... Griffin, GA, as the Griffin Non-Directional Beacon (NDB) has been decommissioned and new Standard... authority as it amends controlled airspace at Griffin-Spalding County Airport, Griffin, GA. Environmental... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Griffin, GA AGENCY:...
Speech topics include: Leadership in Space; Space Exploration: Real and Acceptable Reasons; Why Explore Space?; Space Exploration: Filling up the Canvas; Continuing the Voyage: The Spirit of Endeavour; Incorporating Space into Our Economic Sphere of Influence; The Role of Space Exploration in the Global Economy; Partnership in Space Activities; International Space Cooperation; National Strategy and the Civil Space Program; What the Hubble Space Telescope Teaches Us about Ourselves; The Rocket Team; NASA's Direction; Science and NASA; Science Priorities and Program Management; NASA and the Commercial Space Industry; NASA and the Business of Space; American Competitiveness: NASA's Role & Everyone's Responsibility; Space Exploration: A Frontier for American Collaboration; The Next Generation of Engineers; System Engineering and the "Two Cultures" of Engineering; Generalship of Engineering; NASA and Engineering Integrity; The Constellation Architecture; Then and Now: Fifty Years in Space; The Reality of Tomorrow; and Human Space Exploration: The Next 50 Years.
... action proposes to amend Class E Airspace at Griffin, GA, as the Griffin Non-Directional Beacon (NDB) has... as it would amend Class E airspace at Griffin- Spalding County Airport, Griffin, GA. This proposal... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Griffin, GA...
Svensson, C. E.; Garnsworthy, A. B.
Gamma-Ray Infrastructure For Fundamental Investigations of Nuclei (GRIFFIN) is an advanced new high-efficiency γ-ray spectrometer being developed for use in decay spectroscopy experiments with low-energy radioactive ion beams provided by TRIUMF's Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC-I) radioactive ion beam facility. GRIFFIN will be comprised of sixteen large-volume clover-type high-purity germanium (HPGe) γ-ray detectors coupled to custom digital signal processing electronics and used in conjunction with a suite of auxiliary detection systems. This article provides an overview of the GRIFFIN spectrometer and its expected performance characteristics.
Morring, Frank, Jr.
Michael D. Griffin launched his tenure as NASA's 11th administrator on a fast track, using his "emergency" confiimation by the U.S. Senate to plug himself into space shuttle return-to-flight decision-making and urging faster development of the shuttle replacement. He also deftly sidestepped the treacherous issue of letting the aging Hubble Space Telescope die that was left behind by former Administrator Sean O'Keefe. Griffin told the Senate Commerce, Science and Transportation Committee that he would take another look at a shuttle mission to service the telescope, but not until the redesigned shuttle system makes a couple of test flights. Griffin made clear at his confirmation hearing Apr. 12 that he has long supported the ideas embodied in President Bush s push to move human exploration out of low Earth orbit, while finishing the International Space Station and retiring the space shuttle as soon as possible. And he showed right out of the blocks that his technical training and management background should serve him well in implementing Bush's directives.
Edwards, C; Henry, R A; Kiser, W S; Mayberry, W E; Kaufman, R P
This interview departs from HCMR's usual format, interviewing several leaders in health care administration for their ideas on current economic pressures, the impact of competition and joint ventures, attitudes toward equity and capital formation, and competition between the interest of clinical medicine and the cost of care. The physician administrators interviewed hold senior administrative positions: Charles Edwards, President and Chief Executive Officer of Scripps Clinic and Research Foundation; Robert A. Henry, President and Chief Executive Officer of Swedish-American Corporation; William S. Kiser, Chairman of the Board of Governors at Cleveland Clinic Foundation; W. Eugene Mayberry, Chairman of the Board of Governors at Mayo Clinic; and Ronald P. Kaufman, Vice-President for Medical Affairs of George Washington University Hospital. All are members of the Board of Regents or Fellows of the American College of Physician Executives.
Olaizola, Bruno; Griffin Collaboration
The Gamma-Ray Infrastructure For Fundamental Investigations of Nuclei (GRIFFIN) is the new β-decay spectrometer facility at TRIUMF-ISAC. Consists of an array of 16 large-volume HPGe clover detectors with an unparalleled efficiency of 19% at 1.33 MeV. Its strongest advantage is the versatility of the ancillary detectors that can be coupled to the main array to tag on β particles, neutrons or precisely measure conversion electron spectra. An ancillary array of 8 LaBr3(Ce) detectors for γ-rays and a fast plastic scintillator for β-particles has been optimized for fast-timing experiments with GRIFFIN. The 51 mm x 51 mm cylindrical LaBr3(Ce) crystals are coupled to Hamamatsu R2083 photomultipliers. Timing resolutions as good as FWHM 200 ps and time-walks below +/- 30 ps have been obtained for individual crystals using analog electronics. There is also an ongoing project to develop an active BGO shield for the LaBr3(Ce) crystals. The LaBr3(Ce) array commissioning experiment to measure the 145,146Cs decay to 145,146Ba will test its capabilities over a wide range of lifetimes. Preliminary results on the lifetimes of some of the low-laying states will be presented.
Portman, Penelope A.; Carlson, Teresa B.
Discusses cultural diversity from the point of view of Pat Griffin, a lesbian feminist and associate professor of physical education. To her, cultural diversity includes religion, race, gender, physical and mental ability, class, and sexual orientation. She emphasizes the latter because it is often ignored in the school environment. (SM)
Maclean, Andrew; Griffin Collaboration
When an excited nuclear state emits successive γ-rays causing a γ - γ cascade an anisotropy is found in the spatial distribution of γ2 with respect to γ1. Defining the direction of γ1 as the z-axis, the intermediate level, in general will have an uneven distribution of m-states. This causes an anisotropy in the angular correlation of the second γ-ray with respect to the first. These angular correlations are expressed by the W (θ) that depends on numerical coefficients described by the sequence of spin-parity values for the nuclear states involved, the multipolarities and mixing ratios. Angular correlations can be used for the assignment of spins and parities for the nuclear states, and thus provide a powerful means to elucidate the structure of nuclei far from stability through β - γ - γ coincidence measurements. In order to explore the sensitivity of the new 16 clover-detector GRIFFIN γ-ray spectrometer at TRIUMF-ISAC to such γ - γ angular correlations, and to optimize its performance for these measurements we have studied a well known γ - γ cascade from 60Co decay through both experimental measurements and Geant4 simulation. Results will be shown in this talk. Work supported by the Canada Foundation for Innovation, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and the National Research Council of Canada.
... SECURITY Coast Guard Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel JOE GRIFFIN... Alternative Compliance was issued for the offshore supply vessel JOE GRIFFIN as required by 33 U.S.C. 1605(c... GRIFFIN. Full compliance with 72 COLREGS and the Inland Rules Act would hinder the vessel's ability...
Rizwan, U.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Andreoiu, C.; Ball, G. C.; Chester, A.; Domingo, T.; Dunlop, R.; Hackman, G.; Rand, E. T.; Smith, J. K.; Starosta, K.; Svensson, C. E.; Voss, P.; Williams, J.
The Gamma-Ray Infrastructure For Fundamental Investigations of Nuclei, GRIFFIN, is a new experimental facility for radioactive decay studies at the TRIUMF-ISAC laboratory. The performance of the 16 high-purity germanium (HPGe) clover detectors that will make up the GRIFFIN spectrometer is reported. The energy resolution, efficiency, timing resolution, crosstalk and preamplifier properties of each crystal were measured using a combination of analog and digital data acquisition techniques. The absolute efficiency and add-back factors are determined for the energy range of 80-3450 keV. The detectors show excellent performance with an average over all 64 crystals of a FWHM energy resolution of 1.89(6) keV and relative efficiency with respect to a 3 in . × 3 in . NaI detector of 41(1)% at 1.3 MeV.
Maclean, Andrew; Griffin Collaboration
The goal of this work was to explore the sensitivity of the Gamma-Ray Infrastructure For Fundamental Investigations of Nuclei (GRIFFIN) 16 clover-detector γ-ray spectrometer at TRIUMF-ISAC to such γ - γ angular correlations. The methodology was established using both experimental measurements and Geant4 simulations that were used to create angular correlation templates for the GRIFFIN geometry. Direct comparisons were made between experimental data sets and the simulated angular correlation templates. A first in-beam test of the γ - γ angular correlation measurements with GRIFFIN was performed with a radioactive beam of 66Ga. Mixing ratios of δ = - 2 . 1(2) and δ = - 0 . 08(3) were measured for the 2+ ->2+ ->0+ 833-1039 keV and 1+ ->2+ ->0+ 2752-1039 keV cascades in the daughter nucleus 66Zn. These results are in good agreement with pervious literature values and the mixing ratio for the 833-1039 keV cascade has a higher precision. Also, the sensitivity to the 1333-1039 keV cascade, with its pronounced 0+ ->2+ ->0+ angular correlation, was measured.A test measurement of the superallowed Fermi β emitter 62Ga will also be discussed. Canada Foundation of Innovation, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, National Research Council of Canada and Canadian Research Chairs Program.
Rice, A.N.; Ross, J.P.; Woodward, A.R.; Carbonneau, D.A.; Percival, H.F.
Alligator mississippiensis (American Alligators) demonstrated low hatch-rate success and increased adult mortality on Lake Griffin, FL, between 1998 and 2003. Dying Lake Griffin alligators with symptoms of poor motor coordination were reported to show specific neurological impairment and brain lesions. Similar lesions were documented in salmonines that consumed clupeids with high thiaminase levels. Therefore, we investigated the diet of Lake Griffin alligators and compared it with alligator diets from two lakes that exhibited relatively low levels of unexplained alligator mortality to see if consumption of Dorosoma cepedianum (gizzard shad) could be correlated with patterns of mortality. Shad in both lakes Griffin and Apopka had high levels of thiaminase and Lake Apopka alligators were consuming greater amounts of shad relative to Lake Griffin without showing mortality rates similar to Lake Griffin alligators. Therefore, a relationship between shad consumption alone and alligator mortality is not supported.
Feldman, Eva L; Hughes, Richard A C; Willison, Hugh J
The past quarter of a century has brought incredible advances in our understanding of inflammatory neuropathies, and the insights into Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) began in the 1990s with the seminal work of Dr Jack Griffin and his colleagues. In this essay, we provide a tribute to Jack, and review the recent progress in a field that he termed his personal favourite. In particular, we discuss the new developments in our understanding and diagnosis of inflammatory neuropathies, the recent emergence of the node of Ranvier and the paranode as sites of intensive investigation, and the mechanistic evidence that is providing a platform for therapeutic development studies.
Pore, Jennifer; Griffin Collaboration Collaboration
The neutron-rich calcium isotopes are currently a new frontier for modern ab-initio calculations based on NN and 3N forces. Detailed experimental data from these nuclei is necessary for a comprehensive understanding of the region. Many excited states in 46Ca have been previously identified by various reaction mechanisms, most notably from (p ,p') and (p , t) reactions, but many spins are only tentatively assigned or not measured and very few gamma-ray transitions have been placed in the level scheme. A high-statistics data set of the 46K decay into low-lying levels of 46Ca was taken with the new GRIFFIN spectrometer located at TRIUMF-ISAC. The level scheme of 46Ca has been greatly expanded to include 160 new gamma-ray transitions and 12 new excited states. Angular correlations between cascading gamma rays have been investigated to obtain information about the spins of the excited states. An overview of the experiment and a discussion of the results will be presented.
Xu, Kedi; Cantu, David Antonio; Fu, Yao; Kim, Jaehyup; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Hematti, Peiman; Kao, W John
Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are considered promising cellular therapeutics in the fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. MSCs secrete high concentrations of immunomodulatory cytokines and growth factors, which exert paracrine effects on infiltrating immune and resident cells in the wound microenvironment that could favorably promote healing after acute injury. However, better spatial delivery and improved retention at the site of injury are two factors that could improve the clinical application of MSCs. In this study, we utilized thiol-ene Michael-type addition for rapid encapsulation of MSCs within a gelatin/poly(ethylene glycol) biomatrix. This biomatrix was also applied as a provisional dressing to full thickness wounds in Sprague-Dawley rats. The three-way interaction of MSCs, gelatin/poly(ethylene glycol) biomatrices, and host immune cells and adjacent resident cells in the wound microenvironment favorably modulated wound progression and host response. In this model we observed attenuated immune cell infiltration, lack of foreign giant cell (FBGC) formation, accelerated wound closure and re-epithelialization, as well as enhanced neovascularization and granulation tissue formation by 7 days. The MSC entrapped in the gelatin/poly(ethylene glycol) biomatrix localized cell presentation adjacent to the wound microenvironment and thus mediated the early resolution of inflammatory events and facilitated the proliferative phases in wound healing.
Last fall I had the good fortune of receiving financial support to shoot a documentary about Michael Faraday. I took the opportunity to learn more about this great experimentalist and to visit the highlights of places in his life. In this paper, I would like to share a list and description of some of the most remarkable places in London suitable for following Michael Faraday's footprints. There are many other places in Europe of special interest for the physics teacher,2,3 and some useful guides to help us visit places as "scientific travelers,"4,5 but this paper focuses on Michael Faraday and London. I have personally visited most of the places described below and found the experience to be really worthwhile.
Last fall I had the good fortune of receiving financial support to shoot a documentary about Michael Faraday. I took the opportunity to learn more about this great experimentalist and to visit the highlights of places in his life. In this paper, I would like to share a list and description of some of the most remarkable places in London suitable…
Williams, L. Pearce; And Others
Six articles discuss the work of Michael Faraday, a chemist whose work revolutionized physics and led directly to both classical field and relativity theory. The scientist as a young man, the electromagnetic experiments of Faraday, his search for the gravelectric effect, his work on optical glass, his laboratory notebooks, and his creative use of…
Michael Gove was Secretary of State for Education from May 2010 to July 2014 when the Prime Minister sacked him. With strong opinions arising from his own life experiences and outstanding energy for reform, but severely limited understanding of education and a refusal to consult teachers and other professionals, he imposed half-baked ideas on the…
Heinz, G.H.; Percival, H.F.; Jennings, Michael L.
Residues of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and 16 elements were measured in American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) eggs collected in 1984 from Lakes Apopka, Griffin, and Okeechobee in central and south Florida. Organochlorine pesticides were highest in eggs from Lake Apopka. None of the elements appeared to be present at harmful concentrations in eggs from any of the lakes. A larger sample of eggs was collected in 1985, but only from Lakes Griffin, a lake where eggs were relatively clean, and Apopka, where eggs were most contaminated. In 1985, hatching success of artificially incubated eggs was lower for Lake Apopka, and several organochlorine pesticides were higher than in eggs from Lake Griffin. However, within Lake Apopka, higher levels of pesticides in chemically analyzed eggs were not associated with reduced hatching success of the remaining eggs in the clutch. Therefore, it did not appear that any of the pesticides we measured were responsible for the reduced hatching of Lake Apopka eggs.
Bildstein, V.; Andreoiu, C.; Ball, G. C.; Ballast, T.; Bartlett, C.; Bender, P. C.; Bernier, N.; Bianco, L.; Bishop, D.; Brennan, D.; Bruhn, T.; Cheeseman, A.; Churchman, R.; Ciccone, S.; Davids, B.; Demand, G.; Dillmann, I.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Garrett, P. E.; Georges, S.; Hackman, G.; Hadinia, B.; Kokke, R.; Krücken, R.; Linn, Y.; Lim, C.; Martin, J.-P.; Miller, D.; Mills, W. J.; Morrison, L. N.; Ohlmann, C. A.; Park, J.; Pearson, C. J.; Pore, J. L.; Rajabali, M. M.; Rand, E. T.; Rizwan, U.; Sarazin, F.; Shaw, B.; Starosta, K.; Svensson, C. E.; Sumithrarachchi, C.; Unsworth, C.; Voss, P.; Wang, Z. M.; Williams, J.; Wong, J.; Wong, S.
The GRIFFIN (Gamma-Ray Infrastructure For Fundamental Investigations of Nuclei) project is a major upgrade of the decay spectroscopy capabilities at TRIUMF-ISAC. GRIFFIN will replace the 8π spectrometer with an array of up to 16 large-volume HPGe clover detectors and use a state-of-the-art digital data acquisition system. The existing ancillary detector systems that had been developed for 8π, such as the SCEPTAR array for β-tagging, PACES for high-resolution internal conversion electron spectroscopy, and the DANTE array of LaBr3/BaF2 scintillators for fast γ-ray timing, will be used with GRIFFIN. GRIFFIN can also accommodate the new neutron detector array DESCANT (Deuterated Scintillator Array for Neutron Tagging), enabling the study of β-delayed neutron emitters. DESCANT consists of up to 70 detectors, each filled with approximately 2 liters of deuterated benzene, a liquid scintillator that provides pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) capabilities to distinguish between neutrons and γ-rays interacting with the detector. In addition, the anisotropic nature of n-d scattering as compared to the isotropic n-p scattering allows for the determination of the neutron energy spectrum directly from the pulse-height spectrum, complementing the time-of-flight (TOF) information. The installation of GRIFFIN is under way and first experiments are planned for the fall of 2014. The array will be completed in 2015 with the full complement of 16 clovers. DESCANT will be tested coupled with GRIFFIN in spring of 2015.
Michael Faraday was an enthusiastic portrait collector, and he welcomed the invention of photography not only as a possible means of recording observations accurately, but also as a method for advertising science and its practitioners. This article (which is part of the Science in the Industrial Revolution series) shows that like many eminent scientists, Faraday took advantage of the burgeoning Victorian media industry by posing in various roles.
The diaries of Jane Griffin have not previously been examined for their value to educational history. Held in the archives of the Scott Polar Research Institute, they have attracted attention from few historians except those interested in her later life as Jane, Lady Franklin. The disappearance of her husband, Arctic explorer Sir John Franklin, on…
Schoeb, Trenton R; Heaton-Jones, Terrell G; Clemmons, Roger M; Carbonneau, Dwayne A; Woodward, Allan R; Shelton, Diane; Poppenga, Robert H
From December, 1997, through November, 2000, 306 deaths were documented among adult and subadult American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) of Lake Griffin, Florida (USA). Some live alligators were lethargic and unresponsive to approach. To determine the cause, we examined ten alligators captured from Lake Griffin between December 1997 and June 1999. Initially, four alligators, three of which were clinically unresponsive, were sacrificed for routine diagnostic necropsy. The other six Lake Griffin alligators, and five control alligators captured from Lake Woodruff National Wildlife Refuge, Florida, where mortality was negligible, were studied extensively by clinical neurologic examination, electromyography, hematology, serum chemical analyses, and blood culture, then sacrificed and necropsied. Samples of brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, skeletal muscle, and major internal organs were examined by light microscopy for abnormalities. Samples of nervous tissue also were examined by electron microscopy, and samples of various tissues were collected for toxicologic analyses. Clinical signs included swimming in circles, inability to submerge, lethargy, weakness, unresponsiveness, slow reflexes, dragging the dorsal surfaces of the hind feet, head tilt, and anisocoria. Lake Griffin alligators had significantly lower distal sciatic nerve conduction velocities than Lake Woodruff alligators, and the most severely affected alligators had the lowest velocities; but morphologic abnormalities in peripheral nerves were not evident in most cases. Three severely affected alligators had acute focal necrosis of the torus semicircularis in the midbrain, two had skeletal myofiber atrophy, another had diffuse nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis, and one mildly affected alligator had skeletal myodegeneration. The cause or causes have not yet been identified.
NCSS Executive Director Susan Griffin was chair of the Task Force of Professional Organizations that worked with the Social Studies Assessment, Curriculum, and Instruction Collaborative (SSACI) of the Council of Chief State School Officers to initiate and guide the development of the "College, Career and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social…
The draft genome sequence of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. multiplex Strain Griffin-1 isolated from a red oak tree (Quercus rubra) in Georgia, U.S.A. is reported. The bacterium has a genome size of 2,387,314 bp with 51.7% G+C content and comprises 2,903 predicted open reading frames (ORFs), and 50 RNA g...
Michael R. Swann joined the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Dryden Flight Research Center on June 5, 1978, transferring from the NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, as a research pilot. Swann attended North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota, from September 1968 to February 1977, where he earned his Masters in Physics. He was a member of three national honorary scholastic fraternities. Prior to joining NASA Swann served concurrently as an Aerospace Defense Command Interceptor pilot in the Air National Guard for five years and as a college physics instructor at North Dakota State University for two years. While at Johnson Space Center Mike was a pilot on high altitude earth resources and air sampling missions. He was also an instructor and check pilot for the Astronaut Space Flight Readiness Training program. As a Dryden research pilot Mike was involved with the F-111 #778 Transonic Aircraft Technology (TACT) program, F-15 # 281 Shuttle Tile tests, programs on the F-8C #802 and the PA-30 #808 Remotely Piloted Research Vehicle. He flew the Bell 47G #822 helicopter in support of research with the three-eighths-scale F-15 Spin Research Vehicle. On March 28, 1979, Mike made a pilot familiarization flight in the YF-12A #935. He also flew support flights in the F-104, C-47, T-37, T-38, and the Jetstar aircraft. Michael R. Swann was born June 5, 1949, in Fargo, North Dakota; he was fatally injured in a recreational glider accident on July 28, 1981, near California City, California.
Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf
The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry.
Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf
The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry. PMID:25529526
Michael John Klein died on 14 May 2005 at home in South Pasadena, California. The cause of death was tongue cancer that metastasized to the lungs. He was a non-smoker. Mike was a passionate radio astronomer, a trusted astronomical observer, an educator and a family man. Mike was born on 19 January 1940 in Ames, Iowa, the son of Florence Marie (Graf) and Fred Michael Klein. His mother was a homemaker, and his father was a banker. Mike had two older sisters, Lois Jean (Klein) Flauher and Marilyn June (Klein) Griffin. In 1962, Mike married his high school sweetheart Barbara Dahlberg, who survives him along with their three children, Kristin Marie (Klein) Shields, Michael John Klein Jr., Timothy Joel Klein, and six grandchildren. Mike developed a love for astronomy early in his life, and credited an early morning, newspaper-delivery route that he had at age twelve, which took him outside well before sunrise. He told family members that as he walked along his route, he stared into the sky and wondered what everything was. He studied sky charts, located stars, and began to understand how the planets shifted their positions relative to the stars each day. Another big influence in Mike's life was his brother in-law, Jim Griffin. Jim helped Mike understand that his passion for science did not have to remain a hobby, but could and should become a career. Jim's encouragement led Mike to attend Iowa State University in Ames, where he earned a BS in electrical engineering in 1962. Mike then started graduate school in electrical engineering at Michigan State, but after one semester transferred to the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, where he earned an MS (1966) and PhD (1968) in astronomy. His doctoral dissertation, under the direction of Professor Fred Haddock, was based on extensive observations of the planets and examined the physical and thermal properties of planetary atmospheres and surfaces. Mike was awarded a Resident Research Associate position at JPL by the National
... Michael J Smith Field, Beaufort, NC AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... approximately 7.5 acres of airport property, located at the Michael J Smith Field, be used for aeronautical... Authority to release approximately 7.5 acres of airport property at the Michael J Smith Field. The...
Dunlop, Ryan; Griffin Collaboration
Half-lives of N = 82 nuclei below doubly-magic 132Sn are key input parameters for any astrophysical r-process scenario and play an important role in the formation and shape of the second r-process abundance peak. Shell-model calculations for neutron-rich nuclei near the N = 82 neutron shell closure that are not yet experimentally accessible have been performed by adjusting the quenching of the Gamow-Teller (GT) operator to reproduce the 130Cd half-life. The calculated half-lives of other nuclei in the region are known to be systematically too long. Recently, a shorter half-life for 130Cd was measured by the EURICA collaboration that resolves this discrepancy by scaling the GT quenching by a constant factor for all of the nuclei in the region. Distinguishing between these discrepant half-life measurements for 130Cd is thus of critical importance. We have measured the half-lives of 128-130Cd using the high-efficiency GRIFFIN γ-ray spectrometer at TRIUMF, which improves the precision of the 128,129Cd half-lives, and confirms the shorter half-life of 130Cd recently reported by the EURICA collaboration. Details of the GRIFFIN experiments will be presented and the implications of the resulting half-lives discussed.
Dunlop, Ryan; Griffin Collaboration
Superallowed Fermi β decays of A >= 62 nuclei involve relatively large nucleus dependent isospin-symmetry-breaking corrections. The magnitudes of these corrections are of great interest, and the A >= 62 decays provide a demanding test of theoretical models. Branching ratio measurements for these decays involve a unique challenge as they have large QEC, and hence a high density of available states in the daughter nucleus, resulting in the Pandemonium effect in which weak feeding is distributed over a large number of states and is difficult to observe. Therefore, high-efficiency detectors are of paramount importance in determining the branching ratio for these decays. The 8 π spectrometer at TRIUMF's Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC), has been used to establish high-precision branching ratios for 62Ga and 74Rb. The newly commissioned GRIFFIN spectrometer at ISAC provides an efficiency 17 times higher than the 8 π for 1 MeV γ-rays, and larger gains at higher energies which are of particular importance in resolving the Pandemonium effect. The recent branching ratio measurement for the superallowed Fermi β-decay of 74Rb will be discussed, as well as the importance of GRIFFIN for future superallowed β decay studies at ISAC.
Elvin, Niell; Azadeh Ranjbar, Vahid; Andreopoulos, Yiannis
The present work has experimentally characterized energy harvesters consisting of a circular cylinder mounted at the tip of a flexible cantilever beam. VIV phenomena such as lock-in range, maximum amplitude of transverse oscillation and hysteresis effects have been studied by testing different physical parameters such as structural damping, mass ratio, and aspect ratio. Griffin plot generated by the experimental data of SDOF high aspect ratio circular cylinders have been used to validate VIV. As the harvester is a continuous system of low aspect ratio circular cylinders, three cases have been investigated: low aspect ratio effect of cylinders, effect of multiple modes or coupled transverse-torsional oscillation and non-linear effect due to large deformation of flexible cantilever beams. Griffin plot shows large variance in the case of aspect ratios less than 3. Coupled transverse-torsional oscillation affects VIV negatively. Results show that added structural damping due to piezoelectric patches attached to the cantilever beam decreases electrical power output as a non-linear function of mass ratio. Work supported by National Science Foundation under Grant No. CBET #1033117.
For this Instructional Resource, the author interviewed contemporary sculptor Michael Beitz, who uses art to explore the role of designed objects in human communication and emotional experience. This column was written in response to calls for using Enduring Understandings/Big Ideas (National Coalition for Core Arts Standards, 2013; Stewart &…
The mid-1960s saw civil rights victories in Congress during Lyndon B. Johnson's presidency. In "Going Down Jericho Road," Michael Honey wrote how Martin Luther King Jr.'s final focus showed that the struggle for black and working class parity continued. The 1968 Memphis sanitation workers strike was a gritty struggle won in the streets by a host…
This paper examines the work in education of Michael Sadler (1861-1943). It covers his early years in Oxford, his time as director of the Department of Special Inquiries and Reports, his periods as professor of education in Manchester and as vice-chancellor in Leeds, and his return to Oxford as Master of University College, and it assesses the…
In language teaching, it has been universally acknowledged that students need not just knowledge and skill in the grammar of a language but also the ability to use the language in socially and culturally appropriate ways. In this article Michael Byram, who has been working on Intercultural Competence for quite some time in a variety of different…
Bergman, N A
Michael Faraday (1791-1867) was a protégé of Humphry Davy. He became one of Davy's successors as Professor of Chemistry at the Royal Institution of Great Britain. Of Faraday's many brilliant discoveries in chemistry and physics, probably the best remembered today is his work on electromagnetic induction. Faraday's contribution to introduction of anesthesia was his published announcement in 1818 that inhalation of the vapor of ether produced the same effects on mentation and consciousness as the breathing of nitrous oxide. He most likely became familiar with the central nervous system effects of nitrous oxide through his association with Davy, an avid user of the gas. Sulfuric ether was a common, convenient, cheap, and easily available substance, in contrast to nitrous oxide, which required expensive, cumbersome, and probably not widely available apparatus for its production and administration. The capability for inhaling intoxicating vapors eventually became commonly available with the use of ether instead of the gas. The first surgical anesthetics were a consequence of the resulting student "ether frolics." The 1818 announcement on breathing ether vapor was published anonymously; however, notations in Faraday's handwriting in some of his personal books clearly establish Michael Faraday as the author of this brief communication.
Roy, Michael M.; Christenfeld, Nicholas J. S.; McKenzie, Craig R. M.
People chronically underestimate how long tasks will take. In their original article, the present authors (M. M. Roy, N. J. S. Christenfeld, & C. R. M. McKenzie) suggested a simple, broadly applicable explanation: Biased predictions result from biased memories. In their comment article, D. Griffin and R. Buehler suggested that in many domains in…
Oliver, Brad E.
The 1995 National Teacher of the Year, Elaine Griffin, teaches on Kodiak Island, Alaska. Her experiences reinforce her belief in the importance of strong school-community ties and close relationships between teachers and families. Shared staffing in this remote rural environment has allowed the teachers time away for travel and other experiences.…
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION In the Matter of Griffin Mining, Inc., Power Sports Factory, Inc., Star Energy Corp., TransNet... concerning the securities of Star Energy Corp. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the...
In the 1850s, renowned physicist Michael Faraday launched a public campaign against pseudoscience and spiritualism, which were rampant in England at the time. Faraday objected especially to claims that electrical or magnetic forces were responsible for paranormal phenomena, such as table-spinning and communication with the dead. Using scientific methods, Faraday unmasked the deceptions of spiritualists, clairvoyants and mediums and also laid bare the credulity of a public ill-educated in science. Despite his efforts, Victorian society's fascination with the paranormal swelled. Faraday's debacle anticipates current controversies about public science education and the interface between science and religion. This episode is one of many described in the new biography, The Electric Life of Michael Faraday (Walker & Co.), which chronicles Faraday's discoveries and his unlikely rise from poverty to the pinnacle of the English science establishment.
Cai, Yong-Feng; Li, Li; Luo, Meng-Xian; Yang, Ke-Fang; Lai, Guo-Qiao; Jiang, Jian-Xiong; Xu, Li-Wen
A detailed experimental investigation of an aza-Michael reaction of aniline and chalcone is presented. A series of Cinchona alkaloid-derived organocatalysts with different functional groups were prepared and used in the aza-Michael and retro-aza-Michael reaction. There was an interesting finding that a complete reversal of stereoselectivity when a benzoyl group was introduced to the cinchonine and cinchonidine. The chirality amplification vs. time proceeds in the quinine-derived organocatalyst containing silicon-based bulky group, QN-TBS, -catalyzed aza-Michael reaction under solvent-free conditions. In addition, we have demonstrated for the first time that racemization was occurred in suitable solvents under mild conditions due to retro-aza-Michael reaction of the Michael adduct of aniline with chalcone. These indicate the equilibrium of retro-aza-Michael reaction and aza-Michael reaction produce the happening of chirality amplification in aza-Michael reaction and racemization via retro-aza-Michael reaction under different conditions, which would be beneficial to the development of novel chiral catalysts for the aza-Michael reactions.
Natzke, Connor; Griffin Collaboration
The structure of very neutron rich isotopes has been of recent experimental interest for both nuclear astrophysics and fundamental nuclear structure investigations. In beta-minus decay specifically, beta-delayed gamma cascades can help to shed light on the spin and parity of the states involved. One of the world's most powerful decay spectroscopy tool is the Gamma-Ray Infrastructure For Fundamental Investigations of Nuclei (GRIFFIN) spectrometer at TRIUMF-ISAC in Vancouver, Canada. To investigate the feasibility of these experimental studies, GEANT4 simulations of neutron-rich nuclei are critical, as they are able to provide realistic estimates of what the experimental results may look like. The first such nucleus investigated was 44P, and both the temporal and angular γγ correlations were extracted. Furthermore the simulations were used to model various multipole decay possibilities which provide a powerful tool analyzing collected data from such facilities. In the future, the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) at MSU will be an ideal site for such studies on the most exotic nuclei.
Ley, Steven V; Dixon, Darren J; Guy, Richard T; Rodríguez, Félix; Sheppard, Tom D
Consecutive coupling reactions of butane-2,3-diacetal protected glycolic acid derivatives with Michael acceptors and aldehydes are reported. An enantiopure sample of this building block was used to kinetically resolve a chiral Michael acceptor present as a racemic mixture of enantiomers.
Miguel, Caio F.
Among many of Jack Michael's contributions to the field of behavior analysis is his behavioral account of motivation. This paper focuses on the concept of "motivating operation" (MO) by outlining its development from Skinner's (1938) notion of "drive." Conceptually, Michael's term helped us change our focus on…
Shah, Pankaj V.; Vietti, David E.; Whitman, David William
Homogeneously dispersed solid reaction promoters having an average particle size from 0.01 .mu.m to 500 .mu.m are disclosed for preparing curable mixtures of at least one Michael donor and at least one Michael acceptor. The resulting curable mixtures are useful as coatings, adhesives, sealants and elastomers.
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Michael J. Aruta, M.D.; Decision and Order ACTION: Correction. On Thursday, April 7, 2011, the Drug Enforcement Administration published the above-titled Decision and Order, as well as...
Piquero, Alex R; Piquero, Nicole Leeper; Gertz, Marc; Baker, Thomas; Batton, Jason; Barnes, J C
Objective. The relationship between race and crime has been contentious, focusing primarily on offending and incarceration patterns among minorities. There has been some limited work on public perceptions of criminal punishment, and findings show that while minorities believe in the role and rule of law, they simultaneously perceive the justice system as acting in a biased and/or unfair manner. Two limitations have stalled this literature. First, research has focused mainly on criminal punishments to the neglect of noncriminal punishments. Second, most studies have not examined whether race remains salient after considering other demographic variables or discrimination and legitimacy attitudes.Methods. Using data from 400 adults, we examine how race affects perceptions of criminal punishment and subsequent reinstatement into the National Football League in the case of Michael Vick, a star professional quarterback who pled guilty to charges of operating an illegal dog-fighting ring.Results. Findings show that whites are more likely to view Vick's punishment as too soft and that he should not be reinstated, while nonwhites had the opposite views. Race remained significant after controlling for other variables believed to be related to punishment perceptions.Conclusion. Attitudes toward both criminal punishment and NFL reinstatement vary across race such that there exists important divides in how individuals perceive the system meting out punishment and subsequently reintegrating offenders back into society. These results underscore that white and nonwhites perceive the law and its administration differently.
Michael Hecht has been a member of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) staff since 1982. He is currently Project Manager and co-investigator for the Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA)
International Space Station Manager Michael Suffredini answers questions about the European Space Agencyâs second Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV2), Johannes Kepler, set to launch from a launch p...
Michael Thackeray, Distinguished Fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.
Report of event of 11 May 2008 held at the African Institute of Mathematical Sciences (Muizenberg, Cape), with speakers Michael Griffin (Administrator of NASA), Stephen Hawking (Cambridge), David Gross (Kavli Institute, Santa Barbara) and George Smoot (Berkeley).
Yang, Wen; Yang, Yi; Du, Da-Ming
An efficient asymmetric cascade sulfa-Michael/Michael addition reaction catalyzed by a chiral bifunctional squaramide-tertiary amine catalyst has been developed. This organocatalytic cascade reaction provides easy access to highly functionalized chromans with three contiguous stereocenters, including one quaternary center. In addition, a novel cascade sulfa Michael/retro-sulfa-Michael/sulfa-Michael/Michael reaction process, involving dynamic kinetic resolution, is described.
Dunlop, Ryan; Griffin Collaboration
In the s-process, it is assumed that He-shell flashes give rise to neutron bursts at two different thermal energies (kT ~ 10 keV and kT ~ 25 keV). The contribution to the isotopic abundance of 116Cd from the higher temperature neutron bursts are calculated assuming thermal equilibrium between the ground state and the long-lived isomeric state of 115Cd. However, it is unknown if the equilibrium between these states is present at the low temperature of the first burst, which would significantly decrease the calculated s-process yields of 116Cd. To answer this question, we are searching for gateway levels at slightly higher excitation energy than the isomer in 115Cd that could be populated from the isomeric state via (γ ,γ') reactions within stars. In November 2014, the GRIFFIN spectrometer was commissioned at TRIUMF's Isotope Separator and Accelerator. GRIFFIN is a state-of-the-art array consisting of 16 HPGe clovers, with a large γ-ray efficiency of roughly 17% at 1 MeV. In this first experiment, a beam of 115Ag was delivered to GRIFFIN in order to search for transitions between gateway levels following the β decay of 115Ag. In this talk, results from this first GRIFFIN experiment will be presented.
Chronicle of Higher Education, 2007
In a much-discussed series of postings on the Encyclopaedia Britannica Online Web site, Michael Gorman, former president of the American Library Association and the recently retired dean of library services at California State University at Fresno, argues that the "often-anarchic world of the Internet" is saturating people's culture with a "tide…
Goldstein, G. R.
A brief biography of Michael J. Moravcsik is presented, concentrating on the chronology of his contributions to theoretical high- and intermediateenergy physics. The evolution of his interest in science development in the third world, scientific methodology, and scientometrics are indicated. A personal reminiscence is included.
