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Sample records for administrator module series

  1. Supervise Vocational Education Personnel. Revised Edition. Module LT-D-2 of Category D--Personnel Management. Competency-Based Vocational Education Administrator Module Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This module, one in a series of competency-based administrator education learning packages, focuses on specific professional competencies needed by vocational education administrators. The competencies upon which these modules are based were identified and verified through research as being important to the success of local administrators of…

  2. Plan for Your Professional Development. Module LT-E-3 of Category E--Professional and Staff Development. Competency-Based Vocational Education Administrator Module Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puleo, Nancy F.; And Others

    This module, one in a series of competency-based administrator instructional packages, focuses on a specific competency that vocational education administrators need to be successful in the area of professional and staff development. The purpose of the module is to help administrators to analyze their professional needs and to devise and implement…

  3. Transferable Skills: An Administrator's Guide. Competency-Based Vocational Education Administrator Module Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Robert E.; Pratzner, Frank C.

    This guide is intended to assist vocational administrators assuming a facilitative and leadership role in the development and implementation of programs to help vocational students acquire and develop transferable skills. The guide is divided into three parts. Part 1 provides examples of the skills and discusses their importance in two broad…

  4. Guide to Vocational-Technical Education Program Alternatives: Secondary and Postsecondary. An Introduction. Competency-Based Vocational Education Administrator Module Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Lois G.; And Others

    Intended as a supplement to the Competency-Based Vocational Education Administrator Module Series, this guide overviews the typical vocational programs available and the general kinds of requirements involved that would have implications for program planning and budgeting. Part 1 of three parts defines what is meant by vocational education. The…

  5. Manage Vocational Buildings and Equipment. Competency-Based Vocational Education Administrator Module Series. Leadership and Training Series No. 58B-16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, David R.; And Others

    Designed to provide pre- and inservice vocational education administrators with the skills necessary to manage vocational buildings and equipment, this competency-based learning module consists of an introduction and six sequential learning experiences. Each learning experience contains an overview with objectives and required and optional…

  6. Provide a Staff Development Program. Competency-Based Vocational Education Administrator Module Series. Leadership and Training Series No. 58B-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Beach, Audni; And Others

    Designed to provide pre- and inservice vocational education administrators with the skills necessary to establish and/or facilitate implementation of a staff development program, this competency-based learning module consists of an introduction and three sequential learning experiences. Each learning experience contains an overview, required and…

  7. Radiation recommendation series: administratively required dental radiographs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    Administrative requirements for radiographs are found in many segments of the United States health care system. This document presents an FDA radiation recommendation on administratively required dental x-ray examinations. In general, such examinations are not requested to further the patient's dental health, but rather as a means of monitoring claims. However, the administrative use of radiographs that have been taken in the normal course of patient care is usually appropriate, as long as the patient's right to privacy is respected.

  8. Reforming Administrator Preparation Programs. UCEA Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendel, Frederick C., Ed.

    This publication contains four chapters that examine the reform of administrator preparation programs. In "The Reform Paradigm: Exploring the Fuzzy Logic of Educational Administration," William Ammentorp and Thomas Morgan develop a model based on linguistic algorithms to understand qualitative policy formation and decision making. In "Student…

  9. Direct Current Series Circuits: An Educational Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgess, Keith

    This module was developed as remedial material for physics students who have difficulty understanding concepts of circuits and calculating resistances, and voltage drops and currents. Lists of prerequisite skills and instructional objectives are followed by a pretest (with answers). Students are directed to the subject matter in the module based…

  10. Administratively required dental radiographs: radiation recommendation series. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    This publication is part of the continuing Radiation Recommendation Series published by the Bureau of Radiological Health. This Series was established to provide physicians, medical physicists, technologists, and others involved in the radiological process with guidance on appropriate radiological health principles in the medical radiation area. Administrative requirements for radiographs are found in many segments of the United States health care system. Such requirements are not intrinsically bad. If the resulting x-ray examinations provide a net public health benefit, they are certainly justified. However, where such examinations do not benefit the care and management of the patient, the requirements should be reviewed to determine whether they can be eliminated. This document presents an FDA radiation recommendation on administratively required dental x-ray examinations. In general such examinations are not requested to further the patient's dental health, but rather as a means of monitoring claims. However, the administrative use of radiographs that have been taken in the normal course of patient care is usually appropriate, as long as the patient's right to privacy is respected.

  11. Career Education. Administrators and Counselors Implementation Model. Module III--Teacher Information and Orientation for Administrators. (3.1) Identify Change Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, John A.; Chock, Mona K.O.

    Part of a 13-volume series designed to be used as a group inservice or a self-learning system to train school administrators and counselors for their role in career education, this section of module 3 is designed to identify change strategies to help the principal motivate teachers to accept the concept of career education. (Module 3 is one of six…

  12. Novel in situ series connection for thin film photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merz, Rainer; Kistner, Jens; Schubert, Markus B.; Werner, Jürgen H.

    2009-08-01

    The monolithically integrated series connection of single solar cell stripes into complete photovoltaic (PV) modules is one of the key advantages of thin film PV technologies. Instead of the well established laser scribing for series connection, this contribution focuses on a novel in situ series connection technology, without breaking the vacuum during module manufacturing, and without the need of costly laser-scribing equipment. Metallic wires or other filaments aligned along the slightly bent substrate, sequentially pattern the solar cell layers for implementing the monolithic series connection, simultaneously with the consecutive evaporation, plasma deposition, and sputtering of the semiconductor and contact layers. In addition to a proof of concept by flexible PV modules, this paper for the first time investigates wire-shading on rigid glass substrates and by multiple adjacent filaments. The results of these studies demonstrate that the in situ series connection is a promising candidate for competing with laser scribing, not only in roll-to-roll production of flexible PV modules, but also in batch or inline processing of standard large-area glass plates. Applying the novel in situ series connection to a laboratory-scale solar cell process, yields 40 cm2 sized PV modules, consisting of ten single junction amorphous silicon n-i-p cells on a flexible polymer foil. The modules' total area efficiency of 3 % is close to the non-optimized efficiency of reference cells of 3.3 %. Wire-shading with wire diameters down to 50 μm proves successful, and thereby projects total interconnection losses F < 5 %, whereas the first experimental modules exhibit F = 15 %.

  13. Two terminal diagnostics for cells in series connected photovoltaic modules

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, T.J.; Basso, T.S.

    1995-11-01

    The authors have developed a method that allows us to know if a cell`s shunt resistance is affecting the output of a two-terminal, series-connected photovoltaic module, without the need of encapsulation. This two-terminal diagnostic method directly measures the shunt resistance of the individual cells within a series-connected module non-intrusively. Being a phase sensitive, lock-in technique, individual cell shunt resistance values are measured over a wide range, from a fraction of an ohm to thousands of ohms. The authors have applied this method to amorphous Si, Si and CuInSe{sub 2}-based modules, some with as few as eight cells in series, but usually with 28 to 68 cells. ``Two-terminal values`` are more accurate for cells that have lower shunt resistance, i.e., the ``problem`` cells. Cells with visual defects may be a significant problem if they provide a substantial shunt path.

  14. Administrator & Teacher Decision Module. Module I. Telecommunication Aids in Learning the Keys (TALK).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canipe, Stephen

    This module presents information to administrators and teachers planning to use telecommunications in the business and office curriculum in grades 9-12. It accompanies three modules designed for use in three courses in which a unit on telecommunications can be taught. The module addresses four major needs. The first section discusses required…

  15. Seminar Series for School Administrators. Volume 1, Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Robert B., Ed.

    A collection of six papers presented on separate occasions to practicing administrators deals with the need for better leadership in administration. The authors and titles of the papers are (1) R. B. Howsam, "Administering Tomorrow's Schools," (2) H. W. Kitchen, "Recent Studies Relating to Leadership," (3) Alan F. Brown, "Reactions to Leadership,"…

  16. Preparing School Administrators. ERIC Digest Series Number EA 57.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klauke, Amy

    Issues involved in improving administrator preparation programs are described in this ERIC Digest. A literature review identifies appropriate skills and methods for administrator training and summarizes recommendations such as application of theory to practice and development of full-time internships, school/university collaboration, mentorships,…

  17. Camp Director Education Curriculum Guide. Camp Administration Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Sue, Ed.

    Part of Project STRETCH, a special personnel preparation grant, this guide contains 13 units on the practical and philosophical areas practitioners, educators, and consumers believed should be included in a basic course for administration of an organized camp: growth and development special populations, camp director's role, philosophy and…

  18. The Administrative Leadership Team. Superintendent Career Development Series No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, VA.

    Using team management in school district administration requires compromises on the part of the board, the superintendent, and the other team members, but advantages can result. Better quality decisions, higher staff morale, greater support for decisions, and more efficient management are among the potential benefits. The first step in development…

  19. New Directions for Administrator Preparation. UCEA Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendel, Frederick C., Ed.; Bryant, Miles T., Ed.

    This publication contains six selected papers from the 30th Anniversary Meeting of the University Council for Educational Administrators (UCEA) in the fall of 1987. The first article, by John A. Thompson discusses problems associated with implementing the agenda of the Holmes Group report in decentralizing the control of schools. Leslie, Snyder,…

  20. Seminar Series for School Administrators. Volume 4, Designs for the Seventies: An Administrative Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliva, Frank D., Ed.; Koch, E. L., Ed.

    The 13 papers in this collection were presented at the first national conference held in Canada for educational administrators at all levels. Titles and authors are: (1) "Emerging Trends in the Administration of Canadian School Systems," J. H. M. Andrews; (2) "Differentiated Staffing," S. A. Earl; (3) "Communication in…

  1. Vasopressin administration modulates anxiety-related behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Appenrodt, E; Schnabel, R; Schwarzberg, H

    1998-06-15

    Experiments were performed to measure the influence of centrally and peripherally applied arginine vasopressin (AVP) on anxiety-related behavior as indicated by the elevated plus maze test. Central administration was performed into the septum using a microdialysis technique. In initial experiments, the microdialysis probes were characterized for substance application in vivo by means of 125I AVP, measuring the substance-specific percent passover and the spatial distribution around the microdialysis membrane within the brain. Both microdialysis administration of 200 pg of AVP into the septum and and intraperitoneal application of 500 ng of AVP induced an increase in the percentage of time spent on the open arms of the elevated plus maze. The blockade of vasopressinergic neurotransmission or neuromodulation into the septal area by 40 ng of the AVP receptor antagonist d(CH2)5Thyr(Et)VAVP failed to induce a significant effect in this respect. The observation that neither centrally nor peripherally applied AVP influenced the locomotor activity on the elevated plus maze supports the hypothesis that AVP is involved in the modulation of anxiety-related behavior in rats.

  2. Career Education. Administrators and Counselors Implementation Model. Module IV--Planning. (4.1) Develop Plans for Curriculum Preparation and Infusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, John A.; Chock, Mona K.O.

    Part of a 13-volume series designed to be used as a group inservice or a self-learning system to train school administrators and counselors for their role in career education, this first section (4.1) of module 4 (Planning) is designed to assist principals and other school administrators to develop plans for curriculum preparation and infusion of…

  3. Administrator's Policy Handbook for Preschool Mainstreaming. Administrative Issues for Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Barbara J.; Rose, Deborah F.

    This handbook is designed to help public school administrators to develop policies and procedures that allow for the appropriate educational placement of preschool children with disabilities in mainstreaming settings. Part I contains background information and materials on legal requirements related to mainstreaming, the efficacy of early…

  4. Module Thirteen: Series AC RLC Circuits and Resonance; Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    In this module the student will combine RL (resistive-inductance) and RC (resistive-capacitive) circuits and learn some of the phenomena which result. The module is divided into four lessons: solving RLC (resistive-inductance-capacitive) circuits, resonant frequency in series circuits, conditions of series resonance, and experiments with series…

  5. Module Twelve: Series AC Resistive-Reactive Circuits; Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    The module covers series circuits which contain both resistive and reactive components and methods of solving these circuits for current, voltage, impedance, and phase angle. The module is divided into six lessons: voltage and impedance in AC (alternating current) series circuits, vector computations, rectangular and polar notation, variational…

  6. Counseling the Handicapped Client: A Series of Training Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humes, Charles W., II, Ed.

    Intended as a tool for staff development and inservice education of guidance and counseling personnel, the document includes modules and information on staff development. Each of the six modules includes rationale, training/learning objectives, training/learning activities, resources, and a bibliography. Modules have the following authors and…

  7. Modulation of vaccine response by concomitant probiotic administration

    PubMed Central

    Maidens, Catherine; Childs, Caroline; Przemska, Agnieszka; Dayel, Iman Bin; Yaqoob, Parveen

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that probiotic bacteria modulate both innate and adaptive immunity in the host, and in some situations can result in reduced severity of common illnesses, such as acute rotavirus infection and respiratory infections. Responses to vaccination are increasingly being used to provide high quality information on the immunomodulatory effects of dietary components in humans. The present review focuses on the effect of probiotic administration upon vaccination response. The majority of studies investigating the impact of probiotics on responses to vaccination have been conducted in healthy adults, and at best they show modest effects of probiotics on serum or salivary IgA titres. Studies in infants and in elderly subjects are very limited, and it is too early to draw any firm conclusions regarding the potential for probiotics to act as adjuvants in vaccination. Although some studies are comparable in terms of duration of the intervention, age and characteristics of the subjects, most differ in terms of the probiotic selected. Further well designed, randomized, placebo‐controlled studies are needed to understand fully the immunomodulatory properties of probiotics, whether the effects exerted are strain‐dependent and age‐dependent and their clinical relevance in enhancing immune protection following vaccination. PMID:22845346

  8. Occupational Home Economics Education Series. Care and Independent Living Services for Aging. Competency Based Teaching Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler-Liston, Carol; And Others

    This large training module is intended to help prepare home helpers or others who can provide direct care and can utilize resources to assist older persons. The document presents first a general discussion of the background and rationale behind a series of occupational home economics modules. In addition, the particular module on serving the aging…

  9. A series connection architecture for large-area organic photovoltaic modules with a 7.5% module efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Soonil; Kang, Hongkyu; Kim, Geunjin; Lee, Seongyu; Kim, Seok; Lee, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Jinho; Yi, Minjin; Kim, Junghwan; Back, Hyungcheol; Kim, Jae-Ryoung; Lee, Kwanghee

    2016-01-01

    The fabrication of organic photovoltaic modules via printing techniques has been the greatest challenge for their commercial manufacture. Current module architecture, which is based on a monolithic geometry consisting of serially interconnecting stripe-patterned subcells with finite widths, requires highly sophisticated patterning processes that significantly increase the complexity of printing production lines and cause serious reductions in module efficiency due to so-called aperture loss in series connection regions. Herein we demonstrate an innovative module structure that can simultaneously reduce both patterning processes and aperture loss. By using a charge recombination feature that occurs at contacts between electron- and hole-transport layers, we devise a series connection method that facilitates module fabrication without patterning the charge transport layers. With the successive deposition of component layers using slot-die and doctor-blade printing techniques, we achieve a high module efficiency reaching 7.5% with area of 4.15 cm2.

  10. Professional Teacher Education Module Series. Present an Illustrated Talk, Module C-15 of Category C--Instructional Execution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This fifteenth in a series of twenty-nine learning modules on instructional execution is designed to give secondary and postsecondary vocational teachers help in identifying and using techniques that will improve their ability to communicate verbally with students. The terminal objective for the module is to present an illustrated talk in an…

  11. Professional Teacher Education Module Series. Assess Student Performance: Knowledge, Module D-2 of Category D--Instructional Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This second in a series of six learning modules on instructional evaluation is designed to give secondary and postsecondary vocational teachers help in assessing student performance as it relates to knowledge of the facts, data, related information, and procedures taught in their vocational courses. The terminal objective for the module is to…

  12. Assess Student Performance: Skills. Second Edition. Module D-4 of Category D--Instructional Evaluation. Professional Teacher Education Module Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This module, one of a series of 127 performance-based teacher education learning packages focusing upon specific professional competencies of vocational education teachers, deals with assessing student performance of psychomotor skills. Included in the module are learning experiences that address the following topics: important considerations…

  13. Professional Teacher Education Module Series. Employ Reinforcement Techniques, Module C-13 of Category C--Instructional Execution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This thirteenth in a series of twenty-nine learning modules on instructional execution is designed to give secondary and postsecondary vocational teachers help in understanding the various types and uses of reinforcement techniques and in acquiring skills needed to apply these techniques in their teaching. The terminal objective for the module is…

  14. DHEA administration modulates stress-induced analgesia in rats.

    PubMed

    Cecconello, Ana Lúcia; Torres, Iraci L S; Oliveira, Carla; Zanini, Priscila; Niches, Gabriela; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia Marques

    2016-04-01

    An important aspect of adaptive stress response is the pain response suppression that occurs during or following stress exposure, which is often referred to as acute stress-induced analgesia. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) participates in the modulation of adaptive stress response, changing the HPA axis activity. The effect of DHEA on the HPA axis activity is dependent on the state and uses the same systems that participate in the regulation of acute stress-induced analgesia. The impact of DHEA on nociception has been studied; however, the effect of DHEA on stress-induced analgesia is not known. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of DHEA on stress-induced analgesia and determine the best time for hormone administration in relation to exposure to stressor stimulus. The animals were stressed by restraint for 1h in a single exposure and received treatment with DHEA by a single injection before the stress or a single injection after the stress. Nociception was assessed with a tail-flick apparatus. Serum corticosterone levels were measured. DHEA administered before exposure to stress prolonged the acute stress-induced analgesia. This effect was not observed when the DHEA was administered after the stress. DHEA treatment in non-stressed rats did not alter the nociceptive threshold, suggesting that the DHEA effect on nociception is state-dependent. The injection of DHEA had the same effect as exposure to acute stress, with both increasing the levels of corticosterone. In conclusion, acute treatment with DHEA mimics the response to acute stress indexed by an increase in activity of the HPA axis. The treatment with DHEA before stress exposure may facilitate adaptive stress response, prolonging acute stress-induced analgesia, which may be a therapeutic strategy of interest to clinics.

  15. A Self-Instructional Course in Student Financial Aid Administration. Module 9: Award Packaging. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Consulting Group, Inc., Washington, DC.

    With the ninth module in a 17-module self-instructional course on student financial aid administration, novice financial aid administrators are taught about financial aid award packaging. A fundamental understanding of management of federal financial aid programs authorized by Title IV of the Higher Education act is provided. After completing the…

  16. A Self-Instructional Course in Student Financial Aid Administration. Module 8: Need Analysis. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Consulting Group, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The eighth module in a 17-module self-instructional program on student financial aid administration (designed for novice student financial aid administrators and other personnel) focuses on need analysis. It provides an introduction to the management of federal financial aid programs authorized by the Higher Education Act Title IV. After…

  17. Indiana Health Occupations Education: Student Modules for Administration of Medications for Unlicensed Nursing Personnel. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilger, Phyllis; And Others

    These learning modules are designed to provide health care workers involved with medications with basic information about the nature and administration of medications. The 30 modules are organized into six units. An overview of preparation and administration of medicines, principles of medication therapy, and medication fundamentals are presented…

  18. Realization of a high voltage generator by series connection of floating modules.

    PubMed

    Antonini, P; Benato, A; Borsato, E; Carugno, G; Gobbo, R; Montecassiano, F; Pegoraro, M; Pesavento, G; Zago, M; Zotto, P

    2017-02-01

    A high voltage generator built by a series connection of 100 kV modules was produced. The series connection feasibility is ensured by the inherent floating character of each module which is wireless powered by high efficiency photovoltaic cells illuminated by a laser system. Each module is equipped with a control and monitoring board allowing excellent stabilization of the high voltage output. The performance of the system in terms of reliability, stability, and efficiency was evaluated. In particular using a three module setup, we achieved a maximum voltage of 234 kV with stability better than 0.1%.

  19. Methodology Series Module 7: Ecologic Studies and Natural Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2017-01-01

    In this module, we have discussed study designs that have not been covered in the previous modules – ecologic studies and natural experiments. In an ecologic study, the unit of analysis is a group or aggregate rather than the individual. It may be the characteristics of districts, states, or countries. For example, per capita income across countries, income quintiles across districts, and proportion of college graduates in states. If the data already exist (such as global measures and prevalence of diseases, data sets such as the National Family Health Survey, census data), then ecologic studies are cheap and data are easy to collect. However, one needs to be aware of the “ecologic fallacy.” The researcher should not interpret ecologic level results at the individual level. In “natural experiments,” the researcher does not assign the exposure (as is the case in interventional studies) to the groups in the study. The exposure is assigned by a natural process. This may be due to existing policies or services (example, one city has laws against specific vehicles and the other city does not); changes in services or policies; or introduction of new laws (such helmet for bikers and seat-belts for cars). We would like to encourage researchers to explore the possibility of using these study designs to conduct studies. PMID:28216721

  20. Professional Teacher Education Modules Series. Use Conferences To Help Meet Student Needs, Module F-3 of Category F--Guidance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This third in a series of five learning modules on guidance is designed to give secondary and postsecondary vocational teachers skills needed to (1) plan effective student conferences, (2) create a supportive environment and display the kind of attitude that will foster communication and promote useful results, (3) help students identify and…

  1. Employ Reinforcement Techniques. Second Edition. Module C-13 of Category C--Instructional Execution. Professional Teacher Education Module Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This learning module, one of a series of 127 performance-based teacher education (PBTE) learning packages focusing upon specific professional competencies of vocational teachers, deals with using reinforcement techniques. Various aspects of the technique of reinforcement and its use are discussed, including positive reinforcement, negative…

  2. Methodology Series Module 8: Designing Questionnaires and Clinical Record Forms

    PubMed Central

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2017-01-01

    As researchers, we often collect data on a clinical record form or a questionnaire. It is an important part of study design. If the questionnaire is not well designed, the data collected will not be useful. In this section of the module, we have discussed some practical aspects of designing a questionnaire. It is useful to make a list of all the variables that will be assessed in the study before preparing the questionnaire. The researcher should review all the existing questionnaires. It may be efficient to use an existing standardized questionnaire or scale. Many of these scales are freely available and may be used with an appropriate reference. However, some may be under copyright protection and permissions may be required to use the same questionnaire. While designing their own questionnaire, researchers may use open- or close-ended questions. It is important to design the responses appropriately as the format of responses will influence the analysis. Sometimes, one can collect the same information in multiple ways - continuous or categorical response. Besides these, the researcher can also use visual analog scales or Likert's scale in the questionnaire. Some practical take-home points are: (1) Use specific language while framing the questions; (2) write detailed instructions in the questionnaire; (3) use mutually exclusive response categories; (4) use skip patterns; (5) avoid double-barreled questions; and (6) anchor the time period if required.

  3. Evaluation of School Administrators. NAESP School Leadership Digest Series, Number Five. ERIC/CEM Research Analysis Series, Number Seven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barraclough, Terry

    Administrators have always been evaluated in one way or another. Decisions on hiring, training, promotion, and firing of administrators have always been necessary; such decisions are based on some sort of evaluation, whether formal or informal, of administrative performance. The concept of accountability has also affected administrator evaluation.…

  4. Central apelin-13 administration modulates hypothalamic control of feeding.

    PubMed

    Ferrante, C; Orlando, G; Recinella, L; Leone, S; Chiavaroli, A; Di Nisio, C; Shohreh, R; Manippa, F; Ricciuti, A; Vacca, M; Brunetti, L

    2016-01-01

    The 77 amino prepropeptide apelin has been isolated from bovine stomach tissue and several smaller fragments, including apelin-13, showed high affinity for the orphan APJ receptor. The distribution of apelinergic fibers and receptors in the hypothalamus may suggest a role of apelin-13 on energy balance regulation, albeit the studies reporting the acute effects of apelin on feeding control are inconsistent. Considering the possible involvement of apelinergic system on hypothalamic appetite controlling network, in the present study we evaluated in the rat the effects of intrahypothalamic apelin-13 injection on food intake and the involvement of orexigenic and anorexigenic hypothalamic peptides and neurotransmitters. Eighteen rats (6 for each group of treatment) were injected into the ARC with either vehicle or apelin-13 (1-2 μg/rat). Food intake and hypothalamic peptide and neurotransmitter levels were evaluated 2 and 24 h after injection. Compared to vehicle, apelin-13 administration increased food intake both 2 and 24 h following treatment. This effect could be related to inhibited cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) gene expression and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) synthesis and release, and increased orexin A gene expression in the hypothalamus.

  5. Scopolamine administration modulates muscarinic, nicotinic and NMDA receptor systems.

    PubMed

    Falsafi, Soheil Keihan; Deli, Alev; Höger, Harald; Pollak, Arnold; Lubec, Gert

    2012-01-01

    Studies on the effect of scopolamine on memory are abundant but so far only regulation of the muscarinic receptor (M1) has been reported. We hypothesized that levels of other cholinergic brain receptors as the nicotinic receptors and the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, known to be involved in memory formation, would be modified by scopolamine administration.C57BL/6J mice were used for the experiments and divided into four groups. Two groups were given scopolamine 1 mg/kg i.p. (the first group was trained and the second group untrained) in the multiple T-maze (MTM), a paradigm for evaluation of spatial memory. Likewise, vehicle-treated mice were trained or untrained thus serving as controls. Hippocampal levels of M1, nicotinic receptor alpha 4 (Nic4) and 7 (Nic7) and subunit NR1containing complexes were determined by immunoblotting on blue native gel electrophoresis.Vehicle-treated trained mice learned the task and showed memory retrieval on day 8, while scopolamine-treatment led to significant impairment of performance in the MTM. At the day of retrieval, hippocampal levels for M1, Nic7 and NR1 were higher in the scopolamine treated groups than in vehicle-treated groups.The concerted action, i.e. the pattern of four brain receptor complexes regulated by the anticholinergic compound scopolamine, is shown. Insight into probable action mechanisms of scopolamine at the brain receptor complex level in the hippocampus is provided. Scopolamine treatment is a standard approach to test cognitive enhancers and other psychoactive compounds in pharmacological studies and therefore knowledge on mechanisms is of pivotal interest.

  6. Negative allosteric modulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors blocks nicotine self-administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Ryan F; Hogenkamp, Derk J; Li, Wen Y; Tran, Minhtam B; Belluzzi, James D; Whittemore, Edward R; Leslie, Frances M; Gee, Kelvin W

    2007-12-01

    Drugs that antagonize nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) can be used to inhibit nicotine-induced behavior in both humans and animals. The aim of our experiments is to establish a proof-of-principle that antagonism of nAChRs by negative allosteric modulation can alter behavior in a relevant animal model of addiction, nicotine self-administration. We have identified a novel, negative allosteric modulator of nAChRs, UCI-30002 [N-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-naphthyl)-4-nitroaniline], with selectivity for the major neuronal nAChR subtypes over muscle-type nAChRs. After systemic administration, UCI-30002 significantly reduces nicotine self-administration in rats on both fixed ratio and progressive ratio schedules of reinforcement. The minimum effective dose that significantly alters nicotine self-administration corresponds to brain concentrations of UCI-30002 that produce at least 30% inhibition of the major neuronal nAChR subtypes measured in vitro. UCI-30002 has no effect on responding for food reinforcement in rats on either type of schedule, indicating that there is no effect on general responding or natural reward. UCI-30002 represents validation of the concept that negative allosteric modulators may have significant benefits as a strategy for treating nicotine addiction and encourages the development of subtype-selective modulators.

  7. Teaching Ethics and Values in Public Administration Programs: Innovations, Strategies, and Issues. SUNY Series in Public Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, James, Ed.; Menzel, Donald, Ed.

    The 17 chapters in this book consider innovations, teaching strategies, and issues in ethics instruction for professional and graduate programs in public affairs/administration. Following an introductory chapter which summarizes data reported in a 1995 national survey of 138 graduate departments of public affairs/administration, chapter titles…

  8. Series-connected shaded modules to address partial shading conditions in SPV systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pareek, Smita; Dahiya, Ratna

    2016-03-01

    With the progress of technology and reduced cost of PV cells, the PV systems are being installed in many countries, including India. Even though this method of power generation has sufficient potential but its effective utilization is still lacking. This is because the output power of PV cells depends on many factors like insolation, temperature, climate conditions prevailing nearby, aging, using modules from different technologies/manufacturers or partial shading conditions. Among these factors, partial shading causes major reduction in output power despite the size of PV systems. As a result, the produced power is lower than the expected value. The connection of modules to each other has great impact on output power if they are prone to partial shading conditions. In this paper, PV arrays are investigated under partial shading conditions. The results show that partial shading losses can be minimized by connecting shaded modules in series rather than in parallel.

  9. Series of modulated structures in Sr{sub x}CoO{sub 2} and the modulation rule

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, L. D.; Guo, Y. Q.; Luo, J. L.; Zhang, W.; Li, F. Y.; Jin, C. Q.; Yu, R. C.

    2007-05-01

    The nominal composition of Sr{sub 0.39}CoO{sub 2}, prepared by a low-temperature ion exchange technique, has been systematically studied by transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). Besides a well-defined {radical}(3)a{sub p}x{radical}(3)a{sub p} modulated structure, a series of long periodic modulated structures (n{radical}(3)a{sub p}x3a{sub p}) was revealed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) in some microzones, which are induced by alternate position ordering of strontium ions. The results of EDX analyses confirm the variation of Sr content in corresponding modulated phases. Moreover, the L{sub 3}/L{sub 2} intensity ratio of Co-L{sub 2,3} edges in the EELS spectra indicates the variation of Co ionic valence state induced by the different contents of Sr cations. Based on the {radical}(3)a{sub p}x{radical}(3)a{sub p} superstructural model, we propose the possible corresponding structural models in this paper. The simulated HRTEM images, based on those models, are consistent with experimental ones. In addition, several phase separations and some structural defects were observed in the sample.

  10. Women and Minorities in Administration. NAESP School Leadership Digest Series Number 11. ERIC/CEM Research Analysis Series, Number 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coursen, David

    Literature on the role of women and minorities in school administration indicates that they both suffer from role stereotypes, although the stereotypes are somewhat different. Current literature on minority groups is limited almost entirely to discussion of blacks; the status of other racial minorities has been largely ignored. The role of blacks…

  11. Glucose administration does not modulate prolactin response to exercise, TRH or haloperidol injection.

    PubMed

    Vigas, M; Jezová, D

    1994-01-01

    Glucose was found to exert an In vitro regulatory effect on prolactin secretion. Its role in the modulation of stimulated secretion of prolactin in man is, however, not clear. To evaluate the effect of hyperglycaemia on prolactin release, three stimulatory tests with different mechanisms of stimulation were employed. Healthy male subjects served as volunteers during submaximal exercise, TRH test (0.2 mg i.v.) and administration of haloperidol (2 mg i.v.). Glucose (100 g in 400 ml) or an equal volume of water was given 30 min before the tests. Blood for glucose and prolactin analysis was taken via an indwelling catheter. The plasma prolactin concentration increased in response to each of the stimuli applied. However, the prolactin increase during hyperglycaemia did not differ from values obtained in tests performed in normoglycaemia after water administration. These results indicate that prolactin release in healthy man is not modulated by hyperglycaemia.

  12. The Battle over Homework. An Administrator's Guide to Setting Sound and Effective Policies. The Practicing Administrator's Leadership Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Harris

    For many years, homework has been a topic of heated public discussion and concern of students, parents, teachers, and administrators. Perhaps the most crucial question regards its efficacy for improving academic achievement. This book combines the results of research studies and exemplary practices to provide guidance about homework to…

  13. Electric Double-Layer Capacitor Module with Series-Parallel Reconfigurable Cell Voltage Equalizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Masatoshi; Kukita, Akio; Tanaka, Koji

    When electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) are connected in series, cell voltage imbalance that results due to non-uniform cell properties is observed. Cell voltage imbalance should be minimized to prolong cycle lives and maximize the available energy of cells. In this study, we propose a series-parallel reconfigurable cell voltage equalizer that is considered suitable for energy-storage systems using EDLCs instead of traditional secondary batteries as main energy-storage sources. The proposed equalizer requires only EDLCs and switches as its main circuit elements, and it utilizes EDLCs not only for energy storage but also for equalization. An equivalent circuit model using equivalent resistors that can be regarded as an index of equalization speed is developed. Current distribution and cell voltage imbalance during operation are quantitatively generalized. Experimental charge-discharge tests were performed for EDLC modules to demonstrate the performance of the cell voltage equalizer. All the cells in the modules could be charged/discharged uniformly even when a degradation-mimicking cell was intentionally included in the module. The resultant cell voltage imbalances and current distributions were in good agreement with those predicted by mathematical analyses.

  14. Model for the respiratory modulation of the heart beat-to-beat time interval series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capurro, Alberto; Diambra, Luis; Malta, C. P.

    2005-09-01

    In this study we present a model for the respiratory modulation of the heart beat-to-beat interval series. The model consists of a set of differential equations used to simulate the membrane potential of a single rabbit sinoatrial node cell, excited with a periodic input signal with added correlated noise. This signal, which simulates the input from the autonomous nervous system to the sinoatrial node, was included in the pacemaker equations as a modulation of the iNaK current pump and the potassium current iK. We focus at modeling the heart beat-to-beat time interval series from normal subjects during meditation of the Kundalini Yoga and Chi techniques. The analysis of the experimental data indicates that while the embedding of pre-meditation and control cases have a roughly circular shape, it acquires a polygonal shape during meditation, triangular for the Kundalini Yoga data and quadrangular in the case of Chi data. The model was used to assess the waveshape of the respiratory signals needed to reproduce the trajectory of the experimental data in the phase space. The embedding of the Chi data could be reproduced using a periodic signal obtained by smoothing a square wave. In the case of Kundalini Yoga data, the embedding was reproduced with a periodic signal obtained by smoothing a triangular wave having a rising branch of longer duration than the decreasing branch. Our study provides an estimation of the respiratory signal using only the heart beat-to-beat time interval series.

  15. Probing Temperature Inside Planar SOFC Short Stack, Modules, and Stack Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Rong; Guan, Wanbing; Zhou, Xiao-Dong

    2017-02-01

    Probing temperature inside a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack lies at the heart of the development of high-performance and stable SOFC systems. In this article, we report our recent work on the direct measurements of the temperature in three types of SOFC systems: a 5-cell short stack, a 30-cell stack module, and a stack series consisting of two 30-cell stack modules. The dependence of temperature on the gas flow rate and current density was studied under a current sweep or steady-state operation. During the current sweep, the temperature inside the 5-cell stack decreased with increasing current, while it increased significantly at the bottom and top of the 30-cell stack. During a steady-state operation, the temperature of the 5-cell stack was stable while it was increased in the 30-cell stack. In the stack series, the maximum temperature gradient reached 190°C when the gas was not preheated. If the gas was preheated and the temperature gradient was reduced to 23°C in the stack series with the presence of a preheating gas and segmented temperature control, this resulted in a low degradation rate.

  16. Professional Teacher Education Module Series. Prepare News Releases and Articles Concerning Your Vocational Program, Module G-5 of Category G--School-Community Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This fifth in a series of ten learning modules on school-community relations is designed to give secondary and postsecondary vocational teachers help in developing the skills needed to prepare news releases and articles for publication. The terminal objective for the module is to prepare news releases and articles concerning a vocational program…

  17. Present Information with the Chalkboard and Flip Chart. Second Edition. Module C-29 of Category C--Instructional Execution. Professional Teacher Education Module Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Vocational Instructional Materials, Athens, GA.

    This module for vocational teachers, one in a series of performance-based teacher education learning packages, focuses on skills dealing with methods and strategies for delivering instruction. The purpose for the module is to help educators become competent in using chalkboards and flip charts to present lessons and in determining how to choose…

  18. [DGAI-certified course series anaesthesia focused sonography: module 1: basics of sonography].

    PubMed

    Bleise, Stefan; Einhaus, Friedrich; Pfeiffer, Klaus; Broscheit, Jens-Albert; Greim, Clemens-Alexander

    2011-11-01

    Understanding the principles of wave physics paves the way for appropriate utilization and interpretation of sonography. In module 1 of the course series "Anesthesia Focused Sonography", the course participants will learn by lectures and practical training, how ultrasonic waves emerge, how they travel in human tissue, and how a picture is generated from their echo signals. Furthermore, the technology of an ultrasound system and the development of artifacts will be demonstrated; moreover, the Doppler effect and its implementation into current sonographic procedures will be presented as a central theme.

  19. [DGAI-certified seminar series: anaesthesia focussed echocardiography: module 4 cardiosonography].

    PubMed

    Tonner, Peter H; Bein, Berthold; Breitkreutz, Raoul; Broscheit, Jens; Erb, Joachim; Dütschke, Peter; Greim, Clemens-Alexander; Hansen, Matthias; Kefalianakis, Fotios; Loick, Heinz Michael; Schmidt, Christoph; Timpe, Annemarie; Wagner, Gerhard

    2011-11-01

    The use of ultrasonography in perioperative medicine has developed rapidly within the last decade. Today ultrasonic techniques are established methods for peripheral and central venous access as well as for regional anaesthesia. However, transthoracic ultrasonography by non-cardiologists has not yet been routinely established perioperatively, in intensive care medicine or in emergency medicine. With the current module 4: Cardiosonography of the DGAI-certified seminar series in Anaesthesia Focussed Sonography (AFS) it is intended to provide a basis for a quality assured training and implementation of transthoracic sonography in anaesthesia, intensive care medicine and emergency medicine.

  20. Reform in Administrator Preparation: Myths, Realities, and Proposals. UCEA Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendel, Frederick C., Ed.

    This handbook is comprised of four chapters that examine the history and reform of educational administration. Chapter 1, "The Mythology of Reform in Educational Administrator Preparation: Antecedents of Paradigms Lost," by Thomas Wiggins, examines myths in educational administration and problems with traditional paradigms. Chapter 2, "Beyond the…

  1. An Administrator's Guide to Online Education. The USDLA Book Series on Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Kaye, Ed.; Saltsman, George, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    An Administrator's Guide to Online Education is an essential resource for the higher education administrator. Unlike most books regarding online education, this book is not about teaching; it is about effectively administrating an online education program. Grounded in existing distance education theory, and drawing from best practices, current…

  2. Non-therapeutic administration of a model antimicrobial growth promoter modulates intestinal immune responses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The development of efficacious alternatives to antimicrobial growth promoters (AGP) in livestock production is an urgent issue, but is hampered by a lack of knowledge regarding the mode of action of AGP. The belief that AGP modulate the intestinal microbiota has become prominent in the literature; however, there is a lack of experimental evidence to support this hypothesis. Using a chlortetracycline-murine-Citrobacter rodentium model, the ability of AGP to modulate the intestinal immune system in mammals was investigated. Results C. rodentium was transformed with the tetracycline resistance gene, tetO, and continuous oral administration of a non-therapeutic dose of chlortetracycline to mice did not affect densities of C. rodentium CFU in feces throughout the experiment or associated with mucosal surfaces in the colon (i.e. at peak and late infection). However, chlortetracycline regulated transcription levels of Th1 and Th17 inflammatory cytokines in a temporal manner in C. rodentium-inoculated mice, and ameliorated weight loss associated with infection. In mice inoculated with C. rodentium, those that received chlortetracycline had less pathologic changes in the distal colon than mice not administered CTC (i.e. relative to untreated mice). Furthermore, chlortetracycline administration at a non-therapeutic dose did not impart either prominent or consistent effects on the colonic microbiota. Conclusion Data support the hypothesis that AGP function by modulating the intestinal immune system in mammals. This finding may facilitate the development of biorationale-based and efficacious alternatives to AGP. PMID:21943280

  3. Estrogen administration modulates hippocampal GABAergic subpopulations in the hippocampus of trimethyltin-treated rats

    PubMed Central

    Corvino, Valentina; Di Maria, Valentina; Marchese, Elisa; Lattanzi, Wanda; Biamonte, Filippo; Michetti, Fabrizio; Geloso, Maria Concetta

    2015-01-01

    Given the well-documented involvement of estrogens in the modulation of hippocampal functions in both physiological and pathological conditions, the present study investigates the effects of 17-beta estradiol (E2) administration in the rat model of hippocampal neurodegeneration induced by trimethyltin (TMT) administration (8 mg/kg), characterized by loss of pyramidal neurons in CA1, CA3/hilus hippocampal subfields, associated with astroglial and microglial activation, seizures and cognitive impairment. After TMT/saline treatment, ovariectomized animals received two doses of E2 (0.2 mg/kg intra-peritoneal) or vehicle, and were sacrificed 48 h or 7 days after TMT-treatment. Our results indicate that in TMT-treated animals E2 administration induces the early (48 h) upregulation of genes involved in neuroprotection and synaptogenesis, namely Bcl2, trkB, cadherin 2 and cyclin-dependent-kinase-5. Increased expression levels of glutamic acid decarboxylase (gad) 67, neuropeptide Y (Npy), parvalbumin, Pgc-1α and Sirtuin 1 genes, the latter involved in parvalbumin (PV) synthesis, were also evident. Unbiased stereology performed on rats sacrificed 7 days after TMT treatment showed that although E2 does not significantly influence the extent of TMT-induced neuronal death, significantly enhances the TMT-induced modulation of GABAergic interneuron population size in selected hippocampal subfields. In particular, E2 administration causes, in TMT-treated rats, a significant increase in the number of GAD67-expressing interneurons in CA1 stratum oriens, CA3 pyramidal layer, hilus and dentate gyrus, accompanied by a parallel increase in NPY-expressing cells, essentially in the same regions, and of PV-positive cells in CA1 pyramidal layer. The present results add information concerning the role of in vivo E2 administration on mechanisms involved in cellular plasticity in the adult brain. PMID:26594149

  4. [Inhibition of morphine intake by antibodies to serotonin-modulating anticonsolidation protein in model of self-administration in rats].

