Science.gov

Sample records for administrative simplification adoption

  1. 77 FR 48007 - Administrative Simplification: Adoption of Operating Rules for Health Care Electronic Funds...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... the Health Care EFT Standards IFC (77 FR 1556). The standard for the ERA is the X12 835 TR3, adopted... Administrative Simplification: Adoption of Operating Rules for Health Care Electronic Funds Transfers (EFT) and... CFR Part 162 RIN 0938-AR01 Administrative Simplification: Adoption of Operating Rules for Health...

  2. 77 FR 22949 - Administrative Simplification: Adoption of a Standard for a Unique Health Plan Identifier...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... FR 3328) in which the Secretary of HHS (the Secretary) adopted the ICD-10-CM and ICD-10-PCS (ICD-10... Federal Register on August 22, 2008 (73 FR 49742); ``HIPAA Administrative Simplification: Modification to... Federal Register on August 22, 2008 (73 FR 49796) (hereinafter referred to as the ICD-10 proposed...

  3. Administrative simplification: adoption of operating rules for eligibility for a health plan and health care claim status transactions. Interim final rule with comment period.

    PubMed

    2011-07-01

    Section 1104 of the Administrative Simplification provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (hereafter referred to as the Affordable Care Act) establishes new requirements for administrative transactions that will improve the utility of the existing HIPAA transactions and reduce administrative costs. Specifically, in section 1104(b)(2) of the Affordable Care Act, Congress required the adoption of operating rules for the health care industry and directed the Secretary of Health and Human Services to "adopt a single set of operating rules for each transaction * * * with the goal of creating as much uniformity in the implementation of the electronic standards as possible." This interim final rule with comment period adopts operating rules for two Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) transactions: eligibility for a health plan and health care claim status. This rule also defines the term "operating rules" and explains the role of operating rules in relation to the adopted transaction standards. In general, transaction standards adopted under HIPAA enable electronic data interchange through a common interchange structure, thus minimizing the industry's reliance on multiple formats. Operating rules, in turn, attempt to define the rights and responsibilities of all parties, security requirements, transmission formats, response times, liabilities, exception processing, error resolution and more, in order to facilitate successful interoperability between data systems of different entities. PMID:21739765

  4. Administrative simplification: adoption of operating rules for health care electronic funds transfers (EFT) and remittance advice transactions. Interim final rule with comment period.

    PubMed

    2012-08-10

    This interim final rule with comment period implements parts of section 1104 of the Affordable Care Act which requires the adoption of operating rules for the health care electronic funds transfers (EFT) and remittance advice transaction. PMID:22888504

  5. HIPAA administrative simplification: standard unique health identifier for health care providers. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2004-01-23

    This final rule establishes the standard for a unique health identifier for health care providers for use in the health care system and announces the adoption of the National Provider Identifier (NPI) as that standard. It also establishes the implementation specifications for obtaining and using the standard unique health identifier for health care providers. The implementation specifications set the requirements that must be met by "covered entities": Health plans, health care clearinghouses, and those health care providers who transmit any health information in electronic form in connection with a transaction for which the Secretary has adopted a standard (known as "covered health care providers"). Covered entities must use the identifier in connection with standard transactions. The use of the NPI will improve the Medicare and Medicaid programs, and other Federal health programs and private health programs, and the effectiveness and efficiency of the health care industry in general, by simplifying the administration of the health care system and enabling the efficient electronic transmission of certain health information. This final rule implements some of the requirements of the Administrative Simplification subtitle F of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA). PMID:14968800

  6. Financial Aid Administrators' Views on Simplifying Financial Aid: NASFAA's 2008 Financial Aid Simplification Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Despite a decade of simplification efforts, students and families are often still baffled by the student aid process and cringe at the sight of financial aid application forms. Contrary to its purpose of helping students to access college, the student aid application process causes families frustration and confusion that has been cited as an…

  7. Administrative simplification: adoption of a standard for a unique health plan identifier; addition to the National Provider Identifier requirements; and a change to the compliance date for the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Edition (ICD-10-CM and ICD-10-PCS) medical data code sets. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-09-01

    This final rule adopts the standard for a national unique health plan identifier (HPID) and establishes requirements for the implementation of the HPID. In addition, it adopts a data element that will serve as an other entity identifier (OEID), or an identifier for entities that are not health plans, health care providers, or individuals, but that need to be identified in standard transactions. This final rule also specifies the circumstances under which an organization covered health care provider must require certain noncovered individual health care providers who are prescribers to obtain and disclose a National Provider Identifier (NPI). Lastly, this final rule changes the compliance date for the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) for diagnosis coding, including the Official ICD-10-CM Guidelines for Coding and Reporting, and the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Procedure Coding System (ICD-10-PCS) for inpatient hospital procedure coding, including the Official ICD-10-PCS Guidelines for Coding and Reporting, from October 1, 2013 to October 1, 2014. PMID:22950146

  8. 77 FR 60629 - Administrative Simplification: Adoption of a Standard for a Unique Health Plan Identifier...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    .... Background In FR Doc. 2012-21238 of September 5, 2012 (77 FR 54664), there were a number of technical errors... of Errors in the Preamble In FR Doc. 2012-21238 of September 5, 2102, there were the following errors... have good cause to waive the notice and comment procedures. IV. Correction of Errors In FR Doc....

  9. 77 FR 54663 - Administrative Simplification: Adoption of a Standard for a Unique Health Plan Identifier...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ...: Effective date: These regulations are effective on November 5, 2012. Compliance dates: Health plans with the... January 23, 2004 Federal Register (69 FR 3434), the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS... the January 16, 2009 Federal Register (74 FR 3328), HHS published a final rule in which the...

  10. 77 FR 1555 - Administrative Simplification: Adoption of Standards for Health Care Electronic Funds Transfers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... regulatory history, see the August 22, 2008 (73 FR 49742) proposed rule entitled ``Health Insurance Reform..., 2000 Federal Register (65 FR 50312), we published a final rule entitled ``Health Insurance Reform... Standards'' (74 FR 3296) (hereinafter referred to as the Modifications final rule) that, among other...

  11. 76 FR 40457 - Administrative Simplification: Adoption of Operating Rules for Eligibility for a Health Plan and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... in the Federal Register on August 22, 2008 (73 FR 49742). Congress addressed the need for a... cost than manual transactions. In the August 17, 2000 Federal Register (65 FR 50312) we published a... Act (HIPAA) Electronic Transaction Standards'' (74 FR 3296) (hereinafter referred to as...

  12. Increased susceptibility to hyperoxic lung injury and alveolar simplification in newborn rats by prenatal administration of benzo[a]pyrene

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Vijay S.; Liang, Yanhong W.; Lingappan, Krithika; Jiang, Weiwu; Wang, Lihua; Barrios, Roberto; Zhou, Guodong; Guntupalli, Bharath; Shivanna, Binoy; Maturu, Paramahamsa; Welty, Stephen E.; Moorthy, Bhagavatula; Couroucli, Xanthi I.

    2014-01-01

    Maternal smoking is one of the risk factors for preterm birth and for the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that prenatal exposure of rats to benzo[a]pyrene (BP), a component of cigarette smoke, will result in increased susceptibility of newborns to oxygen-mediated lung injury and alveolar simplification, and that cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A and 1B1 enzymes and oxidative stress mechanistically contribute to this phenomenon. Timed pregnant Fisher 344 rats were administered BP (25 mg/Kg) or the vehicle corn oil (CO) on gestational days 18, 19 and 20, and newborn were either maintained in room air or exposed to hyperoxia (85% O2) for 7 or 14 days. Hyperoxic newborn rats prenatally exposed to the vehicle CO showed lung injury and alveolar simplification, and inflammation, and these effects were potentiated in rats that were prenatally exposed to BP. Prenatal exposure to BP, followed by hyperoxia, also resulted in significant modulation of hepatic and pulmonary cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A and 1B1 enzymes at PND 7-14. These rats displayed significant oxidative stress in lungs at postnatal day (PND) 14, as evidenced by increased levels of the F2-isoprostane 8-iso-PGF2α. Furthermore, these animals showed BP-derived DNA adducts and oxidative DNA adducts in the lung. In conclusion, our results show increased susceptibility of newborns to oxygen-mediated lung injury and alveolar simplification following maternal exposure to BP, and our results suggest that modulation of CYP1A/1B1 enzymes, increases in oxidative stress, and BP-DNA adducts contributed to this phenomenon. PMID:24657529

  13. Some Parameters of Simplification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tommola, Jorma

    Simplification of text as a pedagogical technique in second language instruction implies: (1) the selection of a restricted set of features from the full range of foreign language resources (linguistic simplification) and/or (2) the rearrangement of content of foreign language messages (content simplification) for purposes of instructional…

  14. Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... the birth nor adoptive parents know the others' identities. Other adoptions are handled more openly. Open adoptions, ... desire to seek out more information about the identity of the birth family. Most of us (whether ...

  15. Oregon Administrative Rules: Adopted by the State Board of Education. 1996 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This document contains the Oregon State Board of Education's 1996 edition of administrative rules relating to Oregon schools and community colleges. The document contains regulatory materials pertaining to the following areas: procedural rules; minimum pay for substitute teachers; reorganization; textbook adoption; special education; the Oregon…

  16. College and University Dining Services Administrators' Intention to Adopt Sustainable Practices: Results from US Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chao-Jung; Gregoire, Mary B.; Arendt, Susan; Shelley, Mack C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine college and university dining services administrators' (CUDSAs) intention to adopt sustainable practices. Design/methodology/approach: The theory of planned behavior (TPB) including constructs of subjective norm (SN), attitude, perceived behavior control, and personal norm (PN), formed the…

  17. Multiresolution Topological Simplification

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Kelin; Zhao, Zhixiong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Persistent homology has been advocated as a new strategy for the topological simplification of complex data. However, it is computationally intractable for large data sets. In this work, we introduce multiresolution persistent homology for tackling large datasets. Our basic idea is to match the resolution with the scale of interest so as to create a topological microscopy for the underlying data. We adjust the resolution via a rigidity density-based filtration. The proposed multiresolution topological analysis is validated by the study of a complex RNA molecule. PMID:26222626

  18. 45 CFR 1356.40 - Adoption assistance program: Administrative requirements to implement section 473 of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO TITLE IV-E § 1356.40 Adoption assistance... requirements of section 475(3) of the Act and must: (1) Be signed and in effect at the time of or prior to...

  19. 45 CFR 1356.40 - Adoption assistance program: Administrative requirements to implement section 473 of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO TITLE IV-E § 1356.40 Adoption assistance... requirements of section 475(3) of the Act and must: (1) Be signed and in effect at the time of or prior to...

  20. 45 CFR 1356.40 - Adoption assistance program: Administrative requirements to implement section 473 of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO TITLE IV-E § 1356.40 Adoption assistance... requirements of section 475(3) of the Act and must: (1) Be signed and in effect at the time of or prior to...

  1. Simplification: Theory and Application. Anthology Series 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tickoo, M. L.

    This collection of 14 articles look at the issues in theory and application that arise in the use of simplification in language pedagogy. Articles include the following: (1) "Simplification in Pedagogy" (Christopher Brumfit); (2) "Simplification" (H. V. George); (3) "Fossilization as Simplification?" (Larry Selinker); (4) "Modifications that…

  2. Provider Tax Administrative Simplification Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Boozman, John [R-AR

    2011-05-26

    05/26/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Finance. (text of measure as introduced: CR S3436) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. Longitudinal pressure ulcer rates since the adoption of culture change in Veterans Health Administration nursing homes

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Christine W.; Shwartz, Michael; Zhao, Shibei; Palmer, Jennifer A.; Berlowitz, Dan R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine facility-level pressure ulcer development rates and variations in these rates after a system-wide adoption of culture change in Veterans Health Administration (VHA) nursing homes. Design 4-year retrospective longitudinal design. Setting 109 VHA facilities representing 132 nursing homes, known as Community Living Centers (CLCs). Measurements Pressure ulcers were identified using FY08-11 Minimum Data Set (MDS) data. Pressure ulcer development was defined as a stage 2 or larger pressure ulcer on an MDS assessment with no pressure ulcer on the previous assessment. A risk adjustment model was developed using 105,274 MDS observations to predict the likelihood of pressure ulcers (c statistic = 0.72). A Bayesian hierarchical model that adjusted for differences in the precision of pressure ulcer rates from differently sized facilities was used to calculate smoothed risk-adjusted (SRA) rates for each facility. The statistical significance of the trend over the 4 years was determined by examining the 95% interval estimate for the slope. Results Over the 4 year period, the beginning of which coincided with the VHA’s system-wide adoption of culture change as a performance measure, median SRA facility pressure ulcer development rates were fairly consistent at approximately 4%. The range in SRA rates declined from 14.8% to 10.1%. Some facilities had significantly improving SRA rates (e.g., declined steadily from 5.5% to 3.9%) and some had significantly worsening SRA rates (e.g., increased steadily from 5.1% to 7.9%). Seven sites had significantly improving rates (p<.001) that were below the median across all 4 years. Conclusion CLC pressure ulcer development rates were unaffected by a system-wide culture change implementation. There was, however, significant variation in facility rates and some facilities exhibited sustained high performance. PMID:26782865

  4. Barriers and Facilitators to Adoption of Genomic Services for Colorectal Care within the Veterans Health Administration

    PubMed Central

    Sperber, Nina R.; Andrews, Sara M.; Voils, Corrine I.; Green, Gregory L.; Provenzale, Dawn; Knight, Sara

    2016-01-01

    We examined facilitators and barriers to adoption of genomic services for colorectal care, one of the first genomic medicine applications, within the Veterans Health Administration to shed light on areas for practice change. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 58 clinicians to understand use of the following genomic services for colorectal care: family health history documentation, molecular and genetic testing, and genetic counseling. Data collection and analysis were informed by two conceptual frameworks, the Greenhalgh Diffusion of Innovation and Andersen Behavioral Model, to allow for concurrent examination of both access and innovation factors. Specialists were more likely than primary care clinicians to obtain family history to investigate hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC), but with limited detail; clinicians suggested templates to facilitate retrieval and documentation of family history according to guidelines. Clinicians identified advantage of molecular tumor analysis prior to genetic testing, but tumor testing was infrequently used due to perceived low disease burden. Support from genetic counselors was regarded as facilitative for considering hereditary basis of CRC diagnosis, but there was variability in awareness of and access to this expertise. Our data suggest the need for tools and policies to establish and disseminate well-defined processes for accessing services and adhering to guidelines. PMID:27136589

  5. Barriers and Facilitators to Adoption of Genomic Services for Colorectal Care within the Veterans Health Administration.

    PubMed

    Sperber, Nina R; Andrews, Sara M; Voils, Corrine I; Green, Gregory L; Provenzale, Dawn; Knight, Sara

    2016-01-01

    We examined facilitators and barriers to adoption of genomic services for colorectal care, one of the first genomic medicine applications, within the Veterans Health Administration to shed light on areas for practice change. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 58 clinicians to understand use of the following genomic services for colorectal care: family health history documentation, molecular and genetic testing, and genetic counseling. Data collection and analysis were informed by two conceptual frameworks, the Greenhalgh Diffusion of Innovation and Andersen Behavioral Model, to allow for concurrent examination of both access and innovation factors. Specialists were more likely than primary care clinicians to obtain family history to investigate hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC), but with limited detail; clinicians suggested templates to facilitate retrieval and documentation of family history according to guidelines. Clinicians identified advantage of molecular tumor analysis prior to genetic testing, but tumor testing was infrequently used due to perceived low disease burden. Support from genetic counselors was regarded as facilitative for considering hereditary basis of CRC diagnosis, but there was variability in awareness of and access to this expertise. Our data suggest the need for tools and policies to establish and disseminate well-defined processes for accessing services and adhering to guidelines. PMID:27136589

  6. Barriers and Facilitators to Adoption of Genomic Services for Colorectal Care within the Veterans Health Administration.

    PubMed

    Sperber, Nina R; Andrews, Sara M; Voils, Corrine I; Green, Gregory L; Provenzale, Dawn; Knight, Sara

    2016-04-28

    We examined facilitators and barriers to adoption of genomic services for colorectal care, one of the first genomic medicine applications, within the Veterans Health Administration to shed light on areas for practice change. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 58 clinicians to understand use of the following genomic services for colorectal care: family health history documentation, molecular and genetic testing, and genetic counseling. Data collection and analysis were informed by two conceptual frameworks, the Greenhalgh Diffusion of Innovation and Andersen Behavioral Model, to allow for concurrent examination of both access and innovation factors. Specialists were more likely than primary care clinicians to obtain family history to investigate hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC), but with limited detail; clinicians suggested templates to facilitate retrieval and documentation of family history according to guidelines. Clinicians identified advantage of molecular tumor analysis prior to genetic testing, but tumor testing was infrequently used due to perceived low disease burden. Support from genetic counselors was regarded as facilitative for considering hereditary basis of CRC diagnosis, but there was variability in awareness of and access to this expertise. Our data suggest the need for tools and policies to establish and disseminate well-defined processes for accessing services and adhering to guidelines.

  7. Factors Affecting School Administrators' Choices in Adopting ICT Tools in Schools--The Case of Malaysian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Termit Kaur Ranjit; Muniandi, Kalaivani

    2012-01-01

    The Malaysian Government has introduced various initiatives to facilitate the greater adoption and diffusion of ICT to improve capacities in the education system. Due to the extensive investment, schools are expected to utilize and integrate ICTs in administrative tasks, teaching and learning and general running of schools. This study was set out…

  8. [Potential role of rilpivirine in simplification regimens].

    PubMed

    Casado, José L; Moreno, Santiago

    2013-06-01

    Antiretroviral simplification is a useful strategy to improve adherence and quality of life and prevent or reverse adverse effects in patients with HIV infection. The availability of new drugs with high efficacy and better tolerability in once-daily formulations or in fixed-dose combinations may be a better option for prolonged treatment. Rilpivirine, a new nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), has shown high antiviral efficacy in clinical trials with treatment-naïve patients, with a lower incidence of adverse effects and good tolerability. Its use in simplification regimens has been evaluated after the switch from efavirenz, demonstrating that dose adjustment is not required. In a large randomized study in patients who were receiving protease inhibitors, virological efficacy was maintained, with a lower incidence of adverse effects and improved lipid parameters and cardiovascular risk score. Given the ease of administration and good tolerability of this drug, recent communications at congresses have shown the rapid applicability of the results of studies in daily clinical practice in this scenario.

  9. The Adoption of Tablet and E-Textbooks: First Grade Core Curriculum and School Administration Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Mashaqbeh, Ibtesam; Al Shurman, Muneera

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of using e-textbooks, activities, games, and worksheets that loaded onto students tablets on first grade students' achievement on their core curriculum (science, math, English, Arabic) compared to the use of the traditional teaching method. It also, investigated the school administration reflection toward…

  10. Practical simplifications for radioimmunotherapy dosimetric models

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, S.; DeNardo, G.L.; O`Donnell, R.T.; Yuan, A.; DeNardo, D.A.; Macey, D.J.; DeNardo, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry is potentially useful for assessment and prediction of efficacy and toxicity for radionuclide therapy. The usefulness of these dose estimates relies on the establishment of a dose-response model using accurate pharmacokinetic data and a radiation dosimetric model. Due to the complexity in radiation dose estimation, many practical simplifications have been introduced in the dosimetric modeling for clinical trials of radioimmunotherapy. Although research efforts are generally needed to improve the simplifications used at each stage of model development, practical simplifications are often possible for specific applications without significant consequences to the dose-response model. In the development of dosimetric methods for radioimmunotherapy, practical simplifications in the dosimetric models were introduced. This study evaluated the magnitude of uncertainty associated with practical simplifications for: (1) organ mass of the MIRD phantom; (2) radiation contribution from target alone; (3) interpolation of S value; (4) macroscopic tumor uniformity; and (5) fit of tumor pharmacokinetic data.

  11. Enhancing Clinical Content and Race/Ethnicity Data in Statewide Hospital Administrative Databases: Obstacles Encountered, Strategies Adopted, and Lessons Learned

    PubMed Central

    Pine, Michael; Kowlessar, Niranjana M; Salemi, Jason L; Miyamura, Jill; Zingmond, David S; Katz, Nicole E; Schindler, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Eight grant teams used Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality infrastructure development research grants to enhance the clinical content of and improve race/ethnicity identifiers in statewide all-payer hospital administrative databases. Principal Findings Grantees faced common challenges, including recruiting data partners and ensuring their continued effective participation, acquiring and validating the accuracy and utility of new data elements, and linking data from multiple sources to create internally consistent enhanced administrative databases. Successful strategies to overcome these challenges included aggressively engaging with providers of critical sources of data, emphasizing potential benefits to participants, revising requirements to lessen burdens associated with participation, maintaining continuous communication with participants, being flexible when responding to participants’ difficulties in meeting program requirements, and paying scrupulous attention to preparing data specifications and creating and implementing protocols for data auditing, validation, cleaning, editing, and linking. In addition to common challenges, grantees also had to contend with unique challenges from local environmental factors that shaped the strategies they adopted. Conclusions The creation of enhanced administrative databases to support comparative effectiveness research is difficult, particularly in the face of numerous challenges with recruiting data partners such as competing demands on information technology resources. Excellent communication, flexibility, and attention to detail are essential ingredients in accomplishing this task. Additional research is needed to develop strategies for maintaining these databases when initial funding is exhausted. PMID:26119470

  12. Hybrid stochastic simplifications for multiscale gene networks

    PubMed Central

    Crudu, Alina; Debussche, Arnaud; Radulescu, Ovidiu

    2009-01-01

    Background Stochastic simulation of gene networks by Markov processes has important applications in molecular biology. The complexity of exact simulation algorithms scales with the number of discrete jumps to be performed. Approximate schemes reduce the computational time by reducing the number of simulated discrete events. Also, answering important questions about the relation between network topology and intrinsic noise generation and propagation should be based on general mathematical results. These general results are difficult to obtain for exact models. Results We propose a unified framework for hybrid simplifications of Markov models of multiscale stochastic gene networks dynamics. We discuss several possible hybrid simplifications, and provide algorithms to obtain them from pure jump processes. In hybrid simplifications, some components are discrete and evolve by jumps, while other components are continuous. Hybrid simplifications are obtained by partial Kramers-Moyal expansion [1-3] which is equivalent to the application of the central limit theorem to a sub-model. By averaging and variable aggregation we drastically reduce simulation time and eliminate non-critical reactions. Hybrid and averaged simplifications can be used for more effective simulation algorithms and for obtaining general design principles relating noise to topology and time scales. The simplified models reproduce with good accuracy the stochastic properties of the gene networks, including waiting times in intermittence phenomena, fluctuation amplitudes and stationary distributions. The methods are illustrated on several gene network examples. Conclusion Hybrid simplifications can be used for onion-like (multi-layered) approaches to multi-scale biochemical systems, in which various descriptions are used at various scales. Sets of discrete and continuous variables are treated with different methods and are coupled together in a physically justified approach. PMID:19735554

  13. A Change Agent's Facilitation Process for Overcoming the Barriers of ICT Adoption for Educational Administration--The Case of a Rural-Bangladesh Vocational Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Nyvang, Tom

    2014-01-01

    The factors influencing the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) as a professional and management tool outside the classroom have received little research attention. The two objectives of this research were: how do stakeholders of educational administration experience the barriers of ICT adoption, and how can they facilitate the…

  14. 45 CFR 1356.40 - Adoption assistance program: Administrative requirements to implement section 473 of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... participation in adoption assistance payments under this part, the State must meet the requirements of this... moves from one State to another State, the family may apply for social services on behalf of...

  15. Local, smooth, and consistent Jacobi set simplification

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatia, Harsh; Wang, Bei; Norgard, Gregory; Pascucci, Valerio; Bremer, Peer -Timo

    2014-10-31

    The relation between two Morse functions defined on a smooth, compact, and orientable 2-manifold can be studied in terms of their Jacobi set. The Jacobi set contains points in the domain where the gradients of the two functions are aligned. Both the Jacobi set itself as well as the segmentation of the domain it induces, have shown to be useful in various applications. In practice, unfortunately, functions often contain noise and discretization artifacts, causing their Jacobi set to become unmanageably large and complex. Although there exist techniques to simplify Jacobi sets, they are unsuitable for most applications as they lack fine-grained control over the process, and heavily restrict the type of simplifications possible. In this paper, we introduce a new framework that generalizes critical point cancellations in scalar functions to Jacobi set in two dimensions. We present a new interpretation of Jacobi set simplification based on the perspective of domain segmentation. Generalizing the cancellation of critical points from scalar functions to Jacobi sets, we focus on simplifications that can be realized by smooth approximations of the corresponding functions, and show how these cancellations imply simultaneous simplification of contiguous subsets of the Jacobi set. Using these extended cancellations as atomic operations, we introduce an algorithm to successively cancel subsets of the Jacobi set with minimal modifications to some user-defined metric. We show that for simply connected domains, our algorithm reduces a given Jacobi set to its minimal configuration, that is, one with no birth–death points (a birth–death point is a specific type of singularity within the Jacobi set where the level sets of the two functions and the Jacobi set have a common normal direction).

  16. Local, smooth, and consistent Jacobi set simplification

    DOE PAGES

    Bhatia, Harsh; Wang, Bei; Norgard, Gregory; Pascucci, Valerio; Bremer, Peer -Timo

    2014-10-31

    The relation between two Morse functions defined on a smooth, compact, and orientable 2-manifold can be studied in terms of their Jacobi set. The Jacobi set contains points in the domain where the gradients of the two functions are aligned. Both the Jacobi set itself as well as the segmentation of the domain it induces, have shown to be useful in various applications. In practice, unfortunately, functions often contain noise and discretization artifacts, causing their Jacobi set to become unmanageably large and complex. Although there exist techniques to simplify Jacobi sets, they are unsuitable for most applications as they lackmore » fine-grained control over the process, and heavily restrict the type of simplifications possible. In this paper, we introduce a new framework that generalizes critical point cancellations in scalar functions to Jacobi set in two dimensions. We present a new interpretation of Jacobi set simplification based on the perspective of domain segmentation. Generalizing the cancellation of critical points from scalar functions to Jacobi sets, we focus on simplifications that can be realized by smooth approximations of the corresponding functions, and show how these cancellations imply simultaneous simplification of contiguous subsets of the Jacobi set. Using these extended cancellations as atomic operations, we introduce an algorithm to successively cancel subsets of the Jacobi set with minimal modifications to some user-defined metric. We show that for simply connected domains, our algorithm reduces a given Jacobi set to its minimal configuration, that is, one with no birth–death points (a birth–death point is a specific type of singularity within the Jacobi set where the level sets of the two functions and the Jacobi set have a common normal direction).« less

  17. Simplification of the unified gas kinetic scheme.

    PubMed

    Chen, Songze; Guo, Zhaoli; Xu, Kun

    2016-08-01

    The unified gas kinetic scheme (UGKS) is an asymptotic preserving (AP) scheme for kinetic equations. It is superior for transition flow simulation and has been validated in the past years. However, compared to the well-known discrete ordinate method (DOM), which is a classical numerical method solving the kinetic equations, the UGKS needs more computational resources. In this study, we propose a simplification of the unified gas kinetic scheme. It allows almost identical numerical cost as the DOM, but predicts numerical results as accurate as the UGKS. In the simplified scheme, the numerical flux for the velocity distribution function and the numerical flux for the macroscopic conservative quantities are evaluated separately. The equilibrium part of the UGKS flux is calculated by analytical solution instead of the numerical quadrature in velocity space. The simplification is equivalent to a flux hybridization of the gas kinetic scheme for the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations and the conventional discrete ordinate method. Several simplification strategies are tested, through which we can identify the key ingredient of the Navier-Stokes asymptotic preserving property. Numerical tests show that, as long as the collision effect is built into the macroscopic numerical flux, the numerical scheme is Navier-Stokes asymptotic preserving, regardless the accuracy of the microscopic numerical flux for the velocity distribution function. PMID:27627418

  18. Simplification of the unified gas kinetic scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Songze; Guo, Zhaoli; Xu, Kun

    2016-08-01

    The unified gas kinetic scheme (UGKS) is an asymptotic preserving (AP) scheme for kinetic equations. It is superior for transition flow simulation and has been validated in the past years. However, compared to the well-known discrete ordinate method (DOM), which is a classical numerical method solving the kinetic equations, the UGKS needs more computational resources. In this study, we propose a simplification of the unified gas kinetic scheme. It allows almost identical numerical cost as the DOM, but predicts numerical results as accurate as the UGKS. In the simplified scheme, the numerical flux for the velocity distribution function and the numerical flux for the macroscopic conservative quantities are evaluated separately. The equilibrium part of the UGKS flux is calculated by analytical solution instead of the numerical quadrature in velocity space. The simplification is equivalent to a flux hybridization of the gas kinetic scheme for the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations and the conventional discrete ordinate method. Several simplification strategies are tested, through which we can identify the key ingredient of the Navier-Stokes asymptotic preserving property. Numerical tests show that, as long as the collision effect is built into the macroscopic numerical flux, the numerical scheme is Navier-Stokes asymptotic preserving, regardless the accuracy of the microscopic numerical flux for the velocity distribution function.

  19. 45 CFR 1356.40 - Adoption assistance program: Administrative requirements to implement section 473 of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO TITLE IV-E § 1356.40 Adoption assistance... assistance program provisions of the title IV-E State plan and to be eligible for Federal...

  20. Construction and simplification of bone density models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jianhua; Taylor, Russell H.

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents a hierarchical tetrahedral mesh model to represent the bone density atlas. We propose and implement an efficient and automatic method to construct hierarchical tetrahedral meshes from CT data sets of bony anatomy. The tetrahedral mesh is built based on contour tiling between CT slices. The mesh is then smoothed using an enhanced Laplacian algorithm. And we approximate bone density variations by means of continuous density functions written as smooth Bernstein polynomial spline expressed in terms of barycentric coordinates associated with each tetrahedron. We further perform the tetrahedral mesh simplification by collapsing the tetrahedra and build hierarchical structure with multiple resolutions. Both the shape and density error bound are preserved during the simplification. Furthermore a deformable prior model is computed from a collection of training models. Point Distribution Model is used to compute the variability of the prior model. Both the shape information and the density statistics are parameterized in the prior model. Our model demonstrates good accuracy, high storage efficiency and processing efficiency. We also compute the Digitally Reconstructed Radiographs from our model and use them to evaluate the accuracy and efficiency of our model. Our method has been tested on femur and pelvis data sets. This research is part of our effort of building density atlases for bony anatomies and applying them in deformable density based registrations.

  1. 75 FR 74056 - Request for Public Comment on the Proposed Adoption of Administration for Native Americans (ANA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), or whose adjusted gross income is either equal to or less than 200... HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Request for Public Comment on the Proposed..., Economic Development, and Strengthening Families. Governance projects will be addressed in a separate...

  2. Organisational simplification and secondary complexity in health services for adults with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Heyman, Bob; Swain, John; Gillman, Maureen

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the role of complexity and simplification in the delivery of health care for adults with learning disabilities, drawing upon qualitative data obtained in a study carried out in NE England. It is argued that the requirement to manage complex health needs with limited resources causes service providers to simplify, standardise and routinise care. Simplified service models may work well enough for the majority of clients, but can impede recognition of the needs of those whose characteristics are not congruent with an adopted model. The data were analysed in relation to the core category, identified through thematic analysis, of secondary complexity arising from organisational simplification. Organisational simplification generates secondary complexity when operational routines designed to make health complexity manageable cannot accommodate the needs of non-standard service users. Associated themes, namely the social context of services, power and control, communication skills, expertise and service inclusiveness and evaluation are explored in relation to the core category. The concept of secondary complexity resulting from organisational simplification may partly explain seemingly irrational health service provider behaviour.

  3. Automated Simplification of Full Chemical Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, A. T.

    1997-01-01

    A code has been developed to automatically simplify full chemical mechanisms. The method employed is based on the Intrinsic Low Dimensional Manifold (ILDM) method of Maas and Pope. The ILDM method is a dynamical systems approach to the simplification of large chemical kinetic mechanisms. By identifying low-dimensional attracting manifolds, the method allows complex full mechanisms to be parameterized by just a few variables; in effect, generating reduced chemical mechanisms by an automatic procedure. These resulting mechanisms however, still retain all the species used in the full mechanism. Full and skeletal mechanisms for various fuels are simplified to a two dimensional manifold, and the resulting mechanisms are found to compare well with the full mechanisms, and show significant improvement over global one step mechanisms, such as those by Westbrook and Dryer. In addition, by using an ILDM reaction mechanism in a CID code, a considerable improvement in turn-around time can be achieved.

  4. Building simplification algorithms based on user cognition in mobile environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jie; Shi, Junfei; Wang, Meizhen; Wu, Chenyan

    2008-10-01

    With the development of LBS, mobile map should adaptively satisfy the cognitive requirement of user. User cognition in mobile environment is much more objective oriented and also seem to be a heavier burden than the user in static environment. The holistic idea and methods of map generalization can not fully suitable for the mobile map. This paper took the building simplification in habitation generalization as example, analyzed the characteristic of user cognition in mobile environment and the basic rules of building simplification, collected and studied the state-of-the-art of algorithms of building simplification in the static and mobile environment, put forward the idea of hierarchical building simplification based on user cognition. This paper took Hunan road business district of Nanjing as test area and took the building data with shapfile format of ESRI as test data and realized the simplification algorithm. The method took user as center, calculated the distance between user and the building which will be simplified and took the distance as the basis for choosing different simplification algorithm for different spaces. This contribution aimed to hierarchically present the building in different level of detail by real-time simplification.

  5. Losing Complexity: The Role of Simplification in Macroevolution.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Maureen A; Wideman, Jeremy G; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki

    2016-08-01

    Macroevolutionary patterns can be produced by combinations of diverse and even oppositional dynamics. A growing body of data indicates that secondary simplifications of molecular and cellular structures are common. Some major diversifications in eukaryotes have occurred because of loss and minimalisation; numerous episodes in prokaryote evolution have likewise been driven by the reduction of structure. After examining a range of examples of secondary simplification and its consequences across the tree of life, we address how macroevolutionary explanations might incorporate simplification as well as complexification, and adaptive as well as nonadaptive dynamics. PMID:27212432

  6. Decomposition and Simplification of Multivariate Data using Pareto Sets.

    PubMed

    Huettenberger, Lars; Heine, Christian; Garth, Christoph

    2014-12-01

    Topological and structural analysis of multivariate data is aimed at improving the understanding and usage of such data through identification of intrinsic features and structural relationships among multiple variables. We present two novel methods for simplifying so-called Pareto sets that describe such structural relationships. Such simplification is a precondition for meaningful visualization of structurally rich or noisy data. As a framework for simplification operations, we introduce a decomposition of the data domain into regions of equivalent structural behavior and the reachability graph that describes global connectivity of Pareto extrema. Simplification is then performed as a sequence of edge collapses in this graph; to determine a suitable sequence of such operations, we describe and utilize a comparison measure that reflects the changes to the data that each operation represents. We demonstrate and evaluate our methods on synthetic and real-world examples.

  7. Simplification of Methods for PET Radiopharmaceutical Syntheses

    SciTech Connect

    Kilbourn, Michael, R.

    2011-12-27

    In an attempt to develop simplified methods for radiochemical synthesis of radiopharmaceuticals useful in Positron Emission Tomography (PET), current commercially available automated synthesis apparati were evaluated for use with solid phase synthesis, thin-film techniques, microwave-accelerated chemistry, and click chemistry approaches. Using combinations of these techniques, it was shown that these automated synthesis systems can be simply and effectively used to support the synthesis of a wide variety of carbon-11 and fluorine-18 labeled compounds, representing all of the major types of compounds synthesized and using all of the common radiochemical precursors available. These techniques are available for use to deliver clinically useful amounts of PET radiopharmaceuticals with chemical and radiochemical purities and high specific activities, suitable for human administration.