Although I think most of what Michael Slote asserts in his article "Sentimentalist moral education" is correct, I worry about three important ideas that are conspicuous by their absence. The first is the possibility that human emotions and feelings are inherently cognitive, which is never considered in his psychological account of empathy. The…
Manno, Bruno V.
Michael Polanyi was on "JHP's" Board of Editors for many years, and his book, "Personal Knowledge", published in 1958, was an important factor in the development of humanistic psychology. This "rememberance" presents an overview of his personal background and the major outlines of his thought. (Editor/RK)
Williams, Jeffrey J.
Before all the talk about "public intellectuals," Michael Walzer was one. For 50 years, he has gone back and forth between positions at Princeton and Harvard Universities and then at the Institute for Advanced Study, in Princeton, New Jersey, where he is now emeritus. His writings appear regularly in "Dissent" magazine, which he has co-edited for…
Widdowson, H. G.
Replies to two articles by Michael Swan entitled "A Critical Look at the Communicative Approach." Argues that Swan presents a distorted version of the communicative approach so as to present his own ideas more effectively and that he fails to offer evidence for his position on the practice of English language teaching. (SED)
The present comments concern Michael's concept of motivative variables, and the implications of that concept for our understanding of the nature of reinforcement as well as the extinction of responses maintained through positive and negative reinforcement. We note that both extinction and altering motivative variables decrease responding, but…
Esch, Barbara E.; Esch, John W.
"In the late 1950's, Jack Michael, a bright but irritating young psychology instructor, moved from the Universities of Kansas to Houston to Arizona State. Along the way he befriended two nontraditional students, protected them through their Ph.D. programs, and turned them loose on the world: Teodoro Ayllon…and Montrose Wolf…" (Risley,…
Schaefer, Zachary A.
Individuals who work in professional settings interact with others who may exhibit a variety of cultural beliefs and decision-making approaches. Page (2007) argues that cognitive diversity (i.e., how people approach and attempt to solve problems) is a vital asset in effective organizations. Michael Scott, who portrays the inept main character on…
Sundby, Dianne; Derr, C. Brooklyn
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a retrospective of the career life of Michael Driver, from the time of his Princeton graduate studies and early faculty years at Purdue University through the over three decades he spent at USC. Design/methodology/approach: The history and development of his theoretical and research interests are…
American Psychologist, 2009
Michael G. Wessells, recipient of the International Humanitarian Award, is cited for his pioneering and sustained contributions to the protection of children affected by armed conflict and to the development of international guidelines for the provision of community-based, culturally responsive psychosocial support in emergencies. Wessells has…
Dr. Michael P. Johnson, an associate professor of management science and urban affairs at the H. John Heinz III School of Public Policy and Management at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, is taking management science tools and innovative information technology applications to the housing field. Concerned that organizations that develop and…
Li, Jun-Hua; Du, Da-Ming
An organocatalyzed diastereo- and enantioselective cascade aza-Michael/Michael addition of 2-tosylaminoenones to unsaturated pyrazolones has been developed to afford novel chiral spiropyrazolone tetrahydroquinolines containing three contiguous stereocenters. This cascade reaction proceeded well with 2 mol% chiral bifunctional tertiary amine squaramide catalyst to give the desired products in excellent yields (up to 99%) with excellent diastereoselectivity (up to >25:1 diastereomeric ratio) and high enantioselectivity (up to 91% enantiomeric excess).
Michael W. Johnson was born on 1 September 1949. He received his B.S. (Physics) from the University of San Francisco in 1971, his M.S. (Physics) from the University of Toledo in 1974, and his Ph.D. (Astrophysics) from the University of Pennsylvania in 1981. His doctoral thesis was entitled, "HEAO A-1 Observations of X ray Emitting Clusters of Galaxies," and he was an author of a 1983 catalog of X-ray emitting clusters. Johnson was on the science faculty at Maryville University, in St. Louis, Missouri, where he lectured on physics and astronomy. He was husband of attorney Delores M. Johnson and had three daughters. Michael Johnson died on 13 April 2007.
Kwan, Eugene E; Evans, David A
Computational studies have suggested that η(3)-lithium enolates in which the cation is partially bound to both carbon and oxygen may be important reactive intermediates. DFT calculations are used to demonstrate that explicitly solvated acetone enolates are largely O-bound. With this premise in mind, the stereochemical course of intermolecular Michael additions is examined. The results are generally consistent with what is observed experimentally and the model advanced by Heathcock and co-workers.
Kempster, Peter A
Michael J. Fox was a popular and successful film and television comic actor who developed Parkinson's disease at the age of 29 years. His recently published book, Lucky Man, structured around the story of his Parkinson's disease, is an amusing, briskly paced yet introspective memoir that covers the first 40 years of his life. Although quite anecdotal, it contains interesting observations on the preclinical phase of the disorder, evolution of motor fluctuations, and tactics for pharmacological treatment.
Puxley, Philip John; Grashuis, Randon M.
Michael James Ledlow died on 5 June 2004 from a large, unsuspected brain tumor. Since 2000 he had been on the scientific staff of the Gemini Observatory in La Serena, Chile, initially as a Science Fellow and then as a tenure-track astronomer. Michael was born in Bartlesville, Oklahoma on 1 October 1964 to Jerry and Sharon Ledlow. He obtained his Bachelor Degree in astrophysics at the University of Oklahoma in 1987 and attended the University of New Mexico for his graduate work, obtaining his PhD while studying Galaxy Clusters under Frazer Owen in 1994. From 1995-1997 Michael held a postdoctoral position with Jack Burns at New Mexico State University where he used various astronomical facilities including the VLA and Apache Point Observatory to study distant galaxies. From 1998-2000 Michael rejoined the Physics and Astronomy Department at the University of New Mexico where he was a visiting professor until he moved on to Gemini. At the Gemini Observatory, Mike shared in the excitement, hard work and many long days and nights associated with bringing on-line a major new astronomical facility and its instrumentation. Following its commissioning he assisted visiting observers, supported and took data for many more remote users via the queue system, and for each he showed the same care and attention to detail evident in his own research to ensure that all got the best possible data. His research concentrated on the radio and optical properties of galaxy clusters, especially rich Abell clusters such as A2125, on luminous radio galaxies, including the detection of a powerful double radio source in the "wrong sort of galaxy," the spiral system 0313-192, and on EROs (extremely red objects), dusty galaxies barely detectable at optical wavelengths. Michael thoroughly enjoyed living in Chile and enthusiastically immersed himself in the culture of his surroundings. He and his family were actively involved with the International English Spanish Association in La Serena. He had a
Garrett, P. E.; Radich, A. J.; Allmond, J. M.; Andreoiu, C.; Ball, G. C.; Bender, P. C.; Bianco, L.; Bildstein, V.; Bidaman, H.; Braid, R.; Burbadge, C.; Chagnon-Lessard, S.; Cross, D. S.; Deng, G.; Demand, G. A.; Diaz Varela, A.; Dunlop, M. R.; Dunlop, R.; Finlay, P.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Grinyer, G. F.; Hackman, G.; Hadinia, B.; Ilyushkin, S.; Jigmeddorj, B.; Kisliuk, D.; Kuhn, K.; Laffoley, A. T.; Leach, K. G.; MacLean, A. D.; Michetti-Wilson, J.; Miller, D.; Moore, W.; Olaizola, B.; Orce, J. N.; Pearson, C. J.; Pore, J. L.; Rajabali, M. M.; Rand, E. T.; Sarazin, F.; Smith, J. K.; Starosta, K.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.; Svensson, C. E.; Triambak, S.; Turko, J.; Wang, Z. M.; Wood, J. L.; Wong, J.; Williams, S. J.; Yates, S. W.; Zganjar, E. F.
The 8π spectrometer, installed at the TRIUMF-ISAC facility, was the world's most sensitive γ-ray spectrometer dedicated to β-decay studies. A description is given of the 8π spectrometer and its auxiliary detectors including the plastic scintillator array SCEPTAR used for β-particle tagging and the Si(Li) array PACES for conversion electron measurements, its moving tape collector, and its data acquisition system. The recent investigation of the decay of 124Cs to study the nuclear structure of 124Xe, and how the β-decay measurements complemented previous Coulomb excitation studies, is highlighted, including the extraction of the deformation parameters for the excited 0+ bands in 124Xe. As a by-product, the decay scheme of the (7+) 124Cs isomeric state, for which the data from the PACES detectors were vital, was studied. Finally, a description of the new GRIFFIN spectrometer, which uses the same auxiliary detectors as the 8π spectrometer, is given.
KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. Michael Griffin, administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), shakes hands with United Space Alliance advanced systems technician Richard Van Wart during a tour of Orbiter Processing Facility bay 1. From left are Van Wart, Center Director James Kennedy, Griffin and Space Shuttle Atlantis vehicle manager Scott Thurston. Space Shuttle Atlantis is being processed for the second Return to Flight mission, STS-121, in the facility. This is Griffin's first official visit to Kennedy Space Center. Griffin is the 11th administrator of NASA, a role he assumed on April 14, 2005. Griffin was nominated to the position in March while serving as the Space Department head at Johns Hopkins University's Applied Physics Laboratory in Baltimore. A registered professional engineer in Maryland and California, Griffin served as chief engineer at NASA earlier in his career. He holds numerous scientific and technical degrees including a Ph.D. in Aerospace Engineering from the University of Maryland.
KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. Michael Griffin, administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), talks to United Space Alliance advanced systems technician Richard Van Wart during a tour of Orbiter Processing Facility bay 1. From left are Van Wart, Space Shuttle Atlantis vehicle manager Scott Thurston, Center Director James Kennedy, and Griffin. Space Shuttle Atlantis is being processed for the second Return to Flight mission, STS-121, in the facility. This is Griffin's first official visit to Kennedy Space Center. Griffin is the 11th administrator of NASA, a role he assumed on April 14, 2005. Griffin was nominated to the position in March while serving as the Space Department head at Johns Hopkins University's Applied Physics Laboratory in Baltimore. A registered professional engineer in Maryland and California, Griffin served as chief engineer at NASA earlier in his career. He holds numerous scientific and technical degrees including a Ph.D. in Aerospace Engineering from the University of Maryland.
The Institute for Behavioral Healthcare, a nonprofit organization that serves as an informational resource on issues surrounding the delivery of Behavioral Health Care Services, has been directed by Dr. Michael Freeman since its inception in 1988. In this crucial, unstable period in health care, membership in the Institute and attendance at its sponsored meetings has increased dramatically. Recently, Medical Interface talked with Dr. Freeman about topics of interest to the behavioral health care industry, ranging from any willing provider laws to the benefit itself.
Kwan, Eugene E; Scheerer, Jonathan R; Evans, David A
We present a general model for understanding the stereochemical course of intramolecular Michael reactions. We show that the addition of β-ketoester enolates to α,β-unsaturated esters and imides bearing adjacent stereocenters (X, Y = H, Me, OR) leads to high levels of asymmetric induction. Reinforcing and nonreinforcing stereochemical relationships are evaluated from the syn and anti reactant diastereomers. On the basis of synthetic, spectroscopic, and computational studies, we propose that the outcomes of these reactions can be rationalized by a dipole-minimized chair transition-state model.
Presents an obituary for Richard Michael Suzman, who died on April 16, 2015. Suzman was trained as a sociologist and anthropologist, but he was attracted to the approaches of demography and economics. He came to know a great deal about diverse fields of science, including health, physiology, psychology, genetics, and economics. He was a scientific leader who was on a quest to develop new transdisciplinary fields and to mobilize the best scientists to work in them. Suzman's passion for transdisciplinary science was fully expressed in his greatest achievement: the famous Health and Retirement Survey (HRS), which he initiated in 1988 and continued to guide and inspire. (PsycINFO Database Record
The EPA is providing notice of proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against David Cozad, Michael Schumacher and/or Brad Peterson (d/b/a Credit Island Recycling), for alleged violations of an industrial stormwater permit issued by IDNR for an applianc
Dean Acosta, NASA Public Affairs Deputy Assistant Administrator hosted this press briefing. Michael Griffin, NASA Administrator; Bill Parsons, Shuttle Program Manager; Michael Leinbach, Shuttle Launch Director; and Bill Ready, Space Operations Associate Administrator were present. The Panel specifically honored the Columbia crew as they praised Commander Eileen Collin's performance in bringing the Discovery and crew safe back to Earth. Re-entry, test flight and next test flight, thermal insulation, heat, vehicle inspection, turn around processing, and ferrying Discovery back to the Kennedy Space Center were topics covered with the News media. Michael Griffin announced the launching of Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter will take place the following morning.
The analysis of ancient artefacts is a long but largely neglected thread within the histories of archaeology and chemistry. This paper examines Michael Faraday's contributions to this nascent field, drawing on his published correspondence and the works of his antiquarian collaborators, and focusing in particular on his analyses of Romano-British and ancient Egyptian artefacts. Faraday examined the materials used in ancient Egyptian mummification, and provided the first proof of the use of lead glazes on Roman ceramics. Beginning with an assessment of Faraday's personal interests and early work on antiquities with Humphry Davy, this paper critically examines the historiography of archaeological chemistry and attempts to place Faraday's work within its institutional, intellectual, and economic contexts.
Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas; Tilton, Hereward
The authors provide a transcription, translation, and evaluation of nine newly discovered letters from the alchemist Michael Maier (1568-1622) to Gebhardt Johann von Alvensleben (1576-1631), a noble landholder in the vicinity of Magdeburg. Stemming from the final year of his life, this correspondence casts new light on Maier's biography, detailing his efforts to secure patronage amid the financial crisis of the early Thirty Years' War. While his ill-fated quest to perfect potable gold continued to form the central focus of his patronage suits, Maier also offered his services in several arts that he had condemned in his printed works, namely astrology and "supernatural" magic. Remarks concerning his previously unknown acquaintance with Heinrich Khunrath call for a re-evaluation of Maier's negotiation of the discursive boundaries between Lutheran orthodoxy and Paracelsianism. The letters also reveal Maier's substantial contribution to a work previously ascribed solely to the English alchemist Francis Anthony.
STS-109 Mission Specialist Michael J. Massimino is seen during a prelaunch interview. He answers questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut, his career path, and his most memorable experiences. He gives details on the mission's goals and objectives, which focus on the refurbishing of the Hubble Space Telescope, and his role in the mission. He explains the plans for the rendezvous of the Columbia Orbiter with the Hubble Space Telescope. He provides details and timelines for each of the planned Extravehicular Activities (EVAs), which include replacing the solar arrays, changing the Power Control Unit, installing the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS), and installing a new Cryocooler for the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS). He also describes the break-out plan in place for these spacewalks. The interview ends with Massimino explaining the details of a late addition to the mission's tasks, which is to replace a reaction wheel on the Hubble Space Telescope.
The present comments concern Michael's concept of motivative variables, and the implications of that concept for our understanding of the nature of reinforcement as well as the extinction of responses maintained through positive and negative reinforcement. We note that both extinction and altering motivative variables decrease responding, but they do so differently. The former does so by discontinuing the response-reinforcer relation. The latter does so by altering the motivation to respond. We emphasize that we shouldn't conclude we have extinguished a response just because we have performed some operation that results in decreased responding. The difference is especially important for an understanding of how we might reduce maladaptive avoidance responses, such as found in phobias or obsessive-compulsive disorders.
Peters, Michael A.
Michael W. Apple is the John Bascom Professor of Curriculum and Instruction and Educational Policy Studies in the Departments of Curriculum and Instruction (CI) and Educational Policy Studies (EPS) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Education where he has taught since 1970. Michael Apple is one of the foremost educational theorists…
Library Journal, 2005
Michael Sullivan is a juggler--not a metaphorical one, a real one. He's also a library director, storyteller, competitive chess player, poet, speaker, and former children's librarian who continues to work with the kids in his community. This article summarizes the accomplishments and work of Michael Sullivan.
American Psychologist, 2012
Presents Michael J. Meaney as one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions (2012). Michael J. Meaney has taken the phenomenon of "handling" of newborn rats and opened a new area of investigation that has given new meaning to epigenetics via his work demonstrating transgenerational…
This article reports an interview with Michael Byram, Professor Emeritus, University of Durham in the United Kingdom, during his visit to Argentina in September 2011. Michael Byram is one of the main international referents in intercultural education. The interview addresses issues such as language education, intercultural and citizenship…
Nelson, Mary Carroll
Michael Naranjo is a Pueblo Indian who, after much searching, has become a talented sculptor. The son of a Baptist minister, Michael grew up observing nature and exploring the countryside around Santa Clara (New Mexico), his birthplace. When he was nine, his family moved to Taos, where he watched the ceremonies of the Taos Pueblos with…
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Keyser, Michael J.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on February 15, 2011, Michael J. Keyser submitted for filing, an application for authority to hold interlocking...
The paper addresses the question of what we should make of Michael Young's recent work with respect to curriculum theory by considering the particular case of South African curriculum reform. The paper thus traces two trajectories: the evolution of Michael Young's ideas over time and South African curriculum reform in the post-apartheid period.…
Hui, Chunngai; Pu, Fan; Xu, Jing
Asymmetric catalysis for chiral compound synthesis is a rapidly growing field in modern organic chemistry. Asymmetric catalytic processes have been indispensable for the synthesis of enantioselective materials to meet demands from various fields. Michael addition has been used extensively for the construction of C-C bonds under mild conditions. With the discovery and development of organo- and metal-catalyzed asymmetric Michael additions, the synthesis of enantioselective and/or diastereoselective Michael adducts has become possible and increasingly prevalent in the literature. In particular, metal-catalyzed asymmetric Michael addition has been employed as a key reaction in natural product synthesis for the construction of contiguous quaternary stereogenic center(s), which is still a difficult task in organic synthesis. Previously reported applications of metal-catalyzed asymmetric Michael additions in natural product synthesis are presented here and discussed in depth.
Park, Yoen Ju; Chen, Jinru
This study was undertaken to evaluate the microbial quality of the soft drinks served by fast food restaurants and gas station convenience stores in Griffin, GA, and surrounding areas. The soft drinks were collected from the dispensing machines in 8 fast food restaurants or gas station convenience stores in 2005 (n = 25) and in 10 fast food restaurants or gas station convenience stores in 2006 (n = 43) and 2007 (n = 43). One hundred milliliters of each soft drink was filtered through a hydrophobic grid membrane filter. The remaining portion of the soft drink was kept at room temperature for 4 h before sampling in order to mimic the possible holding time between purchase and consumption. The membrane filters were sampled for total aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts and molds. The microbial counts in the 2006 samples were numerically higher than the counts in the 2007 samples except for the average lactic acid bacteria counts, and were either significantly or numerically higher than the counts in the 2005 samples. Soft drinks sampled after the 4-h holding period had relatively higher counts than those sampled initially, with a few exceptions. Some soft drinks had over 4 log CFU/100 ml of total aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria, and yeast and mold cells. The study revealed the microbial quality of soft drinks served by dispensing machines in Griffin, GA, and surrounding areas, emphasizing the importance of effective sanitizing practice in retail settings.
In early 2004, IBM combined its Healthcare unit, which focused on the technology needs of providers, with its Life Sciences unit, which catered to research scientists. Out of that union was born an "emerging business opportunity" called information-based medicine, in which IBM has already invested tens of millions in the expectation of reaping billions of dollars in revenues. Michael Svinte describes his mission as providing the information technology infrastructure that will enable technologies such as proteomics and molecular imaging to progress from the bench to the bedside, thereby resulting in predictive and personalized health care.
Stern, David L; Dawes-Hoang, Rachel E
Michael Akam has been awarded the 2007 Kowalevsky medal for his many research accomplishments in the area of evolutionary developmental biology. We highlight three tributaries of Michaels contribution to evolutionary developmental biology. First, he has made major contributions to our understanding of development of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Second, he has maintained a consistent focus on several key problems in evolutionary developmental biology, including the evolving role of Hox genes in arthropods and, more recently, the evolution of segmentation mechanisms. Third, Michael has written a series of influential reviews that have integrated progress in developmental biology into an evolutionary perspective. Michael has also made a large impact on the field through his effective mentorship style, his selfless promotion of younger colleagues, and his leadership of the University Museum of Zoology at Cambridge and the European community of evolutionary developmental biologists.
Meet NASA astronaut Michael López-Alegría, a veteran of four spaceflights. He has logged over 257 days in space and performed 10 spacewalks. Learn what inspired him to become such a successful astr...
A movie of satellite observations from Sept. 2-5, 2012, shows Leslie strengthen into a Hurricane on September 5 as it nears Bermuda, and tiny Tropical Storm Michael in the central Atlantic Ocean. T...
Michael Nye, Ph.D., is a social scientist who studies natural risk, socio-demographic change and sustainable behavior. Prior to joining EPA, he worked for the UK Environment Agency in flood risk management and emergency preparedness
Nye, Mary Jo
Tacit knowing: 2016 marked the 125th anniversary of the birth of the physical chemist Michael Polanyi, as well as the 40th of his death. This essay discusses his philosophy of science-in particular, his most significant work in this area, Personal Knowledge-from the perspective of his personal biography, as well as its lasting influence on the social sciences. In the photograph: Michael Polanyi at the Fritz Haber Institute in 1968.
KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. Michael Griffin (left), administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and James Kennedy, director of the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), address KSC employees during a Town Hall meeting. The meeting was held in the Training Auditorium and broadcast around the Center to employees not in attendance. This is Griffin's first official visit to Kennedy Space Center. Griffin is the 11th administrator of NASA, a role he assumed on April 14, 2005. Griffin was nominated to the position in March while serving as the Space Department head at Johns Hopkins University's Applied Physics Laboratory in Baltimore. A registered professional engineer in Maryland and California, Griffin served as chief engineer at NASA earlier in his career. He holds numerous scientific and technical degrees including a Ph.D. in Aerospace Engineering from the University of Maryland.
Campaña, Araceli G; Fuentes, Noelia; Gómez-Bengoa, Enrique; Mateo, Cristina; Oltra, J Enrique; Echavarren, Antonio M; Cuerva, Juan M
Sodium tetramethoxyborate, easily prepared by reaction of inexpensive sodium borohydride with methanol, possesses a suitable combination of a Lewis base and a Lewis acid to catalyze Michael reactions at room temperature under practically neutral conditions. This reaction provides good to excellent yields of Michael addition products from a broad scope of Michael donor and Michael acceptor reagents.
... ADMINISTRATION General Services Administration Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Packing List Clause AGENCY... approved information collection requirement regarding the packing list clause. A request for public..., Packing List Clause, in all correspondence. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Michael O....
Kovac, Reviewed By Jeffrey
At a time when almost all general chemistry textbooks seem to have become commodities designed by marketing departments to offend no one, it is refreshing to find a book with a unique perspective. Michael Munowitz has written what I can only describe as a delightful chemistry book, full of conceptual insight, that uses a novel and interesting pedagogic strategy. This is a book that has much to recommend it. This is the best-written general chemistry book I have ever read. An editor with whom I have worked recently remarked that he felt his job was to help authors make their writing sing. Well, the writing in Principles of Chemistry sings with the full, rich harmonies and creative inventiveness of the King's Singers or Chanticleer. Here is the first sentence of the introduction: "Central to any understanding of the physical world is one discovery of paramount importance, a truth disarmingly simple yet profound in its implications: matter is not continuous." This is prose to be savored and celebrated. Principles of Chemistry has a distinct perspective on chemistry: the perspective of the physical chemist. The focus is on simplicity, what is common about molecules and reactions; begin with the microscopic and build bridges to the macroscopic. The author's perspective is clear from the organization of the book. After three rather broad introductory chapters, there are four chapters that develop the quantum mechanical theory of atoms and molecules, including a strong treatment of molecular orbital theory. Unlike many books, Principles of Chemistry presents the molecular orbital approach first and introduces valence bond theory later only as an approximation for dealing with more complicated molecules. The usual chapters on descriptive inorganic chemistry are absent (though there is an excellent chapter on organic and biological molecules and reactions as well as one on transition metal complexes). Instead, descriptive chemistry is integrated into the development of
KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. In Orbiter Processing Facility bay 1, NASA Administrator Michael Griffin observes as technicians prepare Space Shuttle Atlantis for the second Return to Flight mission, STS-121. This is Griffin's first official visit to Kennedy Space Center. Griffin is the 11th administrator of NASA, a role he assumed on April 14, 2005. Griffin was nominated to the position in March while serving as the Space Department head at Johns Hopkins University's Applied Physics Laboratory in Baltimore. A registered professional engineer in Maryland and California, Griffin served as chief engineer at NASA earlier in his career. He holds numerous scientific and technical degrees including a Ph.D. in Aerospace Engineering from the University of Maryland.
Steunenberg, Peter; Sijm, Maarten; Zuilhof, Han; Sanders, Johan P M; Scott, Elinor L; Franssen, Maurice C R
A methodology has been developed for an efficient and selective lipase-catalyzed aza-Michael reaction of various amines (primary and secondary) with a series of acrylates and alkylacrylates. Reaction parameters were tuned, and under the optimal conditions it was found that Pseudomonas stutzeri lipase and Chromobacterium viscosum lipase showed the highest selectivity for the aza-Michael addition to substituted alkyl acrylates. For the first time also, some CLEAs were examined that showed a comparable or higher selectivity and yield than the free enzymes and other formulations.
The Michael hydratase – alcohol dehydrogenase (MhyADH) from Alicycliphilus denitrificans was previously identified as a bi-functional enzyme performing a hydration of α,β-unsaturated ketones and subsequent oxidation of the formed alcohols. The investigations of the bi-functionality were based on a spectrophotometric assay and an activity staining in a native gel of the dehydrogenase. New insights in the recently discovered organocatalytic Michael addition of water led to the conclusion that the previously performed experiments to identify MhyADH as a bi-functional enzyme and their results need to be reconsidered and the reliability of the methodology used needs to be critically evaluated. PMID:24949265
Pradhan, Anil; Nahar, Sultana
Professor Michael John Seaton, hailed as the "Father of Atomic Astrophysics," passed away on May 29, 2007. He was one of the few Honorary Fellows of both the American Astronomical Society and the American Physical Society, so honored for his monumental contributions to both physics and astronomy. Mike Seaton was born on January 16, 1923 in Bristol, England. He attended Wallington County High School. But his leftist political activities, even at that stage, led to his expulsion, though he was eventually allowed to matriculate. He enlisted in the Royal Air Force as a navigator during the Second World War, and flew many dangerous missions. His legendary concentration and precision are reflected in the following anecdote. Once after a bombing mission his aircraft was lost in fog over the Alps. Seaton calculated the position and coordinates in flight to guide the aircraft. When the fog lifted, the crew found themselves flying perilously close to the mountains, but made it safely back. His associates often said, "A Seaton calculation is carried out as if his life depended on it." After the War he was admitted to University College London (UCL) as an undergraduate. Thereafter, he spent all of his professional career at UCL. Seaton received his Batchelor's degree in 1948, and his Ph.D. in 1951. His tenure at UCL coincided with the golden age of atomic astrophysics, for he was largely responsible for it. Seaton was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 1967, and as President of the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS) in 1978. He was the recipient of an Honorary Doctorate from the Observatoire de Paris, an Honorary D.Sc. from the Queen's University of Belfast, the Gold Medal for Astronomy by the RAS, the Guthrie Medal by the Institute of Physics, the Royal Society Hughes award for lifetime work by the RAS, and several other prestigious awards. Nevertheless, as Alex Dalgarno recently remarked, Seaton was not part of the establishment because he chose not to be. Though rooted in
Zhao, Bo-Liang; Lin, Ye; Yan, Hao-Hao; Du, Da-Ming
A bifunctional squaramide catalysed aza-Michael/Michael cascade reaction between nitroalkenes and tosylaminomethyl enones or enoates has been developed. This organocatalytic cascade reaction provides easy access to highly functionalized chiral pyrrolidines with a broad substrate scope, giving the desired products in good yields (up to 99%) with good diastereoselectivities (up to 91 : 9 dr) and excellent enantioselectivities (up to >99% ee) under mild conditions. This protocol provides a straightforward entry to highly functionalized chiral trisubstituted pyrrolidine derivatives from simple starting materials.
Ball, Stephen J.
This article discusses Michael Apple's contribution to the sociology of education and education policy analysis and the politics of education. It focuses on ways of "reading" Apple as an intellectual and an activist and looks at the trajectory of his work over a long and illustrious career.
Pattee, H H
This paper summarizes Michael Conrad's academic and professional career from the time he began his Ph.D. studies in 1964 to his appointment at Wayne State University in 1979. It describes the origins of several of his major research interests and presents a personal evaluation of how this early work continues to be of fundamental importance.
Michael Murrel, Ph.D., is a EPA research ecologist working on the Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia Project, helping develop models of the northern Gulf to quantify the links between freshwater flowing into the Gulf from the land, nutrients, and hypoxia—“dead zones”
Giraldo, Carolina; Gómez, Sara; Weinhold, Frank; Restrepo, Albeiro
The mechanism for the nucleophilic addition step of the Michael reaction between methanethiol as a model Michael donor and several α-substituted methyl acrylates (X=F, Cl, Me, H, CN, NO2 ) as model Michael acceptors is described in detail. We suggest a novel way to condense electrophilic Fukui functions at specific atoms in terms of the contributions from the atomic orbitals to the LUMO or, more generally, to the orbital controlling the reaction. This procedure correctly associates activation energies to local electrophilic Fukui indices for the cases treated in this work. The calculated reaction barriers strongly depend on the nature of the substituent. As a general rule, activation energies are governed by structural changes, although electronic factors are significant for electron-withdrawing groups. Nucleophilic addition to Michael receptors is best described as a highly nonsynchronous process, in which the geometry of the transition state comprises a nonplanar six-membered ring. Formation of the S⋅⋅⋅C bond, which defines the interaction between the reactants, progresses ahead of all other primitive processes in the early stages of the transformation. In view of our results, we postulate that highly complex chemical reactions, as is the case for the nucleophilic addition step studied herein, that involve cleavage/formation of a total of six bonds, lower their activation energies by favoring nonsynchronicity, that is, for these types of systems, primitive changes should advance at different rates.
Conoce al astronauta de la NASA Michael López-Alegría, veterano de cuatro vuelos espaciales. Lleva registrados 257 días en el espacio y llevó a cabo 10 paseos espaciales. Conoce lo que lo inspiró a...
Explains why teachers addressing the nature of science should know the work of Michael Polanyi. Outlines Polanyi's intellectual career and examines his ideas on the education of scientists, research, and knowledge. Polanyi presaged Kuhn, Feyerabend, and the constructivists, yet insisted that science produces true knowledge about reality. (Contains…
Price, G. L.
The problem of the intellectual independence of the university within a technologically oriented society was one of the problems which motivated Michael Polanyi's inquiry into the foundations of knowledge. The key elements of his resultant attempt to supersede objectivist accounts of science are isolated, and evaluated. (Editor/RK)
Festino, Cielo G.
The purpose of this paper is to offer a reading of "Handwriting", the book of poems by the Canadian-Sri Lankan author, Michael Ondaatje, in which he recovers the recent and ancient cultural history of the island through his reading of different types of scripts and languages. The texts that Ondaatje rewrites in his poems are visual,…
This article describes the efforts of Michael Scott in trying to gain dignity and justice for victims of political violence. It indicates that, though limited, there are still nonviolent recourses open to those who will not use the war system. (Author/JB)
In the course of early interviews on the history of psychoanalysis, I saw Michael Fordham in the late summer of 1965. We concentrated primarily on the differences between Freud and Jung, as well as the characteristic distinctions between the two schools that they founded. Fordham also talked about some of his personal contacts with Jung.
Early childhood instruction and the experiences that accompany can serve life-long lessons. Depriving children of education during this critical period in life can have significant consequences on cognitive, socio-emotional, and physical development. This article features one of the forerunners to special education, Michael Anagnostopoulos…
This paper examines Michael Young's 1958 dystopia, "The Rise of the Meritocracy". In this book, the word "meritocracy" was coined and used in a pejorative sense. Today, however, meritocracy represents a positive ideal against which we measure the justice of our institutions. This paper argues that, when read in the twenty-first century, Young's…
This article is a response to Michael Hand's critique in this issue of my response to his use of the epistemic criterion as the sole means for identifying whether or not an issue should be identified as controversial. I argue that he has misunderstood my intention in suggesting that I was seeking to replace the epistemic criterion. Rather my…
HEADSTONES OF BERNARD AND MICHAEL JODD, FATHER-AND-SON CIVILIANS RESPONSIBLE FOR CONSTRUCTION OF BRICK PERIMETER WALL WHO DIED OF YELLOW FEVER DURING WALL CONSTRUCTION. VIEW TO WEST. - Baton Rouge National Cemetery, 220 North 19th Street, Baton Rouge, East Baton Rouge Parish, LA
Colburn, Michael J.
This article is adapted from a speech given by Major Michael J. Colburn executive officer and senior assistant director of the United States Marine Band, to the MENC Summer Leadership Conference July 12-15, 2003 at the MENC national headquarters in Reston, Virginia. In this article, Colburn shares three personal anecdotes that he considers to be…
Zabel, Robert; Kaff, Marilyn; Teagarden, Jim
C. Michael Nelson began his special education career as a teacher of adolescents with learning and behavior disorders. He has worked as a child psychologist and as a professor with the Department of Special Education and Rehabilitation Counseling at the University of Kentucky. He coordinated the graduate Personnel Preparation Program for Teachers…
Michael Young's work is central to debates about knowledge and the school curriculum. In recent years he has renounced his early argument that school subjects represent the "knowledge of the powerful", arguing instead that access and equality for all students are dependent on ensuring that all get access to "powerful…
Library Journal, 2004
This article details the work of Michael Neubert from the Library of Congress. It briefly discusses his interest in Russian studies and how it originated. It then discusses that when he received his M.A. in Soviet Studies he was not sure how he would make a living--until he read about the job opportunities for area studies librarians.
Heraud, Richard; Tesar, Marek
Professor Michael A. Peters has worked in an era of transformation that has taken him from a labour-intensive paper-based form of production to the computerised reproduction of thought, and the current shift in the publishing landscape from a reader-subscription to an author-pays model. Most of what he has learned in publishing and editing he has…
This paper responds to Michael Rosen's blog entries, "How Genre Theory Saved the World", arguing that genre theory in the tradition of systemic functional linguistics (SFL) has made an important contribution to language and literacy pedagogy. It emerged in the Australian context in about 1980 and was initially developed in response to…
This article presents an interview with Michael Barber, a partner at McKinsey & Company, leading its global education practice. He has been working on major challenges of performance, organization, and reform in government and the public services, especially education, in the U.S., U.K., and other countries. Barber was instrumental in preparing…
The four astronauts of the final space shuttle mission are greeted by R.E.M. front man Michael Stipe and the groupâs hit, "Man on the Moon" to begin Flight Day 7. On recording this song for the A...
National Association of Independent Schools (NAIS) (NJ), 2006
Michael G. Thompson knows independent schools. He attended them in elementary and secondary school, and has worked in them as a psychologist. He consults with more than 30 schools a year, addressing a myriad of issues related to complex human interaction. He has written often in "Independent School" about everything from understanding the social…
This article presents an interview with Michael Fullan, an internationally recognized expert in educational change. A prolific writer and speaker, Fullan has worked in schools and educational systems around the world, including his home province of Ontario, Canada. He partners with a variety of projects designed to engineer school improvement and…
Nigam, Manisha; Rush, Brittney; Patel, Jay; Castillo, Raul; Dhar, Preeti
A green, aza-Michael reaction is described that can be used to teach undergraduate students conjugate addition of nitrogen nucleophile to an a,ß-unsaturated ester. Students analyze spectral data of the product obtained from the assigned reaction to determine product structure and propose the mechanism of its formation. The experiment requires…
This issue of the "Journal of Curriculum Studies" presents a symposium on the recent work of Michael Young. Contemporary curriculum theory has little specific to say about how knowledge is selected, organized and transformed into curriculum content for teaching and learning. Over the last two decades, Young has taken a rather different…
Sanderson, Jimmy; Cheong, Pauline Hope
Death and bereavement are human experiences that new media helps facilitate alongside creating new social grief practices that occur online. This study investigated how people's postings and tweets facilitated the communication of grief after pop music icon Michael Jackson died. Drawing on past grief research, religion, and new media studies, a…
Marcou, G; Aires de Sousa, J; Latino, D A R S; de Luca, A; Horvath, D; Rietsch, V; Varnek, A
A generic chemical transformation may often be achieved under various synthetic conditions. However, for any specific reagents, only one or a few among the reported synthetic protocols may be successful. For example, Michael β-addition reactions may proceed under different choices of solvent (e.g., hydrophobic, aprotic polar, protic) and catalyst (e.g., Brønsted acid, Lewis acid, Lewis base, etc.). Chemoinformatics methods could be efficiently used to establish a relationship between the reagent structures and the required reaction conditions, which would allow synthetic chemists to waste less time and resources in trying out various protocols in search for the appropriate one. In order to address this problem, a number of 2-classes classification models have been built on a set of 198 Michael reactions retrieved from literature. Trained models discriminate between processes that are compatible and respectively processes not feasible under a specific reaction condition option (feasible or not with a Lewis acid catalyst, feasible or not in hydrophobic solvent, etc.). Eight distinct models were built to decide the compatibility of a Michael addition process with each considered reaction condition option, while a ninth model was aimed to predict whether the assumed Michael addition is feasible at all. Different machine-learning methods (Support Vector Machine, Naive Bayes, and Random Forest) in combination with different types of descriptors (ISIDA fragments issued from Condensed Graphs of Reactions, MOLMAP, Electronic Effect Descriptors, and Chemistry Development Kit computed descriptors) have been used. Models have good predictive performance in 3-fold cross-validation done three times: balanced accuracy varies from 0.7 to 1. Developed models are available for the users at http://infochim.u-strasbg.fr/webserv/VSEngine.html . Eventually, these were challenged to predict feasibility conditions for ∼50 novel Michael reactions from the eNovalys database (originally
... NLM's David Nash and admiring students from the Michael E. DeBakey High School for Health Professionals in Houston, ... pump to assist a patient's damaged heart. Dr. Michael E. DeBakey, shown with his surgical team in the ...