    PubMed

    Mekhtiev, A A; Rashidova, A M; Muslimov, I A

    2014-01-01

    The article concerns study of effects of polyclonal antibodies to serotonin-modulating anticonsolidation protein (SMAP) being in direct dependence on serotonin level and providing intracellular transduction of serotonergic signal, on positive reinforcement effect of morphine in rats. The task was formed in Wistar male rats in the model of morphine self-administration as a result of pressing of one of two levers attached to the wall, joined to the pump delivering each time 100 μg of morphine directly into the vena jugularis. In the 1st series of studies brain cingulate cortex and hypothalamus were taken from the rats achieved stable level of morphine intake and SMAP level was measured with indirect immune-enzyme assay. It was shown that in the morphine-self-injected rats SMAP level in the cingulate cortex is significantly upregulated (p = 0.01), while in the hypothalamus it was left unchanged. In the 2nd series of studies the rats with stable level of morphine intake were administered intraperitoneally with anti-SMAP rabbit polyclonal antibodies (experimental group) or non-immune γ-globulins (control group). Soon after antibodies administration the animals of the experimental group demonstrated manifold decrease of morphine intake lasted for 8 days (p < 0.008), whereas it did not change in the controls. SMAP upregulation in the brain cingulate cortex in the rats with stable morphine intake, obviously, indicates to its engagement in positive reinforcement effect of morphine. Blockade of SMAP activity with anti-SMAP antibodies in the nerve cells induced sharp decrease of morphine intake due to disturbances of transduction through intracellular serotonin's signal channels.

  5. Research Tools, Tips, and Resources for Financial Aid Administrators. Monograph, A NASFAA Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohning, David D.; Redd, Kenneth E.; Simmons, Barry W., Sr.

    This monograph provides research tools, tips, and resources to financial aid administrators who need to undertake research tasks. It answers: What is research? How can financial aid administrators get started on research projects? What resources are available to help answer research questions quickly and accurately? How can research efforts assist…

  6. Assessment Center Methods in Educational Administration: Past, Present, and Future. UCEA Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendel, Frederick C.; Sybouts, Ward

    Issues related to the assessment and induction (preparation, recruitment, and selection) of educational administrators are of critical importance because of the never-ending flow of entrants into administration, and because of the complex variables associated with assessment and selection criteria. Accordingly, this monograph traces the…

  7. Business and Finance: A Resource Book for Camps. Camp Administration Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Armand, Ed.; Ball, Beverly, Ed.

    this resource book contains 35 articles designed to present general information concerning camp business and financial management to directors or administrators. Typically a specialist is employed to supervise camp business and finance, but the administrator needs to have a broad understanding of five specific business topics: (1) liability and…

  8. A Self-Instructional Course in Student Financial Aid Administration. Module 10: The Pell Grant Program. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Consulting Group, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Module 10 of a 17-module self-instructional course in student financial aid administration (for novice student financial aid officers and other institutional personnel) examines the Pell Grant program's eligibility requirements and award calculation procedures. It is part of a complete system teaching management of federal financial aid programs…

  9. Identification of regulatory modules in time series gene expression data using a linear time biclustering algorithm.

    PubMed

    Madeira, Sara C; Teixeira, Miguel C; Sá-Correia, Isabel; Oliveira, Arlindo L

    2010-01-01

    Although most biclustering formulations are NP-hard, in time series expression data analysis, it is reasonable to restrict the problem to the identification of maximal biclusters with contiguous columns, which correspond to coherent expression patterns shared by a group of genes in consecutive time points. This restriction leads to a tractable problem. We propose an algorithm that finds and reports all maximal contiguous column coherent biclusters in time linear in the size of the expression matrix. The linear time complexity of CCC-Biclustering relies on the use of a discretized matrix and efficient string processing techniques based on suffix trees. We also propose a method for ranking biclusters based on their statistical significance and a methodology for filtering highly overlapping and, therefore, redundant biclusters. We report results in synthetic and real data showing the effectiveness of the approach and its relevance in the discovery of regulatory modules. Results obtained using the transcriptomic expression patterns occurring in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in response to heat stress show not only the ability of the proposed methodology to extract relevant information compatible with documented biological knowledge but also the utility of using this algorithm in the study of other environmental stresses and of regulatory modules in general.

  10. New Approaches to Recruitment and Selection of Educational Administrators. ERIC/CEM-UCEA Series on Administrator Preparation. ERIC/CEM State-of-the-Knowledge Series, Number Eighteen. UCEA Monograph Series, Number Five.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, Robert T.

    In this monograph, the author claims there is a need for administrators who are responsive to legitimate demands for educational change. He reviews the shortcomings of contemporary American educational systems and traditional procedures for selecting and preparing administrators -- a group noted for its size and homogeneity. The author contends…

  11. Training-in-Common for Educational, Public, and Business Administrators. ERIC/CEM-UCEA Series on Administrator Preparation. ERIC/CEM State-of-the-Knowledge Series, Number Seventeen. UCEA Monograph Series, Number Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miklos, Erwin

    In this monograph, the author assesses the progress that has been made toward the development of in-common programs for preparing administrators to serve in a variety of institutional settings. After outlining the assumptions, rationales, and strategies behind attempts to institute interdisciplinary administrator training programs, the author…

  12. Emergent Practices in the Continuing Education of School Administrators. ERIC/CEM-UCEA Series on Administrator Preparation. ERIC/CEM State-of-the-Knowledge Series, Number Sixteen. UCEA Monograph Series, Number Three.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutz, Frank W.; Ferrante, Reynolds

    In this monograph, the authors describe the shortcomings of traditional approaches to continuing education of administrators and examine the extent to which innovations are being attempted in present practices. The authors note that, in print and in practice, continuing education of administrators has failed to develop to the extent that it can be…

  13. Informal Inventory: Lippincott Basic Reading Series; Teacher's Administration Copy and Student's Reading Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Priscilla; Ritt, Marsha

    This reading inventory was constructed from vocabulary lists and stories in Lippincott's Basic Reading Series (1971 edition). Designed to yield an estimate of a child's instructional reading level for grades one through eight, this program comprises reading selections and tests which are individually administered and to which students respond…

  14. Program Administrator's Handbook. Strategies for Preventing Alcohol and Other Drug Problems. The College Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CSR, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This handbook is for administrators of programs in higher education settings which deal with alcohol and other drug (AOD) related problems. Chapter 1, "Defining the Problem, Issues, and Trends" examines the problem from various perspectives and presents the latest statistics on the extent of AOD use on campuses, specific problems affecting…

  15. Why Distance Learning? Higher Education Administrative Practices. ACE/Praeger Series on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Gary A.

    This book reports on a study that examined the reasons colleges are making commitments to distance learning, reasons that range from the philosophical to the purely commercial. The chapters are: (1) "Review of Surveys on Technology and Distance Learning in Higher Education"; (2) "Review of Literature on Administration of Distance Learning in…

  16. Getting Lead-Bottomed Administrators Excited about School Library Media Centers. Building Partnerships Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Timothy

    The purpose of this book is to help professional librarians gain administrator support for the library media center. The book is divided into three sections. Part 1, "Setting the Stage," explores the challenge and aspects of accountability that can be lost in the pressures of daily accomplishment. It details the personality characteristics found…

  17. Administrative Factors in Educational Planning. The Fundamentals of Educational Planning: Lecture-Discussion Series No. 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, A. C. R.

    Planning is a complex activity that varies a great deal from country to country depending on such variables as the administrative structure of the country. The complexity of the task is increased because the five planning activities--issuing directives for planning, preparing plans, approving plans, implementing plans, and evaluating and revising…

  18. Leadership and Futuring: Making Visions Happen. The Practicing Administrator's Leadership Series. Roadmaps to Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyle, John R.

    This book is designed to help administrators broaden their skills to create new and exciting learning organizations. Chapter 1 describes six visionary leaders who shared three attributes--the ability to communicate clearly, the capacity of caring for others, and a commitment to persistence. Chapter 2 presents an overview of futurism as a field of…

  19. Microcomputers in the School Office: Primer for Administrators. School Management Digest Series Number 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindelow, John

    Microcomputers are now affordable tools for managing schools and school districts--and fast becoming essential. This digest, designed to help school administrators begin computerizing their offices, depicts tomorrow's computerized office, introduces computer applications in management, and outlines procedures for computerizing an office. A…

  20. The Handbook of Student Affairs Administration. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Margaret J.; And Others

    This handbook on student affairs administration contains the following papers: (1) "The Importance of Institutional Mission" (Lyons); (2) "Institutional Governance and the Role of Student Affairs" (Pembroke); (3) "Assessing Campus Environments" (Kuh); (4) "Fiscal Pressures on Higher Education and Student Affairs" (Schuh); (5) "Identifying and…

  1. An Administrative Appraisal of the NLRB. Labor Relations and Public Policy Series No. 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Edward B.

    The author, former chairman of the National Labor Relations Board, outlines what the board does and evaluates how efficiently it performs its two roles--honest ballot association and public law enforcer. The author is most concerned with the latter role. Emphasis is placed on the organization and administration of the board and its supporting…

  2. An Administrator's Perspective of Evaluation. Paper #2 in Occasional Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jack P.

    The author describes the Content, Input, Process, and Product (CIPP) evaluation model as it was implemented in the Saginaw Public Schools in Michigan. As school superintendent in Saginaw, he describes how the CIPP model provided information to administrators for answering four basic questions: (1) what should we do? (2) how should we do it? (3)…

  3. Professional Teacher Education Module Series. Provide Instruction for Slower and More Capable Learners, Module C-14 of Category C--Instructional Execution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This fourteenth in a series of twenty-nine learning modules on instructional execution is designed to give secondary and postsecondary vocational teachers help in understanding the unique learning characteristics of different groups of students and in planning instruction so that the specific needs of slower and more capable learners can be…

  4. Evaluate Your Vocational Program. Second Edition. Module A-11 of Category A--Program Planning, Development, and Evaluation. Professional Teacher Education Module Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This module, which is one in a series of 127 performance-based teacher education learning packages focusing upon specific professional competencies of vocational teachers, deals with developing a plan for evaluating a vocational program, performing a program evaluation, and developing a final evaluation report. Addressed in the individual learning…

  5. Plan Instruction for Exceptional Students. Module L-3 of Category L--Serving Students with Special/Exceptional Needs. Professional Teacher Education Module Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This module, one in a series of 127 performance-based teacher education (PBTE) learning packages, focuses on specific professional competencies of vocational teachers. It is designed to give potential teachers skills in individualizing instructional plans at the program/unit level and at the lesson plan level for the exceptional students in their…

  6. Professional Teacher Education Module Series. Prepare Displays to Promote Your Vocational Program, Module G-4 of Category G--School-Community Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This fourth in a series of ten learning modules on school-community relations is designed to give secondary and postsecondary vocational teachers skills in making decisions concerning the audience to be served, the phase of the vocational program to be featured, the promotional approach to be utilized, and in planning, designing, organizing, and…

  7. Single-Switch Equalization Charger Using Multiple Stacked Buck-Boost Converters for Series-Connected Energy-Storage Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Masatoshi; Tanaka, Koji

    Series connections of energy-storage modules such as electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) and lithium-ion batteries result in voltage imbalance because of the nonuniform properties of individual modules. Conventional voltage equalizers based on traditional dc-dc converters require numerous switches and/or transformers, and therefore, their costs and complexity tend to increase. This paper proposes a novel single-switch equalization charger using multiple stacked buck-boost converters. The single-switch operation not only reduces the circuit complexity but also contributes to increasing the reliability. The fundamental operating principles and design procedures of key components are presented in detail. An experimental charge test using a 25W prototype of the proposed equalization charger was performed for four series-connected EDLC modules whose initial voltages were intentionally imbalanced. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed equalization charger could charge the series-connected modules preferentially in the order of increasing module voltage and that all the modules could be charged up to a uniform voltage level.

  8. GABAergic modulation of human social interaction in a prisoner's dilemma model by acute administration of alprazolam.

    PubMed

    Lane, Scott D; Gowin, Joshua L

    2009-10-01

    Recent work in neuroeconomics has used game theory paradigms to examine neural systems that subserve human social interaction and decision making. Attempts to modify social interaction through pharmacological manipulation have been less common. Here we show dose-dependent modification of human social behavior in a prisoner's dilemma model after acute administration of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A modulating benzodiazepine alprazolam. Nine healthy adults received doses of placebo, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg alprazolam in a counterbalanced within-subject design, while completing multiple test blocks per day on an iterated prisoner's dilemma game. During test blocks in which peak subjective effects of alprazolam were reported, cooperative choices were significantly decreased as a function of dose. Consistent with previous reports showing that high acute doses of GABA-modulating drugs are associated with violence and other antisocial behavior, our data suggest that at sufficiently high doses, alprazolam can decrease cooperation. These behavioral changes may be facilitated by changes in inhibitory control facilitated by GABA. Game theory paradigms may prove useful in behavioral pharmacology studies seeking to measure social interaction, and may help inform the emerging field of neuroeconomics.

  9. Unconventional Methods and Materials for Preparing Educational Administrators. ERIC/CEM-UCEA Series on Administrator Preparation. ERIC/CEM State-of-the-Knowledge Series, Number Fifteen. UCEA Monograph Series, Number Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynn, Richard

    In this monograph, the author describes the variety of new and innovative instructional methods and materials being used to prepare educational administrators. Because the subject is new and the nomenclature surrounding it imprecise, the author defines his terms. An outline of the history of unconventional instructional methods and the rationale…

  10. Phase-staggering control of a series-resonant DC-DC converter with paralleled power modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaassens, J. Ben; Moize de Chateleux, Willem L. F. H. A.; van Wesenbeeck, M. P. N.

    1988-04-01

    A method of decreasing the ripple on the output voltage of high-power AC-DC or DC-DC series-resonant converters without increasing the internal converter frequency or the capacity of the energy storage elements is discussed. This improvement is accomplished by subdividing the converter into two or more series-resonant power modules operated with a constant relative phase shift (phase-staggering control). The method of eliminating the harmonic components in the input and output currents of the conversion system, without increasing the internal pulse frequency, is justified by Fourier analysis of the current waveforms. The frequency spectra of the source and output waveforms for the continuous and discontinuous resonant current mode are shifted to higher frequency ranges, as computations show for both one single module and multiple paralleled modules. Inadequacies in the phase-staggering control method applied to series-resonant converters are indicated in relation to the dominant harmonic component, in particular for two modules and supported by experimentally acquired waveforms. High-frequency current components to the source and to the load are reduced, resulting in smaller input and output filters. This improves the resolution of the control of the flow of energy from the source to the load, resulting in a faster system response.

  11. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module Twelve: Series AC Resistive-Reactive Circuits. Study Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This individualized learning module on series alternating current resistive-reactive circuits is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting.…

  12. Improving Intercultural Interactions. Modules for Cross-Cultural Training Programs. Multicultural Aspects of Counseling Series 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brislin, Richard W., Ed.; Yoshida, Tomoko, Ed.

    This book contains modules for use in cross-cultural training programs. A module differs from a chapter in that it is a collection of materials that guide the reader both on the content of a defined unit of training and the method of delivery of that content. The modules are grouped into four sections, three corresponding to organizations in which…

  13. Central administration of GPR55 receptor agonist and antagonist modulates anxiety-related behaviors in rats.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Abbasali; Hajizadeh Moghaddam, Akbar; Roohbakhsh, Ali

    2015-04-01

    G-protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) has been proposed as an atypical cannabinoid receptor, which is activated by lysophosphatidylinositols and some synthetic or endogenous cannabinoid molecules. The exact role of GPR55 receptors in the central nervous system especially in anxiety needs to be evaluated. In this study, the effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of agonist and antagonist of GPR55 receptor on anxiety-related behaviors in rats were investigated. Here, O-1602 (GPR55 agonist) at the doses of 0.2, 1, and 5 μg/rat increased %OAT and %OAE but not the locomotor activity, showing an anxiolytic response, whereas i.c.v. injection of ML193 (GPR55 antagonist) at the doses of 0.1 and 1 μg/rat increased anxiety-like behaviors while causing locomotor impairment. The antagonistic effect of ML193 on the anxiolytic-like effect of O-1602 was also evaluated. The results showed that ML193 decreased the anxiolytic-like effect of O-1602. Based on these results, it may be concluded that central GPR55 may have a role in modulation of anxiety-like behaviors in rats. Further experiments are needed to elucidate the exact role of these receptors in anxiety.

  14. A Self-Instructional Course in Student Financial Aid Administration. Module 11: The Stafford Loan, SLS, and PLUS Programs. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Consulting Group, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Module 11 in the 17-module self-instructional course on student financial aid administration (designed for novice financial aid administrators and other institutional personnel) focuses on the Stafford Loan, SLS (Supplemental Loans for Students), and Parent Loans for Undergraduate Students (PLUS) student loan programs. It is part of a course that…

  15. A Unified Method of Finding Laplace Transforms, Fourier Transforms, and Fourier Series. [and] An Inversion Method for Laplace Transforms, Fourier Transforms, and Fourier Series. Integral Transforms and Series Expansions. Modules and Monographs in Undergraduate Mathematics and Its Applications Project. UMAP Units 324 and 325.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimm, C. A.

    This document contains two units that examine integral transforms and series expansions. In the first module, the user is expected to learn how to use the unified method presented to obtain Laplace transforms, Fourier transforms, complex Fourier series, real Fourier series, and half-range sine series for given piecewise continuous functions. In…

  16. Differential Modulation of Thresholds for Intracranial Self-Stimulation by mGlu5 Positive and Negative Allosteric Modulators: Implications for Effects on Drug Self-Administration

    PubMed Central

    Cleva, Richard M.; Watterson, Lucas R.; Johnson, Meagan A.; Olive, M. Foster

    2011-01-01

    Pharmacological manipulation of the type 5 metabotropic glutamate (mGlu5) receptor alters various addiction related behaviors such as drug self-administration and the extinction and reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior. However, the effects of pharmacological modulation of mGlu5 receptors on brain reward function have not been widely investigated. We examined the effects of acute administration of positive and negative allosteric modulators (PAMs and NAMs, respectively) on brain reward function by assessing thresholds for intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS). In addition, when acute effects were observed, we examined changes in ICSS thresholds following repeated administration. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with bipolar electrodes into the medial forebrain bundle and trained to respond for ICSS, followed by assessment of effects of mGlu5 ligands on ICSS thresholds using a discrete trials current–intensity threshold determination procedure. Acute administration of the selective mGlu5 NAMs MTEP (0, 0.3, 1, or 3 mg/kg) and fenobam (0, 3, 10, or 30 mg/kg) dose-dependently increased ICSS thresholds (∼70% at the highest dose tested), suggesting a deficit in brain reward function. Acute administration of the mGlu5 PAMs CDPPB (0, 10, 30, and 60 mg/kg) or ADX47273 (0, 10, 30, and 60 mg/kg) was without effect at any dose tested. When administered once daily for five consecutive days, the development of tolerance to the ability of threshold-elevating doses of MTEP and fenobam to increase ICSS thresholds was observed. We conclude that mGlu5 PAMs and NAMs differentially affect brain reward function, and that tolerance to the ability of mGlu5 NAMs to reduce brain reward function develops with repeated administration. These brain reward deficits should be taken into consideration when interpreting acute effects of mGlu5 NAMs on drug self-administration, and repeated administration of these ligands may be an effective method to reduce these deficits. PMID

  17. Educational Administration and Its Relations with Planning and Research. The Fundamentals of Educational Planning: Lecture-Discussion Series No. 66.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malpica, Carlos N.

    The author's discussion of the relationship of educational administration to educational planning and research begins by considering the development of administrative theory in general and reviewing the functional, institutional, and social approaches to analyzing educational administration. He briefly describes educational administration in the…

  18. Chronic administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) paroxetine modulates human motor cortex excitability in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Gerdelat-Mas, A; Loubinoux, I; Tombari, D; Rascol, O; Chollet, F; Simonetta-Moreau, M

    2005-08-15

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of chronic administration of paroxetine (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor: SSRI) on motor cortex excitability in healthy subjects by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and behavioral motor tests. In a randomized, double-blind, crossover study, twenty-one right-handed subjects received 20 mg daily of either paroxetine or a placebo over a period of 30 days separated by a period of 3 months wash-out. The TMS study is presented here correlated with some results of the motor behavior study (finger tapping test) and the fMRI study (primary sensorimotor cortex (S1M1) volume of activation). TMS was used to test motor threshold (MT), motor evoked potential recruitment curve (RC), cortical silent period (CSP) and paired-pulse intracortical inhibition and facilitation (ICI, ICF). Chronic administration of paroxetine did not modulate ICI or CSP but induced a significant enhancement of mean ICF (ANOVA P=0.04), which significantly correlated with increase of speed in a finger tapping test (P=0.02). This suggests a modulation of cortical interneuronal excitatory pathways without changes in the excitability of cortical inhibitory GABAergic interneurons. A decrease of RC (ANOVA P=0.05) was also observed after 30 days intake of paroxetine in comparison with placebo and was associated with changes of fMRI activation intensity (left S1M1 hypoactivation, ), without changes of S1M1 activation volume. Finally, the different modulation of RC and ICF after chronic administration of paroxetine compared to single dose (opposite effects) emphasizes the different pharmacological action of the drug at cortical level depending on its acute or long-term administration.

  19. The Power Transistor: A Module on Heat Transfer. Tech Physics Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Center, Cambridge, MA.

    This module is intended to provide an understanding of the principles related to heat transfer. The objectives are designed to enable the learner to select and install a device for measuring the temperature of a power transistor, determine power ratings, measure the transient response for a power level and its final equilibrium temperature. Other…

  20. Educational Module on Environmental Problems in Cities. Environmental Educational Series 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Science, Technical and Vocational Education.

    The International Environmental Education Programme (IEEP) of UNESCO has determined that the enhancement of the quality of the built environment is a basic priority for future environmental action, particularly in Europe and North America. This experimental teaching module applies specifically to those two continents, and is intended for use by…

  1. Career Education for Mental Health Workers. Health Assessment. Human Service Instructional Series. Module No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redcay, Madeleine C.

    This module on health assessment is one of a set of six developed to prepare human services workers for the changing mental health service delivery system. A total of seven objectives are included to help students utilize knowledge of physical factors which may influence health and behavior in order to recognize signs and symptoms which indicate…

  2. The Spectrophotometer II: A Module on the Spectral Properties of Light. Tech Physics Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Nathaniel; And Others

    This module is designed to give the learner an understanding of the nature of light and how its properties are used in the design of spectrophotometers. Problems promote the use of spectrophotometers in qualitative analysis, the optical elements used in a monochromator, and the physical properties of the prism and the diffraction grating. Other…

  3. Intellectual Development: What You Can Do To Help. A Series for Caregivers of Infants and Toddlers. Model of Interdisciplinary Training for Children with Handicaps: MITCH Module 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe County School District, Key West, FL.

    Intended for use in Florida training programs for caregivers of infants and toddlers with disabilities, this guide presents an overview of the Model of Interdisciplinary Training for Children with Handicaps (MITCH); provides a user's guide to the series of MITCH modules; and presents specific information for presenting Module 1, which focuses on…

  4. SAR studies on carboxylic acid series M(1) selective positive allosteric modulators (PAMs).

    PubMed

    Kuduk, Scott D; Beshore, Douglas C

    2014-01-01

    There is mounting evidence from preclinical and early proof-of-concept studies suggesting that selective modulation of the M1 muscarinic receptor is efficacious in cognitive models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A number of nonselective M1 muscarinic agonists have previously shown positive effects on cognitive function in AD patients, but were limited due to cholinergic adverse events thought to be mediated by pan activation of the M2 to M5 sub-types. Thus, there is a need to identify selective activators of the M1 receptor to evaluate their potential in cognitive disorders. One strategy to confer selectivity for M1 is the identification of allosteric agonists or positive allosteric modulators, which would target an allosteric site on the M1 receptor rather than the highly conserved orthosteric acetylcholine binding site. BQCA has been identified as a highly selective carboxylic acid M1 PAM and this review focuses on an extensive lead optimization campaign undertaken on this compound.

  5. Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) encoder handbook for Aydin Vector MMP-900 series system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raphael, David

    1995-01-01

    This handbook explicates the hardware and software properties of a time division multiplex system. This system is used to sample analog and digital data. The data is then merged with frame synchronization information to produce a serial pulse coded modulation (PCM) bit stream. Information in this handbook is required by users to design congruous interface and attest effective utilization of this encoder system. Aydin Vector provides all of the components for these systems to Goddard Space Flight Center/Wallops Flight Facility.

  6. Impact of P2 scribe geometry on monolithic series interconnected CIGS modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rekow, M.; Bartl, D.; Sandfort, C.; Letsch, A.

    2013-03-01

    The CIGS (Copper Indium Gallium Selenide) solar panel industry is cautiously moving to adopt laser processes for the P2 and the P3 scribe steps that form the electrical interconnection between cells within a module [1]. In this work we study variants of these two laser processes and evaluate their relative performance. P2 scribes are applied with geometries that range from continuous scribes to discrete spots and we examine the relationship between scribe geometry and P2 contact resistance. Transmission line theory [2] is used to calculate P2 contact resistance as is common in the industry. The results are compared with two simple geometric models that predict relative contact resistance for different scribe geometries. We also apply different types of scribes for both P2 and P3 in the production of minimodules and evaluate the results. We find that not only is the optimal geometry for the P2 scribe a continuous line, high overlap of the laser spots yields an improvement in contact resistance not predicted by geometry alone. Finally we find that removing only the TCO (transparent conductive oxide) layer for the P3 scribe results in modules with good efficiency, however a P3 scribe that removes the TCO and CIGS layer yields better modules with about 1% higher absolute efficiency.

  7. Activities of biotransformation enzymes in pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) and their modulation by in vivo administration of mebendazole and flubendazole.

    PubMed

    Savlík, M; Polácková, L; Szotáková, B; Lamka, J; Velík, J; Skálová, L

    2007-08-01

    Basal activities of certain pheasant hepatic and intestinal biotransformation enzymes and modulation of their activities by anthelmintics flubendazole (FLBZ) and mebendazole (MBZ) were investigated in subcellular fractions that were prepared from liver and small intestine of control and FLBZ or MBZ treated birds. Several oxidation, reduction and conjugation enzyme activities were assessed. In the liver, treatment of pheasants by FLBZ or MBZ caused very slight or no changes in monooxygenase activities and conjugation enzymes. More significative changes were detected in small intestine. Metyrapone and daunorubicin reductase activities were increased by both substances in the liver. This is the first evidence that certain benzimidazoles modulate reductases of carbonyl group. With respect to the relatively slight extent of the changes caused by FLBZ or MBZ we can assume that repeated administration of therapeutic doses of both FLBZ and MBZ has probably no serious influence on pheasant biotransformation enzyme system.

  8. Oral administration of banana lectin modulates cytokine profile and abundance of T-cell populations in mice.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Ana Claudia Miranda Brito; Sansone, Marcelo; Dos Santos Dias, Carlos Tadeu; Oliveira do Nascimento, João Roberto

    2016-08-01

    Banana lectin (BanLec) is a dimeric protein occurring in fruit pulp that modulates immune cell functioning in vitro. In order to assess the immune response in vivo, BanLec from ripe banana (Musa acuminata) fruit was purified and orally given to mice for seven days. The analysis of cytokines in the mice peripheral blood revealed increased IL-10, IL-17 and TNFα, and a reduction of IFNγ and IL-6. In the thymus, an increase of CD4+ and a decrease of CD8+ T-cells were observed after oral administration of BanLec. The modulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and T-cells in the peripheral blood and thymus of mice demonstrated the immunomodulatory properties of natural BanLec in vivo. This research brings new data on a protein from a fresh fruit consumed worldwide that may act as an immunomodulator, potentially affecting the host response to infections, immune diseases and cancer.

  9. Electrode with transparent series resistance for uniform switching of optical modulation devices

    DOEpatents

    Tench, D. Morgan; Cunningham, Michael A.; Kobrin, Paul H.

    2008-01-08

    Switching uniformity of an optical modulation device for controlling the propagation of electromagnetic radiation is improved by use of an electrode comprising an electrically resistive layer that is transparent to the radiation. The resistive layer is preferably an innerlayer of a wide-bandgap oxide sandwiched between layers of indium tin oxide or another transparent conductor, and may be of uniform thickness, or may be graded so as to provide further improvement in the switching uniformity. The electrode may be used with electrochromic and reversible electrochemical mirror (REM) smart window devices, as well as display devices based on various technologies.

  10. Acute and subacute IL-1β administrations differentially modulate neuroimmune and neurotrophic systems: possible implications for neuroprotection and neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Alzheimer’s disease, stroke and brain injuries, activated microglia can release proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β. These cytokines may change astrocyte and neurotrophin functions, which influences neuronal survival and induces apoptosis. However, the interaction between neuroinflammation and neurotrophin functions in different brain conditions is unknown. The present study hypothesized that acute and subacute elevated IL-1β differentially modulates glial and neurotrophin functions, which are related to their role in neuroprotection and neurodegeneration. Method Rats were i.c.v. injected with saline or IL-1β for 1 or 8 days and tested in a radial maze. mRNA and protein expressions of glial cell markers, neurotrophins, neurotrophin receptors, β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) and the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were measured in the hippocampus. Results When compared to controls, memory deficits were found 4 days after IL-1 administrations, however the deficits were attenuated by IL-1 receptor antagonist (RA). Subacute IL-1 administrations increased expressions of APP, microglial active marker CD11b, and p75 neurotrophin receptor, and the concentration of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-1β, but decreased expressions of astrocyte active marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and TrK B. By contrast, up-regulations of NGF, BDNF and TrK B expressions were found after acute IL-1 administration, which are associated with the increase in both glial marker expressions and IL-10 concentrations. However, TrK A was down-regulated by acute and up-regulated by subacute IL-1 administrations. Subacute IL-1-induced changes in the glial activities, cytokine concentrations and expressions of BDNF and p75 were reversed by IL-1RA treatment. Conclusion These results indicate that acute and subacute IL-1 administrations induce different changes toward neuroprotection

  11. School Administrators and the Courts: A Review of Recent Decisions. ERS Monograph. Series, No. 3. ERIC/CEM State-of-the-Knowledge Series, No. 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudgins, H. C., Jr.

    This monograph is a review of selected judicial decisions reported by state and federal courts during the past two years and related directly to the administration of elementary or secondary schools. The decisions were identified through a standard search of legal resources at the Temple University Law Library; each decision was read in its…

  12. The series elastic shock absorber: tendon elasticity modulates energy dissipation by muscle during burst deceleration.

    PubMed

    Konow, Nicolai; Roberts, Thomas J

    2015-04-07

    During downhill running, manoeuvring, negotiation of obstacles and landings from a jump, mechanical energy is dissipated via active lengthening of limb muscles. Tendon compliance provides a 'shock-absorber' mechanism that rapidly absorbs mechanical energy and releases it more slowly as the recoil of the tendon does work to stretch muscle fascicles. By lowering the rate of muscular energy dissipation, tendon compliance likely reduces the risk of muscle injury that can result from rapid and forceful muscle lengthening. Here, we examine how muscle-tendon mechanics are modulated in response to changes in demand for energy dissipation. We measured lateral gastrocnemius (LG) muscle activity, force and fascicle length, as well as leg joint kinematics and ground-reaction force, as turkeys performed drop-landings from three heights (0.5-1.5 m centre-of-mass elevation). Negative work by the LG muscle-tendon unit during landing increased with drop height, mainly owing to greater muscle recruitment and force as drop height increased. Although muscle strain did not increase with landing height, ankle flexion increased owing to increased tendon strain at higher muscle forces. Measurements of the length-tension relationship of the muscle indicated that the muscle reached peak force at shorter and likely safer operating lengths as drop height increased. Our results indicate that tendon compliance is important to the modulation of energy dissipation by active muscle with changes in demand and may provide a mechanism for rapid adjustment of function during deceleration tasks of unpredictable intensity.

  13. The prohormone 19-norandrostenedione displays selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) like properties after subcutaneous administration.

    PubMed

    Diel, P; Friedel, A; Geyer, H; Kamber, M; Laudenbach-Leschowsky, U; Schänzer, W; Schleipen, B; Thevis, M; Vollmer, G; Zierau, O

    2008-04-01

    One of the most frequently misused steroid precursors (prohormones) is 19-norandrostenedione (4-estrene-3,17-dione, NOR), which is, after oral administration, readily metabolised to nortestosterone, also known as nandrolone (durabolin). In this study we have characterised molecular mechanisms of its action determined its tissue specific androgenic and anabolic potency after subcutaneous (s.c.) administration and investigated potential adverse effects. Receptor binding tests demonstrate that NOR binds with high selectivity to the AR. The potency of NOR to transactivate androgen receptor (AR) dependent reporter gene expression was 10 times lower as compared to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). In vivo experiments in orchiectomised rats demonstrated that s.c. treatment with NOR resulted only in a stimulation of the weight of the levator ani muscle; the prostate and seminal vesicle weights remained completely unaffected. Like testosterone, administration of NOR resulted in a stimulation of AR and myostatin mRNA expression in the gastrocnemius muscle. NOR does not affect prostate proliferation, the liver weight and the expression of the tyrosine aminotransferase gene (TAT) in the liver. Summarizing these data it is obvious that NOR, if administrated s.c. and in contrast to its metabolite nandrolone, highly selectively stimulates the growth of the skeletal muscle but has only weak androgenic properties. This observation may have relevance with respect to therapeutic aspects but also doping prevention.

  14. Translating Theory into Practice: Implications of Japanese Management Theory for Student Personnel Administrators. NASPA Monograph Series Volume 3. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deegan, William L.; And Others

    Japanese management theory was studied to identify specific models for consideration by student personnel administrators. The report is organized into three sections: major components of Japanese management theory, potential implications for student personnel administration, and three models, based on components of Japanese management theory, for…

  15. Grass Roots and Glass Ceilings: African American Administrators in Predominantly White Colleges and Universities. SUNY Series, Frontiers in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, William B., Ed.

    This book addresses difficulties faced by African Americans in reaching the highest levels of administration in white colleges and universities. The nine chapters were written by African Americans who currently hold or have held senior-level administrative positions (deans, vice-presidents, and presidents) in predominantly white colleges and…

  16. Selective estrogen-receptor modulators (SERMs) in the cyclopentadienylrhenium tricarbonyl series: synthesis and biological behaviour.

    PubMed

    Top, Siden; Vessières, Anne; Pigeon, Pascal; Rager, Marie-Noëlle; Huché, Michel; Salomon, Emmanuel; Cabestaing, Claude; Vaissermann, Jacqueline; Jaouen, Gérard

    2004-08-06

    A series of organometallic antiestrogens based on the OH-tamoxifen (OH-Tam) skeleton and bearing the (eta(5)-C(5)H(4))Re(I)(CO)(3) unit has been prepared by using McMurry coupling for the purpose of studying their biological behaviour. The cyclopentadienylrhenium tricarbonyl moiety is indeed stable in biological media, compact, lipophilic and easy to handle. Furthermore, this study allowed us to select the best candidates for subsequent use as radiopharmaceuticals either for imaging or therapy by using appropriate radionucleides, namely (99m)Tc and (188)Re. In these molecules the beta-phenyl group of OH-Tam has been replaced by the (eta(5)-C(5)H(4))Re(CO)(3) moiety, and the length of the dimethylamino side chain --O(CH(2))(n)N(CH(3))(2) was varied (n=2, 3, 4, 5 and 8). The compounds 7 a-7 e were obtained as mixtures of their Z and E isomers, which could be separated by semipreparative HPLC. Unlike their ferrocene homologues, the compounds do not isomerise in solution. Structural identification was carried out with NMR spectroscopy by using the HMBC and NOE techniques and was confirmed by the X-ray structural determination of (E)-7 a (n=2). These molecules were more lipophilic than OH-Tam (log P(o/w)=4.5-6.3) and they were all reasonably well recognized by the two forms of the estrogen receptor (ERalpha and ERbeta). For example, (Z)-7 b (n=3) has high relative binding affinity (RBA) values of 31 % for ERalpha and 16.8 % for ERbeta. The antiproliferative effects of two pairs of isomers, (Z)- and (E)-7 b (n=3) and (Z)- and (E)-7 d (n=5), were studied at a molarity of 1 microM on two breast-cancer cell lines, MCF7 (ERalpha positive) and MDA-MB231 (ERalpha negative). These molecules had an antiproliferative effect on MCF7 cells slightly higher than that of OH-Tam and no effect on MDA-MB231 cells. Thus, the antiproliferative effect observed on the MCF7 cells seemed essentially to be linked to an antiestrogenic effect. Molecular modelling studies have allowed us to

  17. The GABAB Positive Allosteric Modulator, ADX71441 Attenuates Alcohol Self-Administration and Relapse to Alcohol Seeking in Rats.

    PubMed

    Augier, Eric; Dulman, Russell S; Damadzic, Ruslan; Pilling, Andrew; Hamilton, J Paul; Heilig, Markus

    2017-03-15

    GABAergic signaling is involved in modulating the reinforcing properties of alcohol, and GABAB receptors have been proposed as a potential target for clinical treatment of alcoholism. The orthosteric GABAB receptor agonist baclofen has been shown to suppress operant self-administration of alcohol in animals and alcohol use in alcohol dependent patients, but its utility is limited by a narrow therapeutic index. We tested the effects of ADX71441, a novel GABAB receptor positive allosteric modulator on alcohol-related behaviors in rats. We first assessed the effects of ADX71441 (1, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg, I.P.) on both non-dependent and dependent male Wistar rats trained to self-administer 20% alcohol. We then determined the effects of ADX71441 on stress-induced as well as cue-induced relapse-like behavior. Finally, we sought to identify the brain regions through which ADX71441 may act to prevent relapse-like behavior by mapping the neuronal activation induced by stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol-seeking using c-Fos immunohistochemistry. ADX71441 dose-dependently decreased alcohol self-administration of both dependent and non-dependent animals, but its potency was higher in alcohol-dependent rats. Furthermore, both cue- and stress-induced alcohol seeking were blocked by the GABAB receptor positive allosteric modulator. Finally, pretreatment with 3 mg/kg of ADX71441 before stress-induced reinstatement significantly decreased c-Fos expression in a network of brain regions implicated in stress induced relapse, comprising the nucleus accumbens shell, the dorsal raphe nucleus and the medial prefrontal cortex. Our findings support a causal role of GABAB receptors in alcohol reinforcement and relapse to alcohol seeking. These effects are observed in the absence of significant sedative side effects. Jointly, these observations indicate that GABAB receptor positive allosteric modulators merit being tested clinically for the treatment of alcoholism. Our data also point to

  18. Modulation of rodent spinal cord radiation tolerance by administration of platelet-derived growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Andratschke, Nicolaus H.; Nieder, Carsten M.D. . E-mail: cnied@hotmail.com; Price, Roger E.; Rivera, Belinda; Tucker, Susan L.; Ang, K.

    2004-11-15

    Purpose: To examine the role of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) for ameliorating radiation myelopathy of the cervical spinal cord in a rodent model. Methods and materials: After developing the technique for cannulation of the basal cistern, initial animal experiments were conducted to test the feasibility of intrathecal continuous infusion of PDGF in a model of cervical spinal cord irradiation in adult Fisher F-344 rats and to determine the most effective dose level of PDGF. Subsequently, the dose-modification factor was determined in a larger group of rats. Irradiation was given in 2 fractions (16 Gy followed by 14-24 Gy) and animals were examined for the development of paresis. Results: The initial dose-finding experiment revealed significant differences in the incidence of radiation myelopathy (100% in saline-treated control rats, 25% with the most effective dose of PDGF, up to 100% with less effective doses). The most effective dose of PDGF was 0.014 {mu}g per day. Subsequent experiments revealed a median effective dose (ED{sub 50}) of 35.6 Gy (95% confidence interval, 34.7-36.5 Gy) for animals receiving this dose of PDGF in contrast to 33.8 Gy (33.4-34.3 Gy) for the control group (p = 0.003). The dose-modification factor obtained with this dose of PDGF was 1.05. Conclusions: Intrathecal administration of PDGF concomitant to irradiation of the cervical spinal cord in rats was feasible. Treatment with PDGF significantly increased the tolerance of the spinal cord. The PDGF experiments should be viewed as a proof of principle that brief therapeutic intervention in the earliest phase of damage induction can reduce late effects in the spinal cord. They form the basis for further studies of growth factor administration in this particular model.

