Science.gov

Sample records for administrators policy makers

  1. Administrators' and Policy Makers' Views of Community Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Larry E., Ed.; Decker, Virginia A., Ed.

    This compilation of articles presents the views of policy makers and administrators about community education. Following the introduction by Larry Decker titled "Community Education: The Basic Tenets," the articles are contained in three sections. Section 1 (The Potential of Community Education) contains articles titled as follows: "Tomorrow's…

  2. A weatherization manual for LIHEAP policy makers and program administrators

    SciTech Connect

    Witherspoon, M.J.; Marabate, R.; Weinhaus, M.; Eisenberg, J.F.

    1993-09-01

    This manual is designed to provide Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP) directors with information about weatherization and innovative ways they can utilize LIHEAP funds for weatherization activities. It contains a description of innovative weatherization programs which demonstrate creative uses of LIHEAP funds in weatherization activities. In many of the innovative examples, state and local administrators are coordinating their LIHEAP funds with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Low-Income Weatherization Assistance Program`s funding and with a variety of other federal, state and utility company resources. The innovative programs demonstrate how LIHEAP funds can be used in client education, targeting high energy users, staff training, assessment and audits for weatherization services. The reader will find in the appendices lists of contact persons and further descriptions of the programs highlighted. Although designed with LIHEAP directors in mind, the practices and programs highlighted in this manual are of practical use to any state, local or utility weatherization program administrator. The glossary at the end of the descriptive chapters will assist readers with the terminology used throughout the manual. This manual and the many resource entities cited in its appendices provide ready access to a wealth of state-of-the-art information which could lead to a more cost-effective expenditure of LIBEAP weatherization dollars.

  3. Psychologist as Policy-Maker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saks, Michael J.

    Perhaps the most effective way to increase the utilization of behavioral science knowledge by policy-makers is for the behavioral scientist to become one. The psychologist who serves as a policy-maker becomes aware of the policy issues in addition to relevant empirical evidence. The author, a psychologist, relates his experience as a member of a…

  4. Navigating tissue banking regulation: conceptual frameworks for researchers, administrators, regulators and policy-makers.

    PubMed

    Lipworth, Wendy

    2005-11-01

    In the "post-genomic" age of biomedical research, researchers often wish to utilise collections of human tissue. This type of research raises many ethical and legal issues and anyone wishing to use such collections is faced with an enormously complex set of regulatory requirements, many of which are still ambiguous, reflecting ongoing ethical and legal debate. Whilst there is no way of entirely avoiding such regulatory complexity and ambiguity, conceptual frameworks can assist those who wish to use, administer, authorise and generate policy on tissue banking research. Two conceptual frameworks are described here: a taxonomy of tissue banking practices, aimed at assisting those who need to ensure that tissue banks meet ethical and legal requirements; and a "syncretic" approach to policy-making, for those who wish to generate new policy, or streamline existing policy relating to tissue banking research.

  5. Can scientists and policy makers work together?

    PubMed Central

    Choi, B.; Pang, T.; Lin, V.; Puska, P.; Sherman, G.; Goddard, M.; Ackland, M.; Sainsbury, P.; Stachenko, S.; Morrison, H.; Clottey, C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses a fundamental question in evidence based policy making—can scientists and policy makers work together? It first provides a scenario outlining the different mentalities and imperatives of scientists and policy makers, and then discusses various issues and solutions relating to whether and how scientists and policy makers can work together. Scientists and policy makers have different goals, attitudes toward information, languages, perception of time, and career paths. Important issues affecting their working together include lack of mutual trust and respect, different views on the production and use of evidence, different accountabilities, and whether there should be a link between science and policy. The suggested solutions include providing new incentives to encourage scientists and policy makers to work together, using knowledge brokers (translational scientists), making organisational changes, defining research in a broader sense, re-defining the starting point for knowledge transfer, expanding the accountability horizon, and finally, acknowledging the complexity of policy making. It is hoped that further discussion and debate on the partnership idea, the need for incentives, recognising the incompatibility problems, the role of civil society, and other related themes will lead to new opportunities for further advancing evidence based policy and practice. PMID:16020638

  6. Can scientists and policy makers work together?

    PubMed

    Choi, Bernard C K; Pang, Tikki; Lin, Vivian; Puska, Pekka; Sherman, Gregory; Goddard, Michael; Ackland, Michael J; Sainsbury, Peter; Stachenko, Sylvie; Morrison, Howard; Clottey, Clarence

    2005-08-01

    This paper addresses a fundamental question in evidence based policy making--can scientists and policy makers work together? It first provides a scenario outlining the different mentalities and imperatives of scientists and policy makers, and then discusses various issues and solutions relating to whether and how scientists and policy makers can work together. Scientists and policy makers have different goals, attitudes toward information, languages, perception of time, and career paths. Important issues affecting their working together include lack of mutual trust and respect, different views on the production and use of evidence, different accountabilities, and whether there should be a link between science and policy. The suggested solutions include providing new incentives to encourage scientists and policy makers to work together, using knowledge brokers (translational scientists), making organisational changes, defining research in a broader sense, re-defining the starting point for knowledge transfer, expanding the accountability horizon, and finally, acknowledging the complexity of policy making. It is hoped that further discussion and debate on the partnership idea, the need for incentives, recognising the incompatibility problems, the role of civil society, and other related themes will lead to new opportunities for further advancing evidence based policy and practice. PMID:16020638

  7. Women as decision and policy makers. Asia.

    PubMed

    1995-09-01

    The focus of this news brief is on the Community-based Sustainable Family Planning/Maternal and Child Health (FP/MCH) Project promoted in Bangladesh, Laos, Nepal, and the Philippines. The project emphasizes women's involvement as policy makers and evaluators. The aim is to involve women at all project levels as part of an effort to correct gender imbalances. Programs are being directed toward sustainability. Women are placed in positions at each level of the tiered system of steering committees, which range from local village committees to central committees. Men may still retain the top positions, but women are given decision making power at the highest levels of policy and program development and implementation. The Asia region is challenged by quality of care issues related to reproductive health services. Program expansion is proceeding into rural areas with outreach services and fee charging. Projects are community-based, which means mobilization of community people. The community approach is suitable to an Asian culture that does not adhere to strict rules of privacy. Women's groups are eager to discuss sensitive issues such as contraception and to offer personal experiences and solutions to problems. Mass meetings and individual counseling sessions are available. IEC materials are available to the Asian FP/MCH program from JOICFP. Some of these materials promote the concept of the Asian community spirit as a building block of development. The Asian approach is an alternative to Western models and may be valid for other regions.

  8. Communicating the Needs of Climate Change Policy Makers to Scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.; Escobar, Vanessa M.; Lovell, Heather

    2012-01-01

    This chapter will describe the challenges that earth scientists face in developing science data products relevant to decision maker and policy needs, and will describe strategies that can improve the two-way communication between the scientist and the policy maker. Climate change policy and decision making happens at a variety of scales - from local government implementing solar homes policies to international negotiations through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Scientists can work to provide data at these different scales, but if they are not aware of the needs of decision makers or understand what challenges the policy maker is facing, they are likely to be less successful in influencing policy makers as they wished. This is because the science questions they are addressing may be compelling, but not relevant to the challenges that are at the forefront of policy concerns. In this chapter we examine case studies of science-policy partnerships, and the strategies each partnership uses to engage the scientist at a variety of scales. We examine three case studies: the global Carbon Monitoring System pilot project developed by NASA, a forest biomass mapping effort for Silvacarbon project, and a forest canopy cover project being conducted for forest management in Maryland. In each of these case studies, relationships between scientists and policy makers were critical for ensuring the focus of the science as well as the success of the decision-making.

  9. School Boards as Policy-Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Peter

    Decision-making in general and policy decisions in particular are the prime responsibility of school boards because policies are control mechanisms by which trustees assert local control. Policy decisions differ from others in their concern with values and purposes and the legitimization of the organization to society at large. Additionally, they…

  10. Controversial Issues: Concerns for Policy Makers. ERIC Digest No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Kay K.

    Intended for educational policy makers, this publication considers the teaching of controversial topics. Specifically discussed are what issues are considered controversial, why controversial topics should be taught, court decisions, ways educators can prepare for community response or complaints, and questions to address when making curriculum…

  11. Making predictive ecology more relevant to policy makers and practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, William J.; Freckleton, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    One of the aims of ecology is to aid policy makers and practitioners through the development of testable predictions of relevance to society. Here, we argue that this capacity can be improved in three ways. Firstly, by thinking more clearly about the priority issues using a range of methods including horizon scanning, identifying policy gaps, identifying priority questions and using evidence-based conservation to identify knowledge gaps. Secondly, by linking ecological models with models of other systems, such as economic and social models. Thirdly, by considering alternative approaches to generate and model data that use, for example, discrete or categorical states to model ecological systems. We particularly highlight that models are essential for making predictions. However, a key to the limitation in their use is the degree to which ecologists are able to communicate results to policy makers in a clear, useful and timely fashion. PMID:22144394

  12. Providing Climate Policy Makers With a Strong Scientific Base (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struzik, E.

    2009-12-01

    Scientists can and should inform public policy decisions in the Arctic. But the pace of climate change in the polar world has been occurring far more quickly than most scientists have been able to predict. This creates problems for decision-makers who recognize that difficult management decisions have to be made in matters pertaining to wildlife management, cultural integrity and economic development. With sea ice melting, glaciers receding, permafrost thawing, forest fires intensifying, and disease and invasive species rapidly moving north, the challenge for scientists to provide climate policy makers with a strong scientific base has been daunting. Clashing as this data sometimes does with the “traditional knowledge” of indigenous peoples in the north, it can also become very political. As a result the need to effectively communicate complex data is more imperative now than ever before. Here, the author describes how the work of scientists can often be misinterpreted or exploited in ways that were not intended. Examples include the inappropriate use of scientific data in decision-making on polar bears, caribou and other wildlife populations; the use of scientific data to debunk the fact that greenhouse gases are driving climate change, and the use of scientific data to position one scientist against another when there is no inherent conflict. This work will highlight the need for climate policy makers to increase support for scientists working in the Arctic, as well as illustrate why it is important to find new and more effective ways of communicating scientific data. Strategies that might be considered by granting agencies, scientists and climate policy decision-makers will also be discussed.

  13. Turkey's Educational Policies in Central Asia and Caucasia: Perceptions of Policy Makers and Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akcali, Pinar; Engin-Demir, Cennet

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the educational policies of Turkey in Central Asia and Caucasia in the post-Soviet era in terms of their successes and failures as perceived by some of the relevant professional policy makers in this field as well as experts from various think-tank institutions in Turkey who are interested in the region.…

  14. Policy Makers and Researchers Schooling Each Other: Lessons in Educational Policy from New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Deborah H.; Wyckoff, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Policy makers and researchers are intrigued with but also frequently frustrated by each other. Although these differences are understandable and predictable, it is clear that research on a variety of educational issues has been both influential and valuable in the development of policy and practice. There is much to suggest that researchers and…

  15. Informing in the Information Age: How to Communicate Measurement Concepts to Education Policy Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sireci, Stephen G.; Forte, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Current educational policies rely on educational assessments. However, the technical aspects of assessments are often unknown to policy makers, which is dangerous because sound assessment policy requires knowledge of the strengths and limitations of educational tests. In this article, we discuss the importance of informing policy makers of…

  16. Dosing schedules for pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: considerations for policy makers.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Cynthia G; Goldblatt, David; O'Brien, Katherine L

    2014-01-01

    Since second generation pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) targeting 10 and 13 serotypes became available in 2010, the number of national policy makers considering these vaccines has steadily increased. An important consideration for a national immunization program is the timing and number of doses-the schedule-that will best prevent disease in the population. Data on disease epidemiology and the efficacy or effectiveness of PCV schedules are typically considered when choosing a schedule. Practical concerns, such as the existing vaccine schedule, and vaccine program performance are also important. In low-income countries, pneumococcal disease and deaths typically peak well before the end of the first year of life, making a schedule that provides PCV doses early in life (eg, a 6-, 10- and 14-week schedule) potentially the best option. In other settings, a schedule including a booster dose may address disease that peaks in the second year of life or may be seen to enhance a schedule already in place. A large and growing body of evidence from immunogenicity studies, as well as clinical trials and observational studies of carriage, pneumonia and invasive disease, has been systematically reviewed; these data indicate that schedules of 3 or 4 doses all work well, and that the differences between these regimens are subtle, especially in a mature program in which coverage is high and indirect (herd) effects help enhance protection provided directly by a vaccine schedule. The recent World Health Organization policy statement on PCVs endorsed a schedule of 3 primary doses without a booster or, as a new alternative, 2 primary doses with a booster dose. While 1 schedule may be preferred in a particular setting based on local epidemiology or practical considerations, achieving high coverage with 3 doses is likely more important than the specific timing of doses.

  17. Social values and solar energy policy: the policy maker and the advocate

    SciTech Connect

    Shama, A.; Jacobs, K.

    1980-07-01

    Solar energy policy makers and advocates have significantly different hierarchies (clusters) of values upon which they evaluate the adoption of solar technologies. Content analysis, which examines the frequency with which policy makers identify different types of values, indicates that they hold economic values to be of primary importance. Environmental, social, and national security values are also substantial elements of the policy makers' value clusters associated with solar energy. This finding is confirmed by a qualitative analysis of policy makers' values. Advocates, on the other hand, assign almost equal weights (33%) to economic values and social values, slightly less weight to environmental values, and significant attention to ethical and security values as well. These results of frequency analysis are made somewhat more complicated by a qualitative interpretation of the advocates' positions. As part of their more holistic approach, several of the advocates indicated that all values discussed by them are instrumental toward achieving higher-order, ethical and environmental values. In addition, our preliminary investigation indicates that neither group is entirely homogeneous. Testing this and other propositions, as well as obtaining a similar picture of the values which the public associates with solar energy, are topics of future research.

  18. Is Twitter a forum for disseminating research to health policy makers?

    PubMed

    Kapp, Julie M; Hensel, Brian; Schnoring, Kyle T

    2015-12-01

    Findings from scientific research largely remain inside the scientific community. Research scientists are being encouraged to use social media, and especially Twitter, for dissemination of evidence. The potential for Twitter to narrow the gap on evidence translated into policy presents new opportunities. We explored the innovative question of the feasibility of Twitter as a tool for the scientific community to disseminate to and engage with health policy makers for research impact. We created a list of federal "health policy makers." In December 2014, we identified members using several data sources, then collected and summarized their Twitter usage data. Nearly all health policy makers had Twitter accounts. Their communication volume varied broadly. Policy makers are more likely to push information via Twitter than engage with constituents, although usage varied broadly. Twitter has the potential to aid the scientific community in dissemination of health-related research to health policy makers, after understanding how to effectively (and selectively) use Twitter.

  19. A Meeting Place for Policy-Makers and Researchers: The Transatlantic Forum on Inclusive Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peeters, Jan; Vandekerckhove, Ankie

    2015-01-01

    While policy-makers and researchers in the field of early childhood education and care (ECEC) often seem to speak different languages, overwhelming research evidence on how quality ECEC can play a key role in alleviating the effects of disadvantage can be extremely relevant for policy-makers. In this article, we focus on how philanthropic…

  20. Evaluation and Resource Management: A Policy-Maker's Guide to Using Program Data in Policy Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucco, Robert J.

    The educational administrator must often straddle the gap between empirically sound and politically expedient decisions, employing policy assessment as a hedge against adopting ill-conceived policies. The resource allocation model (RAM) attempts to remedy this dilemma by tying program evaluation and policy analysis into a single conceptual yet…

  1. Training Higher Education Policy Makers and Leaders: A Graduate Program Perspective. Educational Policy in the 21st Century: Opportunities, Challenges and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Diane, Ed.; Miller, Michael T., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Higher Education is a vibrant, changing field of study. With roots in multiple disciplines, these degree programs prepare the administrators, faculty, and policy makers who direct the current and future higher education enterprise. At a time when higher education is changing rapidly, these programs are poised to frame the future of an educated…

  2. Teacher Education Research and Education Policy-Makers: An Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Simone

    2016-01-01

    As teacher educators, we want our research to be influential in contributing to educational policy and practice, but there remains little understanding about ways in which teacher educators might more productively engage with each other and policy-makers so as to maximise their research impact. Drawing on an empirical study and policy document…

  3. Nuclear energy: the accuracy of policy makers' perceptions of public beliefs

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K.; Swaton, E.; Fishbein, M.; Otway, H.J.

    1980-09-01

    The policy makers' attitudes were found to be significantly more favorable than those of the total public sample. The policy makers were able to shift their own (personal) responses in the directions indicated by their role-play assignments to reproduce accurately the overall attitudes of the PRO and CON groups on this controversial topic, although there was a tendency to overestimate the positive attitudes of the PRO nuclear public.

  4. Creating a High-Skills Society during Recession: Issues for Policy Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panagiotakopoulos, Antonios

    2015-01-01

    The present study looks at the skill formation policies adopted by policy makers in Greece in order to create a high-skills society. It examines empirically the demand side of the skill creation process within 300 small enterprises in order to understand how far supply-side measures have influenced the demand for well-trained staff within small…

  5. Policy and Public Administration, Educational Policy and Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrientos-Monzon, Ivan Luis

    This paper attempts to clean up some of the muddled thinking that obscures the distinction between theory and practice in educational administration. The author also applies his argument to the issue of possible gaps between policy formulation and policy implementation. The author begins by noting that there is a common misapprehension that in…

  6. 120 years of nanosilver history: implications for policy makers.

    PubMed

    Nowack, Bernd; Krug, Harald F; Height, Murray

    2011-02-15

    Nanosilver is one nanomaterial that is currently under a lot of scrutiny. Much of the discussion is based on the assumption that nanosilver is something new that has not been seen until recently and that the advances in nanotechnology opened completely new application areas for silver. However, we show in this analysis that nanosilver in the form of colloidal silver has been used for more than 100 years and has been registered as a biocidal material in the United States since 1954. Fifty-three percent of the EPA-registered biocidal silver products likely contain nanosilver. Most of these nanosilver applications are silver-impregnated water filters, algicides, and antimicrobial additives that do not claim to contain nanoparticles. Many human health standards for silver are based on an analysis of argyria occurrence (discoloration of the skin, a cosmetic condition) from the 1930s and include studies that considered nanosilver materials. The environmental standards on the other hand are based on ionic silver and may need to be re-evaluated based on recent findings that most silver in the environment, regardless of the original silver form, is present in the form of small clusters or nanoparticles. The implications of this analysis for policy of nanosilver is that it would be a mistake for regulators to ignore the accumulated knowledge of our scientific and regulatory heritage in a bid to declare nanosilver materials as new chemicals, with unknown properties and automatically harmful simply on the basis of a change in nomenclature to the term "nano".

  7. Canadian policy makers' views on pharmaceutical reimbursement contracts involving confidential discounts from drug manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Steven G; Thomson, Paige A; Daw, Jamie R; Friesen, Melissa K

    2013-10-01

    Pharmaceutical policy makers are increasingly negotiating reimbursement contracts that include confidential price terms that may be affected by drug utilization volumes, patterns, or outcomes. Though such contracts may offer a variety of benefits, including the ability to tie payment to the actual performance of a product, they may also create potential policy challenges. Through telephone interviews about this type of contract, we studied the views of officials in nine of ten Canadian provinces. Use of reimbursement contracts involving confidential discounts is new in Canada and ideas about power and equity emerged as cross-cutting themes in our interviews. Though confidential rebates can lower prices and thereby increase coverage of new medicines, several policy makers felt they had little power in the decision to negotiate rebates. Study participants explained that the recent rise in the use of rebates had been driven by manufacturers' pricing tactics and precedent set by other jurisdictions. Several policy makers expressed concerns that confidential rebates could result in inter-jurisdictional inequities in drug pricing and coverage. Policy makers also noted un-insured and under-insured patients must pay inflated "list prices" even if rebates are negotiated by drug plans. The establishment of policies for disciplined negotiations, inter-jurisdictional cooperation, and provision of drug coverage for all citizens are potential solutions to the challenges created by this new pharmaceutical pricing paradigm.

  8. Canadian policy makers' views on pharmaceutical reimbursement contracts involving confidential discounts from drug manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Steven G; Thomson, Paige A; Daw, Jamie R; Friesen, Melissa K

    2013-10-01

    Pharmaceutical policy makers are increasingly negotiating reimbursement contracts that include confidential price terms that may be affected by drug utilization volumes, patterns, or outcomes. Though such contracts may offer a variety of benefits, including the ability to tie payment to the actual performance of a product, they may also create potential policy challenges. Through telephone interviews about this type of contract, we studied the views of officials in nine of ten Canadian provinces. Use of reimbursement contracts involving confidential discounts is new in Canada and ideas about power and equity emerged as cross-cutting themes in our interviews. Though confidential rebates can lower prices and thereby increase coverage of new medicines, several policy makers felt they had little power in the decision to negotiate rebates. Study participants explained that the recent rise in the use of rebates had been driven by manufacturers' pricing tactics and precedent set by other jurisdictions. Several policy makers expressed concerns that confidential rebates could result in inter-jurisdictional inequities in drug pricing and coverage. Policy makers also noted un-insured and under-insured patients must pay inflated "list prices" even if rebates are negotiated by drug plans. The establishment of policies for disciplined negotiations, inter-jurisdictional cooperation, and provision of drug coverage for all citizens are potential solutions to the challenges created by this new pharmaceutical pricing paradigm. PMID:23809914

  9. Transparency in Nigeria's public pharmaceutical sector: perceptions from policy makers

    PubMed Central

    Garuba, Habibat A; Kohler, Jillian C; Huisman, Anna M

    2009-01-01

    Background Pharmaceuticals are an integral component of health care systems worldwide, thus, regulatory weaknesses in governance of the pharmaceutical system negatively impact health outcomes especially in developing countries [1]. Nigeria is one of a number of countries whose pharmaceutical system has been impacted by corruption and has struggled to curtail the production and trafficking of substandard drugs. In 2001, the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) underwent an organizational restructuring resulting in reforms to reduce counterfeit drugs and better regulate pharmaceuticals [2]. Despite these changes, there is still room for improvement. This study assessed the perceived level of transparency and potential vulnerability to corruption that exists in four essential areas of Nigeria's pharmaceutical sector: registration, procurement, inspection (divided into inspection of ports and of establishments), and distribution. Methods Standardized questionnaires were adapted from the World Health Organization assessment tool and used in semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in the public and private pharmaceutical system. The responses to the questions were tallied and converted to scores on a numerical scale where lower scores suggested greater vulnerability to corruption and higher scores suggested lower vulnerability. Results The overall score for Nigeria's pharmaceutical system was 7.4 out of 10, indicating a system that is marginally vulnerable to corruption. The weakest links were the areas of drug registration and inspection of ports. Analysis of the qualitative results revealed that the perceived level of corruption did not always match the qualitative evidence. Conclusion Despite the many reported reforms instituted by NAFDAC, the study findings suggest that facets of the pharmaceutical system in Nigeria remain fairly vulnerable to corruption. The most glaring deficiency seems to be the absence of conflict of

  10. Briefly Speaking: An Introduction to Student Financial Aid in California for Policy Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eureka Project, Sacramento, CA.

    Designed to help educational policy makers understand student financial aid in California, this booklet covers the importance of aid, how it has changed, current programs, need analysis, packaging, public and student views, graduate aid, and politics and problems of aid. As student financial aid became a larger and more complex educational…

  11. EDUsummIT: A Global Knowledge Building Community for Educational Researchers, Practitioners, and Policy Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Kwok-Wing; Voogt, Joke; Knezek, Gerald; Gibson, David

    2016-01-01

    The International Summit on Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Education (EDUsummIT) is a global knowledge building community of researchers, educational practitioners, and policy makers aiming to create and disseminate ideas and knowledge to promote the integration of ICT in education. Four EDUsummITs have been convened in The…

  12. Before You Decide: What Families Would Like Policy Makers to Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Marsha J.; Kendrick, Martie; Chamberlain, Linda; Chesley, Esther; Clement, Stacie; Cummings, Dawn; Henri-Mackenzie, Sue; Labbe, Tonya; MacDonald, Janice; McNally, Diana; Niles, Nancy; Raymond, Roberta; Russell, Candice

    This booklet, developed by parents of children with developmental disabilities, is intended to help policy makers understand major parental concerns about raising a child with a disability. The specific issues addressed are: (1) the special needs of families with a disabled child; (2) the right to community integration; (3) the continuing…

  13. Class Size: The Issue for Policy Makers in the State of Utah.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishi, Shannon

    A review of literature on class size is the purpose of this report. Included are a summary of four meta analyses (Robinson and Wittebols 1986), (Cone 1978), and (Glass and Smith 1978 and 1979); a discussion of research methodologies; recommendations for policy makers; and alternative strategies for class size reduction. Appendices present…

  14. Scientist and policy-maker response types and times in suburban watersheds.

    PubMed

    Wolosoff, Steven E; Endreny, Theodore A

    2002-06-01

    Differences between scientist and policy-maker response types and times, or the "how" and "when" of action, constrain effective water resource management in suburbanizing watersheds. Policy-makers are often rushed to find a single policy that can be applied across an entire, homogeneous, geopolitical region, whereas scientists undertake multiyear research projects to appreciate the complex interactions occurring within heterogeneous catchments. As a result, watershed management is often practiced with science and policy out of synch. Meanwhile, development pressures in suburban watersheds create changes in the social and physical fabric and pose a moving target for science and policy. Recent and anticipated advances in the scientific understanding of urbanized catchment hydrology and pollutant transport suggest that management should become increasingly sensitive to spatial heterogeneities in watershed features, such as soil types, terrain slopes, and seasonal watertable profiles. Toward this end, policy-makers should encourage funding scientific research that characterizes the impacts of these watershed heterogeneities within a geopolitical zoning and development framework.

  15. When health services researchers and policy makers interact: tales from the tectonic plates.

    PubMed

    Martens, Patricia J; Roos, Noralou P

    2005-09-01

    There has been a strong push over the last decade for health services researchers to become "relevant," to work with policy makers to translate evidence into action. What has been learned from this interaction? The pooled experiences of health services researchers across the country, including those at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy (MCHP), suggest five key lessons. First, policy makers pay more attention to research findings if they have invested their own funds and time. Second, researchers must make major investments in building relationships with policy makers, because there are inevitable tensions between what the two parties need and do. Third, researchers must be able to figure out and communicate the real meaning of their results. Fourth, health services researchers need a "back-pocket" mindset, as they cannot count on immediate uptake of results; because the issues never go away, evidence, if known and easily retrievable, is likely to have an eventual impact. Finally, getting evidence into the policy process does not come cheaply or easily, but it can be done. The overriding lesson learned by health services researchers is the importance of relationship-building, whether in formalizing contractual relationships, building and maintaining personal trust, having a communications strategy or increasing the involvement of users in the research process. PMID:19308104

  16. Rationality versus reality: the challenges of evidence-based decision making for health policy makers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Current healthcare systems have extended the evidence-based medicine (EBM) approach to health policy and delivery decisions, such as access-to-care, healthcare funding and health program continuance, through attempts to integrate valid and reliable evidence into the decision making process. These policy decisions have major impacts on society and have high personal and financial costs associated with those decisions. Decision models such as these function under a shared assumption of rational choice and utility maximization in the decision-making process. Discussion We contend that health policy decision makers are generally unable to attain the basic goals of evidence-based decision making (EBDM) and evidence-based policy making (EBPM) because humans make decisions with their naturally limited, faulty, and biased decision-making processes. A cognitive information processing framework is presented to support this argument, and subtle cognitive processing mechanisms are introduced to support the focal thesis: health policy makers' decisions are influenced by the subjective manner in which they individually process decision-relevant information rather than on the objective merits of the evidence alone. As such, subsequent health policy decisions do not necessarily achieve the goals of evidence-based policy making, such as maximizing health outcomes for society based on valid and reliable research evidence. Summary In this era of increasing adoption of evidence-based healthcare models, the rational choice, utility maximizing assumptions in EBDM and EBPM, must be critically evaluated to ensure effective and high-quality health policy decisions. The cognitive information processing framework presented here will aid health policy decision makers by identifying how their decisions might be subtly influenced by non-rational factors. In this paper, we identify some of the biases and potential intervention points and provide some initial suggestions about how the

  17. The Reagan Administration's EEO Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, William Bradford

    The Reagan administration is committed to the principle of equal employment opportunity (EEO). No policy shift has occurred in the treatment of "class action" litigation, or in the "pattern or practice" suits in the Justice Department's Title VII enforcement activities. Significant money settlements have been obtained in "pattern and practice"…

  18. Key Policy Makers' Awareness of Tobacco Taxation Effectiveness through a Sensitization Program.

    PubMed

    Heydari, Gholamreza; Ebn Ahmady, Arezoo; Lando, Harry A; Chamyani, Fahimeh; Masjedi, Mohammadreza; Shadmehr, Mohammad B; Fadaizadeh, Lida

    2015-12-01

    The implementation of 5 of the 6 WHO MPOWER program in Iran is satisfactory; the only notable shortcoming is the lack of tobacco taxation increases. This study was designed to increase key policy makers' awareness of tobacco taxation effectiveness through a sensitization program in Iran. This analytical and semi-experimental study in 2014 included 110 tobacco control key policy makers, who were trained and received educational materials on the importance of tobacco taxation. A valid and reliable questionnaire was completed before and three months after intervention. Data were analyzed using mean (SD), t-Test and analysis of variance. The mean (SD) scores at pre- and post-test were 2.7 ± 3 and 8.8 ± 1 out of 10, respectively. Paired t-tests demonstrated a significant difference in the pre- post-test knowledge scores. Increasing knowledge and promoting favorable attitudes of policy makers can lead to greater attention which could in turn change tobacco taxation policies. PMID:26621018

  19. Natural Hazards and Climate Change: Making the Link for Policy Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folger, P.

    2003-04-01

    Debate about global warming in the U.S. Congress often deteriorates when proposals for restricting consumption of fossil fuels, and thus curtailing carbon dioxide emissions, is mentioned. The negative economic implications of curtailing CO2 emissions often stifle Congressional thinking about strategies to deal with climate change. Some policy makers often malign climate change research as irrelevant to their citizens, e.g. why is simulating temperature trends 100 years into the future meaningful to their voters? An alternative approach is to connect climate change with ongoing natural events such as severe weather, drought and floods. These extreme events may or may not be exacerbated by anthropogenic CO2 emissions, but policy makers can debate and legislate approaches to mitigate against natural hazards now without mentioning carbon. What strategy might connect research results on understanding climate change and natural hazards mitigation in their minds? 1. Identify a specific situation where a key legislator's voters are threatened or affected by extreme natural phenomena, 2. Suggest a policy approach that provides protection or relief for those constituents, 3. Help the policy maker vet the idea within and without the scientific community, 4.Turn that idea into legislation and advocate for its passage.

  20. Literacy and life skills education for vulnerable youth: What policy makers can do

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, Anna Caroline; Yorozu, Rika; Medel-Añonuevo, Carolyn

    2014-04-01

    In countries with a high concentration of youth with low literacy levels, the policy and programming task related to education and training is particularly daunting. This note briefly presents policies and practices which have been put in place to provide vulnerable youth with literacy and life skills education. It is based on a multi-country research study undertaken by the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning (UIL) in cooperation with the Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada (DFATD Canada; previously Canadian International Development Agency, CIDA), and on subsequent policy dialogue forums with policy makers, practitioners, researchers and youth representatives held in Africa, the Arab region and Asia. Built on this review of existing policies and their implementation, this note provides lessons for innovative practices and suggests six concrete ways to address the needs of vulnerable youth through literacy and life skills education.

  1. Communicating Scientific Findings to Lawyers, Policy-Makers, and the Public (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, W.; Velsko, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation will summarize the authors' collaborative research on inferential errors, bias and communication difficulties that have arisen in the area of WMD forensics. This research involves analysis of problems that have arisen in past national security investigations, interviews with scientists from various disciplines whose work has been used in WMD investigations, interviews with policy-makers, and psychological studies of lay understanding of forensic evidence. Implications of this research for scientists involved in nuclear explosion monitoring will be discussed. Among the issues covered will be: - Potential incompatibilities between the questions policy makers pose and the answers that experts can provide. - Common misunderstandings of scientific and statistical data. - Advantages and disadvantages of various methods for describing and characterizing the strength of scientific findings. - Problems that can arise from excessive hedging or, alternatively, insufficient qualification of scientific conclusions. - Problems that can arise from melding scientific and non-scientific evidence in forensic assessments.

  2. Green buildings in Malaysia towards greener environment: challenges for policy makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhaida, M. S.; Tan, K. L.; Leong, Y. P.

    2013-06-01

    The launch of the National Green Technology Policy (NGTP) in 2009 is a manifesto of the government's seriousness in implementing "green" initiatives for the country. Specifically for buildings, the government promotes the application of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) and the application of green building index. With the introduction of Low Carbon Cities Framework, Green Pass, Green Neighbourhood, Green Building Index by various agencies and organisations in Malaysia, it is time to look back and see how all these tools could come together. This paper attempts to identify the challenges in harmonising the green initiatives for policy makers toward greener environment for sustainability.

  3. How do the public and policy makers communicate their perceptions of environmental risk to academics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, Jennifer

    2010-05-01

    This paper investigates the ways that the public and policy makers talk about environmental risk to academics. The case study is heavy-metal contamination of food in Zambia, Southern Africa. In several localities in Zambia, urban agriculture is practised using heavy-metal contamination wastewater for irrigation. This leads to contaminated food crops that are subsequently consumed. One case study site where this occurs is Chunga, situated in the northwest of the Zambian capital: Lusaka. For members of the public, six focus groups were carried out at the Chunga, Zambia study site, involving a total of 48 participants. The participants were those involved in urban agriculture through cultivation, selling and consumption of food crops. Urban agriculturalist focus group participants were recruited through key field informants. Focus group discussion starter questions involved pollution awareness, health impacts of pollution in the area and who is responsible for communicating environmental contamination risks to the general population. For policy stakeholders, 39 semi-structured interviews were conducted with individuals from various organisations including government ministries, non-governmental organisations, community based organisations and international institutions. Semi-structured interviews investigated the perceived major health issues in Zambia, food safety, environmental contamination and specifically heavy-metal contamination. Policy stakeholders were identified through policy mapping and organisations mentioned in focus group discussions and other interviews. The results at the Chunga study site show that members of the public perceive: (i) heavy metal pollution is not an issue in Lusaka and for their irrigation practices, (ii) dirty food can cause illness, (iii) heavy metals in foods can cause illness but they are not present at the Chunga site. Amongst urban agriculturalists the quantity of food available is the greatest issue, with some saying that they

  4. Views of City, County, and State Policy Makers About Childhood Obesity in New York State, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Rebecca; Lundell, Helen; Meyerson, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Introduction No single solution exists to reduce rates of childhood obesity in the United States, but public policy action is essential. A greater understanding of policy maker views on childhood obesity would provide insight into ways that public health advocates can overcome barriers to propose, enact, and implement obesity prevention policies. Methods We conducted 48 in-depth, qualitative interviews with town/city, county, and state policy makers in the state of New York from December 14, 2010, through June 10, 2011. We used a semistructured interview protocol to solicit policy maker views on the causes of, solutions to, and responsibility for addressing the issue of childhood obesity. Results Most policy makers considered the issue of childhood obesity to be of high importance. Respondents cited changes to family structures as a major cause of childhood obesity, followed by changes in the external environment and among children themselves. Respondents offered varied solutions for childhood obesity, with the most common type of solution being outside of the respondent’s sphere of policy influence. Policy makers cited the need for joint responsibility among parents, government, schools, and the food industry to address childhood obesity. Conclusion Beliefs of many policy makers about childhood obesity are similar to those of the general public. Findings highlight the need for future research to inform the development of communication strategies to promote policy action among those with authority to pass and implement it. PMID:24262027

  5. Communicating Geosciences with Policy-makers: a Grand Challenge for Academia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, W. J.; Walls, M. R.; Boland, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Geoscientists interested in the broader societal impacts of their research can make a meaningful contribution to policy making in our changing world. Nevertheless, policy and public decision making are the least frequently cited Broader Impacts in proposals and funded projects within NSF's Geosciences Directorate. Academic institutions can play a lead role by introducing this societal dimension of our profession to beginning students, and by enabling interdisciplinary research and promoting communication pathways for experienced career geoscientists. Within the academic environment, the public interface of the geosciences can be presented through curriculum content and creative programs. These include undergraduate minors in economics or public policy designed for scientists and engineers, and internships with policy makers. Federal research institutions and other organizations provide valuable policy-relevant experiences for students. Academic institutions have the key freedom of mission to tackle interdisciplinary research challenges at the interface of geoscience and policy. They develop long-standing relationships with research partners, including national laboratories and state geological surveys, whose work may support policy development and analysis at local, state, regional, and national levels. CSM's Payne Institute for Earth Resources awards mini-grants for teams of researchers to develop collaborative research efforts between engineering/science and policy researchers. Current work in the areas of nuclear generation and the costs of climate policy and on policy alternatives for capturing fugitive methane emissions are examples of work at the interface between the geosciences and public policy. With academic engagement, geoscientists can steward their intellectual output when non-scientists translate geoscience information and concepts into action through public policies.

  6. Evidence summaries tailored to health policy-makers in low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Glenton, Claire; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Abalos, Edgardo; Mignini, Luciano; Young, Taryn; Althabe, Fernando; Ciapponi, Agustín; Marti, Sebastian Garcia; Meng, Qingyue; Wang, Jian; la Hoz Bradford, Ana Maria De; Kiwanuka, Suzanne N; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Pariyo, George W; Flottorp, Signe; Oxman, Andrew D

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe how the SUPPORT collaboration developed a short summary format for presenting the results of systematic reviews to policy-makers in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Methods We carried out 21 user tests in six countries to explore users’ experiences with the summary format. We modified the summaries based on the results and checked our conclusions through 13 follow-up interviews. To solve the problems uncovered by the user testing, we also obtained advisory group feedback and conducted working group workshops. Findings Policy-makers liked a graded entry format (i.e. short summary with key messages up front). They particularly valued the section on the relevance of the summaries for LMICs, which compensated for the lack of locally-relevant detail in the original review. Some struggled to understand the text and numbers. Three issues made redesigning the summaries particularly challenging: (i) participants had a poor understanding of what a systematic review was; (ii) they expected information not found in the systematic reviews and (iii) they wanted shorter, clearer summaries. Solutions included adding information to help understand the nature of a systematic review, adding more references and making the content clearer and the document quicker to scan. Conclusion Presenting evidence from systematic reviews to policy-makers in LMICs in the form of short summaries can render the information easier to assimilate and more useful, but summaries must be clear and easy to read or scan quickly. They should also explain the nature of the information provided by systematic reviews and its relevance for policy decisions. PMID:21346891

  7. Climate Change Boot Camps: Targeting Policy Makers and Outreach Trainers in Arizona to Improve Climate Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, D. B.; Guido, Z. S.; Buizer, J.; Roy, M.

    2010-12-01

    Bringing climate change issues into focus for decision makers is a growing challenge. Decision makers are often confronted with unique informational needs, a lack of useable information, and needs for customized climate change training, among other issues. Despite significant progress in improving climate literacy among certain stakeholders such as water managers, recent reports have highlighted the growing demand for climate-change information in regions and sectors across the US. In recent years many ventures have sprung up to address these gaps and have predominantly focused on K-12 education and resource management agencies such as the National Park Service and National Weather Service. However, two groups that are critical for integrating climate information into actions have received less attention: (1) policy makers and (2) outreach experts, such as Cooperative Extension agents. Climate Change Boot Camps (CCBC) is a joint effort between the Climate Assessment for the Southwest (CLIMAS)—a NOAA Regionally Integrated Sciences and Assessments (RISA) program—and researchers at Arizona State University to diagnose climate literacy and training gaps in Arizona and develop a process that converts these deficiencies into actionable knowledge among the two aforementioned groups. This presentation will highlight the initial phases of the CCBC process, which has as its outcomes the identification of effective strategies for reaching legislators, climate literacy and training needs for both policy makers and trainers, and effective metrics to evaluate the success of these efforts. Specific attention is given to evaluating the process from initial needs assessment to the effectiveness of the workshops. Web curriculum and training models made available on the internet will also be developed, drawing on extensive existing Web resources for other training efforts and converted to meet the needs of these two groups. CCBC will also leverage CLIMAS’ long history of

  8. Taking Legislators to the Field: Communicating with Policy Makers about Natural Resource Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawin, R. S.; Buchanan, R. C.

    2006-12-01

    Policy makers are among the most important audiences for scientific information. In particular, legislators, legislative staff, governmental agency staff, business leaders, environmental leaders, and others need accurate, objective natural-resource information to make policy decisions. This audience is busy and difficult to reach with technical information. As part of its public outreach program, the Kansas Geological Survey (a division of the University of Kansas) communicates directly with policy makers through an annual field conference. Operated since 1995, the conference presents information by combining field experiences, presentations by experts, and participant interaction. The primary objective is to give policy makers first-hand, unbiased information about the state's natural resource issues. The field conference takes policy makers to locations where natural resources are produced or used, or where there are important environmental issues, introducing them to experts and others who carry out (or are affected by) their decisions. The conference consists of three days of site visits, presentations, hands-on activities, and panel discussions. Participation is by invitation. Participants pay a small fee, but most costs are covered by co-sponsors, usually other state or local agencies, that are recruited to help defray expenses. Participants receive a guidebook before the trip. Travel is by chartered bus; lodging and meals are provided. Conferences have focused on topics (such as energy or water) or regions of the state. The most recent conference focused on cross-boundary issues and included stops in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri. Written, post-conference evaluations are extremely positive. Legislators report that they regularly use conference information and contacts during the law-making process; conference information played a direct role in decisions related to underground natural-gas storage rules, water-rights by-back legislation, and sand and gravel

  9. Navigating public health chemicals policy in Australia: a policy maker's and practitioner's guide.

    PubMed

    Capon, Adam; Smith, Wayne; Gillespie, James A

    2013-03-01

    Chemicals are ubiquitous in everyday life. Environmental health practitioners rely on a complex web of regulators and policy bodies to ensure the protection of public health, yet few understand the full extent of this web. A lack of understanding can hamper public health response and impede policy development. In this paper we map the public health chemicals policy landscape in Australia and conclude that an understanding of this system is essential for effective environmental health responses and policy development.

  10. Policy Scholars Are from Venus: Policy Makers Are from Mars. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, Robert

    This paper rebuts four common assumptions underlying criticisms of higher education policy scholarship and policy making. The first assumption, policymakers agree on the nature of policy problems and therefore on the kinds of research needed, is rebutted by noting that actually, there is no way to identify and research all possible future policy…

  11. A Framework for Using Qualitative Research To Inform Policy-Makers and Empower Practitioners: Lessons from Madagascar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heneveld, Ward; Craig, Helen

    National education policy reforms often do not translate into changes at the classroom level. This paper presents a conceptual framework developed for Sub-Saharan Africa to assist policy-makers in bridging the gap between school practice and national policies. It also describes how the framework was applied to current school-improvement efforts in…

  12. National Policy Makers: New Directions in the Social Scientific Study of Policies Effecting Equity and Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Irving Louis

    The document examines social science influence in the policy-making process through interviews with proponents of various major positions in the policy arena. A wide variety of responses is presented in order to more clearly assess needs of a changing society, investigate how social science education might be changed to reflect those needs, record…

  13. High salt meals in staff canteens of salt policy makers: observational study

    PubMed Central

    Berentzen, C A; van Montfrans, G A

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the salt content of hot meals served at the institutions of salt policy makers in the Netherlands. Design Observational study. Setting 18 canteens at the Department of Health, the Health Council, the Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority, university hospitals, and affiliated non-university hospitals. Intervention A standard hot meal collected from the institutional staff canteens on three random days. Main outcome measure Salt content of the meals measured with an ion selective electrode assay. Results The mean salt content of the meals (7.1 g, SE 0.2 g) exceeded the total daily recommended salt intake of 6 g and was high at all locations: 6.9 g (0.4 g) at the Department of Health and National Health Council; 6.0 g (0.9 g) at the Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority; 7.4 g (0.5 g) at university hospital staff canteens; and 7.0 g (0.3 g) at non-university hospital staff canteens. With data from a national food consumption survey, the estimated total mean daily salt intake in people who ate these meals was 15.4 g. This translates into a 23-36% increase in premature cardiovascular mortality compared with people who adhere to the recommended levels of salt intake. Conclusion If salt policy makers eat at their institutional canteens they might consume too much salt, which could put their health at risk. PMID:22187322

  14. Informing Health Policy Decision Makers: A Nebraska Scope of Practice Case Study.

    PubMed

    Lazure, Linda L; Cramer, Mary E; Hoebelheinrich, Katherine A

    2016-05-01

    Medicare patients seeking care from nurse practitioners (NPs) increased 15-fold from 1998 to 2010, and a 2.5-fold patient increase was recorded in states that have eased the regulatory environment for NPs. It is increasingly important that state regulatory and licensing boards-charged with protecting the public through the assurance of a qualified health-care workforce-examine whether their state regulatory environment restricts or promotes public access to quality health care. This article presents a case study of a statutory scope of practice credentialing review process for NPs in Nebraska. It examines in depth what individuals involved in policy change processes found most useful for informed decision making. The methodology included observation of the process, review of submitted documents, and a survey to individuals involved in the decision-making process (n = 22/48). The study findings have application for those seeking scope of practice policy changes, with specific suggestions for how to better prepare themselves and present information in formats that are helpful to decision makers. Our results also shed new light on what specific evidence submitted during a scope of practice review process is most valued for promoting the understanding of decision makers to effect change. PMID:27540082

  15. Voices of decision makers on evidence-based policy: A case of evolving TB/HIV co-infection policy in India.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K Srikanth; Sahay, Seema

    2016-01-01

    This study explores decision makers' perspectives on evidence-based policy (EBP) development using the case of TB/HIV co-infection in India. Twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with purposively selected key national and international policy decision makers in India. Verbatim transcripts were processed and analysed thematically using QSR (NUD*IST 6). The decision makers were unequivocal in recognizing the TB/HIV co-infection as an important public health issue in India and stated the problem to be different than Africa. The need of having a "third programme" for co-infection was not felt. According to them, the public health management of this co-infection must be within the realm of these two programmes. The study also emphasized on decision makers' perspectives on evidence and the process of utilization of evidence for decision-making for co-infection. Study findings showed global evidence was not always accepted by the decision makers and study shows several examples of decision makers demanding local evidence for policy decisions. Decision makers did make interim policies based on global evidence but most of the time their mandate was to get local evidence. Thus, operations research/implementation science especially multi-centric studies emerge as important strategy for EBP development. Researcher-policy maker interface was a gap where role of researcher as aggressive communicator of research findings was expected.

