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Sample records for administrator sanctions long-term

  1. 42 CFR 488.446 - Administrator sanctions: long-term care facility closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Administrator sanctions: long-term care facility... PROCEDURES Enforcement of Compliance for Long-Term Care Facilities with Deficiencies § 488.446 Administrator sanctions: long-term care facility closures. Any individual who is or was the administrator of a...

  2. 42 CFR 488.446 - Administrator sanctions: long-term care facility closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Administrator sanctions: long-term care facility... PROCEDURES Enforcement of Compliance for Long-Term Care Facilities with Deficiencies § 488.446 Administrator sanctions: long-term care facility closures. Any individual who is or was the administrator of a...

  3. 42 CFR 488.446 - Administrator sanctions: long-term care facility closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Administrator sanctions: long-term care facility... PROCEDURES Enforcement of Compliance for Long-Term Care Facilities with Deficiencies § 488.446 Administrator sanctions: long-term care facility closures. Any individual who is or was the administrator of a...

  4. 42 CFR 488.446 - Administrator sanctions: long-term care facility closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Administrator sanctions: long-term care facility... PROCEDURES Enforcement of Compliance for Long-Term Care Facilities with Deficiencies § 488.446 Administrator sanctions: long-term care facility closures. Any individual who is or was the administrator of a...

  5. 39 CFR 501.12 - Administrative sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative sanctions. 501.12 Section 501.12... POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.12 Administrative sanctions. (a) An authorized Postage Evidencing System... to, administrative and investigative costs and documented revenue losses that result from any...

  6. 32 CFR 2700.44 - Administrative sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Administrative sanctions. 2700.44 Section 2700.44 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE FOR MICRONESIAN STATUS NEGOTIATIONS SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS Safeguarding § 2700.44 Administrative sanctions. Officers...

  7. 32 CFR 2700.44 - Administrative sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Administrative sanctions. 2700.44 Section 2700.44 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE FOR MICRONESIAN STATUS NEGOTIATIONS SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS Safeguarding § 2700.44 Administrative sanctions. Officers...

  8. 39 CFR 501.12 - Administrative sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAGE PROGRAMS AUTHORIZATION TO MANUFACTURE AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.12 Administrative sanctions. (a) An authorized Postage Evidencing System... to, administrative and investigative costs and documented revenue losses that result from any...

  9. Interest in Long-Term Care among Health Services Administration Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, April; Thompson, Jon M.

    2011-01-01

    The aging of the population has created increased opportunities for health administrators in long-term care. This study consisted of a cross-sectional survey of 68 undergraduate health services administration students to explore factors related to interest in a career in long-term care administration. One third expressed interest working in the…

  10. Cardiotoxicity in rabbits after long-term nandrolone decanoate administration.

    PubMed

    Vasilaki, Fotini; Tsitsimpikou, Christina; Tsarouhas, Konstantinos; Germanakis, Ioannis; Tzardi, Marias; Kavvalakis, Matthaios; Ozcagli, Eren; Kouretas, Dimitrios; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2016-01-22

    Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids is linked to a variety of cardiovascular complications. The aim of our study was to investigate the possible cardiovascular effects of nandrolone decanoate on young rabbits using echocardiography, histology and monitoring of telomerase activity, oxidative stress and biochemical markers. Fourteen rabbits were divided into three administration groups and the control group. Doses of 4mg/kg and 10mg/kg of nandrolone decanoate, given intramuscularly and subcutaneously, two days per week for six months were applied. A 4-months wash-out period followed. Focal fibrosis and inflammatory infiltrations of cardiac tissue were observed in the high dose groups. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive species (TBARS) levels were significantly increased in the high dose groups, while catalase activity decreased. Myocardial Performance Index (MPI) is the main echocardiographic index primarily affected by nandrolone administration in rabbits. Despite the preserved systolic performance, histological lesions observed associated with distorted MPI values, point to diastolic impairment of the thickened myocardium due to nandrolone treatment. Oxidative stress accumulates and telomerase activity in cardiac tissue rises. Subcutaneous administration seems to be more deleterious to the cardiovascular system, as oxidative stress, telomerase activity and biochemical markers do not appear to return into normal values in the wash-out period. PMID:26541207

  11. Effects of Long-Term Ayahuasca Administration on Memory and Anxiety in Rats.

    PubMed

    Favaro, Vanessa Manchim; Yonamine, Maurício; Soares, Juliana Carlota Kramer; Oliveira, Maria Gabriela Menezes

    2015-01-01

    Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic beverage that combines the action of the 5-HT2A/2C agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) from Psychotria viridis with the monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) induced by beta-carbonyls from Banisteriopsis caapi. Previous investigations have highlighted the involvement of ayahuasca with the activation of brain regions known to be involved with episodic memory, contextual associations and emotional processing after ayahuasca ingestion. Moreover long term users show better performance in neuropsychological tests when tested in off-drug condition. This study evaluated the effects of long-term administration of ayahuasca on Morris water maze (MWM), fear conditioning and elevated plus maze (EPM) performance in rats. Behavior tests started 48h after the end of treatment. Freeze-dried ayahuasca doses of 120, 240 and 480 mg/kg were used, with water as the control. Long-term administration consisted of a daily oral dose for 30 days by gavage. The behavioral data indicated that long-term ayahuasca administration did not affect the performance of animals in MWM and EPM tasks. However the dose of 120 mg/kg increased the contextual conditioned fear response for both background and foreground fear conditioning. The tone conditioned response was not affected after long-term administration. In addition, the increase in the contextual fear response was maintained during the repeated sessions several weeks after training. Taken together, these data showed that long-term ayahuasca administration in rats can interfere with the contextual association of emotional events, which is in agreement with the fact that the beverage activates brain areas related to these processes. PMID:26716991

  12. Effects of Long-Term Ayahuasca Administration on Memory and Anxiety in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Favaro, Vanessa Manchim; Yonamine, Maurício; Soares, Juliana Carlota Kramer; Oliveira, Maria Gabriela Menezes

    2015-01-01

    Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic beverage that combines the action of the 5-HT2A/2C agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) from Psychotria viridis with the monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) induced by beta-carbonyls from Banisteriopsis caapi. Previous investigations have highlighted the involvement of ayahuasca with the activation of brain regions known to be involved with episodic memory, contextual associations and emotional processing after ayahuasca ingestion. Moreover long term users show better performance in neuropsychological tests when tested in off-drug condition. This study evaluated the effects of long-term administration of ayahuasca on Morris water maze (MWM), fear conditioning and elevated plus maze (EPM) performance in rats. Behavior tests started 48h after the end of treatment. Freeze-dried ayahuasca doses of 120, 240 and 480 mg/kg were used, with water as the control. Long-term administration consisted of a daily oral dose for 30 days by gavage. The behavioral data indicated that long-term ayahuasca administration did not affect the performance of animals in MWM and EPM tasks. However the dose of 120 mg/kg increased the contextual conditioned fear response for both background and foreground fear conditioning. The tone conditioned response was not affected after long-term administration. In addition, the increase in the contextual fear response was maintained during the repeated sessions several weeks after training. Taken together, these data showed that long-term ayahuasca administration in rats can interfere with the contextual association of emotional events, which is in agreement with the fact that the beverage activates brain areas related to these processes. PMID:26716991

  13. Development of a Self-Assessment Tool to Facilitate Decision-Making in Choosing a Long Term Care Administration Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johs-Artisensi, Jennifer L.; Olson, Douglas M.; Nahm, Abraham Y.

    2016-01-01

    Long term care administrators need a broad base of knowledge, skills, and interests to provide leadership and be successful in managing a fiscally responsible, quality long term care organization. Researchers developed a tool to help students assess whether a long term care administration major is a compatible fit. With input from professionals in…

  14. Cessation of Long-term Naltrexone Administration: Longitudinal Follow-Ups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crews, W. David, Jr.; Rhodes, Robert D.; Bonaventura, Sharon H.; Rowe, Frederick B.; Goering, Aaron M.

    1999-01-01

    Longitudinal follow-ups of the cessation of long-term Naltrexone administration were conducted with a women with profound mental retardation who had previously displayed dramatic decreases in self-injurious behavior (SIB). After two and four years post-Naltrexone therapy, the subject exhibited near-zero rates of SIB despite changes in staff and in…

  15. Long-term ecological impacts of antibiotic administration on the human intestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Jernberg, Cecilia; Löfmark, Sonja; Edlund, Charlotta; Jansson, Janet K

    2007-05-01

    Antibiotic administration is known to cause short-term disturbances in the microbiota of the human gastrointestinal tract, but the potential long-term consequences have not been well studied. The aims of this study were to analyse the long-term impact of a 7-day clindamycin treatment on the faecal microbiota and to simultaneously monitor the ecological stability of the microbiota in a control group as a baseline for reference. Faecal samples from four clindamycin-exposed and four control subjects were collected at nine different time points over 2 years. Using a polyphasic approach, we observed highly significant disturbances in the bacterial community that persisted throughout the sampling period. In particular, a sharp decline in the clonal diversity of Bacteroides isolates, as assessed by repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) and long-term persistence of highly resistant clones were found as a direct response to the antibiotic exposure. The Bacteroides community never returned to its original composition during the study period as assessed using the molecular fingerprinting technique, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). Furthermore, using real-time PCR we found a dramatic and persistent increase in levels of specific resistance genes in DNA extracted from the faeces after clindamycin administration. The temporal variations in the microbiota of the control group were minor compared to the large and persistent shift seen in the exposed group. These results demonstrate that long after the selection pressure from a short antibiotic exposure has been removed, there are still persistent long term impacts on the human intestinal microbiota that remain for up to 2 years post-treatment. PMID:18043614

  16. Regulatory Organizations for Physicians’ Status and Administrative Sanctions on Physicians

    PubMed Central

    MORIOKA, Yasuhiko; HIGUCHI, Norio; KUROYANAGI, Tatsuo; NUDESHIMA, Jiro

    2014-01-01

    Society bestows professional privilege on physicians. At the same time, it expects physicians to strive constantly to improve their ethics and quality in medical expertise. In every nation, some level of government is responsible for certifying or licensing physicians and imposes strict management, including revoking licenses from inappropriate physicians or providing severe sanctions for misconduct or conduct unbecoming of a physician. In reality, however, it is difficult to reduce the number of inappropriate or indiscreet physicians, and each nation faces its own challenges. We conducted a questionnaire survey of 13 national medical associations, including some major Western countries, regarding the licensing of physicians, the organizations managing their medical practice status, and the data and grounds for administrative sanctioning of physicians. We then examined the circumstances in Japan based on the survey results and pointed out the domestic issues. PMID:25784827

  17. Effect of long-term administration of arachidonic acid on n-3 fatty acid deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Harauma, Akiko; Tomita, Makiko; Muto, Daiki; Moriguchi, Toru

    2015-04-01

    The effect of long-term oral administration of arachidonic acid (ARA, 240 mg/kg/day) on brain function was assessed for mice maintained on an n-3 fatty acid adequate or deficient diet. The administration of ARA for 13 weeks resulted in an elevation of spontaneous motor activity, or the tendency thereof, in both the n-3 fatty acid adequate and deficient groups. However, the n-3 fatty acid deficient mice that were administered with ARA revealed marked deterioration in motor function in a motor coordination test. In the experiment to investigate changes over time, the motor activity of the ARA-administered group continued to increase mildly in n-3 deficient mice, although that of the control group showed a decrease involving habituation for both diet groups from the second week. The fatty acid composition of the brain at the end of the behavioral experiments indicated an increase in the levels of ARA and other n-6 fatty acids, as well as a decrease in the levels of docosahexaenoic acid. These results suggest that long-term administration of ARA causes an increase of futile spontaneous motor activity and the diminution of motor function by aggravation of n-3 fatty acid deficiency. PMID:25650363

  18. Medication administration errors for older people in long-term residential care

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Older people in long-term residential care are at increased risk of medication prescribing and administration errors. The main aim of this study was to measure the incidence of medication administration errors in nursing and residential homes using a barcode medication administration (BCMA) system. Methods A prospective study was conducted in 13 care homes (9 residential and 4 nursing). Data on all medication administrations for a cohort of 345 older residents were recorded in real-time using a disguised observation technique. Every attempt by social care and nursing staff to administer medication over a 3-month observation period was analysed using BCMA records to determine the incidence and types of potential medication administration errors (MAEs) and whether errors were averted. Error classifications included attempts to administer medication at the wrong time, to the wrong person or discontinued medication. Further analysis compared data for residential and nursing homes. In addition, staff were surveyed prior to BCMA system implementation to assess their awareness of administration errors. Results A total of 188,249 medication administration attempts were analysed using BCMA data. Typically each resident was receiving nine different drugs and was exposed to 206 medication administration episodes every month. During the observation period, 2,289 potential MAEs were recorded for the 345 residents; 90% of residents were exposed to at least one error. The most common (n = 1,021, 45% of errors) was attempting to give medication at the wrong time. Over the 3-month observation period, half (52%) of residents were exposed to a serious error such as attempting to give medication to the wrong resident. Error incidence rates were 1.43 as high (95% CI 1.32-1.56 p < 0.001) in nursing homes as in residential homes. The level of non-compliance with system alerts was very low in both settings (0.075% of administrations). The pre-study survey revealed that only 12

  19. Intrahippocampal glutamine administration inhibits mTORC1 signaling and impairs long-term memory

    PubMed Central

    Rozas, Natalia S.; Redell, John B.; Pita-Almenar, Juan D.; Mckenna, James; Moore, Anthony N.; Gambello, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1), a key regulator of protein synthesis and cellular growth, is also required for long-term memory formation. Stimulation of mTORC1 signaling is known to be dependent on the availability of energy and growth factors, as well as the presence of amino acids. In vitro studies using serum- and amino acid-starved cells have reported that glutamine addition can either stimulate or repress mTORC1 activity, depending on the particular experimental system that was used. However, these experiments do not directly address the effect of glutamine on mTORC1 activity under physiological conditions in nondeprived cells in vivo. We present experimental results indicating that intrahippocampal administration of glutamine to rats reduces mTORC1 activity. Moreover, post-training administration of glutamine impairs long-term spatial memory formation, while coadministration of glutamine with leucine had no influence on memory. Intracellular recordings in hippocampal slices showed that glutamine did not alter either excitatory or inhibitory synaptic activity, suggesting that the observed memory impairments may not result from conversion of glutamine to either glutamate or GABA. Taken together, these findings indicate that glutamine can decrease mTORC1 activity in the brain and may have implications for treatments of neurological diseases associated with high mTORC1 signaling. PMID:25878136

  20. Augmentation of Intercoronary Anastomosis by Long-Term Administration of a Vasodilator Drug, Dipyridamole (Persantin)

    PubMed Central

    Fam, Wadie M.; Ragheb, Samir; Hoeschen, Robert J.

    1964-01-01

    A study was carried out to assess the ability of dipyridamole to promote intercoronary anastomotic channels in the dog. Nineteen normal dogs received 150-300 mg. dipyridamole daily for 73 to 162 days and were compared with 18 control animals. Employing pentobarbital sodium (Nembutal) anesthesia and positive pressure ventilation, the chest was opened and the circumflex coronary artery was tied and cannulated distal to the tie. The average retrograde flow in the treated group was significantly higher than that in the control group (p < 0.02). Acute administration of dipyridamole intravenously produced comparable reduction of blood pressure and retrograde flow in both groups of animals. Thus the long-term administration of dipyridamole appears capable of promoting the growth of intercoronary anastomotic pathways in some animals even in the absence of any known ischemic stimulus. This would appear to be the result of sustained vasodilator action. PMID:14139998

  1. Long-term testosterone administration increases visceral fat in female to male transsexuals.

    PubMed

    Elbers, J M; Asscheman, H; Seidell, J C; Megens, J A; Gooren, L J

    1997-07-01

    The amount of intraabdominal (visceral) fat is an important determinant of disturbances in lipid and glucose metabolism. Cross-sectional studies in women have found associations between high androgen levels and visceral fat accumulation. The causal relation between these phenomena is unknown. We, therefore, studied prospectively the effect of testosterone administration on body fat distribution in 10 young, nonobese, female to male transsexuals undergoing sex reassignment. Before, after 1 yr, and after 3 yr of testosterone administration, magnetic resonance images were obtained at the level of the abdomen, hip, and thigh to quantify both sc and visceral fat depots. After 1 yr of testosterone administration, sc fat depots at all levels showed significant reductions compared to baseline measurements. The mean visceral fat area did not change significantly, but subjects who gained weight in the first year after testosterone administration showed an increase in visceral fat. After 3 yr of testosterone administration, sc fat depots were no longer significantly lower compared to pretreatment measurements, but the mean visceral fat depot had increased significantly by 13 cm2 (95% confidence interval, 4-22 cm2), a relative increase of 47% (95% confidence interval, 8-91%) from baseline. The increase in visceral fat was most pronounced in those subjects who had gained weight. We conclude that long term testosterone administration in young, nonobese, female subjects increases the amount of visceral fat. In addition, an increase in weight in this hyperandrogenic state leads to a preferential storage of fat in the visceral depot. PMID:9215270

  2. Long-term drug administration in the adult zebrafish using oral gavage for cancer preclinical studies

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Michelle; Henderson, Rachel E.; Garraway, Levi A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Zebrafish are a major model for chemical genetics, and most studies use embryos when investigating small molecules that cause interesting phenotypes or that can rescue disease models. Limited studies have dosed adults with small molecules by means of water-borne exposure or injection techniques. Challenges in the form of drug delivery-related trauma and anesthesia-related toxicity have excluded the adult zebrafish from long-term drug efficacy studies. Here, we introduce a novel anesthetic combination of MS-222 and isoflurane to an oral gavage technique for a non-toxic, non-invasive and long-term drug administration platform. As a proof of principle, we established drug efficacy of the FDA-approved BRAFV600E inhibitor, Vemurafenib, in adult zebrafish harboring BRAFV600E melanoma tumors. In the model, adult casper zebrafish intraperitoneally transplanted with a zebrafish melanoma cell line (ZMEL1) and exposed to daily sub-lethal dosing at 100 mg/kg of Vemurafenib for 2 weeks via oral gavage resulted in an average 65% decrease in tumor burden and a 15% mortality rate. In contrast, Vemurafenib-resistant ZMEL1 cell lines, generated in culture from low-dose drug exposure for 4 months, did not respond to the oral gavage treatment regimen. Similarly, this drug treatment regimen can be applied for treatment of primary melanoma tumors in the zebrafish. Taken together, we developed an effective long-term drug treatment system that will allow the adult zebrafish to be used to identify more effective anti-melanoma combination therapies and opens up possibilities for treating adult models of other diseases. PMID:27482819

  3. The effects of long-term leptin administration on morphometrical changes of mice testicular tissue

    PubMed Central

    Esmaili-Nejad, Mohammad-Reza; Babaei, Homayoon; Kheirandish, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Leptin is a novel and interesting hormone for anyone trying to lose weight, but its effects on male gonad structure in longitudinal study is unknown. The present study was designed to explore morphometrical changes of mouse testicular tissue after long-term administration of leptin. Materials and Methods: Thirty healthy mature male mice were randomly assigned to either control (n=15) or treatment (n=15) groups. Leptin was intraperitoneally injected to the treatment group (0.1 µg/100 µl of physiological saline) once a day for 30 consecutive days, and control animals received normal saline with the same volume and route. Five mice from each experimental group were sacrificed at 15, 30 and 60 days after the beginning of treatments. Left testes were removed, weighted and then fixed in 10% buffered formalin, and stained with hematoxylin and eosine for morphometrical assays. Results: Except for sertoli cell nucleus diameter, which was affected from 30th day, evaluation of other morphometrical parameters such as Johnsen’s score, meiotic index, spermatogenesis, epithelial height, seminiferous tubules diameter and spermatogonial nucleus diameter revealed significant decrease from 15th day after leptin administration compare to those of the control group (P<0.05). Thus, meiotic index and spermatogonial cell nucleus diameter were two parameters that were further disturbed on 30th day compare to the day 15 (3.09±0.03 vs. 3.23±0.03, P=0.006 and 5.50±0.09 vs. 6.08±0.14, P=0.007, respectively). Conclusion: Our results showed that long-term administration of leptin could disturb testicular tissue structure and delay spermatogenesis process. PMID:26877846

  4. Long-Term Administration of Artesunate Induces Reproductive Toxicity in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Olumide, Stephen Akinsomisoye; Raji, Yinusa

    2011-01-01

    Background Artesunate is commonly used in malaria therapy. Many antimalarial drugs have been associated with male reproductive dysfunction. The effect of artesunate on male reproductive activities was studied using in–vivo and in-vitro experimental models. Methods Adult male rats (n=6) were orally given artesunate (2.9 mg/kg body weight) on daily basis for five days. Artesunate (2.9 mg/kg body weight) was administered to another group of rats daily for six weeks, while there was a recovery group of rats too. The control animals received the vehicle only. At the end of the treatment, sperm characteristics, serum follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and testosterone levels, testicular and epididymal histology and fertility were assessed. Cultured Sertoli cells were treated with 0.3 µM to 10 µM artesunate for five days after which Sertoli cell viability, double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (ds-DNA) integrity and genetic expression of Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and transferrin were assessed. The data were analyzed using Graphpad Instat Statistical software. A probability value of p <0.05 was considered significant. Results Artesunate did not cause any significant effects in short-term administration but significantly reduced the aforesaid parameters in long-term administration. There were visible lesions in the testicular and epididymal histological studies, although fertility was not significantly reduced. These changes were restored in the recovery experiment. In-vitro studies showed dose and duration dependent changes in Sertoli cell viability and ds-DNA integrity. However, transferrin and GDNF gene expressions were normal. Conclusion The results suggest that long-term administration of artesunate could induce reversible infertility in rats which may act via distortion of blood–testis barrier formed by Sertoli cells. PMID:23926511

  5. [A Case of Advanced Colon Cancer with Long-Term and Re-Administration of Regorafenib].

    PubMed

    Funakoshi, Tohru; Kato, Takuya; Kuratani, Yuki; Yamada, Kenji; Kenno, Sachiko; Shibaki, Taiichiro; Yanagida, Naoyuki; Inagaki, Mitsuhiro; Ikeue, Sunao; Akabane, Hiromitsu; Nakano, Shiro

    2016-05-01

    A 54-year-old woman diagnosed with sigmoid colon cancer and multiple liver metastases underwent sigmoidectomy, partial hepatectomy, and RFA in September 2009. Because of postoperative liver and lung recurrence, 5 regimens with combinations of L-OHP/CPT-11 plus anti-VEGF antibody/anti-EGFR antibody was performed. Following these treatments, she underwent hepatic arterial infusion therapy with UFT/Krestin for progressive liver metastases. Starting in November 2014, regorafenib was administered, with an immediate decrease in tumor marker levels; tumor reduction demonstrated enhanced effect against liver metastases. After 8 months of administration, we stopped regorafenib and changed to TAS-102 due to diarrhea and eating disorders. However, TAS-102 was not effective; there were significant increases in tumor markers, liver function tests, and tumor size on computed tomography, and worsening of abdominal pain. After re-administration of regorafenib, a rapid decrease in tumor marker levels and improvement of liver dysfunction and abdominal pain were observed. Re-administration continued for 8 months until best supportive care was instituted. In cases with observed therapeutic effect of regorafenib, long-term or re-administration is possible, with extension of the prognosis depending on the adjustment, and without size reduction of metastatic tumors. PMID:27210098

  6. Long-term bone retention of C-14 following oral administration of C-14-xylose

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, L.C.; Siegel, J.; Fisher, R.S.; Malmud, L.S.

    1984-01-01

    Oral administration of C-14-labeled xylose followed by measurement of C-14 activity in the breath has become a clinically useful test for diagnosis of small bowel bacterial overgrowth. However, accurate biodistribution and radiation dosimetry information was not available in the literature, so the true radiation exposure of the human subjects was not known. The purpose of this study was to determine the actual biodistribution data for orally administered C-14-xylose. A series of rats were given the material orally and sacrificed at various ages, up to 1 month after dosing. Tissues and fluids were solubilized and counted by liquid scintillation counting. Exhaled C-14-carbon dioxide was measured by trapping the gas in ethanolamine. Approximately two-thirds of the administered dose was absorbed from the GI tract and eventually appeared in the breath and urine. Much of the dose was not found in the major organs within the first day; it was presumed to be in the fatty tissue or muscle, which were not sampled. After most of the C-14 had disappeared from the GI and urinary tract, however, the bone retained a significant amount of radioactivity: approximately 5-6% of the administered dose was found in bone at one week, and remained at one month. These findings suggest that radiation exposure to the skeleton is long-term, much greater in magnitude than previously estimated, and suggests that the value of the test should be reevaluated in the light of the long-term radiation burden to the skeleton, especially in young patients.

  7. Chronic alcohol self-administration in monkeys shows long-term quantity/frequency categorical stability

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Erich J.; Farro, Jonathan; Gonzales, Steven; Helms, Christa; Grant, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The current criteria for alcohol use disorders (AUD) do not include consumption (quantity/frequency) measures of alcohol intake, in part due to the difficulty of these measures in humans. Animal models of ethanol self-administration have been fundamental in advancing our understanding of the neurobiological basis of (AUD) and can address quantity/frequency measures with accurate measurements over prolonged periods of time. The non-human primate (NHP) model of voluntary oral alcohol self-administration has documented both binge drinking and drinking to dependence and can be used to test the stability of consumption measures over time. Methods and Results Here, an extensive set of alcohol intakes (g/kg/day) was analyzed from a large multi-cohort population of Rhesus (Macaca mulatta) monkeys (n=31). Daily ethanol intake was uniformly distributed over chronic (12 months) access for all animals. Underlying this distribution of intakes were subpopulations of monkeys that exhibited distinctive clustering of drinking patterns, allowing us to categorically define very heavy drinking (VHD), heavy drinking (HD), binge drinking (BD), and low drinking (LD). These categories were stable across the 12-month assessed by the protocol, but exhibited fluctuations when examined at shorter intervals. Conclusions The establishment of persistent drinking categories based on quantity/frequency suggests that consumption variables can be used to track long-term changes in behavioral, molecular or physiochemical mechanisms related to our understanding of diagnosis, prevention, intervention and treatment efficacies. PMID:25421519

  8. Mild ischemic Injury Leads to Long-Term Alterations in the Kidney: Amelioration by Spironolactone Administration

    PubMed Central

    Barrera-Chimal, Jonatan; Pérez-Villalva, Rosalba; Ortega, Juan Antonio; Sánchez, Andrea; Rodríguez-Romo, Roxana; Durand, Marta; Jaisser, Frederic; Bobadilla, Norma A.

    2015-01-01

    Administration of the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone prevents the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) after a severe ischemic injury. However, whether brief periods of ischemia lead to CKD and whether spironolactone administration after ischemia may be a useful therapeutic strategy to prevent the gradual deterioration of structure and function remains unexplored. Nineteen male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: rats that underwent renal bilateral ischemia for 10, 20, or 45 min were compared with sham operated rats. Additionally, thirteen male Wistar rats that underwent renal bilateral ischemia for 20 min were divided into an untreated ischemic group (I) and two groups receiving spironolactone, 20 mg/kg by gavage, at either 0 (Sp0) or 1.5-h after ischemia (Sp1.5). The rats were followed up and studied after 9 months. Mild (20 min) and severe (45 min) ischemia induced a progressive increase in proteinuria at varying magnitudes, whereas minor ischemia (10 min) did not modify proteinuria. CKD induced by moderate ischemia was characterized by renal hypertrophy and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. These effects were associated with activation of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling pathway and up-regulation of endothelin receptor A (ETA) and alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA). Spironolactone treatment immediately or 1.5-h after the ischemic insult prevented the onset of these disorders. Our results show that moderate ischemic insult leads to long-term structural and molecular changes that may compromise renal function in later stages. Additionally, we demonstrate that spironolactone administration after mild ischemia prevents this detrimental effect. PMID:26157344

  9. Methods for long-term 17β-estradiol administration to mice.

    PubMed

    Ingberg, E; Theodorsson, A; Theodorsson, E; Strom, J O

    2012-01-01

    Rodent models constitute a cornerstone in the elucidation of the effects and biological mechanisms of 17β-estradiol. However, a thorough assessment of the methods for long-term administration of 17β-estradiol to mice is lacking. The fact that 17β-estradiol has been demonstrated to exert different effects depending on dose emphasizes the need for validated administration regimens. Therefore, 169 female C57BL/6 mice were ovariectomized and administered 17β-estradiol using one of the two commonly used subcutaneous methods; slow-release pellets (0.18 mg, 60-day release pellets; 0.72 mg, 90-day release pellets) and silastic capsules (with/without convalescence period, silastic laboratory tubing, inner/outer diameter: 1.575/3.175 mm, filled with a 14 mm column of 36 μg 17β-estradiol/mL sesame oil), or a novel peroral method (56 μg 17β-estradiol/day/kg body weight in the hazelnut cream Nutella). Forty animals were used as ovariectomized and intact controls. Serum samples were obtained weekly for five weeks and 17β-estradiol concentrations were measured using radioimmunoassay. The peroral method resulted in steady concentrations within--except on one occasion--the physiological range and the silastic capsules produced predominantly physiological concentrations, although exceeding the range by maximum a factor three during the first three weeks. The 0.18 mg pellet yielded initial concentrations an order of magnitude higher than the physiological range, which then decreased drastically, and the 0.72 mg pellet produced between 18 and 40 times higher concentrations than the physiological range during the entire experiment. The peroral method and silastic capsules described in this article constitute reliable modes of administration of 17β-estradiol, superior to the widely used commercial pellets. PMID:22137913

  10. Mild ischemic injury leads to long-term alterations in the kidney: amelioration by spironolactone administration.

    PubMed

    Barrera-Chimal, Jonatan; Pérez-Villalva, Rosalba; Ortega, Juan Antonio; Sánchez, Andrea; Rodríguez-Romo, Roxana; Durand, Marta; Jaisser, Frederic; Bobadilla, Norma A

    2015-01-01

    Administration of the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone prevents the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) after a severe ischemic injury. However, whether brief periods of ischemia lead to CKD and whether spironolactone administration after ischemia may be a useful therapeutic strategy to prevent the gradual deterioration of structure and function remains unexplored. Nineteen male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: rats that underwent renal bilateral ischemia for 10, 20, or 45 min were compared with sham operated rats. Additionally, thirteen male Wistar rats that underwent renal bilateral ischemia for 20 min were divided into an untreated ischemic group (I) and two groups receiving spironolactone, 20 mg/kg by gavage, at either 0 (Sp0) or 1.5-h after ischemia (Sp1.5). The rats were followed up and studied after 9 months. Mild (20 min) and severe (45 min) ischemia induced a progressive increase in proteinuria at varying magnitudes, whereas minor ischemia (10 min) did not modify proteinuria. CKD induced by moderate ischemia was characterized by renal hypertrophy and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. These effects were associated with activation of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling pathway and up-regulation of endothelin receptor A (ETA) and alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA). Spironolactone treatment immediately or 1.5-h after the ischemic insult prevented the onset of these disorders. Our results show that moderate ischemic insult leads to long-term structural and molecular changes that may compromise renal function in later stages. Additionally, we demonstrate that spironolactone administration after mild ischemia prevents this detrimental effect. PMID:26157344

  11. Repeated cocaine administration promotes long-term potentiation induction in rat medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chiung-Chun; Lin, Hsiao-Ju; Hsu, Kuei-Sen

    2007-08-01

    Although drug-induced adaptations in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) may contribute to several core aspects of addictive behaviors, it is not clear yet whether drugs of abuse elicit changes in synaptic plasticity at the PFC excitatory synapses. Here we report that, following repeated cocaine administration (15 mg/kg/day intraperitoneal injection for 5 consecutive days) with a 3-day withdrawal, excitatory synapses to layer V pyramidal neurons in rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) become highly sensitive to the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) by repeated correlated presynaptic and postsynaptic activity. This promoted LTP induction is caused by cocaine-induced reduction of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptor-mediated inhibition of mPFC pyramidal neurons. In contrast, in slices from rats treated with saline or a single dose of cocaine, the same LTP induction protocol did not induce significant LTP unless the blockade of GABA(A) receptors. Blockade of the D1-like receptors specifically prevented the cocaine-induced enhancement of LTP. Repeated cocaine exposure reduced the GABA(A) receptor-mediated synaptic currents in mPFC pyramidal neurons. Biotinylation experiments revealed a significant reduction of surface GABA(A) receptor alpha1 subunit expression in mPFC slices from repeated cocaine-treated rats. These findings support an important role for cocaine-induced enhancement of synaptic plasticity in the PFC in the development of drug-associated behavioral plasticity. PMID:17050645

  12. Long-term administration of magnesium after acoustic trauma caused by gunshot noise in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Abaamrane, L; Raffin, F; Gal, M; Avan, P; Sendowski, I

    2009-01-01

    In a previous study we observed that a 7-day post-trauma magnesium treatment significantly reduced auditory threshold shifts measured 7 days after gunshot noise exposure. However this improvement was only temporary, suggesting that it could be potentially beneficial to prolong this treatment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a long-term (1 month) magnesium treatment after an impulse noise trauma, in comparison with either a 7-day magnesium treatment, an administration of methylprednisolone (conventional treatment), or a placebo (NaCl). Guinea pigs were exposed to impulse noise (three blank gunshots, 170 dB SPL peak). They received one of the four treatments, 1 h after the noise exposure. Auditory function was explored by recording the auditory brainstem response (ABR) and measuring the distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) over a 3-month recovery period after the gunshot exposure. The functional hearing study was supplemented by a histological analysis. The results showed that a 1-month treatment with magnesium was the most effective treatment in terms of hair cell preservation. The DPOAE confirmed this effectiveness. Methylprednisolone accelerated recovery but its final efficacy remained moderate. It is probable that magnesium acts on the later metabolic processes that occur after noise exposure. Multiple mechanisms could be involved: calcium antagonism, anti-ischaemic effect or NMDA channel blockage. Regardless of the specific mechanism, a 1-month treatment with magnesium clearly attenuates NIHL, and presents the advantage of being safe for use in humans. PMID:19084059

  13. Clostridium difficile Infections in Veterans Health Administration Long-Term Care Facilities.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Jeffrey S; Evans, Martin E; Simbartl, Loretta A; Kralovic, Stephen M; Kelly, Allison A; Jain, Rajiv; Roselle, Gary A

    2016-03-01

    OBJECTIVE A nationwide initiative was implemented in February 2014 to decrease Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) in Veterans Affairs (VA) long-term care facilities. We report a baseline of national CDI data collected during the 2 years before the Initiative. METHODS Personnel at each of 122 reporting sites entered monthly retrospective CDI case data from February 2012 through January 2014 into a national database using case definitions similar to those used in the National Healthcare Safety Network Multidrug-Resistant Organism/CDI module. The data were evaluated using Poisson regression models to examine infection occurrences over time while accounting for admission prevalence and type of diagnostic test. RESULTS During the 24-month analysis period, there were 100,800 admissions, 6,976,121 resident days, and 1,558 CDI cases. The pooled CDI admission prevalence rate (including recurrent cases) was 0.38 per 100 admissions, and the pooled nonduplicate/nonrecurrent community-onset rate was 0.17 per 100 admissions. The pooled long-term care facility-onset rate and the clinically confirmed (ie, diarrhea or evidence of pseudomembranous colitis) long-term care facility-onset rate were 1.98 and 1.78 per 10,000 resident days, respectively. Accounting for diagnostic test type, the long-term care facility-onset rate declined significantly (P=.05), but the clinically confirmed long-term care facility-onset rate did not. CONCLUSIONS VA long-term care facility CDI rates were comparable to those in recent reports from other long-term care facilities. The significant decline in the long-term care facility-onset rate but not in the clinically confirmed long-term care facility-onset rate may have been due to less testing of asymptomatic patients. Efforts to decrease CDI rates in long-term care facilities are necessary as part of a coordinated approach to decrease healthcare-associated infections. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2016;37(3):295-300. PMID:26686361

  14. Effects of long-term chloroquine administration on the natural history of aortic aneurysms in mice.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Azza; Wheatcroft, Mark D; Quan, Adrian; Singh, Krishna K; Lovren, Fina; Dhingra, Natasha; Teoh, Hwee; Al-Omran, Mohammed; Leong-Poi, Howard; Verma, Subodh

    2015-08-01

    Autophagy regulates cellular homeostasis and integrates the cellular pro-survival machinery. We investigated the role of autophagy in the natural history of murine abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). ApoE(-/-) mice were implanted with saline- or angiotensin II (Ang-II)-filled miniosmotic pumps then treated with either the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ; 50 mg·(kg body mass)(-1)·day(-1), by intraperitoneal injection) or saline. Ang-II-elicited aneurysmal expansion of the suprarenal aorta coupled with thrombus formation were apparent 8 weeks later. CQ had no impact on the incidence (50% for Ang-II compared with 46.2% for Ang-II + CQ; P = NS) and categorical distribution of aneurysms. The markedly reduced survival rate observed with Ang-II (57.1% for Ang-II compared with 100% for saline; P < 0.05) was unaffected by CQ (61.5% for Ang-II + CQ; P = NS compared with Ang-II). CQ did not affect the mean maximum suprarenal aortic diameter (1.91 ± 0.19 mm for Ang-II compared with 1.97 ± 0.21 mm for Ang-II + CQ; P = NS). Elastin fragmentation, collagen accumulation, and smooth muscle attrition, which were higher in Ang-II-treated mice, were unaffected by CQ treatment. Long-term CQ administration does not affect the natural history and prognosis of experimental AAA, suggesting that global loss of autophagy is unlikely to be a causal factor in the development of aortic aneurysms. Manipulation of autophagy as a mechanism to reduce AAA may need re-evaluation. PMID:26099030

  15. Influence of Long-Term Zinc Administration on Spatial Learning and Exploratory Activity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Piechal, Agnieszka; Blecharz-Klin, Kamilla; Pyrzanowska, Justyna; Widy-Tyszkiewicz, Ewa

    2016-08-01

    Animal brain contains a significant amount of zinc, which is a cofactor for more than 300 enzymes. Moreover, it provides the basis for functioning of more than 2000 transcription factors, and it is necessary for memory formation and learning processes in the brain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of zinc supplementation on behavior in 3-month-old rats. For this purpose, the Morris water maze paradigm, hole-board, and T-maze were used. Wistar rats received a solution of ZnSO4 in drinking water at the doses of 16 mg/kg (Zn16 group) and 32 mg/kg (Zn32 group). In rats pretreated with the lower dose of zinc, the improvement of the mean escape latency was observed in comparison to the control group and Zn32 group. During memory task, both ZnSO4-supplemented groups showed an increase in crossings over the previous platform position. Furthermore, the exploratory activity in Zn16 group was improved in comparison to Zn32 and control group. In the brains of zinc-supplemented rats, we observed the higher content of zinc, both in the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex. Hippocampal zinc level correlated positively with the mean annulus crossings of the Zn16 group during the probe trial. These findings show that the long-term administration of ZnS04 can improve learning, spatial memory, and exploratory activity in rats. Graphical Abstract Improvement of spatial learning, memory, and exploratory behavior. PMID:26740219

  16. Intrahippocampal Glutamine Administration Inhibits mTORC1 Signaling and Impairs Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozas, Natalia S.; Redell, John B.; Pita-Almenar, Juan D.; McKenna, James, III.; Moore, Anthony N.; Gambello, Michael J.; Dash, Pramod K.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1), a key regulator of protein synthesis and cellular growth, is also required for long-term memory formation. Stimulation of mTORC1 signaling is known to be dependent on the availability of energy and growth factors, as well as the presence of amino acids. In vitro studies using serum- and amino…

  17. Prevalence of nosocomial infection in long-term-care Veterans Administration medical centers.

    PubMed

    Steinmiller, A M; Robb, S S; Muder, R R

    1991-06-01

    Prevention and control of nosocomial infections are major goals of institutional risk-management programs. However, variations in criteria and denominator parameters make comparison of rates across settings difficult. This study addressed those problems by reporting criteria used to identify infections and applying the same denominator across long-term-care facilities. Findings demonstrated a 9.8% prevalence rate for nosocomial infections in four long-term-care VA facilities. Most of the identified infections were consistent with Centers for Disease Control definitions of nosocomial infections. The most frequent indicators of nosocomial infections that did not fully meet those definitions were (1) documented symptoms, (2) antibiotic therapy, and (3) physician diagnosis. PMID:1907438

  18. Risk-Adjusted Impact of Administrative Costs on the Distribution of Terminal Wealth for Long-Term Investment

    PubMed Central

    Guillén, Montserrat; Jarner, Søren Fiig; Pérez-Marín, Ana M.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of administrative costs on the distribution of terminal wealth is approximated using a simple formula applicable to many investment situations. We show that the reduction in median returns attributable to administrative fees is usually at least twice the amount of the administrative costs charged for most investment funds, when considering a risk-adjustment correction over a reasonably long-term time horizon. The example we present covers a number of standard cases and can be applied to passive investments, mutual funds, and hedge funds. Our results show investors the potential losses they face in performance due to administrative costs. PMID:25180200

  19. Antihypertensive Effect of Long-Term Oral Administration of Jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) Collagen Peptides on Renovascular Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Yongliang; Sun, Liping; Zhang, Yufeng; Liu, Gaoxiang

    2012-01-01

    Antihypertensive effect of long-term oral administration of jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) collagen peptides (JCP) on renovascular hypertension rats (RVHs) was evaluated. The systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure of the RVHs were significantly reduced with administration of JCP (p < 0.05), compared with model control group. However, the arterial blood pressure of normal rats showed no significant changes during long-term oral treatment with high dose JCP (p > 0.05). Furthermore, effect of JCP on angiotensin II (Ang II) concentration of plasma had no significance (p > 0.05), but JCP significantly inhibited the Ang II concentration in RVHs’ kidney (p < 0.05). The kidney should be the target site of JCP. PMID:22412809

  20. Novel aspects of striatal plasticity associated with long-term levo-dopa administration.

    PubMed

    Busceti, Carla Letizia; Biagioni, Francesca; Calierno, Maria Teresa; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Ruggieri, Stefano; Fornai, Francesco

    2013-12-01

    "Striatal plasticity" is a term describing a variety of morphological and functional changes occurring both at pre- and post-synaptic level within the basal ganglia. In most cases striatal plasticity occurs when a loss of dopamine (DA) fibers in the striatum, in the course of Parkinsonism takes place. Plastic events include early pre-synaptic and long-term post-synaptic changes. In the context of long-term changes associated with striatal plasticity the role of intrinsic striatal catecholamine cells is emerging. This neuronal population expresses both tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and DA transporter (DAT). These TH-positive cells are normally resident within the human caudate putamen but they dramatically increase during parkinsonism reaching an amount roughly corresponding to 50% of nigrostriatal neurons counted in control brains. This evidence led to hypothesize fascinating mechanisms bridging these neurons either with compensatory changes or the onset of aberrant behavioral activity. Very recently  the occurrence of these neurons was described during DA replacement therapy in parkinsonism, thus suggesting that these cells may represent the anatomical basis for plastic phenomena.  Thus, the present article, in the attempt to describe novel mechanisms generating striatal plasticity, details these cells in development and adult life and their potential role in maturation phenomena occurring in parkinsonism. PMID:24873927

  1. [Long-term oxygen therapy in chronic respiratory insufficiency. Usefulness, indications, modes of administration].

    PubMed

    Weitzenblum, E

    1992-03-01

    Long-term oxygen therapy improves the life expectancy of hypoxaemic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), provided the hypoxaemia is sufficiently pronounced under stable conditions (PaO2 less than 55 mmHg) and oxygen is given for more than 16 out of 24 hours. By extension, the same indications are applicable to hypoxaemia due to other causes (diffuse fibrosis, pneumoconiosis, cystic fibrosis, etc.). Long-term oxygen therapy improves the patients' quality of life and also has favourable effects on oxygen transport, neuropsychological status, polycythaemia and pulmonary hypertension. It is usually delivered by means of O2 extractors, to which may be added small flasks of O2 gas for walking and moving about. Liquid O2 is a good solution for subjects who are motivated and are obliged to do a great deal of walking. The O2 flow rate administered must be such that it rises the PaO2 level above 60 mmHg. Oxygen therapy is only a symptomatic treatment and cannot replace other types of therapy, such as bronchodilators, physiotherapy, etc. It gives satisfactory results but it has not transformed the prognosis of severe hypoxaemic COPD. PMID:1533036

  2. Shoshin Beriberi Induced by Long-Term Administration of Diuretics: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Misumida, Naoki; Umeda, Hisashi; Iwase, Mitsunori

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that diuretic therapy for heart failure may lead to thiamine deficiency due to the increased urinary thiamine excretion. Herein, we present the case of a 61-year-old man with shoshin beriberi, a fulminant form of wet beriberi, induced by long-term diuretic therapy. The patient had a history of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and was receiving furosemide and trichlormethiazide therapy. He presented with worsening exertional dyspnea and was admitted for heart failure exacerbation. His condition failed to improve even after intensive treatment. A hemodynamic evaluation with the Swan-Ganz catheter revealed high-output heart failure with low peripheral vascular resistance. Thiamine was administered for suspected shoshin beriberi; his hemodynamic status improved dramatically within the next six hours. The serum thiamine level was below the normal range; the patient was therefore diagnosed with shoshin beriberi. The common causes of thiamine deficiency were not identified. Long-term diuretic therapy with furosemide and thiazide was thought to have played a major role in the development of thiamine deficiency. This case illustrates the importance of considering wet beriberi as a possible cause of heart failure exacerbation in patients taking diuretics, even when the common thiamine deficiency causes are not identified with history-taking. PMID:25105030

  3. Shoshin beriberi induced by long-term administration of diuretics: a case report.

    PubMed

    Misumida, Naoki; Umeda, Hisashi; Iwase, Mitsunori

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that diuretic therapy for heart failure may lead to thiamine deficiency due to the increased urinary thiamine excretion. Herein, we present the case of a 61-year-old man with shoshin beriberi, a fulminant form of wet beriberi, induced by long-term diuretic therapy. The patient had a history of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and was receiving furosemide and trichlormethiazide therapy. He presented with worsening exertional dyspnea and was admitted for heart failure exacerbation. His condition failed to improve even after intensive treatment. A hemodynamic evaluation with the Swan-Ganz catheter revealed high-output heart failure with low peripheral vascular resistance. Thiamine was administered for suspected shoshin beriberi; his hemodynamic status improved dramatically within the next six hours. The serum thiamine level was below the normal range; the patient was therefore diagnosed with shoshin beriberi. The common causes of thiamine deficiency were not identified. Long-term diuretic therapy with furosemide and thiazide was thought to have played a major role in the development of thiamine deficiency. This case illustrates the importance of considering wet beriberi as a possible cause of heart failure exacerbation in patients taking diuretics, even when the common thiamine deficiency causes are not identified with history-taking. PMID:25105030

  4. Final Report on the Development of a Baccalaureate External Degree Program in Health Services Administration With a Major in Long Term Care Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleppick, Annabelle L.; And Others

    A project undertaken at the Graduate School of Public Health of the University of Pittsburgh to develop an undergraduate external degree program in health services administration with a major in long-term care administration is described. Program activities were designed to: develop a work plan, identify the parameters of knowledge and skills…

  5. LONG-TERM BEHAVIORAL AND NEUROCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF INTRADENTATE ADMINISTRATION OF COLCHICINE IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous work has shown that the intradentate administration of colchicine produces time-dependent behavioral and neurochemical changes. eficits in learning and memory and alterations In the signal transduction process for the cholinergic muscarinic receptor have been observed up...

  6. Short-term and long-term ethanol administration inhibits the placental uptake and transport of valine in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Patwardhan, R.V.; Schenker, S.; Henderson, G.I.; Abou-Mourad, N.N.; Hoyumpa, A.M. Jr.

    1981-08-01

    Ethanol ingestion during pregnancy causes a pattern of fetal/neonatal dysfunction called the FAS. The effects of short- and long-term ethanol ingestion on the placental uptake and maternal-fetal transfer of valine were studied in rats. The in vivo placental uptake and fetal uptake were estimated after injection of 0.04 micromol of /sub 14/C-valine intravenously on day 20 of gestation in Sprague-Dawley rats. Short-term ethanol ingestion (4 gm/kg) caused a significant reduction in the placental uptake of /sub 14/C-valine by 33%, 60%, and 30%, and 31% at 2.5, 5, 10, and 15 min after valine administration, respectively (p less than 0.01), and a similar significant reduction occurred in the fetal uptake of /sub 14/C-valine (p less than 0.01). Long-term ethanol ingestion prior to and throughout gestation resulted in a 47% reduction in placental valine uptake (p less than 0.01) and a 46% reduction in fetal valine uptake (p less than 0.01). Long-term ethanol feeding from day 4 to day 20 of gestation caused a 32% reduction in placental valine uptake (p less than 0.01) and a 26% reduction in fetal valine uptake (p less than 0.01). We conclude that both short- and long-term ingestion of ethanol inhibit the placental uptake and maternal-fetal transfer of an essential amino acid--valine. An alteration of placental function may contribute to the pathogenesis of the FAS.

  7. Repeated neonatal propofol administration induces sex-dependent long-term impairments on spatial and recognition memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Edson Luck T; Yang, Sung Min; Choi, Chang Soon; Mabunga, Darine Froy N; Kim, Hee Jin; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Koo, Bon-Nyeo; Shin, Chan Young

    2015-05-01

    Propofol is an anesthetic agent that gained wide use because of its fast induction of anesthesia and rapid recovery post-anesthesia. However, previous studies have reported immediate neurodegeneration and long-term impairment in spatial learning and memory from repeated neonatal propofol administration in animals. Yet, none of those studies has explored the sex-specific long-term physical changes and behavioral alterations such as social (sociability and social preference), emotional (anxiety), and other cognitive functions (spatial working, recognition, and avoidance memory) after neonatal propofol treatment. Seven-day-old Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats underwent repeated daily intraperitoneal injections of propofol or normal saline for 7 days. Starting fourth week of age and onwards, rats were subjected to behavior tests including open-field, elevated-plus-maze, Y-maze, 3-chamber social interaction, novel-object-recognition, passive-avoidance, and rotarod. Rats were sacrificed at 9 weeks and hippocampal protein expressions were analyzed by Western blot. Results revealed long-term body weight gain alterations in the growing rats and sex-specific impairments in spatial (female) and recognition (male) learning and memory paradigms. A markedly decreased expression of hippocampal NMDA receptor GluN1 subunit in female- and increased expression of AMPA GluR1 subunit protein expression in male rats were also found. Other aspects of behaviors such as locomotor activity and coordination, anxiety, sociability, social preference and avoidance learning and memory were not generally affected. These results suggest that neonatal repeated propofol administration disrupts normal growth and some aspects of neurodevelopment in rats in a sex-specific manner. PMID:25995824

  8. Repeated Neonatal Propofol Administration Induces Sex-Dependent Long-Term Impairments on Spatial and Recognition Memory in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Edson Luck T.; Yang, Sung Min; Choi, Chang Soon; Mabunga, Darine Froy N.; Kim, Hee Jin; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Koo, Bon-Nyeo; Shin, Chan Young

    2015-01-01

    Propofol is an anesthetic agent that gained wide use because of its fast induction of anesthesia and rapid recovery post-anesthesia. However, previous studies have reported immediate neurodegeneration and long-term impairment in spatial learning and memory from repeated neonatal propofol administration in animals. Yet, none of those studies has explored the sex-specific long-term physical changes and behavioral alterations such as social (sociability and social preference), emotional (anxiety), and other cognitive functions (spatial working, recognition, and avoidance memory) after neonatal propofol treatment. Seven-day-old Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats underwent repeated daily intraperitoneal injections of propofol or normal saline for 7 days. Starting fourth week of age and onwards, rats were subjected to behavior tests including open-field, elevated-plus-maze, Y-maze, 3-chamber social interaction, novel-object-recognition, passive-avoidance, and rotarod. Rats were sacrificed at 9 weeks and hippocampal protein expressions were analyzed by Western blot. Results revealed long-term body weight gain alterations in the growing rats and sex-specific impairments in spatial (female) and recognition (male) learning and memory paradigms. A markedly decreased expression of hippocampal NMDA receptor GluN1 subunit in female- and increased expression of AMPA GluR1 subunit protein expression in male rats were also found. Other aspects of behaviors such as locomotor activity and coordination, anxiety, sociability, social preference and avoidance learning and memory were not generally affected. These results suggest that neonatal repeated propofol administration disrupts normal growth and some aspects of neurodevelopment in rats in a sex-specific manner. PMID:25995824

  9. [Effect of the long term administration of bromantan on the reproductive function in rats].