... Energy Regulatory Commission Michael Canales v. Edison International, EIX, Southern California Edison....1, Michael Canales (Complainant) filed a formal complaint against Edison International, EIX and Southern California Edison (collectively, Respondents), alleging that the Respondents' actions, as...
Ghorai, Manas K; Halder, Sandipan; Das, Subhomoy
A simple strategy for the synthesis of highly functionalized cyclohexanone derivatives containing an all-carbon quaternary center from α-(aryl/alkyl)methylidene-β-keto esters or β-diketones via a K-enolate mediated domino Michael-Michael reaction sequence with moderate to good yield and excellent diastereoselectivity (de > 99%) is described. Interestingly, Li-base mediated reaction of α-arylmethylidene-β-diketones affords functionalized 3,5-dihydroxy cyclohexane derivatives as the kinetically controlled products via a domino aldol-aldol reaction sequence with excellent diastereoselectivity. Li-enolates of the β-keto esters or β-diketones undergo facile domino Michael-Michael reaction with nitro-olefins to afford the corresponding nitrocyclohexane derivatives in good yields and excellent diastereoselectivity (de > 99%). The formation of the products and the observed stereoselectivity were explained by plausible mechanisms and supported by extensive computational study. An asymmetric version of the protocol was explored with (L)-menthol derived nonracemic substrates, and the corresponding nonracemic cyclohexanone derivatives containing an all-carbon quaternary center were obtained with excellent stereoselectivity (de, ee > 99%).
Nath, Utpal; Banerjee, Ankush; Ghosh, Bidhan; Pan, Subhas Chandra
Enantioselective organocatalytic Michael addition reactions of 1-acetylcyclohexene, 1-acetylcyclopentene and 1-acetylcyclobutene to nitroolefins have been developed. This is the first report where an α-branched enone has been activated by an amine catalyst for the asymmetric Michael addition reaction to an electrophile. The Michael products have also been cyclized to bicyclic compounds.
... Energy Regulatory Commission Michael J. Donahue; Notice of Termination of Exemption By Implied Surrender...: Michael J. Donahue. e. Name and Location of Project: The Fairbanks Mill Project is located on the Sleeper... Information: Mr. Michael J. Donahue, Route 3, Box 269, Lincoln, NH 03251. h. FERC Contact: Tom Papsidero,...
... Energy Regulatory Commission Michael J. Donahue; Notice of Termination of Exemption by Implied Surrender...: Michael J. Donahue. e. Name and Location of Project: The Fairbanks Mill Project is located on the Sleeper... Information: Mr. Michael J. Donahue, Route 3, Box 269, Lincoln, NH 03251. h. FERC Contact: Tom Papsidero,...
Dorr, Robert F
The Washington Watch column discusses budget issues on Capitol Hill relating to aerospace issues, including the shuttle's delayed return to flight and Michael Griffin becoming the new NASA administrator; the Transportation Security Administration becoming downsized; and new personnel at the Pentagon.
Demchenko, Alexander P; Heldt, Józef; Waluk, Jacek; Chou, Pi-Tai; Sengupta, Pradeep K; Brizhik, Larissa; del Valle, Juan Carlos
A brilliant scientist and an outstanding personality who was one of the founders of modern photochemistry-Michael Kasha-is the subject of this Essay. Kasha's rule and the Kasha effect both bear his name, and he also discovered the chemical production of singlet molecular oxygen, and was a pioneer of excited-state proton transfer systems. Kasha combined his passion for chemistry and physics with that for music, photography, and botany.
Baslé, Olivier; Porcel, Susana; Ladeira, Sonia; Bouhadir, Ghenwa; Bourissou, Didier
Phosphine-boronates R(2)P(o-C(6)H(4))B(OR')(2) have been evaluated as bifunctional organocatalysts for the Michael addition of malonate pronucleophiles to methylvinylketone. The presence of the Lewis acidic boron center adjacent to phosphorus significantly improves catalytic performance. Isolation and complete characterization of a key intermediate, namely a β-phosphonium enolate, substantiate the role of the Lewis acidic moiety in the catalytic process.
Rothe, Heinz J.
We reconsider the derivation of the Michael lattice sum rules, which relate the energy and action stored in a flux tube of a quark-antiquark pair to the static interquark potential, and show that they require essential corrections. We then find, using the coupling constant sum rule of Karsch, that the total Minkowski field energy does not match the interquark potential, if one follows conventional notions. The implications of this result are discussed.
Popister, I.; Zeman, A.
The goal of the present study is to characterize the black crust on the main stone used at Saint Michael's Church in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The gases in the atmosphere, along with natural and artificial pollutants can cause damage the integrity of the stone when it comes in contact with the stone's chemistry. In order to explain the mechanism of stone decay due to black crust it is necessary to know what "weathering" means, so it must be seen as a complex process that consists of: type of material, the environment in which the material is located, and the amount of time required for the process to take place. Each material has particular properties, due to its composition and genesis. When it comes in contact with the acidity of the "acid rain" (caused by sulphur, nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide), the rain penetrates into the pore structure, corroding it and "allowing" the atmospheric particles to penetrate the stone. St. Michael's Church is one of the oldest Gothic architectural monuments in Cluj, Romania, being built predominantly from Cenozoic (Upper Eocene) limestone, locally known as the Cluj Limestone. The main quarry was in Baciu, near Cluj. The samples that were collected from the Saint Michael's Church were characterized by means of: optical microscope, Scattering Electronic Microscope, thin sections, EDS The samples that were collected from the Saint Michael's Church went through a series of tests: optical microscope, Scattering Electronic Microscope, thin sections, EDX, and cross-section. The optical microscope analysis of the thin sections revealed that the black crust layer is approximately 0.01mm, and in the sample there are perfectly shaped ooides, which is characteristic to this type of limestone. The SEM analysis shows a resedimentation layer on the surface of the black crust, which occurred probably due to the effect of acid rain. Further information regarding the results of the test will be presented on the poster.
Blumenthal, W M
In the interview published by Fortune, W. Michael Blumenthal, Secretary of the Treasury and former Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of Bendix Corporation, discusses his transition from being a business executive to becoming a senior member of the cabinet. Blumenthal compares the workings of the corporate world with the ways of Washington. Essentially, he views the business world as less complex, allowing a manager flexibility as long as he performs successfully. In government, administrative practices are more regulated with most policy decisions determined in the public arena making the managerial process much slower and more complex. Despite the differences between the corporate world and Washington, Blumenthal identifies four basic management principles that are valid for both; (1) choose very good people; (2) learn to delegate authority; (3) know your facts; and (4) be honest. Blumenthal has found his tenure in government to be interesting and rewarding and encourages other businessmen to seek the challenge of government service.
Vladeck, Bruce C
Michael Birnbaum interviews Bruce C. Vladeck about the landscape for national health reform in 2009. Vladeck, who worked under President Clinton directing Medicare and Medicaid as administrator of the Health Care Financing Administration, discusses some of the challenges and opportunities facing the Obama administration. By comparing the current political and economic environments with those he faced while working in the Clinton administration, Vladeck argues that this time around America might be ready for pragmatic reforms leading toward universal coverage. He explores the future of employer-based coverage; problems and solutions for America's aging workforce; poor customer service in Medicare; the "Medicaid Stigma"; the promise of immigration; and the trade-offs between access, quality, and cost in the American system. Finally, Vladeck offers a silver lining to the current economic catastrophe. As he sees it, common sense and results may be taking the place of ideology in policy making and policy analysis: "The intellectual hegemony of neoclassical economics has been blown out of the water."
..., Deborah C. Gramlick, Carl Graves, Margaret Griffin, Edward Grimm, Michael Gross-Davis, Leslie Grossman.... Rogers, Debra Roy, Donna Russell, Anthony A. Russell, Michael Rynes, Joel Salazar, Ronald...
Men, Ruizhi; Li, Ning; Ding, Chihong; Tang, Yingzhan; Xing, Yachao; Ding, Wanjing; Ma, Zhongjun
Background: The fruits of some varieties of genus Physalis have been used as delicious fruits and functional food in the Northeast of China. Materials and Methods: To reveal the functional material basis, we performed bioactivity-guided phytochemical research and chemopreventive effect assay of the constituents from Physalis minima. Results: It was demonstrated that the ethyl acetate extract of P. minima L. (EEPM) had potential quinone reductase (QR) inducing activity with induction ratio (IR, QR induction activity) value of 1.47 ± 0.24, and glutathione binding property as potential Michael reaction acceptors (with an α, β-unsaturated ketone moiety). Furthermore, bioactivity-guided phytochemical research led eight compounds (1–8), which were elucidated as 3-isopropyl-5-acetoxycyclohexene-2-one-1 (1), isophysalin B (2), physalin G (3), physalin D (4), physalin I (5), physordinose B (6), stigmasterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (7) and 5α-6β-dihydroxyphysalin R (8) on the basis of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy analyses and HRESIMS. Then, isophysalin B (2) and physordinose B (6) showed significant QR inducing activity with IR value of 2.80 ± 0.19 and 2.38 ± 0.46, respectively. SUMMARY An ultra-performance liquid chromatographic method with glutathione as the substrate was used to detect the Michael reaction acceptors in extracts of Physalis minima (EPM)We investigated the chemical constituents of EPM guided by biological activity methodIsophysalin B (1) and physordinose B (6) showed strong quinone reductase inducing activity with induction ratio values of 2.80 ± 0.19 and 2.38 ± 0.46This study generated useful information for consumers and many encourage researchers to utilize edible fruits from Physalis as a source of phytochemicals Abbreviations used: EPM: Extracts of Physalis minima, EEPM: Ethyl acetate extract of Physalis minima L., GSH: Glutathione, MRAs: Michael reaction acceptors, QR: Quinone reductase. PMID:27279713
Fàbregas, Mireia; Gómez-Palomino, Alejandro; Pellicena, Miquel; Reina, Daniel F; Romea, Pedro; Urpí, Fèlix; Font-Bardia, Mercè
Substrate-controlled Michael additions of the titanium(IV) enolate of lactate-derived ketone 1 to acyclic α,β-unsaturated ketones in the presence of a Lewis acid (TiCl4 or SnCl4) provide the corresponding 2,4-anti-4,5-anti dicarbonyl compounds in good yields and excellent diastereomeric ratios. Likely, the nucleophilic species involved in such additions are bimetallic enolates that may add to enones through cyclic transition states. Finally, further studies indicate that a structurally related β-benzyloxy chiral ketone can also participate in such stereocontrolled conjugate additions.
Ozeki, Minoru; Ochi, Shunsuke; Hayama, Noboru; Hosoi, Shinzo; Kajimoto, Tetsuya; Node, Manabu
Multiple contiguous chiral centers were constructed in one pot using three types of multistep reactions initiated with the Michael addition of N-benzyl-2(R)-methoxy-(+)-10-bornylamide to alpha,beta-unsaturated esters, i.e., asymmetric Michael-aldol reaction, double Michael addition, and double Michael-aldol reaction. The chiral 2-methoxy-10-bornyl group as well as the benzyl group on the amino group of the products in the Michael-aldol reaction could be easily cleaved by treatment with NIS (4 equiv), and beta-amino esters with multiple contiguous chiral centers were obtained in good yield. As an application, the beta-amino-beta'-hydroxy ester obtained in the asymmetric Michael-aldol reaction was converted to the beta-lactam derivative in good yield.
Corbett, Michael T; Xu, Qihai; Johnson, Jeffrey S
The stereoselective synthesis of trisubstituted 2-trifluoromethyl pyrrolidines by asymmetric Michael addition/hydrogenative cyclization is described. The direct organocatalytic addition of 1,1,1-trifluoromethylketones to nitroolefins proceeds under mild reaction conditions and low catalyst loadings to provide Michael adducts in high yield with excellent diastereo- and enantioselectivity. Catalytic hydrogenation of the Michael adducts stereoselectively generates 2-trifluoromethylated pyrrolidines bearing three contiguous stereocenters. A stereospecific route to epimeric 2-trifluoromethyl pyrrolidines from a common intermediate is described.
Gogoi, Sanjib; Zhao, Cong-Gui; Ding, Derong
β-(3-Hydroxypyrazol-1-yl)ketones have been prepared in high yields and excellent enantioselectivities (94–98% ee) via a Michael addition reaction between 2-pyrazolin-5-ones and aliphatic acyclic α,β-unsaturated ketones using 9-epi-9-amino-9-deoxyquinine as the catalyst. These results account for the first example of an aza-Michael addition of the ambident 2-pyrazolin-5-one anion to a Michael acceptor. PMID:19415906
Slawik, Christian; Rickmeyer, Christiane; Brehm, Martin; Böhme, Alexander; Schüürmann, Gerrit
Glutathione (GSH) has so far been considered to facilitate detoxification of soft organic electrophiles through covalent binding at its cysteine (Cys) thiol group, followed by stepwise catalyzed degradation and eventual elimination along the mercapturic acid pathway. Here we show that in contrast to expectation from HSAB theory, Michael-acceptor ketones, aldehydes and esters may form also single, double and triple adducts with GSH involving β-carbon attack at the much harder N-terminus of the γ-glutamyl (Glu) unit of GSH. In particular, formation of the GSH-N single adduct contradicts the traditional view that S alkylation always forms the initial reaction of GSH with Michael-acceptor carbonyls. To this end, chemoassay analyses of the adduct formation of GSH with nine α,β-unsaturated carbonyls employing high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry have been performed. Besides enriching the GSH adductome and potential biomarker applications, electrophilic N-terminus functio-nalization is likely to impair GSH homeostasis substantially through blocking the γ-glutamyl transferase catalysis of the first breakdown step of modified GSH, and thus its timely reconstitution. The discussion includes a comparison with cyclic adducts of GSH and furan metabolites as reported in literature, and quantum chemically calculated thermodynamics of hard-hard, hard-soft and soft-soft adducts.
Kumar, Akshay; Chimni, Swapandeep Singh
Simple primary-tertiary diamines easily derived from natural primary amino acids were used to catalyze the Michael addition of ketones with isatylidenemalononitrile derivatives. Diamine 1a in combination with D-CSA as an additive provided Michael adducts in high yield (up to 94%) and excellent enantioselectivity (up to 99%). The catalyst 1a was successfully used to catalyze the three-component version of the reaction by a domino Knoevenagel-Michael sequence. The Michael adduct 4a was transformed into spirooxindole 6 by a reduction with sodium borohydride in a highly enantioselective manner.
Responsibilities, skills needed, training needed, earnings, employment outlook, and sources of additional information are outlined for the administrator who holds the top management job in a nursing home. (JT)
Chauhan, Pankaj; Urbanietz, Gregor; Raabe, Gerhard; Enders, Dieter
A highly stereoselective one-pot procedure involving an enantioselective Michael addition promoted by low loading of an amino-squaramide catalyst followed by an achiral base catalyzed domino Michael-Knoevenagel-type 1,2-addition sequence provides efficient access to fully substituted cyclohexanes bearing five contiguous stereogenic centers in good yields (68-86%) and excellent stereoselectivities (>30 : 1 dr and 96-99% ee).
A post landing discussion of the STS-114 Space Shuttle Discovery is shown. Dean Acosta, Deputy Assistant Administrator of Public Affairs introduces the panel. The panel consists of: Michael Griffin, NASA Administrator, Bill Parsons, Space Shuttle Program Manager, Mike Leinbach, NASA Launch Director, and Bill Readdy, Associate Administrator for Space Operations. Mike Griffin answers questions from the news media about the amount of damage to the Space Shuttle and the possibility of returning to space, Mike Leinbach addresses the question about the process of bringing Discovery back to Kennedy Space Center and Bill Parsons talks about milestones reached during this mission.
In 1996 Michael Crotty published the text Phenomenology and nursing research in which he criticised many nurse researchers' interpretation of the methodology of phenomenology and their utilisation of phenomenology as a method for undertaking qualitative nursing research. Crotty's thesis proposes that the research conducted by nurses is not phenomenology according to the European tradition, but a North American hybrid. Subsequently, debate has occurred amongst nurses as to whether Crotty's work is a scholarly, reasoned critique or a severe, judgmental, fault-finding criticism of nursing research. Considering the increasing utilisation of phenomenology as a methodology that informs nursing research, this debate is an important one and has implications for the conduct of research. This article examines this debate and the implications of Crotty's work for phenomenological research in nursing.
Figueira, Flávio; Marques, Igor; Farinha, Andreia S F; Tomé, Augusto C; Cavaleiro, José A S; Silva, Artur M S; Sessler, Jonathan; Félix, Vítor; Tomé, João P C
A novel sapphyrin derivative was obtained from the reaction between a free-base sapphyrin and dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate (DMAD). The formation of the new compound involved a double aza-Michael addition of two pyrrolic NH groups to a DMAD molecule, with the formation of a disubstituted ethano bridge. The NMR spectral data reveal a product with an unsymmetrical structure; DFT calculations provided support for a structure in which the ethano bridge links two adjacent pyrrole units. The present study provides a seemingly unprecedented example of an N,N'-dinucleophile reacting with DMAD to form a heterocyclic compound in which the two N-atoms are linked to the two sp(3) carbon atoms derived from a substituted acetylene.
C. Michael Foale, Commander of the Expedition 8 crew to the International Space Station (ISS), answers interview questions in this video. The questions cover: 1) The goals of the Expedition; 2) How his Mir experience prepared him for long-duration spaceflight; 3) The reaction the Columbia accident where he was training in Star City, Russia; 4) Why the rewards of spaceflight are worth the risks; 5) Why he wanted to become an astronaut; 6) His career path; 7) His influences; 8) His path of study; 9) His responsibilities on a mission; 10) What a Soyuz capsule is like; 11) What the oncoming and offgoing ISS crews will do together; 12) How the ISS science mission will be advanced during his stay; 13) Training and plans for extravehicular activity (EVA); 14) Return to Flight of Shuttle; 15) What is needed to make his mission a success; 16) The most valuable contribution of the ISS.
STS-107 Mission Specialist 3 and Payload Commander Michael Anderson is seen during this preflight interview, where he gives a quick overview of the mission before answering questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut and his career path. He outlines his role in the mission in general, and specifically in conducting onboard science experiments. He discusses the following instruments and sets of experiments in detail: CM2 (Combustion Module 2), FREESTAR (Fast Reaction Enabling Science Technology and Research, MEIDEX (Mediterranean Israeli Dust Experiment) and MGM (Mechanics of Granular Materials). Anderson also mentions on-board activities and responsibilities during launch and reentry, mission training, and microgravity research. In addition, he touches on the dual work-shift nature of the mission, the use of crew members as research subjects including pre and postflight monitoring activities, the emphasis on crew safety during training and the value of international cooperation.
Nugent, Thomas C; Bibi, Ahtaram; Sadiq, Abdul; Shoaib, Mohammad; Umar, M Naveed; Tehrani, Foad N
Here we report on inroads concerning increased substrate breadth via the picolylamine organocatalyst template, a vicinal chiral diamine based on a pyridine-primary amine motif. The addition of cyclohexanone to β-nitrostyrene has many catalyst solutions, but cyclopentanone and isobutyraldehyde additions continue to be challenging. PicAm-3 (10 mol%) readily allows the Michael addition of cyclopentanone or isobutyraldehyde (5.0 equiv.) to β-nitrostyrene derivatives. By contrast, PicAm-1 (7.0 mol%) is optimal for catalyzing the aldol reaction of cyclohexanone or cycloheptanone (3.3 equiv.) with aromatic aldehydes. Eighteen products are reported and for each reaction type new products are reported (4b-d, 9c). Very good yields and stereoselectivities are generally noted. The reactions, which require an acid additive, proceed via a transient chiral enamine and a mechanistic case is put forth for a bifunctional catalysis model.
STS-107 Mission Specialist 3 and Payload Commander Michael Anderson is seen during this preflight interview, where he gives a quick overview of the mission before answering questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut and his career path. He outlines his role in the mission in general, and specifically in conducting onboard science experiments. He discusses the following instruments and sets of experiments in detail: CM2 (Combustion Module 2), FREESTAR (Fast Reaction Enabling Science Technology and Research, MEIDEX (Mediterranean Israeli Dust Experiment) and MGM (Mechanics of Granular Materials). Anderson also mentions on-board activities and responsibilities during launch and reentry, mission training, and microgravity research. In addition, he touches on the dual work-shift nature of the mission, the use of crew members as research subjects including pre and postflight monitoring activities, the emphasis on crew safety during training and the value of international cooperation.
STS-94 Mission Specialist Michael L. Gernhardt is assisted into his launch/entry suit by a suit technician in the Operations and Checkout (O&C) Building. He first flew in this capacity on STS- 69. He has been a professional deep sea diver and engineer and holds a doctorate in bioengineering. Gernhardt will be in charge of the Blue shift and as flight engineer will operate and maintain the orbiter while Halsell and Still are asleep as members of the Red shift. He will also back them up on the flight deck during the ascent and re-entry phases of the mission. Gernhardt and six fellow crew members will shortly depart the O&C and head for Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Columbia will lift off during a launch window that opens at 1:50 a.m. EDT, July opportunity to lift off before Florida summer rain showers reached the space center.
STS-83 Mission Specialist Michael L. Gernhardt is assisted into his launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout (O&C) Building. He first flew in this capacity on STS-69. He has been a professional deep sea diver and engineer and holds a doctorate in bioengineering. Gernhardt will be in charge of the Blue shift and as flight engineer will operate and maintain the orbiter while Halsell and Still are asleep as members of the Red shift. He will also back them up on the flight deck during the ascent and re- entry phases of the mission. Gernhardt and six fellow crew members will shortly depart the O&C and head for Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Columbia will lift off during a launch window that opens at 2:00 p.m. EST, April 4.
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, Robert M. Sarvey... (PURPA), CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, and Robert M. Sarvey...
Lu, Hai-Hua; Wang, Xu-Fan; Yao, Chang-Jiang; Zhang, Jian-Ming; Wu, Hong; Xiao, Wen-Jing
A useful Michael addition reaction using nitroalkanes as the nucleophile and 4-oxo-enoates as the Michael acceptor has been disclosed, and the reaction allows expedient access to functionalized chiral gamma-keto esters in high yields and excellent enantioselectivities (up to 98% ee), with a low catalyst loading.
Fu, Niankai; Zhang, Long; Luo, Sanzhong
The first efficient and highly enantioselective Michael addition-protonation reaction of malononitriles to α-substituted vinyl ketones has been developed by using a chiral primary amine as the organocatalyst. With a Hantzsch ester as the hydride source, an enantioselective tandem reduction, Michael addition-protonation reaction of benzylidenemalononitrile has also been achieved with good yields and high enantioselectivities.
... Surface Transportation Board Michael Williams-Control Exemption-St. Maries River Railroad, Inc. Michael Williams (applicant),\\1\\ a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption to acquire control of St... from STMA's parent, Potlatch Land & Lumber, LLC, by Williams Group, Inc. (WG).\\2\\ Applicant...
Cranton, Patricia; Kasl, Elizabeth
This article presents the authors' response to Michael Newman's "Calling Transformative Learning into Question: Some Mutinous Thoughts". The authors begin by noting their appreciation of Michael Newman's challenge to transformative learning theory. In their response, the authors review and comment on the fatal flaws presented by Newman and then…
Mohan, Lindsey; Lundeberg, Mary A.; Reffitt, Kelly
Much of Michael Pressley's work during the past decade focused on the nature of highly effective, engaging literacy instruction. Michael Pressley believed that studying effective teachers and schools had the potential to influence more engaging and effective teaching, especially in underresourced schools. First, we describe the grounded…
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Wheatley, Michael I.; Garrison, Drummond E.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on September 28, 2012, Michael I. Wheatley and Drummond E. Garrison submitted for filing,...
Amara, Z; Drège, E; Troufflard, C; Retailleau, P; Tran Huu-Dau, M-E; Joseph, D
Switchable tandem intramolecular aza-Michael/Michael and double aza-Michael reactions allow the oriented synthesis of highly functionalised cyclic skeletons. Conjugate addition of deactivated anilines triggers chemo- and stereo-divergent ring-closure reaction pathways with a striking selectivity depending on reaction conditions.
One hundred and fifty years ago, Michael Tuomey completed his 'Report on the Geology of South Carolina,' the result of four years of arduous labor. The report is the first detailed and comprehensive geological description of the entire state, and it includes a geological map that shows the distribution of Coastal Plain and Piedmont-Blue Ridge units. In the sesquicentennial of Tuomey's survey, it is fitting that we recognize his important early contribution to the geology of South Carolina and the southeast. Tuomey's report is a 293-page volume with a 48-page appendix and an index. Although he gave a complete depiction of Coastal Plain geology and delineated Cretaceous, Lower Eocene, Eocene, Miocene, Post-Pliocene, and alluvial units on his map, the emphasis herein is on his mapping of the Piedmont and Blue Ridge. The metamorphic units he delineated are clay slate, mica slate, talcose slate, hornblende slate, gneiss, and lime rock. Gneiss is the most extensive unit on the map. His map shows many elements of the geologic framework we recognize today. The distribution of his clay slate unit corresponds closely with the Carolina slate and Bel Air belts as we know them now. The gneiss between the two clay slate areas matches the Kiokee belt. Areas of mica slate approximate the northern part of the Kings Mountain belt and the Chauga belt. He also recognized that his talcose slate unit was associated with gold deposits. Granitic and basaltic intrusive rocks are also delineated on the map. It shows the Newberry, Columbia, and Liberty Hill granites we recognize today. Basaltic intrusives outlined include the Bush River of western Newberry County, Dutchmans Creek, Big Wateree Creek, and Ogden gabbros. He described the regional extent of diabase dikes as occuring from Virginia to Alabama, noted their preferred direction and diagrammed their near-vertical orientation. He also referred to the distinctive soil and topography that develops on the large gabbros. Michael Tuomey
The briefing opened with Dean Acosta (NASA Press Secretary) introducing Michael Griffin (NASA Administrator) and Bill Gerstenmaier (Associate Administrator for Space Operations). Bill Griffin stated that they would resume the Shuttle Fight to Return process, that the vehicle was remarkably clean and if the weather was good, the Shuttle would be ready to launch as scheduled. Bill Gerstenmaier stated that the preparations and processing of the vehicle went extremely well and they are looking forward to increasing the crew size to three. Then the floor was open to questions from the press.
Liu, Junjia; Marsini, Maurice A; Bedell, T Aaron; Reider, Paul J; Sorensen, Erik J
The hydrindane (bicyclo[4.3.0]nonane) structural motif (1) and related cis-1-hydrindanone skeleton (2) are common substructures in many natural products. Herein, we describe efficient access to substituted cis-1-hydrindanones enabled by a sequence of Michael reactions. A copper-catalyzed intermolecular Michael addition of a cyclic silyl ketene acetal to a β-substituted-α-alkoxycarbonyl-cyclopentenone enables construction of a quaternary center and is followed, after incorporation of an additional Michael acceptor, by a second, intramolecular addition of a nucleophilic β-ketoester. This strategy affords stereoselective access to substituted bicyclic cis-hydrindanone ring systems containing up to three contiguous stereocenters.
Qiao, Baokun; An, Yongqiang; Liu, Qian; Yang, Wenguo; Liu, Hongjun; Shen, Juan; Yan, Lin; Jiang, Zhiyong
The first organocatalytic asymmetric Michael addition of 5H-oxazol-4-ones to nitroolefins has been developed. In the presence of easily prepared L-tert-leucine-derived tertiary amine/thiourea catalyst, the Michael addition of 5H-oxazol-4-ones to nitroolefins proceeded in an excellent diastereo- and enantioselective manner (up to 99% ee and >19:1 dr). The Michael adducts obtained are valuable precursors for the synthesis of chiral α-alkyl-α-hydroxy carboxylic acid derivatives, which represent a series of versatile building blocks in many biologically active compounds.
Kamal, Ahmed; Sathish, Manda; Srinivasulu, Vunnam; Chetna, Jadala; Chandra Shekar, Kunta; Nekkanti, Shalini; Tangella, Yellaiah; Shankaraiah, Nagula
Chiral pyrrolidinyl-oxazole-carboxamides were synthesized and used as efficient new organocatalysts for the asymmetric Michael addition of ketones with nitroalkenes under solvent-free conditions. Gratifyingly, the corresponding Michael adducts were obtained in higher yields (up to 99%) and excellent stereoselectivities (up to >99/1 dr and 99% ee). Transition state models have been proposed to account for the high enantio- and diastereoselectivity of these Michael addition reactions and also the energetics have been investigated using density functional methods. These results support the preferential formation of syn-products by the approach of trans-β-nitrostyrene through the re-face of anti-enamine.
STS-103 Mission Specialist C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.) is ready to take his turn at driving a small armored personnel carrier that is part of emergency egress training during Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities. The tracked vehicle could be used by the crew in the event of an emergency at the pad during which the crew must make a quick exit from the area. The TCDT also provides simulated countdown exercises and opportunities to inspect the mission payloads in the orbiter's payload bay. STS-103 is a 'call-up' mission due to the need to replace and repair portions of the Hubble Space Telescope. Although Hubble is operating normally and conducting its scientific observations, only three of its six gyroscopes are working properly. Four EVA's are planned to make the necessary repairs and replacements on the telescope. The other STS-103 crew members are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly, and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith , John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), and Claude Nicollier of Switzerland and Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France, who are with the European Space Agency. The mission is targeted for launch Dec. 6 at 2:37 a.m. EST.
...-Free Workplace Requirements AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Final rule with request for... recordkeeping requirements. Michael J. Astrue, Commissioner of Social Security. 0 Accordingly, for the reasons... / Thursday, June 3, 2010 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION 2 CFR Part 2339...
Liu, Chuan; Zhang, Wei; Dai, Li-Xin; You, Shu-Li
Lewis acid-catalyzed cascade dearomatization of N-substituted tryptophols via Michael addition reaction was developed. The generality of the method has been demonstrated by the synthesis of versatile furoindoline derivatives with a quaternary carbon center in good yields.
Li, Pengfei; Wang, Yongcan; Liang, Xinmiao; Ye, Jinxing
Cinchona alkaloid derived primary amine thioureas organocatalyzed Michael addition of nitroalkanes to enones in good yield and up to 98% ee and offered a new way to construct quaternary stereocenters from enones and nitroalkanes.
The Michael F. Vaccaro Honors Attorney Fellowship provides a unique opportunity to practice law in a major governmental environmental organization, and to receive extensive training in and exposure to environmental law and policy work in the public sector.
An efficient and environmentally benign tandem bis-aza-Michael addition of amines catalyzed by polystyrene sulfonic acid (PSSA) is described. This operationally simple high yielding microwave assisted synthetic protocol proceeded in water in the absence of any organic solvent.
Alkana, Linda Kelly
Describes the content of the book "The English Patient" (Michael Ondaatje) and presents teaching strategies. Focuses on the major themes in the book and the four characters who reside at an Italian villa during World War II. (CMK)
Ueda, Atsushi; Umeno, Tomohiro; Doi, Mitsunobu; Akagawa, Kengo; Kudo, Kazuaki; Tanaka, Masakazu
Helical peptide foldamer catalyzed Michael addition reactions of nitroalkane or dialkyl malonate to α,β-unsaturated ketones are reported along with the mechanistic considerations of the enantio-induction. A wide variety of α,β-unsaturated ketones, including β-aryl, β-alkyl enones, and cyclic enones, were found to be catalyzed by the helical peptide to give Michael adducts with high enantioselectivities (up to 99%). On the basis of X-ray crystallographic analysis and depsipeptide study, the amide protons, N(2)-H and N(3)-H, at the N terminus in the α-helical peptide catalyst were crucial for activating Michael donors, while the N-terminal primary amine activated Michael acceptors through the formation of iminium ion intermediates.
Damico, Jack S; Lynch, Karen E
This article reviews the scholarly contributions of Michael R. Perkins in the discipline of clinical linguistics and provides some indication of the reasons that he has been so successful. Three primary attributes were described through an analysis of his publications.
Lippur, Kristin; Kaabel, Sandra; Järving, Ivar; Rissanen, Kari; Kanger, Tõnis
A mild protocol for the asymmetric Michael addition of dimethyl malonate to various α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds was developed. The salient feature of this methodology is that a cheap and environmentally friendly Lewis acid, CaCl2, was used as a catalyst. An aminoindanol- and pyridine-derived ligand provided in the presence of CaCl2 Michael adducts in moderate to high enantioselectivities. The scope of the reaction was demonstrated.
Yang, Wen; Du, Da-Ming
A series of squaramide-based organocatalysts were facilely synthesized and applied as hydrogen bonding organocatalysts in the enantioselective Michael addition of nitroalkanes to chalcones. These organocatalysts promoted the Michael addition with low catalyst loading under high temperature (80 °C), affording the desired R or S enantiomers of the products flexibly in high yields with excellent enantioselectivities (93-96% ee) by the appropriate choice of organocatalysts.
Gu, Yun; Wang, Yao; Yu, Tian-Yang; Liang, Yong-Min; Xu, Peng-Fei
The development of a direct vinylogous Michael addition of linear nucleophilic substrates is a long-standing challenge because of the poor reactivity and the considerable difficulty in controlling regioselectivity. By employing a rationally designed multifunctional supramolecular iminium catalysis strategy, the first direct vinylogous Michael addition of unmodified linear substrates to α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, to afford chiral 1,7-dioxo compounds with good yields and excellent regio- as well as enantioselectivity, has been developed.
Huang, Hong-Xiu; Wang, Hui-Jing; Tan, Ling; Wang, Shu-Qing; Tang, Pei; Song, Hao; Liu, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Dan; Qin, Yong
A highly diastereoselective Michael addition of (R)-N-tert-butanesulfinyl imidates 8 to α,β-unsaturated pyrazolidinone 3a has been developed to afford pyrazolidinones 10 possessing three contiguous stereocenters with good to excellent yield and excellent diastereoselectivity. A two-step conversion of reduction and cyclization provides the bicyclic pyrazolopiperidine 12 in a good yield. A series of pyrazolopiperidine derivatives 18 with a quaternary carbon center at C-3a are stereoselectively synthesized via alkylation or Michael addition.
Chua, Pei Juan; Tan, Bin; Zeng, Xiaofei; Zhong, Guofu
Though many chiral amines such as l-proline and its derivatives have proven to be versatile catalysts in many reactions, L-prolinol was seldom used as organocatalyst for reactions. Herein, we report the first L-prolinol catalyzed asymmetric Michael addition of cyclohexanone to nitroolefins in the presence of benzoic acid to afford Michael adducts with high diastereoselectivities (87:13->99:1) and enantioselectivities (82-96%).
Zhao, Xiaohu; Liu, Xiaohua; Mei, Hongjiang; Guo, Jing; Lin, Lili; Feng, Xiaoming
A highly efficient asymmetric dearomatization of indoles was realized through a cascade reaction between 2-isocyanoethylindole and alkylidene malonates catalyzed by a chiral N,N'-dioxide/Mg(II) catalyst. Fused polycyclic indolines containing three stereocenters were afforded in good yields with excellent diastereo- and enantioselectivities through a Michael/Friedel-Crafts/Mannich cascade. When 2-substituted 2-isocyanoethylindoles were used, spiroindoline derivatives were obtained through a Michael/Friedel-Crafts reaction.
This press briefing on Flight Readiness Review (FRR) for the STS-114 Discovery flight is shown. Dean Acosta, Deputy Associate Administrator for Public Affairs, introduces the panel. The panel consist of: Michael Griffin, NASA Administrator, William Readdy, Associate Administrator of Space Operations, Bill Parsons, Space Shuttle Program Manager, and Mike Leinbach, NASA Launch Director. Questions from the media includes the following topics: certification, countdown, ice on the external tank, debris, and safety of the Space Shuttle Discovery.
Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Weckstein, Daniel K.
One of the biggest obstacles to overcome in creating and sustaining an administrative professional learning community (PLC) is time. Administrators are constantly deluged by the tyranny of the urgent. It is a Herculean task to carve out time for PLCs, but it is imperative to do so. In this article, the authors describe how an administrative PLC…
N V G, Moorthy; Dyapa, Rajendar; Pansare, Sunil V
The first examples of an organocatalytic Michael addition of a ketone to in situ generated α-nitrostyrenes are reported. A suitably functionalized γ-nitroketone obtained from the organocatalyzed Michael addition was converted into (+)-2-epi-lasubine II, the immediate synthetic precursor of (+)-lasubine II and (-)-subcosine II (enantiomers of the natural quinolizidine alkaloids). Two of the three stereocenters in (+)-2-epi-lasubine II are set by the Michael reaction.