  16. Knowledge, attitudes and barriers of physicians, policy makers/regulators regarding use of opioids for cancer pain management in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Srisawang, Pornsuree; Harun-Or-Rashid, Md; Hirosawa, Tomoya; Sakamoto, Junichi

    2013-08-01

    The efficacy of opioids for cancer pain has been proven and the World Health Organization (WHO) three-step ladder has been recommended for cancer pain relief. However, undertreatment of cancer pain has still been reported in Thailand. Identification of barriers to opioid use by the physicians and policy makers/regulators, and their level of knowledge and attitudes concerning its use are influential factors for cancer pain management (CPM). This study was performed to assess the knowledge and attitudes physicians and policy makers/regulators have regarding use of opioids for CPM. Barriers to opioid availability were also studied. A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to 300 physicians and distributed to 58 policy makers/regulators from September to October 2011. A total of 219 physicians and 47 policy makers/ regulators completed the questionnaire. Of the physicians 62.1% had inadequate knowledge and 33.8% had negative attitudes. Physicians who did not know the WHO three-step ladder were more likely to have less knowledge than those having used the WHO three-step ladder (OR = 13.0, p < 0.001). Policy makers/regulators also had inadequate knowledge (74.5%) and negative attitudes (66.0%). Policy makers/ regulators who never had CPM training were likely to have more negative attitudes than those having had training within less than one year (OR = 35.0, p = 0.005). Lack of training opportunities and periodic shortages of opioids were the greatest barriers to opioid availability for physicians and policy makers/ regulators, respectively. The strengthening of ongoing educational programs regarding opioid use for CPM, and cooperation among key groups are needed.

  17. Reproductive tourism in Argentina: clinic accreditation and its implications for consumers, health professionals and policy makers.

    PubMed

    Smith, Elise; Behrmann, Jason; Martin, Carolina; Williams-Jones, Bryn

    2010-08-01

    A subcategory of medical tourism, reproductive tourism has been the subject of much public and policy debate in recent years. Specific concerns include: the exploitation of individuals and communities, access to needed health care services, fair allocation of limited resources, and the quality and safety of services provided by private clinics. To date, the focus of attention has been on the thriving medical and reproductive tourism sectors in Asia and Eastern Europe; there has been much less consideration given to more recent 'players' in Latin America, notably fertility clinics in Chile, Brazil, Mexico and Argentina. In this paper, we examine the context-specific ethical and policy implications of private Argentinean fertility clinics that market reproductive services via the internet. Whether or not one agrees that reproductive services should be made available as consumer goods, the fact is that they are provided as such by private clinics around the world. We argue that basic national regulatory mechanisms are required in countries such as Argentina that are marketing fertility services to local and international publics. Specifically, regular oversight of all fertility clinics is essential to ensure that consumer information is accurate and that marketed services are safe and effective. It is in the best interests of consumers, health professionals and policy makers that the reproductive tourism industry adopts safe and responsible medical practices.

  18. Communicating the Urgency of Climate Change to Local Government Policy Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, A.

    2004-12-01

    What are the challenges and obstacles in conveying scientific research and uncertainties about climate change to local government policy makers? What information do scientists need from local government practitioners to guide research efforts into producing more relevant information for the local government audience? What works and what doesn't in terms of communicating climate change science to non-technical audiences? Based on over a decade of experience working with local governments around the world on greenhouse gas mitigation, ICLEI - Local Governments for Sustainability has developed a unique perspective and valuable insight into effective communication on climate science that motivates policy action. In the United States practical actions necessary to mitigate global climate change occur largely at the local level. As the level of government closest to individual energy consumers, local governments play a large role in determining the energy intensity of communities. How can local governments be persuaded to make greenhouse gas mitigation a policy priority over the long-term? Access to relevant information is critical to achieving that commitment. Information that will persuade local officials to pursue climate protection commitments includes specific impacts of global warming to communities, the costs of adaptation versus mitigation, and the potential benefits of implementing greenhouse gas-reducing initiatives. The manner in which information is conveyed is also critically important. The scientific community is loath to advocate for specific policies, or to make determinate statements on topics for which research is ongoing. These communication hurdles can be overcome if the needs of local policy practitioners can be understood by the scientific community, and research goals can be cooperatively defined.

  19. Lessons from Oil Pollution Research: Consensus, Controversy, and Education of Policy Makers and the Public.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrington, J. W.

    2007-12-01

    Controversies concerning scientific research findings, consensus of a majority of expert scientists, and attempts by vested interest groups to offer alternative interpretations from the consensus with the goal of influencing policy makers" and the public's understanding is not a new phenomenon with respect to complex environmental issues. For example, controversies about new scientific research findings from studies of oil spills and other aspects of petroleum and petroleum refined product inputs, fates and effects in the marine environment intensified in the late 1960s to early 1970s and continues today as evidenced by ongoing debates surrounding the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. This paper provides an overview of the interactions between authentic new scientific findings with respect to oil pollution in the marine environment in the late 1960s and early 1970s, the consensus gained in the ensuing years by continued research, and through various science - policy processes, and a spectrum of concomitant public education efforts. Lessons learned from this ongoing process may be instructive to current debates in other arenas of environmental science.

  20. The Policy Maker's Anguish: Regulating Personal Data Behavior Between Paradoxes and Dilemmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compañó, Ramón; Lusoli, Wainer

    Regulators in Europe and elsewhere are paying great attention to identity, privacy and trust in online and converging environments. Appropriate regulation of identity in a ubiquitous information environment is seen as one of the major drivers of the future Internet economy. Regulation of personal identity data has come to the fore including mapping conducted on digital personhood by the OECD; work on human rights and profiling by the Council of Europe andmajor studies by the European Commission with regard to self-regulation in the privacy market, electronic identity technical interoperability and enhanced safety for young people. These domains overlap onto an increasingly complex model of regulation of individuals' identity management, online and offline. This chapter argues that policy makers struggle to deal with issues concerning electronic identity, due to the apparently irrational and unpredictable behavior of users when engaging in online interactions involving identity management. Building on empirical survey evidence from four EU countries, we examine the first aspect in detail - citizens' management of identity in a digital environment. We build on data from a large scale (n = 5,265) online survey of attitudes to electronic identity among young Europeans (France, Germany, Spain, UK) conducted in August 2008. The survey asked questions about perceptions and acceptance of risks, general motivations, attitudes and behaviors concerning electronic identity. Four behavioral paradoxes are identified in the analysis: a privacy paradox (to date well known), but also a control paradox, a responsibility paradox and an awareness paradox. The chapter then examines the paradoxes in relation of three main policy dilemmas framing the debate on digital identity. The paper concludes by arguing for an expanded identity debate spanning policy circles and the engineering community.

  1. Policy makers ignoring science and scientists ignoring policy: the medical ethical challenges of heroin treatment

    PubMed Central

    Small, Dan; Drucker, Ernest

    2006-01-01

    require patients who have been successfully treated with heroin in Canada, to be forced to move back to less effective treatments (treatments that failed to be efficacious in the past)? This essay discusses this dilemma and places it in the broader context of ethics, science, and health policy. It makes the case for continuation of the current successful patients in heroin treatment and the institution of heroin treatment to all Canadian patients living with active addictions who qualify. PMID:16670010

  2. More of the same? Conflicting perspectives of obesity causation and intervention amongst overweight people, health professionals and policy makers.

    PubMed

    Greener, Joe; Douglas, Flora; van Teijlingen, Edwin

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study conducted in the United Kingdom of the perceptions of overweight individuals, as well as health professionals and policy makers working in the area of obesity prevention and weight management. In 2006-2007, we conducted interviews with 34 men and women (18-50 years old) who self identified as being overweight; 20 health professionals; and 9 policy makers. We explored their understandings of the causes of obesity/overweight; beliefs about factors that enabled or inhibited weight loss/gain; and opinions regarding effective obesity/overweight interventions. We found a range of views, which corresponded with biomedical and socio-ecological perspectives of health and disease. The lay overweight respondents viewed the problem of obesity arising from their personal shortcomings (i.e. motivational and physical), juxtaposed to blame-absolving accounts often involving specific challenges associated with day-to-day living. All respondents presented personal stories of complex battles of short-term weight loss and longer-term weight gain, usually characterised by a sense of failure. All expressed a strong sense of personal responsibility to overcome their weight problems, and looked to another not-yet-tried, technocratic weight loss programme to address the problem, despite all reporting past failures. Health professionals and policy makers on the other hand viewed obesity as a socio-ecologically determined problem, detailing social and environmental explanations. Health professionals were more inclined towards individual-orientated weight management interventions as effective responses. Policy makers considered environmental and social policy changes as most likely to make a substantial difference to current obesity trends, but considered it unlikely that such policies would be implemented without the political will and popular support. Our data highlight dissonance between policy maker, health professional and public

  3. Timely injection of knowledge when interacting with stakeholders and policy makers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouma, Johan

    2015-04-01

    Timely injection of knowledge when interacting with stakeholders and policy makers. J.Bouma Em. Prof. Soil Science, Wageningen University, the Netherlands During the last decade, the spectacular development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has strongly increased the accessible amount of data and information for stakeholders and policy makers and the science community is struggling to adjust to these developments. In the Netherlands not only industry has now a major impact on the research agenda but this is now to be extended to citizens at large. Rather than complain about an apparent "gap" between science and society and wrestle with the challenge to bridge it in a rather reactive manner, the science community would be well advised to initiate a proactive approach, showing that knowledge implies a deep understanding of issues and processes that does not necessarily follow from having data and information. The "gap" certainly applies to soil research in the context of sustainable development where many often well informed stakeholders are involved with widely different opinions, norms and values. Changes are suggested in the manner in which we frame our work: (i) longer involvement with projects from initiation to implementation in practice; (ii) active role of "knowledge brokers" who inject the right type of knowledge during the entire project run in a joint-learning mode, and (iii) not proposing new research from a science perspective but demonstrating a clear need because existing knowledge is inadequate. Yet more conceptual discussions about e.g. inter- and transdisciplinarity, worrysome soil degradation and lack of professional recognition are less meaningful than specific case studies demonstrating the crucial role of soil science when analysing land-based environmental problems. New narratives are needed instead of statistics, openness to learn from best practices and pilot projects as a necessary next step beyond awareness raising. Soil

  4. Special Education Administrative Policies Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Scottie

    Intended for use by state and local education agencies in the development of written policy consistent with recent federal legislation on the education of handicapped children, the manual offers recommended policy statements in the areas of right to education, population, identification, evaluations, placement, service delivery, facilities and…

  5. Global Assessment of Methane Gas Hydrates: Outreach for the public and policy makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, Yannick

    2010-05-01

    The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), via its official collaborating center in Norway, GRID-Arendal, is in the process of implementing a Global Assessment of Methane Gas Hydrates. Global reservoirs of methane gas have long been the topic of scientific discussion both in the realm of environmental issues such as natural forces of climate change and as a potential energy resource for economic development. Of particular interest are the volumes of methane locked away in frozen molecules known as clathrates or hydrates. Our rapidly evolving scientific knowledge and technological development related to methane hydrates makes these formations increasingly prospective to economic development. In addition, global demand for energy continues, and will continue to outpace supply for the foreseeable future, resulting in pressure to expand development activities, with associated concerns about environmental and social impacts. Understanding the intricate links between methane hydrates and 1) natural and anthropogenic contributions to climate change, 2) their role in the carbon cycle (e.g. ocean chemistry) and 3) the environmental and socio-economic impacts of extraction, are key factors in making good decisions that promote sustainable development. As policy makers, environmental organizations and private sector interests seek to forward their respective agendas which tend to be weighted towards applied research, there is a clear and imminent need for a an authoritative source of accessible information on various topics related to methane gas hydrates. The 2008 United Nations Environment Programme Annual Report highlighted methane from the Arctic as an emerging challenge with respect to climate change and other environmental issues. Building upon this foundation, UNEP/GRID-Arendal, in conjunction with experts from national hydrates research groups from Canada, the US, Japan, Germany, Norway, India and Korea, aims to provide a multi-thematic overview of the key

  6. Artificial Neural Networks and risk stratification models in Emergency Departments: The policy maker's perspective.

    PubMed

    Casagranda, Ivo; Costantino, Giorgio; Falavigna, Greta; Furlan, Raffaello; Ippoliti, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The primary goal of Emergency Department (ED) physicians is to discriminate between individuals at low risk, who can be safely discharged, and patients at high risk, who require prompt hospitalization. The problem of correctly classifying patients is an issue involving not only clinical but also managerial aspects, since reducing the rate of admission of patients to EDs could dramatically cut costs. Nevertheless, a trade-off might arise due to the need to find a balance between economic interests and the health conditions of patients. This work considers patients in EDs after a syncope event and presents a comparative analysis between two models: a multivariate logistic regression model, as proposed by the scientific community to stratify the expected risk of severe outcomes in the short and long run, and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), an innovative model. The analysis highlights differences in correct classification of severe outcomes at 10 days (98.30% vs. 94.07%) and 1 year (97.67% vs. 96.40%), pointing to the superiority of Neural Networks. According to the results, there is also a significant superiority of ANNs in terms of false negatives both at 10 days (3.70% vs. 5.93%) and at 1 year (2.33% vs. 10.07%). However, considering the false positives, the adoption of ANNs would cause an increase in hospital costs, highlighting the potential trade-off which policy makers might face.

  7. Global environmental change and human health: new challenges to scientist and policy-maker.

    PubMed

    McMichael, A J

    1994-01-01

    Human health may not remain sustainable if damage to the global environment continues. The argument is simple: Earth is essentially a closed system; humans are proliferating and commandeering more surface area, food and energy; the resultant accumulation of waste gases, depletion of soil and water, and loss of biodiversity is starting to overload Earth's carrying capacity. There are limits in any closed system and our species is now pressing against some of them. These are new problems and we cannot be certain of the consequences for human health. A warmer world will probably have more frequent heatwaves, unstable weather, increased spread of mosquito-borne infectious diseases, and disruptions to agriculture. Ozone depletion, if sustained, may cause moderate increases in skin cancer and cataracts, and may damage crop growth and marine stocks. Depletion of agricultural resources, overfishing, and loss of genetic resources from species extinction all entail potentially serious consequences for human health. The manifest uncertainties of these global change processes and the need for prediction, rather than empirical observation, create new challenges to health scientists. Likewise, policy-makers will have to deal with best estimates and long time-frames, informed by understanding of ecological realities.

  8. A Wind Energy Blueprint for Policy Makers (case study: Santa Barbara County, CA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prull, D. S.; Ling, F.; Valencia, A.; Kammen, D.

    2006-12-01

    Over the past 5 years wind power has been the fastest-growing energy source worldwide with an annual average growth rate exceeding 30%. In 2006, 3,400 megawatts of new capacity are expected in the United States alone, representing a 40% growth rate. At a present cost of 3-7ȩnt per kilowatt hour, wind energy has become a viable option in the energy market. Despite this rapid growth, many city and county policy makers know little about their local potential for wind development. As a case study, a wind energy blueprint was created for Santa Barbara County, California. A detailed GIS analysis shows that Santa Barbara County has a gross onshore wind resource of over 1815 MW (with a ~32% capacity factor) although only 10-12% is suitable for utility-scale development (class 3 winds or higher). This 216 MW resource represents 163 tons of avoided CO_2 emissions resulting from coal fire electrical production each year (assuming the national average of 1.5lbs CO_2 emitted per kWh). In addition, potential offshore wind sites within 50 nautical miles of the Santa Barbara County coast could supply up to 15 GW, far exceeding the energy demands of the county (~570 MW). An economic impact analysis indicates that more than 600 jobs would be created as a result of onshore development. We address concerns such as impacts on wildlife, noise, and view shed. This wind energy blueprint can serve as an example on how to effectively relate technical issues to both policy members and the public.

  9. What Influences the Utilisation of Educational Research by Policy-Makers and Practitioners?: The Perspectives of Academic Educational Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherney, Adrian; Povey, Jenny; Head, Brian; Boreham, Paul; Ferguson, Michele

    2012-01-01

    In the field of education much has been made of the need for academics to engage more closely with policy-makers and practitioners in the process of knowledge production and research uptake. This paper reports results from a survey of academic educational researchers in Australia on their experience of research uptake and engagement with…

  10. What Can Instructors and Policy Makers Learn about Web-Supported Learning through Web-Usage Mining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Anat; Nachmias, Rafi

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on a Web-log based tool for evaluating pedagogical processes occurring in Web-supported academic instruction and students' attitudes. The tool consists of computational measures which demonstrate what instructors and policy makers can learn about Web-supported instruction through Web-usage mining. The tool can provide different…

  11. Incorporating Youth Development Principles into Adolescent Health Programs: A Guide for State-Level Practitioners & Policy Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judd, Becky

    2006-01-01

    The youth development approach has gained traction over the past twenty-plus years, across a range of youth-serving fields, including public health. While it is important for Adolescent Health Coordinators, other practitioners and policy makers focused on youth to be familiar with youth development concepts, it is critically important that they…

  12. Advancing Policy Makers' Expertise in Evidence-Use: A New Approach to Enhancing the Role Research Can Have in Aiding Educational Policy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the notion of evidence-informed policy making and the factors that have hindered its development in the UK to date. It then explores Flyvbjerg's notion of "phronetic" expertise and hypothesises that the learning that accrues from engaging with multiple cases could also lead to policy-makers developing competency…

  13. The Decision Maker's Guide to Applied Planning, Organization, Administration, Research, Evaluation, Information Processing and Analysis Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumas, Neil S.

    This guide is an attempt to eliminate the need for decision makers to suffer from many of their future errors. It is an attempt to insure that the "right" decision is made the first time. Briefly, the theory is that one can learn from other peoples' experience and thus avoid making future mistakes. This volume is a guide to other…

  14. Obama Administration Announces Ocean Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-08-01

    With the U.S. Interagency Ocean Policy Task Force final report in hand, U.S. president Barack Obama issued an executive order on 19 July largely adopting its recommendations. These include establishing a National Policy for the Stewardship of the Ocean, Coasts, and Great Lakes; creating a National Ocean Council, which will hold its first meeting later this summer; strengthening the ocean governance structure; and providing for the development of coastal and marine spatial plans. The task force report indicates that U.S. ocean policy includes protecting, maintaining, and restoring ocean, coastal, and Great Lakes ecosystems and resources; increasing scientific understanding and using the best available science and knowledge to inform decisions about them; and improving the understanding and awareness of changing environmental conditions.

  15. Alaska Center for Climate Assessment and Policy: Partnering with Decision-Makers in Climate Change Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, D.; Trainor, S.; Walsh, J.; Gerlach, C.

    2008-12-01

    The Alaska Center for Climate Assessment and Policy (ACCAP; www.uaf.edu/accap) is one of several, NOAA funded, Regional Integrated Science and Policy (RISA) programs nation-wide (http://www.climate.noaa.gov/cpo_pa/risa/). Our mission is to assess the socio-economic and biophysical impacts of climate variability in Alaska, make this information available to local and regional decision-makers, and improve the ability of Alaskans to adapt to a changing climate. We partner with the University of Alaska?s Scenario Network for Alaska Planning (SNAP; http://www.snap.uaf.edu/), state and local government, state and federal agencies, industry, and non-profit organizations to communicate accurate and up-to-date climate science and assist in formulating adaptation and mitigation plans. ACCAP and SNAP scientists are members of the Governor?s Climate Change Sub-Cabinet Adaptation and Mitigation Advisory and Technical Working Groups (http://www.climatechange.alaska.gov/), and apply their scientific expertise to provide down-scaled, state-wide maps of temperature and precipitation projections for these groups. An ACCAP scientist also serves as co-chair for the Fairbanks North Star Borough Climate Change Task Force, assisting this group as they work through the five-step model for climate change planning put forward by the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (http://www.investfairbanks.com/Taskforces/climate.php). ACCAP scientists work closely with federal resource managers in on a range of projects including: partnering with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to analyze hydrologic changes associated with climate change and related ecological impacts and wildlife management and development issues on Alaska?s North Slope; partnering with members of the Alaska Interagency Wildland Fire Coordinating Group in statistical modeling to predict seasonal wildfire activity and coordinate fire suppression resources state-wide; and working with Alaska Native Elders and

  16. The Solutions Project: Educating the Public and Policy Makers About Solutions to Global Warming, Air Pollution, and Energy Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, M. Z.

    2015-12-01

    Three major global problems of our times are global warming, air pollution mortality and morbidity, and energy insecurity. Whereas, policy makers with the support of the public must implement solutions to these problems, it is scientists and engineers who are best equipped to evaluate technically sound, optimal, and efficient solutions. Yet, a disconnect exists between information provided by scientists and engineers and policies implemented. Part of the reason is that scientific information provided to policy makers and the public is swamped out by information provided by lobbyists and another part is the difficulty in providing information to the hundreds of millions of people who need it rather than to just a few thousand. What other ways are available, aside from issuing press releases on scientific papers, for scientists to disseminate information? Three growing methods are through social media, creative media, and storytelling. The Solutions Project is a non-profit non-governmental organization whose goal is to bring forth scientific information about 100% clean, renewable energy plans to the public, businesses, and policy makers using these and related tools. Through the use of social media, the development of engaging internet and video content, and storytelling, the group hopes to increase the dissemination of information for social good. This talk discusses the history and impacts to date of this group and its methods. Please see www.thesolutionsproject.org and 100.org for more information.

  17. Visualisation and communication of probabilistic climate forecasts to renewable-energy policy makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, Sophie; Lowe, Rachel; Davis, Melanie; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco J.; Rodó, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    Despite the strong dependence on weather and climate variability of the renewable-energy industry, and the existence of several initiatives towards demonstrating the added benefits of integrating probabilistic forecasts into energy decision-making processes, weather and climate forecasts are still under-utilised within the sector. Improved communication is fundamental to stimulate the use of climate forecast information within decision-making processes, in order to adapt to a highly climate dependent renewable-energy industry. This work focuses on improving the visualisation of climate forecast information, paying special attention to seasonal time scales. This activity is central to enhance climate services for renewable energy and to optimise the usefulness and usability of inherently complex climate information. In the realm of the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) initiative, and subsequent European projects: Seasonal-to-Decadal Climate Prediction for the Improvement of European Climate Service (SPECS) and the European Provision of Regional Impacts Assessment in Seasonal and Decadal Timescales (EUPORIAS), this paper investigates the visualisation and communication of seasonal forecasts with regards to their usefulness and usability, to enable the development of a European climate service. The target end user is the group of renewable-energy policy makers, who are central to enhance climate services for the energy industry. The overall objective is to promote the wide-range dissemination and exchange of actionable climate information based on seasonal forecasts from Global Producing Centres (GPCs). It examines the existing main barriers and deficits. Examples of probabilistic climate forecasts from different GPC's are used to make a catalogue of current approaches, to assess their advantages and limitations and, finally, to recommend better alternatives. Interviews have been conducted with renewable-energy stakeholders to receive feedback for the

  18. The visualisation and communication of probabilistic climate forecasts to renewable energy policy makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doblas-Reyes, F.; Steffen, S.; Lowe, R.; Davis, M.; Rodó, X.

    2013-12-01

    Despite the strong dependence of weather and climate variability on the renewable energy industry, and several initiatives towards demonstrating the added benefits of integrating probabilistic forecasts into energy decision making process, they are still under-utilised within the sector. Improved communication is fundamental to stimulate the use of climate forecast information within decision-making processes, in order to adapt to a highly climate dependent renewable energy industry. This paper focuses on improving the visualisation of climate forecast information, paying special attention to seasonal to decadal (s2d) timescales. This is central to enhance climate services for renewable energy, and optimise the usefulness and usability of inherently complex climate information. In the realm of the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) initiative, and subsequent European projects: Seasonal-to-Decadal Climate Prediction for the Improvement of European Climate Service (SPECS) and the European Provision of Regional Impacts Assessment in Seasonal and Decadal Timescales (EUPORIAS), this paper investigates the visualisation and communication of s2d forecasts with regards to their usefulness and usability, to enable the development of a European climate service. The target end user will be renewable energy policy makers, who are central to enhance climate services for the energy industry. The overall objective is to promote the wide-range dissemination and exchange of actionable climate information based on s2d forecasts from Global Producing Centres (GPC's). Therefore, it is crucial to examine the existing main barriers and deficits. Examples of probabilistic climate forecasts from different GPC's were used to prepare a catalogue of current approaches, to assess their advantages and limitations and finally to recommend better alternatives. In parallel, interviews were conducted with renewable energy stakeholders to receive feedback for the improvement of existing

  19. 49 CFR 1515.11 - Review by administrative law judge and TSA Final Decision Maker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Determination of No Security Threat to the operator. (iii) In the case of review of an appeal under 49 CFR 1515... (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ADMINISTRATIVE AND PROCEDURAL RULES APPEAL AND WAIVER PROCEDURES FOR SECURITY THREAT ASSESSMENTS FOR INDIVIDUALS §...

  20. 49 CFR 1515.11 - Review by administrative law judge and TSA Final Decision Maker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Determination of No Security Threat to the operator. (iii) In the case of review of an appeal under 49 CFR 1515... (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ADMINISTRATIVE AND PROCEDURAL RULES APPEAL AND WAIVER PROCEDURES FOR SECURITY THREAT ASSESSMENTS FOR INDIVIDUALS §...

  1. 49 CFR 1515.11 - Review by administrative law judge and TSA Final Decision Maker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Determination of No Security Threat to the operator. (iii) In the case of review of an appeal under 49 CFR 1515... (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ADMINISTRATIVE AND PROCEDURAL RULES APPEAL AND WAIVER PROCEDURES FOR SECURITY THREAT ASSESSMENTS FOR INDIVIDUALS §...

  2. 49 CFR 1515.11 - Review by administrative law judge and TSA Final Decision Maker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Determination of No Security Threat to the operator. (iii) In the case of review of an appeal under 49 CFR 1515... (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ADMINISTRATIVE AND PROCEDURAL RULES APPEAL AND WAIVER PROCEDURES FOR SECURITY THREAT ASSESSMENTS FOR INDIVIDUALS §...

  3. 49 CFR 1515.11 - Review by administrative law judge and TSA Final Decision Maker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Determination of No Security Threat to the operator. (iii) In the case of review of an appeal under 49 CFR 1515... (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ADMINISTRATIVE AND PROCEDURAL RULES APPEAL AND WAIVER PROCEDURES FOR SECURITY THREAT ASSESSMENTS FOR INDIVIDUALS §...

  4. Enhancing the Capacity of Policy-Makers to Develop Evidence-Informed Policy Brief on Infectious Diseases of Poverty in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla; Ogbu, Ogbonnaya; Onwe, Friday; Edoga, Chima

    2015-01-01

    Background: The lack of effective use of research evidence in policy-making is a major challenge in most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). There is need to package research data into effective policy tools that will help policy-makers to make evidence-informed policy regarding infectious diseases of poverty (IDP). The objective of this study was to assess the usefulness of training workshops and mentoring to enhance the capacity of Nigerian health policy-makers to develop evidence-informed policy brief on the control of IDP. Methods: A modified "before and after" intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on the target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. A 4-point Likert scale according to the degree of adequacy; 1 = "grossly inadequate," 4 = "very adequate" was employed. The main parameter measured was participants’ perceptions of their own knowledge/understanding. This study was conducted at subnational level and the participants were the career health policy-makers drawn from Ebonyi State in the South-Eastern Nigeria. A one-day evidence-to-policy workshop was organized to enhance the participants’ capacity to develop evidence-informed policy brief on IDP in Ebonyi State. Topics covered included collaborative initiative; preparation and use of policy briefs; policy dialogue; ethics in health policy-making; and health policy and politics. Results: The preworkshop mean of knowledge and capacity ranged from 2.49-3.03, while the postworkshop mean ranged from 3.42–3.78 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in mean of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 20.10%–45%. Participants were divided into 3 IDP mentorship groups (malaria, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis [LF]) and were mentored to identify potential policy options/recommendations for control of the diseases for the policy briefs. These policy options were subjected to research evidence synthesis by each

  5. Factors influencing the utilization of research findings by health policy-makers in a developing country: the selection of Mali's essential medicines

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Michael A; Fretheim, Atle; Maïga, Diadié

    2007-01-01

    Background Research findings are increasingly being recognized as an important input in the formation of health policy. There is concern that research findings are not being utilized by health policy-makers to the extent that they could be. The factors influencing the utilization of various types of research by health policy-makers are beginning to emerge in the literature, however there is still little known about these factors in developing countries. The object of this study was to explore these factors by examining the policy-making process for a pharmaceutical policy common in developing countries; an essential medicines list. Methods A study of the selection and updating of Mali's national essential medicines list was undertaken using qualitative methods. In-depth semi-structured interviews and a natural group discussion were held with national policy-makers, most specifically members of the national commission that selects and updates the country's list. The resulting text was analyzed using a phenomenological approach. A document analysis was also performed. Results Several factors emerged from the textual data that appear to be influencing the utilization of health research findings for these policy-makers. These factors include: access to information, relevance of the research, use of research perceived as a time consuming process, trust in the research, authority of those who presented their view, competency in research methods, priority of research in the policy process, and accountability. Conclusion Improving the transfer of research to policy will require effort on the part of researchers, policy-makers, and third parties. This will include: collaboration between researchers and policy-makers, increased production and dissemination of relevant and useful research, and continued and improved technical support from networks and multi-national organizations. Policy-makers from developing countries will then be better equipped to make informed decisions

  6. Making Health System Performance Measurement Useful to Policy Makers: Aligning Strategies, Measurement and Local Health System Accountability in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Veillard, Jeremy; Huynh, Tai; Ardal, Sten; Kadandale, Sowmya; Klazinga, Niek S.; Brown, Adalsteinn D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the experience of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care in enhancing its stewardship and performance management role by developing a health system strategy map and a strategy-based scorecard through a process of policy reviews and expert consultations, and linking them to accountability agreements. An evaluation of the implementation and of the effects of the policy intervention has been carried out through direct policy observation over three years, document analysis, interviews with decision-makers and systematic discussion of findings with other authors and external reviewers. Cascading strategies at health and local health system levels were identified, and a core set of health system and local health system performance indicators was selected and incorporated into accountability agreements with the Local Health Integration Networks. despite the persistence of such challenges as measurement limitations and lack of systematic linkage to decision-making processes, these activities helped to strengthen substantially the ministry's performance management function. PMID:21286268

  7. Lessons learnt for Public Policy Maker from Relocation of Tsunami Affected Villagers in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamthonkiat, Daroonwan; Thuy Vu, Tuong

    2013-04-01

    facilities such as water, electricity and dumping area were not enough supported in some donated areas. 3)A lot of fishermen had turned to wage-earners or unfamiliar jobs to earn for their living. Some were jobless more than a year after relocation because of less skill for other jobs, high competition for less vacancies and no capital to start their small business. 4)After a few years of relocation and adaptation in the donated houses, we found that old and young generation became a major residence while much of the working generation fishermen went back to their villages for their fishing career. Some of them leaved the right of living in the donated houses by renting out to non-tsunami impact people or leaving their houses abandoned. As a lesson learnt from the relocation of the tsunami impact villagers in Thailand during 2005 - 2010, we could summarize some critical concerns for government policy makers as listed; 1)The government may support the certificate of the ownership or title deed with some conditions to the villagers who occupied on their lands before the conservative zones were announced. They should have the right to stay further and do eco-friendly activities for earning their lives. The villagers have no right to transfer the title deed or certificate to the third parties. Only eco-friendly equipments are permitted for fishing in this area. 2)After relocation to the higher ground, basic facilities (such as water, electricity and dumping area) should be sufficiently furnished. 3)Not only skill practicing for career options should be supported, finding job vacancy should run in parallel to ensure that the tsunami impact villagers can afford their living. 4)For reducing the right transfer or leaving the donated houses abandoned, annual or continuous survey to these residences should be conducted by government sectors until 80% of them had settled on their careers and adaptations. Location analysis should be conducted before construction of houses for disaster

  8. Lessons learnt for Public Policy Maker from Relocation of Tsunami Affected Villagers in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamthonkiat, Daroonwan; Thuy Vu, Tuong

    2013-04-01

    facilities such as water, electricity and dumping area were not enough supported in some donated areas. 3)A lot of fishermen had turned to wage-earners or unfamiliar jobs to earn for their living. Some were jobless more than a year after relocation because of less skill for other jobs, high competition for less vacancies and no capital to start their small business. 4)After a few years of relocation and adaptation in the donated houses, we found that old and young generation became a major residence while much of the working generation fishermen went back to their villages for their fishing career. Some of them leaved the right of living in the donated houses by renting out to non-tsunami impact people or leaving their houses abandoned. As a lesson learnt from the relocation of the tsunami impact villagers in Thailand during 2005 - 2010, we could summarize some critical concerns for government policy makers as listed; 1)The government may support the certificate of the ownership or title deed with some conditions to the villagers who occupied on their lands before the conservative zones were announced. They should have the right to stay further and do eco-friendly activities for earning their lives. The villagers have no right to transfer the title deed or certificate to the third parties. Only eco-friendly equipments are permitted for fishing in this area. 2)After relocation to the higher ground, basic facilities (such as water, electricity and dumping area) should be sufficiently furnished. 3)Not only skill practicing for career options should be supported, finding job vacancy should run in parallel to ensure that the tsunami impact villagers can afford their living. 4)For reducing the right transfer or leaving the donated houses abandoned, annual or continuous survey to these residences should be conducted by government sectors until 80% of them had settled on their careers and adaptations. Location analysis should be conducted before construction of houses for disaster

  9. The Use of Social Ecological Hotspots Mapping: Co-Developing Adaptation Strategies for Resource Management by Communities and Policy Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessa, L.

    2014-12-01

    Ultimately, adaptation is based on a set of trade-offs rather than optimal conditions, something that is rarely seen in messy social ecological systems (SES). In this talk, we discuss the role of spatial hot-spot mapping using social and biophysical data to understand the feedbacks in SES. We review the types of data needed, their means of acquisition and the analytic methods involved. In addition, we outline the challenges faced in co-developing this type of inquiry based on lessons learned from several long-term programs. Finally, we present the utility of SES hotspots in developing adaptation strategies on the ground by communities and policy makers.

  10. Literacy and Life Skills Education for Vulnerable Youth: What Policy Makers Can Do

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernhardt, Anna Caroline; Yorozu, Rika; Medel-Añonuevo, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    In countries with a high concentration of youth with low literacy levels, the policy and programming task related to education and training is particularly daunting. This note briefly presents policies and practices which have been put in place to provide vulnerable youth with literacy and life skills education. It is based on a multi-country…

  11. "Hearing from all sides" How legislative testimony influences state level policy-makers in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Barbero, Colleen; Andersen, Stephanie; Geary, Nora; Dodson, Elizabeth A.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This paper investigates whether state legislators find testimony influential, to what extent testimony influences policy-makers’ decisions, and defines the features of testimony important in affecting policy-makers’ decisions. Methods: We used a mixed method approach to analyze responses from 862 state-level legislators in the United States (U.S.). Data were collected via a phone survey from January-October, 2012. Qualitative data were analyzed using a general inductive approach and codes were designed to capture the most prevalent themes. Descriptive statistics and cross tabulations were also completed on thematic and demographic data to identify additional themes. Results: Most legislators, regardless of political party and other common demographics, find testimony influential, albeit with various definitions of influence. While legislators reported that testimony influenced their awareness or encouraged them to take action like conducting additional research, only 6% reported that testimony changes their vote. Among those legislators who found testimony influential, characteristics of the presenter (e.g., credibility, knowledge of the subject) were the most important aspects of testimony. Legislators also noted several characteristics of testimony content as important, including use of credible, unbiased information and data. Conclusion: Findings from this study can be used by health advocates, researchers, and individuals to fine tune the delivery of materials and messages to influence policy-makers during legislative testimony. Increasing the likelihood that information from scholars will be used by policy-makers may lead to the adoption of more health policies that are informed by scientific and practice-based evidence. PMID:25674572

  12. The Policy-Science Interface for Land Management in a Changing Climate -- Closing the Gap Between Scientists, Natural Resource Managers and Policy Makers. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daley-Laursen, S. B.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change and related perturbations present significant challenges and opportunities for effective communications among natural resource managers, scientists and policy makers. Communication is important because of the potential dire and sometimes irreversible impacts of climate change, but challenges abound because of the lack of perceived immediacy and direct impact upon the public and land managers. The USGS national network of eight Climate Science Centers endeavors to increase communications among scientists, managers and policy makers through processes of consultation during the establishment of a science agenda and science prioritization based on inputs from a broad array of stakeholders. A Climate Science Boot Camp also fosters open dialogue and working relationships between early career climate scientists and an array of practicing natural resource managers. Professor of Natural Resources, former Dean of NR and University President Interim, PI Northwest Climate Science Center, Director Northwest Knowledge Network, Federal Relations Officer

  13. Holding Policy-Makers to Account: Exploring "Soft" and "Hard" Policy and the Implications for Curriculum Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Kerry J.; Chan, Jacqueline Kin-sang; Fok, Ping Kwan

    2011-01-01

    Curriculum implementation as both an educational practice and a policy conundrum has been the focus of academic research since the 1970s. A new perspective is taken in this article by borrowing from the literature on policy implementation in multilevel systems of government. The concepts of "hard" and "soft" policy are used to show that…

  14. Development of policies for Natura 2000 sites: a multi-criteria approach to support decision makers.

    PubMed

    Cortina, Carla; Boggia, Antonio

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to present a methodology to support decision makers in the choice of Natura 2000 sites needing an appropriate management plan to ensure a sustainable socio-economic development. In order to promote sustainable development in the Natura 2000 sites compatible with nature preservation, conservation measures or management plans are necessary. The main issue is to decide when only conservation measures can be applied and when the sites need an appropriate management plan. We present a case study for the Italian Region of Umbria. The methodology is based on a multi-criteria approach to identify the biodiversity index (BI), and on the development of a human activities index (HAI). By crossing the two indexes for each site on a Cartesian plane, four groups of sites were identified. Each group corresponds to a specific need for an appropriate management plan. Sites in the first group with a high level both of biodiversity and human activities have the most urgent need of an appropriate management plan to ensure sustainable development. The proposed methodology and analysis is replicable in other regions or countries by using the data available for each site in the Natura 2000 standard data form. A multi-criteria analysis is especially suitable for supporting decision makers when they deal with a multidimensional decision process. We found the multi-criteria approach particularly sound in this case, due to the concept of biodiversity itself, which is complex and multidimensional, and to the high number of alternatives (Natura 2000 sites) to be assessed.

  15. Principles of antipsychotic prescribing for policy makers, circa 2008. Translating knowledge to promote individualized treatment.

    PubMed

    Parks, Joseph; Radke, Alan; Parker, George; Foti, May-Ellen; Eilers, Robert; Diamond, Mary; Svendsen, Dale; Tandon, Rajiv

    2009-09-01

    Findings from 2 pivotal government-funded studies of comparative antipsychotic effectiveness undermine assumptions about the marked superiority of the more expensive second-generation "atypical" medications in comparison to the less expensive first-generation "typical" drugs. Because this assumption was the basis for the almost universal recommendation that these newer antipsychotics be used preferentially resulting in a 10-fold increase in state governmental expenditures on this class of medications over the past decade, a reassessment of policy is called for. To address the issue, the Medical Directors Council of the National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors critically reviewed findings of these studies in the context of other data and considered policy implications in the light of the obligations of state government to make available best possible and individually optimized treatment that is cost-effective. The Medical Directors Council unanimously adopted a set of recommendations to promote appropriate access, efficient utilization, and best practice use. We present our policy statement, in which we provide a succinct background, articulate general principles, and describe a set of 4 broad recommendations. We then summarize our understanding of the current state of knowledge about comparative antipsychotic effectiveness, best antipsychotic practice, and considerations for state policy that represent the basis of our position statement.

  16. Evaluation Report of the Course for Distance Education Policy-Makers in Southern Africa. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magagula, Cisco

    2002-01-01

    The evaluator was contracted to determine whether the online or face-to-face course components met course participants' needs and increased their understanding and knowledge of policy development processes, and to determine the efficiency and effectiveness of delivery strategies. In addition, the course evaluator was asked to look at the…

  17. Critical Issues: Sounding Like More Than Background Noise to Policy Makers: Qualitative Researchers in the Policy Arena.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roller, Cathy M.; Long, Richard M.

    2001-01-01

    Addresses the relationships of qualitative researchers to the policy-making process. Uses the example of the Reading Excellence Act to demonstrate that qualitative researchers have many points of access to the policy-making process. Suggests qualitative researchers must provide relevant information, communicate in a straightforward manner,…

  18. Teachers as Frontline Researchers and Policy Makers--A Midyear Perspective from the First IMPACT II Teacher Policy Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberberg, Mark; And Others

    The five essays included in this document focus on the First IMPACT II Teacher Policy Institute (50 New York City Public School teachers "committed to affecting real change in educational policy in this city"). "Teachers as Researchers" (Mark Silberberg) discusses the relationship between teaching and research, particularly with regard to policy…

  19. 42 CFR 405.1863 - Administrative policy at issue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative policy at issue. 405.1863 Section... Determinations and Appeals § 405.1863 Administrative policy at issue. Where a party to the Board hearing puts into issue an administrative policy which is interpretative of the law or regulations, the Board...

  20. Judgments of policies designed to elicit local cooperation on LLRW disposal siting: Comparing the public and decision makers

    SciTech Connect

    Bord, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    The study reported here solicited the opinions of the general public of the State of Pennsylvania and of key decision makers in environmental, civic, industry, and health groups, on various policy issues connected with the establishment of low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. Specifically, the focus was on their judgment of options designed to elicit local cooperation and their trust in various officials and agencies. The data indicates that the general public views both compensation and power sharing options as important in promoting local cooperation. However, power sharing options are viewed as more important than incentives. The general public consistently demonstrates a preference for options which put control of the site in the hands of locals. On the other hand, influential decision-makers, with the exception of those representing environmental advocacy organizations, tend to view compensation as more important than local power sharing. Their preferences mirror those programs currently being pursued by federal and state officials. Preferences exhibited by leaders of environmental advocacy organizations parallel those of the general public.

  1. Summary for Policy Makers: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report Renewable Energy Sources (SRREN)

    SciTech Connect

    Arvizu, Dan; Bruckner, Thomas; Christensen, John; Devernay, Jean-Michel; Faaij , Andre; Fischedick, Manfred; Goldstein, Barry; Hansen, Gerrit; Huckerby , John; Jager-Waldau, Arnulf; Kadner, Susanne; Kammen, Daniel; Krey, Volker; Kumar, Arun; Lewis , Anthony; Lucon, Oswaldo; Matschoss, Patrick; Maurice, Lourdes; Mitchell , Catherine; Moomaw, William; Moreira, Jose; Nadai, Alain; Nilsson, Lars J.; Nyboer, John; Rahman, Atiq; Sathaye, Jayant; Sawin, Janet; Schaeffer, Roberto; Schei, Tormod; Schlomer, Steffen; Sims, Ralph; von Stechow, Christoph; Verbruggen, Aviel; Urama, Kevin; Wiser, Ryan; Yamba, Francis; Zwickel, Timm

    2011-05-08

    The Working Group III Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (SRREN) presents an assessment of the literature on the scientific, technological, environmental, economic and social aspects of the contribution of six renewable energy (RE) sources to the mitigation of climate change. It is intended to provide policy relevant information to governments, intergovernmental processes and other interested parties. This Summary for Policymakers provides an overview of the SRREN, summarizing the essential findings. The SRREN consists of 11 chapters. Chapter 1 sets the context for RE and climate change; Chapters 2 through 7 provide information on six RE technologies, and Chapters 8 through 11 address integrative issues.

