USGS from stations throughout the world, including many stations in the People`s Republic of China. LocSAT was used as the location code. The authors systematically relocated each event int his study several times, using fewer and fewer stations at reach relocation, with the farther stations being eliminated at each step. They found that location accuracy, judged by comparing solutions from few stations to the solution provided using all available stations, remained good typically until fewer than seven stations remained.With a good station distribution, location accuracy remained surprisingly good (within 7 km) using as few as 3 stations. Because these relocations were computed without good station corrections and without source-specific station corrections (that is, path corrections), they believe that such regional locations can be substantially improved, largely using static station corrections and source-specific station corrections, at least in the Lop nor area, where sources have known locations. Elsewhere in China, one must rely upon known locations of regionally-recorded explosions. Locating such sources is clearly one of the major problems to be overcome before one can provide event locations with any assurance from regional stations.

  9. Reform and Development of Educational Administration System in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Qiang; Wu, Zhongyuan

    2008-01-01

    The paper mainly introduces the development of the educational administration agency in China, including the evolution of the educational administration agency, the Course of instituting legal system of education in China, the missions of the now Minister of Education, questions emerged in the development of the educational administration system,…

  10. Regional distribution of urban population in China.

    PubMed

    Onoye, E

    1970-03-01

    The attempt is made to clarify the regional distribution of population in China, particularly the urban population, and to trace the course of changes which have occurred under the new regime. As this study was conducted as a part of a study of the industrial location in China, the relation of industrial location to the regional distribution of population must be clarified first. The major statistics regarding the regional distribution of various economic values including population are given on the basis of administrative division. Population by province and the population density are given for mid-year of 1953 and year end of 1954 and 1957. The population density by province shows considerable variety, the average having no significance in itself. The density is high in the eastern provinces and low in the western provinces. The population density of 17 provinces was higher than the national average and that of 8 provinces was below the average. It can be pointed out from the changes in 1953-1957 that population grew in size in all provinces and autonomous districts except for the slight decrease in Tibet. The growth rate almost reached the national average in most provinces. No change was seen in the ranking by population density. Very little data is available to show the situation after 1957. The economic geography of China is characterized by the distinctive contrast between the well developed regions of 3 provinces in Northwest Region, as well as Hopei and Kiangsu and other undeveloped regions. The long-term policy on industrial location is based on several principles but practically aims at the locational dispersion of industry and the elimination of differences in income standard and industrial structure among regions. Provinces of China can be divided into 3 groups according to the urban population ratio. The 1st group is Liaoning with the highest ratio of approximately 33%; the 2nd group consists of 4 provinces, i.e., Heilungkiang, Kiangsu, Kirin, and

  11. Division Scheme for Environmental Management Regionalization in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Baorong; Fan, Ting; Li, Yingming; Wang, Yi

    2013-07-01

    Based on regional heterogeneity of environmental characteristics and factors influencing those characteristics, environmental units may be classified into homogeneous zones. Then, essential strategies and mitigation measures in each zone may be developed and environmental quality may be holistically improved using a system of environmental management regionalization (EMRZ). Here, an EMRZ scheme for China was devised by outlining regional management using integrated qualitative and quantitative methods. First, the land was subdivided into four environmental management domains using China's three physical geographic domains. Second, using a regionalization indicator system, the environmental characteristics of neighboring provinces in four domains was quantified using the one-dimensional Euclidean distance method; regions with high similarity were merged into one environmental management region (EMR) and the preliminary draft of EMRs was obtained. Based on the preliminary scheme, eight EMRs using prefecture-level administrative regions were obtained through boundary adjustment based on important natural geographical boundaries and existing regional plans. These include the Northeastern China Region, the North China Plain Region, the Loess Plateau Region, Southeast Coast Region, the Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River, the Southwestern China Region, the Northwestern China Region, and the Tibetan Plateau Region. Priority environmental problems of each EMR were discussed. The main contribution of this study is that it develops a novel methodological framework for EMRZ integrating qualitative and quantitative methodologies, and considers the spatial contiguity of each EMR and the spatial integrity of each administrative unit. Future research will focus on priority goals and establishment of suitable environmental management policies for each EMR based on known local environmental problems.

  12. Administrator Preparation in the People's Republic of China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasher, James M.; Frasher, Ramona S.

    This document presents a comprehensive collage-style description of educational administration preparation programs in the People's Republic of China, covering a time span from Mao Zedong's normal college days to the present. The evolution of the current institutional specialization system, the basic composition of the programs, and some…

  13. 40 CFR 108.4 - Investigation by Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Investigation by Regional Administrator... PROGRAMS EMPLOYEE PROTECTION HEARINGS § 108.4 Investigation by Regional Administrator. Upon receipt of any request meeting the requirements of § 108.3, the Regional Administrator shall conduct a full...

  14. Regional aging and longevity characteristics in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Li, Yonghua; Li, Hairong; Holdaway, Jennifer; Hao, Zhe; Wang, Wuyi; Krafft, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The factors that influence the length of human life are complex and longevity remains a controversial topic, particularly in China. This paper demonstrates the spatial patterns and changes of the elderly group (65 years old and over), the oldest old (80 years old and over) and the centenarians in China in the last decade, analyzes the influence of economic development on aging, and in the end, using a case study, explores the characteristics of the centenarians' behavior. The results indicate that high elderly and the oldest old proportions are more common in regions with higher socio-economic development and that have a favorable climate. Centenarian distribution pattern is less influenced by economic but only for few regions. Lifestyle factors, such as sufficient sleep, positive mental state and a light diet are also largely found among the centenarian group. PMID:27544461

  15. 40 CFR 108.4 - Investigation by Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Administrator. 108.4 Section 108.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS EMPLOYEE PROTECTION HEARINGS § 108.4 Investigation by Regional Administrator. Upon receipt of any request meeting the requirements of § 108.3, the Regional Administrator shall conduct a full...

  16. 40 CFR 108.4 - Investigation by Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Administrator. 108.4 Section 108.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS EMPLOYEE PROTECTION HEARINGS § 108.4 Investigation by Regional Administrator. Upon receipt of any request meeting the requirements of § 108.3, the Regional Administrator shall conduct a full...

  17. 40 CFR 108.4 - Investigation by Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Administrator. 108.4 Section 108.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS EMPLOYEE PROTECTION HEARINGS § 108.4 Investigation by Regional Administrator. Upon receipt of any request meeting the requirements of § 108.3, the Regional Administrator shall conduct a full...

  18. Temporary migration and regional development in China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Z

    1999-05-01

    "A new approach to migration in developing countries is used in this paper, which integrates into the migration process the experiences of moving to cities, working in urban areas, and returning to the countryside. As a result, rural labor migration is directly linked to rural development through remittances, as well as through physical and human capital brought back by return migrants. Migration information is mainly drawn from China's 1995 1% National Population Survey.... It has been found that patterns of temporary migration are mainly shaped by the magnetic force of the growth-pole region. Job opportunities created there in labor-intensive industries have attracted large numbers of migrants, first from the surrounding rural areas and then from the peripheral regions, enhancing migration propensity in both areas." PMID:12322172

  19. 40 CFR 108.4 - Investigation by Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Investigation by Regional Administrator. 108.4 Section 108.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS EMPLOYEE PROTECTION HEARINGS § 108.4 Investigation by Regional Administrator. Upon receipt of...

  20. Regional characterization of Western China-II

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, G.E.; Hartse, H.E.; Phillips, W.S.; Taylor, S.R.

    1996-10-01

    As part of the CTBT Research and Development regional characterization effort, geological, geophysical, and seismic data are being assembled and organized for inclusion in a knowledge base for China. The authors have continued their analysis using data form the station WMQ of the Chinese Digital Seismic Network (CDSN) and the IRIS station AAK. They are also acquiring and analyzing data from stations that are designated as (or near a designated) primary or secondary CTBT monitoring station. Regional seismograms are being analyzed to construct travel time curves, velocity models, attenuation characteristics, and to quantify regional propagation effects such as phase blockages. Using locations from the USGS Preliminary Determination of Epicenters (PDE) they have identified Pn, Pg, Sn, and Lg phases, constructed travel time curves, and estimated apparent velocities using linear regression. Amplitudes for the seismic phases have been measured using bandpassed waveforms and a series of magnitude relations have been determined for Western China. Studies of path specific propagation efficiency of the seismic phases have mapped blockages and also identified a possible set of observations that can be used to identify intermediate depth (> 100 im) seismic events in the Pamir-Hindu Kush seismic zone. Chinese seismicity catalogs from the USGS and Chinese State Seismological Bureau (SSB) are being used to identify and obtain seismic data (including mine seismicity) and information for lower magnitude events. Clustering analysis has been used to identify seismicity clusters in space with origin times that are distributed during daylight hours which suggest mining operations. These clusters are being investigated with imagery to attempt to identify precise mine locations.

  1. 51. Roof plans, General Services Administration, Construction Management Division, Region ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Roof plans, General Services Administration, Construction Management Division, Region 2, New York, October 29, 1976. Scale 1/31=1. - U.S. Navy Fleet Supply Base, Storehouse No. 1, 830 Third Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  2. 76 FR 60803 - Fourth Administrative Review of Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Fourth Administrative Review of Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade...

  3. 77 FR 6060 - Second Administrative Review of Sodium Hexametaphosphate From the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... FR 23545 (April 27, 2011). \\2\\ See Second Administrative Review of Sodium Hexametaphosphate from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Preliminary Results, 76 FR 73599 (November 29, 2011). Statutory... International Trade Administration Second Administrative Review of Sodium Hexametaphosphate From the...

  4. Business Education and Regional Variation: An Administrative Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, John F.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Responses to a survey of 319 American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business-accredited colleges of business and accounting programs (58 percent) found substantial agreement among administrators, although regional differences were found regarding breadth (versus specialization) and relevance (versus theory development). (JOW)

  5. 44 CFR 350.11 - Action by FEMA Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Action by FEMA Regional Administrator. 350.11 Section 350.11 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS REVIEW AND APPROVAL OF STATE AND LOCAL RADIOLOGICAL...

  6. 44 CFR 350.11 - Action by FEMA Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Action by FEMA Regional Administrator. 350.11 Section 350.11 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS REVIEW AND APPROVAL OF STATE AND LOCAL RADIOLOGICAL...

  7. 44 CFR 350.11 - Action by FEMA Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Action by FEMA Regional Administrator. 350.11 Section 350.11 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS REVIEW AND APPROVAL OF STATE AND LOCAL RADIOLOGICAL...

  8. A Multi-regional CGE Model for China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Na; Shi, Minjun; Wang, Fei

    With the development of China’s economy, the regional diversity and interregional economic linkage have become more and more remarkable and been two important factors to study China’s national and regional economy. Based on the multi-regional input-output table for China, this paper develops a multi-regional CGE (MRCGE) model for China that is expected to provide a useful tool for analysis of regional economy and regional policies. This model depicts regional diversities on scale and structure and interregional economic linkages, i.e. commodity flow, labor flow and capital flow. As an application of this model, this paper designs to increase the investment for Northwestern region to reveal the important effect that comes from the regional differences and linkages.

  9. A Regional Categorization for "New-Type Urbanization" in China.

    PubMed

    Fang, Chuanglin; Ma, Haitao; Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Regional differences in the character of urbanization in China are substantial. The promotion of what has been termed "new-type urbanization" cannot, as a result of these regional differences, be expected to follow a universal approach--rather, such a development must objectively adhere to locational and category-specific principles and adopt differentiated urbanization development models. Regional categorization is often used in geography, but is rarely deployed in research addressing human and social problems relating to urbanization. In March 2014, China published the National New-type Urbanization Plan (2014-2020), which calls for the scientific and reasonable planning of "new-type urbanization," and appropriate regional categorizations are urgently needed in order to guide this reform. Responding to this challenge, this research engaged in the design of a "dominantly quantitative analysis, qualitatively supplemented" method in order to divide China into 5 main regions and 47 sub-regions in terms of new-type urbanization. The paper discusses the features and key problems of each region. This study introduces a new method for regional categorization, thereby remedying the lack of regional categorization in relation to "new-type urbanization" in China, and ultimately promoting the development of regional categorization in the humanities as a valuable reference for healthy and sustainable Chinese urbanization. PMID:26237405

  10. China Education Almanac (1949 - 1981): The Planned Administration of Education, Educational Funds, and Wage System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Stanley, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    This issue provides topics and titles of contemporary reference works on Chinese education. Most of the material provided is translated from pages 88 through 114 of the China Education Almanac, and describes the administration and funding of general education in China. (JDH)

  11. Rain-season trends in precipitation and its' effect in different climate regions of China during 1961-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yanling; Achberger, Christine; Linderholm, Hans W.

    2013-04-01

    Rain-season trends in precipitation and its' effect in different climate regions of China during 1961-2008 Yanling Song, Christine Achberger, Hans W. Linderholm National Climate Centre, China Meteorological Administration, 100081, Beijing, China Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Box 460, 405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden Using high-quality precipitation data from 524 stations, the trends of a set of precipitation variables during the main rain season (May to September) were analyzed from 1961 to 2008 for different climate regions in China. Averaged over China, the results indicated an increase in total precipitation, where days with low precipitation were decreasing while precipitation intensity increased. However, different characteristics were displayed in different regions of China. In most temperate monsoon regions (north-eastern China), total precipitation and precipitation days showed decreasing trends, while positive tendencies in precipitation intensity were, noted for most stations. It is suggested that the decrease in rain-season precipitation is mainly related to fewer rain days and a change towards drier conditions in north-eastern China, and as a result, the available water resources have been negatively affected in the temperate monsoon regions. In most subtropical and tropical monsoon climate regions (south-eastern China), total precipitation and precipitation days (11-50mm, >50 mm) showed slightly positive trends. However, precipitation days (≤10mm) decreased in these regions. Changes towards wetter conditions in this area, together with more frequent heavy rainfall events causing floods, have a severe impact on the peoples' lives and socio-economic development. In general, the rain-season precipitation, precipitation days as well as rain-season precipitation intensity all had increased in the temperate continental and plateau/mountain regions of western China. This increase in rain-season precipitation has been favourable to pasture

  12. Regional Consortia for E-Resources: A Case Study of Deals in the South China Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chunrong, Luo; Jingfen, Wang; Zhinong, Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse the current situation and the social and economic benefits from the consortia acquisitions of electronic resources by the China Academic Library and Information System (CALIS) South China Regional Centre and to recommend improvements for consortia acquisitions. Design/methodology/approach: Analyses…

  13. Natural conditions and administrative settings for concentrating photovoltaics in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Ling; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Leutz, Ralf

    2012-10-01

    It is an inevitable trend for China to develop green technologies to help the country to produce cleaner energy and to consume it more efficiently, under the pressure of energy security concern, the nation's emissions trajectory and sustainable economic development. The abundant solar resources in West China provide a big potential to utilize the solar energy. Under the promotion of key incentive policies including both feed-in-tariff (FIT) mechanisms and government rebate programs, China has become a major global solar force in photovoltaic (PV) industry both in manufacturing and in the installation of flat-plate products, with 16 GW production and 2.75 GW installation achieved in the year 2011. As a branch of PV technology, concentrating photovoltaics (CPV) technology with several years' development history in China is presently moving from pilot facilities to commercial-scale applications. Several MW-CPV power plants have been installed by both domestic and western companies in China, factories with several hundred-MW production capacity are being planned or built. Sustainable performance and reliability improvement of CPV modules, a vertical integration of supply chain in CPV industry aiming at a cost reduction, a sufficient grid infrastructure for facilitating the West-East and North-South electricity transmission will promote Chinese CPV market to actually initiate, develop and mature.

  14. 76 FR 12940 - Honey from the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews, 76 FR 5137 (January 28, 2011). On February 24...-Dujiangyan Dubao Bee Industrial Co., Ltd.; Silverstream International Co., Ltd.; Sunnice Honey; Suzhou Aiyi... International Trade Administration Honey from the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of...

  15. 75 FR 49460 - Administrative Review of Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... Antidumping Duty Administrative Review and Intent Not to Revoke, In Part, 75 FR 11855 (March 12, 2010... Republic of China, 74 FR 13178 (March 26, 2009) for a listing of these companies. As noted above, on March... Results of Antidumping Administrative Review, 75 FR 28235 (May 20, 2010). \\8\\ See Memoranda to the File...

  16. 77 FR 66952 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ..., 75 FR 68758, 68761 (November 9, 2010), unchanged in First Administrative Review of Steel Wire Garment... Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR 27994, 27996 (May 13, 2011). DATES: Effective November 8, 2012. FOR... Duty Order: Steel Wire Garment Hangers from the People's Republic of China, 73 FR 58111 (October...

  17. 78 FR 13626 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ...The Department of Commerce (``Department'') has received requests to conduct an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on wooden bedroom furniture from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). The anniversary month of this order is January. In accordance with the Department's regulations, we are initiating this administrative...

  18. Regional ground deformation and its controlling measures in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhifang; Zhu, Haisheng; Huang, Yong

    2006-12-01

    With the development of construction of China Cities, there exist a lot of environmental geological problems involved in the geofracture, land subsidence, collapse, landslide, devolution, mudrock flow, floating sand, piping and soft ground deformation. Of big cities whose population is over one million in China, about 30 cities appears the land subsidence region. Other cities locate in the regions of collapse yellow earth or expand soil of strong swell-shrink charasteristic, soft ground and karst. In the paper, the cause and hazard of regionality ground deformation is summed up. The causes of regional land deformation caused by the natural geological effect and activities of human being are analyzed. According to the length of deformation course and endanger of society, economy and life, land deformation involves three types, that is, the delay, rapid and break land deformation. And the concrete countermeasure and method are provided.

  19. Fukien region, China (summary): terrain intelligence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey Military Geology Branch

    1944-01-01

    Population of the Fukien region is estimated from census figures (1928-1935) for Fukien, Kiangsi, Chekiang, and Kwangtung Pro vlnces at 15 to 20 ipillion. At the coast are several important cities: Min-hou (390,363 inhabitants), Ssu-ming (219,974), Pfu-tlien, Chin-chiang, and Lung-chfi. Nmerous towns and villages are scattered throughout the region. - B. Climate is wann humid temperate in the north and hmid subtropical in the south. Typhoons occur in late summer, especially in the area from Min-hu north. Precipitation averages 40 to 80 inches per year; It is generally highest in the interior. Mean monthly tamperature range is 55O to 850 F at coast; greater range inland

  20. A regional climate simulation study with land cover dynamics in Northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hanjie; Ju, Yongmao; Li, Jianyun; Qiu, Guoyu

    2007-09-01

    A social-economic database based on the Governmental Statistical Annals, county-to-county investigation, literature verification, as well as the satellite identification was completed recently by the Remote Sensing and GIS Research Center, Beijing Normal University of China. The GIS Operational System handing this database not only provides details of the social, ecological, and economic information of the Northern China's 13 provinces since earlier 1950s, but also gives out predictions of these information by 2050 with different sceneries concerning the population increase, land use variation, governmental policy adjusting, administrating capability, science and technology development, National GDP increment, as well as world climate change. Aims at further regional climate simulation study, there is a special module nested in the GIS Operational System that interprets the county-level administrative data-units to a 60 × 60 km numerical mesh-grid suitable for climate model. By incorporating the land use dynamics provided by the above database, the new generation of the Regional Integrate Environment Modeling System (RIEMS2.0) was used for climate simulation study. The preliminary simulation studies show that: (1) the regional climate will be affected by the LULC variation because the equilibrium of water and heat transfer in the air-vegetation interface is changed; (2) the integrate impact of the LULC variation on climate (such as temperature, humidity and net long-wave radiation, precipitation) is not only limited to the Northern China where LULC varies, but also to the whole numerical domain where the LULC does not vary at all; (3) the ecological construction engineering implemented in Northern China including the Green-Great Wall construction engineering, the replace farming with forestry and grass movement, and the natural forest conservation etc has shown and will work positively on the eco-environment improvement, particularly shown as the increased

  1. Regional inequality in health and its determinants: evidence from China.

    PubMed

    Fang, Pengqian; Dong, Siping; Xiao, Jingjing; Liu, Chaojie; Feng, Xianwei; Wang, Yiping

    2010-01-01

    Health inequality is a problem with great political importance all over the world. Urban-rural inequality in health has attracted great attentions in recent years in China, but very few researches have been undertaken into regional discrepancies in health. This research aims at measuring the degree of regional health inequality in China and identifying its determinants. Indicators for health, socioeconomic status, health resources and health services delivery were selected through Delphi consultations from 18 experts. With cross-sectional data from 31 provinces, composite health indexes were generated. The regional inequality in health was described by Lorenz curve and measured by Gini coefficient. The determinants of health inequality were identified through canonical correlation analysis. The results showed that there existed distinct regional disparities in health in China, which were mainly reflected in "Maternal & Child Health" and "Infectious Diseases", not in the most commonly used health indicator average life expectancy. The regional health inequality in China was increasing with the rapid economic growth. The regional health inequality was associated with not only the distribution of wealth, but also the distribution of health resources and primary health care services. Policy makers need to be aware of three major challenges when they try to achieve and maintain equality in distribution of health: First, the most commonly used health indicators are not necessarily sensitive enough to detect health inequalities. Second, increase in health inequality is often accompanied with rapid economic growth and increase in life expectancy. Countries in transition are facing the greatest challenge in developing a fair and equitable health care system. Finally, investment in health resources does bring about differences in distribution of health. However, primary health care plays a more important role than hospital services in reducing regional disparities in health

  2. High-resolution mantle tomography of China and surrounding regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jinli; Zhao, Dapeng

    2006-09-01

    A high-resolution P wave tomographic model of the crust and mantle down to 1100 km depth under China and surrounding regions is determined by using about one million arrival times of P, pP, PP, and PcP waves from 19,361 earthquakes recorded by 1012 seismic stations. The subducting Pacific slab is imaged clearly as a high-velocity zone from the oceanic trenches down to about 600 km depth, and intermediate-depth and deep earthquakes are located within the slab. The Pacific slab becomes stagnant in the mantle transition zone under east China. The western edge of the stagnant slab is roughly coincident with a surface topographic boundary in east China. The active Changbai and Wudalianchi intraplate volcanoes in northeast China are underlain by significant slow anomalies in the upper mantle, above the stagnant Pacific slab. These results suggest that the active intraplate volcanoes in NE China are not hot spots but a kind of back-arc volcano associated with the deep subduction of the Pacific slab and its stagnancy in the transition zone. Under the Mariana arc, however, the Pacific slab penetrates directly down to the lower mantle. The active Tengchong volcano in southwest China is related to the eastward subduction of the Burma microplate. The subducting Indian and Philippine Sea plates are also imaged clearly. The Indian plate has subducted down to 200-300 km depth under the Tibetan Plateau with a horizontal moving distance of about 500 km. High-velocity anomalies are revealed in the upper mantle under the Tarim basin, Ordos, and Sichuan basin, which are three stable blocks in China.

  3. Rayleigh wave tomography of China and adjacent regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhongxian; Su, Wei; Peng, Yanju; Zheng, Yuejun; Li, Hongyi

    2003-02-01

    This paper presents a tomographic study on the S wave velocity structure of China and adjacent regions. Group velocity dispersions of fundamental Rayleigh waves along more than 4000 paths were determined with frequency-time analysis. The study region was divided into a 1° × 1° grid, and velocities in between grid nodes were calculated by bilinear interpolation. The Occam's inversion scheme was adopted to invert for group velocity distributions. This method is robust and allows us to use a fine grid in model parameterization and thus helps to restore a more realistic velocity pattern. Checkerboard tests were carried out, and the lateral resolution was estimated to be 4°-6° in China and its eastern continental shelves. The resulting group velocity maps from 10 to 184 s showed good correlation with known geological and tectonic features. The pure path dispersion curves at each node were inverted for shear wave velocity structures. The three-dimensional velocity model indicates thick lithospheres in the Yangtze and Tarim platforms and hot upper mantles in Baikal and western Mongolia, coastal area and continental shelves of eastern China, and Indochina and South China Sea regions. The Tibetan Plateau has a very thick crust with a low-velocity zone in its middle. Beneath the crust a north dipping high-velocity zone, mimicking a subducting plate, reaches to 200 km in depth and reaches to the Kunlun Mountains northward. In northern Tibet a low-velocity zone immediately below the Moho extends eastward then turns southward along the eastern edge of the plateau until it connects to the vast low-velocity area in Indochina and the South China Sea.

  4. 76 FR 51940 - Administrative Review of Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ...On February 14, 2011, the Department of Commerce (``Department'') published in the Federal Register the Preliminary Results of the fifth administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'').\\1\\ We gave interested parties an opportunity to comment on the Preliminary Results. Based upon our analysis of the comments......

  5. 76 FR 12338 - Silicon Metal From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... FR 30383 (June 1, 2010). In accordance with 19 CFR 351.213(b)(1), Globe Metallurgical Inc. (``Globe... Revocations in Part, 75 FR 44224 (July 28, 2010). \\1\\ See Globe's June 30, 2010 ``Request for 2009-10... International Trade Administration Silicon Metal From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of...

  6. 77 FR 48966 - Saccharin From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ...On April 12, 2012, the U.S. Department of Commerce (``the Department'') published the preliminary results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on saccharin from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') for the period of review (``POR'') July 1, 2010, through June 30, 2011.\\1\\ We invited interested parties to comment on the preliminary results but received no comments.......

  7. Vocational Education as an Innovation in the Republic of China--Computerization of School Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Frank Tien-Jin

    Computerized school administration has become one of the most crucial innovations in vocational education in Taiwan in the Republic of China. As these educators begin to design or purchase computerized information systems for their own schools, they must first define their specific information needs. Next, they should pay attention to…

  8. When Inclusion Is Innovation: An Examination of Administrator Perspectives on Inclusion in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Bi Ying; Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth

    2011-01-01

    This article examines administrator perspectives of innovative services for the inclusion of young children with disabilities in regular preschool classrooms in China. Twelve directors from 12 pilot inclusion preschools in Beijing participated in this study. Qualitative interview results revealed the following subthemes: definition, advocacy,…

  9. Spatial analysis on China's regional air pollutants and CO2 emissions: emission pattern and regional disparity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Liang; Liang, Hanwei

    2014-08-01

    China has suffered from serious air pollution and CO2 emission. Challenges of emission reduction policy not only come from technology advancement, but also generate from the fact that, China has pronounced disparity between regions, in geographical and socioeconomic. How to deal with regional disparity is important to achieve the reduction target effectively and efficiently. This research conducts a spatial analysis on the emission patterns of three air pollutants named SO2, NOx and PM2.5, and CO2, in China's 30 provinces, applied with spatial auto-correlation and multi regression modeling. We further analyze the regional disparity and inequity issues with the approach of Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient. Results highlight that: there is evident cluster effect for the regional air pollutants and CO2 emissions. While emission amount increases from western regions to eastern regions, the emission per GDP is in inverse trend. The Lorenz curve shows an even larger unequal distribution of GDP/emissions than GDP/capita in 30 regions. Certain middle and western regions suffers from a higher emission with lower GDP, which reveal the critical issue of emission leakage. Future policy making to address such regional disparity is critical so as to promote the emission control policy under the “equity and efficiency” principle.

  10. Regional and Global Impacts of Megacity Air Pollution in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Renyi

    2014-05-01

    Air quality has deteriorated in many megacities of China because of their rapid economic developments. For example, as the world's second largest economy, China has experienced severe air pollution, with aerosols or fine particulate matter less than 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5) reaching unprecedented high levels across many cities in recent winters. In addition to the impacts of aerosols on air chemistry, visibility, and human health, intense aerosol pollution is believed to exert profound impacts on the regional and global atmosphere and climate. In the first part of the talk, perspectives are provided on formation and transformation of haze in China. In the second part the long-term impacts of aerosols on precipitation and lightning over a megacity area in China will be presented, on the basis of atmospheric observations and simulations using a cloud-resolving WRF model. Our results reveal that elevated aerosol loading suppresses light and moderate precipitation, but enhances heavy precipitation. Also, we demonstrate climatically modulated mid-latitude cyclones by Asian pollution over past three decades, using a novel hierarchical modeling approach and observational analysis. Our results unambiguously reveal a large impact of the Asian pollutant outflows on the global general circulation and climate.

  11. Regional water footprint evaluation in China: a case of Liaoning.

    PubMed

    Dong, Huijuan; Geng, Yong; Sarkis, Joseph; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Okadera, Tomohiro; Xue, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Water-related problems are currently second only to energy issues as threats to human society. North China is a region that is facing severe water scarcity problems. In order to provide appropriate water mitigation policies a regional study is completed. Under this circumstance, Liaoning Province, a typical heavy industrial province in north China is chosen as a case study region. The input-output analysis method is employed in order to evaluate the water footprint both from production and consumption perspectives. The results show that the total water footprint of Liaoning in 2007 was 7.30 billionm(3), a 84.6% of internal water footprint and a 15.4% external water footprint. The water trade balance of Liaoning was 2.68 billionm(3), indicating that Liaoning was a net water export region, although water shortages are becoming a more serious concern. The "Agriculture" and "Food and beverage production" sectors are found to have the highest water footprint, water intensity, water exports, and water trade balance. Based upon Liaoning realities policy implications and suggestions are made, including industrial and trade structure adjustment, application of water efficient technology and management measures, and appropriate capacity-building efforts. The methodology and findings may be useful for investigation of water footprints throughout various regions of the world. PMID:23178781

  12. Experience on healthcare utilization in seven administrative regions of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Health care utilization in many developing countries, Tanzania included, is mainly through the use of traditional medicine (TRM) and its practitioners despite the presence of the conventional medicine. This article presents findings on the study that aimed to get an experience of health care utilization from both urban and rural areas of seven administrative regions in Tanzania. A total of 33 health facility managers were interviewed on health care provision and availability of supplies including drugs, in their respective areas. The findings revealed that the health facilities were overburden with higher population to serve than it was planned. Consequently essential drugs and other health supplies were available only in the first two weeks of the month. Conventional health practitioners considered traditional health practitioners to be more competent in mental health management, and overall, they were considered to handle more HIV/AIDS cases knowingly or unknowingly due to shear need of healthcare by this group. In general conventional health practitioners were positive towards traditional medicine utilization; and some of them admitted using traditional medicines. Traditional medicines like other medical health systems worldwide have side effects and some contentious ethical issues that need serious consideration and policy direction. Since many people will continue using traditional/alternative medicine, there is an urgent need to collaborate with traditional/alternative health practitioners through the institutionalization of basic training including hygiene in order to improved healthcare in the community and attain the Millennium Development Goals by 2015. PMID:22284539

  13. Variation and Trends of Regional Drought in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Z.; Lu, G.; Wen, L.; Kuang, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Drought is a long-lasting and widespread natural disaster that casts shadow on socioeconomic development and ecological environment. A comprehensive study of drought holds the key to achieve effective disaster prevention and mitigation. Variation and trends of regional drought in China are analyzed using a soil moisture based drought index derived from a 59-year (1951-2009) simulation of the terrestrial hydrologic cycle. The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land surface macro-scale hydrology model is used for the soil moisture simulation and is driven by observed air temperature and precipitation. The simulated soil moisture values are used to calculate the Soil Moisture Anomaly Percentage Index (SMAPI) as an indicator for measuring the severity of agricultural and hydrological droughts on a global basis. A SMAPI-based drought identification procedure is developed for practical uses in the identification of both grid point and regional drought events. As a result, a total of 325 regional drought events varying in time and strength are identified from China's nine drought study regions during 1951-2009. These drought events can thus be assessed quantitatively at different spatial and temporal scales. The result shows that on average, up to 30% of the total area of China is prone to drought over the past 59 years. There exist two regional dry centers. The first center is located in the area partially covered by two drought study regions North and Northwest, which extends to the southeastern portion of Inner Mongolia and the southwest part of Northeast. The second one is found in the central to southern portion of the drought study region South. Regionally, Inner Mongolia was often hit by successive droughts during autumn-winter months. However, such a characteristic is likely to undergo change in the future as more and more successive droughts observed in all four seasons in recent 10 year. Two regions (Northeast and North) are prone to multi-year drought

  14. Gifted Education in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tommis, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Despite its close geographical, economic, and political ties with mainland China, Hong Kong has not followed the same trajectory on gifted education but instead has preferred to adopt a more Western approach to the definitions and provision for gifted learners (Shi & Zixiu, 2000; Zou, Yang, & Greene, 2007). Hong Kong is, on most measures…

  15. A high-resolution emission inventory of primary pollutants for the Huabei region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, B.; Wang, P.; Ma, J. Z.; Zhu, S.; Pozzer, A.; Li, W.

    2011-07-01

    Huabei is a part of eastern China located between 32° N and 42° N latitude. Administratively it is a region including Beijing and Tianjin Municipalities, Hebei and Shanxi Provinces, and Inner-Mongolia Autonomous Region. Over the past decades, the region has experienced dramatic changes in air quality and climate, and has become a major focus of environmental research in China. Here we present a new inventory of air pollutant emissions in Huabei for the year 2003 developed as part of the project Influence of Pollution on Aerosols and Cloud Microphysics in North China (IPAC-NC). Our estimates are based on the data from the statistical yearbooks of state and provinces as well as local districts including major sectors and activities of power generation, industrial energy consumption, industrial processing, civil energy consumption, crop straw burning, oil and solvent evaporation, manure, and motor vehicles. The emission factors are selected from a variety of literature and those from local measurements in China are used whenever available. The estimated total emissions in the Huabei administrative region in 2003 are 4.73 Tg SO2, 2.72 Tg NOx (in equivalent NO2), 1.77 Tg VOC, 24.14 Tg CO, 2.03 Tg NH3, 4.57 Tg PM10, 2.42 Tg PM2.5, 0.21 Tg EC, and 0.46 Tg OC. For model convenience, we consider a larger Huabei region with Shandong, Henan and Liaoning Provinces included in our inventory. The estimated total emissions in the larger Huabei region in 2003 are: 9.55 Tg SO2, 5.27 Tg NOx (in equivalent NO2), 3.82 Tg VOC, 46.59 Tg CO, 5.36 Tg NH3, 10.74 Tg PM10, 5.62 Tg PM2.5, 0.41 Tg EC, and 0.99 Tg OC. The estimated emission rates are projected into grid cells at a horizontal resolution of 0.1° latitude by 0.1° longitude. Our gridded emission inventory consists of area sources, which are classified into industrial, civil, traffic, and straw burning sectors, and large industrial point sources, which include 345 sets of power plants, iron and steel plants, cement plants, and

  16. Assessing corporate social responsibility in China's sports lottery administration and its influence on consumption behavior.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai; Zhang, James J; Mao, Luke Lunhua; Min, Sophia D

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and examine consumer perception of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in China's sports lottery industry, and the effect of perceived CSR initiatives on sports lottery consumption behavior. Research participants (N = 4,980), selected based on a computer-generated, randomly stratified multistage sampling process, comprised Chinese residents who had purchased sports lottery tickets in the past 12 months. They completed a questionnaire that was derived from a qualitative research process. A factor analysis extracted two factors associated with perceptions of CSR in China's sports lottery administration: Regulatory and Prevention Responsibilities and Product Development Responsibility. Logistic regression analyses revealed that these two factors were influential of consumer behavior (i.e., relative and absolute expenditure, purchasing frequency, and time commitment). This study represents an initial effort to understand the dimensions of perceived CSR associated with Chinese sports lottery. The findings signify the importance of enforcing CSR in sports lottery administration. PMID:21927807

  17. [Plague in China. Threat of transmission to regions of Siberia and Far East].

    PubMed

    Maramovich, A S; Kosilko, S A; Innokent'eva, T I; Voronova, G A; Bazanova, L P; Nikitin, A Ia; Okunev, L P

    2008-01-01

    In China plague has been officially registered from 1754 (638 epidemics with total number of cases 2.5 millions and case-fatality rate 87.5%). Endemic areas started to form on the south of the country and then the disease gradually spread on seaside provinces, where to the end of the 19th century, due to reach of island territories and large international seaports, was characterized by pandemic spread. Epidemic manifestations of plague in China were observed during more than 200 years in 23 out of 36 administrative areas affecting continental and North-Eastern regions of the country, which are immediately adjacent to border of Russia. Pneumonic plague in Manchuria clearly demonstrated the role of transport communications in transmission of this deadly infection and possibility of its spread on border regions of Siberia and Far East. Lengthy country's border, intensive migration flows, large-scale international integration, developing of near-border trade, simplification of policy for transboundary traveling are the reasons for differentiated number of sanitary protective measures on administrative borders of Siberia and Far East. PMID:18368762

  18. Fishborne Trematode Metacercariae in Freshwater Fish from Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Keeseon S.; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Yang, Yichao; Li, Xueming

    2009-01-01

    A survey was performed to investigate the infection status of fishborne trematode (FBT) metacercariae in freshwater fish from Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. A total of 307 freshwater fish of 31 species were collected from 5 administrative regions of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. They were examined by artificial digestion method from July 2003 to August 2004. No metacercariae were detected in fish from Fusui-xian. In fish from Mashan-xian and a market in Nanning, 3 species of metacercariae, Haplorchis taichui, Haplorchis pumilio, and Centrocestus formosanus, were mainly detected. Metacercariae (8 in number) of Clonorchis sinensis were found in 1 Chanodichthys dabryi purchased from a market in Nanning. In fish from Yangshuo, Metagonimus yokogawai metacercariae were detected from all 18 fish species examined. Total 13 C. sinensis metacercariae were found in 3 out of 10 Hemibarbus maculatus from Yangshuo. All 7 Zacco platypus from Yangshuo were infected with 8-112 Echinochasmus perfoliatus metacercariae. In fish from Binyang-xian, H. pumilo metacercariae were mainly detected in all 5 fish species examined, and only 1 metacercaria of C. sinensis was found in a Hemiculter leucisculus. From the above results, it was confirmed that some species of freshwater fish play a role of second intermediate hosts for FBT in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. In particular, 4 species of intestinal flukes, M. yokogawai, H. taichui, H. pumilio, and C. formosanus, were prevalent in fish hosts, whereas C. sinensis metacercariae were detected only in 3 fish species. PMID:19724698

  19. Large cutting tools in the Danjiangkou Reservoir Region, central China.

    PubMed

    Kuman, Kathleen; Li, Chaorong; Li, Hao

    2014-11-01

    Handaxe-bearing sites in China are currently known to occur in a number of alluvial basins, the best known being Dingcun, Bose and Luonan. Bose in the south and Luonan in central China on the northern margin of the Qinling Mountains are most familiar to English-speaking researchers. Here we document the Danjiangkou Reservoir Region (DRR) as another major area for large cutting tools (LCTs), located in central China on the southeastern edge of the Qinling Mountains. Large cutting tools are preserved in three terraces of the Han and Dan Rivers in Hubei and Henan Provinces, with dates from ca. 0.8 Ma (millions of years ago) (Terrace 4) to the first half of the Middle Pleistocene (Terrace 3), and possibly to the Late Pleistocene (Terrace 2). This paper reports on LCTs discovered in Terraces 3 and 2, with a majority from the older terrace (and one specimen from Terrace 4). Regional environments during the Middle Pleistocene were relatively warm, humid and stable. Despite the poor quality of raw materials (predominantly quartz phyllite and trachyte for the LCTs), good examples of both handaxes and cleavers are present, plus two types of picks. The LCT technology is compared and contrasted with other Asian industries and with the Acheulean. Overall the DRR LCTs show both technological and morphological similarities with Acheulean LCTs, with some differences that are mainly attributed to raw material properties, subsistence ecology, and 'cultural drift.' The DRR LCTs expand the range of morphological variability of the East Asian material and highlight the need for greater reliance on technological analysis and raw material evaluation for best comparison of Chinese assemblages with the Acheulean tradition. PMID:25223718

  20. Probing the severe haze pollution in three typical regions of China: Characteristics, sources and regional impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiongzhen; Zhuang, Guoshun; Huang, Kan; Liu, Tingna; Deng, Congrui; Xu, Jian; Lin, Yanfen; Guo, Zhigang; Chen, Ying; Fu, Qingyan; Fu, Joshua S.; Chen, Jiakuan

    2015-11-01

    PM2.5 with its major chemical components were measured and analyzed during a concurrent haze in Jan. 1-19, 2013 at three sites (Shanghai, Beijing, and Huaniao, a remote isle over the East China Sea) to probe the sources and formation process of such a severe haze over three typical regions in China. The mean PM2.5 concentrations during the severely polluted days reached 180.8 μg m-3, 299.2 μg m-3, and 131.1 μg m-3 in Shanghai, Beijing, and the Huaniao Isle, respectively. The mass ratio of the sum of SO42- , NO3-, and NH4+ to PM2.5 were over 1/3 during the polluted days at all the three sites. Promoted gas-to-particle transformations from acidic SO2 and NOx to SO42- and NO3- under high relative humidity conditions played a major role in the formation of this severe haze. Significant contribution of traffic emissions to the haze formation over China was suggested to be one of the major sources in triggering the heavy haze over China. Specifically, there was a more contribution from traffic in Shanghai than in Beijing as indicated by the higher NO3-/SO42- ratio in Shanghai. In Beijing, the enhanced coal combustion for winter heating along with the traffic emission was suggested to be the major two sources of this haze episode. Typical pollution elements such as As, Cd, and Pb as well as Cl- and K+ were substantially enhanced in the severely polluted days. Although the Huaniao Isle is located in the remote oceanic area as a background site, pollution elements, secondary ions, and K+ all increased substantially during the polluted days. As visualized by the backward air mass trajectories associated with the potential source region identification technique, air masses that passed over Northern China and Yangtze River Delta evidently invaded the offshore areas of Eastern China. The ratios of As, Cd, Cu, Zn, and K+ to Al at the Huaniao Isle were closer to those of Beijing rather than Shanghai, indicating that the marine aerosol over the East China Sea had been

  1. Multi-regional input-output analysis for China's regional CH4 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Li, Jiashuo; Peng, Beihua

    2014-03-01

    China is the largest CH4 emitter in the world. Given the importance of CH4 in greenhouse gas emission inventories, the characteristics of China's CH4 emissions at different scales deserve to be fully understood. Presented in this paper is an interprovincial input-output embodiment analysis of China's regional CH4 emissions in 2007, based on the most recently available multi-regional input-output table, and relevant CH4 emissions data. The results show that the eastern, central and western areas contribute to 48.2%, 28.6%, and 23.3% of the national total embodied emissions, respectively. Guangdong has the highest level of embodied CH4 emissions among all of the 30 regions. The Agriculture sector produces the most embodied CH4 emissions in final demand, followed by the Construction, Food Production and Tobacco Processing, and Other Service Activities sectors. Significant net transfers of embodied CH4 emission flows are identified from the central and western areas to the eastern area via interregional trade. Shanxi is the largest interregional exporter of embodied CH4 emissions. In contrast, Guangdong is the largest interregional importer. Energy activities, agricultural activities, and waste management comprise 65.6%, 30.7%, and 3.7% of the total embodied CH4 emissions in interregional trade, respectively. By using consumption-based accounting principles, the emission magnitudes, per capita emissions, and emission intensities of most eastern regions increase remarkably, while those of some central and western regions decrease largely. To achieve regional CH4 emission mitigation, comprehensive mitigation measures should be designed under consideration of regional transfer of emission responsibility.

  2. Badlands in humid regions - redbed desertification in Nanxiong Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Luobin; Hua, Peng; Simonson, Scott

    2016-04-01

    The redbed badlands in Nanxiong City, China, well represent badlands in humid regions. The erosion rate in humid regions is much higher than that in arid regions and can reach 1 cm per month during the summer. The purpose of this study is to introduce the research of badlands in China, which have not been extensively studied so far, and to compare the badlands between arid and humid regions. Furthermore, the aim is to study the impact of mineralogical and chemical composition on the disintegration of soft rock in Nanxiong Basin badlands. For the purpose of this study field observations, sampling, and digging profiles were done. The mineralogical and chemical compositions of the Nanxiong Basin badland lithologies were determined by XRD, XRF and thin sections. Weathering resistance, process of weathering, and disintegration features were studied by weathering experiments under natural conditions. Weathering profiles can be easily divided into four layers: regolith, a strongly weathered layer, a poorly weathered layer, and an unweathered sediment. The depth of the weathering profile is influenced by the weathering resistance of the soft rock. Weathering resistance affects the erosion rate and evolution of landforms in badlands by influencing the rate from unweathered rock to regolith. Analyzed sediments have high content of illite and illite-smectite interstratifications. This composition of clay minerals together with poor sediment consolidation jointly leads to weathering prone sediment. The weathering and disintegration of soft rock in Nanxiong Basin badlands has a close relationship with rainfall. Sheet erosion, a kind of solid-liquid phase flow, formed in the regolith of the badland during rainfall events and can be the most instrumental to erosion. The mineral composition and liquidity plasticity index were also analyzed, and the results show that the regolith are low liquid limit silts with liquid limit of 21%-25%, plastic limit of 13%-18% and plasticity index

  3. Amplitude path corrections for regional phases in China

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, W.S.; Velasco, A.A.; Taylor, S.R.; Randall, G.E.

    1998-12-31

    The authors investigate the effectiveness of amplitude path corrections for regional phases on seismic event discrimination and magnitude estimation. Waveform data from digital stations in China for regional, shallow (< 50 km) events were obtained from the IRIS Data Management Center (DMC) for years 1986 to 1996 using the USGS Preliminary Determination of Epicenters (PDE) and the Chinese State Seismological Bureau (SSB) catalogs. For each event, the amplitudes for each regional phase (P{sub n}, P{sub g}, S{sub n}, L{sub g}) were measured, as well as the P{sub g} and L{sub g} coda. Measured amplitudes were corrected for source scaling using estimates of m{sub b} and for distance using a power law that accounts for attenuation and spreading. The amplitude residuals were interpolated and mapped as 2-D amplitude correction surfaces. The authors employ several methods to create the amplitude correction surfaces: a waveguide method, and two interpolation methods (Baysian kriging and a circular moving window mean smoother). They explore the sensitivities of the surfaces to the method and to regional propagation, and apply these surfaces to correct amplitude data to reduce scatter in discrimination ratios and magnitude estimates.

  4. Data Administration at a Regional University: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gose, Frank J.

    Data administration (DA) is a position that has emerged with the growth of information technologies. A review of DA literature confirms that, although DA is widely associated with database management systems (DBMS), there is no standard DA job description, DA staffing and location within the organization vary, and DA functions range in description…

  5. A high-resolution emission inventory of primary pollutants for the Huabei region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, B.; Wang, P.; Ma, J. Z.; Zhu, S.; Pozzer, A.; Li, W.

    2012-01-01

    Huabei, located between 32° N and 42° N, is part of eastern China and includes administratively the Beijing and Tianjin Municipalities, Hebei and Shanxi Provinces, and Inner-Mongolia Autonomous Region. Over the past decades, the region has experienced dramatic changes in air quality and climate, and has become a major focus of environmental research in China. Here we present a new inventory of air pollutant emissions in Huabei for the year 2003 developed as part of the project Influence of Pollution on Aerosols and Cloud Microphysics in North China (IPAC-NC). Our estimates are based on data from the statistical yearbooks of the state, provinces and local districts, including major sectors and activities of power generation, industrial energy consumption, industrial processing, civil energy consumption, crop straw burning, oil and solvent evaporation, manure, and motor vehicles. The emission factors are selected from a variety of literature and those from local measurements in China are used whenever available. The estimated total emissions in the Huabei administrative region in 2003 are 4.73 Tg SO2, 2.72 Tg NOx (in equivalent NO2), 1.77 Tg VOC, 24.14 Tg CO, 2.03 Tg NH3, 4.57 Tg PM10, 2.42 Tg PM2.5, 0.21 Tg EC, and 0.46 Tg OC. For model convenience, we consider a larger Huabei region with Shandong, Henan and Liaoning Provinces included in our inventory. The estimated total emissions in the larger Huabei region in 2003 are: 9.55 Tg SO2, 5.27 Tg NOx (in equivalent NO2), 3.82 Tg VOC, 46.59 Tg CO, 5.36 Tg NH3, 10.74 Tg PM10, 5.62 Tg PM2.5, 0.41 Tg EC, and 0.99 Tg OC. The estimated emission rates are projected into grid cells at a horizontal resolution of 0.1° latitude by 0.1° longitude. Our gridded emission inventory consists of area sources, which are classified into industrial, civil, traffic, and straw burning sectors, and large industrial point sources, which include 345 sets of power plants, iron and steel plants, cement plants, and chemical plants. The

  6. 20 CFR 658.423 - Handling of other complaints by the Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Handling of other complaints by the Regional Administrator. 658.423 Section 658.423 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS GOVERNING THE JOB SERVICE SYSTEM Job Service...

  7. 20 CFR 658.702 - Initial action by the Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Initial action by the Regional Administrator... investigation shall be extended 20 additional working days. (e) If the Regional Administrator determines that... MSFW Monitor Advocate. (f)(1) The State agency shall have 20 working days to comment on the...

  8. Different Regions, Diverse Classrooms? a Study of Primary Classrooms in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaught, Carmel; Lok, Beatrice; Yin, Hongbiao; Lee, John Chi-Kin; Song, Huan

    2014-01-01

    Classroom experience is shaped by a number of factors. In this paper, we report a classroom observation study in China, illustrating regional variation in students' classroom learning experiences. Through comparing and contrasting observed classroom practices in three different regions in China (Chongqing, Hong Kong and Shanghai), the paper…

  9. Spatial distribution and morphologic characteristics of gullies in the Black Soil Region of China: Hebei watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gully erosion can be a dominant cause of soil degradation but little is known about its role in the black soils region of northeast China. The purpose of this paper was to investigate the morphologic characteristics and spatial distributions of gullies in the black soil region of China. The Hebei wa...

  10. Regional Disparities in the Allocation of China's Higher Education Resources from the Perspective of Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Bao

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to analyze the changing circumstances of the regional disparities in the allocation of China's higher educational resources before and after the increase in college enrollments, as well as the mechanisms that have affected these circumstances. The conclusions are that regional disparities in the allocation of China's funding…

  11. Rational regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars in China

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jun; Pan, Yong-Bao; Xu, Liping; Grisham, Michael Paul; Zhang, Hua; Que, Youxiong

    2015-01-01

    Knowing yield potential and yield stability of sugarcane cultivars is of significance in guiding sugarcane breeding and rationalising regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars. In the present study, a heritability-adjusted genotype main effect plus genotype × environment (HA-GGE) biplot program was used to analyze the cane and sucrose yields of 44 newly released sugarcane cultivars at eight pilot test sites. The cane and sucrose yields of nine cultivars were higher than those of the control cultivar ROC22. From the perspective of cane yield, cultivars FN 40 and YZ 06–407 were well adapted to a wider range of conditions and produced relatively high cane yields in several pilot sites. From the perspective of sucrose yield, cultivars LC 03–1137, FN 38, FN 41, MT 01–77 and LC 05–136 were well adapted to a wide range of conditions and produced relatively high sucrose yields. Based on these results, three high yielding and widely adapted cultivars, namely, FN 39, LC 05–136, and YZ 05–51 were recommended for production in three major Chinese sugarcane planting areas. The results will provide a theoretical basis for recommending the effective use and rational regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars in China. PMID:26499905

  12. Rational regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars in China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jun; Pan, Yong-Bao; Xu, Liping; Grisham, Michael Paul; Zhang, Hua; Que, Youxiong

    2015-01-01

    Knowing yield potential and yield stability of sugarcane cultivars is of significance in guiding sugarcane breeding and rationalising regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars. In the present study, a heritability-adjusted genotype main effect plus genotype × environment (HA-GGE) biplot program was used to analyze the cane and sucrose yields of 44 newly released sugarcane cultivars at eight pilot test sites. The cane and sucrose yields of nine cultivars were higher than those of the control cultivar ROC22. From the perspective of cane yield, cultivars FN 40 and YZ 06-407 were well adapted to a wider range of conditions and produced relatively high cane yields in several pilot sites. From the perspective of sucrose yield, cultivars LC 03-1137, FN 38, FN 41, MT 01-77 and LC 05-136 were well adapted to a wide range of conditions and produced relatively high sucrose yields. Based on these results, three high yielding and widely adapted cultivars, namely, FN 39, LC 05-136, and YZ 05-51 were recommended for production in three major Chinese sugarcane planting areas. The results will provide a theoretical basis for recommending the effective use and rational regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars in China. PMID:26499905

  13. Ecohydrological research in the Poyang lake region in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmalz, Britta; Fohrer, Nicola; Jähnig, Sonja; Cai, Qinghua; Bieger, Katrin

    2010-05-01

    The presented concept of the DFG project "Integrated modelling of the response of aquatic ecosystems to land use and climate change in the Poyang lake region, China" is part of the NSFC/DFG-Joint funding programme "Land Use and Water Resources Management under Changing Environmental Conditions". The aim of our project is the development of an integrated modelling methodology to assess the impact of fast environmental changes on aquatic ecosystems in the example catchment of the Changjiang (6260 km²) in the Poyang lake area (China). Joint measurement and sampling campaigns will be the basis for integrating three different models: we aim to model a dynamic DPSI(R)-system, for the first time coupling the models SWAT (catchment processes), HEC-RAS (in-stream processes) and MAXENT/BIOMOD (biological responses). Major drivers (climate, land use, channel alteration) are model input data, while the main pressures on the ecosystem (water balance, nutrients, sedimentation) are defined and represented in the model algorithms of SWAT and HEC-RAS. Based on the multiple pressures, we aim to dynamically assess the changes of the state of habitat parameters (e.g. flow, depth, substrate) in the model output. Finally, the impact of the state on the aquatic eco-systems will be evaluated by analysing shift of distribution ranges modelled by MAXENT/BIOMOD and changes in biodiversity or ecosystem health indicators of benthic invertebrates, an important group in freshwater ecosystems. Joint scenario runs considering climate or land use changes will particularly enhance understanding (1) how landscape processes and nutrient cycles interact with ecohydrological and aquatic system properties and (2) how the impact of land use, climate and hydromorphological change on aquatic ecosystem properties can be assessed.

  14. Local and inter-regional contributions to PM2.5 nitrate and sulfate in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Qi; Wu, Li; Zhang, Hongliang

    2014-09-01

    Emissions of NOx, SO2 and primary nitrate and sulfate from seven regions in China (North, Northeast, East, Central, South, Southwest and Northwest) were separately tracked in a source-oriented Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to quantify the local and inter-regional contributions to PM2.5 nitrate and sulfate concentrations in different cities and provinces. In January, high concentrations of nitrate (∼30 μg m-3) occurred in the North China Plain (NCP) and the Middle and Lower Yangtze Plain (MLYP), as well as the Sichuan Basin. NOx emissions from North, Central and East China were transported over long distances to form rather uniform concentration of nitrate in the NCP and MLYP regions and significantly impacted nitrate concentrations in downwind regions as far as the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in South China. Wintertime sulfate concentrations demonstrated a more significant inter-regional southward transport pattern and wider spatial distributions than nitrate. The top-five ranked provinces with combined nitrate and sulfate concentrations (Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Anhui and Hunan) were all affected by emissions from the North, Central and East China, in addition to their local region emissions. In August, slower northerly and northeasterly wind reduced inter-regional transport. Nitrate and sulfate concentrations peaked in North China as dilution was more severely restricted by mountain ranges further north. Three of the top five high concentration provinces (Tianjin, Hebei and Beijing) were located in North China and had more than 55% of local region contributions. Emissions from North China accounted for ∼20% in the remaining two provinces (Shandong in East China and Henan in Central China). In addition to emissions from North China, ∼30% or more of the nitrate and sulfate concentrations in four of the top five high concentration provinces (Tianjin, Henan, Hebei and Shandong) were due to emissions from East China. Time series of daily

  15. Assessing changes in water flow regulation in Chongqing region, China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yang; Xiao, Qiang; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Maomao, Qin

    2015-06-01

    Water flow regulation is an important ecosystem service that significantly impacts on ecological quality and social benefits. With the aim of improving our understanding of ecosystems and proposing strategies for optimizing ecosystem services, a geographic information system (GIS)-based approach was designed to estimate and map regulated water flow in the Chongqing region of China. In this study, we applied the integrated valuation of environmental services and tradeoffs (InVEST) model and mathematical simulations to estimate the provision of the regulated water flow across space and time in 2000, 2005, and 2010. The results indicated that this ecosystem service had improved by 2.07 % from 2000 to 2010 as a result of human activities (such as vegetation restoration) and climatic interaction. Places with positive changes mainly occurred in high mountain areas, whereas places with negative changes were mainly distributed in resettlement areas along the Yangtze River. The type of ecosystem in areas with high mountains and steep slopes was a relatively minor contributor to the total service, but this ecosystem had the higher water flow regulation capacity. Moreover, with the increase in altitude and slope, the percentage contribution of forest increased significantly from 2000 to 2010; by contrast, the percentage contribution of cropland decreased rapidly. As for the impacts, the spatial variation of water flow regulation in the Chongqing region had a significant relation with climate and human activities at the regional scale. These results provided specific information that could be used to strengthen necessary public awareness about the protection and restoration of ecosystems. PMID:25980726

  16. China's ethnic groups: fertility change in five autonomous regions.

    PubMed

    Yang, S; Zhu, H

    1993-08-01

    The ethnic population of China increased from 35 million in the early 1950s to more than 90 million in 1990. They make up about 8% of China's population. The changes in the fertility levels of the Mongolian, the Tibetan, the Zhuang, the Hui, and the Uygur ethnic peoples inhabiting autonomous regions were investigated. The total fertility rates (TFRs) of the Mongolian, the Zhuang, and the Hui had declined to below 3.5 by the late 1980s. The TFR of the Mongolians dropped from 6.5 in the early 1970s to 3.0 in the late 1970s, rose to 3.6 in 1981 and 1982, and fell again to 2.3 in 1989. During 1985-89 the TFR of the Uygurs was 5.09 compared to 2.42 of the Han (Chinese) women in the region. The average life-time births during this period were: 2.7 for Mongolians, 3.5 for the Zhuang, 3.6 for the Hui, 0.8 higher than for the Han women. The average TFR of the Han women declined to 3.19 during 1985-89. Implementation of the same family planning program could account for the similar fertility levels of the latter 2 groups. The TFR of the Hui women was 7.0 before 1976, staying at 6.7 during the 1970s. However, it dropped from 6.5 in 1983 to 3.58 during 1985-89. The TFR of Tibetans was 5.0 in the early 1960s, and 30 years later it hovered between 4.0 and 5.0. The Uygurs maintained a TFR of 5.0 to 6.0 in the 20 years prior to 1993, although in 3 successive years after 1985 a decline started. 10% of Uygur women aged 18 already had 1 child. 5% of Hui women aged 20 in 1988 had born children. The infertility rates of ethnic women aged 49-57 in 1988 were; 14% for the Tibetans, 5% for the Uygurs, 2% for the Mongolians, and 1% each for the Hui and the Zhuang. The decline of fertility of ethnic groups started in the 1980s, and it was rather uneven as a consequence of implementation of family planning programs after a major decline of the fertility rate of the national population in the 1970s. PMID:12287606

  17. China's Push for Energy Raises Regional Security Concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-09-01

    China's increasing demand for energy is leading to a push to further exploit its own energy resources deposits, a leveraging of its growth market for favorable energy pricing, and conflicts with neighboring countries. Energy experts discussed China's efforts to bolster its energy resources, during a 17 September forum on energy and security issues in China and the Asia Pacific at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars in Washington, D. C.

  18. Administration of Education in the Asian Region. Bulletin of the UNESCO Regional Office for Education in Asia, No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    This volume contains a series of articles describing the management of education in various countries of the Asian region and discussing a few of the regional problems. Many of these problems are the result of old administrative machinery trying to cope with growth in the size and complexity of education and with a new view of education as a key…

  19. China.

    PubMed

    1983-12-01

    school. China's goal is to provide universal elementary school education by 1990. Since 1978 the premise of China's economic policy has been that consumer welfare, economic productivity, and political stability are indivisible. Emphasis has been placed on raising personal income and consumption and on introducing new productivity incentive and management systems. Since early 1982 China has placed increasing importance on building closer ties with the 3rd world. China's armed forces total about 4.2 million. In February 1981 the Reagan Administration reaffirmed the US commitment to respect the principles of the 1979 Communique on the Establishment of Diplomatic relations. PMID:12178089

  20. [Regional differences and development tendency of livestock manure pollution in China].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Huan-Guang; Liao, Shao-Pan; Jing, Yue; Luan, Jiang

    2013-07-01

    The rapid development of livestock production in China has brought livestock manure pollution as a serious environment problem, even threatens China's agriculture sustainable development. On the basis of public statistical data and field research data, this paper analyzed the magnitude of livestock manure excretion and pollution of China and different provinces in 2010, and predicted development tendencies of livestock manure excretion and pollution in 2020 through the Decision Support System for China's Agricultural Sustainable Development (CHINAGRO). The result shows that total livestock manure excretion of China in 2010 is 1 900 million tons, and livestock manure pollution is 227 million tons, while per hectare arable land of livestock manure pollution is 1.86 tons. Provinces in the southeast China, such as Guangdong and Fujian, are areas with high pressure of livestock manure pollution. Model simulation shows that China's total amount of livestock manure pollution will increase to 298 million tons in 2020 without government intervention. The pressure of livestock manure pollution will become higher in most regions of China, especially in east and south regions. The situation in central and western region is better than that in east regions although the pollution pressure will also increase in those areas. Policy intervention such as taxes and subsidies should be adopted to reduce the discharge of livestock manure pollution, and encourage livestock production transfer from eastern areas to the central and western regions. PMID:24028011

  1. Spatiotemporal urban land use changes in the Changzhutan Region of Hunan Province in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Changzhutan region in the north-central part of Hunan Province in China has experienced a rapid urbanization in the past few decades that has led to substantial changes in its environment. In 2007, the National Development and Reform Commission of China designated the metropolitan district of Ch...

  2. School Psychology in China (PRC), Hong Kong and Taiwan: A Cross-Regional Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Yi; Kuo, Yi-Lung; Van Dyke, Don C.

    2008-01-01

    Although China (People's Republic of China [PRC]), Hong Kong and Taiwan have many similarities in language, culture, values, Confucian traditions, family systems and other social-environmental variables, school psychological services in the three regions are distinctly different in both history and practice. Few studies in the psychology…

  3. Quantification of regional leachate variance from municipal solid waste landfills in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Kjeldsen, Peter; Shao, Li-Ming; He, Pin-Jing

    2015-12-01

    The quantity of leachate is crucial when assessing pollution emanating from municipal landfills. In most cases, existing leachate quantification measures only take into account one source - precipitation, which resulted in serious underestimation in China due to its waste properties: high moisture contents. To overcome this problem, a new estimation method was established considering two sources: (1) precipitation infiltrated throughout waste layers, which was simulated with the HELP model, (2) water squeezed out of the waste itself, which was theoretically calculated using actual data of Chinese waste. The two sources depended on climate conditions and waste characteristics, respectively, which both varied in different regions. In this study, 31 Chinese cities were investigated and classified into three geographic regions according to landfill leachate generation performance: northwestern China (China-NW) with semi-arid and temperate climate and waste moisture content of about 46.0%, northern China (China-N) with semi-humid and temperate climate and waste moisture content of about 58.2%, and southern China (China-S) with humid and sub-tropical/tropical climate and waste moisture content of about 58.2%. In China-NW, accumulated leachate amounts were very low and mainly the result of waste degradation, implying on-site spraying/irrigation or recirculation may be an economic approach to treatment. In China-N, water squeezed out of waste by compaction totaled 22-45% of overall leachate amounts in the first 40 years, so decreasing the initial moisture content of waste arriving at landfills could reduce leachate generation. In China-S, the leachate generated by infiltrated precipitation after HDPE geomembranes in top cover started failing, contributed more than 60% of the overall amounts over 100 years of landfilling. Therefore, the quality and placing of HDPE geomembranes in the top cover should be controlled strictly for the purpose of mitigation leachate generation

  4. Regional Inequality of Higher Education in China and the Role of Unequal Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickenbach, Frank; Liu, Wan-Hsin

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade the scale of higher education in China has expanded substantially. Regional development policies have attempted to make use of scale expansion as a tool to reduce inequality of higher education among regions with different development levels by providing poor regions with preferential treatment and support. This paper analyzes…

  5. Regional economic impacts of changes in electricity rates resulting from Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, T.; Griffes, P.; Edwards, B.K.

    1995-03-01

    This technical memorandum describes an analysis of regional economic impacts resulting from changes in retail electricity rates due to six power marketing programs proposed by Western Area Power Administration (Western). Regional economic impacts of changes in rates are estimated in terms of five key regional economic variables: population, gross regional product, disposable income, employment, and household income. The REMI (Regional Impact Models, Inc.) and IMPLAN (Impact Analysis for Planning) models simulate economic impacts in nine subregions in the area in which Western power is sold for the years 1993, 2000, and 2008. Estimates show that impacts on aggregate economic activity in any of the subregions or years would be minimal for three reasons. First, the utilities that buy power from Western sell only a relatively small proportion of the total electricity sold in any of the subregions. Second, reliance of Western customers on Western power is fairly low in each subregion. Finally, electricity is not a significant input cost for any industry or for households in any subregion.

  6. A Regional Categorization for “New-Type Urbanization” in China

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Chuanglin; Ma, Haitao; Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Regional differences in the character of urbanization in China are substantial. The promotion of what has been termed “new-type urbanization” cannot, as a result of these regional differences, be expected to follow a universal approach—rather, such a development must objectively adhere to locational and category-specific principles and adopt differentiated urbanization development models. Regional categorization is often used in geography, but is rarely deployed in research addressing human and social problems relating to urbanization. In March 2014, China published the National New-type Urbanization Plan (2014–2020), which calls for the scientific and reasonable planning of “new-type urbanization,” and appropriate regional categorizations are urgently needed in order to guide this reform. Responding to this challenge, this research engaged in the design of a “dominantly quantitative analysis, qualitatively supplemented” method in order to divide China into 5 main regions and 47 sub-regions in terms of new-type urbanization. The paper discusses the features and key problems of each region. This study introduces a new method for regional categorization, thereby remedying the lack of regional categorization in relation to “new-type urbanization” in China, and ultimately promoting the development of regional categorization in the humanities as a valuable reference for healthy and sustainable Chinese urbanization. PMID:26237405

  7. Media, Litigation, and Regional Discrimination in College Admission in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Ran

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, three high school graduates from Shandong province sued the Ministry of Education, claiming that the province-based quota system used in college admission in China violates the constitutional principle of equal protection. This paper traces the emergence, evolution, and termination of the lawsuit as well as its aftermath, giving…

  8. 76 FR 73599 - Second Administrative Review of Sodium Hexametaphosphate From the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    .... \\1\\ See Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews, 76 FR 23545 (April... International Trade Administration Second Administrative Review of Sodium Hexametaphosphate From the People's... time limit for the preliminary results of the administrative review of sodium...

  9. China is a `Continental-Scale Metro-Agro-Plex` and its role in regional and global environmental change

    SciTech Connect

    Chameides, W.L.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses one of the three continental-scale metro-agroplexes - China - which is by far the most populous and rapidly developing. Analysed are the effects of regional environmental changes on China`s agricultural output, critical to its future. The environmental changes, potentially driven by China`s growing economic engine and changing land use characteristics, as well as by global environmental trends, include degradation in regional air quality, increases in regional air quality, increases in acid and trace element deposition, and shifts in key climatic parameters.

  10. Characteristics of Venture Capital Network and Its Correlation with Regional Economy: Evidence from China

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yonghong; Zhang, Qi; Shan, Lifei; Li, Sai-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Financial networks have been extensively studied as examples of real world complex networks. In this paper, we establish and study the network of venture capital (VC) firms in China. We compute and analyze the statistical properties of the network, including parameters such as degrees, mean lengths of the shortest paths, clustering coefficient and robustness. We further study the topology of the network and find that it has small-world behavior. A multiple linear regression model is introduced to study the relation between network parameters and major regional economic indices in China. From the result of regression, we find that, economic aggregate (including the total GDP, investment, consumption and net export), upgrade of industrial structure, employment and remuneration of a region are all positively correlated with the degree and the clustering coefficient of the VC sub-network of the region, which suggests that the development of the VC industry has substantial effects on regional economy in China. PMID:26340555

  11. Characteristics of Venture Capital Network and Its Correlation with Regional Economy: Evidence from China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yonghong; Zhang, Qi; Shan, Lifei; Li, Sai-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Financial networks have been extensively studied as examples of real world complex networks. In this paper, we establish and study the network of venture capital (VC) firms in China. We compute and analyze the statistical properties of the network, including parameters such as degrees, mean lengths of the shortest paths, clustering coefficient and robustness. We further study the topology of the network and find that it has small-world behavior. A multiple linear regression model is introduced to study the relation between network parameters and major regional economic indices in China. From the result of regression, we find that, economic aggregate (including the total GDP, investment, consumption and net export), upgrade of industrial structure, employment and remuneration of a region are all positively correlated with the degree and the clustering coefficient of the VC sub-network of the region, which suggests that the development of the VC industry has substantial effects on regional economy in China. PMID:26340555

  12. Seeking Solutions though the Mirror of Finnish Experience: Policy Recommendations for Regional University Transformation in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Yuzhuo; Yang, Po; Lyytinen, Anu; Hölttä, Seppo

    2015-01-01

    China has recently launched a radical reform to transform over 600 regional universities into application and technology oriented institutions. The reform is a response to diverse labour market demands, regional economic development and the suboptimal structure of the higher education system, and uses international experiences as a reference.…

  13. Quantifying Regional Vegetation Cover Variability in North China during the Holocene: Implications for Climate Feedback

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guo; Yin, Yi; Liu, Hongyan; Hao, Qian

    2013-01-01

    Validating model simulations of vegetation-climate feedback needs information not only on changes in past vegetation types as reconstructed by palynologists, but also on other proxies such as vegetation cover. We present here a quantitative regional vegetation cover reconstruction for North China during the Holocene. The reconstruction was based on 15 high-quality lake sediment profiles selected from 55 published sites in North China, along with their modern remote sensing vegetation index. We used the surface soil pollen percentage to build three pollen-vegetation cover transfer models, and used lake surface sediment pollen data to validate their accuracy. Our results showed that vegetation cover in North China increased slightly before its maximum at 6.5 cal ka BP and has since declined significantly. The vegetation decline since 6.5 cal ka BP has likely induced a regional albedo change and aerosol increase. Further comparison with paleoclimate and paleovegetation dynamics in South China reproduced the regional cooling effect of vegetation cover decline in North China modelled in previous work. Our discussion demonstrates that, instead of reconstructing vegetation type from a single site, reconstructing quantitative regional vegetation cover could offer a broader understanding of regional vegetation-climate feedback. PMID:23977110

  14. Quantifying regional vegetation cover variability in North China during the Holocene: implications for climate feedback.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo; Yin, Yi; Liu, Hongyan; Hao, Qian

    2013-01-01

    Validating model simulations of vegetation-climate feedback needs information not only on changes in past vegetation types as reconstructed by palynologists, but also on other proxies such as vegetation cover. We present here a quantitative regional vegetation cover reconstruction for North China during the Holocene. The reconstruction was based on 15 high-quality lake sediment profiles selected from 55 published sites in North China, along with their modern remote sensing vegetation index. We used the surface soil pollen percentage to build three pollen-vegetation cover transfer models, and used lake surface sediment pollen data to validate their accuracy. Our results showed that vegetation cover in North China increased slightly before its maximum at 6.5 cal ka BP and has since declined significantly. The vegetation decline since 6.5 cal ka BP has likely induced a regional albedo change and aerosol increase. Further comparison with paleoclimate and paleovegetation dynamics in South China reproduced the regional cooling effect of vegetation cover decline in North China modelled in previous work. Our discussion demonstrates that, instead of reconstructing vegetation type from a single site, reconstructing quantitative regional vegetation cover could offer a broader understanding of regional vegetation-climate feedback. PMID:23977110

  15. 20 CFR 658.422 - Handling of non-JS-related complaints by the Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... to 29 CFR part 42. (b) Upon referring the complaint in accordance with paragraph (a) of this section... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Handling of non-JS-related complaints by the Regional Administrator. 658.422 Section 658.422 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING...