  8. Content Schemata, Linguistic Simplification, and EFL Readers' Comprehension and Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keshavarz, Mohammad Hossein; Atai, Mahmoud Reza; Ahmadi, Hossein

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of linguistic simplification and content schemata on reading comprehension and recall. The participants, 240 Iranian male students of English as a foreign language (EFL), were divided into 4 homogeneous groups, each consisting of 60 participants (30 with high proficiency and 30 with low proficiency). To elicit…

  9. Simplification of the kinematic model of human movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusza, Jacek J.; Wawrzyniak, Zbigniew M.; del Prado Martinez, David

    2013-10-01

    The paper presents a methods of simplification of the human gait model. The experimental data were obtained in the laboratory of the group SATI in the Electronics Engineering Department of the University of Valencia. As a result of the Mean Double Step (MDS) procedure, the human motion were described by a matrix containing the Cartesian coordinates of 26 markers placed on the human body recorded in the 100 time points. With these data it has been possible to develop an software application which performs a wide diversity of tasks like array simplification, mask calculation for the simplification, error calculation as well as tools for signals comparison and movement animation of the markers. Simplifications were made by the spectral analysis of signals and calculating the standard deviation of the differences between the signal and its approximation. Using this method the signals of displacement could be written as the time series limited to a small number of harmonic signals. This approach allows us for a high degree of data compression. The model presented in this work can be applied into the context of medical diagnostics or rehabilitation because for a given approximation error and a large number of harmonics may demonstrate some abnormalities (of orthopaedic symptoms) in the gait cycle analysis.

  10. Linguistic Simplification: A Promising Test Accommodation for LEP Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.

    2002-01-01

    Studied the effects of linguistic simplification, a test accommodation designed for students of limited English proficiency (LEP), using data from the Delaware state science assessment program for grades 4 and 6. Findings for 11,306 non-LEP and 109 LEP students show that tests and items can be simplified linguistically without compromising score…

  11. Aspects of a Theory of Simplification, Debugging, and Coaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Gerhard; And Others

    This paper analyses new methods of teaching skiing in terms of a computational paradigm for learning called increasingly complex microworlds (ICM). Examining the factors that underlie the dramatic enhancement of the learning of skiing led to the focus on the processes of simplification, debugging, and coaching. These three processes are studied in…

  12. Linguistic Simplification of SL Reading Materials: Effective Instructional Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Dolly J.

    1999-01-01

    Examined types of simplifications made in four authentic texts used in the second-language classroom, and investigated if there were differences in recall scores based on whether students read simplified or authentic versions. Findings indicated that a high percentage of modifications made were lexical in nature and that recall scores for…

  13. Text Simplification and Comprehensible Input: A Case for an Intuitive Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.; Allen, David; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2012-01-01

    Texts are routinely simplified to make them more comprehensible for second language learners. However, the effects of simplification upon the linguistic features of texts remain largely unexplored. Here we examine the effects of one type of text simplification: intuitive text simplification. We use the computational tool, Coh-Metrix, to examine…

  14. How Organizational Culture as Perceived by Senior Administrators Influences the Adoption of Information Technology Systems in Two 4-Year Public Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, David Edward

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between university culture, organizational characteristics, and central IT systems adoption within two four-year public universities. A qualitative multi-case methodology was used to examine the influence of organizational cultures and characteristics on personal perceptions, actions,…

  15. iSimp in BioC standard format: enhancing the interoperability of a sentence simplification system.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yifan; Tudor, Catalina O; Torii, Manabu; Wu, Cathy H; Vijay-Shanker, K

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the use of the BioC standard format in our sentence simplification system, iSimp, and demonstrates its general utility. iSimp is designed to simplify complex sentences commonly found in the biomedical text, and has been shown to improve existing text mining applications that rely on the analysis of sentence structures. By adopting the BioC format, we aim to make iSimp readily interoperable with other applications in the biomedical domain. To examine the utility of iSimp in BioC, we implemented a rule-based relation extraction system that uses iSimp as a preprocessing module and BioC for data exchange. Evaluation on the training corpus of BioNLP-ST 2011 GENIA Event Extraction (GE) task showed that iSimp sentence simplification improved the recall by 3.2% without reducing precision. The iSimp simplification-annotated corpora, both our previously used corpus and the GE corpus in the current study, have been converted into the BioC format and made publicly available at the project's Web site: http://research.bioinformatics.udel.edu/isimp/. Database URL:http://research.bioinformatics.udel.edu/isimp/ PMID:24850848

  16. Memory Insensitive Simplification for View-Dependent Refinement

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, P

    2002-04-03

    We present an algorithm for end-to-end out-of-core simplification and view-dependent visualization of large surfaces. The method consists of three phases: (1) memory insensitive simplification; (2) memory insensitive construction of a level-of-detail hierarchy; and (3) run-time, output sensitive, view-dependent rendering and navigation of the mesh. The first two off-line phases are performed entirely on disk, and use only a small, constant amount of memory, whereas the run-time component relies on memory mapping to page in only the rendered parts of the mesh in a cache coherent manner. As a result, we are able to process and visualize arbitrarily large meshes given a sufficient amount of disk space--a constant multiple of the size of the input mesh. Similar to recent work on out-of-core simplification, our memory insensitive method uses vertex clustering on a uniform octree grid to coarsen a mesh and create a hierarchy, and a quadric error mettic to choose vertex positions at all levels of resolution. We show how the quadric information can be used to concisely represent vertex position, surface normal, error, and curvature information for anisotropic view-dependent coarsening and silhouette preservation. The focus of this paper is on the out-of-core construction of a level-of-detail hierarchy---our framework is general enough to incorporate many different aspects of view-dependent rendering. We therefore emphasize the off-line phases of our method, and report on their theoretical and experimental memory and disk usage and execution time. Our results indicate on average one to two orders of magnitude improvement in processing speed over previous out-of-core methods. Meanwhile, all phases of the method are both disk and memory efficient, and are fairly straightforward to implement.

  17. Ecosystem simplification, biodiversity loss and plant virus emergence.

    PubMed

    Roossinck, Marilyn J; García-Arenal, Fernando

    2015-02-01

    Plant viruses can emerge into crops from wild plant hosts, or conversely from domestic (crop) plants into wild hosts. Changes in ecosystems, including loss of biodiversity and increases in managed croplands, can impact the emergence of plant virus disease. Although data are limited, in general the loss of biodiversity is thought to contribute to disease emergence. More in-depth studies have been done for human viruses, but studies with plant viruses suggest similar patterns, and indicate that simplification of ecosystems through increased human management may increase the emergence of viral diseases in crops.

  18. Strategy-Enhanced Interactive Proving and Arithmetic Simplification for PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    diVito, Ben L.

    2003-01-01

    We describe an approach to strategy-based proving for improved interactive deduction in specialized domains. An experimental package of strategies (tactics) and support functions called Manip has been developed for PVS to reduce the tedium of arithmetic manipulation. Included are strategies aimed at algebraic simplification of real-valued expressions. A general deduction architecture is described in which domain-specific strategies, such as those for algebraic manipulation, are supported by more generic features, such as term-access techniques applicable in arbitrary settings. An extended expression language provides access to subterms within a sequent.

  19. Landscape simplification filters species traits and drives biotic homogenization

    PubMed Central

    Gámez-Virués, Sagrario; Perović, David J.; Gossner, Martin M.; Börschig, Carmen; Blüthgen, Nico; de Jong, Heike; Simons, Nadja K.; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Krauss, Jochen; Maier, Gwen; Scherber, Christoph; Steckel, Juliane; Rothenwöhrer, Christoph; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Weiner, Christiane N.; Weisser, Wolfgang; Werner, Michael; Tscharntke, Teja; Westphal, Catrin

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity loss can affect the viability of ecosystems by decreasing the ability of communities to respond to environmental change and disturbances. Agricultural intensification is a major driver of biodiversity loss and has multiple components operating at different spatial scales: from in-field management intensity to landscape-scale simplification. Here we show that landscape-level effects dominate functional community composition and can even buffer the effects of in-field management intensification on functional homogenization, and that animal communities in real-world managed landscapes show a unified response (across orders and guilds) to both landscape-scale simplification and in-field intensification. Adults and larvae with specialized feeding habits, species with shorter activity periods and relatively small body sizes are selected against in simplified landscapes with intense in-field management. Our results demonstrate that the diversity of land cover types at the landscape scale is critical for maintaining communities, which are functionally diverse, even in landscapes where in-field management intensity is high. PMID:26485325

  20. Landscape simplification filters species traits and drives biotic homogenization.

    PubMed

    Gámez-Virués, Sagrario; Perović, David J; Gossner, Martin M; Börschig, Carmen; Blüthgen, Nico; de Jong, Heike; Simons, Nadja K; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Krauss, Jochen; Maier, Gwen; Scherber, Christoph; Steckel, Juliane; Rothenwöhrer, Christoph; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Weiner, Christiane N; Weisser, Wolfgang; Werner, Michael; Tscharntke, Teja; Westphal, Catrin

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity loss can affect the viability of ecosystems by decreasing the ability of communities to respond to environmental change and disturbances. Agricultural intensification is a major driver of biodiversity loss and has multiple components operating at different spatial scales: from in-field management intensity to landscape-scale simplification. Here we show that landscape-level effects dominate functional community composition and can even buffer the effects of in-field management intensification on functional homogenization, and that animal communities in real-world managed landscapes show a unified response (across orders and guilds) to both landscape-scale simplification and in-field intensification. Adults and larvae with specialized feeding habits, species with shorter activity periods and relatively small body sizes are selected against in simplified landscapes with intense in-field management. Our results demonstrate that the diversity of land cover types at the landscape scale is critical for maintaining communities, which are functionally diverse, even in landscapes where in-field management intensity is high. PMID:26485325

  1. Landscape simplification filters species traits and drives biotic homogenization.

    PubMed

    Gámez-Virués, Sagrario; Perović, David J; Gossner, Martin M; Börschig, Carmen; Blüthgen, Nico; de Jong, Heike; Simons, Nadja K; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Krauss, Jochen; Maier, Gwen; Scherber, Christoph; Steckel, Juliane; Rothenwöhrer, Christoph; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Weiner, Christiane N; Weisser, Wolfgang; Werner, Michael; Tscharntke, Teja; Westphal, Catrin

    2015-10-20

    Biodiversity loss can affect the viability of ecosystems by decreasing the ability of communities to respond to environmental change and disturbances. Agricultural intensification is a major driver of biodiversity loss and has multiple components operating at different spatial scales: from in-field management intensity to landscape-scale simplification. Here we show that landscape-level effects dominate functional community composition and can even buffer the effects of in-field management intensification on functional homogenization, and that animal communities in real-world managed landscapes show a unified response (across orders and guilds) to both landscape-scale simplification and in-field intensification. Adults and larvae with specialized feeding habits, species with shorter activity periods and relatively small body sizes are selected against in simplified landscapes with intense in-field management. Our results demonstrate that the diversity of land cover types at the landscape scale is critical for maintaining communities, which are functionally diverse, even in landscapes where in-field management intensity is high.

  2. Simplification of the Kalman filter for meteorological data assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dee, Dick P.

    1991-01-01

    The paper proposes a new statistical method of data assimilation that is based on a simplification of the Kalman filter equations. The forecast error covariance evolution is approximated simply by advecting the mass-error covariance field, deriving the remaining covariances geostrophically, and accounting for external model-error forcing only at the end of each forecast cycle. This greatly reduces the cost of computation of the forecast error covariance. In simulations with a linear, one-dimensional shallow-water model and data generated artificially, the performance of the simplified filter is compared with that of the Kalman filter and the optimal interpolation (OI) method. The simplified filter produces analyses that are nearly optimal, and represents a significant improvement over OI.

  3. National Foster Care and Adoption Directory Search

    MedlinePlus

    ... on the Placement of Children (ICPC) Administrator - Provides legal and fiscal oversight for ICPC, which regulates the interstate movement of children in foster care, adoption, residential treatment, or juvenile justice programs. This person should be contacted by adoption ...

  4. Simplifications and Idealizations in High School Physics in Mechanics: A Study of Slovenian Curriculum and Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forjan, Matej; Sliško, Josip

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of an analysis of three Slovenian textbooks for high school physics, from the point of view of simplifications and idealizations in the field of mechanics. In modeling of physical systems, making simplifications and idealizations is important, since one ignores minor effects and focuses on the most important…

  5. Simplification of Arboreal Marsupial Assemblages in Response to Increasing Urbanization

    PubMed Central

    Isaac, Bronwyn; White, John; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Cooke, Raylene

    2014-01-01

    Arboreal marsupials play an essential role in ecosystem function including regulating insect and plant populations, facilitating pollen and seed dispersal and acting as a prey source for higher-order carnivores in Australian environments. Primarily, research has focused on their biology, ecology and response to disturbance in forested and urban environments. We used presence-only species distribution modelling to understand the relationship between occurrences of arboreal marsupials and eco-geographical variables, and to infer habitat suitability across an urban gradient. We used post-proportional analysis to determine whether increasing urbanization affected potential habitat for arboreal marsupials. The key eco-geographical variables that influenced disturbance intolerant species and those with moderate tolerance to disturbance were natural features such as tree cover and proximity to rivers and to riparian vegetation, whereas variables for disturbance tolerant species were anthropogenic-based (e.g., road density) but also included some natural characteristics such as proximity to riparian vegetation, elevation and tree cover. Arboreal marsupial diversity was subject to substantial change along the gradient, with potential habitat for disturbance-tolerant marsupials distributed across the complete gradient and potential habitat for less tolerant species being restricted to the natural portion of the gradient. This resulted in highly-urbanized environments being inhabited by a few generalist arboreal marsupial species. Increasing urbanization therefore leads to functional simplification of arboreal marsupial assemblages, thus impacting on the ecosystem services they provide. PMID:24608165

  6. A Memory Insensitive Technique for Large Model Simplification

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, P; Silva, C

    2001-08-07

    In this paper we propose three simple, but significant improvements to the OoCS (Out-of-Core Simplification) algorithm of Lindstrom [20] which increase the quality of approximations and extend the applicability of the algorithm to an even larger class of compute systems. The original OoCS algorithm has memory complexity that depends on the size of the output mesh, but no dependency on the size of the input mesh. That is, it can be used to simplify meshes of arbitrarily large size, but the complexity of the output mesh is limited by the amount of memory available. Our first contribution is a version of OoCS that removes the dependency of having enough memory to hold (even) the simplified mesh. With our new algorithm, the whole process is made essentially independent of the available memory on the host computer. Our new technique uses disk instead of main memory, but it is carefully designed to avoid costly random accesses. Our two other contributions improve the quality of the approximations generated by OoCS. We propose a scheme for preserving surface boundaries which does not use connectivity information, and a scheme for constraining the position of the ''representative vertex'' of a grid cell to an optimal position inside the cell.

  7. Effects on Text Simplification: Evaluation of Splitting Up Noun Phrases.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Gondy; Kauchak, David; Hogue, Alan

    2016-01-01

    To help increase health literacy, we are developing a text simplification tool that creates more accessible patient education materials. Tool development is guided by a data-driven feature analysis comparing simple and difficult text. In the present study, we focus on the common advice to split long noun phrases. Our previous corpus analysis showed that easier texts contained shorter noun phrases. Subsequently, we conducted a user study to measure the difficulty of sentences containing noun phrases of different lengths (2-gram, 3-gram, and 4-gram); noun phrases of different conditions (split or not); and, to simulate unknown terms, pseudowords (present or not). We gathered 35 evaluations for 30 sentences in each condition (3 × 2 × 2 conditions) on Amazon's Mechanical Turk (N = 12,600). We conducted a 3-way analysis of variance for perceived and actual difficulty. Splitting noun phrases had a positive effect on perceived difficulty but a negative effect on actual difficulty. The presence of pseudowords increased perceived and actual difficulty. Without pseudowords, longer noun phrases led to increased perceived and actual difficulty. A follow-up study using the phrases (N = 1,350) showed that measuring awkwardness may indicate when to split noun phrases. We conclude that splitting noun phrases benefits perceived difficulty but hurts actual difficulty when the phrasing becomes less natural.

  8. Simplification of arboreal marsupial assemblages in response to increasing urbanization.

    PubMed

    Isaac, Bronwyn; White, John; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Cooke, Raylene

    2014-01-01

    Arboreal marsupials play an essential role in ecosystem function including regulating insect and plant populations, facilitating pollen and seed dispersal and acting as a prey source for higher-order carnivores in Australian environments. Primarily, research has focused on their biology, ecology and response to disturbance in forested and urban environments. We used presence-only species distribution modelling to understand the relationship between occurrences of arboreal marsupials and eco-geographical variables, and to infer habitat suitability across an urban gradient. We used post-proportional analysis to determine whether increasing urbanization affected potential habitat for arboreal marsupials. The key eco-geographical variables that influenced disturbance intolerant species and those with moderate tolerance to disturbance were natural features such as tree cover and proximity to rivers and to riparian vegetation, whereas variables for disturbance tolerant species were anthropogenic-based (e.g., road density) but also included some natural characteristics such as proximity to riparian vegetation, elevation and tree cover. Arboreal marsupial diversity was subject to substantial change along the gradient, with potential habitat for disturbance-tolerant marsupials distributed across the complete gradient and potential habitat for less tolerant species being restricted to the natural portion of the gradient. This resulted in highly-urbanized environments being inhabited by a few generalist arboreal marsupial species. Increasing urbanization therefore leads to functional simplification of arboreal marsupial assemblages, thus impacting on the ecosystem services they provide. PMID:24608165

  9. Effects on Text Simplification: Evaluation of Splitting Up Noun Phrases.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Gondy; Kauchak, David; Hogue, Alan

    2016-01-01

    To help increase health literacy, we are developing a text simplification tool that creates more accessible patient education materials. Tool development is guided by a data-driven feature analysis comparing simple and difficult text. In the present study, we focus on the common advice to split long noun phrases. Our previous corpus analysis showed that easier texts contained shorter noun phrases. Subsequently, we conducted a user study to measure the difficulty of sentences containing noun phrases of different lengths (2-gram, 3-gram, and 4-gram); noun phrases of different conditions (split or not); and, to simulate unknown terms, pseudowords (present or not). We gathered 35 evaluations for 30 sentences in each condition (3 × 2 × 2 conditions) on Amazon's Mechanical Turk (N = 12,600). We conducted a 3-way analysis of variance for perceived and actual difficulty. Splitting noun phrases had a positive effect on perceived difficulty but a negative effect on actual difficulty. The presence of pseudowords increased perceived and actual difficulty. Without pseudowords, longer noun phrases led to increased perceived and actual difficulty. A follow-up study using the phrases (N = 1,350) showed that measuring awkwardness may indicate when to split noun phrases. We conclude that splitting noun phrases benefits perceived difficulty but hurts actual difficulty when the phrasing becomes less natural. PMID:27043754

  10. Simplification of arboreal marsupial assemblages in response to increasing urbanization.

    PubMed

    Isaac, Bronwyn; White, John; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Cooke, Raylene

    2014-01-01

    Arboreal marsupials play an essential role in ecosystem function including regulating insect and plant populations, facilitating pollen and seed dispersal and acting as a prey source for higher-order carnivores in Australian environments. Primarily, research has focused on their biology, ecology and response to disturbance in forested and urban environments. We used presence-only species distribution modelling to understand the relationship between occurrences of arboreal marsupials and eco-geographical variables, and to infer habitat suitability across an urban gradient. We used post-proportional analysis to determine whether increasing urbanization affected potential habitat for arboreal marsupials. The key eco-geographical variables that influenced disturbance intolerant species and those with moderate tolerance to disturbance were natural features such as tree cover and proximity to rivers and to riparian vegetation, whereas variables for disturbance tolerant species were anthropogenic-based (e.g., road density) but also included some natural characteristics such as proximity to riparian vegetation, elevation and tree cover. Arboreal marsupial diversity was subject to substantial change along the gradient, with potential habitat for disturbance-tolerant marsupials distributed across the complete gradient and potential habitat for less tolerant species being restricted to the natural portion of the gradient. This resulted in highly-urbanized environments being inhabited by a few generalist arboreal marsupial species. Increasing urbanization therefore leads to functional simplification of arboreal marsupial assemblages, thus impacting on the ecosystem services they provide.

  11. Simplification Strategies to Reduce Antiretroviral Drug Exposure: Progress and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    McKinnon, John E.; Mellors, John W.; Swindells, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Current US guidelines for initial therapy of HIV-1 infection recommend daily, life-long treatment with a combination of three antiretroviral drugs consisting of two nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors and a nonnucleoside RT inhibitor or a protease inhibitor. Although this approach has been successful in reducing morbidity and mortality from HIV-1 infection, concerns remain about adverse events from chronic drug exposure, the requirement for daily medication adherence, the risk of HIV-1 drug resistance, and high treatment costs. The availability of antiretrovirals that are co-formulated and dosed once-daily have reduced pill burden and have simplified dosing schedules, but have not lowered drug exposure or cost. These limitations have stimulated research into drug-sparing strategies including intermittent therapy and simplified maintenance regimens. Randomized clinical trials have shown greater mortality with intermittent therapy compared with continuous therapy leading to rejection of this strategy. Pilot studies of simplified maintenance therapy with a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor alone have shown more promise, although concerns remain. This article reviews progress in simplification of antiretroviral therapy, recent clinical trial results, and prospects for the future. PMID:19320232

  12. 5 CFR 843.404 - Proof of adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Proof of adoption. 843.404 Section 843... Proof of adoption. (a) An adopted child is— (1) A child adopted by the employee or retiree before the... petition for adoption was filed by the employee or retiree and who is adopted by the current spouse of...

  13. 5 CFR 843.404 - Proof of adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Proof of adoption. 843.404 Section 843... Proof of adoption. (a) An adopted child is— (1) A child adopted by the employee or retiree before the... petition for adoption was filed by the employee or retiree and who is adopted by the current spouse of...

  14. 5 CFR 843.404 - Proof of adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proof of adoption. 843.404 Section 843... Proof of adoption. (a) An adopted child is— (1) A child adopted by the employee or retiree before the... petition for adoption was filed by the employee or retiree and who is adopted by the current spouse of...

  15. 5 CFR 843.404 - Proof of adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Proof of adoption. 843.404 Section 843... Proof of adoption. (a) An adopted child is— (1) A child adopted by the employee or retiree before the... petition for adoption was filed by the employee or retiree and who is adopted by the current spouse of...

  16. 5 CFR 843.404 - Proof of adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Proof of adoption. 843.404 Section 843... Proof of adoption. (a) An adopted child is— (1) A child adopted by the employee or retiree before the... petition for adoption was filed by the employee or retiree and who is adopted by the current spouse of...

  17. FE analysis of the effects of simplifications in experimental testing on micromotions of uncemented femoral knee implants.

    PubMed

    Berahmani, Sanaz; Janssen, Dennis; Wolfson, David; de Waal Malefijt, Maarten; Fitzpatrick, Clare K; Rullkoetter, Paul J; Verdonschot, Nico

    2016-05-01

    Experimental testing of orthopaedic implants requires simplifications concerning load application and activities being analyzed. This computational study investigated how these simplifications affect micromotions at the bone-implant interface of an uncemented femoral knee implant. As a basis, validated in vivo loads of the stance phase of gait and a deep knee bend were adopted. Eventually, three configurations were considered: (i) simulation of the complete loading cycle; (ii) inclusion of only tibiofemoral loads (ignoring patellofemoral loads); and (iii) applying only a single peak tibiofemoral force. For all loading conditions the largest micromotions found at the proximal anterior flange. Without the patellofemoral force, peak micromotions increased 6% and 22% for gait and deep knee bend, respectively. By applying a single peak tibiofemoral force micromotions were overestimated. However, the peak micromotions corresponded to the maximum tibiofemoral force, and strong micromotion correlations were found between a complete loading cycle and a single peak load (R(2)  = 0.73 and R(2)  = 0.89 for gait and deep knee bend, respectively). Deep knee bend resulted in larger micromotions than gait. Our study suggests that a simplified peak force can be used to assess the stability of cementless femoral components. For more robust testing, implants should be subjected to different loading modes. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:812-819, 2016.

  18. Strengthening Adoption Practice, Listening to Adoptive Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Anne; Gonet, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    In-depth interviews with 500 adoptive families who received postadoption services through Virginia's Adoptive Family Preservation (AFP) program paint a richly detailed picture of the challenges adoptive families face and what they need to sustain adoption for many years after finalization. Findings document the need for support in a variety of…

  19. Paedomorphosis and simplification in the nervous system of salamanders.

    PubMed

    Roth, G; Nishikawa, K C; Naujoks-Manteuffel, C; Schmidt, A; Wake, D B

    1993-01-01

    Comparative neuroanatomists since Herrick [1914] have been aware of the paradox that the brain of amphibians, especially salamanders, is less complex than one would expect based on their phylogenetic position among the Tetrapoda. Many features of the brain are less differentiated in salamanders than in tetrapod outgroups, including chondrichthyans and bony fishes, and for some brain characters, the salamander brain is even more simple than that of the agnathans. Here, we perform a cladistic analysis on 23 characters of four sensory systems (visual, auditory, lateral line and olfactory) and the brain. Our taxa include myxinoids, lampreys, chondrichthyans, actinopterygians, Latimeria, Neoceratodus and the lepidosirenid lungfishes, amniotes, frogs, caecilians, salamanders and bolitoglossine salamanders. Of the 23 characters we examined, 19 are most parsimoniously interpreted as secondarily simplified in salamanders from a more complex ancestral state, two characters are equally parsimonious under both hypotheses, one character (well developed ipsilateral retinotectal projections) is more complex in bolitoglossine salamanders than in vertebrates generally, and only one character (migration of neurons in the medial pallium) is most parsimoniously interpreted as retention of the plesiomorphically simple condition. Secondary simplification of the salamander brain appears to result from paedomorphosis, or retention of juvenile or embryonic morphology into adulthood. Paedomorphosis is correlated with an increase in genome size, which in turn is positively correlated with cell size, but negatively correlated with cell proliferation and differentiation rates. Available data suggest that, although increasing genome size and paedomorphosis tend to compromise the function of the salamander brain, compensating mechanisms have evolved that may restore or even enhance brain function. PMID:8364715

  20. Development of software for computer assisted model simplification. Final report. [Lagrange multipliers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-25

    The final report of DBS Corporation on the model simplification project is presented. The purpose of the project is to develop computer-assisted model simplification. The contributions of DBS to this project where an initial overall project assessment, contributions to design principles and testing procedures, specific experimental designs, and initial test results. The main contributions of DBS to this project were in the area of LP matrix scaling, and particularly in the potential usefulness of shadow price information for model simplification. An algorithm for obtaining approximate shadow price information was developed and subjected to initial small-scale testing with promising results.

  1. Medical Issues in Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Medical Issues in Adoption KidsHealth > For Parents > Medical Issues in Adoption Print ... or emotional abuse of the child continue Agency Adoptions If you adopt through an agency, you might ...

  2. Adopted Children and Discipline

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families Media ... Your Community Healthy Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > Adoption & Foster Care > Adopted Children & Discipline Family Life Listen ...

  3. Adoption & Foster Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > Adoption & Foster Care Adoption & Foster Care Article Body ​Each year, many children join families through adoption and foster care. These families may face unique ...

  4. 20 CFR 404.733 - Evidence you are the legally adopting parent or legally adopted child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... or legally adopted child. 404.733 Section 404.733 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence for Child's and Parent's Benefits § 404.733 Evidence you are the legally adopting parent or legally adopted child. If you are...

  5. 20 CFR 404.733 - Evidence you are the legally adopting parent or legally adopted child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... or legally adopted child. 404.733 Section 404.733 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence for Child's and Parent's Benefits § 404.733 Evidence you are the legally adopting parent or legally adopted child. If you are...

  6. The Family of Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavao, Joyce Maguire

    This book aims to provide a broad framework within which to think about adoption as a whole system, so that everyone involved will learn to feel some empathy for the other members of the adoption process. The book, written by a family and adoption therapist who was adopted as an infant, describes predictable developmental stages and challenges for…

  7. Taking Adoption Seriously.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, William

    1990-01-01

    Argues that adoption should be included in strategies to help children, teen parents, and other women with difficult pregnancies because adolescents are not equipped to raise children. Discusses the need for longitudinal research on adoption, adoption education in secondary schools, and studying mass media impact on adoption. (FMW)

  8. Oversight on Community Services Administration, Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment, and Adoption Opportunities, and Native American Programs Act. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Aging, Family and Human Services of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, Ninety-Seventh Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    Oversight hearings were conducted on April 23, 1981 in reference to social service block grants for the Community Services Administration, child abuse prevention and treatment and adoption programs, and Native American Programs Act. Testimonies for support of block grants advocated ability of States to decide how program resources can best be…

  9. Questions about Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Questions About Adoption Page Content Article Body What's the best way to handle my child's questions about her adoption? Many parents want to know when is the ...

  10. What's Happening in Adoption?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Ursula M.

    1975-01-01

    Reviews current issues in adoption: termination of parental rights, rights of unwed fathers, subsidized adoption, the recent influx of Vietnamese children, black market babies, agency accountability in placing children, the right of the adoptee to know his biological parents. (ED)

  11. Agricultural landscape simplification and insecticide use in the Midwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Meehan, Timothy D; Werling, Ben P; Landis, Douglas A; Gratton, Claudio

    2011-07-12

    Agronomic intensification has transformed many agricultural landscapes into expansive monocultures with little natural habitat. A pervasive concern is that such landscape simplification results in an increase in insect pest pressure, and thus an increased need for insecticides. We tested this hypothesis across a range of cropping systems in the Midwestern United States, using remotely sensed land cover data, data from a national census of farm management practices, and data from a regional crop pest monitoring network. We found that, independent of several other factors, the proportion of harvested cropland treated with insecticides increased with the proportion and patch size of cropland and decreased with the proportion of seminatural habitat in a county. We also found a positive relationship between the proportion of harvested cropland treated with insecticides and crop pest abundance, and a positive relationship between crop pest abundance and the proportion cropland in a county. These results provide broad correlative support for the hypothesized link between landscape simplification, pest pressure, and insecticide use. Using regression coefficients from our analysis, we estimate that, across the seven-state region in 2007, landscape simplification was associated with insecticide application to 1.4 million hectares and an increase in direct costs totaling between $34 and $103 million. Both the direct and indirect environmental costs of landscape simplification should be considered in design of land use policy that balances multiple ecosystem goods and services.

  12. The Effect of Verb Simplification on the Reading Comprehension of Culturally Different High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emans, Robert

    The need for preparing materials which are comprehensible to disadvantaged children led to this study in which verbs were simplified in an effort to determine whether such simplification might increase the likelihood of passages being understood by disadvantaged black students. The hypothesis was based on a 1927 study which found that 18 verbs,…

  13. Between-Word Simplification Patterns in the Continuous Speech of Children with Speech Sound Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Harriet B.; Liu-Shea, May

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to identify and describe between-word simplification patterns in the continuous speech of children with speech sound disorders. It was hypothesized that word combinations would reveal phonological changes that were unobserved with single words, possibly accounting for discrepancies between the intelligibility of…

  14. Perceptual Recovery from Consonant-Cluster Simplification in Korean Using Language-Specific Phonological Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Taehong; McQueen, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether perceptual recovery from Korean consonant-cluster simplification is based on language-specific phonological knowledge. In tri-consonantal C1C2C3 sequences such as /lkt/ and /lpt/ in Seoul Korean, either C1 or C2 can be completely deleted. Seoul Koreans monitored for C2 targets (/p/ or /k/, deleted or preserved) in…

  15. Suppression of inflammatory cell trafficking and alveolar simplification by the heme oxygenase-1 product carbon monoxide

    PubMed Central

    Anyanwu, Anuli C.; Bentley, J. Kelley; Popova, Antonia P.; Malas, Omar; Alghanem, Husam; Goldsmith, Adam M.; Hershenson, Marc B.

    2014-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a lung disease of prematurely born infants, is characterized in part by arrested development of pulmonary alveolae. We hypothesized that heme oxygenase (HO-1) and its byproduct carbon monoxide (CO), which are thought to be cytoprotective against redox stress, mitigate lung injury and alveolar simplification in hyperoxia-exposed neonatal mice, a model of BPD. Three-day-old C57BL/6J mice were exposed to air or hyperoxia (FiO2, 75%) in the presence or absence of inhaled CO (250 ppm for 1 h twice daily) for 21 days. Hyperoxic exposure increased mean linear intercept, a measure of alveolar simplification, whereas CO treatment attenuated hypoalveolarization, yielding a normal-appearing lung. Conversely, HO-1-null mice showed exaggerated hyperoxia-induced hypoalveolarization. CO also inhibited hyperoxia-induced pulmonary accumulation of F4/80+, CD11c+, and CD11b+ monocytes and Gr-1+ neutrophils. Furthermore, CO attenuated lung mRNA and protein expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including the monocyte chemoattractant CCL2 in vivo, and decreased hyperoxia-induced type I alveolar epithelial cell CCL2 production in vitro. Hyperoxia-exposed CCL2-null mice, like CO-treated mice, showed attenuated alveolar simplification and lung infiltration of CD11b+ monocytes, consistent with the notion that CO blocks lung epithelial cell cytokine production. We conclude that, in hyperoxia-exposed neonatal mice, inhalation of CO suppresses inflammation and alveolar simplification. PMID:24532288

  16. Le "Francais Populaire" and French as a Second Language: A Comparative Study of Language Simplification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenemer, Virginia Lynn

    The French of English speaking students of French as a second language is compared with "francais populaire" (FP) in order to determine similarities in their tendency toward simplified grammar and morphology. Simplifying characteristics that are typical of FP were obtained from French working class sources, while simplification patterns of French…

  17. Adoption: The Bigger Boxes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyer, Michael A.

    1999-01-01

    Identifies two theoretical frameworks for adoption research: stress and coping literature and life-span developmental psychology. Recognizes that placing adoption within these larger study areas encourages differentiated, conditional questions such as when does adoption have which types of impacts for which types of individuals. (DLH)

  18. The Transracial Adoption Paradox

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Richard M.

    2008-01-01

    The number of transracial adoptions in the United States, particularly international adoptions, is increasing annually. Counseling psychology as a profession, however, is a relatively silent voice in the research on and practice of transracial adoption. This article presents an overview of the history and research on transracial adoption to inform counseling psychologists of the set of racial and ethnic challenges and opportunities that transracial adoptive families face in everyday living. Particular attention is given to emergent theory and research on the cultural socialization process within these families. PMID:18458794

  19. The claim from adoption.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Thomas Sobirk

    2002-08-01

    In this article several justifications of what I call 'the claim from adoption' are examined. The claim from adoption is that, instead of expending resources on bringing new children into the world using reproductive technology and then caring for these children, we ought to devote these resources to the adoption and care of existing destitute children. Arguments trading on the idea that resources should be directed to adoption instead of assisted reproduction because already existing people can benefit from such a use of resources whereas we cannot benefit individuals by bringing them into existence are rejected. It is then argued that a utilitarian argument proposed by Christian Munthe that supports the claim from adoption in some situations should be rejected because the support it offers does not extend to certain situations in which it seems morally obvious that resources should be expended on adoption rather than assisted reproduction. A version of the Priority View improves upon Munthe's utilitarianism by supporting the claim from adoption in the cases in which Munthe's argument failed. Some allegedly counterintuitive implications of the Priority View are then discussed, and it is concluded that the Priority View is more plausible than utilitarianism. In a concluding section on policy issues it is argued that, even though the claim from adoption can be justified in a variety of situations, it does not follow that, in these situations, governments should direct resources away from assisted reproduction and towards adoption.

  20. Should we trust survey data? Assessing response simplification and data fabrication.

    PubMed

    Blasius, Jörg; Thiessen, Victor

    2015-07-01

    While many factors, such as unit- and item nonresponse, threaten data quality, we focus on data contamination that arises primarily from task simplification processes. We argue that such processes can occur at two levels. First, respondents themselves may engage in various response strategies that minimize their time and effort in completing the survey. Second, interviewers and other employees of the research institute might take various shortcuts to reduce their time and/or to fulfill the requirements of their contracts; in the simplest form this can be done via copy-and-paste procedures. This paper examines the cross-national quality of the reports from principals of schools participating in the 2009 PISA. We introduce two measures of data quality to document that extreme response simplification characterizes the behavior of substantial numbers of school principals in numerous countries. Additionally, we discovered strong evidence of data fabrication in several countries. PMID:26004475

  1. Fierz relations for Volkov spinors and the simplification of Furry picture traces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartin, A.