  19. The positive allosteric modulator of the GABA(B) receptor, rac-BHFF, suppresses alcohol self-administration.

    PubMed

    Maccioni, Paola; Thomas, Andrew W; Carai, Mauro A M; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Malherbe, Pari; Colombo, Giancarlo

    2010-06-01

    The present study was designed to extend to the newly synthesized rac-BHFF [(R,S)-5,7-di-tert-butyl-3-hydroxy-3-trifluoromethyl-3H-benzofuran-2-one] the investigation on the capacity of positive allosteric modulators of the GABA(B) receptor to reduce alcohol self-administration in rats. To this end, selectively bred Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats were initially trained to respond on a lever [on a fixed ratio 4 (FR4) schedule of reinforcement] to orally self-administer alcohol (15%, v/v) or sucrose (0.7%, w/v) in daily 30-min sessions. Once responding reached stable levels, the effect of rac-BHFF (0, 50, 100, and 200mg/kg; i.g.) on responding for alcohol and sucrose was determined. Pretreatment with rac-BHFF produced a dose-dependent suppression in responding for alcohol; reduction in the total number of responses for alcohol, in comparison to vehicle-treated rats, averaged approximately 30%, 65%, and 90% in 50, 100, and 200mg/kg rac-BHFF-treated rats, respectively. Pretreatment with 200mg/kg rac-BHFF markedly increased the latency to the first response on the alcohol lever. The effect of pretreatment with rac-BHFF on alcohol self-administration was highly specific, since (a) responding for sucrose was reduced (to approximately 50%, in comparison to vehicle-treated rats) only by pretreatment with 200mg/kg rac-BHFF, and (b) latency to the first response on the sucrose lever was completely unaltered by any rac-BHFF dose. Treatment with rac-BHFF did not alter spontaneous locomotor activity in an independent group of sP rats. The present data constitute a further piece of evidence on the capacity of positive allosteric modulators of the GABA(B) receptor to reduce alcohol's reinforcing properties in rats.

  20. Intratracheal Administration of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Modulates Tachykinin System, Suppresses Airway Remodeling and Reduces Airway Hyperresponsiveness in an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Spaziano, Giuseppe; Piegari, Elena; Matteis, Maria; Cappetta, Donato; Esposito, Grazia; Russo, Rosa; Tartaglione, Gioia; De Palma, Raffaele; Rossi, Francesco; D’Agostino, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Background The need for new options for chronic lung diseases promotes the research on stem cells for lung repair. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can modulate lung inflammation, but the data on cellular processes involved in early airway remodeling and the potential involvement of neuropeptides are scarce. Objectives To elucidate the mechanisms by which local administration of MSCs interferes with pathophysiological features of airway hyperresponsiveness in an animal model. Methods GFP-tagged mouse MSCs were intratracheally delivered in the ovalbumin mouse model with subsequent functional tests, the analysis of cytokine levels, neuropeptide expression and histological evaluation of MSCs fate and airway pathology. Additionally, MSCs were exposed to pro-inflammatory factors in vitro. Results Functional improvement was observed after MSC administration. Although MSCs did not adopt lung cell phenotypes, cell therapy positively affected airway remodeling reducing the hyperplastic phase of the gain in bronchial smooth muscle mass, decreasing the proliferation of epithelium in which mucus metaplasia was also lowered. Decrease of interleukin-4, interleukin-5, interleukin-13 and increase of interleukin-10 in bronchoalveolar lavage was also observed. Exposed to pro-inflammatory cytokines, MSCs upregulated indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Moreover, asthma-related in vivo upregulation of pro-inflammatory neurokinin 1 and neurokinin 2 receptors was counteracted by MSCs that also determined a partial restoration of VIP, a neuropeptide with anti-inflammatory properties. Conclusion Intratracheally administered MSCs positively modulate airway remodeling, reduce inflammation and improve function, demonstrating their ability to promote tissue homeostasis in the course of experimental allergic asthma. Because of a limited tissue retention, the functional impact of MSCs may be attributed to their immunomodulatory response combined with the interference of neuropeptide

  1. Positive Allosteric Modulation of mGluR5 Accelerates Extinction Learning but Not Relearning Following Methamphetamine Self-Administration

    PubMed Central

    Kufahl, Peter R.; Hood, Lauren E.; Nemirovsky, Natali E.; Barabas, Piroska; Halstengard, Casey; Villa, Angel; Moore, Elisabeth; Watterson, Lucas R.; Olive, M. Foster

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have implicated glutamate neurotransmission as an important substrate for the extinction of conditioned behaviors, including responding for drug reinforcement. Positive allosteric modulation of the type-5 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR5) in particular has emerged as a treatment strategy for the enhancement of extinction of drug-motivated behaviors. Here, we investigated the effects of the mGluR5 positive allosteric modulator CDPPB, a compound known for its cognitive enhancing effects in rodents, on extinction learning in rats with different histories of methamphetamine (METH) training. Rats were trained to self-administer METH under two conditions: 16 daily sessions of short access (90 min/day, ShA), or eight daily sessions of short access followed by eight sessions of long access (6 h/day, LgA). Control rats self-administered sucrose pellets in daily 30 min sessions. Next, rats were administered vehicle or 30 mg/kg CDPPB prior to seven consecutive daily extinction sessions, subjected to additional extinction sessions to re-establish a post-treatment baseline, and then tested for reinstatement of behavior in the presence of METH- or sucrose-paired cues. Rats were then subjected to a second series of extinction sessions, preceded by vehicle or 30 mg/kg CDPPB, and an additional test for cue-triggered reinstatement. CDPPB treatment resulted in a more rapid extinction of responding on the active lever, especially in the early sessions of the first extinction sequence. However, treatment effects were minimal during subsequent cue reinstatement tests and non-existent during the second series of extinction sessions. Rats with histories of ShA, LgA, and sucrose training expressed similar behavioral sensitivities to CDPPB, with LgA rats demonstrating a modestly higher treatment effect. Positive allosteric modulation of mGluR5 may therefore have some beneficial effects on efforts to facilitate extinction learning and reduce methamphetamine

  2. Preparing Educational Leaders: A Review of Recent Literature. ERIC/CEM-UCEA Series on Administrator Preparation. ERIC/CEM/ State-of-the-Knowledge Series, Number Fourteen. UCEA Monograph Series, Number One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, Robin H.; Piele, Philip K.

    In this monograph, the authors provide a general overview of recent literature on administrator preparation programs. Ten chapters parallel the major interrelated components of an administrator preparation program: Program content, program structure, recruitment and selection, instructional approaches, field-related experiences, student research,…

  3. Modulation of mood and cognitive performance following acute administration of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm).

    PubMed

    Kennedy, D O; Scholey, Andrew B; Tildesley, N T J; Perry, E K; Wesnes, K A

    2002-07-01

    Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) is a traditional herbal medicine, which enjoys contemporary usage as a mild sedative, spasmolytic and antibacterial agent. It has been suggested, in light of in vitro cholinergic binding properties, that Melissa extracts may effectively ameliorate the cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease. To date, no study has investigated the effects on cognition and mood of administration of Melissa to healthy humans. The present randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, balanced-crossover study investigated the acute effects on cognition and mood of a standardised extract of M. officinalis. Twenty healthy, young participants received single doses of 300, 600 and 900 mg of M. officinalis (Pharmaton) or a matching placebo at 7-day intervals. Cognitive performance was assessed using the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) computerised test battery and two serial subtraction tasks immediately prior to dosing and at 1, 2.5, 4 and 6 h thereafter. In vitro IC(50) concentrations for the displacement of [3H]-(N)-nicotine and [3H]-(N)-scopolamine from nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in human occipital cortex tissue were also calculated. Results, utilising the cognitive factors previously derived from the CDR battery, included a sustained improvement in Accuracy of Attention following 600 mg of Melissa and time- and dose-specific reductions in both Secondary Memory and Working Memory factors. Self-rated "calmness," as assessed by Bond-Lader mood scales, was elevated at the earliest time points by the lowest dose, whilst "alertness" was significantly reduced at all time points following the highest dose. Both nicotinic and muscarinic binding were found to be low in comparison to the levels found in previous studies.

  4. The expression of cyclic adenosine monophosphate responsive element modulator in rat sertoli cells following seminal extract administration

    PubMed Central

    Akmal, Muslim; Siregar, Tongku Nizwan; Wahyuni, Sri; Hamny; Nasution, Mustafa Kamal; Indriati, Wiwik; Panjaitan, Budianto; Aliza, Dwinna

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to determine the effect of seminal vesicle extract on cyclic adenosine monophosphate responsive element modulator (CREM) expression in rat Sertoli cells. Materials and Methods: This study examined the expression of CREM on 20 male rats (Rattus norvegicus) at 4 months of age, weighing 250-300 g. The rats were divided into four groups: K0, KP1, KP2, and KP3. K0 group was injected with 0.2 ml normal saline; KP1 was injected with 25 mg cloprostenol (Prostavet C, Virbac S. A); KP2 and KP3 were injected with 0.2 and 0.4 ml seminal vesicle extract, respectively. The treatments were conducted 5 times within 12-day interval. At the end of the study, the rats were euthanized by cervical dislocation; then, the testicles were necropsied and processed for histology observation using immunohistochemistry staining. Results: CREM expression in rat Sertoli cells was not altered by the administration of either 0.2 or 0.4 ml seminal vesicle extract. Conclusion: The administration of seminal vesicle extract is unable to increase CREM expression in rat Sertoli cells. PMID:27733803

  5. Breaking into the All-Male Club: Female Professors of Educational Administration. SUNY Series in Women in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertz, Norma T., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    These are the inspiring and illuminating stories of women professors who first broke into the exclusive, all-male academic club of educational administration. Women of this pioneering generation tell how they overcame daunting challenges, traumas, the naivete of others, sexual harassment, and retaliation, as well as how they encountered unexpected…

  6. Crime on Campus. Legal Issues and Campus Administration. American Council on Education/Oryx Press Series on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael Clay; Fossey, Richard

    This book discusses issues related to campus crime and offers administrators suggestions and checklists that can be used to evaluate current procedures and defuse potential problems. Chapters cover: (1) "The Campus: A Sanctuary?"; (2) "The Complexion of Campus Crime Today"; (3) "The Concept of Crime and the Shape of…

  7. The Development of a Series of Recommendations and Procedures Required in Administration of a Centralized Program of Occupational Competency Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyman, Ronald D.

    A study was conducted to provide information and representative examples necessary for the establishment of administrative procedures required in conducting a statewide program to assess the occupational competency of vocational-technical instructors. The data used in the study was obtained from a review of the current literature, samples of forms…

  8. Behavior Management: Preventing and Dealing with Problem Behavior. A Series for Caregivers of Infants and Toddlers. Model for Interdisciplinary Training for Children with Handicaps: MITCH Module 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe County School District, Key West, FL.

    Intended for use in Florida training programs for caregivers of infants and toddlers with disabilities, this guide presents an overview of the Model of Interdisciplinary Training for Children with Handicaps (MITCH); offers a user's guide to the series; and provides specific information for presenting Module 7, which focuses on ways of preventing…

  9. Nutrition and Feeding Practices: What You Need To Know. A Series for Caregivers of Infants and Toddlers. Model for Interdisciplinary Training for Children with Handicaps: MITCH Module 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe County School District, Key West, FL.

    Intended for use in Florida training programs for caregivers of infants and toddlers with disabilities, this guide presents an overview of the Model of Interdisciplinary Training for Children with Handicaps (MITCH); offers a user's guide to the series; and provides specific information for presenting Module 10, which focuses on nutrition and…

  10. Time-series analysis in the medical domain: a study of Tacrolimus administration and influence on kidney graft function.

    PubMed

    Kurbalija, Vladimir; Radovanović, Miloš; Ivanović, Mirjana; Schmidt, Danilo; von Trzebiatowski, Gabriela Lindemann; Burkhard, Hans-Dieter; Hinrichs, Carl

    2014-07-01

    There exists a major concern regarding toxic effects of immunosuppressive medication on the kidney graft during post-transplant care, with observed variation in individual susceptibility to adverse drug effects amongst patients. To date, there has been no possibility to identify susceptible patients prospectively. This study analyzes medical data which includes time series of measures of renal function and trough levels of immunosuppressive drug Tacrolimus, with the main aim of identifying patients susceptible to drug toxicity. We evaluate a plethora of time-series distance measures, determining their appropriateness to the domain based on two criteria: (1) preserving the expected correlations between distances, and (2) ability to detect the expected patterns of interaction between immunosuppressive drug levels and renal function. Besides identifying the most suitable time-series distance measures, we observed that the majority of patients do not exhibit an association between impaired graft function and higher Tacrolimus dosing. On the other hand, the minority of patients determined most sensitive to varying Tacrolimus levels showed a strong tendency to prefer low Tacrolimus dosing.

  11. Conspicuous variation of the lattice unit cell in the pavonite homologous series and its relation with cation/anion occupational modulations

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Mato, J.M.; Topa, Dan; Petříček, Václav; Madariaga, Gotzon

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: ► Strong non-uniform variation of unit cell parameters in the pavonite homologous series. ► Conspicuous unit cell variation due to an underlying sub-lattice with cation/anion occupation. ► A modulated model common to the whole series using the superspace formalism proposed. ► Model successfully applied to the {sup 7}P pavonite Ag{sub 3}(Bi,Pb){sub 7}S{sub 12}. ► The model can be applied in a predictive way to other members of the family. - Abstract: The pavonites is a homologous series of sulfosalts with galena-like modules of variable size. A survey of their unit cells reveals that they are severely constrained by the metrics of an underlying common average sublattice. The unit cell of any compound of the series accommodates with high precision an integer number of approximately equal subcells. This explains a peculiar non-uniform variation of the unit cell parameters within the series and evidences that the interface between the galena-like modules, despite having a very different topology, approximately maintains the subperiodicity of the modules, and must therefore be subject to strong steric restrictions. It also implies that cations and anions occupy the nodes of the observed common underlying average sublattice according to a striking alternate cation/anion occupational modulation. This is the starting point for a description of these materials as modulated structures, which can make a proficient use of the approximate atomic positional non-crystallographic correlations caused by their modular character. Under this approach only four parameters suffice to define a realistic approximate model of any member of the series. A full structural characterization of any of the compounds only requires the determination of additional small/smooth modulations. As an example, the case of the {sup 7}P pavonite Ag{sub 3}Bi{sub 6.2}Pb{sub 0.8}S{sub 12}, is analyzed.

  12. Oral administration of Bifidobacterim bifidum for modulating microflora, acid and bile resistance, and physiological indices in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bao-Gui; Xu, Hai-Bo; Wei, Hua; Zeng, Zhe-Ling; Xu, Feng

    2015-02-01

    Bifidobacteria are generally acknowledged as major gut microflora used as probiotics, which promote human health. In this study, the effects of the administration of Bifidobacterim bifidum on modulating gastrointestinal (GI) tract microflora, acid and bile resistance, and physiological indices in BALB/c mice were investigated. Results showed that B. bifidum can significantly improve the ecosystem of the GI tract by increasing the amount of probiotics and reducing the populations of pathogenic bacteria, as measured by plate count and real-time PCR. After exposure to simulated GI tract conditions, the growth of gut microflora in the B. bifidum group was higher than that in the control group when incubated for 12 h in MRS or nutrient broth adjusted to pH 2.0 or 3.0 or in the presence of a concentration of bile salt (0.45% m/v). The blood biochemical index was examined, and the physiological effect of the cell-free extract of gut microflora was evaluated by measuring the activity of various enzymes, including α-glucosidases, esterase, and lactate dehydrogenase. This study suggested that a B. bifidum strain can stabilize blood sugar, lower cholesterol levels in serum, and improve metabolic activity. Moreover, B. bifidum was a promising enhancer of microbial diversity in mouse intestine and played a vital role in human physiological processes, which can benefit the health of a host.

  13. Synthesis and evaluation of a series of heterobiarylamides that are centrally penetrant metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGluR4) positive allosteric modulators (PAMs).

    PubMed

    Engers, Darren W; Niswender, Colleen M; Weaver, C David; Jadhav, Satyawan; Menon, Usha N; Zamorano, Rocio; Conn, P Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W; Hopkins, Corey R

    2009-07-23

    We report the synthesis and evaluation of a series of heterobiaryl amides as positive allosteric modulators of mGluR4. Compounds 9b and 9c showed submicromolar potency at both human and rat mGluR4. In addition, both 9b and 9c were shown to be centrally penetrant in rats using nontoxic vehicles, a major advance for the mGluR4 field.

  14. D1 dopamine receptors modulate deltaFosB induction in rat striatum after intermittent morphine administration.

    PubMed

    Muller, Daniella L; Unterwald, Ellen M

    2005-07-01

    Induction of the transcription factor deltaFosB was studied to examine neurochemical adaptations produced by repeated opiate administration. The mechanism of this induction was also investigated. The 35- to 37-kDa isoforms of deltaFosB, also referred to as the chronic Fras, were measured in the nucleus accumbens, caudate putamen, and frontal cortex of male Sprague-Dawley rats after either an acute injection of morphine or an escalating dosing schedule of morphine for 10 days. Heroin was also tested to determine whether the findings extend to other opiates. Results from Western blot analysis using an anti-fosB antibody demonstrate that 10-day intermittent escalating dose morphine produced a significant increase in deltaFosB-immunoreactivity in the nucleus accumbens, caudate putamen and frontal cortex, whereas a single injection of morphine had no effect on Fra immunoreactivity. Heroin administered twice daily for 10 days by an intermittent escalating dose schedule also induced deltaFosB in the caudate putamen, but not in the nucleus accumbens or frontal cortex. Daily pretreatment with the selective D1-like dopamine receptor antagonist SCH 23390 [R-(+)-7-chloro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine hydrochloride] significantly blocked morphine-induced deltaFosB induction in the nucleus accumbens and caudate putamen, but not in the frontal cortex. These results demonstrate that morphine-induced deltaFosB up-regulation in the striatum, but not in the frontal cortex, is modulated by D1 dopamine receptors, suggesting that the mechanisms involved in the up-regulation of these chronic Fras by morphine is brain region-specific.

  15. Modulation of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense systems in rat intestine by subchronic fluoride and ethanol administration.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Shailender Singh; Ojha, Sudarshan; Mahmood, Akhtar

    2011-11-01

    Excessive consumption of fluoride and ethanol has been identified as injurious to human health. Fluoride and ethanol co-exposures are commonly seen among the alcoholics residing in endemic fluoride areas worldwide. This study was undertaken to examine the modulation of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense systems in rat intestine by subchronic fluoride and ethanol administration. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: group I (control), group II (fluoride was given orally at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight), group III (30% ethanol was given orally at a dose of 1 mL/kg body weight), and group IV (a combination of fluoride and ethanol was administered orally at the dose described for groups II and III). Lipid peroxidation was elevated (P<.05) in intestine of rats by fluoride or ethanol treatments for 20 or 40 days. However, glutathione content was reduced by fluoride (32 and 44%) and ethanol (21 and 40%) treatments after 20 and 40 days, respectively. Fluoride-exposed animals showed reduction (P<.05) in the activities of superoxide dismutase (22 and 42%), catalase (30 and 37%), glutathione peroxidase (22 and 35%), glutathione reductase (32 and 34%), and glutathione-S-transferase (24 and 30%) after 20 and 40 days. A similar decrease (P<.05) in the activities of these enzymes was also noticed in animals exposed to ethanol for 20 or 40 days. The observed changes in lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione levels, and enzyme systems were further augmented in intestine of rats exposed to fluoride and ethanol together. Intestinal histology showed large reactive lymphoid follicles along with mild excess of lymphocytes in lamina propria of villi, villous edema, focal ileitis, and necrosis of villi in animals exposed to fluoride and ethanol for 40 days. These findings suggest that fluoride and ethanol exposure induces considerable changes in lipid peroxidation, antioxidant defense, and morphology of rat intestine, which may affect its functions.

  16. Modulation of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 hepatic enzymes after oral administration of Chios mastic gum to male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Katsanou, Efrosini S; Kyriakopoulou, Katerina; Emmanouil, Christina; Fokialakis, Nikolas; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Machera, Kyriaki

    2014-01-01

    Chios mastic gum (CMG), a resin derived from Pistacia lentiscus var. chia, is known since ancient times for its pharmacological activities. CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 enzymes are among the most involved in the biotransformation of chemicals and the metabolic activation of pro-carcinogens. Previous studies referring to the modulation of these enzymes by CMG have revealed findings of unclear biological and toxicological significance. For this purpose, the modulation of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 enzymes in the liver of male Wistar rats following oral administration of CMG extract (CMGE), at the levels of mRNA and CYP1A1 enzyme activity, was compared to respective enzyme modulation following oral administration of a well-known bioactive natural product, caffeine, as control compound known to involve hepatic enzymes in its metabolism. mRNA levels of Cyp1a1 and Cyp1a2 were measured by reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction and their relative quantification was calculated. CYP1A1 enzyme induction was measured through the activity of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD). The results indicated that administration of CMGE at the recommended pharmaceutical dose does not induce significant transcriptional modulation of Cyp1a1/2 and subsequent enzyme activity induction of CYP1A1 while effects of the same order of magnitude were observed in the same test system following the administration of caffeine at the mean daily consumed levels. The outcome of this study further confirms the lack of any toxicological or biological significance of the specific findings on liver following the administration of CMGE.

  17. Capital Facilities Planning and Debt Administration. Module Number Seven of Policy/Program Analysis and Evaluation Techniques. Package VI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiss, Alan Walter

    This packet contains the instructional materials necessary for presentation of the seventh of ten modules that comprise a portion of the National Training and Development Service Urban Management Curriculum Development Project. This module focuses on capital facilities planning in local government finance. Capital facilities planning encompasses…

  18. Insights into the interaction of negative allosteric modulators with the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5: discovery and computational modeling of a new series of ligands with nanomolar affinity.

    PubMed

    Anighoro, Andrew; Graziani, Davide; Bettinelli, Ilaria; Cilia, Antonio; De Toma, Carlo; Longhi, Matteo; Mangiarotti, Fabio; Menegon, Sergio; Pirona, Lorenza; Poggesi, Elena; Riva, Carlo; Rastelli, Giulio

    2015-07-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) is a biological target implicated in major neurological and psychiatric disorders. In the present study, we have investigated structural determinants of the interaction of negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) with the seven-transmembrane (7TM) domain of mGlu5. A homology model of the 7TM receptor domain built on the crystal structure of the mGlu1 template was obtained, and the binding modes of known NAMs, namely MPEP and fenobam, were investigated by docking and molecular dynamics simulations. The results were validated by comparison with mutagenesis data available in the literature for these two ligands, and subsequently corroborated by the recently described mGlu5 crystal structure. Moreover, a new series of NAMs was synthesized and tested, providing compounds with nanomolar affinity. Several structural modifications were sequentially introduced with the aim of identifying structural features important for receptor binding. The synthesized NAMs were docked in the validated homology model and binding modes were used to interpret and discuss structure-activity relationships within this new series of compounds. Finally, the models of the interaction of NAMs with mGlu5 were extended to include important non-aryl alkyne mGlu5 NAMs taken from the literature. Overall, the results provide useful insights into the molecular interaction of negative allosteric modulators with mGlu5 and may facilitate the design of new modulators for this class of receptors.

  19. Intramuscular administration of a synthetic CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide modulates functional responses of neutrophils of neonatal foals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neutrophils play an important role in protecting against infection. Foals have age-dependent deficiencies in neutrophil function that may contribute to their predisposition to infection. Thus, we investigated the ability of a CpG-ODN formulated with Emulsigen® to modulate functional responses of ne...

  20. Administrative Sanctions, Classroom Management, and Intervention Strategies: Building Blocks for School-Wide Discipline. CASE/CCBD Mini-Library Series on Safe, Drug-Free, and Effective Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Cal

    Part of a series of monographs on safe, drug-free, and effective schools, this monograph discusses the new discipline requirements under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and the role of administrators in developing a range of intervention strategies to manage the behavior of students with behavior problems. Following an introductory…

  1. The Dean as Colleague: Dean, Student, Faculty, Administrative Relationship. A Compilation of Presentations from the Executive Development Series I: "Have You Ever Thought of Being a Dean?" (1980-1981). Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Colleges of Nursing, Washington, DC.

    The relationships of deans of baccalaureate or higher degree programs of nursing with faculty members, administrators, students, other professionals, and the public are considered by six deans who contributed to a continuing education workshop series. According to Edith H. Anderson, the dean is a colleague of other deans, and to students and…

  2. Modulation and the Underlying Mechanism of T Cells in Thymus of Mice by Oral Administration of Sodium Fluoride.

    PubMed

    Yin, Songna; Wu, Haibo; Song, Chao; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Yong

    2016-03-01

    The underlying mechanism of thymic T cell regulation has been a hot topic of research in recent years. Fluoride is toxic at high concentrations and fluoride toxicity to thymic T cells was assessed in our study. To explore T cell responses to excess fluoride, different concentrations of fluoride were uptake by mice for 6 weeks. The expression of genes, including Foxn1, Cbx4, DLL4, and IL-7 gene, associated with the development and differentiation of T cells in thymic epithelial cells(TECs) was lower in the experimental groups than that in the control group. The percentages of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells that decreased with the fluoride administration were confirmed by flow cytometry. The mRNA levels of immunoregulatory cytokines IL-2 and IL-10, which participate in T cell proliferation, also declined in the experimental groups as compared with the control group. Expression of the T cell function-related genes CD2, PTPRC, CD69, and CD101, which are involved in thymic function in mice, decreased with the fluoride administration. Our findings suggest that the administration of high concentrations of fluoride to mice induces a decrease in CD4(+) and CD8(+) thymus T cells by harming TECs leading to the dysfunction of the thymus by altering the expression of T cell function-related genes and immunoregulatory cytokine production.

  3. Amphetamine withdrawal modulates FosB expression in mesolimbic dopaminergic target nuclei: effects of different schedules of administration.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Carol A; Russig, Holger; Pezze, Marie-Astrid; Ferger, Boris; Feldon, Joram

    2003-06-01

    Different patterns of psychostimulant intake can elicit widely varying behavioral and neurochemical consequences. Accordingly, rats were studied during withdrawal from either of two schedules of amphetamine administration, one consisting of 6 days of low-dose (1.5 mg/kg, i.p.) daily intermittent (INT) amphetamine (AMPH) injections, and the other of 6 days of moderately high-dose (1-5 mg/kg, i.p.) escalating (ESC) AMPH injections, for the effects of these treatments on numbers of FosB-positive nuclei and monoamine utilization in dopaminergic target areas. Withdrawal from AMPH pretreatment according to the ESC schedule markedly increased FosB expression in the nucleus accumbens shell and basolateral amygdala. In contrast, withdrawal from INT-AMPH administration did not increase FosB expression in any of the regions examined. Post-mortem neurochemical analyses of these same brain regions did not reveal effects of withdrawal from either INT or ESC administration of AMPH. These results suggest that withdrawal from a moderately high-dose AMPH regimen modifies patterns of gene expression in mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic target nuclei without significantly affecting basal monoamine levels. The strength of these effects in the nucleus accumbens shell and basolateral nucleus of the amygdala are consistent with behavioral and clinical data indicating the importance of these areas in the neuroadaptive changes which characterize addiction and withdrawal states.

  4. Lateral/basolateral amygdala serotonin type-2 receptors modulate operant self-administration of a sweetened ethanol solution via inhibition of principal neuron activity

    PubMed Central

    McCool, Brian A.; Christian, Daniel T.; Fetzer, Jonathan A.; Chappell, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    The lateral/basolateral amygdala (BLA) forms an integral part of the neural circuitry controlling innate anxiety and learned fear. More recently, BLA dependent modulation of self-administration behaviors suggests a much broader role in the regulation of reward evaluation. To test this, we employed a self-administration paradigm that procedurally segregates “seeking” (exemplified as lever-press behaviors) from consumption (drinking) directed at a sweetened ethanol solution. Microinjection of the nonselective serotonin type-2 receptor agonist, alpha-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine (α-m5HT) into the BLA reduced lever pressing behaviors in a dose-dependent fashion. This was associated with a significant reduction in the number of response-bouts expressed during non-reinforced sessions without altering the size of a bout or the rate of responding. Conversely, intra-BLA α-m5HT only modestly effected consumption-related behaviors; the highest dose reduced the total time spent consuming a sweetened ethanol solution but did not inhibit the total number of licks, number of lick bouts, or amount of solution consumed during a session. In vitro neurophysiological characterization of BLA synaptic responses showed that α-m5HT significantly reduced extracellular field potentials. This was blocked by the 5-HT2A/C antagonist ketanserin suggesting that 5-HT2-like receptors mediate the behavioral effect of α-m5HT. During whole-cell patch current-clamp recordings, we subsequently found that α-m5HT increased action potential threshold and hyperpolarized the resting membrane potential of BLA pyramidal neurons. Together, our findings show that the activation of BLA 5-HT2A/C receptors inhibits behaviors related to reward-seeking by suppressing BLA principal neuron activity. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that the BLA modulates reward-related behaviors and provides specific insight into BLA contributions during operant self-administration of a sweetened ethanol solution

  5. Modulation of Gut-Specific Mechanisms by Chronic Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Administration in Male Rhesus Macaques Infected with Simian Immunodeficiency Virus: A Systems Biology Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Amedee, Angela M.; LeCapitaine, Nicole J.; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Mohan, Mahesh; Winsauer, Peter J.; Vande Stouwe, Curtis; McGoey, Robin R.; Auten, Matthew W.; LaMotte, Lynn; Chandra, Lawrance C.; Birke, Leslie L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Our studies have demonstrated that chronic Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration results in a generalized attenuation of viral load and tissue inflammation in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected male rhesus macaques. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue is an important site for HIV replication and inflammation that can impact disease progression. We used a systems approach to examine the duodenal immune environment in 4- to 6-year-old male rhesus monkeys inoculated intravenously with SIVMAC251 after 17 months of chronic THC administration (0.18–0.32 mg/kg, intramuscularly, twice daily). Duodenal tissue samples excised from chronic THC- (N=4) and vehicle (VEH)-treated (N=4) subjects at ∼5 months postinoculation showed lower viral load, increased duodenal integrin beta 7+(β7) CD4+ and CD8+ central memory T cells, and a significant preferential increase in Th2 cytokine expression. Gene array analysis identified six genes that were differentially expressed in intestinal samples of the THC/SIV animals when compared to those differentially expressed between VEH/SIV and uninfected controls. These genes were identified as having significant participation in (1) apoptosis, (2) cell survival, proliferation, and morphogenesis, and (3) energy and substrate metabolic processes. Additional analysis comparing the duodenal gene expression in THC/SIV vs. VEH/SIV animals identified 93 differentially expressed genes that participate in processes involved in muscle contraction, protein folding, cytoskeleton remodeling, cell adhesion, and cell signaling. Immunohistochemical staining showed attenuated apoptosis in epithelial crypt cells of THC/SIV subjects. Our results indicate that chronic THC administration modulated duodenal T cell populations, favored a pro-Th2 cytokine balance, and decreased intestinal apoptosis. These findings reveal novel mechanisms that may potentially contribute to cannabinoid-mediated disease modulation. PMID:24400995

  6. Modulation of gut-specific mechanisms by chronic δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol administration in male rhesus macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus: a systems biology analysis.

    PubMed

    Molina, Patricia E; Amedee, Angela M; LeCapitaine, Nicole J; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Mohan, Mahesh; Winsauer, Peter J; Vande Stouwe, Curtis; McGoey, Robin R; Auten, Matthew W; LaMotte, Lynn; Chandra, Lawrance C; Birke, Leslie L

    2014-06-01

    Our studies have demonstrated that chronic Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration results in a generalized attenuation of viral load and tissue inflammation in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected male rhesus macaques. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue is an important site for HIV replication and inflammation that can impact disease progression. We used a systems approach to examine the duodenal immune environment in 4- to 6-year-old male rhesus monkeys inoculated intravenously with SIVMAC251 after 17 months of chronic THC administration (0.18-0.32 mg/kg, intramuscularly, twice daily). Duodenal tissue samples excised from chronic THC- (N=4) and vehicle (VEH)-treated (N=4) subjects at ∼5 months postinoculation showed lower viral load, increased duodenal integrin beta 7(+)(β7) CD4(+) and CD8(+) central memory T cells, and a significant preferential increase in Th2 cytokine expression. Gene array analysis identified six genes that were differentially expressed in intestinal samples of the THC/SIV animals when compared to those differentially expressed between VEH/SIV and uninfected controls. These genes were identified as having significant participation in (1) apoptosis, (2) cell survival, proliferation, and morphogenesis, and (3) energy and substrate metabolic processes. Additional analysis comparing the duodenal gene expression in THC/SIV vs. VEH/SIV animals identified 93 differentially expressed genes that participate in processes involved in muscle contraction, protein folding, cytoskeleton remodeling, cell adhesion, and cell signaling. Immunohistochemical staining showed attenuated apoptosis in epithelial crypt cells of THC/SIV subjects. Our results indicate that chronic THC administration modulated duodenal T cell populations, favored a pro-Th2 cytokine balance, and decreased intestinal apoptosis. These findings reveal novel mechanisms that may potentially contribute to cannabinoid-mediated disease modulation.

  7. Strain differences between Lewis and Fischer 344 rats in the modulation of dopaminergic receptors after morphine self-administration and during extinction.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Cardoso, Pilar; Higuera-Matas, Alejandro; Martín, Sonsoles; Miguéns, Miguel; Del Olmo, Nuria; García-Lecumberri, Carmen; Ambrosio, Emilio

    2009-07-01

    The Lewis (LEW) and Fischer 344 (F344) rat strains have been used as a model to study genetic vulnerability to drug addiction and they differ in their dopaminergic systems. We have studied the variation in the D1-like and D2-like receptors in distinct brain regions of LEW and F344 rats that self-administered morphine (1 mg/kg) for 15 days and also after different extinction periods (3, 7 and 15 days). Under basal conditions, binding to D1-like receptors in the olfactory tubercle and substantia nigra, and to D2-like receptors in the Pyriform cortex and hippocampal-CA1 was lower in LEW rats than in F344 rats. Conversely, the LEW rats exhibited stronger D2-like binding in the caudate-putamen. In most brain regions there was a decrease in D1-like binding in LEW rats after self-administration while the F344 animals displayed an increment. Additionally, D2 receptors of LEW rats were down-regulated after self-administration in the caudate-putamen and in the nucleus accumbens (shell and core divisions). Binding to D1-like receptors increased in both strains in the early phases of extinction, while in the later stages a differential regulation was observed between both strains. During the early phases of extinction only F344 rats showed alterations in D2-like receptor binding, however in the latter phases a specific modulation occurred in both strains. These differences in basal D1-like and D2-like receptor binding, and their differential modulation after self-administration and during extinction, may be reflected in the greater vulnerability to opiate addiction shown by LEW strain.

  8. Antiallodynic Activity of Ceftriaxone and Clavulanic Acid in Acute Administration is Associated with Serum TNF-α Modulation and Activation of Dopaminergic and Opioidergic Systems.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Aguilar, A; Sotomayor-Sobrino, M A; Jaimez, R; Rodríguez, R; Plancarte-Sánchez, R; Ventura-Martinez, R

    2017-03-26

    Preclinical Research The aim of this study was to determine the antiallodynic effect of acute administration of the β-lactam antimicrobials, ceftriaxone (CFX) and clavulanic acid (CLAV), for the control of established pain on a model of neuropathic pain (NP). We also investigated the involvement of dopaminergic and opioidergic pathways as well as alterations in serum concentrations of TNF-α in the antiallodynic actions of these drugs. CFX, CLAV, or gabapentin (GAP), a reference drug, were administered i.p. twelve days after constriction of the sciatic nerve in rats. Mechanic and cold allodynia were evaluated for 3 h and alterations in serum concentration of TNF-α determined. Both CFX and CLAV had antiallodynic effects in response to mechanical and cold stimulation, similar to GAP. The antiallodynic effects of CFX and CLAV were blocked by haloperidol (HAL), a D2 receptor antagonist, and by naloxone (NLX), an opioid receptor antagonist. Additionally, serum TNF-α levels were attenuated following CFX and CLAV administration. These results suggest that acute administration of CFX and CLAV may represent a promising approach for treating the acute allodynia of NP, and that the mechanisms involved in these effects involve activation of dopaminergic and opioidergic pathways as well as modulation of TNF-α production. Drug Dev Res, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Algorithm to Identify Frequent Coupled Modules from Two-Layered Network Series: Application to Study Transcription and Splicing Coupling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenyuan; Dai, Chao; Liu, Chun-Chi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Current network analysis methods all focus on one or multiple networks of the same type. However, cells are organized by multi-layer networks (e.g., transcriptional regulatory networks, splicing regulatory networks, protein-protein interaction networks), which interact and influence each other. Elucidating the coupling mechanisms among those different types of networks is essential in understanding the functions and mechanisms of cellular activities. In this article, we developed the first computational method for pattern mining across many two-layered graphs, with the two layers representing different types yet coupled biological networks. We formulated the problem of identifying frequent coupled clusters between the two layers of networks into a tensor-based computation problem, and proposed an efficient solution to solve the problem. We applied the method to 38 two-layered co-transcription and co-splicing networks, derived from 38 RNA-seq datasets. With the identified atlas of coupled transcription-splicing modules, we explored to what extent, for which cellular functions, and by what mechanisms transcription-splicing coupling takes place. PMID:22697243

  10. Glial activation and midkine and pleiotrophin transcription in the ventral tegmental area are modulated by morphine administration.

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, Daniel; Luisa Laorden, M; Núñez, Cristina; Victoria Milanés, M

    2014-09-15

    Opiates cause persistent restructuring in the mesolimbic reward system. Although a possible role for midkine and pleiotrophin cytokines in the field of synaptic plasticity has been proposed, it has not been assessed whether morphine administration regulates astrogliosis and midkine and pleiotrophin transcription. We observed that single morphine injection and chronic morphine increased glial fibrillary acidic protein expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Interestingly, single morphine injection and chronic morphine increased VTA midkine and pleiotrophin mRNA expression. Given these results, we hypothesize a role for these cytokines in mediating, at least in part, acute neuroprotective effects and chronic neurotrophic adaptations that contribute to drug dependence.

  11. Aging dysregulates D- and E-series resolvins to modulate cardiosplenic and cardiorenal network following myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Halade, Ganesh V.; Kain, Vasundhara; Black, Laurence M.; Prabhu, Sumanth D.; Ingle, Kevin A.

    2016-01-01

    Post-myocardial infarction (MI), overactive inflammation is the hallmark of aging, however, the mechanism is unclear. We hypothesized that excess influx of omega 6 fatty acids may impair resolution, thus impacting the cardiosplenic and cardiorenal network post-MI. Young and aging mice were fed on standard lab chow (LC) and excess fatty acid (safflower oil; SO)-enriched diet for 2 months and were then subjected to MI surgery. Despite similar infarct areas and left ventricle (LV) dysfunction post-MI, splenic mass spectrometry data revealed higher levels of arachidonic acid (AA) derived pro-inflammatory metabolites in young-SO, but minimal formation of docosanoids, D- and E- series resolvins in SO-fed aged mice. The aged mice receiving excess intake of fatty acids exhibit; 1) decreased lipoxygenases (5-,12-, and 15) in the infarcted LV; 2) lower levels of 14HDHA, RvD1, RvD5, protectin D1, 7(S)maresin1, 8-,11-,18-HEPE and RvE3 with high levels of tetranor-12-HETEs; 3) dual population of macrophages (CD11blow/F480high and CD11bhigh/F480high) with increased pro-inflammatory (CD11b+F4/80+Ly6Chi) phenotype and; 4) increased kidney injury marker NGAL with increased expression of TNF-ɑ and IL-1β indicating MI-induced non-resolving response compared with LC-group. Thus, excess fatty acid intake magnifies the post-MI chemokine signaling and inflames the cardiosplenic and cardiorenal network towards a non-resolving microenvironment in aging. PMID:27777380

  12. The pre-synaptic Munc13-1 binds alcohol and modulates alcohol self-administration in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Das, Joydip; Xu, Shiyu; Pany, Satyabrata; Guillory, Ashley; Shah, Vrutant; Roman, Gregg W

    2013-09-01

    Munc13-1 is a pre-synaptic active-zone protein essential for neurotransmitter release and involved in pre-synaptic plasticity in brain. Ethanol, butanol, and octanol quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of the C1 domain of Munc13-1 with EC₅₀ s of 52 mM, 26 mM, and 0.7 mM, respectively. Photoactive azialcohols photolabeled Munc13-1 C1 exclusively at Glu-582, which was identified by mass spectrometry. Mutation of Glu-582 to alanine, leucine, and histidine reduced the alcohol binding two- to five-fold. Circular dichroism studies suggested that binding of alcohol increased the stability of the wild-type Munc13-1 compared with the mutants. If Munc13-1 plays some role in the neural effects of alcohol in vivo, changes in the activity of this protein should produce differences in the behavioral responses to ethanol. We tested this prediction with a loss-of-function mutation in the conserved Dunc-13 in Drosophila melanogaster. The Dunc-13(P84200) /+ heterozygotes have 50% wild-type levels of Dunc-13 mRNA and display a very robust increase in ethanol self-administration. This phenotype is reversed by the expression of the rat Munc13-1 protein within the Drosophila nervous system. The present studies indicate that Munc13-1 C1 has binding site(s) for alcohols and Munc13-1 activity is sufficient to restore normal self-administration to Drosophila mutants deficient in Dunc-13 activity. The pre-synaptic Mun13-1 protein is a critical regulator of synaptic vesicle fusion and may be involved in processes that lead to ethanol abuse and addiction. We studied its interaction with alcohol and identified Glu-582 as a critical residue for ethanol binding. Munc13-1 can functionally complement the Dunc13 haploinsufficient ethanol self-administration phenotype in Drosophila melanogaster, indicating that this protein participates in alcohol-induced behavioral plasticity.

