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Sample records for administrators rapsta study

  1. Retention and Attrition of Pacific School Teachers and Administrators (RAPSTA) Study: A Compilation of Reports. Research Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacific Resources for Education and Learning, Honolulu, HI.

    This report compiles results of studies conducted in American Samoa, Chuuk, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, Hawai'i, Kosrae, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the Republic of Palau, Pohnpei, and Yap. It was conducted in the 1996-97 school year by Pacific Resources for Education and Learning in close collaboration with…

  2. Retention and Attrition of Pacific School Teachers and Administrators (RAPSTA) Study: American Samoa. Research Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Development Cadre, Honolulu, HI.

    Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL) works with 10 American-affiliated Pacific entities: American Samoa, the Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, Yap), Guam, Hawaii, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Republic of Palau. This survey raises awareness of the…

  3. Retention and Attrition of Pacific School Teachers and Administrators (RAPSTA) Study: Hawai'i. Research Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Development Cadre, Honolulu, HI.

    Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL) works closely with 10 American-affiliated Pacific entities: (1)American Samoa; (2) the Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands; (3) the Federated States of Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, Yap); (4) Guam; (5) Hawaii; (6) the Republic of the Marshall Islands; and (7) the Republic of Palau.…

  4. Retention and Attrition of Pacific School Teachers and Administrators (RAPSTA) Study: Guam. Research Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Development Cadre, Honolulu, HI.

    Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL) works closely with 10 American-affiliated Pacific entities: (1) American Samoa; (2) the Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands; (3) the Federated States of Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, Yap); (4) Guam; (5) Hawaii; (6) the Republic of the Marshall Islands; and (7) the Republic of Palau.…

  5. Retention and Attrition of Pacific School Teachers and Administrators (RAPSTA) Study: Republic of Palau. Research Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Development Cadre, Honolulu, HI.

    Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL) works with 10 American-affiliated Pacific entities: American Samoa, the Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, Yap), Guam, Hawaii, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Republic of Palau. The survey raises awareness of the…

  6. Retention and Attrition of Pacific School Teachers and Administrators (RAPSTA) Study: Kosrae State, Federated States of Micronesia. Research Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Development Cadre, Honolulu, HI.

    Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL) works with 10 American-affiliated Pacific entities: American Samoa, the Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, Yap), Guam, Hawaii, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Republic of Palau. The survey raises awareness of the…

  7. Retention and Attrition of Pacific School Teachers and Administrators (RAPSTA) Study: Chuuk State, Federated States of Micronesia. Research Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Development Cadre, Honolulu, HI.

    Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL) works with 10 American-affiliated Pacific entities: (1) American Samoa; (2) the Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands; (3) the Federated States of Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, Yap); (4) Guam; (5) Hawaii; (6) the Republic of the Marshall Islands; and (7) the Republic of Palau. This…

  8. Retention and Attrition of Pacific School Teachers and Administrators (RAPSTA) Study: Pohnpei State, Federated States of Micronesia. Research Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Development Cadre, Honolulu, HI.

    Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL) works with 10 American-affiliated Pacific entities: American Samoa, the Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, Yap), Guam, Hawaii, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Republic of Palau. The main purpose of this survey was to…

  9. Retention and Attrition of Pacific School Teachers and Administrators (RAPSTA) Study: Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). Research Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Development Cadre, Honolulu, HI.

    Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL) works with 10 American-affiliated Pacific entities: American Samoa, the Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, Yap), Guam, Hawaii, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Republic of Palau. The survey raises awareness of the…

  10. Retention and Attrition of Pacific School Teachers and Administrators (RAPSTA) Study: Yap State, Federated States of Micronesia. Research Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Development Cadre, Honolulu, HI.

    Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL) works closely with 10 American-affiliated Pacific entities: (1) American Samoa; (2) the Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands; (3) the Federated States of Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, Yap); (4) Guam; (5) Hawaii; (6) the Republic of the Marshall Islands; and (7) the Republic of Palau.…

  11. Study Shows Administrative Shortage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, John R., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Summarizes "Administrative Shortage in New England: The Evidence, the Causes, the Recommendations." High pressure, long hours, low salaries, and high housing costs are among the reasons cited for the shortage. Recommendations are centered on role identity, staff support, training, and recruitment. (SI)

  12. Alternative School Administration Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shellinger, Mark

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how principals spend their time and to test a new structure using business management trained staff to increase principal time spent on academic achievement and gap closure. Twenty-one elementary school principals were randomly selected for a week-long time-task analysis. Data collectors shadowed the…

  13. Administrative Utility Analysis: Study Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co., San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    This document summarizes the recommendations made as a result of a study on administrative utility analysis and vocational education programs for Puerto Rico. The major recommendation was that the Area of Vocational and Technical Education (AVTE) in the Puerto Rico Department of Education be restructured at the central organizational level, for…

  14. Administrator-Teacher Ratio Study: Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Services of California, Inc., Sacramento.

    Since the early 1970s, financial penalties have been levied in California school districts if their administrator-to-teacher ratio is in excess of a standard set by law. A study was conducted to determine whether the provisions of administrator-teacher maximum ratio are effective for calculating, monitoring, and reporting administrative costs.…

  15. Case Studies on Educational Administration. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Theodore J.

    This book contains 24 case studies selected to demonstrate the different types of challenges in contemporary educational leadership. It is intended to help prospective administrators develop decision-making skills. The cases are quite complex with multiple viewpoints and aspects. They represent a range of problems encountered by practitioners in…

  16. Study of School District Administration and Staffing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    School district administration and staffing patterns are examined in this report prepared in response to CRS 22-2-118, which requires the Colorado Department of Education to conduct a study to determine where savings of state and local funds may be realized. Section 1 offers an analysis of district staffing patterns from existing data. The second…

  17. A longitudinal study of administrative segregation.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, Maureen L; Klebe, Kelli J; Metzner, Jeffrey; Dvoskin, Joel; Fellner, Jamie; Stucker, Alysha

    2013-01-01

    The use of administrative segregation for inmates with and without mental illness has generated considerable criticism. Segregated inmates are locked in single cells for 23 hours per day, are subjected to rigorous security procedures, and have restricted access to programs. In this study, we examined whether inmates in segregation would show greater deterioration over time on psychological symptoms than would comparison offenders. The subjects were male inmates, with and without mental illness, in administrative segregation, general population, or special-needs prison. Subjects completed the Brief Symptom Inventory at regular intervals for one year. Results showed differentiation between groups at the outset and statistically significant but small positive change over time across all groups. All groups showed the same change pattern such that there was not the hypothesized differential change of inmates within administrative segregation. This study advances the empirical research, but replication research is needed to make a better determination of whether and under what conditions harm may or may not occur to inmates in solitary confinement. PMID:23503176

  18. Burnout among Special Education Administrators: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    Research on the extent of stress and burnout among special education administrators is not as well developed as research on the extent of stress and burnout among teachers. This study utilized the Maslach Burnout Inventory to determine levels of stress and burnout among administrators of special education. Results indicated administrators of…

  19. Continuing Education Program Administration: A Study of Competent Performance Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookson, Peter S.; English, John

    1997-01-01

    A study had two parts: (1) construction of behaviorally anchored rating scales for continuing education administrative positions, using the DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process and (2) professional development needs assessment of 11 directors and 22 area representatives. The utility of the scales for administrator self-assessment of…

  20. On-Line Administrative Information Systems: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sire, Paul W.

    A case study approach is used to document the on-line information system developed by the Office of Management Information and Computing at the University of Vermont. Stanford University's Project INFO On-Line Administration Information System, OASIS, was chosen as a model. The administrative system is one of two on campus, the other designed for…

  1. Administration of Distance-Teaching Institutions. Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Extension Coll., Cambridge (England).

    Designed to supplement the main text, "Administration of Distance-Teaching Institutions," this volume presents 29 case studies of varied distance teaching projects, which are primarily excerpted from published books, journals, and reports, and chosen to illustrate particular themes, such as organization and administration of distance teaching,…

  2. The History of Education and the Study of Educational Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sungaila, Helen

    2008-01-01

    The nexus between the fields of the administration and history of education is obvious. Can the contribution of the study of the history of education "to the development of educational administration as a discipline"--that is, as "an area of academic and theoretical research"--safely be taken for granted? Such a question, of course, is of little…

  3. Less invasive beractant administration in preterm infants: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Navarro, Cristina; Sánchez-Luna, Manuel; Zeballos-Sarrato, Susana; González-Pacheco, Noelia

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to assess the efficacy and feasibility of a new, less invasive surfactant administration technique for beractant replacement using a specifically designed cannula in preterm infants born at <32 weeks of gestation and to compare short- and long-term outcomes between this approach and standard treatment, consisting of intubation, administration of surfactant and early extubation to nasal continuous positive airway pressure. METHOD: This was a single-center, prospective, open-label, non-randomized, controlled pilot study with an experimental cohort of 30 patients treated with less invasive surfactant administration and a retrospective control group comprising the 30 patients most recently treated with the standard approach. Beractant (4 ml/kg) was administered as an exogenous surfactant in both groups if patients on nasal continuous positive airway pressure during the first three days of life were in need of more than 30% FiO2. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02611284. RESULTS: In the group with less invasive surfactant administration, beractant was successfully administered in all patients. Thirteen patients (43.3%) in the group with less invasive surfactant administration required invasive mechanical ventilation for more than 1 hour during the first 3 days of life, compared with 22 (73%) in the control group (p<0.036). The rate of requiring invasive mechanical ventilation for more than 48 hours was similar between the infants in the two groups (46% vs. 40%, respectively). There were no differences in other outcomes. CONCLUSION: The administration of beractant (4 ml/kg) using a less invasive surfactant administration technique with a specifically designed cannula for administration is feasible. Moreover, early invasive mechanical ventilation exposure is significantly reduced by this method compared with the strategy involving intubation, surfactant administration and early extubation. PMID:27074172

  4. School Administration Leadership Style and Academic Achievement: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brvenik-Estrella, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to gather current teacher and administrator perceptions on leadership in a school environment. The study sought to identify patterns of leadership style as elements in building a school climate that focused on performance and intrinsic rewards. The study also sought to establish an understanding of how leadership…

  5. Administrators' Attitudes toward Cultural Diversity Management: An Empirical Study;

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohapatra, Manindra K.; And Others

    A study was done to test four hypotheses on the orientation of American Urban Administrators toward cultural diversity management in the public sector workplace. The study sought to test: (1) the extent of familiarity with the literature on cultural diversity; (2) relative ranking of cultural diversity management capabilities; (3) how women and…

  6. Developing Strategic Leadership for Administrators: Private Vocational College Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jumnongya, Areeya; Sirisuthi, Chaiyuth; Chansirisira, Pacharawit

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to study and define a number of factors measuring quality and efficiency in administrators of private vocational college, and to test and evaluate the efficiency of the strategic leadership program. Twelve factors and 83 indicators were identified as vital for strategic leadership for private vocational college…

  7. Case Studies for Educational Leadership: Solving Administrative Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midlock, Stephen F.

    2010-01-01

    "Case Studies for Educational Leadership" gives educational leadership students an opportunity to project themselves into real-life administrative situations and prepare for their future positions in the field. Each case study contained in this practical first edition book asks students to analyze complex problems, consider the moral ramifications…

  8. Ethical and Social Values in Business Administration and Management Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Lozano, Mercedes; de los Rios-Bergillos, Araceli; Tirado-Valencia, Pilar; Millan-Lara, Salud

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to analyze the impact of the learning process in business administration and management of students' values, through the application of factor analysis to the information obtained in a survey consisting of students in the first and fifth year of studies. The study derived the following conclusions: First,…

  9. Case Study Digest: Preparing Teachers for Education Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Karen L., Ed.

    This case study digest is intended for classroom teachers who wish to discuss a variety of challenges in school leadership. The publication targets classroom teachers who desire leadership training and aspire to become school administrators. The case studies represent actual incidents experienced by school leaders. The cases are formatted to…

  10. Case Studies for School Administrators: Managing Change in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benham, Maenette K. P. Ah Nee

    This book examines case-based learning in educational leadership courses, discusses case-based learning as an educational tool, exemplifies methods of writing a case study, and contains 14 case-studies by teachers and administrators. "Stakeholders in a House of Cards," by Audrey Burgher, discusses integrating technology with innovation. "Reforming…

  11. Crossing the Line: A Qualitative Study of Administrative Interns' Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Lynn; Quick, Marilynn

    2011-01-01

    Internships serve as the bridge that spans the divide between being a teacher and an administrator. Most research on internships has emphasized the technical aspect of this experience, such as benefits and limitations of internships. The overall impact an internship experience has on an intern has been studied less extensively. This research study…

  12. The Future of Leisure Studies in Research Universities: Administrators' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dustin, Daniel; Collins, Rachel; Schultz, Jeremy; Browne, Laurie; Schwab, Keri; Rose, Jeff; Timmerman, Danielle; Altschuler, Ben; Jostad, Jeremy; Spencer, Callie; Newman, Jackie; Bricker, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    This article summarizes the content of a three-day administrative summit held at Zion Ponderosa Resort in southern Utah in late September 2010. Department chairs, heads, and deans representing 13 universities across North America offering leisure studies doctoral degrees, master's degrees, and undergraduate professional preparation degrees…

  13. School Leadership and Administration: Important Concepts, Case Studies and Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorton, Richard; Alston, Judy; Snowden, Petra

    2006-01-01

    This text helps prospective and experienced principals, administrators, and supervisors increase their knowledge and skills through concepts, case-studies, and simulations. This book contains the following two parts and fifteen chapters. Part I presents important theoretical concepts and research findings that can improve educators'…

  14. Teaching Public Finance Administration Online: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebdon, Carol

    1999-01-01

    A case study of an online masters course in public finance administration, conducted primarily through texts and electronic bulletin boards with no face-to-face contact, found advantages (time and space independence) and disadvantages (lack of interaction with instructors) for both faculty and students. Although student grades equaled those in…

  15. Introduction to a Comparative Study of Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Patrick D.

    Comparative educational administration is not yet a recognized field, although a number of works concerning cross-cultural educational literature are directly applicable to such studies. Four themes are apparent in relevant works. Beginning in the 19th century, the earliest works focused on European schools in the hopes America could learn from…

  16. Principles of Economics: Course Administrative Manual [And] Unit Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbour, G. Jeffrey

    This learning package is a three-semester-hour, independent-study course in principles of economics designed for postsecondary, external degree students. Keyed to the commercially published textbook "Economics Today" (San Francisco, CA: Canfield Press, 1975), the package consists of an administrator manual, a student manual, 14 audiotapes, and a…

  17. Administrative support of novice science teachers: A multiple case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacuone, Leann

    Novice science teachers leave the confines of colleges and universities to embark on a new adventure in education where they aim to influence young minds, make a difference in the world, and share their love for their content. They have learned their pedagogical skills with the support and assistance of fellow classmates, a supporting professor, and a cooperating teacher. These teachers enter their new place of employment and are met with many unexpected challenges, such as a lack of resources, no one to ask questions of, and a busy staff with already established relationships, causing them to feel an overall lack of support and resulting in many new teachers rethinking their career choice and leaving the field of education within 5 years of entering. This multiple-case study investigated the administrative support 4 novice science teachers received during an academic year and the novice teachers' perceptions of the support they received to answer the following research question: How do novice science teachers who have consistent interactions with administrators develop during their first year? To answer this question, semistructured interviews, reflection journals, observations, resumes, long-range plans, and student discipline referrals were collected. The findings from this study show novice science teachers who had incidents occur in the classroom requiring administrative assistance and guidance felt more confident in enforcing their classroom management policies and procedures as the year progressed to change student behavior. The novice science teachers perceived administrators who provided resources including technology, office supplies, science supplies, and the guidance of a mentor as supportive. Novice science teachers who engaged in dialogue after administrative observations, were provided the opportunity to attend professional development outside the district, and had a mentor who taught the same discipline made more changes to their instructional

  18. Animal Study on Primary Dysmenorrhoea Treatment at Different Administration Times

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Bao-Chan; Fang, Ling; Gao, Li-Na; Liu, Rui; Li, Ai-zhu

    2015-01-01

    The new methods of different administration times for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea are more widely used clinically; however, no obvious mechanism has been reported. Therefore, an animal model which is closer to clinical evaluation is indispensable. A novel animal experiment with different administration times, based on the mice oestrous cycle, for primary dysmenorrhoea treatment was explored in this study. Mice were randomly divided into two parts (one-cycle and three-cycle part) and each part includes five groups (12 mice per group), namely, Jingqian Zhitong Fang (JQF) 6-day group, JQF last 3-day group, Yuanhu Zhitong tablet group, model control group, and normal control group. According to the one-way ANOVAs, results (writhing reaction, and PGF2α, PGE2, NO, and calcium ions analysis by ELISA) of the JQF cycle group were in accordance with those of JQF last 3-day group. Similarly, results of three-cycle continuous administration were consistent with those of one-cycle treatment. In conclusion, the consistency of the experimental results illustrated that the novel animal model based on mice oestrous cycle with different administration times is more reasonable and feasible and can be used to explore in-depth mechanism of drugs for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea in future. PMID:25705236

  19. Ready, Set, Let's Go: An Evaluation Study of an Educational Administration Program for Beginning Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Lori

    After consulting more than 2,500 practicing administrators and other professionals, California's Commission on Teacher Credentialing (CTC) adopted new standards for administrator preparation. The strengths and weaknesses of a new program that teaches these standards are discussed. The paper It focuses on the program in terms of its new features:…

  20. Identifying Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax from Administrative Databases: A Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Frechette, Eric; Guidolin, Keegan; Seyam, Ayman; Choi, Yun-Hee; Jones, Sarah; McClure, J. Andrew; Winick-Ng, Jennifer; Welk, Blayne; Malthaner, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) is a disorder commonly encountered in healthy young individuals. There is no differentiation between PSP and secondary pneumothorax (SP) in the current version of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). This complicates the conduct of epidemiological studies on the subject. Objective. To validate the accuracy of an algorithm that identifies cases of PSP from administrative databases. Methods. The charts of 150 patients who consulted the emergency room (ER) with a recorded main diagnosis of pneumothorax were reviewed to define the type of pneumothorax that occurred. The corresponding hospital administrative data collected during previous hospitalizations and ER visits were processed through the proposed algorithm. The results were compared over two different age groups. Results. There were 144 cases of pneumothorax correctly coded (96%). The results obtained from the PSP algorithm demonstrated a significantly higher sensitivity (97% versus 81%, p = 0.038) and positive predictive value (87% versus 46%, p < 0.001) in patients under 40 years of age than in older patients. Conclusions. The proposed algorithm is adequate to identify cases of PSP from administrative databases in the age group classically associated with the disease. This makes possible its utilization in large population-based studies.

  1. Summary Report of the NASA Management Study Group: Recommendations to the Administrator, National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Samuel C.

    1986-01-01

    The NASA Management Study Group (NMSG) was established under the auspices of the National Acedamy of Public Administration at the request of the Administrator of NASA to assess NASA's management practices and to evaluate the effectiveness of the NASA organization. This report summarizes the conclusions and recommendations of the NMSG on the overall management and organization of NASA.

  2. The administration of music therapy training clinics: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Elaine A

    2006-01-01

    A two-part study was conducted to describe issues and administrative practices related to university and college affiliated music therapy training clinics. First, all 72 AMTA academic directors were surveyed in order to discover (a) which programs had a clinic, and (b) the reasons why other directors did not operate a clinic. Second, 12 survey respondents, who reported that they were involved with a training clinic, participated in in-depth interviews discussing: (a) their motivations for establishing a clinic, (b) the possible effects of a clinic on the community, (c) the individuals and groups involved in clinic operations, d) clinic space and equipment, (e) policy and procedure topics, (f) specific administrative practices related to clients and students, (g) finances, (h) research (i) quality assurance, (j) dual roles, and (k) liability issues. The administrative practices described by the interviewees varied greatly across clinics and provided a wealth of information that could be considered both useful and thought provoking for those interested in operating a music therapy clinic. PMID:16671838

  3. [Bias and confounding: pharmacoepidemiological study using administrative database].

    PubMed

    Nojiri, Shuko

    2015-01-01

    The provision of health care frequently creates digitalized data such as hospital-based electronic data, medication prescription records, and claims data collectively termed "administrative database research". The data source and analytical opportunities for study create risks that can lead to misinterpretation or bias the results. This review serves as an introduction to the concept of bias and confounding to help researchers conduct methodologically sound pharmacoepidemiologic research projects using administrative databases. Beyond general considerations for observational study, there are several unique issues related to database research that should be addressed. The risks of uninterpretable or biased results can be minimized by: providing a robust description of the data tables used; focusing on why and how they were created; measuring and reporting the accuracy of diagnostic and procedural codes used; and properly accounting for any time-dependent nature of variables. The hallmark of good research is rigorously careful analysis and interpretation. The promise for value of real world evidence using databases in medical decision making must be balanced against concerns related to observational inherited limitations for bias and confounding. Researchers should aim to avoid bias in the design of a study, adjust for confounding, and discuss the effects of residual bias on the results. PMID:26028416

  4. MASA Study of Administrator Evaluation, 1974-75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan Association of School Administrators, East Lansing.

    Intended primarily for Michigan administrators, this document presents a variety of information on administrator evaluation. A survey of Michigan superintendents revealed, among other things, that there is a very high interest in administrative evaluation, that 45 percent of the responding districts have no formal evaluation system, that 36…

  5. Program for advanced study in public science policy and administration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenthal, A. H.

    1976-01-01

    The results and conclusions of the six-year effort concerned with the development and implementation of a university educational program intended to prepare scientists and engineers for upper-level management and administrative positions (as distinct from senior technical positions) were presented. This interdisciplinary program is at the graduate level, leading to a Master of Arts degree, and is given within a Division of Public Administration.

  6. VIEWPOINTS FOR THE STUDY OF THE ADMINISTRATION OF HIGHER EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STOKE, HAROLD W.

    HIGHER EDUCATION MUST BE VIEWED IN TERMS OF ECONOMICS, POLITICAL SCIENCE, SOCIOLOGY, AND PSYCHOLOGY. THE TYPES OF QUESTIONS WHICH SOCIAL SCIENTISTS USUALLY ASK ABOUT ORGANIZATIONS AND AGENCIES IN INDUSTRY, BUSINESS, AND OTHER SETTINGS ARE RAISED ABOUT COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES. STUDENT AND ADMINISTRATOR PROBLEMS CONNECTED WITH THE DIVERSITY AND…

  7. Organization and Administration of Graduate Studies in Canadian Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdaway, Edward A.

    1994-01-01

    A survey of 94 department heads and 112 graduate supervisors at 5 Canadian universities investigated organizational and administrative practices concerning graduate programs and factors affecting successful completion of/withdrawal from graduate programs. Factors identified include student motivation, quality of supervision, student selection,…

  8. Ecological Methods in the Study of Administrative Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Myrtle; Eklund, Susan J.

    Qualitative/naturalistic inquiry intends to discover whatever naturally occurring order exists rather than to test various theories or conceptual frameworks held by the investigator. Naturalistic, ecological data are urgently needed concerning the behavior of educational administrators. Such data can considerably change the knowledge base of the…

  9. Improving an Administrator Evaluation Program: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, Robert E.; McGarry, Joseph P.

    1986-01-01

    A New Jersey school district uses the following criteria to evaluate an administrator's performance: (1) performance of specific job functions; (2) progress toward attainment of goals; (3) personal traits and professional attributes; (4) indicators of pupil progress; and (5) a professional improvement plan to remedy previous "needs performance…

  10. Data Administration at a Regional University: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gose, Frank J.

    Data administration (DA) is a position that has emerged with the growth of information technologies. A review of DA literature confirms that, although DA is widely associated with database management systems (DBMS), there is no standard DA job description, DA staffing and location within the organization vary, and DA functions range in description…

  11. Time Management in Higher Education Administration: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Darrell R.; Dahl, Tor

    How do departmental chairpersons and deans in a major university setting manage their time? What are the major administrative activities and functions associated with such responsibilities? What relationships do these have with an ability to delegate, to control one's time for planning and self-initiated activities, or personal sense of…

  12. Time Management in Higher Education Administration: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Darrell R.; Dahl, Tor

    1976-01-01

    Drawing on data from a staff development project for administrators in a college at a major American university, it was determined that there is considerable commonality across individuals and that it is possible to deal with such issues as time management, job stress, and enjoyment on an organizational level. (Editor/JT)

  13. Microdialysis pharmacokinetic study of scopolamine in plasma, olfactory bulb and vestibule after intranasal administration.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yan; Ying, Mingzhen; Xu, Shuai; Wang, Feng; Zou, Aifeng; Cao, Shilei; Jiang, Xinguo; Wang, Yajie

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the microdialysis pharmacokinetic of scopolamine in plasma, olfactory bulb and vestibule after intranasal administration. The pharmacokinetic study of subcutaneous and oral administration was also performed in rats. From the in vivo results, scopolamine intranasal administration can avoid hepatic first-pass effect. Tmax plasma samples after intranasal administration were significantly faster than oral administration and subcutaneous injection. The relative bioavailability of intranasal administrations was 51.8-70% when compared with subcutaneous injection. Moreover, one can see that in comparison with scopolamine subcutaneous administration, scopolamine intranasal gel and solutions can increased drug target index (DTI) with olfactory bulb 1.69 and 2.05, vestibule 1.80 and 2.15, respectively. The results indicated that scopolamine can be absorbed directly through the olfactory mucosa into the olfactory bulb, and then transported to various brain tissue after intranasal administration, with the characteristics of brain drug delivery. PMID:24865285

  14. 76 FR 55732 - Public Listening Sessions Regarding the Maritime Administration's Panama Canal Expansion Study...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... Maritime Administration Public Listening Sessions Regarding the Maritime Administration's Panama Canal... workshops regarding the expansion of the Panama Canal and the America's Marine Highway Program. The meetings... Administration (MARAD) should consider in the development of its comprehensive study of the 2014 Panama...

  15. Issues in Studying Administrative Faculty Salary Equity. AIR 1995 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brozovsky, Paul V.; McLaughlin, Gerald W.

    Considerations in conducting a study of salary equity for administrative faculty are addressed. The focus is whether there is a systematic difference in salary of administrative faculty based on race, sex, or age after all legitimate factors are removed. After defining the study population, attention is directed to the study model and research…

  16. Administrative Reinstatement Interlock Programs: Florida, a 10-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Voas, Robert B.; Tippetts, A. Scott; Grosz, Milton

    2013-01-01

    Background Interlocks reduce driving-under-the-influence (DUI) recidivism by 64%, but offenders resist installing them, preferring to risk driving while their driver’s licenses are revoked. One method of motivating offenders to install an interlock is require it for reinstatement of their driver’s license. This report updates an earlier evaluation of the administrative reinstatement interlock program (ARIP) procedure implemented in Florida in 2002. Method Driver records and interlock program records covering 120,000 DUI offenders were followed over 10 years. The flow through the sanction system—conviction, reinstatement, interlock program, and postinterlock period—is described. Logistical regression was used to identify the characteristics of offenders who installed interlocks, and survival analysis was used to evaluate the recidivism of offenders in the various stages in the ARIP. Results At any given time, approximately one third of the convicted offenders were serving their license-revocation periods. Half of the offenders who completed their revocation periods remain unqualified for reinstatement because they do not fulfill other requirements. ARIP offenders who do qualify for reinstatement and install interlocks have lower recidivism rates while the devices are on their vehicles. Conclusions After 10 years, Florida’s ARIP is a mature system that succeeds in forcing all offenders in the program who qualify for reinstatement to install an interlock for at least 6 months. However, half of all offenders who complete their mandatory revocation period are either unable to, or choose not to, qualify for reinstatement. PMID:23442206

  17. Stress and Coping in Higher Education: A Case Study of a Haitian American Woman Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfgang, Jeff Drayton; West-Olatunji, Cirecie A.; Overton, Jeanine; Shah, Bindi; Coral, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The authors applied Relational-Cultural Theory (RCT) to conduct a case study of an Afro-Caribbean woman administrator to explore her perceptions of stress and coping in higher education. While much has been written about the challenges facing Black faculty and students, this study focused on the experiences of a Black woman administrator in a…

  18. Administrative Support and Alternatively Certified Teachers: A Mixed Methods Study on New Teacher Support and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Erin M.

    2012-01-01

    A non-experimental study was conducted to examine the perceived administrative support needs of alternatively certified teachers and determine their impact on teacher retention. The study sought to identify the most valued administrative support needs of alternatively-certified teachers; to compare those needs by gender and tier teaching level;…

  19. African American Public Administrators and Cultural Diversity Management: Findings of a Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohapatra, Manindra K.; And Others

    This paper presents the results of a pilot study of African American public administrators' attitudes toward cultural diversity management in the Fall of 1995. It is based on an open-ended national survey that was mailed to 394 federal, state, and local African American public administrators. The study asked respondents about the special knowledge…

  20. Today's Academic Leaders: A National Study of Administrators in Community and Junior Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kathryn M.; And Others

    A study was conducted by the Center for the Study of Higher Education to provide a systematic analysis of the educational and employment backgrounds, career goals and aspirations, career paths, and concerns of two-year college administrators. A national sample of 2,049 administrators at 1,219 public and private two-year colleges was surveyed.…

  1. Community College Administrative Roles in Identifying Faculty for Future Management Positions: A Phenomenological Study of Retired Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knirk, Brian Doyle

    2013-01-01

    The community college system is beginning to see waves of retirements at all levels of the administrative structure. These retirements, in conjunction with expected growth in administrative positions, will result in system-wide administrative vacancies. Community colleges not already seeking new leaders are likely to find themselves in the midst…

  2. Educational Administration and Management. Reports Studies C.95.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Trevor; Persaud, Ganga

    This case study reports results of research on the extent of nonformal education in Guyana; comparison of commitment in private and public enterprises; and financial support, program organization and management, learners' background and objectives, content and methodology, and evaluation strategy. The first two chapters describe the study's…

  3. Women and Their Stories: Nine Case Studies in Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Rourke, Carolyn L.; Papalewis, Rosemary

    Following a thorough review of current studies and literature on women in leadership, this document examines the results of a study conducted to determine the significance of female gender in educational leadership, and how attitudes, values, perceptions, and life experiences of women differ from those of men and are reflected in female leadership…

  4. An Exploratory Study of Public School Administrators' Perceptions Regarding Public School Education Advanced by Homeschool Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgore, Kenneth E.

    2009-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study. Qualitative Research using 15 Public School Administrators representing three public school systems in Oklahoma County. The administrators will divide into 3 Focus Group sessions and discuss 13 open-ended discussion questions about the allegations made against public schools by homeschool parents. Findings and…

  5. A Study on the Legal Literacy of Urban Public School Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tie, Fatt Hee

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the legal literacy of urban public school administrators in Malaysia. Data were collected from 109 school administrators. The instrument that was administered to the respondents comprised two parts: Part 1, the background information of the respondents; and Part 2, items on the law related to schools, such as teachers'…

  6. Building the Innovative and Entrepreneurial University: An Institutional Case Study of Administrative Academic Capitalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Kevin R.

    2016-01-01

    Although researchers have explored dimensions of academic capitalism among students and faculty members, knowledge of the roles of administrators at all levels is underdeveloped in the literature. This institutional case study of a public research-extensive university examines the roles of executive and managerial administrators in bringing a…

  7. No Child Left Behind and Administrative Costs: A Resource Dependence Study of Local School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neely, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    This study considers the impact of federal funding on the administrative expenditures of local school districts since the passage of the No-Child-Left-Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001. Under NCLB, federal education funds were made contingent upon a variety of accountability and reporting standards, creating new administrative costs and challenges for…

  8. A Qualitative Ethnographic Study of African American Leadership in Higher Education Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Scott

    2010-01-01

    The qualitative ethnographic study involved exploring the educational, background, and professional experiences of senior-level African American administrators in higher education. The following research question guided the exploration of the experiences and perceptions of African American administrators in higher education from the Mid-Atlantic…

  9. Orientations of State Administrators toward Cultural Diversity in Public Agencies: An Empirical Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohapatra, Manindra K.; And Others

    This study identified the views of state administrators from seven midwestern states about cultural diversity and workforce 2000. A survey of 500 high level state public administrators from Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin was conducted in Spring 1993. Respondents (n=125) were 66 percent male, 77 percent white, 98…

  10. Administrators in North Carolina Community Colleges: A Comparative Study by Gender. Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillett-Karam, Rosemary; And Others

    As part of a study of the advancement and support of women in administrative positions at institutions of higher education in North Carolina, administrators at the state's community colleges were surveyed in 1996 to determine their characteristics, satisfaction with their careers, and experiences with respect to obstacles and mentors. Surveys were…

  11. FLORIDA LARGE BUILDING STUDY - POLK COUNTY ADMINISTRATION BUILDING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes an extensive characterization and parameter assessment study of a single, large building in Bartow, FL, with the purpose of assessing the impact on radon entry of design, construction, and operating features of the building, particularly the mechanical subsys...

  12. The Preservation and Administration of Private Archives: A RAMP Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seton, Rosemary E.

    This study is intended to make more widely known and understood the basic problems involved in ensuring preservation and access to an invaluable informational and cultural resource--the archives of non-governmental institutions and organizations. It is based on a survey of the current situation in 28 selected Unesco member states regarding the…

  13. Community College Administrators and Faculty Scholarship: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshood, Nabil

    1995-01-01

    Describes a pilot study examining the attitudes of presidents and chief academic officers at the 19 New Jersey community colleges toward faculty scholarship. Indicates that although 81% of respondents were willing to offer more incentives for scholarship, 87% were unwilling to reduce teaching loads and 77% were unwilling to require scholarship.…

  14. Learning through Leading: A Self-Study in District Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Christina

    2016-01-01

    There is little research in the area of understanding educational leaders' psychological processes. This lack of understanding leaves educational leaders to develop their own sense-making practices while in the complex and stressful act of leading. This self-study, conducted over more than half a school year in 2014-2015, was my own effort to do…

  15. Cultures of the World: Administrative Manual [And] Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Charles Howard

    This learning package is a three-semester-hour, independent-study course in geography and cultures of the world designed for postsecondary, external degree students. Keyed to the commercially published textbook "Between Two Worlds: A New Introduction to Geography" (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1973), the package consists of an…

  16. Environmental Policy. Law, and Administration: A Guide to Advanced Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Lynton K.; Siddiqi, Toufiq A.

    This guide is intended to assist the organization of studies dealing with the behavior of human societies and their institutions in relation to their environments. Emphasis is on contemporary industrial and postindustrial society as it expresses its environmental relationships through action defined by policies, laws, and administrative…

  17. Organizational entrepreneurship and administrators of hospitals: case study of Iran.

    PubMed

    Raadabadi, Mehdi; Fayaz-Bakhsh, Ahmad; Nazari, Aslan; Mousavi, Seyed Masood; Fayaz-Bakhsh, Mohammadali

    2014-05-01

    Due to rapid changes of technology and scientific advances in health systems and need for fast planning in health care, entrepreneurial spirit among employers and employees is a crucial element. According to the field of entrepreneurship research has not been solved and where learning and innovation for healthcare organizations due to the nature of the work required. This study aims to examine the entrepreneurial activities within the hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran. To achieve the aim of the study, a questionnaire containing 29 items regarding the areas of innovation, creative behavior, flexibility, empowerment, rewarding systems and the management support was distributed among the hospitals' managers. Establishment of a culture of entrepreneurship in healthcare organizations led to the development unit controlled, changing the culture of the hospital. The analysis of the data showed that the majority of the managers agreed with all five areas of entrepreneurship namely the existence of innovation and innovative behavior, flexibility, decision making, rewarding and encouraging system, as well as management supportive system of personnel's new ideas. In fact, the managers generally had positive attitude towards entrepreneurship in their organizations The Pearson correlation test also showed that there is a significant relationship between the areas of entrepreneurship and the managers' age as well as their working experience (P<0.05). Entrepreneurial activities in healthcare can be improved through providing a suitable environment, adjusting reward and encouragement systems, giving more authority to subordinates, promoting awareness and education, and mobilizing managers to attract appropriate opportunities for organization. Further active involvement of employees, more stable in front of changes and increased ability managers to capture opportunities in domestic and foreign situation. PMID:24762370

  18. Organizational Entrepreneurship and Administrators of Hospitals: Case Study of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Raadabadi, Mehdi; Fayaz-Bakhsh, Ahmad; Nazari, Aslan; Mousavi, Seyed Masood; Fayaz-Bakhsh, MohammadAli

    2014-01-01

    Due to rapid changes of technology and scientific advances in health systems and need for fast planning in health care, entrepreneurial spirit among employers and employees is a crucial element. According to the field of entrepreneurship research has not been solved and where learning and innovation for healthcare organizations due to the nature of the work required. This study aims to examine the entrepreneurial activities within the hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran. To achieve the aim of the study, a questionnaire containing 29 items regarding the areas of innovation, creative behavior, flexibility, empowerment, rewarding systems and the management support was distributed among the hospitals’ managers. Establishment of a culture of entrepreneurship in healthcare organizations led to the development unit controlled, changing the culture of the hospital. The analysis of the data showed that the majority of the managers agreed with all five areas of entrepreneurship namely the existence of innovation and innovative behavior, flexibility, decision making, rewarding and encouraging system, as well as management supportive system of personnel’s new ideas. In fact, the managers generally had positive attitude towards entrepreneurship in their organizations The Pearson correlation test also showed that there is a significant relationship between the areas of entrepreneurship and the managers’ age as well as their working experience (P<0.05). Entrepreneurial activities in healthcare can be improved through providing a suitable environment, adjusting reward and encouragement systems, giving more authority to subordinates, promoting awareness and education, and mobilizing managers to attract appropriate opportunities for organization. Further active involvement of employees, more stable in front of changes and increased ability managers to capture opportunities in domestic and foreign situation. PMID:24762370

  19. State-of-The-Art Technologies Used in Training Delivery and Administration at the Institute of Public Administration: Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewain, Saleh A. S.