    2016-10-01

    Transition probability calculations of strong field particle processes in the Furry picture typically use fermion Volkov solutions. These solutions have a relatively complicated spinor due to the interaction of the electron spin with a strong external field, which in turn leads to unwieldy trace calculations. The simplification of these calculations would aid theoretical studies of strong field phenomena such as the predicted resonance behavior of higher order Furry picture processes. Here, Fierz transformations of Volkov spinors are developed and applied to a first-order and a second-order Furry picture process. Combined with symmetry properties, the techniques presented here are generally applicable and lead to considerable simplification of Furry picture analytic calculations.

  2. Simplification of vacuole structure during plant cell death triggered by culture filtrates of Erwinia carotovora.

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, Yumi; Nomura, Toshihisa; Hasezawa, Seiichiro; Higaki, Takumi

    2015-01-01

    Vacuoles are suggested to play crucial roles in plant defense-related cell death. During programmed cell death, previous live cell imaging studies have observed vacuoles to become simpler in structure and have implicated this simplification as a prelude to the vacuole's rupture and consequent lysis of the plasma membrane. Here, we examined dynamics of the vacuole in cell cycle-synchronized tobacco BY-2 (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Bright Yellow 2) cells during cell death induced by application of culture filtrates of Erwinia carotovora. The filtrate induced death in about 90% of the cells by 24 h. Prior to cell death, vacuole shape simplified and endoplasmic actin filaments disassembled; however, the vacuoles did not rupture until after plasma membrane integrity was lost. Instead of facilitating rupture, the simplification of vacuole structure might play a role in the retrieval of membrane components needed for defense-related cell death.

  3. Automation and work-simplification in the urinalysis laboratory. A pilgrim's progress.

    PubMed

    Patterson, P P

    1988-09-01

    The evolution of the modern clinical laboratory has produced a gap between medical/scientific competence on the one hand and management skills on the other. Physician-managers need both sets of competencies. Concepts of operations management and cost accounting shape criteria for strategic decisions in technology improvement programs. Automation and work-simplification are key strategies for improving cost performance in clinical laboratories.

  4. Theories of Simplification and Scaling of Spatially Distributed Processes. Chapter 12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, Simon A.; Pacala, Stephen W.

    1997-01-01

    The problem of scaling is at the heart of ecological theory, the essence of understanding and of the development of a predictive capability. The description of any system depends on the spatial, temporal, and organizational perspective chosen; hence it is essential to understand not only how patterns and dynamics vary with scale, but also how patterns at one scale are manifestations of processes operating at other scales. Evolution has shaped the characteristics of species in ways that result in scale displacement: Each species experiences the environment at its own unique set of spatial and temporal scales and interfaces the biota through unique assemblages of phenotypes. In this way, coexistence becomes possible, and biodiversity is enhanced. By averaging over space, time, and biological interactions, a genotype filters variation at fine scales and selects the arena in which it will face the vicissitudes of nature. Variation at finer scales is then noise, of minor importance to the survival and dynamics of the species, and consequently of minor importance in any attempt at description. In attempting to model ecological interactions in space, contributors throughout this book have struggled with a trade-off between simplification and "realistic" complexity and detail. Although the challenge of simplification is widely recognized in ecology, less appreciated is the intertwining of scaling questions and scaling laws with the process of simplification. In the context of this chapter simplification will in general mean the use of spatial or ensemble means and low-order moments to capture more detailed interactions by integrating over given areas. In this way, one can derive descriptions of the system at different spatial scales, which provides the essentials for the extraction of scaling laws by examination of how system properties vary with scale.

  5. Simplification of a light-based model for estimating final internode length in greenhouse cucumber canopies

    PubMed Central

    Kahlen, Katrin; Stützel, Hartmut

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Light quantity and quality affect internode lengths in cucumber (Cucumis sativus), whereby leaf area and the optical properties of the leaves mainly control light quality within a cucumber plant community. This modelling study aimed at providing a simple, non-destructive method to predict final internode lengths (FILs) using light quantity and leaf area data. Methods Several simplifications of a light quantity and quality sensitive model for estimating FILs in cucumber have been tested. The direct simplifications substitute the term for the red : far-red (R : FR) ratios, by a term for (a) the leaf area index (LAI, m2 m−2) or (b) partial LAI, the cumulative leaf area per m2 ground, where leaf area per m2 ground is accumulated from the top of each plant until a number, n, of leaves per plant is reached. The indirect simplifications estimate the input R : FR ratio based on partial leaf area and plant density. Key Results In all models, simulated FILs were in line with the measured FILs over various canopy architectures and light conditions, but the prediction quality varied. The indirect simplification based on leaf area of ten leaves revealed the best fit with measured data. Its prediction quality was even higher than of the original model. Conclusions This study showed that for vertically trained cucumber plants, leaf area data can substitute local light quality data for estimating FIL data. In unstressed canopies, leaf area over the upper ten ranks seems to represent the feedback of the growing architecture on internode elongation with respect to light quality. This highlights the role of this domain of leaves as the primary source for the specific R : FR signal controlling the final length of an internode and could therefore guide future research on up-scaling local processes to the crop level. PMID:21642233

  6. Single Parent Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    Presenting two views of the single-parent family, this pamphlet includes an article by two researchers (William Feigelman and Arnold R. Silverman) and a short statement by a single adoptive parent (Amanda Richards). The first paper summarizes earlier research on single-parent adoptions and discusses the results of a nationwide survey of 713…

  7. Adaptive simplification and the evolution of gecko locomotion: Morphological and biomechanical consequences of losing adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Higham, Timothy E.; Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra V.; Collins, Clint E.; Hulsey, C. Darrin; Russell, Anthony P.

    2015-01-01

    Innovations permit the diversification of lineages, but they may also impose functional constraints on behaviors such as locomotion. Thus, it is not surprising that secondary simplification of novel locomotory traits has occurred several times among vertebrates and could potentially lead to exceptional divergence when constraints are relaxed. For example, the gecko adhesive system is a remarkable innovation that permits locomotion on surfaces unavailable to other animals, but has been lost or simplified in species that have reverted to a terrestrial lifestyle. We examined the functional and morphological consequences of this adaptive simplification in the Pachydactylus radiation of geckos, which exhibits multiple unambiguous losses or bouts of simplification of the adhesive system. We found that the rates of morphological and 3D locomotor kinematic evolution are elevated in those species that have simplified or lost adhesive capabilities. This finding suggests that the constraints associated with adhesion have been circumvented, permitting these species to either run faster or burrow. The association between a terrestrial lifestyle and the loss/reduction of adhesion suggests a direct link between morphology, biomechanics, and ecology. PMID:25548182

  8. Simplification of physics-based electrochemical model for lithium ion battery on electric vehicle. Part I: Diffusion simplification and single particle model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xuebing; Ouyang, Minggao; Lu, Languang; Li, Jianqiu

    2015-03-01

    Now the lithium ion batteries are widely used in electrical vehicles (EV). The battery modeling and state estimation is of great significance. The rigorous physic based electrochemical model is too complicated for on-line simulation in vehicle. In this work, the simplification of physics-based model lithium ion battery for application in battery management system (BMS) on real electrical vehicle is proposed. Approximate method for solving the solid phase diffusion and electrolyte concentration distribution problems is introduced. The approximate result is very close to the rigorous model but fewer computations are needed. An extended single particle model is founded based on these approximated results and the on-line state of charge (SOC) estimation algorithm using the extended Kalman filter with this single particle model is discussed. This SOC estimation algorithm could be used in the BMS in real vehicle.

  9. 49 CFR 237.31 - Adoption of bridge management programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adoption of bridge management programs. 237.31... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Railroad Bridge Safety Assurance § 237.31 Adoption of bridge management programs. Each track owner shall adopt a bridge safety management program...

  10. 49 CFR 237.31 - Adoption of bridge management programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adoption of bridge management programs. 237.31... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Railroad Bridge Safety Assurance § 237.31 Adoption of bridge management programs. Each track owner shall adopt a bridge safety management program...

  11. 49 CFR 237.31 - Adoption of bridge management programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adoption of bridge management programs. 237.31... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Railroad Bridge Safety Assurance § 237.31 Adoption of bridge management programs. Each track owner shall adopt a bridge safety management program...

  12. 49 CFR 237.31 - Adoption of bridge management programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adoption of bridge management programs. 237.31... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Railroad Bridge Safety Assurance § 237.31 Adoption of bridge management programs. Each track owner shall adopt a bridge safety management program...

  13. 49 CFR 237.31 - Adoption of bridge management programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adoption of bridge management programs. 237.31... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Railroad Bridge Safety Assurance § 237.31 Adoption of bridge management programs. Each track owner shall adopt a bridge safety management program...

  14. 49 CFR 553.29 - Adoption of final rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adoption of final rules. 553.29 Section 553.29... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULEMAKING PROCEDURES Procedures for Adoption of Rules § 553.29 Adoption of final rules. Final rules are prepared by representatives of the office concerned and the...

  15. 49 CFR 553.29 - Adoption of final rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adoption of final rules. 553.29 Section 553.29... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULEMAKING PROCEDURES Procedures for Adoption of Rules § 553.29 Adoption of final rules. Final rules are prepared by representatives of the office concerned and the...

  16. 49 CFR 553.29 - Adoption of final rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adoption of final rules. 553.29 Section 553.29... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULEMAKING PROCEDURES Procedures for Adoption of Rules § 553.29 Adoption of final rules. Final rules are prepared by representatives of the office concerned and the...

  17. 49 CFR 553.29 - Adoption of final rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adoption of final rules. 553.29 Section 553.29... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULEMAKING PROCEDURES Procedures for Adoption of Rules § 553.29 Adoption of final rules. Final rules are prepared by representatives of the office concerned and the...

  18. 49 CFR 553.29 - Adoption of final rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adoption of final rules. 553.29 Section 553.29... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULEMAKING PROCEDURES Procedures for Adoption of Rules § 553.29 Adoption of final rules. Final rules are prepared by representatives of the office concerned and the...

  19. 18 CFR 401.24 - Preparation and adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... adoption. 401.24 Section 401.24 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Water Resources Program § 401.24 Preparation and adoption. The Water Resources Program will be prepared and considered by the Commission for adoption...

  20. 18 CFR 401.24 - Preparation and adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... adoption. 401.24 Section 401.24 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Water Resources Program § 401.24 Preparation and adoption. The Water Resources Program will be prepared and considered by the Commission for adoption...

  1. 18 CFR 401.24 - Preparation and adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Preparation and adoption... ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Water Resources Program § 401.24 Preparation and adoption. The Water Resources Program will be prepared and considered by the Commission for adoption...

  2. 18 CFR 401.24 - Preparation and adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... adoption. 401.24 Section 401.24 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Water Resources Program § 401.24 Preparation and adoption. The Water Resources Program will be prepared and considered by the Commission for adoption...

  3. 23 CFR 1210.4 - Adoption of zero tolerance law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adoption of zero tolerance law. 1210.4 Section 1210.4 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES OPERATION OF MOTOR VEHICLES BY INTOXICATED MINORS § 1210.4 Adoption of zero...

  4. 23 CFR 1210.4 - Adoption of zero tolerance law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adoption of zero tolerance law. 1210.4 Section 1210.4 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES OPERATION OF MOTOR VEHICLES BY INTOXICATED MINORS § 1210.4 Adoption of zero...

  5. 28 CFR 40.2 - Adoption of procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adoption of procedures. 40.2 Section 40.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE STANDARDS FOR INMATE GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES Minimum Standards for Inmate Grievance Procedures § 40.2 Adoption of procedures. Each applicant seeking certification...

  6. 23 CFR 1210.4 - Adoption of zero tolerance law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adoption of zero tolerance law. 1210.4 Section 1210.4 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES OPERATION OF MOTOR VEHICLES BY INTOXICATED MINORS § 1210.4 Adoption of zero...

  7. 28 CFR 40.2 - Adoption of procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adoption of procedures. 40.2 Section 40.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE STANDARDS FOR INMATE GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES Minimum Standards for Inmate Grievance Procedures § 40.2 Adoption of procedures. Each applicant seeking certification...

  8. 28 CFR 40.2 - Adoption of procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adoption of procedures. 40.2 Section 40.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE STANDARDS FOR INMATE GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES Minimum Standards for Inmate Grievance Procedures § 40.2 Adoption of procedures. Each applicant seeking certification...

  9. 28 CFR 40.2 - Adoption of procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adoption of procedures. 40.2 Section 40.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE STANDARDS FOR INMATE GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES Minimum Standards for Inmate Grievance Procedures § 40.2 Adoption of procedures. Each applicant seeking certification...

  10. 28 CFR 40.2 - Adoption of procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adoption of procedures. 40.2 Section 40.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE STANDARDS FOR INMATE GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES Minimum Standards for Inmate Grievance Procedures § 40.2 Adoption of procedures. Each applicant seeking certification...

  11. 23 CFR 1210.4 - Adoption of zero tolerance law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adoption of zero tolerance law. 1210.4 Section 1210.4 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES OPERATION OF MOTOR VEHICLES BY INTOXICATED MINORS § 1210.4 Adoption of zero...

  12. 23 CFR 1210.4 - Adoption of zero tolerance law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adoption of zero tolerance law. 1210.4 Section 1210.4 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES OPERATION OF MOTOR VEHICLES BY INTOXICATED MINORS § 1210.4 Adoption of zero...

  13. The Colorado Adoption Project.

    PubMed

    Plomin, R; DeFries, J C

    1983-04-01

    This report provides an overview of the Colorado Adoption Project (CAP), a longitudinal, prospective, multivariate adoption study of behavioral development. Examples of the types of analyses that can be conducted using this design are presented. The examples are based on general cognitive-ability data for adoptive, biological, and control parents; assessments of their home environment; and Bayley Mental Development Index scores for 152 adopted children and 120 matched control children tested at both 1 and 2 years of age. The illustrative analyses include matched control children tested at both 1 and 2 years of age. The illustrative analyses include examination of genetic and environmental sources of variance, identification of environmental influence devoid of genetic bias, assessment of genotype-environment interaction and correlation, and analyses of the etiology of change and continuity in development.

  14. Adoption and Sibling Rivalry

    MedlinePlus

    ... child in your family should understand her own origins, and those of her brothers and sisters. But ... children can seem exaggerated because of their different origins. For instance, i f your adoptive child does ...

  15. Parenting Your Adopted Teenager

    MedlinePlus

    ... https: / / www. childwelfare. gov/ pubs/ f- openadopt/ .) The Internet and the explosion of social media sites (e. ... 4 Howard, J. (2012). Untangling the web: The Internet’s transformative impact on adoption . New York, NY: Evan ...

  16. Travelers' Health: International Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... preadoption living standards, varying disease epidemiology in the countries of origin, the presence of previously unidentified medical problems, and ... know the disease risks in the adopted child’s country of origin and the medical and social histories of the ...

  17. Adolescents' Feelings about Openness in Adoption: Implications for Adoption Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berge, Jerica M.; Mendenhall, Tai J.; Wrobel, Gretchen M.; Grotevant, Harold D.; McRoy, Ruth G.

    2006-01-01

    Adoption research commonly uses parents' reports of satisfaction when examining openness in adoption arrangements. This qualitative study aimed to fill a gap in the adoption research by using adolescents' voices to gain a better understanding of their adoption experiences. Adopted adolescents (n = 152) were interviewed concerning their…

  18. The Colorado Adoption Project.

    PubMed

    Rhea, Sally-Ann; Bricker, Josh B; Wadsworth, Sally J; Corley, Robin P

    2013-02-01

    This paper describes the Colorado Adoption Project (CAP), an ongoing genetically informative longitudinal study of behavioral development. We describe the features of the adoption design used in CAP, and discuss how this type of design uses data from both parent-offspring and related- versus unrelated-sibling comparisons to estimate the importance of genetic and shared environmental influences for resemblance among family members. The paper provides an overview of CAP's history, how subjects were ascertained, recruited, and retained, and the domains of assessment that have been explored since the CAP's initiation in 1975. Findings from some representative papers that make use of data from CAP participants illustrate the study's multifaceted nature as a parent-offspring and sibling behavioral genetic study, a study that parallels a complimentary twin study, a longitudinal study of development, a source of subjects for molecular genetic investigation, and a study of the outcomes of the adoption process itself. As subjects assessed first at age 1 approach age 40, we hope the CAP will establish itself as the first prospective adoption study of lifespan development.

  19. The Colorado Adoption Project

    PubMed Central

    Rhea, Sally-Ann; Bricker, Josh B.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Corley, Robin P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the Colorado Adoption Project (CAP), an ongoing genetically-informative longitudinal study of behavioral development. We describe the features of the adoption design used in CAP, and discuss how this type of design uses data from both parent-offspring and related- versus unrelated- sibling comparisons to estimate the importance of genetic and shared environmental influences for resemblance among family members. The paper provides an overview of CAP’s history, how subjects were ascertained, recruited, and retained, and the domains of assessment that have been explored since the CAP’s initiation in 1975. Findings from some representative papers that make use of data from CAP participants illustrate the study’s multifaceted nature as a parent-offspring and sibling behavioral genetic study, a study that parallels a complimentary twin study, a longitudinal study of development, a source of subjects for molecular genetic investigation, and a study of the outcomes of the adoption process itself. As subjects assessed first at age 1 approach age 40, we hope the CAP will establish itself as the first prospective adoption study of lifespan development. PMID:23158098

  20. CERTS customer adoption model

    SciTech Connect

    Rubio, F. Javier; Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Hamachi,Kristina S.

    2000-03-01

    This effort represents a contribution to the wider distributed energy resources (DER) research of the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS, http://certs.lbl.gov) that is intended to attack and, hopefully, resolve the technical barriers to DER adoption, particularly those that are unlikely to be of high priority to individual equipment vendors. The longer term goal of the Berkeley Lab effort is to guide the wider technical research towards the key technical problems by forecasting some likely patterns of DER adoption. In sharp contrast to traditional electricity utility planning, this work takes a customer-centric approach and focuses on DER adoption decision making at, what we currently think of as, the customer level. This study reports on Berkeley Lab's second year effort (completed in Federal fiscal year 2000, FY00) of a project aimed to anticipate patterns of customer adoption of distributed energy resources (DER). Marnay, et al., 2000 describes the earlier FY99 Berkeley Lab work. The results presented herein are not intended to represent definitive economic analyses of possible DER projects by any means. The paucity of data available and the importance of excluded factors, such as environmental implications, are simply too important to make such an analysis possible at this time. Rather, the work presented represents a demonstration of the current model and an indicator of the potential to conduct more relevant studies in the future.

  1. Toddler Adoption: The Weaver's Craft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins-Best, Mary

    Based on concern about the lack of information on adopting toddlers, this book examines the special needs of adopted toddlers and their adoptive parents. Chapter 1, "Why Write a Book on Toddler Adoption?" details the lack of information on the difficulties of adopted toddlers in forming attachments and parents' child rearing difficulties. Chapter…

  2. Phonological simplifications, apraxia of speech and the interaction between phonological and phonetic processing.

    PubMed

    Galluzzi, Claudia; Bureca, Ivana; Guariglia, Cecilia; Romani, Cristina

    2015-05-01

    Research on aphasia has struggled to identify apraxia of speech (AoS) as an independent deficit affecting a processing level separate from phonological assembly and motor implementation. This is because AoS is characterized by both phonological and phonetic errors and, therefore, can be interpreted as a combination of deficits at the phonological and the motoric level rather than as an independent impairment. We apply novel psycholinguistic analyses to the perceptually phonological errors made by 24 Italian aphasic patients. We show that only patients with relative high rate (>10%) of phonetic errors make sound errors which simplify the phonology of the target. Moreover, simplifications are strongly associated with other variables indicative of articulatory difficulties - such as a predominance of errors on consonants rather than vowels - but not with other measures - such as rate of words reproduced correctly or rates of lexical errors. These results indicate that sound errors cannot arise at a single phonological level because they are different in different patients. Instead, different patterns: (1) provide evidence for separate impairments and the existence of a level of articulatory planning/programming intermediate between phonological selection and motor implementation; (2) validate AoS as an independent impairment at this level, characterized by phonetic errors and phonological simplifications; (3) support the claim that linguistic principles of complexity have an articulatory basis since they only apply in patients with associated articulatory difficulties. PMID:25772602

  3. Landscape Simplification Constrains Adult Size in a Native Ground-Nesting Bee

    PubMed Central

    Renauld, Miles; Hutchinson, Alena; Loeb, Gregory; Poveda, Katja; Connelly, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Bees provide critical pollination services to 87% of angiosperm plants; however, the reliability of these services may become threatened as bee populations decline. Agricultural intensification, resulting in the simplification of environments at the landscape scale, greatly changes the quality and quantity of resources available for female bees to provision their offspring. These changes may alter or constrain the tradeoffs in maternal investment allocation between offspring size, number and sex required to maximize fitness. Here we investigate the relationship between landscape scale agricultural intensification and the size and number of individuals within a wild ground nesting bee species, Andrena nasonii. We show that agricultural intensification at the landscape scale was associated with a reduction in the average size of field collected A. nasonii adults in highly agricultural landscapes but not with the number of individuals collected. Small females carried significantly smaller (40%) pollen loads than large females, which is likely to have consequences for subsequent offspring production and fitness. Thus, landscape simplification is likely to constrain allocation of resources to offspring through a reduction in the overall quantity, quality and distribution of resources. PMID:26943127

  4. Phonological simplifications, apraxia of speech and the interaction between phonological and phonetic processing.

    PubMed

    Galluzzi, Claudia; Bureca, Ivana; Guariglia, Cecilia; Romani, Cristina

    2015-05-01

    Research on aphasia has struggled to identify apraxia of speech (AoS) as an independent deficit affecting a processing level separate from phonological assembly and motor implementation. This is because AoS is characterized by both phonological and phonetic errors and, therefore, can be interpreted as a combination of deficits at the phonological and the motoric level rather than as an independent impairment. We apply novel psycholinguistic analyses to the perceptually phonological errors made by 24 Italian aphasic patients. We show that only patients with relative high rate (>10%) of phonetic errors make sound errors which simplify the phonology of the target. Moreover, simplifications are strongly associated with other variables indicative of articulatory difficulties - such as a predominance of errors on consonants rather than vowels - but not with other measures - such as rate of words reproduced correctly or rates of lexical errors. These results indicate that sound errors cannot arise at a single phonological level because they are different in different patients. Instead, different patterns: (1) provide evidence for separate impairments and the existence of a level of articulatory planning/programming intermediate between phonological selection and motor implementation; (2) validate AoS as an independent impairment at this level, characterized by phonetic errors and phonological simplifications; (3) support the claim that linguistic principles of complexity have an articulatory basis since they only apply in patients with associated articulatory difficulties.

  5. The response of carabids to landscape simplification differs between trophic groups.

    PubMed

    Purtauf, Tobias; Dauber, Jens; Wolters, Volkmar

    2005-01-01

    We studied the response of carabid species richness and density to landscape simplification (measured as percentage cover of non-crop habitat surrounding each study site) in 36 wheat fields using pitfall traps. Carabids were divided to trophic groups following the literature. The number of species from different trophic groups declined with increasing landscape simplification in the order: carnivores > phytophages > omnivores. Density compensation of both carnivores and phytophages suggests that species decline is caused by the loss of specific resources rather than by an overall reduction in food availability. Increasing evenness indicates that a greater share of phytophagous species contributes to density compensation at poorer sites. A comparison with data from complementing studies shows that marked differences in species numbers (carnivores > omnivores > phytophages) are due to a different sensitivity of trophic groups to agricultural management. Since our findings seem to be partly due to increasing sensitivity to landscape changes with trophic rank, and partly to decreasing sensitivity of depauperate communities to local environmental stress, species loss can best be explained by the co-action of factors at local and regional scales. Species richness decline might significantly alter the role of carabids as biocontrol agents.

  6. [International adoption: children's health risk evolution].

    PubMed

    Dartiguenave, C

    2012-05-01

    The socioeconomic and sanitary conditions in many countries make it necessary to weigh as precisely as possible the uncertainties which might affect the health of internationally adopted children, which is one of the key drivers to adoption decision. Indeed, health troubles are more and more frequent among children proposed by countries, at a time when there are fewer children to be adopted. Hence the institutions and the actors in the field of international adoption are compelled to frequently update their professional practices, so as to cope both with the declining offer for adoptable children and with the increasing pressure from the birth countries of children to make host countries adopt children with high age or with special needs. It also requires from the administrations the will to provide better initial information and to implement the demand for an agreement. Meanwhile, in spite of those growing constraints, adopting families have been more and more risk adverse during the latest decades, this being a common trend in our developed countries.

  7. Open Adoption: Adoptive Parents' Reactions Two Decades Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Deborah H.

    2013-01-01

    Unlike in the past, most adoption agencies today offer birth parents and adoptive parents the opportunity to share identifying information and have contact with each other. To understand the impacts of different open adoption arrangements, a qualitative descriptive study using a snowball sample of 44 adoptive parents throughout New England began…

  8. Hospitious Adoption: How Hospitality Empowers Children and Transforms Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gritter, James L.

    2009-01-01

    Building on previous books by the author, "Hospitious Adoption: How Hospitality Empowers Children and Transforms Adoption" examines the next step after open adoption. Gritter takes the approach that practicing goodwill, respect, and courage within the realm of adoption makes the process move smoother and enriches children's lives. Following a…

  9. Can the modeling for simplification of a dental implant surface affect the accuracy of 3D finite element analysis?

    PubMed

    Verri, Fellippo Ramos; Cruz, Ronaldo Silva; de Souza Batista, Victor Eduardo; Almeida, Daniel Augusto de Faria; Verri, Ana Caroline Gonçales; Lemos, Cleidiel Aparecido de Araújo; Santiago Júnior, Joel Ferreira; Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess stress/strain of different implant modeling simplifications by 3D-FEA. Three variation of external hexagon implant (Ø3.75 × 10 mm) supporting one molar crown were simulated: A (no threads); B (slightly threads simplification); C (original design). 200 N (axial) and 100 N (oblique) were applied. Cortical bone was evaluated by maximum principal stress and microstrain qualitatively and quantitatively (ANOVA and Tukey post hoc (p < 0.05)). Higher stress levels (p < 0.05) were observed in model A. Models B and C presented similar stress transmission. It was possible to conclude that slightly simplification should be used for studies evaluating stress transferring for bone tissue.

  10. A consistent positive association between landscape simplification and insecticide use across the Midwestern US from 1997 through 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meehan, Timothy D.; Gratton, Claudio

    2015-11-01

    During 2007, counties across the Midwestern US with relatively high levels of landscape simplification (i.e., widespread replacement of seminatural habitats with cultivated crops) had relatively high crop-pest abundances which, in turn, were associated with relatively high insecticide application. These results suggested a positive relationship between landscape simplification and insecticide use, mediated by landscape effects on crop pests or their natural enemies. A follow-up study, in the same region but using different statistical methods, explored the relationship between landscape simplification and insecticide use between 1987 and 2007, and concluded that the relationship varied substantially in sign and strength across years. Here, we explore this relationship from 1997 through 2012, using a single dataset and two different analytical approaches. We demonstrate that, when using ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, the relationship between landscape simplification and insecticide use is, indeed, quite variable over time. However, the residuals from OLS models show strong spatial autocorrelation, indicating spatial structure in the data not accounted for by explanatory variables, and violating a standard assumption of OLS. When modeled using spatial regression techniques, relationships between landscape simplification and insecticide use were consistently positive between 1997 and 2012, and model fits were dramatically improved. We argue that spatial regression methods are more appropriate for these data, and conclude that there remains compelling correlative support for a link between landscape simplification and insecticide use in the Midwestern US. We discuss the limitations of inference from this and related studies, and suggest improved data collection campaigns for better understanding links between landscape structure, crop-pest pressure, and pest-management practices.

  11. A consistent positive association between landscape simplification and insecticide use across the Midwestern US from 1997 through 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Meehan, Timothy D.; Gratton, Claudio

    2015-10-27

    During 2007, counties across the Midwestern US with relatively high levels of landscape simplification (i.e., widespread replacement of seminatural habitats with cultivated crops) had relatively high crop-pest abundances which, in turn, were associated with relatively high insecticide application. These results suggested a positive relationship between landscape simplification and insecticide use, mediated by landscape effects on crop pests or their natural enemies. A follow-up study, in the same region but using different statistical methods, explored the relationship between landscape simplification and insecticide use between 1987 and 2007, and concluded that the relationship varied substantially in sign and strength across years. Here, we explore this relationship from 1997 through 2012, using a single dataset and two different analytical approaches. We demonstrate that, when using ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, the relationship between landscape simplification and insecticide use is, indeed, quite variable over time. However, the residuals from OLS models show strong spatial autocorrelation, indicating spatial structure in the data not accounted for by explanatory variables, and violating a standard assumption of OLS. When modeled using spatial regression techniques, relationships between landscape simplification and insecticide use were consistently positive between 1997 and 2012, and model fits were dramatically improved. We argue that spatial regression methods are more appropriate for these data, and conclude that there remains compelling correlative support for a link between landscape simplification and insecticide use in the Midwestern US. We discuss the limitations of inference from this and related studies, and suggest improved data collection campaigns for better understanding links between landscape structure, crop-pest pressure, and pest-management practices.

  12. A consistent positive association between landscape simplification and insecticide use across the Midwestern US from 1997 through 2012

    DOE PAGES

    Meehan, Timothy D.; Gratton, Claudio

    2015-10-27

    During 2007, counties across the Midwestern US with relatively high levels of landscape simplification (i.e., widespread replacement of seminatural habitats with cultivated crops) had relatively high crop-pest abundances which, in turn, were associated with relatively high insecticide application. These results suggested a positive relationship between landscape simplification and insecticide use, mediated by landscape effects on crop pests or their natural enemies. A follow-up study, in the same region but using different statistical methods, explored the relationship between landscape simplification and insecticide use between 1987 and 2007, and concluded that the relationship varied substantially in sign and strength across years. Here,more » we explore this relationship from 1997 through 2012, using a single dataset and two different analytical approaches. We demonstrate that, when using ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, the relationship between landscape simplification and insecticide use is, indeed, quite variable over time. However, the residuals from OLS models show strong spatial autocorrelation, indicating spatial structure in the data not accounted for by explanatory variables, and violating a standard assumption of OLS. When modeled using spatial regression techniques, relationships between landscape simplification and insecticide use were consistently positive between 1997 and 2012, and model fits were dramatically improved. We argue that spatial regression methods are more appropriate for these data, and conclude that there remains compelling correlative support for a link between landscape simplification and insecticide use in the Midwestern US. We discuss the limitations of inference from this and related studies, and suggest improved data collection campaigns for better understanding links between landscape structure, crop-pest pressure, and pest-management practices.« less

  13. Iterative ramp sharpening for structure signature-preserving simplification of images

    SciTech Connect

    Grazzini, Jacopo A; Soille, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simple and heuristic ramp sharpening algorithm that achieves local contrast enhancement of vector-valued images. The proposed algorithm performs a local comparison of intensity values as well as gradient strength and directional information derived from the gradient structure tensor so that the sharpening is applied only for pixels found on the ramps around true edges. This way, the contrast between objects and regions separated by a ramp is enhanced correspondingly, avoiding ringing artefacts. It is found that applying this technique in an iterative manner on blurred imagery produces sharpening preserving both structure and signature of the image. The final approach reaches a good compromise between complexity and effectiveness for image simplification, enhancing in an efficient manner the image details and maintaining the overall image appearance.

  14. Simplification of Node Position Data for Interactive Visualization of Dynamic Datasets

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Paul; Popescu, Voicu

    2012-01-01

    We propose to aid the interactive visualization of time-varying spatial datasets by simplifying node position data over the entire simulation as opposed to over individual states. Our approach is based on two observations. The first observation is that the trajectory of some nodes can be approximated well without recording the position of the node for every state. The second observation is that there are groups of nodes whose motion from one state to the next can be approximated well with a single transformation. We present dataset simplification techniques that take advantage of this node data redundancy. Our techniques are general, supporting many types of simulations, they achieve good compression factors, and they allow rigorous control of the maximum node position approximation error. We demonstrate our approach in the context of finite element analysis data, of liquid flow simulation data, and of fusion simulation data. PMID:22025753

  15. Central nervous system HIV infection in "less-drug regimen" antiretroviral therapy simplification strategies.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, Francesca; Gianotti, Nicola; Lazzarin, Adriano; Cinque, Paola

    2014-02-01

    Less-drug regimens (LDR) refer to combinations of either two antiretroviral drugs or ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI) monotherapy. They may represent a simplification strategy in patients with persistently suppressed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viremia, with the main benefits of reducing drug-related toxicities and costs. Systemic virological efficacy of LDR is slightly lower as compared with combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), but patients with failure do not usually develop drug resistance and resuppress HIV replication after reintensification. A major concern of LDR is the lower efficacy in the virus reservoirs, especially in the central nervous system (CNS), where viral compartmentalization and independent evolution of infection may lead to CNS viral escape, often associated with neurologic symptoms. The authors reviewed studies of virological and functional CNS efficacy of LDR, particularly of boosted PI monotherapy regimens, for which more information is available. Symptomatic viral CSF escape was observed mainly in PI/r monotherapy patients with plasma failure and low nadir CD4+ cell counts, and resolved upon reintroduction of triple drug cART, whereas asymptomatic viral failure in CSF was not significantly more frequent in patients on PI/r monotherapy compared with patients on standard cART. In addition, there was no difference in functional outcomes between PI monotherapy and cART patients, irrespective of CSF viral escape. More data are needed on the CNS effect of dual ART regimens and, in general, on long-term efficacy of LDR. Simplification with LDR may be an attractive option in patients with suppressed viral load, if they are well selected and monitored for potential CNS complications.

  16. Four Common Simplifications of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis do not hold for River Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    River rehabilitation aims at alleviating negative effects of human impacts such as loss of biodiversity and reduction of ecosystem services. Such interventions entail difficult trade-offs between different ecological and often socio-economic objectives. Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) is a very suitable approach that helps assessing the current ecological state and prioritizing river rehabilitation measures in a standardized way, based on stakeholder or expert preferences. Applications of MCDA in river rehabilitation projects are often simplified, i.e. using a limited number of objectives and indicators, assuming linear value functions, aggregating individual indicator assessments additively, and/or assuming risk neutrality of experts. Here, we demonstrate an implementation of MCDA expert preference assessments to river rehabilitation and provide ample material for other applications. To test whether the above simplifications reflect common expert opinion, we carried out very detailed interviews with five river ecologists and a hydraulic engineer. We defined essential objectives and measurable quality indicators (attributes), elicited the experts´ preferences for objectives on a standardized scale (value functions) and their risk attitude, and identified suitable aggregation methods. The experts recommended an extensive objectives hierarchy including between 54 and 93 essential objectives and between 37 to 61 essential attributes. For 81% of these, they defined non-linear value functions and in 76% recommended multiplicative aggregation. The experts were risk averse or risk prone (but never risk neutral), depending on the current ecological state of the river, and the experts´ personal importance of objectives. We conclude that the four commonly applied simplifications clearly do not reflect the opinion of river rehabilitation experts. The optimal level of model complexity, however, remains highly case-study specific depending on data and resource

  17. Four Common Simplifications of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis do not hold for River Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Langhans, Simone D; Lienert, Judit

    2016-01-01

    River rehabilitation aims at alleviating negative effects of human impacts such as loss of biodiversity and reduction of ecosystem services. Such interventions entail difficult trade-offs between different ecological and often socio-economic objectives. Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) is a very suitable approach that helps assessing the current ecological state and prioritizing river rehabilitation measures in a standardized way, based on stakeholder or expert preferences. Applications of MCDA in river rehabilitation projects are often simplified, i.e. using a limited number of objectives and indicators, assuming linear value functions, aggregating individual indicator assessments additively, and/or assuming risk neutrality of experts. Here, we demonstrate an implementation of MCDA expert preference assessments to river rehabilitation and provide ample material for other applications. To test whether the above simplifications reflect common expert opinion, we carried out very detailed interviews with five river ecologists and a hydraulic engineer. We defined essential objectives and measurable quality indicators (attributes), elicited the experts´ preferences for objectives on a standardized scale (value functions) and their risk attitude, and identified suitable aggregation methods. The experts recommended an extensive objectives hierarchy including between 54 and 93 essential objectives and between 37 to 61 essential attributes. For 81% of these, they defined non-linear value functions and in 76% recommended multiplicative aggregation. The experts were risk averse or risk prone (but never risk neutral), depending on the current ecological state of the river, and the experts´ personal importance of objectives. We conclude that the four commonly applied simplifications clearly do not reflect the opinion of river rehabilitation experts. The optimal level of model complexity, however, remains highly case-study specific depending on data and resource

  18. Adoption Research: Trends, Topics, Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palacios, Jesus; Brodzinsky, David

    2010-01-01

    The current article provides a review of adoption research since its inception as a field of study. Three historical trends in adoption research are identified: the first focusing on risk in adoption and identifying adoptee-nonadoptee differences in adjustment; the second examining the capacity of adopted children to recover from early adversity;…

  19. 49 CFR 1544.101 - Adoption and implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Security Program § 1544.101 Adoption and implementation. (a) Full...