  2. Equity-focused health impact assessment: A tool to assist policy makers in addressing health inequalities

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, Sarah . E-mail: sarah.simpson@unsw.edu.au; Mahoney, Mary; Harris, Elizabeth; Aldrich, Rosemary; Stewart-Williams, Jenny

    2005-10-15

    In Australasia (Australia and New Zealand) the use of health impact assessment (HIA) as a tool for improved policy development is comparatively new. The public health workforce do not routinely assess the potential health and equity impacts of proposed policies or programs. The Australasian Collaboration for Health Equity Impact Assessment was funded to develop a strategic framework for equity-focused HIA (EFHIA) with the intent of strengthening the ways in which equity is addressed in each step of HIA. The collaboration developed a draft framework for EFHIA that mirrored, but modified the commonly accepted steps of HIA; tested the draft framework in six different health service delivery settings; analysed the feedback about application of the draft EFHIA framework and modified it accordingly. The strategic framework shows promise in providing a systematic process for identifying potential differential health impacts and assessing the extent to which these are avoidable and unfair. This paper presents the EFHIA framework and discusses some of the issues that arose in the case study sites undertaking equity-focused HIA.

  3. European decision-maker perspective with regard to influenza prevention policies.

    PubMed

    Lopalco, P L

    2016-01-01

    Influenza is a public health priority in Europe. The impact of influenza pandemics on public health is very high, but seasonal influenza also constitutes an important burden in terms of hospitalisation and excess deaths. Influenza vaccination is a fundamental pillar of disease prevention. In the absence of a clear decision-making process for vaccination policies, EU institutions have, in recent years, fostered collaboration among Member States. Such collaboration was closer during the 2009 pandemic, which constituted a clear cross-border threat to EU citizens' health. The EU institutions have been supporting national vaccination programmes by providing evidence of the effectiveness and safety of influenza vaccination. Decision 1082/2013 was a major step toward EU collaboration, in that it highlighted the role of pandemic vaccination in the field of preparedness and emergency response, in which concerted action is clearly valuable. PMID:27346941

  4. Confidentiality and treatment decisions of minor clients: a health professional's dilemma & policy makers challenge.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Margot Karen; Burns, Katharina Kovacs; Richter, Magdalena S

    2014-01-01

    Issues relating to confidentiality and consent for physical and mental health treatment with minor clients can pose challenges health care providers. Decisions need to be made regarding these issues despite the absence of clear, direct, or comprehensive policies and legislation. In order to fully understand the scope of this topic, a systemic review of several pieces of legislation and guidelines related to this topic are examined. These include the: Canadian Human Rights Act, Children's Rights: International and National Laws and Practices, Health Information Act, Gillick Competence and Medical Emancipation, Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Act, Child, Youth and Family Enhancement Act, Common Law Mature Minor Doctrine, and Alberta Health Services Consent to Treatment/Practice(s) Minor/Mature Minor. In order to assist health professionals with decisions regarding confidentiality and treatment with minor clients a case study and guide for decision-making is also presented.

  5. Community health insurance amidst abolition of user fees in Uganda: the view from policy makers and health service managers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This paper investigates knowledge of Community Health Insurance (CHI) and the perception of its relevance by key policy makers and health service managers in Uganda. Community Health Insurance schemes currently operate in the private-not-for-profit sector, in settings where church-based facilities function. They operate in a wider policy environment where user fees in the public sector have been abolished. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted during the second half of 2007 with District Health Officers (DHOs) and senior staff of the Ministry of Health (MOH). The qualitative data collected were analyzed using the framework method, facilitated by EZ-Text software. Results There is poor knowledge and understanding of CHI activities by staff of the MOH headquarters and DHOs. However, a comparison of responses reveals a relatively high level of awareness of CHI principles among DHOs compared to that of MOH staff. All the DHOs in the districts with schemes had a good understanding of CHI principles compared to DHOs in districts without schemes. Out-of-pocket expenditure remains an important feature of health care financing in Uganda despite blanket abolition of user fees in government facilities. Conclusion CHI is perceived as a relevant policy option and potential source of funds for health care. It is also considered a means of raising the quality of health care in both public and private health units. To assess whether it is also feasible to introduce CHI in the public sector, there is an urgent need to investigate the willingness and readiness of stakeholders, in particular high level political authorities, to follow this new path. The current ambiguity and contradictions in the health financing policy of the Uganda MOH need to be addressed and clarified. PMID:20132539

  6. Forestry administration and policies in the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyman, Eric L.

    1983-11-01

    This article begins by summarizing the importance of the forestry sector in the Philippine economy It provides an overview of the multiplicity of Philippine governmental institutions involved in forestry in 1982 Then it discusses forestry laws in the country and concludes by examining fifteen critical forest policy issues: sustained yield management; area-specific logging bans; increased use of wood wastes; revision of forest charges; unprocessed log export ban; rationalization of the forest industry, acceleration of reforestation; protection of watersheds; recognition of the social dimensions of slash- and-burn agriculture; fuelwood supply; public land classification for forestry and agriculture, development of plantations for dendrothermal electricity; multiple-use management; preservation of mangrove areas, and improvements in administration and implementation.

  7. Preferences for a potential longer-acting injectable contraceptive: perspectives from women, providers, and policy makers in Kenya and Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Tolley, Elizabeth E; McKenna, Kevin; Mackenzie, Caroline; Ngabo, Fidele; Munyambanza, Emmanuel; Arcara, Jennet; Rademacher, Kate H; Lendvay, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Background: Between 1995 and 2005, injectable use doubled worldwide. However, discontinuation rates remain high, partly because of side effects but also because of missed appointments for reinjection. A longer-acting injectable (LAI) may improve compliance by reducing the required number of reinjection visits, thereby reducing unintentional discontinuation. This study examined acceptability of LAI characteristics comprising the target product profile (TPP). Methods: In 2012, we conducted qualitative case studies in Kenya and Rwanda, consisting of 19 focus group discussions (FGDs) with 177 current, previous, or never users of injectables and 46 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with providers, program implementers, and policy makers. FGDs and IDIs assessed current injectable experiences; attitudes toward potential LAI products; and perceptions of TPP attributes, including ranking preferences for the most and least important characteristics. In addition, we obtained completed electronic surveys from 28 international family planning opinion leaders about the perceived need for an LAI, important product characteristics, and challenges to LAI development or introduction. Results: Many FGD participants and interviewees spontaneously expressed strong interest in an LAI, but there was some variation in TPP preferences. The majority of participants ranked effectiveness as the most important TPP attribute. Providers were generally more concerned about side effects than potential users; some potential users suggested that side effects were related less to the product than to their own body chemistry and that side effects were acceptable as long as they did not last a long time or disrupt daily activities. Women and providers, especially in Kenya, preferred a method with a predictable return to fertility. Some participants associated amenorrhea with delayed or reduced fertility. Most women and providers preferred delivery of the LAI in a single, prepackaged, disposable injection

  8. Clinton administration forging population-foreign policy links.

    PubMed

    De Sherbinin, A

    1994-12-01

    In the US, the Clinton administration has renewed the link between global population and national security issues. These so-called "soft security issues" receive attention from the Under-Secretary of State for Global Affairs, Tim Wirth, and the senior director of the Global Environmental Affairs branch of the National Security Council, Eileen Claussen. Wirth and Claussen draft the US response to soft security issues such as environmental security, refugee and migration movements, political instability, and religious and ethnic conflict as well as the other nonmilitary threats of illegal drug trafficking, terrorism, and international organized crime. Population was first considered a foreign policy concern in the 1960s. By 1965, President Johnson decided that the US would provide family planning supplies and technical assistance to any country which asked for help. The initial justification for assuming a leading role in developing innovative population strategies for less developed countries was a humanitarian desire to forward economic development, the self-interest of maintaining access to resources, and concern that rapid growth produced more communists. Today the US remains concerned about resource access and economic development and is also wary of spill-over environmental effects, economic migration, diminished US trade opportunities, political asylum seekers and refugees, and increasing demand for US peacekeepers. It is also believed that rapid population growth leads to political destabilization. Critics of these views blame the development difficulties of less developed countries on poor governing decisions (inadequate institutions, trade barriers, or indifference). Women's reproductive rights advocates fear that using security as a rationale for population assistance could lead to restrictions on women's rights to choose the number and spacing of births. Despite such objections, the belief that population growth is an underlying problem in imploding

  9. Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market. What the Research Says For... Government & Policy-Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelahan, Leesa; Buchanan, John; Yu, Serena

    2015-01-01

    This summary brings together the relevant key findings for government and policy-makers from the research program "Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market." The program was comprised of three different strands: (1) pathways from VET in Schools, (2) pathways within and between vocational education and…

  10. Equality? Inclusion? Do They Go Hand-in-Hand? Policy Makers' Perceptions of Inclusion of Pupils with Special Needs--An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avissar, Gilada; Licht, Perach; Vogel, Gila

    2016-01-01

    Using Critical Discourse Analysis, this study aims to elicit and expose the perceptions and attitudes of different policy makers in leadership positions at the Ministry of Education in Israel with regard to inclusion. The first stage of the research consisted of individual in-depth semi-structured interviews (N = 8). In the second stage the…

  11. Implications for alcohol minimum unit pricing advocacy: what can we learn for public health from UK newsprint coverage of key claim-makers in the policy debate?

    PubMed

    Hilton, Shona; Wood, Karen; Patterson, Chris; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal

    2014-02-01

    On May 24th 2012, Scotland passed the Alcohol (Minimum Pricing) Bill. Minimum unit pricing (MUP) is an intervention that raises the price of the cheapest alcohol to reduce alcohol consumption and related harms. There is a growing literature on industry's influence in policymaking and media representations of policies, but relatively little about frames used by key claim-makers in the public MUP policy debate. This study elucidates the dynamic interplay between key claim-makers to identify lessons for policy advocacy in the media in the UK and internationally. Content analysis was conducted on 262 articles from seven UK and three Scottish national newspapers between 1st May 2011 and 31st May 2012, retrieved from electronic databases. Advocates' and critics' constructions of the alcohol problem and MUP were examined. Advocates depicted the problem as primarily driven by cheap alcohol and marketing, while critics' constructions focused on youth binge drinkers and dependent drinkers. Advocates justified support by citing the intervention's targeted design, but critics denounced the policy as illegal, likely to encourage illicit trade, unsupported by evidence and likely to be ineffective, while harming the responsible majority, low-income consumers and businesses. Critics' arguments were consistent over time, and single statements often encompassed multiple rationales. This study presents advocates with several important lessons for promoting policies in the media. Firstly, it may be useful to shift focus away from young binge drinkers and heavy drinkers, towards population-level over-consumption. Secondly, advocates might focus on presenting the policy as part of a wider package of alcohol policies. Thirdly, emphasis on the success of recent public health policies could help portray the UK and Scotland as world leaders in tackling culturally embedded health and social problems through policy; highlighting past successes when presenting future policies may be a valuable

  12. Implications for alcohol minimum unit pricing advocacy: what can we learn for public health from UK newsprint coverage of key claim-makers in the policy debate?

    PubMed

    Hilton, Shona; Wood, Karen; Patterson, Chris; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal

    2014-02-01

    On May 24th 2012, Scotland passed the Alcohol (Minimum Pricing) Bill. Minimum unit pricing (MUP) is an intervention that raises the price of the cheapest alcohol to reduce alcohol consumption and related harms. There is a growing literature on industry's influence in policymaking and media representations of policies, but relatively little about frames used by key claim-makers in the public MUP policy debate. This study elucidates the dynamic interplay between key claim-makers to identify lessons for policy advocacy in the media in the UK and internationally. Content analysis was conducted on 262 articles from seven UK and three Scottish national newspapers between 1st May 2011 and 31st May 2012, retrieved from electronic databases. Advocates' and critics' constructions of the alcohol problem and MUP were examined. Advocates depicted the problem as primarily driven by cheap alcohol and marketing, while critics' constructions focused on youth binge drinkers and dependent drinkers. Advocates justified support by citing the intervention's targeted design, but critics denounced the policy as illegal, likely to encourage illicit trade, unsupported by evidence and likely to be ineffective, while harming the responsible majority, low-income consumers and businesses. Critics' arguments were consistent over time, and single statements often encompassed multiple rationales. This study presents advocates with several important lessons for promoting policies in the media. Firstly, it may be useful to shift focus away from young binge drinkers and heavy drinkers, towards population-level over-consumption. Secondly, advocates might focus on presenting the policy as part of a wider package of alcohol policies. Thirdly, emphasis on the success of recent public health policies could help portray the UK and Scotland as world leaders in tackling culturally embedded health and social problems through policy; highlighting past successes when presenting future policies may be a valuable

  13. Implications for alcohol minimum unit pricing advocacy: What can we learn for public health from UK newsprint coverage of key claim-makers in the policy debate?

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, Shona; Wood, Karen; Patterson, Chris; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal

    2014-01-01

    On May 24th 2012, Scotland passed the Alcohol (Minimum Pricing) Bill. Minimum unit pricing (MUP) is an intervention that raises the price of the cheapest alcohol to reduce alcohol consumption and related harms. There is a growing literature on industry's influence in policymaking and media representations of policies, but relatively little about frames used by key claim-makers in the public MUP policy debate. This study elucidates the dynamic interplay between key claim-makers to identify lessons for policy advocacy in the media in the UK and internationally. Content analysis was conducted on 262 articles from seven UK and three Scottish national newspapers between 1st May 2011 and 31st May 2012, retrieved from electronic databases. Advocates' and critics' constructions of the alcohol problem and MUP were examined. Advocates depicted the problem as primarily driven by cheap alcohol and marketing, while critics' constructions focused on youth binge drinkers and dependent drinkers. Advocates justified support by citing the intervention's targeted design, but critics denounced the policy as illegal, likely to encourage illicit trade, unsupported by evidence and likely to be ineffective, while harming the responsible majority, low-income consumers and businesses. Critics' arguments were consistent over time, and single statements often encompassed multiple rationales. This study presents advocates with several important lessons for promoting policies in the media. Firstly, it may be useful to shift focus away from young binge drinkers and heavy drinkers, towards population-level over-consumption. Secondly, advocates might focus on presenting the policy as part of a wider package of alcohol policies. Thirdly, emphasis on the success of recent public health policies could help portray the UK and Scotland as world leaders in tackling culturally embedded health and social problems through policy; highlighting past successes when presenting future policies may be a valuable

  14. A Study of Health Policies in Public School Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasch, Henry A.

    This study was undertaken to identify, classify, and interpret extant written school health policies. Furthermore, it was planned to ascertain whether schools were using standardized forms or systematic procedures to formulate school health policies. Administrators in school districts representing every geographical area of the U.S. were asked to…

  15. Information System for Educational Policy and Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, J. C., Jr.

    Educational Information System (EIS) is a proposed computer-based data processing system to help schools solve current educational problems more efficiently. The system would allow for more effective administrative operations in student scheduling, financial accounting, and long range planning. It would also assist school trustees and others in…

  16. Language Policy and Administration in Quebec.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavery, Robert E.

    The perceptions of an administrator embroiled for several years in the language issue in Quebec are briefly summarized in this paper. Before the first legislation concerning language (Bill 63) was passed, it became clear that in spite of the fact that Quebec was the home for a large number of French immigrants, French language and culture were in…

  17. Job-Sharing Couples in Academia: Administrative Policies and Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikitka, Kathleen Faith

    1984-01-01

    Examined existing administrative policies and procedures for academic job sharing for married couples in a survey of 12 institutions and 16 administrators. Results suggested growing consideration of job sharing by academic employers and pointed out advantages such as attracting high-quality faculty and extending faculty resources. (JAC)

  18. 21 CFR 203.34 - Policies and procedures; administrative systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Policies and procedures; administrative systems. 203.34 Section 203.34 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...; (c) Identifying any significant loss of drug samples and notifying FDA of the loss; and...

  19. 21 CFR 203.34 - Policies and procedures; administrative systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Policies and procedures; administrative systems. 203.34 Section 203.34 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...; (c) Identifying any significant loss of drug samples and notifying FDA of the loss; and...

  20. Codependency: management and administrative policy implications.

    PubMed

    Sorrentino, E A

    1991-01-01

    Health care practitioners may exhibit behaviors that are considered dysfunctional for personal well-being. These behaviors, feelings, and thoughts could affect the manager-employee relations, as well as the implementation of patient care. This discussion focuses on the relevance of codependency in human resource management. Implications of codependency for organizational structure, standards of care, and managerial roles are pointed out. Specific strategies are outlined in recognizing manifestations of codependency. Finally, administrative interventions such as the Employee Assessment and Counseling Programs are suggested to prevent the negative outcomes of codependency which can affect job performance.

  1. The administration`s non-proliferation and export control policy

    SciTech Connect

    1993-11-01

    On September 27, during his speech to the United Nations, President Bill Clinton outlined his administration`s arm control policies, urging tighter restraints on international export control policies and measures to enhance nuclear non-proliferation. That same day, the White House released a fact sheet summarizing the framework for U.S. efforts to prevent proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and missiles that deliver them.

  2. Inspection of surveillance activities and administrative leave policy at Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The authors conducted an inspection of surveillance activities and administrative leave policy at the Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, Oregon. The purpose of their inspection was to determine if a covert video surveillance operation conducted at Bonneville Power Administration was consistent with Department of Energy policies and procedures and other applicable regulations and procedures, and to determine if administrative leave policies and procedures used at Bonneville Power Administration in a specific instance were consistent with Department of Energy requirements and the Code of Federal Regulations. This inspection focused on a specific incident that occurred in 1989 on the 5th floor of the BPA Headquarters Building located in Portland, Oregon. The incident involved the soiling of an employee`s personal property with what appeared to be urine.

  3. Adolescent pregnancies and girls' sexual and reproductive rights in the amazon basin of Ecuador: an analysis of providers' and policy makers' discourses

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Adolescent pregnancies are a common phenomenon that can have both positive and negative consequences. The rights framework allows us to explore adolescent pregnancies not just as isolated events, but in relation to girls' sexual and reproductive freedom and their entitlement to a system of health protection that includes both health services and the so called social determinants of health. The aim of this study was to explore policy makers' and service providers' discourses concerning adolescent pregnancies, and discuss the consequences that those discourses have for the exercise of girls' sexual and reproductive rights' in the province of Orellana, located in the amazon basin of Ecuador. Methods We held six focus-group discussions and eleven in-depth interviews with 41 Orellana's service providers and policy makers. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using discourse analysis, specifically looking for interpretative repertoires. Results Four interpretative repertoires emerged from the interviews. The first repertoire identified was "sex is not for fun" and reflected a moralistic construction of girls' sexual and reproductive health that emphasized abstinence, and sent contradictory messages regarding contraceptive use. The second repertoire -"gendered sexuality and parenthood"-constructed women as sexually uninterested and responsible mothers, while men were constructed as sexually driven and unreliable. The third repertoire was "professionalizing adolescent pregnancies" and lead to patronizing attitudes towards adolescents and disregard of the importance of non-medical expertise. The final repertoire -"idealization of traditional family"-constructed family as the proper space for the raising of adolescents while at the same time acknowledging that sexual abuse and violence within families was common. Conclusions Providers' and policy makers' repertoires determined the areas that the array of sexual and reproductive health services should include

  4. Do new cancer drugs offer good value for money? The perspectives of oncologists, health care policy makers, patients, and the general population

    PubMed Central

    Dilla, Tatiana; Lizan, Luís; Paz, Silvia; Garrido, Pilar; Avendaño, Cristina; Cruz-Hernández, Juan J; Espinosa, Javier; Sacristán, José A

    2016-01-01

    Background In oncology, establishing the value of new cancer treatments is challenging. A clear definition of the different perspectives regarding the drivers of innovation in oncology is required to enable new cancer treatments to be properly rewarded for the value they create. The aim of this study was to analyze the views of oncologists, health care policy makers, patients, and the general population regarding the value of new cancer treatments. Methods An exploratory and qualitative study was conducted through structured interviews to assess participants’ attitudes toward cost and outcomes of cancer drugs. First, the participants were asked to indicate the minimum survival benefit that a new treatment should have to be funded by the Spanish National Health System (NHS). Second, the participants were requested to state the highest cost that the NHS could afford for a medication that increases a patient’s quality of life (QoL) by twofold with no changes in survival. The responses were used to calculate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). Results The minimum improvement in patient survival means that justified inclusions into the NHS were 5.7, 8.2, 9.1, and 10.4 months, which implied different ICERs for oncologists (€106,000/quality-adjusted life year [QALY]), patients (€73,520/QALY), the general population (€66,074/QALY), and health care policy makers (€57,471/QALY), respectively. The costs stated in the QoL-enhancing scenario were €33,167, €30,200, €26,000, and €17,040, which resulted in ICERs of €82,917/QALY for patients, €75,500/QALY for the general population, €65,000/QALY for oncologists, and €42,600/QALY for health care policy makers, respectively. Conclusion All estimated ICER values were higher than the thresholds previously described in the literature. Oncologists most valued gains in survival, whereas patients assigned a higher monetary value to treatments that enhanced QoL. Health care policy makers were less

  5. The School Social Worker As A Policy-Maker In The Schools--A Recent Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurber, Katherine B.; Anderson, Richard J.

    1977-01-01

    This review of the literature examines the school social worker's role and the area of policy. In the area of policy the focus will be on the school social worker as a change agent, theories of change, strategies and difficulties in initiating change, and accountability. (Author)

  6. The Virtual Environmental Microbiology Center - A Social Network for Enhanced Communication between Water Researchers and Policy Makers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective communication within and between organizations involved in research and policy making activities is essential. Sharing information across organizational and geographic boundaries can also facilitate coordination and collaboration, promote a better understanding of tech...

  7. The Carter Administration: Small Community and Rural Development Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Jimmy

    The Carter Administration is adopting a Small Community and Rural Development Policy because: (1) rural America's human and natural resources are a mainstay of the nation's economy and way of life; (2) many rural areas are in the midst of significant economic and demographic change; (3) rural people and communities have greater unmet basic human…

  8. Homeless and Special Education Administrative Collaboration: Recommendations. Policy Forum Proceedings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Diana; Burdette, Paula; Julianelle, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Project Forum at the National Association of State Directors of Special Education (NASDSE) and the National Center for Homeless Education (NCHE) worked together to collect information regarding the need for a policy forum on the topic of administrative collaboration between school personnel who support homeless education under the McKinney-Vento…

  9. 42 CFR 405.1863 - Administrative policy at issue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Administrative policy at issue. 405.1863 Section 405.1863 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM FEDERAL HEALTH INSURANCE FOR THE AGED AND DISABLED Provider...

  10. Effects of an evidence service on health-system policy makers' use of research evidence: A protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Health-system policy makers need timely access to synthesised research evidence to inform the policy-making process. No efforts to address this need have been evaluated using an experimental quantitative design. We developed an evidence service that draws inputs from Health Systems Evidence, which is a database of policy-relevant systematic reviews. The reviews have been (a) categorised by topic and type of review; (b) coded by the last year searches for studies were conducted and by the countries in which included studies were conducted; (c) rated for quality; and (d) linked to available user-friendly summaries, scientific abstracts, and full-text reports. Our goal is to evaluate whether a "full-serve" evidence service increases the use of synthesized research evidence by policy analysts and advisors in the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care (MOHLTC) as compared to a "self-serve" evidence service. Methods/design We will conduct a two-arm randomized controlled trial (RCT), along with a follow-up qualitative process study in order to explore the findings in greater depth. For the RCT, all policy analysts and policy advisors (n = 168) in a single division of the MOHLTC will be invited to participate. Using a stratified randomized design, participants will be randomized to receive either the "full-serve" evidence service (database access, monthly e-mail alerts, and full-text article availability) or the "self-serve" evidence service (database access only). The trial duration will be ten months (two-month baseline period, six-month intervention period, and two month cross-over period). The primary outcome will be the mean number of site visits/month/user between baseline and the end of the intervention period. The secondary outcome will be participants' intention to use research evidence. For the qualitative study, 15 participants from each trial arm (n = 30) will be purposively sampled. One-on-one semi-structured interviews will be conducted by

  11. Middlemen and Midwives of Reform: The In-Between Worlds of Albanian Educational Policy-Makers and Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardinier, Meg P.

    2015-01-01

    Based on a vertical case study in post-communist Albania, this article examines how three local experts become "in-betweens" who strategically mediate processes of social change. For example, they negotiate constructions of time and place, East and West, policy and practice, state and society. As they localise global educational models,…

  12. Energy policy: the new administration. [Shift from conservation emphasis to production questionable

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, W.

    1981-01-30

    The shift in US policy from conservation as a source of energy to production reflects President Reagan's supply-side philosophy. This is contrary to most authoritative studies, such as the Brookings Institution's findings that increased energy efficiency has contributed new energy. Studies by the National Academy of Science and the Harvard Business School concur in the contribution made by conservation, while noting that efforts to increase energy production only show a positive result for coal. The new administration's decision makers do not agree on which energy-production incentives are appropriate or which ones will be effective. It is not clear which departments and agencies will have the dominant voice. 17 references. (DCK)

  13. Why Do Policy-Makers Adopt Global Education Policies? Toward a Research Framework on the Varying Role of Ideas in Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verger, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Globalization is profoundly altering the education policy landscape. It introduces new problems in education agendas, compresses time and space in policy processes, and revitalizes the role of a range of supra-national players in educational reform. This deterritorialization of the education policy process has important theoretical and…

  14. PPD-QALY-an index for cost-effectiveness in orthopedics: providing essential information to both physicians and health care policy makers for appropriate allocation of medical resources.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Christopher P; Howard, Timothy

    2013-09-01

    Because of the increasing health care costs and the need for proper allocation of resources, it is important to ensure the best use of health benefits for sick and injured people of the population. An index or indicator is needed to help us quantify what is being spent so that comparisons with other options can be implemented. Cost-effective analysis seems to be well suited to provide this essential information to health care policy makers and those charged with distributing disability funds so that the proper allocation of resources can be achieved. There is currently no such index to show whether the benefits paid out are the most cost-effective. By comparing the quality-adjusted life year (QALY) of a treatment method to the disability an individual would experience, on the basis of lost wages as measure of disability, we provide decision makers more information for the basis of cost allocation in health care. To accomplish this, we describe a new term, the PPD-QALY (permanent partial disability-quality of life year). This term was developed to establish an index to which musculoskeletal care can be compared, to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a treatment on the basis of the monetary value of the disability. This term serves to standardize the monetary value of an injury. Cost-effective analysis in arthroscopic surgery may prove to be a valuable asset in this role and to provide decision makers the information needed to determine the societal benefit from new arthroscopic procedures as they are developed and implemented. PMID:23924750

  15. PPD-QALY-an index for cost-effectiveness in orthopedics: providing essential information to both physicians and health care policy makers for appropriate allocation of medical resources.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Christopher P; Howard, Timothy

    2013-09-01

    Because of the increasing health care costs and the need for proper allocation of resources, it is important to ensure the best use of health benefits for sick and injured people of the population. An index or indicator is needed to help us quantify what is being spent so that comparisons with other options can be implemented. Cost-effective analysis seems to be well suited to provide this essential information to health care policy makers and those charged with distributing disability funds so that the proper allocation of resources can be achieved. There is currently no such index to show whether the benefits paid out are the most cost-effective. By comparing the quality-adjusted life year (QALY) of a treatment method to the disability an individual would experience, on the basis of lost wages as measure of disability, we provide decision makers more information for the basis of cost allocation in health care. To accomplish this, we describe a new term, the PPD-QALY (permanent partial disability-quality of life year). This term was developed to establish an index to which musculoskeletal care can be compared, to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a treatment on the basis of the monetary value of the disability. This term serves to standardize the monetary value of an injury. Cost-effective analysis in arthroscopic surgery may prove to be a valuable asset in this role and to provide decision makers the information needed to determine the societal benefit from new arthroscopic procedures as they are developed and implemented.

  16. Decision-makers, donors and data: factors influencing the development of mental health and psychosocial policy in the Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Zwi, Anthony B; Blignault, Ilse; Bunde-Birouste, Anne W; Ritchie, Jan E; Silove, Derrick M

    2011-07-01

    Mental disorders and psychosocial problems are common, and present a significant public health burden globally. Increasingly, attention has been devoted to these issues in the aftermath of violent conflict. The Solomon Islands, a small Pacific island nation, has in recent years experienced periods of internal conflict. This article examines how policy decisions regarding mental health and wellbeing were incorporated into the national agenda in the years which followed. The study reveals the policy shifts, contextual influences and players responsible. The Solomon Islands' experience reflects incremental change, built upon longstanding but modest concern with mental health and social welfare issues, reinforced by advocacy from the small mental health team. Armed conflict and ethnic tensions from 1998 to 2003 promoted wider recognition of unmet mental health needs and psychosocial problems. Additional impetus was garnered through the positioning of key health leaders, some of whom were trained in public health. Working together, with an understanding of culture and politics, and drawing on external support, they drove the agenda. Contextual factors, notably further violence and the ongoing risk of instability, a growing youth population, and emerging international and local evidence, also played a part. PMID:21115459

  17. Administrator's Policy Handbook for Preschool Mainstreaming. Administrative Issues for Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Barbara J.; Rose, Deborah F.

    This handbook is designed to help public school administrators to develop policies and procedures that allow for the appropriate educational placement of preschool children with disabilities in mainstreaming settings. Part I contains background information and materials on legal requirements related to mainstreaming, the efficacy of early…

  18. Children's knowledge of packaged and fast food brands and their BMI. Why the relationship matters for policy makers.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, T Bettina; McAlister, Anna R; Polmear-Swendris, Nancy

    2014-10-01

    Studies regarding the advancing challenges of obesity in many countries are beginning to converge on the importance of early food exposure and consumption patterns. Across two studies (Study 1, 34 boys, 35 girls; Study 2, 40 boys, 35 girls, ages 3-6), child knowledge of brands offering products high in sugar, salt and fat was shown to be a significant predictor of child BMI, even after controlling for their age and gender and when also considering the extent of their TV viewing. Additionally, two different collage measures of brand knowledge (utilized across the two studies) performed similarly, suggesting that this measure may be serving as a surrogate indicator of an overall pattern of product exposure and consumption. Policy implications are discussed.

  19. Children's knowledge of packaged and fast food brands and their BMI. Why the relationship matters for policy makers.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, T Bettina; McAlister, Anna R; Polmear-Swendris, Nancy

    2014-10-01

    Studies regarding the advancing challenges of obesity in many countries are beginning to converge on the importance of early food exposure and consumption patterns. Across two studies (Study 1, 34 boys, 35 girls; Study 2, 40 boys, 35 girls, ages 3-6), child knowledge of brands offering products high in sugar, salt and fat was shown to be a significant predictor of child BMI, even after controlling for their age and gender and when also considering the extent of their TV viewing. Additionally, two different collage measures of brand knowledge (utilized across the two studies) performed similarly, suggesting that this measure may be serving as a surrogate indicator of an overall pattern of product exposure and consumption. Policy implications are discussed. PMID:24972133

  20. Daring to dream: reactions to tobacco endgame ideas among policy-makers, media and public health practitioners

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    approaches. The current framing of tobacco as a risky but legal commodity was noted as an important potential barrier to implementing endgame approaches. Conclusions Endgame tobacco control approaches were considered to be viable policy options. Further policy analysis, research and public discussion are needed to develop endgame approaches. A significant change in the public framing of tobacco may be a prerequisite for implementing endgame solutions. PMID:21774829

  1. To notify or not to notify: decision aid for policy makers on whether to make an infectious disease mandatorily notifiable.

    PubMed

    Bijkerk, Paul; Fanoy, Ewout B; Kardamanidis, Katina; van der Plas, Simone M; Te Wierik, Margreet J; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E; Haringhuizen, George B; van Vliet, Hans J; van der Sande, Marianne A

    2015-01-01

    Mandatory notification can be a useful tool to support infectious disease prevention and control. Guidelines are needed to help policymakers decide whether mandatory notification of an infectious disease is appropriate. We developed a decision aid, based on a range of criteria previously used in the Netherlands or in other regions to help decide whether to make a disease notifiable. Criteria were categorised as being effective, feasible and necessary with regard to the relevance of mandatory notification. Expert panels piloted the decision aid. Here we illustrate its use for three diseases (Vibrio vulnificus infection, chronic Q fever and dengue fever) for which mandatory notification was requested. For dengue fever, the expert panel advised mandatory notification; for V. vulnificus infection and chronic Q fever, the expert panel concluded that mandatory notification was not (yet) justified. Use of the decision aid led to a structured, transparent decision making process and a thorough assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of mandatory notification of these diseases. It also helped identify knowledge gaps that required further research before a decision could be made. We therefore recommend use of this aid for public health policy making.

  2. Exposure ethics: does HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis raise ethical problems for the health care provider and policy maker?

    PubMed

    Venter, Francois; Allais, Lucy; Richter, Marlise

    2014-07-01

    The last few years have seen dramatic progress in the development of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). These developments have been met by ethical concerns. HIV interventions are often thought to be ethically difficult. In a context which includes disagreements over human rights, controversies over testing policies, and questions about sexual morality and individual responsibility, PrEP has been seen as an ethically complex intervention. We argue that this is mistaken, and that in fact, PrEP does not raise new ethical concerns. Some of the questions posed by PrEP are not specific to HIV prophylaxis, but simply standard public health considerations about resource allocation and striking a balance between individual benefit and public good. We consider sexual disinhibition in the context of private prescriptions, and conclude that only unjustified AIDS-exceptionalism or inappropriate moralism about sex supports thinking that PrEP raises new ethical problems. This negative conclusion is significant in a context where supposed ethical concerns about PrEP have been raised, and in the context of HIV exceptionalism.

  3. Measuring equity in household's health care payments (Tehran-Iran 2013): technical points for health policy decision makers

    PubMed Central

    Rezapour, Aziz; Ebadifard Azar, Farbod; Azami Aghdash, Saber; Tanoomand, Asghar; Hosseini Shokouh, Seyed Morteza; Yousefzadeh, Negar; Atefi Manesh, Pezhman; Sarabi Asiabar, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Households’ financial protection against health payments and expenditures and equity in utilization of health care services are of the most important tasks of governments. This study aims to measuring equity in household’s health care payments according to fairness in financial contribution (FFC) and Kakwani indices in Tehran-Iran, 2013. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014.The study sample size was estimated to be 2200 households. Households were selected using stratified-cluster sampling including typical families who reside in the city of Tehran. The data were analyzed through Excel and Stata v.11software. Recall period for the inpatient care was 1 year and for outpatient1 month. Results: The indicator of FFC for households in health financing was estimated to be 0.68 and the trend of the indicator was ascending by the rise in the ranking of households’ financial level. The Kakwani index was estimated to be a negative number (-0.00125) which indicated the descending trend of health financing system. By redistribution of incomes or the exempt of the poorest quintiles from health payments, Kakwani index was estimated to be a positive number (0.090555) which indicated the ascending trend of health financing system. Conclusion: According to this study, the equity indices in health care financing denote injustice and a descending trend in the health care financing system. This finding clearly shows that deliberate policy making in health financing by national health authorities and protecting low-income households against health expenditures are required to improve the equity in health. PMID:26793637

  4. Mapping health in the Great Lakes areas of concern: a user-friendly tool for policy and decision makers.

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, S J; Eyles, J; DeLuca, P

    2001-01-01

    The role of the physical environment as a determinant of health is a major concern reported by the general public as well as by many policymakers. However, it remains one of the health determinants for which few available measures or indicators are readily available. This lack of data is compounded by the fact that evidence for direct cause-and-effect relationships in the literature is often equivocal, leading to feelings of uncertainty among the lay public and often leading to indecision among policymakers. In this article we examine one aspect of the physical environment--water pollution in the Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs)--and its potential impacts on a wide range of (plausible) human health outcomes. Essentially, the International Joint Commission, the international agency that oversees Great Lakes water quality and related issues, worked with Health Canada to produce a report for each of the 17 AOCs on the Canadian side of the Great Lakes, outlining a long list of health outcomes and the potential relationships these might have with environmental exposures known or suspected to exist in the Great Lakes basin. These reports are based solely on secondary health data and a thorough review of the environmental epidemiologic literature. The use of these reports by local health policymakers as well as by public health officials in the AOCs was limited, however, by the presentation of vast amounts of data in a series of tables with various outcome measures. The reports were therefore not used widely by the audience for whom they were intended. In this paper we report the results of an undertaking designed to reduce the data and present them in a more policy-friendly manner, using a geographic information system. We do not attempt to answer directly questions related to cause and effect vis-à-vis the relationships between environment and health in the Great Lakes; rather, this work is a hypothesis-generating exercise that will help sharpen the focus of

  5. Healthcare Cost Savings Estimator Tool for Chronic Disease Self-Management Program: A New Tool for Program Administrators and Decision Makers

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, SangNam; Smith, Matthew Lee; Altpeter, Mary; Post, Lindsey; Ory, Marcia G.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic disease self-management education (CDSME) programs have been delivered to more than 100,000 older Americans with chronic conditions. As one of the Stanford suite of evidence-based CDSME programs, the chronic disease self-management program (CDSMP) has been disseminated in diverse populations and settings. The objective of this paper is to introduce a practical, universally applicable tool to assist program administrators and decision makers plan implementation efforts and make the case for continued program delivery. This tool was developed utilizing data from a recent National Study of CDSMP to estimate national savings associated with program participation. Potential annual healthcare savings per CDSMP participant were calculated based on averted emergency room visits and hospitalizations. While national data can be utilized to estimate cost savings, the tool has built-in features allowing users to tailor calculations based on their site-specific data. Building upon the National Study of CDSMP’s documented potential savings of $3.3 billion in healthcare costs by reaching 5% of adults with one or more chronic conditions, two heuristic case examples were also explored based on different population projections. The case examples show how a small county and large metropolitan city were not only able to estimate healthcare savings ($38,803 for the small county; $732,290 for the large metropolitan city) for their existing participant populations but also to project significant healthcare savings if they plan to reach higher proportions of middle-aged and older adults. Having a tool to demonstrate the monetary value of CDSMP can contribute to the ongoing dissemination and sustainability of such community-based interventions. Next steps will be creating a user-friendly, internet-based version of Healthcare Cost Savings Estimator Tool: CDSMP, followed by broadening the tool to consider cost savings for other evidence-based programs. PMID:25964946

  6. Healthcare cost savings estimator tool for chronic disease self-management program: a new tool for program administrators and decision makers.

    PubMed

    Ahn, SangNam; Smith, Matthew Lee; Altpeter, Mary; Post, Lindsey; Ory, Marcia G

    2015-01-01

    Chronic disease self-management education (CDSME) programs have been delivered to more than 100,000 older Americans with chronic conditions. As one of the Stanford suite of evidence-based CDSME programs, the chronic disease self-management program (CDSMP) has been disseminated in diverse populations and settings. The objective of this paper is to introduce a practical, universally applicable tool to assist program administrators and decision makers plan implementation efforts and make the case for continued program delivery. This tool was developed utilizing data from a recent National Study of CDSMP to estimate national savings associated with program participation. Potential annual healthcare savings per CDSMP participant were calculated based on averted emergency room visits and hospitalizations. While national data can be utilized to estimate cost savings, the tool has built-in features allowing users to tailor calculations based on their site-specific data. Building upon the National Study of CDSMP's documented potential savings of $3.3 billion in healthcare costs by reaching 5% of adults with one or more chronic conditions, two heuristic case examples were also explored based on different population projections. The case examples show how a small county and large metropolitan city were not only able to estimate healthcare savings ($38,803 for the small county; $732,290 for the large metropolitan city) for their existing participant populations but also to project significant healthcare savings if they plan to reach higher proportions of middle-aged and older adults. Having a tool to demonstrate the monetary value of CDSMP can contribute to the ongoing dissemination and sustainability of such community-based interventions. Next steps will be creating a user-friendly, internet-based version of Healthcare Cost Savings Estimator Tool: CDSMP, followed by broadening the tool to consider cost savings for other evidence-based programs.

  7. Healthcare cost savings estimator tool for chronic disease self-management program: a new tool for program administrators and decision makers.

    PubMed

    Ahn, SangNam; Smith, Matthew Lee; Altpeter, Mary; Post, Lindsey; Ory, Marcia G

    2015-01-01

    Chronic disease self-management education (CDSME) programs have been delivered to more than 100,000 older Americans with chronic conditions. As one of the Stanford suite of evidence-based CDSME programs, the chronic disease self-management program (CDSMP) has been disseminated in diverse populations and settings. The objective of this paper is to introduce a practical, universally applicable tool to assist program administrators and decision makers plan implementation efforts and make the case for continued program delivery. This tool was developed utilizing data from a recent National Study of CDSMP to estimate national savings associated with program participation. Potential annual healthcare savings per CDSMP participant were calculated based on averted emergency room visits and hospitalizations. While national data can be utilized to estimate cost savings, the tool has built-in features allowing users to tailor calculations based on their site-specific data. Building upon the National Study of CDSMP's documented potential savings of $3.3 billion in healthcare costs by reaching 5% of adults with one or more chronic conditions, two heuristic case examples were also explored based on different population projections. The case examples show how a small county and large metropolitan city were not only able to estimate healthcare savings ($38,803 for the small county; $732,290 for the large metropolitan city) for their existing participant populations but also to project significant healthcare savings if they plan to reach higher proportions of middle-aged and older adults. Having a tool to demonstrate the monetary value of CDSMP can contribute to the ongoing dissemination and sustainability of such community-based interventions. Next steps will be creating a user-friendly, internet-based version of Healthcare Cost Savings Estimator Tool: CDSMP, followed by broadening the tool to consider cost savings for other evidence-based programs. PMID:25964946

  8. Comparative water law, policies, and administration in Asia: Evidence from 17 countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araral, Eduardo; Yu, David J.

    2013-09-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that improving water governance is the key to solving water insecurity in developing countries but there are also many disagreements on operational and methodological issues. In this paper, we build on the work of Saleth and Dinar and surveyed 100 water experts from 17 countries in Asia to compare 19 indicators of water laws, policies, and administration among and within countries from 2001 to 2010. We present the results of our study in a comparative dashboard and report how water governance indicators vary with a country's level of economic development, which ones do not and how and why some indicators change overtime in some countries. We have two main results. First, our initial findings suggest the possibility of water Kuznet's curve, i.e., certain water governance indicators vary with a country's level of economic development. However, more studies are needed given the caveats and limitations of our study. Second, the results have practical value for policy makers and researchers for benchmarking with other countries and tracking changes within their countries overtime. We conclude with implications for a second-generation research agenda on water governance.

  9. Technology and Education: Issues in Administration, Policy and Applications in K12 Schools. (Advances in Educational Administration, Volume 8)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tettegah, Sharon Y., Ed.; Hunter, Richard C, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    In today's society where most students own MP3 players, engage in constant instant messaging and downloading from the Internet, more than ever school administrators and staff should be aware of issues in administration, policy, and applications. This book provides a comprehensive presentation of current policies and practices of technology in…

  10. Children and Families in an Era of Rapid Change: Creating a Shared Agenda for Researchers, Practitioners and Policy Makers. Summary of Conference Proceedings: Head Start's National Research Conference (4th, Washington, DC, July 9-12, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb-Parker, Faith, Ed.; Hagen, John, Ed.; Robinson, Ruth, Ed.; Clark, Cheryl, Ed.

    This report summarizes the conference proceedings of the fourth Head Start National Research Conference. The focus of the conference was on creating a shared agenda for researchers, practitioners, and policy makers related to serving children and families in an era of rapid change. Keynote topics and speakers are: "Countering the Health Effects of…

  11. The Politics and Reality of Environmental Justice: A History and Considerations for Public Administrators and Policy Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, William M.; Wells, Michael V.

    2002-01-01

    Provides a history of the environmental justice movement in the United States and discusses problems in its discourse. Discusses weak empirical research, failure to recognize the difference between hazard and risk, and the possibility that it is more about fear, blame, and politics than about public health in minority and low-income communities.…

  12. Developing and implementing global gender policy to reduce HIV and AIDS in low- and middle-income countries: policy makers' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Olinyk, Shannon; Gibbs, Andrew; Campbell, Catherine

    2014-09-01

    Gender inequalities have been recognised as central to the HIV epidemic for many years. In response, a range of gender policies have been developed in attempts to mitigate the impact and transform gender relations. However, the effects of these policies have been less than successful. In March 2010 the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) launched the Agenda for accelerated country level action on women, girls, gender equality and HIV (the Agenda), an operational plan on how to integrate women, girls and gender equality into the HIV response. This paper explores the perspectives of those involved in developing and implementing the Agenda to understand its strengths and limitations. In-depth one-on-one interviews were conducted with 16 individuals involved in the development and implementation of the Agenda. The data were analysed using thematic network analysis. Facilitators of the Agenda centred on the Agenda's ability to create political space for women and girls within the global HIV/AIDS response and the collaborative process of developing the Agenda. Barriers to the implementation and development of the Agenda include the limited financial and non-financial resources, the top-down nature of the Agenda's development and implementation and a lack of political will from within UNAIDS to implement it. We suggest that the Agenda achieved many goals, but its effect was constrained by a wide range of factors.