    PubMed

    Khamidova, T V; Bugaeva, L I; Morozov, I S; Spasov, A A

    2000-01-01

    Bromantan is a new psychostimulator possessing actoprotector properties. The drug was administered to rats over two months (males) and two weeks (females) at a daily dose of 30 and 200-mg/kg, and the reproduction function parameters were monitored. Then the experimental animals were coupled and the embryonal characteristics of the breed were determined. Upon termination of the drug administration, the functional state of sperm and the morphology of gonads were studied again. It was found that bromantan (30 mg/kg) unreliably decreases the absolute amount of sperm in males. In females, the drug did not affect the ovary weight coefficient and increased the gestation index. After termination of the drug administration, the ovary weight coefficient increased. Bromantan affected neither the fertilizing capacity of male and female gametes nor the embryonal characteristics of the breed. PMID:10934594

  10. Long-Term Administration of Oxandrolone Improves Lung Function in Pediatric Burned Patients.

    PubMed

    Sousse, Linda E; Herndon, David N; Mlcak, Ronald P; Lee, Jong O; Andersen, Clark R; Zovath, Andrew J; Finnerty, Celeste C; Suman, Oscar E

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary dysfunction is a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality in the pediatric burned population. We have previously reported that the administration of a synthetic testosterone derivative, oxandrolone, significantly reduced hypermetabolism, and significantly increased height percentile, bone mineral content, lean body mass, and strength in pediatric burned patients. We hypothesize that the administration of oxandrolone will improve pulmonary function in burned pediatric subjects. A subset of severely burned pediatric subjects from a prospective clinical trial (n = 222) were included in our study (n = 54, 7-18 years, ≥30% TBSA burn). The subjects were previously randomized to either the control arm (n = 35) or the oxandrolone arm (0.1 mg/kg twice/day for 12 months, n = 19). Maximum voluntary ventilation, the ratio between forced expiratory volume and forced vital capacity, and diffusion capacity were measured 6 months following burn injury, and results were compared between burned subjects with and without oxandrolone administration. Maximum expired ventilation (VEmax) was also measured in a subset of burned subjects. Subjects treated with oxandrolone had a significantly higher maximum voluntary ventilation (98 ± 53 L/min vs 115 ± 56 with treatment, P = .03). During maximal exercise, subjects treated with oxandrolone had a significantly higher VEmax compared with untreated subjects (32.0 ± 8.7 L/min vs 43.7 ± 13.6 with treatment, P = .02). The administration of oxandrolone was associated with improved lung function in pediatric burned patients. PMID:27171844

  11. Effects of long-term salicylate administration on synaptic ultrastructure and metabolic activity in the rat CNS.

    PubMed

    Yi, Bin; Hu, Shousen; Zuo, Chuantao; Jiao, Fangyang; Lv, Jingrong; Chen, Dongye; Ma, Yufei; Chen, Jianyong; Mei, Ling; Wang, Xueling; Huang, Zhiwu; Wu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Tinnitus is associated with neural hyperactivity in the central nervous system (CNS). Salicylate is a well-known ototoxic drug, and we induced tinnitus in rats using a model of long-term salicylate administration. The gap pre-pulse inhibition of acoustic startle test was used to infer tinnitus perception, and only rats in the chronic salicylate-treatment (14 days) group showed evidence of experiencing tinnitus. After small animal positron emission tomography scans were performed, we found that the metabolic activity of the inferior colliculus (IC), the auditory cortex (AC), and the hippocampus (HP) were significantly higher in the chronic treatment group compared with saline group (treated for 14 days), which was further supported by ultrastructural changes at the synapses. The alterations all returned to baseline 14 days after the cessation of salicylate-treatment (wash-out group), indicating that these changes were reversible. These findings indicate that long-term salicylate administration induces tinnitus, enhanced neural activity and synaptic ultrastructural changes in the IC, AC, and HP of rats due to neuroplasticity. Thus, an increased metabolic rate and synaptic transmission in specific areas of the CNS may contribute to the development of tinnitus. PMID:27068004

  12. Efficacy of long term cyclic administration of the poorly absorbed antibiotic Rifaximin in symptomatic, uncomplicated colonic diverticular disease

    PubMed Central

    Colecchia, Antonio; Vestito, Amanda; Pasqui, Francesca; Mazzella, Giuseppe; Roda, Enrico; Pistoia, Francesca; Brandimarte, Giovanni; Festi, Davide

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To comparatively evaluate the long term efficacy of Rifaximin and dietary fibers in reducing symptoms and/or complication frequency in symptomatic, uncomplicated diverticular disease. METHODS: 307 patients (118 males, 189 females, age range: 40-80 years) were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned to: Rifaximin (400 mg bid for 7 d every month) plus dietary fiber supplementation (at least 20 gr/d) or dietary fiber supplementation alone. The study duration was 24 mo; both clinical examination and symptoms’ questionnaire were performed every two months. RESULTS: Both treatments reduced symptom frequency, but Rifaximin at a greater extent, when compared to basal values. Symptomatic score declined during both treatments, but a greater reduction was evident in the Rifaximin group (6.4 ± 2.8 and 6.2 ± 2.6 at enrollment, p = NS, 1.0 ± 0.7 and 2.4 ± 1.7 after 24 mo, p < 0.001, respectively). Probability of symptom reduction was higher and complication frequency lower (Kaplan-Meyer method) in the Rifaximin group (p < 0.0001 and 0.028, respectively). CONCLUSION: In patients with symptomatic, uncomplicated diverticular disease, cyclic administration of Rifaximin plus dietary fiber supplementation is more effective in reducing both symptom and complication frequency than simple dietary fiber supplementation. Long term administration of the poorly absorbed antibiotic Rifaximin is safe and well tolerated by the patients, confirming the usefulness of this therapeutic strategy in the overall management of diverticular disease. PMID:17226906

  13. Observation of hepatotoxicity during long-term gefitinib administration in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingjing; Wu, Yanlin; He, Xiaohui; Wang, Ziping; Li, Junling; Wang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    To observe drug-induced hepatotoxicity by long-term gefitinib administration in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer. The data of 101 patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer, for which gefitinib had been used orally for 3 months or longer, were retrospectively analyzed. The median duration of gefitinib administration was 14 months (3–60 months). Forty patients (39.6%) developed abnormal hepatic function, among whom 30 patients (29.7%) had grade I hepatotoxicity, six patients (5.9%) had grade II, and four patients (4.0%) had grade III, respectively. The median time from starting gefitinib oral therapy to developing liver dysfunction was 4 months (1–23 months) for the entire cohort. The incidence of hepatotoxicity in the group with a duration of more than 14 months was much higher than that in the group with a duration of less than 14 months (52.0 vs. 27.5%, P=0.012). In thirty-two patients (32/40), abnormal liver function resolved with hepatoprotective treatment, whereas eight patients (8/40) had persistent grade I hepatotoxicity until the last follow-up. Our study showed that long-term gefitinib-induced hepatotoxicity was a common adverse event, especially for the cohort with a duration of longer than 14 months. In most patients with hepatotoxicity, normal liver function was restored and discontinuation of gefitinib was not necessary. PMID:26633888

  14. Observation of hepatotoxicity during long-term gefitinib administration in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingjing; Wu, Yanlin; Dong, Mei; He, Xiaohui; Wang, Ziping; Li, Junling; Wang, Yan

    2016-03-01

    To observe drug-induced hepatotoxicity by long-term gefitinib administration in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer. The data of 101 patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer, for which gefitinib had been used orally for 3 months or longer, were retrospectively analyzed. The median duration of gefitinib administration was 14 months (3-60 months). Forty patients (39.6%) developed abnormal hepatic function, among whom 30 patients (29.7%) had grade I hepatotoxicity, six patients (5.9%) had grade II, and four patients (4.0%) had grade III, respectively. The median time from starting gefitinib oral therapy to developing liver dysfunction was 4 months (1-23 months) for the entire cohort. The incidence of hepatotoxicity in the group with a duration of more than 14 months was much higher than that in the group with a duration of less than 14 months (52.0 vs. 27.5%, P=0.012). In thirty-two patients (32/40), abnormal liver function resolved with hepatoprotective treatment, whereas eight patients (8/40) had persistent grade I hepatotoxicity until the last follow-up. Our study showed that long-term gefitinib-induced hepatotoxicity was a common adverse event, especially for the cohort with a duration of longer than 14 months. In most patients with hepatotoxicity, normal liver function was restored and discontinuation of gefitinib was not necessary. PMID:26633888

  15. Long-term ascorbic acid administration causes anticonvulsant activity during moderate and long-duration swimming exercise in experimental epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Tutkun, Erkut; Arslan, Gokhan; Soslu, Recep; Ayyildiz, Mustafa; Agar, Erdal

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of regular exercise on brain health are undeniable. Long-term exercise increases the production of reactive oxygen species in brain. Therefore, athletes often consume antioxidant supplements to remedy exercise-related damage and fatigue during exercise. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of ascorbic acid in the effects of different intensities of swimming exercise on the brain susceptibility to experimental epilepsy in rats. Ascorbic acid was administered intraperitoneally (ip) during three different swimming exercise programme for 90 days (15 min, 30 min, 90 min/day). The anticonvulsant activity regarding the frequency of epileptiform activity appeared in the 80 min after 500 units intracortical penicillin injection in 30 min and 90 min/day exercise groups. The administration of ascorbic acid (100 mg/kg, ip) did not alter the anticonvulsant properties seen in the in short-duration (15 min/day) swimming exercise group. The amplitude of epileptiform activity also became significant in the 110 and 120 min after penicillin injection in the moderate (30 min/day) and long duration (60 min/day) groups, respectively. The results of the present study provide electrophysiologic evidence that long-term administration of ascorbic acid causes anticonvulsant activities in the moderate and long-duration swimming exercise. Antioxidant supplementation such as ascorbic acid might be suggested for moderate and long-duration swimming exercise in epilepsy. PMID:26232995

  16. Effects of long-term salicylate administration on synaptic ultrastructure and metabolic activity in the rat CNS

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Bin; Hu, Shousen; Zuo, Chuantao; Jiao, Fangyang; Lv, Jingrong; Chen, Dongye; Ma, Yufei; Chen, Jianyong; Mei, Ling; Wang, Xueling; Huang, Zhiwu; Wu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Tinnitus is associated with neural hyperactivity in the central nervous system (CNS). Salicylate is a well-known ototoxic drug, and we induced tinnitus in rats using a model of long-term salicylate administration. The gap pre-pulse inhibition of acoustic startle test was used to infer tinnitus perception, and only rats in the chronic salicylate-treatment (14 days) group showed evidence of experiencing tinnitus. After small animal positron emission tomography scans were performed, we found that the metabolic activity of the inferior colliculus (IC), the auditory cortex (AC), and the hippocampus (HP) were significantly higher in the chronic treatment group compared with saline group (treated for 14 days), which was further supported by ultrastructural changes at the synapses. The alterations all returned to baseline 14 days after the cessation of salicylate-treatment (wash-out group), indicating that these changes were reversible. These findings indicate that long-term salicylate administration induces tinnitus, enhanced neural activity and synaptic ultrastructural changes in the IC, AC, and HP of rats due to neuroplasticity. Thus, an increased metabolic rate and synaptic transmission in specific areas of the CNS may contribute to the development of tinnitus. PMID:27068004

  17. Peripheral fibroblast metabolic pathway alterations in juvenile rhesus monkeys undergoing long-term fluoxetine administration.

    PubMed

    Su, Shu-Yi; Hogrefe-Phi, Casey E; Asara, John M; Turck, Christoph W; Golub, Mari S

    2016-07-01

    We report on biochemical pathways perturbed upon chronic fluoxetine administration to juvenile macaques using global metabolomics analyses of fibroblasts derived from skin biopsies. After exposure to tissue culture conditions confounding environmental factors are eliminated and identification of metabolites whose levels are affected by the drug become apparent with a better signal-to-noise ratio compared to data obtained from plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Levels of more than 200 metabolites were analyzed to interrogate affected molecular pathways and identify biomarkers of drug response. In addition, we have correlated the metabolomics results with monoamine oxidase (MAOA) genotype and impulsivity behavioral data. Affected pathways include Purine and Pyrimidine metabolisms that have been previously implicated to contribute to neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:27084303

  18. Long-Term Oral Administration of Hop Flower Extracts Mitigates Alzheimer Phenotypes in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sasaoka, Norio; Sakamoto, Megumi; Kanemori, Shoko; Kan, Michiru; Tsukano, Chihiro; Takemoto, Yoshiji; Kakizuka, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Coincident with the expanding population of aged people, the incidence of Alzheimer disease (AD) is rapidly increasing in most advanced countries. At present, no effective prophylactics are available. Among several pathological mechanisms proposed for AD, the “amyloid hypothesis” has been most widely accepted, in which accumulation or deposition of Aβ is considered to be the initial event. Thus, prevention of Aβ production would be an ideal strategy for the treatment or prevention of AD. Aβ is produced via the proteolytic cleavage of its precursor protein, APP (amyloid precursor protein), by two different enzymes, β and γ-secretases. Indeed, inhibitors against either or both enzymes have been developed and tested for clinical efficacy. Based on the “amyloid hypothesis”, we developed a luciferase-based screening method to monitor γ-secretase activity, screened more than 1,600 plant extracts, most of which have long been used in Chinese medicine, and observed that Hop extracts significantly inhibit Aβ production in cultured cells. A major component of the inhibitory activity was purified, and its chemical identity was determined by NMR to be Garcinielliptone HC. In vivo, oral administration of Hop extracts to AD model mice decreased Aβ depositions in the cerebral cortex of the parietal lobe, hippocampus, and artery walls (amyloid angiopathy) in the brains. In a Morris water maze test, AD model mice that had daily consumed Hop extracts in their drinking water showed significant mitigation of memory impairment at ages of 9 and 12 months. Moreover, in the open field test oral administration of Hop extracts also prevented an emotional disturbance that appeared in the AD mice at 18 months. Despite lifelong consumption of Hop extracts, no deleterious side effects were observed at any age. These results support the “amyloid hypothesis”, and indicate that Hop extract is a promising candidate for an effective prophylactic for AD. PMID:24489866

  19. Long-term oral administration of hop flower extracts mitigates Alzheimer phenotypes in mice.

    PubMed

    Sasaoka, Norio; Sakamoto, Megumi; Kanemori, Shoko; Kan, Michiru; Tsukano, Chihiro; Takemoto, Yoshiji; Kakizuka, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Coincident with the expanding population of aged people, the incidence of Alzheimer disease (AD) is rapidly increasing in most advanced countries. At present, no effective prophylactics are available. Among several pathological mechanisms proposed for AD, the "amyloid hypothesis" has been most widely accepted, in which accumulation or deposition of Aβ is considered to be the initial event. Thus, prevention of Aβ production would be an ideal strategy for the treatment or prevention of AD. Aβ is produced via the proteolytic cleavage of its precursor protein, APP (amyloid precursor protein), by two different enzymes, β and γ-secretases. Indeed, inhibitors against either or both enzymes have been developed and tested for clinical efficacy. Based on the "amyloid hypothesis", we developed a luciferase-based screening method to monitor γ-secretase activity, screened more than 1,600 plant extracts, most of which have long been used in Chinese medicine, and observed that Hop extracts significantly inhibit Aβ production in cultured cells. A major component of the inhibitory activity was purified, and its chemical identity was determined by NMR to be Garcinielliptone HC. In vivo, oral administration of Hop extracts to AD model mice decreased Aβ depositions in the cerebral cortex of the parietal lobe, hippocampus, and artery walls (amyloid angiopathy) in the brains. In a Morris water maze test, AD model mice that had daily consumed Hop extracts in their drinking water showed significant mitigation of memory impairment at ages of 9 and 12 months. Moreover, in the open field test oral administration of Hop extracts also prevented an emotional disturbance that appeared in the AD mice at 18 months. Despite lifelong consumption of Hop extracts, no deleterious side effects were observed at any age. These results support the "amyloid hypothesis", and indicate that Hop extract is a promising candidate for an effective prophylactic for AD. PMID:24489866

  20. The effect of acute stress and long-term corticosteroid administration on plasma metabolites in an urban and desert songbird.

    PubMed

    Davies, Scott; Rodriguez, Natalie S; Sweazea, Karen L; Deviche, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    In response to stressful stimuli, animals activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which can result in transition to the "emergency life history stage." A key adaptive characteristic of this life history stage is the mobilization of energy stores. However, few data are available on the metabolic response to acute stress in wild-caught, free-ranging birds. We quantified the effect of acute capture and restraint stress on plasma glucose, free fatty acid, and uric acid in free-ranging Abert's towhees Melozone aberti. Furthermore, birds were caught from urban and desert localities of Phoenix, Arizona, to investigate potential effects of urban versus desert habitats on the corticosterone (CORT) and metabolic response to acute stress. Complementing work on free-ranging birds, captive towhees received CORT-filled Silastic capsules to investigate the response of urban and desert conspecifics to long-term CORT administration. We quantified the effect of CORT administration on baseline plasma glucose and uric acid, liver and pectoralis muscle glycogen stores, kidney phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C, a key gluconeogenic enzyme), and body mass. Acute stress increased plasma CORT and glucose and decreased plasma uric acid but had no effect on plasma free fatty acid. There was no difference between urban and desert localities in body mass, fat scores, and the response to acute stress. CORT administration decreased body mass but had no effect on glucose and uric acid, pectoral muscle glycogen, or kidney PEPCK-C. However, liver glycogen of CORT-treated urban birds increased compared with corresponding controls, whereas glycogen decreased in CORT-treated desert birds. This study suggests that Abert's towhees principally mobilize glucose during acute stress but urban and desert towhees do not differ in their CORT and metabolic response to acute stress or long-term CORT administration. PMID:23303320

  1. Association between long-term exposure to traffic particles and blood pressure in the Veterans Administration Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Joel; Alexeeff, Stacey E; Mordukhovich, Irina; Gryparis, Alexandros; Vokonas, Pantel; Suh, Helen; Coull, Brent A

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Particulate air pollution is associated with cardiovascular events, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. The main objective was to assess the relationship between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and blood pressure (BP). Methods The authors used longitudinal data from 853 elderly men participating in the Veterans Administration Normative Aging Study, followed during 1996–2008. Long-term average exposures to traffic particles were created from daily predictions of black carbon (BC) exposure at the geocoded address of each subject, using a validated spatiotemporal model based on ambient monitoring at 82 Boston-area locations. The authors examined the association of these exposures with BP using a mixed model. The authors included the following covariates: age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol, fasting glucose, creatinine clearance, use of cardiovascular medication, education, census-level poverty, day of week and season of clinical visit. Results The authors found significant positive associations between 1-year average BC exposure and both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. An IQR increase in 1-year average BC exposure (0.32 µg/m3) was associated with a 2.64 mm Hg increase in systolic blood pressure (95% CI 1.47 to 3.80) and a 2.41 mm Hg increase in diastolic blood pressure (95% CI 1.77 to 3.05). Conclusions Long-term exposure to traffic particles is associated with increased BP, which may explain part of the association with myocardial infarctions and cardiovascular deaths reported in cohort studies. PMID:22383587

  2. Chronic administration of sulbutiamine improves long term memory formation in mice: possible cholinergic mediation.

    PubMed

    Micheau, J; Durkin, T P; Destrade, C; Rolland, Y; Jaffard, R

    1985-08-01

    Thiamine deficiency in both man and animals is known to produce memory dysfunction and cognitive disorders which have been related to an impairment of cholinergic activity. The present experiment was aimed at testing whether, inversely, chronic administration of large doses of sulbutiamine would have a facilitative effect on memory and would induce changes in central cholinergic activity. Accordingly mice received 300 mg/kg of sulbutiamine daily for 10 days. They were then submitted to an appetitive operant level press conditioning test. When compared to control subjects, sulbutiamine treated mice learned the task at the same rate in a single session but showed greatly improved performance when tested 24 hr after partial acquisition of the same task. Parallel neurochemical investigations showed that the treatment induced a slight (+ 10%) but significant increase in hippocampal sodium-dependent high affinity choline uptake. The present findings and previous results suggest that sulbutiamine improves memory formation and that this behavioral effect could be mediated by an increase in hippocampal cholinergic activity. PMID:4059305

  3. Fialuridine accumulates in DNA of dogs, monkeys, and rats following long-term oral administration.

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, F C; Engelhardt, J A; Bowsher, R R

    1994-01-01

    Accumulation of the antiviral nucleoside analogue fialuridine (FIAU; 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-beta-D-arab-inofuranosyl-5-iodouracil) in genomic DNA was examined with a modified version of a recently developed RIA for FIAU. DNA was obtained from tissues of dogs administered FIAU at 0, 1, 2, or 3 mg/kg of body weight per day for 90 days, monkeys administered FIAU at 0 or 25 mg/kg per day for 30 days, and rats administered FIAU at 0, 255, or 510 mg/kg per day for 70 days. FIAU incorporation was observed in all species. In the rat, FIAU was incorporated into DNA of all tissues examined, with highest concentrations in the liver followed by jejunum, spleen, and heart. FIAU was also incorporated into sperm DNA. Incorporation rates were as high as 11,000 pmol of FIAU per mumol of thymidine or 1 FIAU molecule per 90 thymidine molecules. In dogs and rats, the extent of incorporation was dose-dependent. Across species, FIAU concentrations in DNA were not singly dependent on the total dose administered but also may have been dependent on the duration of exposure. These studies show that FIAU accumulates to high concentrations in genomic DNA of liver as well as other tissues during chronic oral administration and suggest that net accumulation of FIAU in DNA may be a critical step in FIAU-induced toxicity. PMID:7991573

  4. Long-term mTOR inhibitors administration evokes altered calcium homeostasis and platelet dysfunction in kidney transplant patients.

    PubMed

    López, Esther; Berna-Erro, Alejandro; Bermejo, Nuria; Brull, José María; Martinez, Rocío; Garcia Pino, Guadalupe; Alvarado, Raul; Salido, Ginés María; Rosado, Juan Antonio; Cubero, Juan José; Redondo, Pedro Cosme

    2013-05-01

    The use of the mammal target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors has been consolidated as the therapy of election for preventing graft rejection in kidney transplant patients, despite their immunosuppressive activity is less strong than anti-calcineurin agents like tacrolimus and cyclosporine A. Furthermore, as mTOR is widely expressed, rapamycin (a macrolide antibiotic produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus) is recommended in patients presenting neoplasia due to its antiproliferative actions. Hence, we have investigated whether rapamycin presents side effects in the physiology of other cell types different from leucocytes, such as platelets. Blood samples were drawn from healthy volunteers and kidney transplant patients long-term medicated with rapamycin: sirolimus and everolimus. Platelets were either loaded with fura-2 or directly stimulated, and immunoassayed or fixed with Laemmli's buffer to perform the subsequent analysis of platelet physiology. Our results indicate that rapamycin evokes a biphasic time-dependent alteration in calcium homeostasis and function in platelets from kidney transplant patients under rapamycin regime, as demonstrated by the reduction in granule secretion observed and subsequent impairment of platelet aggregation in these patients compared with healthy volunteers. Platelet count was also reduced in these patients, thus 41% of patients presented thrombocytopenia. All together our results show that long-term administration of rapamycin to kidney transplant patients evokes alteration in platelet function. PMID:23577651

  5. Long-term administration of fluvoxamine attenuates neuropathic pain and involvement of spinal serotonin receptors in diabetic model rats.

    PubMed

    Kato, Takahiro; Kajiyama, Seiji; Hamada, Hiroshi; Kawamoto, Masashi

    2013-12-01

    Diabetic neuropathic pain management is difficult even with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and narcotic analgesics such as morphine. Fluvoxamine, a class of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), is widely used to treat depression. Its analgesic effects are also documented for diabetic neuropathic pain, but they are limited because it is administered as a single-dose. In this study, we examined the time course of the antiallodynic effect of fluvoxamine in a rat model of diabetic neuropathic pain, which was induced by a single intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin (75 mg/kg). In addition, the involvement of spinal serotonin (5-HT) receptors in long-term fluvoxamine treatment was studied by intrathecal administration of 5-HT receptor antagonists. In this study the development of mechanical hyperalgesia was assessed by measuring the hind paw withdrawal threshold using von Frey filaments. The results demonstrated that daily oral administration of fluvoxamine (10, 30, and 100 mg/kg) to diabetic rats from 3 to 8 weeks after streptozotocin administration resulted in a dose-dependent antiallodynic effect. The antiallodynic effect was sustained from 2 to 5 weeks after fluvoxamine administration. The antiallodynic effect of fluvoxamine in the diabetic rats was attenuated by WAY-100635 (a 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist) intrathecally administered 1 week after the onset of daily administration of fluvoxamine, whereas no significant attenuation was seen when the antagonist was administered 3 and 5 weeks after fluvoxamine administration. The antiallodynic effect of fluvoxamine was also attenuated by ketanserin (a 5-HT(2A/2C) receptor antagonist) and ondansetron (a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist) intrathecally administered 1 and 3 weeks after the onset of daily fluvoxamine administration. However, no significant attenuation was observed when the antagonist was administered 5 weeks after fluvoxamine administration. This study demonstrated that daily oral

  6. PET study in a patient with spinocerebellar degeneration before and after long-term administration of thyrotropin releasing hormone.

    PubMed

    Tanji, H; Nagasawa, H; Hayashi, T; Onodera, H; Fujiwara, T; Itoh, M; Ido, T; Itoyama, Y

    1996-01-01

    We studied the chronic effect of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) in a patient with spinocerebellar degeneration by measuring cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRG1c) using 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18FDG) and positron emission tomography (PET). A 56-year-old female, who had suffered from progressive ataxia for 2 years, was treated by intravenous administration of 2 mg TRH for 3 weeks, and CMRG1c of the brain was measured before and after treatment. CMRG1c was markedly decreased in the cerebellum and there was no significant difference before and after the treatment, i.e. mean CMRG1c values were 4.92 and 4.90 mg/100 g/min, and the ratios of the cerebellum versus the frontal cortex were 0.50 and 0.51, respectively. The degree of disequilibrium of her body examined with stabilography became better by the 19th day and further improved by the 26th day after the start of TRH treatment. Based on the present study we conclude that long-term administration of TRH did not improve CMRG1c in the cerebellum, but evidently improved the sway of gravity center by stabilography. We speculate that the chronic effect of TRH was not necessarily due to an improvement of cerebellar function, because TRH receptors are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system. PMID:24487517

  7. [Long-term effect of organic nitrates in angina pectoris: dependence on the form of administration and mode of stress].

    PubMed

    Schneider, W; Bussmann, W D; Kober, G; Kaltenbach, M

    1989-01-01

    ISDN (standard release formulation) 40 mg administered 6 times daily (= 240 mg) remained effective during a 4-week treatment of patients with stable angina in terms of decreasing anginal attacks and reducing ischemic ST segment depression at stress testing in the upright position (step climbing test). The sustained antianginal activity is explained by fluctuating plasma levels, provided by rapid drug release from the standard formulation, short administration intervals and an 7-hour-night pause. When comparing acute and chronic antianginal activity of ISDN (40 mg) administered 4 times daily with regard to the type of stress testing it became evident that a marked attenuation of antiischemic activity (-35%; p less than 0.01) occurred in the supine (bicycle ergometry) but not in the upright (step climbing test) position. The most probable explanation for the significant attenuation of efficacy in the supine position is marked blood redistribution into central compartments with increase of cardiac filling pressures during chronic therapy. Rapid development of tolerance both to the hemodynamic and antiischemic effects of glycerol trinitrate within 24 hours could be shown during intravenous administration (3 mg/h) in patients with stable angina. It is concluded that the antiischemic effects of oral ISDN (standard release formulation) administered 4-6 times daily is preserved during long-term therapy due to fluctuating plasma levels. Nitrate therapy providing constant doses over time (e.g. I.V. nitroglycerin) leads to a rapid attenuation of efficacy most probably due to counter regulatory mechanisms. PMID:2531510

  8. Qualitative alterations of cortical bone in female rats after long-term administration of growth hormone and glucocorticoid.

    PubMed

    Ortoft, G; Oxlund, H

    1996-06-01

    A serious side effect of glucocorticoid treatment is the development of osteoporosis. We have earlier shown that long-term glucocorticoid administration results in a decrease in longitudinal bone growth, cortical bone mass, and biomechanical strength, while growth hormone administration increases these parameters. The result of biomechanical testing also indicates that glucocorticoid administration reduces the quality of bone. The glucocorticoid-induced osteopenia could not be inhibited by concomitant administration of large doses of growth hormone. The aim of the present study was to evaluate why glucocorticoid administration decreases the quality of cortical bone and why growth hormone administration had no beneficial effect on glucocorticoid-induced osteopenia. Five groups of female rats (3 1/2 months old) were treated for 80 days as follows: (1) glucocorticoid (prednisolone: Delcortol 5 mg/kg/day); (2) glucocorticoid and growth hormone; (3) saline; (4) growth hormone (recombinant human growth hormone 5 mg/kg/day); (5) Food restriction (consisting of restricted access to food to reduce their weight gain to match with that of the glucocorticoid injected rats). The animals were injected with tetracycline (15 mg/kg), 18 and 3 days before sacrifice, respectively. Furthermore, a baseline group (3 1/2-month-old female rats) was examined in order to enable us to differentiate between age-related changes and changes due to the hormone administration. Cortical mid-diaphysial cross sections of the femora were prepared and used for histological examination including determination of bone porosity, bone formation rate, and determination of the area of endosteal cavities as an indication of bone resorption. Furthermore, a cortical bone cylinder was cut from the mid-diaphysis and used for examinations of wet weight, dry weight, ash weight, volume, collagen content, and apparent density. Glucocorticoid administration resulted in an almost complete arrest of bone formation as

  9. Long-term experience with implanted intrathecal drug administration systems for failed back syndrome and chronic mechanical low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Raphael, JH; Southall, JL; Gnanadurai, TV; Treharne, GJ; Kitas, GD

    2002-01-01

    Background Continuous intrathecal drug delivery has been shown in open studies to improve pain and quality of life in those with intractable back pain who have had spinal surgery. There is limited data on long term effects and and even less for patients with mechanical back pain without prior spinal surgery. Methods We have investigated spinal drug administration systems for patients with failed back syndrome and chronic mechanical low back pain by patient questionnaire study of the efficacy of this therapy and a case notes review. Results 36 patients (97% of 37 approached) completed questionnaires, 24 with failed back syndrome and 12 with chronic mechanical low back pain. Recalled pre-treatment levels with current post-treatment levels of pain and a range of quality of life measures (recorded on 11-point numerical rating scales) were compared. Pain improved significantly in both groups (Wilcoxan signed ranks test, p < 0.005). The majority of quality of life measures improved significantly in the failed back syndrome group (Wilcoxan signed ranks test, p < 0.005) although work interruption and the effect of pain on sex life did not change. There was a trend towards improvement in the majority of quality of life measures in the mechanical back pain group but this did not reach statistical significance due to the smaller numbers in this cohort (p > 0.005, Wilcoxan signed ranks test with Bonferroni correction). Diamorphine was used in all 37 patients, bupivacaine in 32, clonidine in 27 and baclofen in 3. The mean dose of diamorphine increased for the first 2 years but did not change 2–6 years post implant, averaging 4.5 mg/day. Revision surgery was required in 24% of cases, but reduced to 12% in the later years of our experience. Conclusions We conclude that spinal drug administration systems appear to be of benefit in alleviating pain in the failed back syndrome and chronic mechanical low back pain but need to be examined prospectively. PMID:12076357

  10. Antihypertensive Properties of a Pea Protein Hydrolysate during Short- and Long-Term Oral Administration to Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Girgih, Abraham T; Nwachukwu, Ifeanyi D; Onuh, John O; Malomo, Sunday A; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated short-term (24 h) and long-term (5 wk) systolic blood pressure (SBP)-lowering effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) of a 5 kDa membrane pea protein hydrolysate permeate (PPH-5) produced through thermoase hydrolysis of pea protein isolate (PPI). Amino acid analysis showed that the PPH-5 had lower contents of sulfur-containing amino acids than the PPI. Size-exclusion chromatography indicated mainly low molecular weight (<10 kDa) peptides in PPH-5 but not in the PPI. The PPH-5 had renin and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition IC50 values of 0.57 and 0.10 mg/mL (P < 0.05), respectively, and consisted mainly of peptides with 2 to 6 amino acids. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed mainly hydrophilic tetrapeptide sequences. After a single oral administration (100 mg/kg body weight) to SHR, the unheated PPI showed weakest (P < 0.05) SBP-lowering effect with a -4 mm Hg maximum when compared to -25 mm Hg for heat-treated PPI and -36 mm Hg for PPH-5. Incorporation of the PPH-5 as 0.5% or 1% (w/w) casein substitute in the SHR diet produced maximum SBP reductions of -22 or -26 mm Hg (P < 0.05), respectively after 3 wk. In comparison, the unhydrolyzed PPI produced a maximum SBP reduction of -17 mm Hg also after 3 wk. Potency of the pea products decreased in the 4th and 5th wk, though SBP values of the treated rats were still lower than the untreated control. We conclude that the antihypertensive potency of PPH-5 may have been due to the presence of easily absorbed hydrophilic peptides. PMID:27037677

  11. Regional and subcellular localization of Li+ and other cations in the rat brain following long-term lithium administration.

    PubMed

    Lam, H R; Christensen, S

    1992-10-01

    Rats were given LiCl in their diet (40 mmol/kg dry weight) for at least 3 months to elucidate the regional and subcellular localization of Li+ in the brain as well as the effect of chronic lithium administration on the distribution of other cations. At steady-state the mean concentrations of Li+ were 0.66 mmol/kg wet weight in the whole brain and 0.52 mM in plasma. The tissue/plasma concentration ratio exceeded unity in all anatomical regions. No region showed excessive accumulation of Li+. Whole brain or regional contents of Na+ or K+ were unaffected by lithium treatment. Subcellular Li+ localization was demonstrated in nuclear, crude mitochondrial, and microsomal fractions of whole brain homogenate. Subfractionation of the crude mitochondrial fraction revealed energy-independent intrasynaptosomal and intramitochondrial Li+ and K+ localization at 0-4 degrees C. Li+ administered in vivo disappeared within 10 min from synaptosomes incubated at 37 degrees C. Li+ added in vitro at 1 mM attained a synaptosomal steady-state concentration within 30 min at 37 degrees C. In control rats, synaptosomal concentrations and synaptosomal/medium concentration gradients of cations paralleled their respective in vivo concentrations and gradients. Lithium treatment caused synaptosomal depletion of K+ and Mg2+ and hence probably partial membrane depolarization. Addition of 1 mM Li+ in vitro also caused synaptosomal Mg2+ depletion. The results indicate that Li+ is "accumulated" in brain sediments and synaptosomes following its long-term treatment. The estimated intracellular and intrasynaptosomal Li+ concentrations are lower than predicted by passive distribution according to the Nernst equation, evidencing active extrusion of Li+. PMID:1402889

  12. Comparison of Dental Caries Experience in Children Suffering From Epilepsy with and without Administration of Long Term Liquid Oral Medication

    PubMed Central

    Bhadravathi, Manjunath Chaluvaiah; Kumar, Adarsh; Narang, Ridhi; Gupta, Ambika; Singh, Harneet

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sucrose is added as sweetening agent in liquid oral medication (LOM) to mask the acrid taste of medicines which may be potentially cariogenic. Many children under long term LOM therapy for treatment of epilepsy may be susceptible to dental caries. Aim To assess and compare dental caries experience in children under long term liquid oral medication with those not under such medication among 2-12 years old children suffering from epilepsy. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken on a total of 84 children aged 2–12 years, who were suffering from epilepsy receiving liquid oral medication for more than 3 months were selected (study group) and for comparison 106 children of similar age group and disease but on other forms of medication were included as control group. Dental caries was assessed using DMFT/DMFS (Decayed, Missing, Fillled Teeth / Surfaces), dmft/dft and dmfs/dfs indices. One-way ANOVA and t-test were used with p-value fixed at 0.05. Univariate logistic regression was applied. Results Children on LOM were at increased risk of dental caries than those with other forms of medications (OR: 2.55, 95% CI (2.37-4.15) p=0.000, HS). Caries prevalence was high in the study group (76.1%) when compared to control group (55.6%). Conclusion Long term use of liquid medicines containing sucrose is a risk factor for dental caries among children with epilepsy. PMID:27504416

  13. Are the "worst of the worst" self-injurious prisoners more likely to end up in long-term maximum-security administrative segregation?

    PubMed

    Lanes, Eric Charles

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the association of extent of prisoner self-injurious behavior (SIB) and placement in long-term maximum-security administrative segregation. A prisoner subgroup (n=132) defined by extent of SIB was matched by conviction prefix and security level to a group of prisoners who had never engaged in SIB (n=132) and compared on selected variables. Relative to prisoners who either engaged in less extensive SIB or none at all, prisoners who engaged in three or more forms of SIB while in prison were found to be twice as likely to be housed in long-term administrative segregation, less educated, began their criminal careers at an earlier age, engaged in more violence in the community and in prison, involved in property destruction, and experienced a much greater degree of housing instability in prison. PMID:20668209

  14. Evaluation of the long-term energy analysis program used for the 1978 EIA Administrator's Report to Congress

    SciTech Connect

    Peelle, R. W.; Weisbin, C. R.; Alsmiller, Jr., R. G.

    1981-10-01

    An evaluation of the Long-Term Energy Analysis Program (LEAP), a computer model of the energy portion of the US economy that was used for the 1995-2020 projections in its 1978 Annual Report to Congress, is presented. An overview of the 1978 version, LEAP Model 22C, is followed by an analysis of the important results needed by its users. The model is then evaluated on the basis of: (1) the adequacy of its documentation; (2) the local experience in operating the model; (3) the adequacy of the numerical techniques used; (4) the soundness of the economic and technical foundations of the model equations; and (5) the degree to which the computer program has been verified. To show which parameters strongly influence the results and to approach the question of whether the model can project important results with sufficient accuracy to support qualitative conclusions, the numerical sensitivities of some important results to model input parameters are described. The input data are categorized and discussed, and uncertainties are given for some parameters as examples. From this background and from the relation of LEAP to other available approaches for long-term energy modeling, an overall evaluation is given of the model's suitability for use by the EIA.

  15. Long-term methamphetamine administration in the vervet monkey models aspects of a human exposure: brain neurotoxicity and behavioral profiles.

    PubMed

    Melega, William P; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Laćan, Goran; Way, Baldwin M; Pham, Jamie; Morton, Grenvill; Cho, Arthur K; Fairbanks, Lynn A

    2008-05-01

    Methamphetamine (METH)-associated alterations in the human striatal dopamine (DA) system have been identified with positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and post-mortem studies but have not been well correlated with behavioral changes or cumulative METH intake. Animal studies that model some aspects of human long-term METH abuse can establish dose-dependency profiles of both behavioral changes and potential brain neurotoxicities for identifying consequences of particular cumulative exposures. Based on parameters from human and our monkey pharmacokinetic studies, we modeled a prevalent human METH exposure of daily multiple doses in socially housed vervet monkeys. METH doses were escalated over 33 weeks, with final dosages resulting in estimated peak plasma METH concentrations of 1-3 microM, a range measured in human abusers. With larger METH doses, progressive increases in abnormal behavior and decreases in social behavior were observed on 'injection' days. Anxiety increased on 'no injection' days while aggression decreased throughout the study. Thereafter, during 3 weeks abstinence, differences in baseline vs post-METH behaviors were not observed. Post-mortem analysis of METH brains showed 20% lower striatal DA content while autoradiography studies of precommissural striatum showed 35% lower [3H]WIN35428 binding to the DA transporter. No statistically significant changes were detected for [3H]dihydrotetrabenazine binding to the vesicular monoamine transporter (METH-lower by 10%) or for [3H]SCH 23390 and [3H]raclopride binding to DA D1 and D2 receptors, respectively. Collectively, this long-term, escalating dose METH exposure modeling a human abuse pattern, not associated with high-dose binges, resulted in dose-dependent behavioral effects and caused persistent changes in presynaptic striatal DA system integrity. PMID:17625500

  16. Effects of long-term administration of omeprazole on bone mineral density and the mechanical properties of the bone☆

    PubMed Central

    Yanagihara, Gabriela Rezende; de Paiva, Aline Goulart; Neto, Maurílio Pacheco; Torres, Larissa Helena; Shimano, Antônio Carlos; Louzada, Mário Jefferson Quirino; Annoni, Raquel; de Oliveira Penoni, Álvaro César

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Epidemiological studies have shown a relationship between long-term use of proton pump inhibitors and bone metabolism. However, this relationship has not yet become established. The aim of the present study was to analyze the mechanical properties and bone mineral density (BMD) of rats that were subjected to long-term omeprazole use. Methods Fifty Wistar rats weighing between 200 and 240 g were divided equally into five groups: OMP300 (omeprazole intake at a dose of 300 μmoL/kg/day); OMP200 (200 μmoL/kg/day); OMP40 (40 μmoL/kg/day); OMP10 (10 μmoL/kg/day); and Cont (control group; intake of dilution vehicle). The solutions were administered for 90 consecutive days. After the rats had been sacrificed, their BMD, the mechanical properties of the dissected femurs and their serum Ca++ levels were analyzed. Results The BMD of the OMP300 group was lower than that of the controls (p = 0.006). There was no difference on comparing the OMP200, OMP40 and OMP10 groups with the controls. The maximum strength and rigidity of the femur did not differ in the experimental groups in comparison with the controls. The OMP300 group had a statistically lower serum Ca++ concentration than that of the controls (p = 0.049), but the other groups did not show any difference in relation to the controls. Conclusion Daily intake of 300 μmoL/kg/day of omeprazole decreased the BMD of the femur, but without changes to the rigidity and strength of the femur in adult rats. PMID:26229922

  17. Alteration in plasma corticosterone levels following long term oral administration of lead produces depression like symptoms in rats.

    PubMed

    Haider, Saida; Saleem, Sadia; Tabassum, Saiqa; Khaliq, Saima; Shamim, Saima; Batool, Zehra; Parveen, Tahira; Inam, Qurat-ul-ain; Haleem, Darakhshan J

    2013-03-01

    Lead toxicity is known to induce a broad range of physiological, biochemical and behavioral dysfunctions that may result in adverse effects on several organs, including the central nervous system. Long-term exposure to low levels of lead (Pb(2+)) has been shown to produce behavioral deficits in rodents and humans by affecting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. These deficits are thought to be associated with altered brain monoamine neurotransmission and due to changes in glucocorticoids levels. This study was designed to investigate the effects of Pb(2+)exposure on growth rate, locomotor activity, anxiety, depression, plasma corticosterone and brain serotonin (5-HT) levels in rats. Rats were exposed to lead in drinking water (500 ppm; lead acetate) for 5 weeks. The assessment of depression was done using the forced swimming test (FST). Estimation of brain 5-HT was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Plasma corticosterone was determined by spectrofluorimetric method. The present study showed that long term exposure to Pb(2+) significantly decreased the food intake followed by the decrease in growth rate in Pb(2+)exposed rats as compared to control group. No significant changes in open field activity were observed following Pb(2+)exposure while significant increase in anxiogenic effect was observed. Increased plasma corticosterone and decreased 5-HT levels were exhibited by Pb(2+)exposed rats as compared to controls. A significant increase in depressive like symptoms was exhibited by Pb(2+)exposed rats as compared to control rats. The results are discussed in the context of Pb(2+) inducing a stress-like response in rats leading to changes in plasma corticosterone and brain 5-HT levels via altering tryptophan pyrrolase activity. PMID:23315312

  18. Short and long-term safety of lenograstim administration in healthy peripheral haematopoietic progenitor cell donors: a single centre experience.

    PubMed

    Martino, M; Console, G; Dattola, A; Callea, I; Messina, G; Moscato, T; Massara, E; Irrera, G; Fedele, R; Gervasi, A; Bresolin, G; Iacopino, P

    2009-08-01

    Healthy donors (HDs) who were mobilized using lenograstim (LENO) and who were undergoing peripheral haematopoietic progenitor cell collection with apheresis (HPC-A) were enrolled in a surveillance protocol. In all, 184 HDs have been assessed with a median follow-up of 62 months (range 2-155). HDs received LENO at a median dose of 10 microg/kg (range 5-15). Bone pain was reported as the most frequent short-term adverse event (71.2%). Other commonly observed short-term symptoms included fatigue (19.0%), fever (5.4%), headache (27.7%), nausea (12.0%) and insomnia (22.3%). Spleen size increased in 4.3% of the donors. No vascular disorders or cardiac disease occurred. Long-term follow-up included monitoring of adverse events, neoplastic disease or other pathologies. Transit ischaemic attack occurred in one donor (39 months post-donation). One autoimmune event was reported at 28 months post-recombinant human granulocyte (rhG)-CSF (ankylosing spondylitis); one donor with a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease developed secondary polyglobulia (50 months post-rhG-CSF). One donor was diagnosed with lung cancer at 19 months post-donation. No haematological disease was observed. In conclusion, the short-term safety appears to be verified, whereas, although the study identified no increased risks of malignancy among HDs who received rhG-CSF, long-term safety requires more complete data sets, especially a longer follow-up and a larger number of HDs. PMID:19182833

  19. Exploration of long-term care institution managers' perceptions of institutional indoor environment quality and ease of administration.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yen Ping; Lin, Chia Ching; Huang, Ying Chia

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the level of management's perception of the importance of indoor environment indicators at long-term care facilities as well as the differences between the level of perceived importance and the level of implementation. This study also analyzed the indicators for improving indoor environments. This study selected Taiwanese long-term care facility managers as its subjects to whom questionnaires were distributed by mail Descriptive statistics, a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and an importance-performance analysis were used to conduct analyses on the data retrieved from the questionnaires. The results indicate that, of the indoor environment indicators of four facility spaces, bedrooms had the highest perceived level of importance. The lounge was the easiest space in which to implement the indicators. Differences were found between the perceived level of importance and the level of implementation for six of the indoor environment indicators of the four facility spaces. In these four spaces, the ventilation indicator was the most important, whereas implementing the temperature and humidity indicators was the most difficult. The highest priority for indicator improvement was given to the temperature in the bedrooms and bathrooms, whereas control over temperature, humidity, and sound had a low priority. The indicators seen as requiring continuous maintenance were lighting and ventilation. Facility managers had a high level of awareness and competence in implementing the ventilation indicator. However, although they were aware of the importance of the temperature, humidity, and sound indicators, their implementation was difficult, suggesting that they needed to be improved. PMID:23072176

  20. Long-Term Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Long-Term Care What Is Long-Term Care? Long-term care involves a variety of services ... the Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) Most Care Provided at Home Long-term care is provided ...

  1. Role of prolactin in the modulation of NK and LAK cell activity after short- or long-term morphine administration in neoplastic patients.

    PubMed

    Provinciali, M; Di Stefano, G; Stronati, S; Raffaeli, W; Pari, G; Fabris, N

    1996-10-01

    In a previous work we demonstrated that chronic in vivo antalgic therapy of cancer patients with morphine reduced the endogenous cytotoxic activity of natural killer (NK) cells, while increasing the development of lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cell cytotoxicity. In order to investigate the mechanisms by which morphine affects NK and LAK cell function further, we evaluated the modulation exerted by short- or long-term morphine administration on either NK/LAK cell cytotoxicities or plasma levels of prolactin (PRL) and other immunomodulating neurohormones. An intravenous morphine injection (10 mg) significantly increased the plasma levels of PRL, reduced the cytotoxic activity of NK cells, and increased the development of LAK cell activity 30 min after drug injection in neoplastic patients. The administration of bromocriptine before the injection of morphine prevented both PRL augmentation and the increase in LAK cell activation, although it did not prevent the inhibition of NK cytotoxicity. The chronic oral administration of morphine (90 +/- 30 mg/day for 1 month) also resulted in higher PRL levels; the NK and LAK cell activities were, respectively, lower than or higher than those found in neoplastic patients untreated with morphine. The plasma levels of thyrotropin (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol were not significantly modified in either short- or long-term experiments. The absolute number and the percentages of lymphocyte populations, as well as the percentage of IL-2 receptors, were not modified after short-term morphine administration whereas little changes of T lymphocyte populations and NK cell number were observed after oral treatment with morphine. In vitro morphine did not affect the development of LAK cell activity. In conclusion, our findings indicate that morphine reduces NK cytotoxicity and increases the development of LAK cell cytotoxicity after short- and long-term administration. The effect of morphine on LAK cell activation

  2. Long-term retention of /sup 133/Ba in the rat trachea following local administration as barium sulfate particles

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, S.; Patrick, G.

    1987-06-01

    Long-term retention of /sup 133/Ba in the trachea from intratracheally administered BaSO/sub 4/ particles was determined by both serial sacrifice and external scanning methods up to 6 months after injection. The amount of /sup 133/Ba retained 1 week after injection in the caudal region of the trachea, where the tip of the cannula had been at injection, was 0.41% of the initial dose. Thereafter the /sup 133/Ba was cleared exponentially with a mean half-time of 88 days, as determined from the autopsy samples. The cranial region of the trachea, including the site of the tracheostomy, contained /sup 133/Ba at 10 times the level in the caudal region 1 week after injection and was cleared with a half-time of 66 days. These clearance rates were confirmed by repeated external scanning over the trachea. The 133Ba was drained to the lymph nodes not only in the thoracic cavity but also in the cervical region, suggesting the possibility of lymphatic drainage from the trachea to the cervical lymph nodes.