  20. 49 CFR 1544.101 - Adoption and implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Security Program § 1544.101 Adoption and implementation. (a) Full...

  1. Becoming Lesbian Adoptive Parents: An Exploratory Study of Lesbian Adoptive, Lesbian Birth, and Heterosexual Adoptive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelley-Sireci, Lynn M.; Ciano-Boyce, Claudia

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed lesbian adoptive parents, heterosexual adoptive parents, and lesbian parents who had used assisted fertilization, regarding the adoption process. Found that the process was similar for both heterosexual and lesbian parents, but lesbian adoptive parents perceived more discrimination and were more inclined to omit information during the…

  2. 49 CFR 511.52 - Adoption of initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adoption of initial decision. 511.52 Section 511.52 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Decision § 511.52 Adoption...

  3. 44 CFR 1.16 - Adoption of a final rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... rule. (b) When determined necessary by the Administrator in accordance with the provisions of 1 CFR 18... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Adoption of a final rule. 1.16... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL RULEMAKING; POLICY AND PROCEDURES Procedures for Rulemaking § 1.16 Adoption of...

  4. 49 CFR 511.52 - Adoption of initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adoption of initial decision. 511.52 Section 511.52 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Decision § 511.52 Adoption...

  5. 49 CFR 511.52 - Adoption of initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adoption of initial decision. 511.52 Section 511.52 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Decision § 511.52 Adoption...

  6. 49 CFR 511.52 - Adoption of initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adoption of initial decision. 511.52 Section 511.52 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Decision § 511.52 Adoption...

  7. 49 CFR 511.52 - Adoption of initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adoption of initial decision. 511.52 Section 511.52 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Decision § 511.52 Adoption...

  8. Categories for Barriers to Adoption of Instructional Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Pat

    2014-01-01

    Although higher education has spent millions of dollars on instructional technologies, often higher education administration complains that instructors are not adopting them. Without a full understanding of possible barriers, higher education institutes are hard-pressed to develop either appropriate goals or sound strategies for the adoption of…

  9. Special topics in international adoption.

    PubMed

    Jenista, Jerri Ann

    2005-10-01

    As international adoption has become more "mainstream," the issues recently addressed in domestic adoption have become more important in adoptions involving children originating in other countries. Certain groups of prospective adoptive parents, such as gay or lesbian couples, single parents, and parents with disabilities, have begun to apply to adopt in ever increasing numbers. Children who may have been considered unadoptable in the past are now routinely being offered to prospective adoptive parents. The numbers and ages of the children placed and the spacing between adoptions have come under scrutiny. The rates of adoption dissolutions and disruptions are being examined carefully by the receiving and sending countries. There is a pressing need for research into numerous social aspects of adoption.

  10. DNA G-segment bending is not the sole determinant of topology simplification by type II DNA topoisomerases.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Neil H; Santos, Sergio; Mitchenall, Lesley A; Stuchinskaya, Tanya; Taylor, James A; Maxwell, Anthony

    2014-08-21

    DNA topoisomerases control the topology of DNA. Type II topoisomerases exhibit topology simplification, whereby products of their reactions are simplified beyond that expected based on thermodynamic equilibrium. The molecular basis for this process is unknown, although DNA bending has been implicated. To investigate the role of bending in topology simplification, the DNA bend angles of four enzymes of different types (IIA and IIB) were measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The enzymes tested were Escherichia coli topo IV and yeast topo II (type IIA enzymes that exhibit topology simplification), and Methanosarcina mazei topo VI and Sulfolobus shibatae topo VI (type IIB enzymes, which do not). Bend angles were measured using the manual tangent method from topographical AFM images taken with a novel amplitude-modulated imaging mode: small amplitude small set-point (SASS), which optimises resolution for a given AFM tip size and minimises tip convolution with the sample. This gave improved accuracy and reliability and revealed that all 4 topoisomerases bend DNA by a similar amount: ~120° between the DNA entering and exiting the enzyme complex. These data indicate that DNA bending alone is insufficient to explain topology simplification and that the 'exit gate' may be an important determinant of this process.

  11. DNA G-segment bending is not the sole determinant of topology simplification by type II DNA topoisomerases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, Neil H.; Santos, Sergio; Mitchenall, Lesley A.; Stuchinskaya, Tanya; Taylor, James A.; Maxwell, Anthony

    2014-08-01

    DNA topoisomerases control the topology of DNA. Type II topoisomerases exhibit topology simplification, whereby products of their reactions are simplified beyond that expected based on thermodynamic equilibrium. The molecular basis for this process is unknown, although DNA bending has been implicated. To investigate the role of bending in topology simplification, the DNA bend angles of four enzymes of different types (IIA and IIB) were measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The enzymes tested were Escherichia coli topo IV and yeast topo II (type IIA enzymes that exhibit topology simplification), and Methanosarcina mazei topo VI and Sulfolobus shibatae topo VI (type IIB enzymes, which do not). Bend angles were measured using the manual tangent method from topographical AFM images taken with a novel amplitude-modulated imaging mode: small amplitude small set-point (SASS), which optimises resolution for a given AFM tip size and minimises tip convolution with the sample. This gave improved accuracy and reliability and revealed that all 4 topoisomerases bend DNA by a similar amount: ~120° between the DNA entering and exiting the enzyme complex. These data indicate that DNA bending alone is insufficient to explain topology simplification and that the `exit gate' may be an important determinant of this process.

  12. A user-study measuring the effects of lexical simplification and coherence enhancement on perceived and actual text difficulty

    PubMed Central

    Leroy, Gondy; Kauchak, David; Mouradi, Obay

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Low patient health literacy has been associated with cost increases in medicine because it contributes to inadequate care. Providing explanatory text is a convenient approach to distribute medical information and increase health literacy. Unfortunately, writing text that is easily understood is challenging. This work tests two text features for their impact on understanding: lexical simplification and coherence enhancement. Methods A user study was conducted to test the features’ effect on perceived and actual text difficulty. Individual sentences were used to test perceived difficulty. Using a 5-point Likert scale, participants compared eight pairs of original and simplified sentences. Abstracts were used to test actual difficulty. For each abstract, four versions were created: original, lexically simplified, coherence enhanced, and lexically simplified and coherence enhanced. Using a mixed design, one group of participants worked with the original and lexically simplified documents (no coherence enhancement) while a second group worked with the coherence enhanced versions. Actual difficulty was measured using a Cloze measure and multiple-choice questions. Results Using Amazon’s Mechanical Turk, 200 people participated of which 187 qualified based on our data qualification tests. A paired-samples t-test for the sentence ratings showed a significant reduction in difficulty after lexical simplification (p < .001). Results for actual difficulty are based on the abstracts and associated tasks. A two-way ANOVA for the Cloze test showed no effect of coherence enhancement but a main effect for lexical simplification, with the simplification leading to worse scores (p = .004). A follow-up ANOVA showed this effect exists only for function words when coherence was not enhanced (p = .008). In contrast, a two-way ANOVA for answering multiple-choice questions showed a significant beneficial effect of coherence enhancement (p = .003) but no effect of lexical

  13. Parents' Feelings towards Their Adoptive and Non-Adoptive Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Marshaun B.; Mullineaux, Paula Y.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    In the current study, we examined parent gender differences in feelings (negativity and positivity) and perceptions of child behavioural and emotional problems in adoptive and biological parent-child dyads. In a sample of 85 families, we used a novel within-family adoption design in which one child was adopted and one child was a biological child…

  14. Open adoption: adoptive parents' reactions two decades later.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Deborah H

    2013-01-01

    Unlike in the past, most adoption agencies today offer birth parents and adoptive parents the opportunity to share identifying information and have contact with each other. To understand the impacts of different open adoption arrangements, a qualitative descriptive study using a snowball sample of 44 adoptive parents throughout New England began in 1988. Every seven years these parents who adopted infants in open adoptions have participated in tape-recorded interviews to explore their evolving reactions to their open adoption experiences. This article reports the results of in-depth interviews with these parents now that their children have reached young adulthood. This longitudinal research illuminates how open adoptions change over the course of childhood and adolescence, parents' feelings about open adoption, challenges that emerge in their relationships with their children's birth families, how those challenges are managed and viewed, and parents' advice for others living with open adoption and for clinical social work practice and policy. Findings reveal that regardless of the type of openness, these adoptive parents generally feel positive about knowing the birth parents and having contact with them, are comfortable with open adoption, and see it serving the child's best interests.

  15. Who Is Adopted? Measuring Adoption Status Using National Survey Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Brent C.; Bayley, Bruce K.; Christensen, Mathew; Fan, Xitao; Coyl, Diana; Grotevant, Harold D.; van Dulmen, Manfred; Dunbar, Nora

    2001-01-01

    Draws on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health to illustrate the complexities of using large-scale surveys to measure adoption status. Discusses conceptual and methodological issues in measuring adoption status. Presents decision rules for determining adoption status across three sources of data: school self-administered…

  16. The Texas Adoption Project: adopted children and their intellectual resemblance to biological and adoptive parents.

    PubMed

    Horn, J M

    1983-04-01

    Intelligence test scores were obtained from parents and children in 300 adoptive families and compared with similar measures available for the biological mothers of the same adopted children. Results supported the hypothesis that genetic variability is an important influence in the development of individual differences for intelligence. The most salient finding was that adopted children resemble their biological mothers more than they resemble the adoptive parents who reared them from birth. A small subset of the oldest adopted children did not resemble their biological mothers. The suggestion that the influence of genes declines with age is treated with caution since other adoption studies report a trend in the opposite direction.

  17. Adoptive cellular therapy.

    PubMed

    Grupp, Stephan A; June, Carl H

    2011-01-01

    Cell-based therapies with various lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells are promising approaches for cancer immunotherapy. The transfusion of T lymphocytes, also called adoptive cell therapy (ACT), is an effective treatment for viral infections, has induced regression of cancer in early stage clinical trials, and may be a particularly important and efficacious modality in the period following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Immune reconstitution post-SCT is often slow and incomplete, which in turn leads to an increased risk of infection and may impact relapse risk in patients with malignant disease. Immunization post-HSCT is frequently unsuccessful, due to the prolonged lymphopenia, especially of CD4 T cells, seen following transplant. ACT has the potential to enhance antitumor and overall immunity, and augment vaccine efficacy in the post-transplant setting. The ability to genetically engineer lymphocyte subsets has the further potential to improve the natural immune response, correct impaired immunity, and redirect T cells to an antitumor effector response. This chapter focuses on various applications of ACT for cancer immunotherapy, and we discuss some of the latest progress and hurdles in translating these technologies to the clinic.

  18. Adoption Resource Directory: Region X.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1983

    State, regional, and national adoption resources are described in this directory for residents of Region X states (Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington). Emphasizing the adoption of children with special needs, the directory gives organizational contacts for parents in various stages of the adoption process and mentions resources for social…

  19. Recruiting Mexican American Adoptive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bausch, Robert S.; Serpe, Richard T.

    1999-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with 591 Mexican Americans to determine adoption interest and create recruiting practices for prospective parents. Approximately one-third of sample reported an interest in adoption, but many perceived both structural and cultural obstacles to adoption. Based on findings, recommendations for increasing recruitment of…

  20. Effect of simplifications of bone and components inclination on the elastohydrodynamic lubrication modeling of metal-on-metal hip resurfacing prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qingen; Liu, Feng; Fisher, John; Jin, Zhongmin

    2013-05-01

    It is important to study the lubrication mechanism of metal-on-metal hip resurfacing prosthesis in order to understand its overall tribological performance, thereby minimize the wear particles. Previous elastohydrodynamic lubrication studies of metal-on-metal hip resurfacing prosthesis neglected the effects of the orientations of the cup and head. Simplified pelvic and femoral bone models were also adopted for the previous studies. These simplifications may lead to unrealistic predictions. For the first time, an elastohydrodynamic lubrication model was developed and solved for a full metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty. The effects of the orientations of components and the realistic bones on the lubrication performance of metal-on-metal hip resurfacing prosthesis were investigated by comparing the full model with simplified models. It was found that the orientation of the head played a very important role in the prediction of pressure distributions and film profiles of the metal-on-metal hip resurfacing prosthesis. The inclination of the hemispherical cup up to 45° had no appreciable effect on the lubrication performance of the metal-on-metal hip resurfacing prosthesis. Moreover, the combined effect of material properties and structures of bones was negligible. Future studies should focus on higher inclination angles, smaller coverage angle and microseparation related to the occurrences of edge loading.

  1. Minor actinide separation: simplification of the DIAMEX-SANEX strategy by means of novel SANEX processes

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, A.; Modolo, G.; Wilden, A.; Kaufholz, P.

    2013-07-01

    The separation of An(III) from PUREX raffinate has previously been demonstrated by applying a DIAMEX process (i.e., co-extraction of An(III) and Ln(III) from HAR) followed by a SANEX process (i.e., selective extraction of An(III) from the DIAMEX product containing An(III) + Ln(III)). In line with process intensification issues, more compact processes have been developed: Recently, a 1c-SANEX process test was successfully performed, directly extracting An(III) from PUREX HAR. More recently, a new i-SANEX process was successfully tested. This process is based on the co-extraction of An(III) + Ln(III) into a TODGA solvent, followed by a selective back-extraction of An(III) by a water soluble complexing agent, in this case SO{sub 3}-Ph-BTP. In both cases, good recoveries were achieved, and very pure product solutions were obtained. However, both 1c-SANEX and i-SANEX used non-CHON chemicals. Nevertheless, these processes are a simplification to the DIAMEX + SANEX process as only one solvent is used. Finally, the new i-SANEX process is the most compact process. (authors)

  2. Amphibian skull evolution: the developmental and functional context of simplification, bone loss and heterotopy.

    PubMed

    Schoch, Rainer R

    2014-12-01

    Despite their divergent morphology, extant and extinct amphibians share numerous features in the timing and spatial patterning of dermal skull elements. Here, I show how the study of these features leads to a deeper understanding of morphological evolution. Batrachians (salamanders and frogs) have simplified skulls, with dermal bones appearing rudimentary compared with fossil tetrapods, and open cheeks resulting from the absence of other bones. The batrachian skull bones may be derived from those of temnospondyls by truncation of the developmental trajectory. The squamosal, quadratojugal, parietal, prefrontal, parasphenoid, palatine, and pterygoid form rudimentary versions of their homologs in temnospondyls. In addition, failure to ossify and early fusion of bone primordia both result in the absence of further bones that were consistently present in Paleozoic tetrapods. Here, I propose a new hypothesis explaining the observed patterns of bone loss and emargination in a functional context. The starting observation is that jaw-closing muscles are arranged in a different way than in ancestors from the earliest ontogenetic stage onwards, with muscles attaching to the dorsal side of the frontal, parietal, and squamosal. The postparietal and supratemporal start to ossify in a similar way as in branchiosaurids, but are fused to neighboring elements to form continuous attachment areas for the internal adductor. The postfrontal, postorbital, and jugal fail to ossify, as their position is inconsistent with the novel arrangement of adductor muscles. Thus, rearrangement of adductors forms the common theme behind cranial simplification, driven by an evolutionary flattening of the skull in the batrachian stem.

  3. Application-oriented simplification of actuation mechanism and physical model for ionic polymer-metal composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zicai; Wang, Yanjie; Liu, Yanfa; Asaka, Kinji; Sun, Xiaofei; Chang, Longfei; Lu, Pin

    2016-07-01

    Water containing ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) show complex deformation properties with water content. In order to develop a simple application-oriented model for engineering application, actuation mechanisms and model equations should be simplified as necessary. Beginning from our previous comprehensive multi-physical model of IPMC actuator, numerical analysis was performed to obtain the main factors influencing the bending deformation and the corresponding simplified model. In this paper, three aspects are mainly concerned. (1) Regarding mass transport process, the diffusion caused by concentration gradient mainly influences the concentrations of cation and water at the two electrode boundaries. (2) By specifying the transport components as hydrated cation and free water in the model, at the cathode, the hydrated cation concentration profile is more flat, whereas the concentrations of both free water and the total water show drastic changes. In general, the two influence the redistribution of cation and water but have little impact on deformation prediction. Thus, they can be ignored in the simplification. (3) An extended osmotic pressure is proposed to cover all eigen stresses simply with an effective osmotic coefficient. Combining with a few other linearized methods, a simplified model has been obtained by sacrificing the prediction precision on the transport process. Furthermore, the improved model has been verified by fitting with IPMC deformation evolved with water content. It shows that the simplified model has the ability to predict the complex deformations of IPMCs.

  4. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: A process simplification scheme for fabricating CMOS polycrystalline-Si thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miin-Horng, Juang; Chia-Wei, Chang; Der-Chih, Shye; Chuan-Chou, Hwang; Jih-Liang, Wang; Sheng-Liang, Jang

    2010-06-01

    A process simplification scheme for fabricating CMOS poly-Si thin-film transistors (TFTs) has been proposed, which employs large-angle-tilt-implantation of dopant through a gate sidewall spacer (LATITS). By this LATITS scheme, a lightly doped drain region under the oxide spacer is formed by low-dose tilt implantation of phosphorus (or boron) dopant through the spacer, and then the n+-source/drain (n+-S/D) (or p+-S/D) region is formed via using the same photo-mask layer during CMOS integration. For both n-TFT and p-TFT devices, as compared to the sample with conventional single n+-S/D (or p+-S/D) structure, the LATITS scheme can cause an obviously smaller leakage current, due to more gradual dopant distribution and thus smaller electric field. In addition, the resultant on-state currents only show slight degradation for the LATITS scheme. As a result, by the LATITS scheme, CMOS poly-Si TFT devices with an on/off current ratio well above 8 orders may be achieved without needing extra photo-mask layers during CMOS integration.

  5. Binary partition tree analysis based on region evolution and its application to tree simplification.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huihai; Woods, John C; Ghanbari, Mohammed

    2007-04-01

    Pyramid image representations via tree structures are recognized methods for region-based image analysis. Binary partition trees can be applied which document the merging process with small details found at the bottom levels and larger ones close to the root. Hindsight of the merging process is stored within the tree structure and provides the change histories of an image property from the leaf to the root node. In this work, the change histories are modelled by evolvement functions and their second order statistics are analyzed by using a knee function. Knee values show the reluctancy of each merge. We have systematically formulated these findings to provide a novel framework for binary partition tree analysis, where tree simplification is demonstrated. Based on an evolvement function, for each upward path in a tree, the tree node associated with the first reluctant merge is considered as a pruning candidate. The result is a simplified version providing a reduced solution space and still complying with the definition of a binary tree. The experiments show that image details are preserved whilst the number of nodes is dramatically reduced. An image filtering tool also results which preserves object boundaries and has applications for segmentation.

  6. Community dynamics and ecosystem simplification in a high-CO2 ocean.

    PubMed

    Kroeker, Kristy J; Gambi, Maria Cristina; Micheli, Fiorenza

    2013-07-30

    Disturbances are natural features of ecosystems that promote variability in the community and ultimately maintain diversity. Although it is recognized that global change will affect environmental disturbance regimes, our understanding of the community dynamics governing ecosystem recovery and the maintenance of functional diversity in future scenarios is very limited. Here, we use one of the few ecosystems naturally exposed to future scenarios of environmental change to examine disturbance and recovery dynamics. We examine the recovery patterns of marine species from a physical disturbance across different acidification regimes caused by volcanic CO2 vents. Plots of shallow rocky reef were cleared of all species in areas of ambient, low, and extreme low pH that correspond to near-future and extreme scenarios for ocean acidification. Our results illustrate how acidification decreases the variability of communities, resulting in homogenization and reduced functional diversity at a landscape scale. Whereas the recovery trajectories in ambient pH were highly variable and resulted in a diverse range of assemblages, recovery was more predictable with acidification and consistently resulted in very similar algal-dominated assemblages. Furthermore, low pH zones had fewer signs of biological disturbance (primarily sea urchin grazing) and increased recovery rates of the dominant taxa (primarily fleshy algae). Together, our results highlight how environmental change can cause ecosystem simplification via environmentally mediated changes in community dynamics in the near future, with cascading impacts on functional diversity and ecosystem function. PMID:23836638

  7. Simplifications in gravity wave parameterizations assessed by global ray-tracing modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preusse, P.; Eckermann, S. D.; Ern, M.

    2009-04-01

    All conventional gravity wave (GW) drag parameterizations, such as the Lindzen, Hines, Warner and McIntyre, and Medvedev and Klaassen schemes, have some fundamental assumptions in common. They generally assume GWs propagate upwards instantaneously and purely vertically in a limited number of horizontal directions and exchange momentum with the background winds by wave breaking only. We here use a global ray tracing experiment to test the validity of these assumptions. The spectral shape of a homogeneous and isotropic launch distribution is tuned so that the model best matches observational data in nothern hemisphere summer. For the tuning zonal means of GW squared temperature amplitudes from SABER and of GW momentum flux estimates from CRISTA were used. The chosen launch distribution is confirmed by comparing global maps and seasonal cycles of simulated GW squared amplitudes with SABER observations. We then calculate GW quantities not measured from space, such as zonal and meridional GW-induced mean-flow accelerations. We quantify the effects on the global acceleration distributions by GW lateral refraction (remote recoil effect), oblique/vertical wave propagation and the number of horizontal directions into which rays are launched at the source. We find meridional accelerations are almost completely suppressed by assuming purely vertical propagation. Launching GWs only into the four canonical directions causes large deviations. For the zonal accelerations changes of the global distributions due to the various simplifications are smaller but still significant.

  8. Community dynamics and ecosystem simplification in a high-CO2 ocean.

    PubMed

    Kroeker, Kristy J; Gambi, Maria Cristina; Micheli, Fiorenza

    2013-07-30

    Disturbances are natural features of ecosystems that promote variability in the community and ultimately maintain diversity. Although it is recognized that global change will affect environmental disturbance regimes, our understanding of the community dynamics governing ecosystem recovery and the maintenance of functional diversity in future scenarios is very limited. Here, we use one of the few ecosystems naturally exposed to future scenarios of environmental change to examine disturbance and recovery dynamics. We examine the recovery patterns of marine species from a physical disturbance across different acidification regimes caused by volcanic CO2 vents. Plots of shallow rocky reef were cleared of all species in areas of ambient, low, and extreme low pH that correspond to near-future and extreme scenarios for ocean acidification. Our results illustrate how acidification decreases the variability of communities, resulting in homogenization and reduced functional diversity at a landscape scale. Whereas the recovery trajectories in ambient pH were highly variable and resulted in a diverse range of assemblages, recovery was more predictable with acidification and consistently resulted in very similar algal-dominated assemblages. Furthermore, low pH zones had fewer signs of biological disturbance (primarily sea urchin grazing) and increased recovery rates of the dominant taxa (primarily fleshy algae). Together, our results highlight how environmental change can cause ecosystem simplification via environmentally mediated changes in community dynamics in the near future, with cascading impacts on functional diversity and ecosystem function.

  9. Community dynamics and ecosystem simplification in a high-CO2 ocean

    PubMed Central

    Kroeker, Kristy J.; Gambi, Maria Cristina; Micheli, Fiorenza

    2013-01-01

    Disturbances are natural features of ecosystems that promote variability in the community and ultimately maintain diversity. Although it is recognized that global change will affect environmental disturbance regimes, our understanding of the community dynamics governing ecosystem recovery and the maintenance of functional diversity in future scenarios is very limited. Here, we use one of the few ecosystems naturally exposed to future scenarios of environmental change to examine disturbance and recovery dynamics. We examine the recovery patterns of marine species from a physical disturbance across different acidification regimes caused by volcanic CO2 vents. Plots of shallow rocky reef were cleared of all species in areas of ambient, low, and extreme low pH that correspond to near-future and extreme scenarios for ocean acidification. Our results illustrate how acidification decreases the variability of communities, resulting in homogenization and reduced functional diversity at a landscape scale. Whereas the recovery trajectories in ambient pH were highly variable and resulted in a diverse range of assemblages, recovery was more predictable with acidification and consistently resulted in very similar algal-dominated assemblages. Furthermore, low pH zones had fewer signs of biological disturbance (primarily sea urchin grazing) and increased recovery rates of the dominant taxa (primarily fleshy algae). Together, our results highlight how environmental change can cause ecosystem simplification via environmentally mediated changes in community dynamics in the near future, with cascading impacts on functional diversity and ecosystem function. PMID:23836638

  10. Intellectual resemblance among adoptive adoptive and biological relatives: the Texas adoption project.

    PubMed

    Horn, J M; Loehlin, J C; Willerman, L

    1979-05-01

    Intellectual and personality measures were available from unwed mothers who gave their children up for adoption at birth. The same or similar measures have been obtained from 300 sets of adoptive parents and all of their adopted and natural children in the Texas Adoption Project. The sample characteristics are discussed in detail, and the basic findings for IQ are presented. Initial analyses of the data on IQ suggest moderate heritabilities. Emphasis is placed on the preliminary nature of these findings.

  11. Technology Adoption: an Interaction Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitorus, Hotna M.; Govindaraju, Rajesri; Wiratmadja, I. I.; Sudirman, Iman

    2016-02-01

    The success of a new technology depends on how well it is accepted by its intended users. Many technologies face the problem of low adoption rate, despite the benefits. An understanding of what makes people accept or reject a new technology can help speed up the adoption rate. This paper presents a framework for technology adoption based on an interactive perspective, resulting from a literature study on technology adoption. In studying technology adoption, it is necessary to consider the interactions among elements involved in the system, for these interactions may generate new characteristics or new relationships. The interactions among elements in a system adoption have not received sufficient consideration in previous studies of technology adoption. Based on the proposed interaction perspective, technology adoption is elaborated by examining interactions among the individual (i.e. the user or prospective user), the technology, the task and the environment. The framework is formulated by adopting several theories, including Perceived Characteristics of Innovating, Diffusion of Innovation Theory, Technology Acceptance Model, Task-Technology Fit and usability theory. The proposed framework is illustrated in the context of mobile banking adoption. It is aimed to offer a better understanding of determinants of technology adoption in various contexts, including technology in manufacturing systems.

  12. Adoption: medical and legal aspects.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, C K

    1978-06-01

    The problem of abandoned children is of great magnitude in India. Placement of these children in a family environment is essential for their physical, mental, and emotional development. Adoption must be approached from the child welfare perspective. The pediatrician can play an important role in the adoption process. The pediatrician should perform a thorough medical examination of infants to be adopted, both to ensure the child's welfare and to give adoptive parents an assessment of the child's health. Information should be collected on the medical history of the child's biologic parents to aid in the evaluation process. Adoptive parents should also undergo medical and pyschological examinations. Pediatricians can additionally work with social welfare departments in establishing criteria for matching children with adoptive parents. Adoptions in India are currently governed by provisions or the 1956 Hindu Adoptions and Maintenance Act. Since this legislation excludes groups such as Muslims, Christians, and Parsis from its purview, there has been a demand for national legislation providing a uniform adoption law for all the communities in India. The Union Government introduced such a comprehensive bill in 1972, the Adoption of Children Bill; however, no action was ever taken. It is urged that this legislation be reactivated, and that the restriction on the removal of children for adoption outside India be lifted. PMID:721273

  13. Intercountry versus Transracial Adoption: Analysis of Adoptive Parents' Motivations and Preferences in Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yuanting; Lee, Gary R.

    2011-01-01

    The United States is one of the major baby-receiving countries in the world. Relatively little research has focused on why there is such a high demand for intercountry adoption. Using in-depth qualitative interviews with adoptive parents, the authors explored the reasons why Americans prefer to adopt foreign-born children instead of adopting…

  14. BioSimplify: an open source sentence simplification engine to improve recall in automatic biomedical information extraction.

    PubMed

    Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha; Gonzalez, Graciela

    2010-11-13

    BioSimplify is an open source tool written in Java that introduces and facilitates the use of a novel model for sentence simplification tuned for automatic discourse analysis and information extraction (as opposed to sentence simplification for improving human readability). The model is based on a "shot-gun" approach that produces many different (simpler) versions of the original sentence by combining variants of its constituent elements. This tool is optimized for processing biomedical scientific literature such as the abstracts indexed in PubMed. We tested our tool on its impact to the task of PPI extraction and it improved the f-score of the PPI tool by around 7%, with an improvement in recall of around 20%. The BioSimplify tool and test corpus can be downloaded from https://biosimplify.sourceforge.net.

  15. The re-evaluation of the AVR melt-wire experiment with specific focus on different modeling strategies and simplifications

    SciTech Connect

    R. Sonat Sen; Carel F. Viljoen

    2012-10-01

    The AVR is a pebble-bed type reactor that operated in Germany for 21 years and was closed down in December 1988. The AVR melt-wire experiments, where graphite spheres with melt wires of different melting temperatures were introduced into the core, indicate that measured pebble temperatures significantly exceeded temperatures calculated with the analysis codes available at the time. The reason for these discrepancies are often attributed to the special design features of the AVR, in particular the control rod “noses” protruding into the core, and to inherent features of the pebble bed reactor. In a previous study different possible bypass flows were investigated. This study investigates different modeling strategies and assumptions for the solution of the core neutronics. Due to the complexities specific to the AVR there is not currently a code system that can take into account the noses while simultaneously solving the burnup and diffusion equations in three dimensions. A number of modeling simplifications were therefore made in the historic analysis of the AVR. The aim of this study is to quantify the effects these different simplifications have on the results. This includes the effects of modeling the core neutronics, burn-up and thermo-hydraulics in both two and three dimensions, as well as other simplifications of the geometry. The comparison of the most realistic case to the one comparable to historic calculations show that the difference in temperature predicted with these two models can be as high as 300 degrees C. The gas temperature distribution at the top of the core, where the maximum temperatures occur, is in fair agreement with the melt-wire experiment data even though few simplifications are introduced to the models and the power history has not been simulated. The results also serve as input to the final modeling strategy to repeat the modeling of the operational history of the AVR, which is planned for the future.

  16. Physical Frailty Assessment in Older Women: Can Simplification Be Achieved Without Loss of Syndrome Measurement Validity?

    PubMed

    Xue, Qian-Li; Tian, Jing; Fried, Linda P; Kalyani, Rita R; Varadhan, Ravi; Walston, Jeremy D; Bandeen-Roche, Karen

    2016-06-01

    Different phenotypes have increasingly been used as tools for clinical characterization of frailty among older adults. Although there have been studies about the comparability and effectiveness of various simplifications and approximations of existing frailty phenotypes for risk prediction, there have been no studies in which investigators evaluated the stability of the clinical characterization achieved. In the present study, we used baseline (1992-1996) data from 786 community-dwelling women who were 70-79 years of age in the Women's Health and Aging Study I and II to compare physical frailty phenotypes (PFPs). Using the 5 criteria set forth by Fried, we created 15 PFPs that were positive for various combinations of 3 or 4 of those criteria and compared them with the PFP that included all 5 criteria in order to assess construct validity with regard to frailty syndrome characterization and predictive validity for adverse outcomes of aging. All PFPs exhibited high specificity and negative predictive values for identifying frailty syndrome. Three-item PFPs were insensitive but were the best performers for positive predictive value, with the highest positive predictive value of 0.86 seen in the PFP characterized by the combination of weakness, exhaustion, and weight loss. In comparison, the 5-criterion PFP achieved a sensitivity of 0.82 but a positive predictive value of only 0.53. With regard to predictive validity, it was not merely the number of criteria used to characterize the PFPs but rather the specific criteria combinations that predicted the risk of adverse outcomes. Our findings show that there clinically important contexts in which simplified PFPs cannot be used interchangeably.

  17. The mathematical model of unit vector method and the iterative method for its simplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, W. S.; Lu, B. K.; Ma, J. Y.

    2007-07-01

    In practical application, the perturbed unit vector method (PUVM1) is widely used to determine the orbit by the observation data related to artificial satellites. Some improvement efforts have been done to this method in this paper. Firstly, based on the model of measurement error and the idea of unit vector method, a new mathematical model MMUVM which is essentially a nonlinear optimization problem is introduced. Using simulation data and observation data, the objective function of MMUVM can be formed and solved respectively. Numerical results show that the mathematical model MMUVM is correct and the direct search method, i.e. the quadratic tri-diagonal interpolation DFO method is practical and effective.Secondly, based on the relationship of the semi-normal equation of PUVM1 and the gradient of MMUVM, it points out that MMUVM is a reasonable generalization of PUVM1 and PUVM1 is essentially a simplification to MMUVM. It is a big residual problem when MMUVM is formed by multi-circle long arc data, on the contrary, it is a little residual one when MMUVM is obtained by short arc data. The optimization problem of MMUVM can be solved by a suitable algorithm. The original PUVM1 algorithm is only suitable for the little residual problem. It can be obtained that PUVM1 may be used to determine the preliminary orbit by short arc data, but can not be used to deal with the job of orbit improvement by multi-circle long arc data. Finally, a discussion is made on the convergence of the iterative scheme which is used to solve the semi-normal equation of PUVM1. The corresponding numerical examples are also presented to point out that the iterative scheme of PUVM1 is convergent conditionally. It means that even if there is a reasonable solution to the semi-normal equation of PUVM1, it may be also divergent using the iterative scheme of PUVM1 in some cases.

  18. Adoption and Assisted Reproduction. Adoption and Ethics, Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freundlich, Madelyn

    The controversies in adoption have extended across a spectrum of policy and practice issues, and although the issues have become clear, resolution has not been achieved nor has consensus developed regarding a framework on which to improve the quality of adoption policy and practice. This book is the fourth in a series to use an ethics-based…

  19. The Market Forces in Adoption. Adoption and Ethics, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freundlich, Madelyn

    The controversies in adoption have extended across a spectrum of policy and practice issues, and although the issues have become clear, resolution has not been achieved nor has consensus developed regarding a framework on which to improve the quality of adoption policy and practice. This book is the second in a series to use an ethics-based…

  20. Homosexuality and adoption in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Uziel, A P

    2001-11-01

    Western societies are undergoing legal and policy changes in relation to laws governing the family, marital status, sexual orientation and the welfare of children, including in Brazil where, in the 1990s, the rights of homosexuals were incorporated into ongoing debates about what constitutes a family. This paper discusses the issue of adoption of children by homosexual men in Brazil, using information from court records from 1995-2000 in Rio de Janeiro, and from interviews with two judges, five psychologists and four social workers who evaluate those wishing to adopt. It uses the case records of one man's application to adopt, in which homosexuality became a central issue. Both the construction of masculinity in relation to parenting and concepts of the family were the parameters upon which the decision to allow him to adopt or not depended. Because the legislation does not specify what the sexual orientation of would-be adoptive parents should be, it is possible for single persons to adopt if they show they can be good parents. As more single people, alone or in couples, seek to adopt, it is important to clarify the criteria for judicial decisions on adoption applications. A dialogue is therefore needed on the meaning of family and whether and how it relates to sexual orientation. It is only on this basis that the courts can take a clear decision as to whether being homosexual is a relevant issue in regard to applications to adopt or not.