  16. 40 CFR 145.25 - Memorandum of Agreement with the Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Memorandum of Agreement with the Regional Administrator. 145.25 Section 145.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE UIC PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS State Program Submissions § 145.25 Memorandum of Agreement with the...

  17. 40 CFR 145.25 - Memorandum of Agreement with the Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Memorandum of Agreement with the Regional Administrator. 145.25 Section 145.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... program, including: (i) Provisions for coordination of compliance monitoring activities by the State...

  18. Institutional Innovation and Public Extension Services Provision: The Marche Regional Administration Reform in Central Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascucci, Stefano; De Magistris, Tiziana

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes how Marche Regional Administration (MRA) introduced an innovative institutional reform of an Agricultural Knowledge and Information System (AKIS) in central Italy. In order to study the main features of the MRA reform we used a methodological approach based on three steps: (i) first we applied a desk analysis to sketch the…

  19. 40 CFR 123.24 - Memorandum of Agreement with the Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... review of permits for discharges of non-process wastewater may be waived regardless of flow. (e) Whenever...); (4) Discharges from publicly owned treatment works with a daily average discharge exceeding 1 million... proposed permits that the State will send to the Regional Administrator for review, comment and,...

  20. 40 CFR 123.24 - Memorandum of Agreement with the Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... review of permits for discharges of non-process wastewater may be waived regardless of flow. (e) Whenever...); (4) Discharges from publicly owned treatment works with a daily average discharge exceeding 1 million... proposed permits that the State will send to the Regional Administrator for review, comment and,...

  1. 40 CFR 123.24 - Memorandum of Agreement with the Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... review of permits for discharges of non-process wastewater may be waived regardless of flow. (e) Whenever...); (4) Discharges from publicly owned treatment works with a daily average discharge exceeding 1 million... proposed permits that the State will send to the Regional Administrator for review, comment and,...

  2. 40 CFR 123.24 - Memorandum of Agreement with the Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... review of permits for discharges of non-process wastewater may be waived regardless of flow. (e) Whenever...); (4) Discharges from publicly owned treatment works with a daily average discharge exceeding 1 million... proposed permits that the State will send to the Regional Administrator for review, comment and,...

  3. 40 CFR 123.24 - Memorandum of Agreement with the Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Regional Administrator. 123.24 Section 123.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS STATE PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS State Program Submissions § 123.24 Memorandum of... authorized by EPA to issue permits in accordance with § 123.23(b) on the Federal Indian reservation of...

  4. Current State of Economic Returns from Education in China's Ethnic Regions and Explorations into Ways of Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lijun, Zhang; Fei, Wang

    2010-01-01

    Economic development and social progress in China's ethnic minority regions depend on improvements in population attributes brought about by education. Developing education in China's ethnic regions is a project of fundamental significance for realizing sustainable economic and social development in the ethnic regions. Improving the economic…

  5. Assessment of regional human health risks from lead contamination in Yunnan province, southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lu; Cheng, Hongguang; Liu, Xuelian; Xie, Jing; Li, Qian; Zhou, Tan

    2015-01-01

    Identification and management the 'critical risk areas' where hotspot lead exposures are a potential risk to human health, become a major focus of public health efforts in China. But the knowledge of health risk assessment of lead pollution at regional and national scales is still limited in China. In this paper, under the guidance of 'sources-pathways-receptors' framework, regional human health risk assessment model for lead contamination was developed to calculate the population health risk in Yunnan province. And the cluster and AHP (analytic hierarchy process) analysis was taken to classify and calculate regional health risk and the decomposition of the regional health risk in the greatest health risk region, respectively. The results showed that Yunnan province can be divided into three areas. The highest health risk levels, located in northeastern Yunnan, including Kunming, Qujing, Zhaotong region. In those regions, lead is present at high levels in air, food, water and soil, and high population density which pose a high potential population risk to the public. The current study also reveals that most regional health risk was derived from the child receptors (age above 3 years) 4.3 times than the child receptors (age under 3 years), and ingestion of lead-contaminated rice was found to be the most significant contributor to the health risk (accounting for more than 49% health risk of total). This study can provide a framework for regional risk assessment in China and highlighted some indicators and uncertainties. PMID:25893826

  6. Assessment of Regional Human Health Risks from Lead Contamination in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lu; Cheng, Hongguang; Liu, Xuelian; Xie, Jing; Li, Qian; Zhou, Tan

    2015-01-01

    Identification and management the 'critical risk areas' where hotspot lead exposures are a potential risk to human health, become a major focus of public health efforts in China. But the knowledge of health risk assessment of lead pollution at regional and national scales is still limited in China. In this paper, under the guidance of 'sources-pathways-receptors' framework, regional human health risk assessment model for lead contamination was developed to calculate the population health risk in Yunnan province. And the cluster and AHP (analytic hierarchy process) analysis was taken to classify and calculate regional health risk and the decomposition of the regional health risk in the greatest health risk region, respectively. The results showed that Yunnan province can be divided into three areas. The highest health risk levels, located in northeastern Yunnan, including Kunming, Qujing, Zhaotong region. In those regions, lead is present at high levels in air, food, water and soil, and high population density which pose a high potential population risk to the public. The current study also reveals that most regional health risk was derived from the child receptors (age above 3 years) 4.3 times than the child receptors (age under 3years), and ingestion of lead-contaminated rice was found to be the most significant contributor to the health risk (accounting for more than 49 % health risk of total). This study can provide a framework for regional risk assessment in China and highlighted some indicators and uncertainties. PMID:25893826

  7. The uncertainties of the net primary production due to regional and seasonal temperature changes in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Guodong

    2015-04-01

    A kind of temperature change scenario is supplied by the approach of conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation related to parameter (CNOP-P) to estimate the variation of the net primary production (NPP)in North-South transect of eastern China within a state-of-the-art Lund-Potsdam-Jena dynamical global vegetation model (LPJ DGVM). There are two traits for the kind of temperature change scenario. Firstly, the kind of temperature change scenario considers the regional and seasonal differences in North-South transect of eastern China. The character of the temperature change is similar to the observation data due to the observational constraint. Secondly, the kind of temperature change scenario causes the maximal possible impact on the simulated NPP to discuss the maximal uncertainty in the simulated NPP to the temperature change in North-South transect of eastern China. Other two kinds of temperature change scenarios are also applied to explain the above two traits and to analyze variations due to different kinds of temperature change scenarios. It is shown that the kind of temperature change scenario resulted of the CNOP-P approach, which is called as the CNOP-P-type temperature change scenario, exhibits the regional and seasonal temperature differences in North-South transect of eastern China. The NPP decreases by 1.84% in northern China, and respectively increases by 4.09% and 18.99% in northeastern and southern China as the results of the CNOP-P-type temperature change scenario, though the NPP increases in small part of northern China and decreases in part of northeastern China. The variations in the NPP caused by the CNOP-P-type temperature change scenario are different to those by the other two types of temperature change scenarios in northern, northeastern China and southern China. The impact of the CNOP-P-type temperature change scenario on the NPP is intenser than that of the other two types of temperature change scenarios. The seasonal analyses demonstrate

  8. Responses of Terrestrial Ecosystems’ Net Primary Productivity to Future Regional Climate Change in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Dongsheng; Wu, Shaohong; Yin, Yunhe

    2013-01-01

    The impact of regional climate change on net primary productivity (NPP) is an important aspect in the study of ecosystems’ response to global climate change. China’s ecosystems are very sensitive to climate change owing to the influence of the East Asian monsoon. The Lund–Potsdam–Jena Dynamic Global Vegetation Model for China (LPJ-CN), a global dynamical vegetation model developed for China’s terrestrial ecosystems, was applied in this study to simulate the NPP changes affected by future climate change. As the LPJ-CN model is based on natural vegetation, the simulation in this study did not consider the influence of anthropogenic activities. Results suggest that future climate change would have adverse effects on natural ecosystems, with NPP tending to decrease in eastern China, particularly in the temperate and warm temperate regions. NPP would increase in western China, with a concentration in the Tibetan Plateau and the northwest arid regions. The increasing trend in NPP in western China and the decreasing trend in eastern China would be further enhanced by the warming climate. The spatial distribution of NPP, which declines from the southeast coast to the northwest inland, would have minimal variation under scenarios of climate change. PMID:23593325

  9. Agroclimatic study of mountainous regions and its progress in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yangcai

    1992-02-01

    In recent years, the agroclimatic investigations have been made at various temporal and spatial scales in moun-tainous and hilly regions, and so have the adaptability tests on the crop ecoclimate. A large quantity of reliable and representative data are obtained. Through the synthetic studies on “ belt” , “ layer” , “ topography” and “ecological-type” in mountainy and hilly regions, climate with agriculture ard zonality with non-zonality are closely combined to show the similarities and differences of agroclimatic resources at various layers and with different topography types in mountainy and hilly regions. A general review is given in this paper.

  10. The Seed Plant Flora of the Mount Jinggangshan Region, Southeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Liao, Wenbo; Chen, Chunquan; Fan, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    The Mount Jinggangshan region is located between Jiangxi and Hunan provinces in southeastern China in the central section of the Luoxiao Mountains. A detailed investigation of Mount Jinggangshan region shows that the seed plant flora comprises 2,958 species in 1,003 genera and 210 families (Engler’s system adjusted according to Zhengyi Wu’s concept). Among them, 23 species of gymnospermae belong to 17 genera and 9 families, and 2,935 species of angiosperms are in 986 genera and 201 families. Moreover, they can also be sorted into woody plants (350 genera and 1,295 species) and herbaceous plants (653 genera and 1,663 species). The dominant families are mainly Fagaceae, Lauraceae, Theaceae, Hamamelidaceae, Magnoliaceae, Ericaceae, Styracaceae, Aquifoliaceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Aceraceae, Rosaceae, Corylaceae, Daphniphyllaceae, Symplocaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Pinaceae, Taxodiaceae, Cupressaceae and Taxaceae. Ancient and relic taxa include Ginkgo biloba, Fokieniahodginsii, Amentotaxusargotaenia, Disanthuscercidifolia subsp. longipes, Hamamelismollis, Manglietiafordiana, Magnoliaofficinalis, Tsoongiodendronodorum, Fortuneariasinensis, Cyclocaryapaliurus, Eucommiaulmoides, Sargentodoxacuneata, Bretschneiderasinensis, Camptothecaacuminata, Tapisciasinensis, etc. The flora of Mount Jinggangshan region includes 79 cosmopolitan genera and 924 non-cosmopolitan genera, which are 7.88% and 92.12% of all genera. The latter includes 452 tropical genera (48.92%) and 472 temperate genera (51.08%). The temperate elements include 44 genera endemic to China, accounting for 4.76% of all genera. Among 1,003 genera, 465 have only a single species and 401 are oligotypic genera (with 2-5 species). These genera account for 86.34% of all genera. The floristic analysis indicates that the flora of Mount Jinggangshan region is closely related to the flora of Mount Wuyishan region in southeastern China. The flora of Mount Jinggangshan region also contains many elements of central and southern

  11. Observation-based Understanding of the Cloud Properties over East China Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, C.

    2015-12-01

    Cloud properties over East China are described based on observations from satellite (MODIS), ground site and aircraft. Based on satellite observations, 10-year averaged cloud fraction over the whole China region is around 66%, similar to the average value of global, with the largest cloud occurrence in Summer; the cloud fraction increases slightly during last 10 years; more clouds are found at southeast region than at northwest region; cloud droplet effective radius shows the smallest values around 10 um at mid-latitude regions and largest values at high latitude regions; further PDF analysis shows that cloud droplet effective radius demonstrates a bimodal distribution with maximum occurrences around 10-16 um. Ground site observations show that cloud fraction at Taihu site is around 65% for 2013, consistent with that found by MODIS at the closest grid to the site; more clouds are found at night than during day. In-situ aircraft observations over Huanghua city show that cloud droplet effective radius increases with height, with values from 3-5 um at low altitude, 7-9 um at mid altitude, to 10-13 um at high altitude. While the aircraft observation sample volume is limited, the in-situ observed cloud properties demonstrate that cloud droplet re increases with height, consistent with many findings by in-situ aircraft at other locations. The consistency of satellite observed cloud droplet re between East China and other regions is likely caused by the fact that the cloud properties observed by satellite is more representative of those clouds at high altitudes which are weakly affected by the aerosols within the boundary layers. On the other hand, the cloud droplet re at the cloud bases over East China is much smaller than those found at other locations, likely demonstrating the significant impacts by the heavy aerosol loadings at this region. Further studies with more site and aircraft observations over East China are needed.

  12. Geography and Similarity of Regional Cuisines in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yu-Xiao; Huang, Junming; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhang, Qian-Ming; Zhou, Tao; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    2013-01-01

    Food occupies a central position in every culture and it is therefore of great interest to understand the evolution of food culture. The advent of the World Wide Web and online recipe repositories have begun to provide unprecedented opportunities for data-driven, quantitative study of food culture. Here we harness an online database documenting recipes from various Chinese regional cuisines and investigate the similarity of regional cuisines in terms of geography and climate. We find that geographical proximity, rather than climate proximity, is a crucial factor that determines the similarity of regional cuisines. We develop a model of regional cuisine evolution that provides helpful clues for understanding the evolution of cuisines and cultures. PMID:24260166

  13. Regional Design Approach in Designing Climatic Responsive Administrative Building in the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haja Bava Mohidin, Hazrina Binti; Ismail, Alice Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to explicate on the study of modern administrative building in Malaysia which portrays regional design approach that conforms to the local context and climate by reviewing two case studies; Perdana Putra (1999) and former Prime Minister's Office (1967). This paper is significant because the country's stature and political statement was symbolized by administrative building as a national icon. In other words, it is also viewed as a cultural object that is closely tied to a particular social context and nation historical moment. Administrative building, therefore, may exhibit various meanings. This paper uses structuralism paradigm and semiotic principles as a methodological approach. This paper is of importance for practicing architects and society in the future as it offers new knowledge and understanding in identifying the suitable climatic consideration that may reflect regionalist design approach in modern administrative building. These elements then may be adopted in designing public buildings in the future with regional values that are important for expressing national culture to symbolize the identity of place and society as well as responsive to climate change.

  14. Environmental Determinants of Woody Plant Diversity at a Regional Scale in China

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Understanding what drives the geographic variation of species richness across the globe is a fundamental goal of ecology and biogeography. Environmental variables have been considered as drivers of global diversity patterns but there is no consensus among ecologists on what environmental variables are primary drivers of the geographic variation of species richness. Here, I examine the relationship of woody plant species richness at a regional scale in China with sixteen environmental variables representing energy availability, water availability, energy-water balance, seasonality, and habitat heterogeneity. I found that temperature seasonality is the best predictor of woody species richness in China. Other important environmental variables include annual precipitation, mean temperature of the coldest month, and potential evapotranspiration. The best model explains 85% of the variation in woody plant species richness at the regional scale in China. PMID:24086642

  15. Trends in temperature extremes over nine integrated agricultural regions in China, 1961-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xushu; Wang, Zhaoli; Zhou, Xiaowen; Lai, Chengguang; Chen, Xiaohong

    2016-06-01

    By characterizing the patterns of temperature extremes over nine integrated agricultural regions (IARs) in China from 1961 to 2011, this study performed trend analyses on 16 extreme temperature indices using a high-resolution (0.5° × 0.5°) daily gridded dataset and the Mann-Kendall method. The results show that annually, at both daytime and nighttime, cold extremes significantly decreased but warm extremes significantly increased across all IARs. Overall, nighttimes tended to warm faster than daytimes. Diurnal temperature ranges (DTR) diminished, apart from the mid-northern Southwest China Region and the mid-Loess Plateau Region. Seasonally, DTR widely diminished across all IARs during the four seasons except for spring. Higher minimum daily minimum temperature (TNn) and maximum daily maximum temperature (TXx), in both summer and winter, were recorded for most IARs except for the Huang-Huai-Hai Region; in autumn, all IARs generally encountered higher TNn and TXx. In all seasons, warming was observed at daytime and nighttime but, again, nighttimes warmed faster than daytimes. The results also indicate a more rapid warming trend in Northern and Western China than in Southern and Eastern China, with accelerated warming at high elevations. The increases in TNn and TXx might cause a reduction in agriculture yield in spring over Northern China, while such negative impact might occur in Southern China during summer. In autumn and winter, however, the negative impact possibly occurred in most of the IARs. Moreover, increased TXx in the Pearl River Delta and Yangtze River Delta is possibly related to rapid local urbanization. Climatically, the general increase in temperature extremes across Chinese IARs may be induced by strengthened Northern Hemisphere Subtropical High or weakened Northern Hemisphere Polar Vortex.

  16. School-Site Administrators: A California County and Regional Perspective on Labor Market Trends. Issues & Answers. REL 2010-No. 084

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Melissa Eiler; Fong, Anthony B.; Makkonen, Reino

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the differences among California's counties and regions in their needs for new school-site administrators in the coming decade, as driven by a combination of projected administrator retirements and projected student enrollment changes. The projected need for new school-site administrators, based solely on these combined…

  17. Factors Associated with the Utilization and Quality of Prenatal Care in Western Rural Regions of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dongxu, Wang; Yuhui, Shi; Stewart, Donald; Chun, Chang; Chaoyang, Li

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to identify key features of prenatal care utilization and quality in western regions of China and to determine the factors affecting the quality of prenatal care. Design/methodology/approach: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted. The instrument for the study was a 10-stem respondent-administered, structured…

  18. Sources of excess urban carbonaceous aerosol in the Pearl River delta region, China

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbonaceous aerosol is one of the important constituents of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Southern China, including the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region and Hong Kong (HK). During the study period (October and December of 2002, and March and June of 2003), the monthly average...

  19. Factors Affecting Regional Per-Capita Carbon Emissions in China Based on an LMDI Factor Decomposition Model

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Feng; Long, Ruyin; Chen, Hong; Li, Xiaohui; Yang, Qingliang

    2013-01-01

    China is considered to be the main carbon producer in the world. The per-capita carbon emissions indicator is an important measure of the regional carbon emissions situation. This study used the LMDI factor decomposition model–panel co-integration test two-step method to analyze the factors that affect per-capita carbon emissions. The main results are as follows. (1) During 1997, Eastern China, Central China, and Western China ranked first, second, and third in the per-capita carbon emissions, while in 2009 the pecking order changed to Eastern China, Western China, and Central China. (2) According to the LMDI decomposition results, the key driver boosting the per-capita carbon emissions in the three economic regions of China between 1997 and 2009 was economic development, and the energy efficiency was much greater than the energy structure after considering their effect on restraining increased per-capita carbon emissions. (3) Based on the decomposition, the factors that affected per-capita carbon emissions in the panel co-integration test showed that Central China had the best energy structure elasticity in its regional per-capita carbon emissions. Thus, Central China was ranked first for energy efficiency elasticity, while Western China was ranked first for economic development elasticity. PMID:24353753

  20. Rational regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowing yield potential and yield stability of sugarcane cultivars is of significance in guiding sugarcane breeding and the rational regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars. In the present study, a heritability-adjusted genotype main effect plus genotype × environment (HA-GGE) biplot program wa...

  1. Evaluation of the contributions of four components of gross domestic product in various regions in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sanmang; Lei, Yalin; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    Four major components influence the growth of the gross domestic product in Chinese provinces: consumption, investment, transnational exports, and inter-provincial exports. By splitting a competitive input-output table into a non-competitive input-output table, this study used an input-output model to measure the contributions of the four components of gross domestic product in various regions in China. We found that international exports drove the growth of the gross domestic product more strongly in the eastern region than in other regions. Investment and inter-provincial exports were the major impetus for gross domestic product growth in the central and western regions. We also found that consumption played a minimal role in driving the growth of the gross domestic product in all regions in China. According to these findings, although various regions can share much in terms of policies to transform the impetus for economic growth, there should be different foci for different regions. Their shared policy is to increase the role of final consumption in stimulating economic growth. Region-specific policies mandate that the eastern region should strengthen the driving force provided by international exports and that the central and western regions should strengthen indigenous growth capabilities by improving scientific innovation, industrial support, and institutional innovation. PMID:25915927

  2. Evaluation of the Contributions of Four Components of Gross Domestic Product in Various Regions in China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sanmang; Lei, Yalin; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    Four major components influence the growth of the gross domestic product in Chinese provinces: consumption, investment, transnational exports, and inter-provincial exports. By splitting a competitive input-output table into a non-competitive input-output table, this study used an input-output model to measure the contributions of the four components of gross domestic product in various regions in China. We found that international exports drove the growth of the gross domestic product more strongly in the eastern region than in other regions. Investment and inter-provincial exports were the major impetus for gross domestic product growth in the central and western regions. We also found that consumption played a minimal role in driving the growth of the gross domestic product in all regions in China. According to these findings, although various regions can share much in terms of policies to transform the impetus for economic growth, there should be different foci for different regions. Their shared policy is to increase the role of final consumption in stimulating economic growth. Region-specific policies mandate that the eastern region should strengthen the driving force provided by international exports and that the central and western regions should strengthen indigenous growth capabilities by improving scientific innovation, industrial support, and institutional innovation. PMID:25915927

  3. Regional heterogeneity in the water content of the Cenozoic lithospheric mantle of Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Yan-Tao; Xia, Qun-Ke; Jia, Zu-Bing; Zhao, Qi-Chao; Li, Pei; Feng, Min; Liu, Shao-Chen

    2016-02-01

    The major and trace elements and H2O contents of minerals in peridotite xenoliths hosted by the Cenozoic basalts in Northeast China (NEC) were evaluated using electron microprobe, laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, respectively. Although a potential loss of H during the xenoliths' ascent cannot be excluded for olivine, orthopyroxene (opx) and clinopyroxene (cpx) largely preserved the H2O contents of their mantle source in all of the samples, as inferred from (1) the homogenous H2O contents within single pyroxene grains and (2) the equilibrium H2O partitioning between cpx and opx. No OH was detected for pyroxenes of peridotite xenoliths from the north part of NEC (NNEC). Combined with previously published data from the North China Craton (NCC) and the South China Block (SCB), the regional heterogeneity in the water contents in the Cenozoic lithospheric mantle beneath the whole Eastern China has been revealed. The lithospheric mantle beneath the NNEC is completely dry. The "bulk" water contents of the lithospheric mantle of the south part of NEC and the NCC have similar ranges and average values, whereas those of the SCB are much higher (12-195 ppm, average 90 ± 45 ppm for whole rock). The regional variations in the H2O content of the Cenozoic lithospheric mantle of Eastern China cannot be caused by partial melting, mantle metasomatism, or variations in redox state. We propose that the lithospheric mantle beneath the different regions of Eastern China may have distinct origins and may have undergone distinct geodynamic processes.

  4. Characteristics of the precipitation recycling ratio and its relationship with regional precipitation in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Lijuan; Zhong, Linhao; Ke, Zongjian

    2015-10-01

    A dynamic recycling model (DRM) with an analytical moisture trajectory tracking method, together with Japan Meteorological Agency 25-year reanalysis data, is used to study the regional precipitation recycling process across China, by calculating the regional recycling ratio (ρ r ) at the daily time scale during 1979-2010. The distribution of ρ r shows that, in western China, especially the Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding areas, precipitation is strongly dependent on the recycling process associated with regional evaporation. In Southeast China, however, the contribution from the recycling processes is much smaller due to the influence of the summer monsoon. A precipitation threshold value of about 4 mm/day is obtained from detailed analysis of both extreme and all-range ρ r years. According to this threshold, China is classified into three types of sub-regions: low-precipitation sub-regions (mainly in the northwest), high-precipitation sub-regions (mainly in the south), and medium-precipitation sub-regions (mainly in the northeast). It is found that ρ r correlates positively with precipitation, as well as convective precipitation (P CP) and large-scale precipitation (P LP) in the low-precipitation sub-regions. However, negative ρ r ˜ P LP correlations are found in the high-precipitation sub-regions and nonsignificant correlations exist in the medium-precipitation sub-regions. As P CP is mainly locally generated due to mid-latitude mesoscale systems and the cumulus parameterization used in producing the reanalysis, the recycling ratio positively correlates to the ratio P CP/P LP in almost all sub-regions, particularly in the Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding areas. The correlation between radiation flux and ρ r suggests more net radiation supports more evaporation and higher ρ r , especially in the high-precipitation sub-regions. The influence of clouds on shortwave radiation is crucial, since evaporation is suppressed when the amount of cloudiness

  5. A Long-term Regional Simulation and Observations of the Hydroclimate in China

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Yun; Leung, Lai R.

    2007-07-24

    Driven by the complex topography, inhomogeneous land surface conditions and large-scale circulation exhibiting strong variability at various time scales, the hydroclimate of China presents many unique features and poses a great challenge for climate modeling. This paper provides detailed analyses of observations and a 20-year regional climate simulation to improve our understanding of the diverse hydroclimate regimes in China. Eastern China is greatly influenced by the East Asian monsoon, leading to heavy summer rainfall that exhibits large variations at the intraseasonal and interannual time scales. The Hai River and Huaihe River basins feature the largest interannual variations in summer rainfall, with the Middle and Lower Yangtze River and Pearl River basins showing the next highest variability. In the wettest regions of the Middle and Lower Yangtze River basin and Southeast Coast, the land surface plays a comparatively passive role as evaporation is not limited by soil moisture, and boundary layer and precipitation processes are only weakly influenced by soil wetness. In contrast, northern and western China are marked by dryer and less cloudy conditions, and interannual variations in summer rainfall are typically half of that in eastern China. Precipitation is largely balanced by evapotranspiration. The land surface plays a more active role in the water cycle in these regions. This is supported by the strong correlations between soil moisture and sensible heat flux, evaporative fraction, and mixed layer depth, indicating a strong influence of soil wetness on atmospheric stability and precipitation processes. The overall spatial distribution, seasonal variations, and extreme precipitation are well simulated by the regional climate model. However, the simulation produces more rainfall associated with the lower rain rates in central and southern China. This suggests that some mechanisms responsible for heavy rainfall may not be properly simulated by the model due

  6. A review of accessibility of administrative healthcare databases in the Asia-Pacific region

    PubMed Central

    Milea, Dominique; Azmi, Soraya; Reginald, Praveen; Verpillat, Patrice; Francois, Clement

    2015-01-01

    Objective We describe and compare the availability and accessibility of administrative healthcare databases (AHDB) in several Asia-Pacific countries: Australia, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, China, Thailand, and Malaysia. Methods The study included hospital records, reimbursement databases, prescription databases, and data linkages. Databases were first identified through PubMed, Google Scholar, and the ISPOR database register. Database custodians were contacted. Six criteria were used to assess the databases and provided the basis for a tool to categorise databases into seven levels ranging from least accessible (Level 1) to most accessible (Level 7). We also categorised overall data accessibility for each country as high, medium, or low based on accessibility of databases as well as the number of academic articles published using the databases. Results Fifty-four administrative databases were identified. Only a limited number of databases allowed access to raw data and were at Level 7 [Medical Data Vision EBM Provider, Japan Medical Data Centre (JMDC) Claims database and Nihon-Chouzai Pharmacy Claims database in Japan, and Medicare, Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS), Centre for Health Record Linkage (CHeReL), HealthLinQ, Victorian Data Linkages (VDL), SA-NT DataLink in Australia]. At Levels 3–6 were several databases from Japan [Hamamatsu Medical University Database, Medi-Trend, Nihon University School of Medicine Clinical Data Warehouse (NUSM)], Australia [Western Australia Data Linkage (WADL)], Taiwan [National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD)], South Korea [Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA)], and Malaysia [United Nations University (UNU)-Casemix]. Countries were categorised as having a high level of data accessibility (Australia, Taiwan, and Japan), medium level of accessibility (South Korea), or a low level of accessibility (Thailand, China, Malaysia, and Singapore). In some countries, data may be available but

  7. Satellite observation of regional haze pollution over the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Minghui; Chen, Liangfu; Su, Lin; Tao, Jinhua

    2012-06-01

    Haze clouds often form over the North China Plain (NCP) of eastern China, where large amounts of aerosol particles and their precursors are emitted. To obtain general insights into regional pollution, a large-scale, long-term study was conducted using A-Train satellite observations, ground measurements, and meteorological data. Contrary to previous analyses, most of the haze clouds appeared to form abruptly (within 2-3 h). Case studies show that natural sources contribute significantly to the formation of regional haze. Dust plumes can mix with local pollutants, causing smog clouds to form abruptly, while moist airflows can cause widespread haze-fog pollution. The combined observations revealed highly inhomogeneous haze clouds, in terms of both vertical and horizontal distribution, leading to clear discrepancies between site measurements near the surface and satellite observations at the top of the atmosphere. Surprisingly, prevailing dust plumes, which are closely connected with the haze clouds, were observed in winter. Airborne dust and water vapor transported from outside the region are the main drivers of regional haze over the NCP. Accumulation of local pollutants also leads to common occurrences of urban smog; however, the occurrence of most haze clouds shows no obvious correlation with local pollution. Local- and regional-scale haze pollution are common over the NCP, but they have differing formation mechanisms, and contrasting chemical and physical properties. The present findings improve our understanding of heavy pollution over eastern China and its links to climate.

  8. Etiology of Childhood Infectious Diarrhea in a Developed Region of China: Compared to Childhood Diarrhea in a Developing Region and Adult Diarrhea in a Developed Region

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Wang, Jing; Sun, Hao; Xia, Shengli; Duan, Ran; Liang, Junrong; Xiao, Yuchun; Qiu, Haiyan; Shan, Guangliang; Jing, Huaiqi

    2015-01-01

    In China, great differences in economy, social characteristics and hygiene exist between developing and developed regions. A comparative study of infectious diarrhea between two regions was needed. Three groups of diarrheal patients were collected: children ≤5 year-olds from Beijing (developed region) and Henan Province (developing region), and adults over 18 year-olds from Beijing. A questionnaire was used to survey and feces samples were examined for 16 enteropathogens. We enrolled 1422 children and 1047 adults from developed region and 755 children from developing region. Virus positive rates were 32.98% for children and 23.67% for adults in developed region. The most prevalent pathogen for children was rotavirus whereas for adults was norovirus. Bacterial isolation rates were 13.92% for children from developed region, while 29.14% for children from the developing regions. For the greatest difference, Shigella accounted for 50.79% and was the dominant pathogen in the developing region, whereas in the developed region it was only 1.45%. There was no significant relationship between the local levels of development with diarrheogenic Escherichia coli (DEC) categories. But it was seen the notable differences between the population with different age: enteropathogenic E.coli (EPEC) and enteroaggregative E.coli (EAggEC) were the primary classes of DEC in children from both regions, whereas it was enterotoxigenic E.coli (ETEC) in adults. The symptoms of Shigella and Salmonella infection, such as bloody stools, white blood cells (WBC) and red blood cells (RBC) positivity and fever were similar in children, which may lead to the misidentification. Yersinia enterocolitica and shiga toxin-producing E.coli (STEC) infections were firstly reported in Beijing. There was a large difference in etiology of bacterial diarrhea between children in developing and developed regions of China. PMID:26528820

  9. Land Use and Regional Climate in Eastern China over the Past 300 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.

    2015-12-01

    Historical documents of Qing Dynasty to present from 15-17provinces in the eastern China are used to reconstruction of historical crop cover in eastern China and the crop ratio at years of 1724,1784,1820,1873,1887,1893,1913,1933,1986,and 1995 by comparing with present crop land types and crop ratio. Then they are Interpolated from the political unit ( counties) to the grid in 0.5°×0.5° horizontal resolution in the area of 19°N to 45°N and 103°E to126°E. Based on and compared with modern vegetation distribution, the Chinese Natural Resources Database, historical documents, and local chronicles , the historical vegetation in eastern China are reconstructed. Furthermore, RegCM3 is sued to do sensitive simulation of climatic effect of land cover change in the eastern China by using reconstructed vegetation in this study and those from GLCC (USGS) data for area out off the study area. According to simulation results and temperature anomalies data from Wang et al. (19 98), and Ge et al. (2003), the possible effects of land use change on regional climate are discussed. From this study we found that (1)The crop land cover and ratio changed significantly since 1724, and the fast increasing periods are 1724-1820 and 1933-1980. the average highest ratios are at 1887 and around 1980 in the eastern China.(2) With the crop land extending the vegetation type were changed in the most part of eastern China: some primary forest (coniferous and rainforest) are replaced by plantation (broadleaf forest) in the last 50 years in eastern China.(3) Urbanization caused decrease of crop land in the past 20 years in the developed area, such as lower reaches of Yangtze River. Current urban area is about 10% compared with 0.05% in Qing Dynasty in eastern China.(4)The simulation results show that in the centennial time scale, the trend of precipitation change during the past 300 years is 'more-less-more' in the part of North China. The difference of precipitation between 1995 and 1724

  10. Source regional contributions to PM2.5 in a megacity in China using an advanced source regional apportionment method.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ying-Ze; Chen, Gang; Wang, Hai-Ting; Huang-Fu, Yan-Qi; Shi, Guo-Liang; Han, Bo; Feng, Yin-Chang

    2016-03-01

    To quantify contributions of individual source categories from diverse regions to PM2.5, PM2.5 samples were collected in a megacity in China and analyzed through a newly developed source regional apportionment (SRA) method. Levels, compositions and seasonal variations of speciated PM2.5 dataset were investigated. Sources were determined by Multilinear Engine 2 (ME2) model, and results showed that the PM2.5 in Tianjin was mainly influenced by secondary sulphate & secondary organic carbon SOC (percent contribution of 26.2%), coal combustion (24.6%), crustal dust & cement dust (20.3%), secondary nitrate (14.9%) and traffic emissions (14.0%). The SRA method showed that northwest region R2 was the highest regional contributor to secondary sources, with percent contributions to PM2.5 being 9.7% for secondary sulphate & SOC and 6.0% for secondary nitrates; the highest coal combustion was from local region R1 (6.2%) and northwest R2 (8.0%); the maximum contributing region to crustal & cement dust was southeast region R4 (5.0%); and contributions of traffic emissions were relatively spatial homogeneous. The seasonal variation of regional source contributions was observed: in spring, the crustal and cement dust contributed a higher percentage and the R4 was an important contributor; the secondary process attributed an increase fraction in summer; the mixed coal combustion from southwest R5 enhanced in autumn. PMID:26766363

  11. Regional climate simulations of summer diurnal rainfall variations over East Asia and Southeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wan-Ru; Chan, Johnny C. L.; Au-Yeung, Andie Y. M.

    2013-04-01

    This study evaluates the performance of RegCM3 (Regional Climate Model Version 3) in simulating the East Asian rainfall, with emphasis on the diurnal variations of rainfall over Southeast China during the 1998-2002 summer (June-August) seasons. The evaluation focuses on the sensitivity of the choice of cumulus parameterizations and model domain. With the right setup, the spatial and temporal evolution of diurnal rainfall over Southeast China, which has not been well simulated by past studies, can be accurately simulated by RegCM3. Results show that the Emanuel cumulus scheme has a more realistic simulation of summer mean rainfall in East Asia, while the GFC (Grell scheme with the Frisch-Chappell convective closure assumption) scheme is better in simulating the diurnal variations of rainfall over Southeast China. The better performance of these two schemes [relative to the other two schemes in RegCM3: the Kuo scheme and the GAS (Grell scheme with the Arakawa-Schubert closure assumption) scheme] can be attributed to the reasonable reproduction of the major formation mechanism of rainfall—the moisture flux convergence—over Southeast China. Furthermore, when the simulation domain covers the entire Tibetan Plateau, the diurnal variations of rainfall over Southeast China are found to exhibit a noticeable improvement without changes in the physics schemes.

  12. Quantifying baseline emission factors of air pollutants in China's regional power grids.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wenjia; Wang, Can; Jin, Zhugang; Chen, Jining

    2013-04-16

    Drawing lessons from the clean development mechanism (CDM), this paper developed a combined margin methodology to quantify baseline emission factors of air pollutants in China's regional power grids. The simple average of baseline emission factors of SO2, NOX, and PM2.5 in China's six power grids in 2010 were respectively 1.91 kg/MWh, 1.83 kg/MWh and 0.32 kg/MWh. Several low-efficient mitigation technologies, such as low nitrogen oxide burner (LNB), were suggested to be replaced or used together with other technologies in order to virtually decrease the grid's emission factor. The synergies between GHG and air pollution mitigation in China's power sector was also notable. It is estimated that in 2010, that every 1% CO2 reduction in China's power generation sector resulted in the respective coreduction of 1.1%, 0.5%, and 0.8% of SO2, NOX, and PM2.5. Wind is the best technology to achieve the largest amount of coabatement in most parts of China. This methodology is recommended to be used in making comprehensive air pollution control strategies and in cobenefits analysis in future CDM approval processes. PMID:23461797

  13. Environmental characteristics of regional groundwater in relation to fluoride poisoning in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong; Zhu, Wan Hua

    1991-07-01

    More and more data indicated that high- or low-fluoride-bearing drinking water led to endemic diseases in which fluoride poisoning was caused by high levels of fluoride (fluoride ion content >1.0 mg/I) in drinking water. Fluoride poisoning in North China is characterized by pathological changes of bones and teeth. Much attention has been devoted to the study of fluoride-bearing groundwater in North China because regionally groundwater has been the main source of water supply, and fluoride poisoning has developed to the extent that it affects human health seriously. Results from the studies in North China summarized in this article indicate that regional high-fluoride-bearing groundwater has a regular distribution corresponding with the development of endemic fluoride poisoning and has something to do with paleogeographic and paleoclimatic conditions, geology, and hydrogeology, especially with types of hydrogeochemistry, pH value of groundwater, degree of mineralization, and so forth. High-fluoride-bearing groundwater in relation to fluorosis occurs mainly in North China, and many effective measures have been taken to reduce the fluoride content in drinking water and to cure the disease after analyzing the distribution and environmental characteristics of high-fluoride-bearing groundwater.

  14. Recent progress on land cover change and its regional climatic effects over China during historical times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, J.; He, F.; Lin, S.

    2009-04-01

    Land cover change has been demonstrated as an important forcing driver of climate change, and many studies have been conducted that simulate the climatic effects of human-induced land cover change at global and regional scales. Land cover in China has undergone large-scale modifications, mainly through deforestation and desertification, over the last several thousand years, and the extents to which these changes have influenced climate change have increasingly attracted scientists' attention. The simulations of regional climatic effects caused by land cover changes which based on different datasets--historical reconstruction and potential land cover data--show that the human-induced land cover changes over China since 1700AD have led to the enhancement on the East Asian Winter Monsoon and cooling in winter overall, with warming over most of China but cooling at somewhere (e.g. northern China or the Middle-Lower Yangtze Valley) in summer. However, the different simulations by different models show different effects on annual mean temperature, annual precipitation and East Asian Summer Monsoon. These differences among these simulations are shown to have resulted from the disparities in the classifications of land cover types among different land cover dataset used, in the extent of land cover.

  15. Using species distribution modeling to delineate the botanical richness patterns and phytogeographical regions of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming-Gang; Slik, J W Ferry; Ma, Ke-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The millions of plant specimens that have been collected and stored in Chinese herbaria over the past ~110 years have recently been digitized and geo-referenced. Here we use this unique collection data set for species distribution modeling exercise aiming at mapping &explaining the botanical richness; delineating China's phytogeographical regions and investigating the environmental drivers of the dissimilarity patterns. We modeled distributions of 6,828 woody plants using MaxEnt and remove the collection bias using null model. The continental China was divided into different phytogeographical regions based on the dissimilarity patterns. An ordination and Getis-Ord Gi* hotspot spatial statistics were used to analysis the environmental drivers of the dissimilarity patterns. We found that the annual precipitation and temperature stability were responsible for observed species diversity. The mechanisms causing dissimilarity pattern seems differ among biogeographical regions. The identified environmental drivers of the dissimilarity patterns for southeast, southwest, northwest and northeast are annual precipitation, topographic &temperature stability, water deficit and temperature instability, respectively. For effective conservation of China's plant diversity, identifying the historical refuge and protection of high diversity areas in each of the identified floristic regions and their subdivisions will be essential. PMID:26928763

  16. Professionalization and the Training of University Administrators in China: A Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geng, Yiqun; Yeager, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Compared to the training of higher education management professionals in the US, the training of their counterparts in China is relatively modest, with few programs offered at the graduate level. Further, few concrete solutions have been proposed for tackling the challenge of preparing managerial professionals for the sound development of higher…

  17. 78 FR 20891 - Glycine From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ..., 77 FR 72817 (December 6, 2012) (Preliminary Results), and accompanying Decision Memorandum for the... companies. See Preliminary Results, 77 FR at 72817. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Brian Davis or Ericka... the People's Republic of China, 60 FR 16116 (March 29, 1995). Background On December 6, 2012,...

  18. 77 FR 12235 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ....* Xilinmen Furniture Co., Ltd.* Xingli Arts & Crafts Factory of Yangchun Yeh Brothers World Trade, Inc... Zheng Yan Decoration Co., Ltd.* Zhangjiang Sunwin Arts & Crafts Co., Ltd.* Zhangzhou Guohui Industrial... China, 70 FR 329 (January 4, 2005). Notice of No Sales If a producer or exporter named in this notice...

  19. 75 FR 19613 - First Administrative Review of Sodium Hexametaphosphate from the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... and Request for ] Revocation in Part, 74 FR 19042 (April 27, 2009) (``Initiation''). On November 25... Hexametaphosphate from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results, 74 FR... for the Preliminary Results, 75 FR 5946 (February 5, 2010). As explained in the memorandum from...

  20. Quantifying the Intra-Regional Precipitation Variability in Northwestern China over the Past 1,400 Years.

    PubMed

    Lee, Harry F; Pei, Qing; Zhang, David D; Choi, Kan P K

    2015-01-01

    There has been a surge of paleo-climatic/environmental studies of Northwestern China (NW China), a region characterized by a diverse assortment of hydro-climatic systems. Their common approach, however, focuses on "deducing regional resemblance" rather than "exploring regional variance." To date, efforts to produce a quantitative assessment of long-term intra-regional precipitation variability (IRPV) in NW China has been inadequate. In the present study, we base on historical flood/drought records to compile a decadal IRPV index for NW China spanned AD580-1979 and to find its major determinants via wavelet analysis. Results show that our IRPV index captures the footprints of internal hydro-climatic disparity in NW China. In addition, we find distinct ~120-200 year periodicities in the IRPV index over the Little Ice Age, which are attributable to the change of hydro-climatic influence of ocean-atmospheric modes during the period. Also, we offer statistical evidence of El Niño Southern Oscillation (Indo-Pacific warm pool sea surface temperature and China-wide land surface temperature) as the prominent multi-decadal to centennial (centennial to multi-centennial) determinant of the IRPV in NW China. The present study contributes to the quantitative validation of the long-term IRPV in NW China and its driving forces, covering the periods with and without instrumental records. It may help to comprehend the complex hydro-climatic regimes in the region. PMID:26154711

  1. Quantifying the Intra-Regional Precipitation Variability in Northwestern China over the Past 1,400 Years

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Harry F.; Pei, Qing; Zhang, David D.; Choi, Kan P. K.

    2015-01-01

    There has been a surge of paleo-climatic/environmental studies of Northwestern China (NW China), a region characterized by a diverse assortment of hydro-climatic systems. Their common approach, however, focuses on “deducing regional resemblance” rather than “exploring regional variance.” To date, efforts to produce a quantitative assessment of long-term intra-regional precipitation variability (IRPV) in NW China has been inadequate. In the present study, we base on historical flood/drought records to compile a decadal IRPV index for NW China spanned AD580–1979 and to find its major determinants via wavelet analysis. Results show that our IRPV index captures the footprints of internal hydro-climatic disparity in NW China. In addition, we find distinct ~120–200 year periodicities in the IRPV index over the Little Ice Age, which are attributable to the change of hydro-climatic influence of ocean-atmospheric modes during the period. Also, we offer statistical evidence of El Niño Southern Oscillation (Indo-Pacific warm pool sea surface temperature and China-wide land surface temperature) as the prominent multi-decadal to centennial (centennial to multi-centennial) determinant of the IRPV in NW China. The present study contributes to the quantitative validation of the long-term IRPV in NW China and its driving forces, covering the periods with and without instrumental records. It may help to comprehend the complex hydro-climatic regimes in the region. PMID:26154711

  2. Characteristics of regional new particle formation in urban and regional background environments in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. B.; Hu, M.; Sun, J. Y.; Wu, Z. J.; Yue, D. L.; Shen, X. J.; Zhang, Y. M.; Pei, X. Y.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2013-08-01

    Long-term measurements of particle number size distributions were carried out in the North China Plain both at an urban background site (Peking University, PKU) and a regional Global Atmospheric Watch station (Shangdianzi, SDZ) from March to November in 2008. In total, 52 new particle formation events were observed simultaneously at both sites, indicating that this is a regional phenomenon in the North China Plain. On average, the mean condensation sink value before the nucleation event start was 0.025 s-1 in the urban environment, which was 1.6 times higher than that at regional site. However, higher particle formation and growth rates were observed at PKU (10.8 cm-3 s-1 an 5.2 nm h-1) compared with those at SDZ (4.9 cm-3 s-1 and 4.0 nm h-1). These results implied that more precursors are needed to participate in the nucleation process to observe the occurrence of new particle formation event in a more polluted urban environment. Different from the observations in clean environments, the background condition of the observed nucleation events in the North China Plain could be characterized as the co-existing of the higher source and sink. The condensational growth of newly formed particles results in an increase in the particle mass concentration, particle light scattering coefficient, and CCN number concentration, with consequences on climate effects and air quality. In 34 investigated new particle formation cases at both sites, a significant particle nucleation and subsequent growth over a sufficient long time period were observed and investigated in terms of the particle light scattering and the number concentration of "potential" CCN. The results revealed that the new particle formation increases the particle light scattering coefficient and CCN number concentration in the North China Plain by factors in the range of 6.3-7.6 and 5.6-8.7, respectively. Moreover, the potential contribution of anthropogenic emissions to the CCN number concentration is more than 50

  3. 77 FR 79 - Honey From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Rescission of the Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ... Review, 76 FR 12940 (March 9, 2011). \\5\\ See Ninth Administrative Review of Honey From the People's... Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews, 76 FR 5137 (January 28, 2011) (``Initiation Notice''). On February 7, 2011, Mongolia Altin Bee-Keeping Co., Ltd., Suzhou Shanding Honey Product Co., Ltd., and Wuhu...

  4. 77 FR 34343 - Honey From the People's Republic of China: Final Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ..., 76 FR 5137 (January 28, 2011) (``Initiation Notice''). On February 7, 2011, Mongolia Altin Bee... Administrative Review, 77 FR 79 (January 3, 2012) (``Preliminary Rescission''). DATES: Effective Date: June 11...: Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR 12940 (March 9, 2011). \\6\\ See...

  5. 75 FR 64695 - First Administrative Review of Sodium Hexametaphosphate From the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... the Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 19613 (April 15, 2010) (``Preliminary Results...: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results, 75 FR 48309 (August 10, 2010). \\3\\ See First Antidumping Duty... Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 73 FR 4175 (January 24, 2008) (where the Department...

  6. 76 FR 53408 - Pure Magnesium From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... weight primarily the element magnesium and produced by decomposing raw materials into magnesium metal... Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 76 FR 37781 (June 28, 2011...; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 76 FR 24458 (May 2, 2011). \\4\\ See letter from U.S....

  7. The Administrative Mode and Academic Corruption at China's State-Run Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bin, Wang; Qichun, Chen

    2007-01-01

    Institutions of higher learning, as social organizations, rely on their administrations to harmonize their resources and coordinate relations. Meanwhile, institutions of higher learning are also important links in political socialization, and state forces intervene to a certain extent in school administration and regulate their developmental…

  8. Simulation of 1986 South China Sea Monsoon with a Regional Climate Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W. -K.; Lau, W. K.-M.; Jia, Y.; Juang, H.; Wetzel, P.; Qian, J.; Chen, C.

    1999-01-01

    A Regional Land-Atmosphere Climate Simulation System (RELACS) project is being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. One of the major goals of RELACS is to use a regional scale model with improved physical processes and in particular land-related processes, to understand the role of the land surface and its interaction with convection and radiation as well as the water/energy cycles in the IndoChina/South China Sea (SCS) region. The Penn State/NCAR MM5 atmospheric modeling system, a state of the art atmospheric numerical model designed to simulate regional weather and climate, has been successfully coupled to the Parameterization for Land-Atmosphere-Cloud Exchange (PLACE) land surface model. The original MM5 model (without PLACE) includes the option for either a simple slab soil model or a five-layer soil model (MRF) in which the soil moisture availability evolves over time. However, the MM5 soil models do not include the effects of vegetation, and thus important physical processes such as evapotranspiration and interception are precluded. The PLACE model incorporates vegetation type and has been shown in international comparisons to accurately predict evapotranspiration and runoff over a wide variety of land surfaces. The coupling of MM5 and PLACE creates a numerical modeling system with the potential to more realistically simulate atmosphere and land surface processes including land-sea interaction, regional circulations such as monsoons, and flash flood events. In addition, the Penn State/NCAR MM5 atmospheric modeling system has been: (1) coupled to the Goddard Ice Microphysical scheme; (2) coupled to a turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) scheme; (3) modified to ensure cloud budget balance; and (4) incorporated initialization with the Goddard EOS data sets at NASA/Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres. The improved MM5 with two nested domains (60 and 20 km horizontal resolution) was used to simulate convective activity over IndoChina and the South China Sea

  9. Analysis and improvement of ionospheric thin shell model used in SBAS for China region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Z.; Yuan, H.

    2013-06-01

    The most frequently used mapping function for converting slant total electron content (STEC) to vertical total electron content (VTEC) uses a simplified ionospheric single layer model in satellite based augmentation system (SBAS). Aiming at ionospheric single layer model altitude variation, we analyzed the statistical characteristic of mapping function in systemic approach particular for the region of China, and then experimental mapping function was proposed. The experimental mapping function is used in SBAS ionospheric correction and the precision of vertical correction is compared with standard mapping function. The results show that conversion factor errors depend on latitude, time and elevation, experimental mapping function is helpful to the vertical TEC estimation and may improve the precision of SBAS ionospheric refraction correction especially for the low latitude region of China.

  10. Ecological Model to Predict Potential Habitats of Oncomelania hupensis, the Intermediate Host of Schistosoma japonicum in the Mountainous Regions, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hong-Ru; Liu, Lu; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Yang, Guo-Jing

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis japonica is a parasitic disease that remains endemic in seven provinces in the People’s Republic of China (P.R. China). One of the most important measures in the process of schistosomiasis elimination in P.R. China is control of Oncomelania hupensis, the unique intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum. Compared with plains/swamp and lake regions, the hilly/mountainous regions of schistosomiasis endemic areas are more complicated, which makes the snail survey difficult to conduct precisely and efficiently. There is a pressing call to identify the snail habitats of mountainous regions in an efficient and cost-effective manner. Methods Twelve out of 56 administrative villages distributed with O. hupensis in Eryuan, Yunnan Province, were randomly selected to set up the ecological model. Thirty out of the rest of 78 villages (villages selected for building model were excluded from the villages for validation) in Eryuan and 30 out of 89 villages in Midu, Yunnan Province were selected via a chessboard method for model validation, respectively. Nine-year-average Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Land Surface Temperature (LST) as well as Digital Elevation Model (DEM) covering Eryuan and Midu were extracted from MODIS and ASTER satellite images, respectively. Slope, elevation and the distance from every village to its nearest stream were derived from DEM. Suitable survival environment conditions for snails were defined by comparing historical snail presence data and remote sensing derived images. According to the suitable conditions for snails, environment factors, i.e. NDVI, LST, elevation, slope and the distance from every village to its nearest stream, were integrated into an ecological niche model to predict O. hupensis potential habitats in Eryuan and Midu. The evaluation of the model was assessed by comparing the model prediction and field investigation. Then, the consistency rate of model validation was calculated

  11. Risk assessment of tropical storm surges for coastal regions of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Wang, H.; Liu, G. M.; Sun, X. Y.; Fei, X. Y.; Wang, P. T.; Lv, T. T.; Xue, Z. S.; He, Y. W.

    2014-05-01

    Storm surges are responsible for much of the damage and loss of life associated with landfalling tropical cyclones (TCs). Thus, understanding the characteristics of risk associated with TC storm surges for the coastal regions of China is of great interest. Based on a comprehensive assessment of hazard indices for TC storm surges and vulnerability indices for coastal counties, we obtained a risk assessment for coastal regions of China as a county-level unit. The hazard index was calculated using a model based on the parameters of a TC landfall frequency index (f) and maximum storm surge elevation (MSSE). The MSSE was calculated from the TC maximum sustained wind and tide gauge records using a regression function. Vulnerability indices were obtained from indices on socioeconomics, land use, the ecological environment, and resilience. From this study, it can be concluded that the hazard level of TC storm surges increases from north to south along the Chinese coast, the vulnerabilities have significant spatial heterogeneity, and coastal regions of China can be divided into four zones of risk level. The results of this study can provide scientific support for marine disaster mitigation and decision making. Additionally, the risk assessment methodology used here for storm surges could be extended and applied to other coastal areas.

  12. Molecular detection and characterization of Theileria infection in cattle and yaks from Tibet Plateau Region, China.

    PubMed

    Qin, Gege; Li, Youquan; Liu, Junlong; Liu, Zhijie; Yang, Jifei; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Guangyuan; Guan, Guiquan; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong

    2016-07-01

    Theileriosis continues to threaten the livestock industry worldwide, but comprehensive epidemiological surveys for this disease have not been conducted in the Tibet Plateau Region, China. In this study, we screened 154 cattle blood samples from the Tibet Plateau Region (Lhasa, Lhoka, and Tianzhu), China, for detection of Theileria pathogens by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with species-specific primers. The results revealed that the prevalence was 6.9 % (2/29) for Theileria orientalis and 27.6 % (8/29) for Theileria sinensis in Lhasa, 0 % (0/30) for T. orientalis and 26.7 % (8/30) for T. sinensis in Lhoka, and 0 % (0/95) for T. orientalis and 30.5 % (29/95) for T. sinensis in Tianzhu. Interestingly, Theileria luwenshuni, which was a previously reported pathogenic Theileria sp. in sheep and goats, was detected in blood samples from cattle and yaks for the first time, with a prevalence of 10 % (3/30) in Lhoka and 1.1 % (1/95) in Tianzhu. No other Theileria sp. was detected in these samples. T. sinensis and T. orientalis infections were detected in cattle and yaks, and T. luwenshuni was discovered for the first time in cattle and yaks in the Tibet Plateau Region, China. PMID:27000088

  13. Global Impacts of Long-Term Land Cover Changes Within China's Densely Populated Rural Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, E. C.

    2006-12-01

    Long-term changes in land cover are usually investigated in terms of large-scale change processes such as urban expansion, deforestation and land conversion to agriculture. Yet China's densely populated agricultural regions, which cover more than 2 million square kilometers of Monsoon Asia, have been transformed profoundly over the past fifty years by fine-scale changes in land cover caused by unprecedented changes in population, technology and social conditions. Using a regional sampling and upscaling design coupled with high-resolution landscape change measurements at five field sites, we investigated long-term changes in land cover and ecological processes, circa 1945 to 2002, within and across China's densely populated agricultural regions. As expected, the construction of buildings and roads increased impervious surface area over time, but the total net increase was surprising, being similar in magnitude to the total current extent of China's cities. Agricultural land area declined over the same period, while tree cover increased, by about 10%, driven by tree planting and regrowth around new buildings, the introduction of perennial agriculture, improved forestry, and declines in annual crop cultivation. Though changes in impervious surface areas were closely related to changes in population density, long-term changes in agricultural land and tree cover were unrelated to populated density and required explanation by more complex models with strong regional and biophysical components. Moreover, most of these changes occurred primarily at fine spatial scales (< 30 m), under the threshold for conventional global and regional land cover change measurements. Given that these changes in built structures and vegetation cover have the potential to contribute substantially to regional and global changes in biogeochemistry, hydrology, and land-atmosphere interactions, future investigations of these changes and their impacts across Monsoon Asia would benefit from models

  14. Characteristics of regional new particle formation in urban and regional background environments in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. B.; Hu, M.; Sun, J. Y.; Wu, Z. J.; Yue, D. L.; Shen, X. J.; Zhang, Y. M.; Pei, X. Y.; Cheng, Y. F.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2013-12-01

    Long-term measurements of particle number size distributions were carried out both at an urban background site (Peking University, PKU) and a regional Global Atmospheric Watch station (Shangdianzi, SDZ) from March to November in 2008. In total, 52 new particle formation (NPF) events were observed simultaneously at both sites, indicating that this is a regional phenomenon in the North China Plain. On average, the mean condensation sink value before the nucleation events started was 0.025 s-1 in the urban environment, which was 1.6 times higher than that at regional site. However, higher particle formation and growth rates were observed at PKU (10.8 cm-3 s-1 and 5.2 nm h-1) compared with those at SDZ (4.9 cm-3 s-1 and 4.0 nm h-1). These results implied that precursors were much more abundant in the polluted urban environment. Different from the observations in cleaner environments, the background conditions of the observed particle homogeneous nucleation events in the North China Plain could be characterized as the co-existing of a stronger source of precursor gases and a higher condensational sink of pre-existing aerosol particles. Secondary aerosol formation following nucleation events results in an increase of particle mass concentration, particle light scattering coefficient, and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentration, with consequences on visibility, radiative effects, and air quality. Typical regional NPF events with significant particle nucleation rates and subsequent particle growth over a sufficiently long time period at both sites were chosen to investigate the influence of NPF on the number concentration of "potential" CCN. As a result, the NPF and the subsequent condensable growth increased the CCN number concentration in the North China Plain by factors in the range from 5.6 to 8.7. Moreover, the potential contribution of anthropogenic emissions to the CCN number concentration was more than 50%, to which more attention should be drawn in

  15. 7 CFR Exhibit J to Subpart G of... - Locations and Telephone Numbers of Federal Emergency Management Administration's Regional Offices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Management Administration's Regional Offices J Exhibit J to Subpart G of Part 1940 Agriculture Regulations of... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Environmental Program Pt. 1940, Subpt. G, Exh. J Exhibit J to Subpart G of Part 1940—Locations and Telephone Numbers of Federal Emergency Management Administration's...

  16. 7 CFR Exhibit J to Subpart G of... - Locations and Telephone Numbers of Federal Emergency Management Administration's Regional Offices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Management Administration's Regional Offices J Exhibit J to Subpart G of Part 1940 Agriculture Regulations of... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Environmental Program Pt. 1940, Subpt. G, Exh. J Exhibit J to Subpart G of Part 1940—Locations and Telephone Numbers of Federal Emergency Management Administration's...

  17. 7 CFR Exhibit J to Subpart G of... - Locations and Telephone Numbers of Federal Emergency Management Administration's Regional Offices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Management Administration's Regional Offices J Exhibit J to Subpart G of Part 1940 Agriculture Regulations of... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Environmental Program Pt. 1940, Subpt. G, Exh. J Exhibit J to Subpart G of Part 1940—Locations and Telephone Numbers of Federal Emergency Management Administration's...

  18. 7 CFR Exhibit J to Subpart G of... - Locations and Telephone Numbers of Federal Emergency Management Administration's Regional Offices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Management Administration's Regional Offices J Exhibit J to Subpart G of Part 1940 Agriculture Regulations of... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Environmental Program Pt. 1940, Subpt. G, Exh. J Exhibit J to Subpart G of Part 1940—Locations and Telephone Numbers of Federal Emergency Management Administration's...

  19. 7 CFR Exhibit J to Subpart G of... - Locations and Telephone Numbers of Federal Emergency Management Administration's Regional Offices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Management Administration's Regional Offices J Exhibit J to Subpart G of Part 1940 Agriculture Regulations of... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Environmental Program Pt. 1940, Subpt. G, Exh. J Exhibit J to Subpart G of Part 1940—Locations and Telephone Numbers of Federal Emergency Management Administration's...

  20. Synthetic seismograms at regional distances for May 1995 earthquake and explosion sources in Western China

    SciTech Connect

    App, F.N.; Bos, R.J.; Kamm, J.R.

    1996-08-01

    Waveforms recorded at several regional seismic stations at varying azimuths form explosion and earthquake sources in western China exhibit marked variation from station to station. We have performed two-dimensional finite difference simulations of these events, using moment tensor sources and simple crustal structure models, to generate synthetic seismograms at these locations. The synthetic seismograms at three locations exhibit behavior that is qualitatively consistent with the data, while computational results at a fourth station differ from the data. We discuss these results, the assumptions of the simulations, and the limitations of this type of modeling in the context of regional seismic propagation.

  1. Regional seismic discrimination in central Asia with emphasis on western China

    SciTech Connect

    Hartse, H.E.; Taylor, S.R.; Phillips, W.S.; Randall, G.E.

    1996-09-01

    In support of an anticipated Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, the authors have started to evaluate regional seismic event discrimination capabilities for central Asia, emphasizing western China. The authors have measured noise and seismic phase amplitudes of over 250 earthquakes and 18 underground nuclear explosions recorded at the broadband, digital station WMQ in western China and over 100 earthquakes and 5 nuclear explosions at station AAK in Kyrgyzstan. The explosions are from the Kazakh Test Site (KTS) and Lop Nor, China. The earthquakes are mostly from northwest China. They have also evaluated a single suspected chemical explosion. Event magnitudes (m{sub b}) range between 2.5 and 6.5 and maximum event-station distance is about 1,700 km. Using these measurements the authors formed phase, spectral, cross-spectral, short-period/long-period, and long-period ratios to test many possible event discriminants. All ratios were corrected for distance effects before forming ratio-versus-magnitude discrimination plots. The authors found that all five classes of these discriminants are useful for separating earthquakes from explosions in central Asia, provided the right combinations of frequency bands and phases are selected. Results are described.

  2. Effects of double cropping on summer climate of the North China Plain and neighbouring regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) is one of the most important agricultural regions in Asia and produces up to 50% of the cereal consumed in China each year. To meet increasing food demands without expanding croplands, annual agricultural practice in much of the NCP has changed from single to double cropping. The impact of double cropping on the regional climate, through biophysical feedbacks caused by changes in land surface conditions, remains largely unknown. Here we show that observed surface air temperatures during the inter-cropping season (June and July) are 0.40 °C higher over double cropping regions (DCRs) than over single cropping regions (SCRs), with increases in the daily maximum temperature as large as 1.02 °C. Using regional climate modelling, we attribute the higher temperatures in DCRs to reduced evapotranspiration during the inter-cropping period. The higher surface temperatures in June and July affect low-level circulation and, in turn, rainfall associated with the East Asian monsoon over the NCP and neighbouring countries. These findings suggest that double cropping in the NCP can amplify the magnitude of summertime climate changes over East Asia.

  3. Regional Risk Evaluation of Flood Disasters for the Trunk-Highway in Shaanxi, China

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Hong-Liang; Tian, Wei-Ping; Li, Jia-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Due to the complicated environment there are various types of highway disasters in Shaanxi Province (China). The damages caused are severe, losses are heavy, and have rapidly increased over the years, especially those caused by flood disasters along the rivers in mountainous areas. Therefore, research on risk evaluations, which play important roles in the prevention and mitigation of highway disasters are very important. An evaluation model was established based on the superposition theory of regional influencing factors to highway flood disasters. Based on the formation mechanism and influencing factors of highway flood disasters, the main influencing factors were selected. These factors include rainstorms, terrain slopes, soil types, vegetation coverage and regional river density, which are based on evaluation indexes from climate conditions and underlying surface of the basin. A regional risk evaluation of highway flood disasters in Shaanxi was established using GIS. The risk index was divided into five levels using statistical methods, in accordance with the regional characteristics of highway flood disasters. Considering the difference in upfront investments, road grade, etc, between expressways and trunk-highways in China, a regional risk evaluation of trunk-highway flood disasters was completed. The evaluation results indicate that the risk evaluation is consistent with the actual situation. PMID:26528994

  4. Previous Employment and Job Satisfaction Conditions: The Case of Regional Administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amalia, Myronaki; Nikolaos, Antonakas

    2009-08-01

    In the present work we study the different dimensions of satisfaction and the way of constitution of satisfaction of an important sample of the employees in the Regional administration of Crete and in their connection with the variable of the previous employment. We found statistically important differences for the components of satisfaction from the life, collaboration in and outside from the department, in the social satisfaction and the variable of the years in the service (labour group with <5 years in the service, group with 5-9 years in the service and labour group with 10-15 years in the service). The group with total few years in the work <5, presented smaller social and labour satisfaction than the other previous employment groups. In the other hand the group with many years in the service presents bigger satisfaction than the other groups. Finally, is important to note that the sample present some interesting characteristics.

  5. Monitoring rice cropping systems using China environment satellite data in Poyang Lake region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peng; Jiang, Luguang; Feng, Zhiming

    Threshold method was utilized to discriminate rice cropping systems based on the noticeable variation of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) during key growth stages in Poyang Lake Region, China. This area is dominated by double- and single rice cropping systems which tend to change due to the frequent ecosystem management policies. We used a new satellite data from the CCD camera sensor with 30 m spatial resolution onboard the China Environmental Satellite HJ-1A and B. The HJ -1A/B with a better temporal resolution of four days provides more data options for effective and timely agriculture monitoring. The result showed that there is evident difference of NDVI between single and late rice during mid October when they are in different growth stages. The areas of single and late rice in 2011 were 2988.6 km2 and 3105.9 km2, respectively. Paddy field distribution map and local paddy rice calendar are requisite to move the threshold method into other multiple rice cropping regions. The study suggests that the China Environmental Satellite HJ-1A/B have the potential to rice cropping system in the double to triple rice cropping systems area. With many advantages of HJ-1A/B, like, finer spatial and temporal resolution, bigger imaging swath, it may make rice cropping system monitoring more feasible and operational.

  6. A new version of regional ocean reanalysis for coastal waters of China and adjacent seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Guijun; Li, Wei; Zhang, Xuefeng; Wang, Xidong; Wu, Xinrong; Fu, Hongli; Zhang, Xiaoshuang; Zhang, Lianxin; Li, Dong

    2013-07-01

    A new regional ocean reanalysis over multiple decades (1958-2008) for the coastal waters of China and adjacent seas has been completed by the National Marine Data and Information Service (NMDIS) under the CORA (China Ocean ReAnalysis) project. Evaluations were performed on three aspects: (1) the improvement of general reanalysis quality; (2) eddy structures; and (3) decadal variability of sea surface height anomalies (SSHAs). Results showed that the quality of the new reanalysis has been enhanced beyond ˜40% (39% for temperature, 44% for salinity) in terms of the reduction of root mean squared errors (RMSEs) for which the reanalysis values were compared to observed values in the observational space. Compared to the trial version released to public in 2009, the new reanalysis is able to reproduce more detailed eddy structures as seen in satellite and in situ observations. EOF analysis of the reanalysis SSHAs showed that the new reanalysis reconstructs the leading modes of SSHAs much better than the old version. These evaluations suggest that the new CORA regional reanalysis represents a much more useful dataset for the community of the coastal waters of China and adjacent seas.

  7. A regional ocean reanalysis system for coastal waters of China and adjacent seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Guijun; Li, Wei; Zhang, Xuefeng; Li, Dong; He, Zhongjie; Wang, Xidong; Wu, Xinrong; Yu, Ting; Ma, Jirui

    2011-05-01

    A regional ocean reanalysis system for the coastal waters of China and adjacent seas has been developed by the National Marine Data and Information Service (NMDIS). It produces a dataset package called CORA (China ocean reanalysis). The regional ocean model used is based on the Princeton Ocean Model with a generalized coordinate system (POMgcs). The model is parallelized by NMDIS with the addition of the wave breaking and tidal mixing processes into model parameterizations. Data assimilation is a sequential three-dimensional variational (3D-Var) scheme implemented within a multigrid framework. Observations include satellite remote sensing sea surface temperature (SST), altimetry sea level anomaly (SLA), and temperature/salinity profiles. The reanalysis fields of sea surface height, temperature, salinity, and currents begin with January 1986 and are currently updated every year. Error statistics and error distributions of temperature, salinity and currents are presented as a primary evaluation of the reanalysis fields using sea level data from tidal gauges, temperature profiles, as well as the trajectories of Argo floats. Some case studies offer the opportunity to verify the evolution of certain local circulations. These evaluations show that the reanalysis data produced provide a good representation of the ocean processes and phenomena in the coastal waters of China and adjacent seas.