  13. Developing and implementing global gender policy to reduce HIV and AIDS in low- and middle-income countries: policy makers' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Olinyk, Shannon; Gibbs, Andrew; Campbell, Catherine

    2014-09-01

    Gender inequalities have been recognised as central to the HIV epidemic for many years. In response, a range of gender policies have been developed in attempts to mitigate the impact and transform gender relations. However, the effects of these policies have been less than successful. In March 2010 the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) launched the Agenda for accelerated country level action on women, girls, gender equality and HIV (the Agenda), an operational plan on how to integrate women, girls and gender equality into the HIV response. This paper explores the perspectives of those involved in developing and implementing the Agenda to understand its strengths and limitations. In-depth one-on-one interviews were conducted with 16 individuals involved in the development and implementation of the Agenda. The data were analysed using thematic network analysis. Facilitators of the Agenda centred on the Agenda's ability to create political space for women and girls within the global HIV/AIDS response and the collaborative process of developing the Agenda. Barriers to the implementation and development of the Agenda include the limited financial and non-financial resources, the top-down nature of the Agenda's development and implementation and a lack of political will from within UNAIDS to implement it. We suggest that the Agenda achieved many goals, but its effect was constrained by a wide range of factors. PMID:25388974

  14. Establishing a community of practice of researchers, practitioners, policy-makers and communities to sustainably manage environmental health risks in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Sustainably Managing Environmental Health Risk in Ecuador project was launched in 2004 as a partnership linking a large Canadian university with leading Cuban and Mexican institutes to strengthen the capacities of four Ecuadorian universities for leading community-based learning and research in areas as diverse as pesticide poisoning, dengue control, water and sanitation, and disaster preparedness. Methods In implementing curriculum and complementary innovations through application of an ecosystem approach to health, our interdisciplinary international team focused on the question: “Can strengthening of institutional capacities to support a community of practice of researchers, practitioners, policy-makers and communities produce positive health outcomes and improved capacities to sustainably translate knowledge?” To assess progress in achieving desired outcomes, we review results associated with the logic framework analysis used to guide the project, focusing on how a community of practice network has strengthened implementation, including follow-up tracking of program trainees and presentation of two specific case studies. Results By 2009, train-the-trainer project initiation involved 27 participatory action research Master’s theses in 15 communities where 1200 community learners participated in the implementation of associated interventions. This led to establishment of innovative Ecuadorian-led master’s and doctoral programs, and a Population Health Observatory on Collective Health, Environment and Society for the Andean region based at the Universidad Andina Simon Bolivar. Building on this network, numerous initiatives were begun, such as an internationally funded research project to strengthen dengue control in the coastal community of Machala, and establishment of a local community eco-health centre focusing on determinants of health near Cuenca. Discussion Strengthening capabilities for producing and applying knowledge through direct

  15. Barriers to the participation of people with psychosocial disability in mental health policy development in South Africa: a qualitative study of perspectives of policy makers, professionals, religious leaders and academics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper outlines stakeholder views on environmental barriers that prevent people who live with psychosocial disability from participating in mental health policy development in South Africa. Method Fifty-six semi-structured interviews with national, provincial and local South African mental health stakeholders were conducted between August 2006 and August 2009. Respondents included public sector policy makers, professional regulatory council representatives, and representatives from non-profit organisations (NPOs), disabled people’s organisations (DPOs), mental health interest groups, religious organisations, professional associations, universities and research institutions. Results Respondents identified three main environmental barriers to participation in policy development: (a) stigmatization and low priority of mental health, (b) poverty, and (c) ineffective recovery and community supports. Conclusion A number of attitudes, practices and structures undermine the equal participation of South Africans with psychosocial disability in society. A human rights paradigm and multi-system approach is required to enable full social engagement by people with psychosocial disability, including their involvement in policy development. PMID:23497079

  16. 21 CFR 20.20 - Policy on disclosure of Food and Drug Administration records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Policy on disclosure of Food and Drug Administration records. 20.20 Section 20.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION General Policy § 20.20 Policy on disclosure of Food and...

  17. Using a Policy Classification Model to Analyze Major Changes Regarding Control and Administration of Policies Relative to Professional Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozma, Ernest J.; Walker, John H.

    There has been a diversity of activity to change policies relating to the recruitment, admission, and preparation of new educational professionals in college and university settings. These policies, coupled with state mandated polices to upgrade the competence of current teachers and administrators, has resulted in a great amount of policy to…

  18. 21 CFR 20.20 - Policy on disclosure of Food and Drug Administration records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Administration records. (a) The Food and Drug Administration will make the fullest possible disclosure of records... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Policy on disclosure of Food and Drug Administration records. 20.20 Section 20.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  19. 21 CFR 20.20 - Policy on disclosure of Food and Drug Administration records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Administration records. (a) The Food and Drug Administration will make the fullest possible disclosure of records... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Policy on disclosure of Food and Drug Administration records. 20.20 Section 20.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  20. The 1992 World Administrative Radio Conference: Technology and Policy Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-05-01

    As the 20th century draws to a close, new radio technologies and services are poised to change the ways we communicate. Radio waves already make possible a wide range of services considered commonplace--AM and FM radio broadcasting, television, cellular telephones, remote garage-door openers, and baby monitors. Advances in radio technology are giving birth to even more new products and services, including pocket-sized telephones that may allow people to make and receive calls anywhere in the world, high-definition televisions (HDTV) with superior quality pictures and sound, and static-free digital radios. The 1992 World Administrative Radio Conference (WARC-92) authorized frequencies for many of these new radio communication services, and granted additional frequencies for many existing services, including international broadcasting, satellite-based mobile communications, and communications in space. The effects of these changes will be felt well into the 21st century as countries around the world develop and deploy new communications systems to serve the needs of consumers, businesses, and governments. For the United States, the decisions made at the conference will critically affect how we develop new radio technologies and applications, how competitive this country will be in radio communications equipment and services, and how effectively the United States can exercise its role as a leader in world radio communication policymaking. This study of the outcomes and implications of WARC-92 was requested by the House Committee on Energy and Commerce and the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. OTA was asked to evaluate the success of U.S. proposals at the conference, discuss the implications of the decisions made for U.S. technology and policy development, and identify options for improving U.S. participation in future world radio communication conferences.

  1. State Decision-Makers Guide for Hazardous Waste Management: Defining Hazardous Wastes, Problem Recognition, Land Use, Facility Operations, Conceptual Framework, Policy Issues, Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corson, Alan; And Others

    Presented are key issues to be addressed by state, regional, and local governments and agencies in creating effective hazardous waste management programs. Eight chapters broadly frame the topics which state-level decision makers should consider. These chapters include: (1) definition of hazardous waste; (2) problem definition and recognition; (3)…

  2. A new multidimensional population health indicator for policy makers: absolute level, inequality and spatial clustering - an empirical application using global sub-national infant mortality data.

    PubMed

    Sartorius, Benn K D; Sartorius, Kurt

    2014-11-01

    The need for a multidimensional measure of population health that accounts for its distribution remains a central problem to guide the allocation of limited resources. Absolute proxy measures, like the infant mortality rate (IMR), are limited because they ignore inequality and spatial clustering. We propose a novel, three-part, multidimensional mortality indicator that can be used as the first step to differentiate interventions in a region or country. The three-part indicator (MortalityABC index) combines absolute mortality rate, the Theil Index to calculate mortality inequality and the Getis-Ord G statistic to determine the degree of spatial clustering. The analysis utilises global sub-national IMR data to empirically illustrate the proposed indicator. The three-part indicator is mapped globally to display regional/country variation and further highlight its potential application. Developing countries (e.g. in sub-Saharan Africa) display high levels of absolute mortality as well as variable mortality inequality with evidence of spatial clustering within certain sub-national units ("hotspots"). Although greater inequality is observed outside developed regions, high mortality inequality and spatial clustering are common in both developed and developing countries. Significant positive correlation was observed between the degree of spatial clustering and absolute mortality. The proposed multidimensional indicator should prove useful for spatial allocation of healthcare resources within a country, because it can prompt a wide range of policy options and prioritise high-risk areas. The new indicator demonstrates the inadequacy of IMR as a single measure of population health, and it can also be adapted to lower administrative levels within a country and other population health measures.

  3. Education: Its Policies and Administration, Present Situation and Future Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Benno

    The Inter-American Congress on Educational Administration, which held its first meeting in Brasilia, Brazil, in December 1979, is a privately created international organization sponsored by several national educational organizations. The congress is intended as a forum for the cooperative study of educational administration by professionals…

  4. 7 CFR 1944.666 - Administrative activities and policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... writing.) (3) Payment of necessary and reasonable administrative costs such as workers' compensation...) Reimbursing personnel to perform construction related to housing preservation assistance. (Non-administrative funds may be used if construction is for housing preservation assistance under the provisions of §...

  5. 7 CFR 1944.666 - Administrative activities and policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... writing.) (3) Payment of necessary and reasonable administrative costs such as workers' compensation...) Reimbursing personnel to perform construction related to housing preservation assistance. (Non-administrative funds may be used if construction is for housing preservation assistance under the provisions of §...

  6. Program for advanced study in public science policy and administration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenthal, A. H.

    1976-01-01

    The results and conclusions of the six-year effort concerned with the development and implementation of a university educational program intended to prepare scientists and engineers for upper-level management and administrative positions (as distinct from senior technical positions) were presented. This interdisciplinary program is at the graduate level, leading to a Master of Arts degree, and is given within a Division of Public Administration.

  7. Impact of Smoke-Free Residence Hall Policies: The Views of Administrators at 3 State Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerson, Megan

    2005-01-01

    Nationwide efforts to protect the public against the health effects of secondhand smoke have prompted college and university administrators to adopt more restrictive smoking policies. Some campus officials are concerned that new policies will lead to student backlash, increased staff workloads, and an increased economic burden. To understand the…

  8. America's People: An Imperiled Resource. National Urban Policy Issues for a New Federal Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, Washington, DC.

    This report seeks to identify and make policy recommendations concerning major urban issues confronting the Bush Administration. The Division of Urban Affairs of the National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges (NASULGC) established working groups and commissioned papers on the following six key urban policy issues: (1)…

  9. ABE Program Administrators' Perceptions of the Impact of Selected Federal Policies on Their Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Ursula

    2010-01-01

    Adult education has historically been called to serve as a means to an end in promoting federal and social policy. As such, adult education seems to be shaped by current trends and national needs. Most recent, are the work-first policies of the 1990s. This qualitative case study explored ABE program administrators' perceptions of the impact of…

  10. Administrative Discrimination in the Implementation of Desegregation Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monti, Daniel J.

    1979-01-01

    By means of a case study of the Saint Louis, Missouri school desegregation and reorganization program, administrative procedures for avoiding desegregation or creating an appearance of compliance are discussed. The strategies used include public relations, inbreeding of staff, coopting and/or dividing citizen action, and stalling for time. (MH)

  11. Victorian Government Policies towards Improving School Administration and Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamage, David

    2009-01-01

    Victoria in Australia is one of the schools systems which encouraged schools to develop more open school cultures supported by school committees, clubs and councils with community representatives since 1958. In the early 1970s, school administration was decentralized into several regions by posting bureaucrats with delegated authority to the newly…

  12. 7 CFR 1944.666 - Administrative activities and policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (Any item of nonexpendable personal property having a unit value of $1,000 or more, acquired with HPG.... (b) HPG administrative funds may not be used for: (1) Preparing housing development plans and... CFR parts 3015 and 3016 apply to the acceptance and use of HPG funds....

  13. English for University Administrative Work: English Officialization Policy and Foreign Language Learning Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jeongyeon; Choi, Jinsook

    2014-01-01

    This study examines how the English officialization policy of higher education in an EFL context interplays with administrative workers' motivational orientations towards English learning. The data consisted of questionnaire responses of 117 administrative members with undergraduate degrees and qualitative interviews with 9 who answered the…

  14. Intergovernmental Relations in Education: Professionalism and Policy Administration at the State Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cresswell, Anthony M.

    1974-01-01

    An exploration of some of the relationships between organizational characteristics of a state education agency and the decision making process in federal program administration. The consequences of the structural characteristics of a professional organization for the administration of externally imposed policy are discussed, leading to some…

  15. Policy modeling to support administrative decisionmaking on the New York state HIV testing law.

    PubMed

    Martin, Erika G; MacDonald, Roderick H; Smith, Lou C; Gordon, Daniel E; Tesoriero, James M; Laufer, Franklin N; Leung, Shu-Yin J; O'Connell, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    A recent New York law requires medical providers to offer HIV tests as part of routine care. We developed a system dynamics simulation model of the HIV testing and care system to help administrators understand the law's potential epidemic impact, resource needs, strategies to improve implementation, and appropriate outcome indicators for future policy evaluations once postlaw data become available. Policy modeling allowed us to synthesize information from numerous sources including quantitative administrative data sets and practitioners' content expertise, structure the information to be viewed both numerically and visually, and organize consensus for decisionmaking purposes. This case illustrates how policy modeling can provide an integrated framework for administrators to examine policy problems in complex systems, particularly when data time lags limit pre--post comparisons and key outcomes cannot be measured directly. PMID:25893238

  16. MakerBot

    NASA Video Gallery

    Langley’s new Personal Fabrication Laboratory now has a MakerBot. In this video, the 3D printer is making a space shuttle out of glow-in-the-dark plastic material. In real-time, the process took...

  17. Public science policy and administration. [cooperation of government industry, foundations, and educational institutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenthal, A. H. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    Science, the overwhelming concern of our time, is no longer a matter of private research and development but one of public policy and administration, in which government, industry, foundations, and educational institutions must all work together as never before. Few other single tasks are of such decisive importance to the collective and individual welfare of American citizens as the formulation of public science policy and the administration of scientific programs. Eleven national authorities of varied background in science, education, and government administration contribute their experience and their judgment in an effort to deal with the major aspects of the subject. Their focus is on the meeting of actual problems; they consider the decision making process in both public and public-private organizations. Topics are grouped in three general categories: personnel needs and resources, organizational problems and techniques, and the administrative role in policy leadership.

  18. Environmental Assessment for power marketing policy for Southwestern Power Administration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) needs to renew expiring power sales contracts with new term (10 year) sales contracts. The existing contracts have been in place for several years and many will expire over the next ten years. Southwestern completed an Environmental Assessment on the existing power allocation in June, 1979 (a copy of the EA is attached), and there are no proposed additions of any major new generation resources, service to discrete major new loads, or major changes in operating parameters, beyond those included in the existing power allocation. Impacts from a no action plan, proposed alternative, and market power for less than 10 years are described.

  19. World Administrative Radio Conference. Issues for US International Spectrum Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-11-01

    U.S. preparations for the 1992 World Administrative Radio Conference to be held in Spain, February 1992 are examined. WARC-92 will attempt to reassign radio frequencies internationally in order to take advantage of new radio-based technologies and applications, such as digital audio broadcasting, high definition television, and personal communications services, while still accommodating the needs of existing users and services. The impacts of the realignment will be felt throughout the U.S. economy and around the world, and the agreements reached at WARC-92 will influence the development of radio-based systems and services well into the next century.

  20. "Rule of Thumb Methods No Longer Suffice": Development of British Coal Industry Education and Training 1900-circa 1970 and Lessons for Present-Day Education Policy-Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Martyn A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper traces the origins and development of coal mining education and training in Britain from 1900 to the 1970s, by which time the coal industry had substantially declined. It looks at the progress from working-class self-help to national policy in support of education and training. The research makes use of college prospectuses and…

  1. From compulsory to voluntary immunisation: Italy's National Vaccination Plan (2005-7) and the ethical and organisational challenges facing public health policy-makers across Europe.

    PubMed

    Moran, N E; Gainotti, S; Petrini, C

    2008-09-01

    Increasing geographical mobility and international travel augment the ease and speed by which infectious diseases can spread across large distances. It is therefore incumbent upon each state to ensure that immunisation programmes are effective and that herd immunity is achieved. Across Europe, a range of immunisation policies exist: compulsion, the offer of financial incentives to parents or healthcare professionals, social and professional pressure, or simply the dissemination of clear information and advice. Until recently, immunisation against particular communicable diseases was compulsory in Italy. The Italian National Vaccination Plan (NVP) (2005-7) paved the way for regions to suspend the sanctions associated with compulsory vaccinations for children when certain criteria are met--for example when immunisation coverage is high and when effective monitoring/surveillance systems are in place--and thus marked a milestone in the move from compulsory to voluntary immunisation. The forthcoming NVP for 2008-10 confirms the liberal approach to vaccination in Italy as it entrusts to the regions responsibility for the achievement and maintenance of herd immunity. This paper reviews the arguments for and against compulsory and voluntary immunisation in relation to the Italian NVP (2005-7) and in the context of the diverse immunisation policies that exist across Europe. It concludes with cautious support for the NVP and an associated shift from compulsory to voluntary immunisation in Italy, and draws similarities between issues concerning regional variation in immunisation policy in Italy and national variation in immunisation policy across Europe and beyond.

  2. The sources of foreign policy: The Carter administration and NATO nuclear forces, 1977-80

    SciTech Connect

    Auger, V.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Carter administration entered office committed to the goal of reducing the United States; dependence on nuclear weaponry. This was especially clear in the administration's initial policy towards NATO and the defense of Western Europe. In retrospect, however, what is striking is the degree to which nuclear forces and strategy dominated the Carter administration's policymaking efforts regarding NATO. Decisions about enhanced radiation warheads (or neutron bombs) and long-range theater nuclear forces (ground-launched cruise missiles and Pershing 2 ballistic missiles) created divisions within the alliance and complicated the administration's attempts to control domestic debate over its foreign and defense policies. How did this reversal of emphasis occur Most examinations of this policy change have focused on the existence of a new Soviet threat to Europe or the alliance politics of NATO to explain the dramatic turnabout in American policy. This thesis argues that a close examination of US domestic political factors significantly enhances our understanding of why the Carter administration arrived at the policy decisions it made concerning US theater nuclear forces in Europe.

  3. Personnel Policy and the Training of Administrative and Planning Personnel for Education in Developing Countries. IIEP Seminar Paper: 37.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Raymond F.

    The object of this paper is to raise some questions about the relationship between personnel policies and policies for training administrative personnel in the educational part of the public service in developing nations. The paper first examines personnel policies in order to indicate some of the issues that are relevant to training policy. Three…

  4. Administrative Practices as Institutional Identity: Bureaucratic Impediments to HE "Internationalisation" Policy in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Gregory S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores how bureaucracy impedes the implementation of higher education (HE) policy at Japanese universities. Administrative systems employ Weberian legal-rational bureaucratic practices that are central to the institutional identity of a university. Rather than the means to internationalisation and reform in general, these systems…

  5. Translating Policies into Practice: The Role of Middle-Level Administrators in Language Curriculum Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Hong

    2010-01-01

    This study explores middle-level administrators' perceptions of the implementation of English as a foreign language curriculum policies in the Chinese tertiary context. Drawing on data collected from interviews with the department heads of six universities in a north-western city in China, the article examines their perspectives on the national…

  6. The Role of the Administrator as a Mediator in the Development and Implementation of Educational Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Paul Min Phang

    The development of an off-campus program at the Science University in Penang, Malaysia, is described in this paper. The author sees this development as a case in which administrators mediated successfully in the development and implementation of an educational policy. The program was designed to provide off-campus study opportunities for employed…

  7. Governance and Knowledge Transformations in Educational Administration: Greek Responses to Global Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sifakakis, Polychronis; Tsatsaroni, Anna; Sarakinioti, Antigone; Kourou, Menie

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the localisation of the global and European discourse of educational governance in the Greek education system through the changes that have been introduced in the field of education administration since 2009 by the then socialist government. Our research aims to contribute to the critical policy literature on the spreading…

  8. Local Action Plans for Forest Fire Prevention in Greece: Existing situation and a Proposed Template based on the Collaboration of Academics and Public Policy Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Arvanitakis, Spyridon; Papanikolaou, , Ioannis; Lozios, Stylianos; Diakakis, Michalis; Deligiannakis, Georgios; Dimitropoulou, Margarita; Georgiou, Konstantinos

    2013-04-01

    Wildfires are a major hazard in Greece suffering on average 1,509 wildfires and 36,151 burned hectares of forestlands every year. Since 1998 the Greek Fire Service is responsible for wildfires suppression and response, while prevention and mitigation yearly directives are also being released by the General Secretariat of Civil Protection. The 3013/2002 Act introduced a major transfer of responsibilities from the national to local municipal and regional authorities, which are accompanied by supplementary financial support. Significant new features were established such as the operation of local coordination councils, the foundation of municipality civil protection offices, the establishment of the annually prevention planning for forest fires and the development of local action plans. The University of Athens has developed a Local Action Plan template for municipality administrative levels, integrating scientific techniques and technologies to public government management. The Local Action Plan for Forest Fire Prevention is the main handbook and primary tool of every municipality for reducing the risk of wildfires. Fire prevention and risk analysis are the principal aims of this Plan, which also emphasizes on the important role of the volunteer organizations on forest fire prevention. The 7 chapters of the Action Plan include the legal framework, the risk analysis parameters, the risk analysis using GIS, the prevention planning, the manpower and available equipment of services involved, along with operational planning and evaluation of the previous year's forest fire prevention actions. Multiple information layers, such as vegetation types, road network, power lines and landfills are combined in GIS environment and transformed into qualitative multiparameter as well as quantitative combinational fire hazard maps. These maps are essential in wildfire risk analysis as they display the areas that need the highest attention during the fire season. Moreover, the separate

  9. Should policy-makers and managers trust PSI? An empirical validation study of five patient safety indicators in a national health service

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Patient Safety Indicators (PSI) are being modestly used in Spain, somewhat due to concerns on their empirical properties. This paper provides evidence by answering three questions: a) Are PSI differences across hospitals systematic -rather than random?; b) Do PSI measure differences among hospital-providers -as opposed to differences among patients?; and, c) Are measurements able to detect hospitals with a higher than "expected" number of cases? Methods An empirical validation study on administrative data was carried out. All 2005 and 2006 publicly-funded hospital discharges were used to retrieve eligible cases of five PSI: Death in low-mortality DRGs (MLM); decubitus ulcer (DU); postoperative pulmonary embolism or deep-vein thrombosis (PE-DVT); catheter-related infections (CRI), and postoperative sepsis (PS). Empirical Bayes statistic (EB) was used to estimate whether the variation was systematic; logistic-multilevel modelling determined what proportion of the variation was explained by the hospital; and, shrunken residuals, as provided by multilevel modelling, were plotted to flag hospitals performing worse than expected. Results Variation across hospitals was observed to be systematic in all indicators, with EB values ranging from 0.19 (CI95%:0.12 to 0.28) in PE-DVT to 0.34 (CI95%:0.25 to 0.45) in DU. A significant proportion of the variance was explained by the hospital, once patient case-mix was adjusted: from a 6% in MLM (CI95%:3% to 11%) to a 24% (CI95%:20% to 30%) in CRI. All PSI were able to flag hospitals with rates over the expected, although this capacity decreased when the largest hospitals were analysed. Conclusion Five PSI showed reasonable empirical properties to screen healthcare performance in Spanish hospitals, particularly in the largest ones. PMID:22369291

  10. Local Action Plans for Forest Fire Prevention in Greece: Existing situation and a Proposed Template based on the Collaboration of Academics and Public Policy Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Arvanitakis, Spyridon; Papanikolaou, , Ioannis; Lozios, Stylianos; Diakakis, Michalis; Deligiannakis, Georgios; Dimitropoulou, Margarita; Georgiou, Konstantinos

    2013-04-01

    Wildfires are a major hazard in Greece suffering on average 1,509 wildfires and 36,151 burned hectares of forestlands every year. Since 1998 the Greek Fire Service is responsible for wildfires suppression and response, while prevention and mitigation yearly directives are also being released by the General Secretariat of Civil Protection. The 3013/2002 Act introduced a major transfer of responsibilities from the national to local municipal and regional authorities, which are accompanied by supplementary financial support. Significant new features were established such as the operation of local coordination councils, the foundation of municipality civil protection offices, the establishment of the annually prevention planning for forest fires and the development of local action plans. The University of Athens has developed a Local Action Plan template for municipality administrative levels, integrating scientific techniques and technologies to public government management. The Local Action Plan for Forest Fire Prevention is the main handbook and primary tool of every municipality for reducing the risk of wildfires. Fire prevention and risk analysis are the principal aims of this Plan, which also emphasizes on the important role of the volunteer organizations on forest fire prevention. The 7 chapters of the Action Plan include the legal framework, the risk analysis parameters, the risk analysis using GIS, the prevention planning, the manpower and available equipment of services involved, along with operational planning and evaluation of the previous year's forest fire prevention actions. Multiple information layers, such as vegetation types, road network, power lines and landfills are combined in GIS environment and transformed into qualitative multiparameter as well as quantitative combinational fire hazard maps. These maps are essential in wildfire risk analysis as they display the areas that need the highest attention during the fire season. Moreover, the separate

  11. Early Childhood Care and Education as a Structural Approach to Integrating Children and Families at Risk: A Challenge for Policy Makers. Report of the European Policy Conference on Early Childhood Education (Amsterdam, Netherlands, April 23-24, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, John, Ed.

    Initiated by the government of the Netherlands and UNESCO, the European Policy Conference on Early Childhood Education focused on early childhood policy issues with special reference to the social integration of children and families at risk. The conference was organized around three themes including quality, accessibility and going-to-scale. This…

  12. 77 FR 48159 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Refuse To Accept Policy for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... Staff; Refuse To Accept Policy for 510(k)s; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... draft guidance entitled ``Refuse to Accept Policy for 510(k)s.'' The purpose of this document is to... (510(k)) submission is administratively complete, which determines whether it should be accepted...

  13. Science, law, and politics in the Food and Drug Administration's genetically engineered foods policy: FDA's 1992 policy statement.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, David L

    2005-05-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) 1992 policy statement was developed in the context of critical gaps in scientific knowledge concerning the compositional effects of genetic transformation and severe limitations in methods for safety testing. FDA acknowledged that pleiotropy and insertional mutagenesis may cause unintended changes, but it was unknown whether this happens to a greater extent in genetic engineering compared with traditional breeding. Moreover, the agency was not able to identify methods by which producers could screen for unintended allergens and toxicants. Despite these uncertainties, FDA granted genetically engineered foods the presumption of GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) and recommended that producers use voluntary consultations before marketing them.

  14. Behavioral economics of drug self-administration and drug abuse policy.

    PubMed Central

    Hursh, S R

    1991-01-01

    The concepts of behavioral economics have proven useful for understanding the environmental control of overall levels of responding for a variety of commodities, including reinforcement by drug self-administration. These general concepts are summarized for application to the analysis of drug-reinforced behavior and proposed as the basis for future applications. This behavioral agenda includes the assessment of abuse liability, the assay of drug-reinforcer interactions, the design of drug abuse interventions, and the formulation of drug abuse public policy. These separate domains of investigation are described as part of an overall strategy for designing model projects to control drug use and testing public policy initiatives. PMID:1955823

  15. Nurse administrator's role in health policy: teaching the elephant to dance.

    PubMed

    Peters, Rosalind M

    2002-01-01

    Historically, policies guiding the American health care delivery system have focused primarily on financing disease care. This emphasis on disease, rather than health, has sustained the idea of medical primacy while resulting in poor economic and health outcomes. Nursing's unique health-oriented contributions are undervalued and underutilized in the present system. This article addresses how and why nurse administrators should become involved in the policy arena. The article also emphasizes the need for skilled nurse leaders to influence the national agenda through political activism so that comprehensive nursing care is available and accessible.

  16. The Diamond Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazen, Robert M.

    1999-08-01

    Since time immemorial, we have treasured diamonds for their exquisite beauty and unrivaled hardness. Yet, most of the earth's diamonds lie deep underground and totally unaccessible to us--if only we knew how to fabricate them! In The Diamond Makers Robert Hazen vividly recounts the very human desire to exceed nature and create a synthetic diamond. Spanning centuries of ground-breaking science, instances of bitter rivalry, cases of outright fraud and self-delusion, Hazen blends drama and science to reveal the extraordinary technological advances and devastating failures of the diamond industry. Along the way, readers will be introduced to the brilliant, often eccentric and controversial, pioneers of high-pressure research who have harnessed crushing pressures and scorching temperatures to transform almost any carbon-rich material, from road tar to peanut butter, into the most prized of all gems. Robert M. Hazen is the author of fifteen books, including the bestseller, Science Matters: Achieving Scientific Literacy, which he wrote with James Trefil. Dr. Hazen has won numerous awards for his research and scientific writing.

  17. Indigenous Youth as Language Policy Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Teresa L.; Romero-Little, Mary Eunice; Warhol, Larisa; Zepeda, Ofelia

    2009-01-01

    This article offers a grounded view of language shift as experienced by Native American youth across a range of early- to late-shift settings. Drawing on data from a long-term ethnographic study, we demonstrate that the linguistic ecologies in which youth language choices play out are more complex than a unidirectional notion of shift might…

  18. Health politics and policy: survey of U.S. health administration courses.

    PubMed

    Borisoff, M J; Showalter, J S

    1994-01-01

    In summary, the vast majority of graduate health administration programs in this country offer a course in health politics and policy. Most of these courses are conducted as a seminar involving class discussions, guest speakers, and student projects. Aside from these generalizations, there is little consensus regarding such matters as course content, objectives, textbooks, and readings. The findings of this survey indicate a crying need in health administration education for a basic textbook or collection of readings on health policy and politics. Such a text should cover the following: 1. Basic information on United States politics and government: our constitutional framework; the presidency; the legislative process; the role of the judiciary; state and local governments; etc. 2. Late 20th century United States political culture: why Americans hate politics and distrust politicians; government as "part of the problem"; the role of the media; the role of lobbyists; campaign financing; increased us of initiatives and referenda; etc. 3. Comparisons of the United States health care system to systems in other countries: Canada, Great Britain, Sweden, Germany, etc. 4. Case studies on traditional health policy issues: Hill-Burton, planning, cost versus access, risk segmentation, rationing, health ethics, etc. 5. Bibliography of suggested readings. A textbook or anthology of this type would provide a solid foundation for a health policy course. Instructors could then add discussion of current events, guest speakers' presentations, and selected readings on emerging issues such as health care reform. In this way the course could be grounded in sound political science theory while also meeting the students' needs for practical insights into health policy issues of the day and their own role as health care executives in influencing the outcome of those policy debates.

  19. Educational Administration and Queer Educators: Building Relationships of Inclusion and Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callaghan, Tonya; Mizzi, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    The editors of this special collection of the "Canadian Journal of Educational Administration and Policy" open this introductory essay with the words of Margaret Mead in order to underscore an important message contained in all of the essays of this collection: education administrators and policy makers are paramount to creating learning…

  20. Work mistreatment and hospital administrative staff: policy implications for healthier workplaces.

    PubMed

    Harlos, Karen P; Axelrod, Lawrence J

    2008-08-01

    Research on work life quality in hospitals has focused on how nurses and physicians perceive or react to work conditions. We extend this focus to another major professional group - healthcare administrators - to learn more about how these employees experience the work environment. Administrators merit such attention given their key roles in sustaining the financial health of the hospital and in fulfilling management functions efficiently to support consistent, high-quality care. Specifically, we examined mistreatment in the workplace experienced by administrative staff from a hospital in a large Canadian city. Three dimensions of mistreatment - verbal abuse, work obstruction and emotional neglect - have been associated with diminished well-being, work satisfaction and organizational commitment, along with stronger intent to leave. In this paper, we provide additional support for interpreting these three dimensions as mistreatment and report on their frequencies in our sample. We then consider implications for policy development (e.g., communication and conflict resolution skills training, mentoring programs, respect-at-work policies) to make workplaces healthier for these neglected but important healthcare professionals. PMID:19377340

  1. Connecting Geoscience and Decision Makers Through a Common Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzales, L. M.; Wood, C.; Boland, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Geoscientists and decision makers often use different words to describe the same thing. The American Geosciences Institute has developed a consistent definition for the geosciences (Wilson, 2014); however this definition often varies from how decision maker groups at the national, state, local, and regional levels often categorize geoscience topics. Where geoscientists may to refer to "geoscience," decision makers may use terms like "energy," "environment," and "natural resources." How may the geoscience community provide geoscience information to decision makers in a context they understand while at the same time providing a simple, yet consistent representation of all that the geosciences include? The American Geoscience Institute's (AGI's) Critical Issues program's main goal is to connect decision makers at all levels with decision-relevant, impartial, expert information from across the geosciences. The program uses a multi-faceted approach to reach different decision maker groups, including policy makers and government employees at the federal, state and local level. We discuss the challenges the Critical Issues program has overcome in representing the geosciences to decision makers in a cohesive fashion such that decision makers can access the information they need, while at the same time becoming aware of the breadth of information the geosciences has to offer, and the value of including geoscience in the decision-making process. References: Wilson, C.E. (2014) Status of the Geoscience Workforce 2014. American Geological Institute. Alexandria, VA.

  2. The Background of Proposed Legislation to Study Public Lending Right in the United States: Issues in Policy, Law and Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, Dennis

    1986-01-01

    Discusses policy, law, and administrative issues that must be resolved by a national commission to study public lending right, which was proposed in a 1985 bill. Examples from the United Kingdom and other countries are used. (EM)

  3. Educational Goods and Values: A Framework for Decision Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brighouse, Harry; Ladd, Helen F.; Loeb, Susanna; Swift, Adam

    2016-01-01

    This article articulates a framework suitable for use when making decisions about education policy. Decision makers should establish what the feasible options are and evaluate them in terms of their contribution to the development, and distribution, of educational goods in children, balanced against the negative effect of policies on important…

  4. 25 CFR 513.5 - What is the Commission's policy on interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the Commission's policy on interest, penalty..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEBT COLLECTION General Provisions § 513.5 What is the Commission's policy on interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs? (a) Interest. (1) The...

  5. Attitudes of School Administrators and Teachers towards the "Smoke-Free Air Zone" Policy in Turkish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banoglu, Köksal

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Schools are likely to be better able to achieve compliance with smoke-free regulations if principals and teachers perceive the importance of a smoke-free policy. The purpose of this study was to measure teacher and administrator attitudes towards the smoke-free policy in Turkish schools, which promotes a total smoking ban. Method: The…

  6. US Department of Veterans Affairs disability policies for posttraumatic stress disorder: administrative trends and implications for treatment, rehabilitation, and research.

    PubMed

    Frueh, B Christopher; Grubaugh, Anouk L; Elhai, Jon D; Buckley, Todd C

    2007-12-01

    An accumulating body of empirical data suggests that current Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) psychiatric disability and rehabilitation policies for combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are problematic. In combination, recent administrative trends and data from epidemiological and clinical studies suggest theses policies are countertherapeutic and hinder research efforts to advance our knowledge regarding PTSD. Current VA disability policies require fundamental reform to bring them into line with modern science and medicine, including current empirically supported concepts of resilience and psychiatric rehabilitation.

  7. Policy statement--guidance for the administration of medication in school.

    PubMed

    2009-10-01

    Many children who take medications require them during the school day. This policy statement is designed to guide prescribing health care professionals, school physicians, and school health councils on the administration of medications to children at school. All districts and schools need to have policies and plans in place for safe, effective, and efficient administration of medications at school. Having full-time licensed registered nurses administering all routine and emergency medications in schools is the best situation. When a licensed registered nurse is not available, a licensed practical nurse may administer medications. When a nurse cannot administer medication in school, the American Academy of Pediatrics supports appropriate delegation of nursing services in the school setting. Delegation is a tool that may be used by the licensed registered school nurse to allow unlicensed assistive personnel to provide standardized, routine health services under the supervision of the nurse and on the basis of physician guidance and school nursing assessment of the unique needs of the individual child and the suitability of delegation of specific nursing tasks. Any delegation of nursing duties must be consistent with the requirements of state nurse practice acts, state regulations, and guidelines provided by professional nursing organizations. Long-term, emergency, and short-term medications; over-the-counter medications; alternative medications; and experimental drugs that are administered as part of a clinical trial are discussed in this statement. This statement has been endorsed by the American School Health Association.

  8. A New Agenda for Teaching Public Administration and Public Policy in Brazil: Institutional Opportunities and Educational Reasons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomes, Sandra; Almeida, Lindijane S. B.; Lucio, Magda L.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the reasons and teaching objectives of an array of new undergraduate courses on public administration and public policy management which have emerged recently in Brazil. While in 2001 there were only two undergraduate courses teaching formal public administration in the country, by 2015, they had risen to 40, and also…

  9. The American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on School Health POLICY STATEMENT: Guidelines for the Administration of Medication in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of School Nursing, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Many children who take medications require them during the school day. This policy statement is designed to guide prescribing physicians as well as school administrators and health staff on the administration of medications to children at school. The statement addresses over-the-counter products, herbal medications, experimental drugs that are…

  10. The Mine Safety and Health Administration's criterion threshold value policy increases miners' risk of pneumoconiosis

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, J.L.

    2006-06-15

    Background The Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) proposes to issue citations for non-compliance with the exposure limit for respirable coal mine dust when measured exposure exceeds the exposure limit with a 'high degree of confidence.' This criterion threshold value (CTV) is derived from the sampling and analytical error of the measurement method. This policy is based on a combination of statistical and legal reasoning: the one-tailed 95% confidence limit of the sampling method, the apparent principle of due process and a standard of proof analogous to 'beyond a reasonable doubt.' This policy raises the effective exposure limit, it is contrary to the precautionary principle, it is not a fair sharing of the burden of uncertainty, and it employs an inappropriate standard of proof. Its own advisory committee and NIOSH have advised against this policy. For longwall mining sections, it results in a failure to issue citations for approximately 36% of the measured values that exceed the statutory exposure limit. Citations for non-compliance with the respirable dust standard should be issued for any measure exposure that exceeds the exposure limit.

  11. The State of State Policies for Principal Preparation Program Approval and Candidate Licensure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Erin; Reynolds, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Policies for principal preparation and licensure are important levers for improving school leadership. By developing a rubric of research-based practices, this University Council of Educational Administration study aims to provide a formative tool for policy makers. Using a policy analysis frame by Roach et al., this study explores the state code,…

  12. Situating School District Resource Decision Making in Policy Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spain, Angeline K.

    2016-01-01

    Decentralization and deregulation policies assume that local educational leaders make better resource decisions than state policy makers do. Conceptual models drawn from organizational theory, however, offer competing predictions about how district central office administrators are likely to leverage their professional expertise in devolved…

  13. Increasingly Segregated and Unequal Schools as Courts Reverse Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orfield, Gary; Frankenberg, Erica

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: School administrators and policy makers live in a complex, changing policy universe in which there are many competing demands and political pressures. Rarely is there much time to think about sensitive issues of long duration that are not part of the immediate demands they face. This article is about such an issue, a question that will…

  14. Film Makers On Film Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geduld, Harry M., Ed.

    This collection includes essays by and interviews with more than 30 film-makers, both classic and contemporary, on the subjects of their major interests and procedures in making films. The directors are: Louis Lumiere, Cecil Hepworth, Edwin S. Porter, Mack Sennett, David W. Griffith, Robert Flaherty, Charles Chaplin, Eric von Stroheim, Dziga…

  15. Environmental policies and politics of the Brown administration, 1975-1983

    SciTech Connect

    Pincetl, S.S.

    1985-01-01

    The American environmental movement seems to have arrived at a moment of crisis in its political and legislative effectiveness despite widespread popular support for even greater environmental protection than exists today. The Brown administration in California, 1975-1983, was elected at the crest of power of the environmental movement in the state. This dissertation analyzes what happens when environmentalists and environmentalism come into political power and the center of decision making; the role of politics in the process of policy implementation and the question of how social change occurs. The discussion is placed in a theoretical context, arguing the problem of environmental degradation can better be addressed if it is recognized as a process of the recreation of nature. It points out that human-environment relations are the result of political, economic, and social activities. Thus the kind of environment encountered is a political question which must be addressed as such for change to come about. The Brown administration made a step in this direction, but stopped due to its perception of political reality. It engaged in self-censorship. Brown's Governorship will have a lasting influence. Environmental awareness has become subtly embedded in the process of government, though subject to the vagaries of political expediency.

  16. Social Media Policy on Campus: A Case Study of the Development and Implementation of a Social Media Policy for University Administrators, Faculty, and Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garber, Michelle Brooks

    2011-01-01

    This single-site qualitative study sought to address the challenges associated with the growing use of social media by university administrators, faculty, and staff (Wandel, 2007) through a case study analysis of a university with a social media policy for university employees. The study describes the development and implementation of a university…

  17. The Changing Faculty and Student Success: Review of Selected Policies and Practices and Connections to Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna; Maxey, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    It is important for administrators, faculty, and policy makers to understand and consider how policies commonly associated with non-tenure-track faculty roles and working environments impact student learning. Many policies impede the ability of faculty to provide effective instruction that is aligned with departmental and institutional goals for…

  18. Training and Public Policy: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, James

    Developed by an advisory board of industry and education representatives to raise issues for the consideration of policy makers, community college administrators, labor leaders, and managers in Michigan, this report discusses the increasing significance of training to industry; the challenge to public education and, in particular, to community…

  19. Arrest Decisions as Precludes To? An Evaluation of Policy Related Research. Volume I: Administrative Summary and Training Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neithercutt, M. G.; And Others

    The document is the first part of a study conducted to evaluate policy-related research on police arrest discretion as an alternative solution to arrest. It presents the administrative summary of the Arrest Decisions as Preludes To? (ADAPT) project and contains scripts intended for use by police departments as a staff training device. The…

  20. Street-Level Bureaucracy Revisited: Frontline District Central-Office Administrators as Boundary Spanners in Education Policy Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Meredith I.

    2006-01-01

    The designation of district central-office administrators to operate as boundary spanners among the central office, schools, and community agencies can help with the implementation of challenging policy demands. However, educational research teaches little about central-office boundary spanners in practice. This article addresses that gap with…

  1. 76 FR 40921 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Enforcement Policy for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... Staff; Enforcement Policy for Premarket Notification Requirements for Certain In Vitro Diagnostic and... ``Enforcement Policy for Premarket Notification Requirements for Certain In Vitro Diagnostic and Radiology...(k)) requirements for certain in vitro diagnostic and radiology devices under the regulations....

  2. Fiber optic diffraction grating maker

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance A.; Ward, Michael B.

    1991-01-01

    A compact and portable diffraction grating maker comprised of a laser beam, optical and fiber optics devices coupling the beam to one or more evanescent beam splitters, and collimating lenses or mirrors directing the split beam at an appropriate photosensitive material. The collimating optics, the output ends of the fiber optic coupler and the photosensitive plate holder are all mounted on an articulated framework so that the angle of intersection of the beams can be altered at will without disturbing the spatial filter, collimation or beam quality, and assuring that the beams will always intersect at the position of the plate.

  3. Fiber optic diffraction grating maker

    DOEpatents

    Deason, V.A.; Ward, M.B.

    1991-05-21

    A compact and portable diffraction grating maker is comprised of a laser beam, optical and fiber optics devices coupling the beam to one or more evanescent beam splitters, and collimating lenses or mirrors directing the split beam at an appropriate photosensitive material. The collimating optics, the output ends of the fiber optic coupler and the photosensitive plate holder are all mounted on an articulated framework so that the angle of intersection of the beams can be altered at will without disturbing the spatial filter, collimation or beam quality, and assuring that the beams will always intersect at the position of the plate. 4 figures.

  4. Translation of Policy to Practitioners: Analysis of Sex Equity in Administrators' Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Catherine

    This study is concerned with local educational agencies' interpretation of federal and state sex equity policies. After briefly discussing "slippage" that occurs as policy decisions move through federal and state systems, the article addresses legitimacy and implementation issues. Since sex equity policies have goals for altering administrative…

  5. Dirk Forrister -- Looking at U.S. climate change policy

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    This month, American Gas presents another in its series of interviews with influential policy-makers in Washington. This interview with Dirk Forrister, chairman of the White House Climate Change Task Force, focuses on the upcoming United Nations conference on global warming, being held December 1--10 in Kyoto, Japan, and on the Clinton administration`s position and policies on global climate change.

  6. Design-to-fabricate: maker hardware requires maker software.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Ryan; Ratto, Matt

    2013-01-01

    As a result of consumer-level 3D printers' increasing availability and affordability, the audience for 3D-design tools has grown considerably. However, current tools are ill-suited for these users. They have steep learning curves and don't take into account that the end goal is a physical object, not a digital model. A new class of "maker"-level design tools is needed to accompany this new commodity hardware. However, recent examples of such tools achieve accessibility primarily by constraining functionality. In contrast, the meshmixer project is building tools that provide accessibility and expressive power by leveraging recent computer graphics research in geometry processing. The project members have had positive experiences with several 3D-design-to-print workshops and are exploring several design-to-fabricate problems. This article is part of a special issue on 3D printing.