  1. 24 CFR 982.54 - Administrative plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Administrative plan. 982.54 Section... SECTION 8 TENANT-BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM HUD Requirements and PHA Plan for Administration of Program § 982.54 Administrative plan. (a) The PHA must adopt a written administrative plan...

  2. 24 CFR 982.54 - Administrative plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Administrative plan. 982.54 Section... SECTION 8 TENANT BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM HUD Requirements and PHA Plan for Administration of Program § 982.54 Administrative plan. (a) The PHA must adopt a written administrative plan...

  3. 75 FR 31834 - Adoption of Environmental Impact Statement; Availability of an Environmental Reevaluation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... Impacts (64 FR 28545, May 26, 1999) require the reevaluation of a Final EIS if major steps toward... Federal Railroad Administration Adoption of Environmental Impact Statement; Availability of an Environmental Reevaluation AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation...

  4. Toward an Applied Administrative Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Roger L. M.

    1983-01-01

    A study of 65 articles from the 1981 volumes of "Administrative Science Quarterly" and "Harvard Business Review," using smallest space analysis, found that the few studies adopting subjective (instead of objective) approaches to analyzing organizational change were most likely to provide a basis for an applied administrative science. (Author/RW)

  5. Stories of Aboriginal Transracial Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttgens, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Despite the significant number of transracial Aboriginal adoptions that have taken place in Canada, little research is available that addresses the psychological and psychosocial ramifications for the children involved. The scant literature that does exist raises concerns about the psychological impact of this type of adoption. The present…

  6. The Temporal Context of Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontius, Steven K.

    This paper analyzes the amount of time required by farmers in four villages on the western edge of the central plain of Thailand to adopt four agricultural innovations--fertilizer, herbicide, insecticide, and fungicide. The general objective is to help researchers interested in the relationship of the adoption of new ideas to economic development…

  7. Adopting Children with Attachment Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Daniel A.

    1999-01-01

    Notes that attachment behavior in infants is a facet of normal child development, and that children with attachment problems require special attention during and after the adoption process. Presents actions needed to increase the probability that such children can be successfully adopted, detailed attachment patterns, and parenting strategies and…

  8. Faculty Adoption of Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Franziska Zellweger

    2007-01-01

    Although faculty support has been identified as a critical factor in the success of educational-technology programs, many people involved in such efforts underestimate the complexities of integrating technology into teaching. In this article, the author proposes an adoption cycle to help tackle the complex issue of technology adoption for…

  9. Characteristics of adopted juvenile delinquents.

    PubMed

    Kim, W J; Zrull, J P; Davenport, C W; Weaver, M

    1992-05-01

    There have been many reports describing the uniqueness of adopted children and adolescents' delinquent behaviors in terms of both their delinquent characteristics and courts' treatment of them. A total of 43 adopted juveniles, 32 extrafamilial (1.0%) and 11 intrafamilial (0.3%) adoptions were initially identified out of 3,280 juvenile delinquents. The adopted subjects were then compared with the demographically matched and offense matched nonadopted subjects. The family variables, such as marital and employment status of parents, were significantly different. However, there were only a few discernible trends, and in general there were no significant differences between the adopted and nonadopted juveniles in terms of their offense characteristics and dispositions. PMID:1592787

  10. 49 CFR 211.27 - Publication of adopted rules and withdrawal of notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Publication of adopted rules and withdrawal of... § 211.27 Publication of adopted rules and withdrawal of notices. Whenever the Administrator adopts a final rule or withdraws an advance notice or notice of proposed rulemaking, the final rule or a...

  11. 49 CFR 211.27 - Publication of adopted rules and withdrawal of notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Publication of adopted rules and withdrawal of... § 211.27 Publication of adopted rules and withdrawal of notices. Whenever the Administrator adopts a final rule or withdraws an advance notice or notice of proposed rulemaking, the final rule or a...

  12. 49 CFR 211.27 - Publication of adopted rules and withdrawal of notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Publication of adopted rules and withdrawal of... § 211.27 Publication of adopted rules and withdrawal of notices. Whenever the Administrator adopts a final rule or withdraws an advance notice or notice of proposed rulemaking, the final rule or a...

  13. 49 CFR 211.27 - Publication of adopted rules and withdrawal of notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Publication of adopted rules and withdrawal of... § 211.27 Publication of adopted rules and withdrawal of notices. Whenever the Administrator adopts a final rule or withdraws an advance notice or notice of proposed rulemaking, the final rule or a...

  14. 28 CFR 54.135 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. 54.135 Section 54.135 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 54.135 Designation of responsible employee and adoption of...

  15. 23 CFR 1208.4 - Adoption of National Minimum Drinking Age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adoption of National Minimum Drinking Age. 1208.4 Section 1208.4 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES NATIONAL MINIMUM DRINKING AGE § 1208.4 Adoption of National...

  16. 28 CFR 35.107 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. 35.107 Section 35.107 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. (a) Designation of responsible employee. A...

  17. Adoption of new drugs by physicians: a survival analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background New drugs often substitute others cheaper and with a risk-benefit balance better established. Our aim was to analyse the diffusion of new drugs during the first months of use, examining the differences between family physicians and specialists. Methods Prescription data were obtained of cefditoren, duloxetine, etoricoxib, ezetimibe, levocetirizine, olmesartan, pregabalin and tiotropium 36 months after their launching. We obtained the monthly number of prescriptions per doctor and the number prescribers of each drug by specialty. After discarding those with less than 10 prescriptions during this period, physicians were defined as adopters if the number of prescriptions was over the 25th percentile for each drug and level (primary or secondary care). The diffusion of each drug was studied by determining the number of adopter family physicians throughout the study period. Among the group of adopters, we compared the month of the first prescription by family physicians to that of other specialists using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results The adoption of the drugs in primary care follows an exponential diffusion curve that reaches a plateau at month 6 to 23. Tiotropium was the most rapidly and widely adopted drug. Cefditoren spread at a slower rate and was the least adopted. The diffusion of etoricoxib was initially slowed down due to administrative requirements for its prescription. The median time of adoption in the case of family physicians was 4-6 months. For each of the drugs, physicians of a specialty other than family physicians adopted it first. Conclusions The number of adopters of a new drug increases quickly in the first months and reaches a plateau. The number of adopter family physicians varies considerably for different drugs. The adoption of new drugs is faster in specialists. The time of adoption should be considered to promote rational prescribing by providing timely information about new drugs and independent medical education. PMID:22401169

  18. Counseling Issues in Adoptions by Stepparents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Patricia A.; Mast, Emily

    1987-01-01

    Although the number of nonrelative adoptions is decreasing, stepparent adoptions are not. These adoptions are viewed as nonproblematic family business separate from the general adoption picture. This article examines demographic data in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, from 55 stepparent adoptions concerning stepparent adopters, birth parents, and…

  19. User Evaluation of the Effects of a Text Simplification Algorithm Using Term Familiarity on Perception, Understanding, Learning, and Information Retention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adequate health literacy is important for people to maintain good health and manage diseases and injuries. Educational text, either retrieved from the Internet or provided by a doctor’s office, is a popular method to communicate health-related information. Unfortunately, it is difficult to write text that is easy to understand, and existing approaches, mostly the application of readability formulas, have not convincingly been shown to reduce the difficulty of text. Objective To develop an evidence-based writer support tool to improve perceived and actual text difficulty. To this end, we are developing and testing algorithms that automatically identify difficult sections in text and provide appropriate, easier alternatives; algorithms that effectively reduce text difficulty will be included in the support tool. This work describes the user evaluation with an independent writer of an automated simplification algorithm using term familiarity. Methods Term familiarity indicates how easy words are for readers and is estimated using term frequencies in the Google Web Corpus. Unfamiliar words are algorithmically identified and tagged for potential replacement. Easier alternatives consisting of synonyms, hypernyms, definitions, and semantic types are extracted from WordNet, the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS), and Wiktionary and ranked for a writer to choose from to simplify the text. We conducted a controlled user study with a representative writer who used our simplification algorithm to simplify texts. We tested the impact with representative consumers. The key independent variable of our study is lexical simplification, and we measured its effect on both perceived and actual text difficulty. Participants were recruited from Amazon’s Mechanical Turk website. Perceived difficulty was measured with 1 metric, a 5-point Likert scale. Actual difficulty was measured with 3 metrics: 5 multiple-choice questions alongside each text to measure understanding

  20. Administrative Synergy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Weckstein, Daniel K.

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles to overcome in creating and sustaining an administrative professional learning community (PLC) is time. Administrators are constantly deluged by the tyranny of the urgent. It is a Herculean task to carve out time for PLCs, but it is imperative to do so. In this article, the authors describe how an administrative PLC…

  1. Technological advances in adoptive immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Oelke, Mathias; Krueger, Christine; Schneck, Jonathan P

    2005-01-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy is an attractive and elegant strategy for treating a variety of life-threatening diseases. Several approaches have been developed to generate antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells for adoptive T-cell therapy in cancer and infectious diseases. Currently, many approaches are based on either the use of autologous peptide pulsed dendritic cells as antigen-presenting cells or nonspecific expansion of T cells. Unfortunately, current approaches lack the ability to serve as reproducible and economically viable methods. Several groups are developing new artificial approaches to overcome problems associated with dendritic cells and the nonspecific expansion of T-cell clones in order to make adoptive immunotherapy more feasible and effective. Thus, by increasing the availability of adoptive immunotherapy, we will be able to better determine the efficacy of the approaches in the treatment of a variety of diseases. In this review, we focus on technological advances that will facilitate adoptive immunotherapy. Specifically, we summarize current strategies which are either based on artificial antigen-presenting cells or on T-cell receptor gene transfer. PMID:15753966

  2. Resource dependence and institutional elements in nursing home TQM adoption.

    PubMed Central

    Zinn, J S; Weech, R J; Brannon, D

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the contextual attributes that influence nursing home TQM adoption, as informed by resource dependence and institutional theories. DATA SOURCES: A survey of licensed nursing home administrators in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania during 1994-1995, the Medicare and Medicaid Annual Certification Survey (MMACS) data file, and the Area Resource File (ARF). STUDY DESIGN: Because the dependent variable (TQM adoption vs. non-adoption) is dichotomous, the model was estimated using logistic regression. DATA COLLECTION: Of the 615 facilities that were mailed surveys, 241 (39.2%) returned completed questionnaires. No significant differences were observed between respondents and nonrespondents in size, for-profit status, system membership, registered nurse staffing, cited licensure deficiencies, Medicare census, or Medicaid census. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Perceived competition, Medicare's share of total hospital discharges in the market, and facility Medicare census were significant predictors of TQM adoption. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide limited support for the association between some rational adaptive and institutional factors and TQM adoption in nursing homes. Perceived competition and the influence of the Medicare program both at the facility and the market level are associated with TQM adoption. However, other factors associated with TQM adoption in other industries, such as size, are not associated with TQM adoption in the nursing homes in this study. PMID:9618671

  3. Effect of transport-pathway simplifications on projected releases of radionuclides from a nuclear waste repository (Sweden)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selroos, Jan-Olof; Painter, Scott L.

    2012-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company has recently submitted an application for a license to construct a final repository for spent nuclear fuel, at approximately 500 m depth in crystalline bedrock. Migration pathways through the geosphere barrier are geometrically complex, with segments in fractured rock, deformation zones, backfilled tunnels, and near-surface soils. Several simplifications of these complex migration pathways were used in the assessments of repository performance that supported the license application. Specifically, in the geosphere transport calculations, radionuclide transport in soils and tunnels was neglected, and deformation zones were assumed to have transport characteristics of fractured rock. The effects of these simplifications on the projected performance of the geosphere barrier system are addressed. Geosphere performance is shown to be sensitive to how transport characteristics of deformation zones are conceptualized and incorporated into the model. Incorporation of advective groundwater travel time within backfilled tunnels reduces radiological dose from non-sorbing radionuclides such as I-129, while sorption in near-surface soils reduces radiological doses from sorbing radionuclides such as Ra-226. These results help quantify the degree to which geosphere performance was pessimistically assessed, and provide some guidance on how future studies to reduce uncertainty in geosphere performance may be focused.

  4. A "Kane's Dynamics" Model for the Active Rack Isolation System Part Two: Nonlinear Model Development, Verification, and Simplification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beech, G. S.; Hampton, R. D.; Rupert, J. K.

    2004-01-01

    Many microgravity space-science experiments require vibratory acceleration levels that are unachievable without active isolation. The Boeing Corporation's active rack isolation system (ARIS) employs a novel combination of magnetic actuation and mechanical linkages to address these isolation requirements on the International Space Station. Effective model-based vibration isolation requires: (1) An isolation device, (2) an adequate dynamic; i.e., mathematical, model of that isolator, and (3) a suitable, corresponding controller. This Technical Memorandum documents the validation of that high-fidelity dynamic model of ARIS. The verification of this dynamics model was achieved by utilizing two commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software tools: Deneb's ENVISION(registered trademark), and Online Dynamics Autolev(trademark). ENVISION is a robotics software package developed for the automotive industry that employs three-dimensional computer-aided design models to facilitate both forward and inverse kinematics analyses. Autolev is a DOS-based interpreter designed, in general, to solve vector-based mathematical problems and specifically to solve dynamics problems using Kane's method. The simplification of this model was achieved using the small-angle theorem for the joint angle of the ARIS actuators. This simplification has a profound effect on the overall complexity of the closed-form solution while yielding a closed-form solution easily employed using COTS control hardware.

  5. Personality disorders in adopted versus non-adopted adults.

    PubMed

    Westermeyer, Joseph; Yoon, Gihyun; Amundson, Carla; Warwick, Marion; Kuskowski, Michael A

    2015-04-30

    The goal of this epidemiological study was to investigate lifetime history and odds ratios of personality disorders in adopted and non-adopted adults using a nationally representative sample. Data, drawn from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), were compared in adopted (n=378) versus non-adopted (n=42,503) adults to estimate the odds of seven personality disorders using logistic regression analyses. The seven personality disorders were histrionic, antisocial, avoidant, paranoid, schizoid, obsessive-compulsive, and dependent personality disorder. Adoptees had a 1.81-fold increase in the odds of any personality disorder compared with non-adoptees. Adoptees had increased odds of histrionic, antisocial, avoidant, paranoid, schizoid, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder compared with non-adoptees. Two risk factors associated with lifetime history of a personality disorder in adoptees compared to non-adoptees were (1) being in the age cohort 18-29 years (but no difference in the age 30-44 cohort), using the age 45 or older cohort as the reference and (2) having 12 years of education (but no difference in higher education groups), using the 0-11 years of education as the reference. These findings support the higher rates of personality disorders among adoptees compared to non-adoptees.

  6. Re an Adoption Application (Surrogacy)

    PubMed

    1987-03-01

    In England, it is illegal under the Adoption Act 1958 to pay or reward anyone in an effort to adopt a child. A family court was asked in this case whether a surrogacy arrangement involving the payment of 5,000 pounds violated the Act. The applicants, a husband and wife, were unable to have children and had entered into an informal arrangement with a woman who agreed to engage in sexual intercourse with the husband and bear a child for the couple in exchange for 10,000 pounds. Because the surrogate wrote a book about her experience from which she made money, and sincerely wanted to help out the childless couple, she accepted only half of her fee. Convinced that the surrogate arrangement was not commercial in nature, the court found no violation of English law, authorized the payment to the mother, and authorized adoption of the child by the father and his wife.

  7. Teacher Adoption of a Web-Based Instructional Planning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldivar, Manuel Gerardo

    2012-01-01

    Many policymakers, administrators, and other K-12 stakeholders have long advocated the use of computers and information technology in schools. Even in settings where such technologies have been introduced, however, evidence suggests that the impact on student outcomes has been mixed. In some cases, teachers simply do not adopt the new…

  8. 49 CFR 601.31 - Adoption of final rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adoption of final rules. 601.31 Section 601.31 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND PROCEDURES Rulemaking Procedures § 601.31...

  9. 49 CFR 601.31 - Adoption of final rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adoption of final rules. 601.31 Section 601.31 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND PROCEDURES Rulemaking Procedures § 601.31...

  10. 49 CFR 601.31 - Adoption of final rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adoption of final rules. 601.31 Section 601.31 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND PROCEDURES Rulemaking Procedures § 601.31...

  11. 49 CFR 601.31 - Adoption of final rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adoption of final rules. 601.31 Section 601.31 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND PROCEDURES Rulemaking Procedures § 601.31...

  12. 49 CFR 601.31 - Adoption of final rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adoption of final rules. 601.31 Section 601.31 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND PROCEDURES Rulemaking Procedures § 601.31...

  13. Generational Differences in Technology Adoption in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosario, Victoria C.

    2012-01-01

    This research study investigated the technological perceptions and expectations of community college students, faculty, administrators, and Information Technology (IT) staff. The theoretical framework is based upon two assumptions on the process of technological innovation: it can be explained by diffusion of adoption theory, and by studying the…

  14. Innovation in nursing education: which trends should you adopt?

    PubMed

    Murray, Teri A

    2007-01-01

    The author identifies trends that challenge the status quo in academic nursing education. She further provides a theoretical framework that can be used by nursing program administrators to determine the potential adoptability of the trend in nursing education programs. Leader behaviors that are crucial in leading and managing change are highlighted.

  15. 18 CFR 401.24 - Preparation and adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Preparation and adoption. 401.24 Section 401.24 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Water Resources Program § 401.24 Preparation and...

  16. Fatigue crack growth spectrum simplification: Facilitation of on-board damage prognosis systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, Matthew Adam

    2009-12-01

    monitoring and management of aircraft. A spectrum reduction method was proposed and experimentally validated that reduces a variable-amplitude spectrum to a constant-amplitude equivalent. The reduction from a variable-amplitude (VA) spectrum to a constant-amplitude equivalent (CAE) was proposed as a two-part process. Preliminary spectrum reduction is first performed by elimination of those loading events shown to be too negligible to significantly contribute to fatigue crack growth. This is accomplished by rainflow counting. The next step is to calculate the appropriate, equivalent maximum and minimum loads by means of a root-mean-square average. This reduced spectrum defines the CAE and replaces the original spectrum. The simplified model was experimentally shown to provide the approximately same fatigue crack growth as the original spectrum. Fatigue crack growth experiments for two dissimilar aircraft spectra across a wide-range of stress-intensity levels validated the proposed spectrum reduction procedure. Irrespective of the initial K-level, the constant-amplitude equivalent spectra were always conservative in crack growth rate, and were so by an average of 50% over the full range tested. This corresponds to a maximum 15% overestimation in driving force Delta K. Given other typical sources of scatter that occur during fatigue crack growth, a consistent 50% conservative prediction on crack growth rate is very satisfying. This is especially attractive given the reduction in cost gained by the simplification. We now have a seamless system that gives an acceptably good approximation of damage occurring in the aircraft. This contribution is significant because in a very simple way we now have given a path to bypass the current infrastructure and ground-support requirements. The decision-making is now a lot simpler. In managing an entire fleet we now have a workable system where the strength is in no need for a massive, isolated computational center. The fidelity of the model

  17. A simplification of Cobelli's glucose-insulin model for type 1 diabetes mellitus and its FPGA implementation.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Yu, Lei; Fang, Qiang; Lee, Shuenn-Yuh

    2016-10-01

    Cobelli's glucose-insulin model is the only computer simulator of glucose-insulin interactions accepted by Food Drug Administration as a substitute to animal trials. However, it consists of multiple differential equations that make it hard to be implemented on a hardware platform. In this investigation, the Cobelli's model is simplified by Padé approximant method and implemented on a field-programmable gate array-based platform as a hardware model for predicting glucose changes in subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Compared with the original Cobelli's model, the implemented hardware model provides a nearly perfect approximation in predicting glucose changes with rather small root-mean-square errors and maximum errors. The RMSE results for 30 subjects show that the method for simplifying and implementing Cobelli's model has good robustness and applicability. The successful hardware implementation of Cobelli's model will promote a wider adoption of this model that can substitute animal trials, provide fast and reliable glucose and insulin estimation, and ultimately assist the further development of an artificial pancreas system.

  18. Why Adoption of Standards Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Staff Development, 2016

    2016-01-01

    A total of 39 states have adopted, adapted, or endorsed the Standards for Professional Learning, including the standards issued in 2011 (labeled in red) and those published earlier (labeled in blue). Making a commitment to the standards is a commitment to continuous learning for all educators in a school.

  19. Internet Adoption: An Empirical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Junzhao

    2011-01-01

    The Internet has brought significant changes to the retail industry because it revolutionizes how information is transmitted and accessed. The main objective of this research is to enhance our understanding of people's adoption of the Internet and its implications for retail competition. This dissertation consists of two essays. The first essay…

  20. Has the Academy Adopted TQM?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, Robert; Deshotels, Judy

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 469 colleges and universities assessed the degree to which colleges and universities have adopted total quality management (TQM) or continuous quality improvement (CQI) techniques. Results suggest use of TQM/CQI is lower than predicted, at about 13% of institutions. Variations in extent of use of the approach are discussed. (MSE)

  1. Administrative Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  2. Administrative Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doran, Dorothy; And Others

    This guide is intended to assist business education teachers in administrative support courses. The materials presented are based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for the occupations of receptionist, secretary, and administrative assistant. Word processing skills have been infused into each of the three sections. The…

  3. Multi-resolution description of three-dimensional anthropometric data for design simplification.

    PubMed

    Niu, Jianwei; Li, Zhizhong; Salvendy, Gavriel

    2009-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) anthropometry can provide rich information for ergonomic product design with better safety and health considerations. To reduce computational load and model complexity in product design when using 3D anthropometric data, wavelet analysis is adopted in this paper to establish multi-resolution mathematical description of 3D anthropometric data. A proper resolution can be selected for design reference according to the application purpose. To examine the approximation errors under difference resolutions, 510 upper head, whole head, and face samples of Chinese young men have been analyzed. Descriptives of approximation errors under different resolutions are presented. These data can be used as resolution selection guide. The application of the multi-resolution method in product design is illustrated by two examples. RELEVANCE TO INDUSTRY: Multi-resolution description of 3D anthropometric data would facilitate the analysis of and design with 3D anthropometric data to improve fitting comfort. The error data under different resolutions provide important reference for resolution selection.

  4. Embryo adoption: Some further considerations.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Colin

    2015-02-01

    Recent discussions of embryo adoption have sought to make sense of the teaching of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) document Dignitas personae which appeared to provide a negative judgment on such a practice. This article aims to provide a personalist account of the process of fertilization and implantation that might serve as the basis for the negative judgment of the CDF document. In doing so, it relies upon the idea that a person, including an embryo, is not to be considered in isolation, but always in relation to God and to others. This approach extends the substantialist conceptualizations commonly employed in discussions of this issue. More generally, the article seeks to highlight the value of a personalist re-framing for an understanding of the moral questions surrounding the beginning of life. Lay summary: This article seeks to make sense of what appears to be a clear-cut rejection, set out in the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) document Dignitas personae, of the proposal for women to "adopt" surplus frozen embryos. It draws upon more recently developed modes of philosophical/theological reasoning to argue that, in human procreation, both fertilization and implantation represent constitutive dimensions of divine creative activity and so must be protected from manipulative technological intervention. Since embryo adoption requires this kind of technology, it makes sense for the Church document not to approve it. PMID:25698841

  5. Should health care managers adopt Theory Z?

    PubMed

    Safranski, S R; Kwon, I W; Walker, W R; Unger, M

    1986-04-01

    Health care administrators should carefully consider the situations in which they apply management methods used in industry, since such methods may not be effective in motivating certain groups of hospital employees. Physicians, for example, may display little loyalty to the health care organization, even though as a group they exert significant influence on policies, standards, and administration. As a result, management styles such as Theory Z that focus on holistic concern, individual decision-making responsibility, and long-term employment guarantees may fail to interest them. Nurses also may be reluctant to commit themselves to an organization because of the high rate of turnover in their profession in recent years. Support staff, however, probably would be receptive to management techniques that offer security through long-term employment guarantees. Other factors necessary for the effective use of Theory Z industrial management techniques are a clear hierarchy with well-defined reporting relationships, moderately specialized career paths, and trust among employees that the organization's concern for their welfare is genuine. The key consideration, however, in applying any theory is that only those aspects which best serve the organization's needs should be adopted.

  6. Policy Issues in Gay and Lesbian Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Ann

    1995-01-01

    Notes that adoption agencies have developed few specific policies on the issue of lesbian and gay adoption. Provides an overview of key considerations about homosexual adopters, including beliefs and values of agency professionals, the legal and social ramifications of adoption into a relationship not based on marriage, and possible consequences…

  7. 18 CFR 341.6 - Adoption rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adoption rule. 341.6... SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.6 Adoption rule. (a) Change in name of carrier... such occurrence. The filing of adoption notices and adoption supplements requires no notice period....

  8. 18 CFR 341.6 - Adoption rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adoption rule. 341.6... SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.6 Adoption rule. (a) Change in name of carrier... such occurrence. The filing of adoption notices and adoption supplements requires no notice period....

  9. 18 CFR 341.6 - Adoption rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adoption rule. 341.6... SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.6 Adoption rule. (a) Change in name of carrier... such occurrence. The filing of adoption notices and adoption supplements requires no notice period....

  10. 18 CFR 341.6 - Adoption rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adoption rule. 341.6... SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.6 Adoption rule. (a) Change in name of carrier... such occurrence. The filing of adoption notices and adoption supplements requires no notice period....

  11. 33 CFR 230.21 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.21 Adoption. See 40 CFR 1506.3. A district commander will normally adopt... recirculated as provided in 40 CFR 1506.3 (b) or (c), the adopted EIS with the supplement, if any, will be processed in accordance with this regulation. A district commander may also adopt another agency's EA/FONSI....

  12. 33 CFR 230.21 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.21 Adoption. See 40 CFR 1506.3. A district commander will normally adopt... recirculated as provided in 40 CFR 1506.3 (b) or (c), the adopted EIS with the supplement, if any, will be processed in accordance with this regulation. A district commander may also adopt another agency's EA/FONSI....

  13. 33 CFR 230.21 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.21 Adoption. See 40 CFR 1506.3. A district commander will normally adopt... recirculated as provided in 40 CFR 1506.3 (b) or (c), the adopted EIS with the supplement, if any, will be processed in accordance with this regulation. A district commander may also adopt another agency's EA/FONSI....

  14. 33 CFR 230.21 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.21 Adoption. See 40 CFR 1506.3. A district commander will normally adopt... recirculated as provided in 40 CFR 1506.3 (b) or (c), the adopted EIS with the supplement, if any, will be processed in accordance with this regulation. A district commander may also adopt another agency's EA/FONSI....

  15. 33 CFR 230.21 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.21 Adoption. See 40 CFR 1506.3. A district commander will normally adopt... recirculated as provided in 40 CFR 1506.3 (b) or (c), the adopted EIS with the supplement, if any, will be processed in accordance with this regulation. A district commander may also adopt another agency's EA/FONSI....

  16. Adoption and Single Parents: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groze, Vic

    1991-01-01

    Examines the literature about people who choose to become single adoptive parents. Reviews the demographic and personal characteristics of single parents who adopt, and summarizes the experiences of single parents with the children they adopt. Calls for further research on single parents who adopt special needs children. (GH)

  17. Adopted: A practical salinity scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Unesco/ICES/SCOR/IAPSO Joint Panel on Oceanographic Tables and Standards has recommended the adoption of a Practical Salinity Scale, 1978, and a corresponding new International Equation of State of Seawater, 1980. A full account of the research leading to their recommendation is available in the series Unesco Technical Papers in Marine Science.The parent organizations have accepted the panel's recommendations and have set January 1, 1982, as the date when the new procedures, formulae, and tables should replace those now in use.

  18. Adoptive cell therapy for sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Melinda; Gottschalk, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Current therapy for sarcomas, though effective in treating local disease, is often ineffective for patients with recurrent or metastatic disease. To improve outcomes, novel approaches are needed and cell therapy has the potential to meet this need since it does not rely on the cytotoxic mechanisms of conventional therapies. The recent successes of T-cell therapies for hematological malignancies have led to renewed interest in exploring cell therapies for solid tumors such as sarcomas. In this review, we will discuss current cell therapies for sarcoma with special emphasis on genetic approaches to improve the effector function of adoptively transferred cells. PMID:25572477

  19. UN adopts Law of Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    After more than 8 years of diplomatic wrangling, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea was adopted on April 30 by a vote of 130 to 4. The United States, Israel, Turkey, and Venezuela voted against the treaty; 17 nations—including the Soviet Union, West Germany, and Britain—abstained.The treaty, which would give nations the exclusive rights to natural resources in the continental shelf up to approximately 650 km offshore, will be signed in December. The treaty becomes effective 1 year after at least 60 nations ratify it.

  20. The Role of Simplification and Information in College Decisions: Results from the H&R Block FAFSA Experiment. NBER Working Paper No. 15361

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettinger, Eric P.; Long, Bridget Terry; Oreopoulos, Philip; Sanbonmatsu, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Growing concerns about low awareness and take-up rates for government support programs like college financial aid have spurred calls to simplify the application process and enhance visibility. This project examines the effects of two experimental treatments designed to test of the importance of simplification and information using a random…

  1. The Role of Simplification and Information in College Decisions: Results and Implications from the H&R Block FAFSA Experiment. An NCPR Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettinger, Eric P.; Long, Bridget Terry; Oreopoulos, Philip; Sanbonmatsu, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Growing concerns about low awareness and take-up rates for government support programs like financial aid for college have recently spurred calls to simplify the application process and enhance visibility. However, little research has been done to determine whether such reforms would truly improve college access and in what form "simplification"…

  2. The adoption of residential solar photovoltaic systems in the presence of a financial incentive: A case study of consumer experiences with the Renewable Energy Standard Offer Program in Ontario (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Christopher William Junji

    2009-12-01

    interviews were conducted between November and December, 2008. Findings of this thesis suggest that the early adopters of solar PV systems have been motivated by their self-identified sustainability-oriented social attitudes, rather than the lowering of the financial barrier. Only six of 24 respondents noted that they would not have purchased a solar PV system in the absence of the RESOP. For nine of 24 respondents, the catalyst for the purchase of the solar PV systems was not the creation of the RESOP, but instead the presence of a community-based co-operative purchasing group (CBCPG) that had selected a vender and that provided a support service to help the consumer navigate the administrative processes associated with the RESOP. Regarding the functioning of the RESOP, interview respondents reported lengthy periods of time to secure electrical connection, hidden additional fees, and arduous administrative processes. Based on their experiences interacting with Local Distribution Companies, vendors, and the OPA, respondent evaluations of the overall adoption process ranged from extremely positive (some interviewees praised the RESOP for its ease of participation and utility), to extremely negative (other interviewees condemned the RESOP because of its administrative complexity and hidden costs and fees). A key finding from this research is that weaknesses in the administration and promotion of the RESOP have been mitigated by the presence of CBCPGs and third parties aiding consumers in the purchase, installation, administration, and connection of their solar PV system. Recommendations of this thesis include the creation of new and enhancement of existing CBCPGs, a simplification of the required administrative processes, and an increase in the rates of compensation.

  3. [Adoptive parents' satisfaction with the adoption experience and with its impact on family life].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sandoval, Yolanda

    2011-11-01

    In this study, we discuss the relevance of adoptive families' satisfaction in the assessment of adoption processes. The effects of adoption on a sample group of 272 adoptive families are analyzed. Most families show high levels of satisfaction as to: their decision to adopt, the features of their adopted children and how adoption has affected them as individuals and as a family. Statistical analyses show that these families can have different satisfaction levels depending on certain features of the adoptees, of the adoptive families or of their educational style. Life satisfaction of the adoptees is also related to how their adoptive parents evaluate the adoption.

  4. [Adoptive parents' satisfaction with the adoption experience and with its impact on family life].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sandoval, Yolanda

    2011-11-01

    In this study, we discuss the relevance of adoptive families' satisfaction in the assessment of adoption processes. The effects of adoption on a sample group of 272 adoptive families are analyzed. Most families show high levels of satisfaction as to: their decision to adopt, the features of their adopted children and how adoption has affected them as individuals and as a family. Statistical analyses show that these families can have different satisfaction levels depending on certain features of the adoptees, of the adoptive families or of their educational style. Life satisfaction of the adoptees is also related to how their adoptive parents evaluate the adoption. PMID:22047850

  5. Embryo adoption: Some further considerations

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Recent discussions of embryo adoption have sought to make sense of the teaching of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) document Dignitas personae which appeared to provide a negative judgment on such a practice. This article aims to provide a personalist account of the process of fertilization and implantation that might serve as the basis for the negative judgment of the CDF document. In doing so, it relies upon the idea that a person, including an embryo, is not to be considered in isolation, but always in relation to God and to others. This approach extends the substantialist conceptualizations commonly employed in discussions of this issue. More generally, the article seeks to highlight the value of a personalist re-framing for an understanding of the moral questions surrounding the beginning of life. Lay summary: This article seeks to make sense of what appears to be a clear-cut rejection, set out in the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) document Dignitas personae, of the proposal for women to “adopt” surplus frozen embryos. It draws upon more recently developed modes of philosophical/theological reasoning to argue that, in human procreation, both fertilization and implantation represent constitutive dimensions of divine creative activity and so must be protected from manipulative technological intervention. Since embryo adoption requires this kind of technology, it makes sense for the Church document not to approve it. PMID:25698841

  6. 45 CFR 1355.40 - Foster care and adoption data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES GENERAL... electronically report certain data regarding children in foster care and adoption. The foster care data...

  7. 21 CFR 570.15 - Adoption of regulation on initiative of Commissioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adoption of regulation on initiative of Commissioner. 570.15 Section 570.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Adoption of regulation on initiative of Commissioner. (a) The Commissioner upon his own initiative...

  8. 21 CFR 570.15 - Adoption of regulation on initiative of Commissioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adoption of regulation on initiative of Commissioner. 570.15 Section 570.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Adoption of regulation on initiative of Commissioner. (a) The Commissioner upon his own initiative...

  9. 21 CFR 570.15 - Adoption of regulation on initiative of Commissioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adoption of regulation on initiative of Commissioner. 570.15 Section 570.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Adoption of regulation on initiative of Commissioner. (a) The Commissioner upon his own initiative...

  10. 75 FR 19405 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Adoption of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Adoption of the FDA Food Code by Local, State, and Tribal Governments AGENCY... appropriate, and other forms of information technology. Adoption of the FDA Food Code by Local, State,...

  11. 49 CFR 211.27 - Publication of adopted rules and withdrawal of notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Publication of adopted rules and withdrawal of notices. 211.27 Section 211.27 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE Rulemaking Procedures § 211.27 Publication of adopted rules...

  12. 40 CFR 121.25 - Adoption of new water quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adoption of new water quality... Administrator § 121.25 Adoption of new water quality standards. (a) In any case where: (1) A license or permit was issued without certification due to the absence of applicable water quality standards; and...

  13. 40 CFR 121.25 - Adoption of new water quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adoption of new water quality... Administrator § 121.25 Adoption of new water quality standards. (a) In any case where: (1) A license or permit was issued without certification due to the absence of applicable water quality standards; and...

  14. 40 CFR 121.25 - Adoption of new water quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Adoption of new water quality standards... Administrator § 121.25 Adoption of new water quality standards. (a) In any case where: (1) A license or permit was issued without certification due to the absence of applicable water quality standards; and...

  15. 40 CFR 121.25 - Adoption of new water quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adoption of new water quality... Administrator § 121.25 Adoption of new water quality standards. (a) In any case where: (1) A license or permit was issued without certification due to the absence of applicable water quality standards; and...

  16. 40 CFR 121.25 - Adoption of new water quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adoption of new water quality... Administrator § 121.25 Adoption of new water quality standards. (a) In any case where: (1) A license or permit was issued without certification due to the absence of applicable water quality standards; and...