    2005-01-01

    The Institute of Public Administration (IPA), in Saudi Arabia, is a well renowned training institution designated for training civil servants in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This paper mainly discusses the uses of technologies in the administrative aspects of the IPA. The author also points out the obstacles faced and lessons learned from the…

  20. The Joy of Social Work Administration: An Exploratory Qualitative Study of Human Service Administrators' Positive Perceptions of Their Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Larry D.; Hoefer, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Positive organizational psychology suggests that researchers should focus on the rewarding elements of work life, yet those in the fields of social work and nonprofit administration have not conducted research in line with this admonition. Indeed, the current focus on administrative challenges and problems may be part of the reason there is…

  1. Study of nurse workarounds in a hospital using bar code medication administration system.

    PubMed

    Rack, Laurie L; Dudjak, Linda A; Wolf, Gail A

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed registered nurse workarounds in an academic medical center using bar code medication administration technology. Nurse focus groups and a survey were used to determine the frequency and potential causes of workarounds. More than half of the nurses surveyed indicated that they administered medications without scanning the patient or medications during the last shift worked. Benefits of this study include considerations when implementing bar code medication administration technology that may minimize the development of these workarounds in practice. PMID:22202186

  2. A Study on Components of Internal Control-Based Administrative System in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montri, Paitoon; Sirisuth, Chaiyuth; Lammana, Preeda

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the components of the internal control-based administrative system in secondary schools, and make a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to confirm the goodness of fit of empirical data and component model that resulted from the CFA. The study consisted of three steps: 1) studying of principles, ideas, and theories…

  3. School Transitions: A Qualitative Study of the Supports Provided by Washington State Special Education Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewinsohn, Kari

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the role of special education administrators in the transition planning process for children with disabilities ages 3-21 in selected Washington school districts. A basic qualitative study was selected to construct meaning from a described phenomenon. The study sought to identify and explain how special education…

  4. Servant First: A Multicase Study Exploring Servant Leadership in Community College Instructional Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Marvin Lee

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the application of servant leadership principles to community college instructional administration. The study conducted was a multicase research design. The conceptual framework for the study was based on Greenleaf's work in servant leadership as expressed in 10 characteristics of servant leaders…

  5. Use of patient registries and administrative datasets for the study of pediatric cancer.

    PubMed

    Rice, Henry E; Englum, Brian R; Gulack, Brian C; Adibe, Obinna O; Tracy, Elizabeth T; Kreissman, Susan G; Routh, Jonathan C

    2015-09-01

    Analysis of data from large administrative databases and patient registries is increasingly being used to study childhood cancer care, although the value of these data sources remains unclear to many clinicians. Interpretation of large databases requires a thorough understanding of how the dataset was designed, how data were collected, and how to assess data quality. This review will detail the role of administrative databases and registry databases for the study of childhood cancer, tools to maximize information from these datasets, and recommendations to improve the use of these databases for the study of pediatric oncology. PMID:25807938

  6. Methods and management: NIH administrators, federal oversight, and the Framingham Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sejal S

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the 1965 controversy over the Framingham Heart Study in the midst of growing oversight into the management of science at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). It describes how, beginning in the early 1960s, federal overseers demanded that NIH administrators adopt particular management styles in administering programs and how these growing pressures led administrators to favor investigative pursuits that allowed for easy prospective accounting of program payoffs, especially those based on experimental methods designed to examine discrete interventions or outcomes of interest. In light of this changing managerial culture within the NIH, the Framingham study and other population laboratories-with their bases in observation and in open-ended study designs-became harder for NIH administrators to justify and defend. PMID:22643985

  7. Methods and Management: NIH Administrators, Federal Oversight, and the Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sejal S.

    2012-01-01

    Summary This article explores the 1965 controversy over the Framingham Heart Study in the midst of growing oversight into the management of science at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). It describes how, beginning in the early 1960s, federal overseers demanded that NIH administrators adopt particular management styles in administering programs and how these growing pressures led administrators to favor investigative pursuits that allowed for easy prospective accounting of program payoffs, especially those based on experimental methods designed to examine discrete interventions or outcomes of interest. In light of this changing managerial culture within the NIH, the Framingham study and other population laboratories—with their bases in observation and in open-ended study designs—became harder for NIH administrators to justify and defend. PMID:22643985

  8. Ethical Decision-Making in Academic Administration: A Qualitative Study of College Deans' Ethical Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catacutan, Maria Rosario G.; de Guzman, Allan B.

    2015-01-01

    Ethical decision-making in school administration has received considerable attention in educational leadership literature. However, most research has focused on principals working in secondary school settings while studies that explore ethical reasoning processes of academic deans have been significantly few. This qualitative study aims to…

  9. An Exploratory Study of Listening Practice Relative to Memory Testing and Lecture in Business Administration Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Robin T.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the combined impact of a memory test and subsequent listening practice in enhancing student listening abilities in collegiate business administration courses. The article reviews relevant literature and describes an exploratory study that was undertaken to compare the effectiveness of this technique with traditional…

  10. Block Scheduling in Missouri: A Study of Administrator and Teacher Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stader, David L.; DeSpain, B. C.

    This paper reports on a Missouri study that compared block scheduling to traditional schedules in small high schools (schools with fewer than 500 students in grades 9 to 12). The study focused on small-school administrator and teacher perceptions of the effects of block scheduling on student achievement, school climate, and teacher methodology.…

  11. Cyberbullying: A Study of School Administrators' Perceptions and Responses to Online Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasenstab, Jean Jegglin

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative, phenomenological study examined the perspectives and responses of twelve school administrators who have responded to cyberbullying with a disciplinary action. The majority of the data collected for this study was gathered through individual semi-structured interviews. Supporting documentation such as entries in a reflective…

  12. An Ethnographic Study of Haitian Administrators in New York and Florida Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leveque, Yanique

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to cast some light on the current level of participation of Haitians in the educational system transformation at the school district level. This study will increase our understanding and appreciation of the unique characteristics and the rich cultural resources that administrators bring to the school district where…

  13. A Case Study Evaluation of an Innovative Educational Administration Preservice Program on Adult Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigler, Ted A.

    A study examined the effects of an intensive, 7-week, introductory workshop-type experience using recommended techniques to promote adult growth for a group of 29 aspiring educational administration students. The study specifically examined whether the process and experience of the academy (workshop) produced a change in cognitive-developmental…

  14. Follow-Up Study of Department of Education Administration Student Output from 1975 to 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andes, John; Martin, James A.

    This study is an evaluation of the educational administration department at West Virginia University. A questionnaire used in a 1975 study was revised and sent to the same departmental graduates and also to their employers. Specific indicators of graduate education quality and relevance were used as was an analysis of the content and instruction…

  15. Biography in the Study of Public Administration: Towards a Portrait of a Whitehall Mandarin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribbins, Peter; Sherratt, Brian

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on part of an on-going interview-based study of the eight permanent secretaries who served at the Department for Education from 1976 to 2012. Following a discussion of the relevance of biography to the study of public sector administrators, it presents a portrait of Sir Tim Lankester. Based on his own account and that of…

  16. Public Recreation and the Negro. A Study of Participation and Administrative Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Richard

    This study is concerned with the participation by Negroes in public recreation programs in 24 suburban communities in New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut, and the five boroughs of New York City. It is a broadly descriptive study of the activities in which Negroes of all ages participate, as well as of administrative practices and problems…

  17. Correlational Study of Union-Administrator Relationships and Principals' Opportunities to Create Positive School Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meredith, Amy

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate the strength of correlation between union-administrator relationships and principals' opportunities to create a positive school culture for learning during intent to strike conditions. The goal of this positivist study was to allow for an exploration of the extent to which…

  18. Using simulations to identify nursing student behaviors: a longitudinal study of medication administration.

    PubMed

    Schneidereith, Tonya A

    2014-02-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recognizes adverse drug events as a serious public health problem. Nurses routinely administer patient medications and must be safe when delivering care. Typically, students are taught the traditional rights method (RM) of safe medication administration in the skills laboratory and through the use of high-fidelity simulation scenarios. The RM includes measures of ensuring the right patient, right medication, right dose, right time, and right route. This pilot study demonstrates changes in verification of the rights among junior and senior nursing students in four simulation scenarios over the course of one academic year. The findings suggest that students become more neglectful in verification of the rights prior to medication administration as they progress through the curriculum. This study should help educators identify significant focus areas for clinical supervisors, including the importance of increased verification of the rights of safe medication administration in the clinical setting. PMID:24444012

  19. Drug administration in animal studies of cardiac arrest does not reflect human clinical experience

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Joshua C.; Rittenberger, Jon C.; Menegazzi, James J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction To date, there is no evidence showing a benefit from any advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) medication in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOHCA), despite animal data to the contrary. One explanation may be a difference in the time to first drug administration. Our previous work has shown the mean time to first drug administration in clinical trials is 19.4 minutes. We hypothesized that the average time to drug administration in large animal experiments occurs earlier than in OOHCA clinical trials. Methods We conducted a literature review between 1990 and 2006 in MEDLINE using the following MeSH headings: swine, dogs, resuscitation, heart arrest, EMS, EMT, ambulance, ventricular fibrillation, drug therapy, epinephrine, vasopressin, amiodarone, lidocaine, magnesium, and sodium bicarbonate. We reviewed the abstracts of 331 studies and 197 full manuscripts. Exclusion criteria included: non-peer reviewed, all without primary animal data, and traumatic models. From these, we identified 119 papers that contained unique information on time to medication administration. The data are reported as mean, ranges, and 95% confidence intervals. Mean time to first drug administration in animal laboratory studies and clinical trials was compared with a t-test. Regression analysis was performed to determine if time to drug predicted ROSC. Results Mean time to first drug administration in 2378 animals was 9.5 minutes (range 3.0–28.0; 95% CI around mean 2.78, 16.22). This is less than the time reported in clinical trials (19.4 min, p<0.001). Time to drug predicted ROSC (Odds Ratio 0.844; 95% CI 0.738, 0.966). Conclusion Shorter drug delivery time in animal models of cardiac arrest may be one reason for the failure of animal studies to translate successfully into the clinical arena. PMID:17360097

  20. Introduction to Social Psychology: Administrative Manual [And] Student Manual [And] Unit Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Robert E.

    This learning package is a three-semester-hour, independent-study course in social psychology designed for postsecondary, external degree students. Keyed to the commercially published textbook "Social Psychology: Explorations in Understanding" (Del Mar, CA: CRM, 1974), the package consists of an administrator manual, a student manual, and a…

  1. A Preliminary Study of School Administrators' Use of Information and Communication Technologies: Bruneian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seyal, Afzaal H.

    2012-01-01

    The study surveyed 96 Bruneian primary schools administrators (principals) in using the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). Out of the five subscales used to assess the ICT usage, only two: curriculum integration and need assessment were found to be significant towards the use of the ICT. The results further indicate that majority of…

  2. State Administrators in Kentucky. A Study of Their Professional Socialization, Public Service Values and Political Orientations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohapatra, Manindra K.; And Others

    A study was conducted of professional socialization, public service values, and political orientations of the state administrators in Kentucky. A sample of 3,000 Kentucky public managers was mailed a six-page self-administered questionnaire in three waves. A response rate of 49 percent generated 1,467 usable questionnaires. About 69 percent of the…

  3. Case Studies in 21st Century School Administration: Addressing Challenges for Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David L.; Smith, Agnes

    2007-01-01

    Authors David L. Gray and Agnes E. Smith have written a book of cases to give prospective school leaders opportunities to resolve complex issues in K-12 school settings through reflective questions, activities, and authentic assessment tools for skill development. "Case Studies in 21st Century School Administration" presents thought-provoking case…

  4. A Phenomenological Narrative Study of Texas School District Administrators Perspectives of Their Districts Virtual School Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to investigate the perspectives of Texas school district administrators concerning the virtual school programs being implemented in their districts. Interviews with the eight participants were analyzed in an effort to provide a comprehensive explanation of their lived experiences (Moustakas, 1994).…

  5. Assessing the Organizational and Administrative Context for Teaching and Learning: An Institutional Self-Study Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Marvin W.; And Others

    This self-assessment manual is intended to help institutions examine their academic management process to assess how they create and foster a climate that promotes undergraduate teaching and learning. It contains three instruments for self-administration. The "Institutional Case Study Guide" helps users analyze their institution's educational…

  6. Health Literacy Assessment of the STOFHLA: Paper versus Electronic Administration Continuation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesser, Amy K.; Keene Woods, Nikki; Wipperman, Jennifer; Wilson, Rachel; Dong, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Low health literacy is associated with poor health outcomes. Research is needed to understand the mechanisms and pathways of its effects. Computer-based assessment tools may improve efficiency and cost-effectiveness of health literacy research. The objective of this preliminary study was to assess if administration of the Short Test of Functional…

  7. A Study of Factors that Influence Teachers to Become School Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Dawson R.; Black, Trasha; Bird, James J.

    2006-01-01

    Attracting and retaining highly qualified school leaders is becoming increasingly important in our nation. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that motivate or inhibit practicing teachers from seeking administrative positions. Using exploratory factor analysis, survey responses of 329 students enrolled in Master of School…

  8. Multiple Integrated Examinations: An Observational Study of Different Academic Curricula Based on a Business Administration Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardolino, Piermatteo; Noventa, Stefano; Formicuzzi, Maddalena; Cubico, Serena; Favretto, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    An observational study has been carried out to analyse differences in performance between students of different undergraduate curricula in the same written business administration examination, focusing particularly on possible effects of "integrated" or "multi-modular" examinations, a recently widespread format in Italian…

  9. A Case Study of MOOCs Design and Administration at Seoul National University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Cheolil; Kim, Sunyoung; Kim, Mihwa; Han, Songlee; Seo, Seungil

    2014-01-01

    This research, based on the case study of edX at Seoul National University, which is running Korea's first Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), discussed and proposed the roles of principal facilitators, the process, and the relationships among various facilitators in selecting, designing, opening and administrating MOOCs classes. Researches on…

  10. Public Service Professionalism among State Administrators: A Multiple State Study. A Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Bruce J.; And Others

    This working paper, part of an ongoing national study, presents preliminary analysis of public service professionalism among state public administrators in many states on the basis of data already produced by a continuing survey research project. Information about the data source and sample profiles are provided. Additionally, the research…

  11. The Study of Higher Education: Some Papers on Administrative Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harcleroad, Fred, Ed.

    The development of basic theory and data on applications for use in the study of higher education was a major concern of the 1975 Annual Conference of the Association of Professors of Higher Education. Conference papers included: (1) administrative theory in higher education (Marvin W. Peterson); (2) the emergence of planning and management…

  12. 47 CFR 54.805 - Zone and study area above benchmark revenues calculated by the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Zone and study area above benchmark revenues calculated by the Administrator. 54.805 Section 54.805 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Interstate Access Universal Service...

  13. 47 CFR 54.805 - Zone and study area above benchmark revenues calculated by the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Zone and study area above benchmark revenues calculated by the Administrator. 54.805 Section 54.805 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Interstate Access Universal Service Support Mechanism § 54.805 Zone and...

  14. 47 CFR 54.805 - Zone and study area above benchmark revenues calculated by the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Zone and study area above benchmark revenues calculated by the Administrator. 54.805 Section 54.805 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Interstate Access Universal Service...

  15. 47 CFR 54.805 - Zone and study area above benchmark revenues calculated by the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Zone and study area above benchmark revenues calculated by the Administrator. 54.805 Section 54.805 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Interstate Access Universal Service...

  16. 47 CFR 54.805 - Zone and study area above benchmark revenues calculated by the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Zone and study area above benchmark revenues calculated by the Administrator. 54.805 Section 54.805 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Interstate Access Universal Service...

  17. A Quality Scorecard for the Administration of Online Education Programs: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Kaye

    2010-01-01

    As the demands for public accountability increase for the higher education, institutions are seeking methods for continuous improvement in order to demonstrate quality within programs and processes, including those provided through online education. A six round Delphi study was undertaken with 43 seasoned administrators of online education…

  18. Experimental Studies of the Influence of Organizational Effectiveness and Succession on the Administrative Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grusky, Oscar

    The present study, part of a larger investigation, attempted to examine the separate and joint effects of succession and effectiveness on administrative processes in laboratory-created 3-level formal organizations. Specifically, the investigation concerned itself with the impact of these two elements on communication relationships between managers…

  19. Data Driven Decision Making and the School Administrator: A Delphi Study Forecast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt, Cheryl Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Although the number of high-needs schools that are failing to achieve "Adequate Yearly Progress" (AYP) steadily increases, some are successfully increasing student achievement, staff productivity and collegiality. The purpose of this study was to use a three-round Delphi process to obtain the expert opinions of 10 administrators who moved their…

  20. Understanding School System Administration: Studies of the Contemporary Chief Education Officer. Educational Policy Perspective Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leithwood, Kenneth, Ed.; Musella, Donald, Ed.

    This volume presents several distinctive but related empirical studies and opinion pieces about chief education officers (CEOs). The collection begins with (1) "Introduction: A Framework for Understanding School System Administration" (Kenneth Leithwood and Donald Musella). Section A, "Chief Education Officers' Practices and Effects," contains the…

  1. Professional Integrity in Higher Education: A Study of Administrative Staff Ethics in Student Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reybold, L. Earle; Halx, Mark D.; Jimenez, Anne L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined administrative staff perceptions of professional ethics in a student affairs division at one university. In-depth interviews were conducted with 12 staff members (six assistant/associate vice presidents and six directors) and analyzed using the constant comparative method. Participants described three dimensions of professional…

  2. A Comparison Study of Conjunctiva Disorders in Technical and Administrative Sawmill Workers in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Njinaka, Itiyafa; Uhumwangho, Odarosa M; Edema, Omolabake T; Dawodu, Oseluese A; Omoti, Afekhide E

    2011-01-01

    Background: Workers in the sawmilling industry are at risk of various ocular hazards as a direct result of the sawmilling processes. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of conjunctival disorders between technical and administrative sawmill workers in Benin, Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on sawmill workers in Benin, Nigeria, between January and May 2009, with the aid of pre-tested questionnaires. Ocular examination was performed on all subjects. Data obtained were recorded and analysed using SPSS version 13. Results: A total of 553 sawmill workers were studied, among whom 449 (81.2%) and 104 (18.8%) were technical and administrative workers, respectively. There were 496 (89.7%) males and 57 (10.3%) females. The age range was 15–80 years, with a mean of 38.9 years (SD 12.8). Pingueculum was found in 127 (23%) workers, among whom 122 (27.2%) were technical workers and 5 (4.8%) were administrative workers. Pterygium was present in 65 (11.8%) workers, among whom 64 (14.3%) were technical workers and 1 (1%) was an administrative worker. Seven (1.6%) technical workers used protective eyewear; 2 (0.4%) wore this protective eyewear regularly. Conclusion: Technical sawmill workers are at risk of developing conjunctival disorders, which result from chronic ocular irritation. This can be prevented by the provision of protective eye devices in the workplace. PMID:22135600

  3. Validation study for secretarial/administrative classifications using computer-based testing

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a content and concurrent criterion-related validity study conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory for clerical, secretarial and administrative classifications using computer-based testing. The advantages and disadvantages of different types of testing software incorporated in the study are explored. Job analysis methodology, adverse impact analysis, procedure for establishing cut-off score and problems associated with criterion development and restriction of range are discussed. 6 tabs.

  4. Characteristics of medication errors made by students during the administration phase: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Zane Robinson; Hicks, Rodney; Serembus, Joanne Farley

    2006-01-01

    Faculty concentrate on teaching nursing students about safe medication administration practices and on challenging them to develop skills for calculating drug dose and intravenous flow rate problems. In spite of these efforts, students make medication errors and little is known about the attributes of these errors. Therefore, this descriptive, retrospective, secondary analysis study examined the characteristics of medication errors made by nursing students during the administration phase of the medication use process as reported to the MEDMARX, a database operated by the United States Pharmacopeia through the Patient Safety Program. Fewer than 3% of 1,305 student-made medication errors occurring in the administration process resulted in patient harm. Most were omission errors, followed by errors of giving the wrong dose (amount) of a drug. The most prevalent cause of the errors was students' performance deficits, whereas inexperience and distractions were leading contributing factors. The antimicrobial therapeutic class of drugs and the 10 subcategories within this class were the most commonly reported medications involved. Insulin was the highest-frequency single medication reported. Overall, this study shows that students' administration errors may be more frequent than suspected. Faculty might consider curriculum revisions that incorporate medication use safety throughout each course in nursing major courses. PMID:16459288

  5. A study of managerial style of the district family planning administrators.

    PubMed

    Nath, D H; Sapru, R

    1976-01-01

    In 1973-74, NIHAE, an organization established primarily to improve the general administration of health services by imparting inservice training in modern management concepts and techniques to senior health administrators in India, conducted a study to determine the training needs of district level family planning administrators, according to their actual managerial roles and functions and the problems and difficulties they face. 331 district family planning officials were mailed a Blake and Mouton grid questionnaire. 5 major styles located in the 4 corners and the mix point of the grid have been used as the representative managerial styles of 5 major sets of underlying assumptions. The distribution of district family planning administrators in 1973 is based upon a pooled estimate of around 286 of the 331 district family planning officers. Their managerial styles are as follows: 44.2% of the respondents revealed a managerial style that shows a high potential for team management and the ability to generate a climate of mutual interdependence, trust and confidence by integrating organizational purpose with the creation of sound and healthy human relationships; 2) 29.6% showed a style that focuses on the needs of people in an attempt to maintain interpersonal relationships leading to a friendly organizational climate and work tempo; 3) 10.7% represented the task management approach, showing primary concern for performance; 4) 12.2% strove to strike a balance between concern for performance and the human element; and 5) 5.4% of the managers showed a lack of concern for either task performance or human relationships. Although around 50% of the district family planning officers revealed managerial potential, the study findings indicate that individual respondents were dispersed in all the 5 typical styles, irrespective of age. However, the organizational pressures in existing State Health Administrations were by and large tending to make the officers resort to levels of

  6. Title I: Although Definitions of Administrative Expenditures Vary, Almost All School Districts Studied Spent Less Than 10 Percent on Administration. Report to Congressional Committees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaul, Marnie S.

    As mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, the Government Accounting Office was charged with examining how school districts defined and spent Title I funds on administrative activities, and with reviewing Title I expenditures in at least six school districts. This document reports on how five studies defined Title I administrative…

  7. A STUDY ON PREPARING THE BCP FOR LOCAL ADMINISTRATION COSIDERING SUBSISTED RISK ANALYSIS OF ROAD NETWORK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, Akio; Ito, Norio; Kawamoto, Atsushi; Shiraki, Wataru

    For road networks in mountain site which are very important infrastructures for rescue and support operations in disaster, a study on preparing the BCP for local administrations at less favored area considering subsisted risk analysis is performed. As a risk the stop of road networks caused by collapse of natural slop or cut slop is considered. The effects of the stop of road networks are analyzed and the important of preparing the BCP is demonstrated.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of gallium nitrate after oral administration in adult horses--pilot study.

    PubMed

    Pollina, G F; Zagotto, G; Maritan, P; Iacopetti, I; Busetto, R

    2012-10-01

    Gallium (Ga), a metal in group IIIA of the periodic table, has shown a remarkable activity against bone resorption and could therefore possibly prove useful in the treatment of certain diseases in sport horses, for example navicular disease. The aim of this study was to gain more information concerning the kinetics of Ga after oral administration of gallium nitrate (GaN) in adult horses. Six horses received a single dose of 10 mg/kg of GaN mixed with the food ration. Absorption was slow (T(max) = 10 ± 3 h, T(½abs) = 2 ± 0.8 h), and a C(max) of 26 ± 11 μg/L was achieved. Excretion followed a one-phase elimination model, with a long half-life (T(½el) = 52 ± 14 h). By means of a mathematical model, we estimated that the plasmatic levels should reach 93 μg/L (1.33 μm) at steady state, following the repeated daily administration of 10 mg/kg of GaN. A three times lower concentration has been demonstrated as effective in inhibiting the osteolytic activity of osteoclasts in vitro. The results of this study suggest that the administration of oral GaN at a rate of 10 mg/kg per day may be considered for future clinical studies. PMID:21913939

  9. Prevention of traumatic headache, dizziness and fatigue with creatine administration. A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Sakellaris, George; Nasis, George; Kotsiou, Maria; Tamiolaki, Maria; Charissis, Giorgos; Evangeliou, Athanasios

    2008-01-01

    Aim The complex pathobiology of traumatic brain injury (TBI) offers numerous targets for potential neuroprotective agents. We evaluate the clinical benefit after creatine (Cr) administration in children and adolescents Methods A prospective, randomized, comparative, open- labelled pilot study of the possible neuroprotective effect of Cr was carried out on 39 children and adolescents, aged between 1 and 18 years of age, with TBI. The Cr was administered for 6 months, at a dose of 0.4 g/kg in an oral suspension form every day. For categorical variables, we used the Chi-square test to identify differences between controls and cases. Statistical significance was defined as a p-value < 0.05 and not statistically significant if p-value > 0.1. Results The administration of Cr to children and adolescents with TBI improved results in several parameters, including duration of post traumatic amnesia (PTA), duration of intubation, intensive care unit stay. Significant improvement was recorded in the categories of headache (p < 0.001), dizziness (p = 0.005) and fatigue (p < 0.001), aspects in all patients. No side effects were seen due to Cr administration. Conclusion More specific examinations including brain spectroscopy for in vivo evaluation of Cr can be done, in order to draw conclusions for the optimal duration and manner of Cr supply, as well as its possible role for the prevention of TBI complications, in double blind studies. PMID:18053002

  10. Subcutaneous administration of paclitaxel in dogs with cancer: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Daniella M.; Franciosi, Aline I.; Pezzini, Paula C.F.; Guérios, Simone D.

    2015-01-01

    Intravenous paclitaxel has been underused in dogs due to severe and acute hypersensitivity reactions. Subcutaneous (SC) administration of paclitaxel and its safety are unknown. In this preliminary study, SC administration of paclitaxel was evaluated for hypersensitivity reactions and toxicity in 21 dogs with advanced cancer. Dogs received 1 to 5 paclitaxel doses, ranging from 85 to 170 mg/m2, SC every 14 or 21 days. A total of 40 paclitaxel doses were administered and none of the 21 dogs developed systemic or acute local hypersensitivity reactions. Severe skin lesions at the injection site developed in 2 dogs after the 4th injection at the same location. Grade 4 neutropenia was observed in 50% of the dogs 5 days after the first treatment at 115 mg/m2 (n = 14). Two animals developed Grade 5 diarrhea and died likely due to hemodynamic failure or sepsis. Paclitaxel can be administered SC in dogs with no hypersensitivity reaction. PMID:26246628

  11. Brexpiprazole Alters Monoaminergic Systems following Repeated Administration: an in Vivo Electrophysiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Mansari, Mostafa El; Bundgaard, Christoffer; Blier, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Background: Brexpiprazole was recently approved as adjunctive therapy for depression and treatment of schizophrenia in adults. To complement results from a previous study in which its acute effects were characterized, the present study assessed the effect of repeated brexpiprazole administration on monoaminergic systems. Methods: Brexpiprazole (1mg/kg, subcutaneous) or vehicle was administered once daily for 2 and 14 days. Single-unit electrophysiological recordings from noradrenaline neurons in the locus coeruleus, serotonin neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus, dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area, and pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus CA3 region were obtained in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats under chloral hydrate anesthesia within 4 hours after final dosing. Results: Brexpiprazole blunted D2 autoreceptor responsiveness, while firing activity of ventral tegmental area dopaminergic neurons remained unaltered. Brexpiprazole increased the firing rate of locus coeruleus noradrenaline neurons and increased noradrenaline tone on α2-adrenergic receptors in the hippocampus. Administration of brexpiprazole for 2 but not 14 days increased the firing rate of serotonin neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus. In the hippocampus, serotonin1A receptor blockade significantly disinhibited pyramidal neurons after 2- and 14-day brexpiprazole administration. In contrast, no significant disinhibition occurred after 24-hour washout or acute brexpiprazole. Conclusions: Repeated brexpiprazole administration resulted in a marked occupancy of D2 autoreceptors, while discharge activity of ventral tegmental area dopaminergic neurons remained unaltered. Brexpiprazole enhanced serotonergic and noradrenergic tone in the hippocampus, effects common to antidepressant agents. Together, these results provide further insight in the neural mechanisms by which brexpiprazole exerts antidepressant and antipsychotic effects. PMID:26428352

  12. A Phenomenological Study of Perceptions of Identity and Leadership among African-American Female Administrators within Public Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowdy, June Pickett

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological study explores how African-American female administrators (individually and collectively) perceive the relationship between their identity and their leadership voice. The study focuses upon perceptions of 11 African-American female administrators who serve the 14 main campuses of the universities constituting the Pennsylvania…

  13. La Administradora: A Mixed Methods Study of the Resilience of Mexican American Women Administrators at Hispanic Serving Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez-Zamora, Sabrina Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study explored the resilience of Mexican American women administrators at Hispanic Serving Institutions (HSIs). The women administrators that were considered in this study included department chairs, deans, and vice presidents in a four-year public HSI. There is an underrepresentation of Mexican American women in higher…

  14. Exploring the Way Teachers Feel about Feedback from Administrators and Administrator-Teacher Communication: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberge, Thomas Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Teachers and principals have vital roles in the success of our schools and the two must communicate with each other; however, principals must evaluate teachers' performance. The problem investigated for this research study was communication disparity as evidenced by how teachers interpret and react to principal's feedback, teachers' perceived…

  15. Nasal administration of morphine-6-glucuronide in sheep--a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Illum, L; Davis, S S; Pawula, M; Fisher, A N; Barrett, D A; Farraj, N F; Shaw, P N

    1996-11-01

    The pharmacokinetics of morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) after both intravenous dosing and nasal administration were studied in sheep. The nasal formulation consisted of M6G in combination with an absorption promoting delivery system in the form of chitosan. The mean half-life of M6G after intravenous administration was 51.0 +/- 8.2 min and that after intranasal dosing was 45.0 +/- 5.5 min. M6G clearance and volume of distribution were 5.4 +/- 1.5 mL min-1 kg-1 and 0.4 +/- 0.1 L kg-1 respectively. The plasma profile after nasal administration demonstrated rapid absorption of M6G. The bioavailability of M6G in the chitosan formulation was found to be 31.4%. These results suggest that M6G administered in combination with the chitosan delivery system may be considered as a suitable non-parenteral means of administering this analgesic. PMID:8950049

  16. Safety of peripheral administration of phenylephrine in a neurologic intensive care unit: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Tim; Wolfe, Brianne; Davis, Gary; Ansari, Safdar

    2016-08-01

    Integral to the management of the neurocritically injured patient are the prevention and treatment of hypotension, maintenance of cerebral perfusion pressure, and occasionally blood pressure augmentation. When adequate volume resuscitation fails to meet perfusion needs, vasopressors are often used to restore end-organ perfusion. This has historically necessitated central venous access given well-documented incidence of extravasation injuries associated with peripheral administration of vasopressors. In this pilot study, we report our 6-month experience with peripheral administration of low-concentration phenylephrine (40 μg/mL) in our neurocritical care unit. We were able to administer peripheral phenylephrine, up to a dose of 2 μg/(kg min), for an average of 14.29hours (1-54.3) in 20 patients with only 1 possible minor complication and no major complications. This was achieved by adding additional safety measures in our computerized physician order entry system and additional nurse-driven safety protocols. Thus, with careful monitoring and safety precautions, peripheral administration of phenylephrine at an optimized concentration appears to have an acceptable safety profile for use in the neurocritical care unit up to a mean infusion time of 14hours. PMID:27288620

  17. Is albumin administration in the acutely ill associated with increased mortality? Results of the SOAP study

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Jean-Louis; Sakr, Yasser; Reinhart, Konrad; Sprung, Charles L; Gerlach, Herwig; Ranieri, V Marco

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Albumin administration in the critically ill has been the subject of some controversy. We investigated the use of albumin solutions in European intensive care units (ICUs) and its relationship to outcome. Methods In a cohort, multicenter, observational study, all patients admitted to one of the participating ICUs between 1 May and 15 May 2002 were followed up until death, hospital discharge, or for 60 days. Patients were classified according to whether or not they received albumin at any time during their ICU stay. Results Of 3,147 admitted patients, 354 (11.2%) received albumin and 2,793 (88.8%) did not. Patients who received albumin were more likely to have cancer or liver cirrhosis, to be surgical admissions, and to have sepsis. They had a longer length of ICU stay and a higher mortality rate, but were also more severely ill, as manifested by higher simplified acute physiology score (SAPS) II and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores than the other patients. A Cox proportional hazard model indicated that albumin administration was significantly associated with decreased 30-day survival. Moreover, in 339 pairs matched according to a propensity score, ICU and hospital mortality rates were higher in the patients who had received albumin than in those who had not (34.8 versus 20.9% and 41.3 versus 27.7%, respectively, both p < 0.001). Conclusion Albumin administration was associated with decreased survival in this population of acutely ill patients. Further prospective randomized controlled trials are needed to examine the effects of albumin administration in sub-groups of acutely ill patients. PMID:16356223

  18. Errors in administration of parenteral drugs in intensive care units: multinational prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Capuzzo, Maurizia; Guidet, Bertrand; Moreno, Rui; Metnitz, Barbara; Bauer, Peter; Metnitz, Philipp

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess on a multinational level the frequency, characteristics, contributing factors, and preventive measures of administration errors in parenteral medication in intensive care units. Design Observational, prospective, 24 hour cross sectional study with self reporting by staff. Setting 113 intensive care units in 27 countries. Participants 1328 adults in intensive care. Main outcome measures Number of errors; impact of errors; distribution of error characteristics; distribution of contributing and preventive factors. Results 861 errors affecting 441 patients were reported: 74.5 (95% confidence interval 69.5 to 79.4) events per 100 patient days. Three quarters of the errors were classified as errors of omission. Twelve patients (0.9% of the study population) experienced permanent harm or died because of medication errors at the administration stage. In a multiple logistic regression with patients as the unit of analysis, odds ratios for the occurrence of at least one parenteral medication error were raised for number of organ failures (odds ratio per increase of one organ failure: 1.19, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.34); use of any intravenous medication (yes v no: 2.73, 1.39 to 5.36); number of parenteral administrations (per increase of one parenteral administration: 1.06, 1.04 to 1.08); typical interventions in patients in intensive care (yes v no: 1.50, 1.14 to 1.96); larger intensive care unit (per increase of one bed: 1.01, 1.00 to 1.02); number of patients per nurse (per increase of one patient: 1.30, 1.03 to 1.64); and occupancy rate (per 10% increase: 1.03, 1.00 to 1.05). Odds ratios for the occurrence of parenteral medication errors were decreased for presence of basic monitoring (yes v no: 0.19, 0.07 to 0.49); an existing critical incident reporting system (yes v no: 0.69, 0.53 to 0.90); an established routine of checks at nurses’ shift change (yes v no: 0.68, 0.52 to 0.90); and an increased ratio of patient turnover to the size of the

  19. Probiotic helminth administration in relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis: a phase 1 study

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, JO; Isaak, A; Lee, JE; Luzzio, CC; Carrithers, MD; Cook, TD; Field, AS; Boland, J; Fabry, Z

    2013-01-01

    Background Probiotic treatment strategy based on the hygiene hypothesis, such as administration of ova from the non-pathogenic helminth, Trichuris suis, (TSO) has proven safe and effective in autoimmune inflammatory bowel disease. Objective To study the safety and effects of TSO in a second autoimmune disease, multiple sclerosis (MS), we conducted the phase 1 Helminth-induced Immunomodulatory Therapy (HINT 1) study. Methods Five subjects with newly diagnosed, treatment-naive relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) were given 2500 TSO orally every 2 weeks for 3 months in a baseline versus treatment control exploratory trial. Results The mean number of new gadolinium-enhancing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions (n-Gd+) fell from 6.6 at baseline to 2.0 at the end of TSO administration, and 2 months after TSO was discontinued, the mean number of n-Gd+ rose to 5.8. No significant adverse effects were observed. In preliminary immunological investigations, increases in the serum level of the cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 were noted in four of the five subjects. Conclusion TSO was well tolerated in the first human study of this novel probiotic in RRMS, and favorable trends were observed in exploratory MRI and immunological assessments. Further investigations will be required to fully explore the safety, effects, and mechanism of action of this immunomodulatory treatment. PMID:21372112