  8. Update on administration of anesthetics and psychoactive drugs for pain management in China.

    PubMed

    Gu, Weiping

    2015-06-01

    Anesthetics and psychoactive drugs could relieve diseases, if used properly. However, they can cause dependency, and their misuse or abuse could adversely affect people's health and social stability. For a long time, the Chinese government has been reinforcing the regulation on anesthetics and psychoactive drugs to ensure their legal and proper usage, and to prevent abuse. The state council issued 'the regulations on the administration of anesthetic drugs and psychotropic drugs' in 2005, based on which a legal system was established for administration of anesthetics and psychoactive drugs with the objectives of ensuring their legitimate medical utilization, and preventing illegal abuse. PMID:26068438

  9. Study of the regional CO2 mole fractions filtering approach at a WMO/GAW regional station in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, S. X.; Tans, P. P.; Steinbacher, M.; Zhou, L. X.; Luan, T.

    2015-07-01

    The identification of atmospheric CO2 observation data which is minimally influenced by very local emissions/removals is essential for the estimation of trend analysis, regional sources and sinks, and for modeling of long-range transport of CO2. In this study, four approaches are used to filter the atmospheric CO2 observation records from 2009 to 2011 at one World Meteorological Organization/Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO/GAW) regional station (Lin'an, LAN) in China. The methods are based on the atmospheric black carbon concentration (BC), on a statistical approach (REBS), on CH4 as auxiliary tracer (AUX) and on meteorological parameters (MET). All approaches do suitably well to capture the seasonal CO2 cycle at LAN. Differences are observed in the average regional mole fractions with annual values in the REBS method at least 1.7 ± 0.2 ppm higher than the other methods. The BC method may underestimate the regional CO2 mole fractions during winter-spring period and should be treated with caution. The REBS method is a purely statistical method and it may also introduce errors on the regional CO2 mole fractions evaluations, as the filtered trend may be deviated by the "noisy" raw data series. Although there are correlations between CH4 and CO2 mole fractions at LAN, the different source/sink regimes may introduce bias on the regional CO2 estimation in the AUX method, typically in summer. Overall, the MET method seems to be the most favorable because it mainly focuses on the influence of potential local sources and sinks and considers diurnal variations, local topography, and meteorological conditions. Using the MET method, the annual growth rate of regional CO2 at LAN is determined to be 3.1 ± 0.01 ppm yr-1 (standard error) from 2009 to 2013.

  10. Comparison of the regional CO2 mole fraction filtering approaches at a WMO/GAW regional station in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, S. X.; Tans, P. P.; Steinbacher, M.; Zhou, L. X.; Luan, T.

    2015-12-01

    The identification of atmospheric CO2 observation data which are minimally influenced by very local emissions/removals is essential for trend analysis, for the estimation of regional sources and sinks, and for the modeling of long-range transport of CO2. In this study, four approaches are used to filter the atmospheric CO2 observation records from 2009 to 2011 at one World Meteorological Organization/Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO/GAW) regional station (Lin'an, LAN) in China. The methods are based on the concentration of atmospheric black carbon (BC), on a statistical approach (robust extraction of baseline signal, REBS), on CH4 as an auxiliary tracer (AUX), and on meteorological parameters (MET). All approaches do suitably well to capture the seasonal CO2 cycle at LAN. Differences are observed in the average regional mole fractions with annual values in the REBS method at least 1.7 ± 0.2 ppm higher than the other methods. The BC method may underestimate the regional CO2 mole fractions during the winter-spring period and should be treated with caution. The REBS method is a purely statistical method and it may also introduce errors on the regional CO2 mole fraction evaluations, as the filtered trend may be influenced by the "noisy" raw data series. Although there are correlations between CH4 and CO2 mole fractions at LAN, the different source/sink regimes may introduce bias on the regional CO2 estimation in the AUX method, typically in summer. Overall, the MET method seems to be the most favorable because it mainly focuses on the influence of potential local sources and sinks, and considers diurnal variations and meteorological conditions. Using the MET method, the annual growth rate of regional CO2 at LAN is determined to be 3.1 ± 0.01 ppm yr-1 (standard error) from 2009 to 2011.

  11. Regional/Urban Air Quality Modeling Assessment over China Using the Models-3/CMAQ System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, J. S.; Jang, C. C.; Streets, D. G.; Li, Z.; Wang, L.; Zhang, Q.; Woo, J.; Wang, B.

    2004-12-01

    China is the world's most populous country with a fast growing economy that surges in energy comsumption. It has become the second largest energy consumer after the United States although the per capita level is much lower than those found in developed or developing countries. Air pollution has become one of the most important problems of megacities such as Beijing and Shanghai and has serious impacts on public health, causes urban and regional haze. The Models-3/CMAQ modeling application that has been conducted to simulate multi-pollutants in China is presented. The modeling domains cover East Asia (36-kmx36-km) including Japan, South Korea, Korea DPR, Indonesia, Thailand, India and Mongolia, East China (12-kmx12-km) and Beijing/Tianjing, Shanghai (4-kmx4-km). For this study, the Asian emission inventory based on the emission estimates of the year 2000 that supported the NASA TRACE-P program is used. However, the TRACE-P emission inventory was developed for a different purpose such as global modeling. TRACE-P emission inventory may not be practical in urban area. There is no China national emission inventory available. Therefore, TRACE-P emission inventory is used on the East Asia and East China domains. The 8 districts of Beijing and Shanghai local emissions inventory are used to replace TRACE-P in 4-km domains. The meteorological data for the Models-3/CMAQ run are extracted from MM5. The model simulation is performed during the period January 1-20 and July 1-20, 2001 that presented the winter and summer time for China areas. The preliminary model results are shown O3 concentrations are in the range of 80 -120 ppb in the urban area. Lower urban O3 concentrations are shown in Beijing areas, possibly due to underestimation of urban man-made VOC emissions in the TRACE-P inventory and local inventory. High PM2.5 (70ug/m3 in summer and 150ug/m3 in winter) were simulated over metropolitan & downwind areas with significant secondary constituents. More comprehensive

  12. Understanding of regional air pollution over China using CMAQ, part I performance evaluation and seasonal variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-Huan; Zhang, Yang; Cheng, Shu-Hui; Xing, Jia; Zhang, Qiang; Streets, David G.; Jang, Carey; Wang, Wen-Xing; Hao, Ji-Ming

    2010-07-01

    The U.S. EPA Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system with the process analysis tool is applied to China to study the seasonal variations and formation mechanisms of major air pollutants. Simulations show distinct seasonal variations, with higher surface concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO 2), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2), and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 μm (PM 10), column mass of carbon monoxide (CO) and NO 2, and aerosol optical depth (AOD) in winter and fall than other seasons, and higher 1-h O 3 and troposphere ozone residual (TOR) in spring and summer than other seasons. Higher concentrations of most species occur over the eastern China, where the air pollutant emissions are the highest in China. Compared with surface observations, the simulated SO 2, NO 2, and PM 10 concentrations are underpredicted throughout the year with NMBs of up to -51.8%, -32.0%, and -54.2%, respectively. Such large discrepancies can be attributed to the uncertainties in emissions, simulated meteorology, and deviation of observations based on air pollution index. Max. 1-h O 3 concentrations in Jan. and Jul. at 36-km are overpredicted with NMBs of 12.0% and 19.3% and agree well in Apr. and Oct. Simulated column variables can capture the high concentrations over the eastern China and low values in the central and western China. Underpredictions occur over the northeastern China for column CO in Apr., TOR in Jul., and AODs in both Apr. and Jul.; and overpredictions occur over the eastern China for column CO in Oct., NO 2 in Jan. and Oct., and AODs in Jan. and Oct. The simulations at 12-km show a finer structure in simulated concentrations than that at 36-km over higher polluted areas, but do not always give better performance than 36-km. Surface concentrations are more sensitive to grid resolution than column variables except for column NO 2, with higher sensitivity over mountain and coastal areas than other regions.

  13. Precipitation trend-Elevation relationship in arid regions of the China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Junqiang; Yang, Qing; Mao, Weiyi; Zhao, Yong; Xu, Xinbing

    2016-08-01

    Based on monthly precipitation data at 128 meteorological stations in the arid regions of the China (ARC), we investigated that the regional characteristics of precipitation trend and the precipitation trend-elevation relationship during the period of 1961-2012. There is growing evidence that the elevation-dependent wetting (EDWE), which is the precipitation wetting trend is amplified with elevation. The precipitation trend increases significantly with elevation except for the altitude from 500 to 1500 m, the highest correlation appears above 1500 m, increases by 13 mm/decade with each 1000 m. With the elevation increasing every 1000 m, precipitation tendency rate increases by 7 mm/decade from 1000 to 2000 m and increases by 10 mm/decade from 2000 to 4000 m. EDWE has an impact on the change of the cryospheric systems, ecosystems and water resources, especially in arid regions of China. We discuss mechanisms that contribute towards EDWE: water vapor changes and warming-driven water circulation speeds up. We suggest future needs to increase evidence of understand the EDWE in other mountainous regions, and its controlling mechanisms through integrated the observational network of surface in-situ climate observations, satellite data and high-resolution climatic modeling.

  14. [Spatiotemporal pattern of carbon sources and sinks in Yangtze River Delta region, China].

    PubMed

    Yi, Bai-lu; Han, Ji; Zhou, Xiang; Yang, Fang; Meng, Xing; Cao, Wu-xing; Huang, Lu-xia; Xiang, Wei-ning

    2015-04-01

    Yangtze River Delta region is the world's sixth and China's largest urban agglomeration. Its rapid and massive urbanization has also caused a series of ecological and environmental impacts. This paper accounted the inventory of carbon sources and sinks in Yangtze River Delta region during 1995-2010 and analyzed their spatiotemporal patterns. It was found that the carbon sinks increased by 9.43 million tons from 1995 to 2010, in which forest ecosystem net production in Zhejiang Province was the largest contributor. The "grain for green" policy implemented since 2003 in China played a significant role in increasing the forest area and the carbon sinks. The carbon sources increased by 327 million tons, and energy consumption and industrial processes based emissions accounted for 96% of total carbon sources in 2010. Due to the large share of manufacturing and heavy industries in economy and their dependence on the high carbon intensity energy, either the amount or the growth speed of carbon emissions in Jiangsu Province was the top one in the whole region. Moreover, because the growth speed of net carbon emissions that occurred upon the built-up land was much faster than the sprawl speed of urban built-up land, the net carbon emission intensity kept increasing in the whole region, in which Jiangsu Province demonstrated the fastest increase. PMID:26259436

  15. The use of propagation path corrections to improve regional seismic event location in western China

    SciTech Connect

    Steck, L.K.; Cogbill, A.H.; Velasco, A.A.

    1999-03-01

    In an effort to improve the ability to locate seismic events in western China using only regional data, the authors have developed empirical propagation path corrections (PPCs) and applied such corrections using both traditional location routines as well as a nonlinear grid search method. Thus far, the authors have concentrated on corrections to observed P arrival times for shallow events using travel-time observations available from the USGS EDRs, the ISC catalogs, their own travel-tim picks from regional data, and data from other catalogs. They relocate events with the algorithm of Bratt and Bache (1988) from a region encompassing China. For individual stations having sufficient data, they produce a map of the regional travel-time residuals from all well-located teleseismic events. From these maps, interpolated PPC surfaces have been constructed using both surface fitting under tension and modified Bayesian kriging. The latter method offers the advantage of providing well-behaved interpolants, but requires that the authors have adequate error estimates associated with the travel-time residuals. To improve error estimates for kriging and event location, they separate measurement error from modeling error. The modeling error is defined as the travel-time variance of a particular model as a function of distance, while the measurement error is defined as the picking error associated with each phase. They estimate measurement errors for arrivals from the EDRs based on roundoff or truncation, and use signal-to-noise for the travel-time picks from the waveform data set.

  16. 78 FR 56860 - Honey From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ... and Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2011-2012, 78 FR 38941 (June 28... Antidumping Proceedings: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 76 FR 65694 (October 24, 2011). \\6\\ See id. Cash... merchandise under the order is dispositive. Also included in the scope are blends of honey and rice...

  17. 77 FR 53856 - Administrative Review of Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ..., and Intent to Revoke, in Part, of the Sixth Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 77 FR 12801 (March... Review, 76 FR 17825 (March 31, 2011) (``Initiation'') for a list of these companies. \\4\\ See Preliminary... Republic of Vietnam: Amended Antidumping Duty Orders in Accordance with Final Court Decision, 76 FR...

  18. Process analysis of regional aerosol pollution during spring in the Pearl River Delta region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Qi; Lan, Jing; Liu, Yiming; Wang, Xuemei; Chan, Pakwai; Hong, Yingying; Feng, Yerong; Liu, Yexin; Zeng, Yanjun; Liang, Guixiong

    2015-12-01

    A numerical simulation analysis was performed for three air pollution episodes in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region during March 2012 using the third-generation air quality modeling system Models-3/CMAQ. The results demonstrated that particulate matter was the primary pollutant for all three pollution episodes and was accompanied by relatively low visibility in the first two episodes. Weather maps indicate that the first two episodes occurred under the influence of warm, wet southerly air flow systems that led to high humidity throughout the region. The liquid phase reaction of gaseous pollutants resulted in the generation of fine secondary particles, which were identified as the primary source of pollution in the first two episodes. The third pollution episode occurred during a warming period following a cold front. Relative humidity was lower during this episode, and coarse particles were the major pollution contributor. Results of process analysis indicated that emissions sources, horizontal transport and vertical transport were the primary factors affecting pollutant concentrations within the near-surface layer during all three episodes, while aerosol processes, cloud processes, horizontal transport and vertical transport had greater influence at approximately 900 m above ground. Cloud processes had a greater impact during the first two pollution episodes because of the higher relative humidity. In addition, by comparing pollution processes from different cities (Guangzhou and Zhongshan), the study revealed that the first two pollution episodes were the result of local emissions within the PRD region and transport between surrounding cities, while the third episode exhibited prominent regional pollution characteristics and was the result of regional pollutant transport.

  19. Monitoring and analyzing surface subsidence based on SBAS-InSAR in Beijing region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, L.; Guo, J. M.; Li, X.

    2015-12-01

    Surface subsidence is the main regional environmental geological disaster in plain area in China. The rapid growth of population, the over-exploitation of groundwater and the rapid development of urbanization impacts the occurrence and development of surface subsidence to some extent. The city of Beijing, located in the Beijing Plain, is one of international metropolis in China that experiences the severe surface subsidence. Because of conventional measurement methods with low spatial resolution, differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar(D-InSAR) is susceptible to signal decorrelation and atmospheric delay, persistent scatterer interferometric synthetic aperture radar(PS-InSAR) is based on a large number of SAR images, but small baseline subset interferometric synthetic aperture radar (SBASInSAR) only needs a small number of images and performs better than PS-InSAR for obtaining nonlinear deformation information, in this paper, SBAS-InSAR was used to obtain the high resolution surface subsidence information in Beijing region, China. A spatial-temporal analysis of the surface subsidence in Beijing region during the years of 2007- 2010 was performed utilizing eighteen C-band ENVISAT ASAR images (from August 1, 2007 to September 29, 2010). The results show that subsidence in Beijing region is severe uneven, subsidence funnels appear in Changping District, Shunyi District, Tongzhou District, Daxing District, etc., and many subsidence funnels are interconnected and have an eastward expansion trend; during the period of 2007 to 2010, the subsidence velocities are in the range of -158.5 mm/year to 12.4 mm/year and the maximum subsidence of subsidence center is over 400 mm; surface subsidence is influenced by groundwater exploitation and urbanization significantly.

  20. Dynamical downscaling of regional climate over eastern China using RSM with multiple physics scheme ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peishu, Zong; Jianping, Tang; Shuyu, Wang; Lingyun, Xie; Jianwei, Yu; Yunqian, Zhu; Xiaorui, Niu; Chao, Li

    2016-06-01

    The parameterization of physical processes is one of the critical elements to properly simulate the regional climate over eastern China. It is essential to conduct detailed analyses on the effect of physical parameterization schemes on regional climate simulation, to provide more reliable regional climate change information. In this paper, we evaluate the 25-year (1983-2007) summer monsoon climate characteristics of precipitation and surface air temperature by using the regional spectral model (RSM) with different physical schemes. The ensemble results using the reliability ensemble averaging (REA) method are also assessed. The result shows that the RSM model has the capacity to reproduce the spatial patterns, the variations, and the temporal tendency of surface air temperature and precipitation over eastern China. And it tends to predict better climatology characteristics over the Yangtze River basin and the South China. The impact of different physical schemes on RSM simulations is also investigated. Generally, the CLD3 cloud water prediction scheme tends to produce larger precipitation because of its overestimation of the low-level moisture. The systematic biases derived from the KF2 cumulus scheme are larger than those from the RAS scheme. The scale-selective bias correction (SSBC) method improves the simulation of the temporal and spatial characteristics of surface air temperature and precipitation and advances the circulation simulation capacity. The REA ensemble results show significant improvement in simulating temperature and precipitation distribution, which have much higher correlation coefficient and lower root mean square error. The REA result of selected experiments is better than that of nonselected experiments, indicating the necessity of choosing better ensemble samples for ensemble.

  1. Modeling wet deposition of acid substances over the PRD region in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xingcheng; Fung, Jimmy Chi Hung; Wu, Dongwei

    2015-12-01

    The Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in southern China has suffered heavily from acid rain in the last 10 years due to the anthropogenic emission of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. Several measurement-based studies about this issue have been conducted to analyze the chemical composition of precipitation in this area. However, no detailed, high resolution numerical simulation regarding this topic has ever been done in this region. In this study, the WRF-SMOKE-CMAQ system was applied to simulate the wet deposition of acid substances (SO42- and NO3-) in the PRD region from 2009 to 2011 with a resolution of 3 km. The simulation output agreed well with the observation data. Our results showed that Guangzhou was the city most affected by acid rain in this region. The ratio of non-sea-salt sulfate to nitrate indicated that the acid rain in this region belonged to the sulfate-nitrate mixed type. The source apportionment result suggests that point source and super regional source are the ones that contribute the pollutants most in the rain water over PRD Region. The sulfate and nitrate input to some reservoirs via wet deposition was also estimated based on the model simulation. Our results suggest that further cross-city cooperation and emission reduction are needed to further curb acid rain in this region.

  2. Identifying the regional-scale groundwater-surface water interaction on the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xihua; Zhang, Guangxin; Xu, Y Jun; Sun, Guangzhi

    2015-11-01

    Assessment on the interaction between groundwater and surface water (GW-SW) can generate information that is critical to regional water resource management, especially for regions that are highly dependent on groundwater resources for irrigation. This study investigated such interaction on China's Sanjiang Plain (10.9 × 10(4) km(2)) and produced results to assist sustainable regional water management for intensive agricultural activities. Methods of hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA), and statistical analysis were used in this study. One hundred two water samplings (60 from shallow groundwater, 7 from deep groundwater, and 35 from surface water) were collected and grouped into three clusters and seven sub-clusters during the analyses. The PCA analysis identified four principal components of the interaction, which explained 85.9% variance of total database, attributed to the dissolution and evolution of gypsum, feldspar, and other natural minerals in the region that was affected by anthropic and geological (sedimentary rock mineral) activities. The analyses showed that surface water in the upper region of the Sanjiang Plain gained water from local shallow groundwater, indicating that the surface water in the upper region was relatively more resilient to withdrawal for usage, whereas in the middle region, there was only a weak interaction between shallow groundwater and surface water. In the lower region of the Sanjiang Plain, surface water lost water to shallow groundwater, indicating that the groundwater was vulnerable to pollution by pesticides and fertilizers from terrestrial sources. PMID:26111750

  3. A phylogenetically informed delineation of floristic regions within a biodiversity hotspot in Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rong; Kraft, Nathan J. B.; Yang, Jie; Wang, Yuhua

    2015-01-01

    Traditional attempts to delineate floristic regions typically focus on species distributions, often ignoring the rich context that phylogenetic relationships can provide. In this study, we explore how phylogenetic relatedness, taxonomic composition, and regional phylogenetic structure change across a global biodiversity hotspot region, Yunnan, located in southwestern China. We propose a system of floristic regions within Yunnan by combining data on the distributions and phylogenetic relationships of 1,983 genera of native seed plants. We identified eight distinct floristic regions in Yunnan, which were grouped into two larger northern and southern geographical units. Phylogenetic relatedness was well correlated with taxonomic composition between floras in Yunnan. Across the Yunnan region we examined, the central Yunnan region shows the lowest level of spatial turnover in phylogenetic relationships and taxonomic composition of the floristic assemblages. Using null model analyses, we found evidence of nonrandom phylogenetic structure across the region, in which four areas show higher phylogenetic turnover than expected given the underlying taxonomic composition between sites. Our results show that the integration of phylogenetic information can provide valuable insight in floristic assessments, and help us to better understand the structure of a global biodiversity hotspot. PMID:25820037

  4. Knowledge of Cervical Cancer Screening among Women across Different Socio-Economic Regions of China

    PubMed Central

    Di, Jiangli; Rutherford, Shannon; Wu, Jiuling; Song, Bo; Ma, Lan; Chen, Jingyi; Chu, Cordia

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective China has a high burden of cervical cancer (CC) and wide disparities in CC burden exist among different socio-economic regions. In order to reduce these disparities, China’s government launched the National Cervical Cancer Screening Program in Rural Areas (NCCSPRA) in 2009. Understanding the factors associated with underutilization of CC screening among target populations is important to improve the screening participation rate, and a high participation rate is key to achieving the goals of a screening program. However, data on the knowledge of CC among target populations in program areas is lacking in China. This study will investigate the knowledge of CC prevention and control among women in specific project counties to develop a better understanding of factors that might influence CC screening participation in order to improve the implementation of the NCCSPRA. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted and face-to-face interview questionnaires were completed by 308 women who received CC screening services in 6 project counties of NCCSPRA across different socio-economic regions of China. ANOVA and Chi-square tests were used to compare the knowledge rates and scores across the different subgroups. Logistic regression was conducted to examine factors associated with knowledge level. Results The overall CC knowledge rate of the target population was only 19.5%. Regional socio-economic level, advice from doctors, age, and educational status were strong predictors of knowledge level of CC screening. Significantly lower knowledge rates and scores were identified in older women (55–64 years old), less educated women (with primary school or illiterate), women in less developed regions and women who did not receive any advice about screening results from doctors. Conclusion The knowledge of CC screening among women in the project counties of NCCSPRA was found to be very poor. Given the importance of knowledge in encouraging

  5. Regional study on investment for transmission infrastructure in China based on the State Grid data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wendong; Wu, Xudong; Wu, Xiaofang; Xi, Qiangmin; Ji, Xi; Li, Guoping

    2016-06-01

    Transmission infrastructure is an integral component of safeguarding the stability of electricity delivery. However, existing studies of transmission infrastructure mostly rely on a simple review of the network, while the analysis of investments remains rudimentary. This study conducted the first regionally focused analysis of investments in transmission infrastructure in China to help optimize its structure and reduce investment costs. Using State Grid data, the investment costs, under various voltages, for transmission lines and transformer substations are calculated. By analyzing the regional profile of cumulative investment in transmission infrastructure, we assess correlations between investment, population, and economic development across the regions. The recent development of ultra-high-voltage transmission networks will provide policy-makers new options for policy development.

  6. Co-integration Model of Logistics Infrastructure Investment and Regional Economic Growth in Central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Kai; Gan, Xiao-qing; Gao, Kuo

    The speed of logistics infrastructures investment in Central China is still lower than other regions since the rise of the central region strategy was put forward. And the ration of freight turnover was also being down. The analysis with the relations among the central region of the logistics investment, logistics value-added and GDP, found that three variables exists co-integration relation. And found that the investment in logistics infrastructure was the Granger reason of the GDP, the investment in logistics infrastructure and logistics value-added was the Granger reason for each other. According to the analysis, some countermeasures be put forward as following: accelerate the speed of logistics investment, optimize logistics environment, promote the logistics capability, reduce logistics cost, and so on.

  7. Reduction in NO(x) emission trends over China: regional and seasonal variations.

    PubMed

    Gu, Dasa; Wang, Yuhang; Smeltzer, Charles; Liu, Zhen

    2013-11-19

    We analyzed satellite observations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) over China from 2005 to 2010 in order to estimate the top-down anthropogenic nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission trends. Since NOx emissions were affected by the economic slowdown in 2009, we removed one year of abnormal data in the analysis. The estimated average emission trend is 4.01 ± 1.39% yr(-1), which is slower than the trend of 5.8-10.8% yr(-1) reported for previous years. We find large regional, seasonal, and urban-rural variations in emission trends. The average NOx emission trend of 3.47 ± 1.07% yr(-1) in warm season (June-September) is less than the trend of 5.03 ± 1.92% yr(-1) in cool season (October-May). The regional annual emission trends decrease from 4.76 ± 1.61% yr(-1) in North China Plain to 3.11 ± 0.98% yr(-1) in Yangtze River Delta and further down to -4.39 ± 1.81% yr(-1) in Pearl River Delta. The annual emission trends of the four largest megacities, Shanghai, Beijing, Guangzhou, and Shenzhen are -0.76 ± 0.29%, 0.69 ± 0.27%, -4.46 ± 1.22%, and -7.18 ± 2.88% yr(-1), considerably lower than the regional averages or surrounding rural regions. These results appear to suggest that a number of factors, including emission control measures of thermal power plants, increased hydro-power usage, vehicle emission regulations, and closure or migration of high-emission industries, have significantly reduced or even reversed the increasing trend of NOx emissions in more economically developed megacities and southern coastal regions, but their effects are not as significant in other major cities or less economically developed regions. PMID:24152067

  8. Regional contribution to PM1 pollution during winter haze in Yangtze River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lili; Yu, Hongxia; Ding, Aijun; Zhang, Yunjiang; Qin, Wei; Wang, Zhuang; Chen, Wentai; Hua, Yan; Yang, Xiaoxiao

    2016-01-15

    To quantify regional sources contributing to submicron particulate matter (PM1) pollution in haze episodes, on-line measurements combining two modeling methods, namely, positive matrix factorization (PMF) and backward Lagrangian particle dispersion modeling (LPDM), were conducted for the period of one month in urban Nanjing, a city located in the western part of Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region of China. Several multi-day haze episodes were observed in December 2013. Long-range transport of biomass burning from the southwestern YRD region largely contributed to PM1 pollution with more than 25% of total organics mass in a lasting heavy haze. The LPDM analysis indicates that regional transport is a main source contributing to secondary low-volatility production. The high-potential source regions of secondary low-volatility production are mainly located in areas to the northeast of the city. High aerosol pollution was mainly contributed by regional transport associated with northeastern air masses. Such regional transport on average accounts for 46% of total NR-PM1 with sulfate and aged low-volatility organics being the largest fractions (>65%). PMID:26414850

  9. Epidemiological Characteristics of Work-Related Ocular Trauma in Southwest Region of China

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Mingming; Zhang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the epidemiological characteristics of work-related eye injury in representative southwest region of China. Methods: Patients with eye injuries treated at the Ninth People’s Hospital of Chongqing from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2014 were included in the current study. All patients completed a comprehensive examination and interview. Demographic characteristics and injury details were recorded. The International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) and Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology (BETT) were used. Results: The average age of eye injury patients was 37.52 years and the majority were male. Among the 1055 total patients, approximately 42.9% of the injuries were work-related. The highest proportion of occupational eye trauma was observed in the group between 36 and 45 years of age. Occupational ocular trauma occurred more frequently in summer, with most from 16:00 to 18:00. Metal was the most common injury cause. Foreign body on external eye was the most common diagnosis. Workers in the manufacturing industry without pre-work safety training or eye protection were far more likely to suffer from occupational ocular trauma than those with training and protection. Conclusions: This study provides insight into the epidemiological characteristics of occupational ocular trauma in southwest region of China. The current findings might be considered as a baseline for future research on regional work-related eye injuries. Our findings will provide valuable information for further development of preventive strategies. PMID:26295403

  10. Regional flood frequency analysis for the Gan-Ming River basin in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jingyi, Zhang; Hall, M. J.

    2004-08-01

    A regionalised relationship to estimate flood magnitudes for ungauged and poorly gauged catchments can be established using regional flood frequency analysis. The geographical approach (Residuals method), Ward's cluster method, the Fuzzy c-means method and a Kohonen neural network were applied to 86 sites in the Gan River Basin of Jiangxi Province and the Ming River Basin of Fujian Province in the southeast of China to delineate homogeneous regions based on site characteristics. Similar groupings of sites into sub-regions were obtained from all but the Residuals method. Since the Kohonen neural network can be employed to identify the number of sub-regions as well as the allocation of sites to sub-regions, this method is to be preferred over Ward's method and the Fuzzy c-means approach. For each sub-region, growth curves must be constructed and the value of an index flood must be related to catchment characteristics. The regional L-moment algorithm may be used to advantage both to identify an appropriate underlying frequency distribution and to construct sub-regional growth curves. However, the membership levels produced by the Fuzzy c-means method may also be used as weights to derive a regional at-site growth curve from those of all the sub-regions. The latter method is likely to be most useful where the sub-regional growth curves are of strongly contrasting shape. An index flood may be related to catchment characteristics using Multiple Linear Regression Analysis, but application to the Gan-Ming data demonstrates that estimates with lower standard errors of estimate can be produced using an artificial neural network (ANN). However, in order to apply such ANNs, sufficient sites must be available so that enough processing elements can be employed without impairing the ability of the network to generalise outside the training data set.

  11. Mass measles immunization campaign: experience in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China.

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Shuk Kwan; Lau, Yu Lung; Lim, Wei Ling; Chow, Chun Bong; Tsang, Thomas; Tse, Lai Yin

    2002-01-01

    After the 1988 measles outbreak, annual notification rates for measles in Hong Kong SAR between 1989 and 1999 were 0.4-4.9 per 100 000, with peaks in 1992, 1994 and 1997. The first half-year incidence rates per 100 000 were 2.3 in 1997, 0.5 in 1995 and 1.2 in 1996. Monthly notification rates increased from a baseline of <10 cases to 59 in May 1997. Serological surveillance showed only 85.5% of children aged 1-19 years had measles antibodies. An epidemic, mainly because of failure of the first dose to produce immunity, seemed imminent in mid-1997. A mass immunization campaign targeted children aged 1-19 from July to November 1997. The overall coverage was 77%. The rate of adverse events was low. After the campaign, measles notification fell to 0.9 per 100 000 in 1998. A two-dose strategy and supplementary campaigns will maintain measles susceptibility at levels low enough to make measles elimination our goal. PMID:12163924

  12. Brain regions mediating α3β4 nicotinic antagonist effects of 18-MC on nicotine self-administration.

    PubMed

    Glick, Stanley D; Sell, Elizabeth M; McCallum, Sarah E; Maisonneuve, Isabelle M

    2011-11-01

    18-Methoxycoronaridine (18-MC), a putative anti-addictive agent, has been shown to decrease the self-administration of several drugs of abuse in rats. 18-MC is a potent antagonist at α3β4 nicotinic receptors. Consistent with high densities of α3β4 nicotinic receptors being located in the medial habenula and the interpeduncular nucleus, 18-MC has been shown to act in these regions to decrease both morphine and methamphetamine self-administration. The present study was conducted to determine if 18-MC's effect on nicotine self-administration is mediated by acting in these same brain regions. Because moderate densities of α3β4 receptors occur in the dorsolateral tegmentum, ventral tegmental area, and basolateral amygdala, these brain areas were also examined as potential sites of action of 18-MC. Local administration of 18-MC into either the medial habenula, the basolateral amygdala or the dorsolateral tegmentum decreased nicotine self-administration. Surprisingly, local administration of 18-MC into the interpeduncular nucleus increased nicotine self-administration while local administration of 18-MC into the ventral tegmental area had no effect on nicotine self-administration. Similar effects were produced by local administration of either mecamylamine or conotoxin AuIB. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that 18-MC decreases nicotine self-administration by indirectly modulating the dopaminergic mesolimbic pathway via blockade of α3β4 nicotinic receptors in the medial habenula, basolateral amygdala, and dorsolateral tegmentum. The data also suggest that an action of 18-MC in the interpeduncular nucleus may attenuate aversive and/or depressive effects of nicotine. PMID:21871879

  13. Molecular Epidemiology and Characterization of Genotypes of Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates from Regions of South China.

    PubMed

    Ying, Jun; Lu, Junwan; Zong, Li; Li, Ailing; Pan, Ruowang; Cheng, Cong; Li, Kunpeng; Chen, Liqiang; Ying, Jianchao; Tou, Huifen; Zhu, Chuanxin; Xu, Teng; Yi, Huiguang; Li, Jinsong; Ni, Liyan; Xu, Zuyuan; Bao, Qiyu; Li, Peizhen

    2016-05-20

    The aim of this study was to analyze the molecular epidemiologic characteristics of Acinetobacter baumannii. A total of 398 isolates were collected in 7 regions of South China from January to June of 2012. Drug sensitivity was tested toward 15 commonly used antibiotics; thus, 146 multi-drug-resistant strains (resistant to more than 7 drugs) were identified, representing 36.7% of all isolates. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were used for molecular subtyping. According to the PFGE results (with a cutoff of 70% similarity for the DNA electrophoretic bands), 146 strains were subdivided into 15 clusters, with cluster A being the largest (33.6%, distributed in all districts except Jiaxing). Cluster B was also widespread and included 14.4% of all strains. In addition, MLST results revealed 11 sequence types (ST), with ST208 being the most prevalent, followed by ST191 and ST729. Furthermore, 4 novel alleles and 6 novel STs were identified. Our results showed that multi-drug-resistant A. baumannii in South China shares the origin with other widespread strains in other countries. The nosocomial infections caused by A. baumannii have been severe in South China. Continuous monitoring and judicious antibiotic use are required. PMID:26166496

  14. Comparison and validation of global and regional ocean forecasting systems for the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xueming; Wang, Hui; Liu, Guimei; Régnier, Charly; Kuang, Xiaodi; Wang, Dakui; Ren, Shihe; Jing, Zhiyou; Drévillon, Marie

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the performance of two operational ocean forecasting systems, the global Mercator Océan (MO) Operational System, developed and maintained by Mercator Océan in France, and the regional South China Sea Operational Forecasting System (SCSOFS), by the National Marine Environmental Forecasting Center (NMEFC) in China, have been examined. Both systems can provide science-based nowcast/forecast products of temperature, salinity, water level, and ocean circulations. Comparison and validation of the ocean circulations, the structures of temperature and salinity, and some mesoscale activities, such as ocean fronts, typhoons, and mesoscale eddies, are conducted based on observed satellite and in situ data obtained in 2012 in the South China Sea. The results showed that MO performs better in simulating the ocean circulations and sea surface temperature (SST), and SCSOFS performs better in simulating the structures of temperature and salinity. For the mesoscale activities, the performance of SCSOFS is better than MO in simulating SST fronts and SST decrease during Typhoon Tembin compared with the previous studies and satellite data; but model results from both of SCSOFS and MO show some differences from satellite observations. In conclusion, some recommendations have been proposed for both forecast systems to improve their forecasting performance in the near future based on our comparison and validation.

  15. A new Early Oligocene peradectine marsupial (Mammalia)from the Burqin region of Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Xijun; Meng, Jin; Wu, Wenyu; Ye, Jie

    2007-03-01

    Tertiary marsupial records are very scarce in Asia. A new peradectine marsupial, Junggaroperadectes burqinensis gen. et sp. nov., is reported from the Early Oligocene Keziletuogayi Formation in the Burqin region, Xinjiang, China. This new species is based on a single right upper M2. The tooth possesses a straight centrocrista, a characteristic of peradectines. Its main cusps lean buccally, with the paracone being smaller and lower than the metacone. The conules and stylar cusps are weakly developed. These characters distinguish J. burqinensis from Euro-American Tertiary peradectines, but they also imply a close phylogenetic relationship to Siamoperadectes and Sinoperadectes, two Asian Early Miocene peradectines.

  16. Arsenic (As) contamination: A major risk factor in Xinjiang Uyghur autonomous region of China.

    PubMed

    Karn, Santosh Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Xinjiang province is one of the unhealthiest region in China due to natural as well as man-made activities. Here soil and water having high concentration of multi-metals especially arsenic content in the soil and water is a major threat to the peoples which suffers regularly from arsenic contamination therefore multiple diseases and illness is the common phenomenon. Therefore this area urgently needed a comprehensive assessment by governmental and nongovernmental organization to cope up with this problem and find a miracle solution which can remediate soil and water quality. There peoples suffers much for the above mentioned reason. PMID:25983049

  17. Regional variation in Moho depth and Poisson's ratio beneath eastern China and its tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zigen; Chen, Ling; Li, Zhiwei; Ling, Yuan; Li, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Eastern China comprises a complex amalgamation of geotectonic blocks of different ages and undergone significant modification of lithosphere during the Meso-Cenozoic time. To better characterize its deep structure, we conducted H-κ stacking of receiver functions using teleseismic data collected from 1143 broadband stations and produced a unified and detailed map of Moho depth and average Poisson's ratio (σ) of eastern China. A coexistence of modified and preserved crust with generally in Airy-type isostatic equilibrium was revealed in eastern China, which correlates well with regional geological and tectonic features. Crust is obviously thicker to the west of the North-South Gravity Lineament but exhibits complex variations in σ with an overall felsic to intermediate bulk crustal composition. Moho depth and σ values show striking differences as compared to the surrounding areas in the rifts and tectonic boundary zones, where earthquakes usually occur. Systematic comparison of Moho depth and σ values demonstrated that there are both similarities and differences in the crustal structure among the Northeast China, North China Craton, South China, and the Qinling-Dabie Orogen as well as different areas within these blocks, which may result from their different evolutionary histories and strong tectonic-magma events since the Mesozoic. Using new data from dense temporary arrays, we observed a change of Moho depth by ∼3 km and of σ by ∼0.04 beneath the Tanlu Fault Zone and an alteration of Moho depth by ∼5 km and of σ by ∼0.05 beneath the Xuefeng Mountains. In addition, striking E-W difference in crustal structure occur across the Xuefeng Mountains: to the east, the Moho depth is overall <35 km and σ has values of <0.26; to the west, the Moho depth is generally >40 km and σ shows complex and large-range variation with values between 0.22 and 0.32. These, together with waveform inversion of receiver functions and SKS shear-wave splitting measurements

  18. Bioavailability of dissolved organic carbon linked with the regional carbon cycle in the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Shuchai; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Jing

    2016-02-01

    The regional carbon cycle on continental shelves has created great interest recently due to the enigma of whether these areas are a carbon sink or a source. It is vital for a precise carbon cycle model to take the bioavailability of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) into account, as it impacts the sink and source capacity, especially on dynamic shelves such as the East China Sea. Nine bio-decomposition experiments were carried out to assess differences in the bioavailability of DOC. Samples were collected from different water masses in the East China Sea, such as the Coastal Current, the Taiwan Current, and the Kuroshio Current, as well as from the Changjiang (Yangtze River), the main contributor of terrestrial DOC in the East China Sea. This study aimed to quantify and qualify bioavailable DOC (BDOC) in the East China Sea. Both the degradation constant of BDOC and the carbon output from microorganisms have been quantitatively evaluated. Qualitatively, excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectra (EEMs) were used to evaluate the intrinsic reasons for BDOC variation. By using EEMs in conjunction with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), five individual fluorescent components were identified in this study: three humic-like and two protein-like components (P1, P2). The highest P1 and P2 fluorescence intensities were recorded in the coastal water during a phytoplankton algal bloom, while the lowest intensities were recorded in the Changjiang estuary. Quantitatively, BDOC observed during the incubation ranged from 0 to 26.1 μM. The DOC degradation rate constant varied from 0 to 0.027 (d-1), and was lowest in the Changjiang and highest in algal bloom water and warm shelf water (the Taiwan current). The Taiwan Current and mixed shelf water were the major contributors of BDOC flux to the open ocean, and the East China Sea was a net source of BDOC to the ocean. The results verified the importance of BDOC in regional carbon cycle modeling. Combining the data of BDOC and EEMs

  19. The statistical significance test of regional climate change caused by land use and land cover variation in West China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. J.; Shi, W. L.; Chen, X. H.

    2006-05-01

    The West Development Policy being implemented in China is causing significant land use and land cover (LULC) changes in West China. With the up-to-date satellite database of the Global Land Cover Characteristics Database (GLCCD) that characterizes the lower boundary conditions, the regional climate model RIEMS-TEA is used to simulate possible impacts of the significant LULC variation. The model was run for five continuous three-month periods from 1 June to 1 September of 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, and 1997, and the results of the five groups are examined by means of a student t-test to identify the statistical significance of regional climate variation. The main results are: (1) The regional climate is affected by the LULC variation because the equilibrium of water and heat transfer in the air-vegetation interface is changed. (2) The integrated impact of the LULC variation on regional climate is not only limited to West China where the LULC varies, but also to some areas in the model domain where the LULC does not vary at all. (3) The East Asian monsoon system and its vertical structure are adjusted by the large scale LULC variation in western China, where the consequences axe the enhancement of the westward water vapor transfer from the east east and the relevant increase of wet-hydrostatic energy in the middle-upper atmospheric layers. (4) The ecological engineering in West China affects significantly the regional climate in Northwest China, North China and the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River; there are obvious effects in South, Northeast, and Southwest China, but minor effects in Tibet.

  20. Regional characters of cloud water chemistry over severe acid rain areas of China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhilai Shen; Hui Xiao; Hengchi Lei; Meiyuan Huang

    1996-12-31

    The results and discussion are presented of measurements of cloud water chemistry made over severe add rain areas, such as Chongqing, Chengdu, Guiyang, Guangzhou, Nanchang, and Changsha in China from 1985 to 1993. Analyses indicate that acid cloud water is widespread in these areas, the range of cloud water pH is large within an area, the highest acidity is not over big city, and the difference of average values of pH is not obvious in different areas. In some areas, for example Chongqing, the annual variation of average pH is large. The range of average of total ion concentrations of cloud water is also large and the maximum is six more than minimum. The relationship between the acidity and ion concentration of cloud water is unlinear. The chemistry parameters of cloud water exhibit an obvious region character in Southwest China (Chongqing, Chengdu and Guiyang) SO4= is a dominant anion and SO4=/NO3- is more than 8, Ca++ and NH4+ are the main cation, Ca++/NH4+>1 (in the remaining areas, Ca++/NH4+<1), the cloud water acidity is higher than that of ground rain, indicating that there is an acidification process below cloud. In South China (Guangzhou and Guiyang) NO3 is same important as SO4= and SO4=/NO3- is about 1. In Central China (Nanchang and Changsha) the total ion concentration is highest on comparison with other areas and the value is more than that of ground rainwater, meaning probably that there is an influence of cloud microphysical process on cloud water and rainwater chemistry.

  1. Ethno-botanical survey of edible wild fruits in Benguet, Cordillera administrative region, the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Chua-Barcelo, Racquel Tan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To conduct a survey on the common name/s, traditional uses and cultural importance of the edible wild fruits in different municipalities of Benguet, Cordillera administrative region. Methods Interviews using questionnaires with barangay leaders and indigenous people were conducted with 176 key informants from June 2011 to July 2013. Results A total of 36 fruit species were found in different municipalities of Benguet. These fruit species belong to 27 genera and 20 families. Among the 13 municipalities of Benguet, Kibungan has the highest number of species. There are many uses of wild fruits which ranged from food (snack/dessert/table food), forage (especially for birds, monkeys and wild animals such as cloud rat and grass eaters), offertory, processed/preserved (as jam, jellies, candies, juice and wine), condiment or ingredient (for cooking), source of dye or ink, decoration (to garnish food) and as medicine to common ailments or health problems. Based on the inventory and calculated cultural importance index, Garcinia binucao (balokok) belonging to Clusiaceae is the most abundant fruit, hence it is the commonly used fruit for various purposes such as food, forage, processing/preservation and condiment/ingredient; Vaccinium myrtoides (ayusip) for offerings and as source of dye/ink; Saurauia elegans (uyok) for decoration, and, Antidesma bunius (bugnay) for medicine. Conclusions Benguet province in the Cordillera region provides a diversity of edible wild fruits. The data gathered from the study signifies that collection, processing and utilization of edible wild fruits are still part of the daily activities of the people in Benguet. PMID:25183144

  2. Progress and prospects of climate change impacts on hydrology in the arid region of northwest China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yaning; Li, Zhi; Fan, Yuting; Wang, Huaijun; Deng, Haijun

    2015-05-01

    The arid region of Northwest China, located in the central Asia, responds sensitively to global climate change. Based on the newest research results, this paper analyzes the impacts of climate change on hydrology and the water cycle in the arid region of Northwest China. The analysis results show that: (1) In the northwest arid region, temperature and precipitation experienced "sharply" increasing in the past 50 years. The precipitation trend changed in 1987, and since then has been in a state of high volatility, during the 21st century, the increasing rate of precipitation was diminished. Temperature experienced a "sharply" increase in 1997; however, this sharp increasing trend has turned to an apparent hiatus since the 21st century. The dramatic rise in winter temperatures in the northwest arid region is an important reason for the rise in the average annual temperature, and substantial increases in extreme winter minimum temperature play an important role in the rising average winter temperature; (2) There was a significant turning point in the change of pan evaporation in the northwest arid area in 1993, i.e., in which a significant decline reversed to a significant upward trend. In the 21st century, the negative effects of global warming and increasing levels of evaporation on the ecology of the northwest arid region have been highlighted; (3) Glacier change has a significant impact on hydrology in the northwest arid area, and glacier inflection points have appeared in some rivers. The melting water supply of the Tarim River Basin possesses a large portion of water supplies (about 50%). In the future, the amount of surface water will probably remain at a high state of fluctuation. PMID:25682220

  3. Molecular Epidemiological Characterization and Health Burden of Thalassemias in the Chaoshan Region, People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiangbin; Lin, Min; Yang, Hui; Pan, Mei-Chen; Cai, Ying-Mu; Wu, Jiao-Ren; Lin, Fen; Zhan, Xiao-Fen; Luo, Zhao-Yun; Yang, Hui-Tian; Yang, Li-Ye

    2016-01-01

    Thalassemia is one of the most prevalent inherited disease in southern China. However, there have been only a few epidemiological studies of thalassemia in the Chaoshan region of Guangdong Province, People's Republic of China (PRC). A total of 6231 unrelated subjects in two main geographical cities of the Chaoshan region was analyzed for thalassemia. Seven hundred and thirty-six cases of suspected thalassemia carriers with microcytosis [mean corpuscular volume (MCV) <82.0 fL] were found by complete blood cell (CBC) count, and were tested by reverse dot-blot gene chip to reveal a total of 331 mutant chromosomes, including 278 α-thalassemia (α-thal) alleles and 53 β-thalassemia (β-thal) alleles. The most common α-thal mutations were the Southeast Asian (- -(SEA)), followed by the -α(3.7) (rightward) and -α(4.2) (leftward) deletions. The two most common β-thal mutations were HBB: c.316-197C>T and HBB: c.126_129delCTTT, accounting for 69.81% of the β-thal defects in the studied individuals. In addition, a rare mutation, Cap +1 (A>C) (HBB: c.-50A>C) was described for the first time in the Chaoshan region. Our results gave a heterozygote frequency of 5.31% for common α- and β-thal in the Chaoshan region, and also indicated a higher prevalence of thalassemia with a heterozygote frequency of 6.29% in Chaozhou, followed by Shantou (3.37%). This study provided a detailed prevalence and molecular characterization of thalassemia in the Chaoshan region, and will be valuable for developing a strategy for prevention of thalassemia and reducing excessive health care costs in this area. PMID:26865073

  4. Scenarios of Building Energy Demand for China with a Detailed Regional Representation

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Sha; Eom, Jiyong; Zhou, Yuyu; Evans, Meredydd; Clarke, Leon E.

    2014-02-07

    Building energy consumption currently accounts for 28% of China’s total energy use and is expected to continue to grow induced by floorspace expansion, income growth, and population change. Fuel sources and building services are also evolving over time as well as across regions and building types. To understand sectoral and regional difference in building energy use and how socioeconomic, physical, and technological development influence the evolution of the Chinese building sector, this study developed a building energy use model for China downscaled into four climate regions under an integrated assessment framework. Three building types (rural residential, urban residential, and commercial) were modeled specifically in each climate region. Our study finds that the Cold and Hot Summer Cold Winter regions lead in total building energy use. The impact of climate change on heating energy use is more significant than that of cooling energy use in most climate regions. Both rural and urban households will experience fuel switch from fossil fuel to cleaner fuels. Commercial buildings will experience rapid growth in electrification and energy intensity. Improved understanding of Chinese buildings with climate change highlighted in this study will help policy makers develop targeted policies and prioritize building energy efficiency measures.

  5. Support of NASA quality requirements by defense contract administration services regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrar, Hiram D.

    1966-01-01

    Defense Contract Administration Services Regions (DCASR) quality assurance personnel performing under NASA Letters of Delegation must work closely with the assigned technical representative of the NASA centers. It is realized that technical personnel from the NASA Centers cannot make on-site visits as frequently as they would like to. However, DCASR quality assurance personnel would know the assigned NASA technical representative and should contact him when problems arise. The technical representative is the expert on the hardware and should be consulted on any problem area. It is important that the DCASR quality assurance personnel recommend to the delegating NASA Center any new or improved methods of which they may be aware which would assist in achieving the desired quality and reliability in NASA hardware. NASA expects assignment of competent personnel in the Quality Assurance functional area and is not only buying the individual's technical skill, but also his experience. Suggestions by field personnel can many times up-grade the quality or the hardware.

  6. Regional responsiveness of the tibia to intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone as affected by skeletal unloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halloran, B. P.; Bikle, D. D.; Harris, J.; Tanner, S.; Curren, T.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1997-01-01

    To determine whether the acute inhibition of bone formation and deficit in bone mineral induced by skeletal unloading can be prevented, we studied the effects of intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) administration (8 micrograms/100 g/day) on growing rats submitted to 8 days of skeletal unloading. Loss of weight bearing decreased periosteal bone formation by 34 and 51% at the tibiofibular junction and tibial midshaft, respectively, and reduced the normal gain in tibial mass by 35%. Treatment with PTH of normally loaded and unloaded animals increased mRNA for osteocalcin (+58 and +148%, respectively), cancellous bone volume in the proximal tibia (+41 and +42%, respectively), and bone formation at the tibiofibular junction (+27 and +27%, respectively). Formation was also stimulated at the midshaft in unloaded (+47%, p < 0.05), but not loaded animals (-3%, NS). Although cancellous bone volume was preserved in PTH-treated, unloaded animals, PTH did not restore periosteal bone formation to normal nor prevent the deficit in overall tibial mass induced by unloading. We conclude that the effects of PTH on bone formation are region specific and load dependent. PTH can prevent the decrease in cancellous bone volume and reduce the decrement in cortical bone formation induced by loss of weight bearing.

  7. Impacts of seasonal and regional variability in biogenic VOC emissions on surface ozone in the Pearl River Delta region, China

    SciTech Connect

    Situ, S.; Guenther, Alex B.; Wang, X. J.; Jiang, X.; Turnipseed, A.; Wu, Z.; Bai, J.; Wang, X.

    2013-12-05

    In this study, the BVOC emissions in November 2010 over the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in southern China have been estimated by the latest version of a Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC) emission model (MEGAN v2.1). The evaluation of MEGAN performance at a representative forest site within this region indicates MEGAN can estimate BVOC emissions reasonably well in this region except overestimating isoprene emission in autumn for reasons that are discussed in this manuscript. Along with the output from MEGAN, the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to estimate the impacts of BVOC emissions on surface ozone in the PRD region. The results show BVOC emissions increase the daytime ozone peak by *3 ppb on average, and the max hourly impacts of BVOC emissions on the daytime ozone peak is 24.8 ppb. Surface ozone mixing ratios in the central area of Guangzhou- Foshan and the western Jiangmen are most sensitive to BVOC emissions BVOCs from outside and central PRD influence the central area of Guangzhou-Foshan and the western Jiangmen significantly while BVOCs from rural PRD mainly influence the western Jiangmen. The impacts of BVOC emissions on surface ozone differ in different PRD cities, and the impact varies in different seasons. Foshan and Jiangmen being most affected in autumn, result in 6.0 ppb and 5.5 ppb increases in surface ozone concentrations, while Guangzhou and Huizhou become more affected in summer. Three additional experiments concerning the sensitivity of surface ozone to MEGAN input variables show that surface ozone is more sensitive to landcover change, followed by emission factors and meteorology.

  8. Apparent Susceptibility Contrast Distribution of Continental Lithosphere in China and Its Surroundings: Implications to Regional Tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, J.; Chen, C.; Sun, S.; Zhang, Y.; Liang, Q.

    2015-12-01

    Lithospheric magnetic field characterizes response of magnetic properties of rocks, which are mainly dependent on mineral and temperature variations. Hence, lithospheric magnetic structure brings important information to understand tectonic and thermal processes in the crust and uppermost mantle. In particular, the reliable global geomagnetic field models with large-scales based on satellite magnetic measurements provide regional view of the lithospheric magnetic structure. Here, with smallest and flattest constraints we use the inversion method based on the single layer model to calculate the spatial distribution of apparent susceptibility of continental lithosphere in China and its surroundings. It should be noted that: (1) magnetic anomaly data we used has removed the effect of global oceanic remanent magnetization, (2) the error of magnetic anomaly data is estimated from statistical analysis among MF7, GRIMM_L120, CHAOS5 and CM5 models, (3) the magnetic layer is bounded by the bottom of sediment and the Moho from CRUST1.0 model and is discretized into ellipsoidal prisms with equal angles in latitude and longitude, and (4) an adaptive subdivision & Gauss-Legendre quadrature with fixed order is adopted to solve the forward problem and IGRF11 is utilized as inducing field model. Since the missing longest wavelength components in the lithospheric magnetic field models and the so-called magnetic annihilators, the Apparent Susceptibility Contrast (ASC) distribution is obtained. The ASC distribution has obvious variations and illustrates the mosaic continent with old blocks, orogenic belts, rework fragments and also earthquake regions/zones. Moreover, the ASC distribution provides new insights and evidences of the destruction of North China Craton and geodynamic processes of Tibetan plateau and Baikal rift etc. This study is supported by China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No.: 2015M572217) and Natural Science Fund of Hubei Province (Grant No.: 2015CFB361).

  9. Geological hazards in loess terrain, with particular reference to the loess regions of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derbyshire, Edward

    2001-06-01

    The considerable morphodynamic energy provided by the continuing tectonic evolution of Asia is expressed in high erosional potentials and very high rates of sediment production that make this continent unequalled as a terrestrial source of primary silt. Many of these environments are hazardous, threatening human occupation, health and livelihood, especially in regions of dense population such as the loess lands of north China. Dry loess can sustain nearly vertical slopes, being perennially under-saturated. However, when locally saturated, it disaggregates instantaneously. Such hydrocompaction is a key process in many slope failures, made worse by an underlying mountainous terrain of low-porosity rocks. Gully erosion of loess may yield very high sediment concentrations (>60% by weight). Characteristic vertical jointing in loess influences the hydrology. Enlarged joints develop into natural sub-surface piping systems, which on collapse, produce a "loess karst" terrain. Collapsible loess up to 20 m thick is common on the western Loess Plateau. Foundation collapse and cracked walls are common, many rapid events following periods of unusually heavy monsoonal rain. Slope failure is a major engineering problem in thick loess terrain, flow-slide and spread types being common. The results are often devastating in both urban and rural areas. An associated hazard is the damming of streams by landslides. The human population increases the landslide risk in China, notably through imprudent land-use practices including careless water management. A number of environmentally related endemic diseases arise from the geochemistry of loess and its groundwaters, including fluorosis, cretinism, Kaschin-Beck Disease, Keshan Disease and goitre. The Chinese desert margins also have a major atmospheric dust problem. The effect of such dust upon human health in these extensive regions, including many large cities, has yet to be evaluated, but pneumoconiosis is thought to affect several

  10. Vegetation response to Holocene climate change in monsoon-influenced region of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yan; Yu, Zicheng; Chen, Fahu; Zhang, Jiawu; Yang, Bao

    2009-12-01

    Fossil pollen records from 31 sites with reliable chronologies and high-resolution data in the monsoonal region of China were synthesized to document Holocene vegetation and climate change and to understand the large-scale controls on these changes. The reconstruction of moisture histories was based on a four-class ordinal wetness index at 200-year time slices at individual sites. The vegetation experienced diverse changes over the Holocene in different regions: (1) between tropical seasonal rain forest and more open forest in tropical seasonal rain forest region; (2) from mixed evergreen and deciduous broadleaved forest to more deciduous or Pinus-dominated forest in subtropical region; (3) from mixed evergreen and deciduous broadleaved forest to deciduous forest in temperate deciduous forest region; (4) from deciduous broadleaved forest to conifer-deciduous forest in conifer-deciduous mixed forest region; (5) from steppe forest to steppe in temperate steppe region; and (6) from steppe forest/meadow to meadow/steppe in highland meadow/steppe region. Despite various vegetation sequences in different regions, our synthesis results show that a humid climate generally characterized the early and middle Holocene, and a drier climate prevailed during the late Holocene, with an abrupt shift at ca. 4.5 ka (1 ka = 1000 cal yr BP). Abrupt palynological changes based on a squared-chord distance of pollen assemblages occurred at 11-10, 6-5 and 2-1 ka from most sites. The synthesized pattern of moisture change is similar to the ones inferred from other independent climate proxies; however, gradual vegetation changes in the early Holocene lagged about 1000 yr behind the summer monsoon maximum as indicated by speleothem isotope records from Dongge and Sanbao caves. Human activities likely affected vegetation change greatly during the late Holocene, but the magnitude and precise timing are less clear and require further investigation.

  11. Ecological restoration and its effects on a regional climate: the source region of the Yellow River, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhouyuan; Liu, Xuehua; Niu, Tianlin; Kejia, De; Zhou, Qingping; Ma, Tianxiao; Gao, Yunyang

    2015-05-19

    The source region of the Yellow River, China, experienced degradation during the 1980s and 1990s, but effective ecological restoration projects have restored the alpine grassland ecosystem. The local government has taken action to restore the grassland area since 1996. Remote sensing monitoring results show an initial restoration of this alpine grassland ecosystem with the structural transformation of land cover from 2000 to 2009 as low- and high-coverage grassland recovered. From 2000 to 2009, the low-coverage grassland area expanded by over 25% and the bare soil area decreased by approximately 15%. To examine the relationship between ecological structure and function, surface temperature (Ts) and evapotranspiration (ET) levels were estimated to study the dynamics of the hydro-heat pattern. The results show a turning point in approximately the year 2000 from a declining ET to a rising ET, eventually reaching the 1990 level of approximately 1.5 cm/day. We conclude that grassland coverage expansion has improved the regional hydrologic cycle as a consequence of ecological restoration. Thus, we suggest that long-term restoration and monitoring efforts would help maintain the climatic adjustment functions of this alpine grassland ecosystem. PMID:25894303

  12. Carbon Storage in an Extensive Karst-distributed Region of Southwestern China based on Multiple Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, C.; Wu, Y.; Yang, H.; Ni, J.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate estimation of carbon storage is crucial to better understand the processes of global and regional carbon cycles and to more precisely project ecological and economic scenarios for the future. Southwestern China has broadly and continuously distribution of karst landscapes with harsh and fragile habitats which might lead to rocky desertification, an ecological disaster which has significantly hindered vegetation succession and economic development in karst regions of southwestern China. In this study we evaluated the carbon storage in eight political divisions of southwestern China based on four methods: forest inventory, carbon density based on field investigations, CASA model driven by remote sensing data, and BIOME4/LPJ global vegetation models driven by climate data. The results show that: (1) The total vegetation carbon storage (including agricultural ecosystem) is 6763.97 Tg C based on the carbon density, and the soil organic carbon (SOC) storage (above 20cm depth) is 12475.72 Tg C. Sichuan Province (including Chongqing) possess the highest carbon storage in both vegetation and soil (1736.47 Tg C and 4056.56 Tg C, respectively) among the eight political divisions because of the higher carbon density and larger distribution area. The vegetation carbon storage in Hunan Province is the smallest (565.30 Tg C), and the smallest SOC storage (1127.40 Tg C) is in Guangdong Province; (2) Based on forest inventory data, the total aboveground carbon storage in the woody vegetation is 2103.29 Tg C. The carbon storage in Yunnan Province (819.01 Tg C) is significantly higher than other areas while tropical rainforests and seasonal forests in Yunnan contribute the maximum of the woody vegetation carbon storage (account for 62.40% of the total). (3) The net primary production (NPP) simulated by the CASA model is 68.57 Tg C/yr, while the forest NPP in the non-karst region (account for 72.50% of the total) is higher than that in the karst region. (4) BIOME4 and LPJ

  13. Regional analysis of potential polychlorinated biphenyl degrading bacterial strains from China.

    PubMed

    Shuai, Jianjun; Yu, Xurun; Zhang, Jing; Xiong, Ai-Sheng; Xiong, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the chlorinated derivatives of biphenyl, are one of the most prevalent, highly toxic and persistent groups of contaminants in the environment. The objective of this study was to investigate the biodegradation of PCBs in northeastern (Heilongjiang Province), northern (Shanxi Province) and eastern China (Shanghai municipality). From these areas, nine soil samples were screened for PCB-degrading bacteria using a functional complementarity method. The genomic 16S rDNA locus was amplified and the products were sequenced to identify the bacterial genera. Seven Pseudomonas strains were selected to compare the capacity of bacteria from different regions to degrade biphenyl by HPLC. Compared to the biphenyl content in controls of 100%, the biphenyl content went down to 3.7% for strain P9-324, 36.3% for P2-11, and 20.0% for the other five strains. These results indicate that a longer processing time led to more degradation of biphenyl. PCB-degrading bacterial strains are distributed differently in different regions of China. PMID:27140507

  14. Physical and virtual water transfers for regional water stress alleviation in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xu; Liu, Junguo; Liu, Qingying; Tillotson, Martin R.; Guan, Dabo; Hubacek, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Water can be redistributed through, in physical terms, water transfer projects and virtually, embodied water for the production of traded products. Here, we explore whether such water redistributions can help mitigate water stress in China. This study, for the first time to our knowledge, both compiles a full inventory for physical water transfers at a provincial level and maps virtual water flows between Chinese provinces in 2007 and 2030. Our results show that, at the national level, physical water flows because of the major water transfer projects amounted to 4.5% of national water supply, whereas virtual water flows accounted for 35% (varies between 11% and 65% at the provincial level) in 2007. Furthermore, our analysis shows that both physical and virtual water flows do not play a major role in mitigating water stress in the water-receiving regions but exacerbate water stress for the water-exporting regions of China. Future water stress in the main water-exporting provinces is likely to increase further based on our analysis of the historical trajectory of the major governing socioeconomic and technical factors and the full implementation of policy initiatives relating to water use and economic development. Improving water use efficiency is key to mitigating water stress, but the efficiency gains will be largely offset by the water demand increase caused by continued economic development. We conclude that much greater attention needs to be paid to water demand management rather than the current focus on supply-oriented management. PMID:25583516

  15. Uncovering regional disparity of China's water footprint and inter-provincial virtual water flows.

    PubMed

    Dong, Huijuan; Geng, Yong; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Fujii, Minoru; Hao, Dong; Yu, Xiaoman

    2014-12-01

    With rapid economic development in China, water crisis is becoming serious and may impede future sustainable development. The uneven distribution of water resources further aggravates such a problem. Under such a circumstance, the concepts of water footprint and virtual water have been proposed in order to respond water scarcity problems. This paper focuses on studying provincial disparity of China's water footprints and inter-provincial virtual water trade flows by adopting inter-regional input-output (IRIO) method. The results show that fast developing areas with larger economic scales such as Guangdong, Jiangsu, Shandong, Zhejiang, Shanghai and Xinjiang had the largest water footprints. The most developed and water scarce areas such as Shanghai, Beijing, Tianjin and Shandong intended to import virtual water, a rational choice for mitigating their water crisis. Xinjiang, Jiangsu, Heilongjiang, Inner Mongolia, Guangxi and Hunan, had the largest per GDP water intensities and were the main water import regions. Another key finding is that agriculture water footprint was the main part in water footprint composition and water export trade. On the basis of these findings, policy implications on agriculture geographical dispersion, consumption behavior changes, trade structure adjustment and water use efficiency improvement are further discussed. PMID:25222751

  16. [Natural regeneration characteristics of Sorbus pohuashanensis in forest region of eastern Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian-Wei; Shen, Hai-Long; Zhang, Xiu-Liang; Zhang, Peng

    2010-01-01

    Sorbus pohuashanensis is an important non-timber tree species in Northeast China. Aimed to study the natural regeneration characteristics of this tree species and related affecting factors, representative S. pohuashanensis forests in the forest region of eastern Northeast China were investigated by line sampling method. In this forest region, S. pohuashanensis was regenerated by seed propagation, stump sprouting, and root sprouting. In intact or poor habitat natural forests, the proportions of the S. pohuashanensis seedlings established by each of the three regeneration methods occupied roughly a third, with no significant difference (P > 0.05) among them; while in secondary forests, the frequency of stump sprouts (16.5%) was lower than that in natural forests. Even so, the combination of stump sprouting and root sprouting could likely maintain a stable local population. Root sprouting could make the seedlings spread more than 50 cm away from the stump. The transfer rate from diameter class II (1.0-2.9 cm) to diameter class III (3.0-4.9 cm) was 25.6% in secondary forests, 45.3% in poor habitat natural forests, and 15.9% in intact natural forests, suggesting that the lower transfer rate was the key limiting factor for S. pohuashanensis natural regeneration. PMID:20387416

  17. Differentiation of mint (Mentha haplocalyx Briq.) from different regions in China using gas and liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wenjiang; Ni, Yongnian; Kokot, Serge

    2015-02-01

    In this study, complex substances such as Mint (Mentha haplocalyx Briq.) samples from different growing regions in China were analyzed for phenolic compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and for the volatile aroma compounds by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Chemometrics methods, e.g. principal component analysis, back-propagation artificial neural networks, and partial least squares discriminant analysis, were applied to resolve complex chromatographic profiles of Mint samples. A total of 49 aroma components and 23 phenolic compounds were identified in 79 Mint samples. Principal component analysis score plots from gas chromatography with mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection data sets showed a clear distinction among Mint from three different regions in China. Classification results showed that satisfactory performance of prediction ability for back-propagation artificial neural networks and partial least squares discriminant analysis. The major compounds that contributed to the discrimination were chlorogenic acid, unknown 3, kaempherol 7-O-rutinoside, salvianolic acid L, hesperidin, diosmetin, unknown 6 and pebrellin in Mint according to regression coefficients of the partial least squares discriminant analysis model. This study indicated that the proposed strategy could provide a simple and rapid technique to distinguish clearly complex profiles from samples such as Mint. PMID:25431171

  18. Deriving PWV from BDS Observations with PPP approach and Precision Analysis in China Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Min

    2014-05-01

    The precipitable water vapour (PWV) is the key parameter of the weather analysis and numerical weather prediction. And it is now widely adopted to derive PWV with the zenithtropospheric delay (ZTD) estimated from GNSS observations. The BeiDou System (BDS) now has 14 satellites in service and provides a good coverage over the China region with its GEO and IGSO constellations. In this contribution, we concentrate on PWV inversion using only BDS observations and its precision evaluation with the PANDA software developed at Wuhan University. The BDS/GPS dual-frequency dual-mode data from June 1 to September 1 2013 are collected at 8 stations in the China region. By the PPP approach, the ZTDs are estimated every 2-hour at each station using a piecewise constant model with BDS precise orbit and clock products, which are generated from the BETS(BeiDou Experiment Tracking Stations) network with 14 stations distributed globally. Then the PWVs are obtained by the conversion factor and zenith wet delays (ZWDs) retrieved from the estimated ZTDs. Firstly the PPP-inferred BDS-PWV is compared to that provided by the AERONET. And then the 3-month GPS-PWV at these 8 stations isalso estimatedin the same way, and used as reference values for BDS-PWV comparison.Their precision differences are further discussed.