  3. Canakinumab efficacy and long-term tocilizumab administration in tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS).

    PubMed

    La Torre, Francesco; Muratore, Maurizio; Vitale, Antonio; Moramarco, Fulvio; Quarta, Laura; Cantarini, Luca

    2015-11-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) is an autosomal dominantly inherited autoinflammatory disease caused by mutations in the TNFRSF1A gene. Treatment is aimed at preventing acute disease attacks, improving quality of life, and preventing long-term complications such as systemic reactive amyloidosis. Biologic agents have significantly improved TRAPS management. In particular, interleukin 1 (IL-1) inhibition either with the recombinant IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra or with the human IgG1 anti-IL-1β monoclonal antibody canakinumab has recently shown to induce a prompt and stable disease remission. Conversely, the successful experience with IL-6 inhibition is nowadays limited to a single patient. Anyway, introduction of new treatment options for patients requiring a lifelong therapy is desirable. We describe two TRAPS patients (son and father) successfully treated with canakinumab and tocilizumab, respectively. In particular, we highlight the clinical and laboratory efficacy as well as the good safety profile of tocilizumab during a 42-month follow-up period. PMID:26048626

  4. Refinement of a macaque transplantation model: application of a subcutaneous port as a means for long-term enteral drug administration and nutritional supplementation.

    PubMed

    Fante, F; Baldan, N; De Benedictis, G M; Boldrin, M; Furian, L; Sgarabotto, D; Ravarotto, L; Besenzon, F; Ramon, D; Cozzi, E

    2012-04-01

    A new application of a device enabling the long-term enteral administration of drugs or nutritional supplementation was developed for implementing in research entailing the use of macaques (Macaca fascicularis). After implanting a subcutaneous port, a surgically-placed gastrostomy (SPG) was completed to afford access to the gastric lumen and enable the administration of substances. In this study, the device was left in place for a period ranging between two and 12 months in macaques (n= 16). In five cases, the SPG was used successfully for 8-12 months, until the experimental endpoint was reached. In six cases, the SPG had to be removed earlier due to local infection at the implant site, which promptly regressed after the SPG was removed and antibiotic treatment was administered. One SPG-implanted macaque was euthanized for reasons unrelated to the SPG or the xenotransplantation procedure. In four cases, the SPG was implanted without any complications but has yet to be used to administer substances to the animals. From an ethical standpoint, the SPG device described here minimizes the forced handling of macaques otherwise needed for the oral administration of viscous or unpalatable substances by gavage. The device thus represents an effective refinement that fully complies with the tenet of the '3 Rs' that should be considered by primate centres exposing non-human primates to the long-term daily administration of substances by oral gavage. PMID:22334877

  5. The evaluation of long-term effects of cinnamon bark and olive leaf on toxicity induced by streptozotocin administration to rats.

    PubMed

    Onderoglu, S; Sozer, S; Erbil, K M; Ortac, R; Lermioglu, F

    1999-11-01

    The effects of cinnamon bark and olive leaf have been investigated on streptozotocin-induced tissue injury, and some biochemical and haematological changes in rats. The effects on glycaemia were also evaluated. Long-term administration of olive leaf caused significant improvement in tissue injury induced by streptozotocin treatment; the effect of cinnamon bark was less extent. No effects on blood glucose levels were detected. However, significant decreases in some increased biochemical and haematological parameters of streptozotocin-treated rats were observed. Aspartate aminotransferase, urea and cholesterol levels were significantly decreased by treatment with both plant materials, and alanine aminotransferase by treatment with olive leaf. Cinnamon bark also caused a significant decrease in platelet counts. In addition, any visible toxicity, except decrease in body weight gain, attributable to the long-term use of plant materials was not established in normal rats. The data indicate that long-term use of olive leaf and cinnamon bark may provide benefit against diabetic conditions. Determination of underlying mechanism(s) of beneficial effects, toxicity to other systems and clinical assessments of related plant materials are major topics requiring further studies. PMID:10632089

  6. Neurotoxic effects of berberine on long-term L-DOPA administration in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Shin, Keon Sung; Choi, Hyun Sook; Zhao, Ting Ting; Suh, Kwang Hoon; Kwon, Ik Hyun; Choi, Soon Ok; Lee, Myung Koo

    2013-06-01

    The effects of berberine on long-term administration of L-DOPA in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD) were investigated. Rat models of PD were prepared by 6-OHDA lesions in the ipsilateral sides, and then were treated with berberine (5 and 15 mg/kg) and/or L-DOPA (10 mg/kg) once daily for 21 days. Treatments with either concentration of berberine (5 and 15 mg/kg) in 6-OHDA-lesioned groups decreased the numbers of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunopositive neurons in the substantia nigra and the levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) in the striatum as compared to 6-OHDA-lesioned groups. In addition, dopaminergic neuronal cell death of the ipsilateral sides in 6-OHDA-lesioned groups was attenuated by L-DOPA administration. However, both concentrations of berberine in 6-OHDA-lesioned groups treated with L-DOPA aggravated the numbers of TH-immunopositive neurons in the substantia nigra and the levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, DOPAC and HVA in the striatum as compared to rats not treated with berberine. These results suggest that berberine leads to the degeneration of dopaminergic neuronal cells in the substantia nigra in the rat model of PD with chronic L-DOPA administration. Long-term L-DOPA therapy that may involve possibly neurotoxic isoquinoline agents including berberine should involve monitoring for adverse symptoms. PMID:23539311

  7. Oral administration of sunitinib malate for long-term survival of a patient with multiple lung metastases from renal leiomyosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoyan; Gao, Hongjun; Tang, Chuanhao; Liu, Xiaoqing

    2016-01-01

    Sunitinib, an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma and imatinib-refractory gastrointestinal stromal tumor. In non-gastrointestinal stromal tumor soft tissue sarcomas, the activity of this small-molecule drug has been rarely reported. Herein, we report a patient with lung metastases from renal leiomyosarcoma who responded favorably to sunitinib after the failure of conventional chemotherapy. Adverse effects of sunitinib, which include fatigue, hand-foot syndrome, and stomatitis were observed following its administration. Withdrawal of sunitinib led to progression of disease, and resuming use of sunitinib was still effective for multiple lung metastases. Sunitinib might be an effective treatment for renal leiomyosarcoma, especially when conventional chemotherapy fails. PMID:27536137

  8. Disappearance of a uterine arteriovenous malformation following long-term administration of oral norgestrel/ethinyl estradiol.

    PubMed

    Oride, Aki; Kanasaki, Haruhiko; Miyazaki, Kohji

    2014-06-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) can cause sudden massive hemorrhage. We report a case of uterine AVM following curettage in a patient treated conservatively with an intermediate-dose pill. An 18-year-old gravida 2 para 0 underwent curettage at 12 weeks of gestation and was examined for massive genital hemorrhage that occurred in postoperative month 4. Abundant blood flow in a mass within the uterine lumen was observed on color Doppler ultrasonography, and the patient was diagnosed with AVM. Six days after starting oral norgestrel/ethinyl estradiol, the hemorrhage ceased, and computed tomography on day 37 of administration showed disappearance of the abnormal vasculature. After 12 months, the patient's course remains favorable without relapse. Transarterial embolization for AVM can cause ovarian failure and subsequent placental malpositioning. Administration of oral norgestrel/ethinyl estradiol may be an alternative conservative treatment option for patients who wish to maintain fertility. PMID:24888954

  9. Oral administration of sunitinib malate for long-term survival of a patient with multiple lung metastases from renal leiomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoyan; Gao, Hongjun; Tang, Chuanhao; Liu, Xiaoqing

    2016-01-01

    Sunitinib, an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma and imatinib-refractory gastrointestinal stromal tumor. In non-gastrointestinal stromal tumor soft tissue sarcomas, the activity of this small-molecule drug has been rarely reported. Herein, we report a patient with lung metastases from renal leiomyosarcoma who responded favorably to sunitinib after the failure of conventional chemotherapy. Adverse effects of sunitinib, which include fatigue, hand-foot syndrome, and stomatitis were observed following its administration. Withdrawal of sunitinib led to progression of disease, and resuming use of sunitinib was still effective for multiple lung metastases. Sunitinib might be an effective treatment for renal leiomyosarcoma, especially when conventional chemotherapy fails. PMID:27536137

  10. Effect of long-term administration of melatonin on adrenal histomorphology of the Indian desert gerbil Meriones hurrianae Jerdon.

    PubMed

    Joshi, B N; Sujathakumari, M

    1995-11-01

    Melatonin treatment for 8 weeks resulted in a significant increase (P < 0.01) in weights of the adrenal glands, in both male and female, M. hurrianae. The weight increase was not related to the time of administration of melatonin. Histology of adrenal glands in melatonin treated gerbils revealed a stimulatory response. In treated gerbils, adrenal cortex exhibited significant hypertrophy with enlarged nuclei and degranulated cytoplasm. Signs of hypertrophy were also evident in the adrenal medulla. The physiological significance of this response is not yet clear. It remains to be clarified if the hypertrophy indicates enhanced synthesis of corticosteroids. PMID:8786156

  11. Long-term vascular access ports as a means of sedative administration in a rodent fMRI survival model

    PubMed Central

    Hettinger, Patrick C.; Li, Rupeng; Yan, Ji-Geng; Matloub, Hani S.; Cho, Younghoon R.; Pawela, Christopher P.; Rowe, Daniel B.; Hyde, James S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a rodent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) survival model with the use of heparin-coated vascular access devices. Such a model would ease the administration of sedative agents, reduce the number of animals required in a survival experiment, and eliminate animal-to-animal variability seen in previous designs. Seven male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent surgical placement of an MRI-compatible vascular access port, followed by implantable electrode placement on the right median nerve. Functional MRI during nerve stimulation and resting-state functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) were performed at times 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks postoperatively using a 9.4 T scanner. Anesthesia was maintained using intravenous dexmedetomidine and reversed using atipamezole. There were no fatalities or infectious complications during this study. All vascular access ports remained patent. Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activation by electrical stimulation of the median nerve using implanted electrodes was seen within the forelimb sensory region (S1FL) for all animals at all time points. The number of activated voxels decreased at time points 4 and 8 weeks, returning to a normal level at 12 weeks, which is attributed to scar tissue formation and resolution around the embedded electrode. The applications of this experiment extend far beyond the scope of peripheral nerve experimentation. These vascular access ports can be applied to any survival MRI study requiring repeated medication administration, intravenous contrast, or blood sampling. PMID:21726581

  12. Long-Term Oral Administration of Capsicum baccatum Extracts Does Not Alter Behavioral, Hematological, and Metabolic Parameters in CF1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Aline Rigon; Leonardi, Bianca; Kalinine, Eduardo; de Souza, Diogo Onofre; Portela, Luis Valmor; Gosmann, Grace

    2012-01-01

    Our group showed that crude ethanol (CE) and butanol (BUT) extracts of Capsicum baccatum presented anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Furthermore, the flavonoid and total phenolic contents were positively correlated with both of these properties observed for C. baccatum extracts. The present study demonstrated that 60 days of oral administration of CE and BUT (200 mg/kg) in mice did not cause significant differences in the following parameters evaluated: hematological profile, body weight and relative weight of visceral organs, systemic lipid profile, glucose homeostasis (GTT), kidney and hepatic biochemical markers, and spontaneous locomotion and anxiety-like behavior. Altogether, these results indicate for the first time that the long-term oral administration of C. baccatum extracts does not affect specific aspects of CF1 mice physiology, suggesting their safety, building up the venue to test their efficacy in animal models underlying persistent activation of oxidative and inflammatory pathways. PMID:23320023

  13. Long-Term Oral Administration of Capsicum baccatum Extracts Does Not Alter Behavioral, Hematological, and Metabolic Parameters in CF1 Mice.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Aline Rigon; Leonardi, Bianca; Zimmer, Eduardo Rigon; Kalinine, Eduardo; de Souza, Diogo Onofre; Portela, Luis Valmor; Gosmann, Grace

    2012-01-01

    Our group showed that crude ethanol (CE) and butanol (BUT) extracts of Capsicum baccatum presented anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Furthermore, the flavonoid and total phenolic contents were positively correlated with both of these properties observed for C. baccatum extracts. The present study demonstrated that 60 days of oral administration of CE and BUT (200 mg/kg) in mice did not cause significant differences in the following parameters evaluated: hematological profile, body weight and relative weight of visceral organs, systemic lipid profile, glucose homeostasis (GTT), kidney and hepatic biochemical markers, and spontaneous locomotion and anxiety-like behavior. Altogether, these results indicate for the first time that the long-term oral administration of C. baccatum extracts does not affect specific aspects of CF1 mice physiology, suggesting their safety, building up the venue to test their efficacy in animal models underlying persistent activation of oxidative and inflammatory pathways. PMID:23320023

  14. A mathematical model for long-term effect of diethylcarbamazine-albendazole mass drug administration on lymphatic filariasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasman, H.; Supali, T.; Supriatna, A. K.; Nuraini, N.; Soewono, E.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we discuss a mathematical model for the transmission of lymphatic filariasis disease. The human population is divided into susceptible, latent, acute and chronic subpopulations. Treatment is carried out within the scheme of mass drug administration (MDA) by giving the diethylcarbamazine (DEC) and albendazole (ALB) to all individuals. In the model, we assume that the treatments have direct killing effect to microfilariae, increase of immune-mediated effect. The treated individuals are assumed to remain susceptible to the disease. This is due to the fact that the treatment is only partially effective against macrofilaria. Simulations of the model reveals that DEC-ALB treatment does give significant reduction of acute and chronic compartments at the end of the treatment period and slow down the growth after the treatment before eventually tend to the endemic state. It showed that repeated treatment during MDA is effective to decrease the transmission. This suggests that terminating MDA program after a long period of its application may still effective in controlling the disease.

  15. Determining the Long-term Effect of Antibiotic Administration on the Human Normal Intestinal Microbiota Using Culture and Pyrosequencing Methods.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Mamun-Ur; Zaura, Egijia; Buijs, Mark J; Keijser, Bart J F; Crielaard, Wim; Nord, Carl Erik; Weintraub, Andrej

    2015-05-15

    The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of ciprofloxacin (500 mg twice daily for 10 days) or clindamycin (150 mg 4 times daily for 10 days) on the fecal microbiota of healthy humans for a period of 1 year as compared to placebo. Two different methods, culture and microbiome analysis, were used. Fecal samples were collected for analyses at 6 time-points. The interval needed for the normal microbiota to be normalized after ciprofloxacin or clindamycin treatment differed for various bacterial species. It took 1-12 months to normalize the human microbiota after antibiotic administration, with the most pronounced effect on day 11. Exposure to ciprofloxacin or clindamycin had a strong effect on the diversity of the microbiome, and changes in microbial composition were observed until the 12th month, with the most pronounced microbial shift at month 1. No Clostridium difficile colonization or C. difficile infections were reported. Based on the pyrosequencing results, it appears that clindamycin has more impact than ciprofloxacin on the intestinal microbiota. PMID:25922405

  16. Histological changes in kidney structure following a long-term administration of paracetamol (acetaminophen) in pregnant Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Ucheya, R E; Igweh, J C

    2006-01-01

    Histological changes in kidney structure following paracetamol administration in pregnant Sprague - Dawley rats were studied. Ten (10) Sprague-Dawley rats divided into five animals per group were used for the study. They were divided into two groups (A and B). Group A served as a control group, while group B received 7.3 mg x 3/kg/day of paracetamol from 10th day of gestation till the 13th day after parturition. The drug was administered by gavage. They were allowed free access to feed and water ad libitum. The maternal rats were then sacrificed for tissue processing. Three deaths were recorded amongst the maternal rats in the paracetamol treated group during parturition and a prolonged gestation period was also observed in the same animals while two maternal rats had a normal gestation period and a safe parturition. Histopathology results of the maternal control animals showed normal kidney architecture (very minimal capsular spaces and rounded glomeruli intimately surrounded by the Bowman's capsule). Two of the paracetamol treated maternal rats that had a safe parturition at the end of the normal gestation period and showed vascular congestion and glomeruli haemorrhage, while one of the maternal rats that had prolonged gestation period (44 days) with signs of abnormally high bleeding during parturition showed higher degree of kidney derangement which was evidenced by shrunken glomerulus's plus droplets in the tubules, vascular congestion, haemorrhage and tubular necrosis. These findings reflect derangement of kidney architecture. The results suggest that paracetamol though considered safe at a considerable low dose especially in pregnant state, could cause kidney derangement during pregnancy. PMID:17242723

  17. 76 FR 20959 - Policy for the Assessment of Civil Administrative Penalties and Permit Sanctions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... fair and consistent manner; (2) penalties and permit sanctions are appropriate for the gravity of the... reflective of the gravity of the violation and the culpability of the violator and adjustments to the...

  18. Lack of tissue accumulation of grape seed flavanols after daily long-term administration in healthy and cafeteria-diet obese rats.

    PubMed

    Margalef, Maria; Pons, Zara; Iglesias-Carres, Lisard; Bravo, Francisca Isabel; Muguerza, Begoña; Arola-Arnal, Anna

    2015-11-18

    After ingestion flavanols are metabolized by phase-II enzymes and the microbiota and are distributed throughout the body depending on several factors. Herein we aim to evaluate whether flavanols are tissue-accumulated after the long-term administration of a grape seed polyphenol extract (GSPE) in rats and to study if compounds present in tissues differ in a cafeteria-diet obesity state. For that, plasma, liver, mesenteric white adipose tissue (MWAT), brain, and aorta flavanol metabolites from standard chow-diet-fed (ST) and cafeteria-diet-fed (CAF) rats were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) 21 h after the last 12-week-daily GSPE (100 mg/kg) dosage. Results showed that long-term GSPE intake did not trigger a flavanol tissue accumulation, indicating a clearance of products at each daily dosage. Therefore, results suggest that polyphenol benefits in a disease state would be due to a daily pulsatile effect. Moreover, obesity induced by diet also influences the metabolism and bioavailability of flavanols in rats. PMID:26496863

  19. Cycles of Transient High-Dose Cyclophosphamide Administration and Oncolytic Adenovirus Vector Intratumoral Injection for Long Term Tumor Suppression in Syrian Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Debanjan; Toth, Karoly; Wold, William S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Immune responses against oncolytic adenovirus (Ad) vectors are thought to limit vector anti-tumor efficacy. In Syrian hamsters, which are immunocompetent and whose tumors and normal tissues are permissive for replication of Ad5-based oncolytic Ad vectors, treating with high-dose cyclophosphamide to suppress the immune system and exert chemotherapeutic effects enhances Ad vector anti-tumor efficacy. However, long term cyclophosphamide treatment and immunosuppression can lead to anemia and vector spread to normal tissues. Here we employed three cycles of transient high-dose cyclophosphamide administration plus intratumoral injection of the oncolytic Ad vector VRX-007 followed by withdrawal from cyclophosphamide. Each cycle lasted 4-6 weeks. This protocol allowed the hamsters to remain healthy so the study could be continued for ~100 days. The tumors were very well suppressed throughout the study. With immunocompetent hamsters, the vector retarded tumor growth initially, but after 3-4 weeks the tumors resumed rapid growth and further injections of vector were ineffective. Preimmunization of the hamsters with Ad5 prevented vector spillover from the tumor to the liver yet still allowed for effective long term anti-tumor efficacy. Our results suggest that a clinical protocol might be developed with cycles of transient chemotherapy plus intratumoral vector injection to achieve significant anti-tumor efficacy while minimizing the side effects of cytostatic treatment. PMID:24722357

  20. Improvement in Long-Term Memory following Chronic Administration of Eryngium planum Root Extract in Scopolamine Model: Behavioral and Molecular Study.

    PubMed

    Ozarowski, Marcin; Thiem, Barbara; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L; Piasecka, Anna; Kachlicki, Piotr; Szulc, Michal; Kaminska, Ewa; Bogacz, Anna; Kujawski, Radoslaw; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Kujawska, Malgorzata; Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga; Budzianowski, Jaromir; Kędziora, Izabela; Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka; Czerny, Boguslaw; Bobkiewicz-Kozłowska, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Eryngium planum L. (EP) is as a rare medicinal plant with a lot of potentials as pharmaceutical crops. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of subchronic (28-fold) administration of a 70% ethanol extract of EP roots (200 mg/kg, p.o.) on behavioral and cognitive responses in Wistar rats linked with acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), and beta-secretase (BACE-1) mRNA levels and AChE and BuChE activities in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. On the last day of experiment, 30 min after the last dose of EP or Huperzine A (HU), scopolamine (SC) was given at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg b.w. intraperitoneally. The results of a passive avoidance test showed an improvement in long-term memory produced by the EP extract in both scopolamine-induced rats and control group. EP caused an insignificant inhibition of AChE and BuChE activities in the frontal cortex and the hippocampus. EP decreased mRNA AChE, BuChE, and BACE-1 levels, especially in the cortex. Our results suggest that the EP extract led to the improvement of the long-term memory in rats coupled with total saponin content. The mechanism of EP action is probably complicated, since HPLC-MS analysis showed 64 chemical compounds (phenolics, saponins) in the extract of EP roots. PMID:26483842

  1. Improvement in Long-Term Memory following Chronic Administration of Eryngium planum Root Extract in Scopolamine Model: Behavioral and Molecular Study

    PubMed Central

    Ozarowski, Marcin; Thiem, Barbara; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L.; Piasecka, Anna; Kachlicki, Piotr; Szulc, Michal; Kaminska, Ewa; Bogacz, Anna; Kujawski, Radoslaw; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Kujawska, Malgorzata; Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga; Budzianowski, Jaromir; Kędziora, Izabela; Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka; Czerny, Boguslaw; Bobkiewicz-Kozłowska, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Eryngium planum L. (EP) is as a rare medicinal plant with a lot of potentials as pharmaceutical crops. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of subchronic (28-fold) administration of a 70% ethanol extract of EP roots (200 mg/kg, p.o.) on behavioral and cognitive responses in Wistar rats linked with acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), and beta-secretase (BACE-1) mRNA levels and AChE and BuChE activities in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. On the last day of experiment, 30 min after the last dose of EP or Huperzine A (HU), scopolamine (SC) was given at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg b.w. intraperitoneally. The results of a passive avoidance test showed an improvement in long-term memory produced by the EP extract in both scopolamine-induced rats and control group. EP caused an insignificant inhibition of AChE and BuChE activities in the frontal cortex and the hippocampus. EP decreased mRNA AChE, BuChE, and BACE-1 levels, especially in the cortex. Our results suggest that the EP extract led to the improvement of the long-term memory in rats coupled with total saponin content. The mechanism of EP action is probably complicated, since HPLC-MS analysis showed 64 chemical compounds (phenolics, saponins) in the extract of EP roots. PMID:26483842

  2. Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Fine Particulate Matter and Renal Function in Older Men: The Veterans Administration Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Amar J.; Zanobetti, Antonella; Bind, Marie-Abele C.; Kloog, Itai; Koutrakis, Petros; Sparrow, David; Vokonas, Pantel S.; Schwartz, Joel D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is unknown if ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with lower renal function, a cardiovascular risk factor. Objective: We investigated whether long-term PM2.5 exposure was associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in a cohort of older men living in the Boston Metropolitan area. Methods: This longitudinal analysis included 669 participants from the Veterans Administration Normative Aging Study with up to four visits between 2000 and 2011 (n = 1,715 visits). Serum creatinine was measured at each visit, and eGFR was calculated according to the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation. One-year exposure to PM2.5 prior to each visit was assessed using a validated spatiotemporal model that utilized satellite remote-sensing aerosol optical depth data. eGFR was modeled in a time-varying linear mixed-effects regression model as a continuous function of 1-year PM2.5, adjusting for important covariates. Results: One-year PM2.5 exposure was associated with lower eGFRs; a 2.1-μg/m3 interquartile range higher 1-year PM2.5 was associated with a 1.87 mL/min/1.73 m2 lower eGFR [95% confidence interval (CI): –2.99, –0.76]. A 2.1 μg/m3-higher 1-year PM2.5 was also associated with an additional annual decrease in eGFR of 0.60 mL/min/1.73 m2 per year (95% CI: –0.79, –0.40). Conclusions: In this longitudinal sample of older men, the findings supported the hypothesis that long-term PM2.5 exposure negatively affects renal function and increases renal function decline. Citation: Mehta AJ, Zanobetti A, Bind MC, Kloog I, Koutrakis P, Sparrow D, Vokonas PS, Schwartz JD. 2016. Long-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter and renal function in older men: the VA Normative Aging Study. Environ Health Perspect 124:1353–1360; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510269 PMID:26955062

  3. Short communication: Modulation of the small intestinal microbial community composition over short-term or long-term administration with Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY2013.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qiong; Pan, Mingfang; Huang, Renhui; Tian, Ximei; Tao, Xueying; Shah, Nagendra P; Wei, Hua; Wan, Cuixiang

    2016-09-01

    The small intestinal (SI) microbiota has an essential role in the maintenance of human health. However, data about the indigenous bacteria in SI as affected by probiotics are limited. In our study, the short-term and long-term effects of a probiotic candidate, Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY2013, on the SI microbiota of C57BL/6J mice were investigated by the Illumina HiSeq (Novogene Bioinformatics Technology Co., Ltd., Tianjin, China) platform targeting the V4 region of the 16S rDNA. A total of 858,011 sequences in 15 samples were read. The α diversity analysis revealed that oral administration with L. plantarum ZDY2013 for 3 wk led to a significant increase in the richness and diversity of the SI bacterial community. Principal coordinate analysis and unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means analysis showed a clear alteration in the SI microbiota composition after 3 wk of L. plantarum ZDY2013 treatment, although these changes were not found 6 wk after ceasing L. plantarum ZDY2013 administration. Species annotation showed that the dominant phyla in SI microbiota were Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia. Interestingly, operational taxonomic unit cluster analysis showed that administration with L. plantarum ZDY2013 for 3 wk significantly increased the abundance of Proteobacteria, but decreased that of Bacteroidetes. Linear discriminant analysis coupled with effect size identified 18 bacterial taxa (e.g., Ruminococcus spp. and Clostridium spp.) that overgrew in the SI microbiota of the mice administered with L. plantarum ZDY2013 for 3 wk, and most of them belonged to the phyla Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. However, only one bacterial taxon (e.g., Nocardioides spp.) was over-represented in the SI microbiota of mice 6 wk after L. plantarum ZDY2013 administration. Overall, this study shows that oral administration with probiotic results in an important but transient alteration in the microbiota of SI. PMID:27320669

  4. Stereology and immunohistochemistry of the myocardium in experimental hypertension: long-term and low-dosage administration of inhibitor of the nitric oxide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Gomes Pessanha, M; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, C A; Dumas Hahn, M

    1999-01-01

    Morphological changes in the myocardium after left ventricular hypertrophy, due to chronic experimental hypertension, require an understanding of the quantitative relationship between myocyte and nonmyocyte compartments forming the structural framework of the myocardium. Hypertension was induced by long-term low-dosage inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) in rats. L-NAME (12 mg/kg) was given to animals in water ad libitum during 15 weeks. After this period, systolic blood pressure increased almost 50% as compared with that in the control group. Morphological changes in control and L-NAME animals were investigated with stereology and immunohistochemistry. Comparing control and L-NAME animals, the surface density of myocytes decreased 73.7% while the mean cross-sectional area increased 97.6% in L-NAME rats. The volume density of myocytes decreased 45.9% and the volume density of the interstitium increased 71.7% in L-NAME rats. No stereological difference was found in blood vessels comparing the two groups. Remodeling of the cardiac interstitium occurred with increased deposition of both fibronectin and type III collagen. Fibronectin was seen in both early and latter responses to infarction while type III collagen was seen mainly in areas of incomplete healing among myocytes and around intramyocardial branches of the coronary arteries. The long-term low-dosage administration of an inhibitor of the NO synthase such as L-NAME causes myocyte hypertrophy and early interstitial and perivascular fibrosis without important quantitative changes in microcirculation. PMID:9873225

  5. Effects of Long-Term Daily Administration of Prostaglandin-E2 on Maintaining Elevated Proximal Tibial Metaphyseal Cancellous Bone Mass in Male Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ke, Hua Zhu; Jee, Webster S. S.; Mori, Satoshi; Li, Xiao Jian; Kimmel, Donald B.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of long-term prostaglandin E(sub 2) (PGE(sub 2)) on cancellous bone in proximal tibial metaphysis were studied in 7 month old male Sprague-Dawley rats given daily subcutaneous injections of 0, 1, 3, and 6 mg PGE(sub 2)/kg/day and sacrificed after 60, 120, and 180 days. Histomorphometric analyses were performed on double fluorescent-labeled undecalcified bone specimens. After 60 days of treatment, PGE(sub 2) produced diffusely labeled trabecular bone area, increased trabecular bone area, eroded and labeled trabecular perimeter, mineral apposition rate, and bone formation rate at all dose levels when compared with age-matched controls. In rats given PGE(sub 2) for longer time periods (120 and 180 days), trabecular bone area, diffusely labeled trabecular bone area, labeled perimeter, mineral apposition, and bone formation rates were sustained at the elevated levels achieved earlier at 60-day treatment. The eroded perimeter continued to increase until 120 days, then plateau. The observation that continuous systemic PGE(sub 2) administration to adult male rats elevated metaphyseal cancellous bone mass to 3.5-fold of the control level within 60 days and maintained it for another 120 days indicates that the powerful skeletal anabolic effects of PGE2 can be sustained with continuous administration .

  6. Synthesis of functionalized triple-doped zinc gallogermanate nanoparticles with superlong near-infrared persistent luminescence for long-term orally administrated bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Jie; Yan, Xiu-Ping

    2016-08-11

    Near-infrared persistent luminescence nanoparticles (NIR-PLNPs) have great potential for bioimaging because of no need for in situ excitation, negligible autofluorescence background and deep tissue penetration in optical detection. However, it is challenging to synthesize monodispersed nanosize NIR-PLNPs along with high quantum yield and long afterglow. Here, we show a surfactant-aided hydrothermal method in combination with a short time calcination and a post hydrothermal procedure for the synthesis of ultra-bright monodispersed triple-doped zinc gallogermanate nanostructures with super-long near-infrared persistent luminescence (ZGGO:Cr(3+),Yb(3+),Er(3+)). The ZGGO:Cr(3+),Yb(3+),Er(3+) exhibits NIR emission with high quantum yield (9.86%), superlong afterglow time (>20 days), monodispersed nanosize, red light renewability, excellent biocompatibility, and low toxicity. The effective red LED light activation of the persistent luminescence of ZGGO:Cr(3+),Yb(3+),Er(3+) with no need for UV pre-irradiation permits the material for long-term in vivo bioimaging application. We also show for the first time the better targeting performance of the oral administration of folate acid functionalized ZGGO:Cr(3+),Yb(3+),Er(3+) for tumor-targeting bioimaging than conventional intravenous injection. We believe that the ZGGO:Cr(3+),Yb(3+),Er(3+) will open new perspectives for orally administrated optical imaging and for diagnosis applications. PMID:27466048

  7. Chronic cocaine administration induces long-term impairment in the drive to obtain natural reinforcers in high- but not low-demanding tasks.

    PubMed

    Barnea-Ygael, Noam; Gal, Ram; Zangen, Abraham

    2016-03-01

    Repeated drug exposure induces short- and long-term neuroadaptations in brain reward circuitries that are normally involved in the regulation of motivation. Hence, repeated drug exposure has been suggested to also affect the drive to acquire natural reinforcers. Here, we tested how chronic exposure of rats to cocaine, as well as a subsequent withdrawal period, affects acquisition of natural reinforcers in high- and low-demanding tasks (HD and LD tasks, respectively). We chronically administered cocaine (i.p., 15 mg/kg once daily, or saline in control) for 30 days, followed by a 30-day withdrawal period. We tested the effect of this treatment on the acquisition of two natural appetitive reinforcers, namely self-administering a 10% sucrose solution and mounting a receptive female, under LD and HD conditions. During the cocaine exposure period, behavioral testing took place 18 hours after cocaine injection, namely after the acute pharmacologic effect of the drug dissipated. We show that chronic i.p. cocaine exposure decreased procurement of both reinforcers in HD but not in LD tasks. The effect was observed throughout the administration period with partial recovery after withdrawal. Taken together, we present empirical evidence that chronic exposure to a constant dose of cocaine is sufficient to reduce natural reinforcement, and that this decrease can outlast drug exposure. Importantly, such effects are observed only when high demands are opposing the consumption of the natural reinforcer. PMID:25393705

  8. scAAVIL-1ra dosing trial in a large animal model and validation of long-term expression with repeat administration for osteoarthritis therapy.

    PubMed

    Goodrich, L R; Grieger, J C; Phillips, J N; Khan, N; Gray, S J; McIlwraith, C W; Samulski, R J

    2015-07-01

    A gene therapeutic approach to treat osteoarthritis (OA) appears to be on the horizon for millions of people who suffer from this disease. Previously we described optimization of a scAAVIL-1ra gene therapeutic vector and initially tested this in an equine model verifying long-term intrasynovial IL-1ra protein at therapeutic levels. Using this vector, we carried out a dosing trial in six horses to verify protein levels and establish a dose that would express relevant levels of therapeutic protein for extended periods of time (8 months). A novel arthroscopic procedure used to detect green fluorescence protein (GFP) fluorescence intrasynovially confirmed successful transduction of the scAAVGFP vector in both the synovial and cartilage tissues. No evidence of intra-articular toxicity was detected. Immune responses to vector revealed development of neutralizing antibodies (Nabs) within 2 weeks of administration, which persisted for the duration of the study but did not lower protein expression intra-articularly. Re-dosing with a different serotype to attain therapeutic levels of protein confirmed establishment of successful transduction. This is the first study in an equine model to establish a dosing/redosing protocol, as well as examine the Nab response to capsid and supports further clinical investigation to determine the clinical efficacy of scAAVIL-1ra to treat OA. PMID:25902762

  9. Rescue administration of a helper-dependent adenovirus vector with long-term efficacy in dogs with glycogen storage disease type Ia.

    PubMed

    Crane, B; Luo, X; Demaster, A; Williams, K D; Kozink, D M; Zhang, P; Brown, T T; Pinto, C R; Oka, K; Sun, F; Jackson, M W; Chan, L; Koeberl, D D

    2012-04-01

    Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD-Ia) stems from glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) deficiency and causes hypoglycemia, hepatomegaly, hypercholesterolemia and lactic acidemia. Three dogs with GSD-Ia were initially treated with a helper-dependent adenovirus encoding a human G6Pase transgene (HDAd-cG6Pase serotype 5) on postnatal day 3. Unlike untreated dogs with GSD-Ia, all three dogs initially maintained normal blood glucose levels. After 6-22 months, vector-treated dogs developed hypoglycemia, anorexia and lethargy, suggesting that the HDAd-cG6Pase serotype 5 vector had lost efficacy. Liver biopsies collected at this time revealed significantly elevated hepatic G6Pase activity and reduced glycogen content, when compared with affected dogs treated only by frequent feeding. Subsequently, the HDAd-cG6Pase serotype 2 vector was administered to two dogs, and hypoglycemia was reversed; however, renal dysfunction and recurrent hypoglycemia complicated their management. Administration of a serotype 2 HDAd vector prolonged survival in one GSD-Ia dog to 12 months of age and 36 months of age in the other, but the persistence of long-term complications limited HDAd vectors in the canine model for GSD-Ia. PMID:21654821

  10. Long-Term Reduction of Cocaine Self-Administration in Rats Treated with Adenoviral Vector-Delivered Cocaine Hydrolase: Evidence for Enzymatic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zlebnik, Natalie E; Brimijoin, Stephen; Gao, Yang; Saykao, Amy T; Parks, Robin J; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2014-01-01

    A new pharmacokinetic approach treating cocaine addiction involves rapidly metabolizing cocaine before it reaches brain reward centers using mutated human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) or cocaine hydrolase (CocH). Recent work has shown that helper-dependent adenoviral (hdAD) vector-mediated plasma CocH reduced the locomotor-activating effects of cocaine and prevented reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior up to 6 months in rats. The present study investigated whether hdAD-CocH could decrease ongoing intravenous cocaine (0.4 mg/kg) self-administration. The hdAD-CocH vector was injected into self-administering rats, and after accumulation of plasma CocH, there was a dramatic reduction in cocaine infusions earned under a fixed ratio 1 schedule of reinforcement that lasted for the length of the study (>2 months). Pretreatment with the selective BChE and CocH inhibitor iso-OMPA (1.5 mg/kg) restored cocaine intake; therefore, the decline in self-administration was likely due to rapid CocH-mediated cocaine metabolism. Direct measurements of cocaine levels in plasma and brain samples taken after the conclusion of behavioral studies provided strong support for this conclusion. Further, rats injected with hdAD-CocH did not experience a deficit in operant responding for drug reinforcement and self-administered methamphetamine (0.05 mg/kg) at control levels. Overall, these outcomes suggest that viral gene transfer can yield plasma CocH levels that effectively diminish long-term cocaine intake and may have potential treatment implications for cocaine-dependent individuals seeking to become and remain abstinent. PMID:24407266

  11. Long-Term Blockade of Cocaine Self-Administration and Locomotor Activation in Rats by an Adenoviral Vector-Delivered Cocaine Hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Smethells, John R; Swalve, Natashia; Brimijoin, Stephen; Gao, Yang; Parks, Robin J; Greer, Adam; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2016-05-01

    A promising approach in treating cocaine abuse is to metabolize cocaine in the blood using a mutated butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) that functions as a cocaine hydrolase (CocH). In rats, a helper-dependent adenoviral (hdAD) vector-mediated delivery of CocH abolished ongoing cocaine use and cocaine-primed reinstatement of drug-seeking for several months. This enzyme also metabolizes ghrelin, an effect that may be beneficial in maintaining healthy weights. The effect of a single hdAD-CocH vector injection was examined in rats on measures of anxiety, body weight, cocaine self-administration, and cocaine-induced locomotor activity. To examine anxiety, periadolescent rats were tested in an elevated-plus maze. Weight gain was then examined under four rodent diets. Ten months after CocH-injection, adult rats were trained to self-administer cocaine intravenously and, subsequently, cocaine-induced locomotion was tested. Viral gene transfer produced sustained plasma levels of CocH for over 13 months of testing. CocH-treated rats did not differ from controls in measures of anxiety, and only showed a transient reduction in weight gain during the first 3 weeks postinjection. However, CocH-treated rats were insensitive to cocaine. At 10 months postinjection, none of the CocH-treated rats initiated cocaine self-administration, unlike 90% of the control rats. At 13 months postinjection, CocH-treated rats showed no cocaine-induced locomotion, whereas control rats showed a dose-dependent enhancement of locomotion. CocH vector produced a long-term blockade of the rewarding and behavioral effects of cocaine in rats, emphasizing its role as a promising therapeutic intervention in cocaine abuse. PMID:26968195

  12. Lipid peroxidation and apoptotic response in rat brain areas induced by long-term administration of nandrolone: the mutual crosstalk between ROS and NF-kB.

    PubMed

    Turillazzi, Emanuela; Neri, Margherita; Cerretani, Daniela; Cantatore, Santina; Frati, Paola; Moltoni, Laura; Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Pomara, Cristoforo; Riezzo, Irene; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the played by oxidative stress in the apoptotic response in different brain areas of rats chronically treated with supra-physiological doses of nandrolone decanoate (ND). Immunohistochemical study and Western blot analysis were performed to evaluate cells' apoptosis and to measure the effects of expression of specific mediators, such as NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells), Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2), SMAC/DIABLO (second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases/direct IAP-binding protein with low PI) and VMAT2 (vesicular monoamine transporter 2) on apoptosis. The results of the present study indicate that a long-term administration of ND promotes oxidative injury in rat brain specific areas. A link between oxidative stress and NF-κB signalling pathways is supported by our results. In addition to high levels of oxidative stress, we consistently observed a strong immunopositivity to NF-κB. It has been argued that one of the pathways leading to the activation of NF-κB could be under reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated control. In fact, growing evidence suggests that although in limited doses, endogenous ROS may play an activating role in NF-κB signalling, while above a certain threshold, they may negatively impact upon this signalling. However, a mutual crosstalk between ROS and NF-κB exists and recent studies have shown that ROS activity is subject to negative feedback regulation by NF-κB, and that this negative regulation of ROS is the means through which NF-κB counters programmed cells. PMID:26828721

  13. Long term study of deoxyribozyme administration to XT-1 mRNA promotes corticospinal tract regeneration and improves behavioral outcome after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Brigitte; Pape, Daniel; Chao, Owen; Bauer, Jordana; Grimpe, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) affects approximately 3 million people around the world, who are desperately awaiting treatment. The pressing need for the development of therapeutics has spurred medical research for decades. To respond to this pressing need, our group developed a potential therapeutic to reduce the presence of proteoglycans at the injury site after acutely traumatizing the spinal cord of rats. With the aid of a DNA enzyme against the mRNA of xylosyltransferase-1 (DNAXT-1as) we adjourn the glycosylation and prevent the assembly of the proteoglycan core protein into the extracellular matrix. Hence, endogenous repair is strengthened due to the allocation of a more growth permissive environment around the lesion site. Here, we present data on a long term study of animals with a dorsal hemisection treated with DNAXT-1as, DNAXT-1mb (control DNA enzyme) or PBS via osmotic minipumps. After successful digestion of the XT-1 mRNA shown by qPCR we observed an overall behavioral improvement of DNAXT-1as treated rats at 8, 10 and 14 weeks after insult to the spine compared to the control animals. This is accompanied by the growth of the cortical spinal tract (CST) in DNAXT-1as treated animals after a 19 week survival period. Furthermore, after evaluating the lesion size tissue-protective effects in the DNAXT-1as treated animals compared to DNAXT-1mb and PBS treated rats are revealed. The results yield new insights into the regeneration processes and provide confirmation to involve DNA enzyme administration in future therapeutic strategies to medicate SCI. PMID:26428904

  14. Absence of long-term behavioral effects after sub-chronic administration of low doses of methamidophos in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Temerowski, M; van der Staay, F J

    2005-01-01

    Putative long-term learning and memory effects of low-dose exposure to the cholinesterase inhibitor organophosphate methamidophos (Tamaron) early in life were studied in two parallel studies in middle-aged rats. Methamidophos was administered via the drinking water to female and male Wistar rats using nominal concentrations of 0 (control), 0.5, 1.5 and 4.5 ppm active ingredient for 16 weeks. Animals were then maintained for a recovery period of about 14 months without treatment. They were tested in the standard and repeated acquisition version of the Morris water escape task in two series of tests starting 33 and 55 weeks after termination of the methamidophos treatment. Functional observations and motor activity measurements preceded each series of testing. Exposure to methamidophos was confirmed by measurement of brain cholinesterase (ChE-B) at the end of the 16 weeks of treatment in satellite animals. At 4.5 ppm a biologically relevant reduction in ChE-B activity was observed without clinical signs of intoxication (males: 66%, females: 64% of control activity). Mid- and low-dose exposure to methamidophos revealed ChE-B activity of 90% and 100% in males and 88% and 97% in females, respectively. General examinations of the animals during treatment revealed no clinical signs suggesting cholinergic stimulation. Functional observations and motor activity measurements exhibited no relevant differences between treatment groups and controls. Neither the performance in the standard Morris water escape task that predominantly measures spatial reference memory, nor in the repeated acquisition task in the Morris tank, which predominantly measures spatial working memory, was affected by treatment with methamidophos. A small number of statistically significant differences were noted in the mean performance level between treatment groups, or between treatment by sex groups in both versions of the Morris task. However, these findings appeared to be idiosyncratic for a

  15. Long-term sustained-released in situ gels of a water-insoluble drug amphotericin B for mycotic arthritis intra-articular administration: preparation, in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Shan-Bin, Guo; Yue, Tian; Ling-Yan, Jian

    2015-04-01

    Amphotericin B (AMB) was often used in intra-articular injection administration for fungal arthritis, because it could often bring a satisfactory therapeutic efficacy and a minimum systemic toxic side effect. However, because of the multiple operations and the frequent injections, the compliance of the patients was bad. Therefore, to develop a long-term sustained-released preparation of AMB for mycotic arthritis intra-articular administration is of great significance. The purpose of present study was to develop a long-term sustained-released in situ gel of a water-insoluble drug AMB for mycotic arthritis intra-articular administration. Based on the evaluations of the in vitro properties of the formulations, the formulation containing 10% (w/w) ethanol, 15% (w/w) PG, 0.75% (w/w) HA, 5% (w/w) purified soybean oil, 0.03% (w/w) α-tocopherol, 15% (w/w) water and 55% (w/w) glyceryl monooleate was selected as a suitable intra-articular injectable in situ gel drug delivery system for water-insoluble drug AMB. Furthermore, the results of the in vivo study on rabbits showed that the selected formulation was a safe and effective long-term sustained-released intra-articular injectable AMB preparation. Therefore, the presented in situ AMB gel could reduce the frequency of the administration in the AMB treatment of fungal arthritis, and then would get a good patient compliance. PMID:24502270

  16. Protection against cognitive deficits and markers of neurodegeneration by long-term oral administration of melatonin in a transgenic model of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Olcese, James M; Cao, Chuanhai; Mori, Takashi; Mamcarz, Malgorzata B; Maxwell, Anne; Runfeldt, Melissa J; Wang, Li; Zhang, Chi; Lin, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Guixin; Arendash, Gary W

    2009-08-01

    The neurohormone melatonin has been reported to exert anti-beta-amyloid aggregation, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory actions in various in vitro and animal models. To comprehensively determine the potential for long-term melatonin treatment to protect Alzheimer's transgenic mice against cognitive impairment and development of beta-amyloid (Abeta) neuropathology, we administered melatonin (100 mg/L drinking water) to APP + PS1 double transgenic (Tg) mice from 2-2.5 months of age to their killing at age 7.5 months. A comprehensive behavioral battery administered during the final 6 weeks of treatment revealed that Tg mice given melatonin were protected from cognitive impairment in a variety of tasks of working memory, spatial reference learning/memory, and basic mnemonic function; Tg control mice remained impaired in all of these cognitive tasks/domains. Immunoreactive Abeta deposition was significantly reduced in hippocampus (43%) and entorhinal cortex (37%) of melatonin-treated Tg mice. Although soluble and oligomeric forms of Abeta1-40 and 1-42 were unchanged in the hippocampus and cortex of the same melatonin-treated Tg mice, their plasma Abeta levels were elevated. These Abeta results, together with our concurrent demonstration that melatonin suppresses Abeta aggregation in brain homogenates, are consistent with a melatonin-facilitated removal of Abeta from the brain. Inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were decreased in hippocampus (but not plasma) of Tg+ melatonin mice. Finally, the cortical mRNA expression of three antioxidant enzymes (SOD-1, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase) was significantly reduced to non-Tg levels by long-term melatonin treatment in Tg mice. Thus, melatonin's cognitive benefits could involve its anti-Abeta aggregation, anti-inflammatory, and/or antioxidant properties. Our findings provide support for long-term melatonin therapy as a primary or complementary strategy for abating the progression of

  17. Long-term testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferber, M.; Graves, G. A., Jr.

    Land-based gas turbines are significantly different from automotive gas turbines in that they are designed to operate for 50,000 h or greater (compared to 5,000-10,000 h). The primary goal of this research is to determine the long-term survivability of ceramic materials for industrial gas turbine applications. Research activities in this program focus on the evaluation of the static tensile creep and stress rupture (SR) behavior of three commercially available structural ceramics which have been identified by the gas turbine manufacturers as leading candidates for use in industrial gas turbines. For each material investigated, a minimum of three temperatures and four stresses will be used to establish the stress and temperature sensitivities of the creep and SR behavior. Because existing data for many candidate structural ceramics are limited to testing times less than 2,000 h, this program will focus on extending these data to times on the order of 10,000 h, which represents the lower limit of operating time anticipated for ceramic blades and vanes in gas turbine engines. A secondary goal of the program will be to investigate the possibility of enhancing life prediction estimates by combining interrupted tensile SR tests and tensile dynamic fatigue tests in which tensile strength is measured as a function of stressing rate. The third goal of this program will be to investigate the effects of water vapor upon the SR behavior of the three structural ceramics chosen for the static tensile studies by measuring the flexural strength as a function of stressing rate at three temperatures.

  18. Long-term testing

    SciTech Connect

    Ferber, M.; Graves, G.A. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    Land-based gas turbines are significantly different from automotive gas turbines in that they are designed to operate for 50,000 h or greater (compared to 5,000--10,000 h). The primary goal of this research is to determine the long-term survivability of ceramic materials for industrial gas turbine applications. Research activities in this program focus on the evaluation of the static tensile creep and stress rupture (SR) behavior of three commercially available structural ceramics which have been identified by the gas turbine manufacturers as leading candidates for use in industrial gas turbines. For each material investigated, a minimum of three temperatures and four stresses will be used to establish the stress and temperature sensitivities of the creep and SR behavior. Because existing data for many candidate structural ceramics are limited to testing times less than 2,000 h, this program will focus on extending these data to times on the order of 10,000 h, which represents the lower limit of operating time anticipated for ceramic blades and vanes in gas turbine engines. A secondary goal of the program will be to investigate the possibility of enhancing life prediction estimates by combining interrupted tensile SR tests and tensile dynamic fatigue tests in which tensile strength is measured as a function of stressing rate. The third goal of this program will be to investigate the effects of water vapor upon the SR behavior of the three structural ceramics chosen for the static tensile studies by measuring the flexural strength as a function of stressing rate at three temperatures.