  13. Intranasal administration of oxytocin modulates behavioral and amygdala responses to infant crying in females with insecure attachment representations.

    PubMed

    Riem, Madelon M E; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the effects of oxytocin administration on the response to infant crying in individuals with secure or insecure attachment representations as assessed with the Adult Attachment Interview. We measured feelings of irritation and the use of excessive force as indicated by grip strength using a handgrip dynamometer during exposure to infant crying in 42 women without children who were administered intranasal oxytocin or a placebo. In addition, amygdala responses to infant crying and control sounds were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The effects of oxytocin on reactivity to crying were moderated by attachment security. Oxytocin decreased the use of excessive handgrip force and amygdala reactivity in response to crying in individuals with insecure attachment representations. Our findings indicate that insecure individuals, who show emotional, behavioral, and neural hyperreactivity to crying, benefit the most from intranasal oxytocin.

  14. Faculty and Administrator Data Use at Achieving the Dream Colleges: A Summary of Survey Findings. Culture of Evidence Series, Report No. 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Davis; Kerrigan, Monica Reid

    2009-01-01

    This study examines what specific data college faculty and administrators use in their jobs and the extent to which they use data analysis to design and improve the impact of programs and services. The study is based on a survey on the use of student data by faculty and administrators at 41 community colleges participating in Achieving the Dream:…

  15. Time Series Measurements of Diffuse Hydrothermal Flow at the ASHES Vent Field Reveal Tidally Modulated Heat and Volume Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittelstaedt, E. L.; Fornari, D. J.; Crone, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    Existing time-series measurements of temperature and velocity of diffuse hydrothermal fluids exhibit variability over a range of periods from seconds to days. Frequency analysis of these measurements reveals differences between studies and field locations including nearly white spectra, as well as spectra with peaks at tidal and inertial periods. Based upon these results, previous authors have suggested several processes that may control diffuse flow rates, including tidally induced currents and 'tidal pumping', and have also suggested that there are no systematic controls. To further investigate the processes that control variability in diffuse flow, we use data from a new, deep-sea camera and temperature measurement system, the Diffuse Effluent Measurement System (DEMS), deployed during the July, 2014 cruise of the R/V Atlantis. The DEMS was deployed with DSV Alvin above a fracture network at the Phoenix vent within the ASHES vent field (Axial Seamount, 1541 mbsl). The system collected 20 seconds of imagery at 20 Hz and 24 seconds of temperature measurements at 1 Hz each hour over the period between July 22 and August 2nd. Velocities of the upwelling fluids were calculated using Diffuse Fluid Velocimetry (DFV; Mittelstaedt et al., 2010). DFV is a cross correlation technique that tracks moving index of refraction anomalies (i.e., hot parcels of fluid) through time. Over the ~12 day deployment, median flow rates ranged from 0.5 cm/s to 6 cm/s and mean fluid temperature anomalies from 0°C up to ~6.5°C, yielding an average heat flux density of 0.23 MW/m2. Spectral analysis of both the measured temperatures and calculated velocities yield a peak in normalized power at the semi-diurnal lunar period (M2, 12.4hrs), but no other spectral peaks above the 95% confidence level. Here, we present these results and discuss their implications for the tidal current and tidal pressure models of diffuse flow variability at the ASHES vent field.

  16. Common Core State Standards for Mathematics: Teacher Self-Learning Series. Module 4: A First Look at the Standards for Mathematical Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana Department of Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This module assumes that the information presented in previous modules is well known to the learner. Module 4 is the first of three modules (4, 5, and 6) designed to provide an in-depth look at the Standards of Mathematical Practice which are part of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics. Module 4 focuses on developing an initial…

  17. Modulation of Synovial Fluid-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Intra-Articular and Intraosseous Platelet Rich Plasma Administration

    PubMed Central

    Muiños-López, Emma; Sánchez, Pello; Anitua, Eduardo; Fiz, Nicolás; Aizpurua, Beatriz; Guadilla, Jorge; Padilla, Sabino; Prósper, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of intra-articular (IA) or a combination of intra-articular and intraosseous (IO) infiltration of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) on the cellular content of synovial fluid (SF) of osteoarthritic patients. Thirty-one patients received a single infiltration of PRP either in the IA space (n = 14) or in the IA space together with two IO infiltrations, one in the medial femoral condyle and one in the tibial plateau (n = 17). SF was collected before and after one week of the infiltration. The presence in the SF of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), monocytes, and lymphocytes was determined and quantified by flow cytometry. The number and identity of the MSCs were further confirmed by colony-forming and differentiation assays. PRP infiltration into the subchondral bone (SB) and the IA space induced a reduction in the population of MSCs in the SF. This reduction in MSCs was further confirmed by colony-forming (CFU-F) assay. On the contrary, IA infiltration alone did not cause variations in any of the cellular populations by flow cytometry or CFU-F assay. The SF of osteoarthritic patients contains a population of MSCs that can be modulated by PRP infiltration of the SB compartment. PMID:27818688

  18. Stress modulation of drug self-administration: implications for addiction comorbidity with post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Logrip, Marian L; Zorrilla, Eric P; Koob, George F

    2012-02-01

    Drug abuse and dependence present significant health burdens for our society, affecting roughly 10% of the population. Stress likely contributes to the development and persistence of drug use; for example, rates of substance dependence are elevated among individuals diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Thus, understanding the interaction between stress and drug use, and associated neuroadaptations, is key for developing therapies to combat substance use disorders. For this purpose, many rodent models of the effects of stress exposure on substance use have been developed; the models can be classified according to three categories of stress exposure: developmental, adult nonsocial, and adult social. The present review addresses preclinical findings on the effect of each type of trauma on responses to and self-administration of drugs of abuse by focusing on a key exemplar for each category. In addition, the potential efficacy of targeting neuropeptide systems that have been implicated in stress responses and stress system neuroadaptation in order to treat comorbid PTSD and substance abuse will be discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder'.

  19. Modulation of gut microbiota and increase in fecal water content in mice induced by administration of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens DN1.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Dana; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Kang, Il-Byeong; Kim, Hyunsook; Song, Kwang-Young; Kim, Hong-Seok; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2017-02-22

    Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens is the key probiotic bacterium in kefir. In this study, we investigated the effects of oral consumption of L. kefiranofaciens on the fecal quality and intestinal microbiota of mice. Four-week-old Balb/c mice were divided into two groups (n = 8 each) and administered 0.2 mL of saline (control group) or saline containing 2 × 10(8) cfu L. kefiranofaciens DN1 (LKF_DN1 group) for two weeks. At the end of the experiment, their fecal samples were collected and the fecal quality and microbiota were assessed. The LKF_DN1 group exhibited higher total fecal weight and fecal weight per stool sample than the control group (p < 0.05). Interestingly, the fecal water content was significantly higher in the fecal samples of the LKF_DN1 group than in those of the control group (p < 0.05). The numbers of total bacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Lactobacillus, and Prevotella were significantly higher in the LKF_DN1 group than in the control group (p < 0.05). In contrast, the number of opportunistic pathogens, including Proteobacteria and Enterobacteriaceae, and the percentage of genus Clostridium among the total bacteria were significantly reduced in the LKF_DN1 group (p < 0.05). Our data suggest that regular L. kefiranofaciens DN1 administration could alleviate constipation and improve gut microbiota.

  20. TRAIL administration down-modulated the acute systemic inflammatory response induced in a mouse model by muramyldipeptide or lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Marcuzzi, Annalisa; Secchiero, Paola; Crovella, Sergio; Zauli, Giorgio

    2012-10-01

    The potent inducer of apoptosis TRAIL/Apo2 ligand is now under considerations in clinical trials for the treatment of different types of cancer. Since the natural history of cancer is often characterized by microbial infections, we have investigated the effect of recombinant human TRAIL in a mouse model of systemic acute inflammation of microbial origin represented by BALB/c mice treated with either bacterial muramyldipeptide (MDP) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). When administered intraperitoneally (i.p.), these inflammatory bacterial compounds triggered a severe systemic inflammatory response within 2h, represented by body temperature elevation, increase of circulating serum amyloid-A (SAA) and of the number of leukocytes in the peritoneal cavity. Moreover, both MDP and LPS induced a significant elevation of the circulating levels of several inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Noteworthy, pre-treatment with recombinant human TRAIL 48 and 72 h before administration of either MDP or LPS, significantly counteracted all acute inflammatory responses, including the elevation of key pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines such as IL-1α, IL-6, G-CSF, MCP-1. These data demonstrate for the first time that TRAIL has a potent anti-inflammatory activity, which might be beneficial for the anti-tumoral activity of TRAIL.

  1. Dietary sodium intake modulates renal excretory responses to intrarenal angiotensin (1-7) administration in anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Julie; Corbett, Alan; Johns, Edward J

    2013-02-01

    Angiotensin II at the kidney regulates renal hemodynamic and excretory function, but the actions of an alternative metabolite, angiotensin (1-7), are less clear. This study investigated how manipulation of dietary sodium intake influenced the renal hemodynamic and excretory responses to intrarenal administration of angiotensin (1-7). Renal interstitial infusion of angiotensin (1-7) in anesthetized rats fed a normal salt intake had minimal effects on glomerular filtration rate but caused dose-related increases in urine flow and absolute and fractional sodium excretions ranging from 150 to 200%. In rats maintained for 2 wk on a low-sodium diet angiotensin (1-7) increased glomerular filtration rate by some 45%, but the diuretic and natriuretic responses were enhanced compared with those in rats on a normal sodium intake. By contrast, renal interstitial infusion of angiotensin (1-7) in rats maintained on a high-sodium intake had no effect on glomerular filtration rate, whereas the diuresis and natriuresis was markedly attenuated compared with those in rats fed either a normal or low-sodium diet. Plasma renin and angiotensin (1-7) were highest in the rats on the low-sodium diet and depressed in the rats on a high-sodium diet. These findings demonstrate that the renal hemodynamic and excretory responses to locally administered angiotensin (1-7) is dependent on the level of sodium intake and indirectly on the degree of activation of the renin-angiotensin system. The exact way in which angiotensin (1-7) exerts its effects may be dependent on the prevailing levels of angiotensin II and its receptor expression.

  2. Systemic and intra-rhinal-cortical 17-β estradiol administration modulate object-recognition memory in ovariectomized female rats.

    PubMed

    Gervais, Nicole J; Jacob, Sofia; Brake, Wayne G; Mumby, Dave G

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies using the novel-object-preference (NOP) test suggest that estrogen (E) replacement in ovariectomized rodents can lead to enhanced novelty preference. The present study aimed to determine: 1) whether the effect of E on NOP performance is the result of enhanced preference for novelty, per se, or facilitated object-recognition memory, and 2) whether E affects NOP performance through actions it has within the perirhinal cortex/entorhinal cortex region (PRh/EC). Ovariectomized rats received either systemic chronic low 17-β estradiol (E2; ~20 pg/ml serum) replacement alone or in combination with systemic acute high administration of estradiol benzoate (EB; 10 μg), or in combination with intracranial infusions of E2 (244.8 pg/μl) or vehicle into the PRh/EC. For one of the intracranial experiments, E2 was infused either immediately before, immediately after, or 2 h following the familiarization (i.e., learning) phase of the NOP test. In light of recent evidence that raises questions about the internal validity of the NOP test as a method of indexing object-recognition memory, we also tested rats on a delayed nonmatch-to-sample (DNMS) task of object recognition following systemic and intra-PRh/EC infusions of E2. Both systemic acute and intra-PRh/EC infusions of E enhanced novelty preference, but only when administered either before or immediately following familiarization. In contrast, high E (both systemic acute and intra-PRh/EC) impaired performance on the DNMS task. The findings suggest that while E2 in the PRh/EC can enhance novelty preference, this effect is probably not due to an improvement in object-recognition abilities.

  3. Intra-perirhinal cortex administration of estradiol, but not an ERβ agonist, modulates object-recognition memory in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Gervais, Nicole J; Hamel, Laurie M; Brake, Wayne G; Mumby, Dave G

    2016-09-01

    important for the expression of novelty preference, in a manner that is unaffected by retention delay. These findings suggest that the modulation of novelty preference by intra-PRh E2/ERβ may be due to factors unrelated to ORM.

  4. Post-exposure administration of diazepam combined with soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition stops seizures and modulates neuroinflammation in a murine model of acute TETS intoxication.

    PubMed

    Vito, Stephen T; Austin, Adam T; Banks, Christopher N; Inceoglu, Bora; Bruun, Donald A; Zolkowska, Dorota; Tancredi, Daniel J; Rogawski, Michael A; Hammock, Bruce D; Lein, Pamela J

    2014-12-01

    Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS) is a potent convulsant poison for which there is currently no approved antidote. The convulsant action of TETS is thought to be mediated by inhibition of type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAAR) function. We, therefore, investigated the effects of post-exposure administration of diazepam, a GABAAR positive allosteric modulator, on seizure activity, death and neuroinflammation in adult male Swiss mice injected with a lethal dose of TETS (0.15mg/kg, ip). Administration of a high dose of diazepam (5mg/kg, ip) immediately following the second clonic seizure (approximately 20min post-TETS injection) effectively prevented progression to tonic seizures and death. However, this treatment did not prevent persistent reactive astrogliosis and microglial activation, as determined by GFAP and Iba-1 immunoreactivity and microglial cell morphology. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) has been shown to exert potent anti-inflammatory effects and to increase survival in mice intoxicated with other GABAAR antagonists. The sEH inhibitor TUPS (1mg/kg, ip) administered immediately after the second clonic seizure did not protect TETS-intoxicated animals from tonic seizures or death. Combined administration of diazepam (5mg/kg, ip) and TUPS (1mg/kg, ip, starting 1h after diazepam and repeated every 24h) prevented TETS-induced lethality and influenced signs of neuroinflammation in some brain regions. Significantly decreased microglial activation and enhanced reactive astrogliosis were observed in the hippocampus, with no changes in the cortex. Combining an agent that targets specific anti-inflammatory mechanisms with a traditional antiseizure drug may enhance treatment outcome in TETS intoxication.

  5. Family Functioning: The Impact of a Child with Special Needs. A Series for Caregivers of Infants and Toddlers. Model of Interdisciplinary Training for Children with Handicaps. MITCH Module 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe County School District, Key West, FL.

    Intended for use in Florida training programs for caregivers of infants and toddlers with disabilities, this guide presents an overview of the Model of Interdisciplinary Training for Children with Handicaps (MITCH); offers a user's guide to the series; and presents specific information for presenting Module 4, which focuses on the impact of a…

  6. 3-(Imidazolyl methyl)-3-aza-bicyclo[3.1.0]hexan-6-yl)methyl ethers: a novel series of mGluR2 positive allosteric modulators.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Rogers, Bruce N; Duplantier, Allen J; McHardy, Stanley F; Efremov, Ivan; Berke, Helen; Qian, Weimin; Zhang, Andy Q; Maklad, Noha; Candler, John; Doran, Angela C; Lazzaro, John T; Ganong, Alan H

    2008-10-15

    The synthesis and structure-activity relationship (SAR) of a novel series of 3-(imidazolyl methyl)-3-aza-bicyclo[3.1.0]hexan-6-yl)methyl ethers, derived from a high throughput screening (HTS), are described. Subsequent optimization led to identification of potent, metabolically stable and orally available mGluR2 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs).

  7. Common Core Curriculum for Vocational Education. Category D: Administration and Supervision. D-2: Writing a Vocational Education Project/Budget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, William

    This module on writing a vocational education project/budget is one of a set of eight on administration and supervision and is part of a larger series of thirty-four modules constituting a core curriculum intended for use in the professional preparation of vocational educators in the areas of agricultural, business, home economics, and industrial…

  8. The Civil War: A Survey. Featuring Original Documents from the National Archives and Records Administration. Volume 6. Teaching with Primary Sources Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Jean M., Ed.

    This unit of study (for grades 5-8 and up) about the U.S. Civil War features original documents from the National Archives and Records Administration. All the records used in the unit reflect the actions of the federal government or citizens' responses to these actions. These records were selected for their historical value, their legibility and…

  9. Professional Development for Teachers and Administrators Working with English Language Learners. Videotapes of 2002 NABE Conference. NABE Star Series. [Teacher Training Kit].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakuta, Kenji; Cummins, Jim; Fillmore, Lily Wong

    This professional development kit for teachers and administrators working with English language learners (ELLs) offers three videotapes of three presentations from the 2002 NABE Conference, as well as agendas, presenter's notes, classroom activities, a list of resources, and transparencies for half-day or full-day workshops. The topics discussed…

  10. Control Points in School Business Management, Presenting General Observations, Specific Control Points, and a Series of Checkpoints for the Practicing School Business Administrator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of School Business Officials, Chicago, IL.

    This revised outline of a 1962 address contains general guidelines considered still useful for practicing school business administrators. Introductory "general observations" and a preamble give advice about good personal qualities, policy and planning practices, and relations with school boards, community, staff, and fellow professional…

  11. Advancing Performance Pay in the Obama Administration: The Influence of Political Strategy and Alternative Priorities. Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Papers Series. PEPG 10-04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smarick, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Even the most cursory look at the current administration's approach to performance pay reveals a noteworthy story. Unlike all of his Democratic predecessors--and some of his Republican ones--President Obama not only appreciates the value of differentiating the compensation of teachers based on a effectiveness, he has put energy and money behind…

  12. Enhancement of social novelty discrimination by positive allosteric modulators at metabotropic glutamate 5 receptors: adolescent administration prevents adult-onset deficits induced by neonatal treatment with phencyclidine.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Nicholas E; Morisot, Nadège; Girardon, Sylvie; Millan, Mark J; Loiseau, Florence

    2013-02-01

    Metabotropic glutamate-5 receptors (mGluR5), which physically and functionally interact with N-methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptors, likewise control cognitive processes and have been proposed as targets for novel classes of antipsychotic agent. Since social cognition is impaired in schizophrenia and disrupted by NMDA receptor antagonists like dizocilpine, we evaluated its potential modulation by mGluR5. Acute administration (0.63-40 mg/kg) of the mGluR5 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs), 3-cyano-N-(1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)benzamide (CDPPB) and ADX47273, reversed a delay-induced impairment in social novelty discrimination (SND) in adult rats. The action of CDPPB was blocked by the mGluR5 antagonist, 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (2.5-10 mg/kg), and was also expressed upon microinjection into frontal cortex (0.63-10 μg/side), but not striatum. Supporting an interrelationship between mGluR5 and NMDA receptors, enhancement of SND by CDPPB was blocked by dizocilpine (0.08 mg/kg) while, reciprocally, dizocilpine-induced impairment in SND was attenuated by CDPPB (10 mg/kg). The SND deficit elicited by post-natal administration of phencyclidine (10 mg/kg, days 7-11) was reversed by CDPPB or ADX47273 in adults at week 8. This phencyclidine-induced impairment in cognition emerged in adult rats from week 7 on, and chronic, pre-symptomatic treatment of adolescent rats with CDPPB over weeks 5-6 (10 mg/kg per day) prevented the appearance of SND deficits in adults until at least week 13. In conclusion, as evaluated by a SND procedure, mGluR5 PAMs promote social cognition via actions expressed in interaction with NMDA receptors and exerted in frontal cortex. MGluR5 PAMs not only reverse but also (when given during adolescence) prevent the emergence of cognitive impairment associated with a developmental model of schizophrenia.

  13. Modulation of immunity and gut microbiota after dietary administration of alginate encapsulated Shewanella putrefaciens Pdp11 to gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.).

    PubMed

    Cordero, Héctor; Guardiola, Francisco A; Tapia-Paniagua, Silvana Teresa; Cuesta, Alberto; Meseguer, José; Balebona, M Carmen; Moriñigo, M Ángel; Esteban, M Ángeles

    2015-08-01

    The potential benefits of probiotics when administering to fish could improve aquaculture production. The objective of this study was to examine the modulation of immune status and gut microbiota of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) specimens by a probiotic when administered encapsulated. Commercial diet was enriched with Shewanella putrefaciens Pdp11 (SpPdp11, at a concentration of 10(8) cfu g(-1)) before being encapsulated in calcium alginate beads. Fish were fed non-supplemented (control) or supplemented diet for 4 weeks. After 1, 2 and 4 weeks the main humoral and cellular immune parameters were determined. Furthermore, gene expression profile of five immune relevant genes (il1β, bd, mhcIIα, ighm and tcrβ) was studied by qPCR in head kidney. On the other hand, intestinal microbiota of fish was analysed at 7 and 30 days by DGGE. Results demonstrated that administration of alginate encapsulated SpPdp11 has immunostimulant properties on humoral parameters (IgM level and serum peroxidase activity). Although no immunostimulant effects were detected on leucocyte activities, significant increases were detected in the level of mRNA of head-kidney leucocytes for mhcIIα and tcrβ after 4 weeks of feeding the encapsulated-probiotic diet. The administration of SpPdp11 encapsulated in alginate beads produced important changes in the DGGE patterns corresponding to the intestinal microbiota. Predominant bands related to lactic acid bacteria, such as Lactococcus and Lactobacillus strains, were sequenced from the DGGE patterns of fish fed the probiotic diet, whereas they were not sequenced from fish receiving the control diet. The convenience or not of probiotic encapsulation is discussed.

  14. Post-exposure administration of diazepam combined with soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition stops seizures and modulates neuroinflammation in a murine model of acute TETS intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Vito, Stephen T.; Austin, Adam T.; Banks, Christopher N.; Inceoglu, Bora; Bruun, Donald A.; Zolkowska, Dorota; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Rogawski, Michael A.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Lein, Pamela J.

    2014-12-01

    Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS) is a potent convulsant poison for which there is currently no approved antidote. The convulsant action of TETS is thought to be mediated by inhibition of type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA{sub A}R) function. We, therefore, investigated the effects of post-exposure administration of diazepam, a GABA{sub A}R positive allosteric modulator, on seizure activity, death and neuroinflammation in adult male Swiss mice injected with a lethal dose of TETS (0.15 mg/kg, ip). Administration of a high dose of diazepam (5 mg/kg, ip) immediately following the second clonic seizure (approximately 20 min post-TETS injection) effectively prevented progression to tonic seizures and death. However, this treatment did not prevent persistent reactive astrogliosis and microglial activation, as determined by GFAP and Iba-1 immunoreactivity and microglial cell morphology. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) has been shown to exert potent anti-inflammatory effects and to increase survival in mice intoxicated with other GABA{sub A}R antagonists. The sEH inhibitor TUPS (1 mg/kg, ip) administered immediately after the second clonic seizure did not protect TETS-intoxicated animals from tonic seizures or death. Combined administration of diazepam (5 mg/kg, ip) and TUPS (1 mg/kg, ip, starting 1 h after diazepam and repeated every 24 h) prevented TETS-induced lethality and influenced signs of neuroinflammation in some brain regions. Significantly decreased microglial activation and enhanced reactive astrogliosis were observed in the hippocampus, with no changes in the cortex. Combining an agent that targets specific anti-inflammatory mechanisms with a traditional antiseizure drug may enhance treatment outcome in TETS intoxication. - Highlights: • Acute TETS intoxication causes delayed and persistent neuroinflammation. • Diazepam given post-TETS prevents lethal tonic seizures but not neuroinflammation. • A soluble epoxide hydrolase

  15. Diffuse venting at the ASHES hydrothermal field: Heat flux and tidally modulated flow variability derived from in situ time-series measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittelstaedt, Eric; Fornari, Daniel J.; Crone, Timothy J.; Kinsey, James; Kelley, Deborah; Elend, Mitch

    2016-04-01

    Time-series measurements of diffuse exit-fluid temperature and velocity collected with a new, deep-sea camera, and temperature measurement system, the Diffuse Effluent Measurement System (DEMS), were examined from a fracture network within the ASHES hydrothermal field located in the caldera of Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge. The DEMS was installed using the HOV Alvin above a fracture near the Phoenix vent. The system collected 20 s of 20 Hz video imagery and 24 s of 1 Hz temperature measurements each hour between 22 July and 2 August 2014. Fluid velocities were calculated using the Diffuse Fluid Velocimetry (DFV) technique. Over the ˜12 day deployment, median upwelling rates and mean fluid temperature anomalies ranged from 0.5 to 6 cm/s and 0°C to ˜6.5°C above ambient, yielding a heat flux of 0.29 ± 0.22 MW m-2 and heat output of 3.1± 2.5 kW. Using a photo mosaic to measure fracture dimensions, the total diffuse heat output from cracks across ASHES field is estimated to be 2.05 ± 1.95 MW. Variability in temperatures and velocities are strongest at semidiurnal periods and show significant coherence with tidal height variations. These data indicate that periodic variability near Phoenix vent is modulated both by tidally controlled bottom currents and seafloor pressure, with seafloor pressures being the dominant influence. These results emphasize the importance of local permeability on diffuse hydrothermal venting at mid-ocean ridges and the need to better quantify heat flux associated with young oceanic crust.

  16. Administrators: Nursing Home Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Anne

    1976-01-01

    Responsibilities, skills needed, training needed, earnings, employment outlook, and sources of additional information are outlined for the administrator who holds the top management job in a nursing home. (JT)

  17. High Performance Composites. "Designed" Materials for the New Millennium. 2nd Module in a Series on Advanced Materials. Resources in Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, James A.

    1994-01-01

    This learning module on composites such as polymer matrix, metal matrix, ceramic matrix, particulate, and laminar includes a design brief giving context, objectives, evaluation, student outcomes, and quiz. (SK)

  18. 76 FR 61645 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A330-200 Series Airplanes; Model A330-300 Series Airplanes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ...-200 Series Airplanes; Model A330-300 Series Airplanes; Model A340-200 Series Airplanes; and Model A340-300 Series Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of...

  19. Short communication: Modulation of the small intestinal microbial community composition over short-term or long-term administration with Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY2013.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qiong; Pan, Mingfang; Huang, Renhui; Tian, Ximei; Tao, Xueying; Shah, Nagendra P; Wei, Hua; Wan, Cuixiang

    2016-09-01

    The small intestinal (SI) microbiota has an essential role in the maintenance of human health. However, data about the indigenous bacteria in SI as affected by probiotics are limited. In our study, the short-term and long-term effects of a probiotic candidate, Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY2013, on the SI microbiota of C57BL/6J mice were investigated by the Illumina HiSeq (Novogene Bioinformatics Technology Co., Ltd., Tianjin, China) platform targeting the V4 region of the 16S rDNA. A total of 858,011 sequences in 15 samples were read. The α diversity analysis revealed that oral administration with L. plantarum ZDY2013 for 3 wk led to a significant increase in the richness and diversity of the SI bacterial community. Principal coordinate analysis and unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means analysis showed a clear alteration in the SI microbiota composition after 3 wk of L. plantarum ZDY2013 treatment, although these changes were not found 6 wk after ceasing L. plantarum ZDY2013 administration. Species annotation showed that the dominant phyla in SI microbiota were Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia. Interestingly, operational taxonomic unit cluster analysis showed that administration with L. plantarum ZDY2013 for 3 wk significantly increased the abundance of Proteobacteria, but decreased that of Bacteroidetes. Linear discriminant analysis coupled with effect size identified 18 bacterial taxa (e.g., Ruminococcus spp. and Clostridium spp.) that overgrew in the SI microbiota of the mice administered with L. plantarum ZDY2013 for 3 wk, and most of them belonged to the phyla Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. However, only one bacterial taxon (e.g., Nocardioides spp.) was over-represented in the SI microbiota of mice 6 wk after L. plantarum ZDY2013 administration. Overall, this study shows that oral administration with probiotic results in an important but transient alteration in the microbiota of SI.

  20. Co-administration strategy to enhance brain accumulation of vandetanib by modulating P-glycoprotein (P-gp/Abcb1) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp1/Abcg2) mediated efflux with m-TOR inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Minocha, Mukul; Khurana, Varun; Qin, Bin; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (i) to characterize the interaction of vandetanib with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp1) in vitro and in vivo (ii) to study the modulation of P-gp and BCRP mediated efflux of vandetanib with specific transport inhibitors and m-TOR inhibitors, everolimus and temsirolimus. Cellular accumulation and bi-directional transport studies in MDCKII cell monolayers were conducted to delineate the role of efflux transporters on disposition of vandetanib. Brain distribution studies were conducted in male FVB wild-type mice with vandetanib administered intravenously either alone or in the presence of specific inhibitors and m-TOR inhibitors. In vitro studies suggested that vandetanib is a high affinity substrate of Bcrp1 but is not transported by P-gp. Interestingly, in vivo brain distribution studies in FVB wild type mice indicated that vandetanib penetration into the brain is restricted by both Bcrp1 and P-gp mediated active efflux at the blood brain barrier (BBB). Co-administration of elacridar, a dual P-gp/BCRP inhibitor increased the brain to plasma concentration ratio of vandetanib upto 5 fold. Of the two m-TOR pathway inhibitors examined; everolimus showed potent effect on modulating vandetanib brain penetration whereas no significant affect on vandetanib brain uptake was observed following temsirolimus co-administration. This finding could be clinically relevant as everolimus can provide synergistic pharmacological effect in addition to primary role of vandetanib efflux modulation at BBB for the treatment of brain tumors. PMID:22633931

  1. National Training Course. Emergency Medical Technician. Paramedic. Instructor's Lesson Plans. Module Course Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Designed to help administrators plan and implement an emergency medical technician (EMT) training program, this course guide is intended for use with a series of fifteen instructor lesson plan modules. (The EMT-Paramedic is described as a professional in emergency medical care who has successfully completed a training program that includes formal…

  2. Administration of the glial cell modulator, minocycline, in the nucleus accumbens attenuated the maintenance and reinstatement of morphine-seeking behavior.

    PubMed

    Arezoomandan, Reza; Haghparast, Abbas

    2016-03-01

    Relapse to drug use is one of the most difficult clinical problems in treating addiction. Glial activation has been linked with the drug abuse, and the glia modulators such as minocycline can modulate the drug abuse effects. The aim of the present study was to determine whether minocycline could attenuate the maintenance and reinstatement of morphine. Conditioned place preference (CPP) was induced by subcutaneous injection of morphine (5 mg/kg) for 3 days. Following the acquisition of the CPP, the rats were given daily bilateral intra-NAc injections of either minocycline (1, 5, and 10 μg/0.5 μL) or saline (0.5 μL). The animals were tested for conditioning score 60 min after each injection. To induce the reinstatement, a priming dose of morphine (1 mg/kg) was injected 1 day after the final extinction day. The morphine-induced CPP lasted for 7 days after cessation of morphine treatment. Our data revealed that a priming dose of morphine could reinstate the extinguished morphine-induced CPP. Daily intra-accumbal injection of minocycline during the extinction period blocked the maintenance of morphine CPP and also attenuated the priming-induced reinstatement. Our findings indicated that minocycline could facilitate the extinction and attenuate the reinstatement of morphine. These results provided new evidence that minocycline might be considered as a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of several symptoms associated with morphine abuse.

  3. Mechanisms of withdrawal-associated increases in heroin self-administration: pharmacologic modulation of heroin vs food choice in heroin-dependent rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Negus, S Stevens; Rice, Kenner C

    2009-03-01

    Opioid withdrawal can produce a constellation of physiological and behavioral signs, including an increase in opioid self-administration. Different mechanisms mediate different withdrawal signs, and the present study used pharmacologic tools to assess mechanisms underlying withdrawal-associated increases in opioid reinforcement. Five rhesus monkeys were rendered heroin dependent via daily 21-h heroin self-administration sessions. One hour after each heroin self-administration session, monkeys chose between heroin (0-0.1 mg/kg per injection) and food (1 g pellets) during 2-h choice sessions. Under these conditions, heroin maintained a dose-dependent increase in heroin choice, such that monkeys responded primarily for food when low heroin doses were available (0-0.01 mg/kg per injection) and primarily for heroin when higher heroin doses were available (0.032-0.1 mg/kg per injection). Periods of spontaneous withdrawal were intermittently introduced by omitting one 21-h heroin self-administration session, and test drugs were administered during these withdrawal periods. Untreated withdrawal robustly increased heroin choice during choice sessions. Withdrawal-associated increases in heroin choice were completely suppressed by the mu opioid agonist morphine (0.032-0.32 mg/kg/h, i.v.), but not by the alpha-2 noradrenergic agonist clonidine (0.01-0.1 mg/kg/h, i.v.), the dopamine/norepinephrine releaser amphetamine (0.032-0.1 mg/kg/h, i.v.), or the kappa-opioid antagonist 5'-guanidinonaltrindole (1.0 mg/kg, i.m.). The corticotropin-releasing factor 1 antagonist antalarmin (1.0-10 mg/kg per day, i.m.) produced a morphine-like suppression of withdrawal-associated increases in heroin choice in one of three monkeys. These results suggest that mechanisms of withdrawal-associated increases in the relative reinforcing efficacy of opioid agonists may be different from mechanisms of many other somatic, mood-related, and motivational signs of opioid withdrawal.

  4. Transcription factors, transcriptional coregulators, and epigenetic modulation in the control of pulmonary vascular cell phenotype: therapeutic implications for pulmonary hypertension (2015 Grover Conference series)

    PubMed Central

    Perros, Frédéric; Chelladurai, Prakash; Yuan, Jason; Stenmark, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a complex and multifactorial disease involving genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. Numerous stimuli and pathological conditions facilitate severe vascular remodeling in PH by activation of a complex cascade of signaling pathways involving vascular cell proliferation, differentiation, and inflammation. Multiple signaling cascades modulate the activity of certain sequence-specific DNA-binding transcription factors (TFs) and coregulators that are critical for the transcriptional regulation of gene expression that facilitates PH-associated vascular cell phenotypes, as demonstrated by several studies summarized in this review. Past studies have largely focused on the role of the genetic component in the development of PH, while the presence of epigenetic alterations such as microRNAs, DNA methylation, histone levels, and histone deacetylases in PH is now also receiving increasing attention. Epigenetic regulation of chromatin structure is also recognized to influence gene expression in development or disease states. Therefore, a complete understanding of the mechanisms involved in altered gene expression in diseased cells is vital for the design of novel therapeutic strategies. Recent technological advances in DNA sequencing will provide a comprehensive improvement in our understanding of mechanisms involved in the development of PH. This review summarizes current concepts in TF and epigenetic control of cell phenotype in pulmonary vascular disease and discusses the current issues and possibilities in employing potential epigenetic or TF-based therapies for achieving complete reversal of PH. PMID:28090287

  5. Transcription factors, transcriptional coregulators, and epigenetic modulation in the control of pulmonary vascular cell phenotype: therapeutic implications for pulmonary hypertension (2015 Grover Conference series).

    PubMed

    Pullamsetti, Soni S; Perros, Frédéric; Chelladurai, Prakash; Yuan, Jason; Stenmark, Kurt

    2016-12-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a complex and multifactorial disease involving genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. Numerous stimuli and pathological conditions facilitate severe vascular remodeling in PH by activation of a complex cascade of signaling pathways involving vascular cell proliferation, differentiation, and inflammation. Multiple signaling cascades modulate the activity of certain sequence-specific DNA-binding transcription factors (TFs) and coregulators that are critical for the transcriptional regulation of gene expression that facilitates PH-associated vascular cell phenotypes, as demonstrated by several studies summarized in this review. Past studies have largely focused on the role of the genetic component in the development of PH, while the presence of epigenetic alterations such as microRNAs, DNA methylation, histone levels, and histone deacetylases in PH is now also receiving increasing attention. Epigenetic regulation of chromatin structure is also recognized to influence gene expression in development or disease states. Therefore, a complete understanding of the mechanisms involved in altered gene expression in diseased cells is vital for the design of novel therapeutic strategies. Recent technological advances in DNA sequencing will provide a comprehensive improvement in our understanding of mechanisms involved in the development of PH. This review summarizes current concepts in TF and epigenetic control of cell phenotype in pulmonary vascular disease and discusses the current issues and possibilities in employing potential epigenetic or TF-based therapies for achieving complete reversal of PH.

  6. Systematic modulation and enhancement of CO{sub 2} : N{sub 2} selectivity and water stability in an isoreticular series of bio-MOF-11 analogues

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tao; Chen, De-Li; Sullivan, Jeanne E.; Kozlowski, Mark T.; Johnson, J Karl; Rosi, Nathaniel L.

    2013-02-01

    An isoreticular series of cobalt-adeninate bio-MOFs (bio-MOFs 11-14) is reported. The pores of bio-MOFs 11-14 are decorated with acetate, propionate, butyrate, and valerate, respectively. The nitrogen (N{sub 2}) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) adsorption properties of these materials are studied and compared. The isosteric heats of adsorption for CO{sub 2} are calculated, and the CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} selectivities for each material are 10 determined. As the lengths of the aliphatic chains decorating the pores in bio-MOFs 11-14 increase, the BET surface areas decrease from 1148 m{sup 2}/g to 17 m{sup 2}/g while the CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} selectivities predicted from ideal adsorbed solution theory at 1 bar and 273 K for a 10:90 CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} mixture range from 73:1 for bio-MOF-11 to 123:1 for bio-MOF-12 and finally to 107:1 for bio-MOF-13. At 298 K, the selectivities are 43:1 for bio-MOF-11, 52:1 for bio-MOF-12, and 40:1 for bio-MOF-13. Additionally, it is shown that 15 bio-MOF-14 exhibits a unique molecular sieving property that allows it to adsorb CO{sub 2} but not N{sub 2} at 273 and 298 K. Finally, the water stability of bio-MOFs 11-14 increases with increasing aliphatic chain length. Bio-MOF-14 exhibits no loss of crystallinity or porosity after soaking in water for one month.

  7. Basic Fishing. Aquatic Skills Series. Instructor Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staton, Robert D., Jr.

    Part of a series of self-contained instructional units to teach Missourians how to use outdoor resources wisely and skillfully, this module of the Aquatic Skills Series introduces the basics of sport fishing using spin-casting equipment. The instructor may modify the module to meet the individual needs of class members based on age, experience…

  8. Oral administration of royal jelly restores tear secretion capacity in rat blink-suppressed dry eye model by modulating lacrimal gland function.

    PubMed

    Imada, Toshihiro; Nakamura, Shigeru; Kitamura, Naoki; Shibuya, Izumi; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Tears are secreted from the lacrimal gland (LG), a dysfunction in which induces dry eye, resulting in ocular discomfort and visual impairment. Honey bee products are used as a nutritional source in daily life and medicine; however, little is known about their effects on dry eye. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of honey bee products on tear secretion capacity in dry eye. We selected raw honey, propolis, royal jelly (RJ), pollen, or larva from commercially available honey bee products. Tear secretion capacity was evaluated following the oral administration of each honey bee product in a rat blink-suppressed dry eye model. Changes in tear secretion, LG ATP content, and LG mitochondrial levels were measured. RJ restored the tear secretion capacity and decrease in LG ATP content and mitochondrial levels to the largest extent. Royal jelly can be used as a preventative intervention for dry eye by managing tear secretion capacity in the LG.

  9. Oral Administration of Royal Jelly Restores Tear Secretion Capacity in Rat Blink-Suppressed Dry Eye Model by Modulating Lacrimal Gland Function

    PubMed Central

    Imada, Toshihiro; Nakamura, Shigeru; Kitamura, Naoki; Shibuya, Izumi; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Tears are secreted from the lacrimal gland (LG), a dysfunction in which induces dry eye, resulting in ocular discomfort and visual impairment. Honey bee products are used as a nutritional source in daily life and medicine; however, little is known about their effects on dry eye. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of honey bee products on tear secretion capacity in dry eye. We selected raw honey, propolis, royal jelly (RJ), pollen, or larva from commercially available honey bee products. Tear secretion capacity was evaluated following the oral administration of each honey bee product in a rat blink-suppressed dry eye model. Changes in tear secretion, LG ATP content, and LG mitochondrial levels were measured. RJ restored the tear secretion capacity and decrease in LG ATP content and mitochondrial levels to the largest extent. Royal jelly can be used as a preventative intervention for dry eye by managing tear secretion capacity in the LG. PMID:25243778

  10. Administration of polysaccharides from Antrodia camphorata modulates dendritic cell function and alleviates allergen-induced T helper type 2 responses in a mouse model of asthma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ko-Jiunn; Leu, Sy-Jye; Su, Ching-Hua; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Chen, Yi-Lien; Lee, Yueh-Lun

    2010-03-01

    Asthma is a chronic disease characterized by airway inflammation caused by the dysregulated production of cytokines secreted by allergen-specific type 2 T helper (Th2) cells. Antrodia camphorata is a commonly used fungus in Asian folk medicine, and A. camphorata polysaccharides are reported to possess anti-cancer activities. In this study, the immunomodulatory effects of purified fractionated polysaccharides (GF2) from A. camphorata on dendritic cells (DCs) and their potential preventive effects against ovalbumin (OVA) -induced asthma were investigated. In the presence of GF2, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -activated DCs exhibited up-regulated expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II and co-stimulatory molecules, as well as enhanced interleukin-10 (IL-10) and IL-12 production. GF2 treatment on LPS-activated DCs suppressed naïve CD4(+) T-cell proliferation and Th2 cell polarization with IL-10 production in an allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction. In animal experiments, a high dose of GF2 efficiently reduced expression levels of OVA-specific immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and IgE. However, lower doses of GF2 significantly enhanced OVA-specific IgG2a production. Our data also showed that administration of GF2 dose-dependently inhibited the development of airway hyperresponsiveness, airway eosinophilia and Th2 responses. OVA-specific CD4(+) T cells from higher doses of GF2-treated mice had significantly lower proliferative capacities compared with control mice. Moreover, treatment with GF2 significantly increased the high levels of IL-10 and low levels of interferon-gamma produced by T cells. Taken together, these data indicate that administration of A. camphorata polysaccharides (GF2) may have therapeutic potential when used as an adjuvant for the immunomodulatory treatment of allergic asthma.