  20. Perspectives on opioid tolerance from basic research: behavioural studies after spinal administration in rodents.

    PubMed

    Stevens, C W

    1994-01-01

    For tolerance development studies, computer modelling and statistical tests suggested that the equation which best described the decrement of analgesic effect was best served by an exponential decay function. Further analysis of the time course data led to the tentative conclusion that all groups of animals became tolerant at the same rate, regardless of drug or dose. A literature search revealed then, as it does now, that although there are many statements regarding the rate of opioid tolerance, there has been little systematic investigation of this. The Holy Grail of obtaining the rates of tolerance for a number of opioid agents in a systematic study is well within grasp. This information will be needed in clinical practice for the rational choice of opioid with regard to rate of the development of tolerance. The working hypothesis that emerges for the magnitude of opioid tolerance is that more potent agonists produce less tolerance. Further confirmation of this hypothesis has been forthcoming. This suggests that clinical use of more potent opioids, such as fentanyl, should be considered as a substitute for morphine in long term treatment regimens. The working hypothesis for cross-tolerance is that agents acting on the same receptors will show cross-tolerance. Cross-tolerance will also be observed among agents acting on different receptors, but only those that exhibit pharmacological synergy after short term administration. Asymmetry of cross-tolerance can occur, as the magnitude of this cross-tolerance is determined by the relative potency of the toleragen with regard to that of the probe agent. Given the additional factor of receptor selectivity with agents of different receptor classes, types and subtypes, new studies need to be designed combining the toleragen with a selective antagonist to determine the precise receptor mediation of the magnitude of tolerance, and thus cross-tolerance. For example, the delta opioid DADLE infused with a mu selective opioid

  1. History and the Study of "Administration" (LAMPS) in Education: A Reflection on an Editorial for a Special Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribbins, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The special edition of JEAH published in August 2006 on "Administration and Leadership in Education: A Case for History?" argued that history has been seriously undervalued in the study of administration and leadership in education. My introductory editorial explained why this mattered and outlined the framework in which the papers it contained…

  2. Facilitators and Barriers to Safe Medication Administration to Hospital Inpatients: A Mixed Methods Study of Nurses’ Medication Administration Processes and Systems (the MAPS Study)

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, Monsey; Barber, Nicholas; Franklin, Bryony Dean

    2015-01-01

    Context Research has documented the problem of medication administration errors and their causes. However, little is known about how nurses administer medications safely or how existing systems facilitate or hinder medication administration; this represents a missed opportunity for implementation of practical, effective, and low-cost strategies to increase safety. Aim To identify system factors that facilitate and/or hinder successful medication administration focused on three inter-related areas: nurse practices and workarounds, workflow, and interruptions and distractions. Methods We used a mixed-methods ethnographic approach involving observational fieldwork, field notes, participant narratives, photographs, and spaghetti diagrams to identify system factors that facilitate and/or hinder successful medication administration in three inpatient wards, each from a different English NHS trust. We supplemented this with quantitative data on interruptions and distractions among other established medication safety measures. Findings Overall, 43 nurses on 56 drug rounds were observed. We identified a median of 5.5 interruptions and 9.6 distractions per hour. We identified three interlinked themes that facilitated successful medication administration in some situations but which also acted as barriers in others: (1) system configurations and features, (2) behaviour types among nurses, and (3) patient interactions. Some system configurations and features acted as a physical constraint for parts of the drug round, however some system effects were partly dependent on nurses’ inherent behaviour; we grouped these behaviours into ‘task focused’, and ‘patient-interaction focused’. The former contributed to a more streamlined workflow with fewer interruptions while the latter seemed to empower patients to act as a defence barrier against medication errors by being: (1) an active resource of information, (2) a passive information resource, and/or (3) a

  3. Processes and Outcomes of the Veterans Health Administration Safe Patient Handling Program: Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Toyinbo, Peter; Patel, Nitin; Powell-Cope, Gail; Hahm, Bridget; Elnitsky, Christine; Besterman-Dahan, Karen; Campbell, Robert; Sutton, Bryce

    2013-01-01

    Background Health care workers, such as nurses, nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants, who manually move patients, are consistently listed in the top professions for musculoskeletal injuries (MSIs) by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. These MSIs are typically caused by high-risk patient caregiving activities. In 2008, a safe patient handling (SPH) program was implemented in all 153 Veterans Administration Medical Centers (VAMCs) throughout the United States to reduce patient handling injuries. Objective The goal of the present study is to evaluate the effects associated with the national implementation of a comprehensive SPH program. The primary objectives of the research were to determine the effectiveness of the SPH program in improving direct care nursing outcomes and to provide a context for understanding variations in program results across sites over time. Secondary objectives of the present research were to evaluate the effectiveness of the program in reducing direct and indirect costs associated with patient handling, to explore the potential mediating and moderating mechanisms, and to identify unintended consequences of implementing the program. Methods This 3-year longitudinal study used mixed methods of data collection at 6- to 9-month intervals. The analyses will include data from surveys, administrative databases, individual and focus group interviews, and nonparticipant observations. For this study, a 3-tiered measurement plan was used. For Tier 1, the unit of analysis was the facility, the data source was the facility coordinator or administrative data, and all 153 VAMCs participated. For Tier 2, frontline caregivers and program peer leaders at 17 facilities each completed different surveys. For Tier 3, six facilities completed qualitative site visits, which included individual interviews, focus groups, and nonparticipant observations. Multiple regression models were proposed to test the effects of SPH components on nursing outcomes related to

  4. Curcumin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for nasal administration: design, characterization, and in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Madane, Rohini G; Mahajan, Hitendra S

    2016-05-01

    Cancer nanotherapeutics is beginning to overwhelm the global research and viewed to be the revolutionary treatment regime in the medical field. This investigation describes the development of a stable nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) system as a carrier for curcumin (CRM). The CRM-loaded NLC developed as a particle with the size of 146.8 nm, a polydispersity index of 0.18, an entrapment efficiency (EE) of 90.86%, and the zeta potential (ZP) of -21.4 mV. Besides, the increased cytotoxicity of CRM-NLC than that of CRM to astrocytoma-glioblastoma cell line (U373MG) in the cancer cell lines was observed. Results of biodistribution studies showed higher drug concentration in brain after intranasal administration of NLCs than PDS. The results of the study also suggest that CRM-NLC is a promising drug delivery system for brain cancer therapy. PMID:25367836

  5. Descriptive study of stress and satisfaction at work in the Saragossa university services and administration staff

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The notion of stress in connection with the work environment became an important topic during the 1970's, when the first studies on the subject were published and the term of work stress was first coined. In 1974, Freudenberger proposed the term burnout to refer to the condition of physical and emotional exhaustion, as well as the associated negative attitudes, resulting from the intense interaction in working with people. The aim of our study is to examine burnout and job satisfaction in Saragossa University Services and Administration Staff (SAS) and detect the main factors which could contribute to too much stress, because job stress has emerged as a major psychosocial influence on mental health, associated with burnout. Methods 24 people from the Services and Administration Staff in the University of Saragossa participated in the study. The research was carried out during the implementation of a module on Stress Management organised by the University of Saragossa and commissioned to the Unit for Research in Physical Therapy (University School of Health Sciences) from that University. This research is an exploratory research to improve the stress management program. A personal interview was carried out and additionally, participants were given the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Scale of Satisfaction at Work of Warr, Cook & Wall. Results However using small sample this is worth to state that participants present most of them low burnout levels in the burnout scale. Only in one person high exhaustion level was reflected, even though other seven showed mean levels; in the professional self-esteem section, most of them showed high self-esteem, with two cases of low self-esteem and five with mean level. With regard to satisfaction people participating in the study show mean levels in intrinsic as much as in extrinsic factors and general satisfaction. Conclusions Services and Administration Staff from the University of Saragossa shows low burnout levels

  6. The expanding effects of cocaine: studies in a nonhuman primate model of cocaine self-administration.

    PubMed

    Porrino, Linda J; Daunais, James B; Smith, Hilary R; Nader, Michael A

    2004-01-01

    Although neuroimaging investigations in human cocaine abusers have provided important insights into the brain changes that accompany drug use, the interpretation of reports in human abusers can be very difficult. Studies in nonhuman primates provide a way to systematically evaluate the structural and functional adaptations engendered by cocaine self-administration without the confounds of human research. Functional activity, measured with metabolic mapping methods, and markers of the dopamine system, assessed autoradiographically, were evaluated over the course of chronic cocaine self-administration (5 days, 3.3 months, and 15-22 months). Within the striatum the topography of these responses shifts dramatically over time. Changes in functional activity and alterations in the dopamine system occupy larger and larger portions of dorsal and ventral striatum with increasing durations of cocaine exposure. The growing impact of cocaine suggests that the elements of the behavioral repertoire outside of the influence of cocaine become smaller and smaller with increasing durations of exposure to drug use resulting in cocaine's dominance over all aspects of the addict's life. PMID:15019430

  7. Polyethylene glycol-polyvinyl alcohol grafted copolymer: study of the bioavailability after oral administration to rats.

    PubMed

    Heuschmid, Franziska F; Schuster, Paul; Lauer, Birthe; Fabian, Eric; Leibold, Edgar; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2013-07-01

    The absorption, urinary excretion, and the biliary excretion of a single oral dose of 10 or 1000 mg/kg bw of (14)C-polyethylene glycol-polyvinyl alcohol (PEG-PVA) grafted copolymer were studied in adult male and female rats. In a balance/excretion experiment, the total excretion of ingested radioactivity was determined over a period of 168 h and residual radioactivity was detected in selected tissues and the carcass. In a biliary excretion experiment, excretion of radioactivity via the bile duct was determined over a period of 48 h after administration of the substance to cannulated rats. Most, if not all, of the radioactivity (>100%) was excreted within 48 h via the feces regardless of sex or dose. Urinary excretion was very limited: 0.45-0.50% of dose at the low dose and 0.22-0.27% of dose at the high dose. At both dose levels, residual radioactivity in the carcass and all organs and tissues after 168 h was ≤ 0.02% of dose. Biliary excretion was 0.01-0.02% of dose. Based on these findings, the bioavailability of PEG-PVA grafted copolymer was determined to be <1% demonstrating that absorption was virtually negligible following a single oral administration to male and female rats. PMID:23321424

  8. Transdermal testosterone administration in women with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome wasting: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Miller, K; Corcoran, C; Armstrong, C; Caramelli, K; Anderson, E; Cotton, D; Basgoz, N; Hirschhorn, L; Tuomala, R; Schoenfeld, D; Daugherty, C; Mazer, N; Grinspoon, S

    1998-08-01

    Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease is increasing rapidly among women, no prior studies have investigated gender-based therapeutic strategies for the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and its complications in this population. Markedly decreased serum androgen levels have been demonstrated in women with AIDS and may be a contributing factor to the wasting syndrome in this population. To assess the effects of androgen replacement therapy in women with AIDS wasting, we conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, pilot study of transdermal testosterone administration. The primary aim of the study was to determine efficacy in terms of the change in serum testosterone levels, safety parameters and tolerability. A secondary aim of the study was to investigate testosterone effects on weight, body composition, quality of life, and functional indexes. Fifty-three ambulatory women with the AIDS wasting syndrome defined as weight less than 90% of ideal body weight or weight loss of more than 10% of the preillness maximum, free of new opportunistic infection within 6 weeks of study initiation, and with screening serum levels of free testosterone less than the mean of the normal reference range (< 3 pg/mL) were enrolled in the study. Subjects were age 37 +/- 1 yr old (mean +/- SEM), weighed 92 +/- 2% of ideal body weight, and had lost 17 +/- 1% of their maximum weight. CD4 count was 324 +/- 36 cells/mm3, and viral burden was 102,382 +/- 28,580 copies. Subjects were randomized into three treatment groups, in which two placebo patches (PP), one active/one placebo patch (AP group), or two active patches (AA group) were applied twice weekly to the abdomen for 12 weeks. The expected nominal delivery rates of testosterone were 150 and 300 microg/day, respectively, for the AP and AA groups. Forty-five subjects completed the study (PP group, n = 13; AP group, n = 14; AA group, n = 18). Two additional subjects from the PP group and two from the AP

  9. Ninety-day readmissions after degenerative cervical spine surgery: A single-center administrative database study

    PubMed Central

    Akamnonu, Chibuikem; Goldstein, Jeffrey A.; Errico, Thomas J.; Bendo, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Unplanned hospital readmissions result in significant clinical and financial burdens to patients and the healthcare system. Readmission rates and causes have been investigated using large administrative databases which have certain limitations in data reporting and coding. The objective of this study was to provide a description of 90 day post-discharge readmissions following surgery for common degenerative cervical spine pathologies at a large-volume tertiary hospital. The study also compared the readmission rates of patients who underwent anterior- and posterior-approach procedures. Methods The administrative records from a single-center, high-volume tertiary institution were queried using ICD-9 codes for common cervical pathology over a three year period to determine the rate and causes of readmissions within the 90 days following the index surgery. Results A total of 768 patients underwent degenerative cervical spine surgery during the three year study period. Within 90 days of discharge, 24 (3.13%) patients were readmitted; 16 (2.06%) readmissions were planned for lumbar surgery; 8 (1.04%) readmissions were unplanned. 640 patients underwent procedures involving an anterior approach and 128 patients underwent procedures involving a posterior approach. There were 14 (2.17%) planned readmissions in the anterior group and 2 (1.5%) in the posterior group. The unplanned readmission rate was 0.63% (4 patients) and 3.13% (4 patients) in the anterior and posterior groups, respectively. (p=0.0343). Conclusion The 90 day post-discharge unplanned readmission rate that followed elective degenerative cervical spine surgery was 1.04%. The unplanned readmission rate associated with posterior-approach procedures (3.13%) was significantly higher than that of anterior-approach procedures (0.63%). Level of evidence: IV PMID:26114088

  10. Feasibility study: Application of RCM techniques for substation maintenance at the Bonneville Power Administration

    SciTech Connect

    Purucker, S.L.; Tonn, B.E.; Goeltz, R.T.; James, R.D.; Kercel, S.; Rizy, D.T.; Simpson, M.L.; Van Dyke, J.W.

    1992-05-28

    This feasibility study examines reliability centered maintenance (RCM) as it applies to Bonneville Power Administrations (BPA) substation maintenance program. Reliability techniques are examined in evaluated. Existing BPA equipment maintenance procedures are documented. Equipment failure history is considered. Economic impacts are estimated. Various equipment instrumentation methods are reviewed. Based on this analysis a prototype system is proposed. The prototype will be implemented in two phases. Phase 1 is to be completed in 1992, it includes instrumenting one power transformer and one oil circuit breaker. Software development will focus on displaying data. Phase 2 is to be completed the following year. The remaining transformers and breakers will be instrumented during the second phase. Software development will focus on predictive maintenance techniques and maintenance decision support.

  11. Seniors' self-administration of the Elder Abuse Suspicion Index (EASI): a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Yaffe, Mark J; Weiss, Deborah; Lithwick, Maxine

    2012-10-01

    This study explored the feasibility of seniors aged 65 and over with MMSE ≥24 completing the EASI-sa, a self-administrable version of the Elder Abuse Suspicion Index (EASI). A convenience sample of 210 was stratified by age, sex, and language (English and French). All completed the EASI-sa within an estimated 5 minutes, 82.9% within 2 minutes. Completion time decreased with higher education, but was not affected by age, sex, language, or measured physical or mental health. No questions went unanswered; no words were poorly understood or discomforting. The EASI-sa completion was associated with a significantly increased understanding about elder abuse (p < 0.0001). PMID:23016725

  12. Computerized provider documentation: findings and implications of a multisite study of clinicians and administrators

    PubMed Central

    Embi, Peter J; Weir, Charlene; Efthimiadis, Efthimis N; Thielke, Stephen M; Hedeen, Ashley N; Hammond, Kenric W

    2013-01-01

    Objective Clinical documentation is central to the medical record and so to a range of healthcare and business processes. As electronic health record adoption expands, computerized provider documentation (CPD) is increasingly the primary means of capturing clinical documentation. Previous CPD studies have focused on particular stakeholder groups and sites, often limiting their scope and conclusions. To address this, we studied multiple stakeholder groups from multiple sites across the USA. Methods We conducted 14 focus groups at five Department of Veterans Affairs facilities with 129 participants (54 physicians or practitioners, 34 nurses, and 37 administrators). Investigators qualitatively analyzed resultant transcripts, developed categories linked to the data, and identified emergent themes. Results Five major themes related to CPD emerged: communication and coordination; control and limitations in expressivity; information availability and reasoning support; workflow alteration and disruption; and trust and confidence concerns. The results highlight that documentation intertwines tightly with clinical and administrative workflow. Perceptions differed between the three stakeholder groups but remained consistent within groups across facilities. Conclusions CPD has dramatically changed documentation processes, impacting clinical understanding, decision-making, and communication across multiple groups. The need for easy and rapid, yet structured and constrained, documentation often conflicts with the need for highly reliable and retrievable information to support clinical reasoning and workflows. Current CPD systems, while better than paper overall, often do not meet the needs of users, partly because they are based on an outdated ‘paper-chart’ paradigm. These findings should inform those implementing CPD systems now and future plans for more effective CPD systems. PMID:23355462

  13. Doctoral Studies of Students in Educational Administration Programs in UCEA Member Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, M. Scott; Levan, Frederick D.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-seven random University Council for Educational Administration (UCEA) member institutions were asked to submit two student programs for each doctoral degree offered. Analysis of the programs indicated that doctor of philosophy and doctor of education degrees in educational administration are virtually identical pursuits in UCEA member…

  14. Academic Librarians and Research: A Study of Canadian Library Administrator Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Selinda Adelle; Jacobs, Heidi L. M.; Cornwall, Dayna

    2013-01-01

    Within the literature exploring the role of research in academic librarianship, very little attention has been paid to the perspectives of upper library administrators. This perspective is critical because library administrators play a key role in hiring, evaluating, supporting, promoting, and tenuring professional librarians. As a way of bringing…

  15. Needs Assessment Studies of Certified Nurse Assistants and Administrators. Volume XXII, No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fair, Lillian; And Others

    As part of an educational needs assessment, a survey was conducted by William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) in Palatine, Illinois, of Certified Nursing Assistants (CNA) and of administrators at institutions known to employ CNA's. Survey instruments were mailed to two groups. The first group, 153 administrators at institutions employing CNA's, were…

  16. A Study of Difficulties and Approaches for Innovative Talents Training of Public Administration Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Yanhan; Wu, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The innovation is the soul of one nation making progresses. To build an innovative country, we need to train more innovative talents who is capable of public administration. The innovative talents training of public administration undergraduate faces a lot of problems, such as the influences of traditional culture, the constraint of education…

  17. Administration by Objectives: A Systematic Approach to Educational Planning in Virginia. Report of a Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, George W., III; Seawell, William H.

    This report presents (1) details of a program for educational administration by objectives and (2) the results of such a program developed by the Virginia State Department of Education to upgrade the quality of education in the public schools of that State. Administration by objectives is a systematic approach to education planning using…

  18. Exploring Paradoxes of Power in Small College Writing Administration Composition Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Libby Falk

    2004-01-01

    Drawing on concepts and practices from the fields of communication, conflict management, leadership, and feminist theory, as well as on her experience as a teacher-administrator, the author explores perceptions, sources, and consequences of power. She argues that effective small college writing administrators must understand the availability of…

  19. A National Study of State Credentialing Requirements for Administrators of Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boscardin, Mary Lynn; Weir, Kerry; Kusek, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Unlike data that show that all states require credentials for special education teachers, national data indicate that only 27 states require licensure/certification/endorsement as an administrator of special education. The titles used by states to identify the local director of special education include administrator of special education, director…

  20. Results from the Veterans Health Administration ICD-10-CM/PCS Coding Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Weems, Shelley; Heller, Pamela; Fenton, Susan H

    2015-01-01

    The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) of the US Department of Veterans Affairs has been preparing for the October 1, 2015, conversion to the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification and Procedural Coding System (ICD-10-CM/PCS) for more than four years. The VHA's Office of Informatics and Analytics ICD-10 Program Management Office established an ICD-10 Learning Lab to explore expected operational challenges. This study was conducted to determine the effects of the classification system conversion on coding productivity. ICD codes are integral to VHA business processes and are used for purposes such as clinical studies, performance measurement, workload capture, cost determination, Veterans Equitable Resource Allocation (VERA) determination, morbidity and mortality classification, indexing of hospital records by disease and operations, data storage and retrieval, research purposes, and reimbursement. The data collection for this study occurred in multiple VHA sites across several months using standardized methods. It is commonly accepted that coding productivity will decrease with the implementation of ICD-10-CM/PCS. The findings of this study suggest that the decrease will be more significant for inpatient coding productivity (64.5 percent productivity decrease) than for ambulatory care coding productivity (6.7 percent productivity decrease). This study reveals the following important points regarding ICD-10-CM/PCS coding productivity: 1. Ambulatory care ICD-10-CM coding productivity is not expected to decrease as significantly as inpatient ICD-10-CM/PCS coding productivity. 2. Coder training and type of record (inpatient versus outpatient) affect coding productivity. 3. Inpatient coding productivity is decreased when a procedure requiring ICD-10-PCS coding is present. It is highly recommended that organizations perform their own analyses to determine the effects of ICD-10-CM/PCS implementation on coding productivity. PMID

  1. Results from the Veterans Health Administration ICD-10-CM/PCS Coding Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Weems, Shelley; Heller, Pamela; Fenton, Susan H.

    2015-01-01

    The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) of the US Department of Veterans Affairs has been preparing for the October 1, 2015, conversion to the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification and Procedural Coding System (ICD-10-CM/PCS) for more than four years. The VHA's Office of Informatics and Analytics ICD-10 Program Management Office established an ICD-10 Learning Lab to explore expected operational challenges. This study was conducted to determine the effects of the classification system conversion on coding productivity. ICD codes are integral to VHA business processes and are used for purposes such as clinical studies, performance measurement, workload capture, cost determination, Veterans Equitable Resource Allocation (VERA) determination, morbidity and mortality classification, indexing of hospital records by disease and operations, data storage and retrieval, research purposes, and reimbursement. The data collection for this study occurred in multiple VHA sites across several months using standardized methods. It is commonly accepted that coding productivity will decrease with the implementation of ICD-10-CM/PCS. The findings of this study suggest that the decrease will be more significant for inpatient coding productivity (64.5 percent productivity decrease) than for ambulatory care coding productivity (6.7 percent productivity decrease). This study reveals the following important points regarding ICD-10-CM/PCS coding productivity: Ambulatory care ICD-10-CM coding productivity is not expected to decrease as significantly as inpatient ICD-10-CM/PCS coding productivity.Coder training and type of record (inpatient versus outpatient) affect coding productivity.Inpatient coding productivity is decreased when a procedure requiring ICD-10-PCS coding is present. It is highly recommended that organizations perform their own analyses to determine the effects of ICD-10-CM/PCS implementation on coding productivity. PMID:26396553

  2. Neural changes induced by antipsychotic administration in adolescence: A review of studies in laboratory rodents.

    PubMed

    Moe, Aung Aung Kywe; Scott, James G; Burne, Thomas Hj; Eyles, Darryl W

    2016-08-01

    Adolescence is characterized by major remodelling processes in the brain. Use of antipsychotic drugs (APDs) in adolescents has increased dramatically in the last 20 years; however, our understanding of the neurobiological consequences of APD treatment on the adolescent brain has not kept the same pace and significant concerns have been raised. In this review, we examined currently available preclinical studies of the effects of APDs on the adolescent brain. In animal models of neuropsychiatric disorders, adolescent APD treatment appears to be protective against selected structural, behavioural and neurochemical phenotypes. In "neurodevelopmentally normal" adolescent animals, a range of short- and long-term alterations in behaviour and neurochemistry have been reported. In particular, the adolescent brain appears to be sensitive to long-term locomotor/reward effects of chronic atypical APDs in contrast with the outcomes in adults. Long-lasting changes in dopaminergic, glutamatergic and gamma-amino butyric acid-ergic systems induced by adolescent APD administration have been observed in the nucleus accumbens. A detailed examination of other potential target regions such as striatum, prefrontal cortex and ventral tegmental area is still required. Through identification of specific neural pathways targeted by adolescent APD treatment, future studies will expand the current knowledge on long-term neural outcomes which are of translational value. PMID:27413140

  3. The prevalence of trimetazidine use in athletes in Poland: excretion study after oral drug administration.

    PubMed

    Jarek, Anna; Wójtowicz, Marzena; Kwiatkowska, Dorota; Kita, Monika; Turek-Lepa, Ewa; Chajewska, Katarzyna; Lewandowska-Pachecka, Sylwia; Pokrywka, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Stimulants, together with anabolic androgenic steroids, are regarded as one of the most popular doping substances in sport. Owing to a great variety of these substances and new designer drugs being introduced to the market, each year the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) updates the list of substances and methods prohibited in sport. On 1 January 2014, a new doping agent - trimetazidine (TMZ) - was added to the WADA Prohibited List. TMZ, a substance prohibited in competition, is classified in the S6b Specified Stimulant Group. TMZ is used as a well-known cardiologic drug with confirmed biochemical and clinical activity. According to knowledge of the pharmacology and mechanism of TMZ action, TMZ can be used by athletes to improve physical efficiency, especially in the case of endurance sports. This study presents the phenomena of TMZ use by Polish athletes involved in anti-doping control in the WADA-accredited laboratory in Warsaw (Poland) between 2008 and 2013. Samples were taken from the athletes of such disciplines as cycling, athletics, and triathlon. Moreover, the elimination study of TMZ has been conducted to establish the change of TMZ concentration in urine sample after oral administration of a single or double (during the long-term therapy) dose. TMZ was monitored in urine samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-nitrogen phosphorus detection (GC-MS-NPD). PMID:25421604

  4. Cytokines evaluation in nasal lavage of allergic children after Bacillus clausii administration: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ciprandi, Giorgio; Tosca, Maria Angela; Milanese, Manlio; Caligo, Giacomo; Ricca, Vittorio

    2004-04-01

    Respiratory infections are very frequent in children. Bacillus clausii has been demonstrated to exert some immunomodulatory activities and to be safe. We conducted a study to investigate whether B. clausii administration in allergic children with recurrent respiratory infections might modulate cytokine pattern. Ten children (mean age 4.4 yr) attending the nursery school were enrolled at the end of school year (i.e. in the summer). Bacillus clausii spores (Enterogermina): 2 billion spores per vial) were administered at the dosage schedule of two vials a day for 4 wk. A panel of cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1, IL-3, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, interferon (IFN)-gamma, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, was measured by immunoassay in the fluid recovered from nasal lavage, performed before and after the treatment. Bacillus clausii treatment induced a significant decrease of IL-4 levels (p < 0.01) and a significant increase of IFN-gamma (p < 0.05), IL-12 (p < 0.001), TGF-beta (p < 0.05), and IL-10 (p < 0.05) levels. Other cytokines were not significantly modified. In conclusion, this study shows that the B. clausii may exert immunomodulating activity by affecting cytokine pattern at nasal level in allergic children with recurrent respiratory infections. PMID:15059191

  5. Burden of Diabetes Mellitus Estimated with a Longitudinal Population-Based Study Using Administrative Databases

    PubMed Central

    Scalone, Luciana; Cesana, Giancarlo; Furneri, Gianluca; Ciampichini, Roberta; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Chiodini, Virginio; Mangioni, Silvia; Orsi, Emanuela; Fornari, Carla; Mantovani, Lorenzo Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the epidemiologic and economic burden of diabetes mellitus (DM) from a longitudinal population-based study. Research Design and Methods Lombardy Region includes 9.9 million individuals. Its DM population was identified through a data warehouse (DENALI), which matches with a probabilistic linkage demographic, clinical and economic data of different Healthcare Administrative databases. All individuals, who, during the year 2000 had an hospital discharge with a IDC-9 CM code 250.XX, and/or two consecutive prescriptions of drugs for diabetes (ATC code A10XXXX) within one year, and/or an exemption from co-payment healthcare costs specific for DM, were selected and followed up to 9 years. We calculated prevalence, mortality and healthcare costs (hospitalizations, drugs and outpatient examinations/visits) from the National Health Service’s perspective. Results We identified 312,223 eligible subjects. The study population (51% male) had a mean age of 66 (from 0.03 to 105.12) years at the index date. Prevalence ranged from 0.4% among subjects aged ≤45 years to 10.1% among those >85 years old. Overall 43.4 deaths per 1,000 patients per year were estimated, significantly (p<0.001) higher in men than women. Overall, 3,315€/patient-year were spent on average: hospitalizations were the cost driver (54.2% of total cost). Drugs contributed to 31.5%, outpatient claims represented 14.3% of total costs. Thirty-five percent of hospital costs were attributable to cerebro−/cardiovascular reasons, 6% to other complications of DM, and 4% to DM as a main diagnosis. Cardiovascular drugs contributed to 33.5% of total drug costs, 21.8% was attributable to class A (16.7% to class A10) and 4.3% to class B (2.4% to class B01) drugs. Conclusions Merging different administrative databases can provide with many data from large populations observed for long time periods. DENALI shows to be an efficient instrument to obtain accurate estimates of burden of diseases such as

  6. Mission, Enrollment and Staffing Patterns, Funding Procedures, and Administration and Governance. The North Carolina Community College Study. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Junius A.; And Others

    In November 1985, the Research Triangle Institute conducted a study of enrollment, staffing, governance and administration, and budget allocations in the North Carolina community colleges. The study involved an analysis of public records related to enrollment, staffing, and finances; an extensive study, including on-site interviews, of 12…

  7. Novice Administrators: Personality and Administrative Style Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Linda J.; Kosmoski, Georgia J.; Pollack, Dennis R.

    Since the advent of effective-schools research findings, educational administration experts have advocated a democratic and collegial leadership style for school administrators. This paper provides the findings of a study that examined 43 beginning administrators (25 females, 32 Caucasians, 9 African-Americans, 2 Hispanics) to determine what…

  8. Promoting Women in Educational Administration: A Case Study of Conflict and Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkinson, Judith A.

    1978-01-01

    Describes Project ICES, a model for increasing the numbers of women holding administrative positions in Kansas's public school systems, the organizational characteristics that promoted conflict and participant stress, and the unplanned mechanism (organized anarchy) that reduced conflict. (Author/IRT)

  9. The Administrative Internship and Role Change: A Study of the Relationship Between Interaction and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreira, Joseph L.

    1970-01-01

    In interpreting data gathered in an administrative internship program, the author suggests that certain attitude changes, taken as an index of role shift, are associated with interaction patterns with significant others. (Author/MF)

  10. The Study of School Facility Planning--Unimportant to Educational Administration Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Thomas E.

    1991-01-01

    Contends that preparation programs in educational administration usually do not directly cover facility planning or construction, or the assessment and maintenance of existing facilities. Suggests areas to be addressed in an educational facilities planning course. (12 references) (MLF)

  11. Pharmacokinetic study of indocyanine Green after intravenous administration by UPLC-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu; Chen, Dongxin; Hu, Wenhao; Lin, Guanyang; Huang, Shiyong

    2015-01-01

    Indocyanine Green is widely used in medical diagnosis and to evaluate liver function and other regional blood flows in clinical application or animal experiments. In this work, a sensitive and selective ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for determination of Indocyanine Green in rat plasma was developed and validated. After addition of rutin as an internal standard (IS), protein precipitation by acetonitrile-methanol (9:1, v/v) was used to prepare samples. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.7 μm) with 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile as the mobile phase with gradient elution. An electrospray ionization source was applied and operated in positive ion mode; multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode was used for quantification using target fragment ions m/z 753.4→330.2 for Indocyanine Green, and m/z 611.1→303.1 for IS. Calibration plots were linear throughout the range 20-5000 ng/mL for Indocyanine Green in rat plasma. Mean recoveries of Indocyanine Green in rat plasma ranged from 79.5% to 85.4%. RSD of intra-day and inter-day precision were both < 12%. The accuracy of the method was between 95.9% and 113.9%. The method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of Indocyanine Green after intravenous administration. PMID:26629038

  12. Explaining racial disparities in anticoagulation control: results from a study of patients at the Veterans Administration.

    PubMed

    Rao, Sowmya R; Reisman, Joel I; Kressin, Nancy R; Berlowitz, Dan R; Ash, Arlene S; Ozonoff, Al; Miller, Donald R; Hylek, Elaine M; Zhao, Shibei; Rose, Adam J

    2015-05-01

    Higher rates of stroke, major hemorrhage, and death among black patients receiving warfarin, compared with white patients, is likely related to poorer anticoagulation control. The research team investigated patient-level and site-level factors that might account for this group difference. A summary measure of anticoagulation control (percent time in therapeutic range [TTR]), patient characteristics, and site-level process of care measures were obtained for 9572 black and 88 481 white patients at the Veterans Health Administration. The research team studied disparity in TTR adjusting for patient and site characteristics. Mean unadjusted TTR for black patients was 6.5% lower than for white patients (P<.001). After accounting for the younger age of blacks, greater degrees of medication use, hospitalization, poverty, living in the South, and 11 other patient characteristics, only 2.0% of this racial disparity persisted. Process of care measures had minimal additional effect. These findings may inform efforts to reduce this racial disparity in achieving good anticoagulation control. PMID:24642366

  13. Long-term drug administration in the adult zebrafish using oral gavage for cancer preclinical studies

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Michelle; Henderson, Rachel E.; Garraway, Levi A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Zebrafish are a major model for chemical genetics, and most studies use embryos when investigating small molecules that cause interesting phenotypes or that can rescue disease models. Limited studies have dosed adults with small molecules by means of water-borne exposure or injection techniques. Challenges in the form of drug delivery-related trauma and anesthesia-related toxicity have excluded the adult zebrafish from long-term drug efficacy studies. Here, we introduce a novel anesthetic combination of MS-222 and isoflurane to an oral gavage technique for a non-toxic, non-invasive and long-term drug administration platform. As a proof of principle, we established drug efficacy of the FDA-approved BRAFV600E inhibitor, Vemurafenib, in adult zebrafish harboring BRAFV600E melanoma tumors. In the model, adult casper zebrafish intraperitoneally transplanted with a zebrafish melanoma cell line (ZMEL1) and exposed to daily sub-lethal dosing at 100 mg/kg of Vemurafenib for 2 weeks via oral gavage resulted in an average 65% decrease in tumor burden and a 15% mortality rate. In contrast, Vemurafenib-resistant ZMEL1 cell lines, generated in culture from low-dose drug exposure for 4 months, did not respond to the oral gavage treatment regimen. Similarly, this drug treatment regimen can be applied for treatment of primary melanoma tumors in the zebrafish. Taken together, we developed an effective long-term drug treatment system that will allow the adult zebrafish to be used to identify more effective anti-melanoma combination therapies and opens up possibilities for treating adult models of other diseases. PMID:27482819

  14. Blockade of tubal patency following transcervical administration of polidocanol foam: initial studies in rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Jeffrey T; Hanna, Carol; Yao, Shan; Micks, Elizabeth; Edelman, Alison; Holden, Lindsay; Slayden, Ov D

    2014-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate the feasibility of polidocanol foam (PF) as a nonsurgical method of female permanent contraception using a nonhuman primate model. Study Design Four groups of adult female rhesus macaques underwent either transcervical treatment with 5% PF directly into the uterine cavity, treatment with inert (methylcellulose, MF) foam or no treatment followed by removal of the reproductive tract for histologic evaluation. Untreated animals were included in Group 1 (n= 3). Group 2 animals (n= 4) were treated once with MF. Group 3 (n=7) received a single, and Group 4 (n= 5) received multiple monthly treatments with PF; in these 2 groups, baseline tubal patency was assessed either laparoscopically by chromopertubation (CP) or by hysterosalpingography. Results Group 1 (untreated) and Group 2 (MF) animals had normal tubal histology. In contrast, Group 3 and 4 females treated with PF showed evidence of tubal damage. In Group 4, bilateral tubal blockade was noted on CP after two (n=2) or three (n=3) treatments. Histologic analysis confirmed complete tubal occlusion (loss of epithelium, fibrosis) in 3 of these animals and 1 showed significant tubal damage localized to the intramural segment. Nontarget (cervix, vagina, endometrium, ovary) reproductive tissues were unaffected. While similar tubal changes were observed after a single treatment (Group 3), endometrial hemorrhage was also noted Conclusion PF is a promising candidate agent for nonsurgical permanent female contraception. The histologic features of PF occlusion are confined to the intramural portion of the tube. Implications This study in rhesus macaques supports further development of transcervical administration of polidocanol foam as a nonsurgical approach to permanent contraception. A nonsurgical method could reduce risks and costs associated with surgical female sterilization, and increase access to permanent contraception. PMID:24560476

  15. 21 CFR 20.106 - Studies and reports prepared by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Studies and reports prepared by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration. 20.106 Section 20.106 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Categories of Records § 20.106 Studies and reports prepared by or with funds provided by the Food and...