  7. Policies, Administration, and Management: As published in "Distances et Savoirs" (D & S--7/2009. A La Croisee des Recherches, pages 627 to 641)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Melody M.; Vidal, Martine

    2011-01-01

    The chapters in Part IV of "Handbook of Distance Education" (2007), "Policies, Administration, and Management," focus on the ways in which policies encourage or hamper the integration of distance education into mainstream educational institutions. The authors provide insights and perspectives into the key policies, roles, structures, processes,…

  8. Public Policy and the Shaping of Disability: Incidence Growth in Educational Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Dana Lee

    2004-01-01

    Autism has gained the attention of policy makers and public administrators in recent years. The surge in prevalence, in tandem with a growing social preference for community inclusion of individuals with disabilities, strains a variety of policy infrastructures. Autism and related disorders, which were first described in 1943, were originally…

  9. Mapping a Research Agenda for Home Care Safety: Perspectives from Researchers, Providers, and Decision Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, Marilyn; Lang, Ariella; MacDonald, Jo-Anne

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative interpretive design was to explore the perspectives of researchers, health care providers, policy makers, and decision makers on key risks, concerns, and emerging issues related to home care safety that would inform a line of research inquiry. Defining safety specifically in this home care context has yet to be…

  10. 75 FR 33577 - National Telecommunications and Information Administration; Copyright Policy, Creativity, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ...; Copyright Policy, Creativity, and Innovation in the Information Economy AGENCY: United States Patent and..., to discuss the relationship of copyright policy, creativity, and innovation in the Internet economy... Internet economy which will include issuing a notice of inquiry. To facilitate this review, on July 1,...

  11. Narrative Understandings of a School Policy: Intersecting Student, Teacher, Parent and Administrator Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Elaine; Ross, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we examine one school's experience with policy, as a means of shedding light on the intersection of factors contributing to challenges of implementing policies to support the academic achievement and social adaptation of immigrant and minority students in their school context. We begin with the presentation of a "big…

  12. English Teachers, Administrators, and Dialogue: Transcending the Asymmetry of Power in the Discourse of Educational Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Trevor Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I present six English teachers' perceptions of the dialogue used by principals and superintendents to communicate policy mandates in their schools. I wanted to learn about the ways in which the discourse employed by these two kinds of policymakers influenced English teachers' experiences as professionals and how these policies and…

  13. Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judith L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue is devoted to discussions of early childhood policy issues. "Creating a Shared Vision: How Policy Affects Early Childhood Care and Development" (Judith L. Evans) defines policy, discusses the motivation for changing or creating national policy and the process for changing such policies, and provides a sample design for an early…

  14. The co-production of a "relevant" expertise - administrative and scientific cooperation in the French water policies elaboration and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deroubaix, J. F.

    2007-10-01

    This paper aims at understanding the social and political uses of the principle of integrated management and its possible impacts on the elaboration and implementation processes of public policies in the French water management field. The academic and political innovations developed by scientists and agents of the administration these last 25 years are analysed, using some of the theoretical tools developed by the science studies and public policy analysis. We first focus on the construction of intellectual public policy communities such as the GIP Hydro systems, at the origin of large interdisciplinary research programs in the 1990s. A common cognitive framework is clearly built during this period on the good governance of the aquatic ecosystems and on the corresponding needs and practices of research. The second part of the paper focuses on the possibilities to build political communities and more or less integrated expertises in the decision making processes concerning various issues related to water management. Eutrophication and its inscription on the French political agenda is a very significant case for analysing the difficulty to build such a political community. On the contrary, when there is an opportunity for policy evaluation, which was the case concerning the management of wetlands in France or the implementation of compulsory flows on the French rivers, these communities can emerge. However, the type of integrated expertise and management proposed in these cases of policy evaluations much depends on their methodological choices.

  15. Considerations of Administrative Licensure, Provider Type, and Leadership Quality: Recommendations for Research, Policy, and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackmann, Donald G.

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews U.S. administrative licensure regulations, focusing on type of school leader licensure, provider types, and leadership quality. Licensure obtained through university-based and alternative routes is examined. Due to limited research on alternative school administrative licensure, regulations in medicine, psychology,…

  16. Why the Critics of Poor Health Service Delivery Are the Causes of Poor Service Delivery: A Need to Train the Policy-makers Comment on "Why and How Is Compassion Necessary to Provide Good Quality Healthcare?".

    PubMed

    Harding, Nancy

    2015-06-27

    This comment on Professor Fotaki's Editorial agrees with her arguments that training health professionals in more compassionate, caring and ethically sound care will have little value unless the system in which they work changes. It argues that for system change to occur, senior management, government members and civil servants themselves need training so that they learn to understand the effects that their policies have on health professionals. It argues that these people are complicit in the delivery of unethical care, because they impose requirements that contradict health professionals' desire to deliver compassionate and ethical forms of care.

  17. Sex differences in nicotine self-administration in rats during progressive unit dose reduction: Implications for nicotine regulation policy

    PubMed Central

    Grebenstein, Patricia; Burroughs, Danielle; Zhang, Yan; LeSage, Mark G.

    2013-01-01

    Reducing the nicotine content in tobacco products is being considered by the FDA as a policy to reduce the addictiveness of tobacco products. Understanding individual differences in response to nicotine reduction will be critical to developing safe and effective policy. Animal and human research demonstrating sex differences in the reinforcing effects of nicotine suggests that males and females may respond differently to nicotine-reduction policies. However, no studies have directly examined sex differences in the effects of nicotine unit-dose reduction on nicotine self-administration (NSA) in animals. The purpose of the present study was to examine this issue in a rodent self-administration model. Male and female rats were trained to self-administer nicotine (0.06 mg/kg) under an FR 3 schedule during daily 23 h sessions. Rats were then exposed to saline extinction and reacquisition of NSA, followed by weekly reductions in the unit dose (0.03 to 0.00025 mg/kg) until extinction levels of responding were achieved. Males and females were compared with respect to baseline levels of intake, resistance to extinction, degree of compensatory increases in responding during dose reduction, and the threshold reinforcing unit dose of nicotine. Exponential demand-curve analysis was also conducted to compare the sensitivity of males and females to increases in the unit price (FR/unit dose) of nicotine (i.e., elasticity of demand or reinforcing efficacy). Females exhibited significantly higher baseline intake and less compensation than males. However, there were no sex differences in the reinforcement threshold or elasticity of demand. Dose–response relationships were very well described by the exponential demand function (r2 values > 0.96 for individual subjects). These findings suggest that females may exhibit less compensatory smoking in response to nicotine reduction policies, even though their nicotine reinforcement threshold and elasticity of demand may not differ from

  18. Sex differences in nicotine self-administration in rats during progressive unit dose reduction: implications for nicotine regulation policy.

    PubMed

    Grebenstein, Patricia; Burroughs, Danielle; Zhang, Yan; LeSage, Mark G

    2013-12-01

    Reducing the nicotine content in tobacco products is being considered by the FDA as a policy to reduce the addictiveness of tobacco products. Understanding individual differences in response to nicotine reduction will be critical to developing safe and effective policy. Animal and human research demonstrating sex differences in the reinforcing effects of nicotine suggests that males and females may respond differently to nicotine-reduction policies. However, no studies have directly examined sex differences in the effects of nicotine unit-dose reduction on nicotine self-administration (NSA) in animals. The purpose of the present study was to examine this issue in a rodent self-administration model. Male and female rats were trained to self-administer nicotine (0.06mg/kg) under an FR 3 schedule during daily 23h sessions. Rats were then exposed to saline extinction and reacquisition of NSA, followed by weekly reductions in the unit dose (0.03 to 0.00025mg/kg) until extinction levels of responding were achieved. Males and females were compared with respect to baseline levels of intake, resistance to extinction, degree of compensatory increases in responding during dose reduction, and the threshold reinforcing unit dose of nicotine. Exponential demand-curve analysis was also conducted to compare the sensitivity of males and females to increases in the unit price (FR/unit dose) of nicotine (i.e., elasticity of demand or reinforcing efficacy). Females exhibited significantly higher baseline intake and less compensation than males. However, there were no sex differences in the reinforcement threshold or elasticity of demand. Dose-response relationships were very well described by the exponential demand function (r(2) values>0.96 for individual subjects). These findings suggest that females may exhibit less compensatory smoking in response to nicotine reduction policies, even though their nicotine reinforcement threshold and elasticity of demand may not differ from males

  19. The Turbulent Policy Environment in Education: Implications for School Administration and Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowson, Robert L.

    2003-01-01

    Examines turbulence in U.S. education, explaining how today's changing educational policy environment causes new frustrations. Suggests that federal, state, local, and site- level are current sources of indecision and struggle that have implications for today's choice of direction concerning inquiry and leadership for public education. Discusses…

  20. 76 FR 78930 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Enforcement Policy for Premarket...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... guidance published in the Federal Register on July 12, 2011 (76 FR 40921), and the comment period closed on...; Enforcement Policy for Premarket Notification Requirements for Certain In Vitro Diagnostic and Radiology... for Premarket Notification Requirements for Certain In Vitro Diagnostic and Radiology Devices.''...

  1. A Retrospective View of the Colombo Plan: Government Policy, Departmental Administration and Overseas Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auletta, Alex

    2000-01-01

    Examines Australian government policies involved in the development and implementation of the Colombo Plan, a program that sponsored the education of Asian and Pacific students in Australia. Concludes that the Colombo Plan's original emphasis on aid has had long term effects on the marketing of Australian education to Asian foreign students. (DB)

  2. SCIENCE, SCIENTISTS, AND POLICY ADVOCACY

    EPA Science Inventory

    To effectively resolve many current ecological policy issues, decision-makers require an array of scientific information. Sometimes scientific information is summarized for decision-makers by policy analysts or others, but often it comes directly from scientists to decision-maker...

  3. Focusing Biodiversity Research on the Needs of Decision Makers

    PubMed

    SMYTHE; BERNABO; CARTER; JUTRO

    1996-11-01

    / The project on Biodiversity Uncertainties and Research Needs (BURN) ensures the advancement of usable knowledge on biodiversity by obtaining input from decision makers on their priority information needs about biodiversity and then using this input to engage leading scientists in designing policy-relevant research. Decision makers articulated concerns related to four issues: significance of biodiversity; status and trends of biodiversity; management for biodiversity; and the linkage of social, cultural, economic, legal, and biological objectives. Leading natural and social scientists then identified the research required to address the decision makers' needs and determined the probability of success. The diverse group of experts reached consensus on several fundamental issues, helping to clarify the role of biodiversity in land and resource management. The BURN participants identified several features that should be incorporated into policy-relevant research plans and management strategies for biodiversity. Research and assessment efforts should be: multidisciplinary and integrative, participatory with stakeholder involvement, hierarchical (multiple scales), and problem- and region-specific. The activities should be focused regionally within a global perspective. Meta-analysis of existing data is needed on all fronts to assess the state of the science. More specifically, the scientists recommended six priority research areas that should be pursued to address the information needs articulated by decision makers: (1) characterization of biodiversity, (2) environmental valuation, (3) management for sustainability-for humans and the environment (adaptive management), (4) information management strategies, (5) governance and stewardship issues, and (6) communication and outreach. Broad recommendations were developed for each research area to provide direction for research planning and resource management strategies. The results will directly benefit those groups that

  4. 78 FR 100 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Refuse To Accept Policy for 510(k)s...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... checklists for use by FDA review staff. In the Federal Register of August 13, 2012 (77 FR 48159), FDA...; Refuse To Accept Policy for 510(k)s; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... entitled ``Refuse to Accept Policy for 510(k)s.'' The purpose of this document is to explain the...

  5. Beyond Declines in Student Body Diversity: How Campus-Level Administrators Understand a Prohibition on Race-Conscious Postsecondary Admissions Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garces, Liliana M.; Cogburn, Courtney D.

    2015-01-01

    Guided by a bottom-up policy implementation framework, this study draws from semi-structured interviews of 14 campus-level administrators charged with implementing diversity policy at the University of Michigan to investigate how an affirmative action ban (Proposal 2) influenced their efforts in support of racial/ethnic diversity at the…

  6. A Comparison of Mail and Telephone Administration of District-Level Questionnaires for the School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) 2006: Effects on Estimates and Data Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denniston, Maxine; Brener, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Background: The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) is a national study periodically conducted to assess school health policies and programs at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. For SHPPS 2006, district-level questionnaires were designed for telephone administration, but mixed-mode data collection that also used…

  7. Understanding School System Administration: Studies of the Contemporary Chief Education Officer. Educational Policy Perspective Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leithwood, Kenneth, Ed.; Musella, Donald, Ed.

    This volume presents several distinctive but related empirical studies and opinion pieces about chief education officers (CEOs). The collection begins with (1) "Introduction: A Framework for Understanding School System Administration" (Kenneth Leithwood and Donald Musella). Section A, "Chief Education Officers' Practices and Effects," contains the…

  8. Organizational Routines as Coupling Mechanisms: Policy, School Administration, and the Technical Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spillane, James P.; Parise, Leigh Mesler; Sherer, Jennifer Zoltners

    2011-01-01

    The institutional environment of America's schools has changed substantially as government regulation has focused increasingly on the core technical work of schools--instruction. The authors explore the school administrative response to this changing environment, describing how government regulation becomes embodied in the formal structure of four…

  9. The Chicago Board of Education Desegregation Policies and Practices [1975-1985]: A Historical Examination of the Administrations of Superintendents Dr. Joseph P. Hannon and Dr. Ruth Love

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study will be to examine the policies and practices of two distinguished superintendents of the Chicago Public Schools: Dr. Joseph P. Hannon and the first African American female Superintendent Dr. Ruth Love. Hannon's four year administration extended from 1975 through 1979. Love's administration encompassed the years 1980…

  10. Self-Determination, Culture, and School Administration: A Phenomenological Study on Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Cecilia Marie

    2009-01-01

    While the benefits of obtaining an Associate's degree are evident, students often drop out before obtaining degrees. Because individuals with more education are more likely to be employed than those with less education, student success is a concern for community college administrators, policy makers, community leaders, and other stakeholders.…

  11. Administrative and research policies required to bring cellular therapies from the research laboratory to the patient's bedside.

    PubMed

    Yim, Robyn

    2005-10-01

    presidential administrations on cellular therapy, variations in individual state laws, and states becoming involved in research funding, such as California's Proposition 71. Legal concerns include expanding private litigation with diversity of lawsuits, expanding lists of defendants, and the use of class-action lawsuits in research cases. Ownership issues also arise in terms of intellectual property, patents, and ownership of stem cells collected from minors, as in umbilical cord blood donations. Situations that challenge the regulatory processes established to ensure participant safety include differences in reporting requirements for private- and public-funded research and the lack of adequate funding and resources to implement and support the institutional review board (IRB) process. Financial considerations influence the development of clinical protocols, because funding is often limited. Financial incentives, personal investment in companies funding research activities, and fundraising pressures may present potential conflicts. In addition, the increasing role of emerging biotechnology start-up companies and pharmaceutical companies in clinical research introduces additional financial considerations. Administrative policies are needed to address these possible conflicts and ensure research participant safety as cellular therapies progress from the research laboratories to the patient's bedside. Administrative policies to ensure minimum standards of quality for emerging products before human clinical trials, policies to enforce consistent reporting requirements for private and public cellular research, policies to minimize financial conflicts of interest, policies to strengthen implementation of the existing IRB process and to structure into the process a consistent, systematic review of these identified conflicts, and policies to limit private litigation will help to preserve the objectivity of the review process and ultimately increase participant safety.

  12. The Clearlake Hot Dry Rock geothermal project: Institutional policies, administrative issues, and technical tasks

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, K.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Clearlake Project is a three-party collaboration between the California Energy Commission, City of Clearlake, and Los Alamos National Laboratory. It aims to develop a deep hot, dry geothermal resource under the city. The project is funded by the Commission, and administered by the City. Technical operations are conducted by Laboratory staff and resources seconded from the Hot Dry Rock program. In addition to the normal geothermal exploration problems of predicting geological and geophysical properties of the subsurface, there are uncertainties as to what further material and environmental parameters are relevant, and how they might be measured. In addition to technical factors, policy objectives are an influence in choosing the most appropriate development scenario. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Focusing biodiversity research on the needs of decision makers

    SciTech Connect

    Smythe, K.D.; Bernabo, J.C.; Carter, T.B.; Jutro, P.R.

    1996-11-01

    The project on Biodiversity Uncertainties and Research Needs (BURN) ensures the advancement of usable knowledge on biodiversity by obtaining input from decision makers on their priority information needs about biodiversity and then using this input to engage leading scientists in designing policy-relevant research. Decision makers had concerns about four issues: significance of biodiversity; status and trends of biodiversity; management for biodiversity; the linkage of social, cultural, economic, legal, and biological objectives. Leading scientists identified research required to address these needs and determined the probability of success. The diverse group of experts reached consensus on several fundamental issues, helping to clarify the role of biodiversity in land and resource management. Several features that should be incorporated into policy-relevant research plans and management strategies for biodiversity were identified: multidisciplinary and integrative, participatory with stakeholder involvement, hierarchical, and problem- and region-specific. Activities should be focused regionally within a global perspective. More specifically, the scientists recommended six priority research areas that should be pursued to address the information needs articulated by decision makers: (1) characterization of biodiversity, (2) environmental valuation, (3) management for sustainability-for humans and the environment (adaptive management), (4) information management strategies, (5) governance and stewardship issues, and (6) communication and outreach. Broad recommendations wee developed for each research area to provide direction for research planning and resource management strategies. The results will directly benefit those groups that require biodiversity research to address their needs-whether to develop policy, manage natural resources, or make other decisions affecting biodiversity. 11 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  14. Potassium iodide for thyroid blockade in a reactor accident: administrative policies that govern its use.

    PubMed

    Becker, D V; Zanzonico, P

    1997-04-01

    A marked increase in thyroid cancer among young children who were in the vicinity of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant at the time of the 1986 accident strongly suggests a possible causal relationship to the large amounts of radioactive iodine isotopes in the resulting fallout. Although remaining indoors, restricting consumption of locally produced milk and foodstuffs, and evacuation are important strategies in a major breach-of-containment accident, stable potassium iodide (KI) prophylaxis given shortly before or immediately after exposure can reduce greatly the thyroidal accumulation of radioiodines and the resulting radiation dose. Concerns about possible side effects of large-scale, medically unsupervised KI consumption largely have been allayed in light of the favorable experience in Poland following the Chernobyl accident; 16 million persons received single administrations of KI with only rare occurrence of side effects and with a probable 40% reduction in projected thyroid radiation dose. Despite the universal acceptance of KI as an effective thyroid protective agent, supplies of KI in the US are not available for public distribution in the event of a reactor accident largely because government agencies have argued that stockpiling and distribution of KI to other than emergency workers cannot be recommended in light of difficult distribution logistics, problematic administrative issue, and a calculated low cost-effectiveness. However, KI in tablet form is expensive and has a long shelf life, and many countries have largely stockpiles and distribution programs. The World Health Organization recognizes the benefits of stable KI and urges its general availability. At present there are 110 operating nuclear power plants in the US and more than 300 in the rest of the world. These reactors product 17% of the world's electricity and in some countries up to 60-70% of the total electrical energy. Almost all US nuclear power plants have multistage containment

  15. Potassium iodide for thyroid blockade in a reactor accident: administrative policies that govern its use.

    PubMed

    Becker, D V; Zanzonico, P

    1997-04-01

    A marked increase in thyroid cancer among young children who were in the vicinity of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant at the time of the 1986 accident strongly suggests a possible causal relationship to the large amounts of radioactive iodine isotopes in the resulting fallout. Although remaining indoors, restricting consumption of locally produced milk and foodstuffs, and evacuation are important strategies in a major breach-of-containment accident, stable potassium iodide (KI) prophylaxis given shortly before or immediately after exposure can reduce greatly the thyroidal accumulation of radioiodines and the resulting radiation dose. Concerns about possible side effects of large-scale, medically unsupervised KI consumption largely have been allayed in light of the favorable experience in Poland following the Chernobyl accident; 16 million persons received single administrations of KI with only rare occurrence of side effects and with a probable 40% reduction in projected thyroid radiation dose. Despite the universal acceptance of KI as an effective thyroid protective agent, supplies of KI in the US are not available for public distribution in the event of a reactor accident largely because government agencies have argued that stockpiling and distribution of KI to other than emergency workers cannot be recommended in light of difficult distribution logistics, problematic administrative issue, and a calculated low cost-effectiveness. However, KI in tablet form is expensive and has a long shelf life, and many countries have largely stockpiles and distribution programs. The World Health Organization recognizes the benefits of stable KI and urges its general availability. At present there are 110 operating nuclear power plants in the US and more than 300 in the rest of the world. These reactors product 17% of the world's electricity and in some countries up to 60-70% of the total electrical energy. Almost all US nuclear power plants have multistage containment

  16. Policy and Administrative Issues for Large-Scale Clinical Interventions Following Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Cobham, Vanessa E.; McDermott, Brett

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Large, programmatic mental health intervention programs for children and adolescents following disasters have become increasingly common; however, little has been written about the key goals and challenges involved. Methods: Using available data and the authors' experiences, this article reviews the factors involved in planning and implementing large-scale treatment programs following disasters. Results: These issues include funding, administration, choice of clinical targets, workforce selection, choice of treatment modalities, training, outcome monitoring, and consumer uptake. Ten factors are suggested for choosing among treatment modalities: 1) reach (providing access to the greatest number), 2) retention of patients, 3) privacy, 4) parental involvement, 5) familiarity of the modality to clinicians, 6) intensity (intervention type matches symptom acuity and impairment of patient), 7) burden to the clinician (in terms of time, travel, and inconvenience), 8) cost, 9) technology needs, and 10) effect size. Traditionally, after every new disaster, local leaders who have never done so before have had to be recruited to design, administer, and implement programs. Conclusion: As expertise in all of these areas represents a gap for most local professionals in disaster-affected areas, we propose that a central, nongovernmental agency with national or international scope be created that can consult flexibly with local leaders following disasters on both overarching and specific issues. We propose recommendations and point out areas in greatest need of innovation. PMID:24521227

  17. Physician-facilitated designation of proxy decision maker.

    PubMed

    Arora, Amit; Cummings, Laura; Crome, Peter

    2016-01-01

    With vast improvements in healthcare in recent decades, people are living longer but often with higher rates of morbidity and chronic illnesses. This has resulted in a higher proportion of the population who may benefit from early end-of-life 'conversation and planning', but also gives healthcare professionals more time during which these discussions are relevant, as people live longer with their chronic diseases. A survey conducted by Lifshitz et al (Isr J Health Policy Res 5:6, 2016) sought to assess physician awareness and willingness to discuss designating a proxy decision-maker with patients, in order to aid end-of-life care in the event that the patient is rendered unable to make or communicate these decisions later in life. Their article suggests that proxy decision-maker designation is only one aspect of end-of-life care; a challenging area littered with ethical and moral dilemmas. Without early, open and frank discussions with patients regarding their wishes at the end of life, proxy decision-makers may be in no better position than physicians or a court appointed proxy to make decisions in the patients' best interests/benefits. This commentary also touches upon the use of health and care passports being developed or in early phases in the United Kingdom, and whether these may be utilised in the field of palliative care in Israel.

  18. Physician-facilitated designation of proxy decision maker.

    PubMed

    Arora, Amit; Cummings, Laura; Crome, Peter

    2016-01-01

    With vast improvements in healthcare in recent decades, people are living longer but often with higher rates of morbidity and chronic illnesses. This has resulted in a higher proportion of the population who may benefit from early end-of-life 'conversation and planning', but also gives healthcare professionals more time during which these discussions are relevant, as people live longer with their chronic diseases. A survey conducted by Lifshitz et al (Isr J Health Policy Res 5:6, 2016) sought to assess physician awareness and willingness to discuss designating a proxy decision-maker with patients, in order to aid end-of-life care in the event that the patient is rendered unable to make or communicate these decisions later in life. Their article suggests that proxy decision-maker designation is only one aspect of end-of-life care; a challenging area littered with ethical and moral dilemmas. Without early, open and frank discussions with patients regarding their wishes at the end of life, proxy decision-makers may be in no better position than physicians or a court appointed proxy to make decisions in the patients' best interests/benefits. This commentary also touches upon the use of health and care passports being developed or in early phases in the United Kingdom, and whether these may be utilised in the field of palliative care in Israel. PMID:27358723

  19. Process-Based Governance in Public Administrations Using Activity-Based Costing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Jörg; Bergener, Philipp; Räckers, Michael

    Decision- and policy-makers in public administrations currently lack on missing relevant information for sufficient governance. In Germany the introduction of New Public Management and double-entry accounting enable public administrations to get the opportunity to use cost-centered accounting mechanisms to establish new governance mechanisms. Process modelling in this case can be a useful instrument to help the public administrations decision- and policy-makers to structure their activities and capture relevant information. In combination with approaches like Activity-Based Costing, higher management level can be supported with a reasonable data base for fruitful and reasonable governance approaches. Therefore, the aim of this article is combining the public sector domain specific process modelling method PICTURE and concept of activity-based costing for supporting Public Administrations in process-based Governance.

  20. A scientist's guide to engaging decision makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vano, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Being trained as a scientist provides many valuable tools needed to address society's most pressing environmental issues. It does not, however, provide training on one of the most critical for translating science into action: the ability to engage decision makers. Engagement means different things to different people and what is appropriate for one project might not be for another. However, recent reports have emphasized that for research to be most useful to decision making, engagement should happen at the beginning and throughout the research process. There are an increasing number of boundary organizations (e.g., NOAA's Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessment program, U.S. Department of the Interior's Climate Science Centers) where engagement is encouraged and rewarded, and scientists are learning, often through trial and error, how to effectively include decision makers (a.k.a. stakeholders, practitioners, resource managers) in their research process. This presentation highlights best practices and practices to avoid when scientists engage decision makers, a list compiled through the personal experiences of both scientists and decision makers and a literature review, and how this collective knowledge could be shared, such as through a recent session and role-playing exercise given at the Northwest Climate Science Center's Climate Boot Camp. These ideas are presented in an effort to facilitate conversations about how the science community (e.g., AGU researchers) can become better prepared for effective collaborations with decision makers that will ultimately result in more actionable science.

  1. Key Lessons about Induction for Policy Makers and Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wayne, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to digest the core chapters of this volume, which draws together some of the most sophisticated thinking on new teacher induction from the last decade. This chapter attends to five key understandings about induction programs, including their context, design, implementation, and outcomes. These understandings emerge…

  2. CLIL Implementation: From Policy-Makers to Individual Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Zarobe, Yolanda Ruiz

    2013-01-01

    Since Do Coyle and Hugo Baetens Beardsmore published their Special Issue on "Research on Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL)" in the "International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism" in 2007, there has been a great deal of interest and debate about the approach, which under the umbrella term of Content and Language…

  3. Resilience by Design: Bringing Science to Policy Makers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Lucile M.

    2015-01-01

    No one questions that Los Angeles has an earthquake problem. The “Big Bend” of the San Andreas fault in southern California complicates the plate boundary between the North American and Pacific plates, creating a convergent component to the primarily transform boundary. The Southern California Earthquake Center Community Fault Model has over 150 fault segments, each capable of generating a damaging earthquake, in an area with more than 23 million residents (Fig. 1). A Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) analysis of the expected losses from all future earthquakes in the National Seismic Hazard Maps (Petersen et al., 2014) predicts an annual average of more than $3 billion per year in the eight counties of southern California, with half of those losses in Los Angeles County alone (Federal Emergency Management Agency [FEMA], 2008). According to Swiss Re, one of the world’s largest reinsurance companies, Los Angeles faces one of the greatest risks of catastrophic losses from earthquakes of any city in the world, eclipsed only by Tokyo, Jakarta, and Manila (Swiss Re, 2013).

  4. The transition in practice: policy makers and purchasers.

    PubMed

    Bevan, B

    1997-05-01

    The transition to CFC-free pressurised metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) is not optional and cannot be ignored. The UK Government intends that CFCs will be removed from all medicinal products by the end of 1999. An overall strategy is needed to guide health professionals and patients through the transition process. Collaborative working between the pharmaceutical industry, health authorities and relevant health professionals is essential to ensure a smooth transition with minimal disruption to patients. The factors that need to be taken into consideration for a smooth transition and the role of national and local drivers in this process are outlined. The main focus around change must be on patients' confidence in their medication.

  5. 17 CFR 240.11a1-5 - Transactions by registered competitive market makers and registered equity market makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... competitive market makers and registered equity market makers. 240.11a1-5 Section 240.11a1-5 Commodity and... registered equity market makers. Any transaction by a New York Stock Exchange registered competitive market maker or an American Stock Exchange registered equity market maker effected in compliance with...

  6. 17 CFR 240.11a1-5 - Transactions by registered competitive market makers and registered equity market makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... competitive market makers and registered equity market makers. 240.11a1-5 Section 240.11a1-5 Commodity and... registered equity market makers. Any transaction by a New York Stock Exchange registered competitive market maker or an American Stock Exchange registered equity market maker effected in compliance with...

  7. Public Policy and College Management. Title III of the Higher Education Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Edward P.

    Management development in higher education, particularly improvements in the capacity of institutions to generate viable future plans and to manage scarce resources, has become an increasingly important agenda item to administrators and policy-makers during the past decade. This book attempts to develop frameworks for improving management and…

  8. Professional Conversations about Race, Culture and Language in Early Childhood Literacy Education: An Administrator's Journey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosso-Taylor, Sabina Maria

    2013-01-01

    Year after year, children of Color, speakers of languages other than English, and children of poverty are served less well in public schools then their White, middle-class peers. The lives of children from White, middle-class homes are regularly normalized as they are described by teachers, administrators, policy makers, and educational programs…

  9. Attitudes toward Merit Pay for Instructional Personnel: A Survey of Florida Public District Policy Makers and Administrators. The Relationship of Expectancy Work Motivation, Selected Situational Variables and Locus of Control to Teacher Job Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiegman, John R.; Binnie, David G.

    1985-01-01

    This research bulletin contains parts of two studies dealing with the persistent problem of developing effective teachers and stimulating effective teaching. The study reported in "Attitudes toward Merit Pay for Instructional Personnel" (John Weigman) was conducted to survey, analyze, and compare the attitudes of Florida public school district…

  10. The Morality of University Decision-Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatier, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    Ethical failures in UK higher education have recently made the news but are not a recent development. University decision-makers can, in order to adopt an ethical way of reasoning, resort to several ethical traditions. This article focuses, through the use of concrete examples, on three which have had a significant impact in recent higher…

  11. Worksite Nutrition: A Decision-Maker's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Dietetic Association, Chicago, IL.

    This guide is designed specifically to assist decision makers in business and industry, including chief executive officers, benefits managers, human resource directors, wellness coordinators, and owners of small businesses, in understanding how diet and nutrition affect employees and the company. It addresses the concerns of both small and large…

  12. Taming the Beast: Policy-based Solutions for Addressing Corporate Interference in Climate Policy Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grifo, F.

    2012-12-01

    Inappropriate corporate influence in science-based policy has been a persistent problem in the United States across multiple issue areas and through many administrations. Interference in climate change policy has been especially pervasive in recent years, with tremendous levels of corporate resources being utilized to spread misinformation on climate science and reduce and postpone regulatory action. Much of the influence exerted by these forces is concealed from public view. Better corporate disclosure laws would reveal who is influencing climate policy to policy makers, investors, and the public. Greater transparency in the political activity of corporate actors is needed to shed light on who is responsible for the misinformation campaigns clouding the discussion around climate change in the United States. Such transparency will empower diverse stakeholders to hold corporations accountable. Specific federal policy reforms can be made in order to guide the nation down a path of greater corporate accountability in climate change policy efforts.

  13. Impact of Federal Legislation and Policy on VR Services for Consumers Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: Perspectives of Agency Administrators and Program Specialists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Glenn B.; Boone, Steven E.; Watson, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    The authors report on a national survey of administrators and program specialists at 43 state vocational rehabilitation (VR) agencies concerning the impact of federal employment legislation and rehabilitation policies on the provision of services to consumers who are deaf or hard of hearing. The article focuses on 5 initiatives enacted to enhance…

  14. Ideological pathways to policy and practice.

    PubMed

    Levy, C S

    1983-01-01

    Social policy is a reflection of changing ideological stances; and ideological stances are influenced by social conditions and events. Policy-makers and social welfare administrators need to be acutely aware of the existing ideologies and the subtle or dramatic shifts as they occur and affect perceptions of clients, programmatic components, and the nature of social service delivery. The author offers a dichotomy of ideological positions as they are applied to the issues of social problems vs sub-populations, societal vs individual responsibility, residual vs institutional welfare, enforceable rights vs revocable privilege, existential vs preferential attention to social needs, government regulation vs deregulation, and governmental aid vs voluntary philanthropy.

  15. The legislative structuring of insanity acquittee policies.

    PubMed

    Linhorst, D M

    1997-01-01

    Using Missouri's insanity acquittee system as a case study, this analysis explores the extent to which legislation can structure the implementation of mental health policy. It found that Missouri's insanity acquittee legislation substantially structured policy implementation toward its primary goal of public safety. It did so (a) by including actors from both the criminal justice and mental health systems in the insanity acquittee release process, (b) by specifying procedures and criteria for the commitment and release of insanity acquittees, and (c) by requiring monthly monitoring of insanity acquittees released into the community and funding the staff positions to conduct the monitoring. The ability of legislation to structure policy implementation highlights the need for active involvement by mental health policy makers in the legislative process to shape policy goals and to structure implementation to support the interests of the mental health community. Without this involvement, implementation options available to mental health administrators may be severely limited.

  16. 10 CFR 429.45 - Automatic commercial ice makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Automatic commercial ice makers. 429.45 Section 429.45... PRODUCTS AND COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.45 Automatic commercial ice makers. (a... automatic commercial ice makers; and (2) For each basic model of automatic commercial ice maker selected...

  17. 10 CFR 429.45 - Automatic commercial ice makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Automatic commercial ice makers. 429.45 Section 429.45... PRODUCTS AND COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.45 Automatic commercial ice makers. (a... automatic commercial ice makers; and (2) For each basic model of automatic commercial ice maker selected...

  18. 10 CFR 429.45 - Automatic commercial ice makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Automatic commercial ice makers. 429.45 Section 429.45... PRODUCTS AND COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.45 Automatic commercial ice makers. (a... automatic commercial ice makers; and (2) For each basic model of automatic commercial ice maker selected...

  19. Climate modeling with decision makers in mind

    DOE PAGES

    Jones, Andrew; Calvin, Katherine; Lamarque, Jean -Francois

    2016-04-27

    The need for regional- and local-scale climate information is increasing rapidly as decision makers seek to anticipate and manage a variety of context-specific climate risks over the next several decades. Furthermore, global climate models are not developed with these user needs in mind, and they typically operate at resolutions that are too coarse to provide information that could be used to support regional and local decisions.

  20. Mapping with the Masses: Google Map Maker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfund, J.

    2008-12-01

    After some 15,000 years of map making, which saw the innovations of cardinal directions, map projections for a spherical earth, and GIS analysis, many parts of the world still appear as the "Dark Continent" on modern maps. Google Map Maker intends to shine a light on these areas by tapping into the power of the GeoWeb. Google Map Maker is a website which allows you to collaborate with others on one unified map to add, edit, locate, describe, and moderate map features, such as roads, cities, businesses, parks, schools and more, for certain regions of the world using Google Maps imagery. In this session, we will show some examples of how people are mapping with this powerful tool as well as what they are doing with the data. With Google Map Maker, you can become a citizen cartographer and join the global network of users helping to improve the quality of maps and local information in your region of interest. You are invited to map the world with us!

  1. SCIENCE, SCIENTISTS, AND POLICY ADVOCACY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effectively resolving the typical ecological policy issue requires providing an array of scientific information to decision-makers. In my experience, the ability of scientists (and scientific information) to inform constructively ecological policy deliberations has been diminishe...

  2. Eco-informatics for decision makers advancing a research agenda

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cushing, J.B.; Wilson, T.; Brandt, L.; Gregg, V.; Spengler, S.; Borning, A.; Delcambre, L.; Bowker, G.; Frame, M.; Fulop, J.; Hert, C.; Hovy, E.; Jones, J.; Landis, E.; Schnase, J.L.; Schweik, C.; Sonntag, W.; ,

    2005-01-01

    Resource managers often face significant information technology (IT) problems when integrating ecological or environmental information to make decisions. At a workshop sponsored by the NSF and USGS in December 2004, university researchers, natural resource managers, and information managers met to articulate IT problems facing ecology and environmental decision makers. Decision making IT problems were identified in five areas: 1) policy, 2) data presentation, 3) data gaps, 4) tools, and 5) indicators. To alleviate those problems, workshop participants recommended specific informatics research in modeling and simulation, data quality, information integration and ontologies, and social and human aspects. This paper reports the workshop findings, and briefly compares these with research that traditionally falls under the emerging eco-informatics rubric. ?? Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005.

  3. Emodnet Med Sea Check-Point - Indicators for decision- maker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besnard, Sophie; Claverie, Vincent; Blanc, Frédérique

    2015-04-01

    The Emodnet Checkpoint projects aim is to assess the cost-effectiveness, reliability and utility of the existing monitoring at the sea basin level. This involves the development of monitoring system indicators and a GIS Platform to perform the assessment and make it available. Assessment or production of Check-Point information is made by developing targeted products based on the monitoring data and determining whether the products are meeting the needs of industry and public authorities. Check-point users are the research community, the 'institutional' policy makers for IMP and MSFD implementation, the 'intermediate users', i.e., users capable to understand basic raw data but that benefit from seeing the Checkpoint targeted products and the assessment of the fitness for purpose. We define assessment criteria aimed to characterize/depict the input datasets in terms of 3 territories capable to show performance and gaps of the present monitoring system, appropriateness, availability and fitness for purpose. • Appropriateness: What is made available to users? What motivate/decide them to select this observation rather than this one. • Availability: How this is made available to the user? Place to understand the readiness and service performance of the EU infrastructure • Fitness for use / fitness for purpose: Ability for non-expert user to appreciate the data exploitability (feedback on efficiency & reliability of marine data) For each territory (appropriateness, Availability and Fitness for purpose / for use), we define several indicators. For example, for Availability we define Visibility, Accessibility and Performance. And Visibility is itself defined by "Easily found" and "EU service". So these indicators can be classified according to their territory and sub-territory as seen above, but also according to the complexity to build them. Indicators are built from raw descriptors in 3 stages:  Stage 1: to give a neutral and basic status directly computed from

  4. Indochina Policy for the Next Administration. Report of the Strategy for Peace, US Foreign Policy Conference (29th, Warrenton, Virginia, October 13-15, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, IA.

    Recommended guidelines for U.S. policy toward Cambodia, Vietnam, and Laos were developed by a bipartisan group of experts. General premises are stated first, followed by specific recommendations on how to assist in bringing about a settlement in Cambodia; how to pursue U.S. bilateral relations with Vietnam on refugees, the prisoner of war/missing…

  5. The co-production of a "relevant" expertise administrative and scientific cooperation in the French water policies elaboration and implementation since the 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deroubaix, J. F.

    2008-08-01

    This paper aims at understanding the social and political uses of the principle of integrated management and its possible impacts on the elaboration and implementation processes of public policies in the French water management sector. The academic and political innovations developed by scientists and agents of the administration these last 25 years are analysed, using some of the theoretical tools developed by the science studies and public policy analysis. We first focus on the construction of intellectual public policy communities such as the GIP Hydro systems, at the origin of large interdisciplinary research programs in the 1990s. A common cognitive framework is clearly built during this period on the good governance of the aquatic ecosystems and on the corresponding needs and practices of research. The second part of the paper focuses on the possibilities to build political communities and more or less integrated expertises in the decision making processes concerning various issues related to water management. Eutrophication and its inscription on the French political agenda is a very significant case for analysing the difficulty to build such a political community. On the contrary, when there is an opportunity for policy evaluation, which was the case concerning the management of wetlands in France or the implementation of compulsory flows on the French rivers, these communities can emerge. However, the type of integrated expertise and management proposed in these cases of policy evaluations much depends on their methodological choices.

  6. Combining communication technology utilization and organizational innovation: evidence from Canadian healthcare decision makers.

    PubMed

    Jbilou, Jalila; Landry, Réjean; Amara, Nabil; El Adlouni, Salaheddine

    2009-08-01

    engaging in activities of research acquisition, the administrative position (being a manager), the preference for applied research results as source of information, the degree of novelty of research results, and the gender. Modern Canadian healthcare organizations need contemporary decision makers who use ICT and develop OI, if performance is the target. Our results let us suggest that the isolated administrative agents profile is no more effective in a dynamic and changing world. Contemporary decision makers need to be more active intellectually and to take risks in their decisions. Relying exclusively on research results and on their social network is no more helpful for a real shift. Moreover, the traditional factors, i.e. organization size, time, experience ... are no more effective, especially when we consider combined roles. We propose some practical and theoretical recommendations to support these changes.

  7. Policy-Related Research on Women in the Southwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monk, Janice; And Others

    The document briefly discusses approaches to research of benefit to policy makers and reviews current policy-related research on and by women in the southwestern United States. The authors suggest that research would better benefit policy makers if it included alternative policy solutions to problems rather than suggesting further research needs…

  8. E's Are Good: Standards of Quality in Public Administration as Reflected in Discourse on Canadian Public Policy Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Dana Lee; Miller, Audrey Anna; Bratton, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Promoting understanding of quality in the context of good governance can be a challenging classroom exercise not only because of the potential for hijacking politicization of the discussion, but also because of the variety of ways in which public sector goals can be defined, even in the context of a single policy. Standards of quality in the…

  9. Administrative Agents, Policy Partners, and Political Catalysts: A Structural Perspective on the Interactions of Governmental and Nonprofit Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyszomirski, Margaret J.

    1989-01-01

    Notes the blurring of boundaries between public and private sectors, pointing out that the interaction between governmental and non-profit agencies is increasing in the areas of public policy. Argues that these increasing interactions need to be integrated into the political science curriculum. (GG)

  10. Fateful Decisions 1945-1972: The United States' Vietnam Policies in Five Presidential Administrations. A Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Louise A.; Robinson, Natalie

    This curriculum unit for the study of Vietnam policy has the following goals: (1) student awareness and examination of alternatives to war; (2) student understanding of the process and elements involved in governmental decision making, including that of public opinion; (3) student understanding of their responsibilities and rights as citizens in a…

  11. Universal Access to Post-Secondary Education: Some Policy and Administrative Observations from British Open University Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Colin; Glatter, Ron

    The British Open University (OU) offers university degree programs to adults who are employed and study at home. It does so through a nationwide universal access (open admission) policy. A key feature of this program is that it imposes traditional university standards of excellence. Access is not limited by formal entry requirements, geography,…

  12. Assessing ground-water vulnerability to contamination: Providing scientifically defensible information for decision makers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Focazio, Michael J.; Reilly, Thomas E.; Rupert, Michael G.; Helsel, Dennis R.

    2002-01-01

    Throughout the United States increasing demands for safe drinking water and requirements to maintain healthy ecosystems are leading policy makers to ask complex social and scientific questions about how to assess and manage our water resources. This challenge becomes particularly difficult as policy and management objectives require scientific assessments of the potential for ground-water resources to become contaminated from anthropogenic, as well as natural sources of contamination. Assessments of the vulnerability of ground water to contamination range in scope and complexity from simple, qualitative, and relatively inexpensive approaches to rigorous, quantitative, and costly assessments. Tradeoffs must be carefully considered among the competing influences of the cost of an assessment, the scientific defensibility, and the amount of acceptable uncertainty in meeting the objectives of the water-resource decision maker.

  13. Case study of municipal air pollution policies: Houston's Air Toxic Control Strategy under the White Administration, 2004-2009.

    PubMed

    Bruhl, Rebecca J; Linder, Stephen H; Sexton, Ken

    2013-05-01

    Local government has traditionally played only a minor role in regulating airborne toxic pollutants. However, from 2004 to 2009, the City of Houston implemented a novel, municipality-based air toxics reduction strategy to address what it considered unacceptable health risks and an insufficient regulatory response from state and federal agencies. The city's effort to exert local control over stationary sources of air toxics represents a unique opportunity to study the selection and performance of policy tools and to consider their ramifications for the design of future air pollution control strategies. The results of this case study demonstrate the potential for municipal government to use a combination of cooperative and confrontational policies to stimulate responses from private industry and state and federal regulators as part of a strategy to address local air quality problems.

  14. Reaching Local Decision Makers through the OhioView Remote Sensing Consortium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czajkowski, K. P.

    2002-05-01

    Remote sensing technology has been slow to move out of the research lab and into public use. A primary goal of the OhioView Consortium, a consortium of ten Ohio universities working together to spread remote sensing, is to take application-based research and make the results useful to the public. In particular, the group is working to remove the barriers to the use of satellite imagery including costs of imagery and software and training of policy makers. Through collaboration with the Ohio Library and Information Network (OhioLINK), OhioView is disseminating Landsat 7 imagery over Ohio with 30 percent cloud cover or less over the internet for free. In addition, OhioView has provided remote sensing software for local government agencies. As part of the OhoView Consortium, the Department of Geography and Planning at the University of Toledo has worked with policy makers on local issues that can benefit from the addition of satellite imagery. Northwest Ohio traditionally is a region of heavy industry rather than high technology. Few policy makers or environmental consultants had considered using satellite imagery in their work. We will discuss the results of this collaboration from a project we are currently conducting with local government groups to identify wetlands. Wetlands once covered over 90 percent of Northwest Ohio. Through draining, they have virtually disappeared. The goal of this project was to produce a map of existing wetlands in Northwest Ohio that could be used by government officials to make development decisions.