This photo shows Air Force Lieutenant Colonel Michael V. Love in front of the X-24B lifting-body research vehicle at Edwards Air Force Base in 1973. Love was assigned as a project pilot on the joint NASA-USAF X-24B Lifting Body flight test program at the NASA Flight Research Center. He made a total of 12 flights in the plane from October 4, 1973 until July 15, 1975. Love flew it to a speed of Mach 1.76 on October 25, 1974, a record for the X-24B. Love attended the USAF Test Pilot School and remained as an instructor there from 1969 through 1971. He was a test pilot at Edwards when assigned to fly to the X-24B. Love was a combat veteran of Vietnam and was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross with two Oak Leaf clusters. Love perished while attempting an emergency landing in an RF-4C on March 1, 1976. The X-24B was the last aircraft to fly in the Dryden Flight Research Center's manned lifting body program. The X-24 was one of a group of lifting bodies flown by the NASA Flight Research Center (now Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, in a joint program with the U.S. Air Force at Edwards Air Force Base from 1963 to 1975. The lifting bodies were used to demonstrate the ability of pilots to maneuver and safely land wingless vehicles designed to fly back to Earth from space and be landed like an airplane at a predetermined site. Lifting bodies' aerodynamic lift, essential to flight in the atmosphere, was obtained from their shape. The addition of fins and control surfaces allowed the pilots to stabilize and control the vehicles and regulate their flight paths. Built by Martin Aircraft Company, Maryland, for the U.S. Air Force, the X-24A was a bulbous vehicle shaped like a teardrop with three vertical fins at the rear for directional control. It weighed 6,270 pounds, was 24.5 feet long and 11.5 feet wide (measuring just the fuselage, not the distance between the tips of the outboard fins). Its first unpowered glide flight was on April 17, 1969, with Air
Duplan, Vincent; Hoshino, Manabu; Li, Wei; Honda, Tadashi; Fujita, Makoto
A reversible Michael addition reaction between thiol nucleophiles and cyanoenones has been previously postulated to be the mechanism-of-action of a new family of reversible covalent drugs. However, the hypothetical Michael adducts in this mechanism have only been detected by spectroscopic methods in solution. Herein, the crystallographic observation of reversible Michael addition with a potent cyanoenone drug candidate by means of the crystalline-sponge method is reported. After inclusion of the cyanoenone substrate, the sponge crystal was treated with a thiol solution. Subsequent crystallographic analysis confirmed the single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation of the substrate into the impermanent Michael adduct.
Sánchez-Roselló, María; Aceña, José Luis; Simón-Fuentes, Antonio; del Pozo, Carlos
The organocatalytic intramolecular aza-Michael reaction gives access to enantiomerically enriched nitrogen-containing heterocycles in a very simple manner. Enals, enones, conjugated esters and nitro olefins have been employed as Michael acceptors, while moderate nitrogen nucleophiles such as sulphonamides, carbamates and amides have been shown to be appropriate Michael donors in this type of reaction. Additionally, the process has been performed under both covalent and non-covalent catalysis, with diaryl prolinols, imidazolidinones, thioureas and chiral binol phosphoric acids being the most frequently used catalysts. The level of efficiency reached with this protocol is demonstrated by the implementation of numerous tandem processes, as well as the total synthesis of several natural products.
Hartlen, Kurtis D; Ismaili, Hossein; Zhu, Jun; Workentin, Mark S
The chemical interfacial modification of organic solvent soluble 2.4 ± 0.5 nm maleimide-modified monolayer protected gold nanoparticles (2-C(12)AuNPs) with primary or secondary amines via Michael addition reactions is demonstrated. Michael addition reactions between 2-C(12)AuNPs and primary or secondary amines at ambient temperature and pressure and under the conditions where the AuNP is soluble and stable are possible albeit sluggish, often taking days to weeks to go to completion. The rates and efficacies of the these same reactions are drastically increased at hyperbaric pressure conditions (11 000 atm) with no observed adverse effect to the gold nanoparticle stability. The resulting Michael addition adducts (3-C(12)AuNPs) formed from 2-C(12)AuNPs and the corresponding amines were characterized by TEM and by comparison of the (1)H NMR spectra of the 3-C(12)AuNPs with those of model reactions of the same amines with N-dodecylmaleimide, 2. The Michael addition reactions occur more readily with 2 rather than 2-C(12)AuNPs, consistent with the local environment of the latter imposing additional steric or other barriers to the reaction. The use of hyperbaric conditions makes the reaction of the organic solvent soluble 2-C(12)AuNP via Michael addition a viable interfacial modification process that is otherwise impractical. The results also suggest that it is a useful protocol for facilitating Michael addition reactions generally in solution at low temperatures.
Schmid, Thibault E; Drissi-Amraoui, Sammy; Crévisy, Christophe; Baslé, Olivier; Mauduit, Marc
The copper-catalyzed asymmetric conjugate addition (ACA) of nucleophiles onto polyenic Michael acceptors represents an attractive and powerful methodology for the synthesis of relevant chiral molecules, as it enables in a straightforward manner the sequential generation of two or more stereogenic centers. In the last decade, various chiral copper-based catalysts were evaluated in combination with different nucleophiles and Michael acceptors, and have unambiguously demonstrated their usefulness in the control of the regio- and enantioselectivity of the addition. The aim of this review is to report recent breakthroughs achieved in this challenging field.
Bosica, Giovanna; Abdilla, Roderick
Aza-Michael reactions between primary aliphatic and aromatic amines and various Michael acceptors have been performed under environmentally-friendly solventless conditions using acidic alumina as a heterogeneous catalyst to selectively obtain the corresponding mono-adducts in high yields. Ethyl acrylate was the main acceptor used, although others such as acrylonitrile, methyl acrylate and acrylamide were also utilized successfully. Bi-functional amines also gave the mono-adducts in good to excellent yields. Such compounds can serve as intermediates for the synthesis of anti-cancer and antibiotic drugs.
Zhang, Shao-Yun; Ruan, Gui-Yu; Geng, Zhi-Cong; Li, Nai-Kai; Lv, Ming; Wang, Yong; Wang, Xing-Wang
The regioselective and enantioselective Michael addition between azlactones and o-hydroxy chalcone derivatives is reported. Enantiomerically enriched N,O-aminals with two continuous stereogenic centers are exclusively obtained in moderate to good yields with excellent diastereoselectivities and good to excellent enantioselectivities. The experimental results show that an o-hydroxy group on the cinnamenyl motif of chalcone derivatives plays a crucial role at the reaction sites for the regioselective Michael addition. In addition, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) are used to investigate the absolute configuration of N,O-aminals and the corresponding transition-state structures.
Parra, Claudio; Bosch, Caroline; Gómez-Bengoa, Enrique; Bonjoch, Josep; Bradshaw, Ben
A straightforward, two-step asymmetric synthesis of octahydroindoles has been developed on the basis of two complementary strategies: (i) an organocatalyzed Michael reaction followed by a tandem Robinson-aza-Michael double cyclization catalyzed by PS-BEMP, and (ii) a diastereoselective cyclization, which formally constitutes a remote 1,6 asymmetric induction mediated by PS-BEMP. This allowed the construction of complex octahydroindoles with up to four stereocenters, excellent enantioselectivities (up to 95% ee), and complete diastereoselective control in a single-pot operation. DFT calculations were performed to understand the origin of this effect.
McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda
This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…
Liu, Lu; Sarkisian, Ryan; Xu, Zhenghu; Wang, Hong
Novel enamine-metal Lewis acid bifunctional catalysts were successfully applied to the asymmetric Michael addition of ketones to alkylidene malonates, offering excellent stereoselectivity (up to >99% ee and >99:1 dr). The asymmetric Michael addition of ketones to allylidene malonates was also achieved.
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, Robert M. Sarvey v...), CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc.; Michael E. Boyd; and Robert M. Sarvey filed a petition requesting...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, Robert M. Sarvey... Renewable Energy, Inc.; Michael E. Boyd; and Robert M. Sarvey (Complainants) filed a complaint...
Gu, Xiaodong; Guo, Tingting; Dai, Yuanyuan; Franchino, Allegra; Fei, Jie; Zou, Chuncheng; Dixon, Darren J; Ye, Jinxing
An asymmetric doubly vinylogous Michael addition (DVMA) of α,β-unsaturated γ-butyrolactams to sterically congested β-substituted cyclic dienones with high site-, diastereo-, and enantioselectivity has been achieved. An unprecedented DVMA/vinylogous Michael addition/isomerization cascade reaction affords chiral fused tricyclic γ-lactams with four newly formed stereocenters.
Wang, Guang-Zu; Shang, Rui; Cheng, Wan-Min; Fu, Yao
Enabled by iridium photoredox catalysis, 2-oxo-2-(hetero)arylacetic acids were decarboxylatively added to various Michael acceptors including α,β-unsaturated ester, ketone, amide, aldehyde, nitrile, and sulfone at room temperature. The reaction presents a new type of acyl Michael addition using stable and easily accessible carboxylic acid to formally generate acyl anion through photoredox-catalyzed radical decarboxylation.
... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Patient Satisfaction Survey Michael E. DeBakey Home Care Program....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Patient Satisfaction Survey Michael E. DeBakey Home Care Program, VA Form 10.... Abstract: VA Form 10-0476 will be used to gather feedback from patients regarding their satisfaction...
... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Patient Satisfaction Survey Michael E. DeBakey Home Care Program.... 2900-New (VA Form 10-0476).'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Patient Satisfaction Survey Michael E... their satisfaction with the quality of services/care provided by home care program staff. An agency...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Californians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, Robert M. Sarvey... Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA), Californians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E....
Chen, Jia-Rong; Fu, Liang; Zou, You-Quan; Chang, Ning-Jie; Rong, Jian; Xiao, Wen-Jing
A series of chiral pyrrolidinyl-sulfamide derivatives have been identified as efficient bifunctional organocatalysts for the direct Michael addition of cyclohexanone to a wide range of nitroalkenes. The desired Michael adducts were obtained in high chemical yields and excellent stereoselectivities (up to 99/1 dr and 95% ee).
Gu, Xiaodong; Guo, Tingting; Dai, Yuanyuan; Franchino, Allegra; Fei, Jie; Zou, Chuncheng; Dixon, Darren J; Ye, Jinxing
An asymmetric doubly vinylogous Michael addition (DVMA) of α,β-unsaturated γ-butyrolactams to sterically congested β-substituted cyclic dienones with high site-, diastereo-, and enantioselectivity has been achieved. An unprecedented DVMA/vinylogous Michael addition/isomerization cascade reaction affords chiral fused tricyclic γ-lactams with four newly formed stereocenters. PMID:26184079
Michael Apple's "Ideology and Curriculum", published in 1979, helped initiate a broad turn in the field of education in the United States to Marxist thought as a lens through which to analyze the relationship between school and society. This classic text continues to inform scholarship in the field. While "Ideology" has…
Ray, Sumit K; Singh, Pradeep K; Molleti, Nagaraju; Singh, Vinod K
A potential pharmacologically active chiral 3-substituted 4-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromene skeleton has been synthesized by enantioselective Michael addition catalyzed by PYBOX-DIPH-Zn(OTf)(2) complex. The methodology has successfully been employed in the synthesis of (R)-Warfarin and another related compounds.
A cascade silver(I)-catalyzed hydroamination/Michael addition sequence has been developed to deliver highly substituted bicyclic guanidines. This transformation gives rise to geometrically and constitutionally stable ene–guanidines and generates a remote stereocenter with moderate to high diastereoselectivity. PMID:25393831
Yang, Wen; Du, Da-Ming
An efficient highly diastereo- and enantioselective direct Michael addition of nitroalkanes to nitroalkenes catalyzed by chiral squaramide catalyst has been developed. This organocatalytic reaction with a low catalyst loading (2 mol%) proceeded well to afford synthetically useful 1,3-dinitro compounds in high yields with high diastereoselectivities (up to 95 : 5 dr) and excellent enantioselectivities (up to 97% ee).
Uehara, Hisatoshi; Imashiro, Ritsuo; Hernández-Torres, Gloria; Barbas, Carlos F.
Given the significance of carbohydrates in life, medicine, and industry, the development of simple and efficient de novo methods to synthesize carbohydrates are highly desirable. Organocatalytic asymmetric assembly reactions are powerful tools to rapidly construct molecules with stereochemical complexity from simple precursors. Here, we present a simple and robust methodology for the asymmetric synthesis of pyranose derivatives with talo- and manno- configurations from simple achiral precursors through organocatalytic asymmetric intermolecular Michael–Henry reaction sequences. In this process, (tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy)acetaldehyde 1 was successfully utilized in two ways: as a donor in a highly selective anti-Michael reaction and as an acceptor in a consecutive Henry reaction. Varied nitroolefins served as Michael acceptors and varied aldehydes substituted for 1 as Henry acceptors providing for the construction of a wide range of carbohydrates with up to 5 stereocenters. In these reactions, a catalyst-controlled Michael reaction followed by a substrate-controlled Henry reaction provided 3,4-dideoxytalose derivatives 6 in a highly stereoselective manner. The Henry reaction was affected by addition of a simple base such as triethylamine: A complex chiral base was not necessary. 3,4-Dideoxymannose derivatives 7 were produced by simply changing the base from triethylamine to 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene. Extension of this methodology to a syn-Michael initiated sequence was also successful. A mechanistic discussion is provided to explain the unusual substrate-induced stereoselectivity of the Henry reaction. PMID:20639468
Wang, Ya-Yi; Kanomata, Kyohei; Korenaga, Toshinobu; Terada, Masahiro
Highly enantioselective Michael-type addition (MTA) reactions between N-protected alkenyl benzimidazoles and either pyrazoles or indazoles as nitrogen nucleophiles are accomplished for the first time using chiral phosphoric acid catalyst. Theoretical studies elucidated the reaction pathway and the origin of the stereochemical outcomes, where the catalyst substituent and the N-protecting group of benzimidazole contributed to the resulting high enantioselectivity.
Ban, Shu-Rong; Zhu, Xi-Xia; Zhang, Zhi-Ping; Li, Qing-Shan
A benzoylthiourea-pyrrolidine catalyst was developed for the asymmetric Michael addition of ketones to chalcones. The corresponding products were obtained in high yields with high level of diastereoselectivities (up to 99:1 dr) and high level of enantioselectivities (up to 94% ee) under mild conditions.
Ward, Noel, Ed.; Dooney, Triona, Ed.
The essays in this collection contribute to the ongoing discussion about the state of Irish education on the threshold of a new century. The various contributors examine issues that will be priorities for education planners in Ireland. These essays have been collected as a tribute to Irish educator and politician Michael Enright. The essays are:…
Boyce, Gregory R.; Johnson, Jeffrey S.
A diastereoselective auxiliary-mediated vinylation/[1,2]-Brook rearrangement/vinylogous Michael cascade of silyl glyoximide, vinylmagnesium bromide, and nitroalkenes is described. The reaction occurs with complete regio- and diastereocontrol in good yield. The diastereoselectivity is induced by a rare instance of 1,7-chirality transfer that is hypothesized to arise from a trans-multihetero-decalin transition state. PMID:26833255
Clark, John A.
Postmodernism has established a significant hold in educational thought and some of the most important ideas are to be found in the writings of Michael Peters. This paper examines his postmodern stance and use of Lyotard's account of knowledge, and from a naturalist point of view raises a number of objections centred on science as a metanarrative,…
C. P. Snow's "The Two Cultures" controversially contrasted science and literature, suggesting that neither scientists nor literary intellectuals have much in common with, and seldom bother speaking to, the other. Responding to Snow, Michael Polanyi argued that specialization has made modern culture, not twofold but manifold. In his major work,…
Makes use of Michael Faraday's ideas on learning, focusing on his attitudes toward the unknowns of science and the development of an attitude that improves scientific decision making. This approach acknowledges that there is an inner struggle involved in facing unknowns. (DDR)
Fletcher, Michael A.
Introduces Michael Eric Dyson, an African American man who grew up in the ghetto and eventually received a PhD from Princeton University. Today, he is a professor at DePaul University, the author of a radically revisionist new biography of Martin Luther King, Jr., a lecturer and talk show guest, a Baptist preacher, and a self-styled hip-hop…
Michael Apple's prescient review of Anyon et al.'s "Theory and Educational Research" reminds the educational community of the importance of purpose. In his own work, he has been consistent in--actually, insistent on--emphasizing the struggle over political projects. This is not an issue concerning only the Left as the scapegoat for the disparaging…
Kwon, Ki-Hyeok; Serrano, Catherine M; Koch, Michael; Barrows, Louis R; Looper, Ryan E
A cascade silver(I)-catalyzed hydroamination/Michael addition sequence has been developed to deliver highly substituted bicyclic guanidines. This transformation gives rise to geometrically and constitutionally stable ene-guanidines and generates a remote stereocenter with moderate to high diastereoselectivity.
Kelly, Ursula A.
In this commentary, the author focuses on the central point of Michael Corbett's book "Learning to Leave". Education, and in particular what is called "rural" education, is premised on loss. This loss is often not fully articulated, but it is deep and abiding. It is registered in efforts to stop the flow of people and…
Kalbfleisch, M. Layne
This article presents an interview with Michael W. O'Boyle, a neuroscientific investigator of high mathematical ability. O'Boyle is a professor in the Department of Human Development and Family Studies, Texas Tech University, and Adjunct Professor of Pharmacology and Neuroscience, School of Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center.…
Wolff-Michael Roth deconstructs the preeminent role conceded to constructivism in Science Education and demonstrates how we learn and know through pain, suffering, love or passion. This review explores his book "Passibility: At the Limits of the Constructivist Metaphor" through the eyes of an outsider to the world of science education.
This article explores the views of children's poet Michael Rosen in relation to poetry in education. It is based on an interview in which Rosen not only discusses the significance of encouraging young people to engage with poetry at school but also analyzes a number of threats to poetry's place in the English curriculum. This article identifies…
For many decades, American schools have been mired in jargon and confused values. A few exceptional books have shown the way through the thicket of educational ideas, policies, and practices. The work of Michael John Demiashkevich belongs to this set and offers a special philosophical perspective. In "An Introduction to the Philosophy of…
Since the early work of Bagnold in the 1940s, aeolian research has grown to become a major integral part of earth-system studies. Many individuals have contributed to this development, and Dr. Michael R. Raupach (MR2, 1950 – 2015) was one of the most outstanding. MR2 worked for about a decade (1985 ...
Bai, Zhushuang; Ji, Ling; Ge, Zemei; Wang, Xin; Li, Runtao
The first bifunctional thiourea catalyzed asymmetric Michael addition reactions of nitroalkanes to 2-furanones are described. The highly functionalized γ-lactones with two or three consecutive stereogenic carbons were obtained in high yields (up to 99%), high diastereoselectivities (up to >20 : 1 dr) and enantioselectivities (up to >99% ee).
American Psychologist, 2012
Presents a short biography on the winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Institutional Practice. The 2012 winner is Michael E. Barnes for his pioneering leadership, dedication, and distinguished contributions to juvenile justice. As chief psychologist of the Superior Court of the…
Coutlangus, Marilyn L.; And Others
Presents a short reaction sequence that allows the student to determine by spectroscopic methods the constitution and stereochemistry of the reaction products. Reports the interpretations needed to illustrate the usefulness of the spectroscopic method. Notes the products of the Michael-Aldol reaction have not been reported in the literature. (MVL)
Astronaut C. Michael Foale, STS-63 mission specialist, is briefed on the use of Sky Genie device by Karin L. Porter. The device would aid in emergency egress operations aboard a troubled Space Shuttle. Porter, an employee of Rockwell International, helps train astronauts in egress procedures at JSC's Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory.
Aillaud, Isabelle; Barber, David M; Thompson, Amber L; Dixon, Darren J
A Michael addition/iminium ion cyclization cascade of enones with tryptamine-derived ureas under BINOL phosphoric acid (BPA) catalysis is reported. The cascade reaction tolerates a wide variety of easily synthesized tryptamine-derived ureas, including those bearing substituents on the distal nitrogen atom of the urea moiety, affording polyheterocyclic products in good yields and good to excellent enantioselectivities.
Wzorek, Joseph S; Knöpfel, Thomas F; Sapountzis, Ioannis; Evans, David A
A new approach to the tetracycline core structure is presented. The pivotal intermediate is identified as macrocycle III. The two interior bonds (C4a-C12a and C5a-C11a) are to be constructed through sequential transannular Michael additions (III-II) and compression-promoted transannular isoxazole alkylations from intermediate II.
Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Fulgham, Susan M.
J. Michael Spector's academic preparation was in philosophy--epistemology and logic, primarily. His dissertation was on skepticism in modern philosophy, and that led him to a deep-seated appreciation for classical skepticism. The word "skeptic" is derived from the Greek word "skepsis," which means investigation. While the…
In this article an attempt is made to examine the continuing implications of the operation and closure of London's Risinghill school, a co-educational comprehensive extant from 1960 to 1965. It is suggested that Risinghill's controversial headteacher, Michael Duane (1915-1997), was an educational celebrity and folk hero amongst teachers and in…
Shaughnessy, Michael F.
Michael W. Allen, the Chairman and CEO of Allen Interactions, is an architect of interactive multimedia learning and is recognized for his many insights, inventions, and presentations. With over 50 years of experience in e-learning, both in academic and corporate settings, he is known for his role in creating Authorware and overseeing the work of…
In "Moderating the Debate: Rationality and the Promise of American Education", Michael Feuer argues that insights from cognitive science and the theory of bounded rationality can help us understand why educational policy makers overreach in seeking optimal solutions to educational problems. In this essay, Emily Robertson argues that cognitive…
Welton, Michael R.
This book examines the life of the Reverend Moses Michael Coady (1890-1959), a Roman Catholic priest who led the Antigonish Movement. During the Antigonish Movement, residents of the small maritime town of Antigonish, Nova Scotia, worked to achieve a nonviolent alternative to communism and fascism and to effect the social and economic…
Michael Dell started his computer company in 1984 with a simple business insight. He could bypass the dealer channel through which personal computers were then being sold and sell directly to customers, building products to order. Dell's direct model eliminated the dealer's markup and the risks associated with carrying large inventories of finished goods. In this interview, Michael Dell provides a detailed description of how his company is pushing that business model one step further, toward what he calls virtual integration. Dell is using technology and information to blur the traditional boundaries in the value chain between suppliers, manufacturers, and customers. The individual pieces of Dell's strategy--customer focus, supplier partnerships, mass customization, just-in-time manufacturing--may be all be familiar. But Michael Dell's business insight into how to combine them is highly innovative. Direct relationships with customers create valuable information, which in turn allows the company to coordinate its entire value chain back through manufacturing to product design. Dell describes how his company has come to achieve this tight coordination without the "drag effect" of ownership. Dell reaps the advantages of being vertically integrated without incurring the costs, all the while achieving the focus, agility, and speed of a virtual organization. As envisioned by Michael Dell, virtual integration may well become a new organizational model for the information age.
Levisohn, Jon A.
Michael Rosenak uses the twin metaphors of "language" and "literature," borrowed from Oakeshott and Peters, to argue that the goal of education is initiation into a language. This goal transcends the study of literature in that language. It includes, as well, the development of the capacity both to critique literature and to…
King, Jean; Greenseid, Lija
This article presents an interview with Michael Patton whose professional evolution has contributed to the way evaluation in the United States is understood and practiced today. Patton is an evaluation and organizational development consultant who spent 18 years at the University of Minnesota (1973-1991), including 5 years as the director of the…
Peters, Michael A.
In the World Library of Educationalists series, international experts themselves compile career-long collections of what they judge to be their finest pieces--extracts from books, key articles, salient research findings, major theoretical and/practical contributions--so the world can read them in a single manageable volume. Michael A. Peters has…
Herbeck, Dale A.
Michael Dukakis lost the presidential campaign debates of 1988 (or at least failed to capitalize as much as he might have) because he understood the debates to be genuine debates. Consequently, Dukakis acted as a debater generating an image of himself as a "benevolent technocrat," which was an error. It must be pointed out that the…
This article is a critical discussion of two recent papers by Michael Hand on moral education. The first is his "Towards a Theory of Moral Education", published in the "Journal of Philosophy of Education" in 2014 (Volume 48, Issue 4). The second is a chapter called "Beyond Moral Education?" in an edited book of new…
In this volume, Wolff-Michael Roth provides a critical but partial reading of Tony Brown's book "Mathematics Education and Subjectivity". The reading contrasts Brown's approach with Roth's own conception of subjectivity as derived from the work of Vygotsky, in which Roth aims to "reunite" psychology and sociology. Brown's book, however, focuses on…
Well before the examinations grade crisis of 2012, Michael Gove had set out clear intentions for reforming public examinations. Though he claimed to be improving examinations and assessment by replicating practices that took place in high-performing countries and thus improving the ability of the UK economy to "compete", this…
Responding to Michael Luntley's article, "Learning, Empowerment and Judgement," the author shows he cannot successfully make the following three moves: (1) dissolve the analytic distinction between learning by training and learning by reasoning, while advocating the latter; (2) diminish the role of training in Wittgenstein's philosophy, nor…
... Grade, Deborah C. Gramlick, Carl Graves, Margaret Greene, Jonathan Griffin, Robert Grimm, Michael Gross..., David M. Robinson, George A. Roche, William W. Rodriguez, Waldemar Rogers, Debra Rudolph, Alan...
COMPARATIVE METABOLISM OF ARSENIC IN MICE AFTER A SINGLE OR REPEATED ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF ARSENATE
Michael F. Hughes*1, Elaina M. Kenyon1, Brenda C. Edwards1, Carol T. Mitchell1, Luz Maria Del Razo2 and David J. Thomas1
1US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, ETD, PKB, Research Triangle Pa...
TISSUE DISPOSITION OF DIMETHYLARSINIC ACID IN THE MOUSE
AFTER ACUTE ORAL ADMINISTRATION
Michael F. Hughes, Ph.D., Brenda C. Edwards, Carol T. Mitchell and Elaina M. Kenyon, Ph.D. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Nation...
cancer screening examiners, hospice nursez-, and consultants in Patient Education and in Patient Advocacy. 51 6 , 7 Trained to assess physical status... Nuring Administration 14 (September 1984): 33-39. Rindler, Michael E. "Back to the Patients: Process vs Outcome for Hospital Managers." Hospital and
Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.
This book is intended to acquaint naval engineering officers with their duties in the engineering department. Standard shipboard organizations are analyzed in connection with personnel assignments, division operations, and watch systems. Detailed descriptions are included for the administration of directives, ship's bills, damage control, training…
Grayson, Katherine, Ed.
When it comes to Administrative IT solutions and processes, best practices range across the spectrum. Enterprise resource planning (ERP), student information systems (SIS), and tech support are prominent and continuing areas of focus. But widespread change can also be accomplished via the implementation of campuswide document imaging and sharing,…
The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…
Zang, Qin; Javed, Salim; Ullah, Farman; Zhou, Aihua; Knudtson, Christopher A; Bi, Danse; Basha, Fatima Z; Organ, Michael G; Hanson, Paul R
The development of a 'click, click, cy-click' process utilizing a double aza-Michael reaction to generate functionalized 1,2,5-thiadiazepane 1,1-dioxides is reported. Optimization in flow, followed by scale out of the inter-/intramolecular double aza-Michael addition has also been realized using a microwave-assisted, continuous flow organic synthesis platform (MACOS). In addition, a facile one-pot, sequential strategy employing in situ Huisgen cycloaddition post-double aza-Michael has been accomplished, and is applicable to library synthesis.
Jiang, Xiaoyue; Ye, Weidong; Song, Xiaohua; Ma, Wenxin; Lao, Xuejun; Shen, Runpu
Ionic liquid with both Lewis and Brønsted acid sites has been synthesized and its catalytic activities for Michael addition were carefully studied. The novel ionic liquid was stable to water and could be used in aqueous solution. The molar ratio of the Lewis and Brønsted acid sites could be adjusted to match different reactions. The results showed that the novel ionic liquid was very efficient for Michael addition with good to excellent yields within several min. Operational simplicity, high stability to water and air, small amount used, low cost of the catalyst used, high yields, chemoselectivity, applicability to large-scale reactions and reusability are the key features of this methodology, which indicated that this novel ionic liquid also holds great potential for environmentally friendly processes.
Azad, Chandra S; Khan, Imran A; Narula, Anudeep K
A series of thiourea based bifunctional organocatalysts having d-glucose as a core scaffold were synthesized and examined as catalysts for the asymmetric Michael addition reaction of aryl/alkyl trans-β-nitrostyrenes over cyclohexanone and other Michael donors having active methylene. Excellent enantioselectivities (<95%), diastereoselectivities (<99%), and yields (<99%) were attained under solvent free conditions using 10 mol% of 1d0. The obtained results were explained through DFT calculations using the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p)//B3LYP/6-31G(d) basic set. The QM/MM calculations revealed the role of cyclohexanone as a solvent as well as reactant in the rate determining step imparting 31.91 kcal mol(-1) of energy towards the product formation.
Gutiérrez-Jiménez, Marta I; Aydillo, Carlos; Navo, Claudio D; Avenoza, Alberto; Corzana, Francisco; Jiménez-Osés, Gonzalo; Zurbano, María M; Busto, Jesús H; Peregrina, Jesús M
A second generation of chiral bicyclic dehydroalanines easily accessible from serine has been developed. These scaffolds behaved as excellent S-Michael acceptors when tri-O-acetyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-1-thio-α-d-galactopyranose (abbreviated as GalNAc-α-SH) was used as a nucleophile. This addition proceeds with total chemo- and stereoselectivity, complete atom economy, quickly, and at room temperature, making it a true click reaction. The Michael adducts were easily transformed into S-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-α-d-galactopyranosyl)-l- and -d-cysteines, which can be regarded as mimics of the Tn antigen derived from l-Ser (α-d-GalNAc-l-Ser) and d-Ser (α-d-GalNAc-d-Ser), respectively.
Farley, Alistair J M; Sandford, Christopher; Dixon, Darren J
The highly enantioselective sulfa-Michael addition of alkyl thiols to unactivated α-substituted acrylate esters catalyzed by a bifunctional iminophosphorane organocatalyst under mild conditions is described. The strong Brønsted basicity of the iminophosphorane moiety of the catalyst provides the necessary activation of the alkyl thiol pro-nucleophile, while the two tert-leucine residues flanking a central thiourea hydrogen-bond donor facilitate high enantiofacial selectivity in the protonation of the transient enolate intermediate. The reaction is broad in scope with respect to the alkyl thiol, the ester moiety, and the α-substituent of the α,β-unsaturated ester, affords sulfa-Michael adducts in excellent yields (up to >99%) and enantioselectivities (up to 96% ee), and is amenable to decagram scale-up using catalyst loadings as low as 0.05 mol %.
Presents Michael K. Scullin as the 2011 winner of the American Psychological Association Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award. "For an outstanding research paper that examines the relationship between prospective memory in executing a goal and various lapses of time from 20 minutes up to a 12- hour wake delay and a 12-hour sleep delay. The results suggest that consolidation processes active during sleep increase the probability of goal execution. The paper, titled 'Remembering to Execute a Goal: Sleep On It!' was published in Psychological Science in 2010 and was the basis for Michael K. Scullin's selection as the recipient of the 2011 Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award. Mark A. McDaniel, PhD, served as faculty research advisor." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).
Samet, Alexander V.; Niyazymbetov, Murat E.; Semenov, Victor V.; Laikhter, Andrei L.; Evans, Dennis H.
Regioselective Michael addition of nitro and heterocyclic compounds to levoglucosenone, 1, is effectively catalyzed by amines and also by cathodic electrolysis. In comparison to the base-catalyzed reaction, it was found that under electrochemical conditions the reaction proceeds under milder conditions and with higher yields. Cathodically-initiated Michael addition of thiols to levoglucosenone using small currents produces the previously unknown threo addition product in several instances. The normal erythro isomer, identified as the kinetic product, tends to be formed when large currents are used. In contrast, slow, low current electrolyses promote equilibration of the two forms so that erythro can be converted to threo by the retro reaction and readdition. Addition of 2-naphthalenethiol to (R)-(+)-apoverbenone is also reported.
There were a father and a son, Michael and Sören Kierkegaard, both highly talented, imaginitive, witty, humorous, especially interested in shrewd dialectrical dialogues respectively debates, both profound melancholy ponderers. But according to very own individuality their congeniality wasn't absolute. The father, being under a questionable rigorous opinion of sin, suffered from undeserved divine grace since early childhood. And Michael Kierkegaard made Sören anxious with the religious experience of original sin. This anxiety moved (touched or affected) the sensitive son mighty. Nevertheless he should not despair hopelessly like his unlucky father. On the contrary: Sørens incomparable melancholy, mental agony and anxiety (fear or anguish) forced the faith, existing independently of them, in a radical refining. That is why Sören Kierkegaard succeeded in sublimation of all psychological and philosophic (al) attitudes (or opinions) in the sphere of religiousness. And the result? A novel philosophy of life: Christian existentialism.
Fruhmann, Philipp; Weigl-Pollack, Theresa; Mikula, Hannes; Wiesenberger, Gerlinde; Adam, Gerhard; Varga, Elisabeth; Berthiller, Franz; Krska, Rudolf; Hametner, Christian; Fröhlich, Johannes
Methylthiodeoxynivalenol (MTD), a novel derivative of the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), was prepared by applying a reliable procedure for the formal Michael addition of methanethiol to the conjugated double bond of DON. Structure elucidation revealed the preferred formation of the hemiketal form of MTD by intramolecular cyclisation between C8 and C15. Computational investigations showed a negative total reaction energy for the hemiketalisation step and its decrease in comparison with theoretical model compounds. Therefore, this structural behaviour seems to be a general characteristic of thia-Michael adducts of type B trichothecenes. MTD was shown to be less inhibitory for a reticulocyte lysate based in vitro translation system than the parent compound DON, which supports the hypothesis that trichothecenes are detoxified through thia-adduct formation during xenobiotic metabolism.
Brochu, Jean-Louis; Prakesch, Michael; Enright, Gary D; Leek, Donald M; Arya, Prabhat
A modular, reagent-based approach to obtain different indoline alkaloid-inspired, tetracyclic architectures is developed. With the use of TBSOTf as a Lewis acid, we report here a tandem Michael-based approach that led to the synthesis of a diastereomeric mixture of tetracyclic derivatives with two additional six-membered rings. By simply changing the Lewis acid to TMSOTf, we were able to obtain a different tetracyclic compound having additional functionalized 5- and 7-membered rings with complete stereocontrol.
Belmessieri, Dorine; de la Houpliere, Alix; Calder, Ewen D D; Taylor, James E; Smith, Andrew D
A stereodivergent asymmetric Lewis base catalyzed Michael addition/lactonization of enone acids into substituted dihydrobenzofuran and tetrahydrofuran derivatives is reported. Commercially available (S)-(-)-tetramisole hydrochloride gives products with high syn diastereoselectivity in excellent enantioselectivity (up to 99:1 d.r.syn/anti , 99 % eesyn ), whereas using a cinchona alkaloid derived catalyst gives the corresponding anti-diastereoisomers as the major product (up to 10:90 d.r.syn/anti , 99 % eeanti ).
Michael Marquet of New Zealand left school 10 years ago, not able to read or write and with a serious speech problem. He had spent 9 years in a special class and had learned very little. He had completed 2 years of high school and left at the end of the fourth form, at the age of 15 and with no qualifications. However, he had participated in a…
Feng, Juhua; Yuan, Xiao; Luo, Weiwei; Lin, Lili; Liu, Xiaohua; Feng, Xiaoming
A highly regio-, diastereo- and enantioselective Michael addition-alkylation reaction between α-substituted cyano ketones and (Z)-bromonitrostyrenes has been realized by using a chiral N,N'-dioxide as organocatalyst. A variety of substrates performed well in this reaction, and the corresponding multifunctionalized chiral 2,3-dihydrofurans were obtained in up to 95 % yield with 95:5 dr and 93 % ee.
Jin, Hui; Kim, Seung Tae; Hwang, Geum-Sook; Ryu, Do Hyun
A series of novel L-proline derived tertiary amine bifunctional organocatalysts 9 are reported, which were applied to the asymmetric Michael addition of dithiomalonates 2 to trans-β-nitroolefins 1. The reaction proceeded in high yields (up to 99%) with high enantioselectivities (up to 97% ee). The synthetic utility of this methodology was demonstrated in the short synthesis of (R)-phenibut in high yield.
Yu, Jin-Sheng; Zhou, Feng; Liu, Yun-Lin
Summary We reported the first example of organocatalytic Michael addition of unprotected 3-prochiral oxindoles 1 to 1,4-naphthoquinone. Quinidine derivative (DHQD)2PYR was found to be able to catalyze this reaction in up to 83% ee, with moderate to excellent yields. This method could be used for the synthesis of enantioenriched 3,3-diaryloxindoles, and the catalytic synthesis of which was unprecedented. PMID:23019472
Yee, Daryl W; Schulz, Michael D; Grubbs, Robert H; Greer, Julia R
Fabrication of functionalized 3D architected materials is achieved by a facile method using functionalized acrylates synthesized via thiol-Michael addition, which are then polymerized using two-photon lithography. A wide variety of functional groups can be attached, from Boc-protected amines to fluoroalkanes. Modification of surface wetting properties and conjugation with fluorescent tags are demonstrated to highlight the potential applications of this technique.