  11. Administrative Synergy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Weckstein, Daniel K.

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles to overcome in creating and sustaining an administrative professional learning community (PLC) is time. Administrators are constantly deluged by the tyranny of the urgent. It is a Herculean task to carve out time for PLCs, but it is imperative to do so. In this article, the authors describe how an administrative PLC…

  12. Intragastric administration of TRPV1, TRPV3, TRPM8, and TRPA1 agonists modulates autonomic thermoregulation in different manners in mice.

    PubMed

    Masamoto, Yukiko; Kawabata, Fuminori; Fushiki, Tohru

    2009-05-01

    The main aim of this study was to elucidate whether thermosensitive transient receptor potential channels (thermoTRPs) play a role in controlling autonomic thermoregulation. We investigated whether the activation of certain thermoTRPs, TRPV1, TRPV3, TRPM8, and TRPA1, would induce autonomic thermoregulation by administering chemical agonists derived from spices and aroma chemicals of these channels to anesthetized mice. We discovered the following: Capsaicin, a TRPV1 agonist, enhanced thermogenesis and heat diffusion; thymol and ethyl vanillin, TRPV3 agonists, did not have any effect on thermogenesis or heat diffusion; menthol and 1,8-cineole, TRPM8 agonists, enhanced thermogenesis; and allyl isothiocyanate and cinnamaldehyde, TRPA1 agonists, enhanced thermogenesis and inhibited heat diffusion. These results suggest that these thermoTRP agonists derived from spices and aroma chemicals modulate autonomic thermoregulation, except for TRPV3 agonists. Our findings suggest the possibility that each thermoTRP is a key sensor inducing reasonable autonomic thermoregulation according to its own activated temperature range.

  13. Administration of a PTEN inhibitor BPV(pic) attenuates early brain injury via modulating AMPA receptor subunits after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yujie; Luo, Chunxia; Zhao, Mingyue; Li, Qiang; Hu, Rong; Zhang, John H; Liu, Zhi; Feng, Hua

    2015-02-19

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) inhibitor dipotassium bisperoxo(pyridine-2-carboxyl) oxovanadate (BPV(pic)) attenuates early brain injury by modulating α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxa-zolep-propionate (AMPA) receptor subunits after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). A standard intravascular perforation model was used to produce the experimental SAH in Sprague-Dawley rats. BPV(pic) treatment (0.2mg/kg) was evaluated for effects on neurological score, brain water content, Evans blue extravasation, hippocampal neuronal death and AMPA receptor subunits alterations after SAH. We found that BPV(pic) is effective in attenuating BBB disruption, lowering edema, reducing hippocampal neural death and improving neurological outcomes. In addition, the AMPA receptor subunit GluR1 protein expression at cytomembrane was downregulated, whereas the expression of GluR2 and GluR3 was upregulated after BPV(pic) treatment. Our results suggest that PTEN inhibited by BPV(pic) plays a neuroprotective role in SAH pathophysiology, possibly by alterations in glutamate AMPA receptor subunits.

  14. Firefighting Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    NASA and the U.S. Coast Guard are working jointly to develop a helicopter transportable firefighting module that can shave precious minutes in combating shipboard or harbor fires. The program was undertaken in 1975, after a series of disastrous fires on oil tankers indicated a need for a lightweight, self-contained system that could be moved quickly to the scene of a fire. A prototype module was delivered to the Coast Guard last year and service testing is under way. The compact module weighs little more than a ton but it contains everything needed to fight a fire. The key component is a high output pump, which delivers up to 2,000 gallons of sea water a minute; the pump can be brought up to maximum output in only one minute after turning on the power source, a small Allison gas turbine engine. The module also contains hose, a foam nozzle and a spray nozzle, three sets of protective clothing for firefighters, and fuel for three hours operation. Designed to be assembled without special tools, the module can be set up for operation in less than 20 minutes.

  15. Oral Administration of Heat-Inactivated Lactobacillus plantarum K37 Modulated Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Ovalbumin-Sensitized BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yen-Wenn; Liao, Tan-Wei; Chen, Yu-Han; Chiang, Yi-Chin; Tsai, Ying-Chieh

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the anti-allergic effects of Lactobacillus plantarum K37 (K37) on airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and systemic allergic responses in ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized and -challenged BALB/c mice. Heat-inactivated K37 (105, 107, and 109 CFU/mouse, day) were orally administered to OVA-sensitized BALB/c mice to investigate their effects on AHR, immunoglobulin (Ig) and cytokine production. The results showed that K37 dose-dependently lowered the serum levels of IgE, OVA-specific IgE and OVA-specific IgG1, ameliorated AHR induced by methacholine and suppressed eosinophil infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). The cytokine production in spleen cells culture and BALF showed that K37 drove the immune responses toward T-helper cell type 1 (Th1) responses, elevated levels of IL-2 and IFN-γ, and reduced of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13. K37 also improved cell infiltration in lung sections. Our results demonstrated that oral administration of K37 alleviated effectively the allergic responses in vivo. Thus, K37 can be a good source material and a promising candidate for prophylactic and therapeutic treatments of allergic diseases, like asthma. PMID:24936861

  16. Targeted modulation of cell differentiation in distinct regions of the gastrointestinal tract via oral administration of differently PEG-PEI functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Diti; Prabhakar, Neeraj; Mamaeva, Veronika; Karaman, Didem Şen; Lähdeniemi, Iris AK; Sahlgren, Cecilia; Rosenholm, Jessica M; Toivola, Diana M

    2016-01-01

    Targeted delivery of drugs is required to efficiently treat intestinal diseases such as colon cancer and inflammation. Nanoparticles could overcome challenges in oral administration caused by drug degradation at low pH and poor permeability through mucus layers, and offer targeted delivery to diseased cells in order to avoid adverse effects. Here, we demonstrate that functionalization of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) by polymeric surface grafts facilitates transport through the mucosal barrier and enhances cellular internalization. MSNs functionalized with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), poly(ethylene imine) (PEI), and the targeting ligand folic acid in different combinations are internalized by epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo after oral gavage. Functionalized MSNs loaded with γ-secretase inhibitors of the Notch pathway, a key regulator of intestinal progenitor cells, colon cancer, and inflammation, demonstrated enhanced intestinal goblet cell differentiation as compared to free drug. Drug-loaded MSNs thus remained intact in vivo, further confirmed by exposure to simulated gastric and intestinal fluids in vitro. Drug targeting and efficacy in different parts of the intestine could be tuned by MSN surface modifications, with PEI coating exhibiting higher affinity for the small intestine and PEI–PEG coating for the colon. The data highlight the potential of nanomedicines for targeted delivery to distinct regions of the tissue for strict therapeutic control. PMID:26855569

  17. Subchronic oral administration of Benzo[a]pyrene impairs motor and cognitive behavior and modulates S100B levels and MAPKs in rats.

    PubMed

    Maciel, Erica Santos; Biasibetti, Regina; Costa, Ana Paula; Lunardi, Paula; Schunck, Rebeca Vargas Antunes; Becker, Gabriela Curbeti; Arbo, Marcelo Dutra; Dallegrave, Eliane; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto; Saldiva, Paulo H Nascimento; Garcia, Solange Cristina; Leal, Rodrigo Bainy; Leal, Mirna Bainy

    2014-04-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is an environmental contaminant produced during incomplete combustion of organic material that is well known as a mutagenic and carcinogenic toxin. There are few studies addressing the molecular and cellular basis of behavioural alterations related to BaP exposure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of subchronic oral administration of BaP on behavioral and neurochemical parameters. Wistar male rats received BaP (2 mg/kg) or corn oil (control), once a day for 28 days (n = 12/group). Spontaneous locomotor activity and short- and long-term memories were evaluated. Glial fibrillary acid protein and S100B content in the hippocampus, serum and CSF were measured using ELISA and total and phosphorylated forms of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) named extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2, p38(MAPK) and c-Jun amino-terminal kinases 1 and 2, in the hippocampus, were evaluated by western blotting. BaP induced a significant increase on locomotor activity and a decrease in short-term memory. S100B content was increased significantly in cerebrospinal fluid. BaP induced a decrease on ERK2 phosphorylation in the hippocampus. Thus, BaP subchronic treatment induces an astroglial response and impairs both motor and cognitive behavior, with parallel inhibition of ERK2, a signaling enzyme involved in the hippocampal neuroplasticity. All these effects suggest that BaP neurotoxicity is a concern for environmental pollution.

  18. The Effect of Intrathecal Administration of Muscimol on Modulation of Neuropathic Pain Symptoms Resulting from Spinal Cord Injury; an Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Marjan; Karami, Zohreh; Janzadenh, Atousa; Jameie, Seyed Behnamedin; Haji Mashhadi, Zahra; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Nasirinezhad, Farinaz

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Neuropathic pain can be very difficult to treat and it is one of the important medical challenging about pain treatments. Muscimol as a new agonist of gamma-Aminobutyric acid receptor type A (GABAA) have been introduced for pain management. Thus, the present study was performed to evaluate the pain alleviating effect of intrathecal injection of different doses of muscimol as GABAA receptor agonist in spinal cord injury (SCI) model of neuropathic pain. Methods: In the present experimental study, male Wistar rats were treated by muscimol 0.01, 0.1 or 1 µg/10ul, intrathecally (i.t.) three weeks after induction of spinal cord injury using compression injury model. Neuropathic pain symptoms were assessed at before treatment, 15 minutes, one hour and three hours after muscimol administration. The time of peak effect and optimum dosage was assessed by repeated measures analysis of variance and analysis of covariance, respectively. Results: Muscimol with the dose of 0.01 µg in 15 minutes caused to improve the thermal hyperalgesia (df: 24, 5; F= 6.6; p<0.001), mechanical hyperalgesia (df: 24, 5; F= 7.8; p<0.001), cold allodynia (df: 24, 5; F= 6.96; p<0.001), and mechanical allodynia (df: 24, 5; F= 15.7; p<0.001). The effect of doses of 0.1 µg and 1 µg were also significant. In addition, the efficacy of different doses of muscimol did not have difference on thermal hyperalgesia (df: 24, 5; F= 1.52; p= 0.24), mechanical hyperalgesia (df: 24, 5; F= 0.3; p= -0.75), cold allodynia (df: 24, 5; F= 0.8; p= -0.56), and mechanical allodynia (df: 24, 5; F= 1.75; p= 0.86). Conclusion: The finding of the present study revealed that using muscimol with doses of 0.01µg, 0.1µg, and 1 µg reduces the symptoms of neuropathic pain. In addition, the effect of GABAA agonist is short term and its effectiveness gradually decreases by time. PMID:26495371

  19. Flammability of photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugimura, R. S.; Otth, D. H.; Ross, R. G., Jr.; Lewis, K. J.; Arnett, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    A series of Class B burning-brand tests were performed on experimental modules using high-temperature, back-surface materials to develop the technology base required to construct fire-ratable modules. Results indicate the existence of synergistic relationships between hydrocarbon encapsulation materials and the experimental module configurations that provide increased fire resistance. These configurations use Kapton, fiberglass, neoprene rubber, stainless-steel foil or aluminum foil as the back surface. Successful test results occur when the structural integrity of the module back surface is maintained. Test failures of these modules always occur for one of three reasons: the outermost back cover melts, rips, or is too porous. In each case flammable molten encapsulant, its gaseous byproducts, or both, penetrates the back surface of the module and bursts into flame. Future efforts to complete the technology base will concentrate on the spread-of-flame test, focusing on the more promising configurations identified in the initial series of tests.

  20. Flammability of photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimura, R. S.; Otth, D. H.; Ross, R. G., Jr.; Lewis, K. J.; Arnett, J. C.

    A series of Class B burning-brand tests were performed on experimental modules using high-temperature, back-surface materials to develop the technology base required to construct fire-ratable modules. Results indicate the existence of synergistic relationships between hydrocarbon encapsulation materials and the experimental module configurations that provide increased fire resistance. These configurations use Kapton, fiberglass, neoprene rubber, stainless-steel foil or aluminum foil as the back surface. Successful test results occur when the structural integrity of the module back surface is maintained. Test failures of these modules always occur for one of three reasons: the outermost back cover melts, rips, or is too porous. In each case flammable molten encapsulant, its gaseous byproducts, or both, penetrates the back surface of the module and bursts into flame. Future efforts to complete the technology base will concentrate on the spread-of-flame test, focusing on the more promising configurations identified in the initial series of tests.

  1. Modules in Death Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCartney, K. Ann; And Others

    Designed for use with accompanying videotapes as single presentations or as a series for professionals or laypeople, or as supplementary modules in academic courses in psychology, marriage and family, health occupations, etc., these four learning modules focus on common phases of dying and grief as part of the normal cycle of living. The modules…

  2. 75 FR 54462 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier-Rotax GmbH 912 F Series and 912 S Series Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... GmbH 912 F Series and 912 S Series Reciprocating Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... ADs (b) None. Applicability (c) This AD applies to Bombardier-Rotax 912 F series and 912 S...

  3. Administrative Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  4. Assiniboine Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Minerva

    This series of illustrated booklets presents 13 Indian stories in a bilingual format of English and Assiniboine, an Indian tribal language. Written on the first grade level, the stories have the following titles: (1) "Orange Tree in Lodgepole"; (2) "Pretty Flower"; (3) Inktomi and the Rock"; (4) "Inktomi and the…

  5. Biostatistics Series Module 5: Determining Sample Size

    PubMed Central

    Hazra, Avijit; Gogtay, Nithya

    2016-01-01

    Determining the appropriate sample size for a study, whatever be its type, is a fundamental aspect of biomedical research. An adequate sample ensures that the study will yield reliable information, regardless of whether the data ultimately suggests a clinically important difference between the interventions or elements being studied. The probability of Type 1 and Type 2 errors, the expected variance in the sample and the effect size are the essential determinants of sample size in interventional studies. Any method for deriving a conclusion from experimental data carries with it some risk of drawing a false conclusion. Two types of false conclusion may occur, called Type 1 and Type 2 errors, whose probabilities are denoted by the symbols σ and β. A Type 1 error occurs when one concludes that a difference exists between the groups being compared when, in reality, it does not. This is akin to a false positive result. A Type 2 error occurs when one concludes that difference does not exist when, in reality, a difference does exist, and it is equal to or larger than the effect size defined by the alternative to the null hypothesis. This may be viewed as a false negative result. When considering the risk of Type 2 error, it is more intuitive to think in terms of power of the study or (1 − β). Power denotes the probability of detecting a difference when a difference does exist between the groups being compared. Smaller α or larger power will increase sample size. Conventional acceptable values for power and α are 80% or above and 5% or below, respectively, when calculating sample size. Increasing variance in the sample tends to increase the sample size required to achieve a given power level. The effect size is the smallest clinically important difference that is sought to be detected and, rather than statistical convention, is a matter of past experience and clinical judgment. Larger samples are required if smaller differences are to be detected. Although the principles are long known, historically, sample size determination has been difficult, because of relatively complex mathematical considerations and numerous different formulas. However, of late, there has been remarkable improvement in the availability, capability, and user-friendliness of power and sample size determination software. Many can execute routines for determination of sample size and power for a wide variety of research designs and statistical tests. With the drudgery of mathematical calculation gone, researchers must now concentrate on determining appropriate sample size and achieving these targets, so that study conclusions can be accepted as meaningful. PMID:27688437

  6. Methodology Series Module 5: Sampling Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Once the research question and the research design have been finalised, it is important to select the appropriate sample for the study. The method by which the researcher selects the sample is the ‘ Sampling Method’. There are essentially two types of sampling methods: 1) probability sampling – based on chance events (such as random numbers, flipping a coin etc.); and 2) non-probability sampling – based on researcher's choice, population that accessible & available. Some of the non-probability sampling methods are: purposive sampling, convenience sampling, or quota sampling. Random sampling method (such as simple random sample or stratified random sample) is a form of probability sampling. It is important to understand the different sampling methods used in clinical studies and mention this method clearly in the manuscript. The researcher should not misrepresent the sampling method in the manuscript (such as using the term ‘ random sample’ when the researcher has used convenience sample). The sampling method will depend on the research question. For instance, the researcher may want to understand an issue in greater detail for one particular population rather than worry about the ‘ generalizability’ of these results. In such a scenario, the researcher may want to use ‘ purposive sampling’ for the study. PMID:27688438

  7. Methodology Series Module 4: Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2016-01-01

    In a clinical trial, study participants are (usually) divided into two groups. One group is then given the intervention and the other group is not given the intervention (or may be given some existing standard of care). We compare the outcomes in these groups and assess the role of intervention. Some of the trial designs are (1) parallel study design, (2) cross-over design, (3) factorial design, and (4) withdrawal group design. The trials can also be classified according to the stage of the trial (Phase I, II, III, and IV) or the nature of the trial (efficacy vs. effectiveness trials, superiority vs. equivalence trials). Randomization is one of the procedures by which we allocate different interventions to the groups. It ensures that all the included participants have a specified probability of being allocated to either of the groups in the intervention study. If participants and the investigator know about the allocation of the intervention, then it is called an “open trial.” However, many of the trials are not open – they are blinded. Blinding is useful to minimize bias in clinical trials. The researcher should familiarize themselves with the CONSORT statement and the appropriate Clinical Trials Registry of India. PMID:27512184

  8. Biostatistics Series Module 1: Basics of Biostatistics

    PubMed Central

    Hazra, Avijit; Gogtay, Nithya

    2016-01-01

    Although application of statistical methods to biomedical research began only some 150 years ago, statistics is now an integral part of medical research. A knowledge of statistics is also becoming mandatory to understand most medical literature. Data constitute the raw material for statistical work. They are records of measurement or observations or simply counts. A variable refers to a particular character on which a set of data are recorded. Data are thus the values of a variable. It is important to understand the different types of data and their mutual interconversion. Biostatistics begins with descriptive statistics that implies summarizing a collection of data from a sample or population. Categorical data are described in terms of percentages or proportions. With numerical data, individual observations within a sample or population tend to cluster about a central location, with more extreme observations being less frequent. The extent to which observations cluster is summarized by measures of central tendency while the spread can be described by measures of dispersion. The confidence interval (CI) is an increasingly important measure of precision. When we observe samples, there is no way of assessing true population parameters. We can, however, obtain a standard error and use it to define a range in which the true population value is likely to lie with a certain acceptable level of uncertainty. This range is the CI while its two terminal values are the confidence limits. Conventionally, the 95% CI is used. Patterns in data sets or data distributions are important, albeit not so obvious, component of descriptive statistics. The most common distribution is the normal distribution which is depicted as the well-known symmetrical bell-shaped Gaussian curve. Familiarity with other distributions such as the binomial and Poisson distributions is also helpful. Various graphs and plots have been devised to summarize data and trends visually. Some plots, such as the box-and-whiskers plot and the stem-and-leaf plot are used less often but provide useful summaries in select situations. PMID:26955089

  9. Biostatistics Series Module 8: Assessing Risk

    PubMed Central

    Hazra, Avijit; Gogtay, Nithya

    2017-01-01

    In observational studies, as well as in interventional ones, it is frequently necessary to estimate risk that is the association between an observed outcome or event and exposure to one or more factors that may be contributing to the event. Understanding incidence and prevalence are the starting point in any discussion of risk assessment. Incidence rate uses person-time as the denominator rather than a simple count. Ideally, rates and ratios estimated from samples should be presented with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). To assess the importance of an individual risk factor, it is necessary to compare the risk of the outcome in the exposed group with that in the nonexposed group. A comparison between risks in different groups can be made by examining either their ratio or the difference between them. The 2 × 2 contingency table comes in handy in the calculation of ratios. Odds ratio (OR) is the ratio of the odds of an event in the exposed group, to the odds of the same event in the nonexposed group. It can range from zero to infinity. When the odds of an outcome in the two groups are identical, then the OR equals one. OR >1 indicates exposure increases risk while OR <1 indicates that exposure is protecting against risk. The OR should be presented with its 95% CI to enable more meaningful interpretation – if this interval includes 1, then even a relatively large OR will not carry much weight. The relative risk (RR) denotes the ratio of risk (probability) of event in exposed group to risk of same event in the nonexposed group. Its interpretation is similar (but not identical) to the OR. If the event in question is relatively uncommon, values of OR and RR tend to be similar. Absolute risk reduction (ARR) is a measure of the effectiveness of an intervention with respect to a dichotomous event. It is calculated as proportion experiencing the event in control group minus the proportion experiencing the event in treated group. It is often used to denote the benefit to the individual. The reciprocal of ARR is the number needed to treat (NNT), and it denotes the number of subjects who would need to be treated to obtain one more success than that obtained with a control treatment. Alternatively, this could also denote the number that would need to be treated to prevent one additional adverse outcome as compared to control treatment. Extended to toxicity, the NNT becomes a measure of harm and is then known as the number needed to harm (NNH). NNT and NNH are important concepts from the policy makers perspective and ideally should be calculated in all trials of therapeutic or prophylactic intervention.

  10. Methodology Series Module 5: Sampling Strategies.

    PubMed

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Once the research question and the research design have been finalised, it is important to select the appropriate sample for the study. The method by which the researcher selects the sample is the ' Sampling Method'. There are essentially two types of sampling methods: 1) probability sampling - based on chance events (such as random numbers, flipping a coin etc.); and 2) non-probability sampling - based on researcher's choice, population that accessible & available. Some of the non-probability sampling methods are: purposive sampling, convenience sampling, or quota sampling. Random sampling method (such as simple random sample or stratified random sample) is a form of probability sampling. It is important to understand the different sampling methods used in clinical studies and mention this method clearly in the manuscript. The researcher should not misrepresent the sampling method in the manuscript (such as using the term ' random sample' when the researcher has used convenience sample). The sampling method will depend on the research question. For instance, the researcher may want to understand an issue in greater detail for one particular population rather than worry about the ' generalizability' of these results. In such a scenario, the researcher may want to use ' purposive sampling' for the study.

  11. Series connected OLED structure and fabrication method

    SciTech Connect

    Foust, Donald Franklin; Balch, Ernest Wayne; Duggal, Anil Raj; Heller, Christian Maria; Guida, Renato; Nealon, William Francis; Faircloth, Tami Janene

    2006-05-23

    A light emitting device comprises a plurality of organic light emitting diode (OLED) modules. The OLED modules are arranged into a series group where the individual OLED modules are electrically connected in series. The device is configured to be coupled to a power supply. A display is also provided. The display includes a plurality of OLED modules arranged to depict a shape selected from the group consisting of at least one letter, at least one number, at least one image, and a combination thereof.

  12. Oral administration of Nitraria retusa ethanolic extract enhances hepatic lipid metabolism in db/db mice model 'BKS.Cg-Dock7(m)+/+ Lepr(db/)J' through the modulation of lipogenesis-lipolysis balance.

    PubMed

    Zar Kalai, Feten; Han, Junkyu; Ksouri, Riadh; Abdelly, Chedly; Isoda, Hiroko

    2014-10-01

    The medicinal plants can be used in the prevention or treatment of many diseases. Several studies concerning the potential of bioactive components in plants and food products and their link to obesity and related metabolic disorders, have been gaining big interest. Diabetes is a serious metabolic syndrome. Searching for alternative natural bioactive molecules is considered main strategy to manage diabetes through weight management. In the present study, an edible halophyte Nitraria retusa was selected and in vivo experiment was conducted using db/db model mice. We orally administrated its ethanol extract (NRE) to BKS.Cg-Dock7(m)+/+ Lepr(db/)J mice model for a period of 4 weeks. The effect was evaluated on the body weight and adiposity changes and on the biochemical parameters of db/db NRE-treated mice. The molecular mechanism underlying the anti-obesity effect was investigated by testing the gene expression related to hepatic lipid metabolism. NRE was found to significantly supress increases in body and fat mass weight, decreases triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol levels and enhances gene expression related to lipid homeostasis in liver showing anti-obesity actions. Our findings, indicate that NRE possesses potential anti-obesity effects in BKS.Cg-Dock7(m)+/+ Lepr(db/)J model mice and may relieve obesity-related symptoms including hyperlipidemia through modulating the lipolysis-lipogenesis balance.

  13. 76 FR 4219 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A330-200 Series Airplanes; Model A330-300 Series Airplanes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ...-200 Series Airplanes; Model A330-300 Series Airplanes; Model A340-200 Series Airplanes; and Model A340-300 Series Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT... airplanes) or TR150 (for Model A340-200 and -300 series airplanes), both Issue 1.0, both dated December...

  14. A One-Day Professional Development Seminar on Student Behavior for In-Service Teachers and Administrators in Selected Vocational Schools in New Jersey. Training Series in Vocational Technical Education. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drawbaugh, Charles C.; Schaefer, Carl J.

    The document describes a project, conducted by Rutgers University under a Federal grant, to help New Jersey vocational teachers cope with student behavior. Called "traveling seminars," the one-day workshops aimed to improve student behavior by helping teachers and administrators better understand it. The objective was approached indirectly, by…

  15. Engineering Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    This book is intended to acquaint naval engineering officers with their duties in the engineering department. Standard shipboard organizations are analyzed in connection with personnel assignments, division operations, and watch systems. Detailed descriptions are included for the administration of directives, ship's bills, damage control, training…

  16. Administrative IT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Katherine, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    When it comes to Administrative IT solutions and processes, best practices range across the spectrum. Enterprise resource planning (ERP), student information systems (SIS), and tech support are prominent and continuing areas of focus. But widespread change can also be accomplished via the implementation of campuswide document imaging and sharing,…

  17. Database Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  18. Combined immunogenicity data for a new DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T vaccine (Hexaxim) following primary series administration at 2, 4, 6 months of age in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Santos-Lima, Eduardo; B'Chir, Siham; Lane, Andrew

    2013-02-18

    The immunogenicity of a primary series of a new, fully liquid DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T vaccine (Hexaxim), administered at 2, 4, 6 months of age in four clinical studies is reviewed. Immunogenicity data at 1 month after the third vaccination were assessed and pooled from a total of 1270 participants (per-protocol population) in four randomized clinical trials in Argentina, Mexico, and Peru. Hepatitis B vaccine was not administered at birth. All seroprotection (D, T, polio-1, -2, -3, Hep B, PRP-T [Hib]), seroconversion (PT and FHA), and vaccine response (PT and FHA) data were high, and were similar to licensed comparators (pooled SP, SC, and VR rates were 97.1-100%, 96.0-97.0%, and 99.7-99.9%, respectively). These data show the good immunogenicity of this new hexavalent vaccine that can provide the opportunity to increase global compliance to complex pediatric vaccination schedules.

  19. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Mrig, L.

    1990-01-01

    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986--1990. The reliability Photo Voltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warranties available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  20. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrig, L.

    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986 to 1990. The reliability photovoltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warrantees available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the U.S., PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  1. Common Core State Standards for Mathematics: Teacher Self-Learning Series. Module 1: Introduction to the Common Core State Standards in Mathematics--The Need, the Development Process, the Common Languages, and the Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana Department of Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This module provides background information and presents the new terminology used in the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM). Educators should complete this module to understand the need for common standards, determine information about who developed the Standards, and learn the terminology and the coding used in the CCSSM. An…

  2. 75 FR 27487 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier-Rotax GmbH 912 F Series and 912 S Series Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... GmbH 912 F Series and 912 S Series Reciprocating Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... AD applies to Bombardier-Rotax 912 F series and 912 S series reciprocating engines with fuel pumps..., 892236, 892540, or 892545, on any engine. FAA AD Differences (f) This AD differs from the MCAI...

  3. Linear Phase Modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, R. H.

    1986-01-01

    Circuit suppresses AM component while providing matched input impedance. Phase modulation uses reflective properties of series resonant tank to reflect all of signal except for small amount in unloaded Q of coils and varactor diode. Circuit used in payload integrator of Space Shuttle S-band communications and tracking equipment, has applications in other communications and tracking equipment.

  4. Environmental Microbiology Modules. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walke, Raymond H.; Walke, Jayne G.

    This publication is the result of a project to develop microbiology instructional materials for vocational college students. These materials are a series of self-paced modules. Each module includes a pre-test, an introduction and historical packet, an organizational packet to set the framework for in-depth study, one or more in-depth packets, a…

  5. Large structural modulations in the relaxor ferroelectric and intermediate state of strontium rich members (x&2gt;0.6) of the SrxBa1-xNb2O6 (sbn) solid solution series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graetsch, H. A.

    2017-02-01

    The amplitudes of the positional, occupational and adp modulations of sbn mixed crystals are strongly enhanced for high strontium contents. The increase of structural modulations is accompanied by reduced spontaneous electric polarization largely due to smaller off-center shifts of the niobium atoms. Beyond the room temperature ferroelectric - intermediate transition near x=0.77, anomal large U33 atomic displacement parameters of the niobium atoms indicate static disorder caused by loss of orientational coupling between residual shifts of Nb atoms in neighboring NbO6 octahedra. Change of satellite intensities show a reduction from two-dimensional to one-dimensional modulation which is not consistent with tetragonal symmetry. The pseudo-tetragonally twinned crystal structure of sbn82 was refined in the orthorhombic super-space group A2mm(½0γ)000. The apparent tetragonal symmetry of the other investigated sbn samples also seems to be due to pseudo tetragonal twinning with equal twin volumes. The modulations mainly consist of cooperatively tilted NbO6 octahedra and wave-like ordered incomplete occupation of the largest cation sites (Me2a and b) by Ba2+ and Sr2+. Furthermore, the atomic displacement parameters of the Me2 sites are strongly modulated.

  6. Cell shunt resistance and photovoltaic module performance

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, T.J.; Basso, T.S.; Rummel, S.R.

    1996-09-01

    Shunt resistance of cells in photovoltaic modules can affect module power output and could indicate flawed manufacturing processes and reliability problems. The authors describe a two-terminal diagnostic method to directly measure the shunt resistance of individual cells in a series-connected module non-intrusively, without deencapsulation. Peak power efficiency vs. light intensity was measured on a 12-cell, series-connected, single crystalline module having relatively high cell shunt resistances. The module was remeasured with 0.5-, 1-, and 2-ohm resistors attached across each cell to simulate shunt resistances of several emerging technologies. Peak power efficiencies decreased dramatically at lower light levels. Using the PSpice circuit simulator, they verified that cell shunt and series resistances can indeed be responsible for the observed peak power efficiency vs. intensity behavior. They discuss the effect of basic cell diode parameters, i.e., shunt resistance, series resistance, and recombination losses, on PV module performance as a function of light intensity.

  7. Modulation techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schilling, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    Bandwidth efficient digital modulation techniques, proposed for use on and/or applied to satellite channels, are reviewed. In a survey of recent works on digital modulation techniques, the performance of several schemes operating in various environments are compared. Topics covered include: (1) quadrature phase shift keying; (2) offset - QPSK and MSK; (3) combined modulation and coding; and (4) spectrally efficient modulation techniques.

  8. Optical Electronics. Electronics Module 9. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franken, Bill

    This module is the ninth of 10 modules in the competency-based electronics series. Introductory materials include a listing of competencies addressed in the module, a parts/equipment list, and a cross reference table of instructional materials. Five instructional units cover: fiber optic cable; optical coupler; lasers and masers; optical displays;…

  9. Safe administration of blood components.

    PubMed

    Hurrell, Katy

    The transfusion process has many stages, each involving different members of staff in different locations. This gives rise to a significant potential for errors. Nurses are involved in many of these stages and therefore require knowledge, skills and competence in the process to ensure the safety of patients. This third article in our five-part series on blood transfusion discusses the safe administration of blood components and the key principles to which nurses must adhere.

  10. Secrets of Highly Effective Meetings. The Practicing Administrator's Leadership Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Maria M.; Bauer, Laurie K.

    Whenever educators gather to achieve a common goal, every participant should arrive with a sense of purpose and leave with a feeling of accomplishment. This book explains how to make meetings more efficient and effective. It outlines: (1) the correlation between excellent meetings and excellent results; (2) how to plan, open, conduct, and follow…

  11. Senior Administrators Should Have Administrative Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Gary J.

    1987-01-01

    Recognizing that termination is viewed by the employee as the equivalent to capital punishment of a career, an administrative contract can reduce the emotional and financial entanglements that often result. Administrative contracts are described. (MLW)

  12. An Administrator's Checklist. Book 1. Handbook for the ESL/ABE Administrator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escobar, Joanna Sculley; Daugherty, John

    The manual provides a checklist for administrators responsible for developing, implementing, and evaluating an Adult English as a Second Language Program. The checklist consists of four sections: philosophy, administration and organization, program development and operation, and program impact. For each section there is a series of specific…

  13. Agency and Structure: Dialectics in the Administration of Education. ESA844, Administrative Context of Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Peter

    This volume is part of a series of monographs from Australia devoted to outlining an alternative approach, based on neo-Marxist concepts, to educational administration. The introductory essay in this volume attempts to develop and clarify the basis for an alternative, dialectical approach to educational administration, which emphasizes the…

  14. Printed Module Interconnects

    SciTech Connect

    Stockert, Talysa R.; Fields, Jeremy D.; Pach, Gregory F.; Mauger, Scott A.; van Hest, Maikel F. A. M.

    2015-06-14

    Monolithic interconnects in photovoltaic modules connect adjacent cells in series, and are typically formed sequentially involving multiple deposition and scribing steps. Interconnect widths of 500 um every 10 mm result in 5% dead area, which does not contribute to power generation in an interconnected solar panel. This work expands on previous work that introduced an alternative interconnection method capable of producing interconnect widths less than 100 um. The interconnect is added to the module in a single step after deposition of the photovoltaic stack, eliminating the need for scribe alignment. This alternative method can be used for all types of thin film photovoltaic modules. Voltage addition with copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS) solar cells using a 2-scribe printed interconnect approach is demonstrated. Additionally, interconnect widths of 250 um are shown.

  15. Module Configuration

    DOEpatents

    Oweis, Salah; D'Ussel, Louis; Chagnon, Guy; Zuhowski, Michael; Sack, Tim; Laucournet, Gaullume; Jackson, Edward J.

    2002-06-04

    A stand alone battery module including: (a) a mechanical configuration; (b) a thermal management configuration; (c) an electrical connection configuration; and (d) an electronics configuration. Such a module is fully interchangeable in a battery pack assembly, mechanically, from the thermal management point of view, and electrically. With the same hardware, the module can accommodate different cell sizes and, therefore, can easily have different capacities. The module structure is designed to accommodate the electronics monitoring, protection, and printed wiring assembly boards (PWAs), as well as to allow airflow through the module. A plurality of modules may easily be connected together to form a battery pack. The parts of the module are designed to facilitate their manufacture and assembly.

  16. Solar Cell Modules with Parallel Oriented Interconnections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Twenty-four solar modules, half of which were 48 cells in an all-series electrical configuration and half of a six parallel cells by eight series cells were provided. Upon delivery of environmentally tested modules, low power outputs were discovered. These low power modules were determined to have cracked cells which were thought to cause the low output power. The cracks tended to be linear or circular which were caused by different stressing mechanisms. These stressing mechanisms were fully explored. Efforts were undertaken to determine the causes of cell fracture. This resulted in module design and process modifications. The design and process changes were subsequently implemented in production.

  17. Methods and Materials for Teaching Occupational Survival Skills. Module Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    This document contains twelve sixteen-item multiple choice tests and answer keys for the modules in the Occupational Survival Skills series (CE 018 557-568.) (CE 018 556 describes the series and its development.) (JH)

  18. 29 CFR 102.6 - Administrative law judge; hearing officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative law judge; hearing officer. 102.6 Section 102.6 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS, SERIES 8 Definitions § 102.6 Administrative law judge; hearing officer. The term administrative law...

  19. Veterans Health Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... code here VA » Veterans Health Administration Veterans Health Administration Marine Continues to Serve by Serving Veterans David ... Read more » VA Medical Centers The Veterans Health Administration is home to the United States’ largest integrated ...

  20. Space Experiment Module (SEM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodell, Charles L.

    1999-01-01

    The Space Experiment Module (SEM) Program is an education initiative sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Shuttle Small Payloads Project. The program provides nationwide educational access to space for Kindergarten through University level students. The SEM program focuses on the science of zero-gravity and microgravity. Within the program, NASA provides small containers or "modules" for students to fly experiments on the Space Shuttle. The experiments are created, designed, built, and implemented by students with teacher and/or mentor guidance. Student experiment modules are flown in a "carrier" which resides in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. The carrier supplies power to, and the means to control and collect data from each experiment.

  1. Unification and Infinite Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyendekkers, J. V.; Shannon, A. G.

    2008-01-01

    Some infinite series are analysed on the basis of the hypergeometric function and integer structure and modular rings. The resulting generalized functions are compared with differentiation of the "mother" series. (Contains 1 table.)

  2. Module Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    various testing methodologies for the evaluation and characterization of Transmit /Receive (T/R) modules for phased array radars. Discussed are techniques...for characterizing T/R modules in transmit and receive modes under ideal and emulated operation environments. Further, techniques for life testing...characteristics of T/R modules developed during the early and mid 1980’s. Data provided shows the performance in terms of gain and phase for both transmit

  3. Geometric Series via Probability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesman, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Infinite series is a challenging topic in the undergraduate mathematics curriculum for many students. In fact, there is a vast literature in mathematics education research on convergence issues. One of the most important types of infinite series is the geometric series. Their beauty lies in the fact that they can be evaluated explicitly and that…

  4. 75 FR 77570 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company CF6 Series Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ...) for General Electric (GE) CF6-45/-50 series and CF6-80A series turbofan engines with certain part... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company CF6 Series Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice...

  5. 77 FR 14732 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... International Trade Administration Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules... of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells, whether or not assembled into modules, from the People's.... \\1\\ See Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From...

  6. Introduction to Insulation. Introduction to Construction Series. Instructor Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Associated General Contractors of America, Washington, DC.

    This module on introductory insulation is one of a series of modules designed to teach basic skills necessary for entry-level employment in this field. The instructor's guide contains three instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) insulation materials; (2) insulation tools; and (3) insulation layout and basic skills. Each…

  7. Exploration of Allosteric Agonism Structure-Activity Relationships within an Acetylene Series of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 (mGlu5) Positive Allosteric Modulators (PAMs): discovery of 5-((3-fluorophenyl)ethynyl)-N-(3-methyloxetan-3-yl)picolinamide (ML254)

    PubMed Central

    Turlington, Mark; Noetzel, Meredith J.; Chun, Aspen; Zhou, Ya; Gogliotti, Rocco D.; Nguyen, Elizabeth D.; Gregory, Karen J.; Vinson, Paige N.; Rook, Jerri M.; Gogi, Kiran K.; Xiang, Zixiu; Bridges, Thomas M.; Daniels, J. Scott; Jones, Carrie; Niswender, Colleen M.; Meiler, Jens; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W.; Stauffer, Shaun R.

    2014-01-01

    Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) represent a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of schizophrenia. Both allosteric agonism and high glutamate fold-shift have been implicated in the neurotoxic profile of some mGlu5 PAMs; however, these hypotheses remain to be adequately addressed. To develop tool compounds to probe these hypotheses, the structure-activity relationship of allosteric agonism was examined within an acetylenic series of mGlu5 PAMs exhibiting allosteric agonism in addition to positive allosteric modulation (ago-PAMs). PAM 38t, a low glutamate fold-shift allosteric ligand (maximum fold-shift ~3.0), was selected as a potent PAM with no agonism in the in vitro system used for compound characterization and in two native electrophysiological systems using rat hippocampal slices. PAM 38t (ML254) will be useful to probe the relative contribution of cooperativity and allosteric agonism to the adverse effect liability and neurotoxicity associated with this class of mGlu5 PAMs. PMID:24050755

  8. Exploration of allosteric agonism structure-activity relationships within an acetylene series of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) positive allosteric modulators (PAMs): discovery of 5-((3-fluorophenyl)ethynyl)-N-(3-methyloxetan-3-yl)picolinamide (ML254).

    PubMed

    Turlington, Mark; Noetzel, Meredith J; Chun, Aspen; Zhou, Ya; Gogliotti, Rocco D; Nguyen, Elizabeth D; Gregory, Karen J; Vinson, Paige N; Rook, Jerri M; Gogi, Kiran K; Xiang, Zixiu; Bridges, Thomas M; Daniels, J Scott; Jones, Carrie; Niswender, Colleen M; Meiler, Jens; Conn, P Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W; Stauffer, Shaun R

    2013-10-24

    Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) represent a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of schizophrenia. Both allosteric agonism and high glutamate fold-shift have been implicated in the neurotoxic profile of some mGlu5 PAMs; however, these hypotheses remain to be adequately addressed. To develop tool compounds to probe these hypotheses, the structure-activity relationship of allosteric agonism was examined within an acetylenic series of mGlu5 PAMs exhibiting allosteric agonism in addition to positive allosteric modulation (ago-PAMs). PAM 38t, a low glutamate fold-shift allosteric ligand (maximum fold-shift ~ 3.0), was selected as a potent PAM with no agonism in the in vitro system used for compound characterization and in two native electrophysiological systems using rat hippocampal slices. PAM 38t (ML254) will be useful to probe the relative contribution of cooperativity and allosteric agonism to the adverse effect liability and neurotoxicity associated with this class of mGlu5 PAMs.