  15. The Effectiveness of the Mathematics, Engineering, Science Achievement (MESA) Program's Administrative and Policy-Making Processes. A Report to the Legislature in Response to Assembly Bill 610 (1985). Commission Report 89-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Postsecondary Education Commission, Sacramento.

    The Mathematics, Engineering, Science Achievement (MESA) Program was established in 1970 to increase the number of minority students in college programs. This paper reports the MESA administrative operations and policy-making processes. Part 1 summarizes the background of this study. Part 2 describes MESA's administrative operations and provides…

  16. Action Research and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman-Peck, Lorraine; Murray, Jane

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between action research and policy and the kind of confidence teachers, policy makers and other potential users may have in such research. Many published teacher action research accounts are criticised on the grounds that they do not fully meet the conventional standards for reporting social scientific…

  17. Cost-Effectiveness and Educational Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Henry M.

    1988-01-01

    Techniques of cost-effectiveness analysis and their applications to educational policy are discussed. Recommendations are made to increase the capacity of evaluators, policy analysts, and decision makers to use these tools appropriately for resource allocation. (SLD)

  18. To what extent are Canadian second language policies evidence-based? Reflections on the intersections of research and policy

    PubMed Central

    Cummins, Jim

    2014-01-01

    The paper addresses the intersections between research findings and Canadian educational policies focusing on four major areas: (a) core and immersion programs for the teaching of French to Anglophone students, (b) policies concerning the learning of English and French by students from immigrant backgrounds, (c) heritage language teaching, and (d) the education of Deaf and hard-of hearing students. With respect to the teaching of French, policy-makers have largely ignored the fact that most core French programs produce meager results for the vast majority of students. Only a small proportion of students (<10%) attend more effective alternatives (e.g., French immersion and Intensive French programs). With respect to immigrant-background students, a large majority of teachers and administrators have not had opportunities to access the knowledge base regarding effective instruction for these students nor have they had opportunities for pre-service or in-service professional development regarding effective instructional practices. Educational policies in most jurisdictions have also treated the linguistic resources that children bring to school with, at best, benign neglect. In some cases (e.g., Ontario) school systems have been explicitly prohibited from instituting enrichment bilingual programs that would promote students’ bilingualism and biliteracy. Finally, with respect to Deaf students, policy-makers have ignored overwhelming research on the positive relationship between academic success and the development of proficiency in natural sign languages, preferring instead to leave uncorrected the proposition that acquisition of languages such as American Sign Language by young children (with or without cochlear implants) will impede children’s language and academic development. The paper reviews the kinds of policies, programs, and practices that could be implemented (at no additional cost) if policy-makers and educators pursued evidence-based educational policies

  19. To what extent are Canadian second language policies evidence-based? Reflections on the intersections of research and policy.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Jim

    2014-01-01

    THE PAPER ADDRESSES THE INTERSECTIONS BETWEEN RESEARCH FINDINGS AND CANADIAN EDUCATIONAL POLICIES FOCUSING ON FOUR MAJOR AREAS: (a) core and immersion programs for the teaching of French to Anglophone students, (b) policies concerning the learning of English and French by students from immigrant backgrounds, (c) heritage language teaching, and (d) the education of Deaf and hard-of hearing students. With respect to the teaching of French, policy-makers have largely ignored the fact that most core French programs produce meager results for the vast majority of students. Only a small proportion of students (<10%) attend more effective alternatives (e.g., French immersion and Intensive French programs). With respect to immigrant-background students, a large majority of teachers and administrators have not had opportunities to access the knowledge base regarding effective instruction for these students nor have they had opportunities for pre-service or in-service professional development regarding effective instructional practices. Educational policies in most jurisdictions have also treated the linguistic resources that children bring to school with, at best, benign neglect. In some cases (e.g., Ontario) school systems have been explicitly prohibited from instituting enrichment bilingual programs that would promote students' bilingualism and biliteracy. Finally, with respect to Deaf students, policy-makers have ignored overwhelming research on the positive relationship between academic success and the development of proficiency in natural sign languages, preferring instead to leave uncorrected the proposition that acquisition of languages such as American Sign Language by young children (with or without cochlear implants) will impede children's language and academic development. The paper reviews the kinds of policies, programs, and practices that could be implemented (at no additional cost) if policy-makers and educators pursued evidence-based educational policies.

  20. To what extent are Canadian second language policies evidence-based? Reflections on the intersections of research and policy.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Jim

    2014-01-01

    THE PAPER ADDRESSES THE INTERSECTIONS BETWEEN RESEARCH FINDINGS AND CANADIAN EDUCATIONAL POLICIES FOCUSING ON FOUR MAJOR AREAS: (a) core and immersion programs for the teaching of French to Anglophone students, (b) policies concerning the learning of English and French by students from immigrant backgrounds, (c) heritage language teaching, and (d) the education of Deaf and hard-of hearing students. With respect to the teaching of French, policy-makers have largely ignored the fact that most core French programs produce meager results for the vast majority of students. Only a small proportion of students (<10%) attend more effective alternatives (e.g., French immersion and Intensive French programs). With respect to immigrant-background students, a large majority of teachers and administrators have not had opportunities to access the knowledge base regarding effective instruction for these students nor have they had opportunities for pre-service or in-service professional development regarding effective instructional practices. Educational policies in most jurisdictions have also treated the linguistic resources that children bring to school with, at best, benign neglect. In some cases (e.g., Ontario) school systems have been explicitly prohibited from instituting enrichment bilingual programs that would promote students' bilingualism and biliteracy. Finally, with respect to Deaf students, policy-makers have ignored overwhelming research on the positive relationship between academic success and the development of proficiency in natural sign languages, preferring instead to leave uncorrected the proposition that acquisition of languages such as American Sign Language by young children (with or without cochlear implants) will impede children's language and academic development. The paper reviews the kinds of policies, programs, and practices that could be implemented (at no additional cost) if policy-makers and educators pursued evidence-based educational policies

  1. [Workplace health promotion in public health policies in Poland].

    PubMed

    Puchalski, Krzysztof; Korzeniowska, Elzbieta

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the author analyses how far in Poland the idea of workplace health promotion (WHP) does exist in the area of public health understood in its broadest sense. The analysis encapsulates the following issues: (a) the national legislative policy, (b) strategies, programs and projects concerning health issues launched or coordinated by the state or local administration, (c) grassroots initiatives for health promotion supported by local and regional administration, (d) civic projects or business strategies for health. In addition, the author emphasizes the marginalization of workplace health promotion and lack of cohesive policy in this field as well as, the fact that health problems of the working population arising from current demographic, technological, economic and social changes that could be dealt with through developing and implementing WHP projects are not yet fully perceived by public health policy makers.

  2. The medical decision model and decision maker tools for management of radiological and nuclear incidents.

    PubMed

    Koerner, John F; Coleman, C Norman; Murrain-Hill, Paula; FitzGerald, Denis J; Sullivan, Julie M

    2014-06-01

    Effective decision making during a rapidly evolving emergency such as a radiological or nuclear incident requires timely interim decisions and communications from onsite decision makers while further data processing, consultation, and review are ongoing by reachback experts. The authors have recently proposed a medical decision model for use during a radiological or nuclear disaster, which is similar in concept to that used in medical care, especially when delay in action can have disastrous effects. For decision makers to function most effectively during a complex response, they require access to onsite subject matter experts who can provide information, recommendations, and participate in public communication efforts. However, in the time before this expertise is available or during the planning phase, just-in-time tools are essential that provide critical overview of the subject matter written specifically for the decision makers. Recognizing the complexity of the science, risk assessment, and multitude of potential response assets that will be required after a nuclear incident, the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, in collaboration with other government and non-government experts, has prepared a practical guide for decision makers. This paper illustrates how the medical decision model process could facilitate onsite decision making that includes using the deliberative reachback process from science and policy experts and describes the tools now available to facilitate timely and effective incident management. PMID:24776895

  3. Job Grading Standard for Model Maker, WG-4714.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civil Service Commission, Washington, DC. Bureau of Policies and Standards.

    The pamphlet explains the different job requirements for different grades of model maker (WG-14 and WG-15) and contrasts them to the position of premium journeyman. It includes comment on what a model maker is (a nonsupervisory job involved in planning and fabricating complex research and prototype models which are made from a variety of materials…

  4. Effective Engagement of Decision Makers in Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegarty, Timothy W.; Sporn, Douglas L.

    1988-01-01

    Techniques developed in a federal agency to forge links between evaluators and decision makers using evaluation information are described. Focus is on engaging the decision maker in the identification of candidate programs, selection among candidates, program evaluation, reporting of evaluation results, and assessment of evaluation impact. (SLD)

  5. Maker Movement Spreads Innovation One Project at a Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peppler, Kylie; Bender, Sophia

    2013-01-01

    The maker movement consists of a growing culture of hands-on making, creating, designing, and innovating. A hallmark of the maker movement is its do-it-yourself (or do-it-with-others) mindset that brings individuals together around a range of activities, both high- and low-tech, all involving some form of creation or repair. The movement's…

  6. Role Perceptions of Black Decision Makers: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzzell, Odell

    1981-01-01

    A study in Wake County, North Carolina, designed to determine how racist structural barriers influence role perceptions of Black decision makers, identified the following discriminators of role perceptions: 1) officials' perceptions of themselves as decision makers or decision influencers; 2) age; 3) racial composition of organization; 4)…

  7. Opening Pandora's Box: Texas Elementary Campus Administrators use of Educational Policy And Highly Qualified Classroom Teachers Professional Development through Data-informed Decisions for Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Linda Lou

    Federal educational policy, No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, focused attention on America's education with conspicuous results. One aspect, highly qualified classroom teacher and principal (HQ), was taxing since states established individual accountability structures. The HQ impact and use of data-informed decision-making (DIDM) for Texas elementary science education monitoring by campus administrators, Campus Instruction Leader (CILs), provides crucial relationships to 5th grade students' learning and achievement. Forty years research determined improved student results when sustained, supported, and focused professional development (PD) for teachers is available. Using mixed methods research, this study applied quantitative and qualitative analysis from two, electronic, on-line surveys: Texas Elementary, Intermediate or Middle School Teacher Survey(c) and the Texas Elementary Campus Administrator Survey(c) with results from 22.3% Texas school districts representing 487 elementary campuses surveyed. Participants selected in random, stratified sampling of 5th grade teachers who attended local Texas Regional Collaboratives science professional development (PD) programs between 2003-2008. Survey information compared statistically to campus-level average passing rate scores on the 5th grade science TAKS using Statistical Process Software (SPSS). Written comments from both surveys analyzed with Qualitative Survey Research (NVivo) software. Due to the level of uncertainty of variables within a large statewide study, Mauchly's Test of Sphericity statistical test used to validate repeated measures factor ANOVAs. Although few individual results were statistically significant, when jointly analyzed, striking constructs were revealed regarding the impact of HQ policy applications and elementary CILs use of data-informed decisions on improving 5th grade students' achievement and teachers' PD learning science content. Some constructs included the use of data

  8. Federal Tuition Tax Credits and State Higher Education Policy: A Guide for State Policy Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Kristin D.

    The federal government enacted the Taxpayer Relief Act in 1997. Whereas other federal student aid programs have used grants, scholarships, and loans to help students and their families finance college, the new law has made college more affordable by providing new federal income tax credits, savings incentives, and deductions for interest paid on…

  9. Examining the Educative Aims and Practices of Decision-Makers in Sport for Development and Peace Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Per G.; Hancock, Meg G.; Hums, Mary A.

    2016-01-01

    Sport for Development and Peace (SDP) policy-makers and practitioners continue to offer ambitious claims regarding the potential role of sport-based programs for promoting social change. Yet, it is important to put sport under a critical lens in order to develop a more balanced and realistic understanding of the role of sport in society. Whether…

  10. The Current Mind-Set of Federal Information Security Decision-Makers on the Value of Governance: An Informative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroup, Jay Walter

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mind-set or perceptions of organizational leaders and decision-makers is important to ascertaining the trends and priorities in policy and governance of the organization. This study finds that a significant shift in the mind-set of government IT and information security leaders has started and will likely result in placing a…

  11. The Food and Drug Administration Office of Women's Health: Impact of Science on Regulatory Policy: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Elahi, Merina; Eshera, Noha; Bambata, Nkosazana; Barr, Helen; Lyn-Cook, Beverly; Beitz, Julie; Rios, Maria; Taylor, Deborah R.; Lightfoote, Marilyn; Hanafi, Nada; DeJager, Lowri; Wiesenfeld, Paddy; Scott, Pamela E.; Henderson, Marsha B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The U.S. Food and Drug Administration Office of Women's Health (FDA OWH) has supported women's health research for ∼20 years, funding more than 300 studies on women's health issues, including research on diseases/conditions that disproportionately affect women in addition to the evaluation of sex differences in the performance of and response to medical products. These important women's health issues are studied from a regulatory perspective, with a focus on improving and optimizing medical product development and the evaluation of product safety and efficacy in women. These findings have influenced industry direction, labeling, product discontinuation, safety notices, and clinical practice. In addition, OWH-funded research has addressed gaps in the knowledge about diseases and medical conditions that impact women across the life span such as cardiovascular disease, pregnancy, menopause, osteoporosis, and the safe use of numerous medical products. PMID:26871618

  12. An analytical framework to assist decision makers in the use of forest ecosystem model predictions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larocque, Guy R.; Bhatti, Jagtar S.; Ascough, J.C.; Liu, J.; Luckai, N.; Mailly, D.; Archambault, L.; Gordon, Andrew M.

    2011-01-01

    The predictions from most forest ecosystem models originate from deterministic simulations. However, few evaluation exercises for model outputs are performed by either model developers or users. This issue has important consequences for decision makers using these models to develop natural resource management policies, as they cannot evaluate the extent to which predictions stemming from the simulation of alternative management scenarios may result in significant environmental or economic differences. Various numerical methods, such as sensitivity/uncertainty analyses, or bootstrap methods, may be used to evaluate models and the errors associated with their outputs. However, the application of each of these methods carries unique challenges which decision makers do not necessarily understand; guidance is required when interpreting the output generated from each model. This paper proposes a decision flow chart in the form of an analytical framework to help decision makers apply, in an orderly fashion, different steps involved in examining the model outputs. The analytical framework is discussed with regard to the definition of problems and objectives and includes the following topics: model selection, identification of alternatives, modelling tasks and selecting alternatives for developing policy or implementing management scenarios. Its application is illustrated using an on-going exercise in developing silvicultural guidelines for a forest management enterprise in Ontario, Canada. ?? 2010.

  13. Medicare program; revision to accrual basis of accounting policy. Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA), HHS. Final rule.

    PubMed

    1999-09-27

    Medicare policy provides that payroll taxes that a provider becomes obligated to remit to governmental agencies are included in allowable costs only in the cost reporting period in which payment (upon which the payroll taxes are based) is actually made to an employee. Therefore, for payroll accrued in 1 year but not paid until the next year, the associated payroll taxes are not an allowable cost until the next year. This final rule provides for an exception when payment would be made to the employee in the current year but for the fact the regularly scheduled payment date is after the end of the year. In that case, the rule requires allowance in the current year of accrued taxes on payroll that is accrued through the end of the year but not paid until the beginning of the next year, thus allowing accrued taxes on end-of-the year payroll in the same year that the accrual of the payroll itself is allowed. The effect of this rule is not on the allowability of cost but rather only on the timing of payment; that is, the cost of payroll taxes on end-of-the-year payroll is allowable in the current period rather than in the following period. PMID:11010708

  14. Evidence and Impact: How Scholarship Can Improve Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lingenfelter, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers, policy makers, and practitioners share a sincere interest in improving the human condition. Academics may be tempted to fault irrationality, ideology, or ignorance for the failure of research to inform policy and practice more powerfully, but policy makers and practitioners want academics to tell them "what works" in order to find a…

  15. [PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION OF PERSONNEL POLICY IN REFORMING OF UKRAINIAN HEALTH CARE SYSTEM USING THE EXAMPLE OF DERMATOVENEREOLOGICAL SERVICE].

    PubMed

    Korolenko, V V; Dykun, O P; Isayenko, R M; Remennyk, O I; Avramenko, T P; Stepanenko, V I; Petrova, K I; Volosovets, O P; Lazoryshynets, V V

    2014-01-01

    The health care system, its modernization and optimization are among the most important functions of the modern Ukrainian state. The main goal of the reforms in the field of healthcare is to improve the health of the population, equal and fair access for all to health services of adequate quality. Important place in the health sector reform belongs to optimizing the structure and function of dermatovenereological service. The aim of this work is to address the issue of human resources management of dermatovenereological services during health sector reform in Ukraine, taking into account the real possibility of disengagement dermatovenereological providing care between providers of primary medical care level (general practitioners) and providers of secondary (specialized) and tertiary (high-specialized) medical care (dermatovenerologists and pediatrician dermatovenerologists), and coordinating interaction between these levels. During research has been found, that the major problems of human resources of dermatovenereological service are insufficient staffing and provision of health-care providers;,growth in the number of health workers of retirement age; sectoral and regional disparity of staffing; the problem of improving the skills of medical personnel; regulatory support personnel policy areas and create incentives for staff motivation; problems of rational use of human resources for health care; problems of personnel training for dermatovenereological service. Currently reforming health sector should primarily serve the needs of the population in a fairly effective medical care at all levels, to ensure that there must be sufficient qualitatively trained and motivated health workers. To achieve this goal directed overall work of the Ministry of Health of Uktaine, the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, medical universities, regional health authorities, professional medical associations. Therefore Ukrainian dermatovenereological care, in particular

  16. Clarity versus complexity: land-use modeling as a practical tool for decision-makers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohl, Terry L.; Claggett, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    The last decade has seen a remarkable increase in the number of modeling tools available to examine future land-use and land-cover (LULC) change. Integrated modeling frameworks, agent-based models, cellular automata approaches, and other modeling techniques have substantially improved the representation of complex LULC systems, with each method using a different strategy to address complexity. However, despite the development of new and better modeling tools, the use of these tools is limited for actual planning, decision-making, or policy-making purposes. LULC modelers have become very adept at creating tools for modeling LULC change, but complicated models and lack of transparency limit their utility for decision-makers. The complicated nature of many LULC models also makes it impractical or even impossible to perform a rigorous analysis of modeling uncertainty. This paper provides a review of land-cover modeling approaches and the issues causes by the complicated nature of models, and provides suggestions to facilitate the increased use of LULC models by decision-makers and other stakeholders. The utility of LULC models themselves can be improved by 1) providing model code and documentation, 2) through the use of scenario frameworks to frame overall uncertainties, 3) improving methods for generalizing key LULC processes most important to stakeholders, and 4) adopting more rigorous standards for validating models and quantifying uncertainty. Communication with decision-makers and other stakeholders can be improved by increasing stakeholder participation in all stages of the modeling process, increasing the transparency of model structure and uncertainties, and developing user-friendly decision-support systems to bridge the link between LULC science and policy. By considering these options, LULC science will be better positioned to support decision-makers and increase real-world application of LULC modeling results.

  17. National Geodata Policy Forum: present and emerging U.S. policies governing the development, evolution, and use of the National Spatial Data Infrastructure: summary report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Federal Geographic Data Committee, U.S. Geological Survey

    1993-01-01

    The first National Geo-Data Policy Forum was held on May 10-12, 1993, in Tyson's Corner, Virginia. The objective of the National Geo-Data Policy Forum was to examine policies related to the evolution and use of the National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI). A second goal was to identify issues concerning spatial data technology and its use by all citizens. Policy makers from the public and private sectors offered ideas on the myriad issues and questions related to the NSDI and learned of concerns that their organizations must address. The links that connect the NSDI to the Clinton Administration's National Information Infrastructure were identified and discussed. The forum offered participants an opportunity to define the NSDI's role in carrying out technology policy.

  18. Make Energy at the Bay Area Maker Faire

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Think. Make. Innovate. A festival of invention, creativity and resourcefulness that gathers makers of all kinds. Scientists are seeking to find innovative solutions to the energy challenges in the world.

  19. 3. BARREL VIEW, LOOKING DOWN LENGTH OF BRIDGE, SHOWING MAKER'S ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BARREL VIEW, LOOKING DOWN LENGTH OF BRIDGE, SHOWING MAKER'S PLATE, DECORATIVE SCROLLWORK AND URN FINIALS ON NORTHEAST PORTAL - "Forder" Pratt Through Truss Bridge, Spanning Maumee River at County Route 73, Antwerp, Paulding County, OH

  20. 5. DETAIL VIEW OF UPPER CHORD MEMBER, SHOWING MAKER'S PLATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL VIEW OF UPPER CHORD MEMBER, SHOWING MAKER'S PLATE STATING 'KING IRON BRIDGE & MFG. CO., K & F & Z KING PATENT, CLEVELAND, O.' - Smith Road Bowstring Arch Bridge, Spanning Sycamore Creek at Smith Road (TR 62), Lykens, Crawford County, OH

  1. Pegram Lecture: Science Policy & Current Policy Issues

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Marburger, III

    2008-11-18

    Drawing on his experience as a research scientist, academic administrator, national laboratory director and presidential science advisor, Marburger focuses on the intellectual machinery of science policy and current policy issues.

  2. Educational Policy and Practices for Educating Students with Moderate Cognitive Disabilities in Segregated and Inclusive Schools in Thailand: A Qualitative Analysis from the Perspectives of Parents, Teachers, and School Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manason, Pareyaasiri

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this multiple-case study was to explore educational policy and practices for educating students with moderate cognitive disabilities in segregated and inclusive schools in Thailand. This study utilized constructivist research methodology to examine the perspectives of parents, teachers, and school administrators who are involved in…

  3. Policy as Boundary Object: A New Way to Look at Educational Policy Design and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emad, Gholamreza; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2009-01-01

    Policy implementation research in general and educational policy in particular is loosely connected to policy-making processes. There is a gap particularly in the field of vocational education. This often leads to conflicts and contradictions between policy-maker objectives and end-user implementation. To avoid such a disconnect, the relation…

  4. The Roles of Lesser-Known American Telescope Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Trudy E.

    A history of lesser-known telescope makers. The following makers, owners, dealers and firms are discussed: Henry Fitz, William S. Van Duzee, Lewis M. Rutherford, Charles A. Spencer, A. K. Eaton, John Byrne, Robert B. Tolles, Buff and Berger of Boston, Fauth and Co., George N. Saegmuller, E. Kubel (Kübel), Chester S. Lyman, Stackpole and Brother, William Wurdemann (Würdemann), William J. Young, Gundlach of Rochester, William Kahler, Stendicke of NYC, Walther of Philadelphia, Worcester R. Warner, Ambrose Swasey, William T. Gregg, Phelps and Gurley of Troy, H. G. Sedgewick, Benjamin Pike, William Mogey, David Mogey, and James A. Queen.

  5. SCIENCE, SCIENTISTS, AND POLICY ADVOCACY - MAY 16, 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effectively resolving many current ecological policy issues requires an array of scientific information. Sometimes scientific information is summarized for decision-makers by policy analysts or others, but often it comes directly from scientists. The ability of scientists (and sc...

  6. NORMATIVE SCIENCE: SUBVERTING DEVELOPMENT OF SOUND FISHERIES POLICY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effectively resolving the typical fisheries policy issue requires an array of scientific information as part of the input provided to decision-makers. In my experience, the ability of scientists (and scientific information) to constructively inform fisheries policy deliberations...

  7. ECOLOGICAL POLICY: DEFINING APPROPRIATE ROLES FOR SCIENCE AND SCIENTISTS - 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resolving typical ecological policy issues requires an array of scientific information as part of the input provided to decision-makers. The ability of scientists (and scientific information) to constructively inform policy deliberations diminishes when what is offered as "scienc...

  8. NORMATIVE SCIENCE: A CORRUPTING INFLUENCE IN ECOLOGICAL POLICY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effectively resolving the typical ecological policy issue requires providing an array of scientific information to decision-makers. In my experience, the ability of scientists (and scientific information) to constructively inform ecological policy deliberations has been diminish...

  9. Gender inequalities in the workplace: the effects of organizational structures, processes, practices, and decision makers' sexism.

    PubMed

    Stamarski, Cailin S; Son Hing, Leanne S

    2015-01-01

    Gender inequality in organizations is a complex phenomenon that can be seen in organizational structures, processes, and practices. For women, some of the most harmful gender inequalities are enacted within human resources (HRs) practices. This is because HR practices (i.e., policies, decision-making, and their enactment) affect the hiring, training, pay, and promotion of women. We propose a model of gender discrimination in HR that emphasizes the reciprocal nature of gender inequalities within organizations. We suggest that gender discrimination in HR-related decision-making and in the enactment of HR practices stems from gender inequalities in broader organizational structures, processes, and practices. This includes leadership, structure, strategy, culture, organizational climate, as well as HR policies. In addition, organizational decision makers' levels of sexism can affect their likelihood of making gender biased HR-related decisions and/or behaving in a sexist manner while enacting HR practices. Importantly, institutional discrimination in organizational structures, processes, and practices play a pre-eminent role because not only do they affect HR practices, they also provide a socializing context for organizational decision makers' levels of hostile and benevolent sexism. Although we portray gender inequality as a self-reinforcing system that can perpetuate discrimination, important levers for reducing discrimination are identified. PMID:26441775

  10. Gender inequalities in the workplace: the effects of organizational structures, processes, practices, and decision makers' sexism.

    PubMed

    Stamarski, Cailin S; Son Hing, Leanne S

    2015-01-01

    Gender inequality in organizations is a complex phenomenon that can be seen in organizational structures, processes, and practices. For women, some of the most harmful gender inequalities are enacted within human resources (HRs) practices. This is because HR practices (i.e., policies, decision-making, and their enactment) affect the hiring, training, pay, and promotion of women. We propose a model of gender discrimination in HR that emphasizes the reciprocal nature of gender inequalities within organizations. We suggest that gender discrimination in HR-related decision-making and in the enactment of HR practices stems from gender inequalities in broader organizational structures, processes, and practices. This includes leadership, structure, strategy, culture, organizational climate, as well as HR policies. In addition, organizational decision makers' levels of sexism can affect their likelihood of making gender biased HR-related decisions and/or behaving in a sexist manner while enacting HR practices. Importantly, institutional discrimination in organizational structures, processes, and practices play a pre-eminent role because not only do they affect HR practices, they also provide a socializing context for organizational decision makers' levels of hostile and benevolent sexism. Although we portray gender inequality as a self-reinforcing system that can perpetuate discrimination, important levers for reducing discrimination are identified.

  11. Getting ocean acidification on decision makers' to-do lists: dissecting the process through case studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, Sarah R.; Jewett, Elizabeth B.; Reichert, Julie; Robbins, Lisa L.; Shrestha, Gyami; Wieczorek, Dan; Weisberg, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Much of the detailed, incremental knowledge being generated by current scientific research on ocean acidification (OA) does not directly address the needs of decision makers, who are asking broad questions such as: Where will OA harm marine resources next? When will this happen? Who will be affected? And how much will it cost? In this review, we use a series of mainly US-based case studies to explore the needs of local to international-scale groups that are making decisions to address OA concerns. Decisions concerning OA have been made most naturally and easily when information needs were clearly defined and closely aligned with science outputs and initiatives. For decisions requiring more complex information, the process slows dramatically. Decision making about OA is greatly aided (1) when a mixture of specialists participates, including scientists, resource users and managers, and policy and law makers; (2) when goals can be clearly agreed upon at the beginning of the process; (3) when mixed groups of specialists plan and create translational documents explaining the likely outcomes of policy decisions on ecosystems and natural resources; (4) when regional work on OA fits into an existing set of priorities concerning climate or water quality; and (5) when decision making can be reviewed and enhanced.

  12. Drug and Alcohol Abuse in the Schools: A Practical Policy Guide for Administrators and Teachers on How to Combat Drugs and Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, John F.; And Others

    This manual focuses on legal issues confronting schools in the area of substance abuse and provides practical policy guidance to public school managers in enforcing a substance abuse policy. After a brief introduction, section 2 examines barriers to action, commenting on several myths affecting drug abuse policy. Section 3 deals with substance…

  13. 7 CFR 1700.26 - Deputy Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrator aids and assists the Administrator. The Deputy Administrator provides overall policy direction to... Administrator is “first assistant” for purposes of the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998 (5 U.S.C. 3345-3349d)....

  14. Seminar on Egypt population policy.

    PubMed

    Kantner, J F

    1984-01-01

    problem by the government was revised several times during the last 30 years, and policies through the years reflected these changed perceptions. Until the mid-1960s family growth needed to be controlled, the government did not adopt antinatalist policies. Finally in 166 a national family program was implemented, but the program suffered from poor organization and administration and the apathy of top officials. In 1973 the program was restructured and decentralized. There is still considerable disagreement concerning the relative merits of controlling population growth. Scientific findings can be useful in clarigying preceptions of the causes and consequences of population growth. Findings indicate that the government is justified in its efforts to reduce population growth. If growth is slowed, there will be more resources available for development. The cause of many of Egypt's problems is population growth. There are indications that the population is favorably disposed to accept family planning, but identified numerous deficiencies in the program. There is more relevant knowledge available to policy makers in Egypt than in many other countries; however, there is insufficient information for formulating policies aimed at promoting local participation. A number of questions, which must be answered before effective policies in this area can be formulated, were raised.

  15. Compulsory Attendance Policies: About Age or Intervention? SREB Focus Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grove, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, SREB state policy-makers have focused on actions to reduce dropout rates and increase high school graduation rates. Some policy-makers have suggested that raising their state's compulsory attendance age (often called the dropout age) to require students to stay in school until age 17 or 18 is an important step. However,…

  16. Can Research on Women Be More Effective in Shaping Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tangri, Sandra S.; Strasburg, Georgia L.

    In order to formulate social policy which is responsive to needs of women and other minority groups, decision makers must be better informed about alternative options, incentives, and unintended as well as intended consequences of various policies. Social scientists can contribute to decision makers' understandings of social factors in numerous…

  17. Degenerate slave-makers, but nevertheless slave-makers? Host worker relatedness in the ant Myrmoxenus kraussei.

    PubMed

    Suefuji, Masaki; Heinze, Jürgen

    2015-03-01

    Socially parasitic ants of the formicoxenine genus Myrmoxenus exhibit considerable diversity in colony structure and life history. While some species are active slave-makers with many workers and others are workerless 'murder-parasites,' Myrmoxenus kraussei is considered as a 'degenerate slave-maker' because of its very low worker numbers. Here, we document that Temnothorax recedens host workers in single colonies of M. kraussei from Lago di Garda, Italy, exhibit significantly more genetic diversity than workers in unparasitized colonies. This raises the possibility that, despite its low worker numbers, M. kraussei may actively engage in slave raids in nature.

  18. Imaginative Thinking: Addressing Social Justice Issues through MovieMaker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boske, Christa A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the experiences of aspiring school leaders who utilized artmaking in this case, photography, poetry, music, collage, and short films through Microsoft MovieMaker as a means for addressing injustices within surrounding school communities. The paper aims to explore how aspiring school leaders…

  19. Overcoming Fear: Helping Decision Makers Understand Risk in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haras, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    The long history of outdoor education does little to alleviate the fears of many parents, teachers, principals and superintendents who believe that outdoor education is too risky. These decision makers often lack both the knowledge to make informed decisions and the time and resources to investigate their assumptions. Pair these circumstances with…

  20. A Study of the Training of Tool and Die Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Morris A.; Herrnstadt, Irwin L.

    To develop and test a methodology which would help determine the combination of education, training, and experience that is most likely to yield highly qualified workers in specific occupations, the tool and die maker trade was selected for examination in the Boston Metropolitan Area. Tool and die making was chosen because it is a clearly…

  1. Dream-Makers: A National Exhibition of Children's Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Susan

    1984-01-01

    The Crayola Dream-Makers exhibition, which consists of 100 two- and three-dimensional works of art in which second, third, and fourth graders from all over the United States depict their dreams for themselves and their world is described. Samples of the children's art are included. (RM)

  2. Infants and Toddlers as Members, Makers, Interpreters: A Philosophical Journey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handler, June Moss

    This book explores how young children, within their cultural imperatives, struggle to discover who they are as cultural "members" interacting with others, as "makers" trying out and creating, and as "interpreters" making meaning and making new connections. Chapters in Part 1 emphasize the significance of a philosophical approach and its…

  3. Understanding Narratives of Nationhood: Film-Makers and Culloden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, John R.; Gold, Margaret M.

    2002-01-01

    Film audiences have long been invited to view Scotland and Scottish life through a historic lens. Influenced by the pre-existing literary traditions of tartanry and kailyard, film-makers have focused nostalgically on the myths and legends of the Highland and pre-industrial Scotland, with the implications that this approach has for representations…

  4. Decision Makers, a Simulation Game about Community Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jitkoff, Julia Armstrong; Doty, Edward

    Decision Makers is designed to simulate the problems faced by groups trying to produce peaceful social change in their communities. This version illustrates the problems faced when a community group attempts to introduce a course on the issues of war and peace in the local high school. All participants assume roles as residents of a typical…

  5. Coco Nut Meets the Gadget Maker. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, P.

    The adventures of Coco Nut, a coconut which has fallen from a palm tree in Florida, are illustrated in this booklet for elementary school students. His fall into a canal and ensuing encounters with dead and alive fish and a gadget maker (industry) are used to portray the effects of water pollution. What man can do to stop such pollution and…

  6. The Promise of the Maker Movement for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Lee

    2015-01-01

    The Maker Movement is a community of hobbyists, tinkerers, engineers, hackers, and artists who creatively design and build projects for both playful and useful ends. There is growing interest among educators in bringing making into K-12 education to enhance opportunities to engage in the practices of engineering, specifically, and STEM more…

  7. TestMaker: A Computer-Based Test Development Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, William J.; Lario-Gibbs, Annette M.

    This paper discusses a computer-based prototype called TestMaker that enables educators to create computer-based tests. Given the functional needs of faculty, the host of research implications computer technology has for assessment, and current educational perspectives such as constructivism and their impact on testing, the purposes for developing…

  8. The Virtual Workplace Ethnography: Positioning Student Writers as Knowledge Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The Virtual Workplace Ethnography is a first-year composition assignment that positions students as knowledge makers by requiring them to apply a theoretical lens ("Working Knowledge") to a video representation of a workplace. The lens provides multiple terms for analysis of workplace behaviors in context, providing a scaffolding for…

  9. Policy and health implications of using the U.S. Food and Drug Administration product design approach in reducing tobacco product risk.

    PubMed

    Givel, Michael

    2008-06-01

    Purported risk or harm reduction through product design change of cigarettes has occurred in three phases in the U.S. The first phase from the 1940s to the early 1960s included a gradual rise in filtered cigarettes. The second phase, which began in the early 1960s in response to the landmark 1964 U.S. Surgeon General's report that linked smoking with lung cancer and other diseases, included the introduction of purportedly low tar and nicotine cigarettes. Subsequent research found that both filters and low tar and nicotine cigarettes were ineffective approaches to reducing health risks associated with smoking. Despite this, these product design changes were used in tobacco industry marketing campaigns to allay consumer health concerns and stabilize tobacco markets and sales. Since 2004, a new risk or harm reduction phase has occurred with the backing by Philip Morris as well as major U.S. health groups of U.S. Food and Drug Administration legislation that would require disclosure of tobacco ingredients, ban misleading health claims, prohibit or reduce harmful ingredients, and require prior approval of tobacco design, performance changes, and modified risk tobacco products. However, current scientific literature indicates that there is no scientific consensus and little evidence on what tobacco ingredients are linked to particular morbidities and mortalities and at what levels. This will allow the tobacco industry to implicitly or explicitly claim their products are "safer." Instead, health advocates should advocate for scientifically proven policy measures such as smoke free public places or higher tobacco taxes that control and reduce tobacco markets and consumption.

  10. Operations Policy Manual, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teacher Education Accreditation Council, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Teacher Education Accreditation Council's (TEAC's) "Operations Policy Manual" outlines all of TEAC's current policies and procedures related to TEAC members, TEAC administration, and the public, and includes the Bylaws of the Teacher Education Accreditation Council. Contents include: (1) Policies Related to TEAC Members; (2) Policies Related…

  11. Communication with U.S. federal decision makers : a primer with notes on the use of computer models as a means of communication.

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, Erik Karl; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll

    2009-10-01

    This document outlines ways to more effectively communicate with U.S. Federal decision makers by outlining the structure, authority, and motivations of various Federal groups, how to find the trusted advisors, and how to structure communication. All three branches of Federal governments have decision makers engaged in resolving major policy issues. The Legislative Branch (Congress) negotiates the authority and the resources that can be used by the Executive Branch. The Executive Branch has some latitude in implementation and prioritizing resources. The Judicial Branch resolves disputes. The goal of all decision makers is to choose and implement the option that best fits the needs and wants of the community. However, understanding the risk of technical, political and/or financial infeasibility and possible unintended consequences is extremely difficult. Primarily, decision makers are supported in their deliberations by trusted advisors who engage in the analysis of options as well as the day-to-day tasks associated with multi-party negotiations. In the best case, the trusted advisors use many sources of information to inform the process including the opinion of experts and if possible predictive analysis from which they can evaluate the projected consequences of their decisions. The paper covers the following: (1) Understanding Executive and Legislative decision makers - What can these decision makers do? (2) Finding the target audience - Who are the internal and external trusted advisors? (3) Packaging the message - How do we parse and integrate information, and how do we use computer simulation or models in policy communication?

  12. NASA, NOAA administrators nominated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    President Ronald Reagan recently said he intended to nominate James Montgomery Beggs as NASA Administrator and John V. Byrne as NOAA Administrator. These two positions are key scientific posts that have been vacant since the start of the Reagan administration on January 20. The President also said he intends to nominate Hans Mark as NASA Deputy Administrator. At press time, Reagan had not designated his nominee for the director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy.

  13. Learning environment simulator: a tool for local decision makers and first responders

    SciTech Connect

    Leclaire, Rene J; Hirsch, Gary B

    2009-01-01

    The National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC) has developed a prototype learning environment simulator (LES) based on the Critical Infrastructure Protection Decision Support System (CIPDSS) infrastructure and scenario models. The LES is designed to engage decision makers at the grass-roots level (local/city/state) to deepen their understanding of an evolving crisis, enhance their intuition and allow them to test their own strategies for events before they occur. An initial version is being developed, centered on a pandemic influenza outbreak and has been successfully tested with a group of hospital administrators and first responders. LES is not a predictive tool but rather a simulated environment allowing the user to experience the complexities of a crisis before it happens. Users can contrast various approaches to the crisis, competing with alternative strategies of their own or other participants. LES is designed to assist decision makers in making informed choices by functionally representing relevant scenarios before they occur, including impacts to critical infrastructures with their interdependencies, and estimating human health & safety and economic impacts. In this paper a brief overview of the underlying models are given followed by a description of the LES, its interface and usage and an overview of the experience testing LES with a group of hospital administrators and first responders. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of the work remaining to make LES operational.

  14. Research and Policy in Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Colin

    2006-01-01

    It has long been acknowledged that adult and lifelong educators have exercised little influence over national education policies. This article addresses the issue, with particular reference to the research elements of policy advocacy. Researchers and policy-makers are distinguished and related as communities of practice and intellectual categories…

  15. Teachers, Curriculum Innovation, and Policy Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bascia, Nina; Carr-Harris, Shasta; Fine-Meyer, Rose; Zurzolo, Cara

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly understood that policy makers make curriculum policy and teachers implement it. Some teachers, however, have been in on the ground floor of curriculum policy development. Driven by events in their life histories and teaching contexts, these teachers develop and teach original course material in their own classrooms. Over time they…

  16. Foundations for Policy in Guidance and Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herr, Edwin L., Ed.; Pinson, Nancy M., Ed.

    This book provides educators, counselors, policy makers, and community members with information about the state of the art of federal and state policy in guidance and counseling. The two chapters in part 1, Overview, are: "Foundations for Policy in Guidance and Counseling: An Introduction", by Edwin L. Herr and Nancy M. Pinson; and "A Counselor…

  17. Education Policy-Making and Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Greg; Cook, Ian

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the global policy convergence toward high-stakes testing in schools and the use of test results to "steer at a distance", particularly as it applies to policy-makers' promise to improve teacher quality. Using Deleuze's three syntheses of time in the context of the Australian policy blueprint Quality…

  18. Advisory Committee: A Powerful Tool for Helping Decision Makers inEnvironmental Issues

    PubMed

    Vasseur; Lafrance; Ansseau; Renaud; Morin; Audet

    1997-05-01

    / It has been suggested that the general public should be moreinvolved in environmental policy and decision making. It is important forthem to realize that they will have to live with the consequences ofenvironmental policies and decisions. Consequently, policy makers shouldconsider the concerns and opinions of the general public before makingdecisions on environmental issues. This raises questions such as: How can weintegrate the perceptions and reactions of the general population inenvironmental decisions? What kind of public participation should weconsider? In the present study, using a new regional ecosystem model, weattempted to integrate these aspects in its decision making model byincluding the formation of an advisory committee to resolve problems relatedto waste management. The advisory committee requested the activeparticipation of representatives from all levels of the community: economic,municipal, and governmental intervenors; environmental groups; and citizens.Their mandates were to examine different management strategies available inthe region, considering all the interdisciplinary aspects of each strategy,elaborate recommendations concerning the management strategies that are mostsuitable for all, and collaborate in communication of the information to thegeneral population. The results showed that at least in small municipalitiessuch an advisory committee can be a powerful tool in environmental decisionmaking. Conditions required for a successful consultation process, such aseveryday lay language and the presence of a facilitator other than ascientific expert, are discussed.KEY WORDS: Public consultation; Environmental policies;Interdisciplinary aspects; Municipal sewage sludge management; Generalpopulation; Decision-making process

  19. Scenarios use to engage scientists and decision-makers in a changing Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, O. A.; Eicken, H.; Payne, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Scenarios provide a framework to develop more adaptive Arctic policies that allow decision makers to consider the best available science to address complex relationships and key uncertainties in drivers of change. These drivers may encompass biophysical factors such as climate change, socioeconomic drivers, and wild-cards that represent low likelihood but influential events such as major environmental disasters. We outline some of the lessons learned from the North Slope Science Initiative (NSSI) scenarios project that could help in the development of adaptive science-based policies. Three spatially explicit development scenarios were identified corresponding to low, medium and high resource extraction activities on the North Slope and adjacent seas. In the case of the high energy development scenario science needs were focused on new technology, oil spill response, and the effects of offshore activities on marine mammals important for subsistence. Science needs related to community culture, erosion, permafrost degradation and hunting and trapping on land were also identified for all three scenarios. The NSSI science needs will guide recommendations for future observing efforts, and data from these observing activities could subsequently improve policy guidance for emergency response, subsistence management and other issues. Scenarios at pan-Arctic scales may help improve the development of international policies for resilient northern communities and encourage the use of science to reduce uncertainties in plans for adapting to change in the Arctic.

  20. Administrators Speak Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Fred V.

    1976-01-01

    A summary is presented of the issues and concerns discussed and the recommendations made by the American Vocational Association's (AVA) Administration Policy Committee during its meeting at the 1975 AVA Convention. (AJ)

  1. 10 CFR 431.132 - Definitions concerning automatic commercial ice makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definitions concerning automatic commercial ice makers... CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Automatic Commercial Ice Makers § 431.132 Definitions concerning automatic commercial ice makers. Automatic commercial ice maker means a factory-made assembly...

  2. 10 CFR 431.132 - Definitions concerning automatic commercial ice makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definitions concerning automatic commercial ice makers... CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Automatic Commercial Ice Makers § 431.132 Definitions concerning automatic commercial ice makers. Automatic commercial ice maker means a factory-made assembly...

  3. 10 CFR 431.132 - Definitions concerning automatic commercial ice makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definitions concerning automatic commercial ice makers... CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Automatic Commercial Ice Makers § 431.132 Definitions concerning automatic commercial ice makers. Automatic commercial ice maker means a factory-made assembly...