  16. Performance Pay Preferences of College of Education Faculty and Administrators at One Historically Black University: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Corey Lee

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the attitudes and perceptions College of Education faculty and administrators have about performance pay at a Historically Black University (HBCU). A secondary purpose of the study was to determine the performance pay plan and specific measures of faculty productivity preferred by College of Education…

  17. Administrators' Power Usage Styles and Their Impact on the Organizational Culture in Colleges of Education: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozcan, Kenan; Karatas, Ibrahim Hakan; Caglar, Çaglar; Polat, Murat

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to determine how power usage styles of administrators of faculties of education influence the organizational culture in their respective faculties in Turkey. Using the phenomenological method, a qualitative research method, researchers studied a group comprised of 20 academics from 7 different colleges of…

  18. A Case Study of Two Regional State Universities Qualifying as Learning Organizations Based on Administration and Staff Viewpoints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Tammy Morrison

    2011-01-01

    This case study of 2 state universities qualifying as learning organizations, based on administration and staff viewpoints, was completed using a qualitative methodology. The idea of what a learning organization is can be different depending on who or what is being analyzed. For this study, the work of theorists including W. Edwards Deming,…

  19. An Evaluation Study of the Executive Master of Business Administration (EMBA) Degree: Examining the Transfer of Knowledge and Leadership Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Hye Lim

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of the Executive Master of Business Administration (EMBA) degree program in terms of transfer of knowledge and leadership practices. As EMBA programs have recently revamped their curriculum toward offering more practical skills, this study provided insight into the effectiveness of their curricula and…

  20. Delaware Student Testing Program: State Summary Report: Science & Social Studies, Spring 2002 Administration, Grades 8 and 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware State Dept. of Education, Dover. Assessment and Accountability Branch.

    The results from the third administration of the 8th and 11th grade science and social studies portions of the Delaware Student Testing Program (DSTP) represent an important step in Delawares efforts to educate all students to a higher level. Science and social studies data for grades 8 and 11 are summarized here, and the results for grades 4 and…

  1. Salivary Oxytocin Concentrations in Males following Intranasal Administration of Oxytocin: A Double-Blind, Cross-Over Study

    PubMed Central

    Daughters, Katie; Manstead, Antony S. R.; Hubble, Kelly; Rees, Aled; Thapar, Anita; van Goozen, Stephanie H. M.

    2015-01-01

    The use of intranasal oxytocin (OT) in research has become increasingly important over the past decade. Although researchers have acknowledged a need for further investigation of the physiological effects of intranasal administration, few studies have actually done so. In the present double-blind cross-over study we investigated the longevity of a single 24 IU dose of intranasal OT measured in saliva in 40 healthy adult males. Salivary OT concentrations were significantly higher in the OT condition, compared to placebo. This significant difference lasted until the end of testing, approximately 108 minutes after administration, and peaked at 30 minutes. Results showed significant individual differences in response to intranasal OT administration. To our knowledge this is the largest and first all-male within-subjects design study to demonstrate the impact of intranasal OT on salivary OT concentrations. The results are consistent with previous research in suggesting that salivary OT is a valid matrix for OT measurement. The results also suggest that the post-administration ‘wait-time’ prior to starting experimental tasks could be reduced to 30 minutes, from the 45 minutes typically used, thereby enabling testing during peak OT concentrations. Further research is needed to ascertain whether OT concentrations after intranasal administration follow similar patterns in females, and different age groups. PMID:26669935

  2. Salivary Oxytocin Concentrations in Males following Intranasal Administration of Oxytocin: A Double-Blind, Cross-Over Study.

    PubMed

    Daughters, Katie; Manstead, Antony S R; Hubble, Kelly; Rees, Aled; Thapar, Anita; van Goozen, Stephanie H M

    2015-01-01

    The use of intranasal oxytocin (OT) in research has become increasingly important over the past decade. Although researchers have acknowledged a need for further investigation of the physiological effects of intranasal administration, few studies have actually done so. In the present double-blind cross-over study we investigated the longevity of a single 24 IU dose of intranasal OT measured in saliva in 40 healthy adult males. Salivary OT concentrations were significantly higher in the OT condition, compared to placebo. This significant difference lasted until the end of testing, approximately 108 minutes after administration, and peaked at 30 minutes. Results showed significant individual differences in response to intranasal OT administration. To our knowledge this is the largest and first all-male within-subjects design study to demonstrate the impact of intranasal OT on salivary OT concentrations. The results are consistent with previous research in suggesting that salivary OT is a valid matrix for OT measurement. The results also suggest that the post-administration 'wait-time' prior to starting experimental tasks could be reduced to 30 minutes, from the 45 minutes typically used, thereby enabling testing during peak OT concentrations. Further research is needed to ascertain whether OT concentrations after intranasal administration follow similar patterns in females, and different age groups. PMID:26669935

  3. Understanding the causes of intravenous medication administration errors in hospitals: a qualitative critical incident study

    PubMed Central

    Keers, Richard N; Williams, Steven D; Cooke, Jonathan; Ashcroft, Darren M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the underlying causes of intravenous medication administration errors (MAEs) in National Health Service (NHS) hospitals. Setting Two NHS teaching hospitals in the North West of England. Participants Twenty nurses working in a range of inpatient clinical environments were identified and recruited using purposive sampling at each study site. Primary outcome measures Semistructured interviews were conducted with nurse participants using the critical incident technique, where they were asked to discuss perceived causes of intravenous MAEs that they had been directly involved with. Transcribed interviews were analysed using the Framework approach and emerging themes were categorised according to Reason's model of accident causation. Results In total, 21 intravenous MAEs were discussed containing 23 individual active failures which included slips and lapses (n=11), mistakes (n=8) and deliberate violations of policy (n=4). Each active failure was associated with a range of error and violation provoking conditions. The working environment was implicated when nurses lacked healthcare team support and/or were exposed to a perceived increased workload during ward rounds, shift changes or emergencies. Nurses frequently reported that the quality of intravenous dose-checking activities was compromised due to high perceived workload and working relationships. Nurses described using approaches such as subconscious functioning and prioritising to manage their duties, which at times contributed to errors. Conclusions Complex interactions between active and latent failures can lead to intravenous MAEs in hospitals. Future interventions may need to be multimodal in design in order to mitigate these risks and reduce the burden of intravenous MAEs. PMID:25770226

  4. 13-week repeated dose toxicity study of l-tyrosine in rats by daily oral administration.

    PubMed

    Shibui, Yusuke; Manabe, Yasuhiro; Kodama, Terutaka; Gonsho, Akinori

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the potential toxicity of l-tyrosine, 4 groups of Crl:CD(SD) rats of both sexes were administered l-tyrosine in water suspension by gavage once daily for 13 weeks at doses of 0 (vehicle), 200, 600 or 2000 mg/kg bw/day. Findings related to l-tyrosine administration were as follows. Edema of the cornified layer at the limiting ridge or forestomach was seen in 600 mg/kg bw/day female group and in both sexes of 2000 mg/kg bw/day group. In the liver, increased weight and hypertrophy of centrilobular hepatocytes were seen in both sexes at 2000 mg/kg bw/day, associated with slight increases in ALT and AST. Regarding the kidney morphology and function, increased hyaline droplets in the proximal tubules and increased urinary protein were seen in the 2000 mg/kg bw/day male group. In addition, increased kidney weight was also observed in both sexes of the 2000 mg/kg bw/day group, although the histological changes attributable to the weight increase remained unclear. As for blood chemistry, increases in triglycerides, total cholesterol, phospholipids, potassium ion, calcium, total protein, and α1 globulin were also seen in both sexes at 2000 mg/kg bw/day. Thus, in this study the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of l-tyrosine was considered to be 600 mg/kg bw/day for males and 200 mg/kg bw/day for females. PMID:26646752

  5. Pharmacokinetics and metabolism study of veratramine in mice after oral administration using LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Cong, Yue; Zhang, Jun-Li; Li, Sha-Sha; Shen, Shan; Wang, Jiang-Ying; Cai, Zongwei

    2016-09-01

    A simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (Q-trap-MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of veratramine, the major bioactive and neurotoxic component in Veratrum nigrum L. Veratramine and the internal standard (IS) were separated with a Waters Symmetry C18 column and eluted with a gradient mobile phase system containing acetonitrile and 0.1% aqueous formic acid. The analysis was performed by using positive electrospray ionization mode with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Transition ions of m/z 410.2 → 295.2 for veratramine and m/z 426.1 → 113.8 for the IS were monitored. The method was validated with a good linearity in the range of 1-1000 ng/mL and lower limit of quantification of 1 ng/mL. The precision (CV) of intra- and inter-day ranged from 3.92 to 7.29%, while the accuracy (bias) intra- and inter-day were between -4.78 and 1.65%. The recovery, stability and matrix effect were within the acceptable ranges. Five metabolites of veratramine, including four hydroxylated and one sulfated metabolites, were tentatively identified using predictive MRM-information dependent acquisition-enhanced product ion mode (predictive MRM-IDA-EPI). The developed method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic and metabolic study of veratramine in mice after oral administration of veratramine. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26972867

  6. Feasibility study on using an infrared thermometer for evaluation and administration of cryosurgery.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jing-Fu; Wang, Hong-Wu; Liu, Jing; Deng, Zhong-Shan; Rao, Wei; Xiang, Shi-Hai

    2007-01-01

    Successful performance of cryosurgery relies heavily on a quick, efficient, safe and economic imaging way to monitor the surgical advancement and then to evaluate the curative effect. However, there is currently a lack of such an imaging modality. As for the commonly adopted imaging devices such as X-CT, MRI and PET, in addition their high cost and complexity in operation, they often induce additional scathe to the patients due to their potential radiation effects. Besides, in cryosurgery, the most important parameter - temperature - can not be directly detected by these methods. Considering the above factors, infrared thermography (IRT), a rather useful yet often neglected functional imaging technique in clinics, is proposed in this paper as an efficient tool for the quick evaluation and administration of a cryosurgical treatment of tumors. Based on skin surface temperature mapping, the degree of damage to the target tissue site caused by different freezing/heating protocols, as well as the states of blood circulation and metabolic heat generation within the treated region can possibly be identified. Further, through recording the temperature variation feature at the skin surface before and after cryosurgery, IRT would help to quickly evaluate the curative effect, which is very beneficial for later treatment planning. By detecting the surface infrared image and analyzing its digital values, the patient's invisible focus and abnormal physiological states, e.g. inflammations or pneumothorax, often accompanied by cryosurgical output yet difficult to determine via conventional imaging, could also possibly be diagnosed. To test the above concepts, both typical animal and clinical experiments were performed to demonstrate the feasibility and advantages of IRT-guided cryosurgery. This study may help push forward a novel, low-cost and non-contact way for an efficient performance of cryosurgery. PMID:17573622

  7. Oral drug self-administration: an overview of laboratory animal studies.

    PubMed

    Meisch, R A

    2001-06-01

    Many abused drugs can be established as orally delivered reinforcers for rhesus monkeys and other animals. Benzodiazepines, barbiturates, opioids, psychomotor stimulants, dissociative anesthetics, and ethanol can come to serve as reinforcers when taken by mouth. The principal problems in establishing drugs as reinforcers by the oral route of administration are (1) aversive taste, (2) delay in onset of central nervous system effects, and (3) consumption of low volumes of drug solution. Strategies have been devised to successfully overcome these problems, and orally delivered drugs can be established as effective reinforcers. Reinforcing actions are demonstrated by consumption of greater volumes of drug solution than volumes of the water vehicle, and supporting evidence for reinforcing effects consists of the maintenance of behavior under intermittent schedules of reinforcement and the generation of orderly dose-response functions. This article presents an overview of studies of behavior reinforced by oral drug reinforcement. Factors that control oral drug intake include dose, schedule of reinforcement, food restriction, and alternative reinforcers. Many drugs, administered by the experimenter, can alter oral drug reinforcement. Relative reinforcing effects can be assessed by choice procedures and by persistence of behavior across increases in schedule size. In general, reinforcing effects increase directly with dose. Rhesus monkeys prefer combinations of reinforcing drugs to the component drugs. The taste of drug solutions may act as a conditioned reinforcer and a discriminative stimulus. Consequences of drug intake include tolerance and physiological dependence. Findings with orally self-administered drugs are similar to many findings with other positive reinforcers, including intravenously self-administered drugs. PMID:11522433

  8. Home therapy with LMWH in deep vein thrombosis: randomized study comparing single and double daily administrations.

    PubMed

    Bellosta, Raffaello; Ferrari, Patrizio; Luzzani, Luca; Carugati, Claudio; Cossu, Luisa; Talarico, Matteo; Sarcina, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in terms of the evolution of thrombosis, the incidence of adverse events, and compliance with heparin treatment using 2 types of LMWH available on the market administered in therapeutic doses throughout the period of treatment (Nadroparin) or at therapeutic doses only during the first month of treatment followed by a prophylactic phase at half dose (Parnaparin). A randomized prospective study was carried out on patients under observation with a recent diagnosis of DVT. The objectives of the study were to confirm the effectiveness of therapy with LMWH in terms of prevention of the risk of thromboembolism, of relapse of DVT, and of hemorrhagic complications, and to complete an evaluation of venous recanalization and residual valve competence in the 2 groups of patients. From December 2002 to June 2005, we randomized a total of 91 patients (51 in the Parnaparin group and 40 in the Nadroparin group). Overall, there was 1 case of nonfatal pulmonary embolism (1.1%) at 7 days into therapy with LMWH. There were 3 cases (3.3%) of progression of thrombosis despite therapy with LMWH, 2 cases (5%) in the Nadroparin group, and 1 case (2%) in the Parnaparin group (P = NS), and after suspension of the therapy, there was 1 case of relapse of thrombosis. Three of the 4 thrombotic events occurred in patients with active neoplasia. Moreover, only 1 major hemorrhagic event (1.1%) required blood transfusion. The Doppler ultrasound in the follow-up showed a complete resolution of 56% of the vein thromboses at an average of 6.1 +/- 4.6 (mean +/- SD) months. Valve competence recovered in 65.9% of cases with no significant difference between the 2 heparin groups. Home treatment of sural and femoral-popliteal DVT using LMWH represents a safe and effective method in the prevention of pulmonary embolism and encourages the process of recanalization of the

  9. Bedside Availability of Prepared Oxytocin and Rapid Administration After Delivery to Prevent Postpartum Hemorrhage: An Observational Study in Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Moucheraud, Corrina; Gass, Jonathon; Lipsitz, Stuart; Spector, Jonathan; Agrawal, Priya; Hirschhorn, Lisa R; Gawande, Atul; Kodkany, Bhala

    2015-01-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage is a leading cause of maternal death worldwide. Rapid provision of uterotonics after childbirth is recommended to reduce the incidence and severity of postpartum hemorrhage. Data obtained through direct observation of childbirth practices, collected in a study of the World Health Organization's Safe Childbirth Checklist in Karnataka, India, were used to measure if oxytocin prepared for administration and available at the bedside before birth was associated with decreased time to administration after birth. This was an observational study of provider behavior: data were obtained during a baseline assessment of health worker practices prior to introduction of the Safe Childbirth Checklist, representing behavior in the absence of any intervention. Analysis was based on 330 vaginal deliveries receiving oxytocin at any point postpartum. Oxytocin was prepared and available at bedside for approximately 39% of deliveries. We found that advance preparation and bedside availability of oxytocin was associated with increased likelihood of oxytocin administration within 1 minute after delivery (adjusted risk ratio = 4.89, 95% CI = 2.61, 9.16), as well as with decreased overall time to oxytocin administration after delivery (2.9 minutes sooner in adjusted models, 95% CI = -5.0, -0.9). Efforts to reduce postpartum hemorrhage should include recommendations and interventions to ensure advance preparation and bedside availability of oxytocin to facilitate prompt administration of the medicine after birth. PMID:26085025

  10. Bedside Availability of Prepared Oxytocin and Rapid Administration After Delivery to Prevent Postpartum Hemorrhage: An Observational Study in Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Moucheraud, Corrina; Gass, Jonathon; Lipsitz, Stuart; Spector, Jonathan; Agrawal, Priya; Hirschhorn, Lisa R; Gawande, Atul; Kodkany, Bhala

    2015-01-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage is a leading cause of maternal death worldwide. Rapid provision of uterotonics after childbirth is recommended to reduce the incidence and severity of postpartum hemorrhage. Data obtained through direct observation of childbirth practices, collected in a study of the World Health Organization’s Safe Childbirth Checklist in Karnataka, India, were used to measure if oxytocin prepared for administration and available at the bedside before birth was associated with decreased time to administration after birth. This was an observational study of provider behavior: data were obtained during a baseline assessment of health worker practices prior to introduction of the Safe Childbirth Checklist, representing behavior in the absence of any intervention. Analysis was based on 330 vaginal deliveries receiving oxytocin at any point postpartum. Oxytocin was prepared and available at bedside for approximately 39% of deliveries. We found that advance preparation and bedside availability of oxytocin was associated with increased likelihood of oxytocin administration within 1 minute after delivery (adjusted risk ratio = 4.89, 95% CI = 2.61, 9.16), as well as with decreased overall time to oxytocin administration after delivery (2.9 minutes sooner in adjusted models, 95% CI = -5.0, -0.9). Efforts to reduce postpartum hemorrhage should include recommendations and interventions to ensure advance preparation and bedside availability of oxytocin to facilitate prompt administration of the medicine after birth. PMID:26085025

  11. Cardiac arrest and ventricular arrhythmia in patients taking antipsychotic drugs: cohort study using administrative data

    PubMed Central

    Hennessy, Sean; Bilker, Warren B; Knauss, Jill S; Margolis, David J; Kimmel, Stephen E; Reynolds, Robert F; Glasser, Dale B; Morrison, Mary F; Strom, Brian L

    2002-01-01

    Objective To examine the rates of cardiac arrest and ventricular arrhythmia in patients with treated schizophrenia and in non-schizophrenic controls. Design Cohort study of outpatients using administrative data. Setting 3 US Medicaid programmes. Participants Patients with schizophrenia treated with clozapine, haloperidol, risperidone, or thioridazine; a control group of patients with glaucoma; and a control group of patients with psoriasis. Main outcome measure Diagnosis of cardiac arrest or ventricular arrhythmia. Results Patients with treated schizophrenia had higher rates of cardiac arrest and ventricular arrhythmia than controls, with rate ratios ranging from 1.7 to 3.2. Overall, thioridazine was not associated with an increased risk compared with haloperidol (rate ratio 0.9, 95% confidence interval 0.7 to 1.2). However, thioridazine showed an increased risk of events at doses ⩾600 mg (2.6, 1.0 to 6.6; P=0.049) and a linear dose-response relation (P=0.038). Conclusions The increased risk of cardiac arrest and ventricular arrhythmia in patients with treated schizophrenia could be due to the disease or its treatment. Overall, the risk with thioridazine was no worse than that with haloperidol. Thioridazine may, however, have a higher risk at high doses, although this finding could be due to chance. To reduce cardiac risk, thioridazine should be prescribed at the lowest dose needed to obtain an optimal therapeutic effect. What is already known on this topicThioridazine seems to prolong the electrocardiographic QT interval more than haloperidolAlthough QT prolongation is used as a marker of arrhythmogenicity, it is unknown whether thioridazine is any worse than haloperidol with regard to cardiac safetyWhat this study addsPatients taking antipsychotic drugs had higher risks of cardiac events than control patients with glaucoma or psoriasisOverall, the risk of cardiac arrest and ventricular arrhythmia was not higher with thioridazine than haloperidolThioridazine may

  12. A STUDY OF ADMINISTRATIVE ARRANGEMENTS IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF SCHOOL DISTRICTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HUGHES, LARRY W.

    THIS INVESTIGATION WAS TO EXPLORE THE POSSIBLE INFLUENCES OF ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE AND ITS ELEMENTS (AS DEPICTED BY THE CENTRAL OFFICE ADMINISTRATIVE PERFORMANCE TEAMS IN SELECTED SCHOOL DISTRICTS OF THE STATE OF OHIO) ON THE INNOVATIVENESS OF A SCHOOL DISTRICT. THE "ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE DESCRIPTIVE QUESTIONNAIRE," WHICH SERVED AS THE MAIN…

  13. Self-Determination, Culture, and School Administration: A Phenomenological Study on Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Cecilia Marie

    2009-01-01

    While the benefits of obtaining an Associate's degree are evident, students often drop out before obtaining degrees. Because individuals with more education are more likely to be employed than those with less education, student success is a concern for community college administrators, policy makers, community leaders, and other stakeholders.…

  14. Critical Thought and Administrative Theory: Conceptual Approaches to the Study of Decision-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeakey, Carol C.

    1987-01-01

    Enlarges the epistemological debate between the logical positivists, preoccupied with socialization, role assignment, and behavior control, and the critical theorists, who repudiate functionalism, value-neutral principles, and "hard data" as detrimental to a comprehensive understanding of educational administration. Includes 47 endnotes. (MLH)

  15. Drug Administration Errors in an Institution for Individuals with Intellectual Disability: An Observational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Bemt, P. M. L. A.; Robertz, R.; de Jong, A. L.; van Roon, E. N.; Leufkens, H. G. M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Medication errors can result in harm, unless barriers to prevent them are present. Drug administration errors are less likely to be prevented, because they occur in the last stage of the drug distribution process. This is especially the case in non-alert patients, as patients often form the final barrier to prevention of errors.…

  16. Perceptions of Administrators' Servant Leadership Qualities at a Christian University: A Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burch, Michael J.; Swails, Patricia; Mills, Randy

    2015-01-01

    The servant leadership model is often touted as the best model for Administrators to use at Christian schools of higher education. Research indicated, however, that a disconnection between how leaders of an organization perceived the strengths and weaknesses of their leadership skills and how followers perceived those skills can be detrimental to…

  17. The Promise of Title IX: Longitudinal Study of Gender in Urban School Administration, 1972 to 2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertz, Norma T.

    2006-01-01

    Using statistical data collected during a 30-year period, the article reports on the significant movement of females into all of the line administrative positions in the largest school districts in the country (by student population) since the passage of Title IX with one notable exception, that of superintendent. The position of superintendent…

  18. A Case Study of One Iowa Female Elementary School Principal's Journey into Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Angela J.

    2012-01-01

    The representation of women in educational administration fluctuated throughout history from the 1900's to present day. Presently, women represent over 53% of all elementary school principals in Iowa, but documentation of their specific stories and perspectives is infrequent. I conducted this research with the intent to build upon the…

  19. Identifying Competencies for Volunteer Administrators for the Coming Decade: A National Delphi Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Barry L.

    2003-01-01

    A Delphi panel of 13 experts categorized 33 competencies for volunteer administration into 5 constructs: organizational leadership, systems leadership, organizational culture, personal skills, and management skills. Twelve barriers to acquiring competencies and 21 methods to address them were identified. (Contains 24 references.) (SK)

  20. A Case Study of the Land of Enchantment Teacher Quality Partnership for Aspiring School Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizell, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    What are the considerations required to developing a leadership preparation program, and a professional development plan that bridges the theoretical perspective to the practitioners' perspective? An inquiry was conducted to gain insight into the individual perspectives of three diverse women administrators who participated in the Land of…

  1. Salary Study 1979: A Report of Administrative and Professional Salaries in Voluntary CWLA Member Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinn-Wainwright, Saundra

    This 14th annual Child Welfare League (CWL) survey of salaries paid by child welfare and families and children's agencies to professional and administrative personnel provides the agencies with current information on salaries paid in various parts of the United States and Canada. A total of 213 questionnaires were sent out, and 190 responses were…

  2. Implications of Preparing School Administrators for Knowledge Work Organizations: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulkeen, Thomas A.; Cooper, Bruce S.

    1992-01-01

    The Executive Leadership Program at Fordham University presents a model for practicing school administrators' continuing education that reflects a changing society and schools' changing needs. The program is based on four innovations: an intellectual/change agent approach; a clinical, field-based research experience; an instructional agenda…

  3. Family planning needs: an empirical study of federal responsiveness before and during the Reagan administration.

    PubMed

    Mcfarlane, D R

    1988-01-01

    Arguing that the states would have "enhanced responsiveness to local needs," the Reagan administration proposed in 1981 to repeal some 40 categorical health programs, to reduce their funding, and replace them with block grants to the states. This responsiveness argument is examined within the context of the national family planning program, which was funded by several diverse federal grants and which serves 4,500,000 women each year. 3 questions are addressed: did experience prior to the Reagan Administration suggest that state administered, discretionary federal funds would be more responsive to individual state family planning needs than were federally administered categorical grants; how have the different types of grants performed during the Reagan Administration; and are state administered block grant programs more responsive to local needs than are other types of state administered federal grants. State expenditure data were used to examine the variation in the responses of different funding sources to states' needs for 2 periods: fiscal years 1976-81, the 6-year period prior to the Reagan Administration; and fiscal years 1982-83, the first 2 full budgetary years after Reagan assumed office. From fiscal 1976-81, Title V of the Social Security Act (the Maternal and Child Health Block Grant) annually contributed between 7-11% of all federal funds for family planning. The categorical program, Title X, was the largest single contributor to the federal family planning effort; its annual contribution ranged from 48-54% of all federal expenditures. The Medicaid program, Title XIX, accounted for the 2nd largest contribution to federal expenditures for family planning, ranging from 15-38%. Title XX funds, which were allocated to states on the basis of total population, accounted for 17-22% of all federal expenditures for family planning. It was hypothesized that: prior to the Reagan Administration, state administered federal grants were more responsive to states

  4. An fMRI study on variation of visuospatial cognitive performance of young male due to highly concentrated oxygen administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Soon Cheol; Kim, Ik Hyeon; Tack, Gye Rae; Sohn, Jin Hun

    2004-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of 30% oxygen administration on the visuospatial cognitive performance using fMRI. Eight college students (right-handed, average age 23.5) were selected as subjects for this study. Oxygen supply equipment which gives 21% and 30% oxygen at a constant rate of 8L/min was developed for this study. To measure the performance of visuospatial cognition, two questionnaires with similar difficulty containing 20 questions each were also developed. Experiment was designed as two runs: run for visuospatial cognition test with normal air (21% of oxygen) and run for visuospatial cognition test with highly concentrated air (30% of oxygen). Run consists of 4 blocks and each block has 8 control problems and 5 visuospatial problems. Functional brain images were taken from 3T MRI using single-shot EPI method. Activities of neural network due to performing visuospatial cognition test were identified using subtraction procedure, and activation areas while performing visuospatial cognition test were extracted using double subtraction procedure. Activities were observed at occipital lobe, parietal lobe, and frontal lobe when performing visuospatial cognition test following both 21% and 30% oxygen administration. But in case of only 30% oxygen administration there were more activities at left precuneus, left cuneus, right postcentral gyrus, bilateral middle frontal gyri, right inferior frontal gyrus, left superior frontal gyrus, bilateral uvula, bilateral pyramis, and nodule compared with 21% oxygen administration. From results of visuospatial cognition test, accuracy rate increased in case of 30% oxygen administration. Thus it could be concluded that highly concentrated oxygen administration has positive effects on the visuospatial cognitive performance.

  5. A study of mental health administrators and systems utilizing a four-part rural/urban taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Perlman, B; Hartman, E A; Bosak, J

    1984-01-01

    A study of administrators working in public-sector community-level mental health systems was undertaken. Three hundred and fourteen managers representing 109 systems in both urban and rural settings were interviewed, with 91 percent providing completed questionnaires. Multiple discriminant analyses indicated significant differences in perception of ruralness; personal, job, and system characteristics; and nonwork dimensions. Administrators differed in what they did on the job, not in responses (e.g., turnover, stress) to their work. The rural manager seems more a generalist, but other stereotypes of the nature of rural mental health management and managers were contraindicated. Implications of the data and further research are discussed. PMID:6499402

  6. A Study of Self and Task Performance in Childcare Centres as Perceived by Caregivers under Local Administrative Organisations in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhulpat, Cheerapan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the opinions toward self and task performance in childcare centres as perceived by caregivers under the jurisdiction of the Local Administrative Organization. The four areas evaluated were caregiver characteristics, task performance, objectives of caregiving and educating young children and problems and…

  7. A Phenomenological Study of Teacher and Administrator Experiences in the Analysis and Interpretation of Student Assessment Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Matthew William

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative empirical phenomenological study was to examine the experience of analyzing and interpreting student assessment data from the perspective of both teachers and administrators in order to identify: (a) those aspects of the experiences which are similar or dissimilar among the two groups, (b) the priorities and…

  8. Low Profile, High Impact: Four Case Studies of High School Department Chairs Whose Transactions "Transform" Teachers and Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wettersten, Jill A.

    This paper explores the leadership strategies of four exemplary high school department chairs. It develops a model based on social-exchange theory to show how chairs, as middle managers, must satisfy the expectations of both teachers and administrators. Data were derived from a case study of department chairs identified as exemplary in four…

  9. Competencies of the Educational Administrator: A Study of the Competencies of the Principals of Normal Schools in Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bursalioglu, Ziya

    1977-01-01

    The basic purpose of the study described here was the identification of competencies (skills) of principals of normal schools in Turkey in order to put together effective competency-based training programs for school administrators. Competencies were identified and ranked according to evaluations (perceptions) of the principals themselves, their…

  10. Changes in BSc Business Administration and Psychology Students' Learning Styles over One, Two and Three Years of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Tine

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge on general or discipline-specific changes in the learning styles of university students can be utilised in the design and execution of courses, but little is known of such changes. The study examined the changes in the learning styles of three year groups of BSc Business Administration and Psychology students from admittance to one, two…

  11. Effective School Leadership Competencies: A Psychometric Study of the NASSP 21st Century School Administrator Skills Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Tiedan

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the psychometric properties of the National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP) 21st Century School Administrator Skills instrument. The researcher used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to verify the number of underlying dimensions of the instrument and the pattern of item-factor relationships, estimate the…

  12. A Comparative Study Concerning Administrative Aspects of Elementary Off-Campus Student Teaching Programs: Current Practices and Proposed Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Robert J.

    A study was made to determine the current status of selected administrative areas of student teaching programs in Massachusetts and cooperative student teaching programs throughout the nation, the desirability of establishing cooperative programs in Massachusetts, and the organization and impelementation of these programs. Specific administrative…

  13. Assessment of Professional Development by Teachers and Administrators: An Examination of the Literature in the Context of One Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinds, Marjorie J.; Berger, Marie Josee

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this article is teacher professional development. The article examines literature related to teacher professional development and methods of measuring its impact. In order to ground the discussion, the article focuses on a case study that captures the perspectives of Ontario secondary school teachers and their administrators as they…

  14. Telephone Administration of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist: A Pilot Study of Feasibility in Children with Intellectual Disability and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Matthew; Milligan, Briana; Stein, Hannah; Teer, Olivia; Smith, Kahsi A.

    2013-01-01

    To advance clinical care and research in children with intellectual disability and autism there is a growing need for efficient means to measure behavioral severity and response to treatment. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of telephone administration of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Irritability Subscale (ABC-I). The…

  15. Delaware Student Testing Program: State Summary Report Science and Social Studies Fall 2002 Administration, Grades 4 and 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware State Dept. of Education, Dover. Assessment and Accountability Branch.

    This report contains summaries of the results from the third administration of the fourth and sixth grade science and social studies portions of the Delaware Student Testing Program (DSTP). These results are part of a long-term effort to gather data on the educational progress of Delaware students and to use the data to inform decisions about…

  16. An Empirical Study of the Career Paths of Senior Educational Administrators in Manitoba, Canada: Implications for Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallin, Dawn C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper conceptualizes queue theory (Tallerico & Blount, 2004) to discuss a mixed-methods study that determined the career patterns of senior educational administrators in public school divisions in Manitoba, Canada, compared by position, context and sex. Findings indicate that queue theory has merit for describing the career paths of senior…

  17. The meanings of cultural competence in mental health: an exploratory focus group study with patients, clinicians, and administrators.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Neil Krishan; Cedeño, Kryst; Guarnaccia, Peter; Kleinman, Arthur; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Cultural competence training is mandatory in the United States of America to alleviate minority health disparities though few studies have examined perceptions across stakeholders. We conducted separate focus groups with patients, clinicians, and administrators from the psychiatry department at one community hospital and compared responses to hospital policies. Stakeholders defined cultural competence through group-based or person-centered traits despite policies recommended person-centered approaches. Administrators and clinicians named clinician techniques for psycho-education whereas patients named these techniques for enlistment in treatment planning as equals. All groups named patient cultural views and institutional challenges as barriers to care, but only patients and administrators additionally named clinician biases as possible barriers. We discuss these discrepant perceptions and possible solutions to improve research, practice, and policy on cultural competence in mental health. PMID:27065092

  18. Relationship between School Administrators' Reports of Parental Involvement in School and Students' Substance Use: A National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Revathy; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between student substance use and school-level parental involvement as reported by administrators. Questionnaires were administered to school administrators and 111,652 students in 1,011 U.S. schools. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses conducted on 1998-2003 data from students and administrators indicate…

  19. Intrathecal Administration of Morphine Decreases Persistent Pain after Cesarean Section: A Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Moriyama, Kumi; Ohashi, Yuki; Motoyasu, Akira; Ando, Tadao; Moriyama, Kiyoshi; Yorozu, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Chronic pain after cesarean section (CS) is a serious concern, as it can result in functional disability. We evaluated the prevalence of chronic pain after CS prospectively at a single institution in Japan. We also analyzed perioperative risk factors associated with chronic pain using logistic regression analyses with a backward-stepwise procedure. Materials and Methods Patients who underwent elective or emergency CS between May 2012 and May 2014 were recruited. Maternal demographics as well as details of surgery and anesthesia were recorded. An anesthesiologist visited the patients on postoperative day (POD) 1 and 2, and assessed their pain with the Prince Henry Pain Scale. To evaluate the prevalence of chronic pain, we contacted patients by sending a questionnaire 3 months post-CS. Results Among 225 patients who questionnaires, 69 (30.7%) of patients complained of persistent pain, although no patient required pain medication. Multivariate analyses identified lighter weight (p = 0.011) and non-intrathecal administration of morphine (p = 0.023) as determinant factors associated with persistent pain at 3 months. The adjusted odds ratio of intrathecal administration of morphine to reduce persistent pain was 0.424, suggesting that intrathecal administration of morphine could decrease chronic pain by 50%. In addition, 51.6% of patients had abnormal wound sensation, suggesting the development of neuropathic pain. Also, 6% of patients with abnormal wound sensation required medication, yet no patients with persistent pain required medication. Conclusion Although no effect on acute pain was observed, intrathecal administration of morphine significantly decreased chronic pain after CS. PMID:27163790

  20. Clinical and experimental study on regional administration of phosphorus 32 glass microspheres in treating hepatic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lu; Jiang, Zao; Teng, Gao-Jun; Song, Ji-Zhi; Zhang, Dong-Sheng; Guo, Qing-Ming; Fang, Wen; He, Shi-Cheng; Guo, Jin-He

    1999-01-01

    AIM: To study the therapeutical effectiveness, dosage range an d toxic adverse effects of domestic phosphorus 32 glass microsphere and evaluate its clinical significance. METHODS: I. Fifty-two BALB/c tumor bearing male nude mice w ere allocated into treatment group ( n = 38) and control group ( n = 14). In the former group different doses of 32P-GMS were injected into the tumor mass, while in the latter 31P-GMS or no treatment was given. The experimental animals were sacrificed in batches, and then the tumors and their nearby tissues were examined by light and electron microscopy. II. Through selective catheterizati on of hepatic artery, 32P-GMS was infused to 5 healthy domestic pigs in a dosage equivalent to the therapeutic dose for human being, and 31P-GMS was infused to another 5 healthy domestic pigs. Two pigs infused with con trast medium served as whole course blank controls. One pig from each group was surrendered to euthanasia at week 1, 4, 8 and 16 respectively. The ultrastructur al histopath-ological changes in liver tissues taken from different sites were evaluated semiquan-titatively. III. One hundred and twenty-seven times of 32P-GMS intrahepatic artery interventional therapies were performed on 93 patients with hepatic carcinoma, including 79 cases of primary hepatic carcinoma and 14 cases of secondary hepati c carcinoma. 32P-GMS ( n = 30), and group B, 32P-GMS and half-dose of trans-hepatic artery embolization ( TAE ) ( n = 49), and 18 patients with HCC by TAE only as control group C. Fourteen patients with secondary hepatic carcinoma were treated in the same way as group B or C. RESULTS: I. Comparing with the control group, the treatment group of tumor bearing nude mice attained the tumor inhibition rates of 59.7%-93.7% (F = 579.62, P < 0.01) at 14d. At an absorbed dose of 7320Gy, the tumor cells were completely destroyed. When the absorbed doses ranged from 1830Gy to 3660Gy, most of the tumor cells showed the evidences of injury or necrosis, but

  1. Effect of Glutathione Administration on Serum Levels of Reactive Oxygen Metabolites in Patients with Paraquat Intoxication: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-Hoon; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Yang, Jong-Oh; Lee, Eun-Young