This brochure describes the key high-performance building features of the Michael E. Capuano Early Childhood Center. The brochure was paid for by the Massachusetts Technology Collaborative as part of their Green Schools Initiative. High-performance features described are daylighting and energy-efficient lighting, indoor air quality, solar and wind energy, building envelope, heating and cooling systems, water conservation, and acoustics. Energy cost savings are also discussed.
Group 12, 1987 Astronaut Candidate (ASCAN) C. Michael Foale sits at the forward flight deck pilots station controls in JSC's Full Fuselage Trainer (FFT). The FFT is used to familiarize the astronauts with the hardware in the cockpit of the Space Shuttle orbiters. It is one of the mockup training devices located in the Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9NE. Foale is one of 15 ASCANs recently selected by NASA.
Luridiana, Alberto; Frongia, Angelo; Aitken, David J; Guillot, Regis; Sarais, Giorgia; Secci, Francesco
Organocatalyzed Michael addition reactions of 2-(arylthio)cyclobutanones with trans-β-nitrostyrenes have been carried out using a bifunctional thiourea-primary amine catalyst, providing diastereoisomerically and enantiomerically enriched 2-alkyl-2-(arylthio)cyclobutanones having two contiguous stereocenters of which one is a chiral quaternary center. The absolute configuration of these novel adducts was assigned by X-ray diffraction analysis and a transition-state model is proposed to explain the observed stereoselectivities.
Ibe, Takeshi; Frings, Rainer B; Lachowicz, Artur; Kyo, Soichi; Nishide, Hiroyuki
Highly and homogeneously crosslinked poly(beta-ketoester) networks densely bearing robust nitroxide radicals were prepared via a click-type and stepwise Michael polyaddition. A half-battery cell composed of the thermally-cured radical network coatings displayed a rapid, reversible, and almost stoichiometric redox-activity even with a thickness of ca. 10 mum, which may be applicable as the electrode of organic-based rechargeable devices.
Esteban, Jorge; Costa, Anna M; Gómez, Alex; Vilarrasa, Jaume
Key dienoic or dienal substructures of cytotoxic macrolides amphidinolide E and dictyostatin have been prepared via a Michael addition (followed by elimination of X-) of chiral enolates on beta-halo derivatives of ethyl acrylate, with full retention of the initial E or Z configuration. Evans oxazolidin-2-ones and our related thiazolidin-2-ones, as well as a fine-tuning of the reaction conditions, have been essential. Many chiral building blocks are accessible from these adducts.
Evans, D A; Willis, M C; Johnston, J N
[formula: see text] Chiral Cu(II) bisoxazoline (box) Lewis acids have been developed as catalysts of the Michael addition of enolsilanes to unsaturated ester derivatives. While enantioselection is stereoregular, the sense of diastereoselection is directly related to thioester enolsilane geometry: (E) enolsilanes give anti adducts and (Z) enolsilanes afford syn adducts. The size of the enolsilane alkylthio substituent directly impacts the magnitude of diastereoselection.
For more than 30 years, Michael Dean, Ph.D., has been an integral part of the NCI at Frederick community. In addition to studying several different aspects of genomics and cancer research, he has worked with the Werner H. Kirsten Student Intern Program and also volunteered his time with Mission of Mercy, a community-based organization providing free healthcare and free prescription medications to the uninsured and under-insured.
Wang, Fenghua; Chen, Cheng; Yang, Kailin; Xu, Yang; Liu, Xiaomei; Gao, Fan; Liu, He; Chen, Xia; Zhao, Qi; Liu, Xiang; Cai, Yan; Yang, Haitao
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes high mortality in pigs. PEDV main protease (Mpro) plays an essential role in viral replication. We solved the structure of PEDV Mpro complexed with peptidomimetic inhibitor N3 carrying a Michael acceptor warhead, revealing atomic level interactions. We further designed a series of 17 inhibitors with altered side groups. Inhibitors M2 and M17 demonstrated enhanced specificity against PEDV Mpro. These compounds have potential as future therapeutics to combat PEDV infection.
Ettari, Roberta; Previti, Santo; Cosconati, Sandro; Maiorana, Santina; Schirmeister, Tanja; Grasso, Silvana; Zappalà, Maria
Novel 1,4-benzodiazepines, endowed with a Michael acceptor moiety, were designed taking advantage of a computational prediction of their pharmacokinetic parameters. Among all the synthesized derivatives, we identified a new lead compound (i.e., 4a), bearing a vinyl ketone warhead and endowed with a promising antitrypanosomal activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei (IC50=5.29μM), coupled with a lack of cytotoxicity towards mammalian cells (TC50 >100μM).
Mulliner, Denis; Wondrousch, Dominik; Schüürmann, Gerrit
The electrophilic reactivity of Michael acceptors is an important determinant of their toxicity. For a set of 35 α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, ketones and esters with experimental rate constants of their reaction with glutathione (GSH), k(GSH), quantum chemical transition-state calculations of the corresponding Michael addition of the model nucleophile methane thiol (CH(3)SH) have been performed at the B3LYP/6-31G** level, focusing on the 1,2-olefin addition pathway without and with initial protonation. Inclusion of Boltzmann-weighting of conformational flexibility yields intrinsic reaction barriers ΔE(‡) that for the case of initial protonation correctly reflect the structural variation of k(GSH) across all three compound classes, except that they fail to account for a systematic (essentially incremental) decrease in reactivity upon α-substitution. By contrast, the reduction in k(GSH) through β-substitution is well captured by ΔE(‡). Empirical correction for the α-substitution effect yields a high squared correlation coefficient (r(2) = 0.96) for the quantum chemical prediction of log k(GSH), thus enabling an in silico screening of the toxicity-relevant electrophilicity of α,β-unsaturated carbonyls. The latter is demonstrated through application of the calculation scheme for a larger set of 46 Michael-acceptor aldehydes, ketones and esters with experimental values for their toxicity toward the ciliates Tetrahymena pyriformis in terms of 50% growth inhibition values after 48 h exposure (EC(50)). The developed approach may add in the predictive hazard evaluation of α,β-unsaturated carbonyls such as for the European REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals) Directive, enabling in particular an early identification of toxicity-relevant Michael-acceptor reactivity.
STS-69 Mission Specialist Michael L. Gernhardt (right) gets a chance to say hi to his mother, Suzanne Winters, and her husband Doug, after the STS-69 flight crew arrived at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility. The five astronauts assigned to the mission are looking forward to a liftoff aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour during a two and a half hour window opening at 11:09 a.m. EDT, Sept. 7.
Liu, Kang; Chang, Xin; Wang, Chun-Jiang
An unprecedented and highly efficient nickel-catalyzed cascade vinylogous Mukaiyama 1,6-Michael/Michael addition of 2-silyloxyfuran with N-sulfonyl-1-aza-1,3-dienes is reported, in which 2-silyloxyfuran was successfully employed as nucleophile and electrophile sequentially. This methodology combined with subsequent reduction provides a facile access to biologically important fused piperidine/butyrolactone skeletons in good yield with exclusive diastereoselectivity under mild reaction conditions.
Michael Birnbaum interviews Deborah Bachrach about her three-year tenure as director of the nation's largest Medicaid program. Bachrach, who served under Governors Spitzer and Paterson, had previously spent over a decade as a partner in a New York law firm, navigating and shaping health policy for clients whose patients depended on Medicaid. Reviewing the ambitious Medicaid agenda that she helped lead, Bachrach reflects on expanding eligibility and increasing enrollment, designing and implementing payment reforms, and struggling with how best to rationalize program administration. Enactment of national health reform, finalized shortly after the interview was conducted, makes Bachrach's experiences and insights particularly timely and relevant: Medicaid in New York is now less of an outlier and more of a model for states across the nation as they face implementation of major coverage expansions for their low-income residents.
This Theme Issue is dedicated to the topic 'Mechanics: from nano to macro' and marks the 75th birthday of Dr J. Michael T. Thompson, Fellow of the Royal Society, whose current affiliations are as follows: (i) Honorary Fellow, Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge; (ii) Emeritus Professor of Nonlinear Dynamics, Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, University College London; and (iii) Professor of Theoretical and Applied Dynamics (Distinguished Sixth Century Chair, part-time), University of Aberdeen. He also serves as Chairman of the Board of Directors at ES-Consult (consulting engineers) in Copenhagen, Denmark. The pertinent question that arises from the very start is: should we first salute Michael and then describe the Theme Issue, or vice versa? Indeed, according to Blaise Pascal (1623-1662), the last thing one discovers in composing a work is what to put first. I would like to take the liberty of deviating from the tradition of the Philosophical Transactions and start with the tribute to Michael; after all he is the prime cause of this Theme Issue.
Rosenberg Marshall, Nicole Marie
St. Michael's Cemetery is the oldest extant cemetery in Pensacola, Florida. St. Michael's Cemetery is also one of the two oldest cemeteries in Florida (the other being located in St. Augustine). Since 2000, the University of West Florida (UWF) has been engaged in ongoing research at the cemetery. Historical records indicate that a significant unmarked burial population may be present within the cemetery. In 2007 and 2008, a systematic Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey identified 3,915 sub-surface anomalies that may represent unmarked burials. Some of these anomalies are significantly larger than would be expected for single interments and potentially represent mass burials from colonial and post-colonial period epidemic events. To test this hypothesis, excavations were conducted at three of the five large anomalies during 2009, 2010, and 2011. The goals of these investigations were to determine whether the sub-surface anomalies represent mass interments and to determine the chronology and ethnicity of any individual burials encountered using grave attributes and associated artifacts. While none of the anomalies excavated were mass graves, several individual unmarked burials were exposed and documented. This thesis summarizes the methods, results, and conclusions of the research conducted in St. Michael's Cemetery while contextualizing them within previous research.
Evans, D A; Scheidt, K A; Johnston, J N; Willis, M C
The scope of highly enantioselective and diastereoselective Michael additions of enolsilanes to unsaturated imide derivatives has been developed with use of [Cu((S,S)-t-Bu-box)](SbF6)2 (1a) as a Lewis acid catalyst. The products of these additions are useful synthons that contain termini capable of differentiation under mild conditions. Michael acceptor pi-facial selectivity is consistent with two-point binding of the imide substrate and can be viewed as an extension of substrate enantioselection in the corresponding Diels-Alder reactions. A model analogous to the one employed to describe the hetero Diels-Alder reaction is proposed to account for the observed relation between enolsilane geometry and product absolute diastereocontrol. Insights into modes of catalyst inactivation are given, including spectroscopic evidence for inhibition of the catalyst by a dihydropyran intermediate that evolves during the course of the reaction. A procedure is disclosed in which an alcohol additive is used to hydrolyze the inhibiting dihydropyran and afford the desilylated Michael adduct in significantly shortened reaction time.
Zhang, Xinpeng; Xi, Weixian; Wang, Chen; Podgórski, Maciej; Bowman, Christopher N
An efficient visible-light-sensitive photobase generator for thiol-Michael addition reactions was synthesized and evaluated. This highly reactive catalyst was designed by protecting a strong base (tetramethyl guanidine, TMG) with a visible-light-responsive group which was a coumarin derivative. The coumarin-coupled TMG was shown to exhibit extraordinary catalytic activity toward initiation of the thiol-Michael reaction, including thiol-Michael addition-based polymerization, upon visible-light irradiation, leading to a stoichiometric reaction of both thiol and vinyl functional groups. Owing to its features, this visible-light photobase generator enables homogeneous network formation in thiol-Michael polymerizations and also has the potential to be exploited in other visible-light-induced, base-catalyzed thiol-click processes such as thiol-isocynate and thiol-epoxy network-forming reactions.
Cook, Ronald Lee; Elliott, Brian John; Luebben, Silvia DeVito; Myers, Andrew William; Smith, Bryan Matthew
A new class of surface modified particles and a multi-step Michael-type addition surface modification process for the preparation of the same is provided. The multi-step Michael-type addition surface modification process involves two or more reactions to compatibilize particles with various host systems and/or to provide the particles with particular chemical reactivities. The initial step comprises the attachment of a small organic compound to the surface of the inorganic particle. The subsequent steps attach additional compounds to the previously attached organic compounds through reactive organic linking groups. Specifically, these reactive groups are activated carbon—carbon pi bonds and carbon and non-carbon nucleophiles that react via Michael or Michael-type additions.
Zhang, Yan; Vongvilai, Pornrapee; Sakulsombat, Morakot; Fischer, Andreas; Ramström, Olof
Dynamic systems based on consecutive thia-Michael and Henry reactions were generated and transformed using lipase-catalyzed asymmetric transformation. Substituted thiolane structures with three contiguous stereocenters were resolved in the process in high yields and high enantiomeric excesses.
Potter, Tyler J; Ellman, Jonathan A
A Rh(III)-catalyzed C-H bond addition/primary amine-promoted cyclization of bis-Michael acceptors is reported. The C-H bond addition step occurs with high chemoselectivity, and the subsequent intramolecular Michael addition, mediated by a primary amine catalyst, sets three contiguous stereocenters with high diastereoselectivity. A broad range of directing groups and both aromatic and alkenyl C-H bonds were shown to be effective in this transformation, affording functionalized piperidines, tetrahydropyrans, and cyclohexanes.
In contrast to Andreas Libavius, Mästlin's contemporary in the field of chemistry, whose importance lies less in his ``Spiritus fumans Libavii'' (tin tetrachloride), and rather in his authorship of the first highly regarded chemical textbook, Michael Mästlin's renown as a convinced Copernican certainly does not rest upon his role as the author of a traditional astronomical textbook. Nevertheless, Mästlin convincingly demonstrates his didactic skills in his textbook, which not without reason ran through seven editions within a timespan of 42 years. To the benefit of all conscientious readers he readily fulfils the promises made in his opening comments, and an initiation in Mästlin's ``catechism'' of astronomy may indeed serve as a direct introduction of this esteemed teacher of Johannes Kepler.
Michael Griffin, NASA Administrator; Wayne Hale, Space Shuttle Deputy Program Manager; Mike Wetmore, Director of Shuttle Processing; and 1st Lieutenant Mindy Chavez, Launch Weather Officer-United States Air Force 45th Weather Squadron are in attendance for this STS-114 Discovery launch readiness press conference. The discussion begins with Wayne Hale bringing to the table a low level sensor device for everyone to view. He talks in detail about all of the extensive tests that were performed on these sensors and the completion of these ambient tests. Chavez presents her weather forecast for the launch day of July 26th 2005. Michael Griffin and Wayne Hale answer questions from the news media pertaining to the sensors and launch readiness. The video ends with footage of Pilot Jim Kelly and Commander Eileen Collins conducting test flights in a Shuttle Training Aircraft (STA) that simulates Space Shuttle landing.
Ebbrell, David J; Madden, Judith C; Cronin, Mark T D; Schultz, Terry W; Enoch, Steven J
The Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) paradigm details the existing knowledge that links the initial interaction between a chemical and a biological system, termed the molecular initiating event (MIE), through a series of intermediate events, to an adverse effect. An important example of a well-defined MIE is the formation of a covalent bond between a biological nucleophile and an electrophilic compound. This particular MIE has been associated with various toxicological end points such as acute aquatic toxicity, skin sensitization, and respiratory sensitization. This study has investigated the calculated parameters that are required to predict the rate of chemical bond formation (reactivity) of a dataset of Michael acceptors. Reactivity of these compounds toward glutathione was predicted using a combination of a calculated activation energy value (Eact, calculated using density functional theory (DFT) calculation at the B3YLP/6-31G+(d) level of theory, and solvent-accessible surface area values (SAS) at the α carbon. To further develop the method, a fragment-based algorithm was developed enabling the reactivity to be predicted for Michael acceptors without the need to perform the time-consuming DFT calculations. Results showed the developed fragment method was successful in predicting the reactivity of the Michael acceptors excluding two sets of chemicals: volatile esters with an extended substituent at the β-carbon and chemicals containing a conjugated benzene ring as part of the polarizing group. Additionally the study also demonstrated the ease with which the approach can be extended to other chemical classes by the calculation of additional fragments and their associated Eact and SAS values. The resulting method is likely to be of use in regulatory toxicology tools where an understanding of covalent bond formation as a potential MIE is important within the AOP paradigm.
Patil, Mahendra P; Sunoj, Raghavan B
The mechanism of the organocatalyzed Michael addition between propanal and methyl vinyl ketone is investigated using the density functional and ab intio methods. Different modes of substrate activation offered by a secondary amine (pyrrolidine) organocatalyst are reported. The electrophilic activation of enone (P-I) through the formation of an iminium ion, and nucleophilic activation of propanal (P-II) in the form of enamine have been examined by identifying the corresponding transition states. The kinetic preference for the formation of key intermediates is established in an effort to identify the competing pathways associated with the title reaction. A comparison of barriers associated with different pathways as well as intermediate formation allows us to provide a suitable mechanistic rationale for Michael addition reactions catalyzed by a secondary amine. The overall barriers for the C-C bond formation pathways involving enol or iminium intermediates are identified as higher than the enamine pathway. Additionally, the generation of iminium is found to be less favored as compared to enamine formation. The effect of co-catalyst/protic solvent on the energetics of the overall reaction is also studied using the cluster continuum approach. Significant reduction in the activation energies for each step of the reaction is predicted for the solvent-assisted models. The co-catalyst assisted addition of propanal-enamine to methyl vinyl ketone is identified as the most preferred pathway (P-IV) for the Michael addition reaction. The results are in concurrence with the available experimental reports on the rate acceleration by the use of a co-catalyst in this reaction.
With the beautiful and dark film "The white ribbon", from 2009, the Austrian film director Michael Haneke consolidated his status as an international success. A central theme in his films is evilness and its roots. But just as important is his ambition to develop films where evil is not only portrayed, but where spectators are challenged to relate to their own ethical standards and their role as spectators. Haneke is a highly original filmmaker with his consistent search for a film aesthetic that stimulates ethical self-reflection and mentalizing. He partly succeeds in this quest.
Maity, Sanjay; Parhi, Biswajit; Ghorai, Prasanta
An unprecedented enantioselective peroxyhemiacetalization/oxa-Michael addition cascade of ortho-formyl homochalcones has been developed using cinchona-alkaloid-based chiral bifunctional organocatalysts to provide cis-configured exo-peroxyacetals, a new class of organic peroxide, in good yields with excellent enantio- and diastereoselectivities. The resulting cis-configured exo-peroxyacetals were converted into the corresponding trans-configured peroxyacetals without affecting the enantioselectivity. Furthermore, the displacement of the peroxide moiety of exo-peroxyacetals with various nucleophiles has been demonstrated to afford 1,3-disubstituted isochromans with high diastereoselectivities and excellent enantioselectivities.
Lindner, Stephanie; Geu-Flores, Fernando; Bräse, Stefan; Sherden, Nathaniel H.; O’Connor, Sarah E.
Summary The core structure of the iridoid monoterpenes is formed by a unique cyclization reaction. The enzyme that catalyzes this reaction, iridoid synthase, is mechanistically distinct from other terpene cyclases. Here we describe the synthesis of two substrate analogs to probe the mechanism of iridoid synthase. Enzymatic assay of these substrate analogs along with clues from the product profile of the native substrate strongly suggest that iridoid synthase utilizes a Michael reaction to achieve cyclization. This improved mechanistic understanding will facilitate the exploitation of the potential of iridoid synthase to synthesize new cyclic compounds from nonnatural substrates. PMID:25444551
Gottesman, Michael M
Dr. Michael Gottesman obtained his M.D. from Harvard University Medical School, completed his internship and residency in medicine at the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in Boston, and received his postdoctoral research training in molecular genetics with Martin Gellert at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). After a year as an assistant professor in the Department of Anatomy at Harvard, he moved to the NIH in 1976. He currently serves as the NIH Deputy Director for Intramural Research as well as Chief of the Laboratory of Cell Biology.
I recently used The English Patient (both the novel and the movie) with an undergraduate health science class to explore the unique character of the patient-provider relationship. Through the interactions of a young Canadian nurse and her "English" patient, author Michael Ondaatje presents an interesting view of the nurse-patient relationship. In this essay, I use quotations from the novel to demonstrate that Ondaatje sees the nurse-patient relationship as somber, sensual, and compassionate. The theme is particularly relevant to nursing students and those who teach them.
Niu, Ben; Xie, Ping; Wang, Min; Wang, Yanjie; Zhao, Wannian; Pittman, Charles U; Zhou, Aihua
A series of seven- and eight-membered ring -N,O-, -N,N-, and -N,S-sultams were effectively synthesized via tandem reactions involving oxa-, aza-, and thia-Michael addition to vinyl sulfonamides. These reactions are summarized here since they enrich current synthetic methodologies for sultams and provide a good example of sultam diversity-oriented synthesis. All reactions proceeded under relatively mild and environmentally friendly conditions, and all these reactions are quite suitable for the rapid preparation of sultam compound libraries, which are valuable for biological activity explorations.
Gupta, Prasoon; Sharma, Upasana; Schulz, Thomas C.; Sherrer, Eric S.; McLean, Amanda B.; Robins, Allan J.; West, Lyndon M.
Three new briarane diterpenoids, briareolate esters L – N (1 – 3) have been isolated from a gorgonian Briareum asbestinum. Briareolate esters L (1) and M (2) are the first natural products possessing a 10-membered macrocyclic ring with a (E,Z)-dieneone and exhibit growth inhibition activity against both human embryonic stem cells (BG02) and a pancreatic cancer cell line (BxPC-3). Briareolate ester L (1), was found to contain a “spring-loaded” (E,Z)-dieneone Michael acceptor group that can form a reversible covalent bond to model sulfur-based nucleophiles. PMID:21749084
Presents a short biography on the winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Institutional Practice. The 2012 winner is Michael E. Barnes for his pioneering leadership, dedication, and distinguished contributions to juvenile justice. As chief psychologist of the Superior Court of the District of Columbia's Child Guidance Clinic, Barnes and his staff have provided exceptional psychological service to thousands of adjudicated youths, developed an APA-accredited internship program, and supervised the development of a juvenile mental health court that diverts mentally ill court-involved youth from delinquency proceedings and into treatment.
Bosmia, Anand; Watanabe, Koichi; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane
The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the life of the physician and theologian Michael Servetus and to discuss his analysis of the pulmonary circulation. Writers have praised Servetus for his commitment to educating his colleagues about what he heralded as the truth, and criticized him for his perceived arrogance. Servetus made contributions to the fields of geography, astrology, theology, and medicine. This paper refers to the translation of a portion of Servetus' book Christianismi Restitutio by Charles D. O'Malley.
Knapp, Craig W.
A response to Michael's (1980) presidential address to the Association for Behavior Analysis is presented. The position is taken that in many instances we have failed to adopt a behavioral approach to dealing with problems within our field concomitant with the shift from an emphasis on behaviorism and a science of behavior to technology. It is argued that we need to be sensitive to the data and consider the contingencies that are operating within the culture. A general strategy and some tactics are presented to acquire and maintain behavioral skills. PMID:22478559
Maltsev, O. V.; Beletskaya, Irina P.; Zlotin, Sergei G.
Recent applications of organocatalytic Michael and Friedel-Crafts reactions in enantioselective synthesis of biologically active compounds: natural products, pharmaceutical agents and plant protection agents are reviewed. The key mechanisms of stereoinduction, types of organocatalysts and reagents used in these reactions are considered. The material is classified according to the type of newly formed bonds incorporating the asymmetric carbon atom, and the information for the most numerous C-C coupling reactions is systematized according to the natures of the electrophile and the nucleophile. The bibliography includes 433 references. Dedicated to Academician O M Nefedov on the occasion of his 80th birthday.
The APA Awards for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest recognize persons who have advanced psychology as a science and/or profession by a single extraordinary achievement or a lifetime of outstanding contributions in the public interest. The 2015 co-recipient of the Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest is Michael E. Lamb. Lamb was selected because his "work profoundly shaped the fields of developmental psychology, social welfare, child and family policy, and law." Lamb's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here.
Andrés, José M; Ceballos, Miriam; Maestro, Alicia; Sanz, Isabel; Pedrosa, Rafael
The catalytic activity of different supported bifunctional thioureas on sulfonylpolystyrene resins has been studied in the nitro-Michael addition of different nucleophiles to trans-β-nitrostyrene derivatives. The activity of the catalysts depends on the length of the tether linking the chiral thiourea to the polymer. The best results were obtained with the thiourea derived from (L)-valine and 1,6-hexanediamine. The catalysts can be used in only 2 mol % loading, and reused for at least four cycles in neat conditions. The ball milling promoted additions also worked very well.
Ceballos, Miriam; Maestro, Alicia; Sanz, Isabel
Summary The catalytic activity of different supported bifunctional thioureas on sulfonylpolystyrene resins has been studied in the nitro-Michael addition of different nucleophiles to trans-β-nitrostyrene derivatives. The activity of the catalysts depends on the length of the tether linking the chiral thiourea to the polymer. The best results were obtained with the thiourea derived from (L)-valine and 1,6-hexanediamine. The catalysts can be used in only 2 mol % loading, and reused for at least four cycles in neat conditions. The ball milling promoted additions also worked very well. PMID:27340453
Krenske, Elizabeth H; Petter, Russell C; Houk, K N
Additions of cysteine thiols to Michael acceptors underpin the mechanism of action of several covalent drugs (e.g., afatinib, osimertinib, ibrutinib, neratinib, and CC-292). Reversible Michael acceptors have been reported in which an additional electron-withdrawing group was added at the α-carbon of a Michael acceptor. We have performed density functional theory calculations to determine why thiol additions to these Michael acceptors are reversible. The α-EWG group stabilizes the anionic transition state and intermediate of the Michael addition, but less intuitively, it destabilizes the neutral adduct. This makes the reverse reaction (elimination) both faster and more thermodynamically favorable. For thiol addition to be reversible, the Michael acceptor must also contain a suitable substituent on the β-carbon, such as an aryl or branched alkyl group. Computations explain how these structural elements contribute to reversibility and the ability to tune the binding affinities and the residence times of covalent inhibitors.
Dey, Surjendu; Jäschke, Andres
Complexes of G-quadruplex DNA and Cu(II) ions have previously been applied as catalysts in asymmetric reactions, but the largely unspecific and noncovalent nature of the interaction has impeded understanding of the structural basis of catalysis. To better control the formation of a catalytically competent species, DNA quadruplexes were derivatized with linker-bpy-Cu(II) complexes in a site-specific manner and applied in asymmetric aqueous Michael additions. These modified quadruplexes exhibited high rate acceleration and stereoselectivity. Different factors were found to be important for the catalytic performance of the modified G-quadruplexes, among them, the position of modification, the topology of the quadruplex, the nature of the ligand, and the length of the linker between the ligand and DNA. Moving the same ligand by just two nucleotides inverted the stereochemical outcome: quadruplexes modified at position 10 formed the (-)-enantiomer with up to 92 % ee, while DNA derivatized at position 12 formed the (+)-enantiomer with up to 75 % ee. This stereopreference was maintained when applied to structurally different Michael acceptors. This work demonstrates a new and simple way to tune the stereoselectivity in DNA-based asymmetric catalysis.
Patil, Mahendra P; Sunoj, Raghavan B
A proline-catalyzed asymmetric Michael addition between ketones and trans-beta-nitrostyrene was studied by using the density-functional theory with mPW1PW91 and B3LYP functionals. Improved insight into the enantio- and diastereoselective formation of gamma-nitroketones/-aldehydes is obtained through transition-state analysis. Consideration of the activation parameters obtained from gas-phase calculations and continuum solvation models failed to reproduce the reported experimental stereoselectivities for the reaction between cyclohexanone and 3-pentanone with trans-beta-nitrostyrene. The correct diastereo- and enantioselectivites were obtained only upon explicit inclusion of solvent molecules in the diastereomeric transition states that pertain to the C--C bond formation. Among the several transition-state models that were examined, the one that exhibits cooperative hydrogen-bonding interactions with two molecules of methanol could explain the correct stereochemical outcome of the Michael reaction. The change in differential stabilization that arises as a result of electrostatic and hydrogen-bonding interactions in the key transition states is identified as the contributing factor toward obtaining the correct diastereomer. This study establishes the importance of including explicit solvent molecules in situations in which the gas-phase and continuum models are inadequate in obtaining meaningful insight regarding experimental stereoselectivities.
Crabb, John W; O'Neil, June; Miyagi, Masaru; West, Karen; Hoff, Henry F
Oxidation of plasma low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) generates the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxy-2 nonenal (HNE) and also reduces proteolytic degradation of oxLDL and other proteins internalized by mouse peritoneal macrophages in culture. This leads to accumulation of undegraded material in lysosomes and formation of ceroid, a component of foam cells in atherosclerotic lesions. To explore the possibility that HNE contributes directly to the inactivation of proteases, structure-function studies of the lysosomal protease cathepsin B have been pursued. We found that treatment of mouse macrophages with HNE reduces degradation of internalized maleyl bovine serine albumin and cathepsin B activity. Purified bovine cathepsin B treated briefly with 15 microM HNE lost approximately 76% of its protease activity and also developed immunoreactivity with antibodies to HNE adducts in Western blot analysis. After stabilization of the potential Michael adducts by sodium borohydride reduction, modified amino acids were localized within the bovine cathepsin B protein structure by mass spectrometric analysis of tryptic peptides. Michael adducts were identified by tandem mass spectrometry at cathepsin B active site residues Cys 29 (mature A chain) and His 150 (mature B chain). Thus, covalent interaction between HNE and critical active site residues inactivates cathepsin B. These results support the hypothesis that the accumulation of undegraded macromolecules in lysosomes after oxidative damage are caused in part by direct protease inactivation by adduct formation with lipid peroxidation products such as HNE.
Breman, Arjen C; Telderman, Suze E M; van Santen, Roy P M; Scott, Jamie I; van Maarseveen, Jan H; Ingemann, Steen; Hiemstra, Henk
Sulfa-Michael additions to α,β-unsaturated N-acylated oxazolidin-2-ones and related α,β-unsaturated α-amino acid derivatives have been enantioselectively catalyzed by Cinchona alkaloids functionalized with a hydrogen bond donating group at the C6' position. The series of Cinchona alkaloids includes known C6' (thio)urea and sulfonamide derivatives and several novel species with a benzimidazole, squaramide or a benzamide group at the C6' position. The sulfonamides were especially suited as bifunctional organocatalysts as they gave the products in very good diastereoselectivity and high enantioselectivity. In particular, the C6' sulfonamides catalyzed the reaction with the α,β-unsaturated α-amino acid derivatives to afford the products in a diastereomeric ratio as good as 93:7, with the major isomer being formed in an ee of up to 99%. The products of the organocatalytic sulfa-Michael addition to α,β-unsaturated α-amino acid derivatives were subsequently converted in high yields to enantiopure β-functionalized cysteines suitable for native chemical ligation.
Lundberg, John B.
The onboard navigational system for the X-33 test flights will be based on the use of measurements collected from the Embedded Global Positioning System (GPS)/INS system. Some of the factors which will affect the quality of the GPS contribution to the navigational solution will be the number of pseudorange measurements collected at any instant in time, the distribution of the GPS satellites within the field of view, and the inherent noise level of the GPS receiver. The distribution of GPS satellites within the field of view of the receiver's antenna will depend on the receiver's position, the time of day, pointing direction of the antenna, and the effective cone angle of the antenna. The number of pseudorange measurements collected will depend upon these factors as well as the time required to lock onto a GPS satellite signal once the GPS satellite comes into the field of view of the antenna and the number of available receiver channels. The objective of this study is to evaluate the GPS coverage resulting from the proposed antenna pointing directions, the proposed antenna cone angles, and the effects due to the time of day for the X-33 Michael-6 trajectory from launch at Edwards AFB, California, to the start of the Terminal Area Energy Management (TAEM) phase on approach to Michael AAF, Utah.
Wang, Xiaowei; Adachi, Shinya; Iwai, Hiroyoshi; Takatsuki, Hiroshi; Fujita, Katsuhiro; Kubo, Mikako; Oku, Akira; Harada, Toshiro
allo-Threonine-derived O-aroyl-B-phenyl-N-tosyl-1,3,2-oxazaborolidin-5-ones 1g,n catalyze the asymmetric Mukaiyama-Michael reaction of acyclic enones with a trimethylsilyl ketene S,O-acetal in high enantioselectivity. A range of alkenyl methyl ketones is successfully employed as Michael acceptors affording ee values of 85-90% by using 10 mol % of the catalyst. The use of 2,6-diisopropylphenol and tert-butyl methyl ether as additives is found to be essential to achieve high enantioselectivity in these reactions. The effects of the additives are discussed in terms of the retardation of an Si(+)-catalyzed racemic pathway, which seriously deteriorates the enantioselectivity of asymmetric Mukaiyama-Michael reactions. A working model for asymmetric induction is proposed based on correlation between catalyst structures and enantioselectivities.
Miao, Yufeng; Tepper, Pieter G; Geertsema, Edzard M; Poelarends, Gerrit J
The enzyme 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase (4-OT) promiscuously catalyzes the Michael-type addition of acetaldehyde to β-nitrostyrene derivatives to yield chiral γ-nitroaldehydes, which are important precursors for pharmaceutically active γ-aminobutyric acids. In this study, we investigated the effect of different substituents at the aromatic ring of the Michael acceptor on the catalytic efficiency and stereoselectivity of the 4-OT-catalyzed acetaldehyde addition reactions. Highly enantioenriched (R)- and (S)-γ-nitroaldehydes and 4-substituted chroman-2-ol could be obtained in good to excellent yields by applying different substituents at appropriate positions of the aromatic substrate. Stereochemical control of these enzymatic Michael-type additions by "substrate engineering" allowed the enantioselective synthesis of valuable γ-aminobutyric acid precursors. In addition, the results suggest a novel enzymatic synthesis route towards precursors for chromans and derivatives, which are valuable scaffolds for preparing biologically active natural products.
Reddy, Reddy Rajasekhar; Gudup, Satish Sonbarao; Ghorai, Prasanta
An unprecedented enantioselective oxa-Michael reaction of α-tertiary alcohols using cinchona-alkaloid-based chiral bifunctional squaramide catalysts is reported. An oxidative dearomatization of phenol followed by an enantioselective oxa-Michael addition sequence provided a broad array of chiral sterically hindered tetrahydrofurans and tetrahydropyrans attached to a cyclohexadienone moiety in spiro fashion. In general, good yields and excellent enantioselectivities (up to 99 %) were observed. The chiral oxo-cycles obtained have easily been transformed into chromans without disturbing the enantioselectivity.
Guo, Hao; Xing, Fen; Du, Guang-Fen; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Dai, Bin; He, Lin
An efficient N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-catalyzed vinylogous Michael addition of deconjugated butenolides was developed. In the presence of 5 mol % of the NHC catalyst, both γ-alkyl- and aryl-substituted deconjugated butenolides undergo vinylogous Michael addition with various α, β-unsaturated ketones, esters, or nitriles to afford γ,γ-disubstituted butenolides containing adjacent quaternary and tertiary carbon centers in good to excellent yields with excellent diastereoselectivities. In this process, the free carbene is assumed to act as a strong Brønsted base to promote the conjugate addition.
Strappaveccia, Giacomo; Bianchi, Luca; Ziarelli, Simone; Santoro, Stefano; Lanari, Daniela; Pizzo, Ferdinando; Vaccaro, Luigi
PS-BEMP was used as a heterogeneous catalyst for the phospha-Michael addition of phosphorus nucleophiles to a variety of electron-poor alkenes. The addition reactions were generally performed with equimolar amounts of reagents under solvent free conditions. The protocol proved to be very efficient for the addition to aromatic, non-aromatic and cyclic ketones, giving good yields (78-85%) in all cases. The protocol was also extended with good results to α,β-unsaturated esters and nitriles. This demonstrates that PS-BEMP is a good catalyst for the phospha-Michael addition to electron-poor alkenes.
Cheng, Weiren; Wu, Decheng; Liu, Ye
Michael addition polymerizations of amines and acrylic monomers are versatile approaches to biomaterials for various applications. A combinatorial library of poly(β-amino ester)s and diverse poly(amido amine)s from diamines and diacrylates or bis(acrylamide)s have been reported, respectively. Furthermore, novel linear and hyperbranched polymers from Michael addition polymerizations of trifunctional amines and acrylic monomers significantly enrich this category of biomaterials. In this Review, we focus on the biomaterials from Michael addition polymerizations of trifunctional amines and acrylic monomers. First we discuss how the polymerization mechanisms, which are determined by the reactivity sequence of the three types of amines of trifunctional amines, i.e., secondary (2°) amines (original), primary (1°) amines, and 2° amines (formed), are affected by the chemistry of monomers, reaction temperature, and solvent. Then we update how to design and synthesize linear and hyperbranched polymers based on the understanding of polymerization mechanisms. Linear polymers containing 2° amines in the backbones can be obtained from polymerizations of diacrylates or bis(acrylamide)s with equimolar trifunctional amine, and several approaches, e.g., 2A2+BB'B″, A3+2BB'B', A2+BB'B″, to hyperbranched polymers are developed. Further through molecular design of monomers, conjugation of functional species to 2° amines in the backbones of linear polymers and the abundant terminal groups of hyperbranched polymers, the amphiphilicity of polymers can be adjusted, and additional stimuli, e.g., thermal, redox, reactive oxidation species (ROS), and light, responses can be integrated with the intrinsic pH response. Finally we discuss the applications of the polymers for gene/drug delivery and bioimaging through exploring their self-assemblies in various motifs, e.g., micelles, polyplexes particles/nanorings and hydrogels. Redox-responsive hyperbranched polymers can display 300 times
Kudirka, Romas A; Barfield, Robyn M; McFarland, Jesse M; Drake, Penelope M; Carlson, Adam; Bañas, Stefanie; Zmolek, Wes; Garofalo, Albert W; Rabuka, David
Expanded ligation techniques are sorely needed to generate unique linkages for the growing field of functionally enhanced proteins. To address this need, we present a unique chemical ligation that involves the double addition of a pyrazolone moiety with an aldehyde-labeled protein. This ligation occurs via a tandem Knoevenagel condensation-Michael addition. A pyrazolone reacts with an aldehyde to generate an enone, which undergoes subsequent attack by a second pyrazolone to generate a bis-pyrazolone species. This rapid and facile ligation technique is performed under mild conditions in the absence of catalyst to generate new architectures that were previously inaccessible via conventional ligation reactions. Using this unique ligation, we generated three site-specifically labeled antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) with an average of four drugs to one antibody. The in vitro and in vivo efficacies along with pharmacokinetic data of the site-specific ADCs are reported.