  19. Enzyme Changes in the Offspring of Female Rats due to Long-Term Administration of Cyclic AMP and Insulin before Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Strumilo, S A; Czyzewska, U; Siemieniuk, M; Strumilo, J; Tylicki, A

    2016-07-01

    We studied the effects of insulin and cAMP on the offspring of female rats after daily treatment with these substances over 4 weeks. In adult offspring from cAMP-treated females, activities of pyruvate kinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase decreased in the liver and brain and activities of NADP-dependent malate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase decreased in the liver. In the offspring of insulin-treated females, we observed only activation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase in the liver and only in females. Enzyme activity probably correlates with their content, as no changes in their kinetic properties were observed under these conditions. Long-term hormone treatment before pregnancy can affect the expression of genes for some enzymes in the offspring due to transmission of epigenetic signals by the ovum. However, further studies are required to confirm this mechanism. PMID:27502537

  20. Performance of a Predictive Model for Long-Term Hemoglobin Response to Darbepoetin and Iron Administration in a Large Cohort of Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Carlo; Bolzoni, Elena; Mari, Flavio; Cattinelli, Isabella; Bellocchio, Francesco; Martin, José D; Amato, Claudia; Stopper, Andrea; Gatti, Emanuele; Macdougall, Iain C; Stuard, Stefano; Canaud, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Anemia management, based on erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA) and iron supplementation, has become an increasingly challenging problem in hemodialysis patients. Maintaining hemodialysis patients within narrow hemoglobin targets, preventing cycling outside target, and reducing ESA dosing to prevent adverse outcomes requires considerable attention from caregivers. Anticipation of the long-term response (i.e. at 3 months) to the ESA/iron therapy would be of fundamental importance for planning a successful treatment strategy. To this end, we developed a predictive model designed to support decision-making regarding anemia management in hemodialysis (HD) patients treated in center. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithm for predicting hemoglobin concentrations three months into the future was developed and evaluated in a retrospective study on a sample population of 1558 HD patients treated with intravenous (IV) darbepoetin alfa, and IV iron (sucrose or gluconate). Model inputs were the last 90 days of patients' medical history and the subsequent 90 days of darbepoetin/iron prescription. Our model was able to predict individual variation of hemoglobin concentration 3 months in the future with a Mean Absolute Error (MAE) of 0.75 g/dL. Error analysis showed a narrow Gaussian distribution centered in 0 g/dL; a root cause analysis identified intercurrent and/or unpredictable events associated with hospitalization, blood transfusion, and laboratory error or misreported hemoglobin values as the main reasons for large discrepancy between predicted versus observed hemoglobin values. Our ANN predictive model offers a simple and reliable tool applicable in daily clinical practice for predicting the long-term response to ESA/iron therapy of HD patients. PMID:26939055

  1. Performance of a Predictive Model for Long-Term Hemoglobin Response to Darbepoetin and Iron Administration in a Large Cohort of Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Barbieri, Carlo; Bolzoni, Elena; Mari, Flavio; Cattinelli, Isabella; Bellocchio, Francesco; Martin, José D.; Amato, Claudia; Stopper, Andrea; Gatti, Emanuele; Macdougall, Iain C.; Stuard, Stefano; Canaud, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Anemia management, based on erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA) and iron supplementation, has become an increasingly challenging problem in hemodialysis patients. Maintaining hemodialysis patients within narrow hemoglobin targets, preventing cycling outside target, and reducing ESA dosing to prevent adverse outcomes requires considerable attention from caregivers. Anticipation of the long-term response (i.e. at 3 months) to the ESA/iron therapy would be of fundamental importance for planning a successful treatment strategy. To this end, we developed a predictive model designed to support decision-making regarding anemia management in hemodialysis (HD) patients treated in center. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithm for predicting hemoglobin concentrations three months into the future was developed and evaluated in a retrospective study on a sample population of 1558 HD patients treated with intravenous (IV) darbepoetin alfa, and IV iron (sucrose or gluconate). Model inputs were the last 90 days of patients’ medical history and the subsequent 90 days of darbepoetin/iron prescription. Our model was able to predict individual variation of hemoglobin concentration 3 months in the future with a Mean Absolute Error (MAE) of 0.75 g/dL. Error analysis showed a narrow Gaussian distribution centered in 0 g/dL; a root cause analysis identified intercurrent and/or unpredictable events associated with hospitalization, blood transfusion, and laboratory error or misreported hemoglobin values as the main reasons for large discrepancy between predicted versus observed hemoglobin values. Our ANN predictive model offers a simple and reliable tool applicable in daily clinical practice for predicting the long-term response to ESA/iron therapy of HD patients. PMID:26939055

  2. 78 FR 36449 - State Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Administration on Aging 45 CFR Parts 1321 and 1327 RIN 0985-AA08 State Long-Term Care... request for comments, to implement provisions of the Older Americans Act, the State Long-Term Care... determining State compliance in carrying out the Long-Term Care Ombudsman program functions. This...

  3. 5 CFR 1201.43 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sanctions. 1201.43 Section 1201.43 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES Procedures for Appellate Cases Judges § 1201.43 Sanctions. The judge may impose sanctions upon the parties...

  4. 5 CFR 1201.43 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanctions. 1201.43 Section 1201.43 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES Procedures for Appellate Cases Judges § 1201.43 Sanctions. The judge may impose sanctions upon the parties...

  5. 5 CFR 185.131 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanctions. 185.131 Section 185.131 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 185.131 Sanctions. (a) The ALJ may sanction a person including any party or representative for...

  6. Therapeutic administration of IL-15 superagonist complex ALT-803 leads to long-term survival and durable antitumor immune response in a murine glioblastoma model.

    PubMed

    Mathios, Dimitrios; Park, Chul-Kee; Marcus, Warren D; Alter, Sarah; Rhode, Peter R; Jeng, Emily K; Wong, Hing C; Pardoll, Drew M; Lim, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most aggressive primary central nervous system malignancy with a poor prognosis in patients. Despite the need for better treatments against glioblastoma, very little progress has been made in discovering new therapies that exhibit superior survival benefit than the standard of care. Immunotherapy has been shown to be a promising treatment modality that could help improve clinical outcomes of glioblastoma patients by assisting the immune system to overcome the immunosuppressive tumor environment. Interleukin-15 (IL-15), a cytokine shown to activate several effector components of the immune system, may serve as an excellent immunotherapeutic candidate for the treatment of glioblastoma. Thus, we evaluated the efficacy of an IL-15 superagonist complex (IL-15N72D:IL-15RαSu-Fc; also known as ALT-803) in a murine GL261-luc glioblastoma model. We show that ALT-803, as a single treatment as well as in combination with anti-PD-1 antibody or stereotactic radiosurgery, exhibits a robust antitumor immune response resulting in a prolonged survival including complete remission in tumor bearing mice. In addition, ALT-803 treatment results in long-term immune memory against glioblastoma tumor rechallenge. Flow cytometric analysis of tumor infiltrating immune cells shows that ALT-803 leads to increased percentage of CD8+-cell infiltration, but not the NK cells, and IFN-γ production into the tumor microenvironment. Cell depletion studies, in accordance with the flow cytometric results, show that the ALT-803 therapeutic effect is dependent on CD4+ and CD8+ cells. These results provide a rationale for evaluating the therapeutic activity of ALT-803 against glioblastoma in the clinical setting. PMID:26174883

  7. Long-term environmental stewardship.

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, Michael David

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this Supplemental Information Source Document is to effectively describe Long-Term Environmental Stewardship (LTES) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). More specifically, this document describes the LTES and Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Programs, distinguishes between the LTES and LTS Programs, and summarizes the current status of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Project.

  8. Presynaptic long-term plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ying; Calakos, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Long-term synaptic plasticity is a major cellular substrate for learning, memory, and behavioral adaptation. Although early examples of long-term synaptic plasticity described a mechanism by which postsynaptic signal transduction was potentiated, it is now apparent that there is a vast array of mechanisms for long-term synaptic plasticity that involve modifications to either or both the presynaptic terminal and postsynaptic site. In this article, we discuss current and evolving approaches to identify presynaptic mechanisms as well as discuss their limitations. We next provide examples of the diverse circuits in which presynaptic forms of long-term synaptic plasticity have been described and discuss the potential contribution this form of plasticity might add to circuit function. Finally, we examine the present evidence for the molecular pathways and cellular events underlying presynaptic long-term synaptic plasticity. PMID:24146648

  9. 45 CFR 79.29 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanctions. 79.29 Section 79.29 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.29 Sanctions. (a) The ALJ may sanction a person, including any party or representative, for— (1) Failing to comply with an order, rule, or...

  10. Differential long-term neuroadaptations of glutamate receptors in the basolateral and central amygdala after withdrawal from cocaine self-administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lin; Dempsey, Jack; Shaham, Yavin; Hope, Bruce T

    2005-07-01

    Humans and laboratory animals remain highly vulnerable to relapse to cocaine-seeking after prolonged periods of withdrawal from the drug. It has been hypothesized that this persistent cocaine relapse vulnerability involves drug-induced alterations in glutamatergic synapses within the mesolimbic dopamine reward system. Previous studies have shown that cocaine self-administration induces long-lasting neuroadaptations in glutamate neurons of the ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens. Here, we determined the effect of cocaine self-administration and subsequent withdrawal on glutamate receptor expression in the amygdala, a component of the mesolimbic dopamine system that is involved in cocaine seeking and craving induced by drug-associated cues. Rats were trained for 10 days to self-administer intravenous cocaine (6 h/day) or saline (a control condition) and were killed after one or 30 withdrawal days. Basolateral and central amygdala tissues were assayed for protein expression of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunits (GluR1 and GluR2) and the NMDA receptor subunits (NR1, NR2A and NR2B). In the basolateral amygdala, GluR1 but not GluR2 levels were increased on days 1 and 30, NR2A levels were increased on day 1, and NR2B levels were decreased on day 30 of withdrawal from cocaine. In the central amygdala, GluR2 but not GluR1 levels were increased on days 1 and 30, NR1 levels were increased on day 30 and NR2A or NR2B levels were not altered after withdrawal from cocaine. These results indicate that cocaine self-administration and subsequent withdrawal induces long-lasting and differential neuroadaptations in basolateral and central amygdala glutamate receptors. PMID:15953359

  11. Administration of memantine during ethanol withdrawal in neonatal rats: effects on long-term ethanol-induced motor incoordination and cerebellar Purkinje cell loss

    PubMed Central

    Idrus, Nirelia M.; McGough, Nancy N.H.; Riley, Edward P.; Thomas, Jennifer D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can damage the developing fetus, illustrated by central nervous system dysfunction and deficits in motor and cognitive abilities. Binge drinking has been associated with an increased risk of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, likely due to increased episodes of ethanol withdrawal. We hypothesized that overactivity of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor during ethanol withdrawal leads to excitotoxic cell death in the developing brain. Consistent with this, administration of NMDA receptor antagonists (e.g. MK-801) during withdrawal can attenuate ethanol's teratogenic effects. The aim of this study was to determine if administration of memantine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, during ethanol withdrawal could effectively attenuate ethanol-related deficits, without the adverse side effects associated with other NMDA receptor antagonists. Methods Sprague-Dawley pups were exposed to 6.0 g/kg ethanol or isocaloric maltose solution via intubation on postnatal day 6, a period of brain development equivalent to a portion of the 3rd trimester. Twenty-four and 36 hours after ethanol, subjects were injected with 0, 10 or 15 mg/kg memantine, totaling doses of 0, 20, or 30 mg/kg. Motor coordination was tested on a parallel bar task and the total number of cerebellar Purkinje cells was estimated using unbiased stereology. Results Alcohol exposure induced significant parallel bar motor incoordination and reduced Purkinje cell number. Memantine administration significantly attenuated both ethanol-associated motor deficits and cerebellar cell loss in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions Memantine was neuroprotective when administered during ethanol withdrawal. These data provide further support that ethanol withdrawal contributes to fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. PMID:21070252

  12. [The dynamics of behavioral and neuroreceptor effects after acute and long-term noopept administration in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice].

    PubMed

    Kovalev, G I; Kondrakhin, E A; Salimov, R M; Neznamov, G G

    2014-01-01

    The effect of acute, 7-fold and 14-fold noopept (1 mg/kg/day) administration on the dynamics of anxiolitic and nootropic behavioral effects in cross-maze, as well as their correlations with NMDA- and BDZ-receptor density was studied in inbred mice strains, differing in exploratory and emotional status--C57BL/6 and BALB/c. The dipeptide failed to affect the anxiety and exploration activity in C57BL/6 mice at each of 3 steps of experimental session. In this strain the B(max) values of [3H]-MK-801 and [3H]-Flunitrazepam binding changed only after single administration. In respect to BALB/c mice noopept induced both the anxiolitic and nootropic effects reaching their maximum on 7th day. In BALB/c strain the dynamics of hippocampal NMDA-receptor binding corresponds to the dynamics of exploratory efficacy whereas the dynamics of BDZ-receptors in prefrontal cortex was reciprocally to dynamics of anxiety level. PMID:25739185

  13. Long term complications of diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000327.htm Long term complications of diabetes To use the sharing ... sores and infections. If it goes on too long, your toes, foot, or leg may need to ...

  14. Abdominal Pain, Long-Term

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Abdominal Pain, Long-term See complete list of charts. Ongoing or recurrent abdominal pain, also called chronic pain, may be difficult to diagnose, causing frustration for ...

  15. [Taiwan long-term care insurance and the evolution of long-term care in Japan].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-Wen; Liu, Shu-Hui; Pai, Yu-Chu

    2010-08-01

    The proportion of elderly (65 years of age and older) in Taiwan has exceeded 10% since 2008. With more elderly, the number of patients suffering from dementia and disabilities has also been rapidly increasing. Japan also has been facing increasing demand for long-term care due to an aging society. Prior to 2000, social welfare programs in Japan, working to cope with changing needs, typically provided insufficient services, and geriatric patients were hospitalized unnecessarily, wasting medical resources and causing undue patient hardship. In response, Japan launched its long-term care insurance program in April 2000. Under the program, city, town and village-based organizations should take responsibility for providing care to the elderly in their place of residence. The program significantly improved previous financial shortfalls and long-term care supply and demand has been met by existing social welfare organization resources. In Taiwan, the provision of long-term care by county / city authorities has proven inconsistent, with performance deemed poor after its first decade of long-term care operations. Service was found to be affected by differences in available resources and insufficient long-term care administration. The cultures of Taiwan and Japan are similar. The authors visited the Japan Long-Term Care Insurance Institute in August 2009. Main issues involved in the implementation and evolution of the Japan long-term Care Insurance are reported on in this paper. We hope such may be useful information to those working to develop long-term care programs in Taiwan. PMID:20661859

  16. [Effect of long-term monosodium glutamate administration on structure and functional state of the stomach and body weight in rats].

    PubMed

    Falalieieva, T M; Kukhars'kyĭ, V M; Berehova, T V

    2010-01-01

    The influence of prolonged administration of monosodium glutamate (MSG) on basal gastric acid secretion, body weight and gastric mucosa in rats was studied. We found that 10-, 20-, 30-days feeding by MSG in doses 15 to 30 mg/kg (equivalent to I and 2 g/person) leads to erosive and ulcerative lesions of the gastric mucosa and an increased secretion of hydrochloric acid and an increased body weight. It is concluded that the stimulating effect of MSG on the basal secretion of hydrochloric acid in the stomach may be implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of acid-dependent diseases. An excessive consumption of MSG can cause a "Chinese Restaurant Syndrome" and gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers. Therefore, the maximum dose of MSG should be reconsidered taking into account its influence on the secretory capacity of the stomach. We also conclude that prolonged, excessive and systemic consumption of MSG causes obesity. PMID:20968043

  17. Tolerance to Ethanol or Nicotine Results in Increased Ethanol Self-Administration and Long-Term Depression in the Dorsolateral Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Abburi, Chandrika; Wolfman, Shannon L.; Metz, Ryan A. E.; Kamber, Rinya

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ethanol (EtOH) and nicotine are the most widely coabused drugs. Tolerance to EtOH intoxication, including motor impairment, results in greater EtOH consumption and may result in a greater likelihood of addiction. Previous studies suggest that cross-tolerance between EtOH and nicotine may contribute to the abuse potential of these drugs. Here we demonstrate that repeated intermittent administration of either EtOH or nicotine in adult male Sprague Dawley rats results in tolerance to EtOH-induced motor impairment and increased EtOH self-administration. These findings suggest that nicotine and EtOH cross-tolerance results in decreased aversive and enhanced rewarding effects of EtOH. Endocannabinoid signaling in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) has been implicated in both EtOH tolerance and reward, so we investigated whether nicotine or EtOH pretreatment might modulate endocannabinoid signaling in this region. Using similar EtOH and nicotine pretreatment methods resulted in increased paired-pulse ratios of evoked EPSCs in enkephalin-positive medium spiny neurons in DLS slices. Thus, EtOH and nicotine pretreatment may modulate glutamatergic synapses in the DLS presynaptically. Bath application of the CB1 receptor agonist Win 55,2-212 increased the paired-pulse ratio of evoked EPSCs in control slices, while Win 55,2-212 had no effect on paired-pulse ratio in slices from either EtOH- or nicotine-pretreated rats. Consistent with these effects, nicotine pretreatment occluded LTD induction by high-frequency stimulation of the corticostriatal inputs to the dorsolateral striatum. These results suggest that nicotine and EtOH pretreatment modulates striatal synapses to induce tolerance to the motor-impairing effects of EtOH, which may contribute to nicotine and EtOH coabuse. PMID:27517088

  18. Tolerance to Ethanol or Nicotine Results in Increased Ethanol Self-Administration and Long-Term Depression in the Dorsolateral Striatum.

    PubMed

    Abburi, Chandrika; Wolfman, Shannon L; Metz, Ryan A E; Kamber, Rinya; McGehee, Daniel S; McDaid, John

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol (EtOH) and nicotine are the most widely coabused drugs. Tolerance to EtOH intoxication, including motor impairment, results in greater EtOH consumption and may result in a greater likelihood of addiction. Previous studies suggest that cross-tolerance between EtOH and nicotine may contribute to the abuse potential of these drugs. Here we demonstrate that repeated intermittent administration of either EtOH or nicotine in adult male Sprague Dawley rats results in tolerance to EtOH-induced motor impairment and increased EtOH self-administration. These findings suggest that nicotine and EtOH cross-tolerance results in decreased aversive and enhanced rewarding effects of EtOH. Endocannabinoid signaling in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) has been implicated in both EtOH tolerance and reward, so we investigated whether nicotine or EtOH pretreatment might modulate endocannabinoid signaling in this region. Using similar EtOH and nicotine pretreatment methods resulted in increased paired-pulse ratios of evoked EPSCs in enkephalin-positive medium spiny neurons in DLS slices. Thus, EtOH and nicotine pretreatment may modulate glutamatergic synapses in the DLS presynaptically. Bath application of the CB1 receptor agonist Win 55,2-212 increased the paired-pulse ratio of evoked EPSCs in control slices, while Win 55,2-212 had no effect on paired-pulse ratio in slices from either EtOH- or nicotine-pretreated rats. Consistent with these effects, nicotine pretreatment occluded LTD induction by high-frequency stimulation of the corticostriatal inputs to the dorsolateral striatum. These results suggest that nicotine and EtOH pretreatment modulates striatal synapses to induce tolerance to the motor-impairing effects of EtOH, which may contribute to nicotine and EtOH coabuse. PMID:27517088

  19. Are Sanctions on Employers Constitutional?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gollobin, Ira

    1988-01-01

    Questions the constitutional validity of employer sanctions used to deter illegal immigration under the Immigration Reform and Control Act. Points out the anomaly of using criminal penalties to deter a civil, administrative violation. (FMW)

  20. Sanctioned Suit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2001-01-01

    In a case involving four high school seniors' suspension following a class-trip drinking incident, a federal court upheld the school district's action and imposed sanctions on the plaintiffs' attorney for trivializing equal-rights and due-process protections. Today's courts have little tolerance for student misconduct involving drugs or alcohol.…

  1. Concurrent administration of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery enhances late toxicities: Long-term results of the ARCOSEIN multicenter randomized study

    SciTech Connect

    Toledano, Alain . E-mail: alain.toledano@gmail.com; Garaud, Pascal; Serin, Daniel; Fourquet, Alain; Bosset, Jean-Francois; Breteau, Noel; Body, Gilles; Azria, David; Le Floch, Olivier; Calais, Gilles

    2006-06-01

    Purpose: In 1996, a multicenter randomized study was initiated that compared sequential vs. concurrent adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) with radiation therapy (RT) after breast-conserving surgery (ARCOSEIN study). After a median follow-up of 6.7 years (range, 4.3-9 years), we decided to prospectively evaluate the late effects of these 2 strategies. Methods and Materials: A total of 297 patients from the 5 larger participating institutions were asked to report for a follow-up examination. Seventy-two percent (214 patients) were eligible for evaluation of late toxicity. After breast-conserving surgery, patients were treated either with sequential treatment with CT first followed by RT (Arm A) or CT administered concurrently with RT (Arm B). In all patients, CT regimen consisted of mitoxantrone (12 mg/m{sup 2}), 5-FU (500 mg/m{sup 2}), and cyclophosphamide (500 mg/m{sup 2}), 6 cycles (Day 1 to Day 21). Conventional RT was delivered to the whole breast by administration of a 2 Gy per fraction protocol to a total dose of 50 Gy ({+-} boost to the primary tumor bed). The assessment of toxicity was blinded to treatment and was graded by the radiation oncologist, according to the LENT/SOMA scale. Skin pigmentation was also evaluated according to a personal 5-points scoring system (excellent, good, moderate, poor, very poor). Results: Among the 214 evaluable patients, 107 were treated in each arm. The 2 populations were homogeneous for patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics. Subcutaneous fibrosis (SF), telangectasia (T), skin pigmentation (SP), and breast atrophy (BA) were significantly increased in Arm B. No statistical difference was observed between the 2 arms of the study concerning Grade 2 or higher pain, breast edema, or lymphedema. No deaths were caused by late toxicity. Conclusion: After breast-conserving surgery, the concurrent use of CT with RT is significantly associated with an increase incidence of Grade 2 or greater late side effects.

  2. 28 CFR 28.28 - Sanctions for violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28.28 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM Preservation of... requirements. (b) Criminal sanctions. Violations of section 3600A may also be subject to criminal sanctions as... through the disciplinary sanctions and criminal sanctions described in paragraphs (a) and (b) of...

  3. 28 CFR 28.28 - Sanctions for violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28.28 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM Preservation of... requirements. (b) Criminal sanctions. Violations of section 3600A may also be subject to criminal sanctions as... through the disciplinary sanctions and criminal sanctions described in paragraphs (a) and (b) of...

  4. 28 CFR 28.28 - Sanctions for violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28.28 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM Preservation of... requirements. (b) Criminal sanctions. Violations of section 3600A may also be subject to criminal sanctions as... through the disciplinary sanctions and criminal sanctions described in paragraphs (a) and (b) of...

  5. 28 CFR 28.28 - Sanctions for violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28.28 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM Preservation of... requirements. (b) Criminal sanctions. Violations of section 3600A may also be subject to criminal sanctions as... through the disciplinary sanctions and criminal sanctions described in paragraphs (a) and (b) of...

  6. 28 CFR 28.28 - Sanctions for violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28.28 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM Preservation of... requirements. (b) Criminal sanctions. Violations of section 3600A may also be subject to criminal sanctions as... through the disciplinary sanctions and criminal sanctions described in paragraphs (a) and (b) of...

  7. Long Term Illness and Wages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandy, Robert; Elliott, Robert R.

    2005-01-01

    Long-term illness (LTI) is a more prevalent workplace risk than fatal accidents but there is virtually no evidence for compensating differentials for a broad measure of LTI. In 1990 almost 3.4 percent of the U.K. adult population suffered from a LTI caused solely by their working conditions. This paper provides the first estimates of compensating…

  8. Long-term data archiving

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, David Steven

    2009-01-01

    Long term data archiving has much value for chemists, not only to retain access to research and product development records, but also to enable new developments and new discoveries. There are some recent regulatory requirements (e.g., FDA 21 CFR Part 11), but good science and good business both benefit regardless. A particular example of the benefits of and need for long term data archiving is the management of data from spectroscopic laboratory instruments. The sheer amount of spectroscopic data is increasing at a scary rate, and the pressures to archive come from the expense to create the data (or recreate it if it is lost) as well as its high information content. The goal of long-term data archiving is to save and organize instrument data files as well as any needed meta data (such as sample ID, LIMS information, operator, date, time, instrument conditions, sample type, excitation details, environmental parameters, etc.). This editorial explores the issues involved in long-term data archiving using the example of Raman spectral databases. There are at present several such databases, including common data format libraries and proprietary libraries. However, such databases and libraries should ultimately satisfy stringent criteria for long term data archiving, including readability for long times into the future, robustness to changes in computer hardware and operating systems, and use of public domain data formats. The latter criterion implies the data format should be platform independent and the tools to create the data format should be easily and publicly obtainable or developable. Several examples of attempts at spectral libraries exist, such as the ASTM ANDI format, and the JCAMP-DX format. On the other hand, proprietary library spectra can be exchanged and manipulated using proprietary tools. As the above examples have deficiencies according to the three long term data archiving criteria, Extensible Markup Language (XML; a product of the World Wide Web

  9. 28 CFR 59.6 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sanctions. 59.6 Section 59.6 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GUIDELINES ON METHODS OF OBTAINING DOCUMENTARY MATERIALS HELD BY THIRD PARTIES § 59.6 Sanctions. (a) Any federal officer or employee violating the guidelines set...

  10. 28 CFR 59.6 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanctions. 59.6 Section 59.6 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GUIDELINES ON METHODS OF OBTAINING DOCUMENTARY MATERIALS HELD BY THIRD PARTIES § 59.6 Sanctions. (a) Any federal officer or employee violating the guidelines set...

  11. 28 CFR 22.29 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sanctions. 22.29 Section 22.29 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CONFIDENTIALITY OF IDENTIFIABLE RESEARCH AND STATISTICAL INFORMATION § 22.29 Sanctions. Where BJA, OJJDP, BJS, NIJ, or OJP believes that a violation of section 812(a) of the Act...

  12. 28 CFR 22.29 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sanctions. 22.29 Section 22.29 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CONFIDENTIALITY OF IDENTIFIABLE RESEARCH AND STATISTICAL INFORMATION § 22.29 Sanctions. Where BJA, OJJDP, BJS, NIJ, or OJP believes that a violation of section 812(a) of the Act...

  13. 28 CFR 22.29 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sanctions. 22.29 Section 22.29 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CONFIDENTIALITY OF IDENTIFIABLE RESEARCH AND STATISTICAL INFORMATION § 22.29 Sanctions. Where BJA, OJJDP, BJS, NIJ, or OJP believes that a violation of section 812(a) of the Act...

  14. 28 CFR 22.29 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sanctions. 22.29 Section 22.29 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CONFIDENTIALITY OF IDENTIFIABLE RESEARCH AND STATISTICAL INFORMATION § 22.29 Sanctions. Where BJA, OJJDP, BJS, NIJ, or OJP believes that a violation of section 812(a) of the Act...

  15. 28 CFR 22.29 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanctions. 22.29 Section 22.29 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CONFIDENTIALITY OF IDENTIFIABLE RESEARCH AND STATISTICAL INFORMATION § 22.29 Sanctions. Where BJA, OJJDP, BJS, NIJ, or OJP believes that a violation of section 812(a) of the Act...

  16. 28 CFR 59.6 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sanctions. 59.6 Section 59.6 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GUIDELINES ON METHODS OF OBTAINING DOCUMENTARY MATERIALS HELD BY THIRD PARTIES § 59.6 Sanctions. (a) Any federal officer or employee violating the guidelines set...

  17. 28 CFR 59.6 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sanctions. 59.6 Section 59.6 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GUIDELINES ON METHODS OF OBTAINING DOCUMENTARY MATERIALS HELD BY THIRD PARTIES § 59.6 Sanctions. (a) Any federal officer or employee violating the guidelines set...

  18. 28 CFR 59.6 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sanctions. 59.6 Section 59.6 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GUIDELINES ON METHODS OF OBTAINING DOCUMENTARY MATERIALS HELD BY THIRD PARTIES § 59.6 Sanctions. (a) Any federal officer or employee violating the guidelines set...

  19. Home health, long-term care, and other compliance activities.

    PubMed

    Anderson, T D; Sadoff, J W

    1999-04-01

    The Federal government continues to crack down on fraud and abuse in the healthcare industry with such initiatives and tools as Operation Restore Trust and intermediate tax sanctions. Home health and long-term care organizations are the latest entities under study by the Office of Inspector General, and the result of these studies likely will be more antifraud and abuse measures being taken against these entities. All healthcare organizations should pay particular attention to their tax risk exposure. Healthcare organizations that put effective compliance programs in place should be able to reduce the overall risk of challenges to their financial practices. PMID:10557979

  20. Modulation of axonal sprouting along rostro-caudal axis of dorsal hippocampus and no neuronal survival in parahippocampal cortices by long-term post-lesion melatonin administration in lithium-pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Ganjkhani, Mahin; Ali, Rostami; Iraj, Jafari Anarkooli

    2016-01-01

    Feature outcome of hippocampus and extra-hippocampal cortices was evaluated in melatonin treated lithium-pilocarpine epileptic rats during early and chronic phases of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). After status epilepticus (SE) induction, 5 and 20 mg/kg melatonin were administered for 14 days or 60 days. All animals were killed 60 days post SE induction and the histological features of the rosrto-caudal axis of the dorsal hippocampus, piriform and entorhinal cortices were evaluated utilizing Nissl, Timm, and synapsin I immunoflorescent staining. Melatonin (20 mg/kg) effect on CA1 and CA3 neurons showed a region-specific pattern along the rostro-caudal axis of the dorsal hippocampus. The number of counted granular cells by melatonin (20 mg/kg) treatment increased along the rostro-caudal axis of the dorsal hippocampus in comparison to the untreated epileptic group. The density of Timm granules in the inner molecular layer of the dentate gyrus decreased significantly in all melatonin treated groups in comparison to the untreated epileptic animals. The increased density of synapsin I immunoreactivity in the outer molecular layer of the dentate gyrus of untreated epileptic rats showed a profound decrease following melatonin treatment. There was no neuronal protection in the piriform and entorhinal cortices whatever the melatonin treatment. Long-term melatonin administration as a co-adjuvant probably could reduce the post-lesion histological consequences of TLE in a region-specific pattern along the rostro-caudal axis of the dorsal hippocampus. PMID:27051565

  1. Lessons from the past: Long-term safety and survival outcomes of a prematurely terminated randomized controlled trial on prophylactic vs. hemoglobin-based administration of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in patients with chemotherapy-induced anemia

    PubMed Central

    MOUNTZIOS, GIANNIS; ARAVANTINOS, GERASIMOS; ALEXOPOULOU, ZOI; TIMOTHEADOU, ELENI; MATSIAKOU, FOTINI; CHRISTODOULOU, CHRISTOS; LASCHOS, KONSTANTINOS; GALANI, ELENI; KOUTRAS, ANGELOS; BAFALOUKOS, DIMITRIOS; LINARDOU, HELENA; PECTASIDES, DIMITRIOS; VARTHALITIS, IOANNIS; PAPAKOSTAS, PAVLOS; KALOFONOS, HARALAMBOS P.; FOUNTZILAS, GEORGE

    2016-01-01

    Prophylactic erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) administration for chemotherapy-induced anemia (CIA) is not supported by current guidelines. Long-term follow-up of patients WHO had been treated with ESA for CIA in the past may provide useful information. In 2002, we undertook a prospective, randomized phase III trial of prophylactic vs. hemoglobin (Hb)-based (threshold: 11 mg/dl) ESA administration in patients with solid tumors and CIA. ESA administration FOR CIA was permanently suspended in 2007 in view of published data at that time, while patient surveillance continued. Among 630 evaluable patients, 38.6% were male, 50.9% had advanced cancer at diagnosis, 40.6% had Hb levels <12 mg/dl at baseline and 47.9% received ESA prophylactically (1:1 randomization). The major tumor types included colorectal (36.0%), breast (20.6%), non-prostate genitourinary (11.0%) and lung CANCER (8.4%). After a median follow-up of 85.4 months, 358 patients had relapsed and 380 had succumbed to the disease. Patients in the prophylactic ESA group (GROUP A; experimental arm), as compared with those in the Hb-based group (GROUP B; iron supplementation alone), exhibited A significantly more prominent increase in median Hb levels, particularly in the subset of patients with non-metastatic disease (two-sided P<0.01) among patients receiving chemotherapy for advanced cancer, those who received ESAs prophylactically exhibited a lower incidence of CIA (all grades: P=0.014, grades 3–4: P=0.034) and fatigue (all grades: P<0.001, grades 3–4: P=0.055), but a higher rate of a composite outcome encompassing all thrombosis-related events (all grades: P=0.043, grades 3–4: P=0.099). These differences were less prominent in the group of patients who received adjuvant treatment. There were no significant differences in overall mortality and relapse/progression rates between the two groups. therefore, prophylactic, compared with Hb-based, administration of ESAs for CIA in patients with solid

  2. Strategies to meet the need for long-term data.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, John; Woodward, Mark; Borghi, Claudio; Manolis, Athanasios; Mancia, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Chronic diseases afflict patients for many years, often to the end of life, and there is increasing need for estimating lifelong risk and for evaluating the effects of treatment in the long term. Yet recommendations for lifelong treatment are most frequently based on findings from randomized clinical trials lasting only a few years. There is therefore a clear need for much longer term data, and here we present the advantages and disadvantages of many strategies, including the use of long-term posttrial follow-up, of long-term prospective cohort studies, registry databases, and of administrative databases. We also emphasize the need for long-term cost-effectiveness studies. One of the most promising strategies comes from linkage of data gathered through the ever-expanding pool of administrative databases worldwide with data from other sources, including randomized trials and the many forms of observational study. PMID:27270189

  3. The effect of banana (Musa acuminata) peels hot-water extract on the immunity and resistance of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii via dietary administration for a long term: Activity and gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Rattanavichai, Wutti; Chen, Ying-Nan; Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Cheng, Winton

    2015-10-01

    The non-specific immune parameters, disease resistance and immune genes expressions in Macrobrachium rosenbergii were evaluated at 120 days of post feeding the diets containing the extracts of banana, Musa acuminate, fruit's peel (banana peels extract, BPE) at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1). Results showed that prawns fed with a diet containing BPE at the level of 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) for 120 days had a significantly higher survival rate (30.0%, 40.0% and 56.7%, respectively) than those fed with the control diet after challenge with Lactococcus garvieae for 144 h, and the respective relative survival percentages were 22.2%, 33.3%, and 51.9%, respectively. Dietary BPE supplementation at 3.0 and/or 6.0 g kg(-1) for 120 days showed a significant increase total haemocyte count (THC), granular cell (GC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, transglutaminase (TG) activity, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to L. garvieae infection, and meanwhile, the significant decrease in haemolymph clotting times and respiratory bursts (RBs) per haemocyte of prawns were revealed. Furthermore, the mRNA expressions of prophenoloxidase (proPO), lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PE), transglutaminase (TG), and crustin (CT) were significantly increased. We therefore recommend that BPE can be used as an immunomodulator for prawns through dietary administration at 6.0 g kg(-1) for a long term (over 120 days) to modify immune responses and genes expression following the enhanced resistance against pathogens. PMID:26118934

  4. 19 CFR 356.18 - Interim sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Interim sanctions. 356.18 Section 356.18 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCEDURES AND RULES FOR IMPLEMENTING ARTICLE 1904 OF THE NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Violation of a Protective Order or a Disclosure Undertaking § 356.18 Interim sanctions....

  5. 49 CFR 661.19 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sanctions. 661.19 Section 661.19 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BUY AMERICA REQUIREMENTS § 661.19 Sanctions. A willful refusal to comply with a certification by...

  6. 49 CFR 661.19 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sanctions. 661.19 Section 661.19 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BUY AMERICA REQUIREMENTS § 661.19 Sanctions. A willful refusal to comply with a certification by...

  7. 49 CFR 661.19 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sanctions. 661.19 Section 661.19 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BUY AMERICA REQUIREMENTS § 661.19 Sanctions. A willful refusal to comply with a certification by...

  8. 49 CFR 661.19 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sanctions. 661.19 Section 661.19 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BUY AMERICA REQUIREMENTS § 661.19 Sanctions. A willful refusal to comply with a certification by...

  9. 49 CFR 661.19 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanctions. 661.19 Section 661.19 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BUY AMERICA REQUIREMENTS § 661.19 Sanctions. A willful refusal to comply with a certification by...

  10. 15 CFR 764.3 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sanctions. 764.3 Section 764.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES § 764.3 Sanctions. (a)...

  11. Stapedectomy - long-term report.

    PubMed

    Shea, J J

    1982-01-01

    The long-term results with large fenestra stapedectomy with vein graft and Teflon piston are compared with results with the small fenestra stapedectomy with teflon piston directly into the vestibule. There were 1,943 operations in the former group and 2,155 in the latter when compared in 1970. One hundred consecutive patients from the beginning of each group with follow-up to present were compared. Results were generally the same with no great change in 15 and 20 years as compared to those at 5 years. The complication of perilymph fistula was caused by creating an opening in the footplate much larger than the prosthesis and was eliminated by interposing a living oval window seal if the opening was much larger than the prosthesis and a flap of lining membrane from the promontory when it was not. Other factors that influence a good result are discussed, including the type and the diameter of the piston used, the type of living oval window seal and the method of attachment to the incus. The small fenestra operation was found to be superior to the large, not only for the hearing gain achieved, but the case of performance and the freedom from complications due to migration of the prosthesis and/or the oval window seal. At present we have done about all that can be done for the conductive components. What remains is the sensorineural component which our studies indicate may be due to an autoimmune response. PMID:6897157

  12. Long Term Surface Salinity Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, Raymond W.; Brown, Neil L.

    2005-01-01

    Our long-term goal is to establish a reliable system for monitoring surface salinity around the global ocean. Salinity is a strong indicator of the freshwater cycle and has a great influence on upper ocean stratification. Global salinity measurements have potential to improve climate forecasts if an observation system can be developed. This project is developing a new internal field conductivity cell that can be protected from biological fouling for two years. Combined with a temperature sensor, this foul-proof cell can be deployed widely on surface drifters. A reliable in-situ network of surface salinity sensors will be an important adjunct to the salinity sensing satellite AQUARIUS to be deployed by NASA in 2009. A new internal-field conductivity cell has been developed by N Brown, along with new electronics. This sensor system has been combined with a temperature sensor to make a conductivity - temperature (UT) sensor suitable for deployment on drifters. The basic sensor concepts have been proven on a high resolution CTD. A simpler (lower cost) circuit has been built for this application. A protection mechanism for the conductivity cell that includes antifouling protection has also been designed and built. Mr. A.Walsh of our commercial partner E-Paint has designed and delivered time-release formulations of antifoulants for our application. Mr. G. Williams of partner Clearwater Instrumentation advised on power and communication issues and supplied surface drifters for testing.

  13. Suppression of acute proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine upregulation by post-injury administration of a novel small molecule improves long-term neurologic outcome in a mouse model of traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Eric; Somera-Molina, Kathleen; Van Eldik, Linda J; Watterson, D Martin; Wainwright, Mark S

    2008-01-01

    with TBI. Conclusion These results support the hypothesis that proinflammatory cytokines contribute to a glial activation cycle that produces neuronal dysfunction or injury following TBI. The improvement in long-term functional neurologic outcome following suppression of cytokine upregulation in a clinically relevant therapeutic window indicates that selective targeting of neuroinflammation may lead to novel therapies for the major neurologic morbidities resulting from head injury, and indicates the potential of Mzc as a future therapeutic for TBI. PMID:18590543

  14. Long-term U. S. energy outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Friesen, G.

    1984-01-01

    Each year Chase Econometrics offers its clients a brief summary of the assumptions underlying the long-term energy forecast for the U.S. To illustrate the uncertainty involved in forecasting for the period to the year 2000, they choose to compare forecasts with some recent projections prepared by the Department of Energy's Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis for the annual National Energy Policy Plan supplement. Particular emphasis is placed on Scenario B, which is the mid-range reference case. As the introduction to the supplement emphasizes, the NEPP projections should not be considered a statement of the policy goals of the Reagan Administration. They represent an analysis of the possible evolution of U.S. energy markets, given current information and existing policies. The purpose of providing Scenario B as a reference case as well as Scenarios A and C as alternate cases is to show the sensitivity of oil price projections to small swings in energy demand.

  15. Long-Term Administration of Dehydroepiandrosterone Accelerates Glucose Catabolism via Activation of PI3K/Akt-PFK-2 Signaling Pathway in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jian; Ge, Chongyang; Yu, Lei; Li, Longlong; Ma, Haitian

    2016-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has a fat-reducing effect, while little information is available on whether DHEA regulates glucose metabolism, which would in turn affect fat deposition. To investigate the effects of DHEA on glucose metabolism, rats were administered a high-fat diet containing either 0 (HCG), 25 (HLG), 50 (HMG), or 100 (HHG) mg·kg-1 DHEA per day via gavage for 8 weeks. Results showed that long-term administration of DHEA inhibited body weight gain in rats on a high-fat diet. No statistical differences in serum glucose levels were observed, whereas hepatic glycogen content in HMG and HHG groups and muscle glycogen content in HLG and HMG groups were higher than those in HCG group. Glucokinase, malate dehydrogenase and phosphofructokinase-2 activities in HMG and HHG groups, pyruvate kinase and succinate dehydrogenase activities in HMG group, and pyruvate dehydrogenase activity in all DHEA treatment groups were increased compared with those in HCG group. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glycogen phosphorylase mRNA levels were decreased in HMG and HHG groups, whereas glycogen synthase-2 mRNA level was increased in HMG group compared with those in HCG. The abundance of Glut2 mRNA in HMG and HHG groups and Glut4 mRNA in HMG group was higher than that in HCG group. DHEA treatment increased serum leptin content in HMG and HHG groups compared with that in HCG group. Serum insulin content and insulin receptor mRNA level in HMG group and insulin receptor substrate-2 mRNA level in HMG and HHG group were increased compared with those in HCG group. Furthermore, Pi3k mRNA level in HMG and Akt mRNA level in HMG and HHG groups were significantly increased than those in HCG group. These data showed that DHEA treatment could enhance glycogen storage and accelerate glucose catabolism in rats fed a high-fat diet, and this effect may be associated with the activation of PI3K/Akt-PFK-2 signaling pathway. PMID:27410429

  16. Long-Term Administration of Dehydroepiandrosterone Accelerates Glucose Catabolism via Activation of PI3K/Akt-PFK-2 Signaling Pathway in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jian; Ge, Chongyang; Yu, Lei; Li, Longlong; Ma, Haitian

    2016-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has a fat-reducing effect, while little information is available on whether DHEA regulates glucose metabolism, which would in turn affect fat deposition. To investigate the effects of DHEA on glucose metabolism, rats were administered a high-fat diet containing either 0 (HCG), 25 (HLG), 50 (HMG), or 100 (HHG) mg·kg-1 DHEA per day via gavage for 8 weeks. Results showed that long-term administration of DHEA inhibited body weight gain in rats on a high-fat diet. No statistical differences in serum glucose levels were observed, whereas hepatic glycogen content in HMG and HHG groups and muscle glycogen content in HLG and HMG groups were higher than those in HCG group. Glucokinase, malate dehydrogenase and phosphofructokinase-2 activities in HMG and HHG groups, pyruvate kinase and succinate dehydrogenase activities in HMG group, and pyruvate dehydrogenase activity in all DHEA treatment groups were increased compared with those in HCG group. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glycogen phosphorylase mRNA levels were decreased in HMG and HHG groups, whereas glycogen synthase-2 mRNA level was increased in HMG group compared with those in HCG. The abundance of Glut2 mRNA in HMG and HHG groups and Glut4 mRNA in HMG group was higher than that in HCG group. DHEA treatment increased serum leptin content in HMG and HHG groups compared with that in HCG group. Serum insulin content and insulin receptor mRNA level in HMG group and insulin receptor substrate-2 mRNA level in HMG and HHG group were increased compared with those in HCG group. Furthermore, Pi3k mRNA level in HMG and Akt mRNA level in HMG and HHG groups were significantly increased than those in HCG group. These data showed that DHEA treatment could enhance glycogen storage and accelerate glucose catabolism in rats fed a high-fat diet, and this effect may be associated with the activation of PI3K/Akt-PFK-2 signaling pathway. PMID:27410429

  17. 21 CFR 868.5610 - Membrane lung for long-term pulmonary support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Membrane lung for long-term pulmonary support. 868.5610 Section 868.5610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... for long-term pulmonary support. (a) Identification. A membrane lung for long-term pulmonary...

  18. Long-term solar-terrestrial observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The results of an 18-month study of the requirements for long-term monitoring and archiving of solar-terrestrial data is presented. The value of long-term solar-terrestrial observations is discussed together with parameters, associated measurements, and observational problem areas in each of the solar-terrestrial links (the sun, the interplanetary medium, the magnetosphere, and the thermosphere-ionosphere). Some recommendations are offered for coordinated planning for long-term solar-terrestrial observations.

  19. Long-term administration of the TNF blocking drug Remicade (cV1q) to mdx mice reduces skeletal and cardiac muscle fibrosis, but negatively impacts cardiac function.

    PubMed

    Ermolova, N V; Martinez, L; Vetrone, S A; Jordan, M C; Roos, K P; Sweeney, H L; Spencer, M J

    2014-07-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a degenerative skeletal muscle disease caused by mutations in the gene encoding dystrophin (DYS). Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has been implicated in the pathogenesis since short-term treatment of mdx mice with TNF blocking drugs proved beneficial; however, it is not clear whether long-term treatment will also improve long-term outcomes of fibrosis and cardiac health. In this investigation, short and long-term dosing studies were carried out using the TNF blocking drug Remicade and a variety of outcome measures were assessed. Here we show no demonstrable benefit to muscle strength or morphology with 10mg/kg or 20mg/kg Remicade; however, 3mg/kg produced positive strength benefits. Remicade treatment correlated with reductions in myostatin mRNA in the heart, and concomitant reductions in cardiac and skeletal fibrosis. Surprisingly, although Remicade treated mdx hearts were less fibrotic, reductions in LV mass and ejection fraction were also observed, and these changes coincided with reductions in AKT phosphorylation on threonine 308. Thus, TNF blockade benefits mdx skeletal muscle strength and fibrosis, but negatively impacts AKT activation, leading to deleterious changes to dystrophic heart function. These studies uncover a previously unknown relationship between TNF blockade and alteration of muscle growth signaling pathways. PMID:24844454

  20. Suicidal Behavior in Long-Term Care Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osgood, Nancy J.; Brant, Barbara A.

    1990-01-01

    Surveyed administrators of 463 long-term care facilities concerning overt suicides and intentional life-threatening behaviors. Data revealed that White males were highest risk group. Refusal to eat, drink, or take medications were most common suicidal behaviors. Depression, loneliness, feelings of family rejection, and loss were significant…

  1. Long-term preservation of Anammox bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deposit of useful microorganisms in culture collections requires long-term preservation and successful reactivation techniques. The goal of this study was to develop a simple preservation protocol for the long-term storage and reactivation of the anammox biomass. To achieve this, anammox biomass w...

  2. Long Term Preservation of Digital Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorie, Raymond A.

    The preservation of digital data for the long term presents a variety of challenges from technical to social and organizational. The technical challenge is to ensure that the information, generated today, can survive long term changes in storage media, devices, and data formats. This paper presents a novel approach to the problem. It distinguishes…

  3. Virtual Models of Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phenice, Lillian A.; Griffore, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Nursing homes, assisted living facilities and home-care organizations, use web sites to describe their services to potential consumers. This virtual ethnographic study developed models representing how potential consumers may understand this information using data from web sites of 69 long-term-care providers. The content of long-term-care web…

  4. Paying for long-term care.

    PubMed Central

    Estes, C L; Bodenheimer, T

    1994-01-01

    Everyone agrees that insurance for long-term care is inadequate in the United States. Disagreement exists, however, on whether such insurance should be provided through the private or public sector. Private insurance generally uses the experience-rating principle that persons with higher risk of illness are charged higher premiums. For private insurance for long-term care, this principle creates a dilemma. Most policies will be purchased by the elderly; yet, because the elderly have a high risk of needing long-term care, only about 20% of them can afford the cost of premiums. A public-private partnership by which the government partially subsidizes private long-term-care insurance is unlikely to resolve this dilemma. Only a social insurance program for long-term care can provide universal, affordable, and equitable coverage. PMID:8128712

  5. Long-term global nuclear energy and fuel cycle strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1997-09-24

    The Global Nuclear Vision Project is examining, using scenario building techniques, a range of long-term nuclear energy futures. The exploration and assessment of optimal nuclear fuel-cycle and material strategies is an essential element of the study. To this end, an established global E{sup 3} (energy/economics/environmental) model has been adopted and modified with a simplified, but comprehensive and multi-regional, nuclear energy module. Consistent nuclear energy scenarios are constructed using this multi-regional E{sup 3} model, wherein future demands for nuclear power are projected in price competition with other energy sources under a wide range of long-term demographic (population, workforce size and productivity), economic (price-, population-, and income-determined demand for energy services, price- and population-modified GNP, resource depletion, world-market fossil energy prices), policy (taxes, tariffs, sanctions), and top-level technological (energy intensity and end-use efficiency improvements) drivers. Using the framework provided by the global E{sup 3} model, the impacts of both external and internal drivers are investigated. The ability to connect external and internal drivers through this modeling framework allows the study of impacts and tradeoffs between fossil- versus nuclear-fuel burning, that includes interactions between cost, environmental, proliferation, resource, and policy issues.

  6. Rural long-term care work, gender, and restructuring.

    PubMed

    Leach, Belinda; Joseph, Gillian

    2011-06-01

    Restructuring--the introduction of changes that alter the way health care is delivered for maximum efficiency and least cost--layered with rurality and with rural gender ideologies and practices, results in rural long-term care settings that have particular consequences for the women working in them, and for the residents and communities that they serve. This research investigated how rurality affects the implementation of patient classification in Ontario long-term care homes. Methods involved interviews and focus groups with front-line long-term care workers, administrators, and key participants. The findings revealed that rural long-term care delivery takes place when a restructured work environment intersects with gender ideologies and practices that take on particular characteristics when developed and sustained in a rural context. These factors shape the labor market and working conditions for rural women. We argue that this produces a uniquely rural experience for long-term care workers and conclude that those implementing classification systems must consider contextual factors as well as practical and financial exigencies. PMID:24650670

  7. The long-term costs of career interruptions.

    PubMed

    Ketsche, Patricia G; Branscomb, Lisette

    2003-01-01

    This article is based on a study that analyzed the long-term salary implications of career choices made by healthcare administrators. The study used a cohort of graduates from a single health administration program; these individuals had comparable levels of human capital at the outset of their careers. We estimated the effect of periods of part-time employment and job interruptions--voluntary and involuntary--on long-term salary progression. We also estimated the impact of other career choices, such as membership in a professional organization or the decision to relocate. After controlling for these choices, we estimated the residual effect of gender on salary. We found that voluntary interruptions had a greater effect on long-term salary growth than did involuntary interruptions of the same length or periods of part-time employment. Individuals evaluating options for balancing career and family constraints should understand the long-term cost of choosing a career interruption rather than part-time employment during periods of heightened responsibilities outside the workplace. Healthcare administrators should also be educated about the positive association between professional memberships and career advancement to make informed decisions about participation in such organizations. Surprisingly, after controlling for all choice variables, gender had no measurable effect on long-term salary growth. Half of those who indicated a voluntary interruption for dependent care reasons preferred part-time or flexible-hour work if it had been available. These results suggest that a pool of healthcare administrators might compete for positions if more part-time opportunities were available. PMID:12592867

  8. Mental Health in Long Term Care Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Herbert

    1978-01-01

    There are many ways in which long-term care facilities attempt to cope with the mental health problems of the elderly. The author reviews five factors crucial to effective care for the aged in these facilities. (Author/RK)

  9. Asthma Medicines: Long-Term Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Asthma Medicines: Long-term Control Page Content Article Body Corticosteroids Synthetic ... and sprinkle forms are available for young children. Long-Acting Beta2-Agonists Medications in the beta 2 - ...