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims Based on preliminary in vitro data from a previous study, we proposed that 50 mg/kg glutathione (GSH) would be adequate for suppressing reactive oxygen species in patients with acute paraquat (PQ) intoxication. Methods Serum levels of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) were measured before and after the administration of 50 mg/kg GSH to each of five patients with acute PQ intoxication. Results In one patient, extremely high pretreatment ROM levels began to decrease prior to GSH administration. However, in the remaining four cases, ROM levels did not change significantly prior to GSH administration. ROM levels decreased significantly after GSH administration in all cases. In two cases, ROM levels decreased below that observed in the general population; one of these patients died after a cardiac arrest at 3 hours after PQ ingestion, while the other represented the sole survivor of PQ intoxication observed in this study. In the survivor, ROM levels decreased during the first 8 hours of GSH treatment, and finally dropped below the mean ROM level observed in the general population. Conclusions Treatment with 50 mg/kg GSH significantly suppressed serum ROM levels in PQ-intoxicated patients. However, this dose was not sufficient to suppress ROM levels when the PQ concentration was extremely high. PMID:20830225

  2. Administrative Synergy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Weckstein, Daniel K.

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles to overcome in creating and sustaining an administrative professional learning community (PLC) is time. Administrators are constantly deluged by the tyranny of the urgent. It is a Herculean task to carve out time for PLCs, but it is imperative to do so. In this article, the authors describe how an administrative PLC…

  3. Pharmacogenomics in colorectal cancer: a genome-wide association study to predict toxicity after 5-fluorouracil or FOLFOX administration.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Rozadilla, C; Cazier, J B; Moreno, V; Crous-Bou, M; Guinó, E; Durán, G; Lamas, M J; López, R; Candamio, S; Gallardo, E; Paré, L; Baiget, M; Páez, D; López-Fernández, L A; Cortejoso, L; García, M I; Bujanda, L; González, D; Gonzalo, V; Rodrigo, L; Reñé, J M; Jover, R; Brea-Fernández, A; Andreu, M; Bessa, X; Llor, X; Xicola, R; Palles, C; Tomlinson, I; Castellví-Bel, S; Castells, A; Ruiz-Ponte, C; Carracedo, A

    2013-06-01

    The development of genotyping technologies has allowed for wider screening for inherited causes of variable outcomes following drug administration. We have performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 221 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients that had been treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), either alone or in combination with oxaliplatin (FOLFOX). A validation set of 791 patients was also studied. Seven SNPs (rs16857540, rs2465403, rs10876844, rs10784749, rs17626122, rs7325568 and rs4243761) showed evidence of association (pooled P-values 0.020, 9.426E-03, 0.010, 0.017, 0.042, 2.302E-04, 2.803E-03) with adverse drug reactions (ADRs). This is the first study to explore the genetic basis of inter-individual variation in toxicity responses to the administration of 5-FU or FOLFOX in CRC patients on a genome-wide scale. PMID:22310351

  4. Hypertonic fluid administration in patients with septic shock: a prospective randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    van Haren, Frank M P; Sleigh, James; Boerma, E Christiaan; La Pine, Mary; Bahr, Mohamed; Pickkers, Peter; van der Hoeven, Johannes G

    2012-03-01

    We assessed the short-term effects of hypertonic fluid versus isotonic fluid administration in patients with septic shock. This was a double-blind, prospective randomized controlled trial in a 15-bed intensive care unit. Twenty-four patients with septic shock were randomized to receive 250 mL 7.2% NaCl/6% hydroxyethyl starch (HT group) or 500 mL 6% hydroxyethyl starch (IT group). Hemodynamic measurements included mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), central venous pressure, stroke volume index, stroke volume variation, intrathoracic blood volume index, gastric tonometry, and sublingual microcirculatory flow as assessed by sidestream dark field imaging. Systolic tissue Doppler imaging velocities of the medial mitral annulus were measured using echocardiography to assess left ventricular contractility. Log transformation of the ratio MAP divided by the norepinephrine infusion rate (log MAP/NE) quantified the combined effect on both parameters. Compared with the IT group, hypertonic solution treatment resulted in an improvement in log MAP/NE (P = 0.008), as well as an increase in systolic tissue Doppler imaging velocities (P = 0.03) and stroke volume index (P = 0.017). No differences between the groups were found for preload parameters (central venous pressure, stroke volume variation, intrathoracic blood volume index) or for afterload parameters (systemic vascular resistance index, MAP). Hypertonic solution treatment decreased the need for ongoing fluid resuscitation (P = 0.046). No differences between groups were observed regarding tonometry or the sublingual microvascular variables. In patients with septic shock, hypertonic fluid administration did not promote gastrointestinal mucosal perfusion or sublingual microcirculatory blood flow in comparison to isotonic fluid. Independent of changes in preload or afterload, hypertonic fluid administration improved the cardiac contractility and vascular tone compared with isotonic fluid. The need for ongoing fluid

  5. An exploration of administrators' perceptions of elementary science: A case study of the role of science in two elementary schools based on the interactions of administrators with colleagues, science content and state standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brogdon, Lori-Anne Stelmark

    This research is a case study on the perceptions and attitudes of administrators in the area of elementary science and how their responses reflect agreement or dissonance with the perceptions of elementary teachers on the subject of science within the same district. The study used Likert-type surveys and interviews from both administrators and teachers on five key areas: 1) Attitudes towards science and teaching 2) Attitudes towards teaching science 3) Attitudes towards administrators 4) Time teaching science and 5) Attitudes about policy and standards. Survey data was analyzed within and across areas to identify similarity and difference within each group. The medians from the administrative and teacher surveys were then crossed referenced through the use of a Mann Whitney test to identify areas of similarity. Interview data was coded around three major themes: 1) Standards 2) Classroom Instruction and 3) Conversations. The findings show that even though administrators' perceptions favor the inclusion of science in the elementary classroom, both administrators and teachers in this study reported limited involvement from, and conversation with, each other on the topic of science education. Heavy reliance by the administrators was placed on the use of consultants to provide professional development in the area of science instruction and to review the use of state standards, resulting in limited conversation between administrators and teachers about science. Teachers reported a heavy reliance upon their colleagues in the area of science instruction and curriculum planning. In addition, both administrators and teachers reported a greater focus on math and English for classroom instruction. Findings in this research support implications that more focus should be placed on the role of administrators in the implementation of science instruction. Administrators can play a crucial role in the success of science programs at the building, district and state levels

  6. Evaluation of New Fluorescent Lipophosphoramidates for Gene Transfer and Biodistribution Studies after Systemic Administration.

    PubMed

    Belmadi, Nawal; Berchel, Mathieu; Denis, Caroline; Berthe, Wilfried; Sibiril, Yann; Le Gall, Tony; Haelters, Jean-Pierre; Jaffres, Paul-Alain; Montier, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of lung gene therapy is to reach the respiratory epithelial cells in order to deliver a functional nucleic acid sequence. To improve the synthetic carrier's efficacy, knowledge of their biodistribution and elimination pathways, as well as cellular barriers faced, depending on the administration route, is necessary. Indeed, the in vivo fate guides the adaptation of their chemical structure and formulation to increase their transfection capacity while maintaining their tolerance. With this goal, lipidic fluorescent probes were synthesized and formulated with cationic lipophosphoramidate KLN47 (KLN: Karine Le Ny). We found that such formulations present constant compaction properties and similar transfection results without inducing additional cytotoxicity. Next, biodistribution profiles of pegylated and unpegylated lipoplexes were compared after systemic injection in mice. Pegylation of complexes led to a prolonged circulation in the bloodstream, whereas their in vivo bioluminescent expression profiles were similar. Moreover, systemic administration of pegylated lipoplexes resulted in a transient liver toxicity. These results indicate that these new fluorescent compounds could be added into lipoplexes in small amounts without perturbing the transfection capacities of the formulations. Such additional properties allow exploration of the in vivo biodistribution profiles of synthetic carriers as well as the expression intensity of the reporter gene. PMID:26540038

  7. Preparation and in vivo toxicity study of solid lipid microparticles as carrier for pulmonary administration.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Vanna; Kirschvink, Nathalie; Gustin, Pascal; Gavini, Elisabetta; Roland, Isabelle; Delattre, Luc; Evrard, Brigitte

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of processing conditions on the characteristics of solid lipid microparticles (SLM) with a potential application as carriers for pulmonary administration. Compritol (5.0% wt/wt) SLM dispersions were prepared by rotor-stator homogenization, at different surfactant concentrations and emulsification times. The SLM were characterized, in terms of morphology and size, after lyophilization and sterilization by autoclaving process. In vivo assessment was carried out in rats by intratracheal instillation of either placebo or SLM dispersion, and by bronchoalveolar lavage for cytological analysis. Mean particle size of 4 to 5 microm was achieved using 0.3% and 0.4% (wt/wt) of emulsifier (Poloxamer 188) and emulsification times of 2 and 5 minutes. The particles showed spherical shape and smooth surface. The morphology of microparticles, the size, and the size distribution were not substantially modified after lyophilization and sterilization. Total cell counts showed no significant differences between placebo and SLM 0.5% or 2.5% groups. Regarding cytology, percentage of polymorphonuclear neutrophils and macrophages did not significantly differ between groups. These results suggest that a single intratracheal administration of the SLMs does not induce a significant inflammatory airway response in rats and that the SLMs might be a potential carrier for encapsulated drug via the pulmonary route. PMID:15760085

  8. Oxytocin administration attenuates stress reactivity in borderline personality disorder: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Simeon, D; Bartz, J; Hamilton, H; Crystal, S; Braun, A; Ketay, S; Hollander, E

    2011-10-01

    Oxytocin has known stress-reducing and attachment-enhancing effects. We thus hypothesized that oxytocin would attenuate emotional and hormonal responses to stress in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Fourteen BPD and 13 healthy control (HC) adults received 40 IU intranasal oxytocin or placebo in double-blind randomized order followed by the Trier Social Stress Test. Subjective dysphoria (Profile of Mood Changes) and plasma cortisol levels were measured. Childhood trauma history, attachment style, and self-esteem were also rated. A significant "Group × Drug × Time" interaction effect for dysphoria (p=.04) reflected a proportionately greater attenuation of stress-induced dysphoria in the BPD group after oxytocin administration. Additionally, a marginally significant "Group × Drug" interaction effect for cortisol (p=.10) reflected a tendency toward greater attenuation of the stress-induced cortisol surge in the BPD group after oxytocin administration. In the combined sample, the oxytocin-placebo difference in the emotional stress reactivity was significantly predicted by childhood trauma alone (p=.037) and combined with self-esteem (p=.030), whereas the oxytocin-placebo difference in cortisol stress reactivity was predicted only by insecure attachment (p=.013). Results suggest that oxytocin may have a beneficial impact on emotional regulation in BPD, which merits further investigation and could have important treatment implications. PMID:21546164

  9. Evaluation of New Fluorescent Lipophosphoramidates for Gene Transfer and Biodistribution Studies after Systemic Administration

    PubMed Central

    Belmadi, Nawal; Berchel, Mathieu; Denis, Caroline; Berthe, Wilfried; Sibiril, Yann; Le Gall, Tony; Haelters, Jean-Pierre; Jaffres, Paul-Alain; Montier, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of lung gene therapy is to reach the respiratory epithelial cells in order to deliver a functional nucleic acid sequence. To improve the synthetic carrier’s efficacy, knowledge of their biodistribution and elimination pathways, as well as cellular barriers faced, depending on the administration route, is necessary. Indeed, the in vivo fate guides the adaptation of their chemical structure and formulation to increase their transfection capacity while maintaining their tolerance. With this goal, lipidic fluorescent probes were synthesized and formulated with cationic lipophosphoramidate KLN47 (KLN: Karine Le Ny). We found that such formulations present constant compaction properties and similar transfection results without inducing additional cytotoxicity. Next, biodistribution profiles of pegylated and unpegylated lipoplexes were compared after systemic injection in mice. Pegylation of complexes led to a prolonged circulation in the bloodstream, whereas their in vivo bioluminescent expression profiles were similar. Moreover, systemic administration of pegylated lipoplexes resulted in a transient liver toxicity. These results indicate that these new fluorescent compounds could be added into lipoplexes in small amounts without perturbing the transfection capacities of the formulations. Such additional properties allow exploration of the in vivo biodistribution profiles of synthetic carriers as well as the expression intensity of the reporter gene. PMID:26540038

  10. Gripe Water Administration in Infants 1-6 months of Age-A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Keerthi; Gunasekaran, Dhandapany; Soundararajan, Palanisamy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Gripe water (GW) administration to young infants is common practice in this part of country. In order to ascertain why mothers administer gripe water to their infants and to find out what benefits or health risks it poses, we proposed to study the practice of mothers giving GW to their babies. Materials and Methods Three hundred and thirty five eligible mothers of infants aged 1-6 months (who after qualifying inclusion and exclusion criteria of the study) who attended the well baby clinic during the study period, were interviewed using a semi structured questionnaire which contained both open and close ended questions after obtaining informed written consent. The study population was then divided into two groups based on administration of GW or not and the results were compared and analysed among the two groups using odds ratio with 95% C.I. For calculation of statistics, the statistical package SPSS 13 was used. Results 64.18% of the mothers were administering GW for their infants. Most mothers believed that GW helps in digestion and prevents stomach ache. Infantile colic, vomiting and constipation were common in GW administered infants, when compared to those who did not receive GW and the difference was significant with p-values of 0.0001, 0.0373, 0.0007respectively. Conclusion GW administration is a common problem in infants and remains a significant challenge that thwarts exclusive breast feeding. More over GW administration does not seem to prevent infantile colic and on the other hand, may be associated with vomiting and constipation. Misconceptions prevailing among mothers have to be removed by effective counseling so that the mothers are aware of safe and healthy feeding practices to be adopted for feeding their babies. PMID:26673749

  11. A Few Steps Forward in the Process of Looking Back: Setting Parameters for a Self-Study of Administrative and Program Development Work over 18 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roose, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Many self-studies focus on an individual or several teacher educators. Although there have been self-studies undertaken by teacher education administrators, there is relatively little research that focuses specifically on an administrator's program development work in teacher education. This self-study examines one teacher education…

  12. A Preliminary Study on the Effect of Combined Nicotine Replacement Therapy on Alcohol Responses and Alcohol Self-administration

    PubMed Central

    Udo, Tomoko; Harrison, Emily L.R.; Shi, Julia; Tetrault, Jeanette; McKee, Sherry A.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Limiting alcohol consumption may help prevent alcohol-mediated smoking relapse in heavy drinking smokers. This pilot study examined whether combining a nicotine patch with nicotine nasal spray has stronger attenuating effects on alcohol response and consumption than a nicotine patch alone. Methods Twenty-two non-alcohol dependent heavy drinking smokers completed the double-blind cross-over, placebo-controlled study (21mg nicotine patch + nicotine or placebo nasal spray). Six hours after 21mg nicotine patch application, subjective and physiological responses to a priming drink (0.3 g/kg) were assessed, followed by two 1-hr alcohol self-administration periods, with possible consumption of up to 4 drinks per period (each 0.15 g/kg). Nasal spray (1 mg [active] or 0 mg [placebo] per dose) was administered 10 min prior to the priming dose and each self-administration period. Results Active nasal spray did not increase serum nicotine levels, compared with placebo administration. The number of drinks consumed did not differ by the nasal spray conditions. However, positive subjective responses to the priming drink were lower in the active nasal spray condition than the placebo nasal spray condition. During the self-administration period, urge to drink was also lower in the active spray condition than the placebo condition. Conclusions and Scientific Significance Augmenting the nicotine patch with nicotine nasal spray attenuated positive subjective alcohol response and craving and suggests that future studies should investigate whether these findings translate to a clinical setting. PMID:24131167

  13. Effect of intranasal oxytocin administration on psychiatric symptoms: A meta-analysis of placebo-controlled studies.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Stefan G; Fang, Angela; Brager, Daniel N

    2015-08-30

    Clinical trials of intranasal administration of oxytocin for treating psychiatric problems have yielded mixed results. To conduct a quantitative review of placebo-controlled clinical trials of intranasally-administered oxytocin (OT) for psychiatric symptoms, manual and electronic searches using PubMed and PsycINFO were conducted. Of 1828 entries, 16 placebo-controlled studies totaling 330 participants were included in the analysis. The overall placebo-controlled effect size was moderately strong (Hedges' g=0.67) and robust as suggested by the fail-safe N and funnel plot analysis. OT reduced symptoms of depression, anxiety, autism/repetitive behaviors, psychotic symptoms, and general psychopathology. In the combined sample, symptom reduction was moderated by frequency of administration. Publication year and diagnostic category did not moderate the effect of OT on the clinical outcome measures. We conclude that intranasal administration of OT is a potentially useful intervention for reducing psychiatric symptoms. However, more studies are needed to determine the best treatment target and to identify the mechanism of treatment change. PMID:26094200

  14. Efficacy of once or twice weekly administration of epoetin κ in patients receiving hemodialysis: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Shoichiro; Yasuno, Nobuhiro; Inomoto, Yuki; Matsuda, Kaori; Nakagawa, Yoshihiko; Sasagawa, Isoji; Tanaka, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    Several clinically approved recombinant erythropoietin (rEPO) preparations, such as epoetin-β, epoetin-δ and the epoetin-α derivative, darbepoetin-α, have been commercially produced. Since the expiration of patent protection, a number of novel rEPO biosimilars have been approved on the world market. In 2010, epoetin-κ, which is biosimilar to epoetin-α, was clinically approved. Epoetin-κ is a biopharmaceutical product that is based on serum-free media following master cell bank preparation. The present study analyzes the results obtained during a six-month observation period, in which the administration of epoetin-β was switched to that of epoetin-κ. In a cohort of patients receiving chronic dialysis, who were clinically in a state of relative calm and were in control of their renal anemia, it was possible to sustain good control of the anemia by reducing the frequency of the epoetin-β administration from the conventional and empirically determined three times a week to twice a week, and further to once a week. Furthermore, the good control was maintained upon changing from the administration of epoetin-β to that of epoetin-κ. Moreover, three months subsequent to this switch, the degree of instability observed among the patients had decreased. Despite the fact that the situation following the changeover requires further investigation, it may be concluded that the results obtained in this study are indicative of the clinical equivalence and efficacy of epoetin-κ. PMID:24348759

  15. Efficacy of once or twice weekly administration of epoetin κ in patients receiving hemodialysis: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    OHTA, SHOICHIRO; YASUNO, NOBUHIRO; INOMOTO, YUKI; MATSUDA, KAORI; NAKAGAWA, YOSHIHIKO; SASAGAWA, ISOJI; TANAKA, MASAHIKO

    2014-01-01

    Several clinically approved recombinant erythropoietin (rEPO) preparations, such as epoetin-β, epoetin-δ and the epoetin-α derivative, darbepoetin-α, have been commercially produced. Since the expiration of patent protection, a number of novel rEPO biosimilars have been approved on the world market. In 2010, epoetin-κ, which is biosimilar to epoetin-α, was clinically approved. Epoetin-κ is a biopharmaceutical product that is based on serum-free media following master cell bank preparation. The present study analyzes the results obtained during a six-month observation period, in which the administration of epoetin-β was switched to that of epoetin-κ. In a cohort of patients receiving chronic dialysis, who were clinically in a state of relative calm and were in control of their renal anemia, it was possible to sustain good control of the anemia by reducing the frequency of the epoetin-β administration from the conventional and empirically determined three times a week to twice a week, and further to once a week. Furthermore, the good control was maintained upon changing from the administration of epoetin-β to that of epoetin-κ. Moreover, three months subsequent to this switch, the degree of instability observed among the patients had decreased. Despite the fact that the situation following the changeover requires further investigation, it may be concluded that the results obtained in this study are indicative of the clinical equivalence and efficacy of epoetin-κ. PMID:24348759

  16. Modernizing Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Vincent L.; Hildebrand, Verna

    1981-01-01

    Suggests assignment of research duties and rotation of teaching and management roles for college administrators, to increase their effectiveness and diminish the negative effects of declining enrollments. (JD)

  17. Pharmacological study of the light/dark preference test in zebrafish (Danio rerio): Waterborne administration.

    PubMed

    Magno, Lílian Danielle Paiva; Fontes, Aldo; Gonçalves, Beatriz Maria Necy; Gouveia, Amauri

    2015-08-01

    Anxiety is a complex disorder; thus, its mechanisms remain unclear. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are a promising pharmacological model for anxiety research. Light/dark preference test is a behaviorally validated measure of anxiety in zebrafish; however, it requires pharmacological validation. We sought to evaluate the sensitivity of the light/dark preference test in adult zebrafish by immersing them in drug solutions containing clonazepam, buspirone, imipramine, fluoxetine, paroxetine, haloperidol, risperidone, propranolol, or ethanol. The time spent in the dark environment, the latency time to first crossing, and the number of midline crossings were analyzed. Intermediate concentrations of clonazepam administered for 600s decreased the time spent in the dark and increased locomotor activity. Buspirone reduced motor activity. Imipramine and fluoxetine increased time spent in the dark and the first latency, and decreased the number of alternations. Paroxetine did not alter the time in the dark; however, it increased the first latency time and decreased locomotor activity. Haloperidol decreased the time spent in the dark at low concentrations. Risperidone and propranolol did not change any parameters. Ethanol reduced the time spent in the dark and increased the number of crossings at intermediate concentrations. These results corroborate the previous work using intraperitoneal drug administration in zebrafish and rodents, suggesting that water drug delivery in zebrafish can effectively be used as an animal anxiety model. PMID:26026898

  18. Experimental Study on Transarterial Administration of GRGDSP Combined with Transarterial Chemoembolization in Rats with Hepatic Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Qian Jun Yin Jun; Liang Huimin; Wang Yong; Feng Gansheng

    2008-03-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the effects of transarterial administration of an integrin antagonist, GRGDSP (Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser-Pro), combined with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) to treat hepatic carcinoma in rats. Methods. Walker-256 tumor was implanted beneath the liver capsule in 26 Wistar rats. Animal subjects were assigned to groups based on which treatment was injected into the hepatic artery: group A, GRGDSP + TACE; group B, TACE alone; and group C, normal saline. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), tumor pathology, and immunohistochemistry were performed to assess each treatment. Results. The ratios of the post-treatment to pretreatment tumor volumes (V2/V1) in groups A, B, and C were 4.42 {+-} 0.48, 6.98 {+-} 1.09, and 13.00 {+-} 1.68, respectively. The metastatic potential of the tumors was assessed by tumor cell nest counts, which were 5.00 {+-} 1.25, 6.63 {+-} 1.60, and 7.22 {+-} 1.92 in groups A, B, and C, respectively. Microvessel density (MVD) was quantified by measuring von Willebrand factor density values, which were 0.18 {+-} 0.02, 0.22 {+-} 0.02, and 0.23 {+-} 0.02 in groups A, B, and C, respectively. Conclusions. Transarterial infusion of GRGDSP combined with TACE noticeably inhibited the growth of hepatic carcinoma and intrahepatic metastases in rats.

  19. Modulatory Effect of Gonadotropins on Rats’ Ovaries after Nandrolone Decanoate Administration: A Stereological Study

    PubMed Central

    Bordbar, Hossein; Mesbah, Fakhroddin; Talaei, Tahereh; Dehghani, Farzaneh; Mirkhani, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nandrolone decanoate (ND) is an anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) which influences the ovarian structure and function. We assessed the effects of ND on the ovarian volume, number of primordial follicles, and level of hormones and also evaluated the modulatory effects of gonadotropins on the histopathological changes imposed by the administration of ND. Methods: Six groups of Sprague-Dawley adult female rats (n=30) were used. The experimental rats were injected intraperitoneally with 3 and 10 mg/kg ND with or without human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG), 10 IU weekly for one month. The vehicle and control rats were administered olive oil and saline, respectively, for the same period of time. The ovarian volume and number of primordial follicles were estimated by stereological methods. Results: The results showed a decrease in the ovarian volume, number of primordial follicles, and level of gonadotropins in the ND-treated animals compared with the vehicle groups. In the rats treated with 3 mg/kg of ND with hMG, an increase in the ovarian volume and number of primordial follicles was shown as compared to the rats treated with the same dose of ND without hMG. Conclusion: ND exerted detrimental effects on the dimensions of the ovary, number of follicles, and level of sex hormones. However, hMG, prevented the harmful effects of ND (at least in a low dose) on the ovarian follicles. PMID:24453393

  20. Comparative pharmacokinetic study of mangiferin after oral administration of pure mangiferin and US patented polyherbal formulation to rats.

    PubMed

    Kammalla, Ananth Kumar; Ramasamy, Mohan Kumar; Inampudi, Jyothi; Dubey, Govind Prasad; Agrawal, Aruna; Kaliappan, Ilango

    2015-04-01

    The US patented polyherbal formulation for the prevention and management of type II diabetes and its vascular complications was used for the present study. The xanthone glycoside mangiferin is one of the major effector constituents in the Salacia species with potential anti-diabetic activity. The pharmacokinetic differences of mangiferin following oral administration of pure mangiferin and polyherbal formulation containing Salacia species were studied with approximately the same dose 30 mg/kg mangiferin and its distribution among the major tissue in Wistar rats. Plasma samples were collected at different time points (15, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, 360, 480, 600, 1,440, 2,160, and 2880 min) and subsequently analyzed using a validated simple and rapid LC-MS method. Plasma concentration versus time profiles were explored by non-compartmental analysis. Mangiferin plasma exposure was significantly increased when administered from formulation compared to the standard mangiferin. Mangiferin resided significantly longer in the body (last mean residence time (MRTlast)) when given in the form of the formulation (3.65 h). Cmax values of formulation (44.16 μg/mL) administration were elevated when compared to equivalent dose of the pure mangiferin (15.23 μg/mL). Tissue distribution study of mangiferin from polyherbal formulation was also studied. In conclusion, the exposure of mangiferin is enhanced after formulation and administration and could result in superior efficacy of polyherbal formulation when compared to an equivalent dose of mangiferin. The results indicate that the reason which delays the elimination of mangiferin and enhances its bioavailability might the interactions of the some other constituents present in the polyherbal formulation. Distribution study results indicate that mangiferin was extensively bound to the various tissues like the small intestine, heart, kidney, spleen, and liver except brain tissue. PMID:25273025

  1. Graduate Management Admission Test Outcomes and the Academic Achievement: A Study on Masters of Business Administration Students at Makerere University, Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamala, Robert; Kizito, Saint Omala; Kakumba, Umar

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates whether the outcomes of the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) can predict the academic achievement of enrollees in masters programs. The study is based on administrative data of 516 Masters of Business Administration (MBA) enrollees at the College of Business and Management Science, Makerere University in the 2011…

  2. A Pilot Study for Validating a Questionnaire on Perceptions of Barriers to Upward Mobility by Women Administrators in International Schools in Mexico and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Barbara T.

    This pilot study was conducted with a sample of 25 female administrators. Fourteen of the participants are employed in Alabama public schools, while seven work in international schools in the United States, and the remaining four are administrators in international schools in Mexico. The international schools in the study are listed in the "ISS…

  3. Administrative Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doran, Dorothy; And Others

    This guide is intended to assist business education teachers in administrative support courses. The materials presented are based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for the occupations of receptionist, secretary, and administrative assistant. Word processing skills have been infused into each of the three sections. The…

  4. Administrative Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  5. Bonneville Power Administration comparative electric-generation study. Final report. Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, J.; Lang, R.; Arpi, D.

    1983-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to calculate levelized busbar power costs for case studies of each technology. A secondary objective of the study was to analyze the benefits and constraints of each technology, a summary of which is presented at the beginning of each section. The technology attributes provide a qualitative review of each technology and should be further studied in any decision-making process. Comparative conclusions were not drawn in this preliminary review.

  6. Attitudes about Second-Career Teachers: An Exploratory Q Study of School Administrators and Classroom Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coladonato, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    Although considerable attention has been directed at understanding second-career teachers (SCTs), few studies appear in the literature that have reported on opinions and viewpoints about SCTs. This study is an in-depth examination that explores the attitudes held about SCTs. The focus of this study is to apply an innovative methodology in…

  7. Metabolomic and pharmacokinetic study on the mechanism underlying the lipid-lowering effect of oral-administrated berberine

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Shenghua; Cao, Bei; Sun, Runbin; Tang, Yueqing; Paletta, Janice L.; Wu, Xiao-Lei; Liu, Linsheng; Zha, Weibin; Zhao, Chunyan; Li, Yan; Radlon, Jason M.; Hylemon, Phillip B.; Zhou, Huiping; Aa, Jiye; Wang, Guangji

    2014-01-01

    Clinic and animal studies demonstrated that oral-administrated berberine had distinct lipid-lowering effect. However, pharmacokinetic studies showed berberine was poorly absorbed into the body so that the levels of berberine in the blood and target tissues were far below the effective concentrations revealed. To probe the underlying mechanism, the effect of berberine on biological system was studied on a high-fat-diet-induced hamster hyperlipidemia model. Our results showed that intragastric-administered berberine was poorly absorbed into circulation and most berberine accumulated in gut content. Although the bioavailability for intragastric-administered berberine was much lower than that of intraperitoneal-administered berberine, it had stronger lipid-lowing effect, indicating gastrointestinal is a potential target for hypolipidemic effect of berberine. Metabolomic study on both serum and gut content showed that oral-administrated berberine significantly regulated molecules involved in lipid metabolism, and increased the generation of bile acids in the hyperlipidemic model. DNA analysis revealed that the oral-administered berberine modulated the gut microbiota, and BBR showed a significant inhibition on the 7α-dehydroxylation conversion of cholic acid to deoxycholic acid, indicating a decreased elimination of bile acids in the gut. However, in model hamsters, elevated bile acids failed to down-regulate the expression and function of CYP7A1 in a negative feed-back way. It was suggested that the hypocholesterolemic effect for oral-administrated berberine is involved in its effect on modulating the turnover of bile acids and farnesoid X receptor signal pathway. PMID:25411028

  8. A comparative study on chronic administration of Go Ghrita (cow ghee) and Avika Ghrita (ewe ghee) in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Dipali J; Vyas, Hitesh A; Vyas, Mahesh Kumar; Ashok, B K; Ravishankar, B

    2012-07-01

    Ghrita (ghee) is the foremost substance of Indian cuisine from centuries. Ayurvedic classics described eight kinds of ghee from eight different animal milk, among them ghee made from cow milk is said to be the superior and ghee of ewe milk is said to be the inferior and also detrimental to heart. The present study was undertaken to evaluate chronic administration of cow ghee (Go Ghrita) and ghee of ewe milk (Avika Ghrita) to experimental animals. Experiment was carried out on Wistar strain albino rats and study was done at two dose levels. The test drugs were administered orally for 45 consecutive days. Parameters, such as gross behavior, body weight, weight of important organs, total fecal fat content, electrocardiogram, serum biochemical parameters, and histopathology of different organs were studied. Both the test drugs did not alter the gross behavior, body weight, weight of organs, and cytoarchitecture of different organs to significant extent. Avika Ghrita at a low dose significantly decreased triglyceride content, significantly prolonged QTc and at both dose levels it significantly shortened the PR interval. This study shows chronic administration of Avika Ghrita and Go Ghrita has no marked differences between them except the QTc prolongation in Avika Ghrita. This may be the basis for the classics to categorize Avika Ghrita as Ahridya. PMID:23723655

  9. A pharmacokinetic study of patchouli alcohol after a single oral administration of patchouli alcohol or patchouli oil in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruoqi; Yan, Peiao; Li, Yunxia; Xiong, Liang; Gong, Xiaohong; Peng, Cheng

    2016-08-01

    Pogostemonis herba is used in traditional Chinese medicine to remove dampness, relieve sunstroke, stop vomiting and increase appetite. Patchouli alcohol, an ingredient in pogostemonis herba, has the potential to treat inflammation as well as bacterial and fungal infections. The essential oil of pogostemonis herba (patchouli oil) is commonly given orally in clinical settings; however, no pharmacokinetic studies have examined its oral administration. The goal of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic behavior of patchouli alcohol following single-dose oral administration in rats; the influence of other patchouli oil components on the pharmacokinetic profile of patchouli alcohol was also examined. In this study, a simple and selective GC/MS method was developed and validated to measure the level of patchouli alcohol in rat plasma. The study revealed that the pharmacokinetics profile was linear in both the patchouli alcohol and patchouli oil groups. The C max and AUC0-t of patchouli alcohol were greater in all three doses of patchouli alcohol compared to corresponding patchouli oil doses. Additionally, the T max values were significantly greater in the patchouli oil group. These results suggest that the other ingredients in patchouli oil influence the pharmacokinetic behavior of patchouli alcohol during its absorption. The results provide a meaningful basis for evaluating the clinical application of patchouli oil and patchouli alcohol. PMID:25753831

  10. Reduction of the risk of rhabdomyolysis after bariatric surgery with lower fluid administration in the perioperative period: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Matłok, Maciej; Major, Piotr; Małczak, Piotr; Wysocki, Michał; Hynnekleiv, Leif; Nowak, Mateusz; Karcz, Konrad; Pędziwiatr, Michał; Budzyński, Andrzej

    2016-04-13

    INTRODUCTION    Obesity is a growing worldwide problem. One of the most effective treatments is a bariatric procedure; however, surgery is associated with the risk of complications, such as staple line leakage, suture line bleeding, and rhabdomyolysis (RML). OBJECTIVES    The objective of our study was to assess the risk of RML after bariatric surgery related to intravenous fluid administration in the perioperative period. PATIENTS AND METHODS    The study involved 194 patients who underwent a bariatric surgery (laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy or laparoscopic gastric bypass). We studied an association between the development of RML and sex, age, weight, duration of surgery, type of surgery, and the volume of intravenously administered fluids during the perioperative period. RESULTS    The median duration of surgery was 132.5 minutes. The median volume of administered fluids was 3150 ml from the introduction of anesthesia to 24 hours after surgery. Biochemical RML (creatine phosphokinase >1000 U/l) was observed in 30 patients (15.46%). RML with clinical manifestations developed in 6 patients. Multivariate logistic regression revealed an increase in the odds ratio of biochemical RML with an increase of weight on the day of surgery, operative time, and volume of intravenous fluids. A multiple regression model showed that every 500 ml of transfused fluid over the median volume increases creatine phosphokinase concentrations in the first postoperative day by 241.77 U/l over the median level, with the operative time and patient's weight remaining at median values. CONCLUSIONS    We observed an association between the administration of lower fluid volumes and a lower risk of RML. We postulate that decreasing intravenous fluid administration may reduce the risk of RML after bariatric surgery. PMID:27074693

  11. Developing and Implementing an International Studies Minor: A Liberal Arts-Business Administration Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krajewski, Lorraine A.; Patrick, Joe A.

    Louisiana State University in Shreveport developed an International Studies minor as a partnership between the academic disciplines of Business and Liberal Arts. The minor consists of 24 hours of coursework, including a foreign language course at the sophomore level; a course titled "Introduction to International Studies"; 9 hours of core courses…

  12. National Job Corps Study: Findings Using Administrative Earnings Records Data. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schochet; Peter Z.; McConnell, Sheena; Burghardt, John

    2003-01-01

    The National Job Corps Study has been conducted since 1993 to provide Congress and program managers with the information they need to assess how well Job Corps attains its goal of helping students become more responsible, employable, and productive citizens. The cornerstone of the study was the random assignment of all youths found eligible for…

  13. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Manned Spacecraft Center data based requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The results are summarized of a study to determine the requirements of a data management system to meet the needs of MSC in mission planning and program and resource management during the 1975 time frame. The study addresses overall system requirements, implementation considerations, and cost/benefit comparisions.

  14. Directory of National Standards Relating to Archives Administration and Records Management: A RAMP Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roper, Michael

    Prepared under contract with the International Council on Archives (ICA), this study is designed to provide archivists, records managers, and other interested professionals with both a reference and planning tool in the area of methods, norms and standards. The study is based on responses to a questionnaire which was submitted to selected…

  15. Use of High-Performance Liquid Chromatography To Study the Pharmacokinetics of Colistin Sulfate in Rats following Intravenous Administration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian; Milne, Robert W.; Nation, Roger L.; Turnidge, John D.; Smeaton, Timothy C.; Coulthard, Kingsley

    2003-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of colistin was investigated using specific high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to measure the concentrations of colistin and colistin A and B in plasma and urine in five rats after administration of an intravenous bolus of 1 mg of colistin sulfate/kg of body weight. There were differences in the pharmacokinetic behaviors of unbound colistin A and B. This is the first report of the use of HPLC to study the pharmacokinetics of colistin and its two major components. PMID:12709357

  16. Bonneville Power Administration comparative electric-generation study. Final report. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Case studies for each technology were developed based upon a set of assumptions provided by BPA regarding the technology type, site, and size of respective facilities. The case studies include estimates for capital costs, operating costs, project schedules, construction cash flow, and annual energy generation for hypothetical facilities. Data for busbar cost calculations were derived from the parameters developed in the case studies. Appendix A describes the approach to the market penetration and experience curve analysis for wind and solar technologies. As presented, the information shows the relationship between time and capital costs. Appendix B is a discussion of tax incentives. Because none of the case studies assumed third-party ownership, only normal utility tax considerations were applied. Appendix C contains the financial assumptions, such as escalation rates for labor and fuels, used in the busbar power cost program. Appendix D describes the underlying methodology of the busbar power cost computer program.