  9. Paine Appointed Administrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    President Richard M. Nixon announcing the appointment of Dr. Thomas O. Paine as Administrator for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The ceremony was held at the White House. Paine had been serving as acting administrator. From left to right: President Richard M. Nixon NASA Administrator Dr. Thomas O. Paine Vice President Spiro T. Agnew

  10. Photovoltaic module parameters acquisition model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibira, Gabriel; Koščová, Marcela

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents basic procedures for photovoltaic (PV) module parameters acquisition using MATLAB and Simulink modelling. In first step, MATLAB and Simulink theoretical model are set to calculate I-V and P-V characteristics for PV module based on equivalent electrical circuit. Then, limited I-V data string is obtained from examined PV module using standard measurement equipment at standard irradiation and temperature conditions and stated into MATLAB data matrix as a reference model. Next, the theoretical model is optimized to keep-up with the reference model and to learn its basic parameters relations, over sparse data matrix. Finally, PV module parameters are deliverable for acquisition at different realistic irradiation, temperature conditions as well as series resistance. Besides of output power characteristics and efficiency calculation for PV module or system, proposed model validates computing statistical deviation compared to reference model.

  11. Exploring Fourier Series and Gibbs Phenomenon Using Mathematica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Jonaki B.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a laboratory module on Fourier series and Gibbs phenomenon which was undertaken by 32 Year 12 students. It shows how the use of CAS played the role of an "amplifier" by making higher level mathematical concepts accessible to students of year 12. Using Mathematica students were able to visualise Fourier series of…

  12. Subcutaneous administration of liraglutide ameliorates learning and memory impairment by modulating tau hyperphosphorylation via the glycogen synthase kinase-3β pathway in an amyloid β protein induced alzheimer disease mouse model.

    PubMed

    Qi, Liqin; Ke, Linfang; Liu, Xiaohong; Liao, Lianming; Ke, Sujie; Liu, Xiaoying; Wang, Yanping; Lin, Xiaowei; Zhou, Yu; Wu, Lijuan; Chen, Zhou; Liu, Libin

    2016-07-15

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The glucagon-like peptide-1 analog liraglutide, a novel long-lasting incretin hormone, has been used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition, liraglutide has been shown to be neurotrophic and neuroprotective. Here, we investigated the effects of liraglutide on amyloid β protein (Aβ)-induced AD in mice and explored its mechanism of action. The results showed that subcutaneous administration of liraglutide (25nmol/day), once daily for 8 weeks, prevented memory impairments in the Y Maze and Morris Water Maze following Aβ1-42 intracerebroventricular injection, and alleviated the ultra-structural changes of pyramidal neurons and chemical synapses in the hippocampal CA1 region. Furthermore, liraglutide reduced Aβ1-42-induced tau phosphorylation via the protein kinase B and glycogen synthase kinase-3β pathways. Thus liraglutide may alleviate cognitive impairment in AD by at least decreasing the phosphorylation of tau.

  13. Terahertz-sideband spectra involving Kapteyn series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerche, Ian; Tautz, Robert C.; Citrin, D. S.

    2009-09-01

    Kapteyn series of the second kind appear in models of even- and odd-order sideband spectra in the optical regime of a quantum system modulated by a high-frequency (e.g., terahertz) electromagnetic field (Citrin D S 1999 Phys. Rev. B 60 5659) and in certain time-periodic transport problems in superlattices (Ignatov A A and Romanov Y A 1976 Phys. Status Solidi b 73 327; Feise M W and Citrin D S 1999 Appl. Phys. Lett. 75 3536). This paper shows that both the even- and the odd-order Kapteyn series that appear can be summed in closed form, thereby allowing more transparent insight into the structural dependence of the sideband spectra and also providing an analytic control for the accuracy of numerical procedures designed to evaluate the series. The general method of analysis may also be of interest for other Kapteyn series.

  14. Design and development of a CPW-based 5-bit switched-line phase shifter using inline metal contact MEMS series switches for 17.25 GHz transmit/receive module application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Sukomal; Koul, Shiban K.

    2014-01-01

    A radio frequency micro-electro-mechanical system (RF-MEMS) phase shifter based on switchable delay line concept with maximum desirable phase shift and good reliability is presented in this paper. The phase shifter is based on the switchable reference and delay line configurations with inline metal contact series switches that employs MEMS systems based on electrostatic actuation and implemented using coplanar waveguide (CPW) configuration. Electromechanical behaviour of the MEMS switch has been extensively investigated using commercially available simulation tools and validated using system level simulation. A detailed design and performance analysis of the phase shifter has been carried out as a function of various structural parameters with reference to the gold-based surface micromachining process on alumina substrate. The mechanical, electrical, transient, intermodulation distortion (IMD) and loss performance of an MEMS switch have been experimentally investigated. The individual primary phase-bits (11.25°/22.5°/45°/90°/180°) that are fundamental building blocks of a complete 5-bit phase shifter have been designed, fabricated and experimentally characterized. Furthermore, two different 5-bit switched-line phase shifters, that lead to 25% size reduction and result in marked improvement in the reliability of the complete 5-bit phase shifter with 30 V actuation voltage, have been developed. The performance comparison between two different CPW-based switched-line phase shifters have been extensively investigated and validated. The complete 5-bit phase shifter demonstrates an average insertion loss of 5.4 dB with a return loss of better than 14 dB at 17.25 GHz. The maximum phase error of 1.3° has been obtained at 17.25 GHz from these 5-bit phase shifters.

  15. Repeated administration of the noradrenergic neurotoxin N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4) modulates neuroinflammation and amyloid plaque load in mice bearing amyloid precursor protein and presenilin-1 mutant transgenes

    PubMed Central

    Pugh, Perdita L; Vidgeon-Hart, Martin P; Ashmeade, Tracey; Culbert, Ainsley A; Seymour, Zoe; Perren, Marion J; Joyce, Flora; Bate, Simon T; Babin, Anna; Virley, David J; Richardson, Jill C; Upton, Neil; Sunter, David

    2007-01-01

    Background Data indicates anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and pro-cognitive properties of noradrenaline and analyses of post-mortem brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients reveal major neuronal loss in the noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC), the main source of CNS noradrenaline (NA). The LC has projections to brain regions vulnerable to amyloid deposition and lack of LC derived NA could play a role in the progression of neuroinflammation in AD. Previous studies reveal that intraperitoneal (IP) injection of the noradrenergic neurotoxin N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4) can modulate neuroinflammation in amyloid over-expressing mice and in one study, DSP-4 exacerbated existing neurodegeneration. Methods TASTPM mice over-express human APP and beta amyloid protein and show age related cognitive decline and neuroinflammation. In the present studies, 5 month old C57/BL6 and TASTPM mice were injected once monthly for 6 months with a low dose of DSP-4 (5 mg kg-1) or vehicle. At 8 and 11 months of age, mice were tested for cognitive ability and brains were examined for amyloid load and neuroinflammation. Results At 8 months of age there was no difference in LC tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) across all groups and cortical NA levels of TASTPM/DSP-4, WT/Vehicle and WT/DSP-4 were similar. NA levels were lowest in TASTPM/Vehicle. Messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) for various inflammatory markers were significantly increased in TASTPM/Vehicle compared with WT/Vehicle and by 8 months of age DSP-4 treatment modified this by reducing the levels of some of these markers in TASTPM. TASTPM/Vehicle showed increased astrocytosis and a significantly larger area of cortical amyloid plaque compared with TASTPM/DSP-4. However, by 11 months, NA levels were lowest in TASTPM/DSP-4 and there was a significant reduction in LC TH of TASTPM/DSP-4 only. Both TASTPM groups had comparable levels of amyloid, microglial activation and astrocytosis and mRNA for inflammatory markers was

  16. The Knife Machine. Module 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the knife machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers one topic: performing special operations on the knife machine (a single needle or multi-needle machine which sews and cuts at the same time). These components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective,…

  17. The Blindstitch Machine. Module 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the purpose and use of the blindstitch machine, one in a series on clothing construction for industrial sewing machine operators designed for student self-study, contains three sections. Each section includes the following parts: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, student self-check,…

  18. Modulation of intestinal barrier function to ameliorate Salmonella infection in mice by oral administration of fermented milks produced with Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC 5690 - a probiotic strain of Indian gut origin.

    PubMed

    Rokana, Namita; Singh, Rajbir; Mallappa, Rashmi Hogarehalli; Batish, Virender Kumar; Grover, Sunita

    2016-12-01

    Probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC 5690, a probiotic strain of Indian gut origin, and milk formulations produced with the same were explored in this study as biotherapeutics by evaluating their functional efficacy against Salmonella infection in mice. The efficacy of milk formulations (fermented/unfermented) of MTCC 5690 for enhancement of intestinal barrier function was determined by monitoring the permeability and histopathology of the intestine. Infected mice fed with probiotic Dahi, fermented probiotic drink and sweetened fermented probiotic drink maintained the health and integrity of the intestinal epithelium as compared to those fed with PBS, milk, unfermented probiotic milk and Dahi. Our relative expression data revealed that the changes caused by MTCC 5690 in intestinal barrier function components were established through modulation of the key regulatory receptors Toll-like receptor 2 and Toll-like receptor 4. The results suggest that fermented milks of MTCC 5690 could enhance the defences of the intestinal barrier in enteric infection condition and, therefore, can be explored as a dietary-based strategy to reduce Salmonella infection in the human gut.

  19. Oral Administration of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Xanthorrhoeaceae) and Honey Improves the Host Body Composition and Modulates Proteolysis Through Reduction of Tumor Progression and Oxidative Stress in Rats.

    PubMed

    Tomasin, Rebeka; de Andrade, Rafael Siqueira; Gomes-Marcondes, Maria Cristina Cintra

    2015-10-01

    Oxidative stress has a dual role in cancer; it is linked with tumorigenic events and host wasting, as well as senescence and apoptosis. Researchers have demonstrated the importance of coadjuvant therapies in cancer treatment, and Aloe vera and honey have immunomodulatory, anticancer, and antioxidant properties. The preventive and therapeutic effects of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Xanthorrhoeaceae) and honey in tumor progression and host wasting were analyzed in Walker 256 carcinoma-bearing rats. The animals were distributed into the following groups: C=control-untreated, W=tumor-untreated, WA=treated after tumor induction, A=control-treated, AW=treated before tumor induction, and AWA=treated before and after tumor induction. Proteolysis and oxidative stress were analyzed in the tumor, liver, muscle, and myocardial tissues. The results suggest that the Aloe vera and honey treatment affect the tumor and host by different mechanisms; the treatment-modulated host wasting and cachexia, whereas it promoted oxidative stress and damage in tumor tissues, particularly in a therapeutic context (WA).

  20. Intracerebral administration of protein kinase A or cAMP response element-binding protein antisense oligonucleotide can modulate amphetamine-mediated appetite suppression in free-moving rats.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Yang, Shun-Fa; Kuo, Dong-Yih

    2007-01-01

    Although amphetamine (AMPH)-induced appetite suppression has been attributed to its inhibitory action on neuropeptide Y (NPY), an appetite neurotransmitter abundant in the brain, molecular mechanisms underlying this effect are not well known. This study examined the possible role of protein kinase A (PKA) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) signaling in this anorectic effect, and the results showed that both PKA and CREB mRNA levels in hypothalamus were increased following AMPH treatment, which was relevant to a reduction of NPY mRNA level. To determine whether PKA or CREB was involved in the anorectic response, intracerebroventricular infusions of antisense oligonucleotide (or missense control) were performed 60 min before daily AMPH treatment in conscious rats, and results showed that either PKA or CREB knockdown could block AMPH-induced anorexia as well as restore NPY mRNA level, indicating the respective involvement of PKA and CREB signaling in the regulation of NPY gene expression. It is suggested that hypothalamic PKA and CREB signaling may involve the central regulation of AMPH-mediated feeding suppression via the modulation of NPY gene expression.

  1. Modulation of the ligand-field anisotropy in a series of ferric low-spin cytochrome c mutants derived from Pseudomonas aeruginosa cytochrome c-551 and Nitrosomonas europaea cytochrome c-552: a nuclear magnetic resonance and electron paramagnetic resonance study.

    PubMed

    Zoppellaro, Giorgio; Harbitz, Espen; Kaur, Ravinder; Ensign, Amy A; Bren, Kara L; Andersson, K Kristoffer

    2008-11-19

    Cytochromes of the c type with histidine-methionine (His-Met) heme axial ligation play important roles in electron-transfer reactions and in enzymes. In this work, two series of cytochrome c mutants derived from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa c-551) and from the ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea (Ne c-552) were engineered and overexpressed. In these proteins, point mutations were induced in a key residue (Asn64) near the Met axial ligand; these mutations have a considerable impact both on heme ligand-field strength and on the Met orientation and dynamics (fluxionality), as judged by low-temperature electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. Ne c-552 has a ferric low-spin (S = 1/2) EPR signal characterized by large g anisotropy with g(max) resonance at 3.34; a similar large g(max) value EPR signal is found in the mitochondrial complex III cytochrome c1. In Ne c-552, deletion of Asn64 (NeN64Delta) changes the heme ligand field from more axial to rhombic (small g anisotropy and g(max) at 3.13) and furthermore hinders the Met fluxionality present in the wild-type protein. In Pa c-551 (g(max) at 3.20), replacement of Asn64 with valine (PaN64V) induces a decrease in the axial strain (g(max) at 3.05) and changes the Met configuration. Another set of mutants prepared by insertion (ins) and/or deletion (Delta) of a valine residue adjacent to Asn64, resulting in modifications in the length of the axial Met-donating loop (NeV65Delta, NeG50N/V65Delta, PaN50G/V65ins), did not result in appreciable alterations of the originally weak (Ne c-552) or very weak (Pa c-551) axial field but had an impact on Met orientation, fluxionality, and relaxation dynamics. Comparison of the electronic fingerprints in the overexpressed proteins and their mutants reveals a linear relationship between axial strain and average paramagnetic heme methyl shifts, irrespective of Met orientation or dynamics. Thus, for these His-Met axially coordinated Fe

  2. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    DOEpatents

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  3. Modulation of axonal sprouting along rostro-caudal axis of dorsal hippocampus and no neuronal survival in parahippocampal cortices by long-term post-lesion melatonin administration in lithium-pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Ganjkhani, Mahin; Ali, Rostami; Iraj, Jafari Anarkooli

    2016-01-01

    Feature outcome of hippocampus and extra-hippocampal cortices was evaluated in melatonin treated lithium-pilocarpine epileptic rats during early and chronic phases of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). After status epilepticus (SE) induction, 5 and 20 mg/kg melatonin were administered for 14 days or 60 days. All animals were killed 60 days post SE induction and the histological features of the rosrto-caudal axis of the dorsal hippocampus, piriform and entorhinal cortices were evaluated utilizing Nissl, Timm, and synapsin I immunoflorescent staining. Melatonin (20 mg/kg) effect on CA1 and CA3 neurons showed a region-specific pattern along the rostro-caudal axis of the dorsal hippocampus. The number of counted granular cells by melatonin (20 mg/kg) treatment increased along the rostro-caudal axis of the dorsal hippocampus in comparison to the untreated epileptic group. The density of Timm granules in the inner molecular layer of the dentate gyrus decreased significantly in all melatonin treated groups in comparison to the untreated epileptic animals. The increased density of synapsin I immunoreactivity in the outer molecular layer of the dentate gyrus of untreated epileptic rats showed a profound decrease following melatonin treatment. There was no neuronal protection in the piriform and entorhinal cortices whatever the melatonin treatment. Long-term melatonin administration as a co-adjuvant probably could reduce the post-lesion histological consequences of TLE in a region-specific pattern along the rostro-caudal axis of the dorsal hippocampus. PMID:27051565

  4. Fourier Series Operating Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnow, Milton L.

    1961-01-01

    This report presents a computer program for multiplying, adding, differentiating, integrating, "barring" and scalarly multiplying "literal" Fourier series as such, and for extracting the coefficients of specified terms.

  5. 76 FR 6578 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A330-200 and -300 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ...-200 and -300 Series Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Supplemental... apply to certain Model A330-200 and -300 series airplanes. That supplemental NPRM was published in...

  6. 76 FR 54093 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Model DHC-8-400 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    .... Model DHC-8-400 Series Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of...) For service information identified in this AD, contact Bombardier, Inc., Q-Series Technical Help...

  7. 76 FR 64847 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Model DHC-8-400 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    .... Model DHC-8-400 Series Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... information identified in this proposed AD, contact Bombardier, Inc., Q-Series Technical Help Desk,...

  8. 75 FR 55459 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney (PW) PW4000 Series Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-13

    ...) PW4000 Series Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule... amend 14 CFR part 39 with a proposed AD. The proposed AD applies to PW PW4000 series turbofan...

  9. Career Education: An Integrating Process. Staff Development in Career Education for the Elementary School: Module 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Robert E.; And Others

    The module is the first of a series of seven discrete modules designed to assist elementary school teachers in the development of a career education program or to enrich an already established program. Module 1 may be used separately or in conjunction with the other modules. Topics covered in units 1-5 Module 1 include an overview of career…

  10. Energy Conservation Curriculum for Secondary and Post-Secondary Students. Module 5: Lighting Conservation Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro Coll., Corsicana, TX.

    This module is the fifth in a series of eleven modules in an energy conservation curriculum for secondary and postsecondary vocational students. It is designed for use by itself or part of a sequence of four modules on understanding utilities (see also modules 3, 6, and 7). The objective of this module is to train students to recognize…

  11. 76 FR 15872 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A330-200 and -300 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ...-200 and -300 Series Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of...-200 and -300 series airplanes and Model A340-200, -300, -500, and -600 series airplanes. That AD... FR 8610, February 15, 2011), for Airbus Model A340-200, -300, -500, and -600 series airplanes,...

  12. 75 FR 32315 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ..., 912 F, and 912 S series engines. Versions of the 912 F series and 912 S series engines are type... not have an engine type certificate; instead, the engine is part of the aircraft type design. You may... Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...

  13. Software Computer Series, 104.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birk, James P., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses computer simulations for chemistry courses. Reviews a simulation program, "Evaluation of Bonding Theory: The Werner Jorgensen Controversy," and provides information regarding hardware requirements for the program. Presents the idea of an expert system including simulation modules and counselor modules. Describes some chemical examples, a…

  14. Modulated Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, Frederick C.

    1960-01-01

    The technique of modulation, or variable coefficients, is discussed and the analytical formulation is reviewed. Representative numerical results of the use of modulation are shown for the lifting and nonlifting cases. These results include the effects of modulation on peak acceleration, entry corridor, and heat absorption. Results are given for entry at satellite speed and escape speed. The indications are that coefficient modulation on a vehicle with good lifting capability offers the possibility of sizable loading reductions or, alternatively, wider corridors; thus, steep entries become practical from the loading standpoint. The amount of steepness depends on the acceptable heating penalty. The price of sizable fractions of the possible gains does not appear to be excessive.

  15. β-asarone and levodopa co-administration increase striatal dopamine level in 6-hydroxydopamine induced rats by modulating P-glycoprotein and tight junction proteins at the blood-brain barrier and promoting levodopa into the brain.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liping; Deng, Minzhen; He, Yuping; Lu, Shiyao; Ma, Ruanxin; Fang, Yongqi

    2016-06-01

    Levodopa (L-dopa) is widely considered as one of the most effective drug constituents in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD), but the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability of L-dopa is <5%, which causes low efficacy. Neuroprotective effects of β-asarone on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced PD rats were demonstrated by our previous studies. Co-administration of β-asarone and L-dopa has not been explored until being investigated on PD rats in this study. PD rats were divided into four groups: untreated, L-dopa-treated, β-asarone-treated and co-administered-treated groups. All of the treatments were administered to the rats twice per day for 30 days. The L-dopa, dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA), S100β and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) levels were subsequently determined. The P-glycoprotein (P-gp), zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), claudin-5, occludin and actin expression was also assessed in cortex. Changes in BBB ultrastructure were observed using transmission electron microscopy. Our results showed that the co-administered treatment increased levels of L-dopa, DA, DOPAC and HVA in striatum, and S100β in plasma, but down-regulated NSE, P-gp, ZO-1, occludin, actin and claudin-5 in cortex. Crevices were observed between capillary endothelial cells at intercellular tight junction of the striatum in co-administered-treated group, while the endothelial cells in untreated group were tightly jointing each other. In addition, the correlations of L-dopa or DA and P-gp or tight junction proteins respectively were significantly negative in co-administered- and β-asarone-treated groups. These findings suggest that co-administered treatment may enhance the L-dopa BBB permeability and attenuate brain injury, which may be beneficial to PD treatment.

  16. Short-term administration of GW501516 improves inflammatory state in white adipose tissue and liver damage in high-fructose-fed mice through modulation of the renin-angiotensin system.

    PubMed

    Magliano, D'Angelo C; Penna-de-Carvalho, Aline; Vazquez-Carrera, Manuel; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos A; Aguila, Marcia B

    2015-11-01

    High activation of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)/(angiotensin-II type 1 receptor) AT1r axis is closely linked to pro-inflammatory effects and liver damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the short-term administration of GW501516 on pro-inflammatory markers in white adipose tissue (WAT) and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), lipogenesis and insulin resistance in the liver upon high-fructose diet (HFru)-induced ACE/AT1r axis activation. Three-month-old male C57Bl/6 mice were fed a standard chow diet or a HFru for 8 weeks. Then, the animals were separated randomly into four groups and treated with GW501516 for 3 weeks. Morphological variables, systolic blood pressure, and plasma determinations were analyzed. In the WAT, the ACE/AT1r axis and pro-inflammatory cytokines were assessed, and in the liver, the ACE/AT1r axis, HSCs, fatty acid oxidation, insulin resistance, and AMPK activation were evaluated. The HFru group displayed a high activation of the ACE/AT1r axis in both the WAT and liver; consequently, we detected inflammation and liver damage. Although GW501516 abolished the increased activation of the ACE/AT1r axis in the WAT, no differences were found in the liver. GW501516 blunted the inflammatory state in the WAT and reduced HSC activation in the liver. In addition, GW501516 alleviates damage in the liver by increasing the expression of the genes that regulate beta-oxidation and decreasing the expression of the genes and proteins that are involved in lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis. We conclude that GW501516 may serve as a therapeutic option for the treatment of a highly activated ACE/AT1r axis in WAT and liver.

  17. Transportation Security Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... content Official website of the Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration A - Z Index What Can I Bring? ... form Search the Site Main menu Administrator Travel Security Screening Special Procedures TSA Pre✓® Passenger Support Travel ...

  18. Administration on Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Federal Initiatives Career Opportunities Contact Us Administration on Aging (AoA) The Administration on Aging (AOA) is the ... themselves. Back to top Older Americans Act and Aging Network To meet the diverse needs of the ...

  19. Rehabilitation Services Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contacts OSEP Reports & Resources RSA Welcome to RSA Rehabilitation Services Administration RSA Spotlight News Commissioner's Quarterly Newsletter ... The Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services’ Rehabilitation Services Administration is proud to announce the publication ...

  20. Administration on Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Administration on Aging Administration on Disabilities Center for Integrated Programs Center for Performance and Evaluation National Institute ... Project Aging Statistics Profile of Older Americans AGing Integrated Database (AGID) Census Data & Population Estimates Projected Future ...

  1. 76 FR 62496 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Series of Public Subcommittee Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Series of Public Subcommittee Meetings AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The FMCSA's Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC) will hold working group...

  2. EPA Administrator Events at COP21 in Paris

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - From December 5-10, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator Gina McCarthy will participate in a series of public events as part of the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Paris, France.

  3. Fourier Series Optimization Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkel, Brian

    2008-01-01

    This note discusses the introduction of Fourier series as an immediate application of optimization of a function of more than one variable. Specifically, it is shown how the study of Fourier series can be motivated to enrich a multivariable calculus class. This is done through discovery learning and use of technology wherein students build the…

  4. Welfare. Opposing Viewpoints Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cozic, Charles P., Ed.; Winters, Paul A., Ed.

    Books in the Opposing Viewpoints Series present debates about current issues that can be used to teach critical reading and thinking skills. The opinions expressed in the selections in each series title examine many different aspects of a single issue. Detractors of the welfare system have long argued that the system promotes dependency. They…

  5. Professional Development Series for Work Experience Education. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Kinsey

    The report summarizes a project for conducting a series of workshops and graduate level extension courses on work experience education at various California locations. The purpose of the series was to increase the effectiveness of teaching for disadvantaged and handicapped, update occupational competencies, update administrative and supervisory…

  6. Legal and Administrative Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Hans

    1977-01-01

    A discussion of legal and administrative language, and the necessity for accurate translation of this language in the field of international relations. Topics treated are: characteristic features of legal and administrative terminology; the interpretation of it; and the technique of translating legal and administrative texts. (AMH)

  7. Women in Administration 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, Washington, DC. Office of Communications Services.

    In a survey by the National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges (NASULGC), women are shown to hold 2,905 of the 13,638 administrative positions reported by 106 major U.S. public universities--slightly more than 21 percent of the administrators at state and land-grant universities. The median number of women administrators at…

  8. School Business Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, K. Forbis; And Others

    This textbook reviews the principal concerns within each of 13 major responsibility areas in school business administration. The first chapter assesses the political, social, and economic context in which schools function and school administrators work. The role and function of the school business administrator within this context is addressed in…

  9. Into Adolescence: Living Without Tobacco. A Curriculum for Grades 5-8. Contemporary Health Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheer, Judith K.

    The "Contemporary Health Series" covers critical health and family life topics in a sequence of modules with two curricular divisions: "Into Adolescence" for middle school teachers and "Entering Adulthood" for high school teachers. This module presents a tobacco "no use" message to students in grades five through eight through a series of eight…

  10. Modules for Teaching about Young People's Literature--Module 5: Picture Storybooks vs. Basal Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfonso, Regina

    1987-01-01

    Presents the fifth in a series of six modules designed to give beginning teachers an opportunity to become familiar with the styles of authors and illustrators representative of the various genres of children's literature. (NKA)

  11. SERI Wind Energy Program

    SciTech Connect

    Noun, R. J.

    1983-06-01

    The SERI Wind Energy Program manages the areas or innovative research, wind systems analysis, and environmental compatibility for the U.S. Department of Energy. Since 1978, SERI wind program staff have conducted in-house aerodynamic and engineering analyses of novel concepts for wind energy conversion and have managed over 20 subcontracts to determine technical feasibility; the most promising of these concepts is the passive blade cyclic pitch control project. In the area of systems analysis, the SERI program has analyzed the impact of intermittent generation on the reliability of electric utility systems using standard utility planning models. SERI has also conducted methodology assessments. Environmental issues related to television interference and acoustic noise from large wind turbines have been addressed. SERI has identified the causes, effects, and potential control of acoustic noise emissions from large wind turbines.

  12. Industrial application experiment series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluhm, S. A.

    1980-01-01

    The deployment of parabolic dish systems into the industrial sector for the purpose of providing users, suppliers, sponsors, and developers with a realistic assessment of system feasibility in selected near-term industrial applications will be accomplished initially through the industrial module experiment and later through additional experiments involving thermal, electric, and combined thermal and electrical systems. The approach is to progress through steps, from single module to multi-module systems, from thermal-only applications to more complex combined thermal and electric applications. The experience of other solar thermal experiments, particularly those involving parabolic dish hardware, will be utilized to the fullest extent possible in experiment planning and implementation.

  13. Modulation of the partition coefficient between octanol and buffer at pH 7.4 and pKa to achieve the optimum balance of blood clearance and volume of distribution for a series of tetrahydropyran histamine type 3 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Hay, Tanya; Jones, Rhys; Beaumont, Kevin; Kemp, Mark

    2009-09-01

    The relationship between rat pharmacokinetics and physicochemical parameters [the partition coefficient between octanol and buffer at pH 7.4 (log D((7.4))) and pK(a)] was studied for a series of tetrahydropyran compounds. Sixteen compounds ranging in log D((7.4)) 0.1 to 1.8 were administered intravenously to rats, and the pharmacokinetic parameters were determined from blood concentration time curves. Across the series, a weak correlation was observed between log D((7.4)) and blood clearance, suggesting that log D((7.4)) values less than 0.5 were required to prevent clearance at hepatic blood flow. In terms of the volume of distribution (V(d)), the compounds fell into three distinct subseries characterized by the number of basic centers and differences in ionization of each basic center at physiological pH. These were referred to as the monobasic, weak second base, and strong second base subseries. All the compounds exhibited V(d) greater than body water, as would be expected from their lipophilic and basic nature. For a given clog P, the strong second base subseries showed higher V(d) than the weak second base subseries, which in turn exhibited higher values than the monobasic subseries. In addition, for the weak second base subseries, V(d) could be tuned by modulating the pK(a) of the second basic center. This relationship was rationalized in respect to the interactions of the ionizable centers with phospholipid heads in the cell membrane and/or lysosomal trapping. Compounds in the weak second base subseries showed optimal V(d), and when combined with a log D((7.4)) of 0.1, driving to moderate blood clearance, one compound showed the optimal pharmacokinetic profile.

  14. Semiconductor Devices and Applications. Electronics Module 5. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, John; And Others

    This module is the fifth of 10 modules in the competency-based electronics series. Introductory materials include a listing of competencies addressed in the module, a parts/equipment list, and a cross-reference table of instructional materials. Sixteen instructional units cover: semiconductor materials; diodes; diode applications and…

  15. Nuclear Technology. Course 27: Metrology. Module 27-6, Calibration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espy, John; Selleck, Ben

    This sixth in a series of eight modules for a course titled Metrology describes the principles on which calibration programs are developed, no matter which instruments are included in the calibration program. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4)…

  16. Receivers and Transmitters. Electronics Module 6. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Jim

    This module is the sixth of 10 modules in the competency-based electronics series. Introductory materials include a listing of competencies addressed in the module and a cross-reference table of instructional materials. Two instructional units cover: (1) AM/FM transmitter and receiver basics; and (2) satellite systems, antennas, and analyzers.…

  17. Electromechanical Devices and Controllers. Electronics Module 10. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Ed

    This module is the tenth of 10 modules in the competency-based electronics series. Introductory materials include a listing of competencies addressed in the module, a parts/equipment list, and a cross-reference table of instructional materials. Six instructional units cover: electromechanical control devices; programmable logic controllers (PLC);…

  18. Fundamentals of Commercial Art. Module 1. Commercial Art. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Diane; Tadrick, Christine

    This module is the first of five in the Commercial Art series. The curriculum guide is designed for competency-based teaching and testing. Within this module on fundamentals of commercial art are six instructional units. A cross-reference table reveals how the instructional components of the module relate to Missouri competencies. Each unit…

  19. Layout and Design. Module 2. Commercial Art. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benke, Tom; And Others

    This module is the second of five in the Commercial Art series. The curriculum guide is designed for competency-based teaching and testing. Within this module on layout and design are eight instructional units. A cross-reference table reveals how the instructional components of the module relate to Missouri competencies. Each unit includes some or…

  20. 76 FR 55732 - Public Listening Sessions Regarding the Maritime Administration's Panama Canal Expansion Study...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... connectivity, and public/ private partnerships. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For information, contact Ms... Maritime Administration Public Listening Sessions Regarding the Maritime Administration's Panama Canal...: Notice. SUMMARY: The purpose of this notice is to announce a series of public listening sessions...

  1. Time Series Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scargle, J.

    With the generation of long, precise, and finely sampled time series the Age of Digital Astronomy is uncovering and elucidating energetic dynamical processes throughout the Universe. Fulfilling these opportunities requires data effective analysis techniques rapidly and automatically implementing advanced concepts. The Time Series Explorer, under development in collaboration with Tom Loredo, provides tools ranging from simple but optimal histograms to time and frequency domain analysis for arbitrary data modes with any time sampling. Examples of application of these tools for automated time series discovery will be given.

  2. Firefighting Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Aviation Power Supply's mobile firefighting module called Firefly II is mounted on a trailer pulled by a pickup truck. Trailer unit has two three- inch water cannons, and the pickup carries a six inch cannon. Completely self contained, module pumps 3,000 gallons of water a minute from hydrants or open bodies of water. Stream can go as far as 400 feet or can be employed in a high-loft mode to reach the tops of tall refinery towers. Compact Firefly II weighs only 2,500 pounds when fully fueled. Key component is a specially designed two stage pump. Power for the pump is generated by a gas turbine engine. Module also includes an electronic/pump controller, multiple hose connections, up to 1,500 feet of hose and fuel for four hours operation. Firefly trailer can be backed onto specially-built large fireboat.

  3. Firefighting Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Aviation Power Supply's mobile firefighting module called Firefly II is mounted on a trailer pulled by a pickup truck. Trailer unit has two three- inch water cannons, and the pickup carries a six inch cannon. Completely self contained, module pumps 3,000 gallons of water a minute from hydrants or open bodies of water. Stream can go as far as 400 feet or can be employed in a high-loft mode to reach the tops of tall refinery towers. Compact Firefly II weighs only 2,500 pounds when fully fueled. Key component is a specially designed two stage pump. Power for the pump is generated by a gas turbine engine. Module also includes an electronic/pump controller, multiple hose connections, up to 1,500 feet of hose and fuel for four hours operation. Firefly trailer can be backed onto specially-built large fireboat.

  4. Perl Modules for Constructing Iterators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmes, Curt

    2009-01-01

    The Iterator Perl Module provides a general-purpose framework for constructing iterator objects within Perl, and a standard API for interacting with those objects. Iterators are an object-oriented design pattern where a description of a series of values is used in a constructor. Subsequent queries can request values in that series. These Perl modules build on the standard Iterator framework and provide iterators for some other types of values. Iterator::DateTime constructs iterators from DateTime objects or Date::Parse descriptions and ICal/RFC 2445 style re-currence descriptions. It supports a variety of input parameters, including a start to the sequence, an end to the sequence, an Ical/RFC 2445 recurrence describing the frequency of the values in the series, and a format description that can refine the presentation manner of the DateTime. Iterator::String constructs iterators from string representations. This module is useful in contexts where the API consists of supplying a string and getting back an iterator where the specific iteration desired is opaque to the caller. It is of particular value to the Iterator::Hash module which provides nested iterations. Iterator::Hash constructs iterators from Perl hashes that can include multiple iterators. The constructed iterators will return all the permutations of the iterations of the hash by nested iteration of embedded iterators. A hash simply includes a set of keys mapped to values. It is a very common data structure used throughout Perl programming. The Iterator:: Hash module allows a hash to include strings defining iterators (parsed and dispatched with Iterator::String) that are used to construct an overall series of hash values.

  5. Advances in Library Administration and Organization Volume 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garten, Edward D., Ed.; Williams, Delmus E., Ed.

    Long regarded as the premier monographic series in its area of coverage, "Advances in Library Administration and Organization" offers research perspectives that are both timely and lively. This 18th volume continues the series' long practice of bringing to its professional and academic readership an eclectic mix of scholarship and longish essays.…

  6. High voltage power supply with modular series resonant inverters

    DOEpatents

    Dreifuerst, G.R.; Merritt, B.T.

    1995-07-18

    A relatively small and compact high voltage, high current power supply for a laser utilizes a plurality of modules containing series resonant half bridge inverters. A pair of reverse conducting thyristors are incorporated in each series resonant inverter module such that the series resonant inverter modules are sequentially activated in phases 360{degree}/n apart, where n=number of modules for n>2. Selective activation of the modules allows precise output control reducing ripple and improving efficiency. Each series resonant half bridge inverter module includes a transformer which has a cooling manifold for actively circulating a coolant such as water, to cool the transformer core as well as selected circuit elements. Conductors connecting and forming various circuit components comprise hollow, electrically conductive tubes such as copper. Coolant circulates through the tubes to remove heat. The conductive tubes act as electrically conductive lines for connecting various components of the power supply. Where it is desired to make electrical isolation breaks, tubes comprised of insulating material such as nylon are used to provide insulation and continue the fluid circuit. 11 figs.

  7. High voltage power supply with modular series resonant inverters

    DOEpatents

    Dreifuerst, Gary R.; Merritt, Bernard T.

    1995-01-01

    A relatively small and compact high voltage, high current power supply for a laser utilizes a plurality of modules containing series resonant half bridge inverters. A pair of reverse conducting thyristors are incorporated in each series resonant inverter module such that the series resonant inverter modules are sequentially activated in phases 360.degree./n apart, where n=number of modules for n>2. Selective activation of the modules allows precise output control reducing ripple and improving efficiency. Each series resonant half bridge inverter module includes a transformer which has a cooling manifold for actively circulating a coolant such as water, to cool the transformer core as well as selected circuit elements. Conductors connecting and forming various circuit components comprise hollow, electrically conductive tubes such as copper. Coolant circulates through the tubes to remove heat. The conductive tubes act as electrically conductive lines for connecting various components of the power supply. Where it is desired to make electrical isolation breaks, tubes comprised of insulating material such as nylon are used to provide insulation and continue the fluid circuit.

  8. Thermionic modules

    DOEpatents

    King, Donald B.; Sadwick, Laurence P.; Wernsman, Bernard R.

    2002-06-18

    Modules of assembled microminiature thermionic converters (MTCs) having high energy-conversion efficiencies and variable operating temperatures manufactured using MEMS manufacturing techniques including chemical vapor deposition. The MTCs incorporate cathode to anode spacing of about 1 micron or less and use cathode and anode materials having work functions ranging from about 1 eV to about 3 eV. The MTCs also exhibit maximum efficiencies of just under 30%, and thousands of the devices and modules can be fabricated at modest costs.

  9. Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Series

    MedlinePlus

    ... barium or flavoring in the barium intestinal obstruction Seek care right away If you have any of the following symptoms after an upper GI series, seek medical attention right away: fever no bowel movement ...

  10. Lower GI Series

    MedlinePlus

    ... GI series. • an allergic reaction to the barium. • bowel obstruction—partial or complete blockage of the small or large intestine. Although rare, bowel obstruction can be a life-threatening condition that requires ...

  11. Getting Down to Business: Health Spa, Module 16. [Student Module]. Entrepreneurship Training Components.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolman, Jean

    This module on owning and operating a health spa is one of 36 in a series on entrepreneurship. The introduction tells the student what topics will be covered and suggests other modules to read in related occupations. Each unit includes student goals, a case study, and a discussion of the unit subject matter. Learning activities are divided into…

  12. Introduction to Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC). Introduction to Construction Series. Instructor Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Associated General Contractors of America, Washington, DC.

    This module on introductory heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) is one of a series of modules designed to teach basic skills necessary for entry-level employment in this field. The module contains four instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) HVAC materials; (2) HVAC tools; (3) HVAC layout; and (4) HVAC basic skills.…

  13. Human Relations Skills in Individual Interactions for the Occupational Specialist. Competency-Based Modular Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutter, Juanita B.; Boland, Jeanne M.

    This self-instructional module, one volume of a series of competency-based modules in human relations skills for occupational specialists, is designed to help the specialist interact effectively with a variety of students, teachers, co-workers and employees. Other modules in this set of three are Level I Human Relations Skills for the Occupational…

  14. Forest, Land, and Water: Understanding Our Natural Resources. Natural Resources Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunal, Dennis; And Others

    This curriculum consists of a Teacher's Guide and a series of 12 instructional modules, that are centered around concepts important in the study of national resource science. The modules are designed to supplement textbooks with activities for students in primary and middle grades (K-8). The titles of the modules are: (1) Natural History of a…

  15. Time Series Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loredo, Thomas

    The key, central objectives of the proposed Time Series Explorer project are to develop an organized collection of software tools for analysis of time series data in current and future NASA astrophysics data archives, and to make the tools available in two ways: as a library (the Time Series Toolbox) that individual science users can use to write their own data analysis pipelines, and as an application (the Time Series Automaton) providing an accessible, data-ready interface to many Toolbox algorithms, facilitating rapid exploration and automatic processing of time series databases. A number of time series analysis methods will be implemented, including techniques that range from standard ones to state-of-the-art developments by the proposers and others. Most of the algorithms will be able to handle time series data subject to real-world problems such as data gaps, sampling that is otherwise irregular, asynchronous sampling (in multi-wavelength settings), and data with non-Gaussian measurement errors. The proposed research responds to the ADAP element supporting the development of tools for mining the vast reservoir of information residing in NASA databases. The tools that will be provided to the community of astronomers studying variability of astronomical objects (from nearby stars and extrasolar planets, through galactic and extragalactic sources) will revolutionize the quality of timing analyses that can be carried out, and greatly enhance the scientific throughput of all NASA astrophysics missions past, present, and future. The Automaton will let scientists explore time series - individual records or large data bases -- with the most informative and useful analysis methods available, without having to develop the tools themselves or understand the computational details. Both elements, the Toolbox and the Automaton, will enable deep but efficient exploratory time series data analysis, which is why we have named the project the Time Series Explorer. Science

  16. Module Five: Relationships of Current, Voltage, and Resistance; Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    This module covers the relationships between current and voltage; resistance in a series circuit; how to determine the values of current, voltage, resistance, and power in resistive series circuits; the effects of source internal resistance; and an introduction to the troubleshooting of series circuits. This module is divided into five lessons:…

  17. 75 FR 64681 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company (GE) CF6-45 Series and CF6-50 Series Turbofan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ..., Massachusetts, on October 8, 2010. Peter A. White, Assistant Manager, Engine and Propeller Directorate, Aircraft... Company (GE) CF6-45 Series and CF6-50 Series Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... airworthiness directive (AD) for GE CF6-45 and CF6-50 series turbofan engines. This proposed AD would...