  10. Long Term Effects of Food Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... develop chronic arthritis. Brain and nerve damage A Listeria infection can lead to meningitis, an inflammation of ... brain. If a newborn infant is infected with Listeria , long-term consequences may include mental retardation, seizures, ...

  11. Long-term theranostic hydrogel system for solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jang Il; Lee, Beom Suk; Chun, Changju; Cho, Jung-Kyo; Kim, Sang-Yoon; Song, Soo-Chang

    2012-03-01

    The long-term theranostic hydrogel system for solid tumors was prepared via simple physical mixing, which consisted of three major parts: the thermosensitive/biodegradable poly(organophosphazene) hydrogel, PEGylated cobalt ferrite nanoparticles, and paclitaxel (PTX). The PEGylated cobalt ferrite nanoparticles showed extremely low cytotoxicity due to the surface modification using PEG chains. The long-term theranostic hydrogel system showed adequate properties to be used for long-term MR theragnosis. In particular, the theranostic hydrogel gradually degraded over 28 days, and the PTX was sustainedly released out from the theranostic hydrogel over the same period in vitro. Furthermore, the in vivo efficacy of long-term MR theragnosis using the theranostic hydrogel system was estimated successfully over 3 weeks by using high field (4.7 T) animal MRI and solid tumor-bearing mice. Based on our results, we expect that this system can supply multiple data regarding a) the progress of therapy and b) the treatment processes via one- or two-time i.t. administration for cases in which surgical approaches are difficult to apply. Meanwhile, cancer patients can be free from the pain of multiple surgical treatments and have the advantage of therapy through a simple i.t. administration. PMID:22189146

  12. 28 CFR 115.76 - Disciplinary sanctions for staff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disciplinary sanctions for staff. 115.76 Section 115.76 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Discipline § 115.76 Disciplinary sanctions...

  13. 28 CFR 115.376 - Disciplinary sanctions for staff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disciplinary sanctions for staff. 115.376 Section 115.376 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Discipline § 115.376 Disciplinary sanctions for...

  14. 28 CFR 115.76 - Disciplinary sanctions for staff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disciplinary sanctions for staff. 115.76 Section 115.76 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Discipline § 115.76 Disciplinary sanctions...

  15. 28 CFR 115.76 - Disciplinary sanctions for staff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disciplinary sanctions for staff. 115.76 Section 115.76 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Discipline § 115.76 Disciplinary sanctions...

  16. 28 CFR 115.176 - Disciplinary sanctions for staff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disciplinary sanctions for staff. 115.176 Section 115.176 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Discipline § 115.176 Disciplinary sanctions for staff. (a)...

  17. 28 CFR 115.376 - Disciplinary sanctions for staff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disciplinary sanctions for staff. 115.376 Section 115.376 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Discipline § 115.376 Disciplinary sanctions for...

  18. 28 CFR 115.176 - Disciplinary sanctions for staff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disciplinary sanctions for staff. 115.176 Section 115.176 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Discipline § 115.176 Disciplinary sanctions for staff. (a)...

  19. 28 CFR 115.376 - Disciplinary sanctions for staff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disciplinary sanctions for staff. 115.376 Section 115.376 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Discipline § 115.376 Disciplinary sanctions for...

  20. 28 CFR 115.176 - Disciplinary sanctions for staff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disciplinary sanctions for staff. 115.176 Section 115.176 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Discipline § 115.176 Disciplinary sanctions for staff. (a)...

  1. Long-term Multiwavelength Observations of Polars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, Joshua; Mason, Paul A.

    2016-06-01

    Polars are cataclysmic variables with the highest magnetic field strengths (10-250 MG). Matter is accreted after being funneled by the strong magnetic field of the white dwarf. We perform a meta-study of multi-wavelength data of polars. Many polars have been observed in surveys, such as SDSS, 2MASS, ROSAT, just to name a few. Some polars have now been detected by the JVLA, part of an expanding class of radio CVs. A large subset of polars have long-term optical light curves from CRTS and AAVSO. We suggest that the long term light curves of polars display a variety of signature behaviors and may be grouped accordingly. Additional characteristics such a binary period, magnetic field strengths, X-ray properties, and distance estimates are examined in context with long-term observations.

  2. Combined Administration of MF59-Adjuvanted A/H5N1 Prepandemic and Seasonal Influenza Vaccines: Long-Term Antibody Persistence and Robust Booster Responses 1 Year after a One-Dose Priming Schedule

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Pio; Caicedo, Yolanda; Sierra, Alexandra; Tilman, Sandrine; Clemens, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Having previously demonstrated the feasibility of administering A/H5N1 and seasonal influenza vaccine antigens in an MF59-adjuvanted tetravalent formulation, we now report on long-term antibody persistence and responses to a booster dose of a combined seasonal-pandemic, tetravalent influenza vaccine in adults. The primary objective was the evaluation of responses to a booster dose of tetravalent influenza vaccine containing seasonal (A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and B) and avian (A/H5N1, clade 2) influenza virus strains administered to 265 healthy 18- to 40-year-old volunteers 1 year after priming with one or two clade 1 A/H5N1 doses. Secondary objectives were assessment of reactogenicity, safety, and antibody persistence 1 year after priming with a combined seasonal-pandemic, tetravalent vaccine. Responses to seasonal strains met all European licensure criteria; seroprotection rates were 94 to 100%, 100%, and 61 to 90% for A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and B strains, respectively. Anamnestic responses were observed against homologous and heterologous A/H5N1 strains whether priming with one or two A/H5N1 doses, with a monovalent A/H5N1 vaccine, or with a tetravalent vaccine. A single dose of MF59-adjuvanted A/H5N1 vaccine given alone or as part of a fixed combination with a seasonal influenza vaccine was sufficient to prime adult subjects, resulting in robust antigen-specific and cross-reactive antibody responses to heterologous booster immunization 1 year later. These data support the feasibility of incorporating prepandemic priming into seasonal influenza vaccination programs. (This study has been registered at clinicaltrials.gov under registration no. NCT00481065.) PMID:23536690

  3. Scenarios for long-term analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wolbers, Stephen; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    Data Preservation and Long-Term Analysis of High Energy Physics (HEP) Experiments data is described and summarized in this talk. The summary covers information presented at the First Workshop on Data Preservation and Long-Term Analysis. Experiments representing e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions (LEP, B Factories and CLEO), ep collisions (H1 and ZEUS), p{bar p} collisions (CDF and D0) and others presented interesting information related to utilizing the large datasets collected over many years at these HEP facilities. Many questions and issues remain to be explored.

  4. Long-Term Use of Benzodiazepines

    PubMed Central

    Potts, Nicholas L.S.; Krishnan, K. Ranga R.

    1992-01-01

    Problems associated with physical dependence and abuse of benzodiazepines by a small percentage of patients have reduced their popularity from the most commonly prescribed psychoactive drug in the 1970s to being prescribed for mainly short periods. Patients who benefit from long-term benzodiazepine use are nearly ignored by the medical community as a whole. This article details what patient population can improve from long-term benzodiazepine therapy, the risks and benefits of treatment, and how to select appropriate candidates. PMID:21229127

  5. Long-term Outcomes after Severe Shock

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Cristina M.; Hirshberg, Eliotte L.; Jones, Jason P.; Kuttler, Kathryn G.; Lanspa, Michael J.; Wilson, Emily L.; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Brown, Samuel M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Severe shock is a life-threatening condition with very high short-term mortality. Whether the long-term outcomes among survivors of severe shock are similar to long-term outcomes of other critical illness survivors is unknown. We therefore sought to assess long-term survival and functional outcomes among 90-day survivors of severe shock and determine whether clinical predictors were associated with outcomes. Methods Seventy-six patients who were alive 90 days after severe shock (received ≥1 mcg/kg/min of norepinephrine equivalent) were eligible for the study. We measured three-year survival and long-term functional outcomes using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, the EuroQOL 5-D-3L, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised and an employment instrument. We also assessed the relationship between in-hospital predictors and long-term outcomes. Results The mean long-term survival was 5.1 years: 82% (62/76) of patients survived, of whom 49 were eligible for follow-up. Patients who died were older than patients who survived. Thirty-six patients completed a telephone interview a mean of five years after hospital admission. The patients’ Physical Functioning scores were below US population norms (p<0.001), whereas mental health scores were similar to population norms. Nineteen percent of the patients had symptoms of depression, 39% had symptoms of anxiety and 8% had symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Thirty-six percent were disabled, and 17% were working full time. Conclusions Early survivors of severe shock had a high three-year survival rate. Patients’ long term physical and psychological outcomes were similar to those reported for cohorts of less severely ill ICU survivors. Anxiety and depression were relatively common, but only a few patients had symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. This study supports the observation that acute illness severity does not determine long-term

  6. Long Term Care Aide. Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbee, Judy

    This course outline is intended to assist the instructor in the development of a curriculum for a long-term care aide program by specifying one component of the curriculum--the objectives. These objectives, or competencies expected as outcomes for student performance on completion of the program, describe the capabilities an individual must…

  7. Who Recommends Long-Term Care Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Robert L.; Bershadsky, Boris; Bershadsky, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Making good consumer decisions requires having good information. This study compared long-term-care recommendations among various types of health professionals. Design and Methods: We gave randomly varied scenarios to a convenience national sample of 211 professionals from varying disciplines and work locations. For each scenario, we…

  8. Long-term fixed income market structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grilli, Luca

    2004-02-01

    Long-term fixed income market securities present a strong positive correlation in daily returns. By using a metrical approach and considering “modified” time series, I show how it is possible to show a more complex structure which depends strictly on the maturity date.

  9. Professionalism in Long-Term Care Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubinski, Rosemary

    2006-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists who serve elders in a variety of long-term care settings have a variety of professional skills and responsibilities. Fundamental to quality service is knowledge of aging and communication changes and disorders associated with this process, institutional alternatives, and the changing nature of today's elders in…

  10. LONG TERM HYDROLOGICAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (LTHIA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    LTHIA is a universal Urban Sprawl analysis tool that is available to all at no charge through the Internet. It estimates impacts on runoff, recharge and nonpoint source pollution resulting from past or proposed land use changes. It gives long-term average annual runoff for a lan...

  11. NATIONAL LONG TERM CARE SURVEY (NLTCS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    National Long Term Care Surveys (NLTCS) are surveys of the entire aged population with a particular emphasis on the functionally impaired. Longitudinal study of the health and well-being of elderly Americans. Information about the population of chronically disabled elderly person...

  12. Long-Term Memory and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossland, John

    2011-01-01

    The English National Curriculum Programmes of Study emphasise the importance of knowledge, understanding and skills, and teachers are well versed in structuring learning in those terms. Research outcomes into how long-term memory is stored and retrieved provide support for structuring learning in this way. Four further messages are added to the…

  13. Long-Term Stability of Social Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyyppa, Markku T.; Maki, Juhani; Alanen, Erkki; Impivaara, Olli; Aromaa, Arpo

    2008-01-01

    The long-term stability of social participation was investigated in a representative urban population of 415 men and 579 women who had taken part in the nationwide Mini-Finland Health Survey in the years 1978-1980 and were re-examined 20 years later. Stability was assessed by means of the following tracking coefficients: kappa, proportion of…

  14. The Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program: What Does the Complaint Reporting System Tell Us?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Netting, F. Ellen; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Long-term care ombudsman programs are charged with resolving complaints and solving problems of elderly persons in long-term care settings. Conducted content analysis of annual ombudsman program reports sent to Administration on Aging from 49 states in 1990. Found substantial variation in documented information at both state and local levels and…

  15. Fostering Humane Care of Dying Persons in Long-Term Care. Guidebook for Staff Development Instructors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Sarah A.; Daley, Barbara

    This guide is intended for staff development instructors responsible for inservice education on the topic of fostering humane care for dying persons in long-term care. The introduction discusses the guide's development based on input from administrators, staff, and families of residents in long-term care facilities and focus group interviews in…

  16. 10 CFR 221.37 - Violations and sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Violations and sanctions. 221.37 Section 221.37 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL PRIORITY SUPPLY OF CRUDE OIL AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS TO THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE UNDER THE DEFENSE PRODUCTION ACT Administrative Procedures and Sanctions § 221.37 Violations...

  17. 10 CFR 221.37 - Violations and sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Violations and sanctions. 221.37 Section 221.37 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL PRIORITY SUPPLY OF CRUDE OIL AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS TO THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE UNDER THE DEFENSE PRODUCTION ACT Administrative Procedures and Sanctions § 221.37 Violations...

  18. 50 CFR 216.40 - Penalties and permit sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 216.40 Penalties and permit sanctions. (a) Any person who violates any... sanctions and forfeiture as authorized under the Acts, and 15 CFR part 904. (b) All special...

  19. 50 CFR 216.40 - Penalties and permit sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 216.40 Penalties and permit sanctions. (a) Any person who violates any... sanctions and forfeiture as authorized under the Acts, and 15 CFR part 904. (b) All special...

  20. 50 CFR 216.40 - Penalties and permit sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 216.40 Penalties and permit sanctions. (a) Any person who violates any... sanctions and forfeiture as authorized under the Acts, and 15 CFR part 904. (b) All special...

  1. Long-term expression and safety of administration of AAVrh.10hCLN2 to the brain of rats and nonhuman primates for the treatment of late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis.

    PubMed

    Sondhi, Dolan; Johnson, Linda; Purpura, Keith; Monette, Sebastien; Souweidane, Mark M; Kaplitt, Michael G; Kosofsky, Barry; Yohay, Kaleb; Ballon, Douglas; Dyke, Jonathan; Kaminksy, Stephen M; Hackett, Neil R; Crystal, Ronald G

    2012-10-01

    Late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (LINCL), a fatal, lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the CLN2 gene, results in a deficiency of tripeptidyl-peptidase I (TPP-I) activity in neurons. Our prior studies showed that delivery of the human CLN2 cDNA directly to the CNS, using an adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV2) vector, is safe in children with LINCL. As a second-generation strategy, we have demonstrated that AAVrh.10hCLN2, a rhesus-derived AAV vector, mediates wide distribution of TPP-I through the CNS in a murine model. This study tests the hypothesis that direct administration of AAVrh.10hCLN2 to the CNS of rats and nonhuman primates at doses scalable to humans has an acceptable safety profile and mediates significant CLN2 expression in the CNS. A dose of 10(11) genome copies (GC) was administered bilaterally to the striatum of Sprague Dawley rats with sacrifice at 7 and 90 days with no significant impact except for mild vector-related histopathological changes at the site of vector administration. A dose of 1.8×10(12) GC of AAVrh.10hCLN2 was administered to the CNS of 8 African green monkeys. The vector-treated monkeys did not differ from controls in any safety parameter except for mild to moderate white matter edema and inflammation localized to the administration sites of the vector. There were no clinical sequelae to these localized findings. TPP-I activity was >2 SD over background in 31.7±8.1% of brain at 90 days. These findings establish the dose and safety profile for human clinical studies for the treatment of LINCL with AAVrh.10hCLN2. PMID:23131032

  2. Long term mortality in burned children

    PubMed Central

    Stamboulian, Daniel; Lede, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Studies about risk factors for mortality in burn children are scarce and are even less in the follow up of this population across time. Usually, after complete event attendance, children are not follow-up as risk patients, burn injury affects all facets of life. Integration of professionals from different disciplines has enabled burn centers to develop collaborative methods of assessing the quality of care delivered to patients with burns. In this editorial we comment the paper of Duke et al. The authors highlight the importance of maintaining a long-term monitoring of children who suffered burns. The importance of this original study is to promote the reconsideration of clinical guides of long-term follow-up of burn patients. PMID:26835375

  3. Long term mortality in burned children.

    PubMed

    Rosanova, María Teresa; Stamboulian, Daniel; Lede, Roberto

    2015-07-01

    Studies about risk factors for mortality in burn children are scarce and are even less in the follow up of this population across time. Usually, after complete event attendance, children are not follow-up as risk patients, burn injury affects all facets of life. Integration of professionals from different disciplines has enabled burn centers to develop collaborative methods of assessing the quality of care delivered to patients with burns. In this editorial we comment the paper of Duke et al. The authors highlight the importance of maintaining a long-term monitoring of children who suffered burns. The importance of this original study is to promote the reconsideration of clinical guides of long-term follow-up of burn patients. PMID:26835375

  4. Long-term safety of retinoid therapy.

    PubMed

    Vahlquist, A

    1992-12-01

    The concern about long-term toxicity of oral synthetic retinoids has developed because many patients, especially those with genodermatoses, require lifelong therapy. Several organ systems are at risk, especially the hepatic, skeletal, and cardiovascular systems. Although acute hepatotoxicity is a rare side effect of etretinate and acitretin therapy, prospective studies have not demonstrated chronic liver toxicity. The frequency of bone changes induced by retinoids is difficult to estimate, because this adverse effect is usually asymptomatic and requires x-ray or scintigraphic examination for detection. Atherosclerosis develops in many patients who receive long-term retinoid therapy, but the extent to which the process is aggravated by drug-induced hyperlipidemia is not known. Many patients have now been treated with either etretinate or isotretinoin continuously for as many as 15 years and have not developed any signs of severe chronic toxicity. However, continued intense surveillance is recommended for patients expected to require lifelong therapy. PMID:1460122

  5. 75 FR 53976 - Risks and Benefits of Long-Term Use of Nicotine Replacement Therapy Products; Public Workshop...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... Therapy Products; Public Workshop; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... risks and benefits associated with the long- term use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT)...

  6. Long-term orbital lifetime predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreher, P. E.; Lyons, A. T.

    1990-10-01

    Long-term orbital lifetime predictions are analyzed. Predictions were made for three satellites: the Solar Max Mission (SMM), the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), and the Pegasus Boiler Plate (BP). A technique is discussed for determining an appropriate ballistic coefficient to use in the lifetime prediction. The orbital decay rate should be monitored regularly. Ballistic coefficient updates should be done whenever there is a significant change in the actual decay rate or in the solar activity prediction.

  7. Long-term sequelae of electrical injury

    PubMed Central

    Wesner, Marni L.; Hickie, John

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To summarize the current evidence-based knowledge about the long-term sequelae of injuries from electrical current. Quality of evidence MEDLINE was searched for English-language articles published in the past 20 years using the following search terms: electrical, injuries, wound, trauma, accident, sequelae, long-term, follow-up, and aftereffects. For obvious reasons, it is unethical to randomly study electrical injury in controlled clinical trials. By necessity, this topic is addressed in less-rigorous observational and retrospective work and case studies. Therefore, the strength of the literature pertaining to the long-term sequelae of electrical injury is impaired by the necessity of retrospective methods and case studies that typically describe small cohorts. Main message There are 2 possible consequences of electrical injury: the person either survives or dies. For those who survive electrical injury, the immediate consequences are usually obvious and often require extensive medical intervention. The long-term sequelae of the electrical injury might be more subtle, pervasive, and less well defined, but can include neurologic, psychological, and physical symptoms. In the field of compensation medicine, determining causation and attributing outcome to an injury that might not result in objective clinical findings becomes a considerable challenge. Conclusion The appearance of these consequences of electrical injury might be substantially delayed, with onset 1 to 5 or more years after the electrical injury. This poses a problem for patients and health care workers, making it hard to ascribe symptoms to a remote injury when they might not arise until well after the incident event. PMID:24029506

  8. Long-term Variation of AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, J. H.; Xie, G. Z.; Adam, G.; Copin, Y.; Lin, R. G.; Bai, J. M.; Quin, Y. P.

    In this paper we will present the long-term variation in the optical and the infrared bands for some selected AGNs. 1. Some new optical data observed by us have been presented for BL Lacertae (1995-1996) and OJ 287 (1994-1995), and new infrared data are presented for OJ 287 (Nov=2E 1995), which corresponds to the second optical peak (Sillanpaa et al. 1996; Takalo et al. 1996) and during last outburst. 2. For objects with long term observations, the Jurkevich's method has been used to analyses the long-term variation period. It is interesting that the reported periods of AGNs are of the similar value of about 10 years: 3C 345 11.4 years (Webb et al. 1988), 3C 120 15 years (Belokon et al. 1987; Hagen-Thorn et al. 1997), ON 231 13.6 years (Liu et al. 1995), OJ 287 12 years (Sillanpaa et al. 1988; Kidger et al. 1992), PKS 0735+178 14 years (Fan et al. 1997), NGC 4151 15 years (Fan et al. 1998a), BL Lacertae 14.0 years (Fan et al. 1998b). Is the mechanism for the long-term variation the same for different AGNs? 3. The DCF method has been adopted to analysis the variation correlation in the optical and infrared bands for BL Lac object OJ 287, the results show that these two bands are strongly correlated, which suggest that the emission mechanism in the two bands is the same. 4. For the optical and infrared bands, the maximum variations are correlated.

  9. Long-term home hemodialysis in children

    PubMed Central

    Borra, Sonia; Kaye, Michael

    1971-01-01

    Experience with chronic hemodialysis as a definitive form of therapy is described for six children aged 11 to 15 years at the onset. Duration on dialysis in the home has been between one and 4½ years. All patients are alive and rehabilitated without serious complications. It is concluded that although transplantation is the most desirable form of treatment for children, long-term hemodialysis is an alternative acceptable second choice. ImagesFIG. 2 PMID:5150193

  10. Long-term consequences of anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Meczekalski, Blazej; Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Katulski, Krzysztof

    2013-07-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorder that occurs mainly in female adolescents and young women. The obsessive fear of weight gain, critically limited food intake and neuroendocrine aberrations characteristic of AN have both short- and long-term consequences for the reproductive, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and skeletal systems. Neuroendocrine changes include impairment of gonadotropin releasing-hormone (GnRH) pulsatile secretion and changes in neuropeptide activity at the hypothalamic level, which cause profound hypoestrogenism. AN is related to a decrease in bone mass density, which can lead to osteopenia and osteoporosis and a significant increase in fracture risk in later life. Rates of birth complications and low birth weight may be higher in women with previous AN. The condition is associated with fertility problems, unplanned pregnancies and generally negative attitudes to pregnancy. During pregnancy, women with the condition have higher rates of hyperemesis gravidarum, anaemia and obstetric complications, as well as impaired weight gain and compromised intrauterine foetal growth. It is reported that 80% of AN patients are affected by a cardiac complications such as sinus bradycardia, a prolonged QT interval on electrocardiography, arrythmias, myocardial mass modification and hypotension. A decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) is one of the most important medical consequences of AN. Reduced BMD may subsequently lead to a three- to seven-fold increased risk of spontaneous fractures. Untreated AN is associated with a significant increase in the risk of death. Better detection and sophisticated therapy should prevent the long-term consequences of this disorder. The aims of treatment are not only recovery but also prophylaxis and relief of the long-term effects of this disorder. Further investigations of the long-term disease risk are needed. PMID:23706279

  11. Titanium for long-term tritium storage

    SciTech Connect

    Heung, L.K.

    1994-12-01

    Due to the reduction of nuclear weapon stockpile, there will be an excess of tritium returned from the field. The excess tritium needs to be stored for future use, which might be several years away. A safe and cost effective means for long term storage of tritium is needed. Storing tritium in a solid metal tritide is preferred to storing tritium as a gas, because a metal tritide can store tritium in a compact form and the stored tritium will not be released until heat is applied to increase its temperature to several hundred degrees centigrade. Storing tritium as a tritide is safer and more cost effective than as a gas. Several candidate metal hydride materials have been evaluated for long term tritium storage. They include uranium, La-Ni-Al alloys, zirconium and titanium. The criteria used include material cost, radioactivity, stability to air, storage capacity, storage pressure, loading and unloading conditions, and helium retention. Titanium has the best combination of properties and is recommended for long term tritium storage.

  12. [Long-term survival after severe trauma].

    PubMed

    Mutschler, W; Mutschler, M; Graw, M; Lefering, R

    2016-07-01

    Long-term survival after severe trauma is rarely addressed in German trauma journals although knowledge of life expectancy and identification of factors contributing to increased mortality are important for lifetime care management, development of service models, and targeting health promotion and prevention interventions. As reliable data in Germany are lacking, we compiled data mainly from the USA and Australia to describe life expectancy, risk factors, and predictors of outcome in patients experiencing traumatic spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, and polytrauma. Two years after trauma, life expectancy in all three categories was significantly lower than that of the general population. It depends strongly on severity of disability, age, and gender and is quantifiable. Whereas improvements in medical care have led to a marked decline in short-term mortality, surprisingly long-term survival in severe trauma has not changed over the past 30 years. Therefore, there is need to intensify long-term trauma patient care and to find new strategies to limit primary damage. PMID:27342106

  13. Economic evaluation in long-term clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Hlatky, Mark A; Boothroyd, Derek B; Johnstone, Iain M

    2002-10-15

    Economic endpoints have been increasingly included in long-term clinical trials, but they pose several methodologic challenges, including how best to collect, describe, analyse and interpret medical cost data. Cost of care can be measured by converting billed charges, performing detailed micro-costing studies, or by measuring use of key resources and assigning cost weights to each resource. The latter method is most commonly used, with cost weights based either on empirical regression models or administratively determined reimbursement rates. In long-term studies, monetary units should be adjusted to reflect cost inflation and discounting. The temporal pattern of accumulating costs can be described using a modification of the Kaplan-Meier curve. Regression analyses to evaluate factors associated with cost are best performed on the log of costs due to their typically skewed distribution.Cost-effectiveness analysis attempts to measure the value of a new therapy by calculating the difference in cost between the new therapy and the standard therapy, divided by the difference in benefit between the new therapy and the standard therapy. The cost-effectiveness ratio based on the results of a randomized trial may change substantially with longer follow-up intervals, particularly for therapies that are initially expensive but eventually improve survival. A model that projects long-term patterns of cost and survival expected beyond the end of completed follow-up can provide an important perspective in the setting of limited trial duration. PMID:12325104

  14. 15 CFR 764.3 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... another agency. (22 CFR 126.7(a) and 127.11(a).) (B) The Department of Defense, among other agencies, may... either as a sanction for a violation specified in this part or as a protective administrative measure... export or reexport is being used by such controlled country for military or intelligence...

  15. 18 CFR 420.22 - Prohibition; sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Prohibition; sanctions. 420.22 Section 420.22 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-WATER SUPPLY CHARGES Water Supply Policy § 420.22 Prohibition;...

  16. 18 CFR 420.22 - Prohibition; sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prohibition; sanctions. 420.22 Section 420.22 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-WATER SUPPLY CHARGES Water Supply Policy § 420.22 Prohibition;...

  17. 18 CFR 420.22 - Prohibition; sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibition; sanctions. 420.22 Section 420.22 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-WATER SUPPLY CHARGES Water Supply Policy § 420.22 Prohibition;...

  18. 18 CFR 420.22 - Prohibition; sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prohibition; sanctions. 420.22 Section 420.22 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-WATER SUPPLY CHARGES Water Supply Policy § 420.22 Prohibition;...

  19. 18 CFR 420.22 - Prohibition; sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prohibition; sanctions. 420.22 Section 420.22 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-WATER SUPPLY CHARGES Water Supply Policy § 420.22 Prohibition;...

  20. Anesthesiology Devices; Reclassification of Membrane Lung for Long-Term Pulmonary Support; Redesignation as Extracorporeal Circuit and Accessories for Long-Term Respiratory/Cardiopulmonary Failure. Final order.

    PubMed

    2016-02-12

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final order to redesignate membrane lung devices for long-term pulmonary support, a preamendments class III device, as extracorporeal circuit and accessories for long-term respiratory/cardiopulmonary failure, and to reclassify the device to class II (special controls) in patients with acute respiratory failure or acute cardiopulmonary failure where other available treatment options have failed, and continued clinical deterioration is expected or the risk of death is imminent. A membrane lung device for long-term pulmonary support (>6 hours) refers to the oxygenator in an extracorporeal circuit used during long-term procedures, commonly referred to as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Because a number of other devices and accessories are used with the oxygenator in the circuit, the title and identification of the regulation are revised to include extracorporeal circuit and accessories for long-term respiratory/cardiopulmonary failure. Although an individual device or accessory used in an ECMO circuit may already have its own classification regulation when the device or accessory is intended for short-term use (<=6 hours), such device or accessory will be subject to the same regulatory controls applied to the oxygenator (i.e., class II, special controls) when evaluated as part of the ECMO circuit for long-term use (>6 hours). On its own initiative, based on new information, FDA is revising the classification of the membrane lung device for long-term pulmonary support. PMID:26878739

  1. Long-term EARLINET dust observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mona, Lucia; Amiridis, Vassilis; Amodeo, Aldo; Binietoglou, Ioannis; D'Amico, Giuseppe; Schwarz, Anja; Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; Papayannis, Alexandros; Sicard, Michael; Comeron, Adolfo; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2015-04-01

    Systematic observations of Saharan dust events over Europe are performed from May 2000 by EARLINET, the European Aerosol Research LIdar NETwork. EARLINET is a coordinated network of stations that make use of advanced lidar methods for the vertical profiling of aerosols. The backbone of EARLINET network is a common schedule for performing the measurements and the quality assurance of instruments/data. Particular attention is paid to monitoring the Saharan dust intrusions over the European continent. The geographical distribution of the EARLINET stations is particularly appealing for the dust observation, with stations located all around the Mediterranean and in the center of the Mediterranean (Italian stations) where dust intrusions are frequent, and with several stations in the central Europe where dust penetrates occasionally. All aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles related to observations collected during these alerts are grouped in the devoted "Saharan dust" category of the EARLINET database. This category consists of about 4700 files (as of December 2013). Case studies involving several stations around Europe selected from this long-term database have been provided the opportunity to investigate dust modification processes during transport over the continent. More important, the long term EARLINET dust monitoring allows the investigation of the horizontal and vertical extent of dust outbreaks over Europe and the climatological analysis of dust optical intensive and extensive properties at continental scale. This long-term database is also a unique tool for a systematic comparison with dust model outputs and satellite-derived dust products. Because of the relevance for both dust modeling and satellite retrievals improvement, results about desert dust layers extensive properties as a function of season and source regions are investigated and will be presented at the conference. First comparisons with models outputs and CALIPSO dust products will be

  2. Timber beams subjected to long - term loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sógel, K.

    2010-09-01

    Wood is a significant structural material, which is often used for timber bearing structures. Elements of timber structures must especially satisfy safety requirements, which are expressed by the ultimate limit states in the established standards. The structure must also satisfy the serviceability limit states. Local and global deformations make it impossible for the structure to serve the purpose it was designed for. It is important to take the deflections and their possible increase into account in the design to provide a structure which can be used during the whole period of service. Based on earlier examinations, it is known that a timber element over the course of long-term loading shows creep behavior. The structure of wood is able to adapt to the conditions of the surrounding environment. The properties of wood are especially affected by the relative humidity of the air and then by the type, intensity and duration of the loading. The most important factors affecting the serviceability of timber structures are volume changes caused by humidity and additional deflections caused by the effects of long-term loading. These phenomena emphasize the importance of serviceability limit states for timber structures. The paper deals with a long-term experimental investigation of timber girders that are currently often used. The aim was to obtain the deflection curves and mark the time dependence and the final deflections. The paper will also define the approximations for simulating the time-dependent deflections and obtain the creep coefficients for calculating the final deflections of the girders investigated.

  3. [Long-term treatment with amiodarone].

    PubMed

    Baedeker, W; Goedel-Meinen, L; Schmidt, G; Hofmann, M; Barthel, P; Blömer, H

    1991-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and the side effects of a long-term treatment with amiodarone. We analyzed the data of 41 patients in whom amiodarone therapy had been initiated between 1974 and 1984. Twenty-one patients had dilative cardiomyopathy, 14 patients had chronic myocardial infarction, four patients suffered from WPW syndrome with intermittent atrial fibrillation, one patient had aortic valve surgery, whereas in one patient there was no clinical evidence of a heart disease. All patients had salvos of ventricular extrasystoles, ventricular tachycardia or documented intermittent ventricular fibrillation. There have been seven drop-outs up to the present time. In each patient, the lowest antiarrhythmically effective dose was applied, which was generally higher in patients with low ejection fraction. Effective treatment of the ventricular tachycardia was achieved in 55-92% of patients and did not depend on the duration of treatment. In 10 patients in whom amiodarone therapy had to be stopped for various reasons. Sudden cardiac death was slightly more frequent than in the 24 patients treated with amiodarone, though the difference was not significant. In cases with a history of syncope the prognosis was poor, even with amiodarone therapy. Due to side effects, a dosage reduction or discontinuation of amiodarone treatment became necessary in 14 patients. Amiodarone proved to be an effective drug also for the long-term treatment of ventricular tachycardia, and possibly for the prevention of sudden cardiac death. With the exception of blue skin color, there was no accumulation of side effects, even during long-term treatment of several years. PMID:1711739

  4. Long Term Archiving and CCSDS Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucon, Danièle

    This article presents some conceptual and implementation CCSDS -Consultative Committee for Space Data Systemsstandards for long term archiving. It focuses on the most recent one, the Producer Archive Interface Specification (PAIS) standard. This standard, currently available as a draft on the CCSDS web site, will be published by the beginning of 2014. It will enable the Producer to share with the Archive a sufficiently precise and unambiguous formal definition of the Digital Objects to be produced and transferred, by means of a model. It will also enable a precise definition of the packaging of these objects in the form of Submission Information Packages (SIPs), including the order in which they should be transferred.

  5. Long-Term Wind Power Variability

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Y. H.

    2012-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory started collecting wind power data from large commercial wind power plants (WPPs) in southwest Minnesota with dedicated dataloggers and communication links in the spring of 2000. Over the years, additional WPPs in other areas were added to and removed from the data collection effort. The longest data stream of actual wind plant output is more than 10 years. The resulting data have been used to analyze wind power fluctuations, frequency distribution of changes, the effects of spatial diversity, and wind power ancillary services. This report uses the multi-year wind power data to examine long-term wind power variability.

  6. Long-term outcomes in multiple gestations.

    PubMed

    Rand, Larry; Eddleman, Keith A; Stone, Joanne

    2005-06-01

    Children born from a multiple gestation are at increased risk for cerebral palsy, learning disability, and language and neurobehavioral deficits. With the increased incidence of multiple pregnancies and use of assisted reproductive technology (ART), these issues are more commonly affecting parents. Long-term outcomes are a critical part of preconceptual and early pregnancy counseling for parents faced with a multiple gestation or considering ART, and the provider should be well versed on issues surrounding zygosity, gestational age, higher-order multiples, and the effects of options such as multifetal pregnancy reduction. PMID:15922795

  7. Long-Term Solar Irradiance Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pap, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    Measurements of the solar energy throughout the solar spectrum and understanding its variability provide important information about the physical processes and structural changes in the solar interior and in the solar atmosphere...The aim of this paper is to discuss the solar-cycle-related long-term changes in solar total and UV irradiances. The spaceborne irradiance observations are compared to ground-based indices of solar magnetic activity, such as the Photometric Sunspot Index, full disk magnetic flux, and the Mt. Wilson Magnetic Plage Strength Index.

  8. Performance considerations in long-term spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akins, F. R.

    1979-01-01

    Maintenance of skilled performance during extended space flight is of critical importance to both the health and safety of crew members and to the overall success of mission goals. An examination of long term effects and performance requirements is therefore a factor of immense importance to the planning of future missions. Factors that were investigated include: definition of performance categories to be investigated; methods for assessing and predicting performance levels; in-flight factors which can affect performance; and factors pertinent to the maintenance of skilled performance.

  9. Human Behaviour in Long-Term Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session WP1, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Psychological Support for International Space Station Mission; Psycho-social Training for Man in Space; Study of the Physiological Adaptation of the Crew During A 135-Day Space Simulation; Interpersonal Relationships in Space Simulation, The Long-Term Bed Rest in Head-Down Tilt Position; Psychological Adaptation in Groups of Varying Sizes and Environments; Deviance Among Expeditioners, Defining the Off-Nominal Act in Space and Polar Field Analogs; Getting Effective Sleep in the Space-Station Environment; Human Sleep and Circadian Rhythms are Altered During Spaceflight; and Methodological Approach to Study of Cosmonauts Errors and Its Instrumental Support.

  10. 47 CFR 54.303 - Long term support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Long term support. 54.303 Section 54.303... SERVICE Universal Service Support for High Cost Areas § 54.303 Long term support. (a) Beginning January 1... shall receive Long Term Support. Beginning July 1, 2004, no carrier shall receive Long Term Support....

  11. 47 CFR 54.303 - Long term support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Long term support. 54.303 Section 54.303... SERVICE Universal Service Support for High Cost Areas § 54.303 Long term support. (a) Beginning January 1... shall receive Long Term Support. Beginning July 1, 2004, no carrier shall receive Long Term Support....

  12. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation.

    PubMed

    Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-10-22

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted image of a famous person were larger in a group of participants who had slept (experiment 1) or merely napped for 90 min (experiment 2) during the interval between adaptation and test compared with controls who stayed awake. Participants' individual rapid eye movement sleep duration predicted the size of post-sleep behavioural adaptation effects. Our data suggest that sleep prevented decay of adaptation in a way that is qualitatively different from the effects of reduced visual interference known as 'storage'. In the light of the well-established link between sleep and memory consolidation, our findings link the perceptual mechanisms of sensory adaptation--which are usually not considered to play a relevant role in mnemonic processes--with learning and memory, and at the same time reveal a new function of sleep in cognition. PMID:23986109

  13. Long term perfusion system supporting adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Rosalyn D.; Raja, Waseem K.; Wang, Rebecca Y.; Stinson, Jordan A.; Glettig, Dean L.; Burke, Kelly A.; Kaplan, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue engineered models are needed to enhance our understanding of disease mechanisms and for soft tissue regenerative strategies. Perfusion systems generate more physiologically relevant and sustainable adipose tissue models, however adipocytes have unique properties that make culturing them in a perfusion environment challenging. In this paper we describe the methods involved in the development of two perfusion culture systems (2D and 3D) to test their applicability for long term in vitro adipogenic cultures. It was hypothesized that a silk protein biomaterial scaffold would provide a 3D framework, in combination with perfusion flow, to generate a more physiologically relevant sustainable adipose tissue engineered model than 2D cell culture. Consistent with other studies evaluating 2D and 3D culture systems for adipogenesis we found that both systems successfully model adipogensis, however 3D culture systems were more robust, providing the mechanical structure required to contain the large, fragile adipocytes that were lost in 2D perfused culture systems. 3D perfusion also stimulated greater lipogenesis and lipolysis and resulted in decreased secretion of LDH compared to 2D perfusion. Regardless of culture configuration (2D or 3D) greater glycerol was secreted with the increased nutritional supply provided by perfusion of fresh media. These results are promising for adipose tissue engineering applications including long term cultures for studying disease mechanisms and regenerative approaches, where both acute (days to weeks) and chronic (weeks to months) cultivation are critical for useful insight. PMID:25843606

  14. Long Term Changes in the Polar Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braathen, Geir O.

    2016-04-01

    As the amount of halogens in the stratosphere is slowly declining and the ozone layer slowly recovers it is of interest to see how the meteorological conditions in the vortex develop over the long term since such changes might alter the foreseen ozone recovery. In conjunction with the publication of the WMO Antarctic and Arctic Ozone Bulletins, WMO has acquired the ERA Interim global reanalysis data set for several meteorological parameters. This data set goes from 1979 - present. These long time series of data can be used for several useful studies of the long term development of the polar vortices. Several "environmental indicators" for vortex change have been calculated, and a climatology, as well as trends, for these parameters will be presented. These indicators can act as yardsticks and will be useful for understanding past and future changes in the polar vortices and how these changes affect polar ozone depletion. Examples of indicators are: vortex mean temperature, vortex minimum temperature, vortex mean PV, vortex "importance" (PV*area), vortex break-up time, mean and maximum wind speed. Data for both the north and south polar vortices have been analysed at several isentropic levels from 350 to 850 K. A possible link between changes in PV and sudden stratospheric warmings will be investigated, and the results presented. The unusual meteorological conditions of the 2015 south polar vortex and the 2010/11 and 2015/16 north polar vortices will be compared to other recent years.

  15. Long-Term Care Policy: Singapore's Experience.

    PubMed

    Chin, Chee Wei Winston; Phua, Kai-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Singapore, like many developed countries, is facing the challenge of a rapidly aging population and the increasing need to provide long-term care (LTC) services for elderly in the community. The Singapore government's philosophy on care for the elderly is that the family should be the first line of support, and it has relied on voluntary welfare organizations (VWOs) or charities for the bulk of LTC service provision. For LTC financing, it has emphasized the principles of co-payment and targeting of state support to the low-income population through means-tested government subsidies. It has also instituted ElderShield, a national severe disability insurance scheme. This paper discusses some of the challenges facing LTC policy in Singapore, particularly the presence of perverse financial incentives for hospitalization, the pitfalls of over-reliance on VWOs, and the challenges facing informal family caregivers. It discusses the role of private LTC insurance in LTC financing, bearing in mind demand- and supply-side failures that have plagued the private LTC insurance market. It suggests the need for more standardized needs assessment and portable LTC benefits, with reference to the Japanese Long-Term Care Insurance program, and also discusses the need to provide more support to informal family caregivers. PMID:26808468

  16. Long term changes in the polar vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braathen, Geir O.

    2015-04-01

    As the amount of halogens in the stratosphere is slowly declining and the ozone layer slowly recovers it is of interest to see how the meteorological conditions in the vortex develop over the long term since such changes might alter the foreseen ozone recovery. In conjunction with the publication of the WMO Antarctic and Arctic Ozone Bulletins, WMO has acquired the ERA Interim global reanalysis data set for several meteorological parameters. This data set goes from 1979 - present. These long time series of data can be used for several useful studies of the long term development of the polar vortices. Several "environmental indicators" for vortex change have been calculated, and a climatology, as well as trends, for these parameters will be presented. These indicators can act as yardsticks and will be useful for understanding past and future changes in the polar vortices and how these changes affect polar ozone depletion. Examples of indicators are: vortex mean temperature, vortex minimum temperature, vortex mean PV, vortex "importance" (PV*area), vortex break-up time, mean and maximum wind speed. Data for both the north and south polar vortices have been analysed at several isentropic levels from 350 to 850 K. A possible link between changes in PV and sudden stratospheric warmings will be investigated, and the results presented.

  17. Long-term intracranial pressure monitoring.

    PubMed

    de Jong, D A; Maas, A I; den Ouden, A H; de Lange, S A

    Continuous or intermittent measurement of intracranial pressure (ICP) is important in patients at risk for raised ICP. Indications exist for short- and long-term measurements. The various methods used for short-term monitoring are discussed with their relative advantages and disadvantages. For long-term measurements of ICP use of a completely implantable telemetric epidural pressure transducer is indicated. No such device is commercially available. We have developed an inexpensive passive telemetric transducer for this purpose. Results obtained up till now have demonstrated its reliability for measurements of two to three months duration. The life span of the device is limited by degrading of the epoxy utilized for sealing of the titanium pressure sensing part to the radiolucent ceramic cap of the transducer, causing leakage of water into the transducer and false low measurements. Because of these problems new hermetic sealing techniques were tested. Both active metal brazing and glass bonding yielded good results and hermetic sealing could be obtained. The metal to ceramic bonding presented is generally applicable within the design of implants. Besides the technical progress reported, the experience with clinical use in 12 patients is presented. PMID:6674738

  18. 50 CFR 216.40 - Penalties and permit sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... sanctions and forfeiture as authorized under the Acts, and 15 CFR part 904. (b) All special exception... of subpart D of 15 CFR part 904. ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF...

  19. 50 CFR 216.40 - Penalties and permit sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... sanctions and forfeiture as authorized under the Acts, and 15 CFR part 904. (b) All special exception... of subpart D of 15 CFR part 904. ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF...

  20. Cyberbullying: Sanctions or Sensitivity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowie, Helen; Colliety, Pat

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the phenomenon of cyberbullying. The argument here is that, although there is a case for sanctions, schools also have a critical role to play in preventing and reducing cyberbullying through a process of awareness-raising, the education of the emotions and active participation of children and young people themselves.

  1. Managing soils for long-term productivity

    PubMed Central

    Syers, J. K.

    1997-01-01

    Meeting the goal of long-term agricultural productivity requires that soil degradation be halted and reversed. Soil fertility decline is a key factor in soil degradation and is probably the major cause of declining crop yields. There is evidence that the contribution of declining soil fertility to soil degradation has been underestimated.
    Sensitivity to soil degradation is implicit in the assessment of the sustainability of land management practices, with wide recognition of the fact that soils vary in their ability to resist change and recover subsequent to stress. The concept of resilience in relation to sustainability requires further elaboration and evaluation.
    In the context of soil degradation, a decline in soil fertility is primarily interpreted as the depletion of organic matter and plant nutrients. Despite a higher turnover rate of organic matter in the tropics there is no intrinsic difference between the organic matter content of soils from tropical and temperate regions. The level of organic matter in a soil is closely related to the above and below ground inputs. In the absence of adequate organic material inputs and where cultivation is continuous, soil organic matter declines progressively. Maintaining the quantity and quality of soil organic matter should be a guiding principle in developing management practices.
    Soil microbial biomass serves as an important reservoir of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and sulphur (S), and regulates the cycling of organic matter and nutrients. Because of its high turnover rate, microbial biomass reacts quickly to changes in management and is a sensitive indicator for monitoring and predicting changes in soil organic matter. Modelling techniques have been reasonably successful in predicting changes in soil organic matter with different organic material inputs, but there is little information from the tropics.
    Nutrient depletion through harvested crop components and residue removal, and by leaching and soil

  2. Long-term control of root growth

    DOEpatents

    Burton, Frederick G.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Cline, John F.; Skiens, W. Eugene

    1992-05-26

    A method and system for long-term control of root growth without killing the plants bearing those roots involves incorporating a 2,6-dinitroaniline in a polymer and disposing the polymer in an area in which root control is desired. This results in controlled release of the substituted aniline herbicide over a period of many years. Herbicides of this class have the property of preventing root elongation without translocating into other parts of the plant. The herbicide may be encapsulated in the polymer or mixed with it. The polymer-herbicide mixture may be formed into pellets, sheets, pipe gaskets, pipes for carrying water, or various other forms. The invention may be applied to other protection of buried hazardous wastes, protection of underground pipes, prevention of root intrusion beneath slabs, the dwarfing of trees or shrubs and other applications. The preferred herbicide is 4-difluoromethyl-N,N-dipropyl-2,6-dinitro-aniline, commonly known as trifluralin.

  3. Long-term control of root growth

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, F.G.; Cataldo, D.A.; Cline, J.F.; Skiens, W.E.

    1992-05-26

    A method and system for long-term control of root growth without killing the plants bearing those roots involves incorporating a 2,6-dinitroaniline in a polymer and disposing the polymer in an area in which root control is desired. This results in controlled release of the substituted aniline herbicide over a period of many years. Herbicides of this class have the property of preventing root elongation without translocating into other parts of the plant. The herbicide may be encapsulated in the polymer or mixed with it. The polymer-herbicide mixture may be formed into pellets, sheets, pipe gaskets, pipes for carrying water, or various other forms. The invention may be applied to other protection of buried hazardous wastes, protection of underground pipes, prevention of root intrusion beneath slabs, the dwarfing of trees or shrubs and other applications. The preferred herbicide is 4-difluoromethyl-N,N-dipropyl-2,6-dinitro-aniline, commonly known as trifluralin. 7 figs.

  4. Long term thermoelectric module testing system.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Jonathan; Hogan, Timothy

    2009-10-01

    Thermoelectric generators can be used for converting waste heat into electric power. Significant interest in developing new materials in recent years has led to the discovery of several promising thermoelectrics, however, there can be considerable challenges in developing the materials into working devices. Testing and feedback is needed at each step to gain valuable information for identification of difficulties, quality of the materials and modules, repeatability in fabrication, and longevity of the devices. This paper describes a long-term module testing system for monitoring the output power of a module over extended testing times. To evaluate the system, we have tested commercially available thermoelectric modules over a one month time period. PMID:19895086

  5. Advanced long term cryogenic storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Norman S.

    1987-01-01

    Long term, cryogenic fluid storage facilities will be required to support future space programs such as the space-based Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV), Telescopes, and Laser Systems. An orbital liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen storage system with an initial capacity of approximately 200,000 lb will be required. The storage facility tank design must have the capability of fluid acquisition in microgravity and limit cryogen boiloff due to environmental heating. Cryogenic boiloff management features, minimizing Earth-to-orbit transportation costs, will include advanced thick multilayer insulation/integrated vapor cooled shield concepts, low conductance support structures, and refrigeration/reliquefaction systems. Contracted study efforts are under way to develop storage system designs, technology plans, test article hardware designs, and develop plans for ground/flight testing.

  6. Withdrawal from long-term benzodiazepine treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Petursson, H; Lader, M H

    1981-01-01

    Long-term, normal-dose benzodiazepine treatment was discontinued in 16 patients who were suspected of being dependent on their medication. The withdrawal was gradual, placebo-controlled, and double-blind. All the patients experienced some form of withdrawal reaction, which ranged from anxiety and dysphoria to moderate affective and perceptual changes. Symptom ratings rose as the drugs were discontinued, but usually subsided to prewithdrawal levels over the next two to four weeks. Other features of the withdrawal included disturbance of sleep and appetite and noticeable weight loss. Electroencephalography showed appreciable reduction in fast-wave activity as the drugs were withdrawn, and an improvement in psychological performance was recorded by the Digit Symbol Substitution Test. Because of the risk of dependence on benzodiazepines these agents should probably not be given as regular daily treatment for chronic anxiety. PMID:6114776

  7. Long term performance of radon mitigation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Prill, R.; Fisk, W.J.

    2002-03-01

    Researchers installed radon mitigation systems in 12 houses in Spokane, Washington and Coeur d'Alene, Idaho during the heating season 1985--1986 and continued to monitor indoor radon quarterly and annually for ten years. The mitigation systems included active sub-slab ventilation, basement over-pressurization, and crawlspace isolation and ventilation. The occupants reported various operational problems with these early mitigation systems. The long-term radon measurements were essential to track the effectiveness of the mitigation systems over time. All 12 homes were visited during the second year of the study, while a second set 5 homes was visited during the fifth year to determine the cause(s) of increased radon in the homes. During these visits, the mitigation systems were inspected and measurements of system performance were made. Maintenance and modifications were performed to improve system performance in these homes.