  19. Diverse rhizobia associated with Sophora alopecuroides grown in different regions of Loess Plateau in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Longfei; Deng, Zhenshan; Yang, Wenquan; Cao, Ying; Wang, Entao; Wei, Gehong

    2010-12-01

    A total of seventy-five symbiotic bacterial strains isolated from root nodules of wild Sophora alopecuroides grown in different regions of China's Loess Plateau were characterized. Based on the combined RFLP patterns, thirty-five genotypes were defined among the rhizobia and they were classified into nine genomic species, including Mesorhizobium alhagi and M. gobiense as the main groups, as well as Agrobacterium tumefaciens, M. amorphae, Phyllobacterium trifolii, Rhizobium giardinii, R. indigoferae, Sinorhizobium fredii and S. meliloti as the minor groups according to the 16S rRNA and recA gene analyses. Five and three lineages of nodA and nifH were found, respectively, in these strains, implying that the symbiotic genes of the S. alopecuroides rhizobia had different origins or had divergently evolved. Results of correspondence analysis showed that there was a correlation between rhizobial genotypes and the geographic origins. Possible lateral transfer of the recA and 16S rRNA genes between the P. trifolii and A. tumefaciens strains, and that of symbiotic genes (nodA, nifH) between different genera, was shown by discrepancies of the phylogenetic relationships of the four gene loci. These results revealed diverse rhizobia associated with wild S. alopecuroides grown in different regions of China's Loess Plateau, and demonstrated for the first time the existence of symbiotic A. tumefaciens strains in root nodules of S. alopecuroides. PMID:20965680

  20. Regional and Global Climate Response to Anthropogenic SO2 Emissions from China in Three Climate Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasoar, M.; Voulgarakis, Apostolos; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Shindell, Drew T.; Bellouin, Nicholas; Collins, William J.; Faluvegi, Greg; Tsigaridis, Kostas

    2016-01-01

    We use the HadGEM3-GA4, CESM1, and GISS ModelE2 climate models to investigate the global and regional aerosol burden, radiative flux, and surface temperature responses to removing anthropogenic sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from China. We find that the models differ by up to a factor of 6 in the simulated change in aerosol optical depth (AOD) and shortwave radiative flux over China that results from reduced sulfate aerosol, leading to a large range of magnitudes in the regional and global temperature responses. Two of the three models simulate a near-ubiquitous hemispheric warming due to the regional SO2 removal, with similarities in the local and remote pattern of response, but overall with a substantially different magnitude. The third model simulates almost no significant temperature response. We attribute the discrepancies in the response to a combination of substantial differences in the chemical conversion of SO2 to sulfate, translation of sulfate mass into AOD, cloud radiative interactions, and differences in the radiative forcing efficiency of sulfate aerosol in the models. The model with the strongest response (HadGEM3-GA4) compares best with observations of AOD regionally, however the other two models compare similarly (albeit poorly) and still disagree substantially in their simulated climate response, indicating that total AOD observations are far from sufficient to determine which model response is more plausible. Our results highlight that there remains a large uncertainty in the representation of both aerosol chemistry as well as direct and indirect aerosol radiative effects in current climate models, and reinforces that caution must be applied when interpreting the results of modelling studies of aerosol influences on climate. Model studies that implicate aerosols in climate responses should ideally explore a range of radiative forcing strengths representative of this uncertainty, in addition to thoroughly evaluating the models used against

  1. Regional and global temperature response to anthropogenic SO2 emissions from China in three climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasoar, Matthew; Voulgarakis, Apostolos; Lamarque, Jean-François; Shindell, Drew T.; Bellouin, Nicolas; Collins, William J.; Faluvegi, Greg; Tsigaridis, Kostas

    2016-08-01

    We use the HadGEM3-GA4, CESM1, and GISS ModelE2 climate models to investigate the global and regional aerosol burden, radiative flux, and surface temperature responses to removing anthropogenic sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from China. We find that the models differ by up to a factor of 6 in the simulated change in aerosol optical depth (AOD) and shortwave radiative flux over China that results from reduced sulfate aerosol, leading to a large range of magnitudes in the regional and global temperature responses. Two of the three models simulate a near-ubiquitous hemispheric warming due to the regional SO2 removal, with similarities in the local and remote pattern of response, but overall with a substantially different magnitude. The third model simulates almost no significant temperature response. We attribute the discrepancies in the response to a combination of substantial differences in the chemical conversion of SO2 to sulfate, translation of sulfate mass into AOD, cloud radiative interactions, and differences in the radiative forcing efficiency of sulfate aerosol in the models. The model with the strongest response (HadGEM3-GA4) compares best with observations of AOD regionally, however the other two models compare similarly (albeit poorly) and still disagree substantially in their simulated climate response, indicating that total AOD observations are far from sufficient to determine which model response is more plausible. Our results highlight that there remains a large uncertainty in the representation of both aerosol chemistry as well as direct and indirect aerosol radiative effects in current climate models, and reinforces that caution must be applied when interpreting the results of modelling studies of aerosol influences on climate. Model studies that implicate aerosols in climate responses should ideally explore a range of radiative forcing strengths representative of this uncertainty, in addition to thoroughly evaluating the models used against

  2. Habitat assessment for giant pandas in the Qinling Mountain region of China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feng, Tian-Tian; Van Manen, Frank T.; Zhao, Na-Xun; Li, Ming; Wei, Fu-Wen

    2009-01-01

    Because habitat loss and fragmentation threaten giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), habitat protection and restoration are important conservation measures for this endangered species. However, distribution and value of potential habitat to giant pandas on a regional scale are not fully known. Therefore, we identified and ranked giant panda habitat in Foping Nature Reserve, Guanyinshan Nature Reserve, and adjacent areas in the Qinling Mountains of China. We used Mahalanobis distance and 11 digital habitat layers to develop a multivariate habitat signature associated with 247 surveyed giant panda locations, which we then applied to the study region. We identified approximately 128 km2 of giant panda habitat in Foping Nature Reserve (43.6% of the reserve) and 49 km2 in Guanyinshan Nature Reserve (33.6% of the reserve). We defined core habitat areas by incorporating a minimum patch-size criterion (5.5 km2) based on home-range size. Percentage of core habitat area was higher in Foping Nature Reserve (41.8% of the reserve) than Guanyinshan Nature Reserve (26.3% of the reserve). Within the larger analysis region, Foping Nature Reserve contained 32.7% of all core habitat areas we identified, indicating regional importance of the reserve. We observed a negative relationship between distribution of core areas and presence of roads and small villages. Protection of giant panda habitat at lower elevations and improvement of habitat linkages among core habitat areas are important in a regional approach to giant panda conservation.

  3. Regional yields simulation for winter wheat in North China based on assimilating remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yuping; Zhang, Li; Wang, Shili

    2006-08-01

    Accurate crop growth monitoring and yield forecasting are significant to food security and sustainable development of agriculture. However, regional crop growth simulation faces the difficulties in determining the spatial distribution of some model parameters and initial conditions. In this study, regional biomasses at turn-green stage of winter wheat were re-estimated by linking WOFOST model and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) synthesized from remote sensing data. Moreover, we proposed a way of combining evapotranspiration derived from satellite remote sensing data to crop grow simulation model. Thus, the regional initial available soil water and irrigation at earring stage were re-initialized and re-estimated by using remote sensing data. Those methods were well applied to simulate the growth and development for winter wheat at local site. After regionalizing of weather data, crop model parameters and initial conditions, those methods were used to estimate winter wheat yields in North China during the growing season from 2001 to 2002 at the scale of 0.25 degrees. The results showed that both soil water and final winter wheat yields estimation were improved and the relative root mean square error (RRMSE) decreased from 0.63 without remote sensing data to 0.20 with remote sensing data for 32 sites. The relative errors of the aggregated yields for three provinces were -4.9%, 4.3% and 8.6%, respectively. These results illustrated that remote sensing data can be used to improve winter wheat yields simulation at regional scale.

  4. Cardiovascular Mortality Associated with Low and High Temperatures: Determinants of Inter-Region Vulnerability in China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xunfeng; Li, Lianfa; Wang, Jinfeng; Huang, Jixia; Lu, Shijun

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the effects of temperature on cardiovascular mortality in 26 regions in the south and west of China from 2008 to 2011, and to identify socioeconomic and demographic factors contributing to such inter-region variation in the temperature effect. A separate Poisson generalized additive model (GAM) was fitted to estimate percent changes in cardiovascular mortality at low and high temperatures on a daily basis for each region. The model used the smooth functions to model the nonlinear effects of temperature and humidity and to control for the seasonal factor using the calendar time variable. Given variation in the magnitude of the temperature effect on cardiovascular mortality, we employed a Bayesian network (BN) to identify potential region-specific socioeconomic and demographic factors that may explain the variation. In most regions, an increasing trend in high or low temperature was associated with an increase in cardiovascular mortality, with variation in the magnitude of the temperature effects across regions. Three factors, including per capita years of education (as an indicator of economic status), percentage of the population over 65 years of age and percentage of women had direct impact on cold-related cardiovascular mortality. Number of hospital beds (as an indicator of the availability of medical resources), percentage of population engaged in industrial occupations, and percentage of women showed direct impact on heat-related cardiovascular mortality. Due to the socioeconomic and demographic inequalities between regions, the development of customized prevention and adaptation programs to address the low/high temperatures in vulnerable regions should be prioritized. PMID:26024362

  5. Geographical patterns and temporal variations of regional dry and wet heatwave events in China during 1960-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Ting; Qian, Weihong

    2011-03-01

    Daily maximum/minimum temperatures and relative humidity records from 510 stations in China for the period 1960-2008 were used to investigate geographical patterns and temporal variations of heatwave (HW) events. Dry and wet HW events were compared by different definitions. Regionally, both dry and wet HW events are commonly located in southeastern China in the monsoon area, with neither type occurring in the northeast part of Northeast China and Southwest China, while the north-northwest region of the country experiences dry HW events and a few wet HW events. In the southeast of the country, site dry HW events occurred from April to September and mostly in June, while site wet HW events occurred from April to October and mostly in September. In total, 163 regional wet HW events were identified. The ten longest regional wet HW events lasted for more than 20 days, while the mean duration for 163 events was about 11 days. For the top ten events, six occurred after the 1990s, compared with four before this time. Global surface warming was clear since 1979, but the frequency and severity of regional wet HW events were relatively low in the 1980s, increasing remarkably since the 1990s. Possible reasons for this might be the strong interdecadal and interannual variations in regional atmospheric circulations, as well as water transport related directly to temperature contrasts in different regions, rather than global-mean temperature changes.

  6. Estimation of regional evapotranspiration for clear sky days over the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Y.; Stisen, S.; Sandholt, I.; Jensen, K. H.

    2009-04-01

    The triangle method combined with thermal inertia for estimation of regional evapotranspiration based on Feng Yun-2C(FY-2C) satellite data and MODIS products over the North China Plain is presented. FY-2C, China's first operational geostationary meteorological satellite which features 5 spectral bands (1 VIS and 4 IR), can acquire one full disc image of China (60° N - 60° S ,45° E - 165° E) per hour every day. Two thermal red channels (IR1: 10.3-11.3 μm) and (IR2:11.5-12.5 μm) were used for surface temperature estimation using a split window algorithm originally proposed for the MSG-SEVIRI sensor assuming the channel response function range of the two split-window channels for MSG SEVIRI and FY-2C are similar and that the center of channels are the same. For application of the improved triangle method taking thermal inertia into account, the surface-air temperature gradient in the Ts-NDVI space, was replaced by the surface temperature temporal change estimated from the Land Surface Temperature at hours 8:00 and 12:00 in local time (ΔTs). Combined with the 16 days composite MODIS Vegetation Indices product (MOD 13) at spatial resolution of 5 km, evaporative fraction was estimated by interpolation in the ΔTs-NDVI triangular-shaped parameter space. Subsequently, regional actual evapotranspiration was estimated based on the derived evaporative fraction and available energy estimated from satellite data. In the piedmont plain with high NDVI and low ΔTs, evapotranspiration rate is high because of irrigation of winter wheat. In the coastal plain NDVI is low and also ΔTs is low as high evapotranspiration rates are sustained water supply from shallow water table. Ground-based measurements of evapotranspiration were retrieved from a lysimeter at the Luancheng eco-agricultural station of China Academy of Sciences. These data are representative for evapotranspiration in the piedmont plain and were used for validation of the actual evapotranspiration retrievals from

  7. Continuous regional arterial infusion for acute pancreatitis: a propensity score analysis using a nationwide administrative database

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Although continuous regional arterial infusion (CRAI) of a protease inhibitor and an antibiotic may be effective in patients with severe acute pancreatitis, CRAI has not yet been validated in large patient populations. We therefore evaluated the effectiveness of CRAI based on data from a national administrative database covering 1,032 Japanese hospitals. Methods In-hospital mortality, length of stay and costs were compared in the CRAI and non-CRAI groups, using propensity score analysis to adjust for treatment selection bias. Results A total of 17,415 eligible patients with acute pancreatitis were identified between 1 July and 30 September 2011, including 287 (1.6%) patients who underwent CRAI. One-to-one propensity-score matching generated 207 pairs with well-balanced baseline characteristics. In-hospital mortality rates were similar in the CRAI and non-CRAI groups (7.7% vs. 8.7%; odds ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.44–1.78, P = 0.720). CRAI was associated with significantly longer median hospital stay (29 vs. 18 days, P < 0.001), significantly higher median total cost (21,800 vs. 12,600 United States dollars, P < 0.001), and a higher rate of interventions for infectious complications, such as endoscopic/surgical necrosectomy or percutaneous drainage (2.9% vs. 0.5%, P = 0.061). Conclusions CRAI was not effective in reducing in-hospital mortality rate in patients with acute pancreatitis, but was associated with longer hospital stay and higher costs. Randomized controlled trials in large numbers of patients are required to further evaluate CRAI for this indication. PMID:24088324

  8. Primary Health Care--The Chinese Experience. Report of an Inter-regional Seminar on Primary Health Care (China, June 13-16, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

    Addresses and team reports from an inter-regional seminar which examined aspects of primary health care in China are presented. Background information about the seminar is given along with an introduction to rural health services in China. The report considers four key issues: China's three-level health care network; involvement of the people;…

  9. Office of Native American Public Administration Programs as Required by Four Corners Regional Commission. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winchell, Dick G.; Esse, Robert J.

    Arizona State University's (ASU's) Native American Public Administration Program (NAPAP) increased its level of services to the Navajo Nation in 1980 and expanded opportunities for public administration education for Native Americans on the ASU campus. The 1980 program had three major components: coursework, workshops, and the activities made…

  10. Monitoring and Modeling Water and Energy Fluxes in North China Plain: From Field to Regional Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Y.

    2012-12-01

    North China Plain is one of the mostly water deficit region in the world. Even though the total water withdrawal from surface and groundwater exceeded its renewable ability for long years, due to its importance to balance the food budget in China, large amount of groundwater is still extracted every year for intensive irrigation. With winter wheat and summer maize double-cropping system, the grain yield of NCP can reach a very high level of around 15 t/ha annually, which is largely depended on timely irrigation. As a result, the ceaseless over exploitation of groundwater caused serious environmental and ecological problems, e.g. nearly all the rivers run drying-up at plain areas, groundwater declined, land subsidence, and wetland shrank. The decrease in precipitation over past half century reinforced the water shortage in NCP. The sustainability of both the water resources and agriculture became the most important issue in this region. A key issue to the sustainable use of water resources is to improve the water use efficiency and reduce agricultural water consumptions. This study will introduce the efforts we put to clarify the water and heat balances in irrigated agricultural lands and its implications to crop yield, hydrology, and water resources evolution in NCP. We established a multi-scale observation system in NCP to study the surface water and heat processes and agricultural aspect of hydrological cycle in past years. Multi-disciplinary methods are adopted into this research such as micro-meteorologic, isotopic, soil hydrologic methods at the field scale, and remote sensing and modeling for study the water fluxes over regional scale. Detailed research activities and interesting as well as some initial results will be introduced at the workshop.

  11. Regional representativeness assessment and improvement of eddy flux observations in China.

    PubMed

    He, Honglin; Zhang, Liyun; Gao, Yangzi; Ren, Xiaoli; Zhang, Li; Yu, Guirui; Wang, Shaoqiang

    2015-01-01

    Both the amounts of data describing the site-scale carbon flux at a high temporal and spatial resolution collected in China and the number of eddy covariance flux towers have been increasing during the last decade. To correctly upscale these fluxes to the regional and global level, the representativeness of the current network of flux towers must be known. The present study quantifies the representativeness of the flux network for the regional carbon exchange. This analysis combined the total solar radiation, air temperature, vapor pressure and the enhanced vegetation index to indicate the environmental characteristics of each 1-km pixel cell and flux tower. Next, the Euclidean distance from each pixel to the tower was calculated to determine the representativeness of the existing flux towers. To improve the regional representativeness, additional tower locations were pinpointed by identifying and clustering the underrepresented areas. The existing network of flux towers performed well in representing the environmental conditions of the middle and the northeastern portions of China. The well-represented areas covered 60.9% of the total areas. The towers in croplands and grasslands represented the vegetation types well, but the wetlands and barelands were poorly represented. The representativeness of the flux network increased with the addition of nine towers located in forests, grasslands, wetlands and barelands. The representativeness of 27.5% of the land areas improved. In addition, the well-represented areas were enlarged by 15.2%. Substantial gains in representation were achieved by adding new towers on the Tibet Plateau. The representativeness of the northwest and southwest was improved less significantly, suggesting that more towers are required to capture certain ecosystem behaviors. PMID:25310829

  12. The Impact of Leadership Styles of Special Education Administrators in Region 10 on Performance-Based Monitoring Analysis System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Key, Gloria C.

    2009-01-01

    This study uncovered and analyzed the relationship between districts' percentage levels for special education identification, according to a state level measure, and leadership profiles of current special education administrators within Texas Region 10 school districts. The leadership profiles were measured using the Multifactor Leadership…

  13. 41 CFR 105-54.309 - Added responsibilities of service and staff office heads and regional administrators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Added responsibilities of service and staff office heads and regional administrators. 105-54.309 Section 105-54.309 Public... 54.3-Advisory Committee Procedures § 105-54.309 Added responsibilities of service and staff...

  14. 41 CFR 105-54.309 - Added responsibilities of service and staff office heads and regional administrators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Added responsibilities of service and staff office heads and regional administrators. 105-54.309 Section 105-54.309 Public... 54.3-Advisory Committee Procedures § 105-54.309 Added responsibilities of service and staff...

  15. 41 CFR 105-54.309 - Added responsibilities of service and staff office heads and regional administrators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Added responsibilities of service and staff office heads and regional administrators. 105-54.309 Section 105-54.309 Public... 54.3-Advisory Committee Procedures § 105-54.309 Added responsibilities of service and staff...

  16. 41 CFR 105-54.309 - Added responsibilities of service and staff office heads and regional administrators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Added responsibilities of service and staff office heads and regional administrators. 105-54.309 Section 105-54.309 Public... 54.3-Advisory Committee Procedures § 105-54.309 Added responsibilities of service and staff...

  17. 41 CFR 105-54.309 - Added responsibilities of service and staff office heads and regional administrators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Added responsibilities of service and staff office heads and regional administrators. 105-54.309 Section 105-54.309 Public... 54.3-Advisory Committee Procedures § 105-54.309 Added responsibilities of service and staff...

  18. A closure study of aerosol optical properties at a regional background mountainous site in Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Liang; Yin, Yan; Xiao, Hui; Yu, Xingna; Hao, Jian; Chen, Kui; Liu, Chao

    2016-04-15

    There is a large uncertainty in evaluating the radiative forcing from aerosol-radiation and aerosol-cloud interactions due to the limited knowledge on aerosol properties. In-situ measurements of aerosol physical and chemical properties were carried out in 2012 at Mt. Huang (the Yellow Mountain), a continental background mountainous site in eastern China. An aerosol optical closure study was performed to verify the model outputs by using the measured aerosol optical properties, in which a spherical Mie model with assumptions of external and core-shell mixtures on the basis of a two-component optical aerosol model and high size-segregated element carbon (EC) ratio was applied. Although the spherical Mie model would underestimate the real scattering with increasing particle diameters, excellent agreement between the calculated and measured values was achieved with correlation coefficients above 0.98. Sensitivity experiments showed that the EC ratio had a negligible effect on the calculated scattering coefficient, but largely influenced the calculated absorption coefficient. The high size-segregated EC ratio averaged over the study period in the closure was enough to reconstruct the aerosol absorption coefficient in the Mie model, indicating EC size resolution was more important than time resolution in retrieving the absorption coefficient in the model. The uncertainties of calculated scattering and absorption coefficients due to the uncertainties of measurements and model assumptions yielded by a Monte Carlo simulation were ±6% and ±14% for external mixture and ±9% and ±31% for core-shell mixture, respectively. This study provided an insight into the inherent relationship between aerosol optical properties and physicochemical characteristics in eastern China, which could supplement the database of aerosol optical properties for background sites in eastern China and provide a method for regions with similar climate. PMID:26851881

  19. Tsunami Simulations for Regional Sources in the South China and Adjoining Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okal, Emile A.; Synolakis, Costas E.; Kalligeris, Nikos

    2011-06-01

    We present 14 scenarios of potential tsunamis in the South China Sea and its adjoining basins, the Sulu and Sulawezi Seas. The sources consist of earthquake dislocations inspired by the the study of historical events, either recorded (since 1900) or described in historical documents going back to 1604. We consider worst-case scenarios, where the size of the earthquake is not limited by the largest known event, but merely by the dimension of the basin over which a coherent fault may propagate. While such scenarios are arguably improbable, they may not be impossible, and as such must be examined. For each scenario, we present a simulation of the tsunami's propagation in the marine basin, exclusive of its interaction with the coastline. Our results show that the South China, Sulu and Sulawezi Seas make up three largely independent basins where tsunamis generated in one basin do not leak into another. Similarly, the Sunda arc provides an efficient barrier to tsunamis originating in the Indian Ocean. Furthermore, the shallow continental shelves in the Java Sea, the Gulf of Thailand and the western part of the South China Sea significantly dampen the amplitude of the waves. The eastern shores of the Malay Peninsula are threatened only by the greatest—and most improbable—of our sources, a mega-earthquake rupturing all of the Luzon Trench. We also consider two models of underwater landslides (which can be triggered by smaller events, even in an intraplate setting). These sources, for which there is both historical and geological evidence, could pose a significant threat to all shorelines in the region, including the Malay Peninsula.

  20. Using species distribution modeling to delineate the botanical richness patterns and phytogeographical regions of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ming-Gang; Slik, J. W. Ferry; Ma, Ke-Ping

    2016-03-01

    The millions of plant specimens that have been collected and stored in Chinese herbaria over the past ~110 years have recently been digitized and geo-referenced. Here we use this unique collection data set for species distribution modeling exercise aiming at mapping & explaining the botanical richness; delineating China’s phytogeographical regions and investigating the environmental drivers of the dissimilarity patterns. We modeled distributions of 6,828 woody plants using MaxEnt and remove the collection bias using null model. The continental China was divided into different phytogeographical regions based on the dissimilarity patterns. An ordination and Getis-Ord Gi* hotspot spatial statistics were used to analysis the environmental drivers of the dissimilarity patterns. We found that the annual precipitation and temperature stability were responsible for observed species diversity. The mechanisms causing dissimilarity pattern seems differ among biogeographical regions. The identified environmental drivers of the dissimilarity patterns for southeast, southwest, northwest and northeast are annual precipitation, topographic & temperature stability, water deficit and temperature instability, respectively. For effective conservation of China’s plant diversity, identifying the historical refuge and protection of high diversity areas in each of the identified floristic regions and their subdivisions will be essential.

  1. New debris flow mitigation measures in southern Gansu, China: a case study of the Zhouqu Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Muqi; Meng, Xingmin; Li, Yajun

    2014-05-01

    A devastating debris flow occurred in Zhouqu of Gansu Province, China, on 8th August 2010, resulting in a catastrophic disaster, with 1463 people being perished. The debris flow valleys, as other numerous debris valleys in the mountainous region, had preventive engineering constructions, such as check dames, properly designed based on common engineering practices for safe guiding the town located right on the debris flow fan. However, failures of such preventive measures often cause even heavier disasters than those that have no human interactions, as the mitigations give a false safety impression. Given such a weird situation and in order to explore a much more effective disaster prevention strategy against debris flows in the mountainous region, this paper makes a comparative study based on two cases in the area of which one had preventive structures and one hasn't. The result shows that inappropriate mitigation measures that have commonly been applying in the disaster reduction practices in the region are of questionable. It is concluded that going with the nature and following with the natural rules are the best strategy for disaster reduction in the region. Key words: debris flow disasters, disaster reduction strategy, preventive measures

  2. Accuracy of TRMM precipitation data in the southwest monsoon region of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guofeng, Zhu; Dahe, Qin; Yuanfeng, Liu; Fenli, Chen; Pengfei, Hu; Dongdong, Chen; Kai, Wang

    2016-04-01

    Accurate, high-resolution precipitation data is important for hydrological applications and water resource management, particularly within mountainous areas about which data is presently scarce. The goal of the this study was to assess the accuracy of TRMM 3B43 precipitation data from the southwest monsoon region of China between 1998 and 2011 based on the correlation coefficients, regression, and geostatistical methods. We found a strong correlation between TRMM 3B43 data and observational data obtained from meteorological stations, but the TRMM 3B43 precipitation data was consistently lower than that obtained from the weather stations. The TRMM 3B43 data was significantly different from the data obtained by weather stations located in the northwest and northeast regions of the Hengduan Mountains. The spatial distribution of precipitation obtained from TRMM 3B43 was also different from meteorological data, but the deviation was predominantly distributed along the northern longitude and southern latitude. In addition, the TRMM data more accurately reflected the regional precipitation patterns. Our results indicate that the TRMM 3B43 data should be used for hydrological applications and water resource management at meteorological stations that have a sparse and uneven distribution of observation stations in the southwest monsoon region.

  3. Using species distribution modeling to delineate the botanical richness patterns and phytogeographical regions of China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ming-Gang; Slik, J. W. Ferry; Ma, Ke-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The millions of plant specimens that have been collected and stored in Chinese herbaria over the past ~110 years have recently been digitized and geo-referenced. Here we use this unique collection data set for species distribution modeling exercise aiming at mapping & explaining the botanical richness; delineating China’s phytogeographical regions and investigating the environmental drivers of the dissimilarity patterns. We modeled distributions of 6,828 woody plants using MaxEnt and remove the collection bias using null model. The continental China was divided into different phytogeographical regions based on the dissimilarity patterns. An ordination and Getis-Ord Gi* hotspot spatial statistics were used to analysis the environmental drivers of the dissimilarity patterns. We found that the annual precipitation and temperature stability were responsible for observed species diversity. The mechanisms causing dissimilarity pattern seems differ among biogeographical regions. The identified environmental drivers of the dissimilarity patterns for southeast, southwest, northwest and northeast are annual precipitation, topographic & temperature stability, water deficit and temperature instability, respectively. For effective conservation of China’s plant diversity, identifying the historical refuge and protection of high diversity areas in each of the identified floristic regions and their subdivisions will be essential. PMID:26928763

  4. Trace elements in particulate matter from metropolitan regions of Northern China: Sources, concentrations and size distributions.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuepeng; Tian, Shili; Li, Xingru; Sun, Ying; Li, Yi; Wentworth, Gregory R; Wang, Yuesi

    2015-12-15

    Public concerns over airborne trace elements (TEs) in metropolitan areas are increasing, but long-term and multi-site observations of size-resolved aerosol TEs in China are still lacking. Here, we identify highly elevated levels of atmospheric TEs in megacities and industrial sites in a Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration relative to background areas, with the annual mean values of As, Pb, Ni, Cd and Mn exceeding the acceptable limits of the World Health Organization. Despite the spatial variability in concentrations, the size distribution pattern of each trace element was quite similar across the region. Crustal elements of Al and Fe were mainly found in coarse particles (2.1-9 μm), whereas the main fraction of toxic metals, such as Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd and Pb, was found in submicron particles (<1.1 μm). These toxic metals were enriched by over 100-fold relative to the Earth's crust. The size distributions of Na, Mg, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Mo and Ba were bimodal, with two peaks at 0.43-0.65 μm and 4.7-5.8 μm. The combination of the size distribution information, principal component analysis and air mass back trajectory model offered a robust technique for distinguishing the main sources for airborne TEs, e.g., soil dust, fossil fuel combustion and industrial emissions, at different sites. In addition, higher elemental concentrations coincided with westerly flow, indicating that polluted soil and fugitive dust were major sources of TEs on the regional scale. However, the contribution of coal burning, iron industry/oil combustion and non-ferrous smelters to atmospheric metal pollution in Northern China should be given more attention. Considering that the concentrations of heavy metals associated with fine particles in the target region were significantly higher than those in other Asian sites, the implementations of strict environmental standards in China are required to reduce the amounts of these hazardous pollutants released into the atmosphere. PMID

  5. China's provincial CO2 emissions embodied in trade with implications for regional climate policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Zhangqi; Huang, Rui; Tang, Qinneng; Cong, Xiaonan; Wang, Zheng

    2015-03-01

    CO2 emissions embodied in trade have an important and far-reaching impact on CO2 emissions reduction obligations. Based on a multi-regional input-output analysis, this paper calculates China's provincial CO2 emissions embodied in trade and analyzes CO2 emissions embodied in trade per unit of value of trade in 30 Chinese provinces. Several climate policy options that potentially reduce the impact of trade on individual provinces are discussed. One finding from this study is that provincial CO2 emissions embodied in trade accounted for approximately 60.02% of China's CO2 emissions in 2007. The CO2 emissions embodied in imports and exports for 30 Chinese provinces differ widely, and remarkable differences in the CO2 emissions embodied in trade per unit of value of trade exist. Another important finding is that if provinces take binding commitments as a part of a coalition, instead of as individual provinces, then the impacts of trade can be reduced. Notably, however, the extent of reduction in a coalition varies in different provinces.

  6. Crustal structure of China and surrounding regions from P wave traveltime tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Youshun; ToksöZ, M. Nafi

    2006-03-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) P wave velocity model is developed for the crust and uppermost mantle of China and the surrounding area by applying the tomography method of Zhao et al. using 500,000 high-quality P wave first arrivals extracted from the Annual Bulletin of Chinese Earthquakes (ABCE). This tomographic method can accommodate velocity discontinuities such as the Moho in addition to smooth velocity variations. The spatial resolution is 1° × 1° in the horizontal direction and 10 km in depth. The velocity images of the upper crust correspond well with the surface geologic features such as basins and the Tibetan Plateau. High-velocity anomalies are found in the lower crust beneath the Precambrian regions (Tarim Basin, Ordos Basin, Sichuan Basin, and western half of Songliao Basin). The highest-velocity anomaly is beneath the Sichuan Basin. High- and low-velocity anomalies imaged beneath the Bohai Gulf are associated with the presence of a major Cenozoic rift system. In the lower crust beneath the South China Block, P wave velocities are lower in the north than in the south. The Indochina Block shows low velocities both in the crust and in the uppermost mantle due to volcanism. The Pn velocities in the Tibet area are higher than those in other areas largely due to thicker crust. Tomographic model significantly reduces the traveltime residuals. Tests conducted by relocating large explosions and earthquakes validate the 3-D velocity model.

  7. Monitoring and Assessment of Regional Air Quality in China Using Space Observations (MarcoPolo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der A, Ronald; Ding, Jieying; Mijling, Bas; Bai, Jianhui

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we will present the FP7-project ’MarcoPolo’. The main objective of Marco Polo is to improve air quality monitoring, modelling and forecasting over China using satellite data. Within the preceeding DRAGON project AMFIC it was concluded that modelling of air quality are hampered by the rapidly changing emission data due to economic growth in China. In addition, air quality policies could not directly be related to changes in emissions. Therefore, within the MarcoPolo project, the focus will be placed on emission estimates from space and the refinement of these emission estimates by spatial downscaling and by source sector apportionment. A wide range of satellite data will be used from various satellite instruments to derive emission estimates for NOx, SO2, PM and biogenic sources. By combining these emission data with known information from the ground, a new emission database for MarcoPolo will be constructed. The improved emission inventory will be input to the regional and local air quality models.

  8. Regional Variations of Public Perception on Contaminated Industrial Sites in China and Its Influencing Factors.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaonuo; Jiao, Wentao; Xiao, Rongbo; Chen, Weiping; Bai, Yanying

    2016-04-01

    Public involvement is critical in sustainable contaminated site management. It is important for China to improve public knowledge and participation, foster dialogue between urban managers and laypeople, and accelerate the remediation and redevelopment processes in contaminated site management. In this study, we collected 1812 questionnaires from nine cities around China through face-to-face interviews and statistically analyzed the perception of residents concerning contaminated sites. The results show that respondents' concern about soil pollution was lower than for other environmental issues and their knowledge of soil contamination was limited. The risks posed by contaminated industrial sites were well recognized by respondents, but they were unsatisfied with the performance of local agencies regarding information disclosure, publicity and education and public participation. Respondents believed that local governments and polluters should take the primary responsibility for contaminated site remediation. Most of them were unwilling to pay for contaminated site remediation and preferred recreational or public service redevelopment. Moreover, our research indicated that public perception varied among different cities. This variation was mainly determined by implementations of policy instruments and additionally affected by remediation technology, pollutant type, regional policy response and living distance. PMID:27070632

  9. Land degradation mapping based on hyperion data in desertification region of northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Penggen; Wu, Jian; Ouyang, Ping; He, Ting

    2008-10-01

    Desertification is an alarming sign of land degradation in Henshan county of northwest china. Due to the considerable costs of detailed ground surveys of this phenomenon, remote sensing is an appropriate alternative for analyzing and evaluating the risks of the expansion of land degradation. Degradation features can be detected directly or indirectly by using image data. In this paper, based on the Hyperion images of Hengshan desertification region of northwest china, a new algorithm aimed at land degradation mapping, called Land Degradation Index (LDI), was put forward. This new algorithm is based on the classified process. We applied the linear spectral unmixing algorithm with the training samples derived from the formerly classified process so as to find out new endmembers in the RMS error imagine. After that, using neutral net mapping with new training samples, the classified result was gained. In addition, after applying mask processing, the soils were grouped to 3 types (Kappa =0.90): highly degraded soils, moderately degraded soils and slightly degraded soils. By analyzing 3 mapping methods: mixture-classification, the spectral angle mapper and mixturetuned matched filtering, the results suggest that the mixture-classification has the higher accuracy (Kappa=0.7075) than the spectral angle mapper (Kappa=0.5418) and the mixture-tuned matched filter (Kappa=0.6039). As a result, the mixture-classification is selected to carry out Land Degradation Index analysis.

  10. Regional Variations of Public Perception on Contaminated Industrial Sites in China and Its Influencing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaonuo; Jiao, Wentao; Xiao, Rongbo; Chen, Weiping; Bai, Yanying

    2016-01-01

    Public involvement is critical in sustainable contaminated site management. It is important for China to improve public knowledge and participation, foster dialogue between urban managers and laypeople, and accelerate the remediation and redevelopment processes in contaminated site management. In this study, we collected 1812 questionnaires from nine cities around China through face-to-face interviews and statistically analyzed the perception of residents concerning contaminated sites. The results show that respondents’ concern about soil pollution was lower than for other environmental issues and their knowledge of soil contamination was limited. The risks posed by contaminated industrial sites were well recognized by respondents, but they were unsatisfied with the performance of local agencies regarding information disclosure, publicity and education and public participation. Respondents believed that local governments and polluters should take the primary responsibility for contaminated site remediation. Most of them were unwilling to pay for contaminated site remediation and preferred recreational or public service redevelopment. Moreover, our research indicated that public perception varied among different cities. This variation was mainly determined by implementations of policy instruments and additionally affected by remediation technology, pollutant type, regional policy response and living distance. PMID:27070632

  11. Regional patterns of 15N natural abundance in forest ecosystems along a large transect in eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Wenping; Yu, Guirui; Fang, Huajun; Liu, Yingchun; Wang, Qiufeng; Chen, Zhi; Zhang, Li

    2014-02-01

    The regional determining factors underlying inter- and intra-site variation of 15N natural abundance in foliage, O horizon and mineral soil were investigated in eastern China.15N natural abundance values for these forest ecosystems were in the middle of the range of values previously found for global forest ecosystems. In contrast to commonly reported global patterns, temperate forest ecosystems were significantly more15N-enriched than tropical forest ecosystems, and foliage δ15N was negatively correlated with increasing mean annual temperature and net soil N mineralisation in eastern China. Tight N cycling in forest ecosystems and the use of atmospheric N deposition by trees might underlie the δ15N distribution patterns in eastern China. The existence of mycorrhizal fungi and root distribution profiles in the soil may also influence the15N natural abundance patterns in forest ecosystems of eastern China.

  12. Recognition of key regions for restoration of phytoplankton communities in the Huai River basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Changsen; Liu, Changming; Xia, Jun; Zhang, Yongyong; Yu, Qiang; Eamus, Derek

    2012-02-01

    SummaryHealthy phytoplankton communities are the basis of healthy water ecosystems, and form the foundation of many freshwater food webs. Globally many freshwater ecosystems are degraded because of intensive human activities, so water ecosystem restoration is a burning issue worldwide. Selection of key regions for phytoplankton-related restoration is crucial for an effective aquatic eco-restoration. This paper presents a practical method for identification of key regions for phytoplankton-related restoration, using random forests (RFs) method to cluster sites based on dominance, biodiversity, water chemistry and ecological niche. We sampled phytoplankton for species richness and relative abundance and water quality in the Huai River basin (HRB), China to determine the phytoplankton communities' composition and structure and characterize of their ecological niches. A wider mean niche breadth of a species usually leads to a greater overlap with the niche of other species. Using these data and water quality indices, we identified the key regions for phytoplankton-related river restoration activities. Results indicate that our method for recognition of key regions is effective and practical and its application to the HRB identified the Northern Plain area as the key region for restoration. This area is severely polluted and contributes significantly to the HRB phytoplankton communities. Phytoplankton in this region is highly adaptable to environmental change and therefore will be relatively unharmed by environmental instability induced by restoration measures. During restoration, indices of water temperature, total phosphorus and chemical oxygen demand can be altered with little negative influence on phytoplankton communities, but measures that increase ammonia-nitrogen concentration would be highly detrimental. These results will provide valuable information for policy makers and stakeholders in water ecosystem restoration and sustainable basin management in the HRB.

  13. The Mesoscale Heavy Rainfall Observing System (MHROS) over the middle region of the Yangtze River in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Chunguang; Wan, Rong; Wang, Bin; Dong, Xiquan; Li, Hongli; Wang, Xiaokang; Xu, Guirong; Wang, Xiaofang; Wang, Yehong; Xiao, Yanjiao; Zhou, Zhimin; Fu, Zhikang; Wan, Xia; Zhang, Wengang; Peng, Tao; Leng, Liang; Stenz, Ronald; Wang, Junchao

    2015-10-01

    The Mesoscale Heavy Rainfall Observing System (MHROS), supported by the Institute of Heavy Rain (IHR), Chinese Meteorology Administration, is one of the major systems to observe mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) over the middle region of the Yangtze River in China. The IHR MHROS consists of mobile C-POL and X-POL precipitation radars, millimeter wavelength cloud radar, fixed S-band precipitation radars, GPS network, microwave radiometers, radio soundings, wind profiler radars, and disdrometers. The atmospheric variables observed or retrieved by these instruments include the profiles of atmospheric temperature, moisture, wind speed and direction, vertical structures of MCS clouds and precipitation, atmospheric water vapor, and cloud liquid water. These quality-controlled observations and retrievals have been used in mesoscale numerical weather prediction to improve the accuracy of weather forecasting and MCS research since 2007. These long-term observations have provided the most comprehensive data sets for researchers to investigate the formation-dissipation processes of MCSs and for modelers to improve their simulations of MCSs. As the first paper of a series, we briefly introduce the IHR MHROS and describe the specifications of its major instruments. Then, we provide an integrative analysis of the IHR MHROS observations for a heavy rain case on 3-5 July 2014 as well as the application of IHR MHROS observations in improving the model simulations. In a series of papers, we will tentatively answer several key scientific questions related to the MCS and Meiyu frontal systems over the middle region of the Yangtze River using the IHR MHROS observations.

  14. Integrated water resources management and water users' associations in the arid region of northwest China: a case study of farmers' perceptions.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao-Jun; Xiong, You-Cai; Li, Yong-Jin; Wang, Jian-Xin; Li, Feng-Min; Wang, Hai-Yang; Li, Lan-Lan

    2014-12-01

    Water scarcity is a critical policy issue in the arid regions of northwest China. The local government has widely adopted integrated water resources management (IWRM), but lacks support from farmers and farm communities. We undertook a case study in the Minqin oasis of northwest China to examine farmers' responses to IWRM and understand why farmer water users' associations (WUAs) are not functioning effectively at the community level. Results of quantitative and qualitative surveys of 392 farmers in 27 administrative villages showed that over 70% of farmers disapprove of the IWRM market-based reforms. In particular, the failure of farmer WUAs can be attributed to overlapping organizational structures between the WUAs and the villagers' committees; mismatches between the organizational scale of the WUAs and practical irrigation management by the farmers themselves; marginalization of rural women in water decision-making processes; and the inflexibility of IWRM implementation. An important policy implication from this study is that rebuilding farmer WUAs is key to overcoming the difficulties of IWRM. The current water governance structure, which is dominated by administrative systems, must be thoroughly reviewed to break the vicious cycle of tension and distrust between farmers and the government. PMID:25026372

  15. Teleseismic tomography beneath the mid-lower Yangtze region in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, G.; Zhang, G.; Lu, Q.; Shi, D.

    2010-12-01

    We have applied the teleseismic tomography method proposed by Professor Zhao in 1994 to determine a 3-D P-wave velocity structure of the mantle down to 400 km depth beneath the mid-lower Yangtze region, by using 1508 P-wave arrival times collected from 46 teleseismic events recorded by 38 portable seismic stations in this region (Fig. 1). All the seismograms were recorded only for 5 months from November 2009 to March 2010. Most events located to the south and southeast of stations, and the stations almost align in a line, which causes the rays crossing not well and decreases the resolution in the depth, especially beneath the region in the north-west of the stations. All the relative arrival times were obtained by using the multi-channel cross-correlation method with higher precisions than by hand-picking. Our tomographic result along the profile line of OO’ shows that the lithosphere with high velocity anomalies is shorten gradually from the northwest to the southeast direction, and the thickness of lithosphere is about 150~200 km beneath the northwest of mid-lower Yangtze region (Fig. 1). However, the asthenosphere with low velocity anomalies characterized reversely to the lithosphere, which is consistent with other previous results. Therefore, we can propose that the upwelling of mantle material plays a primary role for the thinning of lithosphere beneath the southeast of mid-lower Yangtze region. Acknowledgment: We thank the financial support of SinoProbe by the Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Land and Resources, P. R. China, under Grant sinoprobe-03, the financial support by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grants 40930418 and 40904021, and the financial supported by “the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities” under Grant 2010ZD09. Fig. 1 (A) Epicentral locations of the 46 teleseismic events (blue squares) used in this study. The triangle denotes the center of seismic stations; (B) Locations of 38 portable seismic

  16. Circulatory mobility in post-Mao China: temporary migrants in Kaiping county, Pearl River Delta region.

    PubMed

    Woon, Y

    1993-01-01

    "Since the 1980s, it has been possible for the Chinese peasant household to diversify its economic base by making use of its social networks to place members in a distant community as migrant workers. Through a microstudy of 50 such migrants in Kaiping County in the Pearl River Delta region, this article illustrates the interplay between macro, meso, and micro factors in the causes and processes of circulatory mobility in post-Mao China. It is found that Hong Kong's search for cheap labor, the PRC's household registration system, and Kaiping's strong localism provide the context in which migrants and their households have to adjust. The particular behavior pattern of these migrants also bears the stamp of their rational household decision-making processes as well as their feelings of moral obligation toward their kin in their community of origin." PMID:12287570

  17. Magnesium Contamination in Soil at a Magnesite Mining Region of Liaoning Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Tai, Peidong; Jia, Chunyun; Li, Xiaojun; Li, Peijun; Xiong, Xianzhe

    2015-07-01

    Magnesite is the world's most important source material for magnesia refractory production, and Haicheng City in Liaoning Province, China has been called "the magnesium capital of the world." However, magnesite mining in these areas has caused serious environmental problems. Field investigations have shown that the soil profile of many sites in the mining region are contaminated by magnesium, and the magnesium-enriched crusts that have formed on the soil surface have affected ecologically important soil functions, particularly reduced water penetration rate. Laboratory experiment revealed that anionic polyacrylamide and calcium dihydrogen phosphate can be used to improve soil condition, and have positive effects on soil function. The findings of this study are of significance in the magnetite mining areas, providing clear options for the remediation of soils that should be carried out immediately. PMID:25836265

  18. Malachite green and chloramphenicol in aquatic products from regions around Dongting Lake in Hunan, China.

    PubMed

    He, Jiang; Cui, Jingzhen

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic products are important sources of animal proteins in human diet, especially in developing countries. As such, the safety of aquatic products is of primary concern. In this study, a standard method is used to detect malachite green (MG) and chloramphenicol (CAP) and to analyse the contents of these banned chemicals in turtle, mandarin fish and grass carp sampled from the region surrounding Dongting Lake area in Hunan, China. Results showed that 10.6% of the samples were MG-positive, most of them turtles. CAP was found in 8.3% of the samples, mostly in mandarin fish. These data indicated that these banned substances are still used in the surveyed area. Hence, adequate strategies must be implemented by the local government to control these banned substances. PMID:26496159

  19. An optimal model and its application for the management of municipal solid waste from regional small cities in China.

    PubMed

    Nie, Yongfeng; Li, Tianwei; Yan, Gang; Wang, Yeyao; Ma, Xiaofan

    2004-02-01

    Based on the basic characteristics of municipal solid waste (MSW) from regional small cities in China, some optimal management principles have been put forward: regional optimization, long-term optimization, and integrated treatment/disposal optimization. According to these principles, an optimal MSW management model for regional small cities is developed and provides a useful method to manage MSW from regional small cities. A case study application of the optimal model is described and shows that the optimal management scenarios in the controlling region can be gained, adequately validating and accounting for the advantages of the optimal model. PMID:14977320

  20. Organic Carbon Storage in Four Ecosystem Types in the Karst Region of Southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shijie; Guo, Ke; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Xinshi; Li, Guoqing

    2013-01-01

    Karst ecosystems are important landscape types that cover about 12% of the world's land area. The role of karst ecosystems in the global carbon cycle remains unclear, due to the lack of an appropriate method for determining the thickness of the solum, a representative sampling of the soil and data of organic carbon stocks at the ecosystem level. The karst region in southwestern China is the largest in the world. In this study, we estimated biomass, soil quantity and ecosystem organic carbon stocks in four vegetation types typical of karst ecosystems in this region, shrub grasslands (SG), thorn shrubbery (TS), forest - shrub transition (FS) and secondary forest (F). The results showed that the biomass of SG, TS, FS, and F is 0.52, 0.85, 5.9 and 19.2 kg m−2, respectively and the corresponding organic cabon storage is 0.26, 0.40, 2.83 and 9.09 kg m−2, respectively. Nevertheless, soil quantity and corresponding organic carbon storage are very small in karst habitats. The quantity of fine earth overlaying the physical weathering zone of the carbonate rock of SG, TS, FS and F is 38.10, 99.24, 29.57 and 61.89 kg m−2, respectively, while the corresponding organic carbon storage is only 3.34, 4.10, 2.37, 5.25 kg m−2, respectively. As a whole, ecosystem organic carbon storage of SG, TS, FS, and F is 3.81, 4.72, 5.68 and 15.1 kg m−2, respectively. These are very low levels compared to other ecosystems in non-karst areas. With the restoration of degraded vegetation, karst ecosystems in southwestern China may play active roles in mitigating the increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. PMID:23451047

  1. Aerosol direct radiative forcing in desert and semi-desert regions of northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Jinyuan; Gong, Chongshui; Wang, Shigong; Wang, Yuesi

    2016-05-01

    The optical properties of dust aerosols were measured using narrow-band data from a portable sun photometer at four desert and semi-desert stations in northwestern China from 2004 to 2007. Ground-based and satellite observations indicated absorbing dust aerosol loading over the region surrounded by eight large-scale deserts. Radiation forcing was identified by using the Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (SBDART) model. The ranges of annual mean aerosol optical depth (AOD), Angström exponents, and single-scattering albedo (SSA) were from 0.25 to 0.35, from - 0.73 to 1.18, and from 0.77 to 0.86, respectively. The ranges of annual mean aerosol direct radiative forcing values at the top of the atmosphere (TOA), mid-atmosphere, and on the surface were from 3.9 to 12.0, from 50.0 to 53.1, and from - 39.1 to - 48.1 W/m2, respectively. The aerosols' optical properties and radiative characteristics showed strong seasonal variations in both the desert and semi-desert regions. Strong winds and relatively low humidity will lead dust aerosols in the atmosphere to an increase, which played greatly affected these optical properties during spring and winter in northwestern China. Based on long-term observations and retrieved data, aerosol direct radiative forcing was confirmed to heat the atmosphere (50-53 W/m2) and cool the surface (- 39 to - 48 W/m2) above the analyzed desert. Radiative forcing in the atmosphere in spring and winter was 18 to 21 W/m2 higher than other two seasons. Based on the dust sources around the sites, the greater the AOD, the more negative the forcing. The annual averaged heating rates for aerosols close to the ground (1 km) were approximately 0.80-0.85 K/day.

  2. The effect of deforestation on the regional temperature in Northeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Lingxue; Zhang, Shuwen; Tang, Junmei; Liu, Tingxiang; Bu, Kun; Yan, Fengqin; Yang, Chaobin; Yang, Jiuchun

    2015-05-01

    Land cover change, as one of the most important driving forces to climate change, has become the research focus of the global environmental change research and global land project. More researchers studied on the global influence of Land-Use and Land-Cover Change and proved that land use change occurred at different temperature zones may produce different climate effects. For example, deforestation in tropical areas would lead to higher temperatures as the decreasing of evapotranspiration caused by the reduction of roughness and the decreasing of drag coefficient and leaf area index while, in boreal areas, similar deforestation would cause lower temperature as the increasing of albedo particularly during winter with the snow cover. However, the impact of deforestation in the temperate regions on the climate still existed uncertainty and the impacts of deforestation at different humidity conditions on climate has not explored yet. From this perspective, this article used Weather Research and Forecasting model to simulate the impact of deforestation on the temperature of Northeastern China. In this study, we designed two scenarios in July and December, respectively: One was simulated without human intervention, and the second one was simulated with the current forest covers. The results showed that the temperature in both summer and winter showed a decreasing trend when the conversion of forest to farmland occurred in northeastern China. In order to further explore the humidity impacts on the temperature, we performed sample analysis on humid, sub-humid, and semi-arid regions. According to the results, the maximum variation of temperature was found in humid areas, especially in December when the temperature decreased around 4-5 °C, while the change in semi-arid and sub-humid areas is relatively small.

  3. Magnetotelluric Evidence of Regional Lithospheric Modification in Ordos Block, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, H.; Wei, W.; Ye, G.; Jin, S.; Jones, A. G.

    2013-12-01

    The Ordos Block (OB), which is located in the western part of the North China Craton (NCC), is one of the oldest and most stable cratonic blocks in Asia. To study the electrical structure of Ordos block, long period magnetotelluric (MT) array data from project SINOPROBE were acquired and modeled using three-dimensional (3D) MT inversion method. For the first time a high resolution 3D resistivity model of the lithosphere is acquired in the region. The lithosphere beneath the northern part of the OB and Hetao Graben is revealed to be geo-electrically distinct from that beneath the middle and southern Ordos. Contrary to what would be expected for a stable cratonic block, compelling evidence is presented of a large scale conductive complex in the lower crust and upper mantle beneath north Ordos and Hetao Graben. The abnormally conductive structure indicates the presence of aqueous fluids and/or inter-connected sulphides, possibly resulting from an upwelling of mantle material beneath the region. Correlating well with results of seismic studies, the evidence from independent magnetotelluric data supports a regional modification and thinning of the lithosphere, which might contribute to the extension of Hetao Graben started in late Miocene to Pliocene, as well as the uplifting of the north the Ordos Block since Neogene.

  4. Green Space Changes and Planning in the Capital Region of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xuegong; Duan, Xiaofeng; Sun, Haiqing; Sun, Qiang

    2011-03-01

    Green space plays an important role in complex urban ecosystems and provides significant ecosystem services with environmental, aesthetic, recreational and economic benefits. Beijing is the capital city of China and has a large population of about 15.81 million. Construction of green spaces is an important part of sustainable development in Beijing. To attain the sustainable development of Beijing as a capital city, an international city, a historical cultural city, and a living amenity city, this article attempts to develop a comprehensive plan of green space development both at the municipal and regional levels. At the municipal level of Beijing, based on the study of green space changes, and taking physical geographic conditions and historical context into account, we propose to establish green barriers in the mountainous area, and plan a comprehensive green space pattern composed of one city, two rings, three networks, eight water areas, nine fields, and several patches in the plain area. At the regional level of the Capital Circle Region, integrating the characteristics and causes of main environmental issues, we design a macroscopic pattern—"barriers by mountains in the northwest," "seaward open spaces in the southeast," "grassland-forest-field-coast zones," and "green-blue symphony"—for ecological restoration and green space construction. Finally, we discuss the principles necessary to implement green space planning considering adaptation to local conditions, composite function exploitation, interregional equity and integrated planning.

  5. [Influence factors of deposition induced by melt water erosion in Naqu region, China].

    PubMed

    Feng, Jun-yuan; Cai, Qiang-guo; Li, Zhao-xia; Sun, Li-ying

    2015-02-01

    Melt water erosion is one of the important soil erosion forms caused by the melt water from glacier and snow in high altitude cold areas of China. This paper investigated the influencing factors of deposition caused by melt water erosion in Naqu region. Alluvial fan ratio was presented as an index to characterize the degree of the deposition induced by melt water erosion. Minimum polygon was determined based on spatial overlay technology of Geographic Information System (GIS). The regression equation between the deposition index and the influencing factors was established through the stepwise regression analysis based on minimum polygon. Key influencing factors were identified according to the stepwise regression equation. The results showed that large amounts of alluvial fan were observed in Naqu region; extensive alluvial fans were centered at gentle slope areas in the central part of Naqu region with great spatial differences; alluvial fans were mainly distributed at valley exits, most of which were at large scale with vast differences in area and thickness. Wind speed, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), K value of soil erodibility, annual temperature range and the steep slope area ratio were identified as the key influencing factors on the deposition induced by melt water erosion in the studied area. Index of deposition was positively correlated with the wind speed and NDVI, and showed negative relationships with the K value of soil erodibility, the annual temperature range and steep slope area ratio. PMID:26094471

  6. Source contributions and regional transport of primary particulate matter in China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianlin; Wu, Li; Zheng, Bo; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Chang, Qing; Li, Xinghua; Yang, Fumo; Ying, Qi; Zhang, Hongliang

    2015-12-01

    A source-oriented CMAQ was applied to determine source sector/region contributions to primary particulate matter (PPM) in China. Four months were simulated with emissions grouped to eight regions and six sectors. Predicted elemental carbon (EC), primary organic carbon (POC), and PPM concentrations and source contributions agree with measurements and have significant spatiotemporal variations. Residential is a major contributor to spring/winter EC (50-80%), POC (60%-90%), and PPM (30-70%). For summer/fall, industrial contributes 30-50% for EC/POC and 40-60% for PPM. Transportation is more important for EC (20-30%) than POC/PPM (<5%). Open burning is important in summer/fall of Guangzhou and Chongqing. Dust contributes to 1/3-1/2 in spring/fall of Beijing, Xi'an and Chongqing. Based on sector-region combination, local residential/transportation and residential/industrial from Heibei are major contributors to spring PPM in Beijing. In summer/fall, local industrial is the largest. In winter, residential/industrial from local and Hebei account for >90% in Beijing. PMID:26340297

  7. Source apportionment and health effect of NOx over the Pearl River Delta region in southern China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xingcheng; Yao, Teng; Li, Ying; Fung, Jimmy C H; Lau, Alexis K H

    2016-05-01

    As one of the most notorious atmospheric pollutants, NOx not only promotes the formation of ozone but also has adverse health effects on humans. It is therefore of great importance to study the sources of NOx and its effects on human health. The Comprehensive Air Quality Model (CAMx) modeling system and ozone source apportionment technology (OSAT) were used to study the contribution of NOx from different emission sources over southern China. The results indicate that heavy duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) and industrial point sources are the two major local NOx sources, accounting for 30.8% and 18.5% of local NOx sources, respectively. In Hong Kong, marine emissions contributed around 43.4% of local NOx in 2011. Regional transport is another important source of this pollutant, especially in February and November, and it can contribute over 30% of ambient NOx on average. Power plant point emission is an significant regional source in Zhuhai, Zhongshan and Foshan. The total emission sources are estimated to cause 2119 (0-4405) respiratory deaths and 991 (0-2281) lung cancer deaths due to long-term exposure to NOx in the Pearl River Delta region. Our results suggest that local governments should combine their efforts and vigorously promote further reduction of NOx emissions, especially for those sources that make a substantial contribution to NOx emissions and affect human health: HDDV, LDGV, industrial point sources and marine sources. PMID:26845361

  8. Climate and Land Use Controls on Soil Organic Carbon in the Loess Plateau Region of China

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Bo; Chen, Guangsheng; Lu, Chaoqun; Yang, Jia; Pan, Shufen; Wang, Guodong; Li, Shiqing; Tian, Hanqin

    2014-01-01

    The Loess Plateau of China has the highest soil erosion rate in the world where billion tons of soil is annually washed into Yellow River. In recent decades this region has experienced significant climate change and policy-driven land conversion. However, it has not yet been well investigated how these changes in climate and land use have affected soil organic carbon (SOC) storage on the Loess Plateau. By using the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM), we quantified the effects of climate and land use on SOC storage on the Loess Plateau in the context of multiple environmental factors during the period of 1961–2005. Our results show that SOC storage increased by 0.27 Pg C on the Loess Plateau as a result of multiple environmental factors during the study period. About 55% (0.14 Pg C) of the SOC increase was caused by land conversion from cropland to grassland/forest owing to the government efforts to reduce soil erosion and improve the ecological conditions in the region. Historical climate change reduced SOC by 0.05 Pg C (approximately 19% of the total change) primarily due to a significant climate warming and a slight reduction in precipitation. Our results imply that the implementation of “Grain for Green” policy may effectively enhance regional soil carbon storage and hence starve off further soil erosion on the Loess Plateau. PMID:24788559

  9. Effects of virtual water flow on regional water resources stress: A case study of grain in China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shikun; Wang, Yubao; Engel, Bernie A; Wu, Pute

    2016-04-15

    Scarcity of water resources is one of the major challenges in the world, particularly for the main water consumer, agriculture. Virtual water flow (VWF) promotes water redistribution geographically and provides a new solution for resolving regional water shortage and improving water use efficiency in the world. Virtual water transfer among regions will have a significant influence on the water systems in both grain export and import regions. In order to assess the impacts of VWF related grain transfer on regional water resources conditions, the study takes mainland China as study area for a comprehensive evaluation of virtual water flow on regional water resources stress. Results show that Northeast China and Huang-Huai-Hai region are the major grain production regions as well as the major virtual water export regions. National water savings related to grain VWF was about 58Gm(3), with 48Gm(3) blue water and 10Gm(3) green water. VWF changes the original water distribution and has a significant effect on water resources in both virtual water import and export regions. Grain VWF significantly increased water stress in grain export regions and alleviated water stress in grain import regions. Water stress index (WSI) of Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia has been increased by 138% and 129% due to grain export. Stress from water shortages is generally severe in export regions, and issues with the sustainability of grain production and VWF pattern are worthy of further exploration. PMID:26851759

  10. Region-specific tolerance to cocaine-regulated cAMP-dependent protein phosphorylation following chronic self-administration.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Scott; Graham, Danielle L; Bachtell, Ryan K; Self, David W

    2007-04-01

    Chronic cocaine self-administration can produce either tolerance or sensitization to certain cocaine-regulated behaviours, but whether differential alterations develop in the biochemical response to cocaine is less clear. We measured cocaine-induced phosphorylation of multiple cAMP-dependent and -independent protein substrates in mesolimbic dopamine terminal regions following chronic self-administration. Changes in self-administering rats were compared to changes produced by passive yoked injection to identify reinforcement-related regulation, whereas acute and chronic yoked groups were compared to identify the development tolerance or sensitization in the biochemical response to cocaine. Microwave-fixed brain tissue was collected immediately following 4 h of intravenous cocaine administration, and subjected to Western blot analysis of phosphorylated and total protein substrates. Chronic cocaine produced region- and substrate-specific tolerance to cAMP-dependent protein phosphorylation, including GluR1(S845) phosphorylation in striatal and amygdala subregions and NR1(S897) phosphorylation in the CA1 subregion of the hippocampus. Tolerance also developed to cAMP-independent GluR1(S831) phosphorylation in the prefrontal cortex. In contrast, sensitization to presynaptic regulation of synapsin(S9) phosphorylation developed in the hippocampal CA3 subregion while cAMP-dependent tyrosine hydroxylase(S40) phosphorylation decreased in striatal dopamine terminals. Cocaine-induced ERK and CREB(S133) phosphorylation were dissociated in many brain regions and failed to develop either tolerance or sensitization with chronic administration. Positive reinforcement-related correlations between cocaine intake and protein phosphorylation were found only in self-administering animals, while negative dose-related correlations were found primarily with yoked administration. These regional- and substrate-specific adaptations in cocaine-induced protein phosphorylation are discussed in

  11. Black carbon measurements in the Pearl River Delta region of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X.; Gao, R.; Schwarz, J. P.; Ling-Yan, H.; Fahey, D. W.; Laurel A, W.; Zeng, L.

    2009-12-01

    The Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in southeastern China is one of the most polluted industrial/metropolitan areas in the world. The 3C-STAR campaign (Synthesized Prevention Techniques for Air Pollution Complex and Integrated Demonstration in Key City-Cluster Region), carried out in October-November, 2008, was aimed at improving the understanding and quantification of air pollution in the region, while developing technical capacity for regional air quality monitoring and modeling. We report single-particle soot photometer (SP2) measurements and analyses of refractory black carbon (rBC) at Kaiping, a rural site downwind of the major pollution sources in the PRD area. The rBC mass loadings varied between 0.5 and 10 µg-rBC kg-air-1, and averaged 2.8 µg-rBC kg-air-1. These values are roughly an order of magnitude higher than those measured in the Houston, Texas, a major US metropolitan area. The rBC mass distributions show a primary lognormal peak with a median mass diameter of 0.22 µm volume-equivalent diameter (VED), which is similar to those observed in Houston and other regions with the SP2 instrument. A second mode with a mass median diameter of 0.69 µm VED, has not been observed before. Coatings are found on over 50% of rBC particles, suggesting that they are aged and/or of biomass-burning origin. The high rBC loadings cause significant heating of the atmosphere due to direct solar absorption. A diurnal heating rate of over 0.5 K day-1. is estimated for the average of entire dataset with a maximum heating rate near 3 K day-1.

  12. Patterns and Structures of Land Use Change in the Three Rivers Headwaters Region of China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jingbiao; Wang, Yi Chen; Guo, Luo; Xue, Dayuan

    2015-01-01

    Located in Qinghai Province of China, the Three Rivers Headwaters Region is the source region of the Yangtze, Yellow and Lantsang Rivers, and plays an important role in biodiversity conservation and regulating water supply. Despite many efforts on land use change in Qinghai, knowledge of the spatial variation of land use change is still lacking. This study examines the patterns of land use change across various watersheds, prefectures and the temple surroundings. Remote sensing images of 1987, 1997 and 2007 were analyzed to derive land use distributions; patterns and structures of the landscape were then quantified with landscape metrics. The results illustrated that the Yangtze River headwater region had more diverse and more evenly distributed landscape, while the Lantsang and the Yellow headwater regions showed a decline in landscape diversity. Comparison of the land use patterns of four prefectures revealed that Yushu Prefecture experienced an increase in landscape diversity from 1987 to 2007 while the land use patches in Guoluo Prefecture exhibited more aggregated patterns than other prefectures. Analysis of the spatial variations of land use change in the temple surroundings illustrated that 19.7% and 35.9% of the temples in Guoluo and Yushu Prefectures, respectively, encountered land use change for their immediate areas within 2 km. Comparison of the surroundings of temples and human settlements found that land use change was not evenly distributed, and that greater land use change had occurred for the surroundings of human settlements. Such findings provided insights into the spatial variation of land use change in the Three Rivers Headwaters Region. PMID:25816147

  13. Educational Planning, Administration and Management in Asia and Pacific. A Regional Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ming, Cheng Kai

    Asia and the Pacific region is a vast area with a great variety of countries and territories in terms of economic development, political ideology, and cultural heritage. Education in the region is diverse both in terms of structure and policies, and of educational thoughts and practices in schools. The entire region has made considerable progress…

  14. Wet deposition of acidifying substances in different regions of China and the rest of East Asia: modeling with updated NAQPMS.

    PubMed

    Ge, B Z; Wang, Z F; Xu, X B; Wu, J B; Yu, X L; Li, J

    2014-04-01

    The traditional way to study Sources-Receptor Relationships (SRRs) of wet deposition is based on sensitivity simulation, which has weakness in dealing with the non-linear secondary formation pollutants (e.g. ozone and nitrate). An on-line source tracking method has been developed in the Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (NAQPMS) coupled with cloud-process module for the first time. The new model can not only quantify the total volume of the sulfate, nitrate and ammonium wet deposition with more accuracy, but also trace these acidic species to their emitted precursors. Compared with previous studies, our result clearly shows: (1) East China and Central China, which are the two primary export regions, have 15-30% and 10% effect on wet deposition in other areas, respectively; (2) Besides the above two regions, the total acid deposition in Southwestern and Northeastern China have reached or exceeded the critical loads under their own environmental conditions. PMID:24418974

  15. Prediction of Bulk Density of Soils in the Loess Plateau Region of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yunqiang; Shao, Ming'an; Liu, Zhipeng; Zhang, Chencheng

    2013-08-01

    Soil bulk density (BD) is a key soil physical property that may affect the transport of water and solutes and is essential to estimate soil carbon/nutrients reserves. However, BD data are often lacking in soil databases due to the challenge of directly measuring BD, which is considered to be labor intensive, time consuming, and expensive especially for the lower layers of deep soils such as those of the Chinese Loess Plateau region. We determined the factors that were closely correlated with BD at the regional scale and developed a robust pedotransfer function (PTF) for BD by measuring BD and potentially related soil and environmental factors at 748 selected sites across the Loess Plateau of China (620,000 km2) at which we collected undisturbed and disturbed soil samples from two soil layers (0-5 and 20-25 cm). Regional BD values were normally distributed and demonstrated weak spatial variation (CV = 12 %). Pearson's correlation and stepwise multiple linear regression analyses identified silt content, slope gradient (SG), soil organic carbon content (SOC), clay content, slope aspect (SA), and altitude as the factors that were closely correlated with BD and that explained 25.8, 6.3, 5.8, 1.4, 0.3, and 0.3 % of the BD variation, respectively. Based on these closely correlated variables, a reasonably robust PTF was developed for BD using multiple linear regression, which performed equally with the artificial neural network method in the current study. The inclusion of topographic factors significantly improved the predictive capability of the BD PTF and in which SG was an important input variable that could be used in place of SA and altitude without compromising its capability for predicting BD. Thus, the developed PTF with only four input variables (clay, silt, SOC, SG), including their common transformations and interactive terms, predicted BD with reasonable accuracy and is thus useful for most applications on the Loess Plateau of China. More attention should be

  16. Effects of Conservation Policies on Forest Cover Change in Giant Panda Habitat Regions, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu; Viña, Andrés; Yang, Wu; Chen, Xiaodong; Zhang, Jindong; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Liang, Zai; Liu, Jianguo

    2014-01-01

    After long periods of deforestation, forest transition has occurred globally, but the causes of forest transition in different countries are highly variable. Conservation policies may play important roles in facilitating forest transition around the world, including China. To restore forests and protect the remaining natural forests, the Chinese government initiated two nationwide conservation policies in the late 1990s -- the Natural Forest Conservation Program (NFCP) and the Grain-To-Green Program (GTGP). While some studies have discussed the environmental and socioeconomic effects of each of these policies independently and others have attributed forest recovery to both policies without rigorous and quantitative analysis, it is necessary to rigorously quantify the outcomes of these two conservation policies simultaneously because the two policies have been implemented at the same time. To fill the knowledge gap, this study quantitatively evaluated the effects of the two conservation policies on forest cover change between 2001 and 2008 in 108 townships located in two important giant panda habitat regions -- the Qinling Mountains region in Shaanxi Province and the Sichuan Giant Panda Sanctuary in Sichuan Province. Forest cover change was evaluated using a land-cover product (MCD12Q1) derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). This product proved to be highly accurate in the study region (overall accuracy was ca. 87%, using 425 ground truth points collected in the field), thus suitable for the forest change analysis performed. Results showed that within the timeframe evaluated, most townships in both regions exhibited either increases or no changes in forest cover. After accounting for a variety of socioeconomic and biophysical attributes, an Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression model suggests that the two policies had statistically significant positive effects on forest cover change after seven years of implementation, while

  17. Regional variations in the prevalence and misdiagnosis of air flow obstruction in China: baseline results from a prospective cohort of the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB)

    PubMed Central

    Kurmi, Om P; Li, Liming; Smith, Margaret; Augustyn, Mareli; Chen, Junshi; Collins, Rory; Guo, Yu; Han, Yabin; Qin, Jingxin; Xu, Guanqun; Wang, Jian; Bian, Zheng; Zhou, Gang; Davis, Kourtney; Peto, Richard; Chen, Zhenming

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the great burden of chronic respiratory diseases in China, few large multicentre, spirometry-based studies have examined its prevalence, rate of underdiagnosis regionally or the relevance of socioeconomic and lifestyle factors. Methods We analysed data from 512 891 adults in the China Kadoorie Biobank, recruited from 10 diverse regions of China during 2004–2008. Air flow obstruction (AFO) was defined by the lower limit of normal criteria based on spirometry-measured lung function. The prevalence of AFO was analysed by region, age, socioeconomic status, body mass index (BMI) and smoking history and compared with the prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosed chronic bronchitis or emphysema (CB/E) and its symptoms. Findings The prevalence of AFO was 7.3% in men (range 2.5–18.2%) and 6.4% in women (1.5–18.5%). Higher prevalence of AFO was associated with older age (p<0.0001), lower income (p<0.0001), poor education (p<0.001), living in rural regions (p<0.001), those who started smoking before the age of 20 years (p<0.001) and low BMI (p<0.001). Compared with self-reported diagnosis of CB/E, 88.8% of AFO was underdiagnosed; underdiagnosis proportion was highest in 30–39-year olds (96.7%) compared with the 70+ age group (81.1%), in women (90.7%), in urban areas (89.4%), in people earning 5K–10 K ¥ monthly (90.3%) and in those with middle or high school education (92.6%). Interpretation In China, the burden of AFO based on spirometry was high and significantly greater than that estimated based on self-reported physician-diagnosed CB/E, especially in rural areas, reflecting major issues with diagnosis of AFO that will impact disease treatment and management. PMID:25478177

  18. A Gauge-Radar-Satellite Merged Analysis of High-Resolution Regional Precipitation over Eastern China: Preliminary Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Y.; Zhao, F.; Shan, Q.; Yang, Z.; Xie, P.