  18. Veterans Administration Databases

    Cancer.gov

    The Veterans Administration Information Resource Center provides database and informatics experts, customer service, expert advice, information products, and web technology to VA researchers and others.

  19. Retention of drug administration skills after intensive teaching.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, D W; Degnan, B A; Murray, L J; Dunling, C P; Whittlestone, K D; Wood, D F; Smith, H L; Gupta, A K

    2008-04-01

    We have identified deficiencies in medical students' drug administration skills, and we attempted to address them with interactive online teaching modules and simulated critical incident scenarios. Short-term improvements have been evident with this intensive effort, but medium-term retention of skills has not been measured. A drug administration lecture, an online module and a simulated emergency scenario were offered to final year clinical students. None of the teaching was compulsory but participation was recorded, along with students' simulator performances and marks in an objective structured practical examination 9 months later. A poor simulator score predicted a poor performance in the later examination. Participation in the simulated scenario only significantly improved examination scores when supplemented by online teaching (p = 0.002). Intensive drug administration teaching using an online module and high fidelity simulation improves drug administration skills in the medium term. Students found simulation much more engaging than online teaching.

  20. Methodology Series Module 6: Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analysis have become an important of biomedical literature, and they provide the “highest level of evidence” for various clinical questions. There are a lot of studies – sometimes with contradictory conclusions – on a particular topic in literature. Hence, as a clinician, which results will you believe? What will you tell your patient? Which drug is better? A systematic review or a meta-analysis may help us answer these questions. In addition, it may also help us understand the quality of the articles in literature or the type of studies that have been conducted and published (example, randomized trials or observational studies). The first step it to identify a research question for systematic review or meta-analysis. The next step is to identify the articles that will be included in the study. This will be done by searching various databases; it is important that the researcher should search for articles in more than one database. It will also be useful to form a group of researchers and statisticians that have expertise in conducting systematic reviews and meta-analysis before initiating them. We strongly encourage the readers to register their proposed review/meta-analysis with PROSPERO. Finally, these studies should be reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis checklist. PMID:27904176

  1. Emergency Child Aid. Child Health and Safety Series (Module VI).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iscoe, Louise; And Others

    This manual for child care personnel in day care homes and centers provides a step by step review of what to do in common emergency situations. It is emphasized that the manual is not a substitute for the complete first aid course which every careperson should have. Initial sections of the manual focus on preparing for emergency conditions,…

  2. Biostatistics Series Module 2: Overview of Hypothesis Testing

    PubMed Central

    Hazra, Avijit; Gogtay, Nithya

    2016-01-01

    Hypothesis testing (or statistical inference) is one of the major applications of biostatistics. Much of medical research begins with a research question that can be framed as a hypothesis. Inferential statistics begins with a null hypothesis that reflects the conservative position of no change or no difference in comparison to baseline or between groups. Usually, the researcher has reason to believe that there is some effect or some difference which is the alternative hypothesis. The researcher therefore proceeds to study samples and measure outcomes in the hope of generating evidence strong enough for the statistician to be able to reject the null hypothesis. The concept of the P value is almost universally used in hypothesis testing. It denotes the probability of obtaining by chance a result at least as extreme as that observed, even when the null hypothesis is true and no real difference exists. Usually, if P is < 0.05 the null hypothesis is rejected and sample results are deemed statistically significant. With the increasing availability of computers and access to specialized statistical software, the drudgery involved in statistical calculations is now a thing of the past, once the learning curve of the software has been traversed. The life sciences researcher is therefore free to devote oneself to optimally designing the study, carefully selecting the hypothesis tests to be applied, and taking care in conducting the study well. Unfortunately, selecting the right test seems difficult initially. Thinking of the research hypothesis as addressing one of five generic research questions helps in selection of the right hypothesis test. In addition, it is important to be clear about the nature of the variables (e.g., numerical vs. categorical; parametric vs. nonparametric) and the number of groups or data sets being compared (e.g., two or more than two) at a time. The same research question may be explored by more than one type of hypothesis test. While this may be of utility in highlighting different aspects of the problem, merely reapplying different tests to the same issue in the hope of finding a P < 0.05 is a wrong use of statistics. Finally, it is becoming the norm that an estimate of the size of any effect, expressed with its 95% confidence interval, is required for meaningful interpretation of results. A large study is likely to have a small (and therefore “statistically significant”) P value, but a “real” estimate of the effect would be provided by the 95% confidence interval. If the intervals overlap between two interventions, then the difference between them is not so clear-cut even if P < 0.05. The two approaches are now considered complementary to one another. PMID:27057011

  3. Safety Precautions. Child Health and Safety Series (Module I).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iscoe, Louise; And Others

    This manual for parents and child care personnel in day care homes and centers provides guidelines and information on indoor and outdoor safety precautions, emergency preparation and first aid. Contents focus on monitoring arrivals and departures, prevention of suffocation and strangulation, control of pets and other animals, preventing and…

  4. Biostatistics Series Module 7: The Statistics of Diagnostic Tests.

    PubMed

    Hazra, Avijit; Gogtay, Nithya

    2017-01-01

    Crucial therapeutic decisions are based on diagnostic tests. Therefore, it is important to evaluate such tests before adopting them for routine use. Although things such as blood tests, cultures, biopsies, and radiological imaging are obvious diagnostic tests, it is not to be forgotten that specific clinical examination procedures, scoring systems based on physiological or psychological evaluation, and ratings based on questionnaires are also diagnostic tests and therefore merit similar evaluation. In the simplest scenario, a diagnostic test will give either a positive (disease likely) or negative (disease unlikely) result. Ideally, all those with the disease should be classified by a test as positive and all those without the disease as negative. Unfortunately, practically no test gives 100% accurate results. Therefore, leaving aside the economic question, the performance of diagnostic tests is evaluated on the basis of certain indices such as sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. Likelihood ratios combine information on specificity and sensitivity to expresses the likelihood that a given test result would occur in a subject with a disorder compared to the probability that the same result would occur in a subject without the disorder. Not all test can be categorized simply as "positive" or "negative." Physicians are frequently exposed to test results on a numerical scale, and in such cases, judgment is required in choosing a cutoff point to distinguish normal from abnormal. Naturally, a cutoff value should provide the greatest predictive accuracy, but there is a trade-off between sensitivity and specificity here - if the cutoff is too low, it will identify most patients who have the disease (high sensitivity) but will also incorrectly identify many who do not (low specificity). A receiver operating characteristic curve plots pairs of sensitivity versus (1 - specificity) values and helps in selecting an optimum cutoff - the one lying on the "elbow" of the curve. Cohen's kappa (κ) statistic is a measure of inter-rater agreement for categorical variables. It can also be applied to assess how far two tests agree with respect to diagnostic categorization. It is generally thought to be a more robust measure than simple percent agreement calculation since kappa takes into account the agreement occurring by chance.

  5. Biostatistics Series Module 7: The Statistics of Diagnostic Tests

    PubMed Central

    Hazra, Avijit; Gogtay, Nithya

    2017-01-01

    Crucial therapeutic decisions are based on diagnostic tests. Therefore, it is important to evaluate such tests before adopting them for routine use. Although things such as blood tests, cultures, biopsies, and radiological imaging are obvious diagnostic tests, it is not to be forgotten that specific clinical examination procedures, scoring systems based on physiological or psychological evaluation, and ratings based on questionnaires are also diagnostic tests and therefore merit similar evaluation. In the simplest scenario, a diagnostic test will give either a positive (disease likely) or negative (disease unlikely) result. Ideally, all those with the disease should be classified by a test as positive and all those without the disease as negative. Unfortunately, practically no test gives 100% accurate results. Therefore, leaving aside the economic question, the performance of diagnostic tests is evaluated on the basis of certain indices such as sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. Likelihood ratios combine information on specificity and sensitivity to expresses the likelihood that a given test result would occur in a subject with a disorder compared to the probability that the same result would occur in a subject without the disorder. Not all test can be categorized simply as “positive” or “negative.” Physicians are frequently exposed to test results on a numerical scale, and in such cases, judgment is required in choosing a cutoff point to distinguish normal from abnormal. Naturally, a cutoff value should provide the greatest predictive accuracy, but there is a trade-off between sensitivity and specificity here - if the cutoff is too low, it will identify most patients who have the disease (high sensitivity) but will also incorrectly identify many who do not (low specificity). A receiver operating characteristic curve plots pairs of sensitivity versus (1 − specificity) values and helps in selecting an optimum cutoff – the one lying on the “elbow” of the curve. Cohen's kappa (κ) statistic is a measure of inter-rater agreement for categorical variables. It can also be applied to assess how far two tests agree with respect to diagnostic categorization. It is generally thought to be a more robust measure than simple percent agreement calculation since kappa takes into account the agreement occurring by chance. PMID:28216720

  6. Biostatistics Series Module 3: Comparing Groups: Numerical Variables.

    PubMed

    Hazra, Avijit; Gogtay, Nithya

    2016-01-01

    Numerical data that are normally distributed can be analyzed with parametric tests, that is, tests which are based on the parameters that define a normal distribution curve. If the distribution is uncertain, the data can be plotted as a normal probability plot and visually inspected, or tested for normality using one of a number of goodness of fit tests, such as the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The widely used Student's t-test has three variants. The one-sample t-test is used to assess if a sample mean (as an estimate of the population mean) differs significantly from a given population mean. The means of two independent samples may be compared for a statistically significant difference by the unpaired or independent samples t-test. If the data sets are related in some way, their means may be compared by the paired or dependent samples t-test. The t-test should not be used to compare the means of more than two groups. Although it is possible to compare groups in pairs, when there are more than two groups, this will increase the probability of a Type I error. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) is employed to compare the means of three or more independent data sets that are normally distributed. Multiple measurements from the same set of subjects cannot be treated as separate, unrelated data sets. Comparison of means in such a situation requires repeated measures ANOVA. It is to be noted that while a multiple group comparison test such as ANOVA can point to a significant difference, it does not identify exactly between which two groups the difference lies. To do this, multiple group comparison needs to be followed up by an appropriate post hoc test. An example is the Tukey's honestly significant difference test following ANOVA. If the assumptions for parametric tests are not met, there are nonparametric alternatives for comparing data sets. These include Mann-Whitney U-test as the nonparametric counterpart of the unpaired Student's t-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test as the counterpart of the paired Student's t-test, Kruskal-Wallis test as the nonparametric equivalent of ANOVA and the Friedman's test as the counterpart of repeated measures ANOVA.

  7. Biostatistics Series Module 6: Correlation and Linear Regression.

    PubMed

    Hazra, Avijit; Gogtay, Nithya

    2016-01-01

    Correlation and linear regression are the most commonly used techniques for quantifying the association between two numeric variables. Correlation quantifies the strength of the linear relationship between paired variables, expressing this as a correlation coefficient. If both variables x and y are normally distributed, we calculate Pearson's correlation coefficient (r). If normality assumption is not met for one or both variables in a correlation analysis, a rank correlation coefficient, such as Spearman's rho (ρ) may be calculated. A hypothesis test of correlation tests whether the linear relationship between the two variables holds in the underlying population, in which case it returns a P < 0.05. A 95% confidence interval of the correlation coefficient can also be calculated for an idea of the correlation in the population. The value r(2) denotes the proportion of the variability of the dependent variable y that can be attributed to its linear relation with the independent variable x and is called the coefficient of determination. Linear regression is a technique that attempts to link two correlated variables x and y in the form of a mathematical equation (y = a + bx), such that given the value of one variable the other may be predicted. In general, the method of least squares is applied to obtain the equation of the regression line. Correlation and linear regression analysis are based on certain assumptions pertaining to the data sets. If these assumptions are not met, misleading conclusions may be drawn. The first assumption is that of linear relationship between the two variables. A scatter plot is essential before embarking on any correlation-regression analysis to show that this is indeed the case. Outliers or clustering within data sets can distort the correlation coefficient value. Finally, it is vital to remember that though strong correlation can be a pointer toward causation, the two are not synonymous.

  8. Medical Problems. Child Health and Safety Series (Module IV).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iscoe, Louise; And Others

    This manual for child care personnel in day care homes and centers provides guidelines and information on the detection, treatment, and control of medical problems of children. Introductory materials focus on signs of illness which carepersons can recognize. Section II concentrates on insect, animal and human bites. Section III discusses skin…

  9. Methodology Series Module 2: Case-control Studies.

    PubMed

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Case-Control study design is a type of observational study. In this design, participants are selected for the study based on their outcome status. Thus, some participants have the outcome of interest (referred to as cases), whereas others do not have the outcome of interest (referred to as controls). The investigator then assesses the exposure in both these groups. The investigator should define the cases as specifically as possible. Sometimes, definition of a disease may be based on multiple criteria; thus, all these points should be explicitly stated in case definition. An important aspect of selecting a control is that they should be from the same 'study base' as that of the cases. We can select controls from a variety of groups. Some of them are: General population; relatives or friends; and hospital patients. Matching is often used in case-control control studies to ensure that the cases and controls are similar in certain characteristics, and it is a useful technique to increase the efficiency of the study. Case-Control studies can usually be conducted relatively faster and are inexpensive - particularly when compared with cohort studies (prospective). It is useful to study rare outcomes and outcomes with long latent periods. This design is not very useful to study rare exposures. Furthermore, they may also be prone to certain biases - selection bias and recall bias.

  10. Cell shunt resistance and photovoltaic module performance

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, T.J.; Basso, T.S.; Rummel, S.R.

    1996-05-01

    Shunt resistance of cells in photovoltaic modules can affect module power output and could indicate flawed manufacturing processes and reliability problems. The authors describe a two-terminal diagnostic method to directly measure the shunt resistance of individual cells in a series-connected module non-intrusively, without deencapsulation. Peak power efficiency vs. light intensity was measured on a 12-cell, series-connected, single crystalline module having relatively high cell shunt resistances. The module was remeasured with 0.5-, 1-, and 2-ohm resistors attached across each cell to simulate shunt resistances of several emerging technologies. Peak power efficiencies decreased dramatically at lower light levels. Using the PSpice circuit simulator, the authors verified that cell shunt and series resistances can indeed be responsible for the observed peak power efficiency vs. intensity behavior. The authors discuss the effect of basic cell diode parameters, i.e., shunt resistance, series resistance, and recombination losses, on PV module performance as a function of light intensity.

  11. On Sums of Numerical Series and Fourier Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavao, H. Germano; de Oliveira, E. Capelas

    2008-01-01

    We discuss a class of trigonometric functions whose corresponding Fourier series, on a conveniently chosen interval, can be used to calculate several numerical series. Particular cases are presented and two recent results involving numerical series are recovered. (Contains 1 note.)

  12. Structural Element Testing in Support of the Design of the NASA Composite Crew Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellas, Sotiris; Jackson, Wade C.; Thesken, John C.; Schleicher, Eric; Wagner, Perry; Kirsch, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    In January 2007, the NASA Administrator and Associate Administrator for the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate chartered the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) to design, build, and test a full-scale Composite Crew Module (CCM). For the design and manufacturing of the CCM, the team adopted the building block approach where design and manufacturing risks were mitigated through manufacturing trials and structural testing at various levels of complexity. Following NASA's Structural Design Verification Requirements, a further objective was the verification of design analysis methods and the provision of design data for critical structural features. Test articles increasing in complexity from basic material characterization coupons through structural feature elements and large structural components, to full-scale structures were evaluated. This paper discusses only four elements tests three of which include joints and one that includes a tapering honeycomb core detail. For each test series included are specimen details, instrumentation, test results, a brief analysis description, test analysis correlation and conclusions.

  13. Migrant Education Administrative Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Compensatory Education.

    Relating specifically to the North Carolina migrant education program's administrative responsibilities, this guide is designed to aid administrators in program management, monitoring project activities, project evaluation, self-assessment, determining needs for training and staff development, site-visit preparation, policy development, and…

  14. Champions of Children. Administrators . . .

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, John; Olds, H. Robert

    Today, in an era of taxpayer revolts, lack of clarity in values, and changing family structure, children need advocates in the political arena as well as in the schools. This pamphlet suggests that administrators are in an excellent position to defend the rights of children on all fronts. It focuses on what administrators have done and specific…

  15. The Administrative Power Grab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorenson, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    Administrative power for some school teachers can be an aphrodisiac that can be applied negatively, especially when a leader has devastating instinct for the weaknesses of others. A leader's intellect and heart closes shop and ceases to function when drunk on power. In this article, the author describes how the use of administrative power can be…

  16. Traditionalism and Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Mark

    Administration is defined as the enactment of moral choices influencing subordinates within an organizational setting. It is distinguished from management, which is considered to involve a lower level of discretion. Educational administration is therefore in the moral domain; it involves discretionary, moral choices in a field that is itself moral…

  17. Test Administration Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Kirk A.; Bergstrom, Betty A.

    2013-01-01

    The need for increased exam security, improved test formats, more flexible scheduling, better measurement, and more efficient administrative processes has caused testing agencies to consider converting the administration of their exams from paper-and-pencil to computer-based testing (CBT). Many decisions must be made in order to provide an optimal…

  18. The Administrative Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Association of Elementary School Principals, Westerville.

    Although needs of school districts vary with size, degree of teacher negotiation procedures, and type of community involvement, the administrative team model is presented as an effective, appropriate administrative organization. Based on an assumption that each level of authority in a school district possesses and exercises expertise and unique…

  19. Administrative Theory in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Daniel E.

    This monograph analyzes transition in educational administrative theory. A brief introductory section describes the theoretical movement, the substance and repercussions of Thomas Greenfield's critique of educational administrative theory in 1974, and emerging qualitative approaches. Seven readings, all written by the volume's author, view…

  20. Improving Educational Administrative Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, A. E.

    This paper discusses the financial crisis facing public education in the United States today and argues that the most effective response to this crisis is to improve the decision-making skills of educational administrators. Based on a review of the literature on administrative decision-making and organizational change, the author examines several…

  1. Rural Administrative Leadership Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tift, Carolyn

    This resource book on rural administrative leadership is the result of 1988 interviews with school administrators involved in successful rural educational programs. The material is divided into eight chapters, each self-contained for separate use. Chapter 1, "Getting to Know the Community," addresses qualities of living and working in…

  2. 78 FR 65153 - Special Conditions: Learjet Model 45 Series Airplanes; Aircraft Electronic System Security...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ...); 2. Operator business and administrative support (operator information services); 3. Passenger... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 25 Special Conditions: Learjet Model 45 Series Airplanes... conditions are issued for the Learjet Model 45 series airplanes. These airplanes will have a novel or...

  3. 78 FR 76248 - Special Conditions: Airbus, Model A350-900 Series Airplane; Side Stick Controller

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... also appropriate for the Model A350-900 series side stick controller. Applicability As discussed above...; ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 25 Special Conditions: Airbus, Model A350-900 Series Airplane; Side Stick Controller AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA),...

  4. Firefighting Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Firefly II pump module is NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center's commercial offshoot of a NASA/US Coast Guard program involving development of a lightweight, helicopter-transportable firefighting module for a quick response in combating shipboard or harbor fires. Operable on land or water, the Amphib One is equipped with 3 water cannons. When all 3 are operating, unit pumps more than 3,000 gallons a minute. Newly developed model used by U.S. Coast Guard can pump 5,000 gallons per minute. It was designed for applications such as firefighting onboard ship fires, emergency dockside water pumping, dewatering ships in danger of sinking, flood control, and emergency water supply at remote locations.

  5. Scale-dependent intrinsic entropies of complex time series.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Jia-Rong; Peng, Chung-Kang; Huang, Norden E

    2016-04-13

    Multi-scale entropy (MSE) was developed as a measure of complexity for complex time series, and it has been applied widely in recent years. The MSE algorithm is based on the assumption that biological systems possess the ability to adapt and function in an ever-changing environment, and these systems need to operate across multiple temporal and spatial scales, such that their complexity is also multi-scale and hierarchical. Here, we present a systematic approach to apply the empirical mode decomposition algorithm, which can detrend time series on various time scales, prior to analysing a signal's complexity by measuring the irregularity of its dynamics on multiple time scales. Simulated time series of fractal Gaussian noise and human heartbeat time series were used to study the performance of this new approach. We show that our method can successfully quantify the fractal properties of the simulated time series and can accurately distinguish modulations in human heartbeat time series in health and disease.

  6. Thermoelectric module

    DOEpatents

    Kortier, William E.; Mueller, John J.; Eggers, Philip E.

    1980-07-08

    A thermoelectric module containing lead telluride as the thermoelectric mrial is encapsulated as tightly as possible in a stainless steel canister to provide minimum void volume in the canister. The lead telluride thermoelectric elements are pressure-contacted to a tungsten hot strap and metallurgically bonded at the cold junction to iron shoes with a barrier layer of tin telluride between the iron shoe and the p-type lead telluride element.

  7. Linear modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A study of frequency division multiplexing (FDM) systems was made for the purpose of determining the system performance that can be obtained with available state of the art components. System performance was evaluated on the basis of past experience, system analysis, and component evaluation. The system study was specifically directed to the area of FDM systems using subcarrier channel frequencies from 4 kHz to 200 kHz and channel information bandwidths of dc to 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 kHz. The evaluation also assumes that the demodulation will be from a tape recorder which produces frequency modulation of + or - 1% on the signal due to the tape recorder wow and flutter. For the modulation system it is assumed that the pilot and carrier channel frequencies are stable to within + or - .005% and that the FM on the channel carriers is negligible. The modulator system was evaluated for the temperature range of -20 degree to +85 degree while the demodulator system was evaluated for operation at room temperature.

  8. Extending the Alternating Series Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsuura, Hidefumi

    2012-01-01

    Alternating series have the simplest of sign patterns. What about series with more complicated patterns? By inspecting the alternating series test closely, we find a theorem that applies to more complicated sign patterns, and beyond.

  9. Series interconnected photovoltaic cells and method for making same

    DOEpatents

    Albright, S.P.; Chamberlin, R.R.; Thompson, R.A.

    1995-01-31

    A novel photovoltaic module and method for constructing the same are disclosed. The module includes a plurality of photovoltaic cells formed on a substrate and laterally separated by interconnection regions. Each cell includes a bottom electrode, a photoactive layer and a top electrode layer. Adjacent cells are connected in electrical series by way of a conductive-buffer line. The buffer line is also useful in protecting the bottom electrode against severing during downstream layer cutting processes. 11 figs.

  10. Electrochemical aging effects in photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mon, G. R.

    1986-01-01

    Leakage currents were experimentally measured in PV modules undergoing natural aging outdoors, and in PV modules undergoing accelerated aging in laboratory environmental chambers. The significant contributors to module leakage current were identified with a long range goal to develop techniques to reduce or stop module leakage currents. For outdoor aging in general, module leakage current is relatively insensitive to temperature fluctuations, but is very sensitive to moisture effects such as dew, precipitation, and fluctuations in relative humidity. Comparing ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and polyvinyl butyral (PVB), module leakage currents are much higher in PVB as compared to EVA for all environmental conditions investigated. Leakage currents proceed in series along two paths, bulk conduction followed by interfacial (surfaces) conduction.

  11. Modelling of Photovoltaic Module Using Matlab Simulink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afiqah Zainal, Nurul; Ajisman; Razlan Yusoff, Ahmad

    2016-02-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) module consists of numbers of photovoltaic cells that are connected in series and parallel used to generate electricity from solar energy. The characteristics of PV module are different based on the model and environment factors. In this paper, simulation of photovoltaic module using Matlab Simulink approach is presented. The method is used to determine the characteristics of PV module in various conditions especially in different level of irradiations and temperature. By having different values of irradiations and temperature, the results showed the output power, voltage and current of PV module can be determined. In addition, all results from Matlab Simulink are verified with theoretical calculation. This proposed model helps in better understanding of PV module characteristics in various environment conditions.

  12. Energy Conservation Curriculum for Secondary and Post-Secondary Students. Module 9: Human Comfort and Energy Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro Coll., Corsicana, TX.

    This module is the ninth in a series of eleven modules in an energy conservation curriculum for secondary and postsecondary vocational students. It is designed for use by itself or as part of a sequence of four modules on energy conservation in building construction and operation (see also modules 8, 10, and 11). The objective of this module is to…

  13. Energy Conservation Curriculum for Secondary and Post-Secondary Students. Module 10: Heating Ventilating, and Air Conditioning Conservation Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro Coll., Corsicana, TX.

    This module is the tenth in a series of eleven modules in an energy conservation curriculum for secondary and postsecondary vocational students. It is designed for use by itself or as part of a sequence of four modules on energy conservation in building construction and operation (see also modules 8, 9, and 11). The objective of this module is to…

  14. Energy Conservation Curriculum for Secondary and Post-Secondary Students. Module 6: Hot Water Heating Conservation Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro Coll., Corsicana, TX.

    This module is the sixth in a series of eleven modules in an energy conservation curriculum for secondary and postsecondary vocational students. It is designed for use by itself or as part of a sequence of four modules on understanding utilities (see also modules 3, 5, and 7). The objective of this module is to train students in the recognition,…

  15. Sequences, Series, and Mathematica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, John H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes how the computer algebra system Mathematica can be used to enhance the teaching of the topics of sequences and series. Examines its capabilities to find exact, approximate, and graphically generated approximate solutions to problems from these topics and to understand proofs about sequences. (MDH)

  16. Building Alliances Series: Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Cecilia

    2009-01-01

    Public-private partnerships done right are a powerful tool for development, providing enduring solutions to some of the greatest challenges. To help familiarize readers with the art of alliance building, the Global Development Alliance (GDA) office has created a series of practical guides that highlight proven practices in partnerships,…

  17. Diamond Anniversary Lecture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Dewey A.; And Others

    This document contains the texts of four lectures that were presented as part of a series commemorating the 75th anniversary of Ohio State University's Department of Agricultural Education. The first lecture, "The Conceptualization Process and Vocational Education Management," (Dewey A. Adams) discusses a five-step management behavior approach for…

  18. Computer Series, 54.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John W., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Describes graphical solutions of equations for stirred-tank reactors in series; data management software for producing and searching customized mass spectral libraries; least squares and chromatography programs; a low-cost data acquisition system for Apple microcomputers; nuclear magnetic resonance interpretation with graphics; chemical bonding…

  19. Discrimination. Opposing Viewpoints Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Mary E., Ed.

    Books in the Opposing Viewpoints series challenge readers to question their own opinions and assumptions. By reading carefully balanced views, readers confront new ideas on the topic of interest. The Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibited job discrimination based on age, race, religion, gender, or national origin, provided the groundwork for…

  20. Poverty. Opposing Viewpoints Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leone, Bruno, Ed.

    Books in the Opposing Viewpoints Series present debates about current issues that can be used to teach critical reading and thinking skills. The varied opinions in each collection explore aspects of a social, cultural, or political issue. A great deal of money has been spent in this country to eradicate poverty, but the problem remains. Some…

  1. Gangs. Opposing Viewpoints Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cozic, Charles P., Ed.

    Books in the Opposing Viewpoints Series present debates about current issues that can be used to teach critical reading and thinking skills. The variety of opinions expressed in this collection of articles and book excerpts explore many aspects of juvenile gangs. Some youths join gangs of their own free choice, to satisfy ego or greed. Others are…

  2. Lower GI Series

    MedlinePlus

    ... may ask the person to change position several times to evenly coat the large intestine with the barium • if the health care provider has ordered a double-contrast lower GI series, the radiologist will inject air through the tube ...

  3. Parent's Journal. [Videotape Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    Parent's Journal is a set of 16 videotapes for parents of prenatal, infant, and toddler-age children, created by the Alaska Native Home Base Video Project of the Tlingit and Haida Head Start Program. This series offers culturally relevant solutions to the challenges of parenting, drawing on the life stories and experiences of capable mothers and…

  4. Family Feathers. [Videotape Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    Family Feathers is a set of 18 videotapes for parents of preschool children, created by the Alaska Native Home Base Video Project of the Tlingit and Haida Head Start Program. This series offers culturally relevant solutions to the challenges of parenting, drawing on practical advice from Tlingit and Haida parents, wisdom from elders, and some of…

  5. Themes. Informal Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessens, Rosanne

    Part of the larger Informal Education Series, this publication brings together many of the materials prepared by Rosanne Kessens for teachers and parents involved in Follow Through settings. Contents first explore theme development as an integrated approach to learning and then describe strategies for planning themes. Subsequent materials offer…

  6. Photovoltaic module and module arrays

    DOEpatents

    Botkin, Jonathan [El Cerrito, CA; Graves, Simon [Berkeley, CA; Lenox, Carl J. S. [Oakland, CA; Culligan, Matthew [Berkeley, CA; Danning, Matt [Oakland, CA

    2012-07-17

    A photovoltaic (PV) module including a PV device and a frame. The PV device has a PV laminate defining a perimeter and a major plane. The frame is assembled to and encases the laminate perimeter, and includes leading, trailing, and side frame members, and an arm that forms a support face opposite the laminate. The support face is adapted for placement against a horizontal installation surface, to support and orient the laminate in a non-parallel or tilted arrangement. Upon final assembly, the laminate and the frame combine to define a unitary structure. The frame can orient the laminate at an angle in the range of 3.degree.-7.degree. from horizontal, and can be entirely formed of a polymeric material. Optionally, the arm incorporates integral feature(s) that facilitate interconnection with corresponding features of a second, identically formed PV module.

  7. Photovoltaic module and module arrays

    DOEpatents

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Lenox, Carl J. S.; Culligan, Matthew; Danning, Matt

    2013-08-27

    A photovoltaic (PV) module including a PV device and a frame, The PV device has a PV laminate defining a perimeter and a major plane. The frame is assembled to and encases the laminate perimeter, and includes leading, trailing, and side frame members, and an arm that forms a support face opposite the laminate. The support face is adapted for placement against a horizontal installation surface, to support and orient the laminate in a non-parallel or tilted arrangement. Upon final assembly, the laminate and the frame combine to define a unitary structure. The frame can orient the laminate at an angle in the range of 3.degree.-7.degree. from horizontal, and can be entirely formed of a polymeric material. Optionally, the arm incorporates integral feature(s) that facilitate interconnection with corresponding features of a second, identically formed PV module.

  8. Getting Down to Business: What's It All About? Module 1. Teacher Guide. Entrepreneurship Training Components.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarlane, Carolyn

    This teacher's guide is the core module in a set of 36 modules and specifically accompanies CE 031 030. It is the first in the series Getting Down to Business. The purpose of module 1 is to provide an introduction to the other 35 business-specific modules in the program and be a supplementary reference for teachers. Following the overview are…

  9. Intercultural Understanding: The Problem and a Process. Social Studies for the Elementary School. Proficiency Module #7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keach, Everett T., Jr.

    This module is one in a series of teaching modules developed for a contemporary social studies curriculum. The purpose of this module is to develop an understanding of the sources of content to be used in an intercultural awareness curriculum and to reinforce teaching strategies learned in the other modules by applying them to the development of…

  10. 77 FR 22191 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Export Control Classification Number...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Export Control Classification Number 0Y521 Series, Items..., which amends the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) by establishing a new Export Control... the EAR. The ECCN 0Y521 series will be used for items that warrant control on the CCL but are not...

  11. Composite Crew Module: Primary Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirsch, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    In January 2007, the NASA Administrator and Associate Administrator for the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate chartered the NASA Engineering and Safety Center to design, build, and test a full-scale crew module primary structure, using carbon fiber reinforced epoxy based composite materials. The overall goal of the Composite Crew Module project was to develop a team from the NASA family with hands-on experience in composite design, manufacturing, and testing in anticipation of future space exploration systems being made of composite materials. The CCM project was planned to run concurrently with the Orion project's baseline metallic design within the Constellation Program so that features could be compared and discussed without inducing risk to the overall Program. This report discusses the project management aspects of the project including team organization, decision making, independent technical reviews, and cost and schedule management approach.

  12. Drug Education for Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackett, Peter; McKeon, Thomas L.

    1976-01-01

    The formulation of a drug policy and the implementation of that policy in a firm but fair manner are the responsibility of the school administrator. Authors give serious consideration to this responsibility. (Editor/RK)

  13. Food and Drug Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... blog post. April 11, 2017 ‘Organs-on-Chips’ Technology: FDA Testing Groundbreaking Science More FDA Voice Blog ... FEAR Act Site Map Nondiscrimination Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver ...

  14. Administrative Law Judges

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Administrative Law Judges conduct hearings and render decisions in proceedings between the EPA and persons, businesses, government entities, and other organizations which are or are alleged to be regulated under environmental laws.

  15. Needed: Nursing Administration Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Eunice M.

    1976-01-01

    A master's program that synthesizes clinical nursing knowledge with management theory and skills is one way to prepare nursing service administrators capable of exerting an influence on today's complex health care system. (Editor)

  16. The Administrator Selection Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Michael F.

    1974-01-01

    Proposes that education establish for administrators systematic, rigorous, albeit subjective, selection procedures that recognize the principle of organizational democracy and the public nature of the educational enterprise. (Author/DN)

  17. Confrontation and Administrative Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Arnold J.

    1969-01-01

    Describes some of the sociological and psychological effects of organizational conflict and offers 10 operational principles to guide public administrators of schools and social agencies in meeting the confrontation tactics of activist groups. (JH)

  18. One for the Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Earth berms, a heavily insulated roof, and a narrow band of thermal pane windows, save energy at the administrative headquarters of the Anoka Hennepin school district in Coon Rapids, a suburb of Minneapolis, Minnesota. (Author/MLF)

  19. Goldstone (GDSCC) administrative computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, H.

    1981-01-01

    The GDSCC Data Processing Unit provides various administrative computing services for Goldstone. Those activities, including finance, manpower and station utilization, deep-space station scheduling and engineering change order (ECO) control are discussed.

  20. 76 FR 55296 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Model DHC-8-300 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    .... Model DHC-8-300 Series Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... been found cracked on DHC-8 Series 300 aircraft. Investigation revealed that the failure of the support... metal have been found cracked on DHC-8 Series 300 aircraft. Investigation revealed that the failure...

  1. 75 FR 52290 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Model DHC-8-300 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Model DHC-8-300 Series Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... found cracked on DHC-8 Series 300 aircraft. Investigation revealed that the failure of the support... sheet metal have been found cracked on DHC-8 Series 300 aircraft. Investigation revealed that...

  2. 76 FR 53305 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A330-200 and -300 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ...-200 and -300 Series Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... applicability in the MCAI also identifies Airbus Model A340-200, -300, -500, and -600 series airplanes, this AD only applies to Airbus Model A330-200 and -300 series airplanes. FAA AD 2011-04-06, Amendment...

  3. 75 FR 81420 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Model DHC-8-300 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ..., Inc. Model DHC-8-300 Series Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... support brackets that were manufactured using sheet metal have been found cracked on DHC-8 Series 300... been found cracked on DHC-8 Series 300 aircraft. Investigation revealed that the failure of the...

  4. Company Administration Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-01-01

    iTRATION CENTER AND FORT BENJAMIN HARRISON FORT BENJAMIN HARRISON. INDIANA 46216 ATZI -XO 16 October 1973 SUBJECT: Letter of Instruction - Company...Mail, files, records management* publications, voting, etc.). ... AnnexA II ATZI -XO 18 October 1973 SUBJECT: Letter of Instruction - Company...administration as follows: A. 2 I * * " " " ’+ " " ’ ’ ’ ’’ ’ , ’" I ATZI -XO 18 October 1973 SUBJECT: Letter of Instruction - Company Administration Study tea

  5. 76 FR 63163 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 777-200, -200LR, -300, and -300ER Series...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ..., -300, and -300ER Series Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final... Boeing Company Model 777-200, -200LR, -300, and -300ER series airplanes; certificated in any category;...

  6. Series elastic actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Matthew M.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis presents the design, construction, control and evaluation of a novel for controlled actuator. Traditional force controlled actuators are designed from the premise that 'Stiffer is better'. This approach gives a high bandwidth system, prone to problems of contact instability, noise, and low power density. The actuator presented in this thesis is designed from the premise that 'Stiffness isn't everything'. The actuator, which incorporates a series elastic element, trades off achievable bandwidth for gains in stable, low noise force control, and protection against shock loads. This thesis reviews related work in robot force control, presents theoretical descriptions of the control and expected performance from a series elastic actuator, and describes the design of a test actuator constructed to gather performance data. Finally the performance of the system is evaluated by comparing the performance data to theoretical predictions.

  7. Interdisciplinary Distinguished Seminar Series

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-29

    information sciences , nanotechnology, mathematics, and physics. The list of speakers included leaders of the respective fields from the US and abroad...and engineering, computer science and mathematics. The list of speakers included leaders of the respective fields from the US and abroad. All the...summary, this funded Interdisciplinary Seminar Series have not only brought the best in the disciplines of Information Science and Systems, but as an

  8. Integrated organic photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potscavage, William J.; Yoo, Seunghyup; Domercq, Benoit; Kim, Jungbae; Holt, Joe; Kippelen, Bernard

    2007-09-01

    Methods for scalable output voltage and encapsulation of organic photovoltaic cells are addressed in this paper. To obtain scalable output voltages, integrated photovoltaic modules comprised of a bulk heterojunction of poly(3- hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and a soluble C 70 derivative, [6,6]-phenyl C 71 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM-70), were fabricated. Power conversion efficiency of individual P3HT/PCBM-70 cells was estimated to be 4.1 % for AM1.5 G illumination. Modules of one to four cells connected in series produced open-circuit voltages V OC that linearly depend on the number of cells N as V OC = N × 0.621 V with a nearly constant short-circuit current of 1.4 +/- 0.1 mA. Separately, shelf lifetimes of more than one year were achieved for pentacene/C 60 solar cells by encapsulation with a 200-nm-thick layer of Al IIO 3 deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD). In addition, the ALD process improved the open-circuit voltage and power conversion efficiency of the solar cells by thermal annealing that occurs during the process.

  9. 76 FR 70966 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... International Trade Administration Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules... photovoltaic cells, whether or not assembled into modules (solar cells), from the People's Republic of China... Imposition of Antidumping and Countervailing Duties Against Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells,...

  10. 77 FR 37877 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ... International Trade Administration Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules... determination in the antidumping duty investigation of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells, whether or not assembled into modules (``solar cells''), from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). The...

  11. Automated Administrative Data Bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrie, M. D.; Jarrett, J. R.; Reising, S. A.; Hodge, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    Improved productivity and more effective response to information requirements for internal management, NASA Centers, and Headquarters resulted from using automated techniques. Modules developed to provide information on manpower, RTOPS, full time equivalency, and physical space reduced duplication, increased communication, and saved time. There is potential for greater savings by sharing and integrating with those who have the same requirements.

  12. Real-time Series Resistance Monitoring in PV Systems; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Deceglie, M. G.; Silverman, T. J.; Marion, B.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2015-06-14

    We apply the physical principles of a familiar method, suns-Voc, to a new application: the real-time detection of series resistance changes in modules and systems operating outside. The real-time series resistance (RTSR) method that we describe avoids the need for collecting IV curves or constructing full series-resistance-free IV curves. RTSR is most readily deployable at the module level on apply the physical principles of a familiar method, suns-Voc, to a new application: the real-time detection of series resistance changes in modules and systems operating outside. The real-time series resistance (RTSR) method that we describe avoids the need for collecting IV curves or constructing full series-resistance-free IV curves. RTSR is most readily deployable at the module level on micro-inverters or module-integrated electronics, but it can also be extended to full strings. Automated detection of series resistance increases can provide early warnings of some of the most common reliability issues, which also pose fire risks, including broken ribbons, broken solder bonds, and contact problems in the junction or combiner box. We describe the method in detail and describe a sample application to data collected from modules operating in the field.

  13. Printed interconnects for photovoltaic modules

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, J. D.; Pach, G.; Horowitz, K. A. W.; Stockert, T. R.; Woodhouse, M.; van Hest, M. F. A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Film-based photovoltaic modules employ monolithic interconnects to minimize resistance loss and enhance module voltage via series connection. Conventional interconnect construction occurs sequentially, with a scribing step following deposition of the bottom electrode, a second scribe after deposition of absorber and intermediate layers, and a third following deposition of the top electrode. This method produces interconnect widths of about 300 um, and the area comprised by interconnects within a module (generally about 3%) does not contribute to power generation. The present work reports on an increasingly popular strategy capable of reducing the interconnect width to less than 100 um: printing interconnects. Cost modeling projects a savings of about $0.02/watt for CdTe module production through the use of printed interconnects, with savings coming from both reduced capital expense and increased module power output. Printed interconnect demonstrations with copper-indium-gallium-diselenide and cadmium-telluride solar cells show successful voltage addition and miniaturization down to 250 um. Material selection guidelines and considerations for commercialization are discussed.

  14. Automated solar module assembly line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bycer, M.

    1980-01-01

    The solar module assembly machine which Kulicke and Soffa delivered under this contract is a cell tabbing and stringing machine, and capable of handling a variety of cells and assembling strings up to 4 feet long which then can be placed into a module array up to 2 feet by 4 feet in a series of parallel arrangement, and in a straight or interdigitated array format. The machine cycle is 5 seconds per solar cell. This machine is primarily adapted to 3 inch diameter round cells with two tabs between cells. Pulsed heat is used as the bond technique for solar cell interconnects. The solar module assembly machine unloads solar cells from a cassette, automatically orients them, applies flux and solders interconnect ribbons onto the cells. It then inverts the tabbed cells, connects them into cell strings, and delivers them into a module array format using a track mounted vacuum lance, from which they are taken to test and cleaning benches prior to final encapsulation into finished solar modules. Throughout the machine the solar cell is handled very carefully, and any contact with the collector side of the cell is avoided or minimized.