Gao, Baozhen; Cui, Lixia; Pan, Yong; Xue, Minjie; Zhu, Boyu; Zhang, Guomei; Zhang, Caihong; Shuang, Shaomin; Dong, Chuan
A new 4-hydroxy-1,8-naphthalimide-based compound (probe 1) has been designed and synthesized. The colorimetric and fluorescent properties of probe 1 towards hydrogen sulfide (H2S) were investigated in detail. The results show that the probe 1 could selectively and sensitively recognize H2S rather than other reactive sulfur species. The reaction mechanism of this probe is an intramolecular cyclization caused by the Michael addition of H2S to give 4-hydroxy-1,8-naphthalimide. The intramolecular charge transfer of 4-hydroxy-1,8-naphthalimide is significant. Probe 1 quickly responded to H2S and showed a 75-fold fluorescence enhancement in 5min. Moreover, probe 1 could detect H2S quantitatively with a detection limit as low as 0.23μM.
Michael Garrett, Paul
In 2013, Michael Gove, then Secretary of State for Education and Health in the UK coalition government, criticised social workers for laying insufficient emphasis on the 'agency' of individuals and for being too preoccupied with social and economic inequalities. Such a perspective, which is not unique to Gove, needs to be countered by reaffirming the significance of an expansively critical sociology for social work. In this context, the thematic concerns of the French theorist, Loïc Wacquant, illuminates key aspects of social work engagement with clients which Gove and his ideological associates appear intent on ignoring. The issues raised have significant political resonances given the pending UK General Election taking place in May 2015.
The paper makes use of Michael Faraday's ideas about learning, in particular his thoughts about attitudes to the unknowns of science and the development of an attitude which improves scientific decision-making. An invented scenario involving nursery school children demonstrates some attitudes displayed there. Discussion of the scenario and variation in possible outcomes suggests that Faraday's views are relevant to scientific learning in general. The main thesis of the paper is that it is central to learning in science to acknowledge that there is an inner struggle involved in facing unknowns, and that empathy with the fears and expectations of learners is an essential quality if genuinely scientific thought is to develop. It is suggested, following Faraday, that understanding our own feelings while we teach is a pre-requisite to enabling such empathy and that only then will we be in a position to evaluate accurately whether or not our pupils are thinking scientifically.
Gao, Baozhen; Cui, Lixia; Pan, Yong; Xue, Minjie; Zhu, Boyu; Zhang, Guomei; Zhang, Caihong; Shuang, Shaomin; Dong, Chuan
A new 4-hydroxy-1,8-naphthalimide-based compound (probe 1) has been designed and synthesized. The colorimetric and fluorescent properties of probe 1 towards hydrogen sulfide (H2S) were investigated in detail. The results show that the probe 1 could selectively and sensitively recognize H2S rather than other reactive sulfur species. The reaction mechanism of this probe is an intramolecular cyclization caused by the Michael addition of H2S to give 4-hydroxy-1,8-naphthalimide. The intramolecular charge transfer of 4-hydroxy-1,8-naphthalimide is significant. Probe 1 quickly responded to H2S and showed a 75-fold fluorescence enhancement in 5 min. Moreover, probe 1 could detect H2S quantitatively with a detection limit as low as 0.23 μM.
Lee, Yan-Jiun; Kurra, Yadagiri; Liu, Wenshe R
A new type of click reaction between an alkyl phosphine and acrylamide was developed and applied for site-specific protein labeling in vitro and in live cells. Acrylamide is a small electrophilic olefin that readily undergoes phospha-Michael addition with an alkyl phosphine. Our kinetic study indicated a second-order rate constant of 0.07 m(-1) s(-1) for the reaction between tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine and acrylamide at pH 7.4. To demonstrate its application in protein functionalization, we used a dansyl-phosphine conjugate to successfully label proteins that were site-specifically installed with N(ɛ) -acryloyl-l-lysine and employed a biotin-phosphine conjugate to selectively probe human proteins that were metabolically labeled with N-acryloyl-galactosamine.
Liu, Zhen Qi; Wei, Zhao; Zhu, Xv Long; Huang, Guo You; Xu, Feng; Yang, Jian Hai; Osada, Yoshihito; Zrínyi, Miklós; Li, Jian Hui; Chen, Yong Mei
Cell encapsulation in three-dimensional (3D) hydrogels can mimic native cell microenvironment and plays a major role in cell-based transplantation therapies. In this contribution, a novel in situ-forming hydrogel, Dex-l-DTT hydrogel ("l" means "linked-by"), by cross-linking glycidyl methacrylate derivatized dextran (Dex-GMA) and dithiothreitol (DTT) under physiological conditions, has been developed using thiol-Michael addition reaction. The mechanical properties, gelation process and degree of swelling of the hydrogel can be easily adjusted by changing the pH of phosphate buffer saline. The 3D cell encapsulation ability is demonstrated by encapsulating rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and NIH/3T3 fibroblasts into the in situ-forming hydrogel with maintained high viability. The BMSCs also maintain their differentiation potential after encapsulation. These results demonstrate that the Dex-l-DTT hydrogel holds great potential for biomedical field.
Lin, Tengfei; Ma, Siwei; Lu, Yang; Guo, Baochun
Shape memory polymers (SMPs) based on natural rubber were fabricated by crosslinking epoxidized natural rubber with zinc diacrylate (ZDA) using the oxa-Michael reaction. These SMPs possessed excellent shape fixity and recovery. The glass transition largely accounted for the fixing of the SMPs temporary shape. Increasing the ZDA content allowed the trigger temperature (20-46 °C) and recovery time (14-33 s) of the SMPs to be continuously tuned. Nanosized silica (nanosilica) was incorporated into the neat polymers to further increase the flexibility and tune the recovery stress. The nanosilica-SMPs exhibited exceptionally high strength in a rubbery state (>20 MPa). The nanosilica-SMPs exhibited high transparency, making them suitable in visible heat-shrinkable tubes.
STS-113 Mission Specialist 1 Michael Lopez-Alegria is seen during this preflight interview where he gives a quick overview of the mission before answering questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut and his career path. Lopez-Alegria outlines his role in the mission in general, and specifically during the docking and extravehicular activities (EVAs). He describes the payload (P1 truss) and the crew transfer activities (the crew of Expedition Six is replacing the crew of Expedition Five on the International Space Station (ISS)). Lopez-Alegria discusses the planned EVAs in detail and outlines what supplies will be left for the resident crew. He ends with his thoughts on the importance of the ISS as the second anniversary of human occupation of the Space Station approaches.
This short paper was presented to a conference in honour of the 60(th) year of the JAP and was one of others that acknowledged the contribution of Michael Fordham. The subtitle refers to the paper's overview of Fordham's published oeuvre and the particular place of the Journal of Analytical Psychology, for which he was the founding editor. Fordham's contribution to a Jungian-based model of development is discussed, with reference to his papers in the British Journal of Medical Psychology. The paper notes miscellaneous pieces from Fordham's commentaries, obituaries, papers and reviews which capture not only the development of Fordham as a thinker but also his character. There is discussion of his reviews of Melanie Klein's Envy and Gratitude and manuscripts by Erich Neumann. A reminiscence of Fordham as supervisor is recounted.
Science, as an institution, is widely taken by sociologists to exemplify the modern tendency towards vesting trust and authority in impersonal offices and procedures, rather than in embodied human individuals. Such views of science face an important challenge in the social philosophy of Michael Polanyi. His work provides important insights into the continuing role of embodied personal authority and tradition in science and, hence, in late modernity. I explicate Polanyi's relevance for social theory, through a comparison with Weber's essay 'Science as a Vocation'. An understanding of the personal dimensions of trust and authority in science suggests practical limits to the position of Giddens on the disembedding of social relations and on the scepticism and reflexivity of modernity.
KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- In the White Room on Launch Pad 39A, STS-113 Mission Specialist Michael Lopez-Alegria is helped with his launch and entry suit before entering Space Shuttle Endeavour. Closeout Crew members helping are (from left) Rick Welty, United Space Alliance Vehicle Closeout chief, Bobby Wright, USA mechanical technician, and Danny Wyatt, NASA Quality Assurance specialist. The launch will carry the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and return the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. The major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is scheduled for Nov. 23 at 7:50 p.m. EST.
Miller, Lantz Fleming
This new book from Michael Hauskeller explores the currently marketed or projected sex/love products that exhibit some trait of so-called "posthumanistic" theory or design. These products are so designated because of their intention to fuse high technologies, including robotics and computing, with the human user. The author offers several arguments for why the theory behind these products leads to inconsistencies. The book uses a unique approach to philosophical argument by enmeshing the argument's major points in a concomitant discussion of pieces from world literature pertaining to posthumanism. The method is compelling, heightened by great world authorial insights that rarely find their way into philosophy and shores up some strong argumentative points. Yet some of the argument still needs more elucidating.
Bah, Juho; Franzén, Johan
In general, Lewis acid catalysts are metal-based compounds that owe their reactivity to a low-lying empty orbital. However, one potential Lewis acid that has received negligible attention as a catalyst is the carbocation. We have demonstrated the potential of the carbocation as a highly powerful Lewis acid catalyst for organic reactions. The stable and easily available triphenylmethyl (trityl) cation was found to be a highly efficient catalyst for the Diels-Alder reaction for a range of substrates. Catalyst loadings as low as 500 ppm, excellent yields, and good endo/exo selectivities were achieved. Furthermore, by changing the electronic properties of the substituents on the tritylium ion, the Lewis acidity of the catalyst could be tuned to control the outcome of the reaction. The ability of this carbocation as a Lewis acid catalyst was also further extended to the Michael reaction.
Dr. Michael Carvan is an Assistant Scientist in the Great Lakes WATER Institute at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, with appointments in the Department of Biological Sciences and the College of Health Sciences. He received his Bachelor 's degree in Marine Biology from the University of North Carolina-Wilmington, and a Master's degree in Biological Oceanography from the University of Miami Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science. Dr. Carvan received his Ph.D. in Anatomy and Public Health from the Texas A & M University College of Veterinary Medicine with a focus on toxicology. He pursued postdoctoral training in molecular toxicology and environmental genetics at the University of Cincinnati Medical Center.
Krotov, V.V.; Staroverov, S.M.; Nesterenko, P.N.; Lisichkin. G.V.
A series of heterogeneous catalysts for asymmetric Michael additions was synthesized based on ephedrine chemically bound to the surface of silica. The length of the hydrocarbon chain binding the active center to the support surface affects the sign of rotation of the reaction product from the asymmetric addition of thiophenol to benzylideneacetophenone. Grafting ephedrine to the silica surface via a short hydrocarbon chain results in a change in the configuration of the reaction product. Silanol groups on the silica surface are involved in the transition state, as evidenced by data obtained using silica which has been exhaustively treated with trimethylchlorosilane. The absolute specific rotation of 1,3-diphenyl-3-thiophenylpropan-1-one has been established.
El-Ablack, Fawzia Zakaria; Metwally, M. A.; Khalil, A. M.
Summary The reaction of 3-aryl-2,4-dicarboethoxy-5-hydroxy-5-methylcyclohexanones 1with benzalacetone, dibenzalacetone, benzalacetophenone, and 4-benzal-1-phenyl-3-methyl pyrazolone has been investigated to give Michael compounds 2-5. hydrolysis of the dioxo derivative 4 afforded1,5-dicarbonyl derivative 6which On condensation with hydrazine and/or substituted hydrazine and hydroxylamine produced1,2-diazepine and 1,2-oxazepine derivatives 7,8 respectively. Reaction of β-Keto ester 1 with 1,3-diphenylacetone afforded 9. The structures of the hitherto unknown compounds have been confirmed by analytical and spectral data. The newly synthesized compounds have been screened to test their antimicrobial and antifungal activity. PMID:26689538
Zhu, Yadong; Qian, Pengfei; Yang, Jiyang; Chen, Shaohua; Hu, Yanwei; Wu, Ping; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Shilei
An efficient aminocatalytic enantioselective Michael addition of readily available cyclic hemiacetals to nitroolefins has been developed. The strategy serves as a powerful approach to synthetically valuable chiral 3-substituted tetrahydrofurans (THFs) and tetrahydropyrans (THPs). The synthetic utilities of the versatile Michael adducts also have been demonstrated in the synthesis of 2,3-disubstituted cyclic ethers, α-substituted lactones and venlafaxine analogues.
Vehicle and Mode of Administration Effects on the Induction of Aberrant Crypt Foci in the Colons of Male F344/N Rats Exposed to Bromodichloromethane.
David R. Geter, Michael H. George, Tanya M. Moore, Steve Kilburn, Gloria Huggins-Clark, and Anthony B. DeAngelo. Submited ...
Weissman, Max R; Winger, Kathleen T; Ghiassian, Sara; Gobbo, Pierangelo; Workentin, Mark S
The glutathione-mediated retro Michael-type addition reaction is demonstrated to take place at the interface of small water-soluble maleimide-functionalized gold nanoparticles (Maleimide-AuNP). The retro Michael-type addition reaction can be blocked by hydrolyzing the Michael addition thioether adduct at the nanoparticle's interface under reaction conditions that do not cause AuNP decomposition. This procedure "locks" the molecule of interest onto the Maleimide-AuNP template for potential uses in medical imaging and bioconjugation, ensuring no loss of the molecular cargo from the nanocarrier. On the other hand, the glutathione-mediated retro Michael-type addition reaction can be exploited for delivering a molecular payload. As a proof of concept, a fluorogenic molecular cargo was incorporated onto a Maleimide-AuNP and delivered via the glutathione-mediated retro Michael-type addition reaction.
Michael F Madelin (1931--2007) was Programme Secretary, Vice-President, and President of the British Mycological Society. A summary of his research on Coprinopsis, various conidial fungi, Coelomomyces and myxomycetes is presented, with a full list of his publications. His teaching career was initially at Imperial College, University of London, and then mostly at the University of Bristol.
Ding, Rui; Katebzadeh, Kambiz; Roman, Lisa; Bergquist, Karl-Erik; Lindström, Ulf M
[reaction: see text] Significant rate acceleration of metal-catalyzed Michael addition reactions in water was observed upon addition of small, dibasic ligands. Ytterbium triflate and TMEDA was the most effective combination leading to a nearly 20-fold faster reaction than in the absence of ligand.
Ballini, R; Bosica, G; Fiorini, D; Gil, M V; Petrini, M
Reaction of (Z)-1,4-diketones with various functionalized nitroalkanes in the presence of DBU gives 4-alkylidenecyclopent-2-en-1-ones with E selectivity. A cyclopentadienone intermediate is probably formed by intramolecular aldol condensation, and this reacts with a nitroalkane giving a Michael addition-elimination.
Kwiatkowski, Jacek; Lu, Yixin
An asymmetric Michael addition of α-fluoro-α-nitroalkanes to nitroolefins was developed, and the products were obtained in good chemical yields and with high stereoselectivities. Highly functionalized adducts provided ready access to fluorinated amines and tetrahydropyrimidines in an optically enriched form.
Huang, Yu-Chao; Uang, Biing-Jiun
The pyrrolidine-camphorsulfonamide-based catalyst 1 a catalyzes the enantioselective conjugate addition of nitroalkanes to α,β-unsaturated aldehydes in the presence of five equivalents of water in iPrOH to give the corresponding chiral Michael adducts in good yields and high enantioselectivities (up to 99% ee) with a catalyst loading as low as 1 mol%.
Yu, Yue; Chen, Yang; Wu, Wanqing; Jiang, Huanfeng
We have developed a Michael-addition/cyclization procedure between ene-yne-ketones and TMSCN under metal-free conditions. A wide range of cyanofurans was delivered in high yields, which could be further transformed to a series of furo-furanimines, furo-pyridazines or carboxamido-furans. In addition, deuterium-labeling experiments have been conducted to clarify the reaction pathway.
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, Robert M. Sarvey v... and Procedure of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC); CAlifornians for Renewable...
The author argues that Michael Polanyi's philosophy of science can be understood as an (unconscious) attempt to recapture elements of experience largely forgotten or repressed in modernity. Specifically, the author argues that Polanyi's epistemology appears to draw on elements of oral-aural experience that have been relatively ignored by the…
Mead, Walter B.
This is intended as an introductory statement to the explorations undertaken in the essays that follow. The authors of these essays attempt to introduce the reader to some of the insights of Michael Polanyi and their implications for the reader who wishes to come to a greater understanding of modern technological society, which--for better or…
Michael, Kurt D.
Kurt Michael is an associate professor in the Department of Psychology at Appalachian State University (ASU) where he teaches history and systems of psychology, abnormal psychology, child psychopathology, and interventions for children and adolescents. He received his BA (cum laude) from the University of Colorado at Boulder and his MS and PhD in…
Murphy, Tonia Hap
This article describes the author's experience of incorporating Michael Novak's "Business as a Calling: Work and the Examined Life" into a Business Law course. The author views it as a positive addition to the course, one that may be of interest to her colleagues at other institutions. Accordingly, after an overview of Novak's analysis in…
Mabry, John H.
Jack Michael was an early enthusiast for what is now called applied behavior analysis. His many seminal contributions were through early publications in applied behavior analysis and the work of the students he trained (e.g., T. Ayllon, M. M. Wolf). His close mentorship of students earned him acclaim as a teacher along with his many theoretical…
Rodgerson, Thomas E
In this article, the author suggests that concepts from the work of Michael Polanyi--such as the tacit dimension, subsidiary awareness, and commitment to a yet unrevealed, hidden reality--provide a theoretical basis for understanding the unique formation involved in pastoral care and counseling supervision.
Cichowicz, Nathan R; Kaplan, Will; Khomutnyk, Yaroslav; Bhattarai, Bijay; Sun, Zhankui; Nagorny, Pavel
A new scalable enantioselective approach to functionalized oxygenated steroids is described. This strategy is based on chiral bis(oxazoline) copper(II) complex-catalyzed enantioselective and diastereoselective Michael reactions of cyclic ketoesters and enones to install vicinal quaternary and tertiary stereocenters. In addition, the utility of copper(II) salts as highly active catalysts for the Michael reactions of traditionally unreactive β,β'-enones and substituted β,β'-ketoesters that results in unprecedented Michael adducts containing vicinal all-carbon quaternary centers is also demonstrated. The Michael adducts subsequently undergo base-promoted diastereoselective aldol cascade reactions resulting in the natural or unnatural steroid skeletons. The experimental and computational studies suggest that the torsional strain effects arising from the presence of the Δ(5)-unsaturation are key controlling elements for the formation of the natural cardenolide scaffold. The described method enables expedient generation of polycyclic molecules including modified steroidal scaffolds as well as challenging-to-synthesize Hajos-Parrish and Wieland-Miescher ketones.
Regional Educational Laboratory Mid-Atlantic, 2015
In this webinar, long-time educator and developer of education technology Michael Jay discussed the importance of using technology to support learning and gave examples of how teachers can integrate technology into their instruction based on the Common Core State Standards and the Next Generation Science Standards. The PowerPoint presentation and…
Peng, Jiahuan; Du, Da-Ming
The enantioselective tandem Friedel-Crafts alkylation/Michael addition reaction of indoles with nitroolefin enoates catalyzed by a diphenylamine-linked bis(oxazoline)-Zn(OTf)2 complex was investigated. This tandem reaction afforded functionalized chiral chromans in good yields with moderate to high stereoselectivities (up to 95:5 dr, up to 99% ee).
Cichowicz, Nathan R.; Kaplan, Will; Khomutnyk, Yaroslav; Bhattarai, Bijay; Sun, Zhankui; Nagorny, Pavel
A new scalable enantioselective approach to functionalized oxygenated steroids is described. This strategy is based on chiral bis(oxazoline) copper(II) complex-catalyzed enantioselective and diastereoselective Michael reactions of cyclic ketoesters and enones to install vicinal quaternary and tertiary stereocenters. In addition, the utility of copper(II) salts as highly active catalysts for the Michael reactions of traditionally unreactive ββ′-enones and substituted ββ′-ketoesters that results in unprecedented Michael adducts containing vicinal all-carbon quaternary centers is also demonstrated. The Michael adducts subsequently undergo base-promoted diastereoselective aldol cascade reactions resulting in the natural or unnatural steroid skeletons. The experimental and computational studies suggest that the torsional strain effects arising from the presence of the Δ5-unsaturation are key controling elements for the formation of the natural cardenolide scaffold. The described method enables expedient generation of polycyclic molecules including modified steroidal scaffolds as well as challenging-to-synthesize Hajos-Parrish and Wieland-Miescher ketones. PMID:26491886
Yang, Dongxu; Li, Dan; Wang, Linqing; Zhao, Depeng; Wang, Rui
The successful design and application of a new type of N-phenyl-imidazole-modified α-heteroatom ketones in asymmetric anti-selective Michael reactions with β-trans-nitroalkenes is reported. High yields and enantioselectivities could be obtained, and the corresponding conjugate adducts could be further transformed into related chiral esters and cyclopropane derivatives with excellent enantioselectivities.
Posner, Gary J.
Recognizing that termination is viewed by the employee as the equivalent to capital punishment of a career, an administrative contract can reduce the emotional and financial entanglements that often result. Administrative contracts are described. (MLW)
NASA officials and elected leaders were on hand for the groundbreaking ceremony of the NASA Shared Services Center Feb. 24, 2006, on the grounds of Stennis Space Center. The NSSC provides agency centralized administrative processing, human resources, procurement and financial services. From left, Louisiana Economic Development Secretary Mike Olivier, Stennis Space Center Director Rick Gilbrech, Computer Sciences Corp. President Michael Laphen, NASA Deputy Administrator Shana Dale, Rep. Gene Taylor, Sen. Trent Lott, Mississippi Gov. Haley Barbour, NASA Administrator Mike Griffin and Shared Services Center Executive Director Arbuthnot use golden shovels to break ground at the site.
Morring, Frank, Jr.
NASA engineers on the Hubble Space Telescope program are actively preparing a shuttle mission to service the orbiting observatory, perhaps as early as 2007, pending a safe return to flight of the shuttle fleet. Administrator Michael D. Griffin must give final clearance to mount the mission, scuttled by former Administrator Sean O'Keefe on what he said were safety grounds in the wake of the Columbia accident. But Griffin, who has overturned much of O'Keefe's policy in his three months on the job, has already told the Hubble program to proceed as though the mission will take place. In that, he has at least the acquiescence of Harold Gehman, the retired admiral who headed the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB). The CAIB never intended its recommendations to preclude a shuttle-borne Hubble servicing mission, Gehman says, and its members still believe the risk would be no greater than missions to the International Space Station (ISS).
... code here VA » Veterans Health Administration Veterans Health Administration Marine Continues to Serve by Serving Veterans David ... Read more » VA Medical Centers The Veterans Health Administration is home to the United States’ largest integrated ...
Because of theological resistance, the calendar reform of 1582 was introduced only in countries under catholic rule. Michael Mästlin is found among the spokesmen of opposition against this feared attempted of the pope to gain influence in the protestant church, nevertheless, Mästlin had no doubt that a calendar reform was necessary. This article retraces Mästlin's argumentation and puts it into context with contemporary discussions about a calendar reform.
Budke, Brian; Kalin, Jay H.; Pawlowski, Michal; Zelivianskaia, Anna S.; Wu, Megan; Kozikowski, Alan P.; Connell, Philip P.
Homologous recombination (HR) is an essential process in cells that provides repair of DNA double-strand breaks and lesions that block DNA replication. RAD51 is an evolutionarily conserved protein that is central to HR. Overexpression of RAD51 protein is common in cancer cells and represents a potential therapeutic target in oncology. We previously described a chemical inhibitor of RAD51, called RI-1 (referred to as compound 1 in this report). The chloromaleimide group of this compound is thought to act as a Michael acceptor and react with the thiol group on C319 of RAD51, using a conjugate addition-elimination mechanism. In order to reduce the likelihood of off-target effects and to improve compound stability in biological systems, we developed an analog of compound 1 that lacks maleimide-based reactivity but retains RAD51 inhibitory activity. This compound, 1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4-morpholino-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione, named RI-2 (referred to as compound 7a in this report), appears to bind reversibly to the same site on the RAD51 protein as does compound 1. Like compound 1, compound 7a specifically inhibits HR repair in human cells. PMID:23231413
In 1969, Lewis Wolpert published a paper outlining his new concepts of "pattern formation" and "positional information". He had already published research on the mechanics of cell membranes in amoebae, and a series of classic studies of sea urchin gastrulation with Trygve Gustavson. Wolpert had presented his 1969 paper a year earlier at a Woods Hole conference, where it received a very hostile reception: "I wasnt asked back to America for many years!". But with Francis Crick lining up in support of diffusible morphogen gradients, positional information eventually became established as a guiding principle for research into biological pattern formation. It is now clear that pattern formation is much more complex than could possibly have been imagined in 1969. But Wolpert still believes in positional information, and regards intercalation during regeneration as its best supporting evidence. However, he and others doubt that diffusible morphogen gradients are a plausible mechanism: "Diffusible gradients are too messy", he says. Since his retirement, Lewis Wolpert has remained active as a theoretical biologist and continues to publish in leading journals. He has also campaigned for a greater public understanding of the stigma of depression. He was interviewed at home in London on July 26th, 2007 by Michael Richardson.
STS-84 Mission Specialists C. Michael Foale, at left, and Elena V. Kondakova of the Russian Space Agency find a moment to communicate one-on-one -- perhaps about upcoming and past experiences living on the Russian Space Station Mir? -- during a busy training session at Launch Pad 39A. They and the other five crew members are participating in the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT), a dress rehearsal for launch. STS-84 aboard Atlantis will be the sixth docking of the Space Shuttle with the Mir. Kondakova spent 169 days in space as the cosmonaut flight engineer of the 17th main mission to Mir from Oct. 4, 1994 to March 9, 1995. After Atlantis docks with Mir on STS-84, Foale will transfer to the space station and become a member of the Mir 23 crew, replacing U.S. astronaut Jerry M. Linenger, who will return to Earth aboard Atlantis. Foale will live and work on Mir until mid-September when his replacement is expected to arrive on the STS-86 mission. STS-84 is targeted for a May 15 liftoff.
STS-109 Astronaut Michael J. Massimino, mission specialist, perched on the Shuttle's robotic arm is working at the stowage area for the Hubble Space Telescope's port side solar array. Working in tandem with James. H. Newman, Massimino removed the old port solar array and stored it in Columbia's payload bay for return to Earth. The two went on to install a third generation solar array and its associated electrical components. Two crew mates had accomplished the same feat with the starboard array on the previous day. In addition to the replacement of the solar arrays, the STS-109 crew also installed the experimental cooling system for the Hubble's Near-Infrared Camera (NICMOS), replaced the power control unit (PCU), and replaced the Faint Object Camera (FOC) with a new advanced camera for Surveys (ACS). The 108th flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle Program, the Space Shuttle Columbia STS-109 mission lifted off March 1, 2002 for 10 days, 22 hours, and 11 minutes. Five space walks were conducted to complete the HST upgrades. The Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama had the responsibility for the design, development, and construction of the HST, which is the most powerful and sophisticated telescope ever built.
Juranić, Ivan O; Tošić, Ana V; Kolundžija, Branka; Drakulić, Branko J
Antiproliferative activity of twenty one Michael adducts of aroylacrylic acids and cyclic amines (N-Me-piperazine, imidazole, 2-Me-imidazole, and indole) was tested toward five human tumor cell lines (HeLa, LS174, K562, FemX, MDA-MB-361) in vitro. Compounds exerted antiproliferative activity in the high to the single-digit micromolar concentrations, causing increase of the cell population fraction in S phase and apoptosis. N-Me-piperazine and imidazole derivatives of aroylacrylic acids substituted with bulky alkyl substituents (2,4-di-i-Pr-Ph-, 2,4,6-tri-Et-Ph-, or β-tetrahydronaphthyl-) showed the best potency, while indole adducts were proved as the inferior antiproliferative agents. Few compounds showed significant selectivity, tumor versus healthy cells, with selectivity index ~60 for the most selective congener. An unbiased in silico distinction between more and less potent compounds was obtained from 3D QSAR models derived by alignment-independent GRIND-2 descriptors.
Costa, Lucio G; Aschner, Michael
Lucio G. Costa is currently Professor of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences at the School of Public Health at the University of Washington. Dr. Costa is a renowned neurotoxicologist whose research interests are focused on understanding the role of neurotoxic substances in neurodevelopmental disorders and other neurological, neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. Dr Costa's research laboratory makes use of a variety of in vivo and in vitro cell culture systems, transgenic animal models and imaging techniques to study the cellular, biochemical and molecular mechanisms of neurotoxicity.Michael Aschner is the Gray E. B. Stahlman Professor of Pediatrics and Pharmacology at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine as well as a Senior Investigator at the Kennedy Center for Research on Human Development. Dr Aschner's research group has a particular interest in the neurobiology and physiology of astrocytes and the signaling mechanisms associated with central nervous system injury. Dr Aschner's laboratory studies metal uptake and distribution in the brain, investigating the mechanisms of transport of methylmercury and manganese across the capillaries of the blood-brain barrier. His research utilizes various experimental models (C. elegans, tissue cultures and rodents) to understand the acute toxicity of manganese deposition in the brains of human neonates.In this interview we find out a little more about the key issues in the field of toxicology research.
Prinke, Rafał T
The Polish alchemist Michael Sendivogius is best known for the influential Novum lumen chymicum, a work composed of three separate texts. Sendivogius's authorship was questioned in the mid-seventeenth century, and these reservations are still held by some modern historians. On the other hand, other early modern and modern readers not only accepted his authorship of all three texts, but also ascribed as many as eleven texts to him. This paper discusses the key works published under the anagrammatised name of Sendivogius with the aim of resolving the authorship question. Newly discovered evidence makes it possible to trace the circumstances leading to the publication of these works in much greater detail than previously, and to present new arguments affirming Sendivogius's authorship. In the Tractatus de sulphure, Sendivogius promised to write another two treatises, which readers sought to identify and (in some cases) to write themselves. This paper sets out, and rejects, the arguments for including them in the corpus of genuine Sendivogian writings.
Betsch, Gerhard; Hamel, Jürgen
This book contains the written versions of talks given at a symposium held in Tübingen between 2000 October 11 - 13, and organized by the faculty of physics of Tübingen University. Michael Mästlin (1550 - 1631) was an esteemed astronomer. He was among the first who described comets as cosmic bodies, and who attempted an orbital determination. Already at an early stage, he adhered to Copernicus' heliocentric system, which he transmitted to Kepler. During 47 years, Mästlin was a professor of mathematical sciences in Tübingen, and played an outstanding role in the scientific life of his university. The contributions deal with various aspects of the life and works of Mästlin: his well-received textbook of astronomy, his role in the rejection of the 1582 calender reform by the protestants, his celestial observations, his relation to Kepler and to Galilei, his position to the progress of science of his time. Other contributions analyze contemporary attempts of the quadrature of the circle, give an overview of Mästlin's surviving published and manuscript works, and provide a vivid decription of the everyday life of a Tübingen professor around 1600. All papers are written in German, and have English abstracts.
Shao, Yaping; Nickling, William; Bergametti, Gilles; Butler, Harry; Chappell, Adrian; Findlater, Paul; Gillies, John; Ishizuka, Masahide; Klose, Martina; Kok, Jasper F.; Leys, John; Lu, Hua; Marticorena, Beatrice; McTainsh, Grant; McKenna-Neuman, Cheryl; Okin, Gregory S.; Strong, Craig; Webb, Nicholas
Since the pioneering work of Bagnold in the 1940s, aeolian research has grown to become an integral part of earth-system science. Many individuals have contributed to this development, and Dr. Michael R. Raupach (1950-2015) has played a pivotal role. Raupach worked intensively on wind erosion problems for about a decade (1985-1995), during which time he applied his deep knowledge of turbulence to aeolian research problems and made profound contributions with far-reaching impact. The beauty of Raupach's work lies in his clear conceptual thinking and his ability to reduce complex problems to their bare essentials. The results of his work are fundamentally important and have many practical applications. In this review we reflect on Raupach's contribution to a number of important aspects of aeolian research, summarise developments since his inspirational work and place Raupach's efforts in the context of aeolian science. We also demonstrate how Raupach's work provided a foundation for new developments in aeolian research. In this tribute, we concentrate on five areas of research: (1) drag partition theory; (2) saltation roughness length; (3) saltation bombardment; (4) threshold friction velocity and (5) the carbon cycle.
STS-109 Astronaut Michael J. Massimino, mission specialist, perched on the Shuttle's robotic arm, is preparing to install the Electronic Support Module (ESM) in the aft shroud of the Hubble Space telescope (HST), with the assistance of astronaut James H. Newman (out of frame). The module will support a new experimental cooling system to be installed during the next day's fifth and final space walk of the mission. That cooling system is designed to bring the telescope's Near-Infrared Camera and Multi Spectrometer (NICMOS) back to life the which had been dormant since January 1999 when its original coolant ran out. The Space Shuttle Columbia STS-109 mission lifted off March 1, 2002 with goals of repairing and upgrading the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama had the responsibility for the design, development, and construction of the HST, which is the most powerful and sophisticated telescope ever built. In addition to the installation of the experimental cooling system for the Hubble's Near-Infrared Camera and NICMOS, STS-109 upgrades to the HST included replacement of the solar array panels, replacement of the power control unit (PCU), and replacement of the Faint Object Camera (FOC) with a new advanced camera for Surveys (ACS). Lasting 10 days, 22 hours, and 11 minutes, the STS-109 mission was the 108th flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle Program.
Brown, M S; Goldstein, J L
When Michael S. Brown, MD and Joseph L. Goldstein, MD first met as interns at the Massachusetts General Hospital in 1966, they could hardly have imagined that their careers would continue to be intertwined some 30 years later. It was shortly following their arrival as clinical associates at the National Institutes of Health in 1968 that the pair developed an interest in abnormalities of cholesterol metabolism. Bolstered by epidemiologic data that showed elevated cholesterol levels in many patients with myocardial infarction, Brown and Goldstein, who relocated to the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in 1972, began a search for receptors important in cholesterol homeostasis. These studies, performed in their early stages while juggling clinical duties at Parkland Hospital, culminated in a series of scientific achievements which merited among other honors the Hazen Award in 1982, the Lasker Award in 1985, and the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1985. Today, as Regental Professors of the University of Texas, Brown and Goldstein head a laboratory group which continues to test the cutting edge of medical research. Although impressed with the pace of technological advances in biology, the declining role of clinically oriented physicians in biomedical research troubles the pair. Interviewed in their library in Dallas, Brown and Goldstein spoke about the complicated balance of science, medicine, and education necessary to produce another generation of successful investigators.
Holan, Martin; Pohl, Radek; Císařová, Ivana; Klepetářová, Blanka; Jones, Peter G; Jahn, Ullrich
Densely functionalized cyclopentane derivatives with up to four consecutive stereocenters are assembled by a tandem Michael addition/single-electron transfer oxidation/radical cyclization/oxygenation strategy mediated by ferrocenium hexafluorophosphate, a recyclable, less toxic single-electron transfer oxidant. Ester enolates were coupled with α-benzylidene and α-alkylidene β-dicarbonyl compounds with switchable diastereoselectivity. This pivotal steering element subsequently controls the diastereoselectivity of the radical cyclization step. The substitution pattern of the radical cyclization acceptor enables a switch of the cyclization mode from a 5-exo pattern for terminally substituted olefin units to a 6-endo mode for internally substituted acceptors. The oxidative anionic/radical strategy also allows efficient termination by oxygenation with the free radical 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinoxyl, and two C-C bonds and one C-O bond are thus formed in the sequence. A stereochemical model is proposed that accounts for all of the experimental results and allows the prediction of the stereochemical outcome. Further transformations of the synthesized cyclopentanes are reported.