  8. Managing Records for the Long Term - 12363

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, John V.; Gueretta, Jeanie

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing vast amounts of information documenting historical and current operations. This information is critical to the operations of the DOE Office of Legacy Management. Managing legacy records and information is challenging in terms of accessibility and changing technology. The Office of Legacy Management is meeting these challenges by making records and information management an organizational priority. The Office of Legacy Management mission is to manage DOE post-closure responsibilities at former Cold War weapons sites to ensure the future protection of human health and the environment. These responsibilities include environmental stewardship and long-term preservation and management of operational and environmental cleanup records associated with each site. A primary organizational goal for the Office of Legacy Management is to 'Preserve, Protect, and Share Records and Information'. Managing records for long-term preservation is an important responsibility. Adequate and dedicated resources and management support are required to perform this responsibility successfully. Records tell the story of an organization and may be required to defend an organization in court, provide historical information, identify lessons learned, or provide valuable information for researchers. Loss of records or the inability to retrieve records because of poor records management processes can have serious consequences and even lead to an organisation's downfall. Organizations must invest time and resources to establish a good records management program because of its significance to the organization as a whole. The Office of Legacy Management will continue to research and apply innovative ways of doing business to ensure that the organization stays at the forefront of effective records and information management. DOE is committed to preserving records that document our nation's Cold War legacy, and the Office of Legacy

  9. Long-term dynamics of Typha populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grace, J.B.; Wetzel, R.G.

    1998-01-01

    The zonation of Typha populations in an experimental pond in Michigan was re-examined 15 years after the original sampling to gain insight into the long-term dynamics. Current distributions of Typha populations were also examined in additional experimental ponds at the site that have been maintained for 23 years. The zonation between T. latifolia and T. angustifolia in the previously studied pond 15 years after the initial sampling revealed that the density and distribution of shoots had not changed significantly. Thus, it appears that previously reported results (based on 7- year old populations) have remained consistent over time. Additional insight into the interaction between these two taxa was sought by comparing mixed and monoculture stands in five experimental ponds that have remained undisturbed for their 23-year history. The maximum depth of T. latifolia, the shallow- water species, was not significantly reduced when growing in the presence of the more flood tolerant T. angustifolia. In contrast, the minimum depth of T. angustifolia was reduced from 0 to 37 cm when in the presence of T. latifolia. When total populations were compared between monoculture and mixed stands, the average density of T. angustifolia shoots was 59.4 percent lower in mixed stands while the density of T. latifolia was 32 percent lower, with T. angustifolia most affected at shallow depths (reduced by 92 percent) and T. latifolia most affected at the deepest depths (reduced by 60 percent). These long-term observations indicate that competitive displacement between Typha taxa has remained stable over time.

  10. Long-term potentiation and long-term depression: a clinical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bliss, Timothy V.P.; Cooke, Sam F

    2011-01-01

    Long-term potentiation and long-term depression are enduring changes in synaptic strength, induced by specific patterns of synaptic activity, that have received much attention as cellular models of information storage in the central nervous system. Work in a number of brain regions, from the spinal cord to the cerebral cortex, and in many animal species, ranging from invertebrates to humans, has demonstrated a reliable capacity for chemical synapses to undergo lasting changes in efficacy in response to a variety of induction protocols. In addition to their physiological relevance, long-term potentiation and depression may have important clinical applications. A growing insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes, and technological advances in non-invasive manipulation of brain activity, now puts us at the threshold of harnessing long-term potentiation and depression and other forms of synaptic, cellular and circuit plasticity to manipulate synaptic strength in the human nervous system. Drugs may be used to erase or treat pathological synaptic states and non-invasive stimulation devices may be used to artificially induce synaptic plasticity to ameliorate conditions arising from disrupted synaptic drive. These approaches hold promise for the treatment of a variety of neurological conditions, including neuropathic pain, epilepsy, depression, amblyopia, tinnitus and stroke. PMID:21779718

  11. Robotics for Long-Term Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Shahin, Sarkis; Duran, Celso

    2002-07-01

    While long-term monitoring and stewardship means many things to many people, DOE has defined it as The physical controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms needed to ensure protection of people and the environment at sites where DOE has completed or plans to complete cleanup (e.g., landfill closures, remedial actions, and facility stabilization). Across the United States, there are thousands of contaminated sites with multiple contaminants released from multiple sources where contaminants have transported and commingled. The U.S. government and U.S. industry are responsible for most of the contamination and are landowners of many of these contaminated properties. These sites must be surveyed periodically for various criteria including structural deterioration, water intrusion, integrity of storage containers, atmospheric conditions, and hazardous substance release. The surveys, however, are intrusive, time-consuming, and expensive and expose survey personnel to radioactive contamination. In long-term monitoring, there's a need for an automated system that will gather and report data from sensors without costly human labor. In most cases, a SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) unit is used to collect and report data from a remote location. A SCADA unit consists of an embedded computer with data acquisition capabilities. The unit can be configured with various sensors placed in different areas of the site to be monitored. A system of this type is static, i.e., the sensors, once placed, cannot be moved to other locations within the site. For those applications where the number of sampling locations would require too many sensors, or where exact location of future problems is unknown, a mobile sensing platform is an ideal solution. In many facilities that undergo regular inspections, the number of video cameras and air monitors required to eliminate the need for human inspections is very large and far too costly. HCET's remote harsh

  12. LONG-TERM MONITORING SENSOR NETWORK

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen P. Farrington; John W. Haas; Neal Van Wyck

    2003-10-16

    Long-term monitoring (LTM) associated with subsurface contamination sites is a key element of Long Term Stewardship and Legacy Management across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. However, both within the DOE and elsewhere, LTM is an expensive endeavor, often exceeding the costs of the remediation phase of a clean-up project. The primary contributors to LTM costs are associated with labor. Sample collection, storage, preparation, analysis, and reporting can add a significant financial burden to project expense when extended over many years. Development of unattended, in situ monitoring networks capable of providing quantitative data satisfactory to regulatory concerns has the potential to significantly reduce LTM costs. But survival and dependable operation in a difficult environment is a common obstacle to widespread use across the DOE complex or elsewhere. Deploying almost any sensor in the subsurface for extended periods of time will expose it to chemical and microbial degradation. Over the time-scales required for in situ LTM, even the most advanced sensor systems may be rendered useless. Frequent replacement or servicing (cleaning) of sensors is expensive and labor intensive, offsetting most, if not all, of the cost savings realized with unattended, in situ sensors. To enable facile, remote monitoring of contaminants and other subsurface parameters over prolonged periods, Applied Research Associates, Inc has been working to develop an advanced LTM sensor network consisting of three key elements: (1) an anti-fouling sensor chamber that can accommodate a variety of chemical and physical measurement devices based on electrochemical, optical and other techniques; (2) two rapid, cost effective, and gentle means of emplacing sensor packages either at precise locations directly in the subsurface or in pre-existing monitoring wells; and (3) a web browser-based data acquisition and control system (WebDACS) utilizing field-networked microprocessor-controlled smart

  13. Treatment for childhood cancer -- long-term risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000849.htm Treatment for childhood cancer - long-term risks To use the sharing features on ... has. Being aware of your child's risk of long-term health problems can help you follow-up ...

  14. Long-term corrosion testing pan.

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, Frederick Douglas; Brown, Neil R.

    2008-08-01

    This document describes the testing and facility requirements to support the Yucca Mountain Project long-term corrosion testing needs. The purpose of this document is to describe a corrosion testing program that will (a) reduce model uncertainty and variability, (b) reduce the reliance upon overly conservative assumptions, and (c) improve model defensibility. Test matrices were developed for 17 topical areas (tasks): each matrix corresponds to a specific test activity that is a subset of the total work performed in a task. A future document will identify which of these activities are considered to be performance confirmation activities. Detailed matrices are provided for FY08, FY09 and FY10 and rough order estimates are provided for FY11-17. Criteria for the selection of appropriate test facilities were developed through a meeting of Lead Lab and DOE personnel on October 16-17, 2007. These criteria were applied to the testing activities and recommendations were made for the facility types appropriate to carry out each activity. The facility requirements for each activity were assessed and activities were identified that can not be performed with currently available facilities. Based on this assessment, a total of approximately 10,000 square feet of facility space is recommended to meet all future testing needs, given that all testing is consolidated to a single location. This report is a revision to SAND2007-7027 to address DOE comments and add a series of tests to address NWTRB recommendations.

  15. Long-term corrosion testing plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, Frederick Douglas; Brown, Neil R.

    2009-02-01

    This document describes the testing and facility requirements to support the Yucca Mountain Project long-term corrosion testing program. The purpose of this document is to describe a corrosion testing program that will (a) reduce model uncertainty and variability, (b) reduce the reliance upon overly conservative assumptions, and (c) improve model defensibility. Test matrices were developed for 17 topical areas (tasks): each matrix corresponds to a specific test activity that is a subset of the total work performed in a task. A future document will identify which of these activities are considered to be performance confirmation activities. Detailed matrices are provided for FY08, FY09 and FY10 and rough order estimates are provided for FY11-17. Criteria for the selection of appropriate test facilities were developed through a meeting of Lead Lab and DOE personnel on October 16-17, 2007. These criteria were applied to the testing activities and recommendations were made for the facility types appropriate to carry out each activity. The facility requirements for each activity were assessed and activities were identified that can not be performed with currently available facilities. Based on this assessment, a total of approximately 10,000 square feet of facility space is recommended to accommodate all future testing, given that all testing is consolidated to a single location. This report is a revision to SAND2008-4922 to address DOE comments.

  16. Transuranic waste: long-term planning

    SciTech Connect

    Young, K.C.

    1985-07-01

    Societal concerns for the safe handling and disposal of toxic waste are behind many of the regulations and the control measures in effect today. Transuranic waste, a specific category of toxic (radioactive) waste, serves as a good example of how regulations and controls impact changes in waste processing - and vice versa. As problems would arise with waste processing, changes would be instituted. These changes improved techniques for handling and disposal of transuranic waste, reduced the risk of breached containment, and were usually linked with regulatory changes. Today, however, we face a greater public awareness of and concern for toxic waste control; thus, we must anticipate potential problems and work on resolving them before they can become real problems. System safety analyses are valuable aids in long-term planning for operations involving transuranic as well as other toxic materials. Examples of specific system safety analytical methods demonstrate how problems can be anticipated and resolution initiated in a timely manner having minimal impacts upon allocation of resource and operational goals. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  17. Long-term predictions using natural analogues

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, R.C.

    1995-09-01

    One of the unique and scientifically most challenging aspects of nuclear waste isolation is the extrapolation of short-term laboratory data (hours to years) to the long time periods (10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} years) required by regulatory agencies for performance assessment. The direct validation of these extrapolations is not possible, but methods must be developed to demonstrate compliance with government regulations and to satisfy the lay public that there is a demonstrable and reasonable basis for accepting the long-term extrapolations. Natural systems (e.g., {open_quotes}natural analogues{close_quotes}) provide perhaps the only means of partial {open_quotes}validation,{close_quotes} as well as data that may be used directly in the models that are used in the extrapolation. Natural systems provide data on very large spatial (nm to km) and temporal (10{sup 3}-10{sup 8} years) scales and in highly complex terranes in which unknown synergisms may affect radionuclide migration. This paper reviews the application (and most importantly, the limitations) of data from natural analogue systems to the {open_quotes}validation{close_quotes} of performance assessments.

  18. [Long term adherence to HAART in Senegal].

    PubMed

    Bastard, M; Fall, M Basty Koita

    2014-10-01

    Adherence is one of the main predictors of antiretroviral treatment success. A governmental initiative was launched in 1998 for HIV-infected patients in Senegal to provide access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Adherence measurements, defined as pills taken/pills prescribed, were assessed between November 1999 and June 2010 using a pill count along with a questionnaire for 330 patients. Predictors of adherence and identification of adherence trajectories were explored through latent class mixed model. We also performed a survival analysis using Cox proportional hazard model. Three adherence behaviours were revealed as well as a better adherence for women. A third of patients had a high adherence trajectory over time and a third had an intermediate one. Male gender and low adherence behaviour over time were independently associated with a higher mortality rate. This study shows that an overall good adherence can be obtained in the long term in Senegal, suggests a better adherence for women and points out a large subsample of patients with intermediate level of adherence behaviour who are at risk for developing resistance to antiretroviral drugs. PMID:24615434

  19. Long-term outcome in aqueductal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Villani, R; Tomei, G; Gaini, S M; Grimoldi, N; Spagnoli, D; Bello, L

    1995-03-01

    In this study, 78 patients with aqueductal stenosis were submitted to detailed neurodevelopmental assessment with a follow-up of 5-25 years. Sixty-eight percent of patients were categorized as normal; they either attended normal school courses or had regular jobs. Among these, 34% had some motor abnormalities (ataxia, mild hemiparesis, visual disturbances). Twenty-four percent (19 cases) were moderately disabled (trainable retardation) and 8% (6 cases) were severely handicapped. Epilepsy was observed in 13% of the cases. Incidence of recurrent and generalized seizures paralleled neurodevelopmental outcome (5% in normal, 16% in moderately disabled and 50% in severely disabled patients). Endocrine dysfunctions were evident in 28% of the cases and were characterized by precocious or delayed puberty, amenorrhea and somatic underdevelopment. No patient with ventricular enlargement and a cortical mantle width below 20 mm showed a good outcome. Large ventricles were compatible with normal mental development when compensated with a corresponding cranial vault enlargement. In patients with normal mental status and motor abnormalities, long-term CT scan findings revealed the presence of focal brain abnormalities (poroencephaly, brain atrophy, calcifications, extracerebral collections). PMID:7773981

  20. Alpine Soils as long-term Bioindicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nestroy, O.

    2009-04-01

    Alpine soils as long-term bioindicators The introductory words concern the definitions and peculiarities of alpine soils and their position in the Austrian Soil Classification 2000 in comparison with the World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2006. The important parameters for genesis and threats for these soils in steep and high positions are discussed. It must be emphasized that the main threats are the very different kinds of erosion e.g. by water, wind and snow, and also by skiing (end of season) as well as and mountain-biking (mainly summer-sport). Due the very slow regeneration and - in this connection - due to the very slow changes of the soil entities, these soils give an utmost importance as a long-time bioindicator. With regard to the climate change one can assume an increase in the content of organic matter on site, but also an increase of erosion and mass movement on the other site, e. g. in kind of "plaiken" (soil slide) as result of an increasing intensity of rainfall. It lies partly in our hands to diminish the number and the intensity of the threats, we can influence the soil development, but the result to reach a new ecological equilibrium is very long - in case of alpine soil more than two generations.

  1. Neurological long term consequences of deep diving.

    PubMed Central

    Todnem, K; Nyland, H; Skeidsvoll, H; Svihus, R; Rinck, P; Kambestad, B K; Riise, T; Aarli, J A

    1991-01-01

    Forty commercial saturation divers, mean age 34.9 (range 24-49) years, were examined one to seven years after their last deep dive (190-500 metres of seawater). Four had by then lost their divers' licence because of neurological problems. Twenty seven (68%) had been selected by neurological examination and electroencephalography before the deep dives. The control group consisted of 100 men, mean age 34.0 (range 22-48) years. The divers reported significantly more symptoms from the nervous system. Concentration difficulties and paraesthesia in feet and hands were common. They had more abnormal neurological findings by neurological examination compatible with dysfunction in the lumbar spinal cord or roots. They also had a larger proportion of abnormal electroencephalograms than the controls. The neurological symptoms and findings were highly significantly correlated with exposure to deep diving (depth included), but even more significantly correlated to air and saturation diving and prevalence of decompression sickness. Visual evoked potentials, brainstem auditory evoked potentials, and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain did not show more abnormal findings in the divers. Four (10%) divers had had episodes of cerebral dysfunction during or after the dives; two had had seizures, one had had transitory cerebral ischaemia and one had had transitory global amnesia. It is concluded that deep diving may have a long term effect on the nervous system of the divers. PMID:2025592

  2. Long term prediction of flood occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, Cristina; Montanari, Alberto; José Polo, María

    2016-05-01

    How long a river remembers its past is still an open question. Perturbations occurring in large catchments may impact the flow regime for several weeks and months, therefore providing a physical explanation for the occasional tendency of floods to occur in clusters. The research question explored in this paper may be stated as follows: can higher than usual river discharges in the low flow season be associated to a higher probability of floods in the subsequent high flow season? The physical explanation for such association may be related to the presence of higher soil moisture storage at the beginning of the high flow season, which may induce lower infiltration rates and therefore higher river runoff. Another possible explanation is persistence of climate, due to presence of long-term properties in atmospheric circulation. We focus on the Po River at Pontelagoscuro, whose catchment area amounts to 71 000 km2. We look at the stochastic connection between average river flows in the pre-flood season and the peak flows in the flood season by using a bivariate probability distribution. We found that the shape of the flood frequency distribution is significantly impacted by the river flow regime in the low flow season. The proposed technique, which can be classified as a data assimilation approach, may allow one to reduce the uncertainty associated to the estimation of the flood probability.

  3. The long-term variability of Vega

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butkovskaya, V.; Plachinda, S.; Valyavin, G.; Baklanova, D.; Lee, B.-C.

    2011-12-01

    Over the time of 60 years Vega (α Lyrae = HD 172167, A0V) has been generally accepted as a standard star in the near-infrared, optical, and ultraviolet regions. But is the spectrophotometric standard Vega really non-variable star? Researchers give very different answers to this question. We aim to search a periodicity in our results of spectropolarimetric study of Vega, namely periodic variations in equivalent width of the spectral lines and longitudinal magnetic field measurements. High-accuracy spectropolarimetric observations of Vega have been performed during 26 nights from 1997 to 2010 using the Coudé spectrograph of the 2.6-m Shain reflector at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (CrAO, Ukraine) and during 4 nights in 2007 and 2008 using the echelle spectrograph BOES at the Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory (BOAO, South Korea). The long-term (year-to-year) variability of Vega was confirmed. It was concluded that this variability does not have magnetic nature. The paper is dedicated to the memory of V.P. Merezhin.

  4. Long-term intraperitoneal insulin delivery.

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, H A; Saudek, C D; Zacur, H A

    1992-01-01

    Over the past 5 years, 21 patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus have been managed at the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions with variable rate, remotely controlled implanted insulin pumps. To date, nearly 70 patient-years of experience has been gained with intraperitoneal delivery of a new U-400 insulin with a surfactant. All 21 patients are alive after a mean of 39.3 months (range, 10 to 65 months) after insulin pump implantation. Nineteen of the 21 patients remain on intraperitoneal insulin, for a 5-year actuarial system survival of 90%. Glucose control was improved, especially during the first 16 months after pump implantation, without an increased incidence of severe hypoglycemia. Catheter blockage has been a significant problem, occurring in nine of the 21 patients (43%). Catheter occlusion has been successfully managed, however, with laparoscopic repair in seven of 10 attempts or with catheter change in four of five patients. Nevertheless, quality of life and patient acceptance remain excellent. Moreover, pre-existing nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy have been surprisingly stable. With an aggressive policy of catheter change or laparoscopic clearance of catheter blockage, long-term intraperitoneal insulin delivery is now a safe and effective treatment for type I diabetics. PMID:1417197

  5. Intermediate- and long-term earthquake prediction.

    PubMed

    Sykes, L R

    1996-04-30

    Progress in long- and intermediate-term earthquake prediction is reviewed emphasizing results from California. Earthquake prediction as a scientific discipline is still in its infancy. Probabilistic estimates that segments of several faults in California will be the sites of large shocks in the next 30 years are now generally accepted and widely used. Several examples are presented of changes in rates of moderate-size earthquakes and seismic moment release on time scales of a few to 30 years that occurred prior to large shocks. A distinction is made between large earthquakes that rupture the entire downdip width of the outer brittle part of the earth's crust and small shocks that do not. Large events occur quasi-periodically in time along a fault segment and happen much more often than predicted from the rates of small shocks along that segment. I am moderately optimistic about improving predictions of large events for time scales of a few to 30 years although little work of that type is currently underway in the United States. Precursory effects, like the changes in stress they reflect, should be examined from a tensorial rather than a scalar perspective. A broad pattern of increased numbers of moderate-size shocks in southern California since 1986 resembles the pattern in the 25 years before the great 1906 earthquake. Since it may be a long-term precursor to a great event on the southern San Andreas fault, that area deserves detailed intensified study. PMID:11607658

  6. Intermediate- and long-term earthquake prediction.

    PubMed Central

    Sykes, L R

    1996-01-01

    Progress in long- and intermediate-term earthquake prediction is reviewed emphasizing results from California. Earthquake prediction as a scientific discipline is still in its infancy. Probabilistic estimates that segments of several faults in California will be the sites of large shocks in the next 30 years are now generally accepted and widely used. Several examples are presented of changes in rates of moderate-size earthquakes and seismic moment release on time scales of a few to 30 years that occurred prior to large shocks. A distinction is made between large earthquakes that rupture the entire downdip width of the outer brittle part of the earth's crust and small shocks that do not. Large events occur quasi-periodically in time along a fault segment and happen much more often than predicted from the rates of small shocks along that segment. I am moderately optimistic about improving predictions of large events for time scales of a few to 30 years although little work of that type is currently underway in the United States. Precursory effects, like the changes in stress they reflect, should be examined from a tensorial rather than a scalar perspective. A broad pattern of increased numbers of moderate-size shocks in southern California since 1986 resembles the pattern in the 25 years before the great 1906 earthquake. Since it may be a long-term precursor to a great event on the southern San Andreas fault, that area deserves detailed intensified study. Images Fig. 1 PMID:11607658

  7. Long-term adequacy of metal resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    Although the earth's crust contains vast quantities of metals, extraction technologies and associated costs are inextricably bound to three fundamental geological factors - the amount of metal available in the earth's crust in each range of grades, the mineralogical form and chemical state of the metal, and the spatial distribution of the metal. The energy required to recover a given amount of metal increases substantially as grade declines. Most metal is produced from sulphide or oxide minerals, whereas most metal in the crust may be locked in the structures of the more refractory silicates. Recovery from silicate minerals could require orders of magnitude more energy than that used at present as also could exploitation of small, widely scattered or thin, deeply buried deposits. Although specific information on the fundamental factors is not available, each factor must in turn tend to further restrict exploitation. Independence of average grade and tonnage for many deposit types further reduces the availability of rock as a source of metal. In the long term, effects of these factors will be large increases in price for many metals. ?? 1977.

  8. Long Term Storage of Lyophilized Liposomal Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Payton, N.M.; Wempe, M.F.; Xu, Y.; Anchordoquy, T.J.

    2014-01-01

    Because aqueous liposomal formulations containing multiply unsaturated lipids are susceptible to chemical degradation, these formulations are often lyophilized. Despite their limited chemical stability, interest in the use of multiply unsaturated lipids to promote intracellular delivery has increased considerably in recent years. The goal of the current study was to examine the long term storage stability of lyophilized formulations containing lipids with increasing levels of unsaturation, and various strategies which can be employed to improve stability. Aqueous lipid-trehalose formulations containing 1,2-dilinolenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLPC), 1,2-dilinoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLinPC) or 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) were lyophilized and stored at temperatures ranging from 4°C to 60°C. We observed that the lipid degradation rate increased as the storage temperature and unsaturation level were increased. Even the cleanest sugars which are available commercially contain iron contaminants, and it was observed that the chelation of these iron contaminants significantly improved the stability of DLPC during storage. However, the glass transition temperature of the sugar which was included in the formulation, the reduction of the oxygen in the aqueous sample prior to lyophilization, the inclusion of helper lipids (i.e., cholesterol), and the rate of freezing did not significantly improve stability. PMID:25308534

  9. [Long-term care services in Spain: an overview].

    PubMed

    Casado-Marín, David

    2006-03-01

    To date, both in Spain and virtually all the other European Union (EU) countries, dependency has been seen to be a fundamentally private problem to be dealt with by the family concerned. In this way, whether through informal carers or contracted professionals, in the domestic environment or in care homes, it is the dependent person themselves and their families who currently bear the majority of the costs. In light of this, current concern lies in the social change that is coming on, mainly the accelerated aging process and the increased participation of middle-aged women in the labour market, which heighten the need for collective organisation of that which until now has been resolved within family circles. In this context, at the same time that the Government announces to issue a <Long Term Care Law> by the end of 2005, our paper briefly analyzes what we consider the four crucial issues in this area: the current scope of dependency problems and its possible future evolution, the characteristics of the current spanish long-term care system and its main problems; the role that health services should have in the dependency issue; and finally, the benefits and drawbacks of the main alternatives that the Administration could manage in case it intends to increase its involvement in this field. PMID:16539976

  10. Long-term Solar Irradiance Variability: 1984-1989 Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Robert B., III

    1990-01-01

    Long-term variability in the total solar irradiance has been observed in the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) solar monitor measurements. The monitors have been used to measure the irradiance from the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA-9 and NOAA-10 spacecraft platforms since October 25, 1984, January 23, 1985, and October 22, 1986, respectively. Before September 1986, the ERBS irradiance values were found to be decreasing -0.03 percent per year. This period was marked by decreasing solar magnetic activity. Between September 1986 and mid-1989, the irradiance values increased approximately 0.1 percent. The latter period was marked by increasing solar activity which was associated with the initiations of the sunspot cycle number 22 and of a new 22-year Hale solar magnetic cycle. Therefore, long-term solar-irradiance variability appears to be correlated directly with solar activity. The maximum smoothed sunspot number occurred during September 1989, according to the Sunspot Index Data Center. Therefore, the recent irradiance increasing trend should disappear during early 1990 and change into a decreasing trend if the observed irradiance variability is correlated more so with the 11-year sunspot cycle than the 22-year Hale cycle. The ERBE irradiance values are presented and compared with sunspot activity for the 1984 to 1989 period. The ERBE values are compared with those available from the Nimbus-7 and Solar Maximum Mission spacecraft experiments.

  11. 22 CFR 228.12 - Long-term leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Long-term leases. 228.12 Section 228.12 Foreign... Transactions for USAID Financing § 228.12 Long-term leases. Any commodity obtained under a long-term lease..., a long-term lease is defined as a single lease of more than 180 days, or repetitive or...

  12. 22 CFR 228.12 - Long-term leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Long-term leases. 228.12 Section 228.12 Foreign... Transactions for USAID Financing § 228.12 Long-term leases. Any commodity obtained under a long-term lease..., a long-term lease is defined as a single lease of more than 180 days, or repetitive or...

  13. 26 CFR 1.460-1 - Long-term contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Long-term contracts. 1.460-1 Section 1.460-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included § 1.460-1 Long-term... the manufacture, building, installation, or construction of property is a long-term contract...

  14. 22 CFR 228.18 - Long-term leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Long-term leases. 228.18 Section 228.18 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES FOR PROCUREMENT OF COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY... USAID Financing § 228.18 Long-term leases. Any commodity obtained under a long-term lease agreement...

  15. 26 CFR 1.460-1 - Long-term contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Long-term contracts. 1.460-1 Section 1.460-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included § 1.460-1 Long-term... the manufacture, building, installation, or construction of property is a long-term contract...

  16. 22 CFR 228.18 - Long-term leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Long-term leases. 228.18 Section 228.18 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES FOR PROCUREMENT OF COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY... USAID Financing § 228.18 Long-term leases. Any commodity obtained under a long-term lease agreement...

  17. 26 CFR 1.460-1 - Long-term contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Long-term contracts. 1.460-1 Section 1.460-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included § 1.460-1 Long-term... the manufacture, building, installation, or construction of property is a long-term contract...

  18. 17 CFR 256.224 - Other long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Other long-term debt. 256.224 Section 256.224 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) UNIFORM... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 6. Long-Term Debt § 256.224 Other long-term debt. This account shall include all...

  19. 17 CFR 256.224 - Other long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other long-term debt. 256.224 Section 256.224 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) UNIFORM... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 6. Long-Term Debt § 256.224 Other long-term debt. This account shall include all...

  20. 22 CFR 228.18 - Long-term leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Long-term leases. 228.18 Section 228.18 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES FOR PROCUREMENT OF COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY... USAID Financing § 228.18 Long-term leases. Any commodity obtained under a long-term lease agreement...

  1. 3 CFR - Long-Term Gulf Coast Restoration Support Plan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Long-Term Gulf Coast Restoration Support Plan Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of June 30, 2010 Long-Term Gulf Coast... help the Gulf Coast and its people recover from this tragedy. A long-term plan to restore the...

  2. Scientific Understanding from Long Term Observations: Insights from the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosz, J.

    2001-12-01

    The network dedicated to Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) in the United States has grown to 24 sites since it was formed in 1980. Long-term research and monitoring are performed on parameters thatare basic to all ecosystems and are required to understand patterns, processes, and relationship to change. Collectively, the sites in the LTER Network provide opportunities to contrast marine, coastal, and continental regions, the full range of climatic gradients existing in North America, and aquatic and terrestrial habitats in a range of ecosystem types. The combination of common core areas and long-term research and monitoring in many habitats have allowed unprecedented abilities to understand and compare complex temporal and spatial dynamics associated with issues like climate change, effects of pollution, biodiversity and landuse. For example, McMurdo Dry Valley in the Antarctic has demonstrated an increase in glacier mass since 1993 which coincides with a period of cooler than normal summers and more than average snowfall. In contrast, the Bonanza Creek and Toolik Lake sites in Alaska have recorded a warming period unprecedented in the past 200 years. Nitrogen deposition effects have been identified through long-term watershed studies on biogeochemical cycles, especially at Coweeta Hydrological Lab, Harvard Forest, and the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. In aquatic systems, such as the Northern Temperate Lakes site, long-term data revealed time lags in effects of invaders and disturbance on lake communities. Biological recovery from an effect such as lake acidification was shown to lag behind chemical recovery. The long-term changes documented over 2 decades have been instrumental in influencing management practices in many of the LTER areas. In Puerto Rico, the Luquillo LTER demonstrated that dams obstruct migrations of fish and freshwater shrimp and water abstraction at low flows can completely obliterate downstream migration of juveniles and damage

  3. Long term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wöger, Julia; Eder, Wolfgang; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Antonino, Briguglio; Carles, Ferrandes-Cañadell; Hohenegger, Johann

    2015-04-01

    Benthic Foraminifera are used in a variety of applications employing numerous different methods, i.e. ecological monitoring, studying the effects of ocean acidification, reconstructing palaeo-bathymetry or investigating palaeo-salinity and palaeo-temperature to name only a few. To refine our understanding of ecological influences on larger benthic foraminiferal biology and to review inferences from field observations, culture experiments have become an indispensable tool. While culture experiments on smaller benthic foraminifera have become increasingly frequent in the past century, reports of the cultivation of symbiont bearing larger Foraminifera are rare. Generally, cultivation experiments can be divided into two groups: Culturing of populations and cultivation of single specimens allowing individual investigation. The latter differ form the former by several restrictions resulting from the need to limit individual motility without abridging microenvironmental conditions in the Foraminiferans artificial habitat, necessary to enable the individual to development as unfettered as possible. In this study we present first experiences and preliminary results of the long-term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera conducted at the 'Tropical Biosphere Research Station Sesoko Island, University of the Ryukyus', Japan, trying to reproduce natural conditions as closely as possible. Individuals of three species of larger benthic Foraminifera (Heterostegina depressa, Palaeonummulites venosus and Operculina complanata) have been cultured since April 2014. At the time of the general assembly the cultivation experiments will have been going on for more than one year, with the aim to investigate growth rates, longevities and reproduction strategies for comparison with results statistically inferred from application of the of the 'natural laboratory' method. The most important factor influencing foraminiferal health and development was found to be light intensity and light

  4. A new long-term care manifesto.

    PubMed

    Kane, Robert L

    2015-04-01

    This article argues for a fresh look at how we provide long-term care (LTC) for older persons. Essentially, LTC offers a compensatory service that responds to frailty. Policy debate around LTC centers on costs, but we are paying for something we really don't want. Building societal enthusiasm (or even support) for LTC will require re-inventing and re-branding. LTC has three basic components: personal care, housing, and health care (primarily chronic disease management). They can be delivered in a variety of settings. It is rare to find all three done well simultaneously. Personal care (PC) needs to be both competent and compassionate. Housing must provide at least minimal amenities and foster autonomy; when travel time for PC raises costs dramatically, some form of clustered housing may be needed. Health care must be proactive, aimed at preventing exacerbations of chronic disease and resultant hospitalizations. Enhancing preferences means allowing taking informed risks. Payment incentives should reward both quality of care and quality of life, but positive outcomes must be defined as slowing decline. Paying for services but not for housing under Medicaid would automatically level the playing field between nursing homes (NH) and community-based services. Regulations should achieve greater parity between NH and community care and include both positive and negative feedback. Providing post-acute care should be separate from LTC. Using the tripartite LTC framework, we can create innovative flexible approaches to providing needed services for frail older persons in formats that are both desirable and affordable. Such care will be more socially desirable and hence worth paying for. PMID:26035606

  5. Long-term Behavior of DNAPL Residuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Illangasekare, T.; Kitanidis, P. K.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding and being able to predict the long-term behavior of DNAPL (i.e., TCE) residuals in the source zone are significant in the evaluation of plume spreading. We apply both theoretical analysis and pore-scale simulations to investigate the mass transfer and the effect of reductive dechlorination, in which the contaminant behaves as electron acceptor. At the upfront of the source zone, where the boundary layer has not fully developed, the mass transfer increases as a power-law function of the Peclet number, and is enhanced by biodegradation. These results are consistent with past findings. Under certain conditions, further downstream inside the source zone, the rate of dissolution is slower due to the diluted mass from upstream. Widely applied first-order biodegradation implicitly assumes that the reaction solely depends on the concentration of the contaminant. However, in the slow dilution region, the limitation of electron donor on biodegradation is not negligible. For the reaction between an electron donor and an electron acceptor with intrinsic second-order kinetics, the late-time bio-reaction demonstrates a first-order decay macroscopically with respect to the mass of electron donor, not with respect to that of the contaminant. The late-time decay rate only depends on the intrinsic rate and the solubility of the contaminant. During the intermediate time, affecting by both the concentrations of electron donor and electron acceptor, the first-order decay is not valid. We show that the electron donor decays as exp(-t^2), instead of exp(-t). Moreover, the intermediate-time decay rate is a function of the spatial distribution of DNAPL residuals and the initial conditions.he relationship of the Sherwood number and Peclet number (Comparison of pore-scale simulations and best-fitting curve) he decay of electron donor as a function of t^2

  6. LONG TERM IN SITU DISPOSAL ENGINEERING STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMS; CARLSON; BROCKMAN

    2003-07-23

    Patent application pulled per Ken Norris (FH General Counsel). The objective of this study is to devise methods, produce conceptual designs, examine and select alternatives, and estimate costs for the demonstration of long-term (300-year) in situ disposal of an existing waste disposal site. The demonstration site selected is the 216-A-24 Crib near the 200 East Area. The site contains a fission product inventory and has experienced plant, animal, and inadvertent than intrusion. Of the potential intrusive events and transport pathways at the site, potential human intrusion has been given primary consideration in barrier design. Intrusion by wind, plants, and animals has been given secondary consideration. Groundwater modeling for a number of barrier configurations has been carried out to help select a barrier that will minimize water infiltration and waste/water contact time. The estimated effective lifetime and cost of 20 barrier schemes, using a variety of materials, have been evaluated. The schemes studied include single component surface barriers, multicomponent barriers, and massively injected grout barriers. Five barriers with high estimated effective lifetimes and relatively low costs have been selected for detailed evaluation. They are basalt riprap barriers, massive soil barriers, salt basin barriers, multi-component fine/coarse barriers, and cemented basalt barriers. A variety of materials and configurations for marking the site have also been considered. A decision analysis was completed to select a barrier scheme for demonstration. The analysis indicated that the basalt riprap alternative would be the preferred choice for a full-scale demonstration. The recommended approach is to demonstrate the basalt riprap barrier at the 216-A-24 Crib as soon as possible. Methods and costs of assessing effectiveness of the demonstration are also described. Preliminary design modifications and costs for applying the five selected barrier schemes to other site types are

  7. Modeling Maintenance of Long-Term Potentiation in Clustered Synapses: Long-Term Memory without Bistability

    PubMed Central

    Smolen, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Memories are stored, at least partly, as patterns of strong synapses. Given molecular turnover, how can synapses maintain strong for the years that memories can persist? Some models postulate that biochemical bistability maintains strong synapses. However, bistability should give a bimodal distribution of synaptic strength or weight, whereas current data show unimodal distributions for weights and for a correlated variable, dendritic spine volume. Thus it is important for models to simulate both unimodal distributions and long-term memory persistence. Here a model is developed that connects ongoing, competing processes of synaptic growth and weakening to stochastic processes of receptor insertion and removal in dendritic spines. The model simulates long-term (>1 yr) persistence of groups of strong synapses. A unimodal weight distribution results. For stability of this distribution it proved essential to incorporate resource competition between synapses organized into small clusters. With competition, these clusters are stable for years. These simulations concur with recent data to support the “clustered plasticity hypothesis” which suggests clusters, rather than single synaptic contacts, may be a fundamental unit for storage of long-term memory. The model makes empirical predictions and may provide a framework to investigate mechanisms maintaining the balance between synaptic plasticity and stability of memory. PMID:25945261

  8. Propofol effects on cerebellar long-term depression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwan Young; Kim, Young Im; Kim, Se Hoon; Park, Hyung Seo; Park, Youn Joon; Ha, Myung Sook; Jin, Yunju; Kim, Dong Kwan

    2015-11-16

    Propofol is an intravenously administered anesthetic that induces γ-aminobutyric acid-mediated inhibition in the central nervous system. It has been implicated in prolonged movement disorders. Since the cerebellum is important for motor coordination and learning, we investigated the potential effects of propofol on cerebellar circuitry. Using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique in Wister rat cerebellar slices, we demonstrated that propofol administration impaired long-term depression from the parallel fiber (PF) to Purkinje cell (PC) synapses (PF-LTD). Also, propofol reduced metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1)-mediated and group I mGluR agonist-induced slow currents in PCs. These results suggest that the propofol-induced PF-LTD impairment may be related to an alteration in mGluR1 signaling, which is essential to motor learning. PMID:26455962

  9. Long-Term Lunar Radiation Degradation Effects on Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rojdev, Kristina; ORourke, Mary Jane; Koontz, Steve; Alred, John; Hill, Charles; Devivar, Rodrigo; Morera-Felix, Shakira; Atwell, William; Nutt, Steve; Sabbann, Leslie

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is focused on developing technologies for extending human presence beyond low Earth orbit. These technologies are to advance the state-of-the-art and provide for longer duration missions outside the protection of Earth's magnetosphere. One technology of great interest for large structures is advanced composite materials, due to their weight and cost savings, enhanced radiation protection for the crew, and potential for performance improvements when compared with existing metals. However, these materials have not been characterized for the interplanetary space environment, and particularly the effects of high energy radiation, which is known to cause damage to polymeric materials. Therefore, a study focusing on a lunar habitation element was undertaken to investigate the integrity of potential structural composite materials after exposure to a long-term lunar radiation environment. An overview of the study results are presented, along with a discussion of recommended future work.

  10. Strategic alliance: adapting to the business environment in long-term care.

    PubMed

    Mara, Cynthia Massie; Ziegenfuss, James T

    2002-01-01

    This article is addressed to long-term-care administrators and planners as well as purchasers of long-term care. Believing the current and future business environment will force continued adaptation in long-term-care organizations, the authors utilize nine categories to map pressures for change: cultural, technological, educational, political, legal, natural resource, demographic, sociologic, and economic. Long-term-care organizations, especially those that are not-for-profit, are becoming members of alliances as one way of addressing these pressures. This article describes and presents a case example of a composite alliance to demonstrate the advantages of membership in a strategic alliance. We also present examples of ways in which alliance members use strategic partnerships to improve their ability to manage these forces. PMID:12847938

  11. Long-Term Space Astrophysics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowark, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report for our Long-Term Space Astrophysics Program (NRA 94-OSS-12) grant NAG 5-3225. The proposal is entitled 'Spectral and Temporal Properties of Black Hole Candidates', and began funding in May 1995, and ran through 31 Aug 2000. The project summary from the original proposal was as follows: 'We will study the spectral and temporal properties of black hole candidates (BHC) by using data from archival sources (e.g., EXOSAT, Ginga, ROSAT) and proposed follow-up observations with modern instruments (e.g., ASCA, XTE). Our spectral studies will focus on identifying the basic characteristics and luminosities of the emission components in the various 'states' of BHC. We hope to understand and quantify the global energetics of these states. Our temporal studies will focus on expanding and classifying our knowledge of BHC variability properties in each state. We will explore the nature of quasi-periodic oscillations in BHC. We will combine our spectral and temporal studies by analyzing time lags and variability coherence between energy channels. In addition, we will investigate ways of correlating observed variability behavior with specific emission components.' We have accomplished many of these goals laid out within the original proposal. As originally proposed, we have utilized both archival and proprietary satellite data. In terms of archival data, we have utilized data from the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA), ROSAT, and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). We also obtained proprietary data from ASCA, RXTE, and the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE). In terms of sources, we have examined a wide variety of both galactic black hole candidates and extra-galactic black holes. For the galactic black holes we have observed and analyzed both the low/hard state and the high/soft state. We have performed both spectral and timing analyses on all of these objects. In addition, we have also examined a number of neutron stars or

  12. Long term property prediction of polyethylene nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaito, Ali Al-Abed

    properties of the nanocomposites was analyzed by examining tensile and creep-recovery behavior of the films at temperatures in the range of 25 to -100°C. Within the measured temperature range, the materials showed a nonlinear temperature dependent response. The time-temperature superposition principle was successfully used to predict the long term behavior of LLDPE nanocomposites.

  13. LOP- LONG-TERM ORBIT PREDICTOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    The Long-Term Orbit Predictor (LOP) trajectory propagation program is a useful tool in lifetime analysis of orbiting spacecraft. LOP is suitable for studying planetary orbit missions with reconnaissance (flyby) and exploratory (mapping) trajectories. Sample data is included for a geosynchronous station drift cycle study, a Venus radar mapping strategy, a frozen orbit about Mars, and a repeat ground trace orbit. LOP uses the variation-of-parameters method in formulating the equations of motion. Terms involving the mean anomaly are removed from numerical integrations so that large step sizes, on the order of days, are possible. Consequently, LOP executes much faster than programs based on Cowell's method, such as the companion program ASAP (the Artificial Satellite Analysis Program, NPO-17522, also available through COSMIC). The program uses a force model with a gravity field of up to 21 by 21, lunisolar perturbation, drag, and solar radiation pressure. The input includes classical orbital elements (either mean or oscillating), orbital elements of the sun relative to the planet, reference time and dates, drag coefficients, gravitational constants, planet radius, rotation rate. The printed output contains the classical elements for each time step or event step, and additional orbital data such as true anomaly, eccentric anomaly, latitude, longitude, periapsis altitude, and the rate of change per day of certain elements. Selected output is additionally written to a plot file for postprocessing by the user. LOP is written in FORTRAN 77 for batch execution on IBM PC compatibles running MS-DOS with a minimum of 256K RAM. Recompiling the source requires the Lahey F77 v2.2 compiler. The LOP package includes examples that use LOTUS 1-2-3 for graphical displays, but any graphics software package should be able to handle the ASCII plot file. The program is available on two 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskettes. The program was written in 1986 and last updated in 1989. LOP is

  14. Long term prognosis of reactive salmonella arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Leirisalo-Repo, M; Helenius, P; Hannu, T; Lehtinen, A; Kreula, J; Taavitsainen, M; Koskimies, S

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Reactive joint complications triggered by salmonella gastroenteritis are increasingly reported, but the outcome and long term prognosis of the patients is incompletely known. This study looked at the prognosis of salmonella arthritis in patients hospitalised in 1970-1986.
METHODS—Hospital records from two hospitals in southern Finland were screened for patients with the discharge diagnosis of salmonellosis or reactive, postinfectious arthritis or Reiter's disease. For the patients with confirmed diagnosis of reactive salmonella arthritis, data about the acute disease were collected from the hospital records. A follow up study was performed.
RESULTS—There were 63 patients (28 women, 35 men, mean age 36.5 years) with salmonella arthritis. Urethritis occurred in 27%, eye inflammation in 13%, and low back pain in 44% of the patients. HLA-B27 was present in 88%. More men than women were HLA-B27 positive. HLA-B27 positive patients had higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate (mean 80.9 v 46.5 mm 1st h, p = 0.0180). Also, extra-articular features and radiological sacroiliitis were seen only in HLA-B27 positive patients. A follow up study was performed on 50 patients mean 11.0 (range 5-22 years) later. Twenty patients had recovered completely. Ten patients had mild joint symptoms, 11 patients had had a new acute transient arthritis, and five acute iritis. Eight patients had developed chronic spondyloarthropathy. Radiological sacroiliitis was seen in six of 44 patients, more frequently in male than in female patients (32% v 0%; p = 0.0289). Recurrent or chronic arthritis, iritis or radiological sacroiliitis developed only in HLA-B27 positive patients.
CONCLUSION—Joint symptoms are common after reactive salmonella arthritis. HLA-B27 contributes to the severity of acute disease and to the late prognosis.

 PMID:9370874

  15. Long-term evolution is surprisingly predictable in lattice proteins

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Michael E.; Moudgil, Arnav; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2013-01-01

    It has long been debated whether natural selection acts primarily upon individual organisms, or whether it also commonly acts upon higher-level entities such as lineages. Two arguments against the effectiveness of long-term selection on lineages have been (i) that long-term evolutionary outcomes will not be sufficiently predictable to support a meaningful long-term fitness and (ii) that short-term selection on organisms will almost always overpower long-term selection. Here, we use a computational model of protein folding and binding called ‘lattice proteins’. We quantify the long-term evolutionary success of lineages with two metrics called the k-fitness and k-survivability. We show that long-term outcomes are surprisingly predictable in this model: only a small fraction of the possible outcomes are ever realized in multiple replicates. Furthermore, the long-term fitness of a lineage depends only partly on its short-term fitness; other factors are also important, including the ‘evolvability’ of a lineage—its capacity to produce adaptive variation. In a system with a distinct short-term and long-term fitness, evolution need not be ‘short-sighted’: lineages may be selected for their long-term properties, sometimes in opposition to short-term selection. Similar evolutionary basins of attraction have been observed in vivo, suggesting that natural biological lineages will also have a predictive long-term fitness. PMID:23466559

  16. Potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP) in long-term care (LTC) patients: validation of the 2014 STOPP-START and 2012 Beers criteria in a LTC population—a protocol for a cross-sectional comparison of clinical and health administrative data

    PubMed Central

    Bjerre, Lise M; Halil, Roland; Catley, Christina; Farrell, Barbara; Hogel, Matthew; Black, Cody D; Williams, Margo; Ryan, Cristín; Manuel, Douglas G

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP) is frequent and problematic in older patients. Identifying PIP is necessary to improve prescribing quality; ideally, this should be performed at the population level. Screening Tool of Older Persons’ potentially inappropriate Prescriptions/Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment (STOPP/START) and Beers criteria were developed to identify PIP in clinical settings and are useful at the individual patient level; however, they are time-consuming and costly to apply. Only a subset of these criteria is applicable to routinely collected population-level health administrative data (HAD) because the clinical information necessary to implement these tools is often missing from databases. The performance of subsets of STOPP/START and Beers criteria in HAD compared with clinical data from the same patients is unknown; furthermore, the performance of the updated 2014 STOPP-START and 2012 Beers criteria compared with one another is also unknown. Methods and analysis A cross-sectional study of linked HAD and clinical data will be conducted to validate the subsets of STOPP/START and Beers criteria applicable to HAD by comparing their performance when applied to clinical and HAD for the same patients. Eligible patients will be 66 years and over and recently admitted to 1 of 6 long-term care facilities in Ottawa, Ontario. The target sample size is 275, but may be less if statistical significance can be achieved sooner. Medication, diagnostic and clinical data will be collected by a consultant pharmacist. The main outcome measure is the proportion of PIP missed by the subset of STOPP/START and Beers criteria applied to HAD when compared with clinical data. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the Ottawa Health Services Network Research Ethics Board, the Bruyère Continuing Care Research Ethics Board and the ethics board of the City of Ottawa Long Term Care Homes. Dissemination will occur via

  17. Long-term ozone monitoring from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, S.; Johnson, J.; Serafino, G.; McPeters, R.

    Ultraviolet Spectrometer (SBUV), are archived at the Goddard DAAC and are freely available to the public. Standard products from TOMS include daily global total ozone and effective UV reflectivity of the earth-atmosphere system. Data products from future upper atmospheric research missions, e.g., the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), and the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) aboard Aura, will also be archived at the Goddard DAAC. For ozone trend analysis, a long-term data set consisting of over twenty years of ozone measurements from space and some value added research products have been produced by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center scientists (Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Branch/ Code 916) and are made available to the research community (http://code916.gsfc.nasa.gov). Examples of some of these research products are:1) daily erythermal UV exposure -estimates of harmful UV-B radiation at the surface, 2) an index to track the global transport of ash and sulfur dioxide resulting from volcanic eruptions, 3) another index to track smoke emanating from large fires and dust plumes originating from desert regions, 4) aerosol optical depth, 5) tropospheric ozone obtained from cloud-slicing techniques, and 6) a merged total ozone data product consisting of monthly mean ozone merged from six satellite instruments. The Upper Atmospheric Data Support Team has been providing science and data support to assist users in accessing and using the upper atmospheric data products. A number of tools for data access, subsetting, reprojection and mapping of orbital (Level-2) products, visualization of global gridded (Level-3) products, and data analysis have been developed at the Goddard DAAC and are freely available to the data user (http://daac.gsfc.nasa.gov) This presentation will provide highlights of the standard and value-added ozone and ancillary products, and the data services provided by the DAAC Upper Atmosphere Data Support Team.

  18. Long-term Ozone monitoring from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, S.; Johnson, J.; Serafino, G.; McPeters, R.

    Ultraviolet Spectrometer (SBUV), are archived at the Goddard DAAC and are freely available to the public. Standard products from TOMS include daily global total ozone and effective UV reflectivity of the earth-atmosphere system. Data products from future upper atmospheric research missions, e.g., the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), and the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) aboard Aura, will also be archived at the Goddard DAAC. For ozone trend analysis, a long-term data set consisting of over twenty years of ozone measurements from space and some value added research products have been produced by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center scientists (Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Branch/ Code 916) and are made available to the research community (http://code916.gsfc.nasa.gov). Examples of some of these research products are:1) daily erythermal UV exposure -estimates of harmful UV-B radiation at the surface, 2) an index to track the global transport of ash and sulfur dioxide resulting from volcanic eruptions, 3) another index to track smoke emanating from large fires and dust plumes originating from desert regions, 4) aerosol optical depth, 5) tropospheric ozone obtained from cloud-slicing techniques, and 6) a merged total ozone data product consisting of monthly mean ozone merged from six satellite instruments. The Upper Atmospheric Data Support Team has been providing science and data support to assist users in accessing and using the upper atmospheric data products. A number of tools for data access, subsetting, reprojection and mapping of orbital (Level-2) products, visualization of global gridded (Level-3) products, and data analysis have been developed at the Goddard DAAC and are freely available to the data user (http://daac.gsfc.nasa.gov) This presentation will provide highlights of the standard and value-added ozone and ancillary products, and the data services provided by the DAAC Upper Atmosphere Data Support Team.