  15. Automated solar module assembly line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bycer, M.

    1980-08-01

    The solar module assembly machine which Kulicke and Soffa delivered under this contract is a cell tabbing and stringing machine, and capable of handling a variety of cells and assembling strings up to 4 feet long which then can be placed into a module array up to 2 feet by 4 feet in a series of parallel arrangement, and in a straight or interdigitated array format. The machine cycle is 5 seconds per solar cell. This machine is primarily adapted to 3 inch diameter round cells with two tabs between cells. Pulsed heat is used as the bond technique for solar cell interconnects. The solar module assembly machine unloads solar cells from a cassette, automatically orients them, applies flux and solders interconnect ribbons onto the cells. It then inverts the tabbed cells, connects them into cell strings, and delivers them into a module array format using a track mounted vacuum lance, from which they are taken to test and cleaning benches prior to final encapsulation into finished solar modules. Throughout the machine the solar cell is handled very carefully, and any contact with the collector side of the cell is avoided or minimized.

  16. Environmental testing of CIS based modules

    SciTech Connect

    Willett, D.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes environmental testing of Siemen`s CIS modules. Charts and diagrams are presented on data concerning: temporary power loss of laminated mini-modules; the 50 thermal cycle test; the 10 humidity freeze cycle test; results after 1000 hours of exposure to damp heat; and interconnect test structures in damp heat testing. It is concluded that moisture ingress causes permanent increases in the series resistance of modules, and that improved packaging is needed for better high humidity reliability. Also, dry dark heat caused temporary power losses which were recovered in sunlight.

  17. Centralized administrative services management.

    PubMed

    Freed, D H

    1994-06-01

    Virtually every hospital has imposed guidelines or controls on one or more administrative service expenses. However, the actual deployment of such strategies is often voluntary, decentralized, disjointed and episodic. An alternative approach is to cluster administrative elements across hospital departments and make them the responsibility of a dedicated manager. This approach treats administrative services as an organizing principle with uniform, predictable standards of service and cost. Customer requirements for products and services are met without the need for them to physically manage that process. Materiel managers can demonstrate a leadership role by applying their professionalism and know-how to a set of products and services traditionally ignored or dealt with in an uncoordinated manner. While some initial resistance can be expected as traditional barriers are disassembled, the results should be very rewarding for the hospital and materiel manager alike.

  18. Computer hardware fault administration

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Megerian, Mark G.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2010-09-14

    Computer hardware fault administration carried out in a parallel computer, where the parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes. The compute nodes are coupled for data communications by at least two independent data communications networks, where each data communications network includes data communications links connected to the compute nodes. Typical embodiments carry out hardware fault administration by identifying a location of a defective link in the first data communications network of the parallel computer and routing communications data around the defective link through the second data communications network of the parallel computer.

  19. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    DOEpatents

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Carolan, Michael Francis; Chen, Christopher M.; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew; Wahle, Harold W.; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Blake, James Erik; Nataraj, Shankar; van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias; Wilson, Merrill Anderson

    2007-02-20

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel. The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  20. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    DOEpatents

    Stein, VanEric Edward [Allentown, PA; Carolan, Michael Francis [Allentown, PA; Chen, Christopher M [Allentown, PA; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew [Orefield, PA; Wahle, Harold W [North Canton, OH; Ohrn, Theodore R [Alliance, OH; Kneidel, Kurt E [Alliance, OH; Rackers, Keith Gerard [Louisville, OH; Blake, James Erik [Uniontown, OH; Nataraj, Shankar [Allentown, PA; Van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias; Wilson, Merrill Anderson [West Jordan, UT

    2012-02-14

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel. The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  1. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    DOEpatents

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Carolan, Michael Francis; Chen, Christopher M.; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew; Wahle, Harold W.; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Blake, James Erik; Nataraj, Shankar; van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias; Wilson, Merrill Anderson

    2008-02-26

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel.The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  2. Industrial application experiment series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluhm, S. A.

    1981-01-01

    Two procurements within the Industrial Application Experiment Series of the Thermal Power Systems Project are discussed. The first procurement, initiated in April 1980, resulted in an award to the Applied Concepts Corporation for the Capital Concrete Experiment: two Fresnel concentrating collectors will be evaluated in single-unit installations at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Parabolic Dish Test Site and at Capitol Concrete Products, Topeka, Kansas. The second procurement, initiated in March 1981, is titled, "Thermal System Engineering Experiment B." The objective of the procurement is the rapid deployment of developed parabolic dish collectors.

  3. Supported PV module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Mascolo, Gianluigi; Taggart, David F.; Botkin, Jonathan D.; Edgett, Christopher S.

    2013-10-15

    A supported PV assembly may include a PV module comprising a PV panel and PV module supports including module supports having a support surface supporting the module, a module registration member engaging the PV module to properly position the PV module on the module support, and a mounting element. In some embodiments the PV module registration members engage only the external surfaces of the PV modules at the corners. In some embodiments the assembly includes a wind deflector with ballast secured to a least one of the PV module supports and the wind deflector. An array of the assemblies can be secured to one another at their corners to prevent horizontal separation of the adjacent corners while permitting the PV modules to flex relative to one another so to permit the array of PV modules to follow a contour of the support surface.

  4. Real-Time Series Resistance Monitoring in PV Systems Without the Need for IV Curves

    SciTech Connect

    Deceglie, Michael G.; Silverman, Timothy J.; Marion, Bill; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2015-06-14

    We apply the physical principles of a familiar method, suns-Voc, to a new application: the real-time detection of series resistance changes in modules and systems operating outside. The real-time series resistance (RTSR) method that we describe avoids the need for collecting IV curves or constructing full series-resistance-free IV curves. RTSR is most readily deployable at the module level on micro-inverters or module-integrated electronics, but it can also be extended to full strings. Automated detection of series resistance increases can provide early warnings of some of the most common reliability issues, which also pose fire risks, including broken ribbons, broken solder bonds, and contact problems in the junction or combiner box. We describe the method in detail and describe a sample application to data collected from modules operating in the field.

  5. Administrative Utility Analysis: Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co., San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    Appendixes to a study on administrative utility analysis and vocational education programs for the Area of Vocational and Technical Education (AVTE) in the Puerto Rico Department of Education contain the planning and budgeting system elements, position descriptions, and information on the growth of vocational education in Puerto Rico. The elements…

  6. Administrative Sides of Librarying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Carolyn

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how the author used administrative skills learned as a school library media specialist to meet the demands of a university department chair. Topics include the influence of decisions that are made; budgeting; evaluation concerns and responsibilities; determining guidelines and goals; political concerns; and the flow of information. (LRW)

  7. The Administration of Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Clifford C.

    1978-01-01

    Among all the tasks of the admissions officer in developing a successful marketing program, the hardest may be that of convincing other college administrators of the importance of admissions to the institution's survival. Discussed are long-range planning, budgeting, staff selection and training, and implementing a plan. (Author/LBH)

  8. Administrators Confront Student "Sexting"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2009-01-01

    Cellphone-savvy students have created instructional and disciplinary challenges for educators for years. But the recent emergence of "sexting" by adolescents over their mobile phones caught many school administrators off guard, and the practice is prompting efforts around the country to craft policy responses. Students' sharing of nude or…

  9. IVA: Improving Vocational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EPD Consortium D, Richardson, TX.

    These six instructional units are intended to provide instructors of vocational education administration with a systematic package of materials for their programs of preservice and/or inservice instruction and to provide materials which could be reproduced for learner use. These units cover the following subject matter: (1) federal legislation…

  10. Migrant Education Administrative Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Bureau of Migrant Education.

    Intended to provide information pertaining to the administration of migrant education projects in Louisiana, the handbook is divided into two sections: basic guidelines for program operations and support services--nursing. Section I covers the Federal and State migrant program, local migrant projects, project personnel and staff development, and…

  11. Educational Administration's Weber.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronn, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Discusses Max Weber's importance in Greenfield's work, particularly in Greenfield and Ribbins'"Greenfield on Educational Administration" (1993). In concentrating on human actors' subjective understanding, Greenfield was a faithful Weberian. However, he deviated from Weber by disavowing structural explanations of social and organizational…

  12. The Administrative Internship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkison, Judith A., Ed.; Warren, Andrea, Ed.

    This monograph was developed as part of the project known as Internships, Certification, Equity-Leadership, and Support (ICES). The Kansas project successfully field-tested a model for mobilizing statewide resources to prepare women for administrative careers and to place them in appropriate positions. The crucial component of the training program…

  13. Standards and Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, S. P.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of water quality standards and administration, covering publications of 1976-77. Consideration is given to municipal facilities, National Pollutant Discharge Elimination Systems, regional and international water quality management, and effluent standards. A list of 99 references is also presented. (HM)

  14. Championing the Latino Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Carlos A.

    2011-01-01

    When the author worked as a vice principal at a K-8 school in Watsonville, California, a school predominantly filled with migrant workers' children, he felt a lack of support as a Latino as he began moving up into school administration. He also continued to see what he had seen as a teacher--which was how underserved minority students were. These…

  15. Redis database administration tool

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, J. J.

    2013-02-13

    MyRedis is a product of the Lorenz subproject under the ASC Scirntific Data Management effort. MyRedis is a web based utility designed to allow easy administration of instances of Redis databases. It can be usedd to view and manipulate data as well as run commands directly against a variety of different Redis hosts.

  16. Administrative Uses of Microcomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Chase

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the administrative uses of the microcomputer, stating that high performance educational managers are likely to have microcomputers in their organizations. Four situations that would justify the use of a computer are: (1) when massive amounts of data are processed through well-defined operations; (2) when data processing is…

  17. Educator Effectiveness Administrative Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this manual is to provide guidance in the evaluation of educators, highlight critical components of effectiveness training, and offer opportunities for professional growth. The term "educator" includes teachers, all professional and temporary professional employees, education specialists, and school administrators/principals.…

  18. Discretionary Grants Administration Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Human Development Services (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    This manual sets forth applicable administrative policies and procedures to recipients of discretionary project grants or cooperative agreements awarded by program offices in the Office of Human Development Services (HDS). It is intended to serve as a basic reference for project directors and business officers of recipient organizations who are…

  19. [Rural School Administrator's Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AEL, Inc., Charleston, WV.

    This packet contains resources on five topics relevant to rural school administrators. "Assessing Parent Involvement: A Checklist for Rural Schools": discusses educator beliefs that support successful parent engagement programs, challenges and advantages of rural schools attempting to involve parents and community, and aspects of…

  20. Standards for Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    1998-01-01

    This newsletter reviews five reports that address the implications of standards for administrators. These texts include "Designing and Implementing Standards-Based Accountability System" (Education Commission of the States), which describes some of the policy implications of standards-driven accountability; "Why Principals Fail: Are National…

  1. Computerized CAMAC and NIM module library

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, G.F.; McDonald, R.J.

    1990-08-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory owns a large number of CAMAC and NIM modules which can be connected together to form data acquisition systems used in experiments. Many of these modules are contained in pools'' for common usage. This paper describes a system of storage and inventory control that allows easy check-out and check-in of the modules utilizing networked Macintosh computers, FoxBase+/Mac software, and bar-code technology. It also provides search capability for the user and tracking capability for the pool administrator. This inventory system has applications to any pool of items that are routinely loaned. 8 figs.

  2. New active series of growth hormone secretagogues.

    PubMed

    Guerlavais, Vincent; Boeglin, Damien; Mousseaux, Delphine; Oiry, Catherine; Heitz, Annie; Deghenghi, Romano; Locatelli, Vittorio; Torsello, Antonio; Ghé, Corrado; Catapano, Filomena; Muccioli, Giampiero; Galleyrand, Jean-Claude; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain; Martinez, Jean

    2003-03-27

    New growth hormone secretagogue (GHS) analogues were synthesized and evaluated for growth hormone releasing activity. This series derived from EP-51389 is based on a gem-diamino structure. Compounds that exhibited higher in vivo GH-releasing potency than hexarelin in rat (subcutaneous administration) were then tested per os in beagle dogs and for their binding affinity to human pituitary GHS receptors and to hGHS-R 1a. Compound 7 (JMV 1843, H-Aib-(d)-Trp-(d)-gTrp-formyl) showed high potency in these tests and was selected for clinical studies.(1)

  3. Advanced Contract Administration. First Week

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-14

    administration. Keywords: Contracting/administrative contracting officer relations Financial management; Production management , Quality assurance; Subcontracting; Claims; Government property; Ethics data sources and modifications.

  4. Uranium series, volcanic rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vazquez, Jorge A.

    2014-01-01

    Application of U-series dating to volcanic rocks provides unique and valuable information about the absolute timing of crystallization and differentiation of magmas prior to eruption. The 238U–230Th and 230Th-226Ra methods are the most commonly employed for dating the crystallization of mafic to silicic magmas that erupt at volcanoes. Dates derived from the U–Th and Ra–Th methods reflect crystallization because diffusion of these elements at magmatic temperatures is sluggish (Cherniak 2010) and diffusive re-equilibration is insignificant over the timescales (less than or equal to 10^5 years) typically associated with pre-eruptive storage of nearly all magma compositions (Cooper and Reid 2008). Other dating methods based on elements that diffuse rapidly at magmatic temperatures, such as the 40Ar/39Ar and (U–Th)/He methods, yield dates for the cooling of magma at the time of eruption. Disequilibrium of some short-lived daughters of the uranium series such as 210Po may be fractionated by saturation of a volatile phase and can be employed to date magmatic gas loss that is synchronous with volcanic eruption (e.g., Rubin et al. 1994).

  5. Series Bosch System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abney, Morgan B.; Evans, Christopher; Mansell, Matt; Swickrath, Michael

    2012-01-01

    State-of-the-art (SOA) carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction technology for the International Space Station produces methane as a byproduct. This methane is subsequently vented overboard. The associated loss of hydrogen ultimately reduces the mass of oxygen that can be recovered from CO2 in a closed-loop life support system. As an alternative to SOA CO2 reduction technology, NASA is exploring a Series-Bosch system capable of reducing CO2 with hydrogen to form water and solid carbon. This results in 100% theoretical recovery of oxygen from metabolic CO2. In the past, Bosch-based technology did not trade favorably against SOA technology due to a high power demand, low reaction efficiencies, concerns with carbon containment, and large resupply requirements necessary to replace expended catalyst cartridges. An alternative approach to Bosch technology, labeled "Series-Bosch," employs a new system design with optimized multi-stage reactors and a membrane-based separation and recycle capability. Multi-physics modeling of the first stage reactor, along with chemical process modeling of the integrated system, has resulted in a design with potential to trade significantly better than previous Bosch technology. The modeling process and resulting system architecture selection are discussed.

  6. Level I Human Relations Skills for the Occupational Specialist Working with Groups. Competency-Based Modular Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowd, E. Thomas; Chick, Joyce M., Ed.

    This self-instructional module, one volume of a series of competency-based modules in human relations skills for occupational specialists, is designed to help the specialist better understand how to use basic human relations skills with students and others. Other modules in this set of three are Human Relations Skills in Individual Interactions…

  7. The Single Needle Lockstitch Machine. Module 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on parts of the machine, one in a series on the single needle lockstitch sewing machine for student self-study, contains eight sections. Each section contains the following parts: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, student self-check, check-out activities, and an instructor's final…

  8. The Serger (Overlock) Machine. Module 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the purpose and use of the serger machine, one in a series on clothing construction for industrial sewing machine operators designed for student self-study, contains nine sections. Each section includes the following parts: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, student self-check,…

  9. Series with Inverse Function Terms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ovchinnikov, Sergei

    2011-01-01

    Finding the sum of a series in the form of a closed expression has always been a challenging problem in analysis. The paper presents an elementary method for summation of series with terms generated by functions satisfying subtraction identities.

  10. GPS Position Time Series @ JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, Susan; Moore, Angelyn; Kedar, Sharon; Liu, Zhen; Webb, Frank; Heflin, Mike; Desai, Shailen

    2013-01-01

    Different flavors of GPS time series analysis at JPL - Use same GPS Precise Point Positioning Analysis raw time series - Variations in time series analysis/post-processing driven by different users. center dot JPL Global Time Series/Velocities - researchers studying reference frame, combining with VLBI/SLR/DORIS center dot JPL/SOPAC Combined Time Series/Velocities - crustal deformation for tectonic, volcanic, ground water studies center dot ARIA Time Series/Coseismic Data Products - Hazard monitoring and response focused center dot ARIA data system designed to integrate GPS and InSAR - GPS tropospheric delay used for correcting InSAR - Caltech's GIANT time series analysis uses GPS to correct orbital errors in InSAR - Zhen Liu's talking tomorrow on InSAR Time Series analysis

  11. Series of Reciprocal Triangular Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruckman, Paul; Dence, Joseph B.; Dence, Thomas P.; Young, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Reciprocal triangular numbers have appeared in series since the very first infinite series were summed. Here we attack a number of subseries of the reciprocal triangular numbers by methodically expressing them as integrals.

  12. Advanced Activated Sludge. Training Module 2.117.4.77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with operation of activated sludge wastewater treatment plants. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts and transparency masters. This is the third level of a three module series and considers design and operation…

  13. Nuclear Technology. Course 27: Metrology. Module 27-5, Tolerancing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selleck, Ben; Espy, John

    This fifth in a series of eight modules for a course titled Metrology describes the application of the American National Standard (ANSI Y14.5-1973) for dimensioning and tolerancing and gives guidance on interpreting form and location controls consistent with the national standard. The module follows a typical format that includes the following…

  14. Solids Analysis. Training Module 5.100.2.77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with the laboratory procedures for determining the complete series of solids analyses on wastewater and wastewater sludge samples. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts and transparency masters. This module considers…

  15. Mathematics in the Needle Trades. Computing Piecework. Module 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on computing piecework, one in a series on the needle trades, contains the following components: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, student self-check, check-out activities, and an instructor's final checklist. The module presents information on the piecework pay plan, such as…

  16. Technology for the Organic Chemist: Three Exploratory Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esteb, John J.; McNulty, LuAnne M.; Magers, John; Morgan, Paul; Wilson, Anne M.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to use computer-based technology is an essential skill set for students majoring in chemistry. This exercise details the introduction of appropriate uses for this technology in the organic chemistry series. The incorporation of chemically appropriate online resources (module 1), scientific databases (module 2), and the use of a…

  17. Basic Trickling Filters. Training Module 2.110.2.77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layton, Ronald F.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with operation and maintenance of a trickling filter wastewater treatment system. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts and transparency masters. This is the first level of a three module series and considers the…

  18. Intermediate Trickling Filters. Training Module 2.111.3.77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layton, Ronald F.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with operation and maintenance of a trickling filter wastewater treatment plant. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts and transparency masters. This is the second level of a three module series and considers types…

  19. Advanced Trickling Filters. Training Module 2.112.4.77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layton, Ronald F.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with operation and maintenance of a trickling filter wastewater treatment plant. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts and transparency masters. This is the third level of a three module series and considers…

  20. The New Youth Entrepreneur: Money To Get Started. Module 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kourilsky, Marilyn; And Others

    The New Youth Entrepreneur curriculum is a series of 12 youth-oriented educational modules containing instructional materials, learning activities, and checkup exercises designed to teach students key elements of entrepreneurship. This document is the fifth module, and introduces students to the financial issues involved in starting a business,…

  1. Advanced Stabilization. Training Module 2.226.3.77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, W. L.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor knowledgeable in the chemistry of water stabilization and familiar with control of deposition and corrosion in a water supply system. This is the second level of a two module series. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts and…

  2. Advanced Mathematics. Training Module 1.303.3.77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document is an instructional module prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with mathematics as applied to water and wastewater treatment plant operation. Included are objectives, instructor guides and student handouts. This is the third level of a three module series and is concerned with statistics, total head, steady…

  3. Intermediate Activated Sludge. Training Module 2.116.3.77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with operation of activated sludge wastewater treatment plants. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts and transparency masters. This is the second level of a three module series and considers aeration devices,…

  4. Basic Activated Sludge. Training Module 2.115.2.77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with operation of activated sludge wastewater treatment plants. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts, and transparency masters. This is the first of a three module series and considers definition of terms, design…

  5. Making Authentic Data Accessible: The Sensing the Environment Inquiry Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffis, Kathy; Thadani, Vandana; Wise, Joe

    2008-01-01

    We report on the development of a middle school life sciences inquiry module, Sensing the Environment. This "data-enriched" inquiry module includes a series of activities exploring the nature of science, photosynthesis, transpiration, and natural selection, which culminates in students' querying authentic environmental data to support a scientific…

  6. Applied Physics Modules Selected for Automotive and Diesel Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waring, Gene

    Designed for individualized use in an applied physics course in postsecondary vocational-technical education, this series of ten learning modules is equivalent to the content of a five-credit hour class in automotive technology or diesel technology. Almost all the modules contain technological application in the form of laboratory experiments or…

  7. Lunar Module Ascent Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Lunar Module 'Spider' ascent stage is photographed from the Command/Service Module on the fifth day of the Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission. The Lunar Module's descent stage had already been jettisoned.

  8. Wide deviation phase modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Couch, R. H.; Hearn, C. P.; Wilson, L. R.

    1974-01-01

    Modulator produces phase-modulated waveform having high modulating linearity. Technique is inherently wideband with respect to carrier frequency and can operate over decade carrier frequency range without adjustments. Circuit performance is both mathematically predictable and highly reproducible.

  9. Harmonic Series Meets Fibonacci Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hongwei; Kennedy, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The terms of a conditionally convergent series may be rearranged to converge to any prescribed real value. What if the harmonic series is grouped into Fibonacci length blocks? Or the harmonic series is arranged in alternating Fibonacci length blocks? Or rearranged and alternated into separate blocks of even and odd terms of Fibonacci length?

  10. A Module Experimental Process System Development Unit (MEPSDU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Restructuring research objectives from a technical readiness demonstration program to an investigation of high risk, high payoff activities associated with producing photovoltaic modules using non-CZ sheet material is reported. Deletion of the module frame in favor of a frameless design, and modification in cell series parallel electrical interconnect configuration are reviewed. A baseline process sequence was identified for the fabrication of modules using the selected dendritic web sheet material, and economic evaluations of the sequence were completed.

  11. Highly functionalized 7-azaindoles as selective PPAR gamma modulators.

    PubMed

    Debenham, Sheryl D; Chan, Audrey; Lau, Fiona Waiyu; Liu, Weiguo; Wood, Harold B; Lemme, Karen; Colwell, Lawrence; Habulihaz, Bahanu; Akiyama, Taro E; Einstein, Monica; Doebber, Thomas W; Sharma, Neelam; Wang, Chaunlin F; Wu, Margaret; Berger, Joel P; Meinke, Peter T

    2008-09-01

    A series of highly functionalized 3-aroyl and 3-phenoxy-2-methyl-7-azaindoles have been identified, which are potent selective PPARgamma modulators (SPPARgammaMs). Addition of substituents at the 6-position of the 7-azaindoles improves in vitro potency and pharmacokinetics. 7-Azaindoles have significantly improved off-target profiles compared to the parent indole series.

  12. SERI Biomass Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, P. W.; Corder, R. E.; Hill, A. M.; Lindsey, H.; Lowenstein, M. Z.

    1983-02-01

    The biomass with which this report is concerned includes aquatic plants, which can be converted into liquid fuels and chemicals; organic wastes (crop residues as well as animal and municipal wastes), from which biogas can be produced via anerobic digestion; and organic or inorganic waste streams, from which hydrogen can be produced by photobiological processes. The Biomass Program Office supports research in three areas which, although distinct, all use living organisms to create the desired products. The Aquatic Species Program (ASP) supports research on organisms that are themselves processed into the final products, while the Anaerobic Digestion (ADP) and Photo/Biological Hydrogen Program (P/BHP) deals with organisms that transform waste streams into energy products. The P/BHP is also investigating systems using water as a feedstock and cell-free systems which do not utilize living organisms. This report summarizes the progress and research accomplishments of the SERI Biomass Program during FY 1982.

  13. Write Proposals. Module CG B-2 of Category B--Supporting. Competency-Based Career Guidance Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Richard A.

    This module is intended to help guidance personnel in a variety of educational and agency settings plan and develop successful proposals to assist in financing the improvement of existing or future career guidance programs. The module is one of a series of competency-based guidance program training packages focusing upon specific professional and…

  14. Vocational Education Curriculum Specialist (VECS). Module 15: Procedures for Conducting Evaluations of Vocational Education. Study Guide. (Teaching/Learning Module).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Institutes for Research in the Behavioral Sciences, Palo Alto, CA.

    One of 15 core modules in a 22-module series designed to train vocational education curriculum specialists (VECS), this guide is intended for use by both instructor and student in a variety of education environments, including independent study, team teaching, seminars, and workshops, as well as in more conventional classroom settings. The guide…

  15. Vocational Education Curriculum Specialist (VECS). Module 4: Organization of Vocational Education. Study Guide. (Teaching/Learning Module).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Institutes for Research in the Behavioral Sciences, Palo Alto, CA.

    One of six introductory modules in a 22-module series designed to train vocational education curriculum specialists (VECS), this guide is intended for use by both instructor and student in a variety of education environments, including independent study, team teaching, seminars, and workshops, as well as in more conventional classroom settings.…

  16. Vocational Education Curriculum Specialist (VECS). Module 2: Roles of Vocational Educators in Curriculum Management. Study Guide. (Teaching/Learning Module).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Institutes for Research in the Behavioral Sciences, Palo Alto, CA.

    One of six introductory modules in a 22-module series designed to train vocational education curriculum specialists (VECS), this guide is intended for use by both instructor and student in a variety of education environments, including independent study, team teaching, seminars, and workshops, as well as in more conventional classroom settings.…

  17. Vocational Education Curriculum Specialist (VECS). Module 13: Basic Concepts in Educational Evaluation. Study Guide. (Teaching/Learning Module).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Institutes for Research in the Behavioral Sciences, Palo Alto, CA.

    One of 15 core modules in a 22-module series designed to train vocational education curriculum specialists (VECS), this guide is intended for use by both instructor and student in a variety of education environments, including independent study, team teaching, seminars, and workshops, as well as in more conventional classroom settings. The guide…

  18. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 6 and 7: Work and Energy; Applications of Newton's Laws].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  19. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 3-5: Planar Motion; Newton's Laws; and Vector Multiplication].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  20. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 41 and 42: Lenses and Mirrors; Relativity; and Appendix].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  1. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 38-40: Optical Instruments; Diffraction; and Alternating Current Circuits].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  2. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 24-26: Electric Potential; Ohm's Law; and Capacitors].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  3. Module Seven: Combination Circuits and Voltage Dividers; Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    In this module the student will learn to apply the rules previously learned for series and parallel circuits to more complex circuits called series-parallel circuits, discover the utility of a common reference when making reference to voltage values, and learn how to obtain a required voltage from a voltage divider network. The module is divided…

  4. Managing Sales Efforts. PACE Revised. Level 2. Unit 14. Research & Development Series No. 240BB14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmore, M. Catherine; Pritz, Sandra G.

    This unit on managing sales efforts in a small business, the 14th in a series of 18 modules, is on the second level of the revised PACE (Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship) comprehensive curriculum. Geared to advanced secondary and beginning postsecondary or adult students, the modules provide an opportunity to learn about and…

  5. Managing Human Resources. PACE Revised. Level 2. Unit 12. Research & Development Series No. 240BB12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmore, M. Catherine; Pritz, Sandra G.

    This unit on managing human resources in a small business, the 12th in a series of 18 modules, is on the second level of the revised PACE (Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship) comprehensive curriculum. Geared to advanced secondary and beginning postsecondary or adult students, the modules provide an opportunity to learn about and…

  6. Managing the Finances. PACE Revised. Level 2. Unit 16. Research & Development Series No. 240BB16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmore, M. Catherine; Pritz, Sandra G.

    This unit on managing the finances of a small business, the 16th in a series of 18 modules, is on the second level of the revised PACE (Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship) comprehensive curriculum. Geared to advanced secondary and beginning postsecondary or adult students, the modules provide an opportunity to learn about and try…

  7. Into Adolescence: Making and Keeping Friends. A Curriculum for Grades 5-8. Contemporary Health Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Emogene

    The "Contemporary Health Series" covers critical health and family life topics in a sequence of modules with two curricular divisions: "Into Adolescence" for middle school teachers and "Entering Adulthood" for high school teachers. This module presents a six-lesson curriculum for grades five through eight to provide students with the information…

  8. The Consumer and His Health Dollar: One of a Series in Expanded Programs of Consumer Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    Designed as one of a series of modules in consumer education this booklet focuses on health problems from the consumer angle. It is designed to supplement the comprehensive health strands published by the New York State Education Department, and to be used as materials for an elective course. The module is constructed so that the student can…

  9. Public Transportation Pricing: An Instructional Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWha, Charley

    A concept-based introduction to public transportation pricing is presented in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses for disciplines such as engineering, business administration, and technology. After an introductory section on transportation pricing planning and the history of transportation system…

  10. Administrative/Office Technology. A Guide to Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This guide, which was written for general marketing instructors in Ohio, lists nearly 450 resources for use in conjunction with the Administrative/Office Technology Occupational Competency Analysis Profile. The texts, workbooks, modules, software, videos, and learning activities packets listed are categorized by the following topics:…

  11. 76 FR 70382 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company (GE) CF6-80C2B Series Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company (GE) CF6-80C2B Series Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... directive (AD) that applies to all GE CF6-80C2B series turbofan engines. The existing AD currently...

  12. 76 FR 292 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company CF6-45 and CF6-50 Series Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... directive (AD) that applies to General Electric Company (GE) CF6-45 and CF6-50 series turbofan engines. The... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company CF6-45 and CF6-50 Series Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA),...

  13. Ballasted photovoltaic module and module arrays

    DOEpatents

    Botkin, Jonathan [El Cerrito, CA; Graves, Simon [Berkeley, CA; Danning, Matt [Oakland, CA

    2011-11-29

    A photovoltaic (PV) module assembly including a PV module and a ballast tray. The PV module includes a PV device and a frame. A PV laminate is assembled to the frame, and the frame includes an arm. The ballast tray is adapted for containing ballast and is removably associated with the PV module in a ballasting state where the tray is vertically under the PV laminate and vertically over the arm to impede overt displacement of the PV module. The PV module assembly can be installed to a flat commercial rooftop, with the PV module and the ballast tray both resting upon the rooftop. In some embodiments, the ballasting state includes corresponding surfaces of the arm and the tray being spaced from one another under normal (low or no wind) conditions, such that the frame is not continuously subjected to a weight of the tray.

  14. The Surtsey Magma Series

    PubMed Central

    Ian Schipper, C.; Jakobsson, Sveinn P.; White, James D.L.; Michael Palin, J.; Bush-Marcinowski, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The volcanic island of Surtsey (Vestmannaeyjar, Iceland) is the product of a 3.5-year-long eruption that began in November 1963. Observations of magma-water interaction during pyroclastic episodes made Surtsey the type example of shallow-to-emergent phreatomagmatic eruptions. Here, in part to mark the 50th anniversary of this canonical eruption, we present previously unpublished major-element whole-rock compositions, and new major and trace-element compositions of sideromelane glasses in tephra collected by observers and retrieved from the 1979 drill core. Compositions became progressively more primitive as the eruption progressed, with abrupt changes corresponding to shifts between the eruption’s four edifices. Trace-element ratios indicate that the chemical variation is best explained by mixing of different proportions of depleted ridge-like basalt, with ponded, enriched alkalic basalt similar to that of Iceland’s Eastern Volcanic Zone; however, the systematic offset of Surtsey compositions to lower Nb/Zr than other Vestmannaeyjar lavas indicates that these mixing end members are as-yet poorly contained by compositions in the literature. As the southwestern-most volcano in the Vestmannaeyjar, the geochemistry of the Surtsey Magma Series exemplifies processes occurring within ephemeral magma bodies on the extreme leading edge of a propagating off-axis rift in the vicinity of the Iceland plume. PMID:26112644

  15. Series of JASMINE missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouda, N.

    2011-02-01

    We are planning three space astrometry missions as a series of JASMINE missions; Nano-JASMINE, Small-JASMINE and (Medium-sized)JASMINE. JASMINE is an abbreviation of Japan Astrometry Satellite Mission of INfrared Exploration. The JASMINE mission will measure in an infrared band annual parallaxes, positions on the celestial sphere, and proper motions of many stars in the bulge of the Milky Way (the Galaxy) with high accuracies. A target launch date is the first half of the 2020s. Before the launch of JASMINE, we are planning Nano-JASMINE and Small-JASMINE. Nano-JASMINE uses a very small nano-satellite and it is determined to be launched in 2011. Small-JASMINE is a downsized version of the JASMINE satellite, which observes toward restricted small regions of the Galactic bulge. A target launch date is around 2016. A completely new "map" of the Galactic bulge given by Small-JASMINE and JASMINE will bring us many exciting scientific results.

  16. Module utilization committee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volkmer, K.; Praver, G.

    1984-01-01

    Photovoltaic collector modules were declared surplus to the needs of the U.S. Dept. of Energy. The Module Utilization Committee was formed to make appropriate disposition of the surplus modules on a national basis and to act as a broker for requests for these modules originating outside of the National Photovoltaics Program.

  17. A class of simple weight modules over the twisted Heisenberg-Virasoro algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haibo; Han, Jianzhi; Su, Yucai

    2016-10-01

    A class of weight modules M ( V , a ) over the twisted Heisenberg-Virasoro H are constructed, which includes modules of intermediate series, where V is an H ¯ r , d -module and a is a complex number. We give the necessary and sufficient conditions under which these modules are simple and also determine all the equivalent simple modules in this class. Moreover, we show that simple modules in this class are new. Finally, we construct a class of new simple non-weight H -modules.

  18. Investigation of direct integrated optics modulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batchman, T. E.; Mcwright, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    Direct optical modulation techniques applicable to integrated optical data preprocessors were studied. Emphasis was placed on the analysis and fabrication of a field effect type modulator. A series of computer modeling studies were performed to determine the effects of semiconductor cladding on the fields of propagating waves in planar dielectric waveguides. These studies predicted that changes in the propagation characteristics of waveguides clad with silicon and gallium arsenide could be made large enough to be useful in modulators. These effects are dependent on the complex permittivity and thickness of the cladding. Since the conductivity of the cladding can be changed by the photon generation of hole-electron pairs, incoherent light may be used as the input to modulate a coherent light beam. Waveguides were fabricated and silicon claddings were applied to verify the theoretical predictions.

  19. 75 FR 46861 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A330-200 and -300 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ...-200 and -300 Series Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Supplemental... revised the applicability statement of this supplemental NPRM to remove the Airbus Model A340-200,...

  20. 76 FR 27227 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A310 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... Series Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT...-116, Transport Airplane Directorate, FAA, 1601 Lind Avenue, SW., Renton, Washington 98057-3356... airplane configuration: Cold working of trellis boom drainage holes. Repetitive detailed or rotating...

  1. NAFSA's Guide to Education Abroad for Advisers and Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffa, William, Ed.; And Others

    This volume offers a series of papers and essays as a guide to higher education advisors and administrators in the field of education abroad. Papers are organized into three sections which address education abroad in general, advising, and program development and evaluation. The following papers are included: "Being a Professional in the Field of…

  2. Student Guide for Documenting Experiential Learning: Administrative Secretary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coastline Community Coll., Fountain Valley, CA.

    Coastline Community College has developed a series of guides to assist adults who wish to obtain college credit or advanced standing in evaluating and verifying their non-college learning experiences. This guide lists the competency requirements of three courses within the Administrative Secretary program: Filing, Business Correspondence, and…

  3. Administrative/Office Technology. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Administrative and Office Technology Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) is one of a series of competency lists, verified by expert workers, that have evolved from a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) job analysis process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from throughout Ohio. This…

  4. Stationary Engineers Apprenticeship. Related Training Modules. 15.1-15.5 Turbines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This learning module, one in a series of 20 related training modules for apprentice stationary engineers, deals with turbines. addressed in the individual instructional packages included in the module are the following topics: types and components of steam turbines, steam turbine auxiliaries, operation and maintenance of steam turbines, and gas…

  5. Stationary Engineers Apprenticeship. Related Training Modules. 11.1-11.2 Lubrication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This learning module, one in a series of 20 related training modules for apprentice stationary engineers, deals with lubrication. Addressed in the individual instructional packages included in the module are the various types of lubricants, lubricant standards, and criteria for selecting lubricants. Each instructional package in the module…

  6. Nuclear Technology. Course 27: Metrology. Module 27-3, Gage Blocks, Mechanical Comparators and Electronic Comparators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selleck, Ben; Espy, John

    This third in a series of eight modules for a course titled Metrology describes gage blocks and mechanical and electronic comparators. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4) notes to instructor/student, (5) subject matter, (6) materials needed, (7)…

  7. Nuclear Technology. Course 27: Metrology. Module 27-1, Fundamentals of Metrology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selleck, Ben; Espy, John

    This first in a series of eight modules for a course titled Metrology describes the fundamentals of metrology as they pertain to dimensional inspection. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4) notes to instructor/student, (5) subject matter, (6)…

  8. Nuclear Technology. Course 27: Metrology. Module 27-8, The Total Measurement System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Physics Corp., Columbia, MD.

    This eighth in a series of eight modules for a course titled Metrology describes the overall metrology program and the associated typical responsibilities of the quality assurance/quality control technician. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4)…

  9. Nuclear Technology. Course 27: Metrology. Module 27-2, Fixed Gages, Dividers, Calipers, and Micrometers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selleck, Ben; Espy, John

    This second in a series of eight modules for a course titled Metrology dscribes fixed gages, dividers, calipers, vernier and dial calipers, and micrometers. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (l) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4) notes to instructor/student, (5) subject matter, (6)…

  10. Nuclear Technology. Course 26: Metrology. Module 27-7, Statistical Techniques in Metrology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espy, John; Selleck, Ben

    This seventh in a series of eight modules for a course titled Metrology focuses on descriptive and inferential statistical techniques in metrology. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4) notes to instructor/student, (5) subject matter, (6) materials…

  11. Stationary Engineers Apprenticeship. Related Training Modules. 12.1-12.9. Boilers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This learning module, one in a series of 20 related training modules for apprentice stationary engineers, deals with boilers. Addressed in the individual instructional packages included in the module are the following topics: firetube and watertube boilers; boiler construction; procedures for operating and cleaning boilers; and boiler fittings,…

  12. Nuclear Technology. Course 26: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I. Module 26-3, Hydrostatic Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelton, Rick; Espy, John

    This third in a series of seven modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I describes the principles and practices associated with hydrostatic testing. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4) notes to instructor/student,…

  13. Stationary Engineers Apprenticeship. Related Training Modules. 16.1-16.5 Combustion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This learning module, one in a series of 20 related training modules for apprentice stationary engineers, deals with combustion. Addressed in the individual instructional packages included in the module are the following topics: the combustion process, types of fuel, air and flue gases, heat transfer during combustion, and wood combustion. Each…

  14. Advanced Ion Exchange Softening. Training Module 2.212.4.77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullen, L. D.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with the operation of an ion exchange softening system. It includes objectives, an instructor guide, student handouts and transparency masters. This is the third level of a three module series. This module considers the theory of ion…

  15. Project T.E.A.M. (Technical Education Advancement Modules). Fundementals of Workplace Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraeling, Vicki

    This module is one of a series of instructional guides developed by Project TEAM (Technical Education Advancement Modules), a cooperative demonstration program for high technology training for unemployed, underemployed, and existing industrial employees whose basic technical skills are in need of upgrading. The module is a 27-hour overview course…

  16. Project T.E.A.M. (Technical Education Advancement Modules). Job Search Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Joan S.

    This module is one of a series developed by Project TEAM (Technical Education Advancement Modules), a cooperative demonstration program for high technology training for unemployed, underemployed, and existing industrial employees needing upgrading. This module is a 3-hour overview course intended to develop competencies in the following job search…

  17. Getting Down to Business: Travel Agency, Module 9. [Student Guide]. Entrepreneurship Training Components.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rassen, Rachel L.

    This module on owning and operating a travel agency is one of 36 modules in a series on entrepreneurship. The introduction tells the student what topics will be covered and suggests other modules to read in related occupations. Each unit includes student goals, a case study, and a discussion of the unit subject matter. Learning activities are…

  18. Basic Ion Exchange Softening. Training Module 2.210.2.77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullen, L. D.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with ion exchange softening. It includes objectives, an instructor guide, student handouts, and transparency masters. This is the first level of a three module series. The module considers the principles, components, operation,…

  19. Intermediate Ion Exchange Softening. Training Module 2.211.3.77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullen, L. D.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with the operation of an ion exchange softening system. It includes objectives, an instructor guide, student handouts, and transparency masters. This is the second level of a three module series. The module considers operation and…

  20. Stationary Engineers Apprenticeship. Related Training Modules. 13.1-13.7 Pumps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This learning module, one in a series of 20 related training modules for apprentice stationary engineers, deals with pumps. Addressed in the individual instructional packages included in the module are the following topics: types, classifications, and applications of pumps; pump construction; procedures for calculating pump heat and pump flow;…