Qi, Yanxin; Li, Taihang; Wang, Yupeng; Wei, Xing; Li, Bin; Chen, Xuesi; Xie, Zhigang; Jing, Xiabin; Huang, Yubin
Amphiphilic triblock copolymers mPEG-b-PMAC-b-PCL are synthesized using methoxyl poly(ethylene glycol), cyclic carbonic ester monomer including acryloyl group, and ε-caprolactone. Copolymers are self-assembled into core-shell micelles in aqueous solution. Thiolated hemoglobin (Hb) is conjugated with micelles sufficiently through thiol Michael addition reaction to form hemoglobin nanoparticles (HbNs) with 200 nm in diameter. The conjugation of Hb onto the micelle surface is further confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Feeding ratio of copolymer micelles to Hb at 1:3 would lead to the highest hemoglobin loading efficiency 36.7 wt%. The UV results demonstrate that the gas transporting capacity of HbNs is well remained after Hb is conjugated with polymeric micelles. Furthermore, the obtained HbNs have no obvious detrimental effects on blood components in vitro. This system may thus have great potential as one of the candidates to be developed as oxygen carriers and provide a reference for the modification of protein drugs.
Guston, David H
Imagine putting together a jigsaw puzzle that works like the board game in the movie "Jumanji": When you finish, whatever the puzzle portrays becomes real. The children playing "Jumanji" learn to prepare for the reality that emerges from the next throw of the dice. But how would this work for the puzzle of scientific research? How do you prepare for unlocking the secrets of the atom, or assembling from the bottom-up nanotechnologies with unforeseen properties - especially when completion of such puzzles lies decades after the first scattered pieces are tentatively assembled? In the inaugural issue of this journal, Michael Polanyi argued that because the progress of science is unpredictable, society must only move forward with solving the puzzle until the picture completes itself. Decades earlier, Frederick Soddy argued that once the potential for danger reveals itself, one must reorient the whole of one's work to avoid it. While both scientists stake out extreme positions, Soddy's approach - together with the action taken by the like-minded Leo Szilard - provides a foundation for the anticipatory governance of emerging technologies. This paper narrates the intertwining stories of Polanyi, Soddy and Szilard, revealing how anticipation influenced governance in the case of atomic weapons and how Polanyi's claim in "The Republic of Science" of an unpredictable and hence ungovernable science is faulty on multiple levels.
Cook, L M; Grant, B S; Saccheri, I J; Mallet, J
Colour variation in the peppered moth Biston betularia was long accepted to be under strong natural selection. Melanics were believed to be fitter than pale morphs because of lower predation at daytime resting sites on dark, sooty bark. Melanics became common during the industrial revolution, but since 1970 there has been a rapid reversal, assumed to have been caused by predators selecting against melanics resting on today's less sooty bark. Recently, these classical explanations of melanism were attacked, and there has been general scepticism about birds as selective agents. Experiments and observations were accordingly carried out by Michael Majerus to address perceived weaknesses of earlier work. Unfortunately, he did not live to publish the results, which are analysed and presented here by the authors. Majerus released 4864 moths in his six-year experiment, the largest ever attempted for any similar study. There was strong differential bird predation against melanic peppered moths. Daily selection against melanics (s ≈ 0.1) was sufficient in magnitude and direction to explain the recent rapid decline of melanism in post-industrial Britain. These data provide the most direct evidence yet to implicate camouflage and bird predation as the overriding explanation for the rise and fall of melanism in moths.
Cook, L. M.; Grant, B. S.; Saccheri, I. J.; Mallet, J.
Colour variation in the peppered moth Biston betularia was long accepted to be under strong natural selection. Melanics were believed to be fitter than pale morphs because of lower predation at daytime resting sites on dark, sooty bark. Melanics became common during the industrial revolution, but since 1970 there has been a rapid reversal, assumed to have been caused by predators selecting against melanics resting on today's less sooty bark. Recently, these classical explanations of melanism were attacked, and there has been general scepticism about birds as selective agents. Experiments and observations were accordingly carried out by Michael Majerus to address perceived weaknesses of earlier work. Unfortunately, he did not live to publish the results, which are analysed and presented here by the authors. Majerus released 4864 moths in his six-year experiment, the largest ever attempted for any similar study. There was strong differential bird predation against melanic peppered moths. Daily selection against melanics (s ≃ 0.1) was sufficient in magnitude and direction to explain the recent rapid decline of melanism in post-industrial Britain. These data provide the most direct evidence yet to implicate camouflage and bird predation as the overriding explanation for the rise and fall of melanism in moths. PMID:22319093
Madjarova, G; Tadjer, A; Cholakova, Tz P; Dobrev, A A; Mineva, T
Density functional (DF) based numerical approaches for computing orbital and atomic reactivity indices were employed in the study of selectivity descriptors for the 1,4 Michael addition reaction. To this aim, atomic and orbital Fukui indices and atomic softnesses for 2-arylmethylene-1,4-butanolides and N,N-disubstituted phenylacetamides were computed. Further on, these local selectivity descriptors have been rationalized in terms of the Pearson's hard-soft-acid-base principle to explain the observed regioselectivity. It is shown that the methods employed for local (atomic and orbital) reactivity index computations are useful and reliable for prediction of the regioselectivity upon conjugate addition of ambident nucleophiles to 2,3-unsaturated carboxylic esters. All the results reveal similar degree of localization/hardness of the 1,4-butanolides C4 and active alpha-carbon belonging to the N,N-dimethyl-phenylacetamide, while the soft alpha-carbon in LiCH2CN reacts with the soft C2 1,4-butanolide center.
This article examines the East London-based Institute of Community Studies, and its founder, Michael Young, to show that sociology and social research offered avenues for left-wing political expression in the 1950s. Young, who had previously been Head of the Labour Party Research Department during the Attlee government, drew upon existing currents of psychological and sociological research to emphasize the continuing relevance of the extended family in industrial society and to offer a model of socialist citizenship, solidarity and mutual support not tied to productive work. Young and his colleagues at the Institute of Community Studies promoted the supportive kinship networks of the urban working class, and an idealized conception of the relationships between women, to suggest that family had been overlooked by the left and should be reclaimed as a progressive force. The article shows that the Institute's sociological work was informed by a pre-existing concern with family as a model for cooperative socialism, and suggests that sociology and social research should be seen as important sources of political commentary for scholars of post-war politics.
Demiray, Burcu; Freund, Alexandra M
This study examined the perceived psychosocial functions of flashbulb memories: It compared positive and negative public flashbulb memories (positive: Bin Laden's death, negative: Michael Jackson's death) with private ones (positive: pregnancy, negative: death of a loved one). A sample of n = 389 young and n = 176 middle-aged adults answered canonical category questions used to identify flashbulb memories and rated the personal significance, the psychological temporal distance, and the functions of each memory (i.e., self-continuity, social-boding, directive functions). Hierarchical regressions showed that, in general, private memories were rated more functional than public memories. Positive and negative private memories were comparable in self-continuity and directionality, but the positive private memory more strongly served social functions. In line with the positivity bias in autobiographical memory, positive flashbulb memories felt psychologically closer than negative ones. Finally, middle-aged adults rated their memories as less functional regarding self-continuity and social-bonding than young adults. Results are discussed regarding the tripartite model of autobiographical memory functions.
President Richard M. Nixon announcing the appointment of Dr. Thomas O. Paine as Administrator for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The ceremony was held at the White House. Paine had been serving as acting administrator. From left to right: President Richard M. Nixon NASA Administrator Dr. Thomas O. Paine Vice President Spiro T. Agnew
At a 22 May briefing, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) called on Congress to “establish space exploration policy goals which transcend partisan political differences.” AIAA president and former NASA administrator Michael Griffin said the “goal of establishing human capability to b e a space-faring species is not a short-term goal,” nor is it a goal that belongs to only one political party. “We will not reach long-term goals without a stable, coherent, sensible plan that transcends elections and leaders,” said Griffin, who has provided advice to Republican U.S. presidential candidate Mitt Romney. Griffin pointed to NASA's 2008 authorization as providing the kind of vision needed for NASA. The act called for human return to the Moon and preparation for the capability for permanent bases on the Moon, among other things, he said. “That's the kind of thing that we need. All of the goals espoused by the 2008 act were long-term, generational, strategic in scope,” Griffin said, adding that the act, which had bipartisan support, demonstrated “the kind of societal support, rather than political support, that I believe our space program deserves.”
In 1919, Michael Fischer OSC was appointed to the German charity union "Zentrale des Deutschen Caritasverbandes" (DCV) in Freiburg. He assumed his duties as the acting manager and general secretary for the German catholic union of health institutions "Verband Katholischer Kranken- und Pflegeanstalten". For nearly twenty years, he was involved in expanding and strengthening this specialized organisation. For more than a decade, Michael Fischer influenced catholic medical care in Germany by holding lectures; on the whole, he published the medical welfare journal "Krankendienst" as well as fifteen specialized books and more than five hundred articles in different journals, which were essential. For all his efforts, his enormous engagement, historical health research has ignored him until now. The following essay is meant to give insight into his life and works and pays tribute to his importance in nursing care.
Hack, Daniel; Chauhan, Pankaj; Deckers, Kristina; Hermann, Gary N; Mertens, Lucas; Raabe, Gerhard; Enders, Dieter
A highly stereoselective one-pot procedure for the synthesis of five-membered annulated hydroxycoumarins has been developed. By merging primary amine catalysis with silver catalysis, a series of functionalized coumarin derivatives were obtained in good yields (up to 91%) and good to excellent enantioselectivities (up to 99% ee) via a Michael addition/hydroalkoxylation reaction. Depending on the substituents on the enynone, the synthesis of annulated six-membered rings is also feasible.
Dong, Xiu-Qin; Teng, Huai-Long; Wang, Chun-Jiang
A highly diastereoselective and enantioselective Michael addition of nitroalkanes to nitroalkenes has been achieved by chiral bifunctional amine-thiourea catalyst bearing multiple hydrogen-bonding donors. This catalytic system performs well over a broad scope of substrates, furnishing various 1,3-dinitro compounds in high diastereoselectivity (up to 98:2) and excellent enantioselectivity (up to 99% ee) under mild conditions. Multiple hydrogen bonding donors play a significant role in accelerating reactions, improving diastereoselectivities and enantioselectivities.
Zhou, Yirong; Liu, Qiang; Gong, Yuefa
A series of stable C(1)-symmetric chiral diamines (2a–2l) were conveniently synthesized by condensing exo-(-)-bornylamine or (+)-(1S,2S,5R)-menthylamine with various commercially available Cbz-protected amino acids. Among them, 2a can efficiently promote the Michael addition of nitroalkanes to a broad scope of enones with high yields (up to 96%) and excellent enantioselectivities (up to 98%) under mild conditions.
Cao, Dongdong; Zhang, Jiaxing; Wang, Hongyu; Zhao, Gang
A novel family of dipeptide-based multifunctional quaternary phosphonium salts has been developed as chiral phase-transfer catalysts, which feature ready accessibility and structure modularity, allowing easy fine-tunings of activity. They demonstrated high efficiency in catalyzing the tandem asymmetric Michael addition/intramolecular SN 2 reaction between 6 or 7-substituted conjugate enones and malonates, providing synthetically important five or six-membered carbocycles and heterocycles in good yields and with good to excellent enantioselectivities.
Steinkamp, Anne-Dorothee; Frings, Marcus; Thomé, Isabelle; Schiffers, Ingo; Bolm, Carsten
A highly stereoselective vinylogous Mukaiyama Michael reaction (VMMR) leading to α-keto phosphonate-containing γ-butenolides with two stereogenic centers is described. The presented transformation is catalyzed by a combination of a commercially available C2 -symmetric bisoxazoline (BOX) ligand and a copper salt and tolerates a variety of nucleophiles and electrophiles. The stereoselectivities of the reactions are good to excellent and the products are obtained in moderate to high yields.
Joie, Céline; Deckers, Kristina; Enders, Dieter
The organocatalytic asymmetric synthesis of functionalized 1,3,5-triarylpyrrolidin-2-ones bearing three contiguous stereocenters through an aza-Michael/aldol domino reaction of α-ketoamides with α,β-unsaturated aldehydes is described. The domino products were further derivatized by aldehyde olefination under one-pot conditions. The reaction proceeds with excellent diastereoselectivities (>20:1) and good to excellent enantioselectivities (60–96% ee). PMID:25278634
Wang, Zhen-Yu; Ban, Shu-Rong; Yang, Meng-Chen; Li, Qing-Shan
Organocatalysis and aqueous reactions are identified as the focus of the greening of chemistry. Combining these two strategies effectively remains an interesting challenge in organic synthesis. Herein, we used pyrrolidine-based benzoylthiourea 1c to catalyze the asymmetric Michael addition of cyclohexanone to various nitroolefins in water to afford the corresponding compounds in moderate to good yields, and with excellent diastereoselectivities (up to >99:1 dr) and enantioselectivities (up to 99% ee).
Wang, Jian; Li, Hao; Lou, Bihshow; Zu, Liansuo; Guo, Hua; Wang, Wei
Chiral (S)-pyrrolidine trifluoromethanesulfonamide has been shown to serve as an effective catalyst for direct Michael addition reactions of aldehydes and ketones with nitroolefins. A wide range of aldehydes and ketones as Michael donors and nitroolefins as acceptors participate in the process, which proceeds with high levels of enantioselectivity (up to 99 % ee) and diastereoselectivity (up to 50:1 d.r.). The methodology has been employed successfully in an efficient synthesis of the potent H(3) agonist Sch 50917. In addition, a practical three-step procedure for the preparation of (S)-pyrrolidine trifluoromethanesulfonamide has been developed. The high levels of stereochemical control attending Michael addition reactions catalyzed by this pyrrolidine sulfonamide, have been investigated by using ab initio and density functional methods. Transition state structures for the rate-limiting C--C bond-forming step, corresponding to re- and si-face addition to the reactive conformation of the key enamine intermediates have been calculated. Analysis of these structures indicates that hydrogen bonding plays an important role in catalysis and that the energy barrier for si-face attack in reactions of aldehydes to form 2R,3S products is lower than that for the re-face attack leading to 2S,3R products. In contrast, the energy barrier for re-face addition is lower than that for si-face addition in reactions of ketones. The computational results, which are in good agreement with the experimental observations, are discussed in the context of the stereochemical course of these Michael addition reactions.
A highly stereoselective one-pot procedure for the synthesis of five-membered annulated hydroxycoumarins has been developed. By merging primary amine catalysis with silver catalysis, a series of functionalized coumarin derivatives were obtained in good yields (up to 91%) and good to excellent enantioselectivities (up to 99% ee) via a Michael addition/hydroalkoxylation reaction. Depending on the substituents on the enynone, the synthesis of annulated six-membered rings is also feasible. PMID:25250728
Zhou, Jing; Wang, Qi-Lin; Peng, Lin; Tian, Fang; Xu, Xiao-Ying; Wang, Li-Xin
A new organocatalytic asymmetric domino Michael-alkylation reaction of methyleneindolinones and γ-halogenated-β-ketoesters is described. A variety of spiro-cyclopentanoneoxindoles were obtained in high yields (up to 96%), good diastereoselectivities (up to 12 : 1 dr) and excellent enantioselectivities (up to >99% ee) via α-alkylation. Interestingly, O-alkylated products with tetronic acid motifs could be obtained by tuning the N-protecting groups on methyleneindolinones with excellent enantioselectivities (up to >99% ee).
Hahn, Robert; Raabe, Gerhard; Enders, Dieter
A diastereo- and enantioselective Michael/Henry/ketalization sequence to functionalized tetrahydropyrans is described. The multicomponent cascade reaction uses acetylacetone or β-keto esters, β-nitrostyrenes, and alkynyl aldehydes as substrates affording tetrahydropyrans with five contiguous stereocenters. Employing a bifunctional quinine-based squaramide organocatalyst, the title compounds are obtained in moderate to good yields (27–80%), excellent enantiomeric excesses (93–99% ee), and high diastereomeric ratios (dr > 20:1) after one crystallization. PMID:24971998
The briefing begins with Dean Acousta (NASA Press Secretary) introducing Michael Griffin (NASA Administrator), Bill Gerstenmaier (Associate Administrator for Space Operations) Wayne Hale (Space Shuttle Program Manager), John Shannon (Chairman, Mission Management Team, JSC), and Mike Leinbach (NASA Launch Director). The teams effort and dedication paid off in the form of a perfect launch and the weather cooperated. The Mission Management Team no problems during inspection. Debris assessment at 2 min. 47 sec. and 4 min. 50 sec. will be discussed when that information becomes available.The floor was then open for questions from the press.
Wang, Juan; He, Hongliang; Cooper, Remy C; Yang, Hu
In this work, we describe synthesis and characterization of novel in situ-forming polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer hydrogels (DHs) with tunable properties prepared via highly efficient aza-Michael addition reaction. PAMAM dendrimer G5 was chosen as the underlying core and functionalized with various degrees of acetylation using acetic anhydride. The nucleophilic amines on the dendrimer surface reacted with α, β-unsaturated ester in acrylate groups of polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEG-DA, Mn = 575 g/mol) via aza-Michael addition reaction to form dendrimer hydrogels without the use of any catalyst. The solidification time, rheological behavior, network structure, swelling, and degradation properties of the hydrogel were tuned by adjusting the dendrimer surface acetylation degree and dendrimer concentration. The DHs were shown to be highly cytocompatible and support cell adhesion and proliferation. We also prepared an injectable dendrimer hydrogel formulation to deliver the anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and demonstrated that the injectable formulation efficiently inhibited tumor growth following intratumoral injection. Taken together, this new class of dendrimer hydrogel prepared by aza-Michael addition reaction can serve as a safe tunable platform for drug delivery and tissue engineering.
This Theme Issue is dedicated to the topic ‘Mechanics: from nano to macro’ and marks the 75th birthday of Dr J. Michael T. Thompson, Fellow of the Royal Society, whose current affiliations are as follows: (i) Honorary Fellow, Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge; (ii) Emeritus Professor of Nonlinear Dynamics, Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, University College London; and (iii) Professor of Theoretical and Applied Dynamics (Distinguished Sixth Century Chair, part-time), University of Aberdeen. He also serves as Chairman of the Board of Directors at ES-Consult (consulting engineers) in Copenhagen, Denmark. The pertinent question that arises from the very start is: should we first salute Michael and then describe the Theme Issue, or vice versa? Indeed, according to Blaise Pascal (1623–1662), the last thing one discovers in composing a work is what to put first. I would like to take the liberty of deviating from the tradition of the Philosophical Transactions and start with the tribute to Michael; after all he is the prime cause of this Theme Issue. PMID:23690647
Jackson, Paul A; Widen, John C; Harki, Daniel A; Brummond, Kay M
Although Michael acceptors display a potent and broad spectrum of bioactivity, they have largely been ignored in drug discovery because of their presumed indiscriminate reactivity. As such, a dearth of information exists relevant to the thiol reactivity of natural products and their analogues possessing this moiety. In the midst of recently approved acrylamide-containing drugs, it is clear that a good understanding of the hetero-Michael addition reaction and the relative reactivities of biological thiols with Michael acceptors under physiological conditions is needed for the design and use of these compounds as biological tools and potential therapeutics. This Perspective provides information that will contribute to this understanding, such as kinetics of thiol addition reactions, bioactivities, as well as steric and electronic factors that influence the electrophilicity and reversibility of Michael acceptors. This Perspective is focused on α,β-unsaturated carbonyls given their preponderance in bioactive natural products.
Patil, Mahendra P; Sharma, Akhilesh K; Sunoj, Raghavan B
The fundamental factors contributing toward the stereoselectivity in organocatalyzed asymmetric Michael reaction between aldehydes (propanal and 3-phenyl propanal) and methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) are established by using density functional theory methods. Three of the most commonly employed α-substituted pyrrolidine organocatalysts are examined. Several key stereochemical modes of addition between (i) a model enamine or (ii) pyrrolidine enamines derived from aldehydes and secondary amine to MVK are examined. Among these possibilities, the addition of (E)-enamine to cis-MVK is found to have a lower activation barrier. The stereochemical outcome of the reaction is reported on the basis of the relative energies between pertinent diastereomeric transition states. Moderate selectivity is predicted for the reaction involving pyrrolidine catalysts I and II, which carry relatively less bulky α-substituents dimethylmethoxymethyl and diphenylmethyl, respectively. On the other hand, high selectivity is computed in the case of catalyst III having a sufficiently large α-substituent (diarylmethoxymethyl or diphenylprolinol methyl ether). The enantiomeric excess in the case of 3-phenyl propanal is found to be much higher as compared to that with unsubstituted propanal, suggesting potential for improvement in stereoselectivity by substrate modifications. The computed enantiomeric excess is found to be in reasonable agreement with the reported experimental stereoselectivities. A detailed investigation on the geometries of the crucial transition states reveals that apart from steric interactions between the α-substituent and MVK, various other factors such as orbital interactions and weak stabilizing hydrogen-bonding interactions play a vital role in stereoselectivity. The results serve to establish the importance of cumulative effects of various stabilizing and destabilizing interactions at the transition state as responsible for the stereochemical outcome of the reaction. The
Solid State Ionics has its roots essentially in Europe. First foundations were laid by Michael Faraday who discovered the solid electrolytes Ag2S and PbF2 and coined terms such as cation and anion, electrode and electrolyte. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, the main lines of development toward Solid State Ionics, pursued in Europe, concerned the linear laws of transport, structural analysis, disorder and entropy and the electrochemical storage and conversion of energy. Fundamental contributions were then made by Walther Nernst, who derived the Nernst equation and detected ionic conduction in heterovalently doped zirconia, which he utilized in his Nernst lamp. Another big step forward was the discovery of the extraordinary properties of alpha silver iodide in 1914. In the late 1920s and early 1930s, the concept of point defects was established by Yakov Il'ich Frenkel, Walter Schottky and Carl Wagner, including the development of point-defect thermodynamics by Schottky and Wagner. In terms of point defects, ionic (and electronic) transport in ionic crystals became easy to visualize. In an 'evolving scheme of materials science', point disorder precedes structural disorder, as displayed by the AgI-type solid electrolytes (and other ionic crystals), by ion-conducting glasses, polymer electrolytes and nano-composites. During the last few decades, much progress has been made in finding and investigating novel solid electrolytes and in using them for the preservation of our environment, in particular in advanced solid state battery systems, fuel cells and sensors. Since 1972, international conferences have been held in the field of Solid State Ionics, and the International Society for Solid State Ionics was founded at one of them, held at Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, in 1987.
Solid State Ionics has its roots essentially in Europe. First foundations were laid by Michael Faraday who discovered the solid electrolytes Ag2S and PbF2 and coined terms such as cation and anion, electrode and electrolyte. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, the main lines of development toward Solid State Ionics, pursued in Europe, concerned the linear laws of transport, structural analysis, disorder and entropy and the electrochemical storage and conversion of energy. Fundamental contributions were then made by Walther Nernst, who derived the Nernst equation and detected ionic conduction in heterovalently doped zirconia, which he utilized in his Nernst lamp. Another big step forward was the discovery of the extraordinary properties of alpha silver iodide in 1914. In the late 1920s and early 1930s, the concept of point defects was established by Yakov Il'ich Frenkel, Walter Schottky and Carl Wagner, including the development of point-defect thermodynamics by Schottky and Wagner. In terms of point defects, ionic (and electronic) transport in ionic crystals became easy to visualize. In an ‘evolving scheme of materials science’, point disorder precedes structural disorder, as displayed by the AgI-type solid electrolytes (and other ionic crystals), by ion-conducting glasses, polymer electrolytes and nano-composites. During the last few decades, much progress has been made in finding and investigating novel solid electrolytes and in using them for the preservation of our environment, in particular in advanced solid state battery systems, fuel cells and sensors. Since 1972, international conferences have been held in the field of Solid State Ionics, and the International Society for Solid State Ionics was founded at one of them, held at Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, in 1987.
Solid State Ionics has its roots essentially in Europe. First foundations were laid by Michael Faraday who discovered the solid electrolytes Ag2S and PbF2 and coined terms such as cation and anion, electrode and electrolyte. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, the main lines of development toward Solid State Ionics, pursued in Europe, concerned the linear laws of transport, structural analysis, disorder and entropy and the electrochemical storage and conversion of energy. Fundamental contributions were then made by Walther Nernst, who derived the Nernst equation and detected ionic conduction in heterovalently doped zirconia, which he utilized in his Nernst lamp. Another big step forward was the discovery of the extraordinary properties of alpha silver iodide in 1914. In the late 1920s and early 1930s, the concept of point defects was established by Yakov Il'ich Frenkel, Walter Schottky and Carl Wagner, including the development of point-defect thermodynamics by Schottky and Wagner. In terms of point defects, ionic (and electronic) transport in ionic crystals became easy to visualize. In an ‘evolving scheme of materials science’, point disorder precedes structural disorder, as displayed by the AgI-type solid electrolytes (and other ionic crystals), by ion-conducting glasses, polymer electrolytes and nano-composites. During the last few decades, much progress has been made in finding and investigating novel solid electrolytes and in using them for the preservation of our environment, in particular in advanced solid state battery systems, fuel cells and sensors. Since 1972, international conferences have been held in the field of Solid State Ionics, and the International Society for Solid State Ionics was founded at one of them, held at Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, in 1987. PMID:27877585
Saleeb, R.; Faragalla, H.; Yousef, G. M.; Stewart, R.; Streutker, C. J.
Introduction: Previous publications have shown an increased incidence of various malignancies amongst renal transplant populations. The objective of this study was to analyze the rate and types of malignancies occurring in the St. Michael's Hospital renal transplant population and to determine whether our results were comparable to those previously published. Methods: After approval by the hospital's research ethic board, review of the records and pathology of the 1584 patients in the renal transplant clinic database patients was performed. The reports dated back to the year 1970. Results: Amongst the 1584 renal transplant patients, 106 patients with 132 dysplastic and malignant posttransplant lesions were identified. The highest incidence amid the malignancies was in nonmelanoma skin malignancies squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), basal cell carcinoma, and Kaposi sarcoma, with a total of 32 patients having 54 separate tumors (2.02% of all patients, 43.2% of tumors). Following skin tumors in incidence were genitourinary (28 tumors), gastrointestinal tract (GIT) lesions (8 adenocarcinomas, 14 dysplastic lesions, 1 low grade neuroendocrine tumor/carcinoid), posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) (10 cases), gynecologic (6 carcinomas), cervical/anal/vulvar dysplasia and invasive (SCCs) (4), and thyroid (3 papillary tumors). Nine patients had tumors of multiple sites/types. With respect to outcome, 14 patients died of malignancy, with the highest mortality being in the GIT malignancies (six patients). Second in mortality were the PTLD and skin tumor groups. Discussion: Information on the incidence and outcome of various malignancies in renal transplant patients is important in designing guidelines for the follow-up of these patients regarding tumor screening and prevention. The rate of malignancies in our group is comparable to that reported in other centers. PMID:27141185
After NASA put into practice the 2004 Homeland Security Presidential Directive-12, known as HSPD-12, Dennis Byrnes talked to then-NASA administrator Michael Griffin. Byrnes recalls that Griffin told him in 2007 that if he didn’t like the agency's implementation of HSPD-12, he should go to court. That's exactly what Byrnes, an employee of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) working as a senior engineer at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, Calif., did. Concerned about prying and open-ended background investigations of federal contractors through NASA's implementation of HSPD-12, he, along with lead plaintiff Robert Nelson and 26 other Caltech employees working at JPL, sued NASA. Following several lower court decisions, including an injunction issued by a U.S. federal appeals court in response to a plaintiff motion, the case made it all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court, which heard oral arguments on 5 October.
... content Official website of the Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration A - Z Index What Can I Bring? ... form Search the Site Main menu Administrator Travel Security Screening Special Procedures TSA Pre✓® Passenger Support Travel ...
... Federal Initiatives Career Opportunities Contact Us Administration on Aging (AoA) The Administration on Aging (AOA) is the ... themselves. Back to top Older Americans Act and Aging Network To meet the diverse needs of the ...
... Contacts OSEP Reports & Resources RSA Welcome to RSA Rehabilitation Services Administration RSA Spotlight News Commissioner's Quarterly Newsletter ... The Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services’ Rehabilitation Services Administration is proud to announce the publication ...
... Administration on Aging Administration on Disabilities Center for Integrated Programs Center for Performance and Evaluation National Institute ... Project Aging Statistics Profile of Older Americans AGing Integrated Database (AGID) Census Data & Population Estimates Projected Future ...
A discussion of legal and administrative language, and the necessity for accurate translation of this language in the field of international relations. Topics treated are: characteristic features of legal and administrative terminology; the interpretation of it; and the technique of translating legal and administrative texts. (AMH)
National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, Washington, DC. Office of Communications Services.
In a survey by the National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges (NASULGC), women are shown to hold 2,905 of the 13,638 administrative positions reported by 106 major U.S. public universities--slightly more than 21 percent of the administrators at state and land-grant universities. The median number of women administrators at…
Jordan, K. Forbis; And Others
This textbook reviews the principal concerns within each of 13 major responsibility areas in school business administration. The first chapter assesses the political, social, and economic context in which schools function and school administrators work. The role and function of the school business administrator within this context is addressed in…
Pollen analysis of a sediment core from Zagoskin Lake on St. Michael Island, northeast Bering Sea, provides a history of vegetation and climate for the central Bering land bridge and adjacent western Alaska for the past ???30,000 14C yr B.P. During the late middle Wisconsin interstadial (???30,000-26,000 14C yr B.P.) vegetation was dominated by graminoid-herb tundra with willows (Salix) and minor dwarf birch (Betula nana) and Ericales. During the late Wisconsin glacial interval (26,000-15,000 14C yr B.P.) vegetation was graminoid-herb tundra with willows, but with fewer dwarf birch and Ericales, and more herb types associated with dry habitats and disturbed soils. Grasses (Poaceae) dominated during the peak of this glacial interval. Graminoid-herb tundra suggests that central Beringia had a cold, arid climate from ???30,000 to 15,000 14C yr B.P. Between 15,000 and 13,000 14C yr B.P., birch shrub-Ericales-sedge-moss tundra began to spread rapidly across the land bridge and Alaska. This major vegetation change suggests moister, warmer summer climates and deeper winter snows. A brief invasion of Populus (poplar, aspen) occurred ca. 11,000-9500 14C yr B.P., overlapping with the Younger Dryas interval of dry, cooler(?) climate. During the latest Wisconsin to middle Holocene the Bering land bridge was flooded by rising seas. Alder shrubs (Alnus crispa) colonized the St. Michael Island area ca. 8000 14C yr B.P. Boreal forests dominated by spruce (Picea) spread from interior Alaska into the eastern Norton Sound area in middle Holocene time, but have not spread as far west as St. Michael Island. ?? 2003 University of Washington. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Abstract Two efficient reactions were successfully carried out using Animal Bone Meal (ABM) and potassium fluoride or sodium nitrate doped ABMs as new heterogeneous catalysts under very mild conditions. After preparation and characterization of the catalysts, we first report their use in a simple and convenient synthesis of various chalcones by Claisen–Schmidt condensation and then in an aza-Michael addition involving several synthesized chalcones with aromatic amines. All the reactions were carried out at room temperature in methanol; the chalcone synthesis was also achieved in water environment under microwave irradiation. Doping ABM enhances the rate and yield at each reaction. Catalytic activities are discussed and the ability to re-use the ABM is demonstrated. Results For Claisen–Schmidt the use of ABM alone, yields never exceeded 17%. In each entry, KF/ABM and NaNO3/ABM (79-97%) gave higher yields than using ABM alone under thermic condition. Also the reaction proceeded under microwave irradiation in good yields (72-94% for KF/ABM and 81-97% for NaNO3/ABM) and high purity. For aza-Michael addition the use of ABM doped with KF or NaNO3 increased the catalytic activity remarkably. The very high yields could be noted (84-95% for KF/ABM and 81-94% for NaNO3/ABM). Conclusion The present method is an efficient and selective procedure for the synthesis of chalcones an aza-Michael adducts. The ABM and doped ABMs are a new, inexpensive and attractive solid supports which can contribute to the development of catalytic processes and reduced environmental problems. PMID:22721409
Ager, Thomas A.
Pollen analysis of a sediment core from Zagoskin Lake on St. Michael Island, northeast Bering Sea, provides a history of vegetation and climate for the central Bering land bridge and adjacent western Alaska for the past ≥30,000 14C yr B.P. During the late middle Wisconsin interstadial (≥30,000-26,000 14C yr B.P.) vegetation was dominated by graminoid-herb tundra with willows ( Salix) and minor dwarf birch ( Betula nana) and Ericales. During the late Wisconsin glacial interval (26,000-15,000 14C yr B.P.) vegetation was graminoid-herb tundra with willows, but with fewer dwarf birch and Ericales, and more herb types associated with dry habitats and disturbed soils. Grasses (Poaceae) dominated during the peak of this glacial interval. Graminoid-herb tundra suggests that central Beringia had a cold, arid climate from ≥30,000 to 15,000 14C yr B.P. Between 15,000 and 13,000 14C yr B.P., birch shrub-Ericales-sedge-moss tundra began to spread rapidly across the land bridge and Alaska. This major vegetation change suggests moister, warmer summer climates and deeper winter snows. A brief invasion of Populus (poplar, aspen) occurred ca.11,000-9500 14C yr B.P., overlapping with the Younger Dryas interval of dry, cooler(?) climate. During the latest Wisconsin to middle Holocene the Bering land bridge was flooded by rising seas. Alder shrubs ( Alnus crispa) colonized the St. Michael Island area ca. 8000 14C yr B.P. Boreal forests dominated by spruce ( Picea) spread from interior Alaska into the eastern Norton Sound area in middle Holocene time, but have not spread as far west as St. Michael Island.
Arigela, Rajesh K; Mandadapu, Anil K; Sharma, Sudhir K; Kumar, Brijesh; Kundu, Bijoy
A rapid one-pot protocol for the synthesis of indole-based polyheterocycles via a sequential Lewis acid catalyzed intermolecular Michael addition and an intramolecular azide/internal alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction has been described. The generality of the method has been demonstrated by treating a series of aromatic/aliphatic 2-alkynyl indoles with substituted (E)-1-azido-2-(2-nitrovinyl)benzenes to furnish annulated tetracyclic indolo[2,3-c][1,2,3]triazolo[1,5-a]benzazepines in good yields.
Yang, Hua-Meng; Li, Li; Li, Fei; Jiang, Ke-Zhi; Shang, Jun-Yan; Lai, Guo-Qiao; Xu, Li-Wen
The study showed that a combination of an achiral silicon-based Lewis acid and chiral Lewis base, such as iodotrimethylsilane (TMSI) and cinchonine, generated a highly enantioselective catalyst system under solvent-free conditions which gave aromatic β-amino ketones with up to >99% ee. Mechanistic studies demonstrate the enhanced asymmetric induction may be due to the combined and competitive activation of a carbonyl moiety of chalcone with cinchonine and the silicon-based Lewis acid in the aza-Michael reaction.
We review lattice calculations of the elementary Greens functions of QCD with a special emphasis on the Landau gauge. These lattice results have been of interest to continuum approaches to QCD over the past 20 years. They are used as reference for Dyson-Schwinger- and functional renormalization group equation calculations as well as for hadronic bound state equations. The lattice provides low-energy data for propagators and three-point vertices in Landau gauge at zero and finite temperature even including dynamical fermions. We summarize Michael Müller-Preußker's important contributions to this field and put them into the perspective of his other research interests.
Kohls, Paul; Jadhav, Deepak; Pandey, Ganesh; Reiser, Oliver
The photoredox-catalyzed coupling of N-aryltetrahydroisoquinoline and Michael acceptors was achieved using Ru(bpy)(3)Cl(2) or [Ir(ppy)(2)(dtb-bpy)]PF(6) in combination with irradiation at 455 nm generated by a blue LED, demonstrating the trapping of visible light generated α-amino radicals. While intermolecular reactions lead to products formed by a conjugate addition, in intramolecular variants further dehydrogenation occurs, leading directly to 5,6-dihydroindolo[2,1-a]tetrahydroisoquinolines, which are relevant as potential immunosuppressive agents.
Ding, Derong; Zhao, Cong-Gui; Guo, Qunsheng; Arman, Hadi
Bicyclo[3.2.1]octan-8-ones have been prepared from a tandem Michael-Henry reaction between cyclohexane-1,2-diones and nitroalkenes using a quinine-derived thiourea as the catalyst. Although four stereogenic centers were created during the reaction, only two diastereomers were obtained in good diastereoselectivity and high enantioselectivity (92-99% ee). When 3-methylcyclohexane-1,2-dione (R1 = Me) was used as the substrate, only the regioisomeric product of the corresponding thermodynamic enolate was obtained. PMID:20532185
Ortiz, R L
"Sexuality Degree Zero" explores common themes and formal strategies in the fiction of three prominent gay Chicano writers: John Rechy, Arturo Islas, and Michael Nava. Employing the concept of a politicized textual "pleasure" as theorized by French critic Roland Barthes, the study argues for the political efficacy of aesthetic choices characteristic to the three authors. Analyses of Rechy's use of pornography, of Islas' transgressive use of cultural iconography, and of Nava's use of sexual "perversions" in the context of classic crime fiction, all go to demonstrate the various uses of pleasure in the construction of a doubly marginalized but defiant self and voice in fiction by gay Chicano men.