  17. 20 CFR 404.734 - Evidence you are an equitably adopted child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence you are an equitably adopted child. 404.734 Section 404.734 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS... another if he or she agreed to adopt the child, the natural parents or the person caring for the...

  18. [Adoption: an alternative to assisted reproductive techniques?].

    PubMed

    Blanchy, S

    2011-09-01

    Information on adoption must be given to couples who seek treatment for medically-assisted procreation. But is adoption a real alternative? What are the chances for a couple who consults to see its desire for adoption be achieved according to its own situation, the characteristics of the child he wants, and the general situation of adoption? Can adoption, just like assisted procreation, often described by the couples as a "obstacle course", go parallel? Or should one try adoption once assisted reproduction failed? Is the couple willing to suffer the social and legal control of adoption after having supported the medical control of the ART? In all cases, the reality is that two out of three couples engaged in assisted reproduction will have a child whereas scarcely more than one candidate to adoption will be offered to adopt a child after three or four-years procedure.

  19. Electronic Dental Records System Adoption.

    PubMed

    Abramovicz-Finkelsztain, Renata; Barsottini, Claudia G N; Marin, Heimar Fatima

    2015-01-01

    The use of Electronic Dental Records (EDRs) and management software has become more frequent, following the increase in prevelance of new technologies and computers in dental offices. The purpose of this study is to identify and evaluate the use of EDRs by the dental community in the São Paulo city area. A quantitative case study was performed using a survey on the phone. A total of 54 offices were contacted and only one declinedparticipation in this study. Only one office did not have a computer. EDRs were used in 28 offices and only four were paperless. The lack of studies in this area suggests the need for more usability and implementation studies on EDRs so that we can improve EDR adoption by the dental community.

  20. Administrative IT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Katherine, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    When it comes to Administrative IT solutions and processes, best practices range across the spectrum. Enterprise resource planning (ERP), student information systems (SIS), and tech support are prominent and continuing areas of focus. But widespread change can also be accomplished via the implementation of campuswide document imaging and sharing,…

  1. Database Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  2. ADMINISTRATIVE CLIMATE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRUCE, ROBERT L.; CARTER, G.L., JR.

    IN THE COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, STYLES OF LEADERSHIP PROFOUNDLY AFFECT THE QUALITY OF THE SERVICE RENDERED. ACCORDINGLY, MAJOR INFLUENCES ON ADMINISTRATIVE CLIMATE AND EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY ARE EXAMINED IN ESSAYS ON (1) SOURCES OF JOB SATISFACTION AND DISSATISFACTION, (2) MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES BASED ON JOB-RELATED SATISFACTIONS AND NEEDS,…

  3. Engineering Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    This book is intended to acquaint naval engineering officers with their duties in the engineering department. Standard shipboard organizations are analyzed in connection with personnel assignments, division operations, and watch systems. Detailed descriptions are included for the administration of directives, ship's bills, damage control, training…

  4. A Model for Administrative Evaluation by Subordinates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budig, Jeanne E.

    Under the administrator evaluation program adopted at Vincennes University, all faculty and professional staff are invited to evaluate each administrator above them in the chain of command. Originally based on the Purdue University "cafeteria" system, this evaluation model has been used biannually for 10 years. In an effort to simplify the system,…

  5. Adoption of Children with Disabilities: An Exploration of the Issues for Adoptive Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Gretchen A.

    2016-01-01

    This systematic literature review is an exploration of issues for adoptive families throughout the adoption process and into the various phases of the life of the adoptive family. Although there has been much recent research related to adoption, in general, very little adoption literature addresses the often unspoken needs of families who want to…

  6. In Their Own Words: Adopted Persons' Experiences of Adoption Disclosure and Discussion in Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wydra, Maria; O'Brien, Karen M.; Merson, Erica S.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored adoption disclosure in a sample of 18 adult adoptees who were adopted as infants. A qualitative analysis of semistructured interviews with adoptees was used to learn about participants' experiences of adoption disclosure. The majority always knew they were adopted, were able to talk openly with parents about adoption, and had…

  7. Replacements of rare herbs and simplifications of traditional chinese medicine formulae based on attribute similarities and pathway enrichment analysis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhao; Zhang, Meixia; Yi, Zhenghui; Wen, Chengping; Qian, Min; Shi, Tieliu

    2013-01-01

    A Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula is a collection of several herbs. TCM formulae have been used to treat various diseases for several thousand years. However, wide usage of TCM formulae has results in rapid decline of some rare herbs. So it is urgent to find common available replacements for those rare herbs with the similar effects. In addition, a formula can be simplified by reducing herbs with unchanged effects. Based on this consideration, we propose a method, called "formula pair," to replace the rare herbs and simplify TCM formulae. We show its reasonableness from a perspective of pathway enrichment analysis. Both the replacements of rare herbs and simplifications of formulae provide new approaches for a new formula discovery. We demonstrate our approach by replacing a rare herb "Forsythia suspensa" in the formula "the seventh of Sang Ju Yin plus/minus herbs (SSJY)" with a common herb "Thunberg Fritillary Bulb" and simplifying two formulae, "the fifth of Du Huo Ji Sheng Tang plus/minus herbs (FDHJST)" and "Fang Feng Tang" (FFT) to a new formula "Fang Feng Du Huo Tang" (FFDHT).

  8. Impact of Adoption on Birth Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... This relationship, as well as the birth parent’s perception of his or her identity, may change over ... McRoy, R. G., & Grotevant, H. D. (2000). Birthmother perceptions of the psychologically present adopted child: Adoption openness ...

  9. When to Tell Your Child About Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... adopted youngsters need to be told about their origins, ideally even before middle childhood. Introducing the Information ... needs to have an honest understanding of his origin. Adopted children who have not been told seem ...

  10. The Place of Genetic Counselling in Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockey, Athel; Bain, Jill

    1982-01-01

    An approach combining social worker and geneticist expertise in adoption is outlined in the study involving 180 families. Genetic counseling has shown to be an essential safeguard to the preservation of the adoptive family unit. (Author/SW)

  11. Macro influencers of electronic health records adoption.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Vijay V; Chinta, Ravi; Zhirkin, Nikita

    2015-01-01

    While adoption rates for electronic health records (EHRs) have improved, the reasons for significant geographical differences in EHR adoption within the USA have remained unclear. To understand the reasons for these variations across states, we have compiled from secondary sources a profile of different states within the USA, based on macroeconomic and macro health-environment factors. Regression analyses were performed using these indicator factors on EHR adoption. The results showed that internet usage and literacy are significantly associated with certain measures of EHR adoption. Income level was not significantly associated with EHR adoption. Per capita patient days (a proxy for healthcare need intensity within a state) is negatively correlated with EHR adoption rate. Health insurance coverage is positively correlated with EHR adoption rate. Older physicians (>60 years) tend to adopt EHR systems less than their younger counterparts. These findings have policy implications on formulating regionally focused incentive programs.

  12. A Narrative Inquiry of International Adoption Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Christin; Pettinelli, J. Douglas

    2011-01-01

    The international adoption entrance story is an unexplored topic in the adoption literature. The stories that families tell of beginning life with their new children has important implications for the development of an autobiographical narrative of an adopted child. A coherent autobiographical narrative is vital for healthy childhood development.…

  13. 32 CFR 584.4 - Adoption proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Adoption proceedings. 584.4 Section 584.4... CUSTODY, AND PATERNITY § 584.4 Adoption proceedings. (a) General. This chapter does not apply to those... normally may not be put up for adoption without the consent of the parents. Therefore, communications...

  14. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...

  15. 25 CFR 75.18 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adoption. 75.18 Section 75.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... OF CHEROKEE INDIANS, NORTH CAROLINA § 75.18 Adoption. The Tribal Council of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians shall be empowered to enact ordinances governing the adoption of new members....

  16. 40 CFR 1506.3 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adoption. 1506.3 Section 1506.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OTHER REQUIREMENTS OF NEPA § 1506.3 Adoption. (a) An agency may adopt a Federal draft or final environmental impact statement or portion...

  17. 40 CFR 1506.3 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adoption. 1506.3 Section 1506.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OTHER REQUIREMENTS OF NEPA § 1506.3 Adoption. (a) An agency may adopt a Federal draft or final environmental impact statement or portion...

  18. 32 CFR 584.4 - Adoption proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adoption proceedings. 584.4 Section 584.4... CUSTODY, AND PATERNITY § 584.4 Adoption proceedings. (a) General. This chapter does not apply to those... normally may not be put up for adoption without the consent of the parents. Therefore, communications...

  19. 47 CFR 61.171 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adoption notice. 61.171 Section 61.171 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS Adoption of Tariffs and Other Documents of Predecessor Carriers § 61.171 Adoption notice. When a...

  20. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...

  1. 25 CFR 75.18 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adoption. 75.18 Section 75.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... OF CHEROKEE INDIANS, NORTH CAROLINA § 75.18 Adoption. The Tribal Council of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians shall be empowered to enact ordinances governing the adoption of new members....

  2. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...

  3. 47 CFR 61.171 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adoption notice. 61.171 Section 61.171 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS Adoption of Tariffs and Other Documents of Predecessor Carriers § 61.171 Adoption notice. When a...

  4. 40 CFR 1506.3 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adoption. 1506.3 Section 1506.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OTHER REQUIREMENTS OF NEPA § 1506.3 Adoption. (a) An agency may adopt a Federal draft or final environmental impact statement or portion...

  5. 40 CFR 1506.3 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adoption. 1506.3 Section 1506.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OTHER REQUIREMENTS OF NEPA § 1506.3 Adoption. (a) An agency may adopt a Federal draft or final environmental impact statement or portion...

  6. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...

  7. 32 CFR 584.4 - Adoption proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adoption proceedings. 584.4 Section 584.4... CUSTODY, AND PATERNITY § 584.4 Adoption proceedings. (a) General. This chapter does not apply to those... normally may not be put up for adoption without the consent of the parents. Therefore, communications...

  8. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...

  9. 47 CFR 61.171 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adoption notice. 61.171 Section 61.171 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS Adoption of Tariffs and Other Documents of Predecessor Carriers § 61.171 Adoption notice. When a...

  10. 40 CFR 1506.3 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adoption. 1506.3 Section 1506.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OTHER REQUIREMENTS OF NEPA § 1506.3 Adoption. (a) An agency may adopt a Federal draft or final environmental impact statement or portion...

  11. 32 CFR 584.4 - Adoption proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Adoption proceedings. 584.4 Section 584.4... CUSTODY, AND PATERNITY § 584.4 Adoption proceedings. (a) General. This chapter does not apply to those... normally may not be put up for adoption without the consent of the parents. Therefore, communications...

  12. 47 CFR 61.171 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adoption notice. 61.171 Section 61.171 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS Adoption of Tariffs and Other Documents of Predecessor Carriers § 61.171 Adoption notice. When a...

  13. 25 CFR 75.18 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adoption. 75.18 Section 75.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... OF CHEROKEE INDIANS, NORTH CAROLINA § 75.18 Adoption. The Tribal Council of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians shall be empowered to enact ordinances governing the adoption of new members....

  14. 47 CFR 61.171 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adoption notice. 61.171 Section 61.171 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS Adoption of Tariffs and Other Documents of Predecessor Carriers § 61.171 Adoption notice. When a...

  15. 25 CFR 75.18 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adoption. 75.18 Section 75.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... OF CHEROKEE INDIANS, NORTH CAROLINA § 75.18 Adoption. The Tribal Council of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians shall be empowered to enact ordinances governing the adoption of new members....

  16. 25 CFR 75.18 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Adoption. 75.18 Section 75.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... OF CHEROKEE INDIANS, NORTH CAROLINA § 75.18 Adoption. The Tribal Council of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians shall be empowered to enact ordinances governing the adoption of new members....

  17. International Adoption: Current Status and Future Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholet, Elizabeth

    1993-01-01

    Laws regulating adoption are varied and complex in countries that offer children for international adoption (IA), while United States Immigration laws pose additional obstacles to Americans wishing to adopt foreign-born children. Declarations by the United Nations and the development of a convention on IA by the Hague Conference offer some hope…

  18. The Adopted Adolescent. Selected Papers Number 55.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banning, Anne

    This review of studies on clinical and nonclinical populations explores outcomes of adoption and developmental issues for adolescents, and in particular, developmental problems for adopted adolescents. Studies on nonclinical populations demonstrate that adoption is a highly successful form of substitute care. Prospective longitudinal studies show…

  19. Adoption Bibliography and Multi-Ethnic Sourcebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Why, Elizabeth Wharton, Comp.

    Designed for parents who have adopted or who contemplate adoption, and for educational, legal, medical, social, and theological professionals, this bibliography and source book contains over 1250 citations relating to adoption. The book is divided into two parts. The first section is a bibliography of articles, personal narratives, dissertations,…

  20. Update on international adoption: focus on Russia.

    PubMed

    McGuinness, Teena M; Robinson, Cheryl Broadus

    2011-06-01

    American families will continue to adopt children from foreign countries; the desire to have a child transcends national boundaries. Sadly, not all adoptions have happy outcomes. A recent and well-reported incident involved an American mother, who, exasperated with her adopted son's severe behavioral problems, returned him to Russia, alone, on an aircraft. Other tragic reports involve internationally adopted children who have died at the hands of their American parents. This article provides an overview of the consequences of institutionalization as a risk factor for behavioral health of children; implications for nursing care of adoptive families follow. PMID:21598869

  1. Adoptive immunotherapy of advanced melanoma.

    PubMed

    Shapira-Frommer, Ronnie; Schachter, Jacob

    2012-09-01

    Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) has emerged as an effective therapy for patients with metastatic melanoma. Since the first introduction of the protocol in 1988 [1], major improvements have been achieved with response rates of 40%-72% among patients who were resistant to previous treatment lines. Both cell product and conditioning regimen are major determinants of treatment efficacy; therefore, developing ACT protocols explore diverse ways to establish autologous intra-tumoral lymphocyte cultures or peripheral effector cells as well as different lymphodepleting regimens. While a proof of feasibility and a proof of concept had been established with previous published results, ACT will need to move beyond single-center experiences, to confirmatory, multi-center studies. If ACT is to move into widespread practice, it will be necessary to develop reproducible high quality cell production methods and accepted lymphodepleting regimen. Two new drugs, ipilimumab (Yervoy, Bristol-Myers Squibb) and vemurafenib (Zelboraf, Roche), were approved in 2011 for the treatment of metastatic melanoma based on positive phase III trials. Both drugs show a clear overall survival benefit, so the timing of when to use ACT will need to be carefully thought out. In contrast to these 2 new, commercially available outpatient treatments, ACT is a personally-specified product and labor-intensive therapy that demands both acquisition of high standard laboratory procedures and close clinical inpatient monitoring during treatment. It is unique among other anti-melanoma treatments, providing the potential for a durable response following a single, self-limited treatment. This perspective drives the efforts to make this protocol accessible for more patients and to explore modifications that may optimize treatment results.

  2. [Attachment and Adoption: Diagnostics, Psychopathology, and Therapy].

    PubMed

    Brisch, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    This presentation describes the development of attachment between adopted children and their adoptive parents with a focus on the particular issues seen in international adoptions. The questions of settling in, trauma in the country of origin, and the motivations of the adoptive parents will be discussed. Diagnosis and various psychopathological manifestations will be examined, as will outpatient and inpatient modes of therapy. The treatment of children of various ages will be covered along with the necessity for intensive counseling and psychotherapy for the adoptive parents. This will enable the parents to work through early trauma, which will give them and their adopted child the basis for developing healthy attachment patterns. This in turn will enable the child to mature and integrate into society. Possibilities of prevention are discussed. Many of the approaches discussed here regarding attachment and adoption may be applied to foster children and their foster parents. PMID:26645775

  3. [Attachment and Adoption: Diagnostics, Psychopathology, and Therapy].

    PubMed

    Brisch, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    This presentation describes the development of attachment between adopted children and their adoptive parents with a focus on the particular issues seen in international adoptions. The questions of settling in, trauma in the country of origin, and the motivations of the adoptive parents will be discussed. Diagnosis and various psychopathological manifestations will be examined, as will outpatient and inpatient modes of therapy. The treatment of children of various ages will be covered along with the necessity for intensive counseling and psychotherapy for the adoptive parents. This will enable the parents to work through early trauma, which will give them and their adopted child the basis for developing healthy attachment patterns. This in turn will enable the child to mature and integrate into society. Possibilities of prevention are discussed. Many of the approaches discussed here regarding attachment and adoption may be applied to foster children and their foster parents.

  4. Budget impact analysis of antiretroviral less drug regimen simplification in HIV-positive patients on the Italian National Health Service

    PubMed Central

    Restelli, Umberto; Andreoni, Massimo; Antinori, Andrea; Bonfanti, Marzia; Di Perri, Giovanni; Galli, Massimo; Lazzarin, Adriano; Rizzardini, Giuliano; Croce, Davide

    2014-01-01

    Background Deintensification and less drug regimen (LDR) antiretroviral therapy (ART) strategies have proved to be effective in terms of maintaining viral suppression in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients, increasing tolerability, and reducing toxicity of antiretroviral drugs administered to patients. However, the economic impact of these strategies have not been widely investigated. The aim of the study is to evaluate the economic impact that ART LDR could have on the Italian National Health Service (INHS) budget. Methods A budget impact model was structured to assess the potential savings for the INHS by the use of ART LDR for HIV-positive patients with a 3 year perspective. Data concerning ART cost, patient distribution within different ARTs, and probabilities for patients to change ART on a yearly basis were collected within four Italian infectious diseases departments, providing ART to 13.7% of the total number of patients receiving ART in Italy. Results The LDR investigated (protease inhibitor-based dual and monotherapies) led to savings for the hospitals involved when compared to the “do nothing” scenario on a 3 year basis, between 6.7% (23.11 million €) and 12.8% (44.32 million €) of the total ART expenditures. The mean yearly cost per patient is reduced from 9,875 € in the do nothing scenario to a range between 9,218 € and 8,615 €. The use of these strategies within the four departments involved would have led to a reduction of ART expenditures for the INHS of between 1.1% and 2.1% in 3 years. Conclusion ART LDR simplification would have a significant impact in the reduction of ART-related costs within the hospitals involved in the study. These strategies could therefore be addressed as a sustainable answer to the public financing reduction observed within the INHS in the last year, allowing therapies to be dispensed without affecting the quality of the services provided. PMID:25285019

  5. A Defence of Simplification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation, I. S. P.; Deweerdt, Jean Paul

    2001-01-01

    Argues that simplified or graded readers are an essential part of a language learning program if learners of all proficiency levels are to have the opportunity to do incidental language learning through reading, and to develop fluency in reading. Evidence is provided to support this from a corpus study of versions of "Dracula." (Adjunct ERIC for…

  6. Simplification and Saving.

    PubMed

    Beshears, John; Choi, James J; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C

    2013-11-01

    The daunting complexity of important financial decisions can lead to procrastination. We evaluate a low-cost intervention that substantially simplifies the retirement savings plan participation decision. Individuals received an opportunity to enroll in a retirement savings plan at a pre-selected contribution rate and asset allocation, allowing them to collapse a multidimensional problem into a binary choice between the status quo and the pre-selected alternative. The intervention increases plan enrollment rates by 10 to 20 percentage points. We find that a similar intervention can be used to increase contribution rates among employees who are already participating in a savings plan. PMID:24443619

  7. Simplification and Saving

    PubMed Central

    Beshears, John; Choi, James J.; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C.

    2012-01-01

    The daunting complexity of important financial decisions can lead to procrastination. We evaluate a low-cost intervention that substantially simplifies the retirement savings plan participation decision. Individuals received an opportunity to enroll in a retirement savings plan at a pre-selected contribution rate and asset allocation, allowing them to collapse a multidimensional problem into a binary choice between the status quo and the pre-selected alternative. The intervention increases plan enrollment rates by 10 to 20 percentage points. We find that a similar intervention can be used to increase contribution rates among employees who are already participating in a savings plan. PMID:24443619

  8. The administration of human services.

    PubMed

    Hasenfeld, Y

    1985-05-01

    Human service programs have gone from a period of rapid growth in the 1960s and early 1970s to a period of retrenchment in the 1980s. The changing political and economic context has forced these programs to undergo major organizational transformations and to adopt different administrative strategies. These include degovernmentalization of social services, reliance on cutback management, and deprofessionalization of human-service workers. The article explores the implications of these developments on the delivery of services to the public.

  9. Health information technology adoption in U.S. acute care hospitals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning Jackie; Seblega, Binyam; Wan, Thomas; Unruh, Lynn; Agiro, Abiy; Miao, Li

    2013-04-01

    Previous studies show that the healthcare industry lags behind many other economic sectors in the adoption of information technology. The purpose of this study is to understand differences in structural characteristics between providers that do and that do not adopt Health Information Technology (HIT) applications. Publicly available secondary data were used from three sources: American Hospital Association (AHA) annual survey, Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society (HIMSS) analytics annual survey, and Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) databases. Fifty-two information technologies were grouped into three clusters: clinical, administrative, and strategic decision making ITs. Negative binomial regression was applied with adoption of technology as the dependent variables and eight organizational and contextual factors as the independent variables. Hospitals adopt a relatively larger proportion of administrative information technology as compared to clinical and strategic IT. Large size, urban location and HMO penetration were found to be the most influential hospital characteristics that positively affect information technology adoption. There are still considerable variations in the adoption of information technology across hospitals and in the type of technology adopted. Organizational factors appear to be more influential than market factors when it comes to information technology adoption. The future research may examine whether the Electronic Health Record (EHR) Incentive Program in 2011 would increase the information technology uses in hospitals as it provides financial incentives for HER adoptions and uses among providers.

  10. 43 CFR 4750.4-2 - Adoption fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... wild horses and burros? You must pay an adoption fee for each wild horse or burro you adopt. Usually... adoption events for wild horses or burros. At competitive adoptions, qualified adopters set adoption fees... Director may reduce or waive the fee when wild horses or burros are un-adoptable at the base adoption...

  11. 43 CFR 4750.4-2 - Adoption fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... wild horses and burros? You must pay an adoption fee for each wild horse or burro you adopt. Usually... adoption events for wild horses or burros. At competitive adoptions, qualified adopters set adoption fees... Director may reduce or waive the fee when wild horses or burros are un-adoptable at the base adoption...

  12. 43 CFR 4750.4-2 - Adoption fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... wild horses and burros? You must pay an adoption fee for each wild horse or burro you adopt. Usually... adoption events for wild horses or burros. At competitive adoptions, qualified adopters set adoption fees... Director may reduce or waive the fee when wild horses or burros are un-adoptable at the base adoption...

  13. 43 CFR 4750.4-2 - Adoption fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... wild horses and burros? You must pay an adoption fee for each wild horse or burro you adopt. Usually... adoption events for wild horses or burros. At competitive adoptions, qualified adopters set adoption fees... Director may reduce or waive the fee when wild horses or burros are un-adoptable at the base adoption...

  14. Economic incentives and foster child adoption.

    PubMed

    Argys, Laura; Duncan, Brian

    2013-06-01

    Every year, a large number of children in the United States enter the foster care system. Many of them are eventually reunited with their biological parents or quickly adopted. A significant number, however, face long-term foster care, and some of these children are eventually adopted by their foster parents. The decision by foster parents to adopt their foster child carries significant economic consequences, including for feiting foster care payments while also assuming responsibility for medical, legal, and educational expenses, to name a few. Since 1980, U.S. states have begun to offer adoption subsidies to offset some of these expenses, significantly lowering the cost of adopting a child who is in the foster care system. This article presents empirical evidence of the role that these economic incentives play in foster parents' decision of when, or if, to adopt their foster child. We find that adoption subsidies increase adoptions through two distinct price mechanisms: by lowering the absolute cost of adoption, and by lowering the relative cost of adoption versus long-term foster care.

  15. Changes in Motivation for Adoption, Value Orientations and Behavior in Three Generations of Adoptive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoksbergen, Rene A. C.

    1998-01-01

    Hypothesizes that in this century a pattern of three generations of adoptive parents has developed, differing in motives and attitudes toward adoption: traditional-closed, open-idealistic, and materialistic-realistic. Maintains that adoption has lost its taboo character, domestic adoption is decreasing or has almost vanished (Scandinavia,…

  16. A Model of U.S. Commercial Distributed Generation Adoption

    SciTech Connect

    LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Ryan Firestone; Zhou, Nan; Maribu,Karl; Marnay, Chris

    2006-01-10

    Small-scale (100 kW-5 MW) on-site distributed generation (DG) economically driven by combined heat and power (CHP) applications and, in some cases, reliability concerns will likely emerge as a common feature of commercial building energy systems over the next two decades. Forecasts of DG adoption published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) in the Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) are made using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), which has a forecasting module that predicts the penetration of several possible commercial building DG technologies over the period 2005-2025. NEMS is also used for estimating the future benefits of Department of Energy research and development used in support of budget requests and management decisionmaking. The NEMS approach to modeling DG has some limitations, including constraints on the amount of DG allowed for retrofits to existing buildings and a small number of possible sizes for each DG technology. An alternative approach called Commercial Sector Model (ComSeM) is developed to improve the way in which DG adoption is modeled. The approach incorporates load shapes for specific end uses in specific building types in specific regions, e.g., cooling in hospitals in Atlanta or space heating in Chicago offices. The Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) uses these load profiles together with input cost and performance DG technology assumptions to model the potential DG adoption for four selected cities and two sizes of five building types in selected forecast years to 2022. The Distributed Energy Resources Market Diffusion Model (DER-MaDiM) is then used to then tailor the DER-CAM results to adoption projections for the entire U.S. commercial sector for all forecast years from 2007-2025. This process is conducted such that the structure of results are consistent with the structure of NEMS, and can be re-injected into NEMS that can then be used to integrate adoption results into a full forecast.

  17. Ready, Set, Let's Go: An Evaluation Study of an Educational Administration Program for Beginning Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Lori

    After consulting more than 2,500 practicing administrators and other professionals, California's Commission on Teacher Credentialing (CTC) adopted new standards for administrator preparation. The strengths and weaknesses of a new program that teaches these standards are discussed. The paper It focuses on the program in terms of its new features:…

  18. Organizational factors influencing health information technology adoption in long-term-care facilities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tiankai; Wang, Yangmei; Moczygemba, Jackie

    2014-01-01

    Long-term care (LTC) is an important sector of the health care industry. However, the adoption of health information technology (HIT) systems in LTC facilities lags behind that in other sectors of health care. Previous literature has focused on the financial and technical barriers. This study examined the organizational factors associated with HIT adoption in LTC facilities. A survey of 500 LTC facilities in Texas enabled researchers to compile HIT indexes for further statistical analyses. A general linear model was used to study the associations between the clinical/administrative HIT indexes and organizational factors. The empirical outcomes show that the size of an LTC facility has a significant association with HIT adoption. Rural LTC facilities, especially freestanding ones, adopt less HIT than their urban counterparts, whereas freestanding LTC facilities have the lowest HIT adoption overall. There is not enough evidence to support ownership status as a significant factor in HIT adoption. Some implications are proposed, but further research is necessary.

  19. Building Adoption of Visual Analytics Software

    SciTech Connect

    Chinchor, Nancy; Cook, Kristin A.; Scholtz, Jean

    2012-01-05

    Adoption of technology is always difficult. Issues such as having the infrastructure necessary to support the technology, training for users, integrating the technology into current processes and tools, and having the time, managerial support, and necessary funds need to be addressed. In addition to these issues, the adoption of visual analytics tools presents specific challenges that need to be addressed. This paper discusses technology adoption challenges and approaches for visual analytics technologies.

  20. Measures for Predictors of Innovation Adoption

    PubMed Central

    Chor, Ka Ho Brian; Wisdom, Jennifer P.; Olin, Su-Chin Serene; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.; Horwitz, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Building on a narrative synthesis of adoption theories by Wisdom et al. (2013), this review identifies 118 measures associated with the 27 adoption predictors in the synthesis. The distribution of measures is uneven across the predictors and predictors vary in modifiability. Multiple dimensions and definitions of predictors further complicate measurement efforts. For state policymakers and researchers, more effective and integrated measurement can advance the adoption of complex innovations such as evidence-based practices. PMID:24740175

  1. [Choosing the name in international adoption].

    PubMed

    van Effenterre, Aude; Harf, Aurélie; Skandrani, Sandra; Taïeb, Olivier; Moro, Marie Rose

    2014-01-01

    In the context of international adoption, the question is raised of the links which the adoptive parents may or may not maintain with the culture of the child's birth country. The name which the adoptive parents choose reflects this questioning. A study was carried out into this subject with parents and children in order to gain a better understanding of the feelings of belonging, filiation and affiliation in these situations.

  2. Envisaging the adoption process to strengthen gay- and lesbian-headed families: recommendations for adoption professionals.

    PubMed

    Matthews, John D; Cramer, Elizabeth P

    2006-01-01

    Although a growing number of child placement agencies are serving lesbians and gay men, a dearth of literature exists for adoption agency policies and practices related to working with this population. This article explores the unique characteristics and strengths of prospective gay and lesbian adoptive parents throughout each of the three phases of the adoption process-preplacement, placement, and postplacement-as well as provides suggestions for adoption professionals working with gays and lesbians. Data from a recent qualitative study of single, gay adoptive fathers are used to illustrate examples and expose areas of potential strengths of adoptive parents not generally explored in the preplacement or preparatory stage. Special attention also is given to the continuing needs of adoptive families headed by gays and lesbians after adoptive placement. Specifically explored are the needs for developing linkages with similar families, as well as providing resources designed to promote successful outcomes of adopted children raised by gays and lesbians.

  3. Predictors of race, adoption, and sexual orientation related socialization of adoptive parents of young children.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, JuliAnna Z

    2016-04-01

    Using a sample of 125 lesbian, gay, and heterosexual adoptive parent couples with young children (M = 6.32 years), this study examined predictors of direct socialization (preparation for adoptism, racism, and heterosexism) and indirect socialization (modeling interactions by responding to outsiders' inquiries about their child's adoptive status, racial background, or family structure). In terms of direct socialization, parents of older children tended to engage in more socialization around adoptism and heterosexism, and parents of daughters tended to engage in more socialization around racism and heterosexism. Greater perceived child interest in adoption was related to more direct socialization around adoptism. Parents of color reported more direct socialization around racism. Having a child of color was related to more direct socialization around heterosexism. Regarding indirect socialization, sexual minority parents reported more socialization around adoption and race. Greater perceived child interest in adoption was related to more indirect adoption socialization. Being more "out" was related to more indirect socialization around parent sexual orientation.

  4. Healthy depictions? Depicting adoption and adoption news events on broadcast news.

    PubMed

    Kline, Susan L; Chatterjee, Karishma; Karel, Amanda I

    2009-01-01

    Given that the public uses the media to learn about adoption as a family form, this study analyzes U.S. television news coverage of adoption between 2001 and 2005 (N = 309 stories), to identify the types of news events covered about adoption. A majority of news stories covered fraud, crime, legal disputes, and negative international adoption cases. Adoptees as defective or unhealthy were depicted more in negative news event stories, birth parents appeared less overall, and adoptive parents were most likely to have healthy depictions in positively oriented adoption experience, big family, and reunion stories. Although three quarters of the stories used primary adoption participants as news sources, one-third of the negative event stories did not contain healthy depictions of adoption participants. The authors discuss ways journalists and researchers might improve adoption news coverage.

  5. 75 FR 68166 - National Adoption Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office TD04NO10.016 [FR Doc. 2010... the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-28117... small. National Adoption Day is a day of hope and happiness when courthouses finalize the adoptions...

  6. Predicting Language Outcomes for Internationally Adopted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennen, Sharon L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Language and speech are difficult to assess in newly arrived internationally adopted children. The purpose of this study was to determine if assessments completed when toddlers were first adopted could predict language outcomes at age 2. Local norms were used to develop early intervention guidelines that were evaluated against age 2…

  7. Covering Adoption: General Depictions in Broadcast News

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Susan L.; Karel, Amanda I.; Chatterjee, Karishma

    2006-01-01

    Using theories of stigma (Goffman, 1963) and media frames (Iyengar, 1991), 292 news stories pertaining to adoption that appeared on major broadcast networks between 2001 and 2004 were analyzed. Media coverage of adoptees contained more problematic than positive depictions. Although birth parents were not always depicted, adoptive parent and…

  8. Issues in Adoption and Foster Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepworth, H. Philip

    This speech presents an overview of issues and trends in the provision of foster care and adoption services in Canada. The number of children "in care" in Canada (in foster homes, institutions, or adoptive homes) appears to have peaked around 1969 and declined thereafter. Information on contraceptives and the availaibility of abortions are seen as…

  9. Why Wasn't This Child Adopted?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raspberry, William

    1982-01-01

    Critizes the public child care policy with regard to adoption services through the story of "Joey", a black child in his teens. Shortly after his birth, Joey was sent by his teenage mother to a city agency for adoption and until now no real effort has been made to place him in a permanent home. (Author/MP)

  10. 43 CFR 10010.20 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adoption. 10010.20 Section 10010.20 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) UTAH RECLAMATION MITIGATION AND... Environmental Assessments § 10010.20 Adoption. (a) An EA prepared for a proposal before the Commission...

  11. 43 CFR 10010.20 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adoption. 10010.20 Section 10010.20 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) UTAH RECLAMATION MITIGATION AND... Environmental Assessments § 10010.20 Adoption. (a) An EA prepared for a proposal before the Commission...

  12. 43 CFR 10010.20 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adoption. 10010.20 Section 10010.20 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) UTAH RECLAMATION MITIGATION AND... Environmental Assessments § 10010.20 Adoption. (a) An EA prepared for a proposal before the Commission...

  13. A Research and Development Adoption Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Ronald E.

    1974-01-01

    An elaboration of the adoption phase of the Clark and Guba R and D model. A brief discussion of the normative structures of the organizations and organizational boundary permeability provides the rationale for a set of suggested procedures for adoption of innovations at the school building level. (Author)

  14. Fuzzy Cognitive Map Modelling Educational Software Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossain, Sarmin; Brooks, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    Educational software adoption across UK secondary schools is seen as unsatisfactory. Based on stakeholders' perceptions, this paper uses fuzzy cognitive maps (FCMs) to model this adoption context. It discusses the development of the FCM model, using a mixed-methods approach and drawing on participants from three UK secondary schools. The study…

  15. Adoption of Improved Agricultural Practices in Uruguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucks, Carlos Alberto

    Conducted in Uruguay during 1965-68, this study compared adoption rates for selected agricultural practices between one area which received an extension program and one which did not; and sought relationships between selected characteristics of individual farmers and the adoption of new practices. Data came from interviews with 69 experimental and…

  16. 32 CFR 584.4 - Adoption proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... situations were a soldier is trying to adopt a child. It applies to those situations where another person is trying to adopt a legitimate or illegitimate child of a soldier. A child born in or out of wedlock... has stated that he or she is not the natural parent of the child. (v) Since the soldier is not...

  17. Adopting the Caregiver Role: A Family Legacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piercy, Kathleen W.; Chapman, Jeffery G.

    2001-01-01

    A qualitative study was done to investigate how adult children become caregivers to older parents with functional impairments and what roles their own children adopt in their family's care arrangement. Interviews revealed five influences on children and grandchildren's adoption of caregiver roles: expectations; family rules; religious training;…

  18. Conservation Tillage: Monitoring Adoption with Satellite Imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation tillage is a commonly adopted best management practice for improving soil quality and reducing erosion. However, there are currently no methods in place to monitor conservation tillage adoption at the watershed scale. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of ...

  19. 76 FR 68613 - National Adoption Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-28839 Filed 11-3-11; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8744 of November 1, 2011 National Adoption Month, 2011 By the President of... basic support, and still more children abroad live without families. During National Adoption Month,...

  20. 78 FR 66609 - National Adoption Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-26669 Filed 11-4-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F4 ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 9049 of October 31, 2013 National Adoption Month, 2013 By the President of... million children and teenagers. During National Adoption Month, we celebrate these families and...