  4. Developing an alcohol policy assessment toolkit: application in the western Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, Joshua; Doran, Christopher M; Shakeshaft, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To demonstrate the development and feasibility of a tool to assess the adequacy of national policies aimed at reducing alcohol consumption and related problems. Methods We developed a quantitative tool – the Toolkit for Evaluating Alcohol policy Stringency and Enforcement (TEASE-16) – to assess the level of stringency and enforcement of 16 alcohol control policies. TEASE-16 was applied to policy data from nine study areas in the western Pacific: Australia, China excluding Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR), Hong Kong SAR, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, the Philippines, Singapore and Viet Nam. Correlation and regression analyses were then used to examine the relationship between alcohol policy scores and income-adjusted levels of alcohol consumption per capita. Findings Vast differences exist in how alcohol control policies are implemented in the western Pacific. Out of a possible 100 points, the nine study areas achieved TEASE-16 scores that ranged from 24.1 points for the Philippines to 67.5 points for Australia. Study areas with high policy scores – indicating relatively strong alcohol policy frameworks – had lower alcohol consumption per capita. Sensitivity analyses indicated scores and rankings for each study area remained relatively stable across different weighting schemes, indicating that TEASE-16 was robust. Conclusion TEASE-16 could be used by international and national regulatory bodies and policy-makers to guide the design, implementation, evaluation and refinement of effective policies to reduce alcohol consumption and related problems. PMID:25378726

  5. Student Conduct Administrator Knowledge of the Statistical Reporting Obligations of the Jeanne Clery Disclosure of Campus Security Policy and Campus Crime Statistics Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBowes, Michael Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The "Jeanne Clery Disclosure of Campus Security Policy and Campus Crime Statistics Act" (the "Clery Act") is a consumer right-to-know law originally passed by Congress in 1900. The law requires colleges and universities receiving federal student aid to publish annually their security-related policies and crime statistics. The…

  6. What is good governance in the context of drug policy?

    PubMed

    Singleton, Nicola; Rubin, Jennifer

    2014-09-01

    The concept of governance is applied in a wide range of contexts, but this paper focuses on governance in relation to public administration, i.e. states and how they take action, and specifically governance of particular policy areas. In the current context of financial austerity and an era of globalisation, policy-makers face pressures and challenges from a growing range of interests and local, national and supranational actors. Drug policy is an example of a particularly contentious and polarised area in which governance-related challenges abound. In response to these challenges, interest has grown in developing agreed policy governance standards and processes and articulating policy-making guidelines, including the use of available evidence to inform policy-making. Attempts have been made to identify 'policy fundamentals' - factors or aspects of policy-making apparently associated with successful policy development and implementation (Hallsworth & Rutter, 2011; Laughrin, 2011) and, in the drug policy field, Hughes et al. (2010) reflecting on the co-ordination of Australian drug policy highlighted some of what they considered principles of good governance. But how useful is the concept of 'good governance'; how well can it be defined, and to what purpose? As part of a wider project considering the governance of drug policy, RAND Europe and the UK Drug Policy Commission undertook a targeted review of other research and sought expert views, from within and beyond drug policy, on principles, processes, structures and stakeholders associated with good drug policy governance. From this emerged some perceived characteristics of good governance that were then used by the UK Drug Policy Commission to assess the extent to which drug policy making in the UK fits with these perceived good governance characteristics, and to suggest possible improvements. Particular consideration was given to the range of interests at stake, the overarching aims of drug policy and the

  7. What is good governance in the context of drug policy?

    PubMed

    Singleton, Nicola; Rubin, Jennifer

    2014-09-01

    The concept of governance is applied in a wide range of contexts, but this paper focuses on governance in relation to public administration, i.e. states and how they take action, and specifically governance of particular policy areas. In the current context of financial austerity and an era of globalisation, policy-makers face pressures and challenges from a growing range of interests and local, national and supranational actors. Drug policy is an example of a particularly contentious and polarised area in which governance-related challenges abound. In response to these challenges, interest has grown in developing agreed policy governance standards and processes and articulating policy-making guidelines, including the use of available evidence to inform policy-making. Attempts have been made to identify 'policy fundamentals' - factors or aspects of policy-making apparently associated with successful policy development and implementation (Hallsworth & Rutter, 2011; Laughrin, 2011) and, in the drug policy field, Hughes et al. (2010) reflecting on the co-ordination of Australian drug policy highlighted some of what they considered principles of good governance. But how useful is the concept of 'good governance'; how well can it be defined, and to what purpose? As part of a wider project considering the governance of drug policy, RAND Europe and the UK Drug Policy Commission undertook a targeted review of other research and sought expert views, from within and beyond drug policy, on principles, processes, structures and stakeholders associated with good drug policy governance. From this emerged some perceived characteristics of good governance that were then used by the UK Drug Policy Commission to assess the extent to which drug policy making in the UK fits with these perceived good governance characteristics, and to suggest possible improvements. Particular consideration was given to the range of interests at stake, the overarching aims of drug policy and the

  8. 77 FR 43137 - Aviation Environmental and Energy Policy Statement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Environmental and Energy Policy Statement AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Policy Statement. SUMMARY: This is a statement affirming the FAA's environmental and energy policy for U.S. civil aviation. This policy statement outlines...

  9. Allergic contact dermatitis to propolis in a violin maker.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Heather D; Fogelman, Joshua P; Ramsay, David L; Cohen, David E

    2002-02-01

    Allergy to colophony is well noted in the literature, however, there have been few case reports of allergic contact dermatitis to propolis in musicians and instrument makers. We report a case of a stringed instrument craftsman who developed allergic contact dermatitis to propolis, a component of Italian varnish. A review of the components, applications, and the clinical manifestations of hypersensitivity reactions to propolis are presented. PMID:11807465

  10. Decision maker priorities for providing antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected South Africans: a qualitative assessment.

    PubMed

    Kimmel, April D; Daniels, Norman; Betancourt, Theresa S; Wood, Robin; Prosser, Lisa A

    2012-01-01

    In resource-limited settings, successful HIV treatment scale-up has been tempered by reports of funding shortfalls. We aimed to determine the priorities, including ethical considerations, of decision makers for HIV antiretroviral programs. We conducted qualitative interviews with 12 decision makers, identified using purposive sampling. Respondents engaged in one-on-one, semi-structured interviews. We developed an interview guide to direct questions about key priorities and motivations for decision making about HIV antiretroviral programs. We evaluated textual data from the interviews to identify themes. Among 12 respondents, 10 (83%) lived and worked in South Africa. Respondents came from Western Cape, Gauteng, and KwaZulu-Natal provinces and worked primarily in urban settings. The respondents supported prioritizing individual patients based on treatment adherence, pregnancy status to prevent maternal-to-child HIV transmission and/or orphans, and severity of illness. However, priorities based on severity of illness varied, with first-come/first-serve, prioritization of the most severely ill, and prioritization of the least severely ill discussed. Respondents opposed prioritizing based on patient socioeconomic characteristics. Other priorities included the number of persons receiving treatment; how treated patients are distributed in the population (e.g., urban/rural); and treatment policy (e.g., number of antiretroviral regimens). Motivations included humanitarian concerns; personal responsibility for individual patients; and clinical outcomes (e.g., patient-level morbidity/mortality, saving lives) and/or social outcomes (e.g., restoring patients as functional family members). Decision makers have a wide range of priorities for antiretroviral provision in South Africa, and the motivations underlying these priorities suggest at times conflicting ethical considerations for providing HIV treatment when resources are limited. PMID:22304657

  11. James Henry Marriott: New Zealand's first professional telescope-maker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Romick, Carl; Brown, Pendreigh.

    2015-11-01

    James Henry Marriott was born in London in 1799 and trained as an optician and scientific instrument- maker. In 1842 he emigrated to New Zealand and in January 1843 settled in the newly-established town of Wellington. He was New Zealand's first professional telescope-maker, but we have only been able to locate one telescope made by him while in New Zealand, a brass 1-draw marine telescope with a 44-mm objective, which was manufactured in 1844. In 2004 this marine telescope was purchased in Hawaii by the second author of this paper. In this paper we provide biographical information about Marriott, describe his 1844 marine telescope and speculate on its provenance. We conclude that although he may have been New Zealand's first professional telescope-maker Marriot actually made very few telescopes or other scientific instruments. As such, rather than being recognised as a pioneer of telescope-making in New Zealand he should be remembered as the founder of New Zealand theatre.

  12. Migrant Education Administrative Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Compensatory Education.

    Relating specifically to the North Carolina migrant education program's administrative responsibilities, this guide is designed to aid administrators in program management, monitoring project activities, project evaluation, self-assessment, determining needs for training and staff development, site-visit preparation, policy development, and…

  13. The regulation of pharmacogenomics-based drugs and policy making.

    PubMed

    Issa, Amalia M

    2004-01-01

    In addition to potential future clinical benefits such as reducing adverse drug reactions and optimizing therapeutic efficacy, pharmacogenomic applications promise numerous benefits for the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, including decreasing the size and expense of clinical trials and streamlining the drug development process. The application of pharmacogenomics and related technological advances to drug development has prompted various regulatory agencies such as the United States Food and Drug Administration to issue guidance documents and other advisory statements. This article delineates the impact of pharmacogenomic-guided drug development on the regulatory process in the United States including relevant highlights of industry guidance documents and policy statements. Hypothetical vignettes are used to illustrate a number of issues that are challenging to policy makers and the potential impact of pharmacogenomic based drug research and development on the regulatory environment. PMID:15379657

  14. ICT Policy Planning in a Context of Curriculum Reform: Disentanglement of ICT Policy Domains and Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderlinde, Ruben; van Braak, Johan; Dexter, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Researchers and policy makers around the world are increasingly acknowledging the importance of developing a school-based ICT policy plan to facilitate the integration of information and communication technology (ICT) in education. Despite this interest, not much is known about how schools can develop their local ICT policy capacity and how to…

  15. Bridging the Gap Between NASA Earth Observations and Decision Makers Through the NASA Develop National Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remillard, C. M.; Madden, M.; Favors, J.; Childs-Gleason, L.; Ross, K. W.; Rogers, L.; Ruiz, M. L.

    2016-06-01

    The NASA DEVELOP National Program bridges the gap between NASA Earth Science and society by building capacity in both participants and partner organizations that collaborate to conduct projects. These rapid feasibility projects highlight the capabilities of satellite and aerial Earth observations. Immersion of decision and policy makers in these feasibility projects increases awareness of the capabilities of Earth observations and contributes to the tools and resources available to support enhanced decision making. This paper will present the DEVELOP model, best practices, and two case studies, the Colombia Ecological Forecasting project and the Miami-Dade County Ecological Forecasting project, that showcase the successful adoption of tools and methods for decision making. Through over 90 projects each year, DEVELOP is always striving for the innovative, practical, and beneficial use of NASA Earth science data.

  16. Bridging the Gap between NASA Earth Observations and Decision Makers through the NASA DEVELOP National Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favors, J. E.; Childs-Gleason, L. M.; Ross, K. W.; Rogers, L.; Allsbrook, K. N.; Ruiz, M. L.; Miller, T. N.; Crepps, G.

    2015-12-01

    The NASA DEVELOP National Program bridges the gap between NASA Earth Science and society by building capacity in both participants and partner organizations who collaborate to conduct projects. These rapid feasibility projects highlight the capabilities of satellite and aerial Earth observations to enhance decision making on a local level. DEVELOP partners with a wide variety of organizations, including state and local governments, federal agencies, regional entities, tribal governments, international organizations and governments, NGOs and private companies. Immersion of decision and policy makers in these feasibility projects increases awareness of the capabilities of Earth observations, and contributes to the tools and resources available to support enhanced decision making. This presentation will highlight best practices, feedback from project end-users, and case studies of successful adoption of methods in the decision making process.

  17. New Hampshire Sugar Makers Participate in Climate Change Study of Acer Saccharum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rock, B. N.; Carlson, M.

    2012-12-01

    A dozen maple sugar producers in New Hampshire have participated for the past three years in a study of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and its response to climate-related and other stress agents. A dominant tree in the northeastern temperate forest, the sugar maple is projected to lose 52% of its range in the United States due to climate change stresses in this century. The species is already severely stressed by acid deposition as well as a wide array of environmental predators and pathogens. Engaging the public in studies of climate change is of pressing importance. Climate change is ubiquitous and is expressed in a wide variety of phenomena—changing patterns of seasonal temperature and precipitation, more severe storms, changing atmospheric chemistry, phenologic chemistry change, ecotone shifts and new invasive competitors and predators. Scientists need citizen partners who are trained observers and who are familiar with protocols for monitoring, reporting and questioning what they observe. There is also a growing need for a public that is informed about climate change and variability so citizens can understand and support policy changes as needed to address climate change. In New Hampshire, sugar makers have collected maple sap samples at four times early in the sap season each year since 2010. The samples are collected and stored according to strict chemical protocols. The sugar makers have provided UNH and U.S. Forest Service chemists with significant numbers of sap samples for analysis of their phenolic chemistry. Correlating the sap chemistry with high spectral resolution reflectance measures of maple foliage, we are exploring whether changes in sap phenolics may signal distress or of long-term health of the trees. In addition, the sugar makers have provided access to their sugar orchards for monthly sampling of leaves and buds, beginning in May and continuing through the Fall. The three years of data are building long-term evidence of changes in maple

  18. Family Policy: Government and Families in Fourteen Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamerman, Sheila B., Ed.; Kahn, Alfred J., Ed.

    This collection of articles by scholars and policy makers from 14 countries presents multidisciplinary perspectives on the formation of national policy on families. Central topics common to many of the articles include: (1) the differences between policies aimed at affecting the family and policies which have other aims but which do influence the…

  19. Accelerated Learning Options: A Promising Strategy for States. Policy Insights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelau, Demaree

    2006-01-01

    This issue of Policy Insights draws on findings from WICHE's report Accelerated Learning Options: Moving the Needle on Access and Success, to lay out some of the important policy issues that decision makers might consider when adopting new state policy related to accelerated learning or modifying policies already in existence. The publication…

  20. Trust makers, breakers and brokers: building trust in the Australian food system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The importance of consumer trust in the food supply has previously been identified, and dimensions of consumer trust in food—who they trust and the type of trust that they exhibit—has been explored. However, there is a lack of research about the mechanisms through which consumer trust in the food supply is developed, maintained, broken and repaired. This study seeks to address this gap by exploring if, and how, consumer trust in the food supply is considered by the media, food industry and governments when responding to food scares. The aim of the research is to develop models of trust building that can be implemented following food scares. Methods Semi-structured interviews will be undertaken with media, public relations officials and policy makers in Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. Participants will be recruited through purposive sampling and will be asked to discuss a hypothetical case study outlining a food incident, and any experiences of specific food scares. Models of trust development, maintenance and repair will be developed from interview data. Comment on these models will be sought from experts in food-related organizations through a Delphi study, where participants will be asked to consider the usefulness of the models. Participants’ comments will be used to revise the models until consensus is reached on the suitability and usability of the models. Discussion This study will contribute to the literature about systems-based trust, and explore trust as a social and regulatory process. The protocol and results will be of interest and use to the food industry, food regulators, consumer advocate groups, media seeking to report food-related issues and policy makers concerned with public health and consumer health and well-being. This research represents an important contribution to the translation of the theoretical conceptualizations of trust into practical use in the context of food. PMID:23496819

  1. Population policy.

    PubMed

    1987-03-01

    Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to

  2. Bottle-makers, bottlers say refillables use more energy

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, M.

    1982-11-01

    Bottle makers and beverage bottlers who oppose recycling initiatives claim the additional energy used for the required extra thickness, hot-water sterilization, and the collection process counteract any energy saved when fewer bottles are made and reused. They agree that aluminum-can recycling eliminates energy-intensive processes. Used cans are melted and used to make new cans in a process requiring less energy than processes using new aluminum. With a national deposit law, supporters of container legislation claim that the purchase of new containers would drop from 90 to 63 billion a year; energy used for manufacturing, filling, and transporting bottles would drop from 377 to 214 trillion Btus. (DCK)

  3. Essays in Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Jed Thomas

    2011-01-01

    My dissertation investigates the effects of education policy on academic achievement. I focus on state and federal policies that seek to influence how teachers and school administrators educate their students, and I evaluate those policies' effects on academic achievement. Chapter 1 examines the effects of a compositional shift in a school's…

  4. Improving adolescent health policy: incorporating a framework for assessing state-level policies.

    PubMed

    Brindis, Claire D; Moore, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    Many US policies that affect health are made at the state, not the federal, level. Identifying state-level policies and data to analyze how different policies affect outcomes may help policy makers ascertain the usefulness of their public policies and funding decisions in improving the health of adolescent populations. A framework for describing and assessing the role of federal and state policies on adolescent health and well-being is proposed; an example of how the framework might be applied to the issue of teen childbearing is included. Such a framework can also help inform analyses of whether and how state and federal policies contribute to the variation across states in meeting adolescent health needs. A database on state policies, contextual variables, and health outcomes data can further enable researchers and policy makers to examine how these factors are associated with behaviors they aim to impact.

  5. Training conservation practitioners to be better decision makers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Fred A.; Eaton, Mitchell J.; Williams, James H.; Jensen, Gitte H.; Madsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Traditional conservation curricula and training typically emphasizes only one part of systematic decision making (i.e., the science), at the expense of preparing conservation practitioners with critical skills in values-setting, working with decision makers and stakeholders, and effective problem framing. In this article we describe how the application of decision science is relevant to conservation problems and suggest how current and future conservation practitioners can be trained to be better decision makers. Though decision-analytic approaches vary considerably, they all involve: (1) properly formulating the decision problem; (2) specifying feasible alternative actions; and (3) selecting criteria for evaluating potential outcomes. Two approaches are available for providing training in decision science, with each serving different needs. Formal education is useful for providing simple, well-defined problems that allow demonstrations of the structure, axioms and general characteristics of a decision-analytic approach. In contrast, practical training can offer complex, realistic decision problems requiring more careful structuring and analysis than those used for formal training purposes. Ultimately, the kinds and degree of training necessary depend on the role conservation practitioners play in a decision-making process. Those attempting to facilitate decision-making processes will need advanced training in both technical aspects of decision science and in facilitation techniques, as well as opportunities to apprentice under decision analysts/consultants. Our primary goal should be an attempt to ingrain a discipline for applying clarity of thought to all decisions.

  6. Residents, Decision Makers, and Scientists Discuss Volcanic Hazard in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, Michael F.; Cordoba, Gustavo

    2010-02-01

    Knowledge Sharing and Collaboration in Volcanic Risk Mitigation at Galeras Volcano, Colombia; Pasto, Colombia, 6-11 July 2009; Galeras volcano, located in southwestern Colombia, imposes several hazards on the surrounding population: pyroclastic flows, lahars, ashfall, and shock waves. The current hazard map shows three zones: high, medium, and low (see A. D. Hurtado Artunduaga and G. P. Cortés Jiménez, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 77, 89-100, 1997). The pyroclastic flow hazard on this map defines the Zone of High Volcanic Hazard (ZAVA) for civil authorities. Current activity of Galeras has provoked two contentious issues related to hazard management: (1) Decision makers announce an evacuation order of ZAVA whenever the volcanic alert reaches a high level, and (2) the Colombian government initiated a relocation program for the inhabitants within ZAVA (Colombian Decrees-Laws 4106 and 3905). However, communities within ZAVA refuse to obey both the evacuation orders and the relocation process. To help resolve this situation, the University of Nariño (Colombia) and the State University of New York at Buffalo organized a workshop, which was sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation. A daily average of 92 people attended, including residents of ZAVA, decision makers, Colombian technical and scientific personnel, international scientists and researchers, students, and academics from the University of Nariño.

  7. Digital stereoscopic photography using StereoData Maker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toeppen, John; Sykes, David

    2009-02-01

    Stereoscopic digital photography has become much more practical with the use of USB wired connections between a pair of Canon cameras using StereoData Maker software for precise synchronization. StereoPhoto Maker software is now used to automatically combine and align right and left image files to produce a stereo pair. Side by side images are saved as pairs and may be viewed using software that converts the images into the preferred viewing format at the time of display. Stereo images may be shared on the internet, displayed on computer monitors, autostereo displays, viewed on high definition 3D TVs, or projected for a group. Stereo photographers are now free to control composition using point and shoot settings, or are able to control shutter speed, aperture, focus, ISO, and zoom. The quality of the output depends on the developed skills of the photographer as well as their understanding of the software, human vision and the geometry they choose for their cameras and subjects. Observers of digital stereo images can zoom in for greater detail and scroll across large panoramic fields with a few keystrokes. The art, science, and methods of taking, creating and viewing digital stereo photos are presented in a historic and developmental context in this paper.

  8. Informing Education Policy in Afghanistan: Using Design of Experiments and Data Envelopment Analysis to Provide Transparency in Complex Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlin, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Education planning provides the policy maker and the decision maker a logical framework in which to develop and implement education policy. At the international level, education planning is often confounded by both internal and external complexities, making the development of education policy difficult. This research presents a discrete event…

  9. Human resources for health policies: a critical component in health policies

    PubMed Central

    Dussault, Gilles; Dubois, Carl-Ardy

    2003-01-01

    In the last few years, increasing attention has been paid to the development of health policies. But side by side with the presumed benefits of policy, many analysts share the opinion that a major drawback of health policies is their failure to make room for issues of human resources. Current approaches in human resources suggest a number of weaknesses: a reactive, ad hoc attitude towards problems of human resources; dispersal of accountability within human resources management (HRM); a limited notion of personnel administration that fails to encompass all aspects of HRM; and finally the short-term perspective of HRM. There are three broad arguments for modernizing the ways in which human resources for health are managed: • the central role of the workforce in the health sector; • the various challenges thrown up by health system reforms; • the need to anticipate the effect on the health workforce (and consequently on service provision) arising from various macroscopic social trends impinging on health systems. The absence of appropriate human resources policies is responsible, in many countries, for a chronic imbalance with multifaceted effects on the health workforce: quantitative mismatch, qualitative disparity, unequal distribution and a lack of coordination between HRM actions and health policy needs. Four proposals have been put forward to modernize how the policy process is conducted in the development of human resources for health (HRH): • to move beyond the traditional approach of personnel administration to a more global concept of HRM; • to give more weight to the integrated, interdependent and systemic nature of the different components of HRM when preparing and implementing policy; • to foster a more proactive attitude among human resources (HR) policy-makers and managers; • to promote the full commitment of all professionals and sectors in all phases of the process. The development of explicit human resources policies is a crucial link

  10. 10 CFR 431.132 - Definitions concerning automatic commercial ice makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... condensing automatic commercial ice makers, total energy consumed shall include condenser fan power. Harvest... automatic commercial ice makers that do not contain integral storage bins, but are generally designed...

  11. 75 FR 82127 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Gauguin: Maker of Myth”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Gauguin: Maker of Myth'' SUMMARY..., I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Gauguin: Maker of...

  12. Policies, Procedures, Guidelines, Rules and Regulations for the Administration and Operation of Public Junior Colleges. (Compilation of Existing Actions of the Illinois Junior College Board.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.

    This document is a compilation of existing policies, procedures, guidelines, rules, and regulations previously adopted by the Illinois Junior College Board, from its establishment in September 1965 through May 1973. Also in the document is a listing of due dates for various documents that are to be sent to the board office during the following…

  13. National energy conservation policy under the Reagan administration: Analysis of hearings on the Department of Energy authorization for fiscal year 1982

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sissine, F. J.

    1982-03-01

    Some of the major issues in energy conservation policy are summarized, including the significance of energy conservation to the national economy, foreign competition, and the prospects for increased private and local government participation. The role of the Federal Government in energy conservation, outreach, and information dissemination is discussed.

  14. National Crime Information Center Mandatory Minimum Standards Curriculum for Full Access Terminal Operators. Volume One--Administrative Issues, Policy and the Interstate Identification Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Bureau of Investigation, Washington, DC. National Crime Information Center.

    This document is the first volume of a two-volume set of lesson plans which together make up a complete training package for full-service terminal operators. The lesson plans are designed to ensure that a state's National Crime Information Center (NCIC) training program meets Advisory Policy Board standards. (NCIC is a nationwide computerized…

  15. Statement of Policy and Procedures for Administration of Contracts and Grants with Regional Educational Laboratories and Research and Development Centers During FY 1983 and FY 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Education (ED), Washington, DC.

    A National Institute of Education (NIE) statement of policy and procedures is presented regarding administering institutional contracts and grants with regional educational laboratories and research and development centers during fiscal years 1983 and 1984. Definitions are presented of regional educational laboratories and research and development…

  16. Native American Education Research and Policy Development in an Era of No Child Left Behind: Native Language and Culture during the Administrations of Presidents Clinton and Bush

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, David

    2008-01-01

    This article traces the history of policy development in Native American education from the second term of President William J. Clinton and his signing of Executive Order 13096 of August 6, 1998 on American Indian/Alaska Native education, through the passage and implementation of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act and initial consideration of its…

  17. Democracy (In)Action: A Critical Policy Analysis of New York City Public School Closings by Teachers, Students, Administrators, and Community Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kretchmar, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I serve as a secretary for the critical policy analysis presented by hundreds of teachers, parents, students, and community members during 19 public hearings on school closures in New York City. In testimony at hearings, community members rejected the narrow, statistical approach they felt the Department of Education was using to…

  18. Opening Pandora's Box: Texas Elementary Campus Administrators Use of Educational Policy and Highly Qualified Classroom Teachers Professional Development through Data-Informed Decisions for Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Linda Lou

    2009-01-01

    Federal educational policy, "No Child Left Behind Act of 2001", focused attention on America's education with conspicuous results. One aspect, "highly qualified classroom teacher" and "principal" (HQ), was taxing since states established individual accountability structures. The HQ impact and use of data-informed decision-making (DIDM) for Texas…

  19. Using a Simple Economic Impact Model To Document Value to Policy Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillibridge, Fred

    At the request of state legislature, the two-year branch campus of New Mexico State University at Alamogordo (NMSU-A) began using an economic impact model developed by the Eastern Association of College and University Business Officers (EACUBO) to document accountability. The EACUBO Model uses information about the institution and economic data…

  20. First Teachers: A Family Literacy Handbook for Parents, Policy-Makers, and Literacy Providers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbara Bush Foundation for Family Literacy, Washington, DC.

    This handbook presents annotated "snapshots" of 10 innovative family literacy programs, almost all of which were begun by an individual with a vision of a new way to solve a demanding educational problem. Profiles depict, in terms of background, characteristics, evidence of success, and advice to policymakers and practitioners, the: (1) Parent and…

  1. Adoption by Policy Makers of Knowledge from Educational Research: An Alternative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The phrase knowledge adoption refers to the ways in which policymakers take up and use evidence. Whilst frameworks and models have been put forward to explain knowledge adoption activity, this paper argues that current approaches are flawed and do not address the complexities affecting the successful realisation of knowledge-adoption efforts.…

  2. Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Young Adults. and Update on AIDS for Teachers and Policy Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarber, William L.; Newschwander, Gregg E.

    1987-01-01

    Consists of two articles on the topics of (1) sexually transmitted diseases and (2) acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Yarber discusses how these topics should be taught to young people, with emphasis on health education as opposed to morality. Newschwander states the facts related to AIDS, including risks of enrolling infected students.…

  3. Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system: lessons for clinicians and policy makers

    PubMed Central

    Carpio, Arturo; Romo, Matthew L.; Parkhouse, R. M. E.; Short, Brooke; Dua, Tarun

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system are associated with high mortality and morbidity, especially in resource-limited settings. The burden of these diseases is amplified as survivors are often left with neurologic sequelae affecting mobility, sensory organs, and cognitive functions, as well as seizures/epilepsy. These diseases inflict suffering by causing lifelong disabilities, reducing economic productivity, and causing social stigma. The complexity of parasitic life cycles and geographic specificities, as well as overlapping clinical manifestations in the host reflecting the diverse pathogenesis of parasites, can present diagnostic challenges. We herein provide an overview of these parasitic diseases and summarize clinical aspects, diagnosis, therapeutic strategies and recent milestones, and aspects related to prevention and control. PMID:26894629

  4. Implementing neonatal screening for congenital cytomegalovirus: addressing the deafness of policy makers.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Jutte J C; Vossen, Ann C T M; Kroes, Aloys C M; van der Zeijst, Bernard A M

    2011-01-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is an important public health problem with approximately 7 in 1,000 newborns infected and consequently at risk for hearing impairment. Newborn hearing screening will fail to detect this hearing impairment in approximately half of the cases because late onset hearing loss is frequent. Hearing impairment has profound impact on cognitive and social development of children and their families, determining most of the disease burden of congenital CMV infection. The potential value of newborn screening for congenital CMV is increasingly discussed. To date, many experts acknowledge the benefit of antiviral treatment in the prevention of hearing deterioration in newborns with neurological symptoms, and the benefit of early identification of late-onset hearing impairment by means of extensive audiological follow up of infected infants. These opinions imply that the potential of newborn screening for CMV would lie in the identification of the large proportion of asymptomatic congenitally infected newborns at risk for developing late-onset hearing loss. Experience with postnatal antiviral treatment of symptomatic newborns is encouraging, but has not been studied in asymptomatic congenitally infected newborns. A large-scale study on the safety and effectiveness of combined screening and antiviral therapy for congenital CMV infection is the necessary next step to take and should not be delayed.

  5. How Teaching Influences Learning: Implications for Educational Researchers, Teachers, Teacher Educators and Policy Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alton-Lee, Adrienne

    2006-01-01

    This article is a tribute to Graham Nuthall's contribution to classroom research from his early experimental studies through to his recent work on theory integration. It also explains the potential of the methodology, findings and theory building in our collaborative work to make a substantial positive difference for diverse students. The article…

  6. Best Practices: MEDNET: a multistate policy maker-researcher collaboration to improve prescribing practices.

    PubMed

    Finnerty, Molly; Neese-Todd, Sheree; Bilder, Scott; Olfson, Mark; Crystal, Stephen

    2014-11-01

    States face new federal requirements to monitor psychotropic prescribing practices for children and adults enrolled in Medicaid. Effective use of quality measurement and quality improvement strategies hold the promise of improved outcomes for public mental health systems. The Medicaid/Mental Health Network for Evidence-Based Treatment (MEDNET), funded by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, is a multistate Medicaid quality collaborative with the Rutgers University Center for Health Services Research on Pharmacotherapy, Chronic Disease Management, and Outcomes. This column describes the development, infrastructure, challenges, and early evidence of success of this public-academic partnership, the first multistate Medicaid quality improvement collaborative to focus on psychotropic medications.

  7. Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system: lessons for clinicians and policy makers.

    PubMed

    Carpio, Arturo; Romo, Matthew L; Parkhouse, R M E; Short, Brooke; Dua, Tarun

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system are associated with high mortality and morbidity, especially in resource-limited settings. The burden of these diseases is amplified as survivors are often left with neurologic sequelae affecting mobility, sensory organs, and cognitive functions, as well as seizures/epilepsy. These diseases inflict suffering by causing lifelong disabilities, reducing economic productivity, and causing social stigma. The complexity of parasitic life cycles and geographic specificities, as well as overlapping clinical manifestations in the host reflecting the diverse pathogenesis of parasites, can present diagnostic challenges. We herein provide an overview of these parasitic diseases and summarize clinical aspects, diagnosis, therapeutic strategies and recent milestones, and aspects related to prevention and control.

  8. Development assistance for health: should policy-makers worry about its macroeconomic impact?

    PubMed

    Cavagnero, Eleonora; Lane, Christopher; Evans, David B; Carrin, Guy

    2008-11-01

    Many low-income countries need to substantially increase expenditure to meet universal coverage goals for essential health services but, because they have very low-incomes, most will be unable to raise adequate funds exclusively from domestic sources in the short to medium term. Increased aid for health will be required. However, there has long been a concern that the rapid arrival of large amounts of foreign exchange in a country could lead to an increase in inflation and loss of international competitiveness, with an adverse impact on exports and economic growth, an economic phenomenon termed 'Dutch disease'. We review cross-country and country-level empirical studies and propose a simple framework to gauge the extent of macroeconomic risks. Of the 15 low-income countries that are increasing aid-financed health spending, 7 have high macroeconomic risks that may constrain the sustained expansion of spending. These conditions also apply in one-quarter of the 42 countries not presently increasing spending. Health authorities should be aware of the multiple risk factors at play, including factors that are health-sector specific and others that generally are not. They should also realize that there are effective means for mitigating the risk of Dutch disease associated with increasing development assistance for health. International partners also have an important role to play since more sustainable and predictable flows of donor funding will allow more productivity enhancing investment in physical and human capital, which will also contribute to ensuring there are few harmful macroeconomic effects of increases in aid. PMID:19030692

  9. Prekindergarten Programs Funded by the States: Essential Elements for Policy Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Anne; Ripple, Carol; Chanana, Nina

    This report summarizes the essential elements of state-funded prekindergarten programs across the United States. To be included in the report, a program had to be supported primarily by state funds, have early education as a goal, focus on children younger than kindergarten entry age, and provide direct service to children rather than concentrate…

  10. The Europeanisation of Intercultural Education? Responses from Eu Policy-Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadjisoteriou, Christina; Faas, Daniel; Angelides, Panayiotis

    2015-01-01

    European societies rely on different models to address cultural and religious diversity in education, with different potential consequences for the experiences youth have in schools. Some prefer the term intercultural education emphasising dialogue and interaction while others have historically followed the idea of multicultural education. In…

  11. New Zealand's Standard-Based Assessment for Secondary Schools (NCEA): Implications for Policy Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulruf, Boaz; Hattie, John; Tumen, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the different features of New Zealand's National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA) that can affect student outcomes. Despite the huge public debate surrounding its implementation, very little research has been carried out on the features and effectiveness of the NCEA. By analysing the…

  12. What's at Stake in the K-12 Standards Wars: A Primer for Educational Policy Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stotsky, Sandra, Ed.

    This collection of essays addresses the issues that have arisen in the development and implementation of national and state standards in science, mathematics, history, economics, and the English language arts. The chapters are: (1) "The 1997 Mathematics Standards War in California" (Hung-Hsi Wu); (2) "Judging State Standards for K-12 Mathematics…

  13. A Call for: Educational Leadership and Action. Essential Information on North Dakota Education for Policy Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Staff members of the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction have partnered with members of the P-16 Education Task Force, and support the various principles developed by task force members. The task force was initiated by the joint boards on public education in September of 2005 whose vision is "All North Dakota students will be educated in…

  14. Human genetics for non-scientists: Practical workshops for policy makers and opinion leaders

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    These workshops form part of a series of workshops that the Banbury and the DNA Learning Centers of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory have held for a number of years, introducing genetics, and the ways in which scientific research is done, to non-scientists. The purpose of the workshops as stated in the grant application was: {open_quotes}Our objective is to foster a better understanding of the societal impact of human genome research by providing basic information on genetics to non-scientists whose professions or special interests interface with genetic technology.... Participants will be chosen for their interest in human genetics and for their roles as opinion leaders in their own communities. Primary care physicians are of particular interest to us for this series of workshops.{close_quotes} Two workshops were held under this grant. The first was held in 21-24 April, 1994 and attended by 20 participants, and the second was held 16-19 November, 1995, and attended by 16 participants. In each case, there was a combination of concept lectures on the foundations of human molecular genetics; lectures by invited specialists; and laboratory experiments to introduce non-scientists to the techniques used in molecular genetics.

  15. Micro-lens maker equation of a CMOS image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yang

    2007-09-01

    The demand of a large resolution CMOS image sensor (CIS) in a small package drives the pixel pitch size down to the neighborhood of 2 μm. Double-micro-lens (ML) structure is a promising technology to obtain the high focusing capability required by such a small pixel. In this work, an optical model of a double-ML is derived from the well-known lens maker equation. This model predicts the critical back focal length (BFL) and the effective focal length (EFL) of the double-ML embedded in the Back-End-Of-The-Line (BEOL) stack. Explained by this model, a design guideline is provided to optimize the amount of light collected by the photo diode area for a good quantum efficiency (QE), which is crucial to the sensitivity of the sensor.

  16. X-rays from the episodic dust maker WR 137

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhekov, Svetozar A.

    2015-03-01

    We present an analysis of the XMM-Newton observation of the episodic dust maker WR 137. Global spectral fits show that its X-ray spectrum is well matched by a two-temperature optically-thin plasma emission (kT1 ˜ 0.4 keV and kT2 ˜ 2.2 keV). If we adopt the colliding stellar wind (CSW) picture for this wide WR+O binary, the theoretical CSW spectra match well the shape of the observed X-ray spectrum of WR 137 but they overestimate the observed flux (emission measure) by about two orders of magnitude. To reconcile the model predictions with observations, the mass-loss of WR 137 must be reduced considerably (by about an order of magnitude) with respect to its currently accepted value. In all the spectral fits, the derived X-ray absorption is consistent with the optical extinction to WR 137.

  17. Scaling up genome annotation using MAKER and work queue.

    PubMed

    Thrasher, Andrew; Musgrave, Zachary; Kachmarck, Brian; Thain, Douglas; Emrich, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Next generation sequencing technologies have enabled sequencing many genomes. Because of the overall increasing demand and the inherent parallelism available in many required analyses, these bioinformatics applications should ideally run on clusters, clouds and/or grids. We present a modified annotation framework that achieves a speed-up of 45x using 50 workers using a Caenorhabditis japonica test case. We also evaluate these modifications within the Amazon EC2 cloud framework. The underlying genome annotation (MAKER) is parallelised as an MPI application. Our framework enables it to now run without MPI while utilising a wide variety of distributed computing resources. This parallel framework also allows easy explicit data transfer, which helps overcome a major limitation of bioinformatics tools that often rely on shared file systems. Combined, our proposed framework can be used, even during early stages of development, to easily run sequence analysis tools on clusters, grids and clouds.

  18. Policy Development in Adult Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuhr, Christian

    Policies for educational institutions reflect social values. However, modern Canadian society is pluralistic; many values are held, and often these are in conflict with one another. Neither an appeal to the facts nor reasoned argument will reconcile such conflicts. Policy makers must think globally and act locally to ensure that all levels of…

  19. 7 CFR 1940.303 - General policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true General policy. 1940.303 Section 1940.303 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Environmental Program § 1940.303 General policy. (a) FmHA or its successor... decision-makers with both the technical and human aspects of environmental planning. (c) When...

  20. 7 CFR 1940.303 - General policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true General policy. 1940.303 Section 1940.303 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Environmental Program § 1940.303 General policy. (a) FmHA or its successor... decision-makers with both the technical and human aspects of environmental planning. (c) When...

  1. 7 CFR 1940.303 - General policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General policy. 1940.303 Section 1940.303 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Environmental Program § 1940.303 General policy. (a) FmHA or its successor... decision-makers with both the technical and human aspects of environmental planning. (c) When...

  2. 7 CFR 1940.303 - General policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General policy. 1940.303 Section 1940.303 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Environmental Program § 1940.303 General policy. (a) FmHA or its successor... decision-makers with both the technical and human aspects of environmental planning. (c) When...

  3. 39 CFR 775.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Environmental Policy Act, as amended, and the NEPA Regulations. (b) Make the NEPA process useful to Postal Service decision makers and the public. (c) Emphasize environmental issues and alternatives in the... STATES POSTAL SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT PROCEDURES §...

  4. 39 CFR 775.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Environmental Policy Act, as amended, and the NEPA Regulations. (b) Make the NEPA process useful to Postal Service decision makers and the public. (c) Emphasize environmental issues and alternatives in the... STATES POSTAL SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT PROCEDURES §...

  5. 39 CFR 775.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Environmental Policy Act, as amended, and the NEPA Regulations. (b) Make the NEPA process useful to Postal Service decision makers and the public. (c) Emphasize environmental issues and alternatives in the... STATES POSTAL SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT PROCEDURES §...

  6. 39 CFR 775.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Environmental Policy Act, as amended, and the NEPA Regulations. (b) Make the NEPA process useful to Postal Service decision makers and the public. (c) Emphasize environmental issues and alternatives in the... STATES POSTAL SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT PROCEDURES §...

  7. 39 CFR 775.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Environmental Policy Act, as amended, and the NEPA Regulations. (b) Make the NEPA process useful to Postal Service decision makers and the public. (c) Emphasize environmental issues and alternatives in the... STATES POSTAL SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT PROCEDURES §...

  8. Marijuana: A Study of State Policies & Penalties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co., Columbia, MD.

    This study is a comprehensive analysis of issues concerning marijuana that are of importance to state policy makers. It reviews the medical, legal, and historical dimensions of marijuana use and examines the range of policy approaches toward marijuana possession and use which state officials have considered. Attention is directed to the experience…

  9. Conceptualizing Education Policy in Democratic Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Laura B.

    2009-01-01

    Although theorists and policy makers agree that schooling should be democratic, what this exactly means often varies. This article establishes a conceptual model for analyzing education policy in democratic societies, based on the key concepts of equality, diversity, participation, choice, and cohesion. The model facilitates the design,…

  10. District Policy and Teachers' Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coburn, Cynthia E.; Russell, Jennifer Lin

    2008-01-01

    Policy makers increasingly include provisions aimed at fostering professional community as part of reform initiatives. Yet little is known about the impact of policy on teachers' professional relations in schools. Drawing theoretically from social capital theory and methodologically from qualitative social network analysis, this article explores…

  11. The use of language and its impact on energy policy discourse: A case study of the hydrogen economy and the news media during the G.W. Bush administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waegel, Alexander Francis

    The development of policy is subject to many different influences. The subjects are often complex and citizens must rely on information provided by third parties in order to participate in the discussion. The news media has traditionally been the primary provider of such information and are counted upon to publish unbiased accounts of events. However, the news media gets information from its own sources and this offers an opportunity for powerful, well-organized groups to influence the presentation of these topics. This is done through the creation and dissemination of constructed narratives, which remove the contexts from facts to present different conclusions (Barthes, 1957). Sourcing discusses how the news media may be influenced by powerful organizations providing free, easily published material (Herman, 1988). The 24 hour news cycle, the demand for ratings, and the impossibility of funding independent research journalism for every topic requires them to seek information from sources viewed as reliable and authoritative, such as the government or major corporations. The wealthier and more powerful organizations are better able to provide this large quantity of information in a readily publishable format and thus have the potential to influence the presentation to reflect positively on their positions. As a technologically and politically complex subject, energy policy would be particularly prone to the influence of sourcing. Hydrogen energy was used as a case study to search for the presence of sourcing. Hydrogen fuels cells offer potential for the reduction of greenhouse gasses and other benefits, but have significant disadvantages as well. While the academic community remained divided on the technology, the G.W. Bush administration offered it unwavering support. The Bush administration and the academic community both released a great deal of information about hydrogen but each set presented a very different outlook. Articles, press releases, and speeches from

  12. OMIGA: Optimized Maker-Based Insect Genome Annotation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinding; Xiao, Huamei; Huang, Shuiqing; Li, Fei

    2014-08-01

    Insects are one of the largest classes of animals on Earth and constitute more than half of all living species. The i5k initiative has begun sequencing of more than 5,000 insect genomes, which should greatly help in exploring insect resource and pest control. Insect genome annotation remains challenging because many insects have high levels of heterozygosity. To improve the quality of insect genome annotation, we developed a pipeline, named Optimized Maker-Based Insect Genome Annotation (OMIGA), to predict protein-coding genes from insect genomes. We first mapped RNA-Seq reads to genomic scaffolds to determine transcribed regions using Bowtie, and the putative transcripts were assembled using Cufflink. We then selected highly reliable transcripts with intact coding sequences to train de novo gene prediction software, including Augustus. The re-trained software was used to predict genes from insect genomes. Exonerate was used to refine gene structure and to determine near exact exon/intron boundary in the genome. Finally, we used the software Maker to integrate data from RNA-Seq, de novo gene prediction, and protein alignment to produce an official gene set. The OMIGA pipeline was used to annotate the draft genome of an important insect pest, Chilo suppressalis, yielding 12,548 genes. Different strategies were compared, which demonstrated that OMIGA had the best performance. In summary, we present a comprehensive pipeline for identifying genes in insect genomes that can be widely used to improve the annotation quality in insects. OMIGA is provided at http://ento.njau.edu.cn/omiga.html . PMID:24609470

  13. NORMATIVE SCIENCE: A CORRUPTING INFLUENCE IN ECOLOGICAL AND NATURAL RESOURCE POLICY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effectively resolving the typical ecological or natural resource policy issue requires providing an array of scientific information to decision-makers. The ability of scientists (and scientific information) to constructively inform ecological policy deliberations has been dimi...

  14. School Leadership Policy Trends and Developments: Policy Expediency or Policy Excellence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Virginia; Smith, L. Wes; Boutin, James

    2011-01-01

    Background: Institutional theorists suggest environmental stakeholders in the "organizational field" have a symbiotic relationship with governing agencies, leading to institutional isomorphism. Hence state policy makers copy the work of their colleagues across states to create a sense of legitimacy, certainty, and professionalization rather than…

  15. Behavioral Economics and Social Policy: Designing Innovative Solutions for Programs Supported by the Administration for Children and Families. OPRE Report No. 2014-16a

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richburg-Hayes, Lashawn; Anzelone, Caitlin; Dechausay, Nadine; Datta, Saugato; Fiorillo, Alexandra; Potok, Louis; Darling, Matthew; Balz, John

    2014-01-01

    The Behavioral Interventions to Advance Self-Sufficiency (BIAS) project is the first major opportunity to use a behavioral economics lens to look at programs that serve poor and vulnerable people in the United States. Sponsored by the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation of the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) within the U.S.…

  16. Practical and Policy Implications of Using Different Rural-Urban Classification Systems: A Case Study of Inpatient Service Utilization among Veterans Administration Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berke, Ethan M.; West, Alan N.; Wallace, Amy E.; Weeks, William B.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Several classification systems exist for defining rural areas, which may lead to different interpretations of rural health services data. Purpose: To compare rural classification systems on their implications for estimating Veterans Administration (VA) utilization. Methods: Using 7 classification systems, we counted VA health care…

  17. Advancing Performance Pay in the Obama Administration: The Influence of Political Strategy and Alternative Priorities. Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Papers Series. PEPG 10-04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smarick, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Even the most cursory look at the current administration's approach to performance pay reveals a noteworthy story. Unlike all of his Democratic predecessors--and some of his Republican ones--President Obama not only appreciates the value of differentiating the compensation of teachers based on a effectiveness, he has put energy and money behind…

  18. Considering Literacy and Policy in the Context of Digital Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinzer, Charles K.