Zhao, Kun; Zhi, Ying; Shu, Tao; Valkonen, Arto; Rissanen, Kari; Enders, Dieter
An asymmetric organocatalytic domino oxa-Michael/1,6-addition reaction of ortho-hydroxyphenyl-substituted para-quinone methides and isatin-derived enoates has been developed. In the presence of 5 mol % of a bifunctional thiourea organocatalyst, this scalable domino reaction affords 4-phenyl-substituted chromans bearing spiro-connected oxindole scaffolds and three adjacent stereogenic centers in good to excellent yields (up to 98 %) and with very high stereoselectivities (up to >20:1 d.r., >99 % ee).
Uraguchi, Daisuke; Yamada, Kohei; Ooi, Takashi
A highly E-selective and enantioselective conjugate addition of 2-benzyloxythiazol-5(4H)-ones to β-substituted alkynyl N-acyl pyrazoles is achieved under the catalysis of a P-spiro chiral iminophosphorane. Simultaneous control of the newly generated central chirality and olefin geometry is possible with a wide array of the alkynyl Michael acceptors possessing different aromatic and aliphatic β-substituents, as well as the various α-amino acid-derived thiazolone nucleophiles. This protocol provides access to structurally diverse, optically active α-amino acids bearing a geometrically defined trisubstituted olefinic component at the α-position.
The Veterans Administration Information Resource Center provides database and informatics experts, customer service, expert advice, information products, and web technology to VA researchers and others.
At the Banana Creek Viewing Site, NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin (left), U.S. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright (center) and astronaut Michael Lopez-Alegria watch the launch of STS-88 from Launch Pad 39A at 3:35:34 a.m. EST. STS-88 is the first U.S. mission dedicated to the assembly of the International Space Station (ISS). Lopez-Alegria is part of the STS-92 crew that is assigned to the fourth ISS assembly flight scheduled for launch on Oct. 28, 1999, aboard Discovery.
This photo shows Air Force Lieutenant Colonel Michael V. Love in front of the X-24B lifting body research vehicle at Edwards Air Force Base in 1976. Love was assigned as a project pilot on the joint NASA-USAF X-24B Lifting Body flight test program at the NASA Flight Research Center. He made a total of 12 flights in the plane from October 4, 1973 until July 15, 1975. Love flew it to a speed of Mach 1.76 on October 25, 1974, a record for the X-24B. Love attended the USAF Test Pilot School and remained as an instructor there from 1969 through 1971. He was a test pilot at Edwards when assigned to fly to the X-24B. Love was a combat veteran of Vietnam and was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross with two Oak Leaf clusters. Love perished while attempting an emergency landing in an RF-4C on March 1, 1976 - less than a month after this photo was taken. The X-24B was the last aircraft to fly in the Dryden Flight Research Center's manned lifting body program. The X-24 was one of a group of lifting bodies flown by the NASA Flight Research Center (now Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, in a joint program with the U.S. Air Force at Edwards Air Force Base from 1963 to 1975. The lifting bodies were used to demonstrate the ability of pilots to maneuver and safely land wingless vehicles designed to fly back to Earth from space and be landed like an airplane at a predetermined site. Lifting bodies' aerodynamic lift, essential to flight in the atmosphere, was obtained from their shape. The addition of fins and control surfaces allowed the pilots to stabilize and control the vehicles and regulate their flight paths. Built by Martin Aircraft Company, Maryland, for the U.S. Air Force, the X-24A was a bulbous vehicle shaped like a teardrop with three vertical fins at the rear for directional control. It weighed 6,270 pounds, was 24.5 feet long and 11.5 feet wide (measuring just the fuselage, not the distance between the tips of the outboard fins). Its first unpowered
Chisholm, Ross; Parkin, John D; Smith, Andrew D; Hähner, Georg
Tailoring the functionality of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) can be achieved either by depositing prefunctionalized molecules with the appropriate terminal groups or by chemical modification of an existing SAM in situ. The latter approach is particularly advantageous to allow for diversity of surface functionalization from a single SAM and if the incorporation of bulky groups is desired. In the present study an organocatalytic isothiourea-mediated Michael addition-lactonization process analogous to a previously reported study in solution is presented. An achiral isothiourea, 3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrimido[2,1-b]benzothiazole (DHPB), promotes the intermolecular Michael addition-lactonization of a trifluoromethylenone terminated SAM and a variety of arylacetic acids affording C(6)-trifluoromethyldihydropyranones tethered to the surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, contact angle, and ellipsometry analysis were conducted to confirm the presence of the substituted dihydropyranone. A model study of this approach was also performed in solution to probe the reaction diastereoselectivity as it cannot be measured directly on the surface.
Sharma, Akhilesh K; Sunoj, Raghavan B
The stereocontrolling transition state (TS) models for C-C bond formation relying on hydrogen bonding have generally been successful in proline-catalyzed aldol, Mannich, α-amination, and α-aminoxylation reactions. However, the suitability of the hydrogen-bonding model in protic and aprotic conditions as well as under basic and base-free conditions has not been well established for Michael reactions. Through a comprehensive density functional theory investigation, we herein analyze different TS models for the stereocontrolling C-C bond formation, both in the presence and absence of a base in an aprotic solvent (THF). A refined stereocontrolling TS for the Michael reaction between cyclohexanone and nitrostyrene is proposed. The new TS devoid of hydrogen bonding between the nitro group of nitrostyrene and carboxylic acid of proline, under base-free conditions, is found to be more preferred over the conventional hydrogen-bonding model besides being able to reproduce the experimentally observed stereochemical outcome. A DBU-bound TS is identified as more suitable for rationalizing the origin of asymmetric induction under basic reaction conditions. In both cases, the most preferred approach of nitrostyrene is identified as occurring from the face anti to the carboxylic acid of proline-enamine. The predicted enantio- and diastereoselectivities are in very good agreement with the experimental observations.
Lin, Hui; Ou, Junjie; Liu, Zhongshan; Wang, Hongwei; Dong, Jing; Zou, Hanfa
A facile approach based on thiol-methacrylate Michael addition click reaction was developed for construction of porous hybrid monolithic materials. Three hybrid monoliths were prepared via thiol-methacrylate click polymerization by using methacrylate-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) (cage mixture, n=8, 10, 12, POSS-MA) and three multi-thiol crosslinkers, 1,6-hexanedithiol (HDT), trimethylolpropane tris(3-mercaptopropionate) (TPTM) and pentaerythritol tetrakis(3-mercaptopropionate) (PTM), respectively, in the presence of porogenic solvents (n-propanol and PEG 200) and a catalyst (dimethylphenylphosphine, DMPP). The obtained monoliths possessed high thermal and chemical stabilities. Besides, they all exhibited high column efficiencies and excellent separation abilities in capillary liquid chromatography (cLC). The highest column efficiency could reach ca. 195,000N/m for butylbenzene on the monolith prepared with POSS-MA and TPTM (monolith POSS-TPTM) in reversed-phase (RP) mode at 0.64mm/s. Good chromatographic performance were all achieved in the separations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenols, anilines, EPA 610 as well as bovine serum albumin (BSA) digest. The high column efficiencies in the range of 51,400-117,000N/m (achieved on the monolith POSS-PTM in RP mode) convincingly demonstrated the high separation abilities of these thiol-methacrylate based hybrid monoliths. All the results demonstrated the feasibility of the phosphines catalyzed thiol-methacrylate Michael addition click reaction in fabrication of monolithic columns with high efficiency for cLC applications.
Desmet, Gilles B; D'hooge, Dagmar R; Omurtag, Pinar Sinem; Espeel, Pieter; Marin, Guy B; Du Prez, Filip E; Reyniers, Marie-Françoise
This work presents a detailed computational study and kinetic analysis of the aza-Michael addition of primary and secondary amines to acrylates in an aprotic solvent. Accurate rate coefficients for all elementary steps in the various competing mechanisms are calculated using an ONIOM-based approach in which the full system is calculated with M06-2X/6-311+G(d,p) and the core system with CBS-QB3 corrected for solvation using COSMO-RS. Diffusional contributions are taken into account using the coupled encounter pair model with diffusion coefficients calculated based on molecular dynamics simulations. The calculated thermodynamic and kinetic parameters for all forward and reverse elementary reactions are fed to a microkinetic model giving excellent agreement with experimental data obtained using GC analysis. Rate analysis reveals that for primary and secondary amines, the aza-Michael addition to ethyl acrylate occurs preferentially according to a 1,2-addition mechanism, consisting of the pseudoequilibrated formation of a zwitterion followed by a rate controlling amine assisted proton transfer toward the singly substituted product. The alternative 1,4-addition becomes competitive if substituents are present on the amine or double bond of the acrylate. Primary amines react faster than secondary amines due to increased solvation of the zwitterionic intermediate and less sterically hindered proton transfer.
Hu, Qinqin; Fu, Yingchun; Xu, Xiahong; Qiao, Zhaohui; Wang, Ronghui; Zhang, Ying; Li, Yanbin
Acrylamide (AA), a neurotoxin and a potential carcinogen, has been found in various thermally processed foods such as potato chips, biscuits, and coffee. Simple, cost-effective, and sensitive methods for the rapid detection of AA are needed to ensure food safety. Herein, a novel colorimetric method was proposed for the visual detection of AA based on a nucleophile-initiated thiol-ene Michael addition reaction. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were aggregated by glutathione (GSH) because of a ligand-replacement, accompanied by a color change from red to purple. In the presence of AA, after the thiol-ene Michael addition reaction between GSH and AA with the catalysis of a nucleophile, the sulfhydryl group of GSH was consumed by AA, which hindered the subsequent ligand-replacement and the aggregation of AuNPs. Therefore, the concentration of AA could be determined by the visible color change caused by dispersion/aggregation of AuNPs. This new method showed high sensitivity with a linear range from 0.1 μmol L(-1) to 80 μmol L(-1) and a detection limit of 28.6 nmol L(-1), and especially revealed better selectivity than the fluorescence sensing method reported previously. Moreover, this new method was used to detect AA in potato chips with a satisfactory result in comparison with the standard methods based on chromatography, which indicated that the colorimetric method can be expanded for the rapid detection of AA in thermally processed foods.
North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Compensatory Education.
Relating specifically to the North Carolina migrant education program's administrative responsibilities, this guide is designed to aid administrators in program management, monitoring project activities, project evaluation, self-assessment, determining needs for training and staff development, site-visit preparation, policy development, and…
Chaffee, John; Olds, H. Robert
Today, in an era of taxpayer revolts, lack of clarity in values, and changing family structure, children need advocates in the political arena as well as in the schools. This pamphlet suggests that administrators are in an excellent position to defend the rights of children on all fronts. It focuses on what administrators have done and specific…
Sorenson, Richard D.
Administrative power for some school teachers can be an aphrodisiac that can be applied negatively, especially when a leader has devastating instinct for the weaknesses of others. A leader's intellect and heart closes shop and ceases to function when drunk on power. In this article, the author describes how the use of administrative power can be…
Administration is defined as the enactment of moral choices influencing subordinates within an organizational setting. It is distinguished from management, which is considered to involve a lower level of discretion. Educational administration is therefore in the moral domain; it involves discretionary, moral choices in a field that is itself moral…
Becker, Kirk A.; Bergstrom, Betty A.
The need for increased exam security, improved test formats, more flexible scheduling, better measurement, and more efficient administrative processes has caused testing agencies to consider converting the administration of their exams from paper-and-pencil to computer-based testing (CBT). Many decisions must be made in order to provide an optimal…
Ohio Association of Elementary School Principals, Westerville.
Although needs of school districts vary with size, degree of teacher negotiation procedures, and type of community involvement, the administrative team model is presented as an effective, appropriate administrative organization. Based on an assumption that each level of authority in a school district possesses and exercises expertise and unique…
Griffiths, Daniel E.
This monograph analyzes transition in educational administrative theory. A brief introductory section describes the theoretical movement, the substance and repercussions of Thomas Greenfield's critique of educational administrative theory in 1974, and emerging qualitative approaches. Seven readings, all written by the volume's author, view…
Wolfe, A. E.
This paper discusses the financial crisis facing public education in the United States today and argues that the most effective response to this crisis is to improve the decision-making skills of educational administrators. Based on a review of the literature on administrative decision-making and organizational change, the author examines several…
This resource book on rural administrative leadership is the result of 1988 interviews with school administrators involved in successful rural educational programs. The material is divided into eight chapters, each self-contained for separate use. Chapter 1, "Getting to Know the Community," addresses qualities of living and working in…
.... Gramlick, Carl Graves, Margaret Griffin, Robert P., Ph.D Grimm, Michael Gross-Davis, Leslie Grossman, Seth..., William Ratliff, Gerri L. Rhew, Perry J. Robles, Alfonso Roche, William Rogers, Debra Rossides, Gale...
Li, Chun-Yan; Yang, Wu-Lin; Luo, Xiaoyan; Deng, Wei-Ping
The first highly diastereoselective and enantioselective catalytic asymmetric Michael addition of cyclic azomethine ylides with nitroalkenes have been developed to diastereodivergently generate either the syn or anti adducts by employing N,O-ligand/Cu(OAc)2 and N,P-ligand/Cu(OAc)2 catalytic systems. Both catalytic systems exhibit broad substrate applicability to afford the corresponding Michael adducts in good to excellent yields, with excellent levels of diastereo- (up to 99:1 diastereomeric ratio) and enantioselectivities (up to >99% enantiomeric excess). Importantly, the chiral 1,7-diazaspiro[4.4]nonane diastereomer derivatives can be easily obtained in good yields through facile NaBH4 reduction of the Michael adducts.
Aceña, José Luis; Sorochinsky, Alexander E; Soloshonok, Vadim
The major goal of this review is a critical discussion of the literature data on asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids via Michael addition reactions involving Ni(II)-complexes of amino acids. The material covered is divided into two conceptually different groups dealing with applications of: (a) Ni(II)-complexes of glycine as C-nucleophiles and (b) Ni(II)-complexes of dehydroalanine as Michael acceptors. The first group is significantly larger and consequently subdivided into four chapters based on the source of stereocontrolling element. Thus, a chiral auxiliary can be used as a part of nucleophilic glycine Ni(II) complex, Michael acceptor or both, leading to the conditions of matching vs. mismatching stereochemical preferences. The particular focus of the review is made on the practical aspects of the methodology under discussion and mechanistic considerations.
Martinez, Gloria; Arumugam, Jayanthi; Jacobs, Hollie K; Gopalan, Aravamudan S
The HOPO vinyl sulfonamide 3 and the corresponding HOPO acrylamide 10, were easily prepared by short synthetic sequences. Investigation of the aza-Michael reactions of these linkers showed that they proceed at a higher rate in solvent systems containing water. The scope and limits of the aza-Michael reactions of 3 and 10 were examined. Reagents 3 and 10 reacted cleanly with piperazine to give the corresponding adducts which were deprotected to give the di-HOPO ligands 7 and 16. Reaction of HOPO acrylamide 10 with 1,4,7-triazacyclononane gave the tris-adduct 17 which was deprotected to give the desired tris-HOPO ligand 18. Overall, the aza-Michael reactions of 3 and 10 appear to be governed not only by the solvent but also by the nature of the amine and the solubility of the reaction intermediates.
Bayramoglu, Gulay; Arica, M Yakup; Genc, Aysenur; Ozalp, V Cengiz; Ince, Ahmet; Bicak, Niyazi
A novel method was developed for facile immobilization of enzymes on silica surfaces. Herein, we describe a single-step strategy for generating of reactive double bonds capable of Michael addition on the surfaces of silica particles. This method was based on reactive thin film generation on the surfaces by heating of impregnated self-curable polymer, alpha-morpholine substituted poly(vinyl methyl ketone) p(VMK). The generated double bonds were demonstrated to be an efficient way for rapid incorporation of enzymes via Michael addition. Catalase was used as model enzyme in order to test the effect of immobilization methodology by the reactive film surface through Michael addition reaction. Finally, a plug flow type immobilized enzyme reactor was employed to estimate decomposition rate of hydrogen peroxide. The highly stable enzyme reactor could operate continuously for 120 h at 30 °C with only a loss of about 36 % of its initial activity.
Wang, Chengpeng; Ye, Fei; Wu, Chenggui; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Jianbo
A Cu-catalyzed three-component cross-coupling reaction of terminal alkyne, α-diazo ester, and alkyl halide has been developed. This transformation involves sequent migratory insertion of copper-carbene and nucleophilic substitution, in which a C(sp)-C(sp(3)) bond and a C(sp(3))-C(sp(3)) bond are formed successively on a carbenic center. Michael addition acceptors can also be employed instead of alkyl halides that enable Michael addition to be an alternative way to build C(sp(3))-C(sp(3)) bond. This transformation represents a highly efficient method for the construction of all-carbon quaternary centers.
Azuma, Takumi; Murata, Akihiro; Kobayashi, Yusuke; Inokuma, Tsubasa; Takemoto, Yoshiji
A bifunctional aminoboronic acid has been used to facilitate for the first time the intramolecular aza- and oxa-Michael reactions of α,β-unsaturated carboxylic acids. The combination of an arylboronic acid with a chiral aminothiourea allowed for these reactions to proceed successfully in an enantioselective manner to afford the desired heterocycles in high yields and ee's (up to 96% ee). The overall utility of this dual catalytic system was demonstrated by a one-pot enantioselective synthesis of (+)-erythrococcamide B, which proceeded via sequential Michael and amidation reactions.
Li, Shi-Wu; Gong, Jun; Kang, Qiang
A newly prepared chiral-at-metal Rh(III) complex-catalyzed, highly efficient enantioselective decarboxylative Michael addition of β-keto acids with α,β-unsaturated 2-acyl imidazoles or pyridine has been developed, affording the corresponding adducts in 94-98% yield with up to 96% enantioselectivity. This protocol exhibits remarkable reactivity, as the complex with a Rh(III) loading as low as 0.05 mol % can catalyze the decarboxylative Michael addition on a gram scale without loss of enantioselectivity.
Chen, Jianwei; Jiang, Xiqian; Carroll, Shaina L; Huang, Jia; Wang, Jin
Density functional theory (DFT) was applied to study the thermodynamics and kinetics of reversible thiol-Michael addition reactions. M06-2X/6-31G(d) with the SMD solvation model can reliably predict the Gibbs free energy changes (ΔG) of thiol-Michael addition reactions with an error of less than 1 kcal·mol(-1) compared with the experimental benchmarks. Taking advantage of this computational model, the first reversible reaction-based fluorescent probe was developed that can monitor the changes in glutathione levels in single living cells.
SG6H firstname.lastname@example.org 11. Torry Hook email@example.com 12. Dr Jeffrey R Klein CIV USA WRAMC Jeffrey.firstname.lastname@example.org 13. Aaron L Heinrichs...MEDCOM HQ, email@example.com 26. Michael P. Griffin CIV USA MEDCOM HQ, firstname.lastname@example.org 27. Melanie A. Prince 52 MDOS/CC USAFE
Hackett, Peter; McKeon, Thomas L.
The formulation of a drug policy and the implementation of that policy in a firm but fair manner are the responsibility of the school administrator. Authors give serious consideration to this responsibility. (Editor/RK)
... blog post. April 11, 2017 ‘Organs-on-Chips’ Technology: FDA Testing Groundbreaking Science More FDA Voice Blog ... FEAR Act Site Map Nondiscrimination Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver ...
The Administrative Law Judges conduct hearings and render decisions in proceedings between the EPA and persons, businesses, government entities, and other organizations which are or are alleged to be regulated under environmental laws.
Blair, Eunice M.
A master's program that synthesizes clinical nursing knowledge with management theory and skills is one way to prepare nursing service administrators capable of exerting an influence on today's complex health care system. (Editor)
Griffin, Michael F.
Proposes that education establish for administrators systematic, rigorous, albeit subjective, selection procedures that recognize the principle of organizational democracy and the public nature of the educational enterprise. (Author/DN)
Auerbach, Arnold J.
Describes some of the sociological and psychological effects of organizational conflict and offers 10 operational principles to guide public administrators of schools and social agencies in meeting the confrontation tactics of activist groups. (JH)
American School and University, 1978
Earth berms, a heavily insulated roof, and a narrow band of thermal pane windows, save energy at the administrative headquarters of the Anoka Hennepin school district in Coon Rapids, a suburb of Minneapolis, Minnesota. (Author/MLF)
The GDSCC Data Processing Unit provides various administrative computing services for Goldstone. Those activities, including finance, manpower and station utilization, deep-space station scheduling and engineering change order (ECO) control are discussed.
iTRATION CENTER AND FORT BENJAMIN HARRISON FORT BENJAMIN HARRISON. INDIANA 46216 ATZI -XO 16 October 1973 SUBJECT: Letter of Instruction - Company...Mail, files, records management* publications, voting, etc.). ... AnnexA II ATZI -XO 18 October 1973 SUBJECT: Letter of Instruction - Company...administration as follows: A. 2 I * * " " " ’+ " " ’ ’ ’ ’’ ’ , ’" I ATZI -XO 18 October 1973 SUBJECT: Letter of Instruction - Company Administration Study tea
Kótai, Bianka; Kardos, György; Hamza, Andrea; Farkas, Viktor; Pápai, Imre; Soós, Tibor
A joint experimental-theoretical study of a bifunctional squaramide-amine-catalyzed Michael addition reaction between 1,3-dioxo nucleophiles and nitrostyrene has been undertaken to gain insight into the nature of bifunctional organocatalytic activation. For this highly stereoselective reaction, three previously proposed mechanistic scenarios for the critical CC bond-formation step were examined. Accordingly, the formation of the major stereoisomeric products is most plausible by one of the bifunctional pathways that involve electrophile activation by the protonated amine group of the catalyst. However, some of the minor product isomers are also accessible through alternative reaction routes. Structural analysis of transition states points to the structural invariance of certain fragments of the transition state, such as the protonated catalyst and the anionic fragment of approaching reactants. Our topological analysis provides deeper insight and a more general understanding of bifunctional noncovalent organocatalysis.
Yuan, Yusheng; Yang, Liu; Liu, Shaopu; Yang, Jidong; Zhang, Hui; Yan, Jingjing; Hu, Xiaoli
A sensitive fluorescence sensor for warfarin was proposed via quenching the fluorescence of l-tryptophan due to the interaction between warfarin and l-tryptophan. Warfarin, as one of the most effective anticoagulants, was designed and synthesized via lipase from porcine pancreas (PPL) as a biocatalyst to catalyze the Michael addition of 4-hydroxycoumarin to α, β-unsaturated enones in organic medium in the presence of water. Furthermore, the spectrofluorometry was used to detect the concentration of warfarin with a linear range and detection limit (3σ/k) of 0.04-12.0μmolL(-1) (R(2)=0.994) and 0.01μmolL(-1), respectively. Herein, this was the first application of bio-catalytic synthesis and fluorescence for the determination of warfarin. The proposed method was applied to determine warfarin of the drug in tablets with satisfactory results.
Blanco, Hugo; Iguarbe, Verónica; Barberá, Joaquín; Serrano, José Luis; Elduque, Anabel; Giménez, Raquel
A straightforward synthesis of mesogenic pyrazoles starting from benzaldehydes by a combination of efficient Henry and Michael reactions led to novel supramolecular liquid crystals. The mesogens are fluorescent 3,5-dimethyl-4-(di or trialkoxyphenyl)pyrazoles and, in spite of the tapered shape of these molecules and their structural simplicity (only one phenyl ring), columnar liquid-crystal phases were formed that are stable at room temperature. The self-assembled structure was studied by XRD and the columnar cross section contains two molecules on average with an antiparallel arrangement of pyrazoles interacting through hydrogen bonds. In contrast, the single-crystal structure of a trimethoxy analog did not show hydrogen-bonded pyrazoles but chains of head-to-tail arranged molecules.
Tortora, Mariarosaria; Cavalieri, Francesca; Chiessi, Ester; Paradossi, Gaio
Michael-type addition reactions offer the possibility to obtain in situ formation of polymeric hydrogels in the absence of a radical mechanism for the networking process. We explored such a synthetic route for obtaining a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-based hydrogel as a potential biomaterial for applications in vitro-retinal replacement surgery. The presence of radicals in the reaction medium can represent a risk for in situ surgical treatment. To circumvent this problem we have applied nucleophilic addition to ad hoc modified PVA macromers. The gel formation has been studied with respect to the timing required in this surgery and in terms of the structural characteristics of the obtained network.
Brown, Sean P; Goodwin, Nicole C; MacMillan, David W C
The first enantioselective organocatalytic Mukaiyama-Michael reaction using alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes has been accomplished. The use of iminium catalysis has provided a new strategy for the enantioselective addition of 2-silyloxy furans to unsaturated aldehydes to generate a variety of butenolide systems, an important chiral synthon found among many natural isolates. The (2S,5S)-5-benzyl-2-tert-butyl-imidazolidinone amine catalyst has been found to mediate the conjugate addition of a wide variety of substituted and unsubstituted silyloxy furans to unsaturated aldehydes. A diverse range of aldehyde substrates can be accommodated in this new organocatalytic transformation. Application of this new asymmetric technology to the enantioselective total synthesis of spiculisporic acid and the corresponding 5-epi-spiculisporic acid analogue is also discussed.
Ezquerra, Jesús; Pedregal, Concepción; Merino, Isabel; Flórez, Josefa; Barluenga, José; García-Granda, Santiago; Llorca, María-Amparo
The reaction of lithium enolates of achiral N-protected glycine esters with chiral alkoxyalkenylcarbene complexes of chromium provided the corresponding Michael adducts with either high anti or syn selectivity depending on the nature of the nitrogen protecting group, and high diastereofacial selectivity when carbene complexes containing the (-)-8-phenylmenthyloxy group were employed. Subsequent oxidation of the metal-carbene moiety followed by deprotection of the amine group and hydrolysis of both carboxylic esters afforded enantiomerically enriched 3-substituted glutamic acids of natural as well as unnatural stereochemistry. Alternatively, when the deprotection step was performed previously to the oxidation, cyclic aminocarbene complexes were formed, which finally led to optically active 3-substituted pyroglutamic acids.
Yuan, Yusheng; Yang, Liu; Liu, Shaopu; Yang, Jidong; Zhang, Hui; Yan, Jingjing; Hu, Xiaoli
A sensitive fluorescence sensor for warfarin was proposed via quenching the fluorescence of L-tryptophan due to the interaction between warfarin and L-tryptophan. Warfarin, as one of the most effective anticoagulants, was designed and synthesized via lipase from porcine pancreas (PPL) as a biocatalyst to catalyze the Michael addition of 4-hydroxycoumarin to α, β-unsaturated enones in organic medium in the presence of water. Furthermore, the spectrofluorometry was used to detect the concentration of warfarin with a linear range and detection limit (3σ/k) of 0.04-12.0 μmol L- 1 (R2 = 0.994) and 0.01 μmol L- 1, respectively. Herein, this was the first application of bio-catalytic synthesis and fluorescence for the determination of warfarin. The proposed method was applied to determine warfarin of the drug in tablets with satisfactory results.
Michael Garrett, Paul
In 2013, Michael Gove, then Secretary of State for Education and Health in the UK coalition government, criticised social workers for laying insufficient emphasis on the ‘agency’ of individuals and for being too preoccupied with social and economic inequalities. Such a perspective, which is not unique to Gove, needs to be countered by reaffirming the significance of an expansively critical sociology for social work. In this context, the thematic concerns of the French theorist, Loïc Wacquant, illuminates key aspects of social work engagement with clients which Gove and his ideological associates appear intent on ignoring. The issues raised have significant political resonances given the pending UK General Election taking place in May 2015. PMID:27559203
Johnson, J S; Evans, D A
A bis(oxazoline) (box) copper(II) complex and its hydrated counterpart (1 and 2) function as enantioselective Lewis acid catalysts for carbocyclic and hetero Diels-Alder, aldol, Michael, ene, and amination reactions with substrates capable of chelation through six- and five-membered rings. X-ray crystallography of the chiral complexes reveals a propensity for the formation of distorted square planar or square pyramidal geometries. The sense of asymmetric induction is identical for all the processes catalyzed by [Cu((S,S)-t-Bu-box)](X)(2) complexes 1 and 2 (X = OTf and SbF) resulting from the intervention of a distorted square planar catalyst-substrate binary complex. These catalyzed processes exhibit excellent temperature-selectivity profiles. Reactions catalyzed by [Cu(S,S-Ph-pybox)](SbF(6))(2) and their derived chelation complexes are also discussed.
Zhao, Hua; Shen, Kai
There is an escalating interest of using double stranded DNA molecules as a chiral scaffold to construct metal-biomacromolecule hybrid catalysts for asymmetric synthesis. Several recent studies also evaluated the use of G-quadruplex DNA-based catalysts for asymmetric Diels-Alder and Friedel-Crafts reactions. However, there is still a lack of understanding of how different oligonucleotides, salts (such as NaCl and KCl), metal ligands and co-solvents affect the catalytic performance of quadruplex DNA-based hybrid catalysts. In this study, we aim to systematically evaluate these key factors in asymmetric Michael addition reactions, and to examine the conformational and molecular changes of DNA by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and gel electrophoresis. We achieved up to 95% yield and 50% enantiomeric excess (ee) when the reaction of 2-acylimidazole 1a and dimethylmalonate was catalyzed by 5'-G3 (TTAG3 )3 -3' (G4DNA1) in 20 mM MOPS (pH 6.5) containing 50 mM KCl and 40 µM [Cu(dmbipy)(NO3 )2 ], and G4DNA1 was pre-sonicated in ice bath for 10 min prior to the reaction. G-quadruplex-based hybrid catalysts provide a new tool for asymmetric catalysis, but future mechanistic studies should be sought to further improve the catalytic efficiency. The current work presents a systematic study of asymmetric Michael addition catalyzed by G-quadruplex catalysts constructed via non-covalent complexing, and an intriguing finding of the effect of pre-sonication on catalytic efficiency. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:891-898, 2016.
Baker, Laura M S; Baker, Paul R S; Golin-Bisello, Franca; Schopfer, Francisco J; Fink, Mitchell; Woodcock, Steven R; Branchaud, Bruce P; Radi, Rafael; Freeman, Bruce A
Fatty acid nitration by nitric oxide-derived species yields electrophilic products that adduct protein thiols, inducing changes in protein function and distribution. Nitro-fatty acid adducts of protein and reduced glutathione (GSH) are detected in healthy human blood. Kinetic and mass spectrometric analyses reveal that nitroalkene derivatives of oleic acid (OA-NO2) and linoleic acid (LNO2) rapidly react with GSH and Cys via Michael addition reaction. Rates of OA-NO2 and LNO2 reaction with GSH, determined via stopped flow spectrophotometry, displayed second-order rate constants of 183 M(-1)S(-1) and 355 M(-1)S(-1), respectively, at pH 7.4 and 37 degrees C. These reaction rates are significantly greater than those for GSH reaction with hydrogen peroxide and non-nitrated electrophilic fatty acids including 8-iso-prostaglandin A2 and 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J2. Increasing reaction pH from 7.4 to 8.9 enhanced apparent second-order rate constants for the thiol reaction with OA-NO2 and LNO2, showing dependence on the thiolate anion of GSH for reactivity. Rates of nitroalkene reaction with thiols decreased as the pKa of target thiols increased. Increasing concentrations of the detergent octyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside decreased rates of nitroalkene reaction with GSH, indicating that the organization of nitro-fatty acids into micellar or membrane structures can limit Michael reactivity with more polar nucleophilic targets. In aggregate, these results reveal that the reversible adduction of thiols by nitro-fatty acids is a mechanism for reversible post-translational regulation of protein function by nitro-fatty acids.
Ekici, Ozlem Dogan; Li, Zhao Zhao; Campbell, Amy J; James, Karen Ellis; Asgian, Juliana L; Mikolajczyk, Jowita; Salvesen, Guy S; Ganesan, Rajkumar; Jelakovic, Stjepan; Grütter, Markus G; Powers, James C
Aza-peptide Michael acceptors are a novel class of inhibitors that are potent and specific for caspases-2, -3, -6, -7, -8, -9, and -10. The second-order rate constants are in the order of 10(6) M(-1) s(-1). The aza-peptide Michael acceptor inhibitor 18t (Cbz-Asp-Glu-Val-AAsp-trans-CH=CH-CON(CH(2)-1-Naphth)(2) is the most potent compound and it inhibits caspase-3 with a k(2) value of 5620000 M(-1) s(-1). The inhibitor 18t is 13700, 190, 6.4, 594, 37500, and 173-fold more selective for caspase-3 over caspases-2, -6, -7, -8, -9, and -10, respectively. Aza-peptide Michael acceptors designed with caspase specific sequences are selective and do not show any cross reactivity with clan CA cysteine proteases such as papain, cathepsin B, and calpains. High-resolution crystal structures of caspase-3 and caspase-8 in complex with aza-peptide Michael acceptor inhibitors demonstrate the nucleophilic attack on C2 and provide insight into the selectivity and potency of the inhibitors with respect to the P1' moiety.
Smith, Michael W.; Moore, David W.
Michael W. Smith, a professor in Temple University's College of Education, focuses his research on how experienced readers read and talk about texts as well as what motivates adolescents' reading and writing in and out of school. He sees the recent research on adolescents' out-of-school literacies as a challenge to literacy educators to look at…
Sun, Xiaohua; Sengupta, Sujata; Petersen, Jeffrey L; Wang, Hong; Lewis, James P; Shi, Xiaodong
A novel intermolecular cross-double-Michael addition between nitro and carbonyl activated olefins has been developed through Lewis base catalysis. The reaction took place with a large group of beta-alkyl nitroalkenes and alpha,beta-unsaturated ketone/esters, producing an allylic nitro compound in good to excellent yields.
Onishi, Yoshiharu; Yoneda, Yuki; Nishimoto, Yoshihiro; Yasuda, Makoto; Baba, Akio
The direct Michael addition of enol acetates to α,β-unsaturated ketones was achieved using a combination of Lewis acid catalysts, InCl(3) and Me(3)SiCl, which furnished stable enol-form products that could be further transformed into functionalized 1,5-diketones by reactions with various electrophiles.
Dirkx, John M.
This article presents the author's response to Michael Newman's "Calling Transformative Learning into Question: Some Mutinous Thoughts". Transformative learning has arguably become one of the most generative and provocative ideas in adult learning. More than 30 years ago, Mezirow (1978) introduced this idea to the field of adult education. During…
Pal, Rammohan; Das Gupta, Arpita; Mallik, Asok K.
Iodine-catalyzed reaction of indoles with α,α′-bis(arylmethylene)cyclopentanones afforded one diastereomer of the corresponding Michael adducts, namely, E-2-(3-indolylphenylmethyl)-5-phenylmethylenecyclopentanones, in a good yield. The products form a new group of indole derivatives. PMID:24052849
Lu, Shao-Feng; Du, Da-Ming; Xu, Jiaxi; Zhang, Shi-Wei
The first asymmetric synthesis of 1,3-dinitro compounds through Michael addition of nitroalkanes to nitroalkenes catalyzed by C2-symmetric chiral tridentate bis(oxazoline) and bis(thiazoline) zinc complexes was achieved with high enantioselectivities (up to 95% ee).
Yu, Haijian; Wang, Qiaohui; Wang, Youming; Song, Haibing; Zhou, Zhenghong; Tang, Chuchi
A highly diastereo- and enantioselective cyclopropanation of β,γ-unsaturated α-ketoesters with bromonitromethane has been successfully developed through a domino Michael-addition/intramolecular-alkylation strategy. Acceptable yields (up to 89%) and enantioselectivities (up to 96% ee) have been obtained.
Shi, Shi-Liang; Kanai, Motomu; Shibasaki, Masakatsu
Ynones as diene surrogates: the asymmetric synthesis of enantiomerically enriched substituted dihydropyranones is described. The products are obtained in two steps by a copper(I)-catalyzed direct aldol reaction of ynones followed by a silver-catalyzed oxy-Michael reaction. This easy method is compatible with both aromatic and aliphatic substrates, and provides excellent chemoselectivity under mild reaction conditions.
Cecchini, Stephanie Anne
Young adults deserve our best as parents, educators and community members. The Michael L. Printz award winning books, instituted by the Young Adult Library Association, form a recent grouping of current literature. Novels worthy of the Printz Award explore physical, emotional, and social themes important in the lives of young adults. This library…
Michael A. Arbib's Mirror System Hypothesis (MSH) [1,2] is among the most elaborate attempts at disentangling the issue of language origin. I will focus on the role that cultural evolution, as distinct from biological (genetic) evolution, may have played in the emergence of "modern" human language (as contrasted with forms of proto-languages).
Miao, Shifeng; Bai, Jinjin; Yang, Jin; Zhang, Yawen
A series of new highly efficient chiral aliphatic-aromatic diamine catalysts have been designed and successfully applied to the asymmetric Michael addition of cyclohexanone with nitroolefins under solvent-free conditions without any acidic additives. The desired adducts were obtained in high yields with excellent enantio- and diastereoselectivities of syn products (up to >99% ee, >99:1 dr).
Diem, Sarah; Brooks, Jeffrey
We conclude this special issue reflecting back on the history of desegregation and questioning how we move forward in trying to achieve racially integrated school settings. The epilogue includes a conversation with Dr. Michael A. Middleton, Deputy Chancellor of the University of Missouri-Columbia. Dr. Middleton is an expert in civil rights and…