  19. Stochastic Induction of Long-Term Potentiation and Long-Term Depression.

    PubMed

    Antunes, G; Roque, A C; Simoes-de-Souza, F M

    2016-01-01

    Long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) of granule-Purkinje cell synapses are persistent synaptic alterations induced by high and low rises of the intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca(2+)]), respectively. The occurrence of LTD involves the activation of a positive feedback loop formed by protein kinase C, phospholipase A2, and the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase pathway, and its expression comprises the reduction of the population of synaptic AMPA receptors. Recently, a stochastic computational model of these signalling processes demonstrated that, in single synapses, LTD is probabilistic and bistable. Here, we expanded this model to simulate LTP, which requires protein phosphatases and the increase in the population of synaptic AMPA receptors. Our results indicated that, in single synapses, while LTD is bistable, LTP is gradual. Ca(2+) induced both processes stochastically. The magnitudes of the Ca(2+) signals and the states of the signalling network regulated the likelihood of LTP and LTD and defined dynamic macroscopic Ca(2+) thresholds for the synaptic modifications in populations of synapses according to an inverse Bienenstock, Cooper and Munro (BCM) rule or a sigmoidal function. In conclusion, our model presents a unifying mechanism that explains the macroscopic properties of LTP and LTD from their dynamics in single synapses. PMID:27485552

  20. Stochastic Induction of Long-Term Potentiation and Long-Term Depression

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, G.; Roque, A. C.; Simoes-de-Souza, F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) of granule-Purkinje cell synapses are persistent synaptic alterations induced by high and low rises of the intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]), respectively. The occurrence of LTD involves the activation of a positive feedback loop formed by protein kinase C, phospholipase A2, and the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase pathway, and its expression comprises the reduction of the population of synaptic AMPA receptors. Recently, a stochastic computational model of these signalling processes demonstrated that, in single synapses, LTD is probabilistic and bistable. Here, we expanded this model to simulate LTP, which requires protein phosphatases and the increase in the population of synaptic AMPA receptors. Our results indicated that, in single synapses, while LTD is bistable, LTP is gradual. Ca2+ induced both processes stochastically. The magnitudes of the Ca2+ signals and the states of the signalling network regulated the likelihood of LTP and LTD and defined dynamic macroscopic Ca2+ thresholds for the synaptic modifications in populations of synapses according to an inverse Bienenstock, Cooper and Munro (BCM) rule or a sigmoidal function. In conclusion, our model presents a unifying mechanism that explains the macroscopic properties of LTP and LTD from their dynamics in single synapses. PMID:27485552

  1. Long-term care financing: options for the future.

    PubMed

    Mulvey, Janemarie; Li, Annelise

    2002-01-01

    The aging of the baby boomers will have an enormous impact on the future of long-term care costs. This article projects the magnitude of that impact, discusses sources of financing, and considers the cost and feasibility of three options for financing future long-term care services. The authors investigate the alternatives of increasing personal savings, raising payroll taxes and expanding employer-sponsored private long-term care insurance coverage, respectively. PMID:12004582

  2. Long-Term Monitoring of Global Climate Forcings and Feedbacks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, J. (Editor); Rossow, W. (Editor); Fung, I. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    A workshop on Long-Term Monitoring of Global Climate Forcings and Feedbacks was held February 3-4, 1992, at NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies to discuss the measurements required to interpret long-term global temperature changes, to critique the proposed contributions of a series of small satellites (Climsat), and to identify needed complementary monitoring. The workshop concluded that long-term (several decades) of continuous monitoring of the major climate forcings and feedbacks is essential for understanding long-term climate change.

  3. 28 CFR 115.78 - Disciplinary sanctions for inmates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disciplinary sanctions for inmates. 115.78 Section 115.78 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Discipline § 115.78...

  4. 28 CFR 115.78 - Disciplinary sanctions for inmates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disciplinary sanctions for inmates. 115.78 Section 115.78 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Discipline § 115.78...

  5. 28 CFR 115.78 - Disciplinary sanctions for inmates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disciplinary sanctions for inmates. 115.78 Section 115.78 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Discipline § 115.78...

  6. 28 CFR 115.278 - Disciplinary sanctions for residents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disciplinary sanctions for residents. 115.278 Section 115.278 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Community Confinement Facilities Discipline §...

  7. 28 CFR 115.276 - Disciplinary sanctions for staff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disciplinary sanctions for staff. 115.276 Section 115.276 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Community Confinement Facilities Discipline § 115.276...

  8. 28 CFR 115.276 - Disciplinary sanctions for staff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disciplinary sanctions for staff. 115.276 Section 115.276 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Community Confinement Facilities Discipline § 115.276...

  9. 28 CFR 115.278 - Disciplinary sanctions for residents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disciplinary sanctions for residents. 115.278 Section 115.278 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Community Confinement Facilities Discipline §...

  10. 28 CFR 115.276 - Disciplinary sanctions for staff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disciplinary sanctions for staff. 115.276 Section 115.276 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Community Confinement Facilities Discipline § 115.276...

  11. 28 CFR 115.278 - Disciplinary sanctions for residents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disciplinary sanctions for residents. 115.278 Section 115.278 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Community Confinement Facilities Discipline §...

  12. Process auditing in long term care facilities.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, S M; LeSage, J; Roberts, K L; Ellor, J R

    1985-01-01

    The ECC tool development and audit experiences indicated that there is promise in developing a process audit tool to monitor quality of care in nursing homes; moreover, the tool selected required only one hour per resident. Focusing on the care process and resident needs provided useful information for care providers at the unit level as well as for administrative personnel. Besides incorporating a more interdisciplinary focus, the revised tool needs to define support services most appropriate for nursing homes, includes items related to discharge planning and increases measurement of significant others' involvement in the care process. Future emphasis at the ECC will focus on developing intervention plans to maintain strengths and correct deficiencies identified in the audits. Various strategies to bring about desired changes in the quality of care will be evaluated through regular, periodic monitoring. Having a valid and reliable measure of quality of care as a tool will be an important step forward for LTC facilities. PMID:3919355

  13. Long-Term Treatment with Low Doses of Methamphetamine Promotes Neuronal Differentiation and Strengthens Long-Term Potentiation of Glutamatergic Synapses onto Dentate Granule Neurons.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Sofia; Lourenço, Joana; Milhazes, Nuno; Borges, Fernanda; Silva, Ana Paula; Bacci, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a psychostimulant, affecting hippocampal function with disparate cognitive effects, which depends on the dose and time of administration, ranging from improvement to impairment of memory. Importantly, in the United States, METH is approved for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Modifications of long-term plasticity of synapses originating from the entorhinal cortex onto dentate granule cells (DGCs) have been proposed to underlie cognitive alterations similar to those seen in METH users. However, the effects of METH on synaptic plasticity of the dentate gyrus are unknown. Here, we investigated the impact of long-term administration of METH (2 mg/kg/d) on neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity of immature and mature DGCs of juvenile mice. We used a mouse model of neurogenesis (the G42 line of GAD67-GFP), in which GFP is expressed by differentiating young DGCs. METH treatment enhanced the differentiation of GFP(+) cells, as it increased the fraction of GFP(+) cells expressing the neuronal marker NeuN, and decreased the amount of immature DGCs coexpressing doublecortin. Interestingly, METH did not change the magnitude of long-term potentiation (LTP) in more immature neurons, but facilitated LTP induction in more differentiated GFP(+) and strengthened plasticity in mature GFP(-) DGCs. The METH-induced facilitation of LTP in GFP(+) neurons was accompanied with spine enlargement. Our results reveal a specific action of long-term use of METH in the long-term plasticity of excitatory synapses onto differentiating DGCs and might have important implications toward the understanding of the synaptic basis of METH-induced cognitive alterations. PMID:27419216

  14. Long-Term Treatment with Low Doses of Methamphetamine Promotes Neuronal Differentiation and Strengthens Long-Term Potentiation of Glutamatergic Synapses onto Dentate Granule Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Milhazes, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Methamphetamine (METH) is a psychostimulant, affecting hippocampal function with disparate cognitive effects, which depends on the dose and time of administration, ranging from improvement to impairment of memory. Importantly, in the United States, METH is approved for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Modifications of long-term plasticity of synapses originating from the entorhinal cortex onto dentate granule cells (DGCs) have been proposed to underlie cognitive alterations similar to those seen in METH users. However, the effects of METH on synaptic plasticity of the dentate gyrus are unknown. Here, we investigated the impact of long-term administration of METH (2 mg/kg/d) on neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity of immature and mature DGCs of juvenile mice. We used a mouse model of neurogenesis (the G42 line of GAD67-GFP), in which GFP is expressed by differentiating young DGCs. METH treatment enhanced the differentiation of GFP+ cells, as it increased the fraction of GFP+ cells expressing the neuronal marker NeuN, and decreased the amount of immature DGCs coexpressing doublecortin. Interestingly, METH did not change the magnitude of long-term potentiation (LTP) in more immature neurons, but facilitated LTP induction in more differentiated GFP+ and strengthened plasticity in mature GFP− DGCs. The METH-induced facilitation of LTP in GFP+ neurons was accompanied with spine enlargement. Our results reveal a specific action of long-term use of METH in the long-term plasticity of excitatory synapses onto differentiating DGCs and might have important implications toward the understanding of the synaptic basis of METH-induced cognitive alterations. PMID:27419216

  15. Long-Term Delivery of Protein Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Vaishya, Ravi; Khurana, Varun; Patel, Sulabh; Mitra, Ashim K

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Proteins are effective biotherapetics with applications in diverse ailments. Despite being specific and potent, their full clinical potential has not yet been realized. This can be attributed to short half-lives, complex structures, poor in vivo stability, low permeability frequent parenteral administrations and poor adherence to treatment in chronic diseases. A sustained release system, providing controlled release of proteins, may overcome many of these limitations. Areas covered This review focuses on recent development in approaches, especially polymer-based formulations, which can provide therapeutic levels of proteins over extended periods. Advances in particulate, gel based formulations and novel approaches for extended protein delivery are discussed. Emphasis is placed on dosage form, method of preparation, mechanism of release and stability of biotherapeutics. Expert opinion Substantial advancements have been made in the field of extended protein delivery via various polymer-based formulations over last decade despite the unique delivery-related challenges posed by protein biologics. A number of injectable sustained-release formulations have reached market. However, therapeutic application of proteins is still hampered by delivery related issues. A large number of protein molecules are under clinical trials and hence there is an urgent need to develop new methods to deliver these highly potent biologics. PMID:25251334

  16. Projected Use of Long-Term-Care Services by Enrolled Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinosian, Bruce; Stallard, Eric; Wieland, Darryl

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to describe the projected use for long-term-care services through 2012. Design and Methods: We constructed a static-component projection model using age, function, and other covariates. We obtained enrollee projections from the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) and combined these with nursing home and…

  17. Building Long-Term Support for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William; Davidson, Laurie

    This publication describes actions and basic principles that campus-based alcohol and other drug (AOD) prevention coordinators can take to develop long-term administrative and financial support for campus AOD programs. The first section covers types of prevention programs that increase the probability of success. These programs include:…

  18. Long-term prevention of estrus in the bitch and queen using chlormadinone acetate.

    PubMed

    Tamada, Hiromichi; Kawate, Noritoshi; Inaba, Toshio; Sawada, Tsutomu

    2003-05-01

    Estrus was prevented with weekly oral administration of 2 mg chlormadinone acetate for 2.0 to 9.8 y in bitches and queens. Abnormalities, including mammary or uterine disorders, or both, were noted in 7 out of 14 bitches and 9 out of 24 queens during this long-term treatment. PMID:12757134

  19. Long-term prevention of estrus in the bitch and queen using chlormadinone acetate

    PubMed Central

    Tamada, Hiromichi; Kawate, Noritoshi; Inaba, Toshio; Sawada, Tsutomu

    2003-01-01

    Estrus was prevented with weekly oral administration of 2 mg chlormadinone acetate for 2.0 to 9.8 y in bitches and queens. Abnormalities, including mammary or uterine disorders, or both, were noted in 7 out of 14 bitches and 9 out of 24 queens during this long-term treatment. PMID:12757134

  20. Dignity Versus Dehumanization in Long-Term Care Settings for Older Persons: A Training Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampfe, Charlene M.

    This paper describes the types of attitudes and behaviors that might be destructive to an individual's sense of self-worth, and suggests that counselors in long-term care settings face the challenge of changing these. One strategy for counteracting potential dehumanization, offering in-service training to all levels of staff and administrators, is…

  1. The Short- and Long-Term Effects of Quality Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Donald

    2005-01-01

    The short- and long-term effects of quality physical education programs have been a subject of considerable debate by educational administrators and state legislators during the past decade. While physical educators have repeatedly demonstrated the importance of daily moderate and vigorous physical activity on the immediate health and wellbeing of…

  2. Career Program Completers, 1993-94: A Long-Term Follow-up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Karen A.

    This long-term follow-up study, conducted in the summer of 1998 by Johnson County Community College (JCCC, Kansas) focused on graduates, certificate recipients, and students identified by career program administrators as leaving with marketable skills in 1993-94. Since first administering this type of survey in 1989, JCCC has gained a broader…

  3. Psychotropic Medication of Mentally Retarded Residents in Community Long-Term Care Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Jeffrey A.; Sprague, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    Medicaid billing information was used to examine the administration of psychotropic medication to residents of community long-term care facilities providing mental retardation services. Results indicated 28.9 percent of such residents in Illinois received at least one psychotropic medication with little or no influence of demographic and facility…

  4. 46 CFR 356.43 - Long-term or exclusive sales contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Long-term or exclusive sales contracts. 356.43 Section 356.43 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MISCELLANEOUS REQUIREMENTS FOR VESSELS OF 100 FEET OR GREATER IN REGISTERED LENGTH TO OBTAIN A FISHERY ENDORSEMENT TO THE...

  5. Ensuring climate information guides long-term development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Lindsey; Dougill, Andrew; Jones, Richard G.; Steynor, Anna; Watkiss, Paul; Kane, Cheikh; Koelle, Bettina; Moufouma-Okia, Wilfran; Padgham, Jon; Ranger, Nicola; Roux, Jean-Pierre; Suarez, Pablo; Tanner, Thomas; Vincent, Katharine

    2015-09-01

    Many sub-Saharan countries are failing to include climate information in long-term development planning. Ensuring climate-resilient development requires a step change in how medium- to long-term climate information is produced, communicated and utilized in sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere.

  6. Long Term Agroecosystem Research in the southern plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Southern Plains (SP) site of the Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) network is headquartered at USDA-ARS’s Grazinglands Research Laboratory (GRL) in El Reno, Oklahoma. The GRL was established in 1948. A long-term watershed and climate research program was established in the Little Washita ...

  7. 41 CFR 51-6.3 - Long-term procurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Long-term procurements. 51-6.3 Section 51-6.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... § 51-6.3 Long-term procurements. (a) Contracting activities are encouraged to investigate...

  8. 41 CFR 51-6.3 - Long-term procurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Long-term procurements. 51-6.3 Section 51-6.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... § 51-6.3 Long-term procurements. (a) Contracting activities are encouraged to investigate...

  9. 7 CFR 1773.44 - Long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Long-term debt. 1773.44 Section 1773.44 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Required Audit Procedures and Documentation § 1773.44 Long... 691, Confirmation Schedule—Long-term Obligation to RUS as of; or RTB Form 12, Confirmation...

  10. 7 CFR 1773.44 - Long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Long-term debt. 1773.44 Section 1773.44 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Required Audit Procedures and Documentation § 1773.44 Long... 691, Confirmation Schedule—Long-term Obligation to RUS as of; or RTB Form 12, Confirmation...

  11. 7 CFR 1773.44 - Long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Long-term debt. 1773.44 Section 1773.44 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Required Audit Procedures and Documentation § 1773.44 Long... 691, Confirmation Schedule—Long-term Obligation to RUS as of; or RTB Form 12, Confirmation...

  12. 7 CFR 1773.44 - Long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Long-term debt. 1773.44 Section 1773.44 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Required Audit Procedures and Documentation § 1773.44 Long... 691, Confirmation Schedule—Long-term Obligation to RUS as of; or RTB Form 12, Confirmation...

  13. 7 CFR 1773.44 - Long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Long-term debt. 1773.44 Section 1773.44 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Required Audit Procedures and Documentation § 1773.44 Long... 691, Confirmation Schedule—Long-term Obligation to RUS as of; or RTB Form 12, Confirmation...

  14. 41 CFR 51-6.3 - Long-term procurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Long-term procurements. 51-6.3 Section 51-6.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... § 51-6.3 Long-term procurements. (a) Contracting activities are encouraged to investigate...

  15. 41 CFR 51-6.3 - Long-term procurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Long-term procurements. 51-6.3 Section 51-6.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... § 51-6.3 Long-term procurements. (a) Contracting activities are encouraged to investigate...

  16. 41 CFR 51-6.3 - Long-term procurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Long-term procurements. 51-6.3 Section 51-6.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... § 51-6.3 Long-term procurements. (a) Contracting activities are encouraged to investigate...

  17. Standards for Psychological Services in Long-Term Care Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Lichtenberg, Peter A.; Smith, Michael; Frazer, Deborah; Molinari, Victor; Rosowsky, Erlene; Crose, Royda; Stillwell, Nick; Kramer, Nanette; Hartman-Stein, Paula; Qualls, Sara; Salamon, Michael; Duffy, Michael; Parr, Joyce; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores

    1998-01-01

    Describes the development of standards for psychological practice in long-term care facilities. The standards, which were developed by Psychologists in Long-Term Care, address provider characteristics, methods of referral, assessment practices, treatment, and ethical issues. Offers suggestions for use of the standards. (MKA)

  18. [Developing the core competencies of long-term care professionals].

    PubMed

    Chen, Huey-Tzy; Lee, Kuang-Ting

    2012-12-01

    Longer average life expectancies and an ageing society have made long-term care an urgent and important issue in Taiwan. Although the implementation of Long-Term Care Ten-year Project four years ago has begun showing success in terms of assessing Taiwan's needs in terms of long-term care services and resources, there has been little forward progress in terms of training, recruiting and maintaining more competent professionals in the long-term care sector. This paper explores the current state of long-term care competency in Taiwan and educational strategies in place to improve the competency of long-term care professionals. Results indicate that the term geriatric competency embraces sub-competencies in direct care, communication, assessment, teamwork, cultural sensitivities and career care competencies. The term long-term care competency embraces the sub-competencies of supervision, management, information technology, resource management, and organizational skill. As a main contributor to effective long-term care, the nursing profession must employ effective strategies to develop competency-based education. Also, the profession must have an adequate supply of competent manpower to effectively respond to Taiwan's aging society. PMID:23212250

  19. Helping People Make Better Long-Term-Care Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Robert L.; Boston, Krista; Chilvers, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to describe an innovative online system to support long-term-care decision making. Design and Methods: The Long-Term Care Choices tool is a web-based system that uses expert opinion and structures decision making. Results: The system has been well accepted, and most users find it easy to use. Implications:…

  20. LONG TERM CARE FACILITIES: A CORNUCOPIA OF VIRAL PATHOGENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our study sought to determine the frequency and types of respiratory viruses circulating in 33 Boston long term care facilities during a three year period and correlate rates of infection with serum zinc levels. Participants were residents of long term care that had previously participated in a tria...

  1. Developmental Dyslexia and Explicit Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menghini, Deny; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto; Marotta, Luigi; Finzi, Alessandra; Vicari, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    The reduced verbal long-term memory capacities often reported in dyslexics are generally interpreted as a consequence of their deficit in phonological coding. The present study was aimed at evaluating whether the learning deficit exhibited by dyslexics was restricted only to the verbal component of the long-term memory abilities or also involved…

  2. Long-term trends in precipitation and surface water chemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter shows long-term data and trends in precipitation and surface water chemistry for each site. It contains a brief introduction to the topic, and methods of measurements, selection of variables, and their data source. It consists primarily of a large number of figures showing long-term da...

  3. Factors Affecting Long-Term Abstinence from Substances Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsheikh, Salah Elgaily

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to explore the attitudes of abstainers from drug use that relate to the factors leading to long-term abstinence. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study was carried out in Al-Amal Hospital to examine, which attitudes of abstainers related to long-term abstinence. A random survey was conducted on 62…

  4. The relationship between interannual and long-term cloud feedbacks

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Chen; Zelinka, Mark D.; Dessler, Andrew E.; Klein, Stephen A.

    2015-12-11

    The analyses of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 simulations suggest that climate models with more positive cloud feedback in response to interannual climate fluctuations also have more positive cloud feedback in response to long-term global warming. Ensemble mean vertical profiles of cloud change in response to interannual and long-term surface warming are similar, and the ensemble mean cloud feedback is positive on both timescales. However, the average long-term cloud feedback is smaller than the interannual cloud feedback, likely due to differences in surface warming pattern on the two timescales. Low cloud cover (LCC) change in response to interannual and long-term global surface warming is found to be well correlated across models and explains over half of the covariance between interannual and long-term cloud feedback. In conclusion, the intermodel correlation of LCC across timescales likely results from model-specific sensitivities of LCC to sea surface warming.

  5. Long-term variation of energetic electron precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asikainen, Timo

    2015-04-01

    The long-term evolution of energetic electron precipitation (EEP) is of considerable interest, e.g., because of its atmospheric and climatic effects. However, the long-term evolution of EEP over several solar cycles has been problematic due to the lack of reliable long-term data. The NOAA/POES satellites have measured energetic particles for more than 35 years. This dataset has been used widely but it has been plagued by several instrumental problems, which have restricted its use for long-term studies. However, we have recently corrected and recalibrated the entire NOAA/POES energetic particle dataset. Using this unique dataset we present here an overview of the long-term evolution of EEP paying particular attention to the role of different types of solar wind disturbances in driving the EEP.

  6. Prenatally diagnosed urinary tract abnormalities: long-term outcome.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D F M

    2008-06-01

    The long-term outcomes of prenatally detected uropathies are poorly documented. Limited data on fetal intervention show a possible reduction in early mortality from pulmonary hypoplasia, but no beneficial effect on long-term prognosis for renal function. Prenatally detected vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) is characterised by males with high-grade primary reflux, who are at long-term risk of renal impairment. Prenatal diagnosis and surgical intervention have contributed to a reduction in long-term morbidity in children with pelviureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction. By the same token, many children have almost certainly undergone unnecessary early pyeloplasty for an obstruction that would have resolved spontaneously. Multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK) carries a low (1%) risk of hypertension in childhood. The limited evidence on the long-term outcome of mild dilatation (pelvicaliectasis) indicates this is a largely innocent finding, which carries no increased risk of morbidity. PMID:18037084

  7. Long-Term Dynamics of Autonomous Fractional Differential Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tao; Xu, Wei; Xu, Yong; Han, Qun

    This paper aims to investigate long-term dynamic behaviors of autonomous fractional differential equations with effective numerical method. The long-term dynamic behaviors predict where systems are heading after long-term evolution. We make some modification and transplant cell mapping methods to autonomous fractional differential equations. The mapping time duration of cell mapping is enlarged to deal with the long memory effect. Three illustrative examples, i.e. fractional Lotka-Volterra equation, fractional van der Pol oscillator and fractional Duffing equation, are studied with our revised generalized cell mapping method. We obtain long-term dynamics, such as attractors, basins of attraction, and saddles. Compared with some existing stability and numerical results, the validity of our method is verified. Furthermore, we find that the fractional order has its effect on the long-term dynamics of autonomous fractional differential equations.

  8. Environmental Management Long-Term Stewardship Transition Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Kristofferson, Keith

    2001-11-01

    Long-term stewardship consists of those actions necessary to maintain and demonstrate continued protection of human health and the environment after the completion of facility cleanup. Long-term stewardship is administered and overseen by the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology. This report describes the background of long-term stewardship and gives general guidance about considerations when ownership and/or responsibility of a site should be transferred to a long-term stewardship program. This guidance document will assist the U.S. Department of Energy in: (a) ensuring that the long-term stewardship program leads transition planning with respect to facility and site areas, and (b) describing the classes and types of criteria and data required to initiate transition for areas and sites where the facility mission has ended and cleanup is complete.

  9. 42 CFR 488.606 - Alternative sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alternative sanctions. 488.606 Section 488.606... Medicare Coverage and Alternative Sanctions for End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Facilities § 488.606 Alternative sanctions. (a) Basis for application of alternative sanctions. CMS may, as an alternative...

  10. 42 CFR 488.606 - Alternative sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alternative sanctions. 488.606 Section 488.606... Medicare Coverage and Alternative Sanctions for End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Facilities § 488.606 Alternative sanctions. (a) Basis for application of alternative sanctions. CMS may, as an alternative...

  11. 42 CFR 488.606 - Alternative sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alternative sanctions. 488.606 Section 488.606... Medicare Coverage and Alternative Sanctions for End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Facilities § 488.606 Alternative sanctions. (a) Basis for application of alternative sanctions. CMS may, as an alternative...

  12. 42 CFR 488.606 - Alternative sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alternative sanctions. 488.606 Section 488.606... Medicare Coverage and Alternative Sanctions for End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Facilities § 488.606 Alternative sanctions. (a) Basis for application of alternative sanctions. CMS may, as an alternative...

  13. 10 CFR 26.75 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanctions. 26.75 Section 26.75 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Management Actions and Sanctions To Be Imposed § 26.75 Sanctions. (a) This section defines the minimum sanctions that licensees and other entities shall impose when...

  14. 10 CFR 26.75 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sanctions. 26.75 Section 26.75 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Management Actions and Sanctions To Be Imposed § 26.75 Sanctions. (a) This section defines the minimum sanctions that licensees and other entities shall impose when...

  15. 10 CFR 26.75 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sanctions. 26.75 Section 26.75 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Management Actions and Sanctions To Be Imposed § 26.75 Sanctions. (a) This section defines the minimum sanctions that licensees and other entities shall impose when...

  16. 10 CFR 26.75 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sanctions. 26.75 Section 26.75 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Management Actions and Sanctions To Be Imposed § 26.75 Sanctions. (a) This section defines the minimum sanctions that licensees and other entities shall impose when...

  17. 10 CFR 26.75 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sanctions. 26.75 Section 26.75 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Management Actions and Sanctions To Be Imposed § 26.75 Sanctions. (a) This section defines the minimum sanctions that licensees and other entities shall impose when...

  18. Abstracts 1987. New Horizons in Long Term Care: A Report on the Long Term Care Research and Demonstration Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Dept. of Public Aid, Springfield.

    This booklet provides a description of 14 projects which were awarded funds during fiscal year 1987 for collaborative research in long-term care to find new ways to treat long-term care patients in Illinois nursing homes. It includes the organization or institution receiving the award, an abstract of the research proposal, and the name of the…

  19. The Womanly World of Long Term Care: The Plight of the Long Term Care Worker. Gray Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Older Women's League, Washington, DC.

    Long-term care workers (those who are paid to provide custodial care for long-term patients in nursing homes or at home) must care for a growing number of increasingly disabled or dependent persons. They are working for agencies and institutions under growing pressure to increase productivity. They face new training and competency requirements,…

  20. The economics of long-term global climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This report is intended to provide an overview of economic issues and research relevant to possible, long-term global climate change. It is primarily a critical survey, not a statement of Administration or Department policy. This report should serve to indicate that economic analysis of global change is in its infancy few assertions about costs or benefits can be made with confidence. The state of the literature precludes any attempt to produce anything like a comprehensive benefit-cost analysis. Moreover, almost all the quantitative estimates regarding physical and economic effects in this report, as well as many of the qualitative assertions, are controversial. Section I provides background on greenhouse gas emissions and their likely climatic effects and on available policy instruments. Section II considers the costs of living with global change, assuming no substantial efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Section III considers costs of reducing these emissions, though the available literature does not contain estimates of the costs of policies that would, on the assumptions of current climate models, prevent climate change altogether. The individual sections are not entirely compartmentalized, but can be read independently if necessary.

  1. Unexpected long-term stability of a cyanine dye bioconjugate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorshow, Richard B.; Rajagopalan, Raghavan

    2005-04-01

    Biocompatible organic dyes, in general, exhibit poor photostability in aqueous solution. This is especially true at the high concentrations needed for bolus administration in a clinical application. Several years ago, we showed that by using carefully chosen macromolecular additives, the stability of aqueous dye solutions may be enhanced significantly. We now report the observation of an unexpected long-term stability of a near infrared dye-peptide conjugate. The Mallinckrodt developed dye-peptide conjugate known as Cytate is an indocyanine type dye attached to the peptide octreotate. We have previously shown that this compound targets somatostatin receptor rich tumors and provides unambiguous contrast for optical imaging. A freshly prepared aqueous solution of Cytate was mixed with blood (from a rat) in a small glass bottle. An optical image was taken soon after, along with several control samples. The Cytate-blood bottle fluoresced quite nicely. The sample bottles were then left in a lab for three plus years, at room temperature with ordinary exposure to lab lights. The sample bottles were imaged after the three year period, and the Cytate-blood bottle fluoresces still.

  2. The long-term use of cyproterone acetate in pedophilia: a case study.

    PubMed

    Cooper, A J; Cernovsky, Z; Magnus, R V

    1992-01-01

    This investigation reports the long-term use of the antiandrogen cyproterone acetate (CPA) in a pedophile, who was studied continuously over 38 months. Measures of sexual arousal, serum testosterone, and gonadotropin levels were significantly reduced by the drug as compared with placebo and no treatment; prolactin levels were significantly elevated. Some workers have observed that long-term administration of CPA (more than one year, which was then discontinued) produced enduring (in some cases apparently permanent) anti-libidinal effects; however, in the case described, within three weeks of stopping the drug, all measures had returned to pretrial levels. The importance of continuous long-term monitoring in sex offenders receiving an antiandrogen is discussed. PMID:1291700

  3. Long-term benefits of full-day kindergarten: a longitudinal population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Brownell, M.D.; Nickel, N.C.; Chateau, D.; Martens, P.J.; Taylor, C.; Crockett, L.; Katz, A.; Sarkar, J.; Burland, E.; Goh, C.Y.

    2015-01-01

    In the first longitudinal, population-based study of full-day kindergarten (FDK) outcomes beyond primary school in Canada, we used linked administrative data to follow 15 kindergarten cohorts (n ranging from 112 to 736) up to grade 9. Provincial assessments conducted in grades 3, 7, and 8 and course marks and credits earned in grade 9 were compared between FDK and half-day kindergarten (HDK) students in both targeted and universal FDK programmes. Propensity score matched cohort and stepped-wedge designs allowed for stronger causal inferences than previous research on FDK. We found limited long-term benefits of FDK, specific to the type of programme, outcomes examined, and subpopulations. FDK programmes targeted at low-income areas showed long-term improvements in numeracy for lower income girls. Our results suggest that expectations for wide-ranging long-term academic benefits of FDK are unwarranted. PMID:25632172

  4. Long-term care: dignity, autonomy, family integrity, and social sustainability: the Hong Kong experience.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ho Mun; Pang, Sam

    2007-01-01

    This article reveals the outcome of a study on the perceptions of elders, family members, and healthcare professionals and administration providing care in a range of different long-term care facilities in Hong Kong with primary focus on the concepts of autonomy and dignity of elders, quality and location of care, decision making, and financing of long term care. It was found that aging in place and family care were considered the best approaches to long term care insofar as procuring and balancing the values of dignity, autonomy, family integrity and social sustainability were concerned. An elder having the final say was generally accepted. The results also initiated the importance of sharing of financial responsibility among elders, children and government albeit the emphasis was placed on individuals. Furthermore, dignity of elders was not considered purely a synonym of autonomy, but it had also to do with respect, family and social connections. PMID:17924269

  5. Long-term prognostic impact of the attenuated plaque in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Okura, Hiroyuki; Kataoka, Toru; Yoshiyama, Minoru; Yoshikawa, Junichi; Yoshida, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Several intravascular ultrasound studies have reported that culprit lesion-attenuated plaque (AP) is related to slow flow/no reflow after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Long-term prognostic impact of the AP is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate acute and long-term clinical impact of the AP in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). A total of 110 ACS patients who underwent successful PCI were enrolled. Acute and long-term clinical outcomes were compared between patients with AP (AP group: n = 73) and those without AP (non-AP group: n = 37). Long-term cardiac event was defined as a composite of death and ACS. Baseline characteristics in 2 groups were similar. AP was associated with higher TIMI frame count immediately after the first balloon inflation. After thrombectomy and intracoronary drug administration, final TIMI frame count became similar between AP and non-AP group. Although AP was associated with higher incidence of fatal arrhythmia during hospitalization, in-hospital mortality did not differ between the 2 groups. During follow-up (median 6.2 years), cardiac event-free survival did not differ between the 2 groups. Despite the initial unfavorable effect on coronary reflow, presence of AP did not affect acute as well as long-term clinical outcome in patients with ACS. PMID:25183306

  6. Long-term depot antipsychotics. A risk-benefit assessment.

    PubMed

    Barnes, T R; Curson, D A

    1994-06-01

    The main advantage of depot antipsychotic medication is that it overcomes the problem of covert noncompliance. Patients receiving depot treatment who refuse their injection or fail to receive it for any other reason can be immediately identified and appropriate action taken. In the context of a carefully monitored management programme, depot treatment can have a major impact on compliance and, consequently, the risk of relapse and hospitalisation can be reduced. Another major advantage is that the considerable individual variation in bioavailability and metabolism with oral antipsychotic drugs is markedly reduced with depot treatment. A better correlation between the dose administered and the concentration of medication found in blood or plasma is achieved with depot treatment, and thus, the clinician has greater control over the amount of drug being delivered to the site of activity. A further benefit of depot treatment is the achievement of stable plasma concentrations over long periods, allowing injections to be given every few weeks. However, this also represents a potential disadvantage in that there is a lack of flexibility of administration. Should adverse effects develop, the drug cannot be rapidly withdrawn. Furthermore, adjustment to the optimal dose becomes a long term strategy. The controlled studies of low dose maintenance therapy with depot treatment suggest that it can take months or years for the consequences of dose reduction, in terms of increased risk of relapse, to become manifest. When weighing up the risks and benefits of long term antipsychotic treatment for the individual patient with schizophrenia, the clinician must take into account the nature, severity and frequency of past relapses, and the degree of distress and disability related to any adverse effects. However, the clinical decision to prescribe either a depot or an oral antipsychotic for maintenance treatment will probably rest largely on an assessment of the risk of poor compliance

  7. Long-Term Stewardship Baseline Report and Transition Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Kristofferson, Keith

    2001-11-01

    Long-term stewardship consists of those actions necessary to maintain and demonstrate continued protection of human health and the environment after facility cleanup is complete. As the Department of Energy’s (DOE) lead laboratory for environmental management programs, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) administers DOE’s long-term stewardship science and technology efforts. The INEEL provides DOE with technical, and scientific expertise needed to oversee its long-term environmental management obligations complexwide. Long-term stewardship is administered and overseen by the Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology. The INEEL Long-Term Stewardship Program is currently developing the management structures and plans to complete INEEL-specific, long-term stewardship obligations. This guidance document (1) assists in ensuring that the program leads transition planning for the INEEL with respect to facility and site areas and (2) describes the classes and types of criteria and data required to initiate transition for areas and sites where the facility mission has ended and cleanup is complete. Additionally, this document summarizes current information on INEEL facilities, structures, and release sites likely to enter long-term stewardship at the completion of DOE’s cleanup mission. This document is not intended to function as a discrete checklist or local procedure to determine readiness to transition. It is an overarching document meant as guidance in implementing specific transition procedures. Several documents formed the foundation upon which this guidance was developed. Principal among these documents was the Long-Term Stewardship Draft Technical Baseline; A Report to Congress on Long-Term Stewardship, Volumes I and II; Infrastructure Long-Range Plan; Comprehensive Facility Land Use Plan; INEEL End-State Plan; and INEEL Institutional Plan.

  8. 49 CFR 511.37 - Sanctions for failure to comply with order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanctions for failure to comply with order. 511.37 Section 511.37 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Discovery; Compulsory Process § 511.37 Sanctions for...

  9. 29 CFR 1955.33 - Sanctions for failure to comply with orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanctions for failure to comply with orders. 1955.33 Section 1955.33 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR WITHDRAWAL OF APPROVAL OF STATE PLANS Preliminary Conference and Discovery § 1955.33 Sanctions...

  10. 29 CFR 1955.33 - Sanctions for failure to comply with orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sanctions for failure to comply with orders. 1955.33 Section 1955.33 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR WITHDRAWAL OF APPROVAL OF STATE PLANS Preliminary Conference and Discovery § 1955.33 Sanctions...

  11. 29 CFR 1955.33 - Sanctions for failure to comply with orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sanctions for failure to comply with orders. 1955.33 Section 1955.33 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR WITHDRAWAL OF APPROVAL OF STATE PLANS Preliminary Conference and Discovery § 1955.33 Sanctions...

  12. 19 CFR 356.30 - Sanctions for violations of a protective order for privileged information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanctions for violations of a protective order for privileged information. 356.30 Section 356.30 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... AGREEMENT Violation of a Protective Order or a Disclosure Undertaking § 356.30 Sanctions for violations of...

  13. 19 CFR 356.30 - Sanctions for violations of a protective order for privileged information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sanctions for violations of a protective order for privileged information. 356.30 Section 356.30 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... AGREEMENT Violation of a Protective Order or a Disclosure Undertaking § 356.30 Sanctions for violations of...

  14. 19 CFR 356.12 - Sanctions for violation of a protective order or disclosure undertaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanctions for violation of a protective order or disclosure undertaking. 356.12 Section 356.12 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... AGREEMENT Violation of a Protective Order or a Disclosure Undertaking § 356.12 Sanctions for violation of...

  15. 19 CFR 356.12 - Sanctions for violation of a protective order or disclosure undertaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sanctions for violation of a protective order or disclosure undertaking. 356.12 Section 356.12 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... AGREEMENT Violation of a Protective Order or a Disclosure Undertaking § 356.12 Sanctions for violation of...

  16. 19 CFR 356.30 - Sanctions for violations of a protective order for privileged information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sanctions for violations of a protective order for privileged information. 356.30 Section 356.30 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... AGREEMENT Violation of a Protective Order or a Disclosure Undertaking § 356.30 Sanctions for violations of...

  17. 19 CFR 356.12 - Sanctions for violation of a protective order or disclosure undertaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sanctions for violation of a protective order or disclosure undertaking. 356.12 Section 356.12 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... AGREEMENT Violation of a Protective Order or a Disclosure Undertaking § 356.12 Sanctions for violation of...

  18. 19 CFR 356.30 - Sanctions for violations of a protective order for privileged information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sanctions for violations of a protective order for privileged information. 356.30 Section 356.30 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... AGREEMENT Violation of a Protective Order or a Disclosure Undertaking § 356.30 Sanctions for violations of...

  19. 19 CFR 356.30 - Sanctions for violations of a protective order for privileged information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sanctions for violations of a protective order for privileged information. 356.30 Section 356.30 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... AGREEMENT Violation of a Protective Order or a Disclosure Undertaking § 356.30 Sanctions for violations of...

  20. 19 CFR 356.12 - Sanctions for violation of a protective order or disclosure undertaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sanctions for violation of a protective order or disclosure undertaking. 356.12 Section 356.12 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... AGREEMENT Violation of a Protective Order or a Disclosure Undertaking § 356.12 Sanctions for violation of...

  1. 19 CFR 356.12 - Sanctions for violation of a protective order or disclosure undertaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sanctions for violation of a protective order or disclosure undertaking. 356.12 Section 356.12 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... AGREEMENT Violation of a Protective Order or a Disclosure Undertaking § 356.12 Sanctions for violation of...

  2. 49 CFR 511.37 - Sanctions for failure to comply with order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sanctions for failure to comply with order. 511.37 Section 511.37 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Discovery; Compulsory Process § 511.37 Sanctions for...

  3. What nursing diagnoses do nurses use in long term care?

    PubMed

    Daly, J M; Maas, M; Buckwalter, K

    1995-01-01

    The results of this survey validate that the NANDA nursing diagnoses classification is appropriate for use in long term care. Although ninety three percent of the current NANDA nursing diagnoses are used in practice, there remains a need for the development and testing of additional nursing diagnoses to describe patient problems encountered in long term care. Nurses in education and practice settings must work collaboratively to continue to identify, refine and validate the nursing diagnoses that are most appropriate for frail, older and/or chronically ill residents of long term care facilities. PMID:7648273

  4. Space ventures and society long-term perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    A futuristic evaluation of mankind's potential long term future in space is presented. Progress in space will not be inhibited by shortages of the Earth's physical resources, since long term economic growth will be focused on ways to constrain industrial productivity by changing social values, management styles, or government competence. Future technological progress is likely to accelerate with an emphasis on international cooperation, making possible such large joint projects as lunar colonies or space stations on Mars. The long term future in space looks exceedingly bright even in relatively pessimistic scenarios. The principal driving forces will be technological progress, commercial and public-oriented satellites, space industrialization, space travel, and eventually space colonization.

  5. Long-term monitoring for nanomedicine implants and drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, Michaela; Lynch, Iseult

    2016-03-01

    Increasing globalization means that traditional occupational epidemiological approaches may no longer apply, suggesting a need for an alternative model to assess the long-term impact of nanomaterial exposure on health.

  6. Earth's Long-Term Warming Trend, 1880-2015

    NASA Video Gallery

    This visualization illustrates Earth’s long-term warming trend, showing temperature changes from 1880 to 2015 as a rolling five-year average. Orange colors represent temperatures that are warmer th...

  7. Long-term Career Goals for Professional Women in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klepper, Betty

    1986-01-01

    Encourages the formation of long-term career goals for women in agronomy. Offers perspectives and practical suggestions for obtaining positions, maintaining professional credentials, and managing personal and career related obligations. (ML)

  8. Kids' Mild Brain Injury Can Have Long-Term Effects

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160606.html Kids' Mild Brain Injury Can Have Long-Term Effects Early head ... 000 Swedes who suffered at least one traumatic brain injury (TBI) before age 25 with their unaffected ...

  9. The Long Term Agroecosystem Research Network - Shared research strategy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture faces tremendous challenges in meeting multiple societal goals, including a safe and plentiful food supply; climate change adaptation and mitigation; supplying sources of bioenergy; improving water, air, and soil quality; and maintaining biodiversity. The Long Term Agroecosystem Research...

  10. Long-term Outcomes of Childhood Onset Nephrotic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hjorten, Rebecca; Anwar, Zohra; Reidy, Kimberly Jean

    2016-01-01

    There are limited studies on long-term outcomes of childhood onset nephrotic syndrome (NS). A majority of children with NS have steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS). Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) is associated with a high risk of developing end-stage renal disease. Biomarkers and analysis of genetic mutations may provide new information for prognosis in SRNS. Frequently relapsing and steroid-dependent NS is associated with long-term complications, including dyslipidemia, cataracts, osteoporosis and fractures, obesity, impaired growth, and infertility. Long-term complications of SSNS are likely to be under-recognized. There remain many gaps in our knowledge of long-term outcomes of childhood NS, and further study is indicated. PMID:27252935

  11. The market for long-term care services.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, David C

    2008-01-01

    Although a large literature has established the importance of market and regulatory forces within the long-term care sector, current research in this field is limited by a series of data, measurement, and methodological issues. This paper provides a comprehensive review of these issues with an emphasis on identifying initiatives that will increase the volume and quality of long-term care research. Recommendations include: the construction of standard measures of long-term care market boundaries, the broader dissemination of market and regulatory data, the linkage of survey-based data with market measures, the encouragement of further market-based studies of noninstitutional long-term care settings, and the standardization of Medicaid cost data. PMID:18524292

  12. Long term combination treatment for severe idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Affuso, Flora; Cirillo, Plinio; Ruvolo, Antonio; Carlomagno, Guido; Fazio, Serafino

    2010-01-01

    We report the long-term follow-up of 3 cases of severe idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, in whom tadalafil plus sitaxentan combination therapy improved the clinical condition and exercise performance without any relevant adverse event. PMID:21160759

  13. Long-Term Quiescent Fibroblast Cells Transit into Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Marthandan, Shiva; Priebe, Steffen; Hemmerich, Peter; Klement, Karolin; Diekmann, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Cellular senescence is described to be a consequence of telomere erosion during the replicative life span of primary human cells. Quiescence should therefore not contribute to cellular aging but rather extend lifespan. Here we tested this hypothesis and demonstrate that cultured long-term quiescent human fibroblasts transit into senescence due to similar cellular mechanisms with similar dynamics and with a similar maximum life span as proliferating controls, even under physiological oxygen conditions. Both, long-term quiescent and senescent fibroblasts almost completely fail to undergo apoptosis. The transition of long-term quiescent fibroblasts into senescence is also independent of HES1 which protects short-term quiescent cells from becoming senescent. Most significantly, DNA damage accumulates during senescence as well as during long-term quiescence at physiological oxygen levels. We suggest that telomere-independent, potentially maintenance driven gradual induction of cellular senescence during quiescence is a counterbalance to tumor development. PMID:25531649

  14. Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Field Sampling Plan for 2007

    SciTech Connect

    T. Haney R. VanHorn

    2007-07-31

    This field sampling plan describes the field investigations planned for the Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Project at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in 2007. This plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan for Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and Removal Actions constitute the sampling and analysis plan supporting long-term ecological monitoring sampling in 2007. The data collected under this plan will become part of the long-term ecological monitoring data set that is being collected annually. The data will be used t determine the requirements for the subsequent long-term ecological monitoring. This plan guides the 2007 investigations, including sampling, quality assurance, quality control, analytical procedures, and data management. As such, this plan will help to ensure that the resulting monitoring data will be scientifically valid, defensible, and of known and acceptable quality.

  15. Influenza in long-term care facilities: preventable, detectable, treatable.

    PubMed

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2009-09-01

    Influenza in long-term care facilities is an ever more challenging problem. Vaccination of residents and health care workers is the most important preventive measure. Although vaccine efficacy has been questioned, the preponderance of data favors vaccination. Antiviral resistance complicates postexposure chemoprophylaxis and treatment. Factors that limit the choice of antiviral agents in this patient population include limited vaccine supplies and impaired dexterity and confusion in long-term care residents. PMID:19726556

  16. Endoscopic Management of Attic Cholesteatoma: Long-Term Results.

    PubMed

    Alicandri-Ciufelli, Matteo; Marchioni, Daniele; Kakehata, Seiji; Presutti, Livio; Villari, Domenico

    2016-10-01

    The main application of endoscopic surgery relies on the middle ear cholesteatoma surgical treatment, although for a definitive validation and acceptance by scientific community, long-term results are needed about recurrent and residual rates of the pathology. The aim of the present paper was to analyze the single institution experience with the long-term results of surgical treatment of attic cholesteatoma. PMID:27565391

  17. Maintaining Engagement in Long-term Interventions with Relational Agents

    PubMed Central

    Bickmore, Timothy; Schulman, Daniel; Yin, Langxuan

    2011-01-01

    We discuss issues in designing virtual humans for applications which require long-term voluntary use, and the problem of maintaining engagement with users over time. Concepts and theories related to engagement from a variety of disciplines are reviewed. We describe a platform for conducting studies into long-term interactions between humans and virtual agents, and present the results of two longitudinal randomized controlled experiments in which the effect of manipulations of agent behavior on user engagement was assessed. PMID:21318052

  18. Long-term effects of sludge application to land

    SciTech Connect

    Geertsema, W.S. ); Knocke, W.R.; Novak, J.T.; Dove, D. . Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term environmental effects of applying alum sludge to land. Investigations at the original field site included soil analysis, soil water monitoring, groundwater monitoring, and analysis of tissues from pine needles. No long-term (30 months) effects were observed, and the authors conclude that alum coagulant sludges can be applied to forest lands at loading rates of at least 1.5 to 2.5% by dry weight without adverse effect.

  19. Private Financing Options for Long-term Care

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Barbara L.; Simon, Harold J.; Smallwood, Dennis E.

    1987-01-01

    Private financing for long-term care now comes almost exclusively from out-of-pocket payments. Long-term-care costs quickly impoverish most elderly, resulting in Medicaid dependency. The consequences are profound for the western Sun Belt with its rapidly growing elderly population. Key private financing options are long-term-care individual retirement accounts (LTC/IRAs), home equity conversion, social-health maintenance organizations and long-term-care insurance. Study of data from the past half century suggests that the LTC/IRA approach would prove unsatisfactory for the purpose despite the intuitive appeal of this mechanism. Experience with home equity conversions is still very limited, and unresolved questions limit this approach to the role of a reserve option for now. While promising, social-health maintenance organizations are still in the experimental stages and not yet commercially available. Long-term-care insurance is currently sold on a thin market and emphasizes nursing home coverage. New approaches to private financing through long-term-care insurance seem to offer the best approach for immediate implementation. PMID:3118576

  20. Commentary: The Broader Context of Long-Term Care Ethics.

    PubMed

    Lesandrini, Jason; O'Connell, Carol

    2016-07-01

    Ethical issues in long-term care settings, although having received attention in the literature, have not in our opinion received the appropriate level they require. Thus, we applaud the Cambridge Quarterly for publishing this case. We can attest to the significance of ethical issues arising in long-term care facilities, as Mr. Hope's case is all too familiar to those practicing in these settings. What is unique about this case is that an actual ethics consult was made in a long-term care setting. We have seen very little in the published literature on the use of ethics structures in long-term care populations. Our experience is that these healthcare settings are ripe for ethical concerns and that providers, patients, families, and staff need/desire ethics resources to actively and preventively address ethical concerns. The popular press has begun to recognize the ethical issues involved in long-term care settings and the need for ethics structures. Recently, in California a nurse refused to initiate CPR for an elderly patient in a senior residence. In that case, the nurse was quoted as saying that the facility had a policy that nurses were not to start CPR for elderly patients. 1 Although this case is not exactly the same as that of Mr. Hope, it highlights the need for developing robust ethics program infrastructures in long-term care settings that work toward addressing ethical issues through policy, education, and active consultation. PMID:27348841

  1. Short- and Long-term Effects of Ginkgo Biloba Extract on Sexual Dysfunction in Women

    PubMed Central

    Rellini, Alessandra H.; Telch, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) facilitates blood flow, influences nitric oxide systems, and has a relaxant effect on smooth muscle tissue. These processes are important to the sexual response in women and, hence, it is feasible that GBE may have a therapeutic effect. The present study was the first to provide an empirical examination of the effects of both short- and long-term GBE administration on subjective and physiological (vaginal photoplethysmography) measures of sexual function in women with Sexual Arousal Disorder. A single dose of 300 mg GBE had a small but significant facilitatory effect on physiological, but not subjective, sexual arousal compared to placebo in 99 sexually dysfunctional women. The long-term effects of GBE on sexual function were assessed in 68 sexually dysfunctional women who were randomly assigned to 8 weeks treatment of either (1) GBE (300 mg/daily), (2) placebo, (3) sex therapy which focused on training women to attend to genital sensations, or (4) sex therapy plus GBE. When combined with sex therapy, but not alone, long-term GBE treatment significantly increased sexual desire and contentment beyond placebo. Sex therapy alone significantly enhanced orgasm function compared with placebo. Long-term GBE administration did not significantly enhance arousal responses beyond placebo. It was concluded that (1) neither short- or long-term administration of GBE alone substantially impacts sexual function in women, (2) a substantial placebo effect on sexual function exists in women with sexual concerns, and (3) teaching women to focus on genital sensations during sex enhances certain aspects of women’s sexual functioning. PMID:18274887

  2. 28 CFR 20.38 - Sanction for noncompliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 20.38 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.38 Sanction for noncompliance. Access to systems managed or maintained by the FBI is subject to cancellation in regard to any agency or entity...