  17. Identifying the Latent Failures Underpinning Medication Administration Errors: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Lawton, Rebecca; Carruthers, Sam; Gardner, Peter; Wright, John; McEachan, Rosie R C

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The primary aim of this article was to identify the latent failures that are perceived to underpin medication errors. Study Setting The study was conducted within three medical wards in a hospital in the United Kingdom. Study Design The study employed a cross-sectional qualitative design. Data Collection Methods Interviews were conducted with 12 nurses and eight managers. Interviews were transcribed and subject to thematic content analysis. A two-step inter-rater comparison tested the reliability of the themes. Principal Findings Ten latent failures were identified based on the analysis of the interviews. These were ward climate, local working environment, workload, human resources, team communication, routine procedures, bed management, written policies and procedures, supervision and leadership, and training. The discussion focuses on ward climate, the most prevalent theme, which is conceptualized here as interacting with failures in the nine other organizational structures and processes. Conclusions This study is the first of its kind to identify the latent failures perceived to underpin medication errors in a systematic way. The findings can be used as a platform for researchers to test the impact of organization-level patient safety interventions and to design proactive error management tools and incident reporting systems in hospitals. PMID:22375850

  18. Barriers and Facilitators to Career Advancement by Top-Level, Entry-Level and Non-Administrative Women in Public School Districts: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Eman Ibrahim El-Desouki

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the barriers and facilitators to career advancement among women administrators occupying top-level positions, those occupying entry-level positions and those in non-administrative positions in both rural and urban public school districts in central Pennsylvania. The need to increase the awareness of the…

  19. A Study of the Perceptions of Doctor of Nursing (DNP) Program Administrators regarding the Integration of Acupuncture and Acupressure in DNP Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voight, Rebecca W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative descriptive study was to explore the perceptions of DNP administrators regarding the extent acupuncture and acupressure are addressed in DNP curricula. Five research questions were addressed: 1. What are the perspectives of DNP program administrators regarding acupuncture and acupressure? 2. What are the…

  20. A Progress Report of Activities in "To Study a Program to Overcome Sex Bias Barriers in Women's Qualifications for Vocational Administration Posts."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legg, Marilyn R.

    One of four phases has been completed in a study conducted at Kansas State University of sex-bias barriers in women's qualifications for vocational administration posts. The project's objective is to improve the probability that women may be able to move into vocational administration. The first phase, a field survey in the form of a mail…

  1. What Did You Call Me? Results of a Pilot Study to Investigate Perspectives from Future School Library Administrators about Appropriate Job Titles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Renee E.

    2009-01-01

    The topic of the appropriate job title for school library administrators has been written about in earlier literature but has not addressed the issue from the perspective of future school library administrators. This article presents the results of a pilot study that was guided by the research question: What do future school library administrators…

  2. Faculty Roles, Responsibilities, and Involvement in Campus Safety Initiatives as Perceived by Faculty and Administrators: A Case Study at a Large State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollings, Meda Janeen

    2010-01-01

    The study addressed the problem of campus safety and the extent to which faculty and administrators are aware of institutional security policies. Further, the research compared perceptions of administrators and faculty regarding faculty awareness of and involvement in campus safety policy initiatives. The research sought to determine if the…

  3. A Mixed Method Study Measuring the Perceptions of Administrators, Classroom Teachers and Professional Staff on the Use of iPads in a Midwest School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckerle, Andrea Laux

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to assess the perceptions of classroom teachers, administrators and professional support staff in one Midwest school district regarding the usefulness and effectiveness of the iPad device as an instructional and support tool within the classroom. The need to address classroom teacher, administrator and…

  4. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Manned Spacecraft Center data base requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the types of data that the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) should automate in order to make available essential management and technical information to support MSC's various functions and missions. In addition, the software and hardware capabilities to best handle the storage and retrieval of this data were analyzed. Based on the results of this study, recommendations are presented for a unified data base that provides a cost effective solution to MSC's data automation requirements. The recommendations are projected through a time frame that includes the earth orbit space station.

  5. Mass Hysteria or Toxic Fumes? A Case Study for University Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engs, Ruth C.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Traces the historical background and describes the symptomology relating to mass hysteria and psychogenic illness. After prescribing a case study of an incident of such behavior at a mid-western university, explores the implications for staff training in student areas. (Author/KW)

  6. Business Administration Students as Surrogates for IT Professionals: Summary of a Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Melinda; St. John, Jeremy; Guynes, Carl S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report a summary of the results of a study which examined the appropriateness of using business school students as surrogates for IT professionals by comparing cognitive styles, physiological characteristics, and basic demographic data among the two groups. Cognitive style refers to the way individuals think,…

  7. Studies in Leading and Organizing Schools. A Volume in Research and Theory in Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoy, Wayne, Ed.; Miskel, Cecil, Ed.

    This collection of research reports is intended to advance the understanding of schools through empirical study and theoretical analysis. The reports are as follows: "The Punctuated Equilibrium of National Reading Policy: Literacy's Changing Images and Venues" (Celia Sims and Cecil Miskel); "Productive Campus Leadership Responses to…

  8. Leadership Styles of New Ireland High School Administrators: A Papua New Guinea Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tivinarlik, Alfred; Wanat, Carolyn L.

    2006-01-01

    This yearlong ethnographic study of principals' leadership in Papua New Guinea high schools describes influences of imposing a bureaucratic school organization on principals' decision making in a communal society. Communal values of kinship relationships, "wantok" system, and "big men" leadership challenged principals' responsibility to uphold…

  9. A Study of Coordinated Service Provision and Administrative Procedures in Selected University Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Strom Thurmond Inst. of Government and Public Affairs.

    This study investigated the existence of coordinated/consolidated services between colleges and universities and their communities by surveying 27 university communities of similar size and/or characteristics to Clemson University (South Carolina). The report begins with the profiles of the universities selected: their size in acreage, enrollment,…

  10. A Case Study of Qualitative Research: Methods and Administrative Impact. AIR 1983 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoen, Jane; Warner, Sean

    A case study in program evaluation that demonstrates the effectiveness of qualitative research methods is presented. Over a 5-year period, the Union for Experimenting Colleges and Universities in Ohio offered a baccalaureate program (University Without Walls) to local employees of a national manufacturing firm. The institutional research office…

  11. Expectation-Based Efficiency and Quality Improvements in Research Administration: Multi-Institutional Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saha, Dhanonjoy C.; Ahmed, Abrar; Hanumandla, Shailaja

    2011-01-01

    Conventional wisdom may support the presumed notion that higher expectations increase efficiency and improve quality. However, this claim may only be validated when workers are equipped with appropriate tools, training, and a conducive work environment. This study implements various interventions, observes outcomes, and analyzes data collected in…

  12. Developing Ethnic Talent in the Dutch National Tax Administration: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glastra, Folke J.; Meerman, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The lack of career movement of members of ethnic minority groups in work organizations has been widely documented. The purpose of this paper is to gain insight into conditions for the realization of diversity goals in the case of talent development. Design/methodology/approach: In a case study of management development in the Dutch…

  13. Revisioning a School Administrator Preparation Program: A North Carolina Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Joy C.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a descriptive case study of the process used at one of North Carolina's public universities to respond to a state-mandated "revisioning" directive for educational leadership preparation programs. The case provides an overview of the state educational leadership policy context, discussion of state and local…

  14. Risk Management for Study Abroad Programs: Issues and Resources to Inform Program Development, Administration, and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides a practical background to the health and safety risks and challenges for U.S. colleges and universities and other program providers. Potential risks, field-based guidelines, good practices, and resources to support the management of risks by study abroad offices will be covered.

  15. Case Study: How Perceived Behaviors of Administrative Support Influence Teacher Retention Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Educational reform is taking the nation, teachers are nearing retirement age, some teachers are choosing early retirement, and teachers are exiting the profession at a significant rate. Collectively, these trends in education present staffing and training concerns for today's schools. The purpose of this case study was to examine how…

  16. Individual Factors That Encourage the Use of Virtual Platforms of Administrative Sciences Students: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arias, Alejandro Valencia; Naffah, Salim Chalela; Bermudez Hernández, Jonathan; Bedoya Pérez, Luz Mirelia

    2015-01-01

    Higher education Institutions have incorporated into their educational processes the virtual learning platforms use, in their search to answers to the dynamic and changing needs of young students, thus students have practical training in the use of information technologies and communication (ICT) in their curses. However, few studies have been…

  17. The Effects of an Internet2 Implementation at the Food and Drug Administration: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Melinda Elena

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the potential effects of an Internet2 implementation at the FDA. Because Internet2 does not currently exist in the FDA, research will be made to compare the tools used today to transmit data to what may develop with an Internet2 presence. These effects will be assessed from the point-of-view of the…

  18. Educational Development in Africa: III -- Integration and Administration. IIEP African Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Raymond, Ed.; Poignant, Raymond, Ed.

    This book contains four monographs based on research conducted in a number of African countries between 1965 and 1967 in an attempt to illuminate some of the problems confronting educational planners in developing countries. The book is one of three related volumes of case studies on educational planning in the English-speaking countries of…

  19. Mentoring for Administrative Advancement: A Study of What Mentors Do and Think.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertz, Norma T.; And Others

    Despite a profusion of mentoring publications, much information on the subject is opinion-based, retrospective, and reflective. In examining mentoring for career advancement, researchers have focused largely on proteges' experience. This study examined mentoring as a mechanism for career advancement, focusing on the mentor's perspective and…

  20. School Administration Computerization Impact on the Teacher's Role: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telem, Moshe

    1998-01-01

    Studied the ways in which the introduction of a school management information system affected the loosely coupled organization of an agricultural high school in Israel. Teachers' interrelations with the principal, subject coordinators, and home room teachers tightened significantly as a result of the computerization of the administrative…

  1. A Study of Female Central Office Administrators and Their Aspirations to the Superintendency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muñoz, Ava J.; Pankake, Anita; Ramalho, Elizabeth Murakami; Mills, Shirley; Simonsson, Marie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the motivations of females aspiring to school superintendency positions in Texas. We report on a reanalysis of data from two previous studies and how the findings build an understanding of previously documented obstacles and barriers female candidates encounter in their journey toward the superintendency.…

  2. Facilitation of Case Studies Workshop and Pakistan-Specific Case Development for the Advanced Management Course in Public Administration Phase 2 at the National Institute of Public Administration (NIPA) (Lahore, Pakistan, January 18-February 3, 1990). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Gary N.

    This document describes the implementation and evaluation of a 2-week workshop designed to help the faculty of the National Institute of Public Administration (Lahore, Pakistan) develop case studies and accompanying teaching notes for use in their classes. The workshop, which was facilitated by the author, resulted in the development of nine case…

  3. An open-label, randomized bioavailability study with alternative methods of administration of crushed ticagrelor tablets in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Renli; Carlson, Glenn; Hsia, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the bioavailability and safety profile of crushed ticagrelor tablets suspended in water and administered orally or via nasogastric tube, with that of whole tablets administered orally. Methods: In this single-center, open-label, randomized, three-treatment crossover study, 36 healthy volunteers were randomized to receive a single 90-mg dose of ticagrelor administered orally as a whole tablet or as crushed tablets suspended in water and given orally or via a nasogastric tube into the stomach, with a minimum 7-day wash-out between treatments. Plasma concentrations of ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX were assessed at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 24, 36, and 48 hours post-ticagrelor dose for pharmacokinetic analyses. Safety and tolerability was assessed throughout the study. Results: At 0.5 hours postdose, plasma concentrations of ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX were higher with crushed tablets administered orally (148.6 ng/mL and 13.0 ng/mL, respectively) or via nasogastric tube (264.6 ng/mL and 28.6 ng/mL, respectively) compared with whole-tablet administration (33.3 ng/mL and 5.2 ng/mL, respectively). A similar trend was observed at 1 hour postdose. Ticagrelor tmax was shorter following crushed vs. whole-tablet administration (1 vs. 2 hours, respectively). Geometric mean ratios between treatments for AUC and Cmax were contained within the bioequivalence limits of 80 – 125% for ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX. All treatments were generally well tolerated. Conclusions: Ticagrelor administered as a crushed tablet is bioequivalent to whole-tablet administration, independent of mode of administration (oral or via nasogastric tube), and resulted in increased plasma concentrations of ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX at early timepoints. PMID:25500486

  4. PET study in a patient with spinocerebellar degeneration before and after long-term administration of thyrotropin releasing hormone.

    PubMed

    Tanji, H; Nagasawa, H; Hayashi, T; Onodera, H; Fujiwara, T; Itoh, M; Ido, T; Itoyama, Y

    1996-01-01

    We studied the chronic effect of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) in a patient with spinocerebellar degeneration by measuring cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRG1c) using 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18FDG) and positron emission tomography (PET). A 56-year-old female, who had suffered from progressive ataxia for 2 years, was treated by intravenous administration of 2 mg TRH for 3 weeks, and CMRG1c of the brain was measured before and after treatment. CMRG1c was markedly decreased in the cerebellum and there was no significant difference before and after the treatment, i.e. mean CMRG1c values were 4.92 and 4.90 mg/100 g/min, and the ratios of the cerebellum versus the frontal cortex were 0.50 and 0.51, respectively. The degree of disequilibrium of her body examined with stabilography became better by the 19th day and further improved by the 26th day after the start of TRH treatment. Based on the present study we conclude that long-term administration of TRH did not improve CMRG1c in the cerebellum, but evidently improved the sway of gravity center by stabilography. We speculate that the chronic effect of TRH was not necessarily due to an improvement of cerebellar function, because TRH receptors are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system. PMID:24487517

  5. Study of Educational Hospital Employees’ Satisfaction with the Administration of the Health Reform Plan in Ghazvin, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Gholami, Soheyla; Oveisi, Sonia; Ghamari, Fatemeh; Etedal, Mahboobeh Ghorban; Rajaee, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Employee satisfaction is considered to be an important component in the promotion of service quality and increased efficiency and effectiveness in the reform plan for a healthcare system. Neglecting this issue could result in a lack of success in achieving the healthcare system’s objectives. The healthcare reform plan is being implemented to achieve the objectives of the healthcare system. Thus, given the key role of hospital employees in implementing the reform plan, the aim of this study was to determine the levels of hospital employees’ satisfaction with their jobs. Methods This was a qualitative study in 2015 that included thematic analysis, and 138 employees of the Kosar, Rajaii, and Ghods Hospitals participated. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews, and the data were analyzed using content analysis. Results After analyzing the data collected by interviewing the employees, 132 codes were identified. The codes were classified into five general concepts including opinions about 1) the reform plan and its administrative barriers, 2) changes in visits, 3) changes in working conditions, 4) changes in salaries and 5) General satisfaction of personnel. Conclusion Increasing workloads, stagnant salaries, and the shortage of personnel were the main factors that reduced the satisfaction of the hospitals’ employees with the administration of the healthcare reform plan. PMID:26767104

  6. Data reporting constraints for the lymphatic filariasis mass drug administration activities in two districts in Ghana: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Aryeetey, Richmond; Boateng, Richard; Anto, Francis; Aikins, Moses; Gyapong, Margaret; Gyapong, John

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Timely and accurate health data are important for objective decision making and policy formulation. However, little evidence exists to explain why poor quality routine health data persist. This study examined the constraints to data reporting for the lymphatic filariasis mass drug administration programme in two districts in Ghana. This qualitative study focused on timeliness and accuracy of mass drug administration reports submitted by community health volunteers. Methods: The study is nested within a larger study focusing on the feasibility of mobile phone technology for the lymphatic filariasis programme. Using an exploratory study design, data were obtained through in-depth interviews (n = 7) with programme supervisors and focus group discussions (n = 4) with community health volunteers. Results were analysed using thematic content analysis. Results: Reasons for delays in reporting were attributed to poor numeracy skills among community health volunteers, difficult physical access to communities, high supervisor workload, poor adherence reporting deadlines, difficulty in reaching communities within allocated time and untimely release of programme funds. Poor accuracy of data was mainly attributed to inadequate motivation for community health volunteers and difficulty calculating summaries. Conclusion: This study has shown that there are relevant issues that need to be addressed in order to improve the quality of lymphatic filariasis treatment coverage reports. Some of the factors identified are problems within the health system; others are specific to the community health volunteers and the lymphatic filariasis programme. Steps such as training on data reporting should be intensified for community health volunteers, allowances for community health volunteers should be re-evaluated and other non-monetary incentives should be provided for community health volunteers. PMID:26770791

  7. Academic progression models in nursing: design decisions faced by administrators in four case studies.

    PubMed

    Pittman, Patricia M; Kurtzman, Ellen T; Johnson, Jean E

    2014-06-01

    Although nursing education pathways have expanded access to the profession, fragmentation accompanying these entry points has created uncertainty among students about the desired end point, questionable efficiency and effectiveness of reaching career goals, and unclear merging mechanisms to enable seamless, linear progression. In response to these challenges and in anticipation of greater demands on nurses due to health reform, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) examined the capacity of the nursing workforce and proposed a transformative blueprint for change that relies on an education system to promote seamless academic progression. Despite support for this recommendation, little research exists regarding the best way to achieve the IOM's vision. This study examined the most promising practices in design and implementation of alternative pathways for academic progression in nursing. Four case studies are presented that explore the challenges of designing alternative pathways and identify performance measures to assist with developing such programs. PMID:24855992

  8. Guidelines for contingency planning NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) ADP security risk reduction decision studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, F. G.

    1984-01-01

    Guidance is presented to NASA Computer Security Officials for determining the acceptability or unacceptability of ADP security risks based on the technical, operational and economic feasibility of potential safeguards. The risk management process is reviewed as a specialized application of the systems approach to problem solving and information systems analysis and design. Reporting the results of the risk reduction analysis to management is considered. Report formats for the risk reduction study are provided.

  9. Study of quality and stability of ursodeoxycholic acid formulations for oral pediatric administration.

    PubMed

    Santoveña, A; Sánchez-Negrín, E; Charola, L; Llabrés, M; Fariña, J B

    2014-12-30

    This paper describes a rational method of characterizing the biopharmaceutical stability of two oral suspensions of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) used in pediatrics. Because there is no commercial presentation of UDCA that can administer appropriate doses for infants and children, an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) formulation is required. Due to its very low solubility and low dose in the formula (1.5%), two different suspensions with minimal use of excipients were studied, avoiding the use of complex additives and those not recommended by the European Medicines Agency (EMA). Adherence to Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) allows the preparation of formulations with appropriately sized and stable particles, and suitable rheological behavior in withdrawing the dose after stirring. Dose uniformity, expressed as mass and content variability, was determined using the criteria of the European and the United States Pharmacopoeia. Additionally, dose content variation of every mass determined was studied. A rational method was developed for determining the dose uniformity of UDCA in suspensions, whether freshly prepared or after storage under different conditions for 30 and 60 days. This method permits detection of differences between doses taken at different heights in the vessel at various times and storage conditions. UDCA was stable under all conditions studied, requiring the presence of glycerol in the formulation to obtain the declared API value after stirring. Storage of UDCA suspensions in a refrigerator increased variability between doses. PMID:25305380

  10. Final Study for Bonneville Power Administration's 1986 Variable Industrial Power Rate Proposal.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1986-06-01

    In this study, BPA is proposing a Variable Industrial Power (VI-86) rate option for its aluminum smelter loads. This rate would provide a predetermined contractual tie between the price of BPA's power and the US market price of aluminum. Establishing such a tie between input price (electricity) and output price (aluminum) will enhance the ability of aluminum producers to operate over the entire business cycle. This should reduce the cyclicality of smelter operations. Increasing the price of power when aluminum prices are high is intended to compensate BPA for any decrease in BPA's revenues when the lower rates occur. Various proposals for and discussions of a variable rate for BPA's direct service industrial (DSI) customers have occurred throughout the region over the past year. This study is the result of analyses conducted and evidence received from the rate hearings conducted on the Variable Rate (VI-86). This study describes the Variable rate proposed by BPA and the analyses conducted in support of the rate.

  11. Drug self-administration studies: a novel reinforcement schedule enhances choice.

    PubMed

    Meisch, Richard A; Gomez, Thomas H

    2013-06-01

    Relative reinforcing effects of different ethanol and different cocaine doses were studied under concurrent independent fixed-ratio (FR) schedules and concurrent nonindependent FR schedules with rhesus monkeys. Nonindependent FR schedules differed from independent FR schedules in that responses on either side counted towards the FR requirements of two concurrently presented choices. Thus, responses on the right operandum counted toward completion of both right and left FR schedules and, symmetrically, responses on the left did the same. Nonindependent schedules allow the number of responses per drug delivery to vary considerably, unlike independent schedules, thereby making the number of responses per delivery a sensitive dependent variable. In contrast, standard independent schedules do not allow responses per drug delivery to vary; the required number of responses is an independent variable. Three rhesus monkeys were subjects, and choices between different doses of ethanol or cocaine were studied. Larger doses maintained higher response rates than smaller doses - consistent with previous choice studies. By using nonindependent schedules, however, graded responses per drug delivery and increased switching between sides were obtained, providing additional data and useful measures of choice. PMID:23549451

  12. Post-injury administration of allicin attenuates ischemic brain injury through sphingosine kinase 2: In vivo and in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jia-Ji; Chang, Ting; Cai, Wen-Ke; Zhang, Zhuo; Yang, Yong-Xiang; Sun, Chao; Li, Zhu-Yi; Li, Wei-Xin

    2015-10-01

    Allicin, one of the main biologically active compounds derived from garlic, has been shown to exert various pharmacological activities and is considered to have therapeutic potential for many pathologic conditions. In the present study, we investigated the potential post-ischemic neuroprotective effects of allicin and its underlying mechanisms. Using a rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model, we found that intraperitoneal treatment with 50 mg/kg allicin significantly reduced brain infarct volume, attenuated cerebral edema and decreased the neurological deficit score. Allicin treatment also diminished TUNEL positive cells and inhibited the activation of caspase-3 after MCAO. These protective effects could be observed even if the administration was delayed to 6 h after injury. In addition, we evaluated the in vitro protective effects of allicin against oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) induced neuronal injury in primary cultured cortical neurons. Allicin (50 μM) increased neuronal viability, decreased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and inhibited apoptotic neuronal death after OGD. These protective effects could be observed even if the administration was delayed to 4 h after injury. Furthermore, allicin significantly increased the expression of sphingosine kinases 2 (Sphk2) both in vivo and in vitro. Pretreatment with the Sphk2 inhibitor ABC294640 partially reversed the protective effects of allicin against MCAO and OGD injury, indicating that an Sphk2-mediated mechanism was involved in allicin-induced protection in our models. The combination of findings suggests that post-injury administration of allicin has potential as a neuroprotective strategy for ischemic stroke. PMID:26275594

  13. Retrospective study of Heparin Administration for Ischemic Stroke when there is an IV-tPA Contraindication

    PubMed Central

    Hakma, Zakaria; Stofko, Douglas L.; Binning, Mandy Jo; Liebman, Kenneth; Veznedaroglu, Erol

    2014-01-01

    Background: The majority of patients presenting with an ischemic stroke arrive after the 3-4.5 h time window allowed for intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV tPA) administration. Most of the literature on heparin use in acute ischemic stroke does not describe dose-adjusted intravenous unfractionated heparin (IV UFH) without bolus, a common method of administration. This study was designed to test whether an anticoagulation regimen of intravenous dose-adjusted UFH with no bolus, in patients with a contraindication to IV TPA, administered within 24 h of an acute ischemic stroke could be effective and safe. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of 273 patients over two consecutive years with acute ischemic stroke, who were outside the window for IV tPA. All patients had imaging studies on admission. The primary outcome measure of the study was to evaluate the safety of dose-adjusted IV UFH use in the setting of acute stroke. We looked at duration of heparin infusion, average partial thromboplastin time (PTT) value, and the incidence of new hemorrhagic events. Results: A total of 273 patients met the inclusion criteria. These patients received heparin infusion within 24 h of symptom onset. The duration of intravenous heparin infusion ranged from 1 to 18 days with a mean of 4 days. Mean PTT value was 72.4. Hemorrhagic complications occurred in 26 patients (9.5%), and included 12 asymptomatic petechial or hemorrhagic conversion (4.3%), 2 symptomatic intracranial hemorrhages (0.7%), 5 gastrointestinal bleeds (2 requiring transfusion and interventions), 2 patients experienced benign hematuria, 4 patients with groin hematomas, and one neck hematoma. Conclusion: This study suggests that intravenous dose-adjusted UFH with no bolus can be administered to patients with acute ischemic stroke with relative safety. PMID:24991465

  14. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration interdisciplinary studies in space technology at the University of Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, B. G.

    1974-01-01

    A broad range of research projects contained in a cooperative space technology program at the University of Kansas are reported as they relate to the following three areas of interdisciplinary interest: (1) remote sensing of earth resources; (2) stability and control of light and general aviation aircraft; and (3) the vibrational response characteristics of aeronautical and space vehicles. Details of specific research efforts are given under their appropriate departments, among which are aerospace engineering, chemical and petroleum engineering, environmental health, water resources, the remote sensing laboratory, and geoscience applications studies.

  15. Topical Administration of Pirfenidone Increases Healing of Chronic Diabetic Foot Ulcers: A Randomized Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Janka-Zires, Marcela; Uribe-Wiechers, Ana Cecilia; Juárez-Comboni, Sonia Citlali; López-Gutiérrez, Joel; Escobar-Jiménez, Jarod Jazek; Gómez-Pérez, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    Only 30 percent of chronic diabetic foot ulcers heal after 20 weeks of standard treatment. Pirfenidone is a drug with biological, anti-inflammatory, and antifibrotic effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of topical pirfenidone added to conventional treatment in noninfected chronic diabetic foot ulcers. This was a randomized crossover study. Group 1 received topical pirfenidone plus conventional treatment for 8 weeks; after this period, they were switched to receive conventional treatment only for 8 more weeks. In group 2, the order of the treatments was the opposite. The end points were complete ulcer healing and size reduction. Final data were obtained from 35 ulcers in 24 patients. Fifty-two percent of ulcers treated with pirfenidone healed before 8 weeks versus 14.3% treated with conventional treatment only (P = 0.025). Between 8 and 16 weeks, 30.8% ulcers that received pirfenidone healed versus 0% with conventional treatment (P = 0.081). By week 8, the reduction in ulcer size was 100% [73–100] with pirfenidone versus 57.5% with conventional treatment [28.9–74] (P = 0.011). By week 16, the reduction was 93% [42.7–100] with pirfenidone and 21.8% [8–77.5] with conventional treatment (P = 0.050). The addition of topical pirfenidone to conventional treatment significantly improves the healing of chronic diabetic noninfected foot ulcers. PMID:27478849

  16. Customer orientation among employees in public administration: a transnational, longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Korunka, Christian; Scharitzer, Dieter; Carayon, Pascale; Hoonakker, Peter; Sonnek, Angelika; Sainfort, Francois

    2007-05-01

    The relation between ergonomic principles and quality management initiatives, both, in the private and public sector, has received increasing attention in the recent years. Customer orientation among employees is not only an important quality principle, but also an essential prerequisite for customer satisfaction, especially in service organizations. In this context, the objective of introducing new public management (NPM) in public-service organizations is to increase customer orientation among employees who are at the forefront of service providing. In this study, we developed a short scale to measure perceived customer orientation. In two separate longitudinal studies carried out in Austria and the US, we analyzed changes in customer orientation resulting from the introduction of NPM. In both organizations, we observed a significant increase in customer orientation. Perceived customer orientation was related to job characteristics, organizational characteristics and employee quality of working life. Creating positive influences on these characteristics within the framework of an organizational change process has positive effects on employee customer orientation. PMID:16759625

  17. Fruit, vegetable, and fish consumption and heart rate variability: the Veterans Administration Normative Aging Study123

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Katherine L; O'Neill, Marie S; Sparrow, David; Vokonas, Pantel S; Hu, Howard; Schwartz, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Background: Higher intakes of fruit, vegetables, and dark fish may prevent sudden cardiac death and arrhythmias, but the exact mechanisms are not fully understood. Objective: We examined whether high consumption of fruit, vegetables, and dark fish would be associated with beneficial changes in heart rate variability (HRV). Design: HRV variables were measured among 586 older men with 928 total observations from November 2000 to June 2007 in the Normative Aging Study, a community-based longitudinal study of aging. Dietary intake was evaluated with a self-administered semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire and categorized into quartiles. Results: After controlling for potential confounders, intake of green leafy vegetables was positively associated with normalized high-frequency power and inversely associated with normalized low-frequency power (P for trend < 0.05). These significant associations were retained after further adjustment for healthy lifestyle factors, such as physical activity and use of multivitamins. No significant association was seen between HRV measures and intakes of other fruit and vegetables, vitamin C, carotenoids, tuna and dark-meat fish, or n–3 (omega-3) fatty acids. An effect modification of intake of noncitrus fruit by obesity and of total vegetables and cruciferous vegetables by cigarette smoking was seen, which warrants further investigation. Conclusion: These findings suggest that higher intake of green leafy vegetables may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease through favorable changes in cardiac autonomic function. PMID:19158214

  18. Bioequivalence study of two imatinib formulations after single-dose administration in healthy Korean male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Jung, J A; Kim, N; Yang, J-S; Kim, T-e; Kim, J-R; Song, G-S; Kim, H; Ko, J W; Huh, W

    2014-12-01

    Imatinib mesylate is effective for chronic myeloid leukaemia and gastrointestinal tumours. We aimed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of a 200-mg imatinib tablet compared to 2×100-mg imatinib tablets in order to meet the regulatory requirements for marketing in Korea.An open-label, randomized, single-dose, 2-period, 2-treatment cross-over study was conducted in 28 healthy Korean male volunteers. Subjects were administered a 200-mg imatinib tablet and 2×100-mg imatinib tablets under a fasting state according to a randomly assigned order with a 2-week wash-out period. Serial blood samples were collected up to 72 h post-dose. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using non-compartmental methods.A total of 28 subjects were enrolled and 23 subjects completed the study. There were no serious adverse events during the study. 23 mild to moderate adverse events were reported (11 events with 200-mg imatinib vs. 12 events with 2×100-mg imatinib) and subjects recovered without sequelae. The Cmax value was 922.8±318.8 μg/L at 3.15 h for 200-mg imatinib tablet, and 986.3±266.0 μg/L at 2.91 h for the 2×100-mg imatinib tablet. The AUClast of 200-mg and 2×100-mg tablets were 13 084.3±39.1 and 14 131.7±3 826.2 h · μg/L, respectively. The geometric mean ratios (90% confidence intervals) for Cmax and AUClast were 0.9121 (0.8188, 1.0161) and 0.9558 (0.8685, 1.0519), respectively.A newly developed 200-mg imatinib tablet was bioequivalent to 2×100-mg imatinib tablets in healthy Korean subjects. A single-dose of either of the 2 formulations was generally well tolerated. PMID:24549963

  19. [Reproduction toxicologic studies on rats following oral administration of benzopyrone preparations].

    PubMed

    Preuss-Ueberschär, C; Ueberschär, S; Grote, W

    1984-01-01

    The influence of the benzopyrone preparation Venalot (active substances: coumarin and troxerutin; in the following briefly called CT) on the fertility and teratogenicity as well as on the perinatal and postnatal development of a total of 3 generations was evaluated in a combined study. The 1-, 8-, 64-, and 128fold of the daily therapeutical doses for humans was suspended in tap water and administered orally by gavage to 95 male and 190 female SPF rats (Wistar) (test groups 2 to 5). 23 male and 46 female rats (test group 1) served as controls and were given tap water alone. The male animals were subjected to a pretreatment of 10, the female animals to one of 3 weeks. The treatment was continued during the phase of mating. The animals scheduled for cesarian section received the test substance until the day of the laparatomy (gestation day 20), those selected for littering throughout lactation (day 24 post partum). With the aid of a stepwise histological technique, the teratological examination could also disclose non lethal malformations of the organs. The treatment resulted in a decreased food consumption in the animals of group 5 and in a reduced gain of body weight as well as pathologic-anatomically and histologically demonstrable, definitely dose related hepatic lesions. The test substance had no effect on either the treated P generation nor the untreated F1 generation. As teratogenic effects could also not be demonstrated and the peri- and postnatal development of the filial generations 1 and 2 was undisturbed, the present study does not indicate a reproduction toxicological risk.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6542792

  20. Nasal administration of ondansetron using a novel microspheres delivery system Part II: ex vivo and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Hitendra S; Gattani, Surendra G

    2010-12-01

    Gellan gum-based mucoadhesive microspheres of ondansetron hydrochloride for intranasal systemic delivery were prepared to avoid first pass effect, an alternative route of administration to injection and to enhance systemic bioavailability of ondansetron hydrochloride. The microspheres were prepared using spray method. The evaluation results of microspheres were reported in our previous study. The aim of this work was to study the in vivo performance of mucoadhesive microspheres in comparison with oral and intravenous preparations of ondansetron hydrochloride. The nasal delivery system gave increased AUC(0-240) and C(max) as compared to those of oral delivery. In conclusion, the gellan gum-based microsphere formulation of ondansetron hydrochloride with mucoadhesive properties with increased permeation rate is promising for prolonging nasal residence time and thereby nasal absorption. PMID:20020823

  1. Pharmacokinetic study on pradofloxacin in the dog – Comparison of serum analysis, ultrafiltration and tissue sampling after oral administration

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pradofloxacin, a newly developed 8-cyano-fluoroquinolone, show enhanced activity against Gram-positive organisms and anaerobes to treat canine and feline bacterial infections. The purpose of this cross-over study was to measure the unbound drug concentration of pradofloxacin in the interstitial fluid (ISF) using ultrafiltration and to compare the kinetics of pradofloxacin in serum, ISF and tissue using enrofloxacin as reference. Results After oral administration of enrofloxacin (5 mg/kg) and pradofloxacin (3 mg/kg and 6 mg/kg, respectively), serum collection and ultrafiltration in regular intervals over a period of 24 h were performed, followed by tissue sampling at the end of the third dosing protocol (pradofloxacin 6 mg/kg). Peak concentrations of pradofloxacin (3 mg/kg) were 1.55±0.31 μg/ml in the ISF and 1.85±0.23 μg/ml in serum and for pradofloxacin (6 mg/kg) 2.71±0.81 μg/kg in the ISF and 2.77±0.64 μg/kg in serum; both without a statistical difference between ISF and serum. Comparison between all sampling approaches showed no consistent pattern of statistical differences. Conclusions Despite some technical shortcomings the ultrafiltration approach appears to be the most sensitive sampling technique to estimate pharmacokinetic values of pradofloxacin at the infection site. Pharmacokinetics – Pradofloxacin – Ultrafiltration – Dog – Oral Administration. PMID:23410255

  2. Toxicology study assessing efficacy and safety of repeated administration of lipid/DNA complexes to mouse lung.

    PubMed

    Alton, E W F W; Boyd, A C; Cheng, S H; Davies, J C; Davies, L A; Dayan, A; Gill, D R; Griesenbach, U; Higgins, T; Hyde, S C; Innes, J A; McLachlan, G; Porteous, D; Pringle, I; Scheule, R K; Sumner-Jones, S

    2014-01-01

    For gene therapy to improve lung function in cystic fibrosis (CF) subjects, repeated administration of the gene transfer agent over the lifetime of patients is likely to be necessary. This requirement limits the utility of adenoviral and adeno-associated viral vectors (both previously evaluated in CF gene therapy trials) because of induced adaptive immune responses that render repeated dosing ineffective. For CF gene therapy trials, non-viral vectors are currently the only viable option. We previously showed that the cationic lipid formulation GL67A is the most efficient of several non-viral vectors analysed for airway gene transfer. Here, we assessed the efficacy and safety of administering 12 inhaled doses of GL67A complexed with pGM169, a CpG-free plasmid encoding human CFTR complementary DNA, into mice. We show that repeated administration of pGM169/GL67A to murine lungs is feasible, safe and achieves reproducible, dose-related and persistent gene expression (>140 days after each dose) using an aerosol generated by a clinically relevant nebuliser. This study supports progression into the first non-viral multidose lung trial in CF patients. PMID:24196086

  3. Bioequivalence Study of Two Long-Acting Formulations of Oxytetracycline Following Intramuscular Administration in Bovines

    PubMed Central

    Mestorino, Nora; Marchetti, María Laura; Lucas, Mariana Florencia; Modamio, Pilar; Zeinsteger, Pedro; Fernández Lastra, Cecilia; Segarra, Ignacio; Mariño, Eduardo Luis