    2011-12-01

    A new technique is being developed at the Zhejiang Meteorological Agency of China Meteorological Administration (CMA) to construct an hourly precipitation analysis over Zhejiang Province of China through merging information from multiple sources. The target precipitation analyses cover the eastern China province of ~100K km2 and its adjacent East China Sea at a very high resolution of 1km by 1km. The precipitation observations used as inputs to the merging system include gauge reports of hourly precipitation at over 1500 automatic stations, radar observations of precipitation, and CMORPH satellite-based estimates. First a gauge-based hourly precipitation analysis is produced on a 1kmx1km grid by interpolating station measurements with consideration of orographic effects. To this end, analyzed fields of hourly precipitation climatology is defined by interpolating gauge observations over a 30 years period from 1981 to 2010 and the adjusted to the PRISM monthly precipitation climatology to reflect the orographic effects. Gridded fields of the ratio between the total hourly precipitation and hourly climatology are then constructed by interpolating corresponding point values at nearby stations using the optimal interpolation (OI) technique. The hourly precipitation analysis is finally defined as the product of the interpolated ratio and the hourly climatology at the grid point. In this preliminary investigation, the high-resolution precipitation analysis is constructed for a 3-year period from 2009 to 2011 and used to examine the error structures of the hourly precipitation fields derived from radar observations and satellite estimates. While the radar and satellite-based precipitation estimates are capable of capturing overall time and space variations associated with major synoptic and meso-scale weather systems, both of them present bias and random error of substantial magnitude. The bias in the radar and satellite precipitation exhibits regional patterns as well as

  19. Measurement of aerosol chemical, physical and radiative properties in the Yangtze delta region of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jin; Bergin, M. H.; Yu, X.; Liu, G.; Zhao, J.; Carrico, C. M.; Baumann, K.

    In order to understand the possible influence of aerosols on the environment in the agricultural Yangtze delta region of China, a one-month field sampling campaign was carried out during November 1999 in Linan, China. Measurements included the aerosol light scattering coefficient at 530 nm, σsp, measured at both dry relative humidity (RH<40%) and under ambient conditions (sample RH=63±19%), and the absorption coefficient at 565 nm, σap, for aerosol particles having diameters <2.5 μm (PM 2.5). At the same time, daily filter samples of PM 2.5 as well as aerosol particles having diameters <10 μm (PM 10) were collected and analyzed for mass, major ion, organic compound (OC), and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations in order to determine which anthropogenic chemical species were primarily responsible for aerosol light extinction. The aerosol loading in the rural Yangtze delta region was comparable to highly polluted urban areas, with mean and standard deviation (S.D.) values for σsp, σap and PM 2.5 of 353 Mm -1 (202 Mm -1), 23 Mm -1 (14 Mm -1) and 90 μg m -3 (47 μg m -3), respectively. A clear diurnal pattern was observed in σsp and σap with minimum values occurring in the middle of the day, most likely associated with the maximum midday mixing height. The ratio of the change in light scattering coefficient at ambient RH to that at controlled RH (RH<40%), Fσsp (RH), indicates that condensed water typically contributed ˜40% to the light scattering budget in this region. The mass scattering efficiency of the dry aerosol, E scat_2.5, and mass absorption efficiency of EC, E abs_2.5, have mean and S.D. values of 4.0 m 2 g -1 (0.4 m 2 g -1) and 8.6 m 2 g -1 (7.0 m 2 g -1), respectively. PM 2.5 concentrations in Linan and two other locations in the Yangtze delta, Sheshan and Changshu (which have monthly mean values ranging from ˜80 to 110 μg m -3), are all significantly higher than the proposed 24-h average US PM 2.5 NAAQS of 65 μg m -3. Organic compounds are

  20. Effects of gully erosion and gully filling on soil depth and crop production in the black soil region, northeast China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gully erosion has affected the crop yield in the black soil region of China and become a potential threat to Chan’s food security. This paper aimed to quantify the effects of gully erosion on soil depth and soybean yield. An ephemeral gully (74 m) and a classic gully (52 m) connected at the gully’s ...

  1. Inferring Invasion History of Red Swamp Crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) in China from Mitochondrial Control Region and Nuclear Intron Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanhe; Guo, Xianwu; Chen, Liping; Bai, Xiaohui; Wei, Xinlan; Zhou, Xiaoyun; Huang, Songqian; Wang, Weimin

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the dispersal pathways of an invasive species is useful for adopting the appropriate strategies to prevent and control its spread. However, these processes are exceedingly complex. So, it is necessary to apply new technology and collect representative samples for analysis. This study used Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) in combination with traditional genetic tools to examine extensive sample data and historical records to infer the invasion history of the red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, in China. The sequences of the mitochondrial control region and the proPOx intron in the nuclear genome of samples from 37 sites (35 in China and one each in Japan and the USA) were analyzed. The results of combined scenarios testing and historical records revealed a much more complex invasion history in China than previously believed. P. clarkii was most likely originally introduced into China from Japan from an unsampled source, and the species then expanded its range primarily into the middle and lower reaches and, to a lesser extent, into the upper reaches of the Changjiang River in China. No transfer was observed from the upper reaches to the middle and lower reaches of the Changjiang River. Human-mediated jump dispersal was an important dispersal pathway for P. clarkii. The results provide a better understanding of the evolutionary scenarios involved in the rapid invasion of P. clarkii in China. PMID:26132567

  2. Sources and Pathways of Nutrients in the Semi-Arid Region of Beijing–Tianjin, China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Semiarid regions worldwide are particularly prone to eutrophication, which causes immense ecological and economic problems. One region that is in transition and requires systematic research for effective intervention is the dry landscape of Beijing-Tianjin (P. R. China). We investigated the sources and spatiotemporal loads of nitrogen and phosphorus species over a one-year period in the Haihe catchment that drains the megacity of Beijing. Although wastewater treatment was improved in recent years, the rivers were heavily contaminated by 0.3–5.3 mgP L–1 and 3.0–49 mgN L–1, with toxic levels of nitrite (≥1 mgNO2–N L–1) and ammonia (≥0.6 mgNH3–N L–1). The average NH4+ (16.9 mgN L–1) increased by 160% compared to 1996-levels. Mass fluxes and δ15N-signatures revealed that nutrients originated almost exclusively from sewage. Furthermore, the water balance demonstrated that >90% of the polluted river water was diverted for irrigation, thereby threatening food safety and groundwater quality. Per capita loads of 1.42 kgN/yr and 115 gP/yr were comparable to the peak discharges typical of Europe and the United States in 1970–1990, but concentrations were 2–3 times higher in the Beijing–Tianjin region. Our research identified sewage as the predominant nutrient source in this semiarid region, which suggests that state-of-the-art wastewater treatment would drastically mitigate eutrophication and even more rapidly than was previously observed in Europe. PMID:22401269

  3. Statistical downscaling and dynamical downscaling of regional climate in China: Present climate evaluations and future climate projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jianping; Niu, Xiaorui; Wang, Shuyu; Gao, Hongxia; Wang, Xueyuan; Wu, Jian

    2016-03-01

    Statistical downscaling and dynamical downscaling are two approaches to generate high-resolution regional climate models based on the large-scale information from either reanalysis data or global climate models. In this study, these two downscaling methods are used to simulate the surface climate of China and compared. The Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM) is cross validated and used to downscale the regional climate of China. Then, the downscaled historical climate of 1981-2000 and future climate of 2041-2060 are compared with that from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model driven by the European Center-Hamburg atmosphere model and the Max Planck Institute Ocean Model (ECHAM5/MPI-OM) and the L'Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace Coupled Model, version 5, coupled with the Nucleus for European Modelling of the ocean, low resolution (IPSL-CM5A-LR). The SDSM can reproduce the surface temperature characteristics of the present climate in China, whereas the WRF tends to underestimate the surface temperature over most of China. Both the SDSM and WRF require further work to improve their ability to downscale precipitation. Both statistical and dynamical downscaling methods produce future surface temperatures for 2041-2060 that are markedly different from the historical climatology. However, the changes in projected precipitation differ between the two downscaling methods. Indeed, large uncertainties remain in terms of the direction and magnitude of future precipitation changes over China.

  4. Guidelines for Federal Aviation Administration Regional Aviation Education Coordinators and Aviation Education Facilitators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickler, Mervin K., Jr.

    This publication is designed to provide both policy guidance and examples of how to work with various constituencies in planning and carrying out appropriate Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) aviation education activities. Information is provided on the history of aerospace/aviation education, FAA educational materials, aerospace/aviation…

  5. 78 FR 65641 - Recommendation From the Western Area Power Administration To Pursue Regional Transmission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ...Study/AOS.htm . The information gathered and analyzed by Western subject matter experts, combined with...: Send written comments to Western at: AOS@wapa.gov . Information regarding the recommendation, including... Area Power Administration, 2900 4th Avenue North, Billings, MT 59101-1266. FOR FURTHER...

  6. Decentralization and Regionalization in Educational Administration: Comparisons of Venezuela, Colombia and Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, E. Mark

    A nation's transition from dictatorship to democracy generally involves institutional reform attempts with new priorities serving a wider range of people and goals. This study describes and compares the goals, means, and outcomes of administrative reforms in the public educational systems of three Hispanic nations (Venezuela, Colombia, and Spain).…

  7. Mirror symmetry of the crust in the oil/gas region of Shengli, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liqiang; Badal, José

    2013-12-01

    The concept of mirror-image symmetry describes the correlation between the bottom of a sedimentary basin and the top of the underlying mantle. The degree of mirror symmetry is analyzed here using thickness data from Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary basins and the Moho depth, with the purpose of investigating the implications for tectonics and exploratory practices in oil/gas-bearing basins. Our attention is focused on different tectonic elements of a multi-scale tectonic partition in the oil/gas region of Shengli, southeast of Bohai Bay, China. By applying standard least-squares analysis methods to both datasets, we obtained the average thickness h of the consolidated crust and the mirror symmetry factor a for every tectonic unit, thereby allowing us to explore the correlation between the bottom depth of a sedimentary basin and the top of the underlying mantle. A detailed analysis of data uncertainties and their potential effects led to small fluctuations of h and a within a narrow band around the mean values of 33.26 km and -1.43, respectively; thus, the results can be considered valid if they are constrained by these error bounds. The issues of crust-mantle interaction and the deviation of the crust from isostatic equilibrium are also addressed for their tectonic implications. Other structural parameters related to the deep-rooted crust beneath the tectonic elements that make up the study region, such as the ratio R of the thickness of the consolidated crust to the absolute value of the symmetry factor, the ratio k of the maximum sediment thickness to the maximum uplift of the mantle, and the product kh, are also evaluated for their implications in geophysical prospecting. The symmetry signature of the crust is compared to the symmetry of other sedimentary basins in China and in the world, suggesting symmetry as a feasible prognostic tool in exploration for oil/gas reservoirs. The key result is that those locations where oil/gas reservoirs have been found to date

  8. Prevalence survey of nosocomial infections in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China [2012-2014

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei-Ping; Hai, Yun-Ting; Zheng, Zhi-Nan; Cao, Qing-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Background To investigate the prevalence of nosocomial infections, the distribution of nosocomial infection sites, the use of antibiotic and the situation of detected nosocomial infection pathogens in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China from 2012 to 2014, to grasp the current conditions of regional nosocomial infections in timely, for the development of infection prevention and control measures to provide a basis for effective hospital. Methods A survey of the prevalence of nosocomial infections was conducted in target hospitals using the combination of a bedside survey and medical record review. Results In total, 101,907 inpatients were surveyed from 2012 to 2014. There were 1,997 cases of nosocomial infections, accounting for an average prevalence of 1.96%. The infection site was mainly the lower respiratory tract. Higher prevalence of nosocomial infections occurred in the comprehensive intensive care unit (ICU), Neurosurgery Department, and Hematology Department. The average rate of antibiotic use was 33.72%, and the average submission rate for bacterial cultures for patients who received therapeutic treatment with antibiotics was 28.26%. The most common pathogens associated with nosocomial infections were Gram-negative (G−) bacteria, and frequently detected bacterial pathogens included Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusions The survey of the prevalence of nosocomial infections helped to identify problems in the control process of nosocomial infections and to develop targeted measures for the prevention and control of these infections accordingly. PMID:26543614

  9. Analysis of a severe prolonged regional haze episode in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mengya; Cao, Chunxiang; Li, Guoshuai; Singh, Ramesh P.

    2015-02-01

    A severe prolonged regional haze episode occurred over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) from 2 to 14 December 2013. In this paper, we have discussed the probable cause of haze episode and aerosol characteristics. Analysis of visibility and meteorological parameters suggest that the meteorological conditions play a very important role in the accumulation of aerosol particles that cause haze. The height of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) is considered as one of the key factors together with other factors in the haze formation. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) clearly shows accumulation process of air pollutants from vehicular, industrial and anthropogenic sources are major contributors for the haze formation. The aerosol optical properties (aerosol optical depth - AOD, Ångström exponent - α and Ultra Violet Aerosol Index - UVAI) are analyzed to study the temporal and spatial variations of aerosol loadings. The results show concentrations of fine mode particles during the haze episode, the dust could have been also entered in the region from the northwestern China. Analysis of vertical aerosol profiles indicate that dust aerosols concentrated in the lower part of the haze layers.

  10. Spatial distribution and source apportionment of PFASs in surface sediments from five lake regions, China.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yanjie; Huo, Shouliang; Xi, Beidou; Hu, Shibin; Zhang, Jingtian; He, Zhuoshi

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been found in environment globally. However, studies on PFAS occurrence in sediments of lakes or reservoirs remain relatively scarce. In this study, two hundred and sixty-two surface sediment samples were collected from forty-eight lakes and two reservoirs all over China. Average PFAS concentrations in surface sediments from each lake or reservoir varied from 0.086 ng/g dw to 5.79 ng/g dw with an average of 1.15 ng/g dw. Among five lake regions, average PFAS concentrations for the lakes from Eastern Plain Region were the highest. Perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluoroundecanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were the predominant PFASs in surface sediments. The significant positive correlations between PFAS concentrations and total organic carbon, total nitrogen and total phosphorus contents in sediments revealed the influences of sedimentary characteristics on PFAS occurrence. A two-dimensional hierarchical cluster analysis heat map was depicted to analyze the possible origins of sediments and individual PFAS. The food-packaging, textile, electroplating, firefighting and semiconductor industry emission sources and the precious metals and coating industry emission sources were identified as the main sources by two receptor models, with contributions of 77.7 and 22.3% to the total concentrations of C4-C14- perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids and PFOS, respectively. PMID:26947748

  11. Distribution of the Crustal Magnetic Field in Sichuan-Yunnan Region, Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Chunhua; Kang, Guofa; Gao, Guoming

    2014-01-01

    Based on the new and higher degree geomagnetic model NGDC-720-V3, we have investigated the spatial distribution, the altitude decay characteristics of the crustal magnetic anomaly, the contributions from different wavelength bands to the anomaly, and the relationship among the anomaly, the geological structure, and the geophysical field in Sichuan-Yunnan region of China. It is noted that the most outstanding feature in this area is the strong positive magnetic anomaly in Sichuan Basin, a geologically stable block. Contrasting with this feature, a strong negative anomaly can be seen nearby in Longmen Mountain block, an active block. This contradiction implies a possible relationship between the magnetic field and the geological activity. Completely different feature in magnetic field distribution is seen in the central Yunnan block, another active region, where positive and negative anomalies distribute alternatively, showing a complex magnetic anomaly map. Some fault belts, such as the Longmen Mountain fault, Lijiang-Xiaojinhe fault, and the Red River fault, are the transitional zones of strong and weak or negative and positive anomalies. The corresponding relationship between the magnetic anomaly and the geophysical fields was confirmed. PMID:25243232

  12. Spatial distribution and source apportionment of PFASs in surface sediments from five lake regions, China

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yanjie; Huo, Shouliang; Xi, Beidou; Hu, Shibin; Zhang, Jingtian; He, Zhuoshi

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been found in environment globally. However, studies on PFAS occurrence in sediments of lakes or reservoirs remain relatively scarce. In this study, two hundred and sixty-two surface sediment samples were collected from forty-eight lakes and two reservoirs all over China. Average PFAS concentrations in surface sediments from each lake or reservoir varied from 0.086 ng/g dw to 5.79 ng/g dw with an average of 1.15 ng/g dw. Among five lake regions, average PFAS concentrations for the lakes from Eastern Plain Region were the highest. Perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluoroundecanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were the predominant PFASs in surface sediments. The significant positive correlations between PFAS concentrations and total organic carbon, total nitrogen and total phosphorus contents in sediments revealed the influences of sedimentary characteristics on PFAS occurrence. A two-dimensional hierarchical cluster analysis heat map was depicted to analyze the possible origins of sediments and individual PFAS. The food-packaging, textile, electroplating, firefighting and semiconductor industry emission sources and the precious metals and coating industry emission sources were identified as the main sources by two receptor models, with contributions of 77.7 and 22.3% to the total concentrations of C4-C14- perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids and PFOS, respectively. PMID:26947748

  13. Regional stress field around the Taigu fault zone in Shanxi Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin; Li, Zihong; Sørensen, Mathilde B.; Løvlie, Reidar; Liu, Liqiang; Atakan, Kuvvet

    2015-12-01

    A comprehensive study on regional stress field around the Taigu fault zone in Shanxi Province, China, was performed in this study. To get a better understanding of the present-day stress status in this area, 31 focal mechanisms of M L ≥3 earthquakes since 1965 were compiled, and the best stress tensor was then inverted based on the database. Additionally, magnetic fabrics along the Taigu fault zone were investigated to get an indication of the regional stress field in the past. Our results show that the present-day stress field around the Taigu fault zone is characterized by astable NW-SE extension with a strike-slip component, consistent with the geological surveys and recent GPS data. Results from magnetic fabrics indicate that the orientations of principal stress axes from magnetic fabrics of sedimentary rocks in Neogene coincide to the orientations of principal stress axes from focal mechanisms. The south segment of the Taigu fault displays more complicated magnetic fabrics and more activity of moderate earthquakes. It is connected with the Mianshan west fault and intersects with NW-SE striking Fenyang fault and the north fault of the Lingshi uplift at the south edge of Taiyuan basin. This may be the area needing more attention in terms of seismic risk along the Taigu fault.

  14. Investigation of mtDNA control region sequences in a Tibetan population sample from China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun-Ke; Yao, Jun; Han, Xuan; Ding, Mei; Pang, Hao; Wang, Bao-Jie; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang

    2016-05-01

    Mitochondrial hypervariable region sequences including HVI and HVII (15,751-520) were investigated from 174 unrelated Tibetan individuals living in Tibet Autonomous Region in People's Republic of China. The resulted sequences were aligned and compared with revised Cambridge sequence (rCRS). This sequence variability rendered a high gene diversity value (0.9940 ± 0.0021) and a high random match probability (0.0118) was determined with PIC of 0.9882. Among a total of 174 samples, 217 polymorphic sites were identified, which defined 135 haplotypes. A total of 135 different haplotypes were detected, 113 of them were unique and 22 were shared. The most common haplogroup was M9a1a1c1b1 (16.09%), followed by A11 (6.32%), A (5.17%), R (4.60%), A15 (4.60%), and G3a1 (3.45). The proportions of macro-haplogroups M, N, and L were 54.60%, 42.53%, and 2.87%, respectively. By principal component analysis (PCA), there was no special cluster between Tibetans and other populations except that the structure of Tibetans closely resembled that of Uygur in component 2. PMID:25423521

  15. Location of active transmission sites of Schistosoma japonicum in lake and marshland regions in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z J; Carpenter, T E; Lynn, H S; Chen, Y; Bivand, R; Clark, A B; Hui, F M; Peng, W X; Zhou, Y B; Zhao, G M; Jiang, Q W

    2009-06-01

    Schistosomiasis control in China has, in general, been very successful during the past several decades. However, the rebounding of the epidemic situation in some areas in recent years raises concerns about a sustainable control strategy of which locating active transmission sites (ATS) is a necessary first step. This study presents a systematic approach for locating schistosomiasis ATS by combining the approaches of identifying high risk regions for schisotosmiasis and extracting snail habitats. Environmental, topographical, and human behavioural factors were included in the model. Four significant high-risk regions were detected and 6 ATS were located. We used the normalized difference water index (NDWI) combined with the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to extract snail habitats, and the pointwise 'P-value surface' approach to test statistical significance of predicted disease risk. We found complicated non-linear relationships between predictors and schistosomiasis risk, which might result in serious biases if data were not properly treated. We also found that the associations were related to spatial scales, indicating that a well-designed series of studies were needed to relate the disease risk with predictors across various study scales. Our approach provides a useful tool, especially in the field of vector-borne or environment-related diseases. PMID:19416552

  16. Driving mechanism and sources of groundwater nitrate contamination in the rapidly urbanized region of south China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianqian; Sun, Jichao; Liu, Jingtao; Huang, Guanxing; Lu, Chuan; Zhang, Yuxi

    2015-11-01

    Nitrate contamination of groundwater has become an environmental problem of widespread concern in China. We collected 899 groundwater samples from a rapidly urbanized area, in order to identify the main sources and driving mechanisms of groundwater nitrate contamination. The results showed that the land use has a significant effect on groundwater nitrate concentration (P<0.001). Landfill leakage was an important source of nitrate in groundwater in the PRD (Pearl River Delta) region, since landfill yielded the highest nitrate concentration (38.14 mg/L) and the highest ratio of exceeded standard (42.50%). In this study, the driving mechanism of groundwater nitrate contamination was determined to be urban construction and the secondary and tertiary industrial development, and population growth. This study revealed that domestic wastewater and industrial wastewater were the main sources of groundwater nitrate pollution. Therefore, the priority method for relieving groundwater nitrate contamination is to control the random discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater in regions undergoing rapid urbanization. Capsule abstract. The main driving mechanism of groundwater nitrate contamination was determined to be urban construction and the secondary and tertiary industrial development, and population growth. PMID:26440579

  17. Regional sea level variability in the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yongcun; Plag, Hans-Peter; Hamlington, Benjamin D.; Xu, Qing; He, Yijun

    2015-12-01

    The regional sea level variability in the Bohai Sea (BS), Yellow Sea (YS) and East China Sea (ECS) is investigated based on tide gauge, satellite altimeter data and an independent oceanic general circulation model for the Earth Simulator (OFES) model outputs. It is found that atmospheric forcing significantly affects local sea level variability in the BS and YS and local sea level variability at the Southern ECS is highly correlated with along-shore currents. Particularly, the annual sea level fluctuations potentially change inundation risk and the frequency and magnitude of flooding in regions with high annual sea level. Hence, the cyclostationary empirical orthogonal function (CSEOF) analysis is carried out to investigate the variations of annual sea level cycle amplitude. Similar spatial distribution characteristics of annual sea level amplitude fluctuations are presented from satellite altimeter data and model outputs. The variability of annual sea level amplitude estimated from the satellite altimeter data agrees well with that from the tide gauge data, and positively (negatively) correlates with Southern Oscillation Index (Pacific Decadal Oscillation). The OFES model, however, underestimates the fluctuation of the annual cycle. After removing the annual signal, the low-passed (i.e., 13-month running mean) tide gauge data shows high correlations with SOI and PDO on time scales over 8 years in the BS and ECS.

  18. Driving mechanism and sources of groundwater nitrate contamination in the rapidly urbanized region of south China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qianqian; Sun, Jichao; Liu, Jingtao; Huang, Guanxing; Lu, Chuan; Zhang, Yuxi

    2015-11-01

    Nitrate contamination of groundwater has become an environmental problem of widespread concern in China. We collected 899 groundwater samples from a rapidly urbanized area, in order to identify the main sources and driving mechanisms of groundwater nitrate contamination. The results showed that the land use has a significant effect on groundwater nitrate concentration (P < 0.001). Landfill leakage was an important source of nitrate in groundwater in the PRD (Pearl River Delta) region, since landfill yielded the highest nitrate concentration (38.14 mg/L) and the highest ratio of exceeded standard (42.50%). In this study, the driving mechanism of groundwater nitrate contamination was determined to be urban construction and the secondary and tertiary industrial development, and population growth. This study revealed that domestic wastewater and industrial wastewater were the main sources of groundwater nitrate pollution. Therefore, the priority method for relieving groundwater nitrate contamination is to control the random discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater in regions undergoing rapid urbanization. Capsule abstract. The main driving mechanism of groundwater nitrate contamination was determined to be urban construction and the secondary and tertiary industrial development, and population growth.

  19. Morphological and molecular characterization of Sarcocystis miescheriana from pigs in the central region of China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wenchao; Qian, Weifeng; Li, Xiaojun; Wang, Tianqi; Ding, Ke; Huang, Tengfei

    2013-03-01

    Sarcocystosis is an important food-borne parasitosis in humans and various animals. Sarcocystis miescheriana and Sarcocystis suihominis are pathogenic to pigs; S. suihominis is also distinctly pathogenic to humans. Intermediate and final hosts can harbor more than one Sarcocystis species, so the exact identification for Sarcocystis infection in various hosts is essential to control sarcocystosis in humans and important economic animals including pigs. In this study, four isolates of sarcocysts from slaughtered pigs (SmJY1-SmJY4) in the central region of China, in Henan province, were collected and examined by transmission electron microscopy and 18S rRNA sequence analysis to identify the Sarcocystis species in pigs in China. The results showed that cysts in the diaphragm muscles have a thick cyst wall with a number of palisade-like protrusions up to 4.38 μm in length. Inside these protrusions, there were 13-16 fibrils per protrusion. Bradyzoites in cysts showed typical characteristics of Apicomplexa including a conoid, many micronemes, dense bodies, one big nucleus, and a number of amylopectin granules. These ultrastructural results suggest that characteristics of tissue cysts of the isolates SmJY1-SmJY4 were similar to those of S. miescheriana. The sequence similarities of SmJY1-SmJY4 with S. miescheriana were 99-99.5 %, and the sequence similarities of SmJY1-SmJY4 with S. suihominis were much lower. Results of the ultrastructural observation in combination with molecular characterization based on the 18S rRNA sequence represent the first demonstration of S. miescheriana in pigs in China. In addition, results of the histological examination showed that the cysts of S. miescheriana had two types of cyst wall, a palisade-like thick wall and another smoothly thin wall, and could cause obvious atrophy, degeneration, and necrosis of muscle fibers in the diaphragm of naturally infected pigs. These findings will provide an important reference for the examination of

  20. Gold deposits in the Xiaoqinling-Xiong'ershan region, Qinling mountains, central China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mao, J.; Goldfarb, R.J.; Zhang, Z.; Xu, W.; Qiu, Y.; Deng, J.

    2002-01-01

    The gold-rich Xiaoqinling-Xiong'ershan region in eastern Shaanxi and western Henan provinces, central China, lies about 30-50 km inland of the southern margin of the North China craton. More than 100 gold deposits and occurrences are concentrated in the Xiaoqinling (west), Xiaoshan (middle), and Xiong'ershan (east) areas. Late Archean gneiss of the Taihua Group, and Middle Proterozoic metavolcanic rocks of the Xiong'er Group are the main host rocks for the deposits. Mesozoic granitoids (ca. 178-104 Ma) are present in most gold districts, but deposits are typically hosted in the Precambrian basement rocks hundreds of meters to as far as 10 km from the intrusions and related hornfels zones. Deposits in the Xiaoqinling and Xiaoshan areas are best classified as orogenic gold deposits, with ores occurring in a number of distinct belts both in quartz veins and disseminated in altered metamorphic rocks. Alteration assemblages are dominated by quartz, sericite, pyrite, and carbonate minerals. The ore-forming fluids were low salinity, CO2-rich, and characterized by isotopically heavy ??18O. Four deposits (Dongchuang, Wenyu, Yangzhaiyu, and Dahu) in the Xiaoqinling area each contain resources of about 1 Moz Au. Some of the gold deposits in the Xiong'ershan area represent more shallowly emplaced tellurium-enriched orogenic systems, which include resources of approximately 1-1.5 Moz Au at Shanggong and Beiling (or Tantou). Others are epithermal deposits (e.g., Qiyugou and Dianfang) that are hosted in volcanic breccia pipes. Isotopic dates for all gold deposits, although often contradictory, generally cluster between 172-99 Ma and are coeval with emplacement of the post-kinematic granitoids. The gold deposits formed during a period of relaxation of far-field compressional stresses, clearly subsequent to the extensive Paleozoic-early Mesozoic accretion of are terranes and the Yangtze craton onto the southern margin of the North China craton. Hydrothermal and magmatic events

  1. New Coxsackievirus B4 Genotype Circulating in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Suyi; Fan, Yaochun; Sun, Qiang; Zhang, Bo; Yan, Shaohong; Xu, Wenbo; Ma, Xueen; Wang, Wenrui

    2014-01-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) surveillance was initiated in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China in 2007, a crucial scrutiny for monitoring the prevalence of enterovirus serotypes associated with HFMD patients. However, this surveillance mostly focused on enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16; therefore, information on other enterovirus serotypes is limited. To identify the other circulating enterovirus serotypes in the HFMD outbreaks in Inner Mongolia in 2010, clinical samples from HFMD patients were investigated. Six coxsackievirus B4 (CVB4) strains were isolated and phylogenetic analyses of VP1 sequences were performed. Full-length genome sequences of two representative CVB4 isolates were acquired and similarity plot and bootscanning analyses were performed. The phylogenetic dendrogram indicated that all CVB4 strains could be divided into 5 genotypes (Genotypes I–V) with high bootstrap support (90–100%). The CVB4 prototype strain (JVB) was the sole member of genotype I. CVB4 strains belonging to genotype II, which were once common in Europe and the Americas, seemingly disappeared and gave way to genotype III and IV strains, which appear to be the dominant circulating strains in the world. All Chinese CVB4 strains belonged to Genotype V, a newly identified genotype supported by a high bootstrap value (100%), and are circulating only in mainland of China. Intertypic recombination occurred in the Chinese CVB4 strains with novel unknown serotype EV-B donor sequences. Two Chinese CVB4 strains had a virulent residue at position 129 of VP1, and one strain also had a virulent residue at position 16 of VP4. Increased surveillance is needed to monitor the emergence of new genetic lineages of enteroviruses in areas that are often associated with large-scale outbreaks. In addition, continued monitoring of enteroviruses by clinical surveillance and genetic characterization should be enhanced. PMID:24595311

  2. Heavy Metal Pollution in a Soil-Rice System in the Yangtze River Region of China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhouping; Zhang, Qiaofen; Han, Tiqian; Ding, Yanfei; Sun, Junwei; Wang, Feijuan; Zhu, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals are regarded as toxic trace elements in the environment. Heavy metal pollution in soil or rice grains is of increasing concern. In this study, 101 pairs of soil and rice samples were collected from the major rice-producing areas along the Yangtze River in China. The soil properties and heavy metal (i.e., Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr) concentrations in the soil and rice grains were analyzed to evaluate the heavy metal accumulation characteristics of the soil-rice systems. The results showed that the Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr concentrations in the soil ranged from 0.10 to 4.64, 0.01 to 1.46, 7.64 to 127.56, and 13.52 to 231.02 mg·kg−1, respectively. Approximately 37%, 16%, 60% and 70% of the rice grain samples were polluted by Cd, Hg, Pb, and Cr, respectively. The degree of heavy metal contamination in the soil-rice systems exhibited a regional variation. The interactions among the heavy metal elements may also influence the migration and accumulation of heavy metals in soil or paddy rice. The accumulation of heavy metals in soil and rice grains is related to a certain extent to the pH and soil organic matter (SOM). This study provides useful information regarding heavy metal accumulation in soil to support the safe production of rice in China. The findings from this study also provide a robust scientific basis for risk assessments regarding ecological protection and food safety. PMID:26703698

  3. Heavy Metal Pollution in a Soil-Rice System in the Yangtze River Region of China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhouping; Zhang, Qiaofen; Han, Tiqian; Ding, Yanfei; Sun, Junwei; Wang, Feijuan; Zhu, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Heavy metals are regarded as toxic trace elements in the environment. Heavy metal pollution in soil or rice grains is of increasing concern. In this study, 101 pairs of soil and rice samples were collected from the major rice-producing areas along the Yangtze River in China. The soil properties and heavy metal (i.e., Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr) concentrations in the soil and rice grains were analyzed to evaluate the heavy metal accumulation characteristics of the soil-rice systems. The results showed that the Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr concentrations in the soil ranged from 0.10 to 4.64, 0.01 to 1.46, 7.64 to 127.56, and 13.52 to 231.02 mg·kg(-)¹, respectively. Approximately 37%, 16%, 60% and 70% of the rice grain samples were polluted by Cd, Hg, Pb, and Cr, respectively. The degree of heavy metal contamination in the soil-rice systems exhibited a regional variation. The interactions among the heavy metal elements may also influence the migration and accumulation of heavy metals in soil or paddy rice. The accumulation of heavy metals in soil and rice grains is related to a certain extent to the pH and soil organic matter (SOM). This study provides useful information regarding heavy metal accumulation in soil to support the safe production of rice in China. The findings from this study also provide a robust scientific basis for risk assessments regarding ecological protection and food safety. PMID:26703698

  4. 77 FR 70417 - Administrative Review of Honey From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ...'' section below. \\1\\ See Honey From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Review, 77 FR... Amendment To Final Determination: Honey from the People's Republic of China, 66 FR 59026 (December 10, 2001... FR 25682 (May 1, 2012). As noted above, on August 6, 2012, the Department published the...

  5. Toxoplasma gondii prevalence in food animals and rodents in different regions of China: isolation, genotyping and mouse pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from animals in different regions of China have shown a limited genetic diversity and type China 1 was the dominant genotype of T. gondii prevalent in Chinese animals. However, little has been known concerning the isolation and genotyping of T. gondii circulating in chickens, pigs and rodents in China. The aim of the study was to characterize samples of T. gondii isolates obtained from naturally infected cats, pigs and free-range chickens slaughtered for human consumption in China. Methods In the present study, brain tissues of 77 animals collected from different areas of China, including 24 free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) , 13 voles (Rattus flavipectus), 23 pigs and 17 cats, were bioassayed in mice and viable T. gondii were isolated from the brains of eleven. These eleven T. gondii isolates were maintained in Kunming (KM) outbred mice and DNA isolated from tissues of infected mice was characterized using 11 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) markers: SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, Apico, and CS3. Moreover, to determine mouse virulence of China 1 lineage of parasites, a TgCtgy5 genotype isolate was selected randomly and assessed in KM mice with different inoculation doses. Results Results of genotyping revealed that ten isolates were type China 1 (ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #9), and TgCksz1 was a new genotype that was reported for the first time designated here as ToxoDB PCR-RFLP #225. No clonal types I, II and III lineages were found. DNA sequencing of four introns (EF1, HP2, UPRT1 and UPRT7) and two genes (GRA6 and GRA7) from representative isolates confirmed the results of PCR-RFLP genotyping. The TgCtgy5 isolate was highly virulent in KM mice; all infected mice died of acute toxoplasmosis, irrespective of the inoculation dose. The results indicate that mouse virulent isolates of T. gondii are predominantly circulating in cats in China. Conclusions T

  6. Gene expression in distinct regions of rat tendons in response to jump training combined with anabolic androgenic steroid administration.

    PubMed

    Marqueti, Rita Cássia; Marqueti, Rita de Cássia; Heinemeier, Katja Maria; Durigan, João Luiz Quaglioti; de Andrade Perez, Sérgio Eduardo; Schjerling, Peter; Kjaer, Michael; Carvalho, Hernandes Faustino; Selistre-de-Araujo, Heloisa Sobreiro

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of key genes responsible for tendon remodeling of the proximal and distal regions of calcaneal tendon (CT), intermediate and distal region of superficial flexor tendon (SFT) and proximal, intermediate and distal region of deep flexor tendon (DFT) submitted to 7 weeks of jumping water load exercise in combination with AAS administration. Wistar male rats were grouped as follows: sedentary (S), trained (jumping water load exercise) (T), sedentary animals treated with AAS (5 mg/kg, twice a week) and animals treated with AAS and trained (AAST). mRNA levels of COL1A1, COL3A1, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, MMP-2, IGF-IEa, GAPDH, CTGF and TGF-β-1 were evaluated by quantitative PCR. Our main results indicated that mRNA levels alter in different regions in each tendon of sedentary animals. The training did not alter the expression of COL1A1, COL3A, IGF-IEa and MMP-2 genes, while AAS administration or its combination with training reduced their expression. This study indicated that exercise did not alter the expression of collagen and related growth factors in different regions of rat tendon. Moreover, the pattern of gene expression was distinct in the different tendon regions of sedentary animals. Although, the RNA yield levels of CT, SFT and DFT were not distinct in each region, these regions possess not only the structural and biochemical difference, but also divergence in the expression of key genes involved in tendon adaptation. PMID:21842416

  7. A multisource observation study of the severe prolonged regional haze episode over eastern China in January 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hong; Tan, Sai-Chun; Wang, Yu; Jiang, Chao; Shi, Guang-yu; Zhang, Meng-Xiang; Che, Hui-Zheng

    2014-06-01

    By employing visibility observation, PM10, SO2 and NO2 concentration, MODIS AOD at 550 nm, CARSNET AOD at 440 nm, CALIPSO extinction coefficient at 532 nm, we studied the air pollution condition of a severe haze episode occurred on 6-16 January 2013 over eastern China. The study found that this severe pollution episode of large area haze was accompanied with low visibility, high PM10 and AOD in eastern China. The most polluted regions is the Jing-Jin-Ji and its near southern neighboring region including central and south Hebei, west Shandong and north Henan province in the whole China Mainland. The haze pollutants were spread to the offshore area of 125°E to the east of China, and even affected to the west of 140°E. The PM10 variation trend shows a strong linkage among the big cities in Jing-Jin-Ji and their near surrounding cities, indicating the possible inter-transport and influence among them. The suburb area of megacity suffered the similar serious pollution with urban region during this kind of severe haze episode. Most aerosol pollutants concentrated in boundary layer below 1500 m vertical height, in particular, the vertical heights of 100-800 m above the ground are peaks of the aerosol pollutants.

  8. Wave climate simulation for southern region of the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaei, Ali; Tangang, Fredolin; Juneng, Liew; Mustapha, Muzneena Ahmad; Husain, Mohd Lokman; Akhir, Mohd Fadzil

    2013-08-01

    This study investigates long-term variability and wave characteristic trends in the southern region of the South China Sea (SCS). We implemented the state-of-the art WAVEWATCH III spectral wave model to simulate a 31-year wave hindcast. The simulation results were used to assess the inter-annual variability and long-term changes in the SCS wave climate for the period 1979 to 2009. The model was forced with Climate Forecast System Reanalysis winds and validated against altimeter data and limited available measurements from an Acoustic Wave and Current recorder located offshore of Terengganu, Malaysia. The mean annual significant wave height and peak wave period indicate the occurrence of higher wave heights and wave periods in the central SCS and lower in the Sunda shelf region. Consistent with wind patterns, the wave direction also shows southeasterly (northwesterly) waves during the summer (winter) monsoon. This detailed hindcast demonstrates strong inter-annual variability of wave heights, especially during the winter months in the SCS. Significant wave height correlated negatively with Niño3.4 index during winter, spring and autumn seasons but became positive in the summer monsoon. Such correlations correspond well with surface wind anomalies over the SCS during El Nino events. During El Niño Modoki, the summer time positive correlation extends northeastwards to cover the entire domain. Although significant positive trends were found at 95 % confidence levels during May, July and September, there is significant negative trend in December covering the Sunda shelf region. However, the trend appears to be largely influenced by large El Niño signals.

  9. Observations of compact intracloud lightning discharges in the northernmost region (51°N) of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Fanchao; Zhu, Baoyou; Zhou, Helin; Rakov, Vladimir A.; Xu, Weiwei; Qin, Zilong

    2013-05-01

    Using a three-station wideband electric and magnetic field measuring network in conjunction with VHF receivers, we recorded the so-called compact intracloud discharges (CIDs) in the Greater Khingan Range (51°N) in Northeast China. This type of lightning discharge had never been observed in such high-latitude regions before. During the summer seasons of 2009 and 2010, a total of 493 CIDs with positive electric field pulses (negative charge moving up) occurring in 31 thunderstorms was recorded, with 87% (27/31) of CID-producing storms generating less than 20 CIDs. The CID occurrence observed at 51°N appears to differ significantly from that in most lower latitude regions. Specifically, CIDs accounted only for 0.034% of the total of 1.4 million recorded lightning events, and no CIDs with negative electric field pulses (positive charge moving up) were observed. A total of 202 CIDs was located and they clustered at altitudes ranging from 5 to 12 km above ground level (agl), with a median height of 7.9 km agl. The effective ionosphere heights ranged from 75 to 95 km during the time period of 15:00-06:00 (local time). The median maximum heights of the 30 dBZ radar echo for convective cells with CIDs and without CIDs were 10.8 and 9.4 km, respectively. We infer that a relatively small vertical extent of thunderclouds, limited by the height of the tropopause, and a lack of vigorous convective surges in higher-latitude regions might be responsible for the paucity or absence of CIDs in general and apparent suppression of those with negative electric field pulses in particular.

  10. Telemagmatic metamorphism superimposed on regional metamorphism: Evidence from coals in central China

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Y. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-02-01

    Coal (Lower Permian No. 1) in north-central Henan province, central China, exhibits a zoned rank distribution. The rank varies between high-volatile bituminous and anthracite. Highest rank coal occurs in a northwest-southeast trending zone that cuts across the center of the study area. Coal rank decreases from this central zone towards both the northeast and southwest. Core data indicate that the anthracite is currently overlain by over 4,600 m of sedimentary cover, which represents more or less continuous sedimentation during the Permian and Triassic. In the lower rank area to the southwest, erosion has removed all but approximately 1,000 m of strata. The rank distribution in this area has been attributed to regional metamorphism by previous workers as the higher coal rank coincides with the thicker strata. However, this study reveals that anthracite in the area has a much higher vitrinite reflectance, between 3--6% (Ro max, in oil), with some locations exhibiting reflectances greater than 6%. Petrographically, the anthracite is characterized by well developed pores (5--10 [mu]m in diameter) and mosaic structure. It is suggested that the higher heat flow is due to the presence of deep-seated plutons. It is proposed that coal metamorphism in this area involved three stages: (1) Pre-orogenic (early Permian-late Triassic). Regional metamorphism produced coals of subbituminous to high-volatile bituminous rank; (2) Orogenic (early Jurassic-late Cretaceous). Telemagmatic metamorphism resulted in zones of higher rank coal (medium volatile through anthracite rank); (3) Post-orogenic (Tertiary-Quaternary). Shallow burial depth due to the tectonic uplift followed by erosion had a negligible effect on coal rank. It is suggested, therefore, that coalification in this area is the result of regional metamorphism overprinted by telemagmatic metamorphism.

  11. Impact of anthropogenic aerosols on regional climate change in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, B.; Liou, K. N.; He, C.; Lee, W. L.; Gu, Y.; Li, Q.; Leung, L. R.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols affect regional climate significantly through radiative (direct and semi-direct) and indirect effects, but the magnitude of these effects over megacities are subject to large uncertainty. In this study, we evaluated the effects of anthropogenic aerosols on regional climate change in Beijing, China using the online-coupled Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry Model (WRF/Chem) with the Fu-Liou-Gu radiation scheme and a spatial resolution of 4km. We further updated this radiation scheme with a geometric-optics surface-wave (GOS) approach for the computation of light absorption and scattering by black carbon (BC) particles in which aggregation shape and internal mixing properties are accounted for. In addition, we incorporated in WRF/Chem a 3D radiative transfer parameterization in conjunction with high-resolution digital data for city buildings and landscape to improve the simulation of boundary-layer, surface solar fluxes and associated sensible/latent heat fluxes. Preliminary simulated meteorological parameters, fine particles (PM2.5) and their chemical components agree well with observational data in terms of both magnitude and spatio-temporal variations. The effects of anthropogenic aerosols, including BC, on radiative forcing, surface temperature, wind speed, humidity, cloud water path, and precipitation are quantified on the basis of simulation results. With several preliminary sensitivity runs, we found that meteorological parameters and aerosol radiative effects simulated with the incorporation of improved BC absorption and 3-D radiation parameterizations deviate substantially from simulation results using the conventional homogeneous/core-shell configuration for BC and the plane-parallel model for radiative transfer. Understanding of the aerosol effects on regional climate change over megacities must consider the complex shape and mixing state of aerosol aggregates and 3D radiative transfer effects over city landscape.

  12. Discussion on origin of Pn velocity variation in China and adjacent region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Shun-Ping; Xu, Zhong-Huai; Wang, Su-Yun

    2004-01-01

    Pn velocity lateral variation and anisotropy images were reconstructed by adding about 50 000 travel times from the regional seismic networks to the datum set of near 40 000 travel times from National Seismic Network of China used by WANG, et al. We discussed the relation of Pn velocity variation to Moho depth, Earth’s heat flow, distribution of Cenozoic volcanic rock and the result of rock experiment under high pressure and high temperature. The result of quantitative analysis indicates that Pn velocity is positively correlated with the crust thickness and negatively correlated with the Earth’s heat flow. Two linear regression equations, one between Pn velocity and crust thickness, and the other between Pn velocity and heat flow, were obtained. The rate of variation of Pn velocity ν p with pressure P, ∂ ν p/∂ P, estimated from the velocity variation with crust thickness, ∂ ν p/∂ H is close to the result obtained from the rock experiment under high pressure and high temperature. If the effect of crust thickness on Pn velocity is deducted from the velocity variation, then the low Pn velocity beneath Qinghai-Xizang plateau is more notable. The low Pn velocity regions well agree with the Cenozoic volcanic rock. In the several regions with significant anisotropy, the direction of fast Pn velocity is consistent with the orientation of maximum principal crustal compressive stress, and also with the direction of present-day crustal movement. It indicates that the fast Pn velocity direction may be related to the deformation or flow of top mantle material along the direction of maximum pressure.

  13. Scenario analysis to vehicular emission reduction in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiurui; Fu, Liwei; Ji, Muse; Lang, Jianlei; Chen, Dongsheng; Cheng, Shuiyuan

    2016-09-01

    Motor vehicle emissions are increasingly becoming one of the important factors affecting the urban air quality in China. It is necessary and useful to policy makers to demonstrate the situation given the relevant pollutants reduction measures are taken. This paper predicted the reduction potentials of conventional pollutants (PM10, NOx, CO, HC) under different control strategies and policies in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region during 2011-2020. There are the baseline and 5 control scenarios designed, which presented the different current and future possible vehicular emissions control measures. Future population of different kinds of vehicles were predicted based on the Gompertz model, and vehicle kilometers travelled estimated as well. After that, the emissions reduction under the different scenarios during 2011-2020 could be estimated using emission factors and activity level data. The results showed that, the vehicle population in the BTH region would continue to grow up, especially in Tianjin and Hebei. Comparing the different scenarios, emission standards updating scenario would achieve a substantial reduction and keep rising up for all the pollutants, and the scenario of eliminating high-emission vehicles can reduce emissions more effectively in short-term than in long-term, especially in Beijing. Due to the constraints of existing economical and technical level, the reduction effect of promoting new energy vehicles would not be significant, especially given the consideration of their lifetime impact. The reduction effect of population regulation scenario in Beijing cannot be ignorable and would keep going up for PM10, CO and HC, excluding NOx. Under the integrated scenario considering all the control measures it would achieve the maximum reduction potential of emissions, which means to reduce emissions of PM10, NOx, CO, HC, by 56%, 59%, 48%, 52%, respectively, compared to BAU scenario for the whole BTH region in 2020. PMID:27325548

  14. Panxi region (South-West China): Tectonics, magmatism and metallogenesis. A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munteanu, Marian; Yao, Yong; Wilson, Allan H.; Chunnett, Gordon; Luo, Yaonan; He, Hong; Cioacă, Mihaela; Wen, Maolin

    2013-11-01

    The Panxi region of SW China makes up most of the western margin of the Yangtze craton. Its structural pattern, defined by NS-trending deep faults, is superimposed on a zone of late Proterozoic crustal extension. The Panxi region seems to have evolved as a continental rift in the Permian, and was subsequently subjected to compression, caused mainly by the Himalayan collision. This induced the uplift of its axial and western parts, generating a horst-type structure within the former rift graben. At ca. 260 Ma, mantle plume-related magmatism in the Panxi region generated the Emeishan flood basalts together with ultramafic and silicic volcanic rocks and with numerous intrusive bodies (peridotites, pyroxenites, layered gabbros, syenites, granites). A geochemical distinction between high-Ti and low-Ti Emeishan basalts can be made, but just with the significance of compositional end-members since the published data define a continuous variation of the entire compositional range. Similar compositional variation occurs in the ultramafic lavas (picrites and komatiites) intercalated in the sequence of the Emeishan basalts, which are considered to be the products of undifferentiated primary magmas. Based on the geochemical data, the primary magmas could have been generated from distinct source materials (mantle plume, asthenosphere, lithospheric mantle), from compositionally heterogeneous mantle plume source or from a common source but with various degrees of mantle melting and crustal contamination. Considering the picritic composition of the primary magmas, a deep-seated differentiation of large volume of magma is needed to produce the extrusion of the relatively evolved Emeishan basalts. World class Fe-Ti-V oxide ore deposits are associated with the layered gabbros, while the ultramafic intrusions can host small Ni-Cu and PGE sulfide deposits. The intrusions containing Fe-Ti-V oxide deposits show remarkably continuous layering and probably derived from mafic magmas

  15. Organochlorine pesticides in soils under different land usage in the Taihu Lake region, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Jiang, Xin; Bian, Yong-Rong; Yao, Fen-Xia; Gao, Hong-Jian; Yu, Gui-Fen; Munch, Jean Charles; Schroll, Reiner

    2007-01-01

    A field study was conducted in the Taihu Lake region, China in 2004 to reveal the organochlorine pesticide concentrations in soils after the ban of these substances in the year 1983. Thirteen organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were analyzed in soils from paddy field, tree land and fallow land. Total organochlorine pesticide residues were higher in agricultural soils than in uncultivated fallow land soils. Among all the pesticides, sigmaDDX (DDD, DDE and DDT) had the highest concentration for all the soil samples, ranging from 3.10 ng/g to 166.55 ng/g with a mean value of 57.04 ng/g and followed by sigmaHCH, ranging from 0.73 ng/g to 60.97 ng/g with a mean value of 24.06 ng/g. Dieldrin, endrin, HCB and alpha-endosulfan were also found in soils with less than 15 ng/g. Ratios of p,p'-(DDD+DDE)/DDT in soils under three land usages were: paddy field > tree land > fallow land, indicating that land usage influenced the degradation of DDT in soils. Ratios of p,p'-(DDD+DDE)/DDT > 1, showing aged residues of DDTs in soils of the Taihu Lake region. The results were discussed with data from a former study that showed very low actual concentrations of HCH and DDT in soils in the Taihu Lake region, but according to the chemical half-lives and their concentrations in soils in 1980s, the concentration of DDT in soils seemed to be underestimated. In any case our data show that the ban on the use of HCH and DDT resulted in a tremendous reduction of these pesticide residues in soils, but there are still high amounts of pesticide residues in soils, which need more remediation processes. PMID:17915688

  16. Identifying risk factors of avian infectious diseases at household level in Poyang Lake region, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qian; Zhou, Jieting; Jiang, Zhiben; Xu, Bing

    2014-09-01

    Poultry kept in backyard farms are susceptible to acquiring and spreading infectious diseases because of free ranging and poor biosecurity measures. Since some of these diseases are zoonoses, this is also a significant health concern to breeders and their families. Backyard farms are common in rural regions of China. However, there is lack of knowledge of backyard poultry in the country. To obtain first-hand information of backyard poultry and identify risk factors of avian infectious diseases, a cross-sectional study was carried out at household level in rural regions around Poyang Lake. A door-to-door survey was conducted to collect data on husbandry practices, trading practices of backyard farmers, and surrounding environments of backyard farms. Farms were categorized into cases and controls based on their history of poultry death. Data were collected for 137 farms, and the association with occurrence of poultry death event was explored by chi-square tests. Results showed that vaccination implementation was a protective factor (odds ratio OR=0.40, 95% confidence interval CI: 0.20-0.80, p=0.01), while contact with other backyard flocks increased risk (OR=1.72, 95% CI: 0.79-3.74, p=0.16). A concept of "farm connectivity" characterized by the density of particular land-use types in the vicinity of the farm was proposed to characterize the degree of contact between poultry in one household farm and those in other household farms. It was found that housing density in a 20-m buffer zone of the farmhouse was most significantly associated with poultry death occurrence (OR=1.08, 95% CI: 1.02-1.17, p=0.03), and was in agreement with observation of villagers. Binary logistic regression was applied to evaluate the relationship between poultry death event and density of land-use types in all buffer zones. When integrated with vaccination implementation for poultry, prediction accuracy of poultry death event reached 72.0%. Results combining questionnaire survey with

  17. Light Absorption of Brown Carbon Aerosol in the Pearl River Delta Region of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X.

    2015-12-01

    X.F. Huang, J.F. Yuan, L.M. Cao, J. Cui, C.N. Huang, Z.J. Lan and L.Y. He Key Laboratory for Urban Habitat Environmental Science and Technology, School of Environment and Energy, Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen 518055, ChinaCorresponding author. Tel.: +86 755 26032532; fax: +86 755 26035332. E-mail address: huangxf@pku.edu.cn (X. F. Huang). Abstract: The strong spectral dependence of light absorption of brown carbon (BrC) aerosol has been recognized in recent decades. The Absorption Angstrom Exponent (AAE) of ambient aerosol was widely used in previous studies to attribute light absorption of brown carbon at shorter wavelengths, with a theoretical assumption that the AAE of black carbon (BC) aerosol equals to unit. In this study, the AAE method was improved by statistical extrapolation based on ambient measurements in the polluted seasons in typical urban and rural areas in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of China. A three-wavelength photoacoustic soot spectrometer (PASS-3) and an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) were used to explore the relationship between the ambient measured AAE and the ratio of organic aerosol to BC aerosol, in order to extract the more realistic AAE by pure BC aerosol, which were found to be 0.86, 0.82 and 1.02 at 405nm and 0.70, 0.71, and 0.86 at 532nm in the campaigns of urban-winter, urban-fall, and rural-fall, respectively. Roadway tunnel experiment results further supported the effectiveness of the obtained AAE for pure BC aerosol. In addition, biomass burning experiments proved higher spectral dependence of more-BrC environment and further verified the reliability of the instruments' response. Then, the average light absorption contribution of BrC aerosol was calculated to be 11.7, 6.3 and 12.1% (with total relative uncertainty of 7.5, 6.9 and 10.0%) at 405nm and 10.0, 4.1 and 5.5% (with total relative uncertainty of 6.5, 8.6 and 15.4%) at 532nm of the three campaigns, respectively. These results indicate that the

  18. Carbon dioxide and methane supersaturation in lakes of semi-humid/semi-arid region, Northeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Zhidan; Song, Kaishan; Zhao, Ying; Jin, Xiuliang

    2016-08-01

    Understanding concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in lakes is an important part of a comprehensive global carbon budget. We estimated data on the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and CH4 (pCH4) from sampling with 95 lakes in semi-humid/semi-arid region of Northeastern China during ice-free period. Both pCO2 and pCH4 varied greatly among the study sites. p(CO2) values in these lakes ranged from 21.9 to 30,152.3 μatm (n = 403), and 91% of lakes in this survey were supersaturated with CO2. p(CH4) values ranged from 12.6 to 139,630.7 μatm with all sites in this study of CH4 sources to the atmosphere during the ice-free period. The collected urban lakes samples exhibited higher pCO2 and pCH4 than wild lakes samples. Either the mean value of p(CO2) or p(CH4) in saline waters is higher than in fresh waters. Correlation analysis implied that the partial pressure of the GHGs (CO2 and CH4) showed statistically correlations with water environment indicators like pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and chlorophyll a (Chla). However, the most of the relationships showed a high degree of scatter, only pH might be used as the predictor of the gas partial pressure based on the result of this study (rpCO2 = -0.437, p < 0.01, n = 382; rpCH4 = -0.265, p < 0.01, n = 400). Furthermore, salinity could be a good predictor for p(CO2) and p(CH4) in 83 freshwater lakes in our study (rpCO2 = 0.365, rpCH4 = 0.323, p < 0.01, n = 348). The mean CO2 flux increased with the decreasing lake area size. The calculated annual areal carbon emission rate is 560.2 g C m-2 from 95 lakes in Northeastern China. We could not extrapolate carbon emission from these lakes to the boreal region or a wider scale because of the change of environmental conditions.

  19. Regional differences in awareness of tobacco advertising and promotion in China: findings from the ITC China Survey

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin; Yong, Hua-Hie; Borland, Ron; Wu, Xi; Li, Qiang; Wu, Changbao; Foong, Kin

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine whether levels of, and factors related to, awareness of tobacco advertising and promotion differ across six cities in China. Methods Data from wave 1 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey (April to August 2006) were analysed. The ITC China Survey employed a multistage sampling design in Beijing, Shenyang, Shanghai, Changsha, Guangzhou and Yinchuan. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with a total of 4763 smokers and 1259 non-smokers. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with awareness of tobacco advertising and promotion. Results The overall levels of noticing advertisements varied considerably by city. Cities reporting lower levels of advertising tended to report higher levels of point of sale activity. Noticing tobacco industry promotions was associated with more positive attitudes to tobacco companies. Conclusion The awareness of tobacco advertising and promotional activities was not homogeneous across the six Chinese cities, suggesting variations in the tobacco industry's activities and the diversity of implementing a central set of laws to restrict tobacco promotion. This study clearly demonstrates the need to work with the implementation agencies if national laws are to be properly enforced. PMID:20008156

  20. Modeling regional/urban ozone and particulate matter in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Joshua S; Streets, David G; Jang, Carey J; Hao, Jiming; He, Kebin; Wang, Litao; Zhang, Qiang

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines Beijing air quality in the winter and summer of 2001 using an integrated air quality modeling system (Fifth Generation Mesoscale Meteorological Model [MM5]/Community Multiscale Air Quality [CMAQ]) in nested mode. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) emission inventory is used in the 36- (East Asia), 12- (East China), and 4-km (greater Beijing area) domains. Furthermore, we develop a local Beijing emission inventory that is used in the 4-km domain. We also construct a corroborated mapping of chemical species between the TRACE-P inventory and the Carbon Bond IV (CB-IV) chemical mechanism before the integrated modeling system is applied to study ozone (O3) and particulate matter (PM) in Beijing. Meteorological data for the integrated modeling runs are extracted from MM5. Model results show O3 hourly concentrations in the range of 80-159 parts per billion (ppb) during summer in the urban areas and up to 189 ppb downwind of the city. High fine PM (PM2.5) concentrations (monthly average of 75 microg x m(-3) in summer and 150 microg x m(-3) in winter) are simulated over the metropolitan and down-wind areas with significant secondary constituents. A comparison against available O3 and PM measurement data in Beijing is described. We recommend refinements to the developed local Beijing emission inventory to improve the simulation of Beijing's air quality. The 4-km modeling configuration is also recommended for the development of air pollution control strategies. PMID:19216186

  1. Modeling regional/urban ozone and particulate matter in Beijing, China.

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, J.S.; Streets, D.G.; Jang, C.J.; Hao, J.; He, K.; Wang, L.; Zhang, Q.

    2009-01-15

    This paper examines Beijing air quality in the winter and summer of 2001 using an integrated air quality modeling system (Fifth Generation Mesoscale Meteorological Model (MM5)/Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ)) in nested mode. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) emission inventory is used in the 36- (East Asia), 12- (East China), and 4-km (greater Beijing area) domains. Furthermore, we develop a local Beijing emission inventory that is used in the 4-km domain. We also construct a corroborated mapping of chemical species between the TRACE-P inventory and the Carbon Bond IV (CB-IV) chemical mechanism before the integrated modeling system is applied to study ozone (O{sub 3}) and particulate matter (PM) in Beijing. Meteorological data for the integrated modeling runs are extracted from MM5. Model results show O{sub 3} hourly concentrations in the range of 80-159 parts per billion (ppb) during summer in the urban areas and up to 189 ppb downwind of the city. High fine PM (PM2.5) concentrations (monthly average of 75 {mu}g.m{sup -3} in summer and 150 {mu}g.m{sup -3} in winter) are simulated over the metropolitan and down-wind areas with significant secondary constituents. Major sources of particulates were biomass burning, coal combustion and industry. A comparison against available O{sub 3} and PM measurement data in Beijing is described. We recommend refinements to the developed local Beijing emission inventory to improve the simulation of Beijing's air quality. The 4-km modeling configuration is also recommended for the development of air pollution control strategies. 31 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Region-specific up-regulation of oxytocin receptor binding in the brain of mice following chronic nicotine administration.

    PubMed

    Zanos, Panos; Georgiou, Polymnia; Metaxas, Athanasios; Kitchen, Ian; Winsky-Sommerer, Raphaelle; Bailey, Alexis

    2015-07-23

    Nicotine addiction is considered to be the main preventable cause of death worldwide. While growing evidence indicates that the neurohypophysial peptide oxytocin can modulate the addictive properties of several abused drugs, the regulation of the oxytocinergic system following nicotine administration has so far received little attention. Here, we examined the effects of long-term nicotine or saline administration on the central oxytocinergic system using [(125)I]OVTA autoradiographic binding in mouse brain. Male, 7-week old C57BL6J mice were treated with either nicotine (7.8 mg/kg daily; rate of 0.5 μl per hour) or saline for a period of 14-days via osmotic minipumps. Chronic nicotine administration induced a marked region-specific upregulation of the oxytocin receptor binding in the amygdala, a brain region involved in stress and emotional regulation. These results provide direct evidence for nicotine-induced neuroadaptations in the oxytocinergic system, which may be involved in the modulation of nicotine-seeking as well as emotional consequence of chronic drug use. PMID:26037668

  3. [Natural regeneration of young Excentrodendron hsienmu in karst mountainous region in Southwest Guangxi, China].

    PubMed

    Ou, Zhi-Yang; Su, Zhi-Yao; Peng, Yu-Hua; Hu, Qin-Fei; Huang, Xiao-Rong

    2013-09-01

    A field survey was conducted in the karst mountainous region in Pingguo County of Southwest Guangxi, China to explore the structural characteristics, spatial distribution pattern, and growth dynamics of young Excentrodendron hsienmu as well as the main environmental factors affecting the natural regeneration of the E. hsienmu population. In the study area, the population structure of the young E. hsienmu was stable, and exhibited a clumped spatial pattern for the seedlings and seedling sprouts. The ground diameter growth and height growth of the young E. hsienmu presented the same variation trend, i. e., the ground diameter increased with increasing height. The ground diameter growth and height growth of the E. hsienmu seedlings were limited by population density, i. e., decreased with increasing population density. The correlation analysis showed that the trees more than 2.5 m in height and the shrubs were the major stand factors affecting the natural regeneration of young E. hsienmu, while the herbs had no significant correlation with the regeneration. The percentage of covered rock also had no significant effects on the regeneration. Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA showed that there existed significant differences in the height and ground diameter of young E. hsienmu at different slope degrees and slope positions. The population density, height, and ground diameter had significant differences across slope aspects. The natural regeneration of young E. hsienmu was comprehensively affected by the species biological characteristics, intraspecific competition, interspecific competition, heterogeneous habitat, and anthropogenic disturbances. PMID:24417099

  4. Source apportionment of fluorine pollution in regional shallow groundwater at You'xi County southeast China.

    PubMed

    Lü, Jian; Qiu, Haiyuan; Lin, Huangbin; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Zhi; Zhao, Rurong

    2016-09-01

    Source apportionment of fluorine pollution in the regional shallow groundwater at You'xi County, southeast China, has been analyzed by means of monitoring F(-) ion change characteristics in this area. Meanwhile, pollution sources and influencing factors of the shallow groundwater have been uncovered by studying the correlation between F(-) and other related ions such as Na(+), Ca(2+), Cl(-), NO3(-), HCO3(-), as well as (K(+) + Na(+))/Ca(2+) ratio (R) and pH effect. The results show that F(-) ions in shallow groundwater at the study area come mainly from the dissolution of fluorinated minerals in a form of fluorite (CaF2), the so-called water-rock interaction, and there is a higher possibility for the occurrence of fluorine water where the ratio of (K(+) + Na(+))/Ca(2+) exceeds a value of 2.1. Moreover, the release and migration of F(-) ions have been favored by the alkaline environment in this study area. PMID:27239970

  5. Seventeenth century organic agriculture in China: II. Energy flows through an agroecosystem in Jiaxing Region

    SciTech Connect

    Dazhong, W.; Pimentel, D.

    1986-03-01

    The energy flows in a seventeenth century agroecosystem in Jiaxing Region of eastern China were analyzed on the basis of historical data. The agroecosystem included cropping, mulberry-silkworm livestock, and fishing systems. In terms of energy, the agroecosystem was sustainable. Human labor provided all the power with inputs of about 3700 hr per hectare of farmland. Most or 70% of the labor was expended in the cropping system. Human and animal manure provided most of the nutrients for crop and mulberry production. About two-thirds of the total manure was used in crop production and one-third in the mulberry plantations. The only fossil energy input was a few hand tools. Approximately 55% of the grain was consumed directly by local residents, about one-third of the grain was used to make an alcohol drink and produce distillers' grains, which was fed to pigs, and only 2% of the grains were exported outside the agroecosystem. About two-thirds of the harvested crop residues were used as household fuel, while the remainder was returned to the field as an organic fertilizer. Pork accounted for 85% and silk cocoons 14% of the total animal products produced. Even though the agroecosystem was generally sustainable in terms of energy, the major environmental problem was that two-thirds of the harvested crop residues were used for household fuel. This reduced nutrient cycling in the system. Insufficient land was available to produce fuelwood; thus, crop residues were the primary source of fuel for the people.

  6. Regional Climate Simulations of Summer Diurnal Rainfall Variations over East Asia and Southeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, W.-R.; Chan, J. C. L.

    2012-04-01

    This study evaluates the simulations of summer (June-August) precipitation over East Asia by the Regional Climate Model Version 3 (RegCM3), with emphasis on the diurnal variations of precipitation over Southeast China (PSEC) during the 1998-2002 summer seasons. The evaluation focuses on the maintenance mechanisms of the diurnal variations in PSEC as proposed by previous observational studies. It is found that the diurnal variations of PSEC are sensitive to the choice of cumulus parameterization schemes (CPSs). In particular, the Grell scheme with the Frisch-Chappell convective closure assumption (GFC) produces reasonable diurnal variations of PSEC. Other CPSs such as the Emanuel scheme produces a weaker late-afternoon maximum of PSEC, and the Kuo scheme as well as the Grell scheme with the Arakawa-Schubert closure assumption (GAS) is unable to simulate the occurrence of the late-afternoon maximum of PSEC. The simulations show that the adoption of the GFC scheme reproduces the large-scale land-sea breeze circulation and the moisture flux convergence that have been documented by previous studies as the maintenance mechanisms of the diurnal variations of PSEC. This feature illustrates the importance of convective cloud feedback at the diurnal timescale in maintaining the large-scale circulation. Furthermore, when the simulation domain covers the entire Tibetan Plateau, the diurnal variations of precipitation over East Asia are found to exhibit a noticeable improvement without changes in the physics schemes.

  7. [Impact of biological soil crusts on soil water repellence in the hilly Loess Plateau region, China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pei-Pei; Zhao, Yun-Ge; Wang, Yuan; Yao, Chun-Zhu

    2014-03-01

    By using water drop penetration time (WDPT) and molarity of ethanol droplet (MED) methods, the soil water repellence of undisturbed biological soil crusts (biocrusts) in five successional stages, from the hilly Loess Plateau region of China was tested. The five stages of biocrusts were light cyanobacterial crust, dark cyanobacterial crust, cyanobacterial with sparse moss crust, moss and tiny cyanobacteria patches crust and moss dominated crust. The results showed that 1) the soil water repellence was markedly increased both in the intensity and persistence since the formation of biocrusts. 2) The soil water repellence showed a decrease trend along with the successional stages of biocrusts. The soil water repellence of the biocrusts with the moss coverage above 20% was significantly lower than that of the cyanobacterial crusts. 3) The soil water repellence of the biocrusts was closely related to soil moisture and the dominant organism. The soil water repellence increased with the decrease of soil water content for the moss dominated biocrusts, while changed in a bimodal curve with the decrease of soil water content for the cyanobacterial biocrusts. PMID:24984480

  8. Pollen Analysis of Natural Honeys from the Central Region of Shanxi, North China

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiao-Yan; Yao, Yi-Feng; Yang, Wu-De

    2012-01-01

    Based on qualitative and quantitative melissopalynological analyses, 19 Chinese honeys were classified by botanical origin to determine their floral sources. The honey samples were collected during 2010–2011 from the central region of Shanxi Province, North China. A diverse spectrum of 61 pollen types from 37 families was identified. Fourteen samples were classified as unifloral, whereas the remaining samples were multifloral. Bee-favoured families (occurring in more than 50% of the samples) included Caprifoliaceae (found in 10 samples), Laminaceae (10), Brassicaceae (12), Rosaceae (12), Moraceae (13), Rhamnaceae (15), Asteraceae (17), and Fabaceae (19). In the unifloral honeys, the predominant pollen types were Ziziphus jujuba (in 5 samples), Robinia pseudoacacia (3), Vitex negundo var. heterophylla (2), Sophora japonica (1), Ailanthus altissima (1), Asteraceae type (1), and Fabaceae type (1). The absolute pollen count (i.e., the number of pollen grains per 10 g honey sample) suggested that 13 samples belonged to Group I (<20,000 pollen grains), 4 to Group II (20,000–100,000), and 2 to Group III (100,000–500,000). The dominance of unifloral honeys without toxic pollen grains and the low value of the HDE/P ratio (i.e., honey dew elements/pollen grains from nectariferous plants) indicated that the honey samples are of good quality and suitable for human consumption. PMID:23185358

  9. Geology of the Chinese nuclear test site near Lop Nor, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matzko, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    The Chinese underground nuclear test site in the Kuruktag and Kyzyltag mountains of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of northwest China, is the location of sixteen underground tests that occurred between 1969 and 1992. The largest test to date, conducted on 21 May 1992, had a reported yield of about one megaton. Geophysical properties of the rocks and a large-scale geologic map of part of the test area were published by the Chinese in 1986 and 1987 and are the first site-specific data available for this test site. In areas of low relief, underground nuclear testing has occurred below the water table, in shafts drilled vertically into dense, low porosity Paleozoic granitic and metasedimentary rocks. Additional testing in areas of more rugged terrain has occurred in horizontal tunnels, probably above the water table. At least one of these tunnels was driven into granite. The upper 50 m of the rock in the area of the vertical tests is weathered and fractured; these conditions have been shown to influence the magnitude of the disturbance of the land surface after a nuclear explosion. These descriptions suggest hard rock coupling at depth and a closer resemblance to the former Soviet test site in eastern Kazakhstan than to the U.S. test site in Nevada. ?? 1994.