  3. 28 CFR 20.38 - Sanction for noncompliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 20.38 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.38 Sanction for noncompliance. Access to systems managed or maintained by the FBI is subject to cancellation in regard to any agency or entity...

  4. 28 CFR 20.38 - Sanction for noncompliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 20.38 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.38 Sanction for noncompliance. Access to systems managed or maintained by the FBI is subject to cancellation in regard to any agency or entity...

  5. 28 CFR 20.38 - Sanction for noncompliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 20.38 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.38 Sanction for noncompliance. Access to systems managed or maintained by the FBI is subject to cancellation in regard to any agency or entity...

  6. 28 CFR 20.38 - Sanction for noncompliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 20.38 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.38 Sanction for noncompliance. Access to systems managed or maintained by the FBI is subject to cancellation in regard to any agency or entity...

  7. 7 CFR 281.6 - Liabilities and sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Liabilities and sanctions. 281.6 Section 281.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION OF THE FOOD STAMP PROGRAM ON...

  8. 7 CFR 281.6 - Liabilities and sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Liabilities and sanctions. 281.6 Section 281.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION OF SNAP ON INDIAN RESERVATIONS §...

  9. 7 CFR 281.6 - Liabilities and sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liabilities and sanctions. 281.6 Section 281.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION OF THE FOOD STAMP PROGRAM ON...

  10. 7 CFR 281.6 - Liabilities and sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Liabilities and sanctions. 281.6 Section 281.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION OF THE FOOD STAMP PROGRAM ON...

  11. 7 CFR 281.6 - Liabilities and sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Liabilities and sanctions. 281.6 Section 281.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION OF THE FOOD STAMP PROGRAM ON...

  12. Dexmedetomidine hydrochloride as a long-term sedative

    PubMed Central

    Kunisawa, Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    Dexmedetomidine undoubtedly is a useful sedative in the intensive care setting because it has a minimal effect on the respiratory system. Dexmedetomidine infusions lasting more than 24 hours have not been approved since the first approval was acquired in the US in 1999. However, in 2008, dexmedetomidine infusions for prolonged use were approved in Colombia and in the Dominican Republic, and the number of countries that have granted approval for prolonged use has been increasing every year. This review discusses the literature examining prolonged use of dexmedetomidine and confirms the efficacy and safety of dexmedetomidine when it is used for more than 24 hours. Dexmedetomidine was administered at varying doses (0.1–2.5 μg/kg/hour) and durations up to 30 days. Dexmedetomidine seems to be an alternative to benzodiazepines or propofol for achieving sedation in adults because the incidences of delirium and coma associated with dexmedetomidine are lower than the corresponding incidences associated with benzodiazepines and propofol, although dexmedetomidine administration can cause mild adverse effects such as bradycardia. Controlled comparative studies on the efficacy and safety of dexmedetomidine and other sedatives in pediatric patients have not been reported. However, dexmedetomidine seems to be effective in managing extubation, reducing the use of conventional sedatives, and as an alternative for inducing sedation in patients for whom traditional sedatives induce inadequate sedation. Prolonged dexmedetomidine infusion has not been reported to have any serious adverse effects. Dexmedetomidine appears to be an alternative long-term sedative, but further studies are needed to establish its efficacy and safety. PMID:21845052

  13. Long-Term Outcomes of Radiotherapy for Pituitary Adenomas

    SciTech Connect

    Snead, Felicia E. Amdur, Robert J. M.D.; Morris, Christopher G. M.S.; Mendenhall, William M.

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate long-term local control and toxicity for pituitary adenomas treated with fractionated radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: The records of 100 patients with pituitary adenomas treated between 1983 and 2003 were retrospectively reviewed. Thirty-one patients had hormone-secreting tumors; 69 patients were treated with surgery and postoperative RT. Median follow-up was 6.7 years (range, 0.6-20.2 years) for all patients and 6.2 years (range, 2-20.2 years) for living patients. The mean dose delivered was 45 Gy (range, 43-50.4 Gy). Results: The 10-year actuarial local control rates for nonsecreting and secreting adenomas were 98% and 73%, respectively (p 0.0015). Actuarial 10-year cause-specific survival (CSS) rates were 95% and 88%, and overall survival rates were 66% and 79% for nonsecreting and secreting adenomas, respectively. Involvement of the sphenoid sinus was found to be significantly associated with decreased 10-year CSS (p = 0.0453). When compared with the two- or three-field techniques, stereotactic RT was associated with improved CSS (p = 0.0775). CSS was not significantly associated with hormone excretion, extent of surgery, or whether RT was administrated postoperatively or for salvage after a postsurgical recurrence. New cases of hypopituitarism occurred in 35 patients. One patient experienced vision loss, and one patient developed a post-treatment glioma. Conclusions: This is one of the most mature series in the literature that documents excellent results with fractionated RT for pituitary adenoma. We recommend 45 Gy at 1.8 Gy per fraction using stereotactic noncoplanar fields.

  14. Nitric oxide-dependent long-term depression but not endocannabinoid-mediated long-term potentiation is crucial for visual recognition memory

    PubMed Central

    Tamagnini, Francesco; Barker, Gareth; Warburton, E Clea; Burattini, Costanza; Aicardi, Giorgio; Bashir, Zafar I

    2013-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity in perirhinal cortex is essential for recognition memory. Nitric oxide and endocannabinoids (eCBs), which are produced in the postsynaptic cell and act on the presynaptic terminal, are implicated in mechanisms of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) in other brain regions. In this study, we examine these two retrograde signalling cascades in perirhinal cortex synaptic plasticity and in visual recognition memory in the rat. We show that inhibition of NO-dependent signalling prevented both carbachol- and activity (5 Hz)-dependent LTD but not activity (100 Hz theta burst)-dependent LTP in the rat perirhinal cortex in vitro. In contrast, inhibition of the eCB-dependent signalling prevented LTP but not the two forms of LTD in vitro. Local administration into perirhinal cortex of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NPA (2 μm) disrupted acquisition of long-term visual recognition memory. In contrast, AM251 (10 μm), a cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist, did not impair visual recognition memory. The results of this study demonstrate dissociation between putative retrograde signalling mechanisms in LTD and LTP in perirhinal cortex. Thus, LTP relies on cannabinoid but not NO signalling, whilst LTD relies on NO- but not eCB-dependent signalling. Critically, these results also establish, for the first time, that NO- but not eCB-dependent signalling is important in perirhinal cortex-dependent visual recognition memory. PMID:23671159

  15. Wastewater treatment by soil infiltration: Long-term phosphorus removal.

    PubMed

    Eveborn, David; Kong, Deguo; Gustafsson, Jon Petter

    2012-10-01

    Phosphorus (P) leaching from on-site wastewater treatment systems may contribute to eutrophication. In developed countries the most common on-site treatment technique is septic systems with soil infiltration. However, the current knowledge about long term P removal in soil treatment systems is not well developed and the data used for estimation of P losses from such systems are unreliable. In this study we sampled four filter beds from community-scale soil treatment systems with an age of between 14 and 22years to determine the long-term P removal and to investigate the chemical mechanisms behind the observed removal. For one site the long-term P removal was calculated using a mass balance approach. After analysis of the accumulated P, it was estimated that on average 12% of the long-term P load had been removed by the bed material. This indicates a low overall capacity of soil treatment systems to remove phosphorus. Batch experiments and chemical speciation modelling indicated that calcium phosphate precipitation was not an important long-term P removal mechanism, with the possible exception of one of the sites. More likely, the P removal was induced by AlPO(4) precipitation and/or sorption to poorly ordered aluminium compounds, as evidenced by strong relationships between oxalate-extractable Al and P. PMID:22982614

  16. The relationship between interannual and long-term cloud feedbacks

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhou, Chen; Zelinka, Mark D.; Dessler, Andrew E.; Klein, Stephen A.

    2015-12-11

    The analyses of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 simulations suggest that climate models with more positive cloud feedback in response to interannual climate fluctuations also have more positive cloud feedback in response to long-term global warming. Ensemble mean vertical profiles of cloud change in response to interannual and long-term surface warming are similar, and the ensemble mean cloud feedback is positive on both timescales. However, the average long-term cloud feedback is smaller than the interannual cloud feedback, likely due to differences in surface warming pattern on the two timescales. Low cloud cover (LCC) change in response to interannual andmore » long-term global surface warming is found to be well correlated across models and explains over half of the covariance between interannual and long-term cloud feedback. In conclusion, the intermodel correlation of LCC across timescales likely results from model-specific sensitivities of LCC to sea surface warming.« less

  17. Long-Term Stewardship Program Science and Technology Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Joan McDonald

    2002-09-01

    Many of the United States’ hazardous and radioactively contaminated waste sites will not be sufficiently remediated to allow unrestricted land use because funding and technology limitations preclude cleanup to pristine conditions. This means that after cleanup is completed, the Department of Energy will have long-term stewardship responsibilities to monitor and safeguard more than 100 sites that still contain residual contamination. Long-term stewardship encompasses all physical and institutional controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms required to protect human health and the environment from the hazards remaining. The Department of Energy Long-Term Stewardship National Program is in the early stages of development, so considerable planning is still required to identify all the specific roles and responsibilities, policies, and activities needed over the next few years to support the program’s mission. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory was tasked with leading the development of Science and Technology within the Long-Term Stewardship National Program. As part of that role, a task was undertaken to identify the existing science and technology related requirements, identify gaps and conflicts that exist, and make recommendations to the Department of Energy for future requirements related to science and technology requirements for long-term stewardship. This work is summarized in this document.

  18. Method for Water Management Considering Long-term Probabilistic Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, J.; Kang, J.; Suh, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    This research is aimed at predicting the monthly inflow of the Andong-dam basin in South Korea using long-term probabilistic forecasts to apply long-term forecasts to water management. Forecasted Cumulative Distribution Functions (CDFs) of monthly precipitation are plotted by combining the range of monthly precipitation based on proper Probability Density Function (PDF) in past data with probabilistic forecasts in each category. Ensembles of inflow are estimated by entering generated ensembles of precipitation based on the CDFs into the 'abcd' water budget model. The bias and RMSE between averages in past data and observed inflow are compared to them in forecasted ensembles. In our results, the bias and RMSE of average precipitation in the forecasted ensemble are bigger than in past data, whereas the average inflow in the forecasted ensemble is smaller than in past data. This result could be used for reference data to apply long-term forecasts to water management, because of the limit in the number of forecasted data for verification and differences between the Andong-dam basin and the forecasted regions. This research has significance by suggesting a method of applying probabilistic information in climate variables from long-term forecasts to water management in Korea. Original data of a climate model, which produces long-term probabilistic forecasts should be verified directly as input data of a water budget model in the future, so that a more scientific response in water management against uncertainty of climate change could be reached.

  19. Characteristics of Long-Term Survivors of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cress, Rosemary D.; Chen, Yingjia S.; Morris, Cyllene R.; Petersen, Megan; Leiserowitz, Gary S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify characteristics associated with long-term survival forepithelial ovarian cancer patients using the California Cancer Registry. Methods A descriptive analysis of survival of all California residents diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer between 1994 and 2001 was conducted using patients identified through the cancer registry with follow up through 2011. Characteristics of the patients who survived more than 10 years (long-term survivors) were compared to three other cohorts: patients who survived less than 2 years, those who survived at least 2 but no more than 5 years, and those who survived at least 5 but no more than 10 years. Results A total of 3,582 out of 11,541 (31% CI=30.2%, 31.8%) of the patients survived more than 10 years. Younger age, early stage, low-grade, and non-serous histology were significant predictors of long-term survival, but long-term survivors also included women with high-risk cancer. Conclusion Long-term survival is not unusual in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer, even in those with high-risk disease. Many of the prognostic factors are well known, but it remains to be determined why some patients with advanced stage high-grade cancers survive longer than others with the same histology. These findings are important for patient counseling. PMID:26244529

  20. Wastewater treatment by soil infiltration: Long-term phosphorus removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eveborn, David; Kong, Deguo; Gustafsson, Jon Petter

    2012-10-01

    Phosphorus (P) leaching from on-site wastewater treatment systems may contribute to eutrophication. In developed countries the most common on-site treatment technique is septic systems with soil infiltration. However, the current knowledge about long term P removal in soil treatment systems is not well developed and the data used for estimation of P losses from such systems are unreliable. In this study we sampled four filter beds from community-scale soil treatment systems with an age of between 14 and 22 years to determine the long-term P removal and to investigate the chemical mechanisms behind the observed removal. For one site the long-term P removal was calculated using a mass balance approach. After analysis of the accumulated P, it was estimated that on average 12% of the long-term P load had been removed by the bed material. This indicates a low overall capacity of soil treatment systems to remove phosphorus. Batch experiments and chemical speciation modelling indicated that calcium phosphate precipitation was not an important long-term P removal mechanism, with the possible exception of one of the sites. More likely, the P removal was induced by AlPO4 precipitation and/or sorption to poorly ordered aluminium compounds, as evidenced by strong relationships between oxalate-extractable Al and P.

  1. Short- and long-term (trophic) purinergic signalling.

    PubMed

    Burnstock, Geoffrey

    2016-08-01

    There is long-term (trophic) purinergic signalling involving cell proliferation, differentiation, motility and death in the development and regeneration of most systems of the body, in addition to fast purinergic signalling in neurotransmission, neuromodulation and secretion. It is not always easy to distinguish between short- and long-term signalling. For example, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) can sometimes act as a short-term trigger for long-term trophic events that become evident days or even weeks after the original challenge. Examples of short-term purinergic signalling during sympathetic, parasympathetic and enteric neuromuscular transmission and in synaptic transmission in ganglia and in the central nervous system are described, as well as in neuromodulation and secretion. Long-term trophic signalling is described in the immune/defence system, stratified epithelia in visceral organs and skin, embryological development, bone formation and resorption and in cancer. It is likely that the increase in intracellular Ca(2+) in response to both P2X and P2Y purinoceptor activation participates in many short- and long-term physiological effects.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolution brings Ca(2+) and ATP together to control life and death'. PMID:27377731

  2. Common Calibration Source for Monitoring Long-term Ozone Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalewski, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Accurate long-term satellite measurements are crucial for monitoring the recovery of the ozone layer. The slow pace of the recovery and limited lifetimes of satellite monitoring instruments demands that datasets from multiple observation systems be combined to provide the long-term accuracy needed. A fundamental component of accurately monitoring long-term trends is the calibration of these various instruments. NASA s Radiometric Calibration and Development Facility at the Goddard Space Flight Center has provided resources to minimize calibration biases between multiple instruments through the use of a common calibration source and standardized procedures traceable to national standards. The Facility s 50 cm barium sulfate integrating sphere has been used as a common calibration source for both US and international satellite instruments, including the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet 2 (SBUV/2) instruments, Shuttle SBUV (SSBUV), Ozone Mapping Instrument (OMI), Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) (ESA), Scanning Imaging SpectroMeter for Atmospheric ChartographY (SCIAMACHY) (ESA), and others. We will discuss the advantages of using a common calibration source and its effects on long-term ozone data sets. In addition, sphere calibration results from various instruments will be presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the long-term characterization of the source itself.

  3. Mammary gland neoplasia in long-term rodent studies.

    PubMed Central

    Russo, I H; Russo, J

    1996-01-01

    Breast cancer, the most frequent spontaneous malignancy diagnosed in women in the western world, is continuously increasing in incidence in industrialized nations. Although breast cancer develops in women as the result of a combination of external and endogenous factors such as exposure to ionizing radiation, diet, socioeconomic status, and endocrinologic, familial, or genetic factors, no specific etiologic agent(s) or the mechanisms responsible of the disease has been identified as yet. Thus, experimental models that exhibit the same complex interactions are needed for testing various mechanisms and for assessing the carcinogenic potential of given chemicals. Rodent mammary carcinomas represent such a model to a great extent because, in these species, mammary cancer is a multistep complex process that can be induced by either chemicals, radiation, viruses, or genetic factors. Long-term studies in rodent models have been particularly useful for dissecting the initiation, promotion, and progression steps of carcinogenesis. The susceptibility of the rodent mammary gland to develop neoplasms has made this organ a unique target for testing the carcinogenic potential of specific genotoxic chemicals and environmental agents. Mammary tumors induced by indirect- or direct-acting carcinogens such as 7, 12-dimethlbenz(a)anthracene or N-methyl-N-nitrosourea are, in general, hormone dependent adenocarcinomas whose incidence, number of tumors per animal, tumor latency, and tumor type are influenced by the age, reproductive history, and endocarinologic milieu of the host at the time of carcinogen exposure. Rodent models are informative in the absence of human data. They have provided valuable information on the dose and route of administration to be used and optimal host conditions for eliciting maximal tumorigenic response. Studies of the influence of normal gland development on the pathogenesis of chemically induced mammary carcinomas have clarified the role of differentiation

  4. Marketing and social work--synergy in long-term care.

    PubMed

    Loomis, L M; Bufano, J T

    1985-08-01

    The concept of marketing is new to the long-term care industry. Limited financial resources dictate that administrators investigate ways to supplement marketing staff. St. John's Home in Rochester, New York, has focused attention on the way in which social work can enhance the effectiveness of the marketing program. Presented here is the role of social work in the marketing mix: product, place, price, promotion, and public relations. PMID:10311234

  5. Towards community-based integrated care: trends and issues in Japan's long-term care policy

    PubMed Central

    Morikawa, Mie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In 2000, Japan implemented a mandatory long-term care insurance system. With the rapid growth of the system, problems became apparent. Several critical alterations were made to long-term care insurance system, particularly with respect to integrated care. Methods This paper elucidates the policy trends that led to the reforms of the long-term care insurance system, which included new concepts of ‘integrated care’ and ‘community-based care’, an agenda of cost containment and service streamlining, and coordination with medical care. Results Community-based integrated care, as envisaged in the long-term care policy, includes not only the integration of medical care into service provision but also the inclusion of the informal mutual aid, oversight of for-profit providers by an administration that ensures users are not exploited and coordination between systems that cover different geographical areas. Conclusions Japan's experience in community-based care integration suggests that this project requires multi-faceted care integration in local communities. In the future, it will be necessary to conduct empirical assessments of the effectiveness of these measures. PMID:24605073

  6. Histidine provides long-term neuroprotection after cerebral ischemia through promoting astrocyte migration.

    PubMed

    Liao, Ru-jia; Jiang, Lei; Wang, Rong-rong; Zhao, Hua-wei; Chen, Ying; Li, Ya; Wang, Lu; Jie, Li-Yong; Zhou, Yu-dong; Zhang, Xiang-nan; Chen, Zhong; Hu, Wei-wei

    2015-01-01

    The formation of glial scar impedes the neurogenesis and neural functional recovery following cerebral ischemia. Histamine showed neuroprotection at early stage after cerebral ischemia, however, its long-term effect, especially on glial scar formation, hasn't been characterized. With various administration regimens constructed for histidine, a precursor of histamine, we found that histidine treatment at a high dose at early stage and a low dose at late stage demonstrated the most remarkable long-term neuroprotection with decreased infarct volume and improved neurological function. Notably, this treatment regimen also robustly reduced the glial scar area and facilitated the astrocyte migration towards the infarct core. In wound-healing assay and transwell test, histamine significantly promoted astrocyte migration. H2 receptor antagonists reversed the promotion of astrocyte migration and the neuroprotection provided by histidine. Moreover, histamine upregulated the GTP-bound small GTPase Rac1, while a Rac1 inhibitor, NSC23766, abrogated the neuroprotection of histidine and its promotion of astrocyte migration. Our data indicated that a dose/stage-dependent histidine treatment, mediated by H2 receptor, promoted astrocyte migration towards the infarct core, which benefited long-term post-cerebral ischemia neurological recovery. Therefore, targeting histaminergic system may be an effective therapeutic strategy for long-term cerebral ischemia injury through its actions on astrocytes. PMID:26481857

  7. Chronic Intranasal Oxytocin Causes Long-term Impairments in Partner Preference Formation in Male Prairie Voles

    PubMed Central

    Bales, Karen L.; Perkeybile, Allison M.; Conley, Olivia G.; Lee, Meredith H.; Guoynes, Caleigh D.; Downing, Griffin M.; Yun, Catherine R.; Solomon, Marjorie; Jacob, Suma; Mendoza, Sally P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Oxytocin (OT) is a hormone shown to be involved in social bonding in animal models. Intranasal OT is currently in clinical trials for use in disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. We examined long-term effects of intranasal OT given developmentally in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster), a socially monogamous rodent, often used as an animal model to screen drugs that have therapeutic potential for social disorders. Methods We treated voles with one of three dosages of intranasal OT, or saline, from day 21 (weaning) through day 42 (sexual maturity). We examined both social behavior immediately following administration, as well as long-term changes in social and anxiety behavior after treatment ceased. Group sizes varied from 8 to 15 voles (n = 89 voles total). Results Treatment with OT resulted in acute increases in social behavior in males with familiar partners, as seen in humans. However, long-term developmental treatment with low doses of intranasal OT resulted in a deficit in partner preference behavior (a reduction of contact with a familiar opposite-sex partner, used to index pair-bond formation) by males. Conclusions Long-term developmental treatment with OT may show results different to those predicted by short-term studies, as well as significant sex differences and dosage effects. Further animal study is crucial to determining safe and effective strategies for use of chronic intranasal OT, especially during development. PMID:23079235

  8. Histidine provides long-term neuroprotection after cerebral ischemia through promoting astrocyte migration

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Ru-jia; Jiang, Lei; Wang, Rong-rong; Zhao, Hua-wei; Chen, Ying; Li, Ya; Wang, Lu; Jie, Li-Yong; Zhou, Yu-dong; Zhang, Xiang-nan; Chen, Zhong; Hu, Wei-wei

    2015-01-01

    The formation of glial scar impedes the neurogenesis and neural functional recovery following cerebral ischemia. Histamine showed neuroprotection at early stage after cerebral ischemia, however, its long-term effect, especially on glial scar formation, hasn’t been characterized. With various administration regimens constructed for histidine, a precursor of histamine, we found that histidine treatment at a high dose at early stage and a low dose at late stage demonstrated the most remarkable long-term neuroprotection with decreased infarct volume and improved neurological function. Notably, this treatment regimen also robustly reduced the glial scar area and facilitated the astrocyte migration towards the infarct core. In wound-healing assay and transwell test, histamine significantly promoted astrocyte migration. H2 receptor antagonists reversed the promotion of astrocyte migration and the neuroprotection provided by histidine. Moreover, histamine upregulated the GTP-bound small GTPase Rac1, while a Rac1 inhibitor, NSC23766, abrogated the neuroprotection of histidine and its promotion of astrocyte migration. Our data indicated that a dose/stage-dependent histidine treatment, mediated by H2 receptor, promoted astrocyte migration towards the infarct core, which benefited long-term post-cerebral ischemia neurological recovery. Therefore, targeting histaminergic system may be an effective therapeutic strategy for long-term cerebral ischemia injury through its actions on astrocytes. PMID:26481857

  9. Sexuality and Physical Intimacy in Long Term Care

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenberg, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Sexuality and sexual needs in older adults remains a neglected area of clinical intervention, particularly so in long term care settings. Because older adults in medical rehabilitation and long term care beds present with significant frailties, and often significant neurocognitive disorders it makes it difficult for occupational therapists and other staff to evaluate the capacity of an older adult resident to participate in sexual relationships. The current paper reviews the current literature on sexuality and aging, examines some of the clinical practices and guidelines regarding sexual expression in long term care and presents two case examples. A semi-structured interview and decision tree is presented to assist therapists in making careful and informed decisions and thereby balancing needs for protection with needs for autonomy. PMID:24354331

  10. Long-term urological outcomes in cloacal anomalies.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Brian T; Wilcox, Duncan T

    2016-04-01

    Cloacal anomalies are the most complex and severe form of congenital anorectal malformations (ARM) and urogenital malformations, and it has been well documented that increased severity of ARM leads to worse outcomes. While short-term data on persistent cloaca are available, a paucity of data on long-term outcomes exists, largely because of a lack of uniform terminology, inclusion with other ARM and evolution of the operative technique. On comprehensive review of the published literature on long-term urological outcomes in patients with cloacal anomalies, we found a significant risk of chronic kidney disease and incontinence, however, with improvements in surgical technique, outcomes have improved. Continence often requires intermittent catheterization and in some cases, bladder augmentation. The complexity of cloacal malformations and associated anomalies make long-term multidisciplinary follow-up imperative. PMID:26969235

  11. Data Analysis in the LOFAR Long Term Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holties, H. A.; van Diepen, G.; van Dok, D.; Dijkstra, F.; Loose, M.; Renting, G. A.; Schrijvers, C.; Vriend, W.-J.

    2012-09-01

    The LOFAR Long Term Archive (LTA) is a distributed information system that provides integrated services for data analysis as well as long term preservation of astronomical datasets and their provenance. The data analysis capabilities are provided by a federated system that integrates a central catalog and client user interfaces provided by Astro-Wise with processing pipelines running on Grid based and University HPC clusters. The framework used for data analysis ensures that proper authorization and access rules are applied and that generated data products are ingested into the storage part of the Long Term Archive. The ingest process includes information about data provenance. This paper presents the architecture of the processing framework of the LTA.

  12. Long-term survival following emergency abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Milner, Q J; Burchett, K R

    2000-05-01

    Survival following emergency surgery for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm remains poor and is in stark contrast to that for elective repair. We have carried out a 5-year retrospective observational study to determine the long-term (5-year) survival of patients following emergency surgery for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm at a district general hospital in East Anglia. A total of 99 patients presented to the operating theatre for emergency repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm in this 5-year study period. In-hospital mortality was 70% and was unchanged over the 5 years. Overall long-term survival in those patients discharged from hospital was good. The ICU cost per long-term survivor was calculated to be pound sterling 36750. PMID:10792133

  13. Forecasting demand for long-term care services.

    PubMed Central

    Lane, D; Uyeno, D; Stark, A; Kliewer, E; Gutman, G

    1985-01-01

    This article analyzes three methods used to forecast the transition of long-term care clients through a variety of possible home and facility placements and levels of care. The test population (N = 1,653) is derived from the larger population of clients admitted in 1978 to British Columbia's newly established Long-Term Care program. The investigators have accumulated 5 years of service-generated data on moves, discharges, and deaths of these clients. Results show that the first-order Markov chain with stationary transition probabilities yields a superior forecast to state-by-state moving average growth and state-by-state regression analyses. The results of these analyses indicate that the Markov method should receive serious consideration as a tool for resource planning and allocation in long-term care. PMID:3932260

  14. [Long-term evolution and complications of eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Isabelle

    2008-01-31

    Eating disorders long-term evolution is good in 50% of cases, middle in 25% (recovery from eating disorders, but still psychological suffering) and bad in 25% of cases, with chronic eating disorders, anxious or depressive comorbid disorder, and bad consequences in social patients' life. Anorexia nervosa has a considerably worse long-term outcome than bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorders. Never the less, purging bulimia nervosa is often associated with other impulsive symptoms, such as addictions and suicide attempts. Chronic undernutrition leads to main long-term medical complications of eating disorders: linear growth in adolescents with anorexia nervosa, infertility, and osteoporosis. These complications need a specific medical follow up, at least once a year, added to the psychiatric and psychotherapist follow-up. PMID:18361276

  15. Long-term Internship through Cooperative Education with Regional Industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Kenzo; Hase, Hiroyuki

    The long term internship is one of special educational programs for graduate students of Graduate School of Engineering in University of Fukui. This is a collaborative program between university and industries where selected post-graduate students are dispatched to companies for a long term and educated in real business environments. It is the final goal of the program to develop sophisticated specialists who would be able to catch the business strategy in industries and solve any problems by themselves. The program is managed in a semester (6 months) and contains 1.5 month prior education of preliminary special knowledge, ethics and secrecy, about 3 month dispatch with long-term internship, and 1.5 month post-education for complementary education and presentation. This paper presents the effect of this program which has been evolving since 2005.

  16. Long-term multipactor discharge in multicarrier systems

    SciTech Connect

    Anza, S.; Vicente, C.; Gimeno, B.; Boria, V. E.; Armendariz, J.

    2007-08-15

    A new mechanism of long-term multipactor in multicarrier systems is studied employing both analytical and numerical methods. In particular, the investigation is focused on the impact that a realistic secondary emission yield at low energies produces on the development of long term multipactor. A novel analytical model for this interperiod charge accumulation is presented using the traditional multipactor theory for parallel plates, and approximating the multicarrier signal as a single-carrier signal modulated by a pulsed signal envelope. The analytical predictions are verified by numerical simulations for a typical rectangular waveguide. The analytical and numerical results demonstrate that the susceptibility of the system to develop a long-term multipactor discharge increases with higher values of low-energy secondary emission yield.

  17. Stirling engine - Approach for long-term durability assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, Michael T.; Bartolotta, Paul A.; Halford, Gary R.; Freed, Alan D.

    1992-01-01

    The approach employed by NASA Lewis for the long-term durability assessment of the Stirling engine hot-section components is summarized. The approach consists of: preliminary structural assessment; development of a viscoplastic constitutive model to accurately determine material behavior under high-temperature thermomechanical loads; an experimental program to characterize material constants for the viscoplastic constitutive model; finite-element thermal analysis and structural analysis using a viscoplastic constitutive model to obtain stress/strain/temperature at the critical location of the hot-section components for life assessment; and development of a life prediction model applicable for long-term durability assessment at high temperatures. The approach should aid in the provision of long-term structural durability and reliability of Stirling engines.

  18. Long-term Use of Opioids for Complex Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Von Korff, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Increased opioid prescribing for back pain and other chronic musculoskeletal pain conditions has been accompanied by dramatic increases in prescription opioid addiction and fatal overdose. Opioid-related risks appear to increase with dose. While short-term randomized trials of opioids for chronic pain have found modest analgesic benefits (a one-third reduction in pain intensity on average), the long-term safety and effectiveness of opioids for chronic musculoskeletal pain is unknown. Given the lack of large, long-term randomized trials, recent epidemiologic data suggests the need for caution when considering long-term use of opioids to manage chronic musculoskeletal pain, particularly at higher dosage levels. Principles for achieving more selective and cautious use of opioids for chronic musculoskeletal pain are proposed. PMID:24315147

  19. Winning market positioning strategies for long term care facilities.

    PubMed

    Higgins, L F; Weinstein, K; Arndt, K

    1997-01-01

    The decision to develop an aggressive marketing strategy for its long term care facility has become a priority for the management of a one-hundred bed facility in the Rocky Mountain West. Financial success and lasting competitiveness require that the facility in question (Deer Haven) establish itself as the preferred provider of long term care for its target market. By performing a marketing communications audit, Deer Haven evaluated its present market position and created a strategy for solidifying and dramatizing this position. After an overview of present conditions in the industry, we offer a seven step process that provides practical guidance for positioning a long term care facility. We conclude by providing an example application. PMID:10179063

  20. The long-term alteration of borosilicate waste glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, W.L.; Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R.; Buck, E.C.; Dietz, N.L.; Brown, N.R.

    1993-06-01

    Prediction of the long-term durability of glass waste forms under potential disposal conditions is based on a mechanistic model of glass corrosion which has been derived from short-term laboratory tests. The model of glass reaction that has evolved identifies the hydrolysis of an Si-0 bond to release silicic acid as the step which controls the long-term glass reactivity. This reaction step is initially fast under dilute solution conditions, but slows as the silicic acid concentration in solution increases. An increase in the solution concentrations of glass components will occur with progressive glass corrosion, and so the solutions which contact waste glasses over long reaction times will have high concentrations of glass components. Therefore, the glass reactivity is usually expected to decrease with the reaction progress as the contacting solution becomes more concentrated. The corrosion behavior of glasses contacted by highly concentrated solutions must be characterized to assess the long-term glass stability.

  1. 33 Institutions under NCAA Sanctions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 1991

    1991-01-01

    The 33 universities currently under National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) sanctions for violations of association regulations are listed, with violations and penalties specified. Infractions of standards for eligibility, coach behavior, student aid and benefits, recruitment, and academic achievement in a variety of intercollegiate sports…

  2. 42 CFR 1005.14 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanctions. 1005.14 Section 1005.14 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES APPEALS OF EXCLUSIONS, CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES AND ASSESSMENTS § 1005.14 Sanctions. (a) The ALJ may sanction...

  3. 42 CFR 1005.14 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sanctions. 1005.14 Section 1005.14 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES APPEALS OF EXCLUSIONS, CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES AND ASSESSMENTS § 1005.14 Sanctions. (a) The ALJ may sanction...

  4. 42 CFR 1005.14 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sanctions. 1005.14 Section 1005.14 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES APPEALS OF EXCLUSIONS, CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES AND ASSESSMENTS § 1005.14 Sanctions. (a) The ALJ may sanction...

  5. 42 CFR 1005.14 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sanctions. 1005.14 Section 1005.14 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES APPEALS OF EXCLUSIONS, CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES AND ASSESSMENTS § 1005.14 Sanctions. (a) The ALJ may sanction...

  6. 34 CFR 33.29 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanctions. 33.29 Section 33.29 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 33.29 Sanctions. (a) The ALJ may sanction a person, including any party or representative for— (1) Failing to comply with an order, rule, or procedure governing the proceeding;...

  7. 19 CFR 210.25 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sanctions. 210.25 Section 210.25 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Motions § 210.25 Sanctions. (a)(1) Any party may file a motion for sanctions...

  8. Fast and long term lipid droplet tracking with CARS microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jüngst, Christian; Winterhalder, Martin J; Zumbusch, Andreas

    2011-06-01

    Photobleaching of organic fluorophores commonly used in fluorescence microscopy puts a limit to the number of images which can be acquired. Label-free imaging techniques therefore offer advantages both for rapid image acquisition and for long-term observations. CARS microscopy is a label-free imaging technique offering molecule specific contrast. Here we demonstrate that CARS microscopy allows video-rate tracking of intracellular transport of lipid droplets, but also continuous long-term observation of cells over several hours. PMID:21445955

  9. [Long-term effects of uterine cesarean section scar].

    PubMed

    Tihtonen, Kati; Nyberg, Reita

    2014-01-01

    During the last few decades the cesarean delivery rate has been around 15% in Finland. It has remained moderate compared with USA where 30% of women deliver by cesarean section. Compared with vaginal delivery, cesarean section is associated with a three- to sixfold risk of severe complications. Furthermore, it increases also long term gynecological morbidity, including intermenstrual bleeding, chronic pelvic pain and risk of secondary infertility. Scar pregnancy, uterine rupture, placenta previa and accrete are known risks after cesarean section. Because cesarean delivery is associated with increased long-term morbidity, the decision of performing cesarean section should always be carefully considered. PMID:24730196

  10. Leadership: the Winnipeg Community and Long-Term Care Authority.

    PubMed

    Suski, M; Hack, T; Heaman, M

    1999-01-01

    The Winnipeg Community and Long Term Care Authority (WCA) was established in 1998 under the Regional Health Authorities Act of the Province of Manitoba. The WCA's role is to provide for the successful integration of Winnipeg's community-based healthcare delivery services through its three main portfolios: Community Care and Public Health, Home Care and Mental Health, and Long Term Care and Specialized Services. The WCA is dedicated to building a quality health future for Winnipeg. Various initiatives undertaken in the pursuit of quality are described. PMID:10538544

  11. [Drug-eluting stents: long-term safety].

    PubMed

    Karpov, Iu A; Samko, A N; Buza, V V

    2009-01-01

    The review concerns the problem of late thromboses of drug-eluting stents and their influence on late prognosis of the patients; presents long-term results of the trial of sirolimus-eluting stents implanted to patients with coronary heart disease; analyses mechanisms of development of late stent thrombosis, data from different meta-analyses and registers comparing long-term outcomes in patients with implanted sirolimus-eluting stents and metallic stents; suggests risk factors of late thromboses of drug-eluting stents; presents original evidence on 3.5-year follow-up of patients with implanted sirolimus-eluting stents and metallic stents. PMID:19537584

  12. Early sound deprivation and long-term hearing.

    PubMed

    Welsh, L W; Welsh, J J; Healy, M P

    1996-11-01

    The long-term effects of hearing loss in early life were analyzed by tests of central auditory function. A majority of individuals failed the Compressed Speech identification with statistically significant results. There was an impact on a minority of individuals evaluated by Dichotic Sentences; little impairment was noted through Speech Reception in Noise. Delayed maturation of the central auditory complex may improve these findings, although during the period of investigation a negative impact was measured. Other issues of diagnosis, remediation, and the consequences of short- and long-term deafness are discussed. PMID:8916863

  13. Long-term preservation of native arteriovenous dialysis fistulas.

    PubMed

    Mallios, Alexandros; Costanzo, Alessandro; Boura, Benoit; Combes, Myriam; Alomran, Faris; de Blic, Romain; Jennings, William C

    2014-04-01

    Preservation of native arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) in the long term can be technically challenging. Various anatomic or functional problems can occur and multiple open and/or endovascular interventions may be required for extended preservation of native accesses. In this report, we review vascular access maintenance in a 72-year-old woman during a 5-year period. Multiple complications of her native radiocephalic AVF included recurrent occlusions, a central venous stent fracture and symptomatic venous outflow stenosis. We present this case to illustrate the various techniques and combination of approaches used in the long-term preservation of a native AVF. PMID:24360937

  14. Instrumentation of bridges for long-term performance monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Maria Q.; Kim, Doo-Kie; Sheng, Li-Hong; Fiji, Leonard M.; Kim, Yoo J.

    2001-08-01

    As the state of the art in bridge design is advancing toward the performance-based design, it becomes increasingly important to monitor and evaluate the long-term structural performance of bridges, including strains in critical structural members, soil pressures on the abutment back walls and footings, accelerations on the decks and bents, etc. Such information is essential in developing new performance criteria for design. In this research, sensor systems for long-term structural performance monitoring have been installed on two new highway bridges on Orange County, California: the Jamboree Road Overcrossing and the West Street On-Ramp.

  15. Long-term noise statistics from the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eller, Anthony I.; Ioup, George E.; Ioup, Juliette W.; Larue, James P.

    2003-04-01

    Long-term, omnidirectional acoustic noise measurements were conducted in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico during the summer of 2001. These efforts were a part of the Littoral Acoustic Demonstration Center project, Phase I. Initial looks at the noise time series, processed in standard one-third-octave bands from 10 to 5000 Hz, show noise levels that differ substantially from customary deep-water noise spectra. Contributing factors to this highly dynamic noise environment are an abundance of marine mammal emissions and various industrial noises. Results presented here address long-term temporal variability, temporal coherence times, the fluctuation spectrum, and coherence of fluctuations across the frequency spectrum. [Research supported by ONR.

  16. Long-term plasma exchange in pediatric CIDP.

    PubMed

    Lucchetta, Marta; Vidal, Enrico; Sartori, Stefano; Campagnolo, Marta; Torre, Chiara Dalla; Marson, Piero; Manara, Renzo; Briani, Chiara

    2015-12-01

    Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is not frequently used in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) because it usually gives only a short-term benefit. We report on a 16-year-old boy with renal insufficiency undergoing hemodialysis who developed CIDP and underwent TPE with dramatic long-term response to therapy. Nerve ultrasound and MRI findings are also reported. In our patient TPE was chosen because he was already undergoing hemodialysis. Though it is not considered a first-line therapy in pediatric CIDP, TPE may be a good therapeutic choice also in long-term period. PMID:25663075

  17. The assessment of long-term orbital debris models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jonas, F. M.; Yates, K. W.

    1992-01-01

    Existing long-term orbital debris models are assessed as a first step in the Air Force's effort to develop an Air Force long-term orbital debris model which can perform the following functions: (1) operate with the necessary accuracy at the relevant altitudes and orbital parameters; (2) benefit from new Air Force and non-Air Force debris measurements; and (3) accommodate current and future Air Force space scenarios. Model assessment results are shown for the NASA engineering model. The status of the NASA EVOLVE model assessment is discussed.

  18. [Long-term-management of organ transplant recipients].

    PubMed

    Bürger, Christin; Schmidt, Martina; Maschmeier, Miriam; Stella, Jaqueline; Hüsing, Anna; Wilms, Christian; Schmidt, Hartmut Hans-Jürgen; Kabar, Iyad

    2016-07-01

    Due to advances in immunosuppressive therapy and surgical techniques, survival rates after solid organ transplantation have constantly improved over the last decades. In long-term care after transplantation, physicians need to focus as much on diagnosis and treatment of allograft-related complications as they should consider comorbidities and evaluate risk-factors and adverse events of immunosuppressive agents to prevent secondary diseases. In particular, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, malignancy and infection play a major role in long-term survival. Therefore, screening of organ transplant recipients in regard to these complications and adverse events is a crucial part of follow up in these patients. PMID:27359310

  19. Long-term results of compartmental arthroplasties of the knee: Long term results of partial knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Parratte, S; Ollivier, M; Lunebourg, A; Abdel, M P; Argenson, J-N

    2015-10-01

    Partial knee arthroplasty (PKA), either medial or lateral unicompartmental knee artroplasty (UKA) or patellofemoral arthroplasty (PFA) are a good option in suitable patients and have the advantages of reduced operative trauma, preservation of both cruciate ligaments and bone stock, and restoration of normal kinematics within the knee joint. However, questions remain concerning long-term survival. The goal of this review article was to present the long-term results of medial and lateral UKA, PFA and combined compartmental arthroplasty for multicompartmental disease. Medium- and long-term studies suggest reasonable outcomes at ten years with survival greater than 95% in UKA performed for medial osteoarthritis or osteonecrosis, and similarly for lateral UKA, particularly when fixed-bearing implants are used. Disappointing long-term outcomes have been observed with the first generation of patellofemoral implants, as well as early Bi-Uni (i.e., combined medial and lateral UKA) or Bicompartmental (combined UKA and PFA) implants due to design and fixation issues. Promising short- and med-term results with the newer generations of PFAs and bicompartmental arthroplasties will require long-term confirmation. PMID:26430081

  20. The impact of private long-term care insurance on the use of long-term care.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Jensen, Gail A

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of privately purchased long-term care insurance (LTCI) on three major types of long-term care services: nursing home care, paid home care, and informal care received from Family and friends. Using 2002-2008 data from the ongoing Health and Retirement Study, we analyze the determinants of long-term care utilization simultaneously with the determinants of holding LTCI. We find that LTCI has modest effects on the likelihood of using long-term care services. For the very frail elderly, private LTCI enhances their access to nursing home care. For those with moderate disability, LTCI makes it more likely that they can remain at home and receive home care services, instead of going to a nursing home. We find no evidence that formal care substitutes for informal care in the presence of LTCI. These findings suggest that if LTCI becomes much more prevalent in the future, many older adults will be able to choose the type of long-term care arrangement that best suits their needs. PMID:21634261

  1. 42 CFR 412.536 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that discharged Medicare patients admitted from a hospital not located in the same building or on the same campus as the long-term care hospital or satellite... payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that...

  2. 42 CFR 412.536 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that discharged Medicare patients admitted from a hospital not located in the same building or on the same campus as the long-term care hospital or satellite... payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that...

  3. 42 CFR 412.536 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that discharged Medicare patients admitted from a hospital not located in the same building or on the same campus as the long-term care hospital or satellite... payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that...

  4. 42 CFR 412.536 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that discharged Medicare patients admitted from a hospital not located in the same building or on the same campus as the long-term care hospital or satellite... payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that...

  5. Current Perspectives on Long-term Obesity Pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wharton, Sean

    2016-04-01

    Approximately 1 in 4 adult Canadians are obese and, thus, are at an elevated risk for developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and other conditions. Current treatment guidelines recommend that obese individuals lose 5% to 10% of their starting weights to minimize the risk factors for cardiovascular disease and reduce the risk for developing type 2 diabetes or hypertension. All obesity-management strategies involve lifestyle management, but few patients will lose a significant amount of weight and manage to keep it off over the long term using just this strategy. Bariatric surgery is associated with significant long-term weight loss but is restricted to subjects with very high body mass indices, who often wait many years to undergo the procedure. Recent breakthroughs in understanding the mechanisms underlying the development and maintenance of elevated body fat have led to the arrival of new obesity pharmacotherapies. These novel antiobesity therapies, which work by reducing energy intake or through increasing satiety, decreasing hunger, or reducing absorption of calories, may be used indefinitely once patients have demonstrated significant responses (usually defined as ≥5% weight loss) over the first 12 weeks of treatment. To date, 2 long-term obesity pharmacotherapies have been approved and are available in Canada: liraglutide and orlistat. Here, I summarize the mechanisms and clinical features of medications for long-term obesity management that are available in Canada, as well as those available in other jurisdictions or are currently in development. PMID:26507402

  6. Immediate and Long-Term Impacts of Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briere, John N.; Elliott, Diana M.

    1994-01-01

    Summarizes what is currently known about the potential, immediate, and long-term impact of child sexual abuse. The various problems and symptoms described in the literature on child sexual abuse are reviewed in a series of broad categories including posttraumatic stress, cognitive distortions, emotional pain, avoidance, an impaired sense of self,…

  7. Relating Granger causality to long-term causal effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Dmitry A.; Mokhov, Igor I.

    2015-10-01

    In estimation of causal couplings between observed processes, it is important to characterize coupling roles at various time scales. The widely used Granger causality reflects short-term effects: it shows how strongly perturbations of a current state of one process affect near future states of another process, and it quantifies that via prediction improvement (PI) in autoregressive models. However, it is often more important to evaluate the effects of coupling on long-term statistics, e.g., to find out how strongly the presence of coupling changes the variance of a driven process as compared to an uncoupled case. No general relationships between Granger causality and such long-term effects are known. Here, we pose the problem of relating these two types of coupling characteristics, and we solve it for a class of stochastic systems. Namely, for overdamped linear oscillators, we rigorously derive that the above long-term effect is proportional to the short-term effects, with the proportionality coefficient depending on the prediction interval and relaxation times. We reveal that this coefficient is typically considerably greater than unity so that small normalized PI values may well correspond to quite large long-term effects of coupling. The applicability of the derived relationship to wider classes of systems, its limitations, and its value for further research are discussed. To give a real-world example, we analyze couplings between large-scale climatic processes related to sea surface temperature variations in equatorial Pacific and North Atlantic regions.

  8. Long-Term Care: Common Issues and Unknowns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Katherine; Miake, Naoko; Farag, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    All industrialized countries are grappling with a common problem--how to provide assistance of various kinds to their rapidly aging populations. The problem for countries searching for models of efficient and high-quality long-term care (LTC) policies is that fewer than a dozen countries have government-organized, formal LTC policies. Relatively…

  9. Long-Term Repetition Priming of Briefly Identified Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breuer, Andreas T.; Masson, Michael E. J.; Cohen, Anna-Lisa; Lindsay, D. Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The authors provide evidence that long-term memory encoding can occur for briefly viewed objects in a rapid serial visual presentation list, contrary to claims that the brief presentation and quick succession of objects prevent encoding by disrupting a memory consolidation process that requires hundreds of milliseconds of uninterrupted processing.…

  10. Long-Term Effects of Neurofeedback Treatment in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouijzer, Mirjam E. J.; de Moor, Jan M. H.; Gerrits, Berrie J. L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; van Schie, Hein T.

    2009-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated significant improvement of executive functions and social behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) treated with 40 sessions of EEG neurofeedback in a nonrandomized waiting list control group design. In this paper we extend these findings by reporting the long-term results of neurofeedback treatment in…

  11. 40 CFR 52.29 - Visibility long-term strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ascribed to them in the Clean Air Act, or in the protection of visibility program (40 CFR 51.301). (c) Long... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Visibility long-term strategies. 52.29... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.29 Visibility...

  12. 40 CFR 52.29 - Visibility long-term strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ascribed to them in the Clean Air Act, or in the protection of visibility program (40 CFR 51.301). (c) Long... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Visibility long-term strategies. 52.29... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.29 Visibility...

  13. 40 CFR 52.29 - Visibility long-term strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ascribed to them in the Clean Air Act, or in the protection of visibility program (40 CFR 51.301). (c) Long... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Visibility long-term strategies. 52.29... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.29 Visibility...

  14. 40 CFR 52.29 - Visibility long-term strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ascribed to them in the Clean Air Act, or in the protection of visibility program (40 CFR 51.301). (c) Long... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Visibility long-term strategies. 52.29... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.29 Visibility...

  15. 40 CFR 52.29 - Visibility long-term strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ascribed to them in the Clean Air Act, or in the protection of visibility program (40 CFR 51.301). (c) Long... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility long-term strategies. 52.29... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.29 Visibility...

  16. The Long-Term Effects of Youth Unemployment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mroz, Thomas A.; Savage, Timothy H.

    2006-01-01

    Using NLSY data, we examine the long-term effects of youth unemployment on later labor market outcomes. Involuntary unemployment may yield suboptimal investments in human capital in the short run. A theoretical model of dynamic human capital investment predicts a rational "catch-up" response. Using semiparametric techniques to control for the…

  17. Long-term functionalization of optical resonance sensor spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saetchnikov, Vladimir A.; Tcherniavskaia, Elina A.; Saetchnikov, Anton V.; Schweiger, Gustav; Ostendorf, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    New approach to increase density of sensing units for higher precision as well as the selectivity of biological components under investigation in microcavity evanescent wave optical sensor systems is proposed. Long-term functionalization results of array sensor cells by different agents are represented.

  18. Long-Term Psychosomatic Effects of Biofeedback vs. Relaxation Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowlis, David P.; Borzone, Ximena C.

    Differences were compared in the short-term and long-term responses of subjects with headache, insomnia, or hypertension to biofeedback training, relaxation, or a combination of both. Headache sufferers, insomniacs, and hypertensives were randomly assigned in equal numbers to biofeedback, relaxation training or a record-keeping control. Over 2…

  19. The Basics of Long-Term Debt Issuance and Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Meter, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Issuing long-term debt can be a complex, multifaceted process. Although the process varies by stare, typically the school business official and the district solicitor work with the financing ream, which includes a financial adviser, bond counsel, underwriter, raring agency, and possibly a bond insurance agent, paying agent, and architect.…

  20. Using Technology in Reggio-Inspired Long-Term Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trepanier-Street, Mary L.; Hong, Seong B.; Bauer, Jennifer C.

    2001-01-01

    Describes examples of use of technology in the implementation and documentation of long-term projects conducted as a part of the Reggio Emilia preschool curriculum. Considers use of digital camera, videotapes, and video prints; documentation of graphics with the computer scanner; use of computer software as a tool for representing ideas; and use…