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioequivalence of two commercial long-acting formulations based on oxytetracycline (OTC) hydrochloride between the reference formulation (Terramycin LA, Pfizer) and a test formulation (Cyamicin LA, Fort Dodge Saude Animal). Both formulations were administered in a single intramuscular route at a dose of 20 mg OTC/kg of body weight in clinically healthy bovines. The study was carried out according to a one-period parallel design. Plasma samples were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The limit of quantitation was 0.050 μg/mL with an accuracy of 101.67% with a coefficient of variation of 13.15%. Analysis of variance and 90% confidence interval tests were used to compare the bioavailability parameters (maximum plasma concentration, Cmax, and the area under the concentration-versus-time curve extrapolated to infinity, AUC0–∞) of both products. In the case of the time to maximum concentration (Tmax), non-parametric tests based on Wilcoxon’s signed rank test were preferred. The comparison of the mean AUC0–∞ values did not reveal any significant differences (311.40 ± 93.05 μg h/mL and 287.71 ± 45.31 μg h/mL, respectively). The results were similar for the Tmax (3.58 ± 0.90 h versus 3.42 ± 0.51 h). However, when comparing the mean Cmax some significant differences were found (8.73 ± 3.66 μg/mL and 10.43 ± 3.84 μg/mL, respectively). The 90% confidence intervals for the ratio of AUC0–∞ and Tmax values for the reference and test product are within the interval 80–125%, but the 90% confidence intervals for the ratio of Cmax falls outside the proposed interval. It was concluded that Cmax of test product are not within the 20% of those of the reference, thus suggesting that test OTC is not bioequivalent to the reference formulation. PMID:27446938

  4. A 4-week Repeated Dose Toxicity Study of Glycine in Rats by Gavage Administration

    PubMed Central

    Shibui, Yusuke; Miwa, Tadashi; Yamashita, Mayumi; Chin, Keigi; Kodama, Terutaka

    2013-01-01

    In order to examine the toxicity profile of glycine, an authorized food additive, a solution of glycine in water for injection was administered orally (via gavage) to male SD rats (Crl:CD(SD)) once daily for 4 weeks at doses of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg/day in a volume of 10 mL/kg. Control animals received vehicle only. No animals died, and no glycine-related changes were observed in body weight, food consumption, water consumption, hematology, organ weight, gross pathological examination or histopathological examination. In urinalysis, daily urinary volume and urinary Cl excretion were significantly higher in the 2000 mg/kg/day dose group, and urine pH and urinary protein showed lower trends in the glycine-treated groups. However, these changes were considered to be of little toxicological significance, because there were no histopathological changes in the kidneys or urinary bladder and no changes in other urinary parameters. As regards blood chemistry, phospholipids were significantly higher in the 2000 mg/kg/day dose group. However, the increase was small and was not considered to be toxicologically significant. In conclusion, none of the animals in any of the glycine-treated groups showed changes that were considered toxicologically significant. Therefore, the no-observed-adverse-effect level of glycine was estimated to be at least 2000 mg/kg/day under the conditions of this study. PMID:24526813

  5. A 4-week Repeated Dose Toxicity Study of Glycine in Rats by Gavage Administration.

    PubMed

    Shibui, Yusuke; Miwa, Tadashi; Yamashita, Mayumi; Chin, Keigi; Kodama, Terutaka

    2013-12-01

    In order to examine the toxicity profile of glycine, an authorized food additive, a solution of glycine in water for injection was administered orally (via gavage) to male SD rats (Crl:CD(SD)) once daily for 4 weeks at doses of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg/day in a volume of 10 mL/kg. Control animals received vehicle only. No animals died, and no glycine-related changes were observed in body weight, food consumption, water consumption, hematology, organ weight, gross pathological examination or histopathological examination. In urinalysis, daily urinary volume and urinary Cl excretion were significantly higher in the 2000 mg/kg/day dose group, and urine pH and urinary protein showed lower trends in the glycine-treated groups. However, these changes were considered to be of little toxicological significance, because there were no histopathological changes in the kidneys or urinary bladder and no changes in other urinary parameters. As regards blood chemistry, phospholipids were significantly higher in the 2000 mg/kg/day dose group. However, the increase was small and was not considered to be toxicologically significant. In conclusion, none of the animals in any of the glycine-treated groups showed changes that were considered toxicologically significant. Therefore, the no-observed-adverse-effect level of glycine was estimated to be at least 2000 mg/kg/day under the conditions of this study. PMID:24526813

  6. Dose site reactions and related findings after vaccine administration in safety studies.

    PubMed

    Baldrick, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Potential new human vaccines undergo toxicology testing to evaluate local reactogenicity and systemic toxicity. A review of 30 recently published and in-house repeat dose toxicity studies with a variety of vaccines was performed. Species tested were generally rat or rabbit, usually by intramuscular (although occasionally subcutaneous) injection. Results showed no unexpected findings indicating vaccine toxicity, but classic signs of enhanced acute and/or chronic inflammation at the dose site compared with that seen in injected control animals, often accompanied by changes in draining lymph nodes and the spleen (lymphoid hyperplasia and/or increased weight). Other associated signs of a response to vaccine dosing were altered clinical pathology parameters (commonly raised blood neutrophil count and altered globulin level). No obvious difference in dose site or systemic reaction was seen across vaccine, species or the dose route used. A non-dose recovery period of 2 to 4 weeks was sufficient to show evidence of reversibility of dose site effects. Injection site, lymphoid tissue and clinical pathological changes can be interpreted as related to an expected reaction after vaccine dosing, with generation of an immune response largely as a result of the presence of adjuvant, although direct vaccine antigen involvement was also occasionally demonstrated by the presence of a slightly increased inflammatory response seen over adjuvant treatment only. Overall, the need for toxicity testing of vaccines is in line with current regulatory guideline requirements and has proven to be a valuable part of the safety evaluation process prior to human use. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26968331

  7. A Case Study of Early Experience with Implementation of Collaborative Care in the Veterans Health Administration

    PubMed Central

    Kunik, Mark E.; Shepherd, Alexandra; Kirchner, JoAnn; Gottumukkala, Aruna

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Primary care remains critically important for those who suffer from mental disorders. Although collaborative care, which integrates mental health services into primary care, has been shown to be more effective than usual care, its implementation has been slow and the experience of providers and patients with collaborative care is less well known. The objective of this case study was to examine the effects of collaborative care on patient and primary care provider (PCP) experiences and communication during clinical encounters. Participating physicians completed a self-administered visit reconstruction questionnaire in which they logged details of patient visits and described their perceptions of the visits and the influence of collaborative care. Audio recordings of visits were analyzed to assess the extent of discussion about colocated mental health services and visit time devoted to mental health topics. The main outcome measures were the extent of discussion and recommendation for collaborative care during clinical visits and providers' experiences based on their responses to the visit reconstruction questionnaire. Providers surveyed expressed enthusiasm about collaborative care and cited the time constraint of office visits and lack of specialty support as the main reasons for limiting their discussion of mental health topics with patients. Despite the availability of mental health providers at the same clinic, PCPs missed many opportunities to address mental health issues with their patients. Ongoing education for PCPs regarding how to conduct a “warm handoff” to colocated providers will need to be an integral part of the implementation of collaborative care. (Population Health Management 2010;13:331–337) PMID:21090989

  8. Intracerebral administration of CpG oligonucleotide for patients with recurrent glioblastoma: a phase II study.

    PubMed

    Carpentier, Alexandre; Metellus, Philippe; Ursu, Renata; Zohar, Sarah; Lafitte, Francois; Barrié, Maryline; Meng, Yuxia; Richard, Margaretha; Parizot, Christophe; Laigle-Donadey, Florence; Gorochov, Guy; Psimaras, Dimitri; Sanson, Marc; Tibi, Annick; Chinot, Olivier; Carpentier, Antoine F

    2010-04-01

    Immunostimulating oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG motifs (CpG-ODN) have shown promising efficacy in cancer models when injected locally. In a phase I clinical trial, intratumoral infusions of CpG-ODN in glioblastoma (GBM) patients were well tolerated at doses up to 20 mg. This phase II trial was designed to study the efficacy of a local treatment by CpG-ODN in patients with recurrent GBMs. Patients with recurrent GBM occurring at least 3 months after radiotherapy, and previously treated with 1 or 2 regimens of chemotherapy received 20 mg of CpG-ODN (CpG-28) by convection-enhanced delivery. The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients without tumor progression 6 months after inclusion. Secondary endpoints were tolerance, survival, and radiological response. Thirty-four patients were enrolled in two centers between November 2004 and March 2006. Thirty-one patients received CpG-ODN treatment. The progression-free survival (PFS) at 6 months was 19%. One partial response and 3 minor responses were observed. The median overall survival was 28 weeks. Eight patients (24%) were alive 1 year after inclusion and 5 patients (15%) were alive after 2 years. Treatment was usually well tolerated. As reported previously, the most common toxicities were lymphopenia, mild fever, seizures, and transient neurological worsening. Despite a few cases showing a radiological response, CpG-28 showed modest activity on the 6-month PFS in this patient population. The molecular or clinical characteristics of a subgroup of patients that could potentially benefit from such an approach remain to be defined. PMID:20308317

  9. Reframing Research Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Sharon Stewart

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to inform administrators and organizational leaders that a change in the support offered to faculty and the environment of research administration is desirable. This recommendation is supported by the results of a Delphi study that was undertaken to gather expert opinions and recommendations from research faculty…

  10. DIMENSIONS OF ADMINISTRATIVE PERFORMANCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HEMPHILL, JOHN; AND OTHERS

    THE MAJOR OBJECTIVES WERE TO DEVELOP CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION, TO DEFINE THE NATURE OF THE JOB, AND TO DEVELOP AN INSTRUMENT FOR THE SELECTION OF ADMINISTRATORS. THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL PRINCIPAL WAS CHOSEN FOR THE STUDY BECAUSE OF THE HOST OF PROBLEMS RELATED TO THE CONDUCT OF AN EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM, INCLUDING THE…

  11. A study on the inhibitory mechanism for cholesterol absorption by α-cyclodextrin administration

    PubMed Central

    Furune, Takahiro; Ikuta, Naoko; Ishida, Yoshiyuki; Okamoto, Hinako; Nakata, Daisuke; Terao, Keiji

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background: Micelle formation of cholesterol with lecithin and bile salts is a key process for intestinal absorption of lipids. Some dietary fibers commonly used to reduce the lipid content in the body are thought to inhibit lipid absorption by binding to bile salts and decreasing the lipid solubility. Amongst these, α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) is reportedly one of the most powerful dietary fibers for decreasing blood cholesterol. However, it is difficult to believe that α-CD directly removes cholesterol because it has a very low affinity for cholesterol and its mechanism of action is less well understood than those of other dietary fibers. To identify this mechanism, we investigated the interaction of α-CD with lecithin and bile salts, which are essential components for the dissolution of cholesterol in the small intestine, and the effect of α-CD on micellar solubility of cholesterol. Results: α-CD was added to Fed-State Simulated Intestinal Fluid (FeSSIF), and precipitation of a white solid was observed. Analytical data showed that the precipitate was a lecithin and α-CD complex with a molar ratio of 1:4 or 1:5. The micellar solubility of cholesterol in the mixture of FeSSIF and α-CD was investigated, and found to decrease through lecithin precipitation caused by the addition of α-CD, in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, each of several other water-soluble dietary fibers was added to the FeSSIF, and no precipitate was generated. Conclusion: This study suggests that α-CD decreases the micellar solubility of cholesterol in the lumen of the small intestine via the precipitation of lecithin from bile salt micelles by complex formation with α-CD. It further indicates that the lecithin precipitation effect on the bile salt micelles by α-CD addition clearly differs from addition of other water-soluble dietary fibers. The decrease in micellar cholesterol solubility in the FeSSIF was the strongest with α-CD addition. PMID:25550749

  12. Cohort Study of the Impact of Time to Antibiotic Administration on Mortality in Patients with Febrile Neutropenia

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Regis G.

    2014-01-01

    The time to antibiotic administration (TTA) has been proposed as a quality-of-care measure in febrile neutropenia (FN); however, few data regarding the impact of the TTA on the mortality of adult cancer patients with FN are available. The objective of this study was to determine whether the TTA is a predictor of mortality in adult cancer patients with FN. A prospective cohort study of all consecutive cases of FN, evaluated from October 2009 to August 2011, at a single tertiary referral hospital in southern Brazil was performed. The TTA was assessed as a predictive factor for mortality within 28 days of FN onset using the Cox proportional hazards model. Kaplan-Meier curves were used for an assessment of the mortality rates according to different TTAs; the log-rank test was used for between-group comparisons. In total, 307 cases of FN (169 subjects) were evaluated. During the study period, there were 29 deaths. In a Cox regression analysis, the TTA was independently associated with mortality within 28 days (hazard ratio [HR], 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10 to 1.26); each increase of 1 h in the TTA raised the risk of mortality within 28 days by 18%. Patients with FN episodes with a TTA of ≤30 min had lower 28-day mortality rates than those with a TTA of between 31 min and 60 min (3.0% versus 18.1%; log-rank P = 0.0002). Early antibiotic administration was associated with higher survival rates in the context of FN. Efforts should be made to ensure that FN patients receive effective antibiotic therapy as soon as possible. A target of 30 min to the TTA should be adopted for cancer patients with FN. PMID:24752269

  13. The Prevalence of Antifungal Agents Administration in Patients Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Kargar, Mona; Ahmadvand, Alireza; Ahmadvand, Milad; Hadjibabaie, Molouk; Gholami, Kheirollah; Khoee, Seyed Hamid; Javadi, Mohammad Reza; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir

    2013-01-01

    Background Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are chief infectious complications in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, the diagnosis of fungal infections is difficult, and often empiric treatment initiates. Since there is no data available on the prevalence of antifungal drugs administration in allogeneic HSCT recipients in Iran, we decided to conduct this study. Methods This study was a retrospective review of records of patients who received allogeneic HSCT in the Hematology-Oncology, Bone Marrow Transplantation center at Shariati Hospital in Tehran, between August 2009 and August 2010. Results Sixty (73.1%) patients consist of 41 men (68.3%) with mean age of 26.3 (± 1.2) years received allogeneic HSCT. Patients received prophylaxis with fulconazole however; in 28 patients (46.7%) it was switched to low dose amphotericin B. Fifteen patients (25%) received treatment with antifungal agents. Amphotericin B was the empiric agent administered. In 3 patients treatment was switched to voriconazole. Neither positive culture nor direct microscopic evidence was available from the obtained specimen. Only in one patient the result of serum galactomannan assay was positive. There were no significant differences in neutropenia duration (P value: 0.54), length of hospital stay (P value: 0.27) and number of patients developed graft versus host disease (P value: 0.07) between patients received antifungal agents with those who did not receive treatment. Conclusion In this study HSCT recipients received antifungal agents for prophylaxis. Twenty five percent of patients received treatment with antifungal agents empirically. Improvement in diagnosis of these infections can be helpful and lead to targeted therapy. We suggest larger prospective trials for better assessment of antifungal agent administration. PMID:24505528

  14. Administrative IT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Katherine, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    When it comes to Administrative IT solutions and processes, best practices range across the spectrum. Enterprise resource planning (ERP), student information systems (SIS), and tech support are prominent and continuing areas of focus. But widespread change can also be accomplished via the implementation of campuswide document imaging and sharing,…

  15. Engineering Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    This book is intended to acquaint naval engineering officers with their duties in the engineering department. Standard shipboard organizations are analyzed in connection with personnel assignments, division operations, and watch systems. Detailed descriptions are included for the administration of directives, ship's bills, damage control, training…

  16. ADMINISTRATIVE CLIMATE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRUCE, ROBERT L.; CARTER, G.L., JR.

    IN THE COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, STYLES OF LEADERSHIP PROFOUNDLY AFFECT THE QUALITY OF THE SERVICE RENDERED. ACCORDINGLY, MAJOR INFLUENCES ON ADMINISTRATIVE CLIMATE AND EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY ARE EXAMINED IN ESSAYS ON (1) SOURCES OF JOB SATISFACTION AND DISSATISFACTION, (2) MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES BASED ON JOB-RELATED SATISFACTIONS AND NEEDS,…

  17. Database Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  18. Feasibility study: Application of RCM techniques for substation maintenance at the Bonneville Power Administration. [Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM)

    SciTech Connect

    Purucker, S.L.; Tonn, B.E.; Goeltz, R.T.; James, R.D.; Kercel, S.; Rizy, D.T.; Simpson, M.L.; Van Dyke, J.W.

    1992-05-28

    This feasibility study examines reliability centered maintenance (RCM) as it applies to Bonneville Power Administrations (BPA) substation maintenance program. Reliability techniques are examined in evaluated. Existing BPA equipment maintenance procedures are documented. Equipment failure history is considered. Economic impacts are estimated. Various equipment instrumentation methods are reviewed. Based on this analysis a prototype system is proposed. The prototype will be implemented in two phases. Phase 1 is to be completed in 1992, it includes instrumenting one power transformer and one oil circuit breaker. Software development will focus on displaying data. Phase 2 is to be completed the following year. The remaining transformers and breakers will be instrumented during the second phase. Software development will focus on predictive maintenance techniques and maintenance decision support.

  19. The impact of 9/11 on New York City's substance abuse treatment programs: a study of program administrators.

    PubMed

    Frank, Blanche; Dewart, Tracey; Schmeidler, James; Demirjian, Arlene

    2006-01-01

    Given the far-reaching effects of the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, a study was conducted under the supervision of the New York State Office of Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Services to assess the impact on New York City's substance abuse treatment programs. A stratified, random sample of 15 treatment programs was selected to represent the system's major modalities. Administrators representing these programs were interviewed face-to- face using a structured interview schedule. The questions mainly probed the problems experienced on 9/11 and afterwards, patient issues and the lessons learned. The findings show major concerns for the mental health of both staff members and patients, the failure of the telephone communication system, the particular sensitivity of drug-free outpatient clinics, the challenges experienced by methadone programs, and the need to update disaster planning. A host of problems came to the fore now requiring another level of thinking. PMID:16597568

  20. Increased sexual desire with exogenous testosterone administration in men with obstructive sleep apnea: a randomized placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Melehan, K L; Hoyos, C M; Yee, B J; Wong, K K; Buchanan, P R; Grunstein, R R; Liu, P Y

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone (T) deficiency, sexual dysfunction, obesity and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are common and often coexist. T prescriptions have increased worldwide during the last decade, including to those with undiagnosed or untreated OSA. The effect of T administration on sexual function, neurocognitive performance and quality of life in these men is poorly defined. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of T administration on sexual function, quality of life and neurocognitive performance in obese men with OSA. We also secondarily examined whether baseline T might modify the effects of T treatment by dichotomizing on baseline T levels pre-specified at 8, 11 and 13 nmol/L. This was a randomized placebo-controlled study in which 67 obese men with OSA (mean age 49 ± 1.3 years) were randomized to receive intramuscular injections of either 1000 mg T undecanoate or placebo at baseline, week 6 and week 12. All participants were concurrently enrolled in a weight loss program. General and sleep-related quality of life, neurocognitive performance and subjective sexual function were assessed before and 6, 12 and 18 weeks after therapy. T compared to placebo increased sexual desire (p = 0.004) in all men, irrespective of baseline T levels. There were no differences in erectile function, frequency of sexual attempts, orgasmic ability, general or sleep-related quality of life or neurocognitive function (all p = NS). In those with baseline T levels below 8 nmol/L, T increased vitality (p = 0.004), and reduced reports of feeling down (p = 0.002) and nervousness (p = 0.03). Our findings show that 18 weeks of T therapy increased sexual desire in obese men with OSA independently of baseline T levels whereas improvements in quality of life were evident only in those with T levels below 8 nmol/L. These small improvements would need to be balanced against potentially more serious adverse effects of T therapy on breathing. PMID:26610430

  1. Pharmacokinetic study of enrofloxacin in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after a single oral administration in medicated feed.

    PubMed

    Teles, J A; Castello Branco, L C; Del Bianchi, M; Pilarski, F; Reyes, F G R

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the disposition kinetics of enrofloxacin (ENR) in the plasma and its distribution in the muscle tissue of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after a single oral dose of 10 mg/kg body weight via medicated feed. The fish were kept at a temperature between 28 and 30 °C. The collection period was between 30 min and 120 h after administration of the drug. The samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD). The ENR was slowly absorbed and eliminated from the plasma (Cmax = 1.24 ± 0.37 μg/mL; Tmax = 8 h; T1/2Ke  = 19.36 h). ENR was efficiently distributed in the muscle tissue and reached maximum values (2.17 ± 0.74 μg/g) after 8 h. Its metabolite, ciprofloxacin (CIP), was detected and quantified in the plasma (0.004 ± 0.005 μg/mL) and muscle (0.01 ± 0.011 μg/g) for up to 48 h. After oral administration, the mean concentration of ENR in the plasma was well above the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC50 ) for most bacteria already isolated from fish except for Streptococcus spp. This way the dose used in this study allowed for concentrations in the blood to treat the diseases of tilapia. PMID:26270353

  2. A Study of the Relationship of Dogmatism and Academic Preparation of Faculty to Administrative Structure Preference at the Faculty Administrative Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burger, Vernon K.

    Cuyahoga Community College--Eastern Campus is attempting to devise an organizational structure which facilitates an open, creative environment, and to select faculty who have attitudes consonant with openness and experimentalism. The purpose of this study was to determine if there were relationships between (1) dogmatism of faculty and their…

  3. Patterns of Care in the Administration of Neo-adjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer. A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Vugts, Guusje; Maaskant-Braat, Adriana J G; Nieuwenhuijzen, Grard A P; Roumen, Rudi M H; Luiten, Ernest J T; Voogd, Adri C

    2016-05-01

    Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is used to facilitate radical surgery for initially irresectable or locally advanced breast cancer. The indication for NAC has been extended to clinically node negative (cN0) patients in whom adjuvant systemic therapy is foreseen. A population-based study was conducted to evaluate the increasing use of NAC, breast conserving surgery (BCS) after NAC and timing of the sentinel node biopsy (SNB). All female breast cancer patients, treated in 10 hospitals in the Eindhoven Cancer Registry area in the Netherlands between January 2003 and June 2012 were included (N = 18,427). In total, 1,402 patients (7.6%) received NAC. The administration increased from 2.5% in 2003 to 13.0% in 2011 (p < 0.001). Use of NAC increased from 0.5% to 2.3% for cT1 tumors, from 2.8% to 27.0% for cT2, from 30.6% to 70.9% for cT3, and from 40.5% to 58.1% for cT4 tumors (p < 0.001). In cN0 patients, use of NAC increased from 1.0% to 4.4% and in clinically node positive patients from 12.0% to 57.5% (p < 0.001). Downsizing of the tumor and BCS are achieved increasingly. In 2011, in three hospitals NAC was administered in <10% of patients, in five hospitals in 10-15% and in two hospitals the proportion of patients receiving NAC was >20% (p < 0.001). Of the 1,402 patients with NAC, 495 patients underwent SNB, 91.5% of whom prior to NAC. In the Netherlands up to one in eight patients receive NAC. The administration of NAC and the percentage of BCS increased over the past decade, especially in cT2 tumors. Considerable hospital variation in the administration of NAC exists. PMID:26945566

  4. Effects of oral administration of Lonicera caerulea berries on UVB-induced damage in SKH-1 mice. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rajnochová Svobodová, Alena; Galandáková, Adéla; Palíková, Irena; Doležal, Dalibor; Kylarová, Dana; Ulrichová, Jitka; Vostálová, Jitka

    2013-10-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation is a major environmental factor that has serious adverse effects on the structure and function of the skin. Although the UVB waveband (295-315 nm) represents only 5-10% of incoming UV light, it is very damaging to the skin. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Lonicera caerulea berries on UVB-induced damage to SKH-1 hairless mice. Mice were fed a L. caerulea berry-enriched diet (10%, w/w) for 14 days before a single UVB (1000 mJ cm(-2)) treatment. Effects on health status, antioxidant enzyme activity and expression, and DNA damage were evaluated. The bioavailability of L. caerulea phenolic components was also assessed. We found that feeding with L. caerulea berries prevented a decrease in catalase activity and stimulated NADPH quinone oxidoreductase-1, heme oxygenase-1, and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase catalytic and modulatory subunit expression in UVB exposed mice. Administration of the L. caerulea berry-enriched diet led to an increase in UVB-reduced interleukin-17 levels and a decrease in keratinocyte-derived chemokine protein expression that was enhanced after UVB treatment. Further, L. caerulea berries reduced UVB-induced DNA damage evaluated as number of single strand breaks, cyclobutane-pyrimidine dimer formation and H2AX phosphorylation, a marker of double strand breaks. Taken together, we provide evidence that oral administration of L. caerulea berries to mice affords at least partial protection from the adverse effects of a single UVB exposure via modulation of antioxidant enzyme activity/expression and reduction of DNA damage. PMID:23896761

  5. Comparative study on toxic effects induced by oral or intravascular administration of commonly used disinfectants and surfactants in rats.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yuying; Zhang, Shanshan; Tang, Meng; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Yiqing; Hieda, Yoko; Takeshita, Haruo

    2012-07-01

    Accidental ingestion or injection of household products sometimes occurs due to their accessibility, but the toxic manifestations have not been well characterized when they are internally administered. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxic effects induced by ingestion or injection of different ionic surfactants and disinfectants in rats. The test drugs involved benzalkonium and benzethonium (BZK and BZT, both cationic surfactants used as disinfectants), alkyldiaminoethylglycine (AEG, an amphoteric surfactant used as a disinfectant), linear alkylbenzenesulfonate (LAS, an anionic surfactant), polyoxyethylene cetylether (PEC, a nonionic surfactant), chlorhexidine (CHX, not a surfactant but a disinfectant) and saline (control). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered one of the test drugs orally (p.o.), intravenously (i.v.) or intraarterially (i.a.). The fatal effects appeared rapidly (<30 min) in i.v.-administered rats, while taking hours (>5 h) in i.a./p.o.-administered rats after a dose of around LD(50) , although the progress and degree of toxic effects varied among the drugs tested. In intravascular administration, BZK and BZT were fatal at doses of 15-20 mg kg(-1) . Higher concentrations in lung and kidney than in blood were determined. CHX showed a high toxic effect compared with cationic surfactants. The rats administered anionic (LAS) or amphoteric (AEG) surfactant died in less than 24 h at doses over 100 mg kg(-1) . In p.o. administration, the toxic effects were concentration/dose-dependent, and all rats administered high doses of surfactants except for PEC died at 5-20 h. The overall toxic ranks could be: cationic surfactant/CHX> anionic/amphoteric surfactant > nonionic surfactant. PMID:21387348

  6. UHPLC-MS/MS Determination, Pharmacokinetic, and Bioavailability Study of Taxifolin in Rat Plasma after Oral Administration of its Nanodispersion.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun-Juan; Wang, Zhi-Bin; Mi, Ying-Ying; Gao, Ming-Jie; Lv, Jin-Nan; Meng, Yong-Hai; Yang, Bing-You; Kuang, Hai-Xue

    2016-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS method based on the Triple Quad system has been developed and validated for the determination and pharmacokinetics of taxifolin and its nanodispersion in rat plasma. Taxifolin plasma samples along with butylparaben (internal standard) were pre-treated by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate, and then separated on a SB-C18 RRHD column (150 mm × 2.1 mm × 1.8 μm) using isocratic elution with a run time of 3.0 min. The mobile phase was acetonitrile-water (90:10, v/v) containing 5 mM ammonium acetate at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. Quantification of taxifolin was performed by the electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with negative atmospheric ionization at m/z 303.0→285.0 for taxifolin and 193.1→92.0 for I.S., respectively. The calibration curve of taxifolin showed good linearity over a concentration range of 5.0-4280 ng/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.9995. The limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 5.0 ng/mL. Intra-day, inter-day precision and accuracy (percent relative to standard deviation) were all within 8% at three concentration levels. A total recovery of taxifolin and I.S. was beyond 75%. The present LC-MS/MS method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic studies of taxifolin after intravenous administration of taxifolin, oral administration of its physical mixture and nanodispersion. The absolute bioavailability of taxifolin was calculated as 0.75% for taxifolin nanodispersion and 0.49% for taxifolin, respectively. PMID:27089318

  7. Salary-Trend Study of Faculty in Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Services for the Years 1995-96 and 1998-99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Richard D.

    This study examined salary data for 369 college faculty in the administrative assistant and secretarial services field for both public and private institutions for the years 1995-1996 and 1998-1999. The study reflects data from the 279 public and 386 private institutions that participated in both study years. The study found that the average…

  8. Enrollment and Monitoring of Women in Post-Approval Studies for Medical Devices Mandated by the Food and Drug Administration

    PubMed Central

    Herz, Naomi; Loyo-Berrios, Nilsa; Tarver, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Disease presentation, prevalence, and treatment effects vary by sex, thus it is important to ensure adequate participation of both sexes in medical device post-approval studies (PAS). Methods: The goals of this study were to determine the participation rate of women in PAS mandated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and if participation varied by clinical area. The study also evaluated the frequency in which enrollment by sex is reported by applicant reports and FDA reviews, as well as the frequency in which final study reports analyze whether outcomes differ by sex. Results: Of 89 studies with enrollment completed, data on sex of participants were available in 93% of submitted reports, while data on enrollment by sex was evaluated and noted in 43% of FDA review memos. Study participation varied by clinical area, with female participation ranging from 32% in cardiovascular PAS to 90% in PAS for reconstructive devices. Of 53 completed studies, data on enrollment by sex was provided in 49 of the final reports. Of these 14% included a multivariate analysis that included sex as a covariate and 4% included a subgroup analysis for female participants. Conclusions: Data on sex was not routinely assessed in FDA reviews. Based on these findings, FDA implemented new procedures to ensure participation by sex is evaluated in PAS reviews. FDA will continue working with applicants to develop PAS that enroll and retain proportions of women consistent with the sex-specific prevalence for the disease or condition the device is used to treat. PMID:24405314

  9. Biases in detection of apparent “weekend effect” on outcome with administrative coding data: population based study of stroke

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linxin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the accuracy of coding of admissions for stroke on weekdays versus weekends and any impact on apparent outcome. Design Prospective population based stroke incidence study and a scoping review of previous studies of weekend effects in stroke. Setting Primary and secondary care of all individuals registered with nine general practices in Oxfordshire, United Kingdom (OXVASC, the Oxford Vascular Study). Participants All patients with clinically confirmed acute stroke in OXVASC identified with multiple overlapping methods of ascertainment in 2002-14 versus all acute stroke admissions identified by hospital diagnostic and mortality coding alone during the same period. Main outcomes measures Accuracy of administrative coding data for all patients with confirmed stroke admitted to hospital in OXVASC. Difference between rates of “false positive” or “false negative” coding for weekday and weekend admissions. Impact of inaccurate coding on apparent case fatality at 30 days in weekday versus weekend admissions. Weekend effects on outcomes in patients with confirmed stroke admitted to hospital in OXVASC and impacts of other potential biases compared with those in the scoping review. Results Among 92 728 study population, 2373 episodes of acute stroke were ascertained in OXVASC, of which 826 (34.8%) mainly minor events were managed without hospital admission, 60 (2.5%) occurred out of the area or abroad, and 195 (8.2%) occurred in hospital during an admission for a different reason. Of 1292 local hospital admissions for acute stroke, 973 (75.3%) were correctly identified by administrative coding. There was no bias in distribution of weekend versus weekday admission of the 319 strokes missed by coding. Of 1693 admissions for stroke identified by coding, 1055 (62.3%) were confirmed to be acute strokes after case adjudication. Among the 638 false positive coded cases, patients were more likely to be admitted on weekdays than at weekends (536

  10. 3 to 1: That's the Best Ratio of Tenure-Track Faculty to Administrators, a Study Concludes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    In the long-running debate over how many administrators are too many, two economic researchers believe they have identified an ideal ratio. For colleges to operate most effectively, they say, each institution should employ three tenured or tenure-track faculty for every one full-time administrator. What the ratio is now is difficult to say, though…

  11. Paperwork and Administrative Burden for School Districts under Title I. A Special Report from the Title I District Practices Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezmovic, Victor; Keesling, J. Ward

    This report considers how local Title I administrators allocate time responsibilities, how burdensome and important they find the various Title I requirements, and what effects they expect the Education Consolidation and Improvement Act to have on paperwork and administrative burden. Data include mail questionnaires returned by a national sample…

  12. A Phenomenological Study of Perceptions of Early Childhood Administrators Related to Transformational Leadership, Educational Paths, and Organizational Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Lori

    2012-01-01

    Early childhood (EC) administrators could be the most important contributors to quality experiences in EC settings; they are also responsible for the caliber of experiences for children and staff. A quality EC program is licensed and accredited with administrators who have professional preparation and work experience and can lead and manage EC…

  13. Administrators in Action--Managing Public Monies and Processing Emotion in School Activities: A Teaching Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenuto, Penny L.; Gardiner, Mary E.; Yamamoto, Julie K.

    2015-01-01

    This teaching case describes school administrators in action performing day-to-day leadership tasks, managing public funds in school activities, and interacting with others appropriately. The case focuses on administrative challenges in handling and managing school activity funds. A method for processing emotion is discussed to assist…

  14. Awareness and coverage of mass drug administration for elimination of lymphatic filariasis: a community based cross sectional study in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Ram Kumar; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadur; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Ranabhat, Kamal; Wagle, Rajendra Raj

    2015-02-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is among the major public health problems in Nepal. The disease is a major cause of morbidities primarily, lymphedema of legs and hydrocele and it impedes socio economic development in many endemic areas of the country. This study is aimed at exploring the understanding of people about mass drug administration (MDA) of the said disease and the status of compliance of MDA in Nepal. This study is a cross sectional study carried out among 894 household samples in three of the sixty LF endemic districts. The selected districts were Dhading, Kapilvastu and Kailali. The sentinel surveillance of sites in three districts constituted the sampling frame at the first stage. The peripheral health care centers in the sentinel sites constituted the sampling frame at the second stage of sampling. The coverage of MDA was 95.5 %. However, the compliance was less. Only 71.6 % of the respondents who took the drugs from health workers swallowed the diethyl carbamazine (DEC) completely, other did not swallow. In the present study, majority of respondents reported that they had heard or seen persons with side effects of DEC in their community. A total of 20 % of respondents reported that they had side effects after having DEC and only 3.9 % of these side effects were treated. The Female Community Health volunteers (FCHVs), health workers and radio/Television (TV) were the chief sources of MDA related information. This study recommends for a concerted public health action combining effective drug delivery mechanism and sound public awareness campaigns. The community people need to be made aware beforehand about the location, time of drug distribution. Also public awareness of the DEC should be conducted so that people would trust it and comply with the drug regime. Along with the health workers and radio/TV that has been used traditionally, we recommend mobilization of FCHVs in the public awareness campaigns the MDA campaigns. PMID:24996654

  15. Prions efficiently cross the intestinal barrier after oral administration: Study of the bioavailability, and cellular and tissue distribution in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Urayama, Akihiko; Concha-Marambio, Luis; Khan, Uffaf; Bravo-Alegria, Javiera; Kharat, Vineetkumar; Soto, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Natural forms of prion diseases frequently originate by oral (p.o.) infection. However, quantitative information on the gastro-intestinal (GI) absorption of prions (i.e. the bioavailability and subsequent biodistribution) is mostly unknown. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the fate of prions after oral administration, using highly purified radiolabeled PrPSc. The results showed a bi-phasic reduction of PrPSc with time in the GI, except for the ileum and colon which showed sustained increases peaking at 3–6 hr, respectively. Plasma and whole blood 125I-PrPSc reached maximal levels by 30 min and 3 hr, respectively, and blood levels were constantly higher than plasma. Upon crossing the GI-tract 125I-PrPSc became associated to blood cells, suggesting that binding to cells decreased the biological clearance of the agent. Size-exclusion chromatography revealed that oligomeric 125I-PrPSc were transported from the intestinal tract, and protein misfolding cyclic amplification showed that PrPSc in organs and blood retained the typical prion self-replicating ability. Pharmacokinetic analysis found the oral bioavailability of 125I-PrPSc to be 33.6%. Interestingly, 125I-PrPSc reached the brain in a quantity equivalent to the minimum amount needed to initiate prion disease. Our findings provide a comprehensive and quantitative study of the fate of prions upon oral infection. PMID:27573341

  16. Evaluation of monooleine aqueous dispersions as tools for topical administration of curcumin: characterization, in vitro and ex-vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Puglia, Carmelo; Cardile, Venera; Panico, Anna Maria; Crascì, Lucia; Offerta, Alessia; Caggia, Silvia; Drechsler, Markus; Mariani, Paolo; Cortesi, Rita; Esposito, Elisabetta

    2013-07-01

    Curcumin (CUR) is a well-known natural compound showing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor abilities but characterized by poor bioavailability and chemical instability, which drastically reduce its application in the treatment of chronic diseases such as osteoarthritis. The aim of the present study is the design and evaluation of monooleine aqueous dispersion (MAD) as novel carriers for the topical administration of CUR. CUR-loaded MAD was formulated using two different emulsifier systems, namely poloxamer 407 (MAD-A) and sodium cholate-sodium caseinate (MAD-B). These vehicles were characterized, and their influence on in vitro percutaneous absorption of CUR was also evaluated. Furthermore, an oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay was used to determine their antioxidant activity, and a Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of the formulations on inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2 expressions. From the obtained results, CUR encapsulation efficiency was higher than 98% for MAD-A and 82% for MAD-B. Shelf-life studies showed that MAD-A maintains CUR stability better than MAD-B, and both vehicles demonstrated, in vitro, control of drug diffusion through the skin. Finally, MAD-A and MAD-B were able to extend the antioxidant/anti-inflammatory effects of CUR, also confirming the protective effect toward CUR chemical stability. PMID:23686742

  17. Administrative Implications of Curriculum Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Max G.; Eidell, Terry L.