  1. 77 FR 66517 - National Adoption Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-27190 Filed 11-5-12; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F3 ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8896 of November 1, 2012 National Adoption Month, 2012 By the President of... knowing the love and protection of a permanent family. During National Adoption Month, we give voice...

  2. Nurturing Development of Foster and Adopted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak-Fabrykowski, Krystyna Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate early childhood teachers' perspective of teaching foster and adopted children. The main purpose is to seek suggestions how teachers can nurture the development of foster and adopted children. A 6 question survey was sent to 44 teachers pursuing graduate studies in early childhood education. Of this 50%…

  3. States Adopt Standards at Fast Clip

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Nearly half the states have adopted a new set of common academic standards, barely a month after their final release and, in most cases, with little opposition. As of July 9, 23 states had decided to replace their mathematics and English/language arts standards with the common set. Another flurry of adoptions is expected by Aug. 2, since the $4…

  4. Wrongful Adoption: Law, Policy and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freundlich, Madelyn; Peterson, Lisa

    The past decade has seen an increase in cases where adoptive parents fail to receive accurate or complete information about a child's physical, emotional, or developmental problems or about the child's birth family and history. In these cases adoptive parents are confronted with extremely expensive medical care or mental health care. This…

  5. Faculty Adoption of Active Learning Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horne, Sam; Murniati, Cecilia Titiek

    2016-01-01

    Although post-secondary educational institutions are incorporating more active learning classrooms (ALCs) that support collaborative learning, researchers have less often examined the cultural obstacles to adoption of those environments. In this qualitative research study, we adopted the conceptual framework of activity theory to examine the…

  6. [Principles of adoptive cell therapy based on "Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes"].

    PubMed

    Martins, Filipe; Orcurto, Angela; Michielin, Olivier; Coukos, George

    2016-05-18

    Adoptive cell therapy consists in the use of T lymphocytes for therapeutic purposes. Up to now, of limited use in clinical practice for logistical reasons, technical progress and substantial level of evidence obtained in the last decade allow its arrival in universitary hospitals. We will principally discuss the administration of expanded tumor infiltrating T cells in the treatment of metastatic melanoma. This treatment modality exploits the natural specificity of these cells and aims to potentiate their effectiveness. This personalized immunotherapy detains a potential for expansion to many other advanced tumor types. PMID:27424426

  7. Average System Cost Methodology : Administrator's Record of Decision.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1984-06-01

    Significant features of average system cost (ASC) methodology adopted are: retention of the jurisdictional approach where retail rate orders of regulartory agencies provide primary data for computing the ASC for utilities participating in the residential exchange; inclusion of transmission costs; exclusion of construction work in progress; use of a utility's weighted cost of debt securities; exclusion of income taxes; simplification of separation procedures for subsidized generation and transmission accounts from other accounts; clarification of ASC methodology rules; more generous review timetable for individual filings; phase-in of reformed methodology; and each exchanging utility must file under the new methodology within 20 days of implementation by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission of the ten major participating utilities, the revised ASC will substantially only affect three. (PSB)

  8. Quantifying nursing workflow in medication administration.

    PubMed

    Keohane, Carol A; Bane, Anne D; Featherstone, Erica; Hayes, Judy; Woolf, Seth; Hurley, Ann; Bates, David W; Gandhi, Tejal K; Poon, Eric G

    2008-01-01

    New medication administration systems are showing promise in improving patient safety at the point of care, but adoption of these systems requires significant changes in nursing workflow. To prepare for these changes, the authors report on a time-motion study that measured the proportion of time that nurses spend on various patient care activities, focusing on medication administration-related activities. Implications of their findings are discussed.

  9. Switching to boosted protease inhibitor plus a second antiretroviral drug (dual therapy) for treatment simplification: a multicenter analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zaccarelli, Mauro; Fabbiani, Massimiliano; Pinnetti, Carmela; Borghi, Vanni; Giannetti, Alberto; Sterrantino, Gaetana; Lorenzini, Patrizia; Latini, Alessandra; Loiacono, Laura; Colafigli, Manuela; Ammassari, Adriana; D'Ettorre, Gabriella; Plazzi, Maddalena; Di Giambenedetto, Simona; Antinori, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Background To assess the role of drugs used in dual therapy (DT), as cART simplification, over the risk of treatment failure. Materials and Methods Patients starting DT regimen composed by a boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r): darunavir (DRV/r), lopinavir (LPVr) or atazanavir (ATV/r) plus a second drug: raltegravir (RAL), maraviroc (MRV) etravirine (ETR), lamivudine (3TC) or tenofovir (TDF), this one generally used in HBV co-infected patients, were included. The effect of each drug as well as other clinical and virological cofactors over treatment failure was assessed using survival analysis. Results Overall, 480 patients from six reference Italian centres were included: all switched to DT with HIV-RNA <500 cp/µL, 376 of them at <50 cp/µL. Patients who switched at <50 cp/µL showed a significant lower risk of treatment failure (13.3% versus 23.3% at 1 year and 28.0% versus 44.6% at 3 years, p=0.005), thus the analysis was focused on this subgroup. Among the patients who switched at <50 cp/µL, the proportion of drug used in DT was: DRV/r 63.0%, RAL 53.7%, ETR 19.4%, ATV/r 18.4%, MRV 17.3%, LPV/r 12.8%, TDF 6.4% and 3TC 5.9%; DRV/r-RAL was the most widely used combination: 32.5%. Treatment failure was observed in 78 patients, of whom 38 virological and 35 for toxicity/intolerance, one patient died during follow-up and four patients interrupted for personal decision with undetectable HIV-RNA. At Cox Model, adjusted by gender, age, non-Italian origin, AIDS diagnosis, time on cART, number of regimens, CD4 nadir, baseline CD4, all the drugs had a positive effect on probability of failure (Figure), however the effect was significant for DRV/r (HR:0.21, 95% CI 0.07–0.59, p=0.03), ATV/r (0.30, 0.09–0.97, p=0.044) and RAL (0.37, 0.15–0.93, p=0.034); higher CD4 count at baseline was also associated with lower risk of failure while number of previous regimens with a higher risk. Moreover, ATV/r was found significant associated with significant higher risk of failure by

  10. Parallel Process Issues for Lesbian and Gay Adoptive Parents and Their Adopted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, John D.; Cramer, Elizabeth P.

    2005-01-01

    Gays and lesbians, both single and coupled, are increasingly turning to adoption to create or expand their families. This manuscript specifically addresses the continuing needs of adoptees and adoptive parents by exploring key issues in the life course of gays and lesbians and their adopted children, and identifying potential parallel development…

  11. Factors Influencing the Adoption Decision: An Analysis of Adopters and Nonadopters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Robert N.; Rollins, Timothy

    1995-01-01

    An agricultural innovation (nitrogen testing) had been used by 127 of a sample of 220 farmers. Adoption of the technique was influenced by information and change agents' attitudes. Adopters were also motivated by cost savings. Both adopters and nonadopters either did not have or use soil sampling skills needed to perform the test correctly.…

  12. Open Adoption of Infants: Adoptive Parents' Perceptions of Advantages and Disadvantages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Deborah H.

    1993-01-01

    Conducted qualitative study of adoptive parents' (n=21 couples) reactions to recent open adoptions of their infants. Findings indicated overwhelmingly positive feelings about open adoption. Respondents often noted that issue of openness was eclipsed by other concerns: coping with infertility, finding a baby, dealing with personnel, and dealing…

  13. Cultural Tourism in Transnational Adoption: "Staged Authenticity" and Its Implications for Adopted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quiroz, Pamela Anne

    2012-01-01

    The discursive practices of adoptive parents in two online transnational adoption forums (2006-2008) and observations of five international adoption workshops suggest that what Heather Jacobson described as "culture keeping", the cultural socialization of children that retains a sense of native group identity, is more aptly characterized as…

  14. Korean Adoptee Identity: Adoptive and Ethnic Identity Profiles of Adopted Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaupre, Adam J.; Reichwald, Reed; Zhou, Xiang; Raleigh, Elizabeth; Lee, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Adopted Korean adolescents face the task of grappling with their identity as Koreans and coming to terms with their adoptive status. In order to explore these dual identities, the authors conducted a person-centered study of the identity profiles of 189 adopted Korean American adolescents. Using cluster analytic procedures, the study examined…

  15. A Study of Self-Esteem in Adopted Non-adopted Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steward, Robbie J.; Lynn, Betty Jane

    This study tested the hypothesis that adopted adolescents have lower self-esteem than do non-adopted adolescents. Male and female students (N=159) between the ages of 18 and 22 were conveniently sampled from college undergraduate populations. Forty-four of the participants reported adoptive status. Each participant completed the Coopersmith…

  16. Pricing Health Behavior Interventions to Promote Adoption

    PubMed Central

    Ribisl, Kurt M.; Leeman, Jennifer; Glasser, Allison M.

    2015-01-01

    The relatively high cost of delivering many public health interventions limits their potential for broad public impact by reducing their likelihood of adoption and maintenance over time. Practitioners identify cost as the primary factor for which interventions they select to implement, but researchers rarely disseminate cost information or consider its importance when developing new interventions. A new approach is proposed, whereby intervention developers assess what individuals and agencies adopting their interventions are willing to pay and then design interventions that are responsive to this price range. The ultimate goal is to develop effective and affordable interventions, called lean interventions, which are widely adopted and have greater public health impact. PMID:24842743

  17. Intercountry adoption: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Tizard, B

    1991-07-01

    Studies of the outcome of intercountry adoption are reviewed in the context of its history and politics. Intercountry adoption is a post-World War II phenomenon, and has become largely a service for childless couples in the West. Many Third World countries, and some Western social workers, are bitterly opposed to the practice, on both political and psychological grounds. Outcome studies have produced results similar to those found in studies of incountry adoption, although, to date, insufficient attention has been paid to issues of identity and racism. The policy implications of these studies will depend on political considerations, as well as the research evidence.

  18. Diffusion of an effective tobacco prevention program. Part II: Evaluation of the adoption phase.

    PubMed

    Parcel, G S; O'Hara-Tompkins, N M; Harrist, R B; Basen-Engquist, K M; McCormick, L K; Gottlieb, N H; Eriksen, M P

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents the results of theory-based intervention strategies to increase the adoption of a tobacco prevention program. The adoption intervention followed a series of dissemination intervention strategies targeted at 128 school districts in Texas. Informed by Social Cognitive Theory, the intervention provided opportunities for districts to learn about and model themselves after 'successful' school districts that had adopted the program, and to see the potential for social reinforcement through the knowledge that the program had the potential to have an important influence on students' lives. The proportion of districts in the Intervention condition that adopted the program was significantly greater than in the Comparison condition (P < 0.001). Stepwise logistic regression indicated that the variables most closely related to adoption among intervention districts were teacher attitudes toward the innovation and organizational considerations of administrators. Recommendations for the development of effective strategies for the diffusion of innovations are presented.

  19. Enabling Quality: Electronic Health Record Adoption and Meaningful Use Readiness in Federally Funded Health Centers.

    PubMed

    Wittie, Michael; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen; Lebrun-Harris, Lydie; Shi, Leiyu; Nair, Suma

    2016-01-01

    The Health Resources and Services Administration has supported the adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) by federally funded health centers for over a decade; however, little is known about health centers' current EHR adoption rates, progress toward Meaningful Use, and factors related to adoption. We analyzed cross-sectional data from all 1,128 health centers in 2011, which served over 20 million patients during that year. As of 2011, 80% of health centers reported using an EHR, and high proportions reported using many advanced EHR functionalities. There were no indications of disparities in EHR adoption by census region, urban/rural location, patient sociodemographic composition, physician staffing, or health center funding; however, there were small variations in adoption by total patient cost and percent of revenue from grants. Findings revealed no evidence of a digital divide among health centers, indicating that health centers are implementing EHRs, in keeping with their mission to reduce health disparities.

  20. 78 FR 57790 - Adoption of Statutory Prohibition on the Operation of Jets Weighing 75,000 Pounds or Less That...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ..., the FAA published a final rule (78 FR 39576) amending the airplane operating regulations to include... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 91 RIN 2120-AK25 Adoption of Statutory Prohibition on the... prohibition remains in effect, and nothing about the FAA's adoption of the statutory language into part 91...

  1. Internationally Adopted Children: Important Information for Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... iodine). Newborn metabolic screen up to 2 years. Infectious Diseases PPD or currently recommended testing for tuberculosis exposure ( ... Pediatrics. Medical Evaluation of Internationally Adopted Children for Infectious Diseases. In: Pickering LK, Baker CJ, Kimberlin DW, Long SS, ...

  2. Parental Bonding in Older-Child Adoptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Margaret

    1981-01-01

    Examines various factors (such as periods of high emotion, ritual and claiming behaviors and positive interaction) in the attachment process between adoptive parents and older children. Shows that most components parallel those of bonding in biological parents. (Author/RH)

  3. 43 CFR 10010.20 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... augment such an EA when it is essentially, but not entirely, in compliance in order to make it so. (c) If an EA or augmented EA is adopted, the responsible Commission official must prepare his/her own NOI...

  4. Are You Pregnant and Thinking about Adoption?

    MedlinePlus

    ... stories . O.J. Howard Publishing. Siegel, D.H., & Smith, S.L. (2012). Openness in adoption: From secrecy and ... from- secrecy- and- stigma- to- knowledge- and- connections/ Smith, S. (2007). Safeguarding the rights and well-being of ...

  5. Drivers and Barriers in Health IT Adoption

    PubMed Central

    Avgar, A.C.; Litwin, A.S.; Pronovost, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite near (and rare) consensus that the adoption and diffusion of health information technology (health IT) will bolster outcomes for organizations, individuals, and the healthcare system as a whole, there has been surprisingly little consideration of the structures and processes within organizations that might drive the adoption and effective use of the technology. Management research provides a useful lens through which to analyze both the determinants of investment and the benefits that can ultimately be derived from these investments. This paper provides a conceptual framework for understanding health IT adoption. In doing so, this paper highlights specific organizational barriers or enablers at different stages of the adoption process – investment, implementation, and use – and at different levels of organizational decision-making – strategic, operational, and frontline. This framework will aid both policymakers and organizational actors as they make sense of the transition from paper-based to electronic systems. PMID:23646093

  6. The African orphan crisis and international adoption.

    PubMed

    Roby, Jini L; Shaw, Stacey A

    2006-07-01

    The plight of Africa's AIDS orphans has reached crisis proportions, and the international community is beginning to mobilize at the family, community, national, and international levels. Despite these encouraging efforts, the response is inadequate, and increased attention and action are needed. The authors suggest that international adoption, although a small and temporary solution, may fit within the framework being used as a global working model. Issues surrounding adoption, such as racism, racial and cultural identity development, waiting children in the U.S. public child welfare system, and the potential legal risks, are delineated. The African perspective toward adoption is presented, although the response varies and is not collectively defined. The authors conclude that although international adoptions should be used as a last-resort solution, and with tight regulations, the potential benefits to some children merit the opening of a dialogue on the topic.

  7. Distributed PV Adoption in Maine Through 2021

    SciTech Connect

    Gagnon, Pieter; Sigrin, Ben

    2015-11-06

    NREL has used its dSolar (distributed solar) model to generate low-medium-high estimates of distributed PV adoption in Maine through 2021. This presentation gives a high-level overview of the model and modeling results.

  8. Disparities in Primary Care EHR Adoption Rates

    PubMed Central

    Mack, Dominic; Zhang, Shun; Douglas, Megan; Sow, Charles; Strothers, Harry; Rust, George

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates electronic health record (EHR) adoption by primary care providers in Georgia to assess adoption disparities according to practice size and type, payer mix, and community characteristics. Frequency variances of EHR “Go Live” status were estimated. Odds ratios were calculated by univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Large practices and community health centers (CHCs) were more likely to Go Live (>80% EHR adoption) than rural health clinics and other underserved settings (53%). A significantly lower proportion (68.9%) of Medicaid predominant providers had achieved Go Live status and had a 47% higher risk of not achieving Go Live status than private insurance predominant practices. Disparities in EHR adoption rates may exacerbate existing disparities in health outcomes of patients served by these practices. Targeted support such as that provided to CHCs would level the playing field for practices now at a disadvantage. PMID:27587942

  9. Adoption and Utilization of Electronic Health Record Systems by Long-Term Care Facilities in Texas

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tiankai; Biedermann, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Long-term care (LTC) is an important sector in the healthcare industry; however, the adoption of electronic health record (EHR) systems in LTC facilities lags behind that in other sectors of healthcare. This study examines the adoption and utilization of EHRs in LTC facilities in Texas and identifies the barriers preventing implementation of EHRs. A survey instrument was mailed to all Texas LTC facilities between October 2010 and March 2011. The survey found that in Texas, 39.5 percent of LTC facilities have fully or partially implemented EHR systems and 15 percent of LTC facilities have no plans to adopt EHRs yet. There is significant variation in the use of EHR functionalities across the LTC facilities in Texas. In the LTC facilities, the administrative functions of EHRs have been more widely adopted and are more widely utilized than the clinical functions of EHRs. Among the clinical functions adopted, the resident assessment, physician orders, care management plan, and census management are the leading functions used by the LTC facilities in Texas. Lack of capital resources is still the greatest barrier to EHR adoption and implementation. Policy makers, vendors, LTC administrators, educators, and researchers should make more effort to improve EHR adoption in LTC facilities. PMID:22737099

  10. The family romance fantasies of adopted children.

    PubMed

    Wieder, H

    1977-01-01

    Despite the absence of psychoanalytic studies to support the position, family romance fantasies have been assumed to be similar in form and function in both the adopted child and the blood kin child. My studies, documented herein from the analyses of three adoptees, reveal that knowing one is adopted results in modifications of the fantasy and that certain types of adoptees seem incapable of effectively creating the paradigmatic family romance fantasy.

  11. 12 CFR 600.3 - Farm Credit Administration Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Chairman directs the implementation of the policies and regulations adopted by the Board and, after consulting the Board, the execution of the administrative functions and duties of FCA. In carrying out...

  12. [The outcomes of Adoption in the Case of the "British Chinese Adoption Study"].

    PubMed

    Rushton, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Practitioners can over-estimate the incidence of problems in adopted children and adults because they do not see those who make good psychological and social adjustments. Research into adoption outcomes can be hard to interpret without information about differing pre-adoption histories. Examples are given of research into three types of adoption: domestic infant adoption, adoptions from public care of maltreated children and international adoption of ex-orphanage children. Although negative outcomes are indisputably evident for some, recovery from adversity is more common than many would predict. It is important to recognize that subsequent nurturing in consistent and stimulating environments can build a platform for effective adaptations to challenges in the future. However, a proper understanding of the consequences of adoption has been limited by the fact that follow-up studies have rarely extended beyond adolescence and early adulthood. The British Chinese Adoption Study is a 50 year follow-up of orphanage girls internationally adopted into the United Kingdom, and is given as an example of good outcomes despite early years of adversity. Scores on mental health assessments were equivalent to the non-adopted, age-matched comparison group of UK women. Most of the women were rated as "good functioning" and educational achievements were many times higher than the comparison women. Life-long adverse effects are not inevitable following early adversity. Improved circumstances can promote recovery and good adult adjustment. Practice and research implications are discussed.

  13. [The outcomes of Adoption in the Case of the "British Chinese Adoption Study"].

    PubMed

    Rushton, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Practitioners can over-estimate the incidence of problems in adopted children and adults because they do not see those who make good psychological and social adjustments. Research into adoption outcomes can be hard to interpret without information about differing pre-adoption histories. Examples are given of research into three types of adoption: domestic infant adoption, adoptions from public care of maltreated children and international adoption of ex-orphanage children. Although negative outcomes are indisputably evident for some, recovery from adversity is more common than many would predict. It is important to recognize that subsequent nurturing in consistent and stimulating environments can build a platform for effective adaptations to challenges in the future. However, a proper understanding of the consequences of adoption has been limited by the fact that follow-up studies have rarely extended beyond adolescence and early adulthood. The British Chinese Adoption Study is a 50 year follow-up of orphanage girls internationally adopted into the United Kingdom, and is given as an example of good outcomes despite early years of adversity. Scores on mental health assessments were equivalent to the non-adopted, age-matched comparison group of UK women. Most of the women were rated as "good functioning" and educational achievements were many times higher than the comparison women. Life-long adverse effects are not inevitable following early adversity. Improved circumstances can promote recovery and good adult adjustment. Practice and research implications are discussed. PMID:26645770

  14. Beyond preadoptive risk: The impact of adoptive family environment on adopted youth's psychosocial adjustment.

    PubMed

    Ji, Juye; Brooks, Devon; Barth, Richard P; Kim, Hansung

    2010-07-01

    Adopted children often are exposed to preadoptive stressors--such as prenatal substance exposure, child maltreatment, and out-of-home placements--that increase their risks for psychosocial maladjustment. Psychosocial adjustment of adopted children emerges as the product of pre- and postadoptive factors. This study builds on previous research, which fails to simultaneously assess the influences of pre- and postadoptive factors, by examining the impact of adoptive family sense of coherence on adoptee's psychosocial adjustment beyond the effects of preadoptive risks. Using a sample of adoptive families (n = 385) taking part in the California Long Range Adoption Study, structural equation modeling analyses were performed. Results indicate a significant impact of family sense of coherence on adoptees' psychosocial adjustment and a considerably less significant role of preadoptive risks. The findings suggest the importance of assessing adoptive family's ability to respond to stress and of helping families to build and maintain their capacity to cope with stress despite the sometimes fractious pressures of adoption.

  15. Adoption first? The disposition of human embryos.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Timothy F

    2014-06-01

    Anja Karnein has suggested that because of the importance of respect for persons, law and policy should require some human embryos created in vitro to be available for adoption for a period of time. If no one comes forward to adopt the embryos during that time, they may be destroyed (in the case of embryos left over from fertility medicine) or used in research (in the case of embryos created for that purpose or left over from fertility medicine). This adoption option would increase the number of embryos available for couples looking for help in having children, but that effect is less important--Karnein argues--than the observance of respect for human persons. As possible persons, she holds that embryos ought to be treated, as if they will become children, if only for a while. If enacted as a matter of law and policy, an 'adoption option' would wrongly interfere with the dispositional rights women and men ought to have over embryos they create in the course of trying to have children. Karnein's proposal would also deprive researchers of certainty that the embryos they create for research would actually be available that way, leading to increased burdens of time and money and maybe even to more embryos than would otherwise be produced. Karnein's analysis does not show, moreover, that any duty of rescue applies to embryos. No woman is required to adopt any embryo, which significantly undercuts the justification for an obligatory adoption period.

  16. Adoption in the age of reproductive technology.

    PubMed

    van den Akker, O B A

    2001-05-01

    The choice of adoption over genetic parenthood was investigated in 105 women retrospectively by questionnaire. Participants were divided into four groups: female/male subfertility; female subfertility; male subfertility; and female/male fertility. Half the sample (59/105) answered the question about the importance of a genetic link. Women who failed to adopt thought a genetic link was important, as did those who were less likely to disclose alternative reproductive conceptions to their child. First thoughts following diagnosis were more focused and actions more centered on adoption in the female/male subfertile group compared to the other groups. Communication of the child's origins was least prevalent in the female/male subfertile group, followed by the male subfertile group, although all groups would disclose adoption. The choice of adoption was determined by a number of factors, not all associated with infertility resolution. Although it is unlikely that resolution to infertility can be achieved in any population attempting to overcome infertility, the cognitive dissonance identified in this population is likely to be generalizable to those choosing other options to overcome infertility. Cultural and counselling acknowledgement of postmodern family theory principles is likely to ease cognitive consistency regarding the status of adoptive familyhood, and dispel the importance of reproductive options emphasizing a genetic link. PMID:12449936

  17. Social Context and Hearing Aid Adoption

    PubMed Central

    Launer, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Hearing rehabilitation tends to focus on the influence of intraindividual factors and concepts such as readiness for change and health beliefs. In contrast, less is known about the role of social context and the potential role of significant others on hearing aid adoption. This explorative retrospective study investigated whether hearing aid adoption is associated with significant other attendance at audiology appointments. The study sample consisted of 33,933 and 27,031 individuals who attended appointments either alone or with a significant other, respectively (n = 60,964). It was found that hearing aid adoption was significantly greater when patients attended audiology appointments with a significant other (63.8%) than when attending appointments alone (50.6%). The association between hearing aid adoption and attendance by a significant other was hearing dependent, with 96% higher hearing aid adoption for patients with mild hearing losses when patients attended appointments with a significant other than when attending appointments alone. Hearing aid return rates were comparable when patients attended appointments alone (27%) or with a significant other (24%). Several potential explanations for the observed association are discussed. The pattern of results is consistent with the view that greater adherence is observed when audiologic care is provided from a patient-centered care perspective. Future research should establish whether there is a causal relationship between attendance at appointments by significant others and hearing aid adoption and should attempt to better understand the mechanisms underpinning the relationship between these variables. PMID:27733672

  18. Adoption of Sun Safe Work Place Practices by Local Governments

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, Allan; Andersen, Peter A.; Buller, David B.; Walkosz, Barbara; Lui, Lucia; Buller, Mary; Scott, Michael D.; Jenkins, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Context Outdoor workers are especially susceptible to skin cancer, the most common, but also one of the most preventable, forms of cancer. Colorado, the location of the study, has the second highest rate of skin cancer deaths in the nation. Objective Local government managers in Colorado—in municipalities, counties and special districts—were surveyed in order to ascertain the extent to which they engage in formal (written) and informal practices to protect their outdoor workers against excessive exposure to sun. Design The survey consisted of 51 question assessing awareness of formal or informal practices for sun protection of outdoor workers. An index of practices--the study's dependent variable--was created that was comprised or practices such as providing employees free or reduced-cost sunscreen, wide-brimmed hats, sunglasses, long-sleeved work shirts, long work pants, and temporary or permanent outdoor shade shelters. Proscriptive policies, such as restricting the use of broad brimmed hats, were subtracted from the index. Surveys were completed by 825 administrators representing 98 jurisdictions. Responses from administrators in the same jurisdiction were averaged. Results Over 40 percent of responding jurisdictions indicated that they engaged in informal sun safety practices. Tests conducted to determine what variables might account for the adoption of these sun protection practices found that the degree to which a community could be regarded as cosmopolite and as having an individualistic political culture were significant predictors. Type of government was also significant. Although, higher community income was a significant predictor, neither local government budget nor size was significant. Conclusions The adoption of sun safe practices bears low costs with potentially high returns. Findings from this study suggest that awareness campaigns might most effectively target cosmopolite communities, but that the greatest impact might be achieved by targeting

  19. Moses and Superman Come Home: Counseling Adoptees and Adoptive Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saiz, Stephen G.

    This paper looks at three parties impacted by adoption: the adoptive parents, the adopted child, and the adoptive family. When working with adoptive parents, counselors should respect the strength of the couple, their commitment to parenthood, and the closeness that may develop from weathering the issue of childlessness. Adoptive parents are…

  20. Adoption Activities on the Internet: A Call for Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roby, Jini L.; White, Holly

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing practice of adoption services on the Internet with varying degrees of regulation, depending on whether it is domestic infant adoption, public foster care adoption, or international adoption. Regulation is particularly lacking in domestic infant adoptions, with Web sites connecting prospective birth and adoptive parents,…

  1. The Practice of Adoption: History, Trends, and Social Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamostny, Kathy P.; O'Brien, Karen M.; Baden, Amanda L.; Wiley, Mary O'Leary

    2003-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the practice of adoption to counseling psychologists to promote clinical understanding of the adoption experience and to stimulate research on adoption. The article includes definitions of adoption terminology, important historical and legal developments for adoption, a summary of adoption statistics,…

  2. Psychological Ramifications of Adoption and Implications for Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helwig, Andrew A.; Ruthven, Dorothy H.

    1990-01-01

    Examines adoption issues including family member loss, infertility, transracial adoptions, special-needs adoptions, older child adoption, inherited traits, adoptive family, biological parents, and open adoption. Suggests specific therapeutic interventions including redefinition, use of paradox, family therapy approaches, group therapy, and…

  3. Assessing access for prospective adoptive parents living with HIV: an environmental scan of Ontario's adoption agencies.

    PubMed

    Underhill, Angela A; Kennedy, V Logan; Lewis, Johanna; Ross, Lori E; Loutfy, Mona

    2016-10-01

    Work has been underway to increase the availability of parenting options for people living with and affected by HIV. One option, adoption, has not yet been explored in the literature. The study aimed to gain a better understanding of the potential of adoption for individuals/couples living with HIV in Ontario, and to assess potential structural barriers or facilitators that may impact their experience navigating the adoption system by conducting an environmental scan of adoption service providers in Ontario. A list of adoption service providers was compiled using the Ontario government's website. Information relevant to the study's measures was collected using service providers' websites. Service providers without websites, or with websites that did not address all of the research measures, were contacted via telephone to complete a structured interview. Online data extraction was possible for 2 and telephone surveys were completed with 75 adoption service providers (total n = 77). Most service providers reported that HIV status is not an exclusion criterion for prospective parents (64%). However, more than one-fifth of the participants acknowledged they were not sure if people with HIV were eligible to adopt. Domestic service providers were the only providers who did not report knowledge of restrictions due to HIV status. Private domestic adoption presented social barriers as birth parent(s) of a child can access health records of a prospective parent and base their selection of an adoptive parent based on health status. Adoption practitioners and licensees involved in international adoptions reported the most structural barriers for prospective parent(s) living with HIV, attributed to the regulations established by the host country of the child(ren) eligible for adoption. Although international adoptions may present insurmountable barriers for individuals living with HIV, public and private domestic adoption appears to be a viable option.

  4. Senior Administrators Should Have Administrative Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Gary J.

    1987-01-01

    Recognizing that termination is viewed by the employee as the equivalent to capital punishment of a career, an administrative contract can reduce the emotional and financial entanglements that often result. Administrative contracts are described. (MLW)

  5. Principles of adoptive T cell cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    June, Carl H.

    2007-01-01

    The transfusion of T cells, also called adoptive T cell therapy, is an effective treatment for viral infections and has induced regression of cancer in early-stage clinical trials. However, recent advances in cellular immunology and tumor biology are guiding new approaches to adoptive T cell therapy. For example, use of engineered T cells is being tested as a strategy to improve the functions of effector and memory T cells, and manipulation of the host to overcome immunotoxic effects in the tumor microenvironment has led to promising results in early-stage clinical trials. Challenges that face the field and must be addressed before adoptive T cell therapy can be translated into routine clinical practice are discussed. PMID:17476350

  6. Breaking the addiction to technology adoption.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Stirling; Mitton, Craig; Donaldson, Cam

    2014-04-01

    A major driver of cost growth in health care is the rapid increase in the utilisation of existing technology and not simply the adoption of new technology. Health economists and their health technology assessment colleagues have become obsessed by technology adoption questions and have largely ignored 'technology management' questions. Technology management would include the life-cycle assessment of technologies in use, to assess their real-world performance; and monitoring of technology indication creep. A rebalancing of focus might serve to encourage a more self-critical and learning culture amongst those involved in technology evaluation analysis. Further, health economists and health technology assessment analysts could make a more significant contribution to system efficiency through rebalancing their efforts away from technology adoption questions towards technology management issues.

  7. Accepting adoption's uncertainty: the limited ethics of pre-adoption genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Leighton, Kimberly J

    2014-06-01

    An increasing number of children are adopted in the United States from countries where both medical care and environmental conditions are extremely poor. In response to worries about the accuracy of medical histories, prospective adoptive parents increasingly request genetic testing of children prior to adoption. Though a general consensus on the ethics of pre-adoption genetic testing (PAGT) argues against permitting genetic testing on children available for adoption that is not also permitted for children in general, a view gaining traction argues for expanding the tests permitted. The reasoning behind this view is that the State has a duty to provide a child with parents who are the best "match," and thus all information that advances this end should be obtained. While the matching argument aims to promote the best interests of children, I show how it rests on the claim that what is in the best interests of children available for adoption is for prospective adoptive parents to have their genetic preferences satisfied such that the "genetics" of the children they end up adopting accurately reflects those preferences. Instead of protecting a vulnerable population, I conclude, PAGT contributes to the risks of harm such children face as it encourages people with strong genetic preferences to adopt children whose genetic backgrounds will always be uncertain.

  8. Who adopts? Characteristics of women and men who have adopted children.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jo

    2009-01-01

    In 2002, 2 percent of adults aged 18-44 years had adopted children, approximately 2 million people. Significantly more adopters are men, over age 30, are ever married, have biological children, and have ever used infertility services. Women who have adopted are older than women who have given birth to a child. Significantly more ever-married men have adopted children compared with never-married men or women in either marital status. Women who have ever used infertility services are more likely to have adopted compared with women who have not used these services. Men who have adopted are more likely than men who have not adopted to have also fathered a child. Hispanic women are significantly less likely than non-Hispanic women or men of any race or ethnicity to have adopted children. Women with incomes below 150% of the poverty level are significantly less likely than women with higher incomes or men, irrespective of poverty status, to have adopted children. The percentage of infants relinquished by never-married mothers has declined to 1.0%, or fewer than 7,000 infants annually.

  9. To Boost Quality and Cut Costs, Oregon State U. Adopts a Customer-Oriented Approach to Campus Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillen, Liz

    1991-01-01

    At Oregon State University, an investigation into physical plant administration in response to complaints found significant problems with customer service. Adopting an approach called Total Quality Management, the staff identified and resolved problems, improved quality, and reduced cost. Administrators feel the principles could be applied in all…

  10. 21 CFR 570.15 - Adoption of regulation on initiative of Commissioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adoption of regulation on initiative of Commissioner. 570.15 Section 570.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions §...

  11. 45 CFR 1355.40 - Foster care and adoption data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foster care and adoption data collection. 1355.40 Section 1355.40 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH...

  12. 45 CFR Appendix D to Part 1355 - Foster Care and Adoption Record Layouts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES GENERAL Pt... the status of all children in foster care as of the last day of the reporting period. Also,...

  13. 78 FR 65747 - Environmental Impact Statement: Adoption: St. Tammany Parish, LA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    .... The NOI for the EIS appeared in the FR, Volume 73, Number 224, November 19, 2008. The project calls... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Adoption: St. Tammany Parish, LA...

  14. 13 CFR 108.503 - NMVC Company's adoption of an approved valuation policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false NMVC Company's adoption of an approved valuation policy. 108.503 Section 108.503 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Managing the Operations of a NMVC Company...

  15. Examining the Role of Transformational Leadership in Technology Adoption: Evidence from Bruneian Technical & Vocational Establishments (TVE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seyal, Afzaal H.

    2015-01-01

    This pioneering study discusses the thirty-five Bruneian technical & vocational institutions of top management (principals, deputy principals, senior masters, ICT coordinators and technical administrators) leadership style with the adoption of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). The study uses a survey approach further to…

  16. Continuous Quality Improvement as an Innovation: Which Nursing Facilities Adopt It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Judith A.; Avi-Itzhak, Tamara; Robinson, Joanne P.; Morris, Catherine G.; Koren, Mary Jane; Reinhard, Susan C.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: We identify environmental and organizational predictors that best discriminate between formal continuous quality improvement (CQI) adopters and nonadopters in nursing homes (NHs) and create a diagnostic profile for facility administrators and policy makers to promote CQI. Design and Methods: We performed a cross-sectional survey of…

  17. 20 CFR 404.362 - When a legally adopted child is dependent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... 404.362 Section 404.362 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Old-Age, Disability, Dependents' and Survivors' Insurance Benefits.... If you were legally adopted by the insured before he or she became entitled to old-age or...

  18. 20 CFR 404.356 - Who is the insured's legally adopted child?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who is the insured's legally adopted child? 404.356 Section 404.356 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Old-Age, Disability, Dependents' and Survivors' Insurance...

  19. 20 CFR 404.359 - Who is the insured's equitably adopted child?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Who is the insured's equitably adopted child? 404.359 Section 404.359 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Old-Age, Disability, Dependents' and Survivors' Insurance...

  20. 20 CFR 404.362 - When a legally adopted child is dependent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... 404.362 Section 404.362 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Old-Age, Disability, Dependents' and Survivors' Insurance Benefits.... If you were legally adopted by the insured before he or she became entitled to old-age or...