  10. Crustal radial anisotropy in Northeast China and its implications for the regional tectonic extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhen; Yang, Yingjie; Chen, Y. John

    2016-07-01

    We obtain high resolution Rayleigh and Love wave phase velocity maps from ambient noise tomography using data recorded by NECESSArray in Northeast China. The resulting radial anisotropic model from the joint inversion of Rayleigh and Love wave dispersion curves reveals strong relationship between the crustal radial anisotropy and tectonic provinces, that is, strong positive anisotropy (Vsh>Vsv) beneath the Songliao Basin and weak radial anisotropy beneath the Xinmeng Belt and Changbaishan region. The Songliao Basin experienced widespread crustal extension during the late Mesozoic. We interpret the lower crustal anisotropy beneath the Songliao Basin as a result of ductile deformation during the rifting stage, which may lead to the alignment of anisotropic minerals and the observed strong radial anisotropy at present. In the northern Songliao Basin, where thick syn-rift and post-rift sediments (≥4 km) are believed to be present, we observe a broader lateral distribution of anisotropy with stronger amplitude compared with the southern basin. We suggest that the broader distribution of crustal radial anisotropy in the northern basin could be the consequence of outward lower crustal flow driven by the sedimentary loading during the post-rift stage, which is also proposed by previous numerical modelling.

  11. An integrated assessment of wild vegetable resources in Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region, China

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This paper was based on ethnobotanical investigations conducted from 2004-2006 in Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region of northern China. Today, due to their nutritious and relatively pollution-free characteristics, wild vegetables are playing an increasingly important role in peoples' health and well-being. This paper aims to provide scientific clues for the selection of special and high quality wild vegetables species. Methods An ethnobotanical study, consisting of a literature survey, open-ended and semi-structured interviews, and collection and identification of voucher specimens was carried out to gather information on wild vegetables in Inner Mongolia. Next, an integrated assessment of 90 species of wild vegetables was performed using the linearity weighted integrative mathematical analysis method. Results According to an integrated assessment of 90 species of wild vegetables in Inner Mongolia, there are 5 species with the highest integrated value, 40 species of high-integrated value, 43 species of general integrated value, and 2 species of low value. The results indicate that the vast majority of wild vegetables have high value in Inner Mongolia. Conclusions Inner Mongolia is rich in wild vegetable resources. A comprehensive assessment indicates that the vast majority of wild vegetables are of high value. However, these wild vegetables are seldom collected or cultivated by local people. Most of the collected species require further research and investigation into their nutrient content, toxicity and ethnobotany to illuminate their potential as new cultivars or products. PMID:21134268

  12. Raman microscopy of hand stencils rock art from the Yabrai Mountain, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernanz, Antonio; Chang, Jinlong; Iriarte, Mercedes; Gavira-Vallejo, Jose M.; de Balbín-Behrmann, Rodrigo; Bueno-Ramírez, Primitiva; Maroto-Valiente, Angel

    2016-07-01

    A series of rock art pictographs in the form of hand stencils discovered in two sites of the Yabrai Mountain, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (China) has been studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electronic microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy for the first time. These studies have made possible to characterise the materials present. The minerals α-quartz, phlogopite, albite and microcline have been identified in the granitic rocks supporting the paintings. Calcite and dolomite micro-particles detected on the rock surface have been attributed to desert dust. Accretions of gypsum, anhydrite and whewellite have also been identified on the rock surface. Haematite is the pigment used in the red pictographs, whereas well-crystallised graphite has been used in the black ones. The use of crystalline graphite instead of amorphous carbon (charcoal, soot or bone black) as a black pigment in rock art is an interesting novelty. Overlapped hands are proposed as a new type of hand stencils to make an unusual pictorial symbol in rock art that has been found in these sites.

  13. Analytical characterization of Hempseed (seed of Cannabis sativa L.) oil from eight regions in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tianpeng; He, Jinfeng; Zhang, Jianchun; Zhang, Hua; Qian, Ping; Hao, Jianxiong; Li, Lite

    2010-06-01

    In this study, eight cultivars of hempseed were collected from different regions of China for analysis of physiochemical properties and chemical composition, as well as for seed indexes and proximate composition of seed kernel. The results indicated that Yunma No. 1 and Bama Huoma, with more than 50% oil and 30% protein in dehulled seed, could be considered as oil extraction material and protein source with respect to kernel yield. Iodine values ranging from 153.6 to 169.1 g/100 g reflected the high degree of unsaturation. The concentration of unsaturated fatty acids exceeded 90%, higher than most conventional vegetable oils. Moreover, polyunsaturated fatty acids ranged from 76.26% to 82.75% and were mainly composed of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid with a ratio close to 3:1. γ-Tocopherol was found at an average concentration of 28.23 mg/100 g of hempseed oil. The results indicated that hempseed oil is a potentially valuable vegetable oil. PMID:22435611

  14. [Species diversity and colony characteristics of bumblebees in the Hebei region of North China].

    PubMed

    An, Jian-Dong; Huang, Jia-Xing; Williams, Paul H; Wu, Jie; Zhou, Bing-Feng

    2010-06-01

    Based on the 1893 specimens collected from Hebei Province, Beijing City, and Tianjin City in 2005-2009, and the specimens deposited in the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, this paper analyzed the species diversity and colony characteristics of bumblebees in the Hebei region of North China. A total of 32 species belonging to 8 subgenera of Bombus were recorded, with 32 species in Hebei Province, 18 species in Beijing, and 5 species in Tianjin. The bumblebee in Taihang Mountains, Yanshan Mountains, and Bashang Plateau had the highest richness and abundance, and its food-plant included 80 species of 21 families, among which, Compositae, Leguminosae, and Labiatae were most important. Five bumblebee species, i. e., Bombus hypocrita, B. ignitus, B. patagiatus, B. pyrosoma, and B. picipes, had the largest colony, with more than 110 workers, 160 drones, and 30 young queens produced per colony. The success in rearing colonies of each of the 5 species by queens was > 50%, demonstrating that these 5 species had the potential to be mass-reared, with important applied value for crop pollination. PMID:20873633

  15. Social vulnerability of rural households to flood hazards in western mountainous regions of Henan province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D. L.; Li, Y.

    2015-11-01

    Evaluating social vulnerability is a crucial issue in risk and disaster management. In this study, a household social vulnerability index (HSVI) to flood hazards was developed and used to assess the social vulnerability of rural households in western mountainous regions of Henan province, China. Eight key indicators were indentified through interactive discussions with multidisciplinary specialists and local farmers, and their weights were determined using principle component analysis (PCA). The results showed that (1) the ratio of perennial working in other places, hazard-related training and illiteracy ratio (15+) were the most dominant factors to social vulnerability. (2) The numbers of high, moderate and low vulnerable households were 14, 64 and 16, respectively, which accounted for 14.9, 68.1, and 17.0 % of the total interviewed rural households, respectively. (3) The correlation coefficient between household social vulnerability scores and casualties in a storm flood in July 2010 was significant at 0.05 significance level (r = 0.248), which indicated that the selected indicators and their weights were valid. (4) Some mitigation strategies to reduce the household social vulnerability to flood hazards were proposed based on the assessment results. The results provide useful information for rural households and local governments to prepare, mitigate and response to flood hazards.

  16. Groundwater Recharge and Flow Processes in Taihang Mountains, a Semi-humid Region, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakakibara, Koichi; Tsujimura, Maki; Song, Xianfang; Zhang, Jie

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater flow/recharge variations in time and space are crucial for effective water management especially in semi-arid and semi-humid regions. In order to reveal comprehensive groundwater flow/recharge processes in a catchment with a large topographical relief and seasonal hydrological variations, intensive field surveys were undertaken at 4 times in different seasons (June 2011, August 2012, November 2012, February 2014) in the Wangkuai watershed, Taihang mountains, which is a main groundwater recharge area of the North China Plain. The groundwater, spring, stream water and reservoir water were taken, and inorganic solute constituents and stable isotopes of oxygen-18 and deuterium were determined on all water samples. Also, the stream flow rate and the depth of groundwater table were observed. The stable isotopic compositions and inorganic solute constituents in the groundwater are depleted and shown similar values as those of the surface water at the mountain-plain transitional area. Additionally, the groundwater in the vicinity of the Wangkuai Reservoir presents clearly higher stable isotopic compositions and lower d-excess than those of the stream water, indicating the groundwater around the reservoir is affected by evaporation same as the Wangkuai Reservoir itself. Hence, the surface water in the mountain-plain transitional area and Wangkuai Reservoir are principal groundwater recharge sources. An inversion analysis and simple mixing model were applied in the Wangkuai watershed using stable isotopes of oxygen-18 and deuterium to construct a groundwater flow model. The model shows that multi-originated groundwater flows from upstream to downstream along topography with certain mixing. In addition, the groundwater recharge occurs dominantly at the altitude from 421 m to 953 m, and the groundwater recharge rate by the Wangkuai Reservoir is estimated to be 2.4 % of the total groundwater recharge in the Wangkuai watershed. Therefore, the stream water and

  17. Characteristics of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 at the Shangdianzi regional background station in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Shuang-xi; Tans, Pieter P.; Dong, Fan; Zhou, Huaigang; Luan, Tian

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric CO2 and CH4 have been continuously measured at the Shangdianzi regional background station (SDZ) in China from 2009 to 2013. Based on the influences of local surface wind and long-distance transport, the observed records were flagged into locally influenced, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) influenced, and Russia, Mongolia, and Inner Mongolia autonomous region influenced (RMI). ∼ 81.4% of CO2 and ∼75.6% of CH4 mole fractions were flagged as locally representative, indicating that the atmospheric CO2 and CH4 at SDZ were strongly influenced by local sources and sinks. Cluster analysis of back trajectories proved that the atmospheric CO2 and CH4 were influenced by air masses from northwest (RMI) or from south and southeast (BTH). The CO2 and CH4 mole fractions in BTH are always higher than in RMI, with the largest difference of 11.5 ± 0.3 ppm for CO2 and 102 ± 1 ppb for CH4 in July. The annual growth rates of CO2 and CH4 in BTH are 3.8 ± 0.01 ppm yr-1 and 10 ± 0.1 ppb yr-1, respectively, which are apparently higher than those of the RMI and the global means. The long-term trends of CO2 and CH4 in BTH are deviating from those in RMI, with ratios of ∼1.0 ppm yr-1 for CO2 and ∼2 ppb yr-1 for CH4, indicating the strengths of CO2 and CH4 emission in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei plain increased more than 20% every year.

  18. Evaluating the vegetation growing season changes in the arid region of northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanfang; Shen, Yanjun; Sun, Fubao; Chen, Yaning

    2014-11-01

    Temperature has long been accepted as the major controlling factor in determining vegetation phenology in the middle and higher latitudes. The influence of water availability is often overlooked even in arid and semi-arid environments. We compared vegetation phenology metrics derived from both in situ temperature and satellite-based normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) observations from 1982 to 2006 by an example of the arid region of northwestern China. From the satellite-based results, it was found the start of the growing season (SOS) advanced by 0.37 days year-1 and the end of the growing season (EOS) delayed by 0.61 days year-1 in Southern Xinjiang over 25 years. In the Tianshan Mountains, the SOS advanced by 0.35 days year-1 and the EOS delayed by 0.31 days year-1. There were almost no changes in Northern Xinjiang. Compared with satellite-based results, those estimates based on temperature contain less details of spatial variability of vegetation phenology. Interestingly, they show different and at times reversed spatial patterns from the satellite results arising from water limitation. Phenology metrics derived from temperature and NDVI conclude that water limitation of onset of the growing season is more severe than the cessation. Phenology spatial patterns of four oases in Southern Xingjiang show that, on average, there is a delay of the SOS of 1.6 days/10 km of distance from the mountain outlet stations. Our results underline the importance of water availability in determining the vegetation phenology in arid regions and can lead to important consequences in interpreting the possible change of vegetation phenology with climate.

  19. The farmers' perceptions of ANPS pollution and its influencing factors in Poyang Lake Region, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meiqiu; Chen, Mengjiao; Lu, Yanfei; Wang, Liguo; Huang, Yujiao

    2016-01-01

    Individual farmers represent the main management entities of agricultural production under the family-contract responsibility system in China, and thus play crucial roles in the prevention and control of agricultural nonpoint source (ANPS) pollution. The analysis of the farmers' perceptions of ANPS pollution as well as the factors affecting their perceptions can provide valuable information for relevant policy-making to preserve high quality water in Poyang Lake and regional quality of arable land. Through a survey titled 'Farmers' perceptions of ANPS pollution and farming behaviors in the Poyang Lake Region', the data related to the perceptions of farmers on ANPS pollution were collected. The factors that affect their awareness of ANPS pollution were identified with the method of boosted regression trees (BRT). The results indicated that the farmers had awareness of the risk of ANPS pollution to some extent, but they lacked adequate scientific knowledge. Generally, they had no consciousness about how to prevent and control ANPS pollution and did not understand techniques needed for proper scientifically sound application of fertilizers and pesticides. The main factors that influenced their perceptions of ANPS pollution are (from high to low): the ratio of total income which comes from farming, per capita farmland, age, education level, and household income. Some measures targeted to improve the prevention and control of ANPS pollution were proposed: developing modern agricultural techniques and promoting large-scale farming, increasing public campaigns related to ANPS pollution prevention and control with the goal of raising the level of awareness of farmers, and reforming the methods used to promote science and technology in agriculture and encourage the proper use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. PMID:27054730

  20. Multiple Comparison Analysis of Two New Genomic Sequences of ILTV Strains from China with Other Strains from Different Geographic Regions

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yan; Kong, Congcong; Wang, Yunfeng

    2015-01-01

    To date, twenty complete genome sequences of ILTV strains have been published in GenBank, including one strain from China, and nineteen strains from Australian and the United States. To investigate the genomic information on ILTVs from different geographic regions, two additional individual complete genome sequences of WG and K317 strains from China were determined. The genomes of WG and K317 strains were 153,505 and 153,639 bp in length, respectively. Alignments performed on the amino acid sequences of the twelve glycoproteins showed that 13 out of 116 mutational sites were present only among the Chinese strain WG and the Australian strains SA2 and A20. The phylogenetic tree analysis suggested that the WG strain established close relationships with the Australian strain SA2. The recombination events were detected and confirmed in different subregions of the WG strain with the sequences of SA2 and K317 strains as parental. In this study, two new complete genome sequences of Chinese ILTV strains were used in comparative analysis with other complete genome sequences of ILTV strains from China, the United States, and Australia. The analysis of genome comparison, phylogenetic trees, and recombination events showed close relationships among the Chinese strain WG and the Australian strains SA2. The information of the two new complete genome sequences from China will help to facilitate the analysis of phylogenetic relationships and the molecular differences among ILTV strains from different geographic regions. PMID:26186451

  1. Multiple Comparison Analysis of Two New Genomic Sequences of ILTV Strains from China with Other Strains from Different Geographic Regions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Kong, Congcong; Wang, Yunfeng

    2015-01-01

    To date, twenty complete genome sequences of ILTV strains have been published in GenBank, including one strain from China, and nineteen strains from Australian and the United States. To investigate the genomic information on ILTVs from different geographic regions, two additional individual complete genome sequences of WG and K317 strains from China were determined. The genomes of WG and K317 strains were 153,505 and 153,639 bp in length, respectively. Alignments performed on the amino acid sequences of the twelve glycoproteins showed that 13 out of 116 mutational sites were present only among the Chinese strain WG and the Australian strains SA2 and A20. The phylogenetic tree analysis suggested that the WG strain established close relationships with the Australian strain SA2. The recombination events were detected and confirmed in different subregions of the WG strain with the sequences of SA2 and K317 strains as parental. In this study, two new complete genome sequences of Chinese ILTV strains were used in comparative analysis with other complete genome sequences of ILTV strains from China, the United States, and Australia. The analysis of genome comparison, phylogenetic trees, and recombination events showed close relationships among the Chinese strain WG and the Australian strains SA2. The information of the two new complete genome sequences from China will help to facilitate the analysis of phylogenetic relationships and the molecular differences among ILTV strains from different geographic regions. PMID:26186451

  2. Submarine groundwater discharge(SGD) and SGD-driven nutrient fluxes along the estuarine and coastal regions of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, J.; Wang, X.; Su, N.; Ji, T.; Zhang, J.

    2013-12-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is one of important processes of Land/Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone(LOICZ). So, SGD has recently been receiving wide academic attention in hydrology and biogeochemistry. Moreover, SGD-driven nutrients to estuarine and coastal regions play one of important roles not only on nutrient components but their structure, then may impact on the concerned eco-environments.In the present work, we summarized recent research on SGD via Ra and Rn isotopes along estuary and coastal regions of China. After estimation of fluxes from riverine input, atmospheric deposition, etc., the finding showed that SGD via nutrient fluxes into the coastal zone were one of important input sources from bays, lagoon to estuarine and coastal zones. not negligible either the Huanghe estuary, Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea(YS), or the East China Sea (ECS), Northern South China Sea. As expected, the results from bays and lagoons of coastal zones of China also suggested SGD-driven nutrient fluxes was much more important for nutrient cycles, especial for nitrogen's case. Such large SGD-driven nutrient fluxes should be impaction on the eco-environments and contribution on the spring blooms of the YS, red tidal and hypoxia of the ECS, etc..

  3. High regional climate sensitivity over continental China constrained by glacial-recent changes in temperature and the hydrological cycle

    PubMed Central

    Eagle, Robert A.; Risi, Camille; Mitchell, Jonathan L.; Eiler, John M.; Seibt, Ulrike; Neelin, J. David; Li, Gaojun; Tripati, Aradhna K.

    2013-01-01

    The East Asian monsoon is one of Earth’s most significant climatic phenomena, and numerous paleoclimate archives have revealed that it exhibits variations on orbital and suborbital time scales. Quantitative constraints on the climate changes associated with these past variations are limited, yet are needed to constrain sensitivity of the region to changes in greenhouse gas levels. Here, we show central China is a region that experienced a much larger temperature change since the Last Glacial Maximum than typically simulated by climate models. We applied clumped isotope thermometry to carbonates from the central Chinese Loess Plateau to reconstruct temperature and water isotope shifts from the Last Glacial Maximum to present. We find a summertime temperature change of 6–7 °C that is reproduced by climate model simulations presented here. Proxy data reveal evidence for a shift to lighter isotopic composition of meteoric waters in glacial times, which is also captured by our model. Analysis of model outputs suggests that glacial cooling over continental China is significantly amplified by the influence of stationary waves, which, in turn, are enhanced by continental ice sheets. These results not only support high regional climate sensitivity in Central China but highlight the fundamental role of planetary-scale atmospheric dynamics in the sensitivity of regional climates to continental glaciation, changing greenhouse gas levels, and insolation. PMID:23671087

  4. Establishing a mountain flash flood forecasting/warning strategy through case studies in different climatic regions in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Qinghua; Yang, Dawen

    2015-04-01

    Flash flood is one of the most common natural hazards in China, particularly in mountainous areas, causing heavy damages and casualties. However, mountain flash flood forecast remains challenging due to its short response time and the limited monitoring capacity over ungauged regions. This paper aims at assessing the predictability of flash flood in mountainous watersheds in humid, semi-humid and semi-arid regions of China. To access the applicability of flood forecast based on the rain-gauge network, we implement a distributed hydrological model (GBHM) over several mountainous catchments in China with drainage area of 5 to 2882 km2. The response time of flood is first derived using typical rainstorm, and the low limit of catchment area for flash flood forecast based on the rain-gauge network is determined through the intercomparison over different spatial scales. For those catchments smaller than the lowest limit, people can only escape from the flash floods by warning rather than by forecast due to the short response time. Hence the flash flood warning (FFN) method is introduced. Implement of the FFN needs to determine the rainfall threshold that may be different due to the antecedent soil moisture status. Based on the GBHM simulation using the historical rainfall data, we introduced an appropriate method to determine the FFN rainfall threshold in different climatic regions in China. The results show that the rainfall threshold decreases significantly with the antecedent soil moisture in the humid regions, while it keeps constant approximately in different soil wet conditions in the semi-arid regions.

  5. Investigating Regional Disparities of China's Human Development with Cluster Analysis: A Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yongheng; Hu, Angang

    2008-01-01

    This paper adopts both one-dimensional and multi-dimensional cluster analysis to analyze China's HDI data for 1982, 1995, 1999, and 2003, and to classify China's provinces into four tiers based on the three basic developmental aspects embedded in HDI. The classifications by cluster analysis depends on the observations' similarities with respect to…

  6. Sources of excess urban carbonaceous aerosol in the Pearl River Delta Region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Mei; Wang, Fu; Hagler, G. S. W.; Hou, Ximei; Bergin, Michael; Cheng, Yuan; Salmon, L. G.; Schauer, James J.; Louie, Peter K. K.; Zeng, Limin; Zhang, Yuanhang

    2011-02-01

    Carbonaceous aerosol is one of the important constituents of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) in southern China, including the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region and Hong Kong (HK). During the study period (October and December of 2002, and March and June of 2003), the monthly average organic carbon (OC) ranged from 3.52 to 7.87 μg m -3 in Hong Kong and 4.14-20.19 μg m -3 in the PRD from simultaneous measurements at three sites in HK and four sites in the PRD. Compared to the PRD, the spatial distribution of carbonaceous aerosol in Hong Kong was relatively homogeneous. Sources contributing to excess OC in the PRD were examined, which is the difference between OC concentrations measured at the PRD sites to the average level in Hong Kong. Eight primary sources contributing to excess OC were identified with chemical mass balance modeling in a combination with molecular markers analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Excess OC at Guangzhou, the capital city of Guangdong province, was consistently high, ranging from 9.77 to 13.6 μg m -3. Four primary sources including gasoline engine exhaust, diesel engine exhaust, biomass burning, and coal combustion accounted for more than 50% of excess OC in the PRD, especially in December (up to 76%). Mobile source emissions alone can contribute about 30% of excess OC. The unexplained or other excess OC was the highest at the rural site, but in general less than 20% at other sites. The coal combustion source contribution was unique in that it exhibited relatively homogeneous spatial distribution, indicating it was still an important source of carbonaceous aerosol in the PRD (17% of excess OC) during the study period. This analysis revealed that primary emissions are important sources of excess OC in the PRD and there is a need to reduce the emissions of mobile sources, biomass burning, and coal combustion in order to improve air quality in southern China.

  7. Climate change and its impacts on river discharge in two climate regions in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, H.; Luo, Y.

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the heterogeneity of climate change and its impacts on annual and seasonal discharge and the difference between median flow and extreme flow in different climate regions is of utmost importance to successful water management. To quantify the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of climate change impacts on hydrological processes, this study simulated river discharge in the River Huangfuchuan in semi-arid northern China and in the River Xiangxi in humid southern China. The study assessed the uncertainty in projected discharge for three time periods (2020s, 2050s and 2080s) using seven equally weighted GCMs (global climate models) for the SRES (Special Reports on Emissions Scenarios) A1B scenario. Climate projections that were applied to semi-distributed hydrological models (Soil Water Assessment Tools, SWAT) in both catchments showed trends toward warmer and wetter conditions, particularly for the River Huangfuchuan. Results based on seven GCMs' projections indicated changes from -1.1 to 8.6 °C and 0.3 to 7.0 °C in seasonal temperature and changes from -29 to 139 % and -32 to 85 % in seasonal precipitation in the rivers Huangfuchuan and Xiangxi, respectively. The largest increases in temperature and precipitation in both catchments were projected in the spring and winter seasons. The main projected hydrologic impact was a more pronounced increase in annual discharge in the River Huangfuchuan than in the River Xiangxi. Most of the GCMs projected increased discharge in all seasons, especially in spring, although the magnitude of these increases varied between GCMs. The peak flows were projected to appear earlier than usual in the River Huangfuchuan and later than usual in the River Xiangxi, while the GCMs were fairly consistent in projecting increased extreme flows in both catchments with varying magnitude compared to median flows. For the River Huangfuchuan in the 2080s, median flow changed from -2 to 304 %, compared to a -1 to 145 % change in high flow

  8. Climate change and its impacts on river discharge in two climate regions in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, H.; Luo, Y.

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the heterogeneity of climate change and its impacts on annual and seasonal discharge, and the difference between mean flow and extreme flow in different climate regions is of utmost importance to successful water management. To quantify the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of climate change impacts on hydrological processes, this study simulated river discharge in the River Huangfuchuan in semi-arid northern China and the River Xiangxi in humid southern China. We assessed the uncertainty in projected discharge for three time periods (2020s, 2050s and 2080s) using seven equally weighted GCMs for the SRES A1B scenario. Climate projections that were applied to semi-distributed hydrological models Soil Water Assessment Tools (SWAT) in both catchments showed trends toward warmer and wetter conditions, particularly for the River Huangfuchuan. Results based on seven GCMs' projections indicated -1.1 to 8.6 and 0.3 to 7.0 °C changes in seasonal temperature and -29 to 139 and -32 to 85 % changes in seasonal precipitation in River Huangfuchuan and River Xiangxi, respectively. The largest increases in temperature and precipitation in both catchments were projected in the spring and winter seasons. The main projected hydrologic impact was a more pronounced increase in annual discharge in the River Huangfuchuan than in the River Xiangxi. Most of the GCMs projected increased discharge in all seasons, especially in spring, although the magnitude of these increases varied between GCMs. Peak flows was projected to appear earlier than usual in River Huangfuchuan and later than usual in River Xiangxi. While the GCMs were fairly consistent in projecting increased extreme flows in both catchments, the increases were of varying magnitude compared to mean flows. For River Huangfuchuan in the 2080s, median flow changed from -2 to 304 %, compared to a -1 to 145 % change in high flow (Q05 exceedence threshold). For River Xiangxi, low flow (Q95 exceedence threshold) changed

  9. Anthropogenic Air Pollution Observed Near Dust Source Regions in Northwestern China During Springtime 2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Can; Tsay, Si-Chee; Fu, Joshua S.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Ji, Qiang; Bell, Shaun W.; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Wu; Huang, Jianping; Li, Zhanqing; Chen, Hongbin

    2010-01-01

    Trace gases and aerosols were measured in Zhangye (39.082degN, 100.276degE, 1460 m a.s. 1.), a rural site near the Gobi deserts in northwestern China during spring 2008. Primary trace gases (CO:265 ppb; SO2:3.4 ppb; NO(*y): 4.2 ppb; hereafter results given as means of hourly data) in the area were lower than in eastern China, but still indicative of marked anthropogenic emissions. Sizable aerosol mass concentration (153 micro-g/cu m) and light scattering (159/Mm at 500 nm) were largely attributable to dust emissions, and aerosol light absorption (10.3/Mm at 500 nm) was dominated by anthropogenic pollution. Distinct diurnal variations in meteorology and pollution were induced by the local valley terrain. Strong daytime northwest valley wind cleaned out pollution and was replaced by southeast mountain wind that allowed pollutants to build up overnight. In the afternoon, aerosols had single scattering albedo (SSA, 500 mn) of 0.95 and were mainly of supermicron particles, presumably dust, while at night smaller particles and SSA of 0.89-0.91 were related to Pollution. The diverse local emission sources were characterized: the CO/SO2, CO/NO(y), NO(y)/SO2 (by moles), and BC/CO (by mass) ratios for small point sources such as factories were 24.6-54.2, 25.8-35.9, 0.79-1.31, and 4.1-6.1 x 10(exp -3), respectively, compared to the corresponding inventory ratios of 43.7-71.9, 23.7-25.7, 1.84-2.79, and 3.4-4.0 x 10(exp -3) for the industrial sector in the area. The mixing between dust and pollution can be ubiquitous in this region. During a dust storm shown as an example, pollutants were observed to mix with dust, causing discernible changes in both SSA and aerosol size distribution. Further interaction between dust and pollutants during transport may modify the properties of dust particles that are critical for their large-scale impact on radiation, clouds, and global biogeochemical cycles.

  10. Anthropogenic air pollution observed near dust source regions in northwestern China during springtime 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Can; Tsay, Si-Chee; Fu, Joshua S.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Ji, Qiang; Bell, Shaun W.; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Wu; Huang, Jianping; Li, Zhanqing; Chen, Hongbin

    2010-04-01

    Trace gases and aerosols were measured in Zhangye (39.082°N, 100.276°E, 1460 m a.s.l.), a rural site near the Gobi deserts in northwestern China during spring 2008. Primary trace gases (CO: 265 ppb; SO2: 3.4 ppb; NOy*: 4.2 ppb; hereafter results given as means of hourly data) in the area were lower than in eastern China, but still indicative of marked anthropogenic emissions. Sizable aerosol mass concentration (153 μg/m3) and light scattering (159 Mm-1 at 500 nm) were largely attributable to dust emissions, and aerosol light absorption (10.3 Mm-1 at 500 nm) was dominated by anthropogenic pollution. Distinct diurnal variations in meteorology and pollution were induced by the local valley terrain. Strong daytime northwest valley wind cleaned out pollution and was replaced by southeast mountain wind that allowed pollutants to build up overnight. In the afternoon, aerosols had single scattering albedo (SSA, 500 nm) of 0.95 and were mainly of supermicron particles, presumably dust, while at night smaller particles and SSA of 0.89-0.91 were related to pollution. The diverse local emission sources were characterized: the CO/SO2, CO/NOy, NOy/SO2 (by moles), and BC/CO (by mass) ratios for small point sources such as factories were 24.6-54.2, 25.8-35.9, 0.79-1.31, and 4.1-6.1 × 10-3, respectively, compared to the corresponding inventory ratios of 43.7-71.9, 23.7-25.7, 1.84-2.79, and 3.4-4.0 × 10-3 for the industrial sector in the area. The mixing between dust and pollution can be ubiquitous in this region. During a dust storm shown as an example, pollutants were observed to mix with dust, causing discernible changes in both SSA and aerosol size distribution. Further interaction between dust and pollutants during transport may modify the properties of dust particles that are critical for their large-scale impact on radiation, clouds, and global biogeochemical cycles.

  11. Historical development of crop-related water footprints and inter-regional virtual water flows within China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, La; Mekonnen, Mesfin M.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2015-04-01

    China is facing water-related challenges, including an uneven distribution of water resources, both temporally and spatially, and an increasing competition over the limited water resources among different sectors. This issue has been widely researched and was finally included into the National Plan 2011 (the 2011 No. 1 Document by the State Council of China). However, there is still lack of information on how population growth and rapid urbanization have affected the water resources in China over the last decades. The current study aims at investigating (i) the intra-annual variation of green and blue water footprints (WFs) of crop production in China over the period 1978-2009 at a spatial resolution of 5 by 5 arc-minute; (ii) the yearly virtual water (VW) balances of 31 provinces within China, related water savings for the country, as well as the VW flows among eight economic regions resulting from inter-regional crop trade over the same period; and (iii) the development of the WF related to crop consumption by Chinese consumers. Results show that, over the period 1978-2009, the total WF related to crop production within China increased by only 4%), but regional changes were significant. From the 1980s to the 2000s, the shift of the cropping centre from the South to the North resulted in an increase of about 16% in the blue WF and 19% in the green WF in the North and a reduction of the blue and green WF in the South by 11% and 3%, respectively. China as a whole was a net virtual water importer related to crop trade, thus saving domestic water resources. China's inter-regional crop trade generated a blue water 'loss' annually by transferring crops from provinces with relatively low crop water productivity to provinces with relatively high productivity. Over the decades, the original VW flow from the South coastal region to the Northeast was reversed. Rice was the all-time dominant crop in the inter-regional VW flows (accounting for 34% in 2009), followed by wheat

  12. Source sector and region contributions to concentration and direct radiative forcing of black carbon in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ke; Liao, Hong; Mao, Yuhao; Ridley, David A.

    2016-01-01

    We quantify the contributions from five domestic emission sectors (residential, industry, transportation, energy, and biomass burning) and emissions outside of China (non-China) to concentration and direct radiative forcing (DRF) of black carbon (BC) in China for year 2010 using a nested-grid version of the global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) coupled with a radiative transfer model. The Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (HTAP) anthropogenic emissions of BC for year 2010 are used in this study. Simulated surface-layer BC concentrations in China have strong seasonal variations, which exceed 9 μg m-3 in winter and are about 1-5 μg m-3 in summer in the North China Plain and the Sichuan Basin. Residential sector is simulated to have the largest contribution to surface BC concentrations, by 5-7 μg m-3 in winter and by 1-3 μg m-3 in summer, reflecting the large emissions from winter heating and the enhanced wet deposition during summer monsoon. The contribution from industry sector is the second largest and shows relatively small seasonal variations; the emissions from industry sector contribute 1-3 μg m-3 to BC concentrations in the North China Plain and the Sichuan Basin. The contribution from transportation sector is the third largest, followed by that from biomass burning and energy sectors. The non-China emissions mainly influence the surface-layer concentrations of BC in western China; about 70% of surface-layer BC concentration in the Tibet Plateau is attributed to transboundary transport. Averaged over all of China, the all-sky DRF of BC at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) is simulated to be 1.22 W m-2. Sensitivity simulations show that the TOA BC direct radiative forcings from the five domestic emission sectors of residential, industry, energy, transportation, biomass burning, and non-China emissions are 0.44, 0.27, 0.01, 0.12, 0.04, and 0.30 W m-2, respectively. The domestic and non-China emissions contribute 75% and 25% to BC DRF in China

  13. Loss of parvalbumin-immunoreactivity in mouse brain regions after repeated intermittent administration of esketamine, but not R-ketamine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun; Han, Mei; Zhang, Ji-Chun; Ren, Qian; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2016-05-30

    Clinical use of the rapid antidepressant drug ketamine is limited, due to psychotomimetic side effects. R-ketamine appears to be a potent, long-lasting and safer antidepressant, relative to S-ketamine (esketamine), since it is free of psychotomimetic side effects. Repeated, intermittent administration of esketamine (10mg/kg, once per week for 8-weeks), but not R-ketamine, caused loss of parvalbumin (PV)-immunoreactivity in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of mouse brains, regions associated with psychosis. This study suggests that repeated intermittent use of R-ketamine is safer than esketamine in the treatment of depression. PMID:27043274

  14. Biogenic voc emissions development and its impacts on regional o3 in PRD, china

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuemei; Shuping, Situ; Guenther, Alex; Chen, Fei; Wu, Zhiyong

    2010-05-01

    The new Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) has been coupled with WRF-Chem to investigate the influence of biogenic violate organic carbon (BVOC ) emissions on the regional distribution of O3 and SOA concentration in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), China. MEGAN first estimate an emission factor which represents the net above-canopy emission rate expected at optimal conditions, and use a number of environmental correction factor based on photosynthetically activated radiation (PAR) and leaf temperature to adjust the emission rate due to deviations from optimal conditions. Total emissions are the sum of emissions estimated for each plant functional type (PFT) in a given grid cell. Our model simulations estimated showed: (1) Total annual BVOCs emissions were 339.01× 106 kg, which is 40.68% of annual AVOCs emissions and 28.91% of total VOCs emission in PRD in 2006. Isoprene, monoterpene, sesquiterpene and OVOCs contributed about 31.94%, 39.23%, 3.27% and 25.56% of the estimated total annual emissions respectively. α- pinene and β- pinene were the major components in monoterpene, which contributed 28.09% and 26.98% to the total annual monoterpene emissions respectively;β-caryophyllene andα-farnesene were two important sesquiterpene, and they contributed to 22.31% and 18.76% of the annual sesquiterpene emissions.(2) BVOCs emissions have large variations in their spatial distributions, which were mainly resulted from the differences in the geographical distribution of vegetation. Their emission amounts were larger in the places where urbanization were relative lower and plants distributions were higher.(3) Emissions of terpenoids had significant annual and diurnal variations and the largest emission rate occurred at 13:00 local time while the amount of emission in summer is the largest.(4) There were significant terpenoids emission rate (≥1.21.2 kg km-2h-1) in the remote areas in PRD region where the emissions of AVOCs were low, and

  15. Pollution situation and possible markers of different sources in the Ordos Region, Inner Mongolia, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjie; Wang, Wei; Chen, Jianhua; Liu, Hongjie; Dai, Tianyou; Yang, Xiao-Yang; Zhang, Fan; Lin, Jun; Wang, Zifa

    2010-01-01

    In order to investigate the pollution situation for a fast-developing industrial area at its first stage, a systematic study on the gaseous and particulate pollution in the Ordos Region of Inner Mongolia was performed during 9-24 September 2005. The gases SO(2), NO(x), O(3), CO, and the particulates PM(10) and PM(2.5) were sampled at five sites in Ordos. Species measured in aerosol were 21 elements, 10 ions, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and the acid-buffering capacity of particulates. Possible markers of sources for different transport directions were firstly investigated, which was a new attempt for clarification of regional transport with different directions. None of the gases exceeded the national standards of China. PM(2.5) contributed most to PM(10) at the background site, indicating the greatest contribution of regional transport. Organic matter, crustal material, and sulfate ion were the three dominant species of aerosol, followed by EC, NO(3)(-), NH(4)(+), trace elements, and other ions. The acidity of PM(2.5) was higher than that of PM(10), and the buffering capacity in PM(10) was higher than that in PM(2.5). Four peaks of pollution aerosol were observed during the 3-week study sampling period, separated by periods of cleaner air. Back-trajectories revealed that the peaks came from the south and the cleaner air from the north. It is the first time to find different markers for aerosols from different transport directions in Ordos. S and Pb, as well as SO(4)(2-), NO(3)(-), and NH(4)(+) appeared to be good markers of southern aerosol in the Ordos, since all showed four clear peaks on days dominated by southern direction. Extremely high peaks of Al and Ti on the 16th and 17th, especially at the dust-monitoring site, indicated good markers for soil dust. Ca and Mg showed earlier peaks on the 16th at the western site, indicating possible markers for western aerosol. PMID:19914684

  16. Ambient air benzene at background sites in China's most developed coastal regions: exposure levels, source implications and health risks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhou; Wang, Xinming; Zhang, Yanli; Lü, Sujun; Huang, Zhonghui; Huang, Xinyu; Wang, Yuesi

    2015-04-01

    Benzene is a known human carcinogen causing leukemia, yet ambient air quality objectives for benzene are not available in China. The ambient benzene levels at four background sites in China's most developed coastal regions were measured from March 2012 to February 2013. The sites are: SYNECP, in the Northeast China Plain (NECP); YCNCP, in the North China Plain (NCP); THYRD, in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and DHPRD, in the Pearl River Delta (PRD). It was found that the mean annual benzene levels (578-1297 ppt) at the background sites were alarmingly higher, especially when compared to those of 60-480 pptv monitored in 28 cities in the United States. Wintertime benzene levels were significantly elevated at both sites (SYNECP and YCNCP) in northern China due to heating with coal/biofuels. Even at these background sites, the lifetime cancer risks of benzene (1.7-3.7E-05) all exceeded 1E-06 set by USEPA as acceptable for adults. At both sites in northern China, good correlations between benzene and CO or chloromethane, together with much lower toluene/benzene (T/B) ratios, suggested that benzene was largely related to coal combustion and biomass/biofuel burning. At the DHPRD site in the PRD, benzene revealed a highly significant correlation with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), indicating that its source was predominantly from vehicle emissions. At the THYRD site in the YRD, higher T/B ratios and correlations between benzene and tetrachloroethylene, or MTBE, implied that benzene levels were probably affected by both traffic-related and industrial emissions. PMID:25618820

  17. Regional Impact on Pollution Event in the Upper Troposphere during CARIBIC Flights between South China and the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, S. C.; Baker, A. R.; Schuck, T. J.; van Velthoven, P.; Oram, D. E.; Zahn, A.; Hermann, M.; Weigelt, A.; Slemr, S.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

    2010-05-01

    The research project CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrumented Container, phase II) is designed to conduct regular, long-term and detailed observations of the free troposphere and UT/LS regions where passenger aircraft happen to cruise. A fully-automated measurement container (1.5 tons) was equipped onboard an Airbus 340-600 operated by Lufthansa Airlines during regular passenger flights to conduct real time trace gas and aerosol measurements and to collect aerosol and air samples on a near monthly basis. During May 2005 - March 2008, CARIBIC observations have been performed along the flight tracks of Frankfurt-Guangzhou-Manila. Data have been collected in the upper troposphere during a total of 81 flights over the region between South China and the Philippines. Carbon monoxide was used an indicator to identify the pollution events and to access the regional impacts of fossil fuel burning and biomass/biofuel burning on upper tropospheric air. Five regions, i.e. Northeast Asia, South China, Indochina Peninsula, India and Indonesia/Philippines, are identified as the major source regions to be related to the observed pollution events. The characteristics of the events from these regions are investigated. The contributions of different source categories are also estimated.

  18. Epidemiological Features and Effectiveness of Schistosomiasis Control Programme in Lake and Marshland Region in The People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S-Q; Sun, C-S; Wang, M; Lin, D-D; Zhou, X-N; Wang, T-P

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of neglected tropical diseases in the world. The People's Republic of China has made great achievements in schistosomiasis control through integrated interventions. Although the morbidity and mortality have been reduced to the lowest level in all three endemic regions, namely lake and marshland regions, hilly and mountainous regions and plains with waterway networks regions, the endemic status in lake and marshland region is still that of implementing the interventions in the higher endemicity areas towards elimination of schistosomiasis transmission. This review explores and analyses the endemic characteristics, control measures and its effectiveness in the course of schistosomiasis control programme, in order to provide more theoretical information and experiences for development of appropriate strategies leading to schistosomiasis elimination in the next stage in the country. PMID:27137442

  19. A regional ionospheric TEC mapping technique over China and adjacent areas on the basis of data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aa, Ercha; Huang, Wengeng; Yu, Shimei; Liu, Siqing; Shi, Liqin; Gong, Jiancun; Chen, Yanhong; Shen, Hua

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a regional total electron content (TEC) mapping technique over China and adjacent areas (70°E-140°E and 15°N-55°N) is developed on the basis of a Kalman filter data assimilation scheme driven by Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) data from the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China and International GNSS Service. The regional TEC maps can be generated accordingly with the spatial and temporal resolution being 1°×1° and 5 min, respectively. The accuracy and quality of the TEC mapping technique have been validated through the comparison with GNSS observations, the International Reference Ionosphere model values, the global ionosphere maps from Center for Orbit Determination of Europe, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Automated Processing of GPS TEC data from Madrigal database. The verification results indicate that great systematic improvements can be obtained when data are assimilated into the background model, which demonstrates the effectiveness of this technique in providing accurate regional specification of the ionospheric TEC over China and adjacent areas.

  20. Epidemiological survey on newborns born at the obstetric departments in hospitals in mid-southern region of China in 2005

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qing-Hong; Wei, Ke-Lun; Yao, Yu-Jia; Du, Li-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the situations at birth of newborns in the mid-southern region of China by performing a survey on the newborns born at urban hospitals. Methods A total of 23 hospitals in the mid-southern region of China were selected to participate in this survey. The data of 15,582 newborns who were born at the obstetric departments from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2005 were retrospectively investigated. Results The male to female ratio among newborns was 1.16:1. The incidence of preterm birth was 8.11%, while very low birth weight (VLBW) infants accounted for 0.73%. The rates of spontaneous vaginal delivery and cesarean section ware 57.52% and 40.82%, respectively, while the other delivery modes accounted for 1.66%. The incidence of neonatal asphyxia was 3.78% (0.75% for heavy asphyxia). The mortality of newborns was 0.55% (5.56% for preterm infants). Conclusions The incidences of preterm birth and neonatal asphyxia are relatively high in the mid-southern region of China. The rate of cesarean section is abnormally high, which is due mainly to social factors. PMID:26835280

  1. Spatial Distributed Seismicity Model of Seismic Hazard Mapping in the North-China Region: A Comparison with the GSHAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Q.; Shi, B.; Meng, L.

    2010-12-01

    The North China is one of the most seismically active regions in the mainland China. The moderate to large earthquakes have occurred here throughout history, resulting in huge losses of human life and properties. With the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) approach, we investigate the influence of different seismic environments, incorporating both near surface soil properties and distributed historical and modern seismicity. A simplified seismic source model, derived with the consideration of regional active fault distributions, is presented for the North China region. The spatial distributed seismicity model of PSHA is used to calculate the level of ground motion likely to be exceeded in a given time period. Following Frankel (1995) approach of circular Gaussian smoothing procedure, in the PSHA’s calculation, we proposed the fault-rupture-oriented elliptical Gaussian smoothing with the assumptions that earthquakes occur on faults or fault zones of past earthquakes to delineate the potential seismic zones (Lapajine et al., 2003). This is combined with regional active fault strike directions and the seismicity distribution patterns. Next Generation Attenuation model ((NGA), Boore et al., 2007) is used in generating hazard map for PGA with 2%, 5%, and 10 % probability of being exceeded in 50 years, and the resultant hazard map is compared with the result given by Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Project (GSHAP). There is general agreement for PGA distribution patterns between the results of this study and the GSHAP map that used the same seismic source zones. However, peak ground accelerations predicted in this study are typically 10-20% less than those of the GSHAP, and the seismic source models, such as fault distributions and regional seismicity used in the GSHAP seem to be oversimplified. We believe this study represents an improvement on prior seismic hazard evaluations for the region. In addition to the updated input data, we believe that, by

  2. Sphingomonas qilianensis sp. nov., Isolated from Surface Soil in the Permafrost Region of Qilian Mountains, China.

    PubMed

    Piao, Ai-Lian; Feng, Xiao-Min; Nogi, Yuichi; Han, Lu; Li, Yonghong; Lv, Jie

    2016-04-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, non-motile and rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated X1(T), was isolated from the permafrost region of Qilian Mountains in northwest of China. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain X1(T) was a member of the genus Sphingomonas and shared the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Sphingomonas oligophenolica JCM 12082(T) (96.9%), followed by Sphingomonas glacialis CGMCC 1.8957(T) (96.7%) and Sphingomonas alpina DSM 22537(T) (96.4%). Strain X1(T) was able to grow at 15-30 °C, pH 6.0-10.0 and with 0-0.3% NaCl (w/v). The DNA G+C content of the isolate was 64.8 mol%. Strain X1(T)-contained Q-10 as the dominant ubiquinone and C(18:1)ω7c, C(16:1)ω7c, C(16:0) and C(14:0) 2-OH as the dominant fatty acids. The polar lipid profile of strain XI(T)-contained sphingoglycolipid, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified glycolipid and two unidentified phospholipid. Due to the phenotypic and genetic distinctiveness and other characteristic studied in this article, we consider X1(T) as a novel species of the genus Sphingomonas and propose to name it Sphingomonas qilianensis sp. nov. The type strain is X1(T) (=CGMCC 1.15349(T) = KCTC 42862(T)). PMID:26676296

  3. Atmospheric sulfur hexafluoride in-situ measurements at the Shangdianzi regional background station in China.

    PubMed

    Yao, Bo; Zhou, Lingxi; Xia, Lingjun; Zhang, Gen; Guo, Lifeng; Liu, Zhao; Fang, Shuangxi

    2014-12-01

    We present in-situ measurements of atmospheric sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) conducted by an automated gas chromatograph-electron capture detector system and a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry system at a regional background site, Shangdianzi, in China, from June 2009 to May 2011, using the System for Observation of Greenhouse gases in Europe and Asia and Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) techniques. The mean background and polluted mixing ratios for SF6 during the study period were 7.22 × 10⁻¹² (mol/mol, hereinafter) and 8.66 × 10⁻¹², respectively. The averaged SF6 background mixing ratios at Shangdianzi were consistent with those obtained at other AGAGE stations located at similar latitudes (Trinidad Head and Mace Head), but larger than AGAGE stations in the Southern Hemisphere (Cape Grim and Cape Matatula). SF6 background mixing ratios increased rapidly during our study period, with a positive growth rate at 0.30 × 10⁻¹² year⁻¹. The peak to peak amplitude of the seasonal cycle for SF6 background conditions was 0.07 × 10⁻¹², while the seasonal fluctuation of polluted conditions was 2.16 × 10⁻¹². During the study period, peak values of SF6 mixing ratios occurred in autumn when local surface horizontal winds originated from W/WSW/SW/SWS/S sectors, while lower levels of SF6 mixing ratios appeared as winds originated from N/NNE/NE/ENE/E sectors. PMID:25499493

  4. Neural network modeling for regional hazard assessment of debris flow in Lake Qionghai Watershed, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Guo, H. C.; Zou, R.; Wang, L. J.

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents a neural network (NN) based model to assess the regional hazard degree of debris flows in Lake Qionghai Watershed, China. The NN model was used as an alternative for the more conventional linear model MFCAM (multi-factor composite assessment model) in order to effectively handle the nonlinearity and uncertainty inherent in the debris flow hazard analysis. The NN model was configured using a three layer structure with eight input nodes and one output node, and the number of nodes in the hidden layer was determined through an iterative process of varying the number of nodes in the hidden layer until an optimal performance was achieved. The eight variables used to represent the eight input nodes include density of debris flow gully, degree of weathering of rocks, active fault density, area percentage of slope land greater than 25° of the total land (APL25), frequency of flooding hazards, average covariance of monthly precipitation by 10 years (ACMP10), average days with rainfall >25 mm by 10 years (25D10Y), and percentage of cultivated land with slope land greater than 25° of the total cultivated land (PCL25). The output node represents the hazard-degree ranks (HDR). The model was trained with the 35 sets of data obtained from previous researches reported in literatures, and an explicit uncertainty analysis was undertaken to address the uncertainty in model training and prediction. Before the NN model is extrapolated to Lake Qionghai Watershed, a validation case, different from the above data, is conducted. In addition, the performances of the NN model and the MFCAM were compared. The NN model predicted that the HDRs of the five sub-watersheds in the Lake Qionghai Watershed were IV, IV, III, III, and IV V, indicating that the study area covers normal hazard and severe hazard areas. Based on the NN model results, debris flow management and economic development strategies in the study are proposed for each sub-watershed.

  5. Social vulnerability of rural households to flood hazards in western mountainous regions of Henan province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Delin; Li, Yue

    2016-05-01

    Evaluating social vulnerability is a crucial issue in risk and disaster management. In this study, a household social vulnerability index (HSVI) to flood hazards was developed and used to assess the social vulnerability of rural households in western mountainous regions of Henan province, China. Eight key indicators were identified using existing literature and discussions with experts from multiple disciplines and local farmers, and their weights were determined using principle component analysis (PCA) and an expert scoring method. The results showed that (1) the ratio of perennial work in other places, hazard-related training and illiteracy ratio (15+) were the most dominant factors of social vulnerability. (2) The numbers of high, moderate and low vulnerability households were 14, 64 and 16, respectively, which accounted for 14.9, 68.1 and 17.0 % of the total interviewed rural households, respectively. (3) The correlation coefficient between household social vulnerability scores and casualties in a storm flood in July 2010 was significant at 0.05 significance level (r = 0.748), which indicated that the selected indicators and their weights were valid. (4) Some mitigation strategies to reduce household social vulnerability to flood hazards were proposed, which included (1) improving the local residents' income and their disaster-related knowledge and evacuation skills, (2) developing emergency plans and carrying out emergency drills and training, (3) enhancing the accuracy of disaster monitoring and warning systems and (4) establishing a specific emergency management department and comprehensive rescue systems. These results can provide useful information for rural households and local governments to prepare, mitigate and respond to flood hazards, and the corresponding strategies can help local households to reduce their social vulnerability and improve their ability to resist flood hazard.

  6. Impacts of reforestation approaches on runoff control in the hilly red soil region of Southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Hua; Chen, Falin; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Tu, Naimei; Xu, Weihua; Wang, Xiaoke; Miao, Hong; Li, Xiquan; Tian, Yuxin

    2008-07-01

    SummaryVegetation structure and soil properties are not only correlated with forest management practices, but also affect soil and water loss significantly. To estimate the long-term influences of regenerating forest cover on soil and water loss from degraded land, the runoff and soil loss in the context of different forest restoration approaches, including a control plot (CL) and plantations of slash pine (Pinus elliottii), Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata), tea-oil camellia (Camellia oleifera), and natural secondary forest, were monitored in runoff plots over a 4-year period (2000-2003) in a hilly red soil region in Southern China. Relevant ecological factors and management intensity, were also measured. The results indicated that the four forest restoration approaches decreased surface runoff by 63.0-88.1% and soil erosion by 75.5-97.1% compared to the control. Moreover, runoff and soil erosion in tea-camellia plantation (TCP) and natural secondary forest (NSF) plots were significantly lower than with other treatments. Canopy cover, litter fall, plant roots, plant life forms, soil properties, and vegetation structure are important ecological factors that determine the magnitude of soil loss. Vegetation structure and plant life forms are the main factors reducing surface runoff and the movement of sediments. Effective control of soil and water loss in NSF and TCP are closely related to multiply stratified communities and the presence of specific plant life forms (the herbaceous keystone species Dicranopteris linearis), respectively. In addition, the above mentioned factors were sensitive to forest management patterns, including improper mechanical cultivation. Management practices should attempt to minimize disturbances to these factors to control runoff and soil erosion in each forest management unit. In particular, mechanical cultivation should loosen the soil around the base of a tree only, instead of over the entire ground surface, in the early stages of

  7. Spatiotemporal characteristics of the Huangtupo landslide in the Three Gorges region (China) constrained by radar interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomás, R.; Li, Z.; Liu, P.; Singleton, A.; Hoey, T.; Cheng, X.

    2014-04-01

    The Huangtupo landslide is one of the largest in the Three Gorges region, China. The county-seat town of Badong, located on the south shore between the Xiling and Wu gorges of the Yangtze River, was moved to this unstable slope prior to the construction of the Three Gorges Project, since the new Three Gorges reservoir completely submerged the location of the old city. The instability of the slope is affecting the new town by causing residential safety problems. The Huangtupo landslide provides scientists an opportunity to understand landslide response to fluctuating river water level and heavy rainfall episodes, which is essential to decide upon appropriate remediation measures. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) techniques provide a very useful tool for the study of superficial and spatially variable displacement phenomena. In this paper, three sets of radar data have been processed to investigate the Huangtupo landslide. Results show that maximum displacements are affecting the northwest zone of the slope corresponding to Riverside slumping mass I#. The other main landslide bodies (i.e. Riverside slumping mass II#, Substation landslide and Garden Spot landslide) exhibit a stable behaviour in agreement with in situ data, although some active areas have been recognized in the foot of the Substation landslide and Garden Spot landslide. InSAR has allowed us to study the kinematic behaviour of the landslide and to identify its active boundaries. Furthermore, the analysis of the InSAR displacement time-series has helped recognize the different displacement patterns on the slope and their relationships with various triggering factors. For those persistent scatterers, which exhibit long-term displacements, they can be decomposed into a creep model (controlled by geological conditions) and a superimposed recoverable term (dependent on external factors), which appears closely correlated with reservoir water level changes close to the river's edge. These

  8. Application of Genetic Algorithm to Predict Optimal Sowing Region and Timing for Kentucky Bluegrass in China

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Tingting; Jiang, Bo; Guo, Jiangfeng; Lu, Hongfei; Du, Liqun

    2015-01-01

    Temperature is a predominant environmental factor affecting grass germination and distribution. Various thermal-germination models for prediction of grass seed germination have been reported, in which the relationship between temperature and germination were defined with kernel functions, such as quadratic or quintic function. However, their prediction accuracies warrant further improvements. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relative prediction accuracies of genetic algorithm (GA) models, which are automatically parameterized with observed germination data. The seeds of five P. pratensis (Kentucky bluegrass, KB) cultivars were germinated under 36 day/night temperature regimes ranging from 5/5 to 40/40°C with 5°C increments. Results showed that optimal germination percentages of all five tested KB cultivars were observed under a fluctuating temperature regime of 20/25°C. Meanwhile, the constant temperature regimes (e.g., 5/5, 10/10, 15/15°C, etc.) suppressed the germination of all five cultivars. Furthermore, the back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) algorithm was integrated to optimize temperature-germination response models from these observed germination data. It was found that integrations of GA-BP-ANN (back propagation aided genetic algorithm artificial neural network) significantly reduced the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) values from 0.21~0.23 to 0.02~0.09. In an effort to provide a more reliable prediction of optimum sowing time for the tested KB cultivars in various regions in the country, the optimized GA-BP-ANN models were applied to map spatial and temporal germination percentages of blue grass cultivars in China. Our results demonstrate that the GA-BP-ANN model is a convenient and reliable option for constructing thermal-germination response models since it automates model parameterization and has excellent prediction accuracy. PMID:26154163

  9. Comparison of fluorite geochemistry from REE deposits in the Panxi region and Bayan Obo, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Cheng; Taylor, Rex N.; Li, Wenbo; Kynicky, Jindrich; Chakhmouradian, Anton R.; Song, Wenlei

    2012-09-01

    Panxi region in west Sichuan province is one of the most economically significant REE mineralization belts in China, and includes the large Maoniuping and Daluxiang deposits and the minor Lizhuang deposit. The REE mineralization in these deposits is spatially and temporally associated with carbonatite-syenite complexes. Large proportional fluorites and REE minerals occurring as veins intrude Cretaceous granite and Oligocene syenite in Maoniuping, and Oligocene syenite and carbonatite in Lizhuang, and Miocene syenite in Daluxiang. Fluorite is also one of main gangue minerals in the world-class Bayan Obo REE deposit. We present a comparison of the trace element and isotopic compositions of fluorites from four REE deposits in the Panxi region and Bayan Obo. The fluorites from Maoniuping and Daluxiang are characterized by variable REE patterns, with either LREE enrichment or LREE depletion relative to MREE. Typically they have a larger range in La/Ho compared to Y/Ho ratios, and pronounced positive Y anomaly relative to chondrite-normalized REE patterns. Their REE distribution patterns are controlled by fluoride-complexes and the loss of separate LREE-rich minerals. Different Y/Ho (ca. 73 vs. 108) and initial Sr isotopic (ca. 0.7061 vs. 0.7077) ratios are observed between the fluorites from Maoniuping and Daluxiang, reflecting their different source compositions. This contrasts with the fluorites from Maoniuping and Lizhuang, which have similar initial Sr isotopes, and appear to be cogenetic. However, the Lizhuang fluorite shows a consistent depletion of LREE relative to MREE, as well as lower Y/Ho ratios and higher HREE content than that in Maoniuping. In this respect the Lizhuang fluorite may have precipitated from a late-stage fluid following abundant fluorite and REE mineral deposition in Maoniuping. Carbonate, more than fluoride complexing, appears to have a stronger control on REE fractionation in the Lizhuang fluorites. The fluorites from three deposits in Panxi

  10. Regional differences in the surface energy budget over China: an evaluation of a selection of CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lian-Tong; Du, Zhencai

    2016-04-01

    The present study provides an evaluation of the regional differences over China in surface energy budget components as simulated by a selection of models from phase five of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), covering the period 1960-2005. Similarities and differences exist among the models in terms of both spatial and magnitude patterns. For climatology, the CMIP5 models show quite different spatial distributions of shortwave radiation and sensible heat flux. In terms of seasonal variation, the surface energy budgets are remarkably different between western and eastern China. The discrepancies in the seasonal variation of sensible heat flux are mainly attributable to temperature differences and wind speed, while those of shortwave radiation are caused by the seasonal variation in total cloud cover. Cloudiness is one of the most crucial parameters in estimating the surface energy budget. In addition, the study also reveals that the magnitudes of the various components show larger (more than two-fold) differences between western and eastern parts of China, especially in net longwave and upward shortwave radiation, as well as latent and sensible heat fluxes. The results for surface soil heat flux show that there is more incoming energy during spring and summer and more outgoing energy during fall and winter in both western and eastern China. Furthermore, compared to NCEP2 data, the ERA-40 reanalysis product produces results more similar to the multi-model ensemble mean for most components.

  11. Water-soluble ions and trace elements in surface snow and their potential source regions across northeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Pu, Wei; Zhang, Xueying; Ren, Yong; Huang, Jianping

    2015-08-01

    We collected 92 snow samples from 13 sites across northeastern China from January 7 to February 15, 2014. The surface snow samples were analyzed for the major water-soluble ions (SO42-, NO3-, F-, Cl-, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and NH4+) and trace element (Al, As, Mn, V, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, Cr, and Ni). The results indicated that the higher concentrations of NO3- and SO42- and the trace elements Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, and Cu were likely attributable to enhanced local industrial emissions in East Asia especially in China. In addition, snow samples characterized by higher enrichment factors of trace elements (Cu, Cd, As, Zn, Pb) were indicative of an anthropogenic source. Emissions from fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning were likely important contributors to the chemical elements in seasonal snow with long-range transport. On the other hand, the large attribution of K+ appeared in the higher latitude demonstrated that biomass burning was a dominated factor of the chemical species in seasonal snow in the higher latitude of China than that in the lower latitude. Finally, an interannual comparison with the 2010 China snow survey also confirmed the source attributions of chemical speciation in seasonal snow in these regions.

  12. Comparison between New-Onset and Old-Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes with Ketosis in Rural Regions of China.

    PubMed

    Du, Shichun; Yang, Xia; Shi, Degang; Su, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) with ketosis was common because of late diagnosis and lacking adequate treatment in rural regions of China. This study aimed to provide the data of T2D with ketosis among inpatients in a south-west border city of China. Methods. Data of 371 patients of T2D with ketosis who were hospitalized between January 2011 and July 2015 in Baoshan People's Hospital, Yunnan, China, were analyzed. New-onset and old-diagnosed T2D patients presenting with ketosis were compared according to clinical characteristics, laboratory results, and chronic diabetic complications. Results. Overall, the blood glucose control was poor in our study subjects. Male predominated in both groups (male prevalence was 68% in new-onset and 64% in old-diagnosed groups). Overweight and obesity accounted for 50% in new-onset and 46% in old-diagnosed cases. Inducements of ketosis were 13.8% in new-onset and 38.7% in old-diagnosed patients. Infections were the first inducements in both groups. The prevalence of chronic complications of diabetes was common in both groups. Conclusions. More medical supports were needed for the early detection and adequate treatment of diabetes in rural areas of China. PMID:26966435

  13. Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) Infection in Farmed Ruminants in Three Northeastern Provinces and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China.

    PubMed

    Cong, Wei; Meng, Qing-Feng; Shan, Xiao-Feng; Sun, Wu-Wen; Kang, Yuan-Huan; Chen, Long; Wang, Wei-Li; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2015-08-01

    Coxiella burnetii is the pathogenic agent of Q fever, a zoonosis that occurs worldwide. In China, the organism infects people and a wide range of wild and farmed animals. However, little is known about C. burnetii infection in farmed ruminants in northeastern China, and there appears to have been no previous study on sika deer. The present study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of C. burnetii in farmed ruminants in this region of China. A total of 3147 domestic ruminants (784 sheep, 1016 cattle, and 1347 sika deer) were randomly collected for this study. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit was used to detect the antibodies to C. burnetii. The results showed an overall seroprevalence of 16.7% in domestic ruminants (24.9%, 13.5%, and 12.3% in cattle, sheep, and sika deer, respectively). This is the first report of C. burnetii seroprevalence in sika deer in China. Protective and hygiene measures should be applied in farm management to reduce the risk of exposure of C. burnetii to humans. PMID:26273813

  14. Occurrence of mycotoxins in feed ingredients and complete feeds obtained from the Beijing region of China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The current study was carried out to provide a reference for the control of mycotoxin contamination in feed ingredients and complete feeds for swine. Methods A total of 55 feed ingredients, including 14 corn, 13 wheat bran, 11 soybean meal and 17 dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) as well as 76 complete swine feeds including 7 creep feeds, 14 starter feeds, 14 grower feeds, 18 grower-finisher feeds, 10 gestating sow feeds, and 13 lactating sow feeds were randomly collected from 15 swine farms located in the Beijing region of China from July to August 2011. Immunoaffinity clean-up, using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) in combination with UV or Fluorescence Detection, was used for quantitative analysis of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in the ingredients and complete feeds. Results DON and ZEA were the most prevalent mycotoxins found. DON was detected at percentages of 93, 92, 54, 100 and 97% with a mean level of 1.01, 0.44, 0.05, 1.36 and 0.65 ppm in the samples of corn, wheat bran, soybean meal, DDGS and complete feeds, respectively. The detected percentages of ZEA were 100, 100, 54, 100 and 100 with mean levels of 109.1, 14.9, 9.2, 882.7 and 58.9 ppb in the same samples. In the wheat bran and soybean meal samples, the content of all four mycotoxins were below the maximum limits set by Chinese regulations while the percentage of samples that exceeded regulatory limits were 7, 57 and 7% for corn, and 7, 14 and 3% for the complete feeds for AFB1, DON and OTA respectively. DDGS showed the most serious mycotoxin contamination and the percentage of samples that exceeded regulatory limits were 6, 88 and 41%, for AFB1, DON and ZEA, respectively. Conclusions This paper is the first to present data on the natural occurrence of AFB1, DON, ZEA and OTA in ingredients and complete feeds obtained from swine farms in China’s Beijing region. The data shows that feed ingredients and

  15. Light absorption of brown carbon aerosol in the PRD region of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, J.-F.; Huang, X.-F.; Cao, L.-M.; Cui, J.; Zhu, Q.; Huang, C.-N.; Lan, Z.-J.; He, L.-Y.

    2016-02-01

    The strong spectral dependence of light absorption of brown carbon (BrC) aerosol is regarded to influence aerosol's radiative forcing significantly. The Absorption Angstrom Exponent (AAE) method has been widely used in previous studies to attribute light absorption of BrC at shorter wavelengths for ambient aerosols, with a theoretical assumption that the AAE of "pure" black carbon (BC) aerosol equals to 1.0. In this study, the AAE method was applied to both urban and rural environments in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of China, with an improvement of constraining the realistic AAE of "pure" BC through statistical analysis of on-line measurement data. A three-wavelength photo-acoustic soot spectrometer (PASS-3) and aerosol mass spectrometers (AMS) were used to explore the relationship between the measured AAE and the relative abundance of organic aerosol to BC. The regression and extrapolation analysis revealed that more realistic AAE values for "pure" BC aerosol (AAEBC) were 0.86, 0.82, and 1.02 between 405 and 781 nm, and 0.70, 0.71, and 0.86 between 532 and 781 nm, in the campaigns of urbanwinter, urbanfall, and ruralfall, respectively. Roadway tunnel experiments were conducted and the results further confirmed the representativeness of the obtained AAEBC values for the urban environment. Finally, the average light absorption contributions of BrC (± relative uncertainties) at 405 nm were quantified to be 11.7 % (±5 %), 6.3 % (±4 %), and 12.1 % (±7 %) in the campaigns of urbanwinter, urbanfall, and ruralfall, respectively, and those at 532 nm were 10.0 % (±2 %), 4.1 % (±3 %), and 5.5 % (±5 %), respectively. The relatively higher BrC absorption contribution at 405 nm in the ruralfall campaign could be reasonably attributed to the biomass burning events nearby, which was then directly supported by the biomass burning simulation experiments performed in this study. This paper indicates that the BrC contribution to total aerosol light absorption at shorter

  16. Light absorption of brown carbon aerosol in the PRD region of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, J.-F.; Huang, X.-F.; Cao, L.-M.; Cui, J.; Zhu, Q.; Huang, C.-N.; Lan, Z.-J.; He, L.-Y.

    2015-10-01

    The strong spectral dependence of light absorption of brown carbon (BrC) aerosol is regarded to influence aerosol's radiative forcing significantly. The Absorption Angstrom Exponent (AAE) method was widely used in previous studies to attribute light absorption of BrC at shorter wavelengths for ambient aerosol, with a theoretical assumption that the AAE of "pure" black carbon (BC) aerosol equals to 1.0. In this study, the previous AAE method was improved by statistical analysis and applied in both urban and rural environments in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of China. A three-wavelength photo-acoustic soot spectrometer (PASS-3) and aerosol mass spectrometers (AMS) were used to explore the relationship between the measured AAE and the relative abundance of organic aerosol to BC. The regression and extrapolation analysis revealed that the more realistic AAE values for "pure" BC aerosol were 0.86, 0.82, and 1.02 at 405 nm, and 0.70, 0.71, and 0.86 at 532 nm, in the campaigns of urban_winter, urban_fall, and rural_fall, respectively. Roadway tunnel experiments were also conducted, and the results further supported the representativeness of the obtained AAE values for "pure" BC aerosol in the urban environments. Finally, the average aerosol light absorption contribution of BrC was quantified to be 11.7, 6.3, and 12.1 % (with relative uncertainties of 4, 4, and 7 %) at 405 nm, and 10.0, 4.1, and 5.5 % (with relative uncertainties of 2, 2, and 5 %) at 532 nm, in the campaigns of urban_winter, urban_fall, and rural_fall, respectively. The relatively higher BrC absorption contribution at 405 nm in the rural_fall campaign was likely a result of the biomass burning events nearby, which was supported by the biomass burning simulation experiments performed in this study. The results of this paper indicate that the brown carbon contribution to aerosol light absorption at shorter wavelengths is not negligible in the highly urbanized and industrialized PRD region.