    2010-01-01

    This article (1) argues that literacy is being redefined as a result of the use of digital media, and (2) provides suggestions for policy makers, budget decision-makers, teachers, researchers, and interested others about literacy and language arts standards, assessment, and teaching related to "new literacies," including: (a) Maximize the…

  19. Examining Mathematics Teacher Content Knowledge Using Policy, State Certification Tests and Transcripts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, Pamela Esprivalo; Eddy, Colleen McLean

    2011-01-01

    This study examined mathematics teacher content knowledge in terms of policy maker recommendations, college coursework and teacher certification mathematics test scores. Transcript analysis indicated poor alignment of national policy maker recommendations for mathematics teachers and college degrees in mathematics. Teacher certification test…

  20. Resource Trends and Population Policy: A Time for Reassessment. Worldwatch Paper 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lester R.

    Population growth and resource depletion are discussed. The need is stressed for policy makers to understand how population projections relate to the carrying capacity of the earth's basic biological systems. Because the earth's resources are limited, it is essential that policy makers in developed and developing nations be able to analyze the…

  1. Gender differences in follower behavior. An experimental study of reactions to ambitious decision makers.

    PubMed

    Larimer, Christopher W; Hannagan, Rebecca J

    2010-09-01

    This study investigates whether observers react negatively to overly ambitious leaders, focusing on whether women are more sensitive than men in their perceptions of the traits of decision makers and whether men and women behave differently as a result of such perceptions. Results from two laboratory experiments show how participants react to ambitious decision makers in simple bargaining scenarios. The results indicate that observers tend to equate ambition for decision-making authority with self-interested, unfair, male behavior. Moreover, observers tend to be less satisfied with a decision made by an ambitious decision maker compared to the same decision made by an unambitious decision maker. That is, people generally dislike ambitious decision makers independent of the actual decision that is made. Further, there are important differences in male and female expectations of what decision makers will do that, when combined with perceptions of decision-maker gender, have more nuanced implications for outcome satisfaction and our understanding of "follower behavior."

  2. River basin administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Management of international rivers and their basins is the focus of the Centre for Comparative Studies on (International) River Basin Administration, recently established at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. Water pollution, sludge, and conflicting interests in the use of water in upstream and downstream parts of a river basin will be addressed by studying groundwater and consumption of water in the whole catchment area of a river.Important aspects of river management are administrative and policy aspects. The Centre will focus on policy, law, planning, and organization, including transboundary cooperation, posing standards, integrated environmental planning on regional scale and environmental impact assessments.

  3. Using Dual Enrollment Policy to Improve College & Career Readiness: A Web Tool for Decision Makers. A Policy Brief. Design Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Diane S.; Vargas, Joel

    2012-01-01

    As demand for a highly educated and skilled workforce grows, many governors have made student college and career readiness a priority in 2012. In their State of the State addresses, governors in Mississippi, Missouri, Virginia, and Wisconsin promoted the expansion of dual enrollment programs as a key strategy for strengthening academic…

  4. Use of evidence to support healthy public policy: a policy effectiveness-feasibility loop.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Sarah; Unwin, Nigel; Critchley, Julia; Capewell, Simon; Husseini, Abdullatif; Maziak, Wasim; Zaman, Shahaduz; Ben Romdhane, Habiba; Fouad, Fouad; Phillimore, Peter; Unal, Belgin; Khatib, Rana; Shoaibi, Azza; Ahmad, Balsam

    2012-11-01

    Public policy plays a key role in improving population health and in the control of diseases, including non-communicable diseases. However, an evidence-based approach to formulating healthy public policy has been difficult to implement, partly on account of barriers that hinder integrated work between researchers and policy-makers. This paper describes a "policy effectiveness-feasibility loop" (PEFL) that brings together epidemiological modelling, local situation analysis and option appraisal to foster collaboration between researchers and policy-makers. Epidemiological modelling explores the determinants of trends in disease and the potential health benefits of modifying them. Situation analysis investigates the current conceptualization of policy, the level of policy awareness and commitment among key stakeholders, and what actually happens in practice, thereby helping to identify policy gaps. Option appraisal integrates epidemiological modelling and situation analysis to investigate the feasibility, costs and likely health benefits of various policy options. The authors illustrate how PEFL was used in a project to inform public policy for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes in four parts of the eastern Mediterranean. They conclude that PEFL may offer a useful framework for researchers and policy-makers to successfully work together to generate evidence-based policy, and they encourage further evaluation of this approach.

  5. Public Policy Panel Discussion: Science Policy in an Era of Political Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubell, M. S.; Bromley, D. A.; Moniz, E.; Weimer, T. R.; Windham, P.

    1996-03-01

    The end of the Cold War and the accelerated globalization of the American economy are shifting long-held rationales for policies on scientific research and education. For example, Vannevar Bush's paradigm for research and development, considered sacrosanct for almost half a century, has been declared by some analysts to be irrelevant for America of the 1990's. In addition, the demands for change, expressed by voters in the 1992 and 1994 elections, create a new political context within which science policies must be placed. Downsizing of the federal government, begun by the Clinton administration and accelerated dramatically by the 104th Congress, has led to ideological and budgetary debates, some of which remain unresolved. At the same time, the industrial workplace has also undergone dramatic change. Most central research laboratories no longer exist, and the industrial commitment to basic research is but a shadow of what it was two or three decades ago. Industry demands better educated and more highly skilled workers, even as the nature of science education and the role of the federal government in providing that education is being altered. The panel will address these and other issues in scientific research and education that confront federal policy makers.

  6. ECOLOGICAL POLICY: DEFINING APPROPRIATE ROLES FOR SCIENCE AND SCIENTISTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effectively resolving the typical ecological, natural resource, or environmental policy issue requires an array of scientific information as part of the input provided to decision-makers. In my experience, the ability of scientists (and scientific information) to constructively ...

  7. The female community health volunteer programme in Nepal: decision makers' perceptions of volunteerism, payment and other incentives.

    PubMed

    Glenton, Claire; Scheel, Inger B; Pradhan, Sabina; Lewin, Simon; Hodgins, Stephen; Shrestha, Vijaya

    2010-06-01

    The Female Community Health Volunteer (FCHV) Programme in Nepal has existed since the late 1980s and includes almost 50,000 volunteers. Although volunteer programmes are widely thought to be characterised by high attrition levels, the FCHV Programme loses fewer than 5% of its volunteers annually. The degree to which decision makers understand community health worker motivations and match these with appropriate incentives is likely to influence programme sustainability. The purpose of this study was to explore the views of stakeholders who have participated in the design and implementation of the Female Community Health Volunteer regarding Volunteer motivation and appropriate incentives, and to compare these views with the views and expectations of Volunteers. Semi-structured interviews were carried out in 2009 with 19 purposively selected non-Volunteer stakeholders, including policy makers and programme managers. Results were compared with data from previous studies of Female Community Health Volunteers and from interviews with four Volunteers and two Volunteer activists. Stakeholders saw Volunteers as motivated primarily by social respect, religious and moral duty. The freedom to deliver services at their leisure was seen as central to the volunteer concept. While stakeholders also saw the need for extrinsic incentives such as micro-credit, regular wages were regarded not only as financially unfeasible, but as a potential threat to the Volunteers' social respect, and thereby to their motivation. These views were reflected in interviews with and previous studies of Female Community Health Volunteers, and appear to be influenced by a tradition of volunteering as moral behaviour, a lack of respect for paid government workers, and the Programme's community embeddedness. Our study suggests that it may not be useful to promote a generic range of incentives, such as wages, to improve community health worker programme sustainability. Instead, programmes should ensure that

  8. "Educare" in Australia: Analysing Policy Mobility and Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McShane, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early childhood education and care has been an area of significant policy attention, public investment and private market activity in Australia over the past three decades. Australian educationists and policy-makers have looked to international examples for evidence, policy design and institutional models. However, this area is…

  9. Early Childhood Education: Policy Issues for the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stegelin, Dolores A., Ed.

    Noting the separation of child-related policy makers from practitioners who know best what is good and appropriate for children, this anthology is designed as a guide for child-related policy development. The book's chapters are as follows: (1) "Early Childhood Policy" (Dolores A. Stegelin), providing an historical context and identifying eight…

  10. Language Policy, Multilingual Education, and Power in Rwanda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuelson, Beth Lewis; Freedman, Sarah Warshauer

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of Rwanda's language policies since 1996 has played and continues to play a critical role in social reconstruction following war and genocide. Rwanda's new English language policy aims to drop French and install English as the only language of instruction. The policy-makers frame the change as a major factor in the success of social…

  11. Institutional Admissions Policies in Higher Education: A Widening Participation Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenbank, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This article analyses how higher education institutions (HEIs) have responded to government policy to increase the participation rates of students from lower social classes through their admissions policies. Design/methodology/approach: The article uses documentary evidence and interviews with institutional policy makers to examine HEI…

  12. The Hidden Curriculum of Youth Policy: A Dutch Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopman, Marit; de Winter, Micha; Koops, Willem

    2014-01-01

    Youth policy is more than a mere response to the actual behavior of children, but it is equally influenced by values and beliefs of policy makers. These values are however rarely made explicit and, therefore, the authors refer to them as "the hidden curriculum" of youth policy. The study investigation explicates this hidden curriculum by…

  13. Talent Wars: The International Market for Academic Staff. Policy Briefing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This policy briefing aims to raise awareness and understanding among policy-makers and UK higher institutions of the international dimensions of academic staff recruitment and the factors that may influence it. This briefing summarises recent research and considers its implications for institutions and for national policies. Annex A contains:…

  14. Policies and Initiatives: Reforming Teacher Education in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amadi, Martha Nkechinyere

    2012-01-01

    Much discussion surrounding educational policy currently is international in character. Governments, policy makers, stakeholders and many international organizations of both developed and developing countries have become concerned with how policies, practices, and outcomes in one country can be compared with those in other countries. Comparative…

  15. Educational Change in Scotland: Policy, Context and Biography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priestley, M.; Miller, K.

    2012-01-01

    The poor success rate of policy for curriculum change has been widely noted in the educational change literature. Part of the problem lies in the complexity of schools, as policy-makers have proven unable to micro-manage the multifarious range of factors that impact upon the implementation of policy. This article draws upon empirical data from a…

  16. PISA Data: Raising Concerns with Its Use in Policy Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, Shelley; Polesel, John; Wu, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    This article considers the role played by policy makers, government organisations, and research institutes (sometimes labelled "think tanks") in the analysis, use and reporting of PISA data for the purposes of policy advice and advocacy. It draws on the ideas of Rizvi and Lingard (Globalizing Education Policy, 2010), Bogdandy and…

  17. Global change research: Science and policy

    SciTech Connect

    Rayner, S.

    1993-05-01

    This report characterizes certain aspects of the Global Change Research Program of the US Government, and its relevance to the short and medium term needs of policy makers in the public and private sectors. It addresses some of the difficulties inherent in the science and policy interface on the issues of global change. Finally, this report offers some proposals for improving the science for policy process in the context of global environmental change.

  18. From Policy Design to Campus: Implementation of a Tuition Decentralization Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Michael S.

    2007-01-01

    This study analyzes the implementation of a tuition decentralization policy in North Carolina. Concepts of organizational culture served as a guiding framework for an interpretive analysis. Qualitative case study data for the research was collected from interviews with key policy makers within the University of North Carolina as well as an…

  19. Administrators Confront Student "Sexting"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2009-01-01

    Cellphone-savvy students have created instructional and disciplinary challenges for educators for years. But the recent emergence of "sexting" by adolescents over their mobile phones caught many school administrators off guard, and the practice is prompting efforts around the country to craft policy responses. Students' sharing of nude or…

  20. Discretionary Grants Administration Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Human Development Services (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    This manual sets forth applicable administrative policies and procedures to recipients of discretionary project grants or cooperative agreements awarded by program offices in the Office of Human Development Services (HDS). It is intended to serve as a basic reference for project directors and business officers of recipient organizations who are…

  1. Hormones as "difference makers" in cognitive and socioemotional aging processes.

    PubMed

    Ebner, Natalie C; Kamin, Hayley; Diaz, Vanessa; Cohen, Ronald A; MacDonald, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated with well-recognized alterations in brain function, some of which are reflected in cognitive decline. While less appreciated, there is also considerable evidence of socioemotional changes later in life, some of which are beneficial. In this review, we examine age-related changes and individual differences in four neuroendocrine systems-cortisol, estrogen, testosterone, and oxytocin-as "difference makers" in these processes. This suite of interrelated hormonal systems actively coordinates regulatory processes in brain and behavior throughout development, and their level and function fluctuate during the aging process. Despite these facts, their specific impact in cognitive and socioemotional aging has received relatively limited study. It is known that chronically elevated levels of the stress hormone cortisol exert neurotoxic effects on the aging brain with negative impacts on cognition and socioemotional functioning. In contrast, the sex hormones estrogen and testosterone appear to have neuroprotective effects in cognitive aging, but may decrease prosociality. Higher levels of the neuropeptide oxytocin benefit socioemotional functioning, but little is known about the effects of oxytocin on cognition or about age-related changes in the oxytocin system. In this paper, we will review the role of these hormones in the context of cognitive and socioemotional aging. In particular, we address the aforementioned gap in the literature by: (1) examining both singular actions and interrelations of these four hormonal systems; (2) exploring their correlations and causal relationships with aspects of cognitive and socioemotional aging; and (3) considering multilevel internal and external influences on these hormone systems within the framework of explanatory pluralism. We conclude with a discussion of promising future research directions. PMID:25657633

  2. Development of Evidence-Based Health Policy Documents in Developing Countries: A Case of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Imani-Nasab, Mohammad Hasan; Seyedin, Hesam; Majdzadeh, Reza; Yazdizadeh, Bahareh; Salehi, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Background: Evidence-based policy documents that are well developed by senior civil servants and are timely available can reduce the barriers to evidence utilization by health policy makers. This study examined the barriers and facilitators in developing evidence-based health policy documents from the perspective of their producers in a developing country. Methods: In a qualitative study with a framework analysis approach, we conducted semi-structured interviews using purposive and snowball sampling. A qualitative analysis software (MAXQDA-10) was used to apply the codes and manage the data. This study was theory-based and the results were compared to exploratory studies about the factors influencing evidence-based health policymaking. Results: 18 codes and three main themes of behavioral, normative, and control beliefs were identified. Factors that influence the development of evidence-based policy documents were identified by the participants: behavioral beliefs included quality of policy documents, use of resources, knowledge and innovation, being time-consuming and contextualization; normative beliefs included policy authorities, policymakers, policy administrators, and co-workers; and control beliefs included recruitment policy, performance management, empowerment, management stability, physical environment, access to evidence, policy making process, and effect of other factors. Conclusion: Most of the cited barriers to the development of evidence-based policy were related to control beliefs, i.e. barriers at the organizational and health system levels. This study identified the factors that influence the development of evidence-based policy documents based on the components of the theory of planned behavior. But in exploratory studies on evidence utilization by health policymakers, the identified factors were only related to control behaviors. This suggests that the theoretical approach may be preferable to the exploratory approach in identifying the barriers

  3. Who speaks for the climate? Considering `expert' and `authorized' claims-makers in the media (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boykoff, M.

    2010-12-01

    In this presentation, I analyze representations of climate change in traditional and new/social media, and examine contextual elements as well as journalistic pressures that contribute to how claims-makers become ‘experts’ and/or ‘authorities’ as well as how climate-related information becomes ‘news’. These considerations seek to help make sense of how/why particular climate-related discourses find traction in traditional and new/social media, while others remain muffled or silent. In so doing, I explore how power flows through culture, politics, and society, constructing knowledge, norms, conventions and (un)truths about variegated dimensions of climate change via processes of media portrayals. I interrogate how (un)authorized voices in mass media shape claims on ‘truth’ about various facets of present day climate challenges. I argue that these significantly meld our individual and collective ‘ways of knowing’ about climate change, and in turn, vitally shape our ongoing material and social practices. The contested and complex elements explored here contribute critically to cultural interpretations via citizen perceptions and deliberations for action, as media practices stitch together formal science and policy with everyday activities in the public sphere.

  4. Decision Support Systems for Academic Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Laurence J.; Greenwood, Allen G.

    1984-01-01

    The history and features of Decision Support Systems (DSS) and use of the approach by academic administrators are discussed. The objective of DSS is to involve the manager/decision maker in the decision-analysis process while simultaneously relieving that person of the burden of developing and performing detailed analysis. DSS represents a…

  5. Medicare program; revision to accrual basis of accounting policy. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA). Final rule.

    PubMed

    1999-09-27

    Medicare policy provides that payroll taxes that a provider becomes obligated to remit to governmental agencies are included in allowable costs only in the cost reporting period in which payment (upon which the payroll taxes are based) is actually made to an employee. Therefore, for payroll accrued in 1 year but not paid until the next year, the associated payroll taxes are not an allowable cost until the next year. This final rule provides for an exception when payment would be made to the employee in the current year but for the fact that regularly scheduled payment date is after the end of the year. In that case, the rule requires allowance in the current year of accrued taxes on payroll that is accrued through the end of the year but not paid until the beginning of the next year, thus allowing accrued taxes on end-of-the year payroll in the same year that the accrual of the payroll itself is allowed. The effect of this rule is not on the allowability of cost but rather only on the timing of payment; that is, the cost of payroll taxes on end-of-the-year payroll is allowable in the current period rather than in the following period. PMID:10915462

  6. A Parametric Investigation of Breaking Bow Waves using a 2D+T Wave Maker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxeiner, E. A.; Shakeri, M.; Duncan, J. H.

    2008-11-01

    An experimental study of bow waves generated by a 2D+T (Two Dimensions plus Time) wave maker in a tank that is 14.8 m long, 1.2 m wide and 2.2 m deep is presented. Rather than simulating a specific ship hull, here we use a parametric set of wave maker motions with each parameter simulating a common feature of a ship hull form. Three categories of wave maker motions are used: ``slap'' (rotation of the wave board (held flat) about the keel), ``fixed'' (translation the wave board while it is upper part remains flat and at a fixed angle relative to horizontal), and ``full'' (simultaneous rotation and translation). The wave maker motions are run over a range of speeds and, in the ``fixed'' cases, over a range of angles. The temporal histories of the wave profiles were measured using a cinematic LIF technique. The relationship between various geometrical features of the waves and the wave maker motion parameters is explored. Each category of wave maker motions produces waves that develop and break in markedly different ways, thus highlighting the complex nature of bow waves. The wave crest speeds vary between 2 and 2.5 times the maximum speed of the wave maker and, for a given class of wave maker motion, vary with wave maker speed.

  7. Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987; Prescription Drug Amendments of 1992; policies, requirements, and administrative procedures; delay of effective date. Final rule; delay of effective date.

    PubMed

    2004-02-23

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is further delaying, until December 1, 2006, the effective date of certain requirements of a final rule published in the Federal Register of December 3, 1999 (64 FR 67720). In the Federal Register of May 3, 2000 (65 FR 25639), the agency delayed until October 1, 2001, the effective date of certain requirements in the final rule relating to wholesale distribution of prescription drugs by distributors that are not authorized distributors of record, and distribution of blood derivatives by entities that meet the definition of a "health care entity" in the final rule. The agency further delayed the effective date of these requirements in three subsequent Federal Register notices. Most recently, in the Federal Register of January 31, 2003 (68 FR 4912), FDA delayed the effective date until April 1, 2004. This action further delays the effective date of these requirements until December 1, 2006. The final rule implements the Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987 (PDMA), as modified by the Prescription Drug Amendments of 1992 (PDA), and the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (the Modernization Act). The agency is taking this action to address concerns about the requirements in the final rule raised by affected parties. As explained in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section, FDA is working with stakeholders through its counterfeit drug initiative to facilitate widespread, voluntary adoption of track and trace technologies that will generate a de facto electronic pedigree, including prior transaction history back to the original manufacturer, as a routine course of business. If this technology is widely adopted, it is expected to help fulfill the pedigree requirements of the PDMA and obviate or resolve many of the concerns that have been raised with respect to the final rule by ensuring that an electronic pedigree travels with a drug product at all times. Therefore, it is necessary to delay the effective date of Sec

  8. Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987; Prescription Drug Amendments of 1992; policies, requirements, and administrative procedures; delay of effective date. Final rule; delay of effective date.

    PubMed

    2004-02-23

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is further delaying, until December 1, 2006, the effective date of certain requirements of a final rule published in the Federal Register of December 3, 1999 (64 FR 67720). In the Federal Register of May 3, 2000 (65 FR 25639), the agency delayed until October 1, 2001, the effective date of certain requirements in the final rule relating to wholesale distribution of prescription drugs by distributors that are not authorized distributors of record, and distribution of blood derivatives by entities that meet the definition of a "health care entity" in the final rule. The agency further delayed the effective date of these requirements in three subsequent Federal Register notices. Most recently, in the Federal Register of January 31, 2003 (68 FR 4912), FDA delayed the effective date until April 1, 2004. This action further delays the effective date of these requirements until December 1, 2006. The final rule implements the Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987 (PDMA), as modified by the Prescription Drug Amendments of 1992 (PDA), and the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (the Modernization Act). The agency is taking this action to address concerns about the requirements in the final rule raised by affected parties. As explained in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section, FDA is working with stakeholders through its counterfeit drug initiative to facilitate widespread, voluntary adoption of track and trace technologies that will generate a de facto electronic pedigree, including prior transaction history back to the original manufacturer, as a routine course of business. If this technology is widely adopted, it is expected to help fulfill the pedigree requirements of the PDMA and obviate or resolve many of the concerns that have been raised with respect to the final rule by ensuring that an electronic pedigree travels with a drug product at all times. Therefore, it is necessary to delay the effective date of Sec

  9. Operations Policy Manual, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teacher Education Accreditation Council, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Teacher Education Accreditation Council (TEAC) "Operations Policy Manual" outlines all of TEAC's current policies and procedures related to TEAC members, TEAC administration, and the public, and includes the Bylaws of the Teacher Education Accreditation Council, Inc. An index is also included.

  10. A synthesis of ethnohistorical materials concerning the administration of Federal Indian policy among the Yakima, Umatilla, and Nez Perce Indian people: Working draft

    SciTech Connect

    Liebow, E.B.; Younger, C.A.; Broyles, J.A.

    1987-11-01

    For the purposes of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakima Indian Nation, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, and the Nez Perce Tribe have been accorded the status of ''Affected Indian Tribe'' and have become party to the proceedings to determine a suitable location for the nation's first commercial waste repository. Each of the Tribes has expressed concerns about the suitability of the Hanford Site in eastern Washington. These concerns, in general, address the proposed repository's effects on traditional spiritual beliefs and cultural practices, on tribal sovereignty and the Tribes' right to self-government, on the natural resources under tribal management jurisdiction, and on the health and socioeconomic characteristics of the Tribes' reservation communities. The Yakima, Umatilla, and Nez Perce have distinctive cultural traditions that may be adversely affected by activities related to the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP). Further, the Tribes enjoy a unique relationship with the federal government. Because of their distinctive cultures and governmental status, particular attention will be paid to expressed interests of the Tribes, and to ways in which these interests may be affected by the repository program. Monitoring is needed to describe current conditions among the Affected Tribes' populations, to describe BWIP site characterization activities affecting the Tribes, and to measure any changes in these conditions that may occur as a direct result of site characterization. This paper reports our first efforts at gathering historical information. It summarizes materials contained in two sources: the reports of field agents to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs (1854-1936), and the dockets of the Indian Claims Commission. 24 refs., 3 figs.

  11. The ichnogenus Rhizocorallium: Classification, trace makers, palaeoenvironments and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaust, Dirk

    2013-11-01

    Rhizocorallium is one of the oldest known trace fossils, with wide distribution through the Phanerozoic and all over the world. Originally introduced from the epicontinental Triassic of central Germany, its high morphological lability gave reason for the subsequent erection of about twenty ichnospecies. The study of newly collected material from the type area and many specimens from various collections permits the conclusion that Rhizocorallium jenense and Rhizocorallium commune are the only valid ichnospecies of Rhizocorallium. The type ichnospecies, R. jenense, is a comparatively small, inclined and heavily scratched firmground burrow with passive fill, while R. commune consists of extensive, more or less horizontal burrows with occasionally scratched marginal tubes and an actively filled spreite between the tubes. The faecal pellets Coprulus oblongus are typically associated with R. commune. Morphological variations of R. commune are captured in ichnosubspecies and varieties of this ichnospecies and can aid a refined reconstruction of palaeoenvironments. A review of more than 180 records from the literature reveals the common confusion of both ichnospecies, which has consequences for the application of Rhizocorallium in facies interpretations. The end members of both ichnospecies may be linked by transitional forms, which suggests the same kind of trace maker. Polychaetes are the most likely producers of marine Rhizocorallium, based on their long-ranging occurrence, morphological features, appearance of faecal pellets, associated soft-body remains, and modern analogues. R. commune occurs from Early Cambrian to Holocene, while R. jenense just appears after the end-Permian mass extinction, probably as a consequence of an adapted firmground burrowing lifestyle of its producer. Fluvial R. jenense are probably produced by mayfly larvae in homology to marine polychaete burrows. A consequent application of the newly established classification scheme allows for a more

  12. Finnish experiences of health monitoring: local, regional, and national data sources for policy evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Kilpeläinen, Katri; Parikka, Suvi; Koponen, Päivikki; Koskinen, Seppo; Rotko, Tuulia; Koskela, Timo; Gissler, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Background Finland has a long tradition of gathering information about the health and welfare of the adult population. Design Surveys and administrative registers form the basis for national and local health monitoring in Finland. Results Different data sources are used in Finland to develop key indicators, which can be used to evaluate how the national health policy targets have been met in different parts of the country and in different population subgroups. Progress has been shown in chronic disease risk factors, such as smoking reduction. However, some health policy targets have not been met. Socioeconomic health differences, for example, have remained large compared with other European countries. Conclusion Although data availability for key health indicators is good in Finland, there is a need for wider and more comprehensive use of this information by political decision-makers and healthcare professionals. PMID:26931405

  13. Re-Viewing NCLB through the Figured Worlds of Policy and Teaching: Creating a Space for Teacher Agency and Improvisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Julie L.

    2007-01-01

    No Child Left Behind has become a permanent fixture in the world of education. This paper seeks to use the construct of figured worlds as described by Holland, Skinner, Lachicotte, & Cain, (1998) to examine the ways policy makers and teachers navigate the world of literacy education. Viewing policy makers and teachers as participants in discrete…

  14. Routine administration of Anti-D: the ethical case for offering pregnant women fetal RHD genotyping and a review of policy and practice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Since its introduction in the 1960s Anti-D immunoglobulin (Anti-D Ig) has been highly successful in reducing the incidence of haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) and achieving improvements to maternal and fetal health. It has protected women from other invasive interventions during pregnancy and prevented deaths and damage amongst newborns and is a technology which has been adopted worldwide. Currently about one third of pregnant women with the blood group Rhesus D (RhD) negative in the UK (approximately 40,000 women per year in England and Wales), receive antenatal Anti-D Ig in pregnancy when they do not require it because they are carrying a RhD negative fetus. Since 1997, a test using cell free fetal DNA (cffDNA) in maternal blood has been developed to identify the genotype of the fetus and can be used to predict the fetal RhD blood group. Discussion This paper considers whether it is ethically acceptable to continue administering antenatal Anti-D Ig to all RhD negative women when fetal RHD genotyping using maternal blood could identify those women who do not need this product. Summary The antenatal administration of Anti-D Ig to a third of RhD negative pregnant women who carry a RhD negative fetus and therefore do not need it raises important ethical issues. If fetal RHD genotyping using maternal blood was offered to all RhD negative pregnant women it would assist them to make an informed choice about whether or not to have antenatal Anti-D Ig. PMID:24568571

  15. Knowledge gaps regarding APN roles: what hospital decision-makers tell us.

    PubMed

    Carter, Nancy; Dobbins, Maureen; Ireland, Sandra; Hoxby, Heather; Peachey, Gladys; DiCenso, Alba

    2013-12-01

    The implementation of advanced practice nursing (APN) roles can yield improvements in patient and health system outcomes, and supportive leadership is integral in facilitating the implementation of such roles. The purpose of this study was to explore the awareness and understanding of APN roles among hospital decision-makers, and to learn about the information they require and the ways in which they prefer to receive that information. Fifteen administrators and leaders from two multi-site acute care organizations were interviewed. Their practical knowledge of APN roles was based on experience developing the roles or working with APNs in hospital programs. The most common sources of APN information were internal contacts (i.e., APNs) and documents from nursing organizations. Participants reported difficulty distinguishing between the roles of nurse practitioners (NPs) and clinical nurse specialists (CNSs), and identified knowledge regarding CNS roles as their greatest need. They required specific information regarding the "value-added" benefits offered by an APN role. Strategies to address the knowledge gaps of healthcare leaders are urgently needed in order to support the implementation of new APN roles and to sustain existing ones.

  16. EPR policies for electronics in developing Asia: an adapted phase-in approach.

    PubMed

    Akenji, Lewis; Hotta, Yasuhiko; Bengtsson, Magnus; Hayashi, Shiko

    2011-09-01

    The amount of e-waste is growing rapidly in developing countries, and the health and environmental problems resulting from poor management of this waste have become a concern for policy makers. In response to these challenges, a number of Asian developing countries have been inspired by policy developments in OECD countries, and have drafted legislations based on the principle of extended producer responsibility (EPR). However, the experiences from developed countries show that a successful implementation of EPR policies requires adequate institutions and sufficient administrative capacity. Even advanced countries are thus facing difficulties. This paper concludes from existing literature and from the authors' own observations that there seems to be a mismatch between the typical policy responses to e-waste problems in developing Asia and the capacity for successful implementation of such policies. It also notes that the e-waste situation in developing Asian countries is further complicated by a number of additional factors, such as difficulties in identifying producers, import of used electronic products and e-waste (sometimes illegal), and the existence of a strong informal waste sector. Given these challenges, the authors conclude that comprehensive EPR policy schemes of the kind that have been implemented in some advanced countries are not likely to be effective. The paper therefore proposes an alternative phase-in approach whereby developing Asian countries are able to move gradually towards EPR systems. It argues that this approach would be more feasible, and discusses what could be the key building blocks of each implementation stage. PMID:21730041

  17. Slowing Entropy: Instructional Policy Design in New York City, 2011-12. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supovitz, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    District policy makers never have more potential influence than when they are crafting a Policy. In this paper Jonathan Supovitz argues, that the success of an instructional policy depends to some extent on the choices made in its crafting before it is let loose upon the world. The way a policy is framed and designed has important implications for…

  18. Bridging Science and Policy: The AGU Science Policy Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankin, E. R.; Uhlenbrock, K.; Landau, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, science has become inextricably linked to the political process. As such, it is more important now than ever for science to forge a better relationship with politics, for the health of both science and society. To help meet this need, the American Geophysical Union (AGU) strives to engage its members, shape policy, and inform society about the excitement of Earth and space science and its role in developing solutions for the sustainability of the planet. In June 2013, AGU held its second annual Science Policy Conference in Washington, D.C. The goal of the conference is to provide a new forum for diverse discussions and viewpoints on the challenges and opportunities of science policy, with a focus on applications of Earth and space science that serve local, national, and international communities. The meeting brought together more than 300 scientists, policy makers, industry professionals, members of the press, and other stakeholders to discuss the topics concerning the Arctic, climate change, oceans, energy, technology and infrastructure, and natural hazards science as they relate to challenges impacting society. Sessions such as 'The Water-Energy Nexus,' 'Potential for Megadisasters,' 'The Changing Ocean and Impacts on Human Health,' and 'Drowning and Drought: Agricultural Impacts of Climate Change' are examples of some of the intriguing and timely science policy issues addressed at the conference. The findings from the conference were used to develop a summary report. The report highlights key facts and figures to be used as a resource in discussions with policy makers and other stakeholders regarding the conference topics. This presentation will discuss the goals and outcomes of the conference and how the event represents one of the many ways AGU is approaching its 'Science and Society' priority objective as part of the Union's strategic plan; namely by increasing the effectiveness and recognition of AGU among policy makers as an authoritative

  19. Evaluating development programs: administrative self-assessment in four Asian nations.

    PubMed

    Gable, R W; Springer, J F

    1979-01-01

    In the belief that self-assessment is a valid technique of evaluation, self-assessments were gathered in the effort to help evaluate the administrative capabilities of specific programs essential to the economic development of Indonesia, Korea, the Philippines, and Thailand. The government of each country established agricultural development programs in the late 1960s in order to improve the production of rice, the major food crop. The data for analysis were collected by means of lengthy interviews with a random sample of rice production officials in the 4 countries. By using the self-anchoring scale, administrative personnel evaluated their administrative systems in their own terms. The free-answer responses demonstrated that, even at the local level, program personnel are aware of the major issues which confront policy-makers and administrators in their countries. Their criteria for assessing administrative capability emphasize different aspects of resource inputs, administrative procedures, and policy outputs. Significant differences emerged in the degree to which administrative practices measured up to the ideals of rice program officials in the 4 countries. Officials in the Philippines were consistently more optimistic and assessed their conditions more favorably than respondents in other countries, and this is particularly true of assessments of the capabilities of the rice program itself. Indonesian rice officials were less enthusiastic about their own program in comparison to government programs as a whole. The Koreans found that current government performance in general came closest to their expectations. The Thais were more favorable in their assessments of their personal situations and of the rice program. PMID:12146252

  20. Different approaches for centralized and decentralized water system management in multiple decision makers' problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghileri, D.; Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.

    2012-04-01

    There is a general agreement that one of the most challenging issues related to water system management is the presence of many and often conflicting interests as well as the presence of several and independent decision makers. The traditional approach to multi-objective water systems management is a centralized management, in which an ideal central regulator coordinates the operation of the whole system, exploiting all the available information and balancing all the operating objectives. Although this approach allows to obtain Pareto-optimal solutions representing the maximum achievable benefit, it is based on assumptions which strongly limits its application in real world contexts: 1) top-down management, 2) existence of a central regulation institution, 3) complete information exchange within the system, 4) perfect economic efficiency. A bottom-up decentralized approach seems therefore to be more suitable for real case applications since different reservoir operators may maintain their independence. In this work we tested the consequences of a change in the water management approach moving from a centralized toward a decentralized one. In particular we compared three different cases: the centralized management approach, the independent management approach where each reservoir operator takes the daily release decision maximizing (or minimizing) his operating objective independently from each other, and an intermediate approach, leading to the Nash equilibrium of the associated game, where different reservoir operators try to model the behaviours of the other operators. The three approaches are demonstrated using a test case-study composed of two reservoirs regulated for the minimization of flooding in different locations. The operating policies are computed by solving one single multi-objective optimal control problem, in the centralized management approach; multiple single-objective optimization problems, i.e. one for each operator, in the independent case

  1. Electronic Textiles as Disruptive Designs: Supporting and Challenging Maker Activities in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafai, Yasmin B.; Fields, Deborah A.; Searle, Kristin A.

    2014-01-01

    Electronic textiles are a part of the increasingly popular maker movement that champions existing do-it-yourself activities. As making activities broaden from Maker Faires and fabrication spaces in children's museums, science centers, and community organizations to school classrooms, they provide new opportunities for learning while…

  2. 77 FR 3404 - Energy Conservation Standards for Automatic Commercial Ice Makers: Public Meeting and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ... Determine Installed Price C. Energy Use Analysis D. Life-Cycle Cost and Payback Period Analyses E. National...-contained ice makers and ice-making heads using air or water for cooling and ice makers with remote... rulemaking. That notice also invited written comments from the public. 75 FR 70852 (Nov. 19, 2010)....

  3. 77 FR 13026 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standard for Automatic Commercial Ice Makers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... commercial ice makers, published on January 24, 2012 (77 FR 3404) is extended until April 22, 2012. ADDRESSES... public meeting to discuss and receive comment on the preliminary analysis. 77 FR 3404. The NOPM provides... Commercial Ice Makers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy....

  4. 10 CFR 431.132 - Definitions concerning automatic commercial ice makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... kilowatt hours per one-hundred pounds (kWh/100 lb) of ice and stated in multiples of 0.1. For remote... automatic commercial ice makers that do not contain integral storage bins, but are generally designed to...) of ice, in multiples of 1. Remote compressor means a type of automatic commercial ice maker in...

  5. Using Cognitive Conflict to Promote the Use of Dialectical Learning for Strategic Decision-Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Jeffrey G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual model that uses dialectical inquiry (DI) to create cognitive conflict in strategic decision-makers for the purpose of improving strategic decisions. Activation of the dialectical learning process using DI requires strategic decision-makers to integrate conflicting information causing…

  6. Targeting Continuing Medical Education on Decision Makers: Who Decides to Transfuse Blood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodnough, Lawrence T.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Staff communication patterns were observed during 13 open-heart surgeries to identify the transfusion decision makers. It was determined that targeting decision makers for continuing medical education would improve the quality of transfusion practice and increase the efficiency of continuing education. (SK)

  7. Attitudes of Educational Decision Makers toward AVTI Governance and the Local Tax Levy. An Independent Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LiaBraaten, James Clayton

    A study investigated the attitudes of vocational education decision makers toward the governance of Minnesota's Area Vocational Technical Institutes (AVTIs) and the impact removal of a local tax to support the AVTIs might have on governance. Five categories of individuals, all considered vocational education decision makers, were surveyed: AVTI…

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING FOR SMALL COMMUNITIES: A GUIDE FOR LOCAL DECISION-MAKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Planning for Small Communities - A Guide for Local Decision-Makers presents a process for creating and implementing a community environmental plan. With a comprehensive environmental plan, local decision-makers can create an integrated approach to protecting the env...

  9. Administrative Approaches to Educational Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koski, William S.; Levin, Henry M.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an institutional framework for raising higher education productivity through administrative and organizational devices: first, by examining two theories for explaining rising higher education costs and their different policy consequences, and then by presenting an administrative process for improving productivity that focuses on…

  10. Canadian and Comparative Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, Robin H., Ed.; Housego, Ian E., Ed.

    Most of the articles in this book evolved from papers presented during the Fourth Quadrennial International Intervisitation Program in Educational Administration held in Canada in 1978. Its purposes were to inform educational leaders from around the world about educational administration, organization, and policy in Canada and to provide a forum…

  11. In Praise of Fewer Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Donald D.; Stuart, William H.

    In response to increasing financial pressures, Oakland Community College instituted a policy in the 1970s to reduce the number of college administrators as a means of saving staff costs. While student enrollments increased from 11,700 in 1970 to 24,000 in 1980, the number of administrators fell from 84 to 32. This reduction was realized through…

  12. The relative advantages of criminal versus administrative environmental enforcement actions in Israel.

    PubMed

    Tal, Alon; Aharon, Yaara; Yuhas-Peled, Hadar

    2010-04-01

    Most environmental enforcement programs have separate criminal and administrative procedures for addressing violations. Pitting "criminal"versus"administrative" enforcement as mutually exclusive alternatives constitutes a "false dilemma". Clearly, the government response should be influenced by the severity of pollution and the specific circumstances of the polluter. Yet, policy makers seeking to improve environmental compliance need to have a clearer picture about the merits of each approach and their relative effectiveness. This research empirically assesses the effectiveness of criminal versus administrative enforcement activities in Israel. After considering the philosophical implications associated with each regulatory approach, the results of a year-long study are presented. A series of performance indicators are utilized, with particular weight on compliance status in the field, to assess the condition of environmental violations several years subsequent to completion of enforcement activities. The state of 100 violations of air, water and hazardous materials laws that had been addressed through the criminal process were matched with results of comparable violations, against which administrative actions were taken. Results suggest that while criminal enforcement is a longer process, compliance following these actions was significantly greater than in administrative enforcement cases. The findings also underline the significance of a systematic follow-up system for tracking violations after enforcement actions are complete. Finally, the study confirms the benefits of targeted assistance to improve compliance among violators of environmental standards.

  13. Administrative Synergy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Weckstein, Daniel K.

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles to overcome in creating and sustaining an administrative professional learning community (PLC) is time. Administrators are constantly deluged by the tyranny of the urgent. It is a Herculean task to carve out time for PLCs, but it is imperative to do so. In this article, the authors describe how an administrative PLC…

  14. Economic analysis and pharmaceutical policy.

    PubMed

    Rovira, J

    1995-10-01

    Economic evaluation, a comparative analysis of alternative actions in terms of costs and consequences, allows rational decisions to be made concerning the deployment of resources (people, time, equipment, facilities and knowledge). Pharmaceutical policy reflects the various objectives of the many social groups, some of which are conflicting. While new methodologies for evaluation of health care programmes still need to gain wider acceptance, resource limitations for both care providers and decision makers make economic analysis an increasingly important tool.

  15. Administrative Procedures for Small Institutions. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Keith W., Ed.

    This guide offers sample administrative procedures and policies that can be used by small colleges and universities to prepare or revise administrative procedures manuals. The sample procedures and policies offered here have been compiled from a review of many manuals from many different institutions, and vary from the general to the specific.…

  16. Ensuring Adequate Health and Safety Information for Decision Makers during Large-Scale Chemical Releases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petropoulos, Z.; Clavin, C.; Zuckerman, B.

    2015-12-01

    The 2014 4-Methylcyclohexanemethanol (MCHM) spill in the Elk River of West Virginia highlighted existing gaps in emergency planning for, and response to, large-scale chemical releases in the United States. The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act requires that facilities with hazardous substances provide Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs), which contain health and safety information on the hazardous substances. The MSDS produced by Eastman Chemical Company, the manufacturer of MCHM, listed "no data available" for various human toxicity subcategories, such as reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity. As a result of incomplete toxicity data, the public and media received conflicting messages on the safety of the contaminated water from government officials, industry, and the public health community. Two days after the governor lifted the ban on water use, the health department partially retracted the ban by warning pregnant women to continue avoiding the contaminated water, which the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention deemed safe three weeks later. The response in West Virginia represents a failure in risk communication and calls to question if government officials have sufficient information to support evidence-based decisions during future incidents. Research capabilities, like the National Science Foundation RAPID funding, can provide a solution to some of the data gaps, such as information on environmental fate in the case of the MCHM spill. In order to inform policy discussions on this issue, a methodology for assessing the outcomes of RAPID and similar National Institutes of Health grants in the context of emergency response is employed to examine the efficacy of research-based capabilities in enhancing public health decision making capacity. The results of this assessment highlight potential roles rapid scientific research can fill in ensuring adequate health and safety data is readily available for decision makers during large

  17. Voice in political decision-making: the effect of group voice on perceived trustworthiness of decision makers and subsequent acceptance of decisions.

    PubMed

    Terwel, Bart W; Harinck, Fieke; Ellemers, Naomi; Daamen, Dancker D L

    2010-06-01

    The implementation of carbon dioxide capture and storage technology (CCS) is considered an important climate change mitigation strategy, but the viability of this technology will depend on public acceptance of CCS policy decisions. The results of three experiments with students as participants show that whether or not interest groups receive an opportunity to express their opinions in the decision-making process (i.e., group voice) affects acceptance of CCS policy decisions, with inferred trustworthiness of the decision maker mediating this effect. Decision-making procedures providing different interest groups with equal opportunities to voice their opinions instigate more trust in the decision maker and, in turn, lead to greater willingness to accept decisions compared to no-voice procedures (i.e., unilateral decision-making-Study 1) and unequal group-voice procedures (i.e., when one type of interest group receives voice, but another type of interest group does not-Study 2). Study 3 further shows that an individual's own level of knowledge about CCS moderates the desire for an opportunity for members of the general public to voice opinions in the decision-making process, inferred trustworthiness of decision makers, and policy acceptance. These results imply that people care about voice in decision-making even when they are not directly personally involved in the decision-making process. We conclude that people tend to use procedural information when deciding to accept or oppose policy decisions on political complex issues; hence, it is important that policymakers use fair group-voice procedures and that they communicate to the public how they arrive at their decisions.

  18. Strategies for dissemination of policy research.

    PubMed

    Ament, L A

    1994-01-01

    Although there is evidence of high-quality care and cost-effective practice by certified nurse-midwives, CNMs still face many barriers to practice. Outcomes must be documented and disseminated more widely so that policy makers will be convinced that restrictions to CNM practice must be removed. The author identifies three obstacles to policy-related research dissemination: lack of cumulative data, lack of relevance to specific issues, and lack of power. To overcome these obstacles, five strategies are proposed to promote a wider dissemination of policy-related research results. CNMs must use these strategies to promote nurse-midwifery to the general public, government officials, interest groups, and policy makers.

  19. 14 CFR 1204.1402 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy. 1204.1402 Section 1204.1402 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE AUTHORITY AND POLICY Use of... Policy. (a) NASA airfields are not normally available to the general public; hence, any use of...

  20. 21 CFR 21.60 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Policy. 21.60 Section 21.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROTECTION OF PRIVACY Exemptions § 21.60 Policy. It is the policy of the Food and Drug Administration that record systems should...