    1970-01-01

    The director of the Center for the Advanced Study of Educational Administration at the University of Oregon and one of his associates discuss the new role of administration in an individual-oriented educational system. (AA)

  18. Social Media Policy on Campus: A Case Study of the Development and Implementation of a Social Media Policy for University Administrators, Faculty, and Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garber, Michelle Brooks

    2011-01-01

    This single-site qualitative study sought to address the challenges associated with the growing use of social media by university administrators, faculty, and staff (Wandel, 2007) through a case study analysis of a university with a social media policy for university employees. The study describes the development and implementation of a university…

  19. Morphological Changes of Human Corneal Endothelial Cells after Rho-Associated Kinase Inhibitor Eye Drop (Ripasudil) Administration: A Prospective Open-Label Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Okumura, Naoki; Suganami, Hideki; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effect and safety of a selective Rho kinase inhibitor, ripasudil 0.4% eye drops, on corneal endothelial cells of healthy subjects. Design Prospective, interventional case series. Methods In this study, 6 healthy subjects were administered ripasudil 0.4% in the right eye twice daily for 1 week. Morphological changes and corneal endothelial cell density were examined by noncontact and contact specular microscopy. Central corneal thickness and corneal volume of 5 mm-diameter area of center cornea were analyzed by Pentacam Scheimpflug topography. All the above measurements were conducted in both eyes before administration, 1.5 and 6 hours after the initial administration on day 0; and in the same manner after the final administration on day 7. Results By noncontact specular microscopy, indistinct cell borders with pseudo guttae were observed, but by contact specular microscopy, morphological changes of corneal endothelial cells were mild and pseudo guttae was not observed after single and repeated administration of ripasudil in all subjects. These changes resolved prior to the next administration, and corneal endothelial cell density, central corneal thickness and corneal volume were not changed throughout the study period. Conclusion Transient morphological changes of corneal endothelial cells such as indistinct cell borders with pseudo guttae were observed by noncontact specular microscopy in healthy subjects after ripasudil administration. Corneal edema was not observed and corneal endothelial cell density did not decrease after 1 week repetitive administration. These morphological changes were reversible and corneal endothelial cell morphology returned to normal prior to the next administration. Trial Registration JAPIC Clinical Trials Information 142705 PMID:26367375

  20. [Study of serum concentrations and urinary excretion of secnidazole after oral administration in man. Comparison with tinidazole].

    PubMed

    Populaire, P; Decouvelaere, B; Renard, A; Pasquier, P

    1980-11-01

    Secnidazole, a derivative of 5-nitro imidazole exhibits trichomonacid, amoebicid and antimicrobial properties; it has been studied in view of its biological fate in healthy volunteers (man and woman) comparatively with tinidazole. Both products were administered orally to the same volunteers at the single dose level of 2 g. The seric concentrations and the pharmacokinetic profile were determined up to the 72nd hour after drug administration. The whole urinary excretion (unchanged product + metabolites) during the same period was determined in percent of the administered dose level. Secnidazole is particularly different from tinidazole owing to its slower blood clearance. The apparent average half-life in the ten volunteers (5 men and 5 women) is about 17 hours for secnidazole and 13 hours for tinidazole. However, for both drugs, a difference between men and women was demonstrated: in female volunteers, the decrease in blood concentrations occurs a little quicker than in male volunteers. Regarding urinary excretion, it is also a little greater in female volunteers than in male volunteers. PMID:7003510

  1. The pharmacokinetics and metabolism of ifosfamide during bolus and infusional administration: a randomized cross-over study.

    PubMed Central

    Singer, J. M.; Hartley, J. M.; Brennan, C.; Nicholson, P. W.; Souhami, R. L.

    1998-01-01

    In a randomized cross-over trial, 11 patients received ifosfamide (IFOS) in 21-day cycles, which alternated between 3 g m(-2) x (2 or 3) days given as a 1-h bolus doses, or the same total dose as a continuous infusion. Patients who received four or more cycles also alternated between two cycles on dexamethasone 4 mg 8 hourly for 3 days starting 8 h before IFOS, and two cycles off dexamethasone. A total of 34 patient cycles were studied and serum and urinary levels of IFOS, 2 dechloroethylifosfamide (2DC), 3 dechloroethylifosfamide (3DC), carboxyifosfamide (CX) and isophosphoramide mustard (IPM) were measured by thin-layer chromatography. No significant differences could be detected in the areas under the curve (AUCs) of serum concentration, nor in the proportion of IFOS or its metabolites found in the urine. There was no significant effect of dexamethasone on IFOS metabolism. These results indicate that there is no identifiable pharmacokinetic basis for insistence on either bolus or infusional methods of IFOS administration. PMID:9528844

  2. In vivo study of the mucus-permeating properties of PEG-coated nanoparticles following oral administration.

    PubMed

    Inchaurraga, Laura; Martín-Arbella, Nekane; Zabaleta, Virginia; Quincoces, Gemma; Peñuelas, Ivan; Irache, Juan M

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the mucus-permeating properties of poly(ethyleneglycol)-coated nanoparticles prepared from the copolymer of methyl vinyl ether and maleic anhydride (Gantrez® AN) after oral administration in rats. Nanoparticles were "decorated" with PEGs of different molecular masses (PEG2000, PEG6000 and PEG10000) at a PEG-to-polymer ratio of 0.125. All the PEG-coated nanoparticles displayed a mean size of ∼150 nm, slightly negative ζ values and a "brush" conformation as determined from the calculation of the PEG density. For in vivo studies, nanoparticles were labelled with either (99m)Tc or fluorescent tags. Naked nanoparticles displayed a higher ability to interact with the mucosa of the stomach than with the small intestine. However, these interactions were restricted to the mucus layer covering the epithelial surface, as visualised by fluorescence microscopy. On the contrary, PEG-coated nanoparticles moved rapidly to the intestine, as determined by imaging, and, then, were capable to develop important interactions with the mucosa, reaching the surface of the epithelium. These mucus permeating properties were more intense for nanoparticles coated with PEG2000 or PEG6000 than with PEG10000. However, the capability of nanocarriers to develop adhesive interactions within the mucosa decreased when prepared at excessive PEG densities. PMID:25541441

  3. A pilot study of the effects of chronic paroxetine administration on hippocampal N-acetylaspartate in generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Mathew, S J; Price, R B; Shungu, D C; Mao, X; Smith, E L P; Amiel, J M; Coplan, J D

    2010-08-01

    The neural basis of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is poorly characterized. The effect of chronic administration (12 weeks) of paroxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, on N-acetylaspartate (NAA), a marker of neuronal viability, was evaluated in adults with GAD using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging ((1)H MRSI) at 1.5 T. We hypothesized that, pretreatment abnormalities in hippocampal NAA/creatine (NAA/Cr) would normalize with symptomatic improvement. Nine GAD patients (mean age = 41.7 year; 4 females) received 12 weeks of open-label paroxetine treatment, flexibly dosed up to 60 mg/day. Clinical outcome was assessed with the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A). Multislice ( 1)H MRSI scans were performed at unmedicated baseline and following 6 and 12 weeks of treatment. Ten untreated healthy volunteers (HVs) (mean age = 37.1 year; 4 females) received scans at the same intervals. All patients achieved remission (HAM-A study failed to support an association between a hippocampal neuronal marker and anxiolytic response to paroxetine, and suggests further investigation of potential trait-like hippocampal abnormalities in GAD. PMID:19204062

  4. A computer simulation study of optimal thyroid radiation protection during investigations involving the administration of radioiodine-labelled pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Wootton, R; Hammond, B J

    1978-04-01

    The administration of iodide for thyroid blocking is now known to carry its own risks, at least in certain categories of patients. We have therefore made a theoretical study by computer simulation of the efficacy of various thyroid blocking regimes. In the case of injected 125I- or 131I-iodide, substantial thyroid protection may theoretically be achieved by a single oral dose of inorganic iodide, for example a 90% reduction in radiation dose is produced by only 20 mg iodide. Repeating the initial blocking dose is of little value. A single blocking dose, however, affords poor protection against radioiodine released from labelled plasma proteins. Both for short-lived proteins such as fibrinogen, and for the longer-lived proteins such as albumin, the optimum dosage schedule appears to be stable iodide given daily for two to three weeks. For instance, 10 mg daily for a fortnight will reduce thyroid irradiation by a factor of ten following injection of 125I-fibrinogen. PMID:647182

  5. Health-selective migration among patients with rheumatoid arthritis in Québec: a cohort study using administrative data.

    PubMed

    Labrecque, Jeremy A; Kyle, Ryan P; Joseph, Lawrence; Bernatsky, Sasha

    2016-09-01

    Little is known about how rheumatoid arthritis (RA) affects an individual's ability to relocate. The current literature suggests the relationship between health and migration is often disease-specific. We sought to estimate the impact of RA diagnosis on migration within a Canadian province, comparing migration rates in residents before and after RA diagnosis. We identified a cohort of 81,181 individuals diagnosed with RA between 1998 and 2009 using Québec administrative databases. A migration was defined as a change in the first three characters of the postal code. We categorized migrations as urban or rural depending upon an individual's origin and destination. We estimated the association between RA diagnosis and migration by fitting marginal models using a generalized estimating equations approach, adjusting for age, sex, and population level socioeconomic status indicators. The vast majority of moves after RA diagnosis were within urban areas. RA diagnosis was associated with increased migration except for people around age 50 moving within urban areas. Although RA was associated with increased inter-urban migration in many demographic groups, the net result did not translate to higher rates of rural-to-urban migration after RA diagnosis. Our results suggest fairly complex associations between RA diagnosis and migration. Both age and location (urban or rural) modify this effect. Overall, we did not see a greater movement from rural-to-urban areas after RA diagnosis. This is of interest for studies of regional environmental effects on chronic disease patterns. PMID:27460818

  6. Multicenter randomized, controlled study of intramuscular administration of interferon-beta for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Castro, A; Suárez, D; Inglada, L; Carballo, E; Domínguez, A; Diago, M; Such, J; Del Olmo, J A; Pérez-Mota, A; Pedreira, J; Quiroga, J A; Carreño, V

    1997-01-01

    The intramuscular administration of interferon-beta (IFN-beta) at a dosage of 6 million units three times per week for 6 months has been evaluated in 90 patients included in a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. Transaminase levels were significantly reduced in IFN-beta-treated patients (p = 0.015) and were significantly lower with respect to those of the untreated controls (p = 0.040 at 6 months). Four treated (8%) and one untreated (2.5%) patients had normal transaminase values after 6 months. At study end (12 months), three quarters of the IFN-beta-treated patients had sustained transaminase normalization, whereas the untreated case had relapsed. Hepatitis C viremia was cleared in 6 (12%) treated patients but in none of the untreated controls (p = 0.058). Side effects of IFN-beta were infrequent (a mild flu-like syndrome in < 10%, asthenia in 16%, anorexia in 8%, headaches and weight loss in 8%, and hair loss in 4%). Leukocyte and platelet counts decreased during IFN-beta treatment, but no dose modifications were necessary. Such decreases were not statistically significant when compared with the levels in the untreated controls. Intramuscular IFN-beta at the dosage used has little efficacy in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. Because of IFN-beta tolerance, higher doses and alternate routes of injection might prove beneficial for the treatment of this disease. PMID:9041468

  7. A comparative pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic study of FSK0808 versus reference filgrastim after repeated subcutaneous administration in healthy Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Matsuguma, Kyoko; Matsuki, Shunji; Sakamoto, Kei; Shiramoto, Masanari; Nakagawa, Misato; Kimura, Miyuki; Irie, Shin; Kaneko, Daiki; Ohnishi, Akihiro

    2015-03-01

    FSK0808, a biosimilar of filgrastim, is a recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor developed by Fuji Pharmaceuticals and Mochida Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, crossover study in healthy Japanese men, comparing the number of CD34-positive cells (CD34(+) cells) after repeated subcutaneous administration of either FSK0808 or the reference filgrastim (Gran(®) ). As primary endpoints, we compared the maximum number of CD34(+) cells (CD34(+)  Cmax ) and the time to reach CD34(+) Cmax (CD34(+) tmax ). As secondary endpoints, we compared the area under the curve for the number of CD34(+) cells over time at the 410 hours time point (CD34(+) AUC0-410 ), the parameters used to calculate the pharmacodynamic index of the absolute neutrophil count, and the pharmacokinetic parameters. Regarding the CD34(+) Cmax and the CD34(+) AUC0-410 values, the 95% confidence interval (CI) of the differences between the mean values for each drug was within the range of log(0.8)-log(1.25). With respect to the differences in the median values between drugs, the ratio against the reference filgrastim median value in the 95% CI was within the range of ± 0.2 for the CD34(+) tmax value. From these results, we considered that these drugs display equivalent pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties. PMID:27128214

  8. In vivo study of laser irradiation of fractionated drug administration based mechanism for effective photodynamic therapy in rat liver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khurshid, A.; Firdous, S.; Ahmat, L.; Ferraria, J.; Vollet-Filho, J. D.; Kurachi, C.; Bagneto, V. S.; Nawaz, M.; Ikram, M.; Ahmad, M.

    2011-11-01

    Up-regulation of stress-activated proteins in cancer cells plays a protective role against photodynamic induced apoptosis. Post photodynamic therapy extracted normal rat liver tissue usually shows a fraction of surviving cells, the photodynamic resistant cells, residing in the necrotic region. To treat these photodynamic resistant cells a technique has been proposed based on fractionated drug administration of diluted photosensitizer, keeping the net concentration (5 mg/kg) constant, and subsequently varying drug light interval (DLI). Flourescence measurements were made for the presence of photosensitizer in a tissue. For qualitative analysis both histological and morphological studies were made. Although preliminary aim of this approach was not achieved but there were some interesting observation made i.e. for higher dilution of photosensitizer there was a sharp boundary between necrotic and normal portion of tissue. An increase in the absorption coefficient (α) from 2.7 → 2.9 was observed as photosensitizer was diluted while the corresponding threshold dose (D th) persistently decreases from (0.10 → 0.02) J/cm2 when irradiated with a 635 nm laser fluence of 150 J/cm2.

  9. A micro case study of the legal and administrative arrangements for river health in the Kangaroo River (NSW).

    PubMed

    Mooney, C; Farrier, D

    2002-01-01

    Kangaroo Valley is a drinking water supply catchment for Kangaroo Valley village, parts of the Southern Highlands and Sydney. It is also a popular recreation area both for swimming and canoeing. Land use has traditionally been dominated by dairy farming but there has been significant and continuing development of land for hobby farms and rural residential subdivision. Dairy industry restructuring has affected the viability of some farms in the Valley and created additional pressure for subdivision. River health is a function of flows, water quality, riparian vegetation, geomorphology and aquatic habitat and riverine biota. River flows in the Kangaroo River are affected by water extraction and storage for urban water supply and extraction by commercial irrigators and riparian land holders which have a significant impact at low flows. Current water quality often does not meet ANZECC Guidelines for primary contact and recreation and the river is a poor source of raw drinking water. Key sources of contaminants are wastewater runoff from agriculture, and poorly performing on-site sewage management systems. Riparian vegetation, which is critical to the maintenance of in-stream ecosystems suffers from uncontrolled stock access and weed infestation. The management of land use and resulting diffuse pollution sources is critical to the long term health of the river. The Healthy Rivers Commission of New South Wales Independent Inquiry into the Shoalhaven River System Final Report July, 1999 found that the longer term protection of the health of the Kangaroo River is contingent upon achievement of patterns of land use that have regard to land capability and also to the capability of the river to withstand the impacts of inappropriate or poorly managed land uses. This micro case study of Kangaroo Valley examines the complex legal and administrative arrangements with particular reference to the management of diffuse pollution for river health. In the past, diffuse pollution has

  10. A Review of the Literature on College Administrators and Administrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, George; Uhse, Stefan

    A review of the extensive literature on college administration and college administrators reveals there are relatively few empirical studies in the field. It was also observed that: there is widespread agreement on a few broad principles; there has been a heavy emphasis on human relations and proper administrative procedures; there are fundamental…

  11. Oxaliplatin Immune-Induced Syndrome Occurs With Cumulative Administration and Rechallenge: Single Institution Series and Systematic Review Study.

    PubMed

    Bencardino, Katia; Mauri, Gianluca; Amatu, Alessio; Tosi, Federica; Bonazzina, Erica; Palmeri, Laura; Querques, Marialuisa; Ravera, Federica; Menegotto, Alberto; Boiani, Elisa; Sartore-Bianchi, Andrea; Siena, Salvatore

    2016-09-01

    Oxaliplatin immune-induced syndrome (OIIS) is an uncommon, potentially life-threatening, side effect associated with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. The present study reports 5 original cases of OIIS and systematically reviewed the available published cases. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical archives of the Niguarda Cancer Center from 2009 to 2015 and conducted a search for OIIS using the PubMed database, followed by deeper investigation of the references of the recorded studies. We pooled our series with other reported cases for systematic review in accordance with the recommendations of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement using only English language as the selection criterion. A total of 61 OIIS cases were analyzed, the largest series reported to date. Of the 61 patients, 56 (91.8%) had received oxaliplatin for metastatic colorectal cancer. In 32 of the 61 patients (52.5%), OIIS was associated with grade 4 thrombocytopenia and in 4 (6.6%) with grade 4 anemia. OIIS was fatal in 4 patients. In 49 patients, oxaliplatin-induced immune system activation was tested using the Coombs test or by detection of antiplatelet antibodies and was positive in 87.7% of the patients. The average number of oxaliplatin cycles until the onset of OIIS was 16.7, and the number was significantly lower when oxaliplatin was administered as a rechallenge after a period of vacancy of treatment with this agent (4.6 cycles as rechallenge vs. 13.6 as first-time exposure; P < .00001). OIIS is triggered by cumulative administration of oxaliplatin, characteristically with a threefold earlier onset when the drug is administered as a rechallenge. Prompt identification of OIIS can be expected to reduce the risk of iatrogenic morbidity and mortality. PMID:26979913

  12. Prions efficiently cross the intestinal barrier after oral administration: Study of the bioavailability, and cellular and tissue distribution in vivo.

    PubMed

    Urayama, Akihiko; Concha-Marambio, Luis; Khan, Uffaf; Bravo-Alegria, Javiera; Kharat, Vineetkumar; Soto, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Natural forms of prion diseases frequently originate by oral (p.o.) infection. However, quantitative information on the gastro-intestinal (GI) absorption of prions (i.e. the bioavailability and subsequent biodistribution) is mostly unknown. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the fate of prions after oral administration, using highly purified radiolabeled PrP(Sc). The results showed a bi-phasic reduction of PrP(Sc) with time in the GI, except for the ileum and colon which showed sustained increases peaking at 3-6 hr, respectively. Plasma and whole blood (125)I-PrP(Sc) reached maximal levels by 30 min and 3 hr, respectively, and blood levels were constantly higher than plasma. Upon crossing the GI-tract (125)I-PrP(Sc) became associated to blood cells, suggesting that binding to cells decreased the biological clearance of the agent. Size-exclusion chromatography revealed that oligomeric (125)I-PrP(Sc) were transported from the intestinal tract, and protein misfolding cyclic amplification showed that PrP(Sc) in organs and blood retained the typical prion self-replicating ability. Pharmacokinetic analysis found the oral bioavailability of (125)I-PrP(Sc) to be 33.6%. Interestingly, (125)I-PrP(Sc) reached the brain in a quantity equivalent to the minimum amount needed to initiate prion disease. Our findings provide a comprehensive and quantitative study of the fate of prions upon oral infection. PMID:27573341

  13. Switching from subcutaneous insulin injection to oral vildagliptin administration in hemodialysis patients with type 2 diabetes: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Naoshi; Babazono, Tetsuya; Hanai, Ko; Uchigata, Yasuko

    2016-08-01

    We conducted this pilot study to examine efficacy and safety of switching from subcutaneous injection of insulin to oral administration of a DPP-4 inhibitor, vildagliptin, in type 2 diabetic patients undergoing hemodialysis. Consecutive type 2 diabetic patients on hemodialysis who were switched from insulin to vildagliptin between August 2010 and April 2011 were extracted from the hospital database. In patients whose post-switch increase in glycated albumin (GA) levels was <1.5 % without resuming insulin at least 24 weeks, the switch was defined as efficacious. In patients who resumed insulin therapy due to worsening of glycemic control or in patients whose GA levels increased by 1.5 % or more, the switch was considered inefficacious. To predict patients in whom switch to vildagliptin proved efficacious, receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and logistic regression analysis were performed. A total of 20 patients were extracted; insulin dose was 12 ± 4 units/day; levels of GA and HbA1c was 21.0 ± 3.7 % and 6.5 ± 0.6 %, respectively. Among them, 11 patients were efficaciously switched to vildagliptin. ROC analysis and logistic analysis showed that patients with a shorter duration of diabetes, as well as lower levels of GA and HbA1c, appeared to have a higher likelihood of successful treatment switches. None of the patients developed hypoglycemic symptoms, ketoacidosis, or serious adverse events. In conclusion, efficacious change from insulin to vildagliptin was possible in approximately a half of type 2 diabetic dialysis patients. Long-term follow-up studies including large number of patients are needed to confirm these results. PMID:27193434

  14. Association between long-term exposure to traffic particles and blood pressure in the Veterans Administration Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Joel; Alexeeff, Stacey E; Mordukhovich, Irina; Gryparis, Alexandros; Vokonas, Pantel; Suh, Helen; Coull, Brent A

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Particulate air pollution is associated with cardiovascular events, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. The main objective was to assess the relationship between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and blood pressure (BP). Methods The authors used longitudinal data from 853 elderly men participating in the Veterans Administration Normative Aging Study, followed during 1996–2008. Long-term average exposures to traffic particles were created from daily predictions of black carbon (BC) exposure at the geocoded address of each subject, using a validated spatiotemporal model based on ambient monitoring at 82 Boston-area locations. The authors examined the association of these exposures with BP using a mixed model. The authors included the following covariates: age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol, fasting glucose, creatinine clearance, use of cardiovascular medication, education, census-level poverty, day of week and season of clinical visit. Results The authors found significant positive associations between 1-year average BC exposure and both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. An IQR increase in 1-year average BC exposure (0.32 µg/m3) was associated with a 2.64 mm Hg increase in systolic blood pressure (95% CI 1.47 to 3.80) and a 2.41 mm Hg increase in diastolic blood pressure (95% CI 1.77 to 3.05). Conclusions Long-term exposure to traffic particles is associated with increased BP, which may explain part of the association with myocardial infarctions and cardiovascular deaths reported in cohort studies. PMID:22383587

  15. Using GIS servers and interactive maps in spectral data sharing and administration: Case study of Ahvaz Spectral Geodatabase Platform (ASGP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karami, Mojtaba; Rangzan, Kazem; Saberi, Azim

    2013-10-01

    With emergence of air-borne and space-borne hyperspectral sensors, spectroscopic measurements are gaining more importance in remote sensing. Therefore, the number of available spectral reference data is constantly increasing. This rapid increase often exhibits a poor data management, which leads to ultimate isolation of data on disk storages. Spectral data without precise description of the target, methods, environment, and sampling geometry cannot be used by other researchers. Moreover, existing spectral data (in case it accompanied with good documentation) become virtually invisible or unreachable for researchers. Providing documentation and a data-sharing framework for spectral data, in which researchers are able to search for or share spectral data and documentation, would definitely improve the data lifetime. Relational Database Management Systems (RDBMS) are main candidates for spectral data management and their efficiency is proven by many studies and applications to date. In this study, a new approach to spectral data administration is presented based on spatial identity of spectral samples. This method benefits from scalability and performance of RDBMS for storage of spectral data, but uses GIS servers to provide users with interactive maps as an interface to the system. The spectral files, photographs and descriptive data are considered as belongings of a geospatial object. A spectral processing unit is responsible for evaluation of metadata quality and performing routine spectral processing tasks for newly-added data. As a result, by using internet browser software the users would be able to visually examine availability of data and/or search for data based on descriptive attributes associated to it. The proposed system is scalable and besides giving the users good sense of what data are available in the database, it facilitates participation of spectral reference data in producing geoinformation.

  16. Enhancement of antidepressant-like activity by joint administration of imipramine and magnesium in the forced swim test: Behavioral and pharmacokinetic studies in mice.

    PubMed

    Poleszak, Ewa; Wlaź, Piotr; Szewczyk, Bernadeta; Kedzierska, Ewa; Wyska, Elzbieta; Librowski, Tadeusz; Szymura-Oleksiak, Joanna; Fidecka, Sylwia; Pilc, Andrzej; Nowak, Gabriel

    2005-07-01

    The effect of joint administration of imipramine (IMI) and magnesium (Mg) on antidepressant-like activity was studied in mice using forced swim test (FST). Mg doses ineffective per se (5 and 10 mg/kg) given jointly with IMI also at ineffective doses (10 and 15 mg/kg) resulted in a potent reduction in the immobility time. Since these combined treatments did not influence locomotor activity, the antidepressant-like activity was not due to non-specific behavioral activation. Moreover, we estimated the effect of joint administration of magnesium and IMI in FST on serum and brain magnesium, IMI and its active metabolite desipramine (DMI) concentrations in mice. Swim stress (mice subjected to FST) increased the magnesium concentration in serum and decreased it in the brain compared to naive animals. Moreover administration of IMI increased (normalized) magnesium brain concentration, without influence on the serum level. Joint administration of IMI and magnesium did not influence magnesium (compared with FST) or IMI and DMI (compared with IMI treatment alone) concentrations in both examined tissues. The present data demonstrated an enhancement of the antidepressant-like effect by joint administration of IMI and magnesium in the FST, and further indicate the particular role of magnesium in the antidepressant action. Since there was no increase in IMI, DMI or magnesium concentration after joint administration of magnesium and IMI, the data suggest that pharmacodynamic rather than pharmacokinetic interaction between magnesium and IMI is accountable for behavioral effect in the FST. PMID:15936065

  17. Delaware Student Testing Program: Report of Student Questionnaire Survey--2000 Administration in Science and Social Studies for Grades 4 and 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Liru

    At the administration of the Delaware Student Testing Program (DSTP) science and social studies tests in 2000, a questionnaire survey was given to students in grades 4 and 6. Survey questions were developed in three categories: (1) Opportunity To Learn; (2) Science; and (3) Social Studies. Student responses were analyzed by test, grade, gender,…

  18. An Evaluation Study of an Executive Master of Business Administration (EMBA) Program in an Urban City: Examining the Transfer of Knowledge and Leadership Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Hye Lim

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of the Executive Master of Business Administration (EMBA) degree program in terms of transfer of knowledge and leadership practices. Based on a review of literature related to adult learning theories, EMBA programs, the importance of evaluation practices, and leadership practices, this study was designed to…

  19. The Audio-Visual Services in Fifteen African Countries. Comparative Study on the Administration of Audio-Visual Services in Advanced and Developing Countries. Part Four. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jongbloed, Harry J. L.

    As the fourth part of a comparative study on the administration of audiovisual services in advanced and developing countries, this UNESCO-funded study reports on the African countries of Cameroun, Republic of Central Africa, Dahomey, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Libya, Mali, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Swaziland, Tunisia, Upper Volta and Zambia. Information…

  20. A Study on the Attitudes of Students, Instructors, and Educational Principals to Electronic Administration of Final-Semester Examinations in Payame Noor University in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omidian, Faranak; Nedayeh Ali, Farzaneh

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the attitudes of students, instructors, and educational principals to electronic administration of final-semester examinations at undergraduate and post- graduate levels in Payame Noor University in Khuzestan. The statistical population of this study consisted of all educational principals, instructors, of…

  1. Study of Foreign Languages and Related Areas: Federal Support, Administration, Need. Comptroller General's Report to the Congress of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    A review of Government support of foreign language and area studies programs in institutions of higher education investigated funding, administration, and need. Since 1968, overall enrollments in the study of modern foreign languages have fallen, but enrollments in the "needed" languages, those supported by Title VI of the National Defense…

  2. Administrators' Decisions about Resource Allocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, William E.; Folkins, John W.; Hakel, Milton D.; Kennell, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Do academic administrators make decisions about resource allocation differently depending on the discipline receiving the funding? Does an administrator's academic identity influence these decisions? This study explored those questions with a sample of 1,690 academic administrators at doctoral-research universities. Participants used fictional…

  3. Fractionated administration of irinotecan and cisplatin for treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer: a phase II study of Okayama Lung Cancer Study Group

    PubMed Central

    Ueoka, H; Tanimoto, M; Kiura, K; Tabata, M; Takigawa, N; Segawa, Y; Takata, I; Eguchi, K; Okimoto, N; Harita, S; Kamei, H; Shibayama, T; Watanabe, Y; Hiraki, S; Harada, M

    2001-01-01

    A phase II study of fractionated administration of irinotecan (CPT-11) and cisplatin (CDDP) in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was conducted. Between January 1996 and January 1998, 44 previously untreated patients with stage IIIB or IV NSCLC were enrolled. CDDP at a dose of 60 mg m–2was given first and followed by CPT-11 at a dose of 50 mg m–2. Both drugs were given by 1-hour infusion on days 1 and 8, and repeated every 4 weeks up to 4 cycles. 42 patients were evaluated for response and 44 for survival and toxicity. 20 patients (48%: 95% confidence interval 32–63%) achieved an objective response. The median duration of responses was 8 months, and the median survival time and the 1-year survival rate were 12.5 months and 56.8%, respectively. Major toxicities were neutropenia and diarrhoea. Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia occurred in 70.5% of the patients and one patient died of sepsis. Grade 3 or 4 diarrhoea was experienced in 25.0%, but manageable by conventional therapy. In conclusion, fractionated administration of CPT-11 and CDDP was highly effective for advanced NSCLC with manageable toxicities. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11437395

  4. Cohort and Age Effects of Mass Drug Administration on Prevalence of Trachoma: A Longitudinal Study in Rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Shekhawat, Nakul; Mkocha, Harran; Munoz, Beatriz; Gaydos, Charlotte; Dize, Laura; Quinn, Thomas C.; West, Sheila K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Mass drug administration (MDA) is part of the SAFE strategy for trachoma elimination. This study examined the effect of three annual MDAs on prevalence of trachoma among 13 longitudinal cohorts of Tanzanian children. Methods. Children younger than 10 years were assigned to cohorts based on age at baseline and followed annually for 3 years, with newborns assigned to new cohorts over time. Annual MDA consisted of topical tetracycline for children younger than 6 months and oral azithromycin for those 6 months and older. Follicular trachoma (TF) and Chlamydia trachomatis infection status were assessed annually before the next MDA. Prevalence and risk factors for TF and infection at each age were compared across cohorts. Results. At each survey, most age groups and cohorts had MDA coverage of more than 80% and showed decreased TF prevalence after every MDA. One cohort had consistently lower coverage, higher-than-expected TF and infection at ages 6 and 7, and elevated risk of TF at age 7 relative to the preceding cohort in spite of receiving one additional MDA (odds ratio 2.3, 95% confidence interval 1.0–5.2). Cohorts aged 1 or older at baseline generally showed reductions in TF and infection after each MDA, whereas younger cohorts showed decreased infection but increased TF over time. Successive cohorts of never-treated children younger than 1 year showed sequential TF and infection reductions with each MDA (P < 0.001). Conclusions. Multiple MDAs significantly reduce trachoma prevalence and appear to increasingly protect children born into these communities. The youngest children show declining/stable rates of infection but increasing rates of trachoma, which may reflect longer duration of clinical signs. PMID:24448262

  5. [Pharmacokinetic study on peoniflorin, astilbin, rosmarinic acid, isofraxidin and liquiritin in rat blood after oral administration of shaolin xiaoyin tablets].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Rui-Zhi; Wang, Yin-Jie; Feng, Li-Min; Lu, Chuan-Jian

    2014-07-01

    To establish a method for the determination of astilbin, peoniflorin, rasmarinci acid, isofraxidin and liquiritin contained in Shaolin Xiaoyin tablets, in order to lay a foundation for designing late-stage dosage forms and clinical medication schemes. In this paper, efforts were made to establish a method for the determination of the blood concentration of the five components and study the in vivo pharmacokinetics in rats. The blood concentration was determined by HPLC. Phenomenex C18 column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) was adopted and eluted with methanol-acetonitrile-0.05% formic acid, the flow rate was 0.8 mL x min(-1), and the wavelength was 275 nm. The samples were processed by the solid phase extraction method. After oral administration of Shaoling Xiaoyin tablets, the rat bloods were collected at different time points to determine the blood concentrations. The experimental results showed that the baseline separation could be adopted for the five components, and astilbin, peoniflorin, rasmarinci acid, isofraxidin and liquiritin showed good linear relations within ranges of 2.48-248, 0.213 6-21.36, 0.531-53.1, 0.704-70.4, 0.253-25.3 mg x L(-1). All the five components could be absorbed in blood and excreted quickly. The method established in this paper is rapid and accurate, and could be used for in vivo analysis on preparations containing similar components. The main components in Shaoling Xiaoyin tablets could be absorbed and excreted quickly, and thus suitable to be made into sustained release tablets. Common preparations are required to be taken for 4-6 times a day. PMID:25276982

  6. Metabolism and urinary disposition of N,N-dimethyltryptamine after oral and smoked administration: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Riba, Jordi; McIlhenny, Ethan H; Bouso, José Carlos; Barker, Steven A

    2015-05-01

    N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) is a widely distributed plant alkaloid that displays partial agonist activity at the 5-HT2A receptor and induces intense psychedelic effects in humans when administered parenterally. However, self-administration studies have reported a total lack of activity following oral intake. This is thought to be due to extensive degradation by monoamine oxidase (MAO). Despite increased use of DMT and DMT-containing preparations, such as the plant tea ayahuasca, the biotransformation of DMT in humans when administered alone is relatively unknown. Here we used high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/electrospray ionization (ESI)/selected reaction monitoring (SRM)/tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to characterize the metabolism and disposition of oral and smoked DMT. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were obtained from 6 DMT users before and after intake of 25 mg DMT doses on two separate sessions. In one session, DMT was taken orally and in another it was smoked. After oral ingestion, no psychotropic effects were experienced and no DMT was recovered in urine. MAO-dependent indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) represented 97% of the recovered compounds, whereas DMT-N-oxide (DMT-NO) accounted for only 3%. When the smoked route was used, the drug was fully psychoactive, unmetabolized DMT and DMT-NO rose to 10% and 28%, respectively, and IAA levels dropped to 63%. An inverse correlation was found between the IAA/DMT-NO ratio and subjective effects scores. These findings show that in the smoked route a shift from the highly efficient MAO-dependent to the less efficient CYP-dependent metabolism takes place. This shift leads to psychoactivity and is analogous to that observed in ayahuasca preparations combining DMT with MAO inhibitors. PMID:25069786

  7. Intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone improves the repairing process of rat calvaria defects: A histomorphometric and radiodensitometric study

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Eduardo-de-Paula; Marques, Marcelo-Rocha; Dias da Silva, Marco-Antônio; Manzi, Flávio-Ricardo; Barros, Silvana-Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of intermittent treatment of parathyroid hormone (PTH (1-34)) on the bone regeneration of critically-sized rat calvarial bone defects. Material and Methods Thirty-two male rats were trephined (4mm fullthickness diameter), in the central part of the parietal bones and divided into 2 groups of 16. The PTH group received subcutaneous injections of PTH (1-34) at 40µg/kg, 3 times a week and the control (CTL) group received the vehicle in the same regimen. The rats were sacrificed at 4 weeks post-treatment regimen, the parietal bones were extracted and samples were evaluated through histomorphometry and radiodensitometry. Results The histological observations showed that the PTH group presented more “island-like” new bone between the defect margins with fibrous tissues than did the CTL group. The PTH group significantly exhibited greater histologic bone formation than did the CTL group (1.5mm ±0.7; 1.9 mm ± 0.6, p<0.05/ for residual bone defect). The radiodensitometry analysis revealed significant differences among the PTH and CTL groups (2.1 Al eq. ±0.04; 1.8Al eq. ±0.06, p<0.05), demonstrating an increase in bone mineral density. The PTH treatment contributed to the bone formation with a higher amount of mineral and/or fibrous tissue when compared with the CTL group. Conclusions The results suggest that it was possible to increase the process of bone regeneration by accelerating the healing process in rat calvarial defects through intermittent administration of the PTH treatment. Key words: Bone, skull, rats, bone regeneration, bone density. PMID:26034928

  8