  17. [Biodiversity of halophilic archaea isolated from two salt lakes in Xin-Jiang region of China].

    PubMed

    Cui, Heng-Lin; Yang, Yong; Dilbr, Tohty; Zhou, Pei-Jin; Liu, Shuang-Jiang

    2006-04-01

    There are more than 1000 salt lakes situated in northern and western regions of China and 790 of these salt lakes are in Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region and Qinghai, Tibet, Inner Mongolia. To better understand halophilic archaeal diversity of salt lakes in Xinjiang, water and sediment samples were collected from two salt lakes, namely Aibi salt lake and Aiding salt lake, and the halophilic archaeal diversity of these samples was determined. Totally eighty-six halophilic archeal strains, of which 56 isolated from Aibi salt lake and 30 isolated from Aiding salt lake, were isolated respectively using CM agar medium. All the strains were subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Similarity analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences of all these strains indicated that the isolates from Aibi salt lake belong to 11 different species of genera Haloarcula, Halobacterium, Halorubrum, Haloterrigena, Natrinema and Natronorubrum, and that the isolates from Aiding salt lake belong to 8 different species of genera Haloarcula, Halobiforma, Halorubrum, Haloterrigena, Natrinema. Among the 86 strains, members of Natronorubrum Natrinema, Halorubrum and Haloterrigena, are dominant groups in Aibi salt lake. However, the dominant group in Aibi salt lake are the members of Natrinema, Halorubrum and Haloterrigena. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strains ABH13, ABH 14, ABH 15, ABH 18, ABH 31 and ABH 33 may represent a novel species of Natronorubrum; ABH12, ABH32 and AD30 two novel species of Halorubrum; ABH17 and ABH25, ABH51, ABH52, ABH56 two novel species of Haloterrigena respectively; strain ABH19 a novel species of Haloarcula; strain ABHO7 a novel species of Halobacterium. The Shannon-Wiener's index of Aibi salt lake is 1.899, the same index of Aiding salt lake is 1.317, which indicated that the biodiversity of halophilic archaea from Aibi salt lake was slightly higher than that of Aiding salt lake. Different characteristics in pH of salt

  18. Simulation of regional temperature change effect of land cover change in agroforestry ecotone of Nenjiang River Basin in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tingxiang; Zhang, Shuwen; Yu, Lingxue; Bu, Kun; Yang, Jiuchun; Chang, Liping

    2016-02-01

    The Northeast China is one of typical regions experiencing intensive human activities within short time worldwide. Particularly, as the significant changes of agriculture land and forest, typical characteristics of pattern and process of agroforestry ecotone change formed in recent decades. The intensive land use change of agroforestry ecotone has made significant change for regional land cover, which had significant impact on the regional climate system elements and the interactions among them. This paper took agroforestry ecotone of Nenjiang River Basin in China as study region and simulated temperature change based on land cover change from 1950s to 1978 and from 1978 to 2010. The analysis of temperature difference sensitivity to land cover change based on Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model showed that the land cover change from 1950s to 1978 induced warming effect over all the study area, including the change of grassland to agriculture land, grassland to deciduous broad-leaved forest, and deciduous broad-leaved forest to shrub land. The land cover change from 1978 to 2010 induced cooling effect over all the study area, including the change of deciduous broad-leaved forest to agriculture land, grassland to agriculture land, shrub land to agriculture land, and deciduous broad-leaved forest to grassland. In addition, the warming and cooling effect of land cover change was more significant in the region scale than specific land cover change area.

  19. Clinical and experimental study on regional administration of phosphorus 32 glass microspheres in treating hepatic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lu; Jiang, Zao; Teng, Gao-Jun; Song, Ji-Zhi; Zhang, Dong-Sheng; Guo, Qing-Ming; Fang, Wen; He, Shi-Cheng; Guo, Jin-He

    1999-01-01

    there appeared some well-differentiated tumor cells and enhanced effect of the autoimmunocytes. At an absorbed dose of 366Gy or less, some tumor cells still remained active proliferative ability. The definite anticancer effect appeared as early as 3d after intratumoral injection of 32P-GMS. II. The cumulative amount of 32P-GMS in the target tissue after trans-hepatic artery instillation attained more than 90% of the tot al dose administrated. Semiquantitative analysis of ultrastructral morphology in the experimental group showed no statistical difference between the nuclear abnormality ( nabn) and mitochondrial variability (Mvar) at week 1 or 2 , but revealed prominent difference ( χ2 = 6.70-9.68, P < 0.01, χ2 = 65.09-115.09, P < 0.001) as compared with those in the other groups. In the experimental group the nabn in tissues showed no significant difference between week 8 and week 16. no apparent changes were found in the stomach, spleen, kidney and lung tissues of the experimental pigs. III. The therapeutical results of HCC patients in group A were closely approximated to those of group C, no hematological toxic side effects were noted, and the systemic reaction was mild. In some patients 2 mos-3 mos after treatment some secondary foci appeared around the periphery of the primary lesion. In general better effectiveness was obtained in patients with small lesion. After analyzing by RIDIT method, the therapeutic result in group B was significantly better than that in group C, and secondary foci around the original lesion were rarely seen at 3mos after treatment. In group C the collateral circulation was reestablished along the periphery of primary foci and the secondary foci appeared more frequently, and were required to undergo several courses of treatment. In group B, 4 cases of HCC were treated surgically as their mass decreased in size after 32P-GMS treatment. Resected specimens showed that the tumor was encapsulated by fibrotic tissue and most of the tumor cells

  20. Will joint regional air pollution control be more cost-effective? An empirical study of China's Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dan; Xu, Yuan; Zhang, Shiqiu

    2015-02-01

    By following an empirical approach, this study proves that joint regional air pollution control (JRAPC) in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region will save the expense on air pollution control compared with a locally-based pollution control strategy. The evidences below were found. (A) Local pollutant concentration in some of the cities is significantly affected by emissions from their surrounding areas. (B) There is heterogeneity in the marginal pollutant concentration reduction cost among various districts as a result of the cities' varying contribution of unit emission reduction to the pollutant concentration reduction, and their diverse unit cost of emission reduction brought about by their different industry composition. The results imply that the cost-efficiency of air pollution control will be improved in China if the conventional locally based regime of air pollution control can shift to a regionally based one. PMID:25463568

  1. Reversal of an aluminium induced alteration in redox status in different regions of rat brain by administration of centrophenoxine.

    PubMed

    Nehru, Bimla; Bhalla, Punita

    2006-10-01

    Aluminium is one of the most studied neurotoxin, and its effects on nervous system are both structural and functional, involving various regions of brain. Aluminium toxicity is known to have multiple mechanisms of action in the central nervous system. Affinity of aluminium for thiol substrates is considered a possible molecular mechanism involved in aluminium neurotoxicity. The reduced glutathione (GSH) is especially important for cellular defence against aluminium toxicity. This study pertains to the modulatory action of centrophenoxine on GSH status in aluminium exposed different brain regions of the female rats. Aluminium was administered orally at a dose of 40 mg/Kg x b x wt x /day for a period of eight weeks whereas, centrophenoxine was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 100 mg/Kg x b x wt x /day for a period of six weeks. The study was carried out in different regions of brain namely cerebrum, cerebellum, medulla oblongata and hypothalamus. Animals exposed to aluminum, registered a significant decrease in the levels of reduced glutathione, and oxidized glutathione as well as in the activity of glutathione reductase in all the different regions studied when compared to normal control animals. Post-treatment with centrophenoxine, showed a significant improvement in the thiol levels in different regions. Centrophenoxine when administered alone also had a profound effect on the levels of reduced glutathione as well as on the activity of glutathione reductase. From the present results, it can be stated that centrophenoxine administration, as a thiol-antioxidant, arrests the aluminium induced cellular damage by improving the thiol status in brain regions. PMID:16969688

  2. 76 FR 47238 - Ninth Administrative Review of Honey From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews in Part, 76 FR 5137 (January 28, 2011... Act of 1930, As Amended, 70 FR 24533 (May 10, 2005). This notice is published pursuant to section 751...: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results AGENCY: Import Administration, International...

  3. 76 FR 27994 - First Administrative Review of Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... Administrative Review, 75 FR 68758 (November 9, 2010) (``Preliminary Results''). DATES: Effective Date: May 13... Final Results of the Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR 1134 (January 7, 2011). On March 17... review. See Preliminary Results 76 FR at 68759. For the final results, we continue to find that Wells,...

  4. 77 FR 34346 - Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the 2009-2010 Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ...: Partial Final Results and Partial Final Rescission of the 2009-2010 Administrative Review, 77 FR 11486... FR 76375 (December 7, 2011) (Preliminary Results). On December 20, 2011, in response to Xinboda's and... Results of the 2009-2010 Administrative Review, 77 FR 17409 (March 26, 2012). At the request of Xinboda,...

  5. Epidemiological Features and Control Progress of Schistosomiasis in Waterway-Network Region in The People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Shi, L; Li, W; Wu, F; Zhang, J-F; Yang, K; Zhou, X-N

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis was one of the most serious parasitic diseases in The People's Republic of China, and the endemic region was classified into three types according to the epidemiological characteristics and living conditions of the intermediate host. After more than 60years of efforts, schistosomiasis control programme has made great strides in waterway-network regions. We analyse the epidemic changes of schistosomiasis and its control progress through the schistosomiasis regions' documents and investigation data to evaluate the efficacy of the schistosomiasis control strategies in the waterway-network-type endemic region, which provides the basis for refinement of efforts, as well as summary of the Chinese schistosomiasis control experience in the waterway-network areas. PMID:27137444

  6. [Developing models on water-saving agriculture through rainwater harvesting for supplemental irrigation in northern China semi-arid region].

    PubMed

    Sun, Huimin; Cheng, Manjin; Zheng, Dawei; Zhang, Jianxin

    2005-06-01

    Zhungeer of Inner Mongolia, an arsenic-bearing sandstone area of northern Loess Plateau, is one of the sites with most serious soil and water losses in China, while rainwater harvesting (RWH) for supplemental irrigation is the only approach to abate droughts in this region. In the ongoing water saving agriculture project, a national 863 project of China, Zhungeer was chosen as a demonstration zone of water-saving dryland agriculture through rainwater harvesting for supplemental irrigation in northern China semi-arid region. The traditional RWH and utilization lacks of holistic consideration, resulting in the blindness in engineering planning and production arrangement. Based on the analysis of the ecological, economic and societal conditions in the demonstration zone, this paper summarized the technological system of dryland cropping production centered on RWH for supplemental irrigation, and developed three models of RWH and highly effective crop-planting, RWH and ecological pasturing, and domestic RWH and economy. The water demand standards for integrative rainwater utilization in the demonstration zone were determined, and the ecological and socio-economic assessment on the three years implement effects of the models was conducted. PMID:16180756

  7. Elimination of schistosomiasis japonica from formerly endemic areas in mountainous regions of southern China using a praziquantel regimen.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Dong, Guo-Dong; Liu, Jin-Ming; Gao, Jian-Xing; Shi, Yao-Jun; Zhang, Ying-Guo; Jin, Ya-Mei; Lu, Ke; Cheng, Guo-feng; Lin, Jiao-Jiao

    2015-03-15

    Schistosomiasis japonica is a major public health problem in China. Domestic animals play a major role in the transmission of Schistosoma japonicum to humans. To better understand the epidemiology of schistosomiasis japonica in domestic animals in the mountainous areas of China, we performed a 5-year longitudinal study of schistosomiasis in cattle and horses in Yunnan Province from 2009 to 2013. We also performed a concurrent drug-based intervention study in three settlement groups in Yunnan Province aimed at developing an effective means of controlling transmission in this region. The prevalence of infection in cattle fluctuated between 1.67% and 3.05% from 2009 to 2011, and monthly treatments of schistosome-positive animals reduced the prevalence to 0% (P<0.05) from 2012 to 2013. Prior to the intervention, we found that schistosomiasis was prevalent from May to October, with the highest prevalence observed in June (10.00%). We surveyed for environmental schistosome contamination, and 94.29% of the miracidia found were from cattle. Our study showed that it is possible to eliminate schistosomiasis in domestic animals in the mountainous regions of China by monthly treating cattle and horses from schistosome-positive households from May to October. PMID:25591407

  8. Regional-scale winter-spring temperature variability and chilling damage dynamics over the past two centuries in southeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Jianping; Zhang, Qi-Bin; Lv, Lixin; Zhang, Chao

    2012-08-01

    Winter-spring cold extreme is a kind of serious natural disaster for southeastern China. As such events are recorded in discrete documents, long and continuous records are required to understand their characteristics and driving forces. Here we report a regional-scale winter-spring (January-April) temperature reconstruction based on a tree-ring network of pine trees ( Pinus massoniana) from five sampling sites over a large spatial scale (25-29°N, 111-115°E) in southeastern China. The regional tree-ring chronology explains 48.6% of the instrumental temperature variance during the period 1957-2008. The reconstruction shows six relatively warm intervals (i.e., ~1849-1855, ~1871-1888, ~1909-1920, ~1939-1944, ~1958-1968, 1997-2007) and five cold intervals (i.e., ~1860-1870, ~1893-1908, ~1925-1934, ~1945-1957, ~1982-1996) during 1849-2008. The last decade and the 1930s were the warmest and coldest decades, respectively, in the past 160 years. The composite analysis of 500-hPa geopotential height fields reveals that distinctly different circulation patterns occurred in the instrumental and pre-instrumental periods. The winter-spring cold extremes in southeastern China are associated with Ural-High ridge pattern for the instrumental period (1957-2008), whereas the cold extremes in pre-instrumental period (1871-1956) are associated with North circulation pattern.

  9. Geochemical and grain-size evidence for the provenance of loess deposits in the Central Shandong Mountains region, northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Shuzhen; Hao, Qingzhen; Wang, Luo; Ding, Min; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yanan; Guo, Zhengtang

    2016-03-01

    Widespread loess deposits in the Central Shandong Mountains yield valuable paleoclimatic records for this currently semi-humid monsoonal region of northern China. The grain-size distribution and major element composition for bulk samples and two grain-size fractions (< 20 and 20-63 μm) for the loess in the Central Shandong Mountains were compared with loess from the Chinese Loess Plateau and sediment from the Yellow River to help determine its provenance. The presence of a significant percentage of medium- and coarse-silt, and the difference in relatively immobile major element ratios of TiO2/Al2O3 and K2O/Al2O3 for the < 20 and 20-63 μm fractions, suggests that sediment that forms the loess deposits in the Central Shandong Mountains was not blown directly from the northern deserts of China as is the case for the loess deposits of the Chinese Loess Plateau. Rather, this suggests that sediments exposed during glacial times on the North China fluvial plain, including the floodplain of the Yellow River, were the major dust source for the loess in the Central Shangong Mountains. In addition, the wide distribution of perimontane loess in the Central Shandong Mountains region indicates the occurrence of strengthened local aridification during glacial times since the middle Pleistocene.

  10. Diversity patterns of ground beetles and understory vegetation in mature, secondary, and plantation forest regions of temperate northern China

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Yi; Sang, Weiguo; Wang, Shunzhong; Warren-Thomas, Eleanor; Liu, Yunhui; Yu, Zhenrong; Wang, Changliu; Axmacher, Jan Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Plantation and secondary forests form increasingly important components of the global forest cover, but our current knowledge about their potential contribution to biodiversity conservation is limited. We surveyed understory plant and carabid species assemblages at three distinct regions in temperate northeastern China, dominated by mature forest (Changbaishan Nature Reserve, sampled in 2011 and 2012), secondary forest (Dongling Mountain, sampled in 2011 and 2012), and forest plantation habitats (Bashang Plateau, sampled in 2006 and 2007), respectively. The α-diversity of both taxonomic groups was highest in plantation forests of the Bashang Plateau. Beetle α-diversity was lowest, but plant and beetle species turnover peaked in the secondary forests of Dongling Mountain, while habitats in the Changbaishan Nature Reserve showed the lowest turnover rates for both taxa. Changbaishan Nature Reserve harbored the highest proportion of forest specialists. Our results suggest that in temperate regions of northern China, the protected larch plantation forest established over extensive areas might play a considerable role in maintaining a high biodiversity in relation to understory herbaceous plant species and carabid assemblages, which can be seen as indicators of forest disturbance. The high proportion of phytophagous carabids and the rarity of forest specialists reflect the relatively homogenous, immature status of the forest ecosystems on the Bashang Plateau. China's last remaining large old-growth forests like the ones on Changbaishan represent stable, mature ecosystems which require particular conservation attention. PMID:25691978

  11. Effect of land use and land cover change on soil erosion and the spatio-temporal variation in Liupan Mountain Region, southern Ningxia, China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Liupan Mountains are located in the southern Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region of China, which forms an important dividing line between landforms and bio-geographic regions. The populated part of the Liupan Mountains region has suffered tremendous ecological damages over time due to population press...

  12. Managing the Schools of the Future--Focus on Principals. Proceedings of the Commonwealth Council for Educational Administration Regional Conference (4th, Nicosia, Cyprus, January 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commonwealth Council for Educational Administration, Armidale (Australia).

    The Fourth Regional Conference of the Commonwealth Council for Educational Administration, held in Nicosia, Cyprus, in January 1980, focused on the possible impact of foreseeable changes in educaiton on the school administrator's role. The 16 papers presented (published in this volume) addressed the development of Cyprus's dual educational system;…

  13. Seroprevalence of Bluetongue virus in domestic yaks (Bos grunniens) in Tibetan regions of China based on circulating antibodies.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiakui; Li, Kun; Shahzad, Muhammad; Han, Zhaoqing; Nabi, Fazul; Gao, Jianfeng; Han, Jinmei

    2015-08-01

    The bluetongue (BT) is an infectious, non-contagious disease of ruminants with a substantial impact on income and welfare of animals. To date, scarce information about this disease in domestic yaks is available in Tibetan area of China. Seroprevalence of circulating antibodies to Bluetongue virus (BTV) in yaks from three regions of Tibet and Hongyuan area of Sichuan Province in China was investigated by a commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. A total of 736 blood samples were collected during the year 2012 and 2013, and nearly 2% serum samples were found positive for BTV antibodies in Hongyuan area during the year 2012, and 4.89 and 3.88% of samples showed positive results for BTV in Tibetan and Hongyuan area, respectively, in 2013. The results indicated the occurrence of BT infection in Chinese yaks for the first time in Tibet and Hongyuan area of Sichuan Province with the presence of BTV antibodies in these ruminants. PMID:26017752

  14. Source origins, modeled profiles, and apportionments of halogenated hydrocarbons in the greater Pearl River Delta region, southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, H.; Ding, A. J.; Wang, T.; Simpson, I. J.; Blake, D. R.; Barletta, B.; Meinardi, S.; Rowland, F. S.; Saunders, S. M.; Fu, T. M.; Hung, W. T.; Li, Y. S.

    2009-06-01

    We analyze 16-month data of 13 major halocarbons measured at a southern China coastal site in the greater Pearl River Delta (PRD). A total of 188 canister air samples were collected from August 2001 to December 2002. Overall inspection indicated that CH2Cl2, C2Cl4, and C2HCl3 had similar temporal variations while CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113 showed the same emission patterns during the sampling period. Diurnal variations of halocarbons presented different patterns during ozone episode days, mainly related to emission strength, atmospheric dispersion, and photochemical lifetimes. For further statistics and source appointment, Lagrangian backward particle release simulations were conducted to help understand the potential source regions of all samples and classify them into different categories, including local Hong Kong, inner PRD, continental China, and marine air masses. With the exception of HCFC-142b, the mixing ratios of all halocarbons in marine air were significantly lower than those in urban and regional air (p < 0.01), whereas no significant difference was found between urban Hong Kong and inner PRD regional air, reflecting the dominant impact of the greater PRD regional air on the halocarbon levels. The halocarbon levels in this region were significantly influenced by anthropogenic sources, causing the halocarbon mixing ratios in South China Sea air to be higher than the corresponding background levels, as measured by global surface networks and by airborne missions such as Transport and Chemical Evolution Over the Pacific. Interspecies correlation analysis suggests that CHCl3 is mainly used as a solvent in Hong Kong but mostly as a feedstock for HCFC-22 in the inner PRD. Furthermore, CH3Cl is often used as a refrigerant and emitted from biomass/biofuel burning in the inner PRD. A positive matrix factorization receptor model was applied to the classified halocarbon samples in the greater PRD for source profiles and apportionments. Seven major sources were

  15. Geological characteristics and ore-forming process of the gold deposits in the western Qinling region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiajun; Liu, Chonghao; Carranza, Emmanuel John M.; Li, Yujie; Mao, Zhihao; Wang, Jianping; Wang, Yinhong; Zhang, Jing; Zhai, Degao; Zhang, Huafeng; Shan, Liang; Zhu, Laimin; Lu, Rukui

    2015-05-01

    The western Qinling, belonging to the western part of the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu orogen between the North China Block and South China Block, is one of the most important gold regions in China. Isotopic dates suggest that the Mesozoic granitoids in the western Qinling region emplaced during the Middle-Late Triassic, and the deposits formed during the Late Triassic. Almost all gold deposits in the western Qinling region are classified as orogenic, Carlin-type, and Carlin-like gold deposits, and they are the products of Qinling Orogenesis caused by the final collision between the North China Block and the South China Block. The early subduction of the Mian-Lue oceanic crust and the latter collision between South Qinling Terrane and the South China Block along the Mian-Lue suture generated lithosphere-scale thermal anomalies to drive orogen-scale hydrothermal systems. The collision-related magmatism also provided heat source for regional ore-forming fluids in the Carlin-like gold deposits. Orogenic gold deposits such as Huachanggou, Liziyuan, and Baguamiao lie between the Shang-Dan and Mian-Lue sutures and are confined to WNW-trending brittle-ductile shear zones in Devonian and Carboniferous greenschist-facies metasedimentary rocks that were highly-deformed and regionally-metamorphosed. These deposits are typical orogenic gold deposits and formed within a Late Triassic age. The deposits show a close relationship between Au and Ag. Ores contain mainly microscopic gold, and minor electrum and visible gold, along with pyrite. The ore-forming fluids were main metamorphic fluids. Intensive tectonic movements caused by orogenesis created fluid-migrating channels for precipitation locations. Although some orogenic gold deposits occur adjacent to granitoids, mineralization is not synchronous with magmatism; that is, the granitoids have no genetic relations to orogenic gold deposits. As ore-forming fluids converged into dilated fractures during the extension stage of orogenesis

  16. Spatiotemporal dynamics of bacterial and archaeal communities in household biogas digesters from tropical and subtropical regions of Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Guangliang; Li, Qiumin; Dong, Minghua; Wu, Yan; Yang, Bin; Zhang, Lijuan; Li, Yingjuan; Yin, Fang; Zhao, Xingling; Wang, Yongxia; Xiao, Wei; Cui, Xiaolong; Zhang, Wudi

    2016-06-01

    A combination of 16S rRNA gene PCR-based techniques and the determination of abiotic factors were used to study community composition, richness, and evenness and the correlation between biotic and abiotic factors in 19 household biogas digesters in tropical and subtropical regions of Yunnan Province, China. The results revealed that both bacterial and archaeal community composition differed between regions and archaeal community composition was more affected by season than bacterial; regardless of sampling location, the dominant bacterial phyla included Chloroflexi, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria, and the most dominant archaeal phylum was Euryarchaeota; in digesters from both regions, Chloroflexi as the first or second most dominant bacteria accounted for 21.50-26.10 % of bacterial library sequences, and the phylum Crenarchaeota as the second most dominant archaea accounted for 17.65-19.77 % of archaeal library sequences; the species Methanosaeta concilii as the most dominant archaeal species accounted for 67.80-72.80 % of the sequences. This study found that most of the abundant microbial communities in 19 biogas digesters are similar, and this result will provide enlightenment for finding the universal nature in rural biogas digesters at tropical and subtropical regions in China. PMID:26916266

  17. Neuropeptide Y administration acutely increases hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor immunoreactivity: lack of effect in other rat brain regions

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, D.A.; George, S.R.

    1987-12-21

    The effect of acute central administration of Neuropeptide Y (NPY) to adult male rats on the brain content of corticotropin-releasing factor immunoreactivity (CRF-ir) was investigated. The brain regions studied included frontal cortex, hippocampus, medulla-pons, midbrain-thalamus, cerebellum, neurointermediate lobe of pituitary, median eminence and the remaining hypothalamus. CRF-ir was determined in each of these regions using radioimmunoassay specific for rat CRF. CRF-ir was found to be significantly increased in the major site of CRF localization in the brain, the hypothalamus, in NPY-treated rats as compared to vehicle-treated controls either 15 minutes (p<0.025) or 45 minutes (p<0.005) post-injection. This increase was localized to the median eminence (p<0.05 after 15 minutes, p<0.01 after 45 minutes). No statistically significant differences were noted in any of the other brain regions assessed. Plasma adrenocorticotropin levels were also found to increase following NPY treatment, an effect which became significant after 45 minutes (p<0.05). These data show that NPY can alter the content of hypothalamic CRF and may play a role in its regulation. 33 references, 4 figures.

  18. Research on reconstructing spatial distribution of historical cropland over 300 years in traditional cultivated regions of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xuhong; Jin, Xiaobin; Guo, Beibei; Long, Ying; Zhou, Yinkang

    2015-05-01

    Constructing a spatially explicit time series of historical cultivated land is of upmost importance for climatic and ecological studies that make use of Land Use and Cover Change (LUCC) data. Some scholars have made efforts to simulate and reconstruct the quantitative information on historical land use at the global or regional level based on "top-down" decision-making behaviors to match overall cropland area to land parcels using land arability and universal parameters. Considering the concentrated distribution of cultivated land and various factors influencing cropland distribution, including environmental and human factors, this study developed a "bottom-up" model of historical cropland based on constrained Cellular Automaton (CA). Our model takes a historical cropland area as an external variable and the cropland distribution in 1980 as the maximum potential scope of historical cropland. We selected elevation, slope, water availability, average annual precipitation, and distance to the nearest rural settlement as the main influencing factors of land use suitability. Then, an available labor force index is used as a proxy for the amount of cropland to inspect and calibrate these spatial patterns. This paper applies the model to a traditional cultivated region in China and reconstructs its spatial distribution of cropland during 6 periods. The results are shown as follows: (1) a constrained CA is well suited for simulating and reconstructing the spatial distribution of cropland in China's traditional cultivated region. (2) Taking the different factors affecting spatial pattern of cropland into consideration, the partitioning of the research area effectively reflected the spatial differences in cropland evolution rules and rates. (3) Compared with "HYDE datasets", this research has formed higher-resolution Boolean spatial distribution datasets of historical cropland with a more definitive concept of spatial pattern in terms of fractional format. We conclude that

  19. Active faults and seismogenic models for the Urumqi city, Xinjiang Autonomous Region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingzhen; Yu, Yang; Shen, Jun; Shao, Bo; Qi, Gao; Deng, Mei

    2016-06-01

    We have studied the characteristics of the active faults and seismicity in the vicinity of Urumqi city, the capital of Xinjiang Autonomous Region, China, and have proposed a seismogenic model for the assessment of earthquake hazard in this area. Our work is based on an integrated analysis of data from investigations of active faults at the surface, deep seismic reflection soundings, seismic profiles from petroleum exploration, observations of temporal seismic stations, and the precise location of small earthquakes. We have made a comparative study of typical seismogenic structures in the frontal area of the North Tianshan Mountains, where Urumqi city is situated, and have revealed the primary features of the thrust-fold-nappe structure there. We suggest that Urumqi city is comprised two zones of seismotectonics which are interpreted as thrust-nappe structures. The first is the thrust nappe of the North Tianshan Mountains in the west, consisting of the lower (root) thrust fault, middle detachment, and upper fold-uplift at the front. Faults active in the Pleistocene are present in the lower and upper parts of this structure, and the detachment in the middle spreads toward the north. In the future, M7 earthquakes may occur at the root thrust fault, while the seismic risk of frontal fold-uplift at the front will not exceed M6.5. The second structure is the western flank of the arc-like Bogda nappe in the east, which is also comprised a root thrust fault, middle detachment, and upper fold-uplift at the front, of which the nappe stretches toward the north; several active faults are also developed in it. The fault active in the Holocene is called the South Fukang fault. It is not in the urban area of Urumqi city. The other three faults are located in the urban area and were active in the late Pleistocene. In these cases, this section of the nappe structure near the city has an earthquake risk of M6.5-7. An earthquake M S6.6, 60 km east to Urumqi city occurred along the

  20. Effects of leachate accumulation on landfill stability in humid regions of China

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Jianguo; Yang Yong; Yang Shihui; Ye Bin; Zhang Chang

    2010-05-15

    Leachate levels are important to landfill stability and safety. High leachate or water levels often lead to landfill instability, which can cause accidents. Here a case study of a landfill located in a humid region of southern China is presented. Leachate distribution and quality were systematically analyzed, and the effect of leachate level on waste-mass stability was assessed. Boreholes were drilled in the field, samples were analyzed in the laboratory, and a simulation was performed. In addition, the safety and stability of the landfill was evaluated. The leachate level in the landfill was 9-19 m, which was higher than the top of the dam crest (8-20 m). Leachate accounted for more than 1/4 of the total landfill storage capacity. The contaminant concentration of the leachate samples collected directly from the waste body was very high, with large variation among the samples. The mean concentrations of NH{sub 3}-N, BOD, and COD from the waste body were 5404, 14,136, and 22,691 mg/L, nearly 2.7, 2.4, and 1.8 times the mean concentrations in the leachate pond, respectively. Three series of shear strength parameters were used in a slope stability analysis, and a limit equilibrium method was used to calculate the factor of safety (Fs). The analysis showed that Fs could be affected by potential anisotropy in the shear strength of the waste. The minimum values of Fs corresponding to series I were 1.84 and 1.17 for units I and II, respectively. The Fs value of unit II was significantly lower than the safe design value (1.25). In addition, Fs decreased with increase in the normalized height of the leachate level, h/H, where h is the height of the leachate mound and H is the maximum thickness of the landfill. If the h/H values of units I and II are kept below 50% and 40%, respectively, a safe design value of 1.25 for Fs can be guaranteed. Therefore, some measures to prevent risk should be considered.

  1. Estimated emissions of chlorofluorocarbons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons, and hydrofluorocarbons based on an interspecies correlation method in the Pearl River Delta region, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Fang, Xuekun; Martin, Jonathan W; Zhai, Zihan; Su, Shenshen; Hu, Xia; Han, Jiarui; Lu, Sihua; Wang, Chen; Zhang, Jianbo; Hu, Jianxin

    2014-02-01

    Although many studies have been conducted in recent years on the emissions of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) at the large regional (such as East Asia) and national scales, relatively few studies have been conducted for cities or metropolitan areas. In this study, 192 air samples were collected in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of China in November 2010. The atmospheric mixing ratios of six halocarbons were analyzed, including trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11, CCl3F), dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12, CCl2F2), monochlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22, CHClF2), 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane (HCFC-141b, CH3CCl2F), 1-dichloro-1,1-fluoroethane (HCFC-142b, CH3CClF2), and 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a, CH2FCF3), and their emissions were estimated based on an interspecies correlation method using HCFC-22 as the reference species. The results showed no significant change in the regional concentration and emission of CFC in the past 10years, suggesting that the continuous regional emission of CFC has had no significant effect on the CFC regional concentration in the PRD region. Concentrations and emissions of HCFCs and HFCs are significantly higher compared to previous research in the PRD region (P<0.05). The largest emission was for HCFC-22, most likely due to its substitution for CFC-12 in the industrial and commercial refrigeration subsector, and the rapid development of the room air-conditioner and extruded polystyrene subsectors. The PRD's ODP-weighted emissions of the target HCFCs provided 9% (7-12%) of the national emissions for the corresponding species. The PRD's GWP-weighted emissions of the target HCFCs and HFC-134a account for 10% (7-12%) and 8% (7-9%), respectively, of the national emissions for the corresponding species, and thus are important contributions to China's total emissions. PMID:24189105

  2. Indicators of breast cancer severity and appropriateness of surgery based on hospital administrative data in the Lazio Region, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Schifano, Patrizia; Papini, Paolo; Agabiti, Nera; Scarinci, Marina; Borgia, Piero; Perucci, Carlo A

    2006-01-01

    Background Administrative data can serve as an easily available source for epidemiological and evaluation studies. The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of hospital administrative data to determine breast cancer severity and the appropriateness of surgical treatment. Methods the study population consisted of 398 patients randomly selected from a cohort of women hospitalized for first-time breast cancer surgery in the Lazio Region, Italy. Tumor severity was defined in three different ways: 1) tumor size; 2) clinical stage (TNM); 3) severity indicator based on HIS data (SI). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV) of the severity indicator in evaluating appropriateness of surgery were calculated. The accuracy of HIS data was measured using Kappa statistic. Results Most of 387 cases were classified as T1 and T2 (tumor size), more than 70% were in stage I or II and the SI classified 60% of cases in medium-low category. Variation from guidelines indications identified under and over treatments. The accuracy of the SI to predict under-treatment was relatively good (58% of all procedures classified as under-treatment using pT where also classified as such using SI), and even greater predicting over-treatment (88.2% of all procedures classified as over treatment using pT where also classified as such using SI). Agreement between clinical chart and hospital discharge reports was K = 0.35. Conclusion Our findings suggest that administrative data need to be used with caution when evaluating surgical appropriateness, mainly because of the limited ability of SI to predict tumor size and the questionable quality of HIS data as observed in other studies. PMID:16464258

  3. Regional and subcellular localization of Li+ and other cations in the rat brain following long-term lithium administration.

    PubMed

    Lam, H R; Christensen, S

    1992-10-01

    Rats were given LiCl in their diet (40 mmol/kg dry weight) for at least 3 months to elucidate the regional and subcellular localization of Li+ in the brain as well as the effect of chronic lithium administration on the distribution of other cations. At steady-state the mean concentrations of Li+ were 0.66 mmol/kg wet weight in the whole brain and 0.52 mM in plasma. The tissue/plasma concentration ratio exceeded unity in all anatomical regions. No region showed excessive accumulation of Li+. Whole brain or regional contents of Na+ or K+ were unaffected by lithium treatment. Subcellular Li+ localization was demonstrated in nuclear, crude mitochondrial, and microsomal fractions of whole brain homogenate. Subfractionation of the crude mitochondrial fraction revealed energy-independent intrasynaptosomal and intramitochondrial Li+ and K+ localization at 0-4 degrees C. Li+ administered in vivo disappeared within 10 min from synaptosomes incubated at 37 degrees C. Li+ added in vitro at 1 mM attained a synaptosomal steady-state concentration within 30 min at 37 degrees C. In control rats, synaptosomal concentrations and synaptosomal/medium concentration gradients of cations paralleled their respective in vivo concentrations and gradients. Lithium treatment caused synaptosomal depletion of K+ and Mg2+ and hence probably partial membrane depolarization. Addition of 1 mM Li+ in vitro also caused synaptosomal Mg2+ depletion. The results indicate that Li+ is "accumulated" in brain sediments and synaptosomes following its long-term treatment. The estimated intracellular and intrasynaptosomal Li+ concentrations are lower than predicted by passive distribution according to the Nernst equation, evidencing active extrusion of Li+. PMID:1402889

  4. An evaluation method of the sustainability of water resource in karst region: a case study of Zunyi, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bo; Wang, Ganlu; Ding, Hanghang; Chen, Yulong

    2015-11-01

    Water resource is of great significance to the survival and development of human. However, the water resource system in karst regions is sensitive to external interference owing to the special geological processes which cause soil impoverishment, severe rocky desertification and large topographic height difference. Therefore, evaluating the sustainability of the water resource in karst regions is beneficial to reasonably use and protect water resource. This paper puts forward to evaluate the water resource from four aspects, including water resources system, water requirement system, ecosystem and social economic system. Moreover, on this basis, 18 evaluation indexes were selected to construct the sustainability evaluation index system and method. This method was used to evaluate the sustainability of the water resource in the typical karst region—Zunyi, Guizhou province, China, and was verified according to the actual situation in the research area. All these provide reference for the evaluation of the sustainability of the water resource in similar regions.

  5. Historical experience in the elimination of visceral leishmaniasis in the plain region of Eastern and Central China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) (kala-azar) was most seriously prevalent in the plain regions of eight provinces/municipalities in the eastern and central parts of China. In the early 1950s, the number of counties/cities endemic for VL and the number of cases in the plain regions accounted for 60% and 80%, respectively, of the total numbers in the entire country. By implementing comprehensive control measures, including treatment of patients for eliminating the source of infection and spraying insecticide in endemic villages to kill sandflies, VL transmission has been brought under control in this region by the early 1960s, and no new infected cases have been found since 1983, achieving the goal of eliminating VL. PMID:24650707

  6. Estimation of the contribution of exports to the provincial economy: an analysis based on China's multi-regional input-output tables.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sanmang; Li, Shantong; Lei, Yalin

    2016-01-01

    This paper developed an estimation model for the contribution of exports to a country's regional economy based on the Chenery-Moses model and conducted an empirical analysis using China's multi-regional input-output tables for 1997, 2002, and 2007. The results indicated that China's national exports make significantly different contributions to the provincial economy in various regions, with the greatest contribution being observed in the eastern region and the smallest in the central region. The provinces are also subjected to significantly different export spillover effects. The boosting effect for the eastern provinces is primarily generated from local exports, whereas the western provinces primarily benefit from the export spillover effect from the eastern provinces. The eastern provinces, such as Guangdong, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, and Shanghai, are the primary sources of export spillover effects, and Guangdong is the largest source of export spillover effects for almost all of the provinces in China. PMID:27006865

  7. The Effects of Black Carbon and Sulfate Aerosols in ChinaRegions on East Asia Monsoons

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Bai; Liu, Yu; Sun, Jiaren

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we examine the direct effects of sulfate and black carbon aerosols in China on East Asia monsoons and its precipitation processes by using the CAM3.0 model. It is demonstrated that sulfate and black carbon aerosols in China both have the effects to weaken East Asia monsoons in both summer and winter seasons. However, they certainly differ from each other in affecting vertical structures of temperature and atmospheric circulations. Their differences are expected because of their distinct optical properties, i.e., scattering vs. absorbing. Even for a single type of aerosol, its effects on temperature structures and atmospheric circulations are largely season-dependent. Applications of T-test on our results indicate that forcing from black carbon aerosols over China is relatively weak and limited. It is also evident from our results that the effects of synthetic aerosols (sulfate and black carbon together) on monsoons are not simply a linear summation between these two types of aerosols. Instead, they are determined by their integrated optical properties. Synthetic aerosols to a large degree resemble effects of sulfate aerosols. This implies a likely scattering property for the integration of black carbon and sulfate aerosols in China.

  8. Regional Education Profile: Asia. China, Hong Kong, Macau, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of International Education, New York, NY.

    Developments in international education in Asia during 1985 are considered in three essays presented in the Biennial International Education Seminars conducted by the Institute of International Education. Countries covered by the essays and the authors are: China, Hong Kong, and Thailand (Jay Henderson); Macau (Josef Silny and Jay Henderson); and…

  9. First report of sunflower white mold caused by Sclerotinia minor Jagger in Inner Mongolia region, China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the 2014 growing season, sunflower plants with symptoms of basal stem rot and whole plant wilt were observed in sunflower fields in Inner Mongolia, China. The average disease incidence was between 10-15%. Tiny (0.30 to 2.68 mm) black sclerotia were usually observed on the stem of infected pla...

  10. Spatial distribution and source apportionment of water pollution in different administrative zones of Wen-Rui-Tang (WRT) river watershed, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liping; Mei, Kun; Liu, Xingmei; Wu, Laosheng; Zhang, Minghua; Xu, Jianming; Wang, Fan

    2013-08-01

    Water quality degradation in river systems has caused great concerns all over the world. Identifying the spatial distribution and sources of water pollutants is the very first step for efficient water quality management. A set of water samples collected bimonthly at 12 monitoring sites in 2009 and 2010 were analyzed to determine the spatial distribution of critical parameters and to apportion the sources of pollutants in Wen-Rui-Tang (WRT) river watershed, near the East China Sea. The 12 monitoring sites were divided into three administrative zones of urban, suburban, and rural zones considering differences in land use and population density. Multivariate statistical methods [one-way analysis of variance, principal component analysis (PCA), and absolute principal component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR) methods] were used to investigate the spatial distribution of water quality and to apportion the pollution sources. Results showed that most water quality parameters had no significant difference between the urban and suburban zones, whereas these two zones showed worse water quality than the rural zone. Based on PCA and APCS-MLR analysis, urban domestic sewage and commercial/service pollution, suburban domestic sewage along with fluorine point source pollution, and agricultural nonpoint source pollution with rural domestic sewage pollution were identified to the main pollution sources in urban, suburban, and rural zones, respectively. Understanding the water pollution characteristics of different administrative zones could put insights into effective water management policy-making especially in the area across various administrative zones. PMID:23404042

  11. Early Mixed Farming of Millet and Rice 7800 Years Ago in the Middle Yellow River Region, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianping; Lu, Houyuan; Gu, Wanfa; Wu, Naiqin; Zhou, Kunshu; Hu, Yayi; Xin, Yingjun; Wang, Can

    2012-01-01

    The Peiligang Culture (9000-7000 cal. yr BP) in the Middle Yellow River region, North China, has long been considered representative of millet farming. It is still unclear, however, if broomcorn millet or foxtail millet was the first species domesticated during the Peiligang Culture. Furthermore, it is also unknown whether millet was cultivated singly or together with rice at the same period. In this study, phytolith analysis of samples from the Tanghu archaeological site reveals early crop information in the Middle Yellow River region, China. Our results show that broomcorn millet was the early dry farming species in the Peiligang Culture at 7800 cal. yr BP, while rice cultivation took place from 7800 to 4500 cal. yr BP. Our data provide new evidence of broomcorn millet and rice mixed farming at 7800 cal. yr BP in the Middle Yellow River region, which has implications for understanding the domestication process of the two crops, and the formation and continuance of the Ancient Yellow River Civilization. PMID:23284907

  12. Prevalence of diabetes and determinants: evidence from a minority region in People’s Republic of China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qingyun; Yi, Yanhua; Xia, Ning; Li, Chunling; Luo, Zuojie; Huang, Gaoming; Chen, Ying; Li, Shumin; Lai, Luhua; Wang, Mingdeng; Tan, Jing; Zhang, Jie; Shen, Hanlei; Li, Bixun; Su, Feiqun; Wei, Hua; Dai, Xia; Lu, Fengji; Li, Shuilian

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to examine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and other categories of glucose intolerance (impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose) and explore the risk factors in an ethnic minority region, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, People’s Republic of China. Methods A population-based study enrolled 53,270 residents older than 5 years in Guangxi, People’s Republic of China. The prevalence of diabetes was calculated using the 1999 World Health Organization (WHO) oral glucose tolerance test diagnostic criteria. Results Among 53,270 individuals, the prevalence of diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, and impaired fasting glucose was 5.96%, 7.36%, and 2.62%, respectively. Of the 3,173 individuals with diabetes mellitus, 696 (21.94%) were found to have a history of diabetes and 2,477 (78.06%) were newly diagnosed. A lower prevalence was found in Zhuang ethnic minority people compared with the majority of Han people. The prevalence was significantly associated with age, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, dyslipidemia, medical history of hypertension, and family history of diabetes. Conclusion Guangxi shows a rapidly rising prevalence of diabetes. Weight control and blood lipid control are important to decrease the rapidly increasing prevalence of diabetes in Guangxi, an ethnic minority region. PMID:27042084

  13. The variability of biomass burning and its influence on regional aerosol properties during the wheat harvest season in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lili; Xin, Jinyuan; Li, Xingru; Wang, Yuesi

    2015-04-01

    The spatial-temporal variation of biomass burning in June during the wheat harvest season in the North China (32-41°N, 111-120°E) and its influence on the regional aerosol optical depth (AOD) and the chemical compositions of size-segregated aerosols in the urban environment were investigated to evaluate the effectiveness of the burn ban policy and the influence on regional pollution. Fire events that occurred in early and middle June accounted for approximately 89% of the events during the month, and fire points located in mid-eastern China (32.5-35.5°N, 114-120°E) comprised 71%. The occurrences exhibit oscillatory changes with a minimum in 2008 (during the Beijing Olympics) and a peak and explosive growth in 2012. Under high relative humidity and south winds, fire emissions from straw burning combined with high urban/industrial emissions to produce intensive regional haze pollution in the North Plain. The formation of secondary inorganic particles was intensified due to the interactions of smoke plumes and urban/industrial pollutants in an urban environment. Higher concentrations and percentages (79%) of sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and organic carbon in the fine particles under high relative humidity conditions contributed to a deteriorated urban visibility. Therefore, stronger management and a comprehensive ban on wheat straw burning in June are urgently needed, especially during years when the south wind is dominant.

  14. Early mixed farming of millet and rice 7800 years ago in the Middle Yellow River region, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianping; Lu, Houyuan; Gu, Wanfa; Wu, Naiqin; Zhou, Kunshu; Hu, Yayi; Xin, Yingjun; Wang, Can

    2012-01-01

    The Peiligang Culture (9000-7000 cal. yr BP) in the Middle Yellow River region, North China, has long been considered representative of millet farming. It is still unclear, however, if broomcorn millet or foxtail millet was the first species domesticated during the Peiligang Culture. Furthermore, it is also unknown whether millet was cultivated singly or together with rice at the same period. In this study, phytolith analysis of samples from the Tanghu archaeological site reveals early crop information in the Middle Yellow River region, China. Our results show that broomcorn millet was the early dry farming species in the Peiligang Culture at 7800 cal. yr BP, while rice cultivation took place from 7800 to 4500 cal. yr BP. Our data provide new evidence of broomcorn millet and rice mixed farming at 7800 cal. yr BP in the Middle Yellow River region, which has implications for understanding the domestication process of the two crops, and the formation and continuance of the Ancient Yellow River Civilization. PMID:23284907

  15. Analysis of acid rain effects on vegetation in eco-regions in China based on AVHRR/NDVI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jiaxin; Jiang, Hong; Zhang, Xiuying; Xu, Xiaobin

    2010-09-01

    The vegetation, as the main component of the ecosystems, is the main receptor of acid rain pollution. Because of the discrepancy of the vegetation characteristics and environment, the responses of the different types of vegetation to acid rain in different regions are different. In this paper, we chose 9 eco-regions in southern China as study area, based on the acid rain and NOAA/NDVI data from 1992 to 2006, and revealed the impact of acid rain on the vegetation by using spatial interpolation, cluster analysis and curve fitting. The result shows that the most tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests were positively correlated with the acidity of precipitation and the growth was inhibited obviously. On the contrary, the growth of temperate coniferous forests was promoted by acid rain to some extent. In generally, the vegetation in the condition of the weak acid rain grew better, especially the Qin Ling Mountains deciduous forests and the Changjiang Plain evergreen forests. For South China-Vietnam subtropical evergreen forest, Yunnan Plateau subtropical evergreen forests and Qionglai-Minshan conifer forests, the significant difference of NDVI between the different gradients of acid rain lasted almost the whole year, while that of the other eco-regions only appeared most obviously in Winter.

  16. Inverse Modeling of Urban and Regional Emissions of CO in China using Observations from the MOPITT Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Z.; Jones, D. B.; Kar, J.; Wang, Y.; Kopacz, M.; Henze, D. K.; Singh, K.; Shim, C.; Drummond, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    Observations of CO from the MOPITT satellite instrument show enhanced abundances of CO over the Wei River valley in China. High CO mixing ratios, often exceeding 300 ppbv at 800 hPa are observed in the vicinity of Linfen. Simulations of atmospheric CO with the GEOS-Chem model consistently underestimate the observed CO in this region. MOPITT also reveals higher abundances of CO across southeastern China than predicted by GEOS-Chem. Previous inverse modeling of CO observations using the GEOS-Chem model suggested that CO emissions in East Asia were more than 60% greater than the a priori emission inventory estimates in the model. However, that work was done using a version of GEOS-Chem with coarse horizontal resolution. We have conducted an inverse modeling analysis of the MOPITT data at a spatial resolution of 0.5° x 0.67° across Asia, using the adjoint of the nested GEOS-Chem model, to better quantify urban and regional emissions of CO. We focus on quantifying emissions from Xian, Linfen, and Taiyuan, three major industrial cities in the Wei River valley. We also examine the variations in CO emissions in summers of 2006, 2007, and 2008 in the Beijing region to assess the impact of the strict pollution controls that were implemented in August 2008 to improve local air quality for the Olympic Games.

  17. Regional disparities in the burden of disease attributable to unsafe water and poor sanitation in China

    PubMed Central

    Carlton, Elizabeth J; McDowell, Julia Z; Li, Huazhong; Luo, Wei; Remais, Justin V

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the disease burden attributable to unsafe water and poor sanitation and hygiene in China, to identify high-burden groups and to inform improvement measures. Methods The disease burden attributable to unsafe water and poor sanitation and hygiene in China was estimated for diseases resulting from exposure to biologically contaminated soil and water (diarrhoeal disease, helminthiases and schistosomiasis) and vector transmission resulting from inadequate management of water resources (malaria, dengue and Japanese encephalitis). The data were obtained from China’s national infectious disease reporting system, national helminthiasis surveys and national water and sanitation surveys. The fraction of each health condition attributable to unsafe water and poor sanitation and hygiene in China was estimated from data in the Chinese and international literature. Findings In 2008, 327 million people in China lacked access to piped drinking water and 535 million lacked access to improved sanitation. The same year, unsafe water and poor sanitation and hygiene accounted for 2.81 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and 62 800 deaths in the country, and 83% of the attributable burden was found in children less than 5 years old. Per capita DALYs increased along an east–west gradient, with the highest burden in inland provinces having the lowest income per capita. Conclusion Despite remarkable progress, China still needs to conduct infrastructural improvement projects targeting provinces that have experienced slower economic development. Improved monitoring, increased regulatory oversight and more government transparency are needed to better estimate the effects of microbiologically and chemically contaminated water and poor sanitation and hygiene on human health. PMID:22893741

  18. Passive air sampling of DDT, chlordane and HCB in the Pearl River Delta, South China: implications to regional sources.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Guo, Lingli; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Lee, Celine S L; Li, Xiangdong; Jones, Kevin C; Xiang, Yunrong; Zhong, Liuju

    2007-06-01

    The Pearl River Delta (PRD) is one of the largest fast-developing economic zones in China. Hong Kong and the mainland part of the PRD differed in socio-economic development history and chemical management policies. Polyurethane foam (PUF)-passive air sampling (PAS) was deployed at 21 regional air quality monitoring stations across the PRD in summer and winter, respectively. Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT), chlordane and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were analyzed with GC-MS. High total DDT (240-3700 pg m(-3)) and chlordane (100-2600 pg m(-3)) concentrations were observed. Concentrations of DDTs and chlordane were higher in summer than winter; HCB vice versa. Spatially, the mainland part of the PRD generally displayed higher DDT concentrations than Hong Kong. Antifouling paint for fishing ships in coastal China was suggested to be an important current DDT source in the coast. The reason is unknown for the very low trans-/cis-chlordane (TC/CC) ratios (0.27) found in the mainland in winter. HCB concentrations were relatively uniform across the PRD, and long range transport of HCB from inland/North China to the PRD in winter was suggested. PMID:17554430

  19. The Regional Impacts of Cooking and Heating Emissions on Ambient Air Quality and Disease Burden in China.

    PubMed

    Archer-Nicholls, Scott; Carter, Ellison; Kumar, Rajesh; Xiao, Qingyang; Liu, Yang; Frostad, Joseph; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Cohen, Aaron; Brauer, Michael; Baumgartner, Jill; Wiedinmyer, Christine

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to air pollution is a major risk factor globally and particularly in Asia. A large portion of air pollutants result from residential combustion of solid biomass and coal fuel for cooking and heating. This study presents a regional modeling sensitivity analysis to estimate the impact of residential emissions from cooking and heating activities on the burden of disease at a provincial level in China. Model surface PM2.5 fields are shown to compare well when evaluated against surface air quality measurements. Scenarios run without residential sector and residential heating emissions are used in conjunction with the Global Burden of Disease 2013 framework to calculate the proportion of deaths and disability adjusted life years attributable to PM2.5 exposure from residential emissions. Overall, we estimate that 341 000 (306 000-370 000; 95% confidence interval) premature deaths in China are attributable to residential combustion emissions, approximately a third of the deaths attributable to all ambient PM2.5 pollution, with 159 000 (142 000-172 000) and 182 000 (163 000-197 000) premature deaths from heating and cooking emissions, respectively. Our findings emphasize the need to mitigate emissions from both residential heating and cooking sources to reduce the health impacts of ambient air pollution in China. PMID:27479733

  20. [Detection of the Siberian Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, northwestern China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ran; Zhang, Guilin; Liu, Xiaoming; Li, Yuchang; Zheng, Zhong; Sun, Xiang; Yang, Yinhui

    2016-01-01

    Until the recent emergence/re-emergence of human-pathogenic viruses in ticks, tick-borne viruses have been neglected as causative agents of human disease (particularly in China). To gain insight into the diversity of tick-borne viruses in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (northwestern China), we conducted illumina deep sequencing-based screening for virus-derived small RNAs in field-collected Ixodes persulcatus ticks. We found 32, 631 unique virus-matched reads. In particular, 77 reads mapped to the tick-borne group within the genus of Flavivirus, and covered 3.8%-2.4% viral genomes. In addition, 32 unique reads were specific to the Siberian subtype of tick-borne encephalitis viruses (TBEV-Sib) which have never been reported in Chinese TBE loci. We confirmed the potential existence of TBEV-Sib by amplification (using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) of genomic fragments from the envelope gene or 3' genomic terminus from the pools of examined ticks. Both sequences demonstrated high homology to TBEV-Sib strains attached geographically to southern Siberia with nucleotide identity of 97.2%-95.5% and aminoacid identity of 99.4%-98.3%, respectively. In conclusion, we report, for the first time, detection of TBEV-Sib in the natural TBE loci of China. These novel data may provide genetic information for further isolation and epidemiologic investigation of TBEV-Sib. PMID:27295880

  1. Comparison of Insecticide Susceptibilities of Empoasca vitis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) from Three Main Tea-Growing Regions in China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qi; Yu, Hua-Yang; Niu, Chun-Dong; Yao, Rong; Wu, Shun-Fan; Chen, Zhuo; Gao, Cong-Fen

    2015-06-01

    Empoasca vitis (Göthe) is an important insect pest in tea-growing areas of China, and chemical control is the main tactic for the management of this pest. Due to the pressure of increasing insecticide resistance and more stringent food safety regulations, development of sound IPM strategies for E. vitis is an urgent matter. This study comparatively evaluated four field populations of E. vitis from three different tea-growing regions in China for their susceptibilities to eight insecticides using a simple leaf-dip methodology. E. vitis was found to be most sensitive to indoxacarb (LC50<0.5 mg/liter) and least sensitive to isoprocarb (LC50>5 mg/liter) and sophocarpidine (LC50>95 mg/liter, a botanical pesticide) regardless of populations. Population (geographical) variations were higher for indoxacarb and imidacloprid than other compounds. Judging by the 95% fiducial limits of LC50 values, all populations had similar susceptibilities to chlorfenapyr, bifenthrin, and acetamiprid or imidacloprid. Correlation analysis suggested that chlorfenapyr and indoxacarb or isoprocarb may have a high risk of cross resistance. Considering potency (LC50) and maximum residual levels, chlorfenapyr and bifenthrin are good insecticide options followed by acetamiprid and indoxacarb. These results provide valuable information to intelligently select insecticides for IPM programs that are efficacious against E. vitis while also managing insecticide resistance and maximum residual levels for tea production in China. PMID:26470253

  2. Catalogue of Workforce Information Sources: Decision Making Assistance for Regional Economic Development. U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Labor, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In early 2006, The U.S. Department of Labor (DOL), Employment and Training Administration (ETA) began an initiative called Workforce Innovation in Regional Economic Development (WIRED) to help regions create competitive conditions, integrate economic and workforce development activities, and demonstrate that talent development can successfully…

  3. Spatiotemporal patterns and source implications of aromatic hydrocarbons at six rural sites across China's developed coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhou; Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Xinming; Lü, Sujun; Huang, Zhonghui; Huang, Xinyu; Yang, Weiqiang; Wang, Yuesi; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are important anthropogenic precursors of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosols. Here we measured ambient aromatic hydrocarbons from March 2012 to February 2014 at six rural sites in China's developed coastal regions. On average, benzene (B) comprised > 50% of total benzene (B), toluene (T), ethylbenzene (E), and xylenes (X) (BTEX) at sites in the Northeast China Plain (NECP) or in the North China Plain (NCP), whereas T, E, and X accounted for > 77% of total BTEX at sites in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and the Pearl River Delta in the south. BTEX at the northern sites was significantly correlated (p < 0.01) with combustion tracer-carbon monoxide (CO) but weakly correlated with traffic marker-methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), suggesting that their main sources were coal and biofuel/biomass burning with substantially elevated B levels during the winter heating period. In contrast, BTEX at the southern sites originated mainly from traffic-related and/or industrial emission sources, as indicated by the poor correlations with CO but highly significant (p < 0.01) correlations with MTBE and tetrachloroethylene, an industrial emission tracer. The B/CO emission ratios from measurement agreed within a factor of 2 with that of a previous widely used emission inventory of China, but the T/CO ratio at the NECP site and the o-X/CO ratio at the NCP site were 29% and 38% of that in the inventory, respectively; the E/CO and X/CO ratios at the YRD site were 3.2-3.5 fold that in the emission inventory.

  4. The identification of source regions of black carbon at a receptor site off the eastern coast of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Qingfeng; Hu, Min; Guo, Song; Wu, Zhijun; Hu, Weiwei; Peng, Jianfei; Hu, Wei; Wu, Yusheng; Yuan, Bin; Zhang, Qiang; Song, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The black carbon (BC) mass concentration and the particle chemical compositions were continually measured at Changdao Island, which is a regional receptor site off the eastern coast of China. This island is in the transport passage of the continental outflow to the Pacific Ocean when the East Asia monsoon prevails in the winter and spring. The campaign period was for March and April 2011, which corresponded to heating and non-heating periods in northern China. The effect of BC emission source regions on BC measured at Changdao Island between the heating and non-heating periods was determined by integrating the total potential source contribution function (TPSCF) model with the new monthly emission inventory in 2010 and the fire counts retrieved from MODIS during the campaign. BC concentrations were determined to be highest for similar times of day for both the heating and non-heating periods: 4.27 μg m-3 at 8:00 AM and 3.06 μg m-3 at 9:00 AM, respectively. The probable source regions for BC were primarily located in Shandong and Jiangsu provinces (and in other neighboring provinces) for both periods. However, the source regions for the non-heating period extended more to the north and southwest than those of the heating period. TPSCF values were correlated with the emission rates from residential, industry, transportation, and power plants sources in the anthropogenic emission inventory. This correlation provides an indirect and qualitative process to verify the emission inventory. In the heating period, the predominant source was the residential source in the emission inventory, and this source had a significant effect on the BC concentration. The differing peak concentrations between the two periods may be observed because of the increased residential heating during the heating period, which suggested that the measures employed by the government and environmental managers to reduce the emissions of pollutants should be stricter in the identified source regions

  5. Paleozoic-early Mesozoic gold deposits of the Xinjiang Autonomous Region, northwestern China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rui, Z.; Goldfarb, R.J.; Qiu, Y.; Zhou, T.; Chen, R.; Pirajno, F.; Yun, G.

    2002-01-01

    The late Paleozoic-early Mesozoic tectonic evolution of Xinjiang Autonomous Region, northwestern China provided a favorable geological setting for the formation of lode gold deposits along the sutures between a number of the major Eastern Asia cratonic blocks. These sutures are now represented by the Altay Shan, Tian Shan, and Kunlun Shan ranges, with the former two separated by the Junggar basin and the latter two by the immense Tarim basin. In northernmost Xinjiang, final growth of the Altaid orogen, southward from the Angara craton, is now recorded in the remote mid- to late Paleozoic Altay Shan. Accreted Early to Middle Devonian oceanic rock sequences contain typically small, precious-metal bearing Fe-Cu-Zn VMS deposits (e.g. Ashele). Orogenic gold deposits are widespread along the major Irtysh (e.g. Duyolanasayi, Saidi, Taerde, Kabenbulake, Akexike, Shaerbulake) and Tuergen-Hongshanzui (e.g. Hongshanzui) fault systems, as well as in structurally displaced terrane slivers of the western Junggar (e.g. Hatu) and eastern Junggar areas. Geological and geochronological constraints indicate a generally Late Carboniferous to Early Permian episode of gold deposition, which was coeval with the final stages of Altaid magmatism and large-scale, right-lateral translation along older terrane-bounding faults. The Tian Shan, an exceptionally gold-rich mountain range to the west in the Central Asian republics, is only beginning to be recognized for its gold potential in Xinjiang. In this easternmost part to the range, northerly- and southerly-directed subduction/accretion of early to mid-Paleozoic and mid- to late Paleozoic oceanic terranes, respectively, to the Precambrian Yili block (central Tian Shan) was associated with 400 to 250 Ma arc magmatism and Carboniferous through Early Permian gold-forming hydrothermal events. The more significant resulting deposits in the terranes of the southern Tian Shan include the Sawayaerdun orogenic deposit along the Kyrgyzstan border and

  6. Internationalization, Regionalization, and Soft Power: China's Relations with ASEAN Member Countries in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Rui

    2012-01-01

    Since the late 1980s, there has been a resurgence of regionalism in world politics. Prospects for new alliances are opened up often on a regional basis. In East and Southeast Asia, regionalization is becoming evident in higher education, with both awareness and signs of a rising ASEAN+3 higher education community. The quest for regional influence…

  7. 77 FR 64100 - Glycine from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... Administrative Review, 77 FR 21738 (April 11, 2012) (Preliminary Results). \\2\\ See Memorandum to the File... a timely request to withdraw its request for review of these companies. Preliminary Results, 77 FR... calculation with respect to the sole company subject to this review, Baoding Mantong Fine Chemistry Co....

  8. 75 FR 24880 - Administrative Review of Honey from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... Review and Intent to Rescind, In Part, 74 FR 68249 (December 23, 2009) (``Preliminary Results''). DATES... and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 74 FR 5821... Review, 74 FR 11087 (March 16, 2009). As noted above, on December 23, 2009, the Department published...

  9. Measuring Polycentricity of Mega-City Regions in China Based on the Intercity Migration Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Xiaoyan; Yeh, Anthony G. O.

    2016-06-01

    This paper uses the intercity migration flows to examine relations between Chinese cities, identify the important mega-city regions and measure each region's polycentricity from an interaction perspective. Data set contains the long-term residential migration trajectories of three million Sina weibo users across 345 cities. Cities with close connectivity deployed around one or several mega cities are identified as mega-city regions. Features of the mega-city regions are characterized by the strength of migration flows, density of connections, and regional migration patterns. The results show that the disparities exist in different mega-city regions; most mega-city regions are lack of polycentricity.

  10. Basement structures of East and South China Seas and adjacent regions from gravity inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Dongliang; Ke, Xiaoping; Wang, Yong

    2016-03-01

    The satellite-derived gravity gives us an opportunity to investigate the basement structures of the East and South China Seas since the satellite gravimetry could provide large scale gravity data with high resolution of 1 arc-min by 1 arc-min. We isolate the residual gravity anomaly corresponding to the basement by subtracting the gravity anomalies of sediments and Moho undulations from satellite-derived free-air gravity anomalies. Two methods, namely gravity inversion method and convolution method based on flexure isostasy model, are used to calculate the Moho undulations in order to guarantee the accuracy of the Moho undulations since it occupies large percentages of the gravity anomalies. We invert the isolated gravity anomaly for the basement depths of East and South China Seas and adjacent areas with resolution of 1 arc-min by 1 arc-min. The basement depths of East and South China Seas range from 0.5 km to 12 km and the Moho depths vary between 6 km and 32 km. The basement topography reveals many tectonic depressions and two spreading axes concealed by the sediments, which are unseen in the bathymetry. The two spreading axes correspond to the spreading ridges derived from magnetic anomaly and the SW-NE oriented spreading axis extends SW much farther than that identified from magnetic anomaly, almost reaching to the Nam Con Son Basin. We also find that the faults constrain the distributions of basement depressions since the faults usually lie along the places where large changes of basement depth take place. Reversely, the basement map could be used to identify the unknown faults. Besides, according to the four profiles in the East and South China Seas, the mirror-image relation was found between the basement topography and the underlying Moho undulations that when the basement depth increases or decreases, the corresponding Moho depth decreases or increases.

  11. Simulations of Tsunami Hazard from Regional Sources in the South China and Adjoining Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalligeris, N.; Synolakis, C. E.; Okal, E. A.

    2008-12-01

    We examine the tsunami potential from sources located in the South China Sea and its adjoining basins, the Sulu and Sulawezi Seas, by running simulations using the MOST code for a number of scenarios of possible earthquakes at the various local subduction zones. In the Sulawezi Sea, we consider the events of 1918 at the Mindanao subduction zone, and 1996 at the Northern end of the Makassar Strait. In the Sulu Sea, we consider a scenario inspired by the 1948 Panay earthquake (because of the fractured nature of the plate system in those areas, it is not feasible to consider much larger earthquakes). In all three cases, we find that the tsunami is contained within the relevant marginal sea and does not penetrate significantly the greater South China Basin, but could cause significant damage to the Eastern coast of Borneo. Farther North, we consider as worst case scenarios events reaching 10**29 dyn*cm with rupture lengths of 400 km, both off Luzon Island and, under a slightly different geometry, off the Luzon Straits separating the Philippines and Taiwan. Such scenarios carry very significant hazard to all coastlines bordering the South China Sea, including Indochina and Borneo. We will also present models of landslide-generated tsunamis, inspired from the event of 14 February 1934 off the Luzon Strait, and the presumably Holocene Brunei mega-slide.

  12. Tsunami Simulations for Regional Sources in the South China and Adjoining Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalligeris, N.; Okal, E. A.; Synolakis, C. E.

    2009-04-01

    The tsunami potential from sources located in the South China Sea and its adjoining basins, Sulu and Sulawesi Seas, is examined. Tsunami numerical modeling was performed using the MOST code [Titov and Synolakis, 1998] for a number of possible earthquake scenarios at the various local subduction zones. For the Sulawesi Sea, we consider the events of 1918 at the Mindanao subduction zone, and the 1996 at the Northern end of the Makassar Strait. For the Sulu Sea, we consider a scenario inspired by the 1948 Panay earthquake (because of the fractured nature of the plate system in those areas, it is not feasible to consider much larger earthquakes). Tsunami simulations of these events show that the tsunami is contained within the relevant marginal seas and does not penetrate significantly the greater South China Basin. However, tsunami hazard that could cause significant damage was found for the Eastern coast of Borneo. Farther North, we consider as worst case scenarios events reaching 10**29 dyn*cm with rupture lengths of 400 km, both off Luzon Island and, under a slightly different geometry, off the Luzon Straits separating the Philippines and Taiwan. These scenarios show very significant hazard to all coastlines bordering the South China Sea, including Indochina and Borneo. Finally, two landslide-generated tsunami scenarios are presented, inspired from the event of 14 February 1934 off the Luzon Strait, and the presumably Holocene Brunei mega-slide.

  13. Latitudinal concordance between biogeographic regionalization, community structure, and richness patterns: a study on the reptiles of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Youhua; Srivastava, Diane S.

    2015-02-01

    Latitudinal patterns in species richness may be affected by both continuous variations in macroecological factors as well as discrete change between biogeographic regions. We examined whether latitudinal reptilian richness and community structure in China were best explained by three macroecological patterns (mid-domain effects, Rapoport's rule effects, or environmental correlates) within or across the ranges of biogeographic realms. The results showed that (1) there was a weak mid-domain effect within the Oriental Realm. However, the mid-domain effect was detected neither at the overall regional scale nor in the Palaearctic Realm. (2) Rapoport's rule was only weakly supported for reptilian fauna in China at lower latitudinal areas. (3) Environmental variables were more strongly correlated with species' latitudinal community structure and richness patterns at the scale of biogeographic realms. Based on the faunal similarity of reptilian community across latitudinal bands, we proposed a latitudinal delineation scheme at 34° N for dividing East Asia into Oriental and Palaearctic biogeographic realms. At last, at the functional group level, we also evaluated the relevant ecological patterns for lizard and snake species across different latitudinal bins, showing that the distributions of lizards presented strong mid-domain effects at the latitudinal ranges within the Oriental Realm and over the whole range but did not support Rapoport's rule. In comparison, snake species supported Rapoport's rule at low latitudinal zones but did not present any remarkable mid-domain effects at any spatial extents. In conclusion, biogeographic realms are an appropriate scale for studying macroecological patterns. Reptilian latitudinal richness patterns of China were explained by a combination of environmental factors and geometric constraints, while the latitudinal community structure patterns were greatly affected by environmental gradients. Functional guilds present differentiated

  14. A Model for coupled heat and moisture transfer in permafrost regions of three rivers source areas, Qinghai, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, X. L.; Xiang, X. H.; Wang, C. H.; Shao, Q. Q.