  1. 20 CFR 404.356 - Who is the insured's legally adopted child?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Who is the insured's legally adopted child? 404.356 Section 404.356 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Old-Age, Disability, Dependents' and Survivors' Insurance...

  2. 20 CFR 404.359 - Who is the insured's equitably adopted child?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who is the insured's equitably adopted child? 404.359 Section 404.359 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Old-Age, Disability, Dependents' and Survivors' Insurance...

  3. 45 CFR 86.8 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. 86.8 Section 86.8 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES...

  4. 45 CFR 86.8 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. 86.8 Section 86.8 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES...

  5. 45 CFR 86.8 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. 86.8 Section 86.8 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES...

  6. 14 CFR 1253.135 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. 1253.135 Section 1253.135 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES...

  7. 14 CFR 1253.135 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. 1253.135 Section 1253.135 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES...

  8. 14 CFR 1253.135 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. 1253.135 Section 1253.135 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES...

  9. 14 CFR 1253.135 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. 1253.135 Section 1253.135 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES...

  10. 14 CFR § 1253.135 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. § 1253.135 Section § 1253.135 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR...

  11. How to make the fourth revolution: Human factors in the adoption of electronic instructional aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demerath, N. J.; Daniels, L. A.

    1973-01-01

    The prospects and problems of getting higher education in the United States (high school and above) to more fully utilize electronic technologies are examined. Sociological, psychological, and political factors are analyzed to determine the feasibility of adopting electronic instructional techniques. Differences in organizations, attitudes, and customs of different kinds of students, teachers, administrators, and publics are crucial factors in innovation.

  12. Diffusion of Photovoltaic Occupational Skills Training: Awareness and Adoption in the North Carolina Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porto, Deborah Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Educational administrators in the North Carolina Community College System (NCCCS) play a key role in the decisions to adopt or reject educational innovations and as a result are the gatekeepers of technology innovations reaching students. In this study the innovation-decision process and other aspects of the diffusion of innovation model are used…

  13. 20 CFR 404.356 - Who is the insured's legally adopted child?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Who is the insured's legally adopted child? 404.356 Section 404.356 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Old-Age, Disability, Dependents' and Survivors' Insurance...

  14. 20 CFR 404.362 - When a legally adopted child is dependent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... 404.362 Section 404.362 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Old-Age, Disability, Dependents' and Survivors' Insurance Benefits.... If you were legally adopted by the insured before he or she became entitled to old-age or...

  15. 20 CFR 404.359 - Who is the insured's equitably adopted child?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Who is the insured's equitably adopted child? 404.359 Section 404.359 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Old-Age, Disability, Dependents' and Survivors' Insurance...

  16. 20 CFR 404.356 - Who is the insured's legally adopted child?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Who is the insured's legally adopted child? 404.356 Section 404.356 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Old-Age, Disability, Dependents' and Survivors' Insurance...

  17. 20 CFR 404.362 - When a legally adopted child is dependent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... 404.362 Section 404.362 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Old-Age, Disability, Dependents' and Survivors' Insurance Benefits.... If you were legally adopted by the insured before he or she became entitled to old-age or...

  18. 20 CFR 404.362 - When a legally adopted child is dependent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... 404.362 Section 404.362 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Old-Age, Disability, Dependents' and Survivors' Insurance Benefits.... If you were legally adopted by the insured before he or she became entitled to old-age or...

  19. 20 CFR 404.359 - Who is the insured's equitably adopted child?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who is the insured's equitably adopted child? 404.359 Section 404.359 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Old-Age, Disability, Dependents' and Survivors' Insurance...

  20. 20 CFR 404.356 - Who is the insured's legally adopted child?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who is the insured's legally adopted child? 404.356 Section 404.356 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Old-Age, Disability, Dependents' and Survivors' Insurance...

  1. 20 CFR 404.359 - Who is the insured's equitably adopted child?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Who is the insured's equitably adopted child? 404.359 Section 404.359 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Old-Age, Disability, Dependents' and Survivors' Insurance...

  2. H. R. 2084: A bill to establish a minimum requirement for the water quality criteria for dioxin published pursuant to section 304(a) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, to require each State to adopt a water quality standard for dioxin which is at least as stringent as that criteria, and to direct the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, in consultation with National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, to conduct a study on the effects of dioxin on wildlife, aquatic life, and the entire aquatic environment, introduced in the US House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, April 24, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This bill was introduced into the US House of Representatives on April 24, 1991 to establish a water quality standard for dioxin. At a minimum, the water quality criteria for dioxin published pursuant to section 304(a) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act shall ensure that application of the criteria to all waters in a state will limit the probability to not more than 1 in 1,000,000. Each state will be required to adopt a water quality standard for dioxin which is at least as stringent as that criteria. In addition, the US Fish and Wildlife Service, in consultation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, will be directed to conduct a study on the effects of dioxin on wildlife, aquatic life, and the entire aquatic environment.

  3. Environmental Justice and Green-Technology Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of an environmental justice (EJ) program adopted by the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) as a part of its regulation to phase out a toxic chemical used by dry cleaners. SCAQMD provided financial incentives to switch early and gave establishments in EJ neighborhoods priority in applying for…

  4. 50 CFR 38.7 - Adopted offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.7 Adopted offenses. Any person who commits any act or omission on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge which, although... commits any act or omission on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge which, although not made...

  5. 50 CFR 38.7 - Adopted offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.7 Adopted offenses. Any person who commits any act or omission on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge which, although... commits any act or omission on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge which, although not made...

  6. 50 CFR 38.7 - Adopted offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.7 Adopted offenses. Any person who commits any act or omission on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge which, although... commits any act or omission on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge which, although not made...

  7. 50 CFR 38.7 - Adopted offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.7 Adopted offenses. Any person who commits any act or omission on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge which, although... commits any act or omission on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge which, although not made...

  8. 50 CFR 38.7 - Adopted offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.7 Adopted offenses. Any person who commits any act or omission on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge which, although... commits any act or omission on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge which, although not made...

  9. International Adoption: Benefits, Risks, and Vulnerabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochat, Tamsen; Richter, Linda

    2007-01-01

    International adoption is on the rise in the United States and is not without controversy. Reasons for the increase include higher rates of infertility in couples who have delayed parenthood; increased numbers of children who are relinquished, abandoned, or orphaned around the world; and the influence of third party agencies. Internationally…

  10. Indian Foster and Adoptive Care Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Indian Child Abuse and Neglect Resource Center, Tulsa, OK.

    Designed to assist Indian tribes and oganizations in the recruitment, training, licensing, and evaluation of Indian foster and adoptive homes, the manual is presented in six sections. The introduction provides a definition for foster care and foster children, along with excerpts from the Bill of Rights for Foster Children. Section I discusses the…

  11. Cultural Competence for Transracial Adoptive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vonk, M. Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Provides a clear conceptual definition of cultural competence for transracial-cultural adoptive (TRA) parents based on an extensive review of the literature and feedback from experts and parents. A three part definition of cultural competence for TRA parents includes: racial awareness, multicultural planning, and survival skills. Implications for…

  12. Examining Teachers' Decisions to Adopt New Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugar, William; Crawley, Frank; Fine, Bethann

    2004-01-01

    This study examined teachers' beliefs about technology adoption as a reasoned, deliberate, intentional decision-making process, as reflected in Ajzen's (1985) Theory of Planned Behavior. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from teachers in four schools located in the southeastern region of the United States. Overall results indicated…

  13. Comment on the Minnesota Transracial Adoption Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Michael; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Michael Levin argues that data from the study are consistent with a black/white IQ difference that is significantly genetic. Richard Lynn maintains that adoption by middle-class, white families has no effect on intelligence. Waldman, Weinberg, and Scarr respond to these criticisms and support the original conclusions. (SLD)

  14. Outcomes of Children Adopted from Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laurie; Chan, Wilma; Tirella, Linda; Perrin, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral problems are frequent among post-institutionalized Eastern European adoptees. However, risk factors related to outcomes have not been fully delineated. We evaluated 50 Eastern European adoptees, age 8-10 years, with their adoptive families for more than five years. Cognitive and behavioral outcomes and parenting stress were evaluated in…

  15. TILE at Iowa: Adoption and Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florman, Jean C.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter introduces a University of Iowa effort to enhance and support active learning pedagogies in technology-enhanced (TILE) classrooms and three elements that proved essential to the campus-wide adoption of those pedagogies. It then describes the impact of those professional development efforts on the curricula and cultures of three…

  16. Adoption of Energy Conservation among California Homeowners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard-Barton, Dorothy; Rogers, Everett M.

    In spring 1977, just as California was emerging from one of the worst droughts in its history, 215 Palo Alto homeowners were interviewed about their views on energy and water conservation, and about the extent to which they had adopted 11 energy-conserving practices (ECP) in the home. The objective was to discover variables both important to…

  17. The African Orphan Crisis and International Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roby, Jini L.; Shaw, Stacey A.

    2006-01-01

    The plight of Africa's AIDS orphans has reached crisis proportions, and the international community is beginning to mobilize at the family, community, national, and international levels. Despite these encouraging efforts, the response is inadequate, and increased attention and action are needed. The authors suggest that international adoption,…

  18. Adopting Learning Technologies: From Belief to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bothma, Cornelius H.; Cant, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    A challenge faced by most heads of academic departments around the world is to manage the adoption and use of appropriate learning technologies in order to support the department's learning offerings to students. Earlier research undertaken by the authors revealed that lecturers within the Department of Marketing and Retail Management at the…

  19. Adopt-A-Stream Teacher's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delta Labs, Inc., Rochester, NY.

    Water pollution is not a recently discovered problem. Humankind's ability to generate pollutants continues to exceed its ability to control them. The Adopt-A-Stream program invites people who care for waterways to take an active role in assuring their well-being. High school groups supported by local co-sponsors agree to evaluate their adopted…

  20. The Symbolic Crises of Adoption: Popular Media's Agenda Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waggenspack, Beth M.

    1998-01-01

    Uses a symbolic interaction approach to examine the dimensions of symbolic crises faced by adoptive families and adoption advocates resulting from changing adoption patterns and motives, language transformations that create tensions, and media misrepresentations of adoption. Explores common myths about adoption spread by popular news and…

  1. Books on Adoption for Young Children: Looking at Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schimmel, Nancy; Love, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Books can inform, reassure, and give young children the vocabulary to talk about adoption. This article presents and examines the language used to talk about adoption in eleven current children's books. Discusses surrogacy, adoption, "natural" parents, grief, "chosen-baby" stories, age at adoption, international adoption, foster children, and open…

  2. [Construction and simplification of the calibration model for spectral analysis of fuel oil properties based on mutual information method].

    PubMed

    Hao, Yong; Sun, Xu-dong; Cai, Li-jun; Liu, Yan-de

    2012-01-01

    Near infrared diffuse reflectance (NIRS) and ultraviolet (UV) spectral analysis were adopted for quantitative determination of octane number and monoaromatics in fuel oil. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used for construction of vibrational spectral calibration models. Variables selection strategy based on mutual information (MI) theory was introduced to optimize the models for improving the precision and reducing the complexity. The results indicate that MI-PLSR method can effectively improve the predictive ability of the models and simplify them. For octane number models, the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and the number of calibration variables were reduced from 0.288 and 401 to 0.111 and 112, respectively, and correlation coefficient (R) was improved from 0.985 to 0.998. For monoaromatics models, RMSEP and the number of calibration variables were reduced from 0.753 and 572 to 0.478 and 37, respectively, and R was improved from 0.996 to 0.998. Vibrational spectral analysis combined with MI-PLSR method can be used for quantitative analysis of fuel oil properties, and improve the cost-effectiveness. PMID:22497153

  3. [Construction and simplification of the calibration model for spectral analysis of fuel oil properties based on mutual information method].

    PubMed

    Hao, Yong; Sun, Xu-dong; Cai, Li-jun; Liu, Yan-de

    2012-01-01

    Near infrared diffuse reflectance (NIRS) and ultraviolet (UV) spectral analysis were adopted for quantitative determination of octane number and monoaromatics in fuel oil. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used for construction of vibrational spectral calibration models. Variables selection strategy based on mutual information (MI) theory was introduced to optimize the models for improving the precision and reducing the complexity. The results indicate that MI-PLSR method can effectively improve the predictive ability of the models and simplify them. For octane number models, the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and the number of calibration variables were reduced from 0.288 and 401 to 0.111 and 112, respectively, and correlation coefficient (R) was improved from 0.985 to 0.998. For monoaromatics models, RMSEP and the number of calibration variables were reduced from 0.753 and 572 to 0.478 and 37, respectively, and R was improved from 0.996 to 0.998. Vibrational spectral analysis combined with MI-PLSR method can be used for quantitative analysis of fuel oil properties, and improve the cost-effectiveness.

  4. 42 CFR 495.364 - Review and assessment of administrative activities and expenses of Medicaid provider health...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and expenses of Medicaid provider health information technology adoption and operation. 495.364... administrative activities and expenses of Medicaid provider health information technology adoption and operation... its approved HIT planning advance planning document and health information technology...

  5. 42 CFR 495.364 - Review and assessment of administrative activities and expenses of Medicaid provider health...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and expenses of Medicaid provider health information technology adoption and operation. 495.364... administrative activities and expenses of Medicaid provider health information technology adoption and operation... its approved HIT planning advance planning document and health information technology...

  6. 42 CFR 495.364 - Review and assessment of administrative activities and expenses of Medicaid provider health...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and expenses of Medicaid provider health information technology adoption and operation. 495.364... administrative activities and expenses of Medicaid provider health information technology adoption and operation... its approved HIT planning advance planning document and health information technology...

  7. 42 CFR 495.364 - Review and assessment of administrative activities and expenses of Medicaid provider health...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and expenses of Medicaid provider health information technology adoption and operation. 495.364... administrative activities and expenses of Medicaid provider health information technology adoption and operation... its approved HIT planning advance planning document and health information technology...

  8. 42 CFR 495.364 - Review and assessment of administrative activities and expenses of Medicaid provider health...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and expenses of Medicaid provider health information technology adoption and operation. 495.364... administrative activities and expenses of Medicaid provider health information technology adoption and operation... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION STANDARDS FOR THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD...

  9. Simplifications of the derivations and forms of steady-state equations for non-equilibrium random substrate-modifier and allosteric enzyme mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, E P

    1976-01-01

    The steady-state equations for "random" enzymic mechanisms (ones with alternative routes for substrate and enzyme to form enzyme-substrate complexes) are non-Michaelian and very complicated when a quasi-equilibrium approximation cannot be used. General methods for simplifying their forms and derivations are given and applied to several single-substrate mechanisms of general or topical interest. The special simplifications resulting from partial ordering of reaction mechanism, from gross inequalities of rate constants, and from special relationships between catalytic and dissociation rate constants, are considered with reference to allosteric mechanisms. Some equations mentioned, but not given here, and more detailed working out of some of those given, have been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50069 (18 pages) at the British Library Lending Division, Boston Spa, Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be obtained on the terms given in Biochem. J. (1976) 153, 5. PMID:1008809

  10. Effects of the history of adoption in the emotional adjustment of adopted adolescents.

    PubMed

    Reppold, Caroline Tozzi; Hutz, Claudio Simon

    2009-11-01

    Since the decade of 1980, the model of stress and coping proposed for the assessment of vulnerability of adoptive families emphasizes that the emotional adjustment of those adopted is moderated by variables such as institutionalization, the manner and age at which the adoption was revealed, the change of first name, and the contact with the biological family. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of these variables to the perceived parenting style, mood, and self-esteem of the adopted adolescents. Participants in the study were 68 adolescents, between the ages of 14 and 15, adopted during infancy through judicial channels. The adolescents responded to a questionnaire about the history of adoption and to scales of Parenting Styles, Depression and Self-esteem. The main results indicated that the late revelation of adoption and the change of the first name are connected to higher levels of depression and low self-esteem and to more frequent perceptions of negligent or authoritarian parenting style. The contact with the biological family was frequently mentioned among those who perceived their parents as authoritative and presented the best indicator of mood and self-esteem. These findings were discussed in light of the necessity for multidisciplinary actions which can improve the psychological adaptation of the adopting families. PMID:19899647

  11. Envisaging the Adoption Process to Strengthen Gay- and Lesbian-Headed Families: Recommendations for Adoption Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, John D.; Cramer, Elizabeth P.

    2006-01-01

    Although a growing number of child placement agencies are serving lesbians and gay men, a dearth of literature exists for adoption agency policies and practices related to working with this population. This article explores the unique characteristics and strengths of prospective gay and lesbian adoptive parents throughout each of the three phases…

  12. Effects of the history of adoption in the emotional adjustment of adopted adolescents.

    PubMed

    Reppold, Caroline Tozzi; Hutz, Claudio Simon

    2009-11-01

    Since the decade of 1980, the model of stress and coping proposed for the assessment of vulnerability of adoptive families emphasizes that the emotional adjustment of those adopted is moderated by variables such as institutionalization, the manner and age at which the adoption was revealed, the change of first name, and the contact with the biological family. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of these variables to the perceived parenting style, mood, and self-esteem of the adopted adolescents. Participants in the study were 68 adolescents, between the ages of 14 and 15, adopted during infancy through judicial channels. The adolescents responded to a questionnaire about the history of adoption and to scales of Parenting Styles, Depression and Self-esteem. The main results indicated that the late revelation of adoption and the change of the first name are connected to higher levels of depression and low self-esteem and to more frequent perceptions of negligent or authoritarian parenting style. The contact with the biological family was frequently mentioned among those who perceived their parents as authoritative and presented the best indicator of mood and self-esteem. These findings were discussed in light of the necessity for multidisciplinary actions which can improve the psychological adaptation of the adopting families.

  13. Kids Speak Out on Adoption: A Multiage Bookwriting Group for Adopted Children with Special Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moroz, Kathleen Jennings

    1996-01-01

    Describes the conceptualization and development of a multiage bookwriting group entitled the Saturday Club for Adopted Kids. Describes the benefits of offering this project-oriented group in which adoptees can tell their stories and share their experiences in an environment that supports their recovery from early trauma. Notes adoptive parents'…

  14. Cooperative Learning--Part 1: Administration/University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas ASCD Record, 1990

    1990-01-01

    This thematic issue is made up of papers by practicing administrators and university personnel on the topic of cooperative learning. The following articles are included: (1) "The Cooperative Learning Environment: Restructuring without Rebuilding" (Harvey C. Foyle and Lawrence Lyman); (2) "The Role of the Administrator When Adopting Cooperative…

  15. Job Sharing for Administrators: A Consideration for Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muffs, Michael I.; Schmitz, Laura Ann

    1999-01-01

    To retain an exemplary dean of students with heavy caregiving responsibilities, a Poughkeepsie, New York, high school adopted a plan to split her job responsibilities with an educational administration student beginning his career. Job-sharing success hinged on strong cooperation among the district, the individual administrators, and local…

  16. 47 CFR 1.18 - Administrative Dispute Resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative Dispute Resolution. 1.18 Section... Rules of Practice and Procedure General § 1.18 Administrative Dispute Resolution. (a) The Commission has adopted an initial policy statement that supports and encourages the use of alternative dispute...

  17. Teacher and Administrator Views on School Principals' Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argon, Turkan

    2015-01-01

    The current study aims to identify teacher and administrator views regarding primary school principals' accountability. The case study model, a qualitative research method, was adopted in the study using the holistic single-case design. The working group was composed of a total of 56 individuals, 42 teachers and 14 administrators (11 principals…

  18. A comparison of adoptive parents' perceptions of their child's behavior among Indian children adopted to Norway, the United States, and within country: implications for adoption policy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Suzanne; Groza, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The Hague Convention on the Protection of Children suggests that intercountry adoption be considered as a permanent care option only after other solutions within the child's country of origin have been exhausted. Data from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) were examined for 478 Indian children ages 4-18 adopted domestically, adopted to Norway, and adopted to the United States. The CBCL has a reported reliability of .9 (Achenbach, 1991; Achenbach & Edelbrock, 1983) and contains five subscales assessing internalizing problems plus a summative Internalizing Scale, and three subscales assessing externalizing problems plus a summative Externalizing Scale. Perceptions of Norwegian, American, and Indian adoptive parents regarding their child's functioning were compared. Children adopted to Norway and the United States were perceived by their parents to be functioning significantly better behaviorally than children adopted within country, while controlling for age of child and gender of adoptive parent completing the CBCL. Policymakers should examine the evidence prioritizing within country adoption over intercountry adoption.

  19. Creating a survey to assess physicians' adoption of health information technology.

    PubMed

    Baier, Rosa R; Gardner, Rebekah L; Buechner, Jay S; Harris, Yael; Viner-Brown, Samara; Gifford, Deidre S

    2012-04-01

    Information on state-level health information technology (HIT) adoption will become increasingly important with the implementation of incentive payments to accelerate uptake. Recognizing this, the Rhode Island Department of Health selected physician HIT adoption as a subject for its legislatively mandated quality reporting program. This article discusses the state's process for developing HIT adoption measures, including the importance of stakeholder involvement in the development of a survey and the difficulty of accurately defining electronic medical record (EMR) adoption. This article describes the challenges in defining "true" EMRs, which may be addressed, in part, by ensuring local consensus about EMR measures and by piloting the survey and measures, prior to public reporting or the calculation of a statewide baseline. It also presents results from the 2009 administration of this survey to all 3,883 Rhode Island-licensed physicians providing direct patient care.

  20. A Swedish national adoption study of criminality

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, K. S.; Lönn, S. Larsson; Morris, N. A.; Sundquist, J.; Långström, N.; Sundquist, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background To clarify the role of genetic and environmental factors in criminal behavior (CB), we examined all CB and violent and non-violent subtypes (VCB and NVCB, respectively) in a Swedish national sample of adoptees and their relatives. Method CB was defined by a conviction in the Swedish Crime Register with standard definitions for VCB and NVCB subtypes. We examined adoptees born 1950–1991 (n=18070) and their biological (n=79206) and adoptive (n=47311) relatives. Results The risk for all CB was significantly elevated in the adopted-away offspring of biological parents of which at least one had CB [odds ratio (OR) 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4–1.6] and in the biological full and half-siblings of CB adoptees (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2–1.6 and OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2–1.3, respectively). A genetic risk index (including biological parental/sibling history of CB and alcohol abuse) and an environmental risk index (including adoptive parental and sibling CB and a history of adoptive parental divorce, death, and medical illness) both strongly predicted probability of CB. These genetic and environmental risk indices acted additively on adoptee risk for CB. Moderate specificity was seen in the transmission of genetic risk for VCB and NVCB between biological parents and siblings and adoptees. Conclusions CB is etiologically complex and influenced by a range of genetic risk factors including a specific liability to CB and a vulnerability to broader externalizing behaviors, and by features of the adoptive environment including parental CB, divorce and death. Genetic risk factors for VCB and NVCB may be at least partially distinct. PMID:24180693

  1. A signalling theory of excessive technological adoption.

    PubMed

    Barros, P P; Pinto, C G; Machado, A

    1999-05-01

    Technology adoption has been identified as one of the main elements behind the growth of health care expenditures. It has been argued that the health insurance arrangements in the US justify, to a certain extent, the technology-driven rise in costs. Moreover, it eases the adoption of less cost-effective procedures and devices. This paper presents an additional argument by which excessive technology investments may occur: providers of care invest in technology as a way to "signal" their intrinsic (and unobservable) quality. Providers face the option of adopting a new technology. The decision of adoption in itself may convey information about his/her quality: for example, patients conjecture that providers who display newer technology are of higher quality. Providers, being aware of this, may invest in technology to reveal themselves as high quality. Thus, technology adoption could result only from the desire to attract patients. The investment is self-defeating in the sense that if all providers invest, no information about quality is transmitted to patients. We evaluate the argument in a context of demand for health care services where patients have initially no information about the quality of different providers. We show that an incentive to invest as a way to signal quality may or may not lead to overinvestment. It is also possible that only some providers invest. They reveal themselves as high quality providers. The analysis suggests that the argument is more important for some services than for others. Overall, an additional argument for overinvestment in technology in some circumstances is provided.

  2. Review: Adoption, fostering, and the needs of looked-after and adopted children

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Philip A.

    2014-01-01

    Background This review of the literature examines adoption, fostering, and the needs of looked-after and adopted children. Three domains of research about looked-after children are examined. Findings There is extensive evidence that early adverse experiences affect psychological and neurobiological development in looked-after and adopted children. There is also evidence that some looked-after and adopted children show remarkable resilience in the face of adversity; intervention research provides evidence of the ability to reduce risks and promote positive outcomes in this population. The intervention studies have revealed not only the potential for improved behavioral trajectories, but also the plasticity of neurobiological systems affected by early stress. Conclusion Foster and adopted children face many challenges, but scientific knowledge also provides reason for hope and information about how to maximize positive outcomes. PMID:25678858

  3. 78 FR 13062 - Request for Public Comment on the Proposed Adoption of Administration for Native Americans...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... areas of interest to the annual SEDS FOA focused on suicide prevention and on human trafficking. Based... Commissioner has been asked to address the issues related to suicide with which many Native communities...

  4. Adoption of a Learning Contract in Higher Education: Reconciling Administrative Policy and Academic Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitton, John J.; Butz, Nikolaus T.

    2014-01-01

    This disguised case features a marketing major, Susan Lafleur, who presented Professor Higgins, the Department Chair, with a dilemma. She needed a petition signed to enroll in a capstone course while simultaneously taking a prerequisite course. She received an employment offer from a prestigious overseas corporation, which required a baccalaureate…

  5. 78 FR 76834 - Request for Public Comment on the Proposed Adoption of Administration for Native Americans...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... the project provides couples or family counseling activities that are medically-based. Whether the... published in the 2013 FOAs [announced in 78 FR 13062-13067] to ensure it aligns with the rule at 45 CFR...

  6. 78 FR 76269 - Adoption of Recommendations and Statement Regarding Administrative Practice and Procedure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ..., Legal Considerations in e-Rulemaking, 76 FR 48,789, 48,789 (Aug. 9, 2011) (internal quotation marks and....pdf . \\5\\ Recommendation 2011-8, Agency Innovations in e-Rulemaking, 77 FR 2257, 2265 (Jan. 17, 2012... comments through electronic bulletin boards or other means of electronic communication.'' 60 FR 43,108,...

  7. Risk management. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Interim rule adopted as final with changes.

    PubMed

    2000-11-22

    This is a final rule amending the NASA FAR Supplement (NFS) to emphasize considerations of risk management, including safety, security (including information technology security), health, export control, and damage to the environment, within the acquisition process. This final rule addresses risk management within the context of acquisition planning, selecting sources, choosing contract type, structuring award fee incentives, administering contracts, and conducting contractor surveillance.

  8. How the Perspectives of Administrators, Faculty, and Support Units Impact the Rate of Distance Education Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooley, Kim E.; Murphrey, Theresa Pesl

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the use of technology for distance education in higher education, considers the role that perspectives within the institution play in formulating a strategy for development and implementation, and describes a study that used a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) Analysis to determine the perspectives of…

  9. 77 FR 38041 - TRICARE Management Activity Adoption of Department of the Treasury's Administrative Wage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... private sector or by a state or local government, Treasury may be able to collect the debt by garnishing a... to collect TMA's debts once such legally enforceable non-tax debts are transferred to Treasury for... not affect a significant number of TMA debtors, as TMA estimates 6% of its debt cases and less than...

  10. Nursing students' perceptions of adoption: educational preparation needed.

    PubMed

    Foli, Karen J; Forster, Anna; Lim, Eunjung

    2014-01-01

    Adoption is a worldwide practice; most know someone who has been adopted, has adopted a child, or has relinquished a child for adoption. Healthcare professionals will have contact with patients who have a connection to adoption. This study examined the overall perceptions, current knowledge, and gaps in a nursing curriculum as reported by undergraduate nursing students and offers insight into caring for those impacted by adoption.

  11. 45 CFR 1356.41 - Nonrecurring expenses of adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) There must be no income eligibility requirement (means test) for adopting parents in determining whether... psychological examination, supervision of the placement prior to adoption, transportation and the...

  12. 45 CFR 1356.41 - Nonrecurring expenses of adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) There must be no income eligibility requirement (means test) for adopting parents in determining whether... psychological examination, supervision of the placement prior to adoption, transportation and the...

  13. Evaluating IPv6 Adoption in the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colitti, Lorenzo; Gunderson, Steinar H.; Kline, Erik; Refice, Tiziana

    As IPv4 address space approaches exhaustion, large networks are deploying IPv6 or preparing for deployment. However, there is little data available about the quantity and quality of IPv6 connectivity. We describe a methodology to measure IPv6 adoption from the perspective of a Web site operator and to evaluate the impact that adding IPv6 to a Web site will have on its users. We apply our methodology to the Google Web site and present results collected over the last year. Our data show that IPv6 adoption, while growing significantly, is still low, varies considerably by country, and is heavily influenced by a small number of large deployments. We find that native IPv6 latency is comparable to IPv4 and provide statistics on IPv6 transition mechanisms used.

  14. Adopting a direction. Forum of Parliamentarians.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, S

    1999-01-01

    National security, poverty alleviation, and refugees are global issues which all urgently need to be addressed. However, no major issue will be resolved until the population problem is solved. Humankind needs to find a way to live in harmony with the earth and its natural environment. The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) adopted a program of action outlining practical measures to be taken with regard to population and development. The concepts of reproductive health and women's empowerment were also adopted. The ICPD was in many ways an historic conference which set the future direction for the issues of population and development. The conference program of action must be fully implemented to ensure a healthy future for humankind and the earth. Elected officials must do their best to ensure that the ICPD program of action is successfully implemented.

  15. Three Major banks adopt carbon principles

    SciTech Connect

    2008-04-15

    People in the electric power sector stopped and took notice in early February when three major Wall Street banks announced that they were adopting new carbon principles in considering investment loans for power plants because of pending federal CO2 regulation 'could make such investments more risky'. The principles, meant to become industry-wide practice, could slow investment in coal plants and other major emitters, as banks require power companies to offer plans to deal with greenhouse gas emissions.

  16. Treaty to Curb Mercury Pollution Adopted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-10-01

    The international Minamata Convention on Mercury to protect human health and the environment from anthropogenic emissions and releases of mercury and mercury compounds was formally adopted at a 10 October meeting in Minamata, Japan. The legally binding treaty, currently signed by 92 countries, comes 57 years after the government of Japan officially acknowledged, in 1956, the existence of Minamata disease, which was caused by eating seafood contaminated with methylmercury compounds discharged into Minamata Bay in southern Japan.

  17. Critical factors influencing hospitals' adoption of HL7 version 2 standards: an empirical investigation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chi-Hung; Lin, I-Chun; Roan, Jin-Sheng; Yeh, Jehn-Shan

    2012-06-01

    Industry predictions focus on future e-hospitals that will integrate all stakeholders into a seamless network, allowing data to be shared. The Health Level Seven (HL7) is a standard for the interchange of data within the healthcare industry. It simplifies communication interfaces and allows the interoperability among heterogeneous applications. Although the benefits of adopting HL7 are well known, only a few hospitals in Taiwan have actually adopted it. What are the reasons behind the hospitals' lack of intention to adopt HL7? Most prior studies on HL7 have focused on technical issues and general overlooked the managerial side. This has caused a lack of understanding of factors influencing hospitals' decision on HL7 adoption. In fact, main reasons behind a hospital's decision on whether to adopt an innovative technology are more often related to organizational than purely technical issues. Hence, we pay our attention to these organizational considerations over HL7 adoption. Based on the Innovation Diffusion Theory, we proposed a research model to explore the critical factors influencing Taiwan hospitals' adoption intention of HL7. 472 questionnaires were distributed to all accredited hospitals in Taiwan and 122 were returned. The valid response rate was 25.21% (119). Factor analysis, logistic regression and Pearson Chi-square test were conducted to verify the research model. The results showed that environmental pressure, top management attitude towards HL7, staff's technology capability, system integrity, and hospital's scale were critical factors influencing hospitals' intention on whether to adopt HL7. The research findings provided the government, the healthcare industry, the hospital administrators and the academia with practical and theoretical references. These factors should be considered in planning promotion plan to encourage hospital adoption of HL7. This study also opens up a new research direction as well as a new viewpoint, and consequentially

  18. ADOPTIVE-CELL-TRANSFER THERAPY FOR THE TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, Mark E.; Rosenberg, Steven A.

    2008-01-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy — the isolation of antigen-specific cells, their ex vivo expansion and activation, and subsequent autologous administration — is a promising approach to inducing antitumour immune responses. The molecular identification of tumour antigens and the ability to monitor the persistence and transport of transferred cells has provided new insights into the mechanisms of tumour immunotherapy. Recent studies have shown the effectiveness of cell-transfer therapies for the treatment of patients with selected metastatic cancers. These studies provide a blueprint for the wider application of adoptive-cell-transfer therapy, and emphasize the requirement for in vivo persistence of the cells for therapeutic efficacy. PMID:12951585

  19. Subjective normative factors impacting technology adoption in an imaging department: implications for practice.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Nina; Stein, David

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the conditions in which new technologies will be embraced by employees is vital, as simply acquiring the new technology does not necessarily equate to its effective utilization. Administrators must have the ability to identify, predict, and manage employee acceptance of technology in order to successfully facilitate implementation efforts. Implementation of a new technology directly affects employees. The most common reason attributed to the failure of technology adoption is a focus directed only on the technological aspects of the project, with little regard for the humanistic aspects of adoption. PMID:19634793

  20. Simplification to atazanavir/ritonavir+lamivudine in virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients: 24-weeks interim analysis from ATLAS-M trial

    PubMed Central

    Fabbiani, Massimiliano; Di Giambenedetto, Simona; Quiros-Roldan, Eugenia; Latini, Alessandra; Vullo, Vincenzo; Antinori, Andrea; Castagna, Antonella; Orofino, Giancarlo; Francisci, Daniela; Grilli, Elisabetta; Madeddu, Giordanu; Grima, Pierfrancesco; Rusconi, Stefano; Del Pin, Barbara; Mondi, Annalisa; Borghetti, Alberto; Focà, Emanuele; Colafigli, Manuela; De Luca, Andrea; Cauda, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We report interim 24-weeks efficacy data of ATLAS-M trial, a phase IV, multicentre, open-label, randomized study designed to show 48-weeks, non-inferior efficacy (margin of −12%) of treatment simplification to atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r)+lamivudine (3TC) versus maintaining 3-drugs ATV/r-based cART. Methods Subjects on ATV/r+2 NRTIs, without previous treatment failure (TF), with HIV-RNA <50copies/mL for >3 months and CD4>200 cells/mm3 for >6 months were eligible. At baseline, patients were randomized to switch to ATV/r+3TC (arm one) or to maintain the original 3-drug regimen (arm two). Primary endpoint: proportion of patients free of TF at week 48. TF was defined as treatment modification for any reason, including virological failure (VF=two consecutive HIV-RNA>50 copies/mL or a single value >1000 copies/mL). Enrollment of 266 patients was planned. Results A total of 266 patients (78% males, median age 44 years, median CD4 603 cells/µL, 79% treated with a tenofovir-containing backbone) were enrolled. At the time of analysis, 24 weeks data were available for 84 and 87 patients in arm one and two, respectively. At baseline, subjects in the two arms did not differ for the main characteristics. At 24 weeks, at the intention to treat analysis the proportion of patients free of TF was 91.7% (95% CI 85.8–97.6) and 85.1% (95% CI 77.6–92.6) in arm one and two, respectively (difference +6.6%, 95% CI −2.9/+16.1). VF was observed in two patients randomized to arm one (one at baseline, before treatment simplification) and one to arm two without resistance mutations. Clinical and laboratory adverse events occurred at similar rates in the two arms. At week 24, patients in arm one showed a greater increase in CD4 (mean change +90 vs +10 cells/µL, p=0.007). A greater increase in total cholesterol (+18 vs −2 mg/dL, p<0.001), HDL (+4 vs +0 mg/dL, p=0.001) and LDL (+12 vs +0 mg/dL, p=0.001) was also observed in arm one without differences in other lipid