    2012-04-01

    Soil freezing occurs in winter in many parts of the world. The transfer of heat and moisture in freezing and thawing soil is interrelated, and this heat and moisture transport plays an important role in hydrological activity of seasonal frozen region especially for three rivers sources area of China. Soil freezing depth and ice content in frozen zone will significantly influence runoff and groundwater recharge. The purpose of this research is to develop a numerical model to simulate water and heat movement in the soil under freezing and thawing conditions. The basic elements of the model are the heat and water flow equations, which are heat conduction equation and unsaturated soil fluid mass conservation equation. A full-implicit finite volume scheme is used to solve the coupled equations in space. The model is calibrated and verified against the observed moisture and temperature of soil during freezing and thawing period from 2005 to 2007. Different characters of heat and moisture transfer are testified, such as frozen depth, temperature field of 40 cm depth and topsoil moisture content, et al. The model is calibrated and verified against observed value, which indicate that the new model can be used successfully to simulate numerically the coupled heat and mass transfer process in permafrost regions. By simulating the runoff generation process and the driven factors of seasonal changes, the agreement illustrates that the coupled model can be used to describe the local phonemes of hydrologic activities and provide a support to the local Ecosystem services. This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51009045; 40930635; 41001011; 41101018; 51079038), the National Key Program for Developing Basic Science (No. 2009CB421105), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 2009B06614; 2010B00414), the National Non Profit Research Program of China (No. 200905013-8; 201101024; 20101224).

  15. Virulence and molecular diversity of the Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici population in Xinjiang in relation to other regions of western China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, wheat stripe rust caused severe yield losses in western China, especially the Xinjiang Autonomous Region. The population of the stripe rust fungus, Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), in the vast region had not been well studied. To determine the population structure and comp...

  16. [Characteristics of PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations in mountain background region of East China].

    PubMed

    Su, Bin-Bin; Liu, Xin-Dong; Tao, Jun

    2013-02-01

    The online PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were measured from March 2011 'to February 2012 at the national atmospheric background monitoring station in Wuyishan of Fujian Province to discuss the characteristic of PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations and the impact factors in forest and mountain background region of East China. HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) Model was used to investigate the potential sources of particulates during the pollution episodes. The results showed that the background concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were (23 +/- 16) microg.m-3 and (18 +/- 12) microg.m-3, respectively. Seasonal variations of PMl0 and PM2.5 loadings were observed, and loadings decreased in the same order: spring > autumn > winter > summer. PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were obviously higher in spring than in other seasons because of the transportation of dust storm. The fine particles were the dominant pollutant which accounted for 76% of PM10. The good correlation between PM10/PM2.5 and gas pollutants suggested that regional transportation and secondary aerosol were the major sources in the background station. One episode occurring in April 2011 was related with the transportation of dust storm. However, another episode occurring in September 2011 had close relationship with the transportation of higher pollutant loadings in East China. PMID:23668109

  17. Object-based change detection in rapid urbanization regions with remotely sensed observations: a case study of Shenzhen, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lihuang; Dong, Guihua; Wang, Wei-Min; Yang, Lijun; Liang, Hong

    2013-10-01

    China, the most populous country on Earth, has experienced rapid urbanization which is one of the main causes of many environmental and ecological problems. Therefore, the monitoring of rapid urbanization regions and the environment is of critical importance for their sustainable development. In this study, the object-based classification is employed to detect the change of land cover in Shenzhen, which is located in South China and has been urbanized rapidly in recent three decades. First, four Landsat TM images, which were acquired on 1990, 2000 and 2010, respectively, are selected from the image database. Atmospheric corrections are conducted on these images with improved dark-object subtraction technique and surface meteorological observations. Geometric correction is processed with ground control points derived from topographic maps. Second, a region growing multi-resolution segmentation and a soft nearest neighbour classifier are used to finish object-based classification. After analyzing the fraction of difference classes over time series, we conclude that the comparison of derived land cover classes with socio-economic statistics demonstrates the strong positive correlation between built-up classes and urban population as well as gross GDP and GDPs in second and tertiary industries. Two different mechanisms of urbanization, namely new land development and redevelopment, are revealed. Consequently, we found that, the districts of Shenzhen were urbanized through different mechanisms.

  18. Contribution to knowledge of the genus Chydaeus in Xizang Autonomous Region [Tibet] and Yunnan Province, China (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Harpalini)

    PubMed Central

    Kataev, Boris M.; Liang, Hongbin; Kavanaugh, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Five new species of the genus Chydaeus Chaudoir, 1854 are described from China: Chydaeus fugongensis sp. n. (Shibali, Fugong County, Yunnan Province), Chydaeus gutangensis sp. n. (Gutang, Medog County, Xizang Autonomous Region [Tibet]), Chydaeus hanmiensis sp. n. (Hanmi, Medog County, Xizang Autonomous Region [Tibet]), Chydaeus asetosus sp. n. (NE of Fugong, Yunnan Province), and Chydaeus baoshanensis sp. n. (N of Baoshan, Yunnan Province). Taxonomic and faunistic notes on eleven other species occurring in Xizang and Yunnan are also provided. Chydaeus shunichii Ito, 2006 is re-described, based on specimens from Lushui County, Yunnan. Chydaeus kumei Ito, 1992 is treated as a subspecies of Chydaeus andrewesi Schauberger, 1932 [NEW STATUS]. The taxonomic status of Chydaeus guangxiensis Ito, 2006 is discussed. The following taxa are recorded from China for the first time: Chydaeus obtusicollis Schauberger, 1932 (Xizang and Yunnan), Chydaeus malaisei Kataev & Schmidt, 2006 (Yunnan), Chydaeus semenowi (Tschitschérine, 1899) (Xizang and Yunnan), Chydaeus andrewesi andrewesi Schauberger, 1932 (Xizang and Yunnan), Chydaeus andrewesi kumei Ito (Yunnan), Chydaeus bedeli interjectus Kataev & Schmidt, 2002 (Xizang), and Chydaeus bedeli vietnamensis Kataev & Schmidt, 2002 (Yunnan). PMID:22423195

  19. Interdisciplinary investigation on ancient Ephedra twigs from Gumugou Cemetery (3800 B.P.) in Xinjiang region, northwest China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Mingsi; Yang, Yimin; Wang, Binghua; Wang, Changsui

    2013-07-01

    In the dry northern temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, the genus Ephedra comprises a series of native shrub species with a cumulative application history reaching back well over 2,000 years for the treatment of asthma, cold, fever, as well as many respiratory system diseases, especially in China. There are ethnological and philological evidences of Ephedra worship and utilization in many Eurasia Steppe cultures. However, no scientifically verifiable, ancient physical proof has yet been provided for any species in this genus. This study reports the palaeobotanical finding of Ephedra twigs discovered from burials of the Gumugou archaeological site, and ancient community graveyard, dated around 3800 BP, in Lop Nor region of northwestern China. The macro-remains were first examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and then by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for traits of residual biomarkers under the reference of modern Ephedra samples. The GC-MS result of chemical analysis presents the existence of Ephedra-featured compounds, several of which, including benzaldehyde, tetramethyl-pyrazine, and phenmetrazine, are found in the chromatograph of both the ancient and modern sample. These results confirm that the discovered plant remains are Ephedra twigs. Although there is no direct archaeological evidence for the indication of medicinal use of this Ephedra, the unified burial deposit in which the Ephedra was discovered is a strong indication of the religious and medicinal awareness of the human inhabitants of Gumugou towards this plant. PMID:23564427

  20. [Effects of different forest restoration approaches on the soil quality in red soil region of Southern China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun; Zheng, Hua; Zeng, Jing; Chen, Fa-Lin; Zhang, Kai

    2013-05-01

    In 2008-2009, an investigation was conducted on the effects of three typical forest restoration approaches, i. e., naturally restored secondary forest, artificially restored native species Pinus massoniana plantation (Masson pine plantation), and introduced species Pinus elliottii plantation (slash pine plantation), on the soil quality in red soil region of Southern China. The results showed that the soil moisture content, bulk density, particle composition, and the contents of total carbon (C), total nitrogen (N), total phosphorus (P), organic C, available N, available P, and available potassium (K) in natural secondary forest were all superior to those in artificial plantations. The soil physical, chemical, and microbial properties were integrated into a soil quality index, which was significantly higher (1.20 +/- 0.10) in natural secondary forest than in Masson pine plantation (0.59 +/- 0.03) and slash pine plantation (0.59 +/- 0.06). Our results suggested as compared with the restoration with native species P. massoniana and with introduced P. elliottii, natural restoration could be a better forest restoration approach to improve the soil quality in red soil region of Southern China. PMID:24015552

  1. Changes in snow cover over China in the 21st century as simulated by a high resolution regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ying; Gao, Xuejie; Wu, Jia; Giorgi, Filippo

    2011-10-01

    On the basis of the climate change simulations conducted using a high resolution regional climate model, the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) Regional Climate Model, RegCM3, at 25 km grid spacing, future changes in snow cover over China are analyzed. The simulations are carried out for the period of 1951-2100 following the IPCC SRES A1B emission scenario. The results suggest good performances of the model in simulating the number of snow cover days and the snow cover depth, as well as the starting and ending dates of snow cover to the present day (1981-2000). Their spatial distributions and amounts show fair consistency between the simulation and observation, although with some discrepancies. In general, decreases in the number of snow cover days and the snow cover depth, together with postponed snow starting dates and advanced snow ending dates, are simulated for the future, except in some places where the opposite appears. The most dramatic changes are found over the Tibetan Plateau among the three major snow cover areas of Northeast, Northwest and the Tibetan Plateau in China.

  2. Statistical study of atmospheric gravity waves in the mesopause region observed by a lidar chain in eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Shaohua; Yang, Guotao; Dou, Xiankang; Xu, Jiyao; Chen, Chunxia; Gong, Shunsheng

    2015-08-01

    Atmospheric gravity wave activities in the mesopause region have been observed and statistically investigated with a sodium lidar chain in eastern China. In total, there were 471 gravity waves identified from over 5400 h of observations at Hainan (19.99°N, 110.34°E), Hefei (31.87°N, 117.23°E), and Beijing (40.47°N, 115.97°E). These waves typically had vertical wavelengths of λz = 2 - 4 km, observed periods of Tob = 1 - 4 h, amplitude growth factors of β = - 0.025 ~ + 0.05 km-1, and wave amplitudes of Aeβ * 90km = 1.5 - 6 %. Strong systematic parameter relationships were found, and they agree with the predictions of diffusive filtering theory. Statistical results show that the seasonal variability of gravity wave activity had a summer-maximum and winter-minimum characteristics in the mesopause region over eastern China. A qualitative interpretation is proposed regarding the seasonal and geographic variability observed by the lidar chain, based on analysis of source properties and influences from background wind, which vary by season.

  3. Regional Analysis of Building Distributed Energy Costs and CO2 Abatement: A U.S. - China Comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Mendes, Goncalo; Feng, Wei; Stadler, Michael; Steinbach, Jan; Lai, Judy; Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Ding, Yan; Zhao, Jing; Tian, Zhe; Zhu, Neng

    2014-04-09

    The following paper conducts a regional analysis of the U.S. and Chinese buildings? potential for adopting Distributed Energy Resources (DER). The expected economics of DER in 2020-2025 is modeled for a commercial and a multi-family residential building in different climate zones. The optimal building energy economic performance is calculated using the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER CAM) which minimizes building energy costs for a typical reference year of operation. Several DER such as combined heat and power (CHP) units, photovoltaics, and battery storage are considered. The results indicate DER have economic and environmental competitiveness potential, especially for commercial buildings in hot and cold climates of both countries. In the U.S., the average expected energy cost savings in commercial buildings from DER CAM?s suggested investments is 17percent, while in Chinese buildings is 12percent. The electricity tariffs structure and prices along with the cost of natural gas, represent important factors in determining adoption of DER, more so than climate. High energy pricing spark spreads lead to increased economic attractiveness of DER. The average emissions reduction in commercial buildings is 19percent in the U.S. as a result of significant investments in PV, whereas in China, it is 20percent and driven by investments in CHP. Keywords: Building Modeling and Simulation, Distributed Energy Resources (DER), Energy Efficiency, Combined Heat and Power (CHP), CO2 emissions 1. Introduction The transition from a centralized and fossil-based energy paradigm towards the decentralization of energy supply and distribution has been a major subject of research over the past two decades. Various concerns have brought the traditional model into question; namely its environmental footprint, its structural inflexibility and inefficiency, and more recently, its inability to maintain acceptable reliability of supply. Under such a troubled setting

  4. Evaluation of indirect loss from hypothetical catastrophes in two regions with different economic development levels in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, W.; Li, N.; Wu, J.-D.; Liu, X.-Q.

    2012-11-01

    This study evaluates and compares the indirect economic loss (IEL) resulting from two hypothetical catastrophes occurring in China - in developed Shanghai and in less-developed Sichuan - to provide new measures of disaster reduction. IEL was divided into indirect economic loss due to the disruption of production process (IEL I) and indirect economic loss induced by the disturbance of industrial lines (IEL II). An input-output model was used to assess these two types of IEL. The study showed that (1) developed regions may be more vulnerable with respect to IEL; (2) IEL II is the primary factor contributing to total IEL; (3) decision makers need to focus on IEL II beside IEL I which is usually the main disaster-reduction target after a disaster; and (4) tradeoff between economic growth and disaster prevention is needed to achieve regional sustainable development.

  5. Δ14C level of annual plants and fossil fuel derived CO2 distribution across different regions of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, X. T.; Ding, X. F.; Fu, D. P.; Zhou, L. P.; Liu, K. X.

    2013-01-01

    The 14C level in annual plants is a sensitive tracer for monitoring fossil fuel derived CO2 in the atmosphere. Corn leave samples were selected from different regions of China, including high mountains in the Tibetan Plateau, grassland in Inner Mongolia, and inland and coastal cities during the summer of 2010. The 14C/12C ratio of the samples was measured with the NEC compact AMS system at the Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University. The fossil fuel derived CO2 was estimated by comparing the measured Δ14C values of corn leave samples to background atmospheric Δ14C level. The influences of topography, meteorological conditions and carbon cycling processes on the fossil fuel derived CO2 concentration are considered when interpreting the data. Our results show a clear association of the low Δ14C values with regions where human activities are intensive.

  6. Changes in Climate over the South China Sea and Adjacent Regions: Response to and Feedback on Global Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Song

    2016-04-01

    El Niño-Southern Oscillation and the Asian monsoon have experienced significant long-term changes in the past decades. These changes, together with other factors, have in turn led to large climate change signals over the South China Sea and adjacent regions including Southeast Asia, the western Pacific, and the tropical Indian Ocean. An attribution analysis of the feedback processes of these signals indicate the predominant importance of water vapor and cloud radiative feedbacks. Experiments with multiple earth system models also show that these regional climate change signals exert significant influences on global climate. The increases in atmospheric heating over Southeast Asia and sea surface temperature in the adjacent oceans in the past decades have weakened the Indian and African monsoons, led to a drying effect over East Asia, and generated wave-train patterns in both the northern and southern hemispheres, explaining several prominent climate features in and outside Southeast Asia.

  7. Adaptability of ESR dating of fault gouge in aseismic region: A case study on Hangzhou region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Qi; Chen, Han-Lin; Zhang, Wei; Ye, Jian-Qing; Liu, Jing-Wei; Zhao, Dong; Niu, Jia-Wen; Liao, Lin

    2008-05-01

    ESR dating has been widely used in seismic assessment. In this paper, we collected fault gouge samples system-atically for ESR (Electron Spin Resonance) dating, and sediment samples of overlying strata, and offset strata for OSL (Optically Stimulated Luminescence) dating along Xiaoshan-Qiuchuan fault (XQF) trending NE-SW, Xiaofeng-Sanmen fault (XSF) trending NW-SE, and Changhua-Putuo fault (CPF) trending E-W. In the same fault outcrop, the ESR data of fault gouge is greater than the OSL data of the strata offset by fault. Therefore, the ESR data of fault gouge colleted in Hangzhou region do not represent the time of weak fault movement in Late Quaternary region, but represent the strong fault movements in Late Cenozoic. The episode of fault movement in Late Cenozoic could be speculated according to the ESR data: 1.00 0.58 Ma, there were strong fault movements along the XSF, XQF and CPF in Hangzhou region; 0.58 0.45 Ma, the fault movements of all faults became weaker and did not zero ESR signals significantly for ESR dating of fault movements; 0.45 0.20 Ma, there were strong fault movements along part of XQF; 0.1 0.01 Ma, there were fault movements along the XSF only, but the fault movements were not strong enough to reset the ESR signal; Since 0.01 Ma, the Hangzhou region tends to be stable. In addition, the XSF might be the division line of fault segmentation of XQF; there were strong fault movements along the southwest segment of XQF during 0.45 Ma to 0.20 Ma; while the fault movements along the northeast segment of XQF mainly occurred during 1.00 0.58 Ma.

  8. Intraspecific polymorphism of rDNA among five Nosema bombycis isolates from different geographic regions in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Handeng; Pan, Guoqing; Luo, Bo; Li, Tian; Yang, Qiong; Vossbrinck, Charles R; Debrunner-Vossbrinck, Bettina A; Zhou, Zeyang

    2013-05-01

    The microsporidian Nosema bombycis is the causative agent of pébrine, a highly infectious disease of the silkworm Bombyx mori. Three regions of the multicopy rDNA gene were examined in order to investigate the relationships among five Nosema isolates from various regions of China. Ribosomal DNA alleles are present on each of the 18 chromosomes of N. bombycis and show a high degree of variation. In this study the small subunit (SSU) rDNA, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and intergenic spacer (IGS) regions for up to 10 different rDNA copies from each N. bombycis isolate were cloned and sequenced. As expected we see greater polymorphism in the ITS region (88 variable sites in 179 nucleotides) and IGS (200 variable sites in 279 nucleotides) than in the SSU rDNA (24 variable sites in 1232 nucleotides). Phylogenetic analysis shows greater differences between alleles within an isolate than between the same alleles from different isolates. The data reveal two very different groups, one from the Sichuan province and the other with a broad distribution including four provinces in southeast China and Japan. The Sichuan isolate does not have any rDNA alleles with sequences identical to those in the other isolates, implying that it is a separate, non-intermixing, population or perhaps a separate species from the other isolates. In light of the polymorphic nature of the rDNA alleles in N. bombycis and their presence on every chromosome, the rDNA gene may be useful for understanding the movement and ultimately the source of pébrine infections. PMID:23399511

  9. Geochemistry of Cretaceous granites from Mianning in the Panxi region, Sichuan Province, southwestern China: Implications for their generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Cheng; Huang, Zhilong; Qi, Liang; Fu, Pingqing; Liu, Congqiang; Li, Endong; Guan, Tao

    2007-03-01

    The Cretaceous granites of Mianning, located in the northern Panxi region, were emplaced after collision of the Tibetan Plateau and Yangtze Block. These granites have very high K 2O + Na 2O, Ga, Zr, Nb, Y, REE (except Eu), and very low MgO, CaO, P 2O 5, and Sr contents relative to M-, I- or S-type granites. Based on the chemical discrimination criteria of Whalen et al . [Whalen, J.B., Currie, K.L., Chappell, B.W., 1987. A-type granites: geochemical characteristics, distribution and petrogenesis. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 95, 407-419], most of them are A-type granites. Moreover, the granites plot in the range of post-collision granites and belong to the A2 type. Elevated initial Sr isotopic ratios (>0.72) suggest their derivation dominantly from a crustal source. These features are consistent with granite formation in a post-orogenic setting, such as after subduction or collision between of the Tibetan Plateau and Yangtze Block. In addition, the granites are characterized by low abundances of Ba, Sr, P, Ti, and Eu, positive correlation between Ba and Eu anomalies, and negative correlation between Rb and K/Rb. Plots of Rb vs. Sr suggest that fractional crystallization affected the final compositions of these granites after melting from a dominantly crustal source. From the late Proterozoic to late Mesozoic, the crustal composition, compared to that of the mantle, appears to have increased in the Panxi region. While the mantle component played an important part in the generation of Cretaceous granites in southeastern China, its influence was relatively minor in the Panxi region. Thus, there was a significant difference in mantle evolution between southeastern China and the Panxi region, which led to different metallogenic processes.

  10. Immune factors and fatty acid composition in human milk from river/lake, coastal and inland regions of China.

    PubMed

    Urwin, Heidi J; Zhang, Jian; Gao, Yixiong; Wang, Chunrong; Li, Lixiang; Song, Pengkun; Man, Qingqing; Meng, Liping; Frøyland, Livar; Miles, Elizabeth A; Calder, Philip C; Yaqoob, Parveen

    2013-06-01

    Breast milk fatty acid composition may be affected by the maternal diet during gestation and lactation. The influence of dietary and breastmilk fatty acids on breast milk immune factors is poorly defined. We determined the fatty acid composition and immune factor concentrations of breast milk from women residing in river/lake, coastal and inland regions of China, which differ in their consumption of lean fish and oily fish. Breast milk samples were collected on days 3–5 (colostrum), 14 and 28 post-partum (PP) and analysed for soluble CD14 (sCD14), transforming growth factor (TGF)-b1, TGF-b2, secretory IgA (sIgA) and fatty acids. The fatty acid composition of breast milk differed between the regions and with time PP. The concentrations of all four immune factors in breast milk decreased over time, with sCD14, sIgA and TGF-b1 being highest in the colostrum in the river and lake region. Breast milk DHA and arachidonic acid (AA) were positively associated, and g-linolenic acid and EPA negatively associated, with the concentrations of each of the four immune factors. In conclusion, breast milk fatty acids and immune factors differ between the regions in China characterised by different patterns of fish consumption and change during the course of lactation. A higher breast milk DHA and AA concentration is associated with higher concentrations of immune factors in breast milk, suggesting a role for these fatty acids in promoting gastrointestinal and immune maturation of the infant. PMID:23148871

  11. Size-resolved aerosol trace elements at a rural mountainous site in Northern China: importance of regional transport.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuepeng; Wang, Yuesi; Sun, Yang; Tian, Shili; Cheng, Mengtian

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents an intensive field measurement campaign carried out at the rural mountainous site of Xinglong (960 m a.s.l.) in Northern China during Sep. 3-20 2008. Size-segregated samples were collected daily and analyzed for 25 trace elements (TEs). The majority of the TEs showed comparable concentrations in fine (<2.1 μm) and coarse particles (2.1-9 μm). In addition, elements like K, Mn, Cu, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Tl and Pb were accumulated in fine mode whereas Al, Co and Sb were concentrated in a coarse mode. For most of the TEs, their enrichment factor (EF) increased with decreasing particle size from large (>9 μm) to coarse, and to fine, signifying influences by anthropogenic emissions. The observed concentrations of heavy metals in fine particles, with EF values higher than 100, were significantly higher than the historical data recorded in the 1980s and 1990s, reflecting the increasing emissions in the target area. One pronounced event occurred on Sep. 14 when all of the TEs showed a peak, which was associated with regional emissions from both southeast (SE) and southwest (SW) indicated by backward trajectory analysis. This is further supported by the measurements in upwind sites where the concentrations of TEs were several times higher than those in Xinglong, suggesting potential source regions. Episodes of heavy metals were generally characterized by significant enhancements of fine mode and air mass trajectories from SE or SW alone. Taking this finding and factor analysis results together, the metallic episodes were attributable to the long-range transport of regional plumes from coal consumption and nonferrous metal smelting. With the rapid urbanization and industrialization in Northern China, the increasing emissions of TEs will place a great strain on human health and the environment in the downwind regions, thus long-term and multi-site observation with high time resolution are necessary. PMID:23792621

  12. Frequency of Bt resistance alleles in Helicoverpa armigera in the Xinjiang cotton-planting region of China.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoping; Feng, Hongqiang; Gao, Yulin; Wyckhuys, Kris A G; Wu, Kongming

    2010-10-01

    Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a key insect pest of cotton in Xinjiang cotton-planting region of northwest China. In this region, cotton is grown on average ≈ 1.65 million ha (1.53 ≈ 1.80 million ha) annually in largely monoculture agricultural landscapes, similarly to cropping systems in the United States or Australia. Under such cropping regimes, naturally occurring refuges (with non-Bt crops) may be insufficient to prevent H. armigera resistance development to Bt toxins. Therefore, we assessed frequency of alleles conferring resistance to Cry1Ac toxin of F(1) and F(2) offspring of H. armigera isofemale lines from two distinct localities in the region during 2005-2009. More specifically, a total of 224 isofemale lines was collected from Korla County (≈ 70% Bt cotton adoption) and 402 lines from Shache County (≈ 5% Bt cotton planting). Subsequent offspring was screened on Cry1Ac artificial diet. From 2005 to 2009, resistance gene frequency in Korla fluctuated between 0.0000 and 0.0040, while being 0.0000-0.0008 in individuals collected from Shache, and there were no significant increases in both counties from 2005 to 2009. Relative average development rates (RADRs) of larvae in F(1) tests showed significant increases from Korla, but not in Shache. RADR of F(1) larvae is significantly correlated with RADR of F(2) offspring, indicating genetic variation in response to toxin in field H. armigera population. Although the occurrence of Cry1Ac resistance alleles was low in Xinjiang cotton-planting region of China, particular attention should be given to H. armigera resistance development in Korla County. PMID:22546469

  13. Seasonal variation in blood pressure and its relationship with outdoor temperature in 10 diverse regions of China: the China Kadoorie Biobank

    PubMed Central

    LEWINGTON, Sarah; LI, LiMing; SHERLIKER, Paul; GUO, Yu; MILLWOOD, Iona; BIAN, Zheng; WHITLOCK, Gary; YANG, Ling; COLLINS, Rory; CHEN, Junshi; WU, Xianping; WANG, Shaojie; HU, Yihe; JIANG, Li; YANG, Liqiu; LACEY, Ben; PETO, Richard; CHEN, Zhengming

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Mean blood pressure varies moderately with outdoor air temperature in many Western populations. Substantial uncertainty exists, however, about the strength of the relationship in other populations, and the relevance to it of age, adiposity, medical treatment, climate and housing conditions. Methods To investigate the relationship of blood pressure with season and outdoor temperature, we analysed cross-sectional data from the China Kadoorie Biobank study of 506 673 adults aged 30-79 recruited from ten diverse urban and rural regions in China. Analyses related mean blood pressure – overall and in various subgroups – to mean local outdoor temperature. Results The mean difference in systolic blood pressure (SBP) between summer (June-August) and winter (December-February) was 10 mmHg overall, and was more extreme, on average, in rural than in urban areas (12 vs. 8 mmHg; p for interaction<0.0001). Above 5°C, SBP was strongly inversely associated with outdoor temperature in all ten areas studied, with 5.7 (SE 0.04) mmHg higher SBP per 10°C lower outdoor temperature. The association was stronger in older people and in those with lower body mass index. At lower temperatures there was no evidence of an association among participants who reported having home central heating. Conclusions Blood pressure was strongly inversely associated with outdoor temperature in Chinese adults across a range of climatic conditions, although access to home central heating appeared to remove much of the association during the winter months. Seasonal variation in blood pressure should be considered in the clinical management of hypertension. PMID:22688260

  14. Injection device-related risk management toward safe administration of medications: experience in a university teaching hospital in The People’s Republic of China

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ling-ling; Li, Wei; Song, Ping; Zhou, Quan

    2014-01-01

    The use of injection devices to administer intravenous or subcutaneous medications is common practice throughout a variety of health care settings. Studies suggest that one-half of all harmful medication errors originate during drug administration; of those errors, about two-thirds involve injectables. Therefore, injection device management is pivotal to safe administration of medications. In this article, the authors summarize the relevant experiences by retrospective analysis of injection device-related near misses and adverse events in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, People’s Republic of China. Injection device-related near misses and adverse events comprised the following: 1) improper selection of needle diameter for subcutaneous injection, material of infusion sets, and pore size of in-line filter; 2) complications associated with vascular access; 3) incidents induced by absence of efficient electronic pump management and infusion tube management; and 4) liquid leakage of chemotherapeutic infusion around the syringe needle. Safe injection drug use was enhanced by multidisciplinary collaboration, especially among pharmacists and nurses; drafting of clinical pathways in selection of vascular access; application of approaches such as root cause analysis using a fishbone diagram; plan–do–check–act and quality control circle; and construction of a culture of spontaneous reporting of near misses and adverse events. Pharmacists must be professional in regards to medication management and use. The depth, breadth, and efficiency of cooperation between nurses and pharmacists are pivotal to injection safety. PMID:24669192

  15. Emergy measures of carrying capacity and sustainability of a target region for an ecological restoration programme: a case study in Loess Hilly Region, China.

    PubMed

    Dang, Xiaohu; Liu, Guobin

    2012-07-15

    Evaluating the sustainability of a target region for an ecological restoration programme is challenging because it involves different aspects of human society and environment as well as multiple disciplines. Carrying capacity provides a useful measure of the sustainability of a given region where an ecological restoration programme is implemented. In this article, the Yangou catchment, a geomorphic unit, was used as a case study in the Loess Hilly Region of China, where emergy synthesis was used to measure the environmental resources base. The specific standard of living in terms of emergy was employed to calculate carrying capacity over the period 1998-2005 and to assess the sustainability of the Yangou catchment where an ecological restoration programme was carried out. The results of the evaluation indicated that after implementing the ecological restoration programme, there was some improvement in the environmental aspects of the Yangou catchment during the study period, suggesting that the ecological restoration programme alleviated ecological degradation. However, several emergy-based indices and the support areas also illustrated that the ecological restoration programme was not successful enough in terms of preservation and utilisation of environmental resources to enhance sustainability. This indicates that further actions are necessary on conserving environmental resources, improving the emergy input structure for agricultural production and in lifestyle changes for the local people in living in the Yangou catchment. PMID:22425879

  16. Epidemiology of Patients Hospitalized for Ocular Trauma in the Chaoshan Region of China, 2001–2010

    PubMed Central

    Cao, He; Li, Liping; Zhang, Mingzhi

    2012-01-01

    Background The burden and pattern of ocular trauma in China are poorly known and not well studied. We aimed at studying the epidemiological characteristics of patients hospitalized for ocular trauma at major ophthalmology departments in the largest industrial base of plastic toys in China. Methods A retrospective study of ocular trauma cases admitted to 3 tertiary hospitals in China from 1st January 2001 to 31st December 2010 was performed. Results The study included a total of 3,644 injured eyes from 3,559 patients over the 10-year period: 2,008 (55.1%) open-globe injuries, 1,580 (43.4%) closed-globe injuries, 41 (1.1%) chemical injuries, 15 (0.4%) thermal injuries and 678 (18.6%) ocular adnexal injuries. The mean age of the patients was 29.0±16.8 years with a male-to-female ratio of 5.2∶1 (P = 0.007). The most frequent types of injury were work-related injuries (1,656, 46.5%) and home-related injuries (715, 20.1%). The majority of injuries in males (56.2%) and females (36.0%) occurred in the 15–44 age group and 0–14 age group, respectively. The final visual acuity correlated with the initial visual acuity (Spearman’s correlation coefficient = 0.659; P<0.001). The Ocular Trauma Score also correlated with the final visual acuity (Spearman’s correlation coefficient = 0.655; P<0.001). Conclusions This analysis provides an epidemiological study of patients who were hospitalized for ocular trauma. Preventive efforts are important for both work-related and home-related eye injuries. PMID:23118997

  17. Characteristics of aerosols and mass closure study at two WMO GAW regional background stations in eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Peng; Zhang, Renjian; Huan, Ning; Zhou, Xiuji; Zhang, Yangmei; Zhou, Huaigang; Zhang, Leiming

    2012-12-01

    In the summer and winter of 2004 and 2005, size-segregated atmospheric aerosols were sampled with modified Andersen KA200 Multi-stage impactor at two regional background stations in the eastern China, the Shangdianzi station (SDZ) in the suburb of Beijing and the Lin'An station (LA) in the Yangtze river delta region, both are WMO Global Atmospheric Watch station, which represent the regional background of air pollutions of the two rapid developing economical zone of China, the Yangtze River Delta region (YRD) and Beijing-Tianjin region. The aerosol mass size distributions, ionic compositions, organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), and elemental components were analyzed. The mass concentrations for TSP (total suspend particle), PM11 (aerodynamic diameter less than 11 μm), and PM2.1 (aerodynamic diameter less than 2.1 μm) at both sites showed obviously different between the winter and summer, with higher mass concentrations measured in the winter time. All seasonal mean mass concentrations of PM2.1 accounted for over 50% of PM11 at both sites. The aerosol mass closure study indicated that the total mass concentration reconstructed from the aerosol chemical composition agreed well with the measured gravimetric mass at the two stations. The fine aerosol particles at the two stations were composed mainly of sulfate and organic matter. In the summer, more than half of the PM2.1 mass was sulfate, suggesting a dominant contribution of secondary aerosol to the fine particles in these two regions. In the winter, the contribution of nitrate to the fine particles increased significantly due to the lower volatile losses under the cold weather. The proportions of soil type components in the PM2.1 showed similar magnitude in the winter and summer at Lin'An station but significant seasonal differences with higher fractions in the winter at Shangdianzi station. On average EC accounted for about 2%-6% of the fine particle mass (PM2.1) at both sites with proportionally lower EC

  18. Volatile organic compounds from vegetation in southern Yunnan Province, China: Emission rates and some potential regional implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geron, Chris; Owen, Sue; Guenther, Alex; Greenberg, Jim; Rasmussen, Rei; Hui Bai, Jian; Li, Qing-Jun; Baker, Brad

    Little information is currently available regarding emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in southern Asia. To address the need for BVOC emission estimates in regional atmospheric chemistry simulations, 95 common plant species were screened for emissions of BVOC in and near the Xishuangbanna Tropical Biological Gardens in southern Yunnan Province, Peoples' Republic of China in February 2003. In situ measurements with leaf cuvettes and branch bag enclosures were used in combination with portable gas chromatography, flame ionization, photoionization, and mass spectral detection to identify and quantify BVOC emissions. Forty-four of the species examined emitted isoprene at rates exceeding 20 μg C g -1 (leaf dry weight) h -1. An emphasis was placed on the genus Ficus, which is important in the region and occupies a wide range of ecological niches. Several species in the footprint of a nearby flux tower were also examined. Several palm species and an abundant fern ( Cyclosorus parasiticus) emitted substantial amounts of isoprene, and probably accounted for observed daytime mean isoprene fluxes from the understory of a Hevea brasiliensis plantation of 1.0 and 0.15 mg C m -2 h -1 during the wet and dry seasons, respectively. These measurements verify that both the forest floor and canopy in this region can be sources of isoprene. Monoterpene emissions exceeded 1.0 μg-C g -1 (leaf dry weight) h -1 from only 4 of 38 species surveyed, including some Ficus species and H. brasiliensis. However most of the trees of the latter species were sparsely foliated due to dry season senescence, and emission factors are approximately an order of magnitude lower than those reported during the wet season. BVOC emission rates and physiology of many species are impacted by reduced moisture availability, especially Mangifera indica. South Asia is a region undergoing rapid landuse change and forest plantation establishment, with large increases in area of high BVOC

  19. Relationships between regional economic sectors and water use in a water-scarce area in China: A quantitative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weiping; Gao, Lei; Liu, Pin; Hailu, Atakelty

    2014-07-01

    Northern China has been facing severe water scarcity as a result of vigorous economic growth, population expansion and changing lifestyles. A typical case is Shandong province whose water resources per capita is approximately only a sixth of the national average and a twentieth of the global average. It is useful to assess the implications of the province’s growth and trade patterns for water use and water conservation strategies. This study quantitatively analyses relationships between regional economic sectors and water use in Shandong using an input-output model for virtual water resources. The changes in key indicators for 1997-2007 are tracked and the effects of water-saving policies on these changes are examined. The results highlight the benefits of applying a virtual water trade analysis on a water-scarce region where water resources exhibit highly heterogeneous temporal and geographical distributions. The net export of virtual water in Shandong was initially large, but this declined over the years and the province has recently become a net importer. Between 1997 and 2002, water use in most sectors increased due to rapid urbanisation and industrialisation. Since then, water use in all Shandong economic sectors exhibit a downward trend despite continued increases in goods and services net exports, a trend which can be attributed to the vigorous implementation of water-saving policies and measures, especially water use quotas. Economic sectors consume water directly and indirectly and understanding the pattern of virtual water trade implied by sectoral relationships is important for managing water scarcity problems. This study fills the knowledge gap in the existing literature created by the lack of case studies that dynamically assess virtual water trade and analyse the effects of water-saving policies and measures. The study draws policy recommendations that are relevant for future water planning in Shandong and other regions in northern China.

  20. Genetic variation between Schistosoma japonicum lineages from lake and mountainous regions in China revealed by resequencing whole genomes.

    PubMed

    Yin, Mingbo; Liu, Xiao; Xu, Bin; Huang, Jian; Zheng, Qi; Yang, Zhong; Feng, Zheng; Han, Ze-Guang; Hu, Wei

    2016-09-01

    Schistosoma infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Schistosomiasis japonica is endemic in mainland China along the Yangtze River, typically distributed in two geographical categories of lake and mountainous regions. Study on schistosome genetic diversity is of interest in respect of understanding parasite biology and transmission, and formulating control strategy. Certain genetic variations may be associated with adaptations to different ecological habitats. The aim of this study is to gain insight into Schistosoma japonicum genetic variation, evolutionary origin and associated causes of different geographic lineages through examining homozygous Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) based on resequenced genome data. We collected S. japonicum samples from four sites, three in the lake regions (LR) of mid-east (Guichi and Tonglin in Anhui province, Laogang in Hunan province) and one in mountainous region (MR) (Xichang in Sichuan province) of south-west of China, resequenced their genomes using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology, and made use of the available database of S. japonicum draft genomic sequence as a reference in genome mapping. A total of 14,575 SNPs from 2059 genes were identified in the four lineages. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed significant genetic variation exhibited between the different geographical lineages, and further revealed that the MR Xichang lineage is phylogenetically closer to LR Guich lineage than to other two LR lineages, and the MR lineage might be evolved from LR lineages. More than two thirds of detected SNPs were nonsynonymous; functional annotation of the SNP-containing genes showed that they are involved mainly in biological processes such as signaling and response to stimuli. Notably, unique nonsynonymous SNP variations were detected in 66 genes of MR lineage, inferring possible genetic adaption to mountainous ecological condition. PMID:27207135

  1. Temporal variation and regional transfer of heavy metals in the Pearl (Zhujiang) River, China.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Gengchong; Li, Ying; Tong, Yindong; Yang, Lei; Zhu, Yan; Zhang, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Heavy metals are highly persistent in water and have a particular significance in ecotoxicology. Heavy metals loading from the Pearl River are likely to cause significant impacts on the environment in the South China Sea and the West Pacific. In this study, using monthly monitoring data from a water quality monitoring campaign during 2006-2012, the temporal variation and spatial transfer of six heavy metals (lead (Pb), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), and mercury (Hg)) in the Pearl River were analyzed, and the heavy metal fluxes into the sea were calculated. During this period, the annual heavy metal loads discharged from the Pearl River into the South China Sea were 5.8 (Hg), 471.7 (Pb), 1524.6 (Cu), 3819.6 (Zn), 43.9 (Cd), and 621.9 (As) tons, respectively. The metal fluxes showed a seasonal variation with the maximum fluxes occurring from June to July. There is a close association between metal fluxes and runoff. The analysis of the heavy metal transfer from the upstream to the downstream revealed that the transfer from the upstream accounted for a major portion of the heavy metals in the Pearl River Delta. Therefore, earlier industry relocation efforts in the Pearl River watershed may have limited effect on the water quality improvement in surrounding areas. It is suggested that watershed-based pollution control measures focusing on wastewater discharge in both upstream and downstream areas should be developed and implemented in the future. PMID:26780062

  2. Planning for Regional Water Resources in Northwest China Using a Dynamic Simulation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Kalra, A.; Ahmad, S.

    2014-12-01

    Problem of water scarcity is prominent in northwest China due to its typical desert climate. Exceedence of sustainable yield of groundwater resources has resulted in groundwater depletion, which has raised a series of issues such as drying wells, increasing pumping costs and environmental damage. With a rapid agricultural and economic development, population increase has added extra stress on available water resources by increasing municipal, agricultural and industrial demands. This necessitates efficient water resources management strategies with better understanding of the causes of water stress and options for sustainable development of economy and management of environment. This study focuses on simulating the water supply and demand, under the influence of changing climate, for Shanshan County, located in northwest of China. A dynamic simulation model is developed using the modeling tool Stella for monthly water balance for the period ranging from 2000-2030. Different future water demand and supply scenarios are developed to represent: (1) base scenario- with current practices; (2) change of the primary water source; (3) improvement of irrigation efficiency; (4) reduction of irrigation area; and (5) reduction of industrial water demand. The results indicate that besides growing demand, the low water use efficiency and low level of water reuse are the primary concerns for water scarcity. Groundwater recharge and abstraction could be balanced by 2030, by reducing industrial demand by 50% and using high efficiency irrigation for agriculture. The model provided a better understanding of the effect of different policies and can help in identifying water resources management strategies.

  3. Agricultural water supply/demand changes under projected future climate change in the arid region of northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ying; Shen, Yanjun

    2016-09-01

    The water resources in the arid region of northwestern China, which are impacted by climate change, tend to be more unstable, and the environment and ecosystems will suffer from severe water shortage. In this paper, potential future climate trends were predicted based on CMIP5 simulations in this region. The water availability and agricultural water demand under future climate change scenarios were estimated. Impacted by increases in temperature, the irrigation water demand will increase by 4.27-6.15 billion m3 in this region over the next 60 years, compared to the demand of 32.75 billion m3 during 1971-2000. However, the annual runoff will only increase by 4.8-8.5 billion m3, which is equivalent to or even less than the increased irrigation water demand. In fact, the increased demand for industrial, domestic and ecological water were not considered here. Thus, the water supply/demand contradiction will result in more severe water shortages in the future. According to a comparison with simulated irrigation water demand under three adaptation strategy scenarios, we should take effective measures such as improving the efficiency of irrigation water utilization, reducing crop planting areas and adjusting crop planting structures to alleviate the impacts of future climate changes and human activities on the water supply and water use in this region.

  4. Development of relative risk model for regional groundwater risk assessment: a case study in the lower Liaohe River Plain, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianbo; Zuo, Rui; Teng, Yanguo; Wang, Jinsheng; Wang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Increasing pressure on water supply worldwide, especially in arid areas, has resulted in groundwater overexploitation and contamination, and subsequent deterioration of the groundwater quality and threats to public health. Environmental risk assessment of regional groundwater is an important tool for groundwater protection. This study presents a new approach for assessing the environmental risk assessment of regional groundwater. It was carried out with a relative risk model (RRM) coupled with a series of indices, such as a groundwater vulnerability index, which includes receptor analysis, risk source analysis, risk exposure and hazard analysis, risk characterization, and management of groundwater. The risk map is a product of the probability of environmental contamination and impact. The reliability of the RRM was verified using Monte Carlo analysis. This approach was applied to the lower Liaohe River Plain (LLRP), northeastern China, which covers 23604 km2. A spatial analysis tool within GIS which was used to interpolate and manipulate the data to develop environmental risk maps of regional groundwater, divided the level of risk from high to low into five ranks (V, IV, III, II, I). The results indicate that areas of relative risk rank (RRR) V cover 2324 km2, covering 9.8% of the area; RRR IV covers 3986 km2, accounting for 16.9% of the area. It is a new and appropriate method for regional groundwater resource management and land use planning, and is a rapid and effective tool for improving strategic decision making to protect groundwater and reduce environmental risk. PMID:26020518

  5. Development of Relative Risk Model for Regional Groundwater Risk Assessment: A Case Study in the Lower Liaohe River Plain, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xianbo; Zuo, Rui; Teng, Yanguo; Wang, Jinsheng; Wang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Increasing pressure on water supply worldwide, especially in arid areas, has resulted in groundwater overexploitation and contamination, and subsequent deterioration of the groundwater quality and threats to public health. Environmental risk assessment of regional groundwater is an important tool for groundwater protection. This study presents a new approach for assessing the environmental risk assessment of regional groundwater. It was carried out with a relative risk model (RRM) coupled with a series of indices, such as a groundwater vulnerability index, which includes receptor analysis, risk source analysis, risk exposure and hazard analysis, risk characterization, and management of groundwater. The risk map is a product of the probability of environmental contamination and impact. The reliability of the RRM was verified using Monte Carlo analysis. This approach was applied to the lower Liaohe River Plain (LLRP), northeastern China, which covers 23604 km2. A spatial analysis tool within GIS which was used to interpolate and manipulate the data to develop environmental risk maps of regional groundwater, divided the level of risk from high to low into five ranks (V, IV, III, II, I). The results indicate that areas of relative risk rank (RRR) V cover 2324 km2, covering 9.8% of the area; RRR IV covers 3986 km2, accounting for 16.9% of the area. It is a new and appropriate method for regional groundwater resource management and land use planning, and is a rapid and effective tool for improving strategic decision making to protect groundwater and reduce environmental risk. PMID:26020518

  6. Trends of deposition fluxes and loadings of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in the artificial Three Northern Regions Shelter Forest across northern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Huang, Tao; Zhang, Leiming; Gao, Hong; Shen, Yanjie; Ma, Jianmin

    2015-12-01

    This study provides the first estimate of dry deposition fluxes of criteria air pollutants (SO2 and NOx) across the Three Northern Regions Shelter Forest (TNRSF) region in Northern China and their long-term trends from 1982 to 2010 using the inferential method. Dry deposition velocities of SO2 and NOx increased in many places of the TNRSF up to 118.2% for SO2 and 112.1% for NOx over the last three decades due to the increased vegetation coverage over the TNRSF. The highest atmospheric deposition fluxes of SO2 and NOx were found in the Central-North China region, followed by the Northeast and the Northwest China regions of the TNRSF. A total of 820,000 t SO2 and 218,000 t NOx was estimated to be removed from the atmosphere through dry deposition process over the TNRSF from 1982 to 2010. About 50% of the total removal occurred in the Central-North China region. The estimated total SO2 and NOx dry deposition fluxes from 1982 to 2010 between a TNRSF site in this region and an adjacent farmland outside the TNRSF showed that the fluxes of these two chemicals at the TNRSF site were the factors of 2-3 greater than their fluxes in the farmland. PMID:26412263

  7. Malaria baseline survey in four special regions of northern Myanmar near China: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiological data in the border area of the northern Myanmar near China are either of little accuracy or sparse of information, due to the poor public health system in these areas, and malaria cases may be severely underestimated. This study aimed to investigate malaria prevalence and health facilities for malaria services, and to provide the baseline information for malaria control in these areas. Methods A cluster, randomized, cross-sectional survey was conducted in four special regions of northern Myanmar, near China: 5,585 people were selected for a malaria prevalence survey and 1,618 households were selected for a mosquito net-owning survey. Meanwhile, a total of 97 health facilities were surveyed on their malaria services. The data were analysed and descriptive statistics were used. Results A total of 761 people were found positive through microscopy test, including 290 people for Plasmodium falciparum, 460 for Plasmodium vivax, two for Plasmodium malariae, and nine for mixed infection. The average prevalence of malaria infection was 13.6% (95% CI: 12.7-14.6%). There were significant differences of prevalence of malaria infection among the different regions (P < 0.01); 38.1% (95% CI: 28.3-48.0%) of health facilities had malaria microscope examination service, and 35.1% (95% CI: 25.4-44.7%) of these had malaria treatment services, 23.7% (95% CI: 15.1-32.3%) had malaria outreach services. 28.3% (95% CI: 26.1-30.6%) of households owned one or more long-lasting insecticidal bed nets (LLINs). Conclusion The prevalence of malaria infection was high in the four special regions of northern Myanmar, near China. Malaria services in health facilities in these areas were weak. ITNs/LLINs owning rate was also low. The cross-border cooperation mechanism should be further strengthened to share the epidemical data about malaria, support technical assistance, and conduct joint malaria control or elimination activities. PMID:25098412

  8. Evaluation of the radioactive contamination in fungi genus Boletus in the region of Europe and Yunnan Province in China.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Zalewska, Tamara; Krasińska, Grażyna; Apanel, Anna; Wang, Yuanzhong; Pankavec, Sviatlana

    2015-10-01

    Numerous species of wild-grown mushrooms are among the most vulnerable organisms for contamination with radiocesium released from a radioactive fallout. A comparison was made on radiocesium as well as the natural gamma ray-emitting radionuclide ((40)K) activity concentrations in the fruiting bodies of several valued edible Boletus mushrooms collected from the region of Europe and Yunnan Province in China. Data available for the first time for Boletus edulis collected in Yunnan, China, showed a very weak contamination with (137)Cs. Radiocesium concentration activity of B. edulis samples that were collected between 2011 and 2014 in Yunnan ranged from 5.2 ± 1.7 to 10 ± 1 Bq kg(-1) dry matter for caps and from 4.7 ± 1.3 to 5.5 ± 1.0 Bq kg(-1) dry matter for stipes. The mushrooms Boletus badius, B. edulis, Boletus impolitus, Boletus luridus, Boletus pinophilus, and Boletus reticulatus collected from the European locations between 1995 and 2010 showed two to four orders of magnitude greater radioactivity from (137)Cs compared to B. edulis from Yunnan. The nuclide (40)K in B. badius was equally distributed between the caps and stipes, while for B. edulis, B. impolitus, B. luridus, B. pinophilus, and B. reticulatus, the caps were richer, and for each mushroom, activity concentration seemed to be more or less species-specific. PMID:26048471

  9. Pollution of intensively managed greenhouse soils by nutrients and heavy metals in the Yellow River Irrigation Region, Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiaole; Cao, Jing; Tang, Rangyun; Zhang, Shengqiang; Dong, Fang

    2014-11-01

    The present study aimed to assess the potential ecological risk of heavy metals and nutrient accumulation in polytunnel greenhouse soils in the Yellow River irrigation region (YRIR), Northwest China, and to identify the potential sources of these heavy metals using principal component analysis. Contents of available nitrogen (AN), phosphorus (AP), and potassium (AK) in the surface polytunnel greenhouse soils (0-20 cm) varied from 13.42 to 486.78, from 39.10 to 566.97, and from 21.64 to 1,156.40 mg kg(-1), respectively, as well as AP, soil organic matter (SOM) and AK contents tended to increase significantly at the 0-20- and 20-40-cm soil layers. Heavy metal accumulations occurred in the polytunnel greenhouse soils as compared to arable soils, especially at a depth of 20 cm where Cd, Zn and Cu contents were significantly higher than arable soil. Cd and As were found to be the two main polluting elements in the greenhouse soils because their contents exceeded the thresholds established for greenhouse vegetable production HJ333-2006 in China and the background of Gansu province. It has been shown that Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn at the 0-20-cm soil layer were derived mainly from agricultural production activities, whereas contents of Cr and Ni at the same soil layer were determined by 'natural' factors and As originated from natural sources, deposition and irrigation water. PMID:25169801

  10. HIV testing in re-education through labour camps in Guangxi Autonomous Region, China (a cross-sectional survey)

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Lorraine; Reekie, Joanne; Liu, Wei; Chen, Yi; Wu, Zunyou; Li, Jianghong; Zhang, Lei; Wand, Handan; Donovan, Basil; Butler, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Objective HIV testing is mandatory in re-education-through-labour camps (laojiaosuo) in China yet no studies have reported on the process. Methods The survey response rate was 100% although 29 detainees were excluded because they were under 18 years of age. A cross-sectional face-to-face survey was conducted in three labour camps in Guangxi, located in the south-western region of China. Results Of the 755 detainees surveyed, 725 (96%) reported having a blood test in the labour camps of whom 493 (68%) thought this included an HIV test. 61 detainees self-reported they were HIV infected, their status confirmed by medical records, if available. Of these, 53 (87%) recalled receiving post-test HIV education, and 15 (25%) were currently receiving HIV antiretroviral therapy. Pretest education on HIV was provided to 233/725 (32%) detainees. The study further reports on detainees’ reactions and feelings towards non-disclosure and disclosure of their HIV test results in the labour camps. Conclusions Mandatory testing is almost universal in the labour camps although a proportion of detainees were unaware that this included an HIV test. HIV test results should be disclosed to all labour camp detainees to reduce their distress of not knowing and prevent misconceptions about their HIV status. Labour camps provide another opportunity to implement universal treatment (‘Test and Treat’) to prevent the spread of HIV. PMID:25739879

  11. Factors controlling accumulation of soil organic carbon along vegetation succession in a typical karst region in Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shujuan; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Kelin; Pan, Fujing; Yang, Shan; Shu, Shiyan

    2015-07-15

    Vegetation succession enhances the accumulation of carbon in the soil. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation in different vegetation types in the karst region of Southwest China. The goal of this study was to identify and prioritize the effects of environmental parameters, including soil physico-chemical properties, microbial biomass, enzyme activities, and litter characteristics, on SOC accumulation along a vegetation succession sere (grassland, shrubland, secondary forest, and primary forest) in the karst landscape of Southwest China. Relationships between these parameters and SOC were evaluated by redundancy analysis. The results showed that SOC accumulation was significantly different among vegetation types (P<0.01) and increased with vegetation succession (from 29.10g·kg(-1) in grassland to 73.92g·kg(-1) in primary forest). Soil biochemistry and physical characteristics significantly affected the accumulation of SOC. Soil microbial biomass showed a predominant effect on SOC in each of the four vegetation types. In addition, the soil physical property (especially the silt content) was another controlling factor in the early stages (grassland), and urease activity and saccharase activity were important controlling factors in the early-middle and middle-late stages, respectively. Litter characteristics only showed mild effects on SOC accumulation. Variation partitioning analysis showed that the contribution of sole main factors to SOC variation decreased, while the interaction effect among parameters increased along the succession gradient. PMID:25828412

  12. A study on the trends of vehicular emissions in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Jianlei; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Wei, Wei; Zhou, Ying; Wei, Xiao; Chen, Dongsheng

    2012-12-01

    This paper aims to study the vehicular emissions trends in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, located in northern China. The multiyear emission inventories of NOX, CO, VOC and PM10 from road vehicles in the period 1999-2010 were developed by the COPERT IV model. Results show that vehicular emissions of CO and VOC have decreased by annual average change rates (AACR) of -3.1% to -5.2% and -4.4% to -6.9% in the study area, respectively. However, due to the rapid development of freight traffic, emissions of NOX and PM10 have kept increasing in Tianjin and Hebei. Based on the vehicular emission inventories, trends of emission levels for vehicles with different standards, as well as the overall effects of implementing vehicular emission mitigation strategies were assessed. It is suggested that passenger cars (PC) with Euro 0 and Euro I standards, which were at higher emission level in the PC fleet, should be gradually eliminated. Although the increasing rates (IR) of emissions from PC were lower than those of the PC population, the sharp growth of PC population in recent years contributed to a remarkable increase of emissions, weakening the overall mitigation effect. Total vehicle population capacity and other mitigation measures should be studied in China in order to develop new and more effective vehicular emission control strategies.

  13. Comparison of the Kriging and neural network methods for modeling foF2 maps over North China region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chunhua; Zhou, Chen; Liu, Jing; Lan, Ting; Yang, Guobin; Zhao, Zhengyu; Zhu, Peng; Sun, Hengqing; Cui, Xiao

    2015-07-01

    The F2 layer critical frequency of the ionosphere (foF2) is one of the most significant parameters for studying the ionosphere. To investigate the large-scale characteristics of the ionosphere over particular regions, modeling foF2 is an effective method. In this paper, we use both the Kriging (KG) and neural network (NN) methods to reconstruct foF2 maps over North China. The neural network is trained by the genetic algorithm (GA) to avoid the 'local minimum' phenomenon in most NN applications. We then carry out a comparison between foF2 provided by both the KG and NN methods with vertical model operation of ionosonde data including Beijing, Qingdao, Suzhou, and Changchun. All of the foF2 data used in the comparison are obtained from the oblique and vertical mode operation of ionosonde from the China Ground-based Seismo-ionospheric Monitoring Network. To allow for a possible seasonal and diurnal variation, data obtained from summer, winter, and equinox months are applied in the present comparison. In addition, we make a comparison during a magnetic storm period. The results of our comparisons demonstrate that both the KG and NN methods are appropriate tools for modeling foF2 maps. However, when the data set is spare, the performance of the NN method is better than the KG method. On the other hand, the KG method is more robust than the NN method during a magnetic storm.

  14. Soil organic carbon of an intensively reclaimed region in China: Current status and carbon sequestration potential.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xunfei; Zhan, Yu; Wang, Fei; Ma, Wanzhu; Ren, Zhouqiao; Chen, Xiaojia; Qin, Fangjin; Long, Wenli; Zhu, Zhenling; Lv, Xiaonan

    2016-09-15

    Land reclamation has been highly intensive in China, resulting in a large amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) loss to the atmosphere. Evaluating the factors which drive SOC dynamics and carbon sequestration potential in reclaimed land is critical for improving soil fertility and mitigating global warming. This study aims to determine the current status and factors important to the SOC density in a typical reclaimed land located in Eastern China, where land reclamation has been undergoing for centuries. A total of 4746 topsoil samples were collected from 2007 to 2010. The SOC density of the reclaimed land (3.18±0.05kgCm(-2); mean±standard error) is significantly lower than that of the adjacent non-reclaimed land (5.71±0.04kgCm(-2)) (p<0.05). A Random Forest model is developed and it captures the relationships between the SOC density and the environmental/anthropogenic factors (R(2)=0.59). The soil pH, land use, and elevation are the most important factors for determining SOC dynamics. In contrast, the effect of the reclamation age on the SOC density is negligible, where SOC content in the land reclaimed during years 1047-1724 is as low as that reclaimed during years 1945-2004. The scenario analysis results indicate that the carbon sequestration potential of the reclaimed lands may achieve a maximum of 5.80±1.81kgCO2m(-2) (mean±SD) when dryland is converted to flooded land with vegetable-rice cropping system and soil pH of ~5.9. Note that in some scenarios the methane emission substantially offsets the carbon sequestration potential, especially for continuous rice cropping system. With the optimal setting for carbon sequestration, it is estimated that the dryland reclaimed in the last 50years in China is able to sequester 0.12milliontons CO2 equivalent per year. PMID:27196991

  15. Characteristics and seasonal variation of organic matter in PM2.5 at a regional background site of the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jialiang; Hu, Junchao; Xu, Binhua; Hu, Xiaoling; Sun, Peng; Han, Wenliang; Gu, Zeping; Yu, Xiangming; Wu, Minghong

    2015-12-01

    One hundred and ten seasonal PM2.5 samples were collected at Lin'an (LA), a regional background site in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region of China, to study the chemical composition, seasonal variation and sources of carbonaceous aerosols in the YRD region. Concentrations of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and composition of solvent-extractable organic compounds (SEOC) including n-alkanes, hopanes, PAHs, n-fatty acids and levoglucosan were analyzed. Back trajectory and potential source contribution function (PSCF) analysis were conducted to identify the possible source areas of PM2.5 at LA. PM2.5 concentration at LA ranged from 15.7 μg m-3 to 182.1 μg m-3, with an annual average of 59.7 μg m-3. A large part of the total carbon (OC + EC, 11.8 μg m-3) was water-soluble (42% in winter and spring, 56% in summer and 49% in autumn). SEOC concentration showed distinct seasonal variation of higher in winter and lower in summer. The average concentrations of n-alkanes and PAHs in winter (105 ng m-3 and 55 ng m-3 respectively) were 5 and 8 times of that in summer. Diagnostic ratios of PAHs and PSCF analysis suggested that vehicle emission was not the main source of PAHs at LA. Based on the levoglucosan concentration (annual average of 136 ng m-3), more than 15% of the OC at LA was from biomass burning. This data set provides useful information for the understanding of the characteristics of PM2.5 in the YRD region.

  16. A Novel HIV-1 Second-Generation Recombinant Form (CRF01_AE/07_BC) Among Heterosexuals in Nei Monggoi Autonomous Region in China.

    PubMed

    An, Minghui; Han, Xiaoxu; Zhao, Bin; Xu, Junjie; Chu, Zhenxing; Shang, Hong

    2016-08-01

    Increasing second-generation recombinant forms (CRF01_AE/07_BC) have been detected in China recently. Here, we isolated a novel CRF01_AE/07_BC second-generation recombinant form in HIV-1-positive Nei Monggoi's heterosexuals with one CRF07_BC inserted into the CRF01_AE backbone. Polygenetic analyses showed that the CRF01_AE region was grouped with the previously reported cluster 5 lineage, which spreads among the sexual population in north of China, inferring that this recombinant event occurred through heterosexual contact in the north of China possibly. The growing emergence of recombinant forms means coexistence of multiple strains and complexity of the HIV-1 epidemic, which reminds us of the urgent necessity to focus the HIV surveillance among the high-risk populations nationwide in China, particularly to enhance preventive measures in HIV-1 low-prevalence areas. PMID:27018546

  17. Assessment of Regional Sustainability Based on Modified Ecological Footprint: A Case Study of Suzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Haizhen; Li, Aimei; Ye, Tian

    2010-11-01

    Ecological Footprint (EF) is an effective method to measure quantitatively sustainable development. However original EF analysis of sustainability at the regional scale provides easily misinterpreted information, which could not reflect truly the pressure of the regional population on the local ecosystem due to the regional import and export. A regional ecosystem could support the local population consumption entirely depending on import, while shift the ecological pressure to other regions and the local ecosystems is thus well preserved. To assess sustainability of a region exactly, two concepts of the consumptive EF and productive EF were put forward. As we acknowledged that original EF only measures human demand for biological goods and services, and does not capture other aspects of social or economic sustainability. Therefore, to assess comprehensively regional sustainability, we attempted to combine several social indicators including unit GDP (Gross Domestic Product) EF, integrated development satisfaction, comprehensive pressure index with the indicator of EF. Also the application to a municipal was discussed. The time series of EF of study area were accounted and the sustainable development status were assessed from 1993 to 2002. Based on the result of EF analysis and the realities of study area, the feasibility of amendments proposed were assessed. Results showed that the amendments proposed were reasonable and feasible, and the resized model could better evaluate the sustainability of a region.

  18. [Evolution of schistosomiasis control and prevention strategies in hilly regions with schistosomiasis endemic in China].

    PubMed

    Lu, Long-ting; Zhu, Rong; Zhang, Li-juan; Zhong, Bo; Feng, Xi-guang; Xu, Xiao-lin; Guo, Jia-gang

    2013-10-01

    This article expatiates the epidemiological characteristics, the evolution process of control and prevention strategies and measures in hilly regions with schistosomiasis endemic, especially the research progress and obstacle factors existed in the implementation process of the comprehensive strategy focused on controlling infection source, aiming at providing references for the hilly regions to reach transmission interrupted standard. PMID:24490372

  19. Thoughts on "Two Exemptions and One Subsidy" (TEOS) in China's Western Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiangyang, Tian

    2008-01-01

    The policy of "two exemptions and one subsidy" (TEOS), which is a "popular sentiment" project, has brought life to the western region's rural education and light to impoverished families. In addition to launching the battle for the "two basics" in the western region, the overall popularization of distance education for rural schools in the western…

  20. Assessment of motor vehicle emission control policies using Model-3/CMAQ model for the Pearl River Delta region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Wenwei; Zheng, Junyu; Wang, Shuisheng; Zhong, Liuju; Lau, Alexis

    2011-03-01

    In recent decades, the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region located in south China has been experiencing severe air pollution, arising from the rapid increase in industry and motor vehicles. As a major contributing source to VOCs and NO x emissions, control of vehicular emissions plays a very important role in improving regional air quality. By taking 2015 as a target year, this paper assessed the impacts of five possible motor vehicle emission control measures and a combined policy scenario on ambient air quality in the PRD region, with the use of the Model-3/CMAQ (Community Multi-scale Air Quality) model. The results show: (1) an overall decreasing pattern in SO 2, NO 2 and PM 10 concentrations was found in central-south metropolitan areas of the PRD region for all measures, but increased O 3 concentrations may occur in these areas as well. The exception to this is that a slight decrease was observed for the cases of motorcycle restriction and introduction of HEV; (2) upgrading to National IV emission standards is the most effective individual measure and can reduce daily averaged NO 2 and PM 10 concentrations by 11.7 ppbV and 21.3 μg m -3, respectively; but involves an increase (at maximum) of 10.3ppbV in O 3 concentration. Evaluation of the combined scenario indicates that solely controlling motor vehicle emissions is not sufficient to improve PRD regional air quality significantly. O 3 and PM 10 concentrations under the same VOC/NO x reduction ratios exhibit differently at different locations, suggesting that integrated and location-specific pollution control strategies, considering co-control of multi-pollutants, are needed in this region in order to decrease primary and secondary pollutant concentrations simultaneously.

  1. Charge structure of a summer thunderstorm in North China: Simulation using a Regional Atmospheric Model System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dongxia; Qie, Xiushu; Peng, Liang; Li, Wanli

    2014-09-01

    Electrification and simple discharge schemes are coupled into a 3D Regional Atmospheric Model System (RAMS) as microphysical parameterizations, in accordance with electrical experiment results. The dynamics, microphysics, and electrification components are fully integrated into the RAMS model, and the inductive and non-inductive electrification mechanisms are considered in the charging process. The results indicate that the thunderstorm mainly had a normal tripole charge structure. The simulated charge structure and lightning frequency are basically consistent with observations of the lightning radiation source distribution. The non-inductive charging mechanism contributed to the electrification during the whole lifetime of the thunderstorm, while the inductive electrification mechanism played a significant role in the development period and the mature stage when the electric field reached a large value. The charge structure in the convective region and the rearward region are analyzed, showing that the charge density in the convective region was double that in the rearward region.

  2. Corticosterone administration upregulated expression of norepinephrine transporter and dopamine β-hydroxylase in rat locus coeruleus and its terminal regions

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yan; Chen, Ping; Li, Ying; Cui, Kui; Noel, Daniel M.; Cummins, Elizabeth D.; Brown, Russell W.; Zhu, Meng-Yang

    2013-01-01

    Stress has been reported to activate the locus coeruleus (LC)–noradrenergic system. In the present study, corticosterone (CORT) was orally administrated to rats for 21 days to mimic stress status. In situ hybridization measurements showed that CORT ingestion significantly increased mRNA levels of norepinephrine transporter (NET) and dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) in the LC region. Immunofluorescence staining and western blotting revealed that CORT treatment also increased protein levels of NET and DBH in the LC, as well as NET protein levels in the hippocampus, the frontal cortex and the amygdala. However, CORT-induced increase of DBH protein levels only appeared in the hippocampus and the amygdala. Elevated NET and DBH expression in most of these areas (except for NET protein levels in the LC) was abolished by simultaneous treatment with combination of corticosteroid receptor antagonist mifepristone and spironolactone (s.c. for 21 days). Also, treatment with mifepristone alone prevented CORT-induced increases of NET expression and DBH protein levels in the LC. In addition, behavioral tasks showed that CORT ingestion facilitated escape in avoidance trials using an elevated T-maze, but interestingly, there was no significant effect on the escape trial. Corticosteroid receptor antagonists failed to counteract this response in CORT-treated rats. In the open-field task, CORT treatment resulted in less activity in a defined central zone compared to controls and corticosteroid receptor antagonist treatment alleviated this increase. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that chronic exposure to CORT results in a phenotype that mimics stress-induced alteration of noradrenergic phenotypes, but the effects on behavior are task-dependent. As the sucrose consumption test strongly suggests CORT ingestion-induced depression-like behavior, further elucidation of underlying mechanisms may improve our understanding of the correlation between stress and the development of

  3. Intensity of regionally applied tastes in relation to administration method: an investigation based on the "taste strips" test.

    PubMed

    Manzi, Brian; Hummel, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    To compare various methods to apply regional taste stimuli to the tongue. "Taste strips" are a clinical tool to determine gustatory function. How a patient perceives the chemical environment in the mouth is a result of many factors such as taste bud distribution and interactions between the cranial nerves. To date, there have been few studies describing the different approaches to administer taste strips to maximize taste identification accuracy and intensity. This is a normative value acquisition pilot and single-center study. The investigation involved 30 participants reporting a normal sense of smell and taste (18 women, 12 men, mean age 33 years). The taste test was based on spoon-shaped filter paper strips impregnated with four taste qualities (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter) at concentrations shown to be easily detectable by young healthy subjects. The strips were administered in three methods (held stationary on the tip of the tongue, applied across the tongue, held in the mouth), resulting in a total of 12 trials per participant. Subjects identified the taste from a list of four descriptors, (sweet, sour, salty, bitter) and ranked the intensity on a scale from 0 to 10. Statistical analyses were performed on the accuracy of taste identification and rated intensities. The participants perceived in order of most to least intense: salt, sour, bitter, sweet. Of the four tastes, sour consistently was least accurately identified. Presenting the taste strip inside the closed mouth of the participants produced the least accurate taste identification, whereas moving the taste strip across the tongue led to a significant increase in intensity for the sweet taste. In this study of 30 subjects at the second concentration, optimized accuracy and intensity of taste identification was observed through administration of taste strips laterally across the anterior third of the extended tongue. Further studies are required on more subjects and the additional concentrations

  4. Emissions of oxygenated volatile organic compounds from open crop burning in Yangtze River Delta region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimoto, H.; Kudo, S.; Pan, X.; Inomata, S.; Saito, S.; Kanaya, Y.; Wang, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were made by gas chromatography/flame ionization detection/mass spectrometry (GC/FID/MS) and proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) at Rudong, a rural area of Central East China in June 2010. During the campaign we identified several plumes originated from open biomass burning by the simultaneous enhancements of carbon monoxide and acetonitrile. Based on positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis, the contribution of biomass burning was in the range from 60 to 80% for the plumes. We found that oxygenated VOCs were predominant for these events. The emission ratios of OVOCs to CO for open crop burnings derived in this work were found to be high. Combined with the updated CO emissions of 12.7 Tg per year from crop burning, we estimated OVOC emissions from crop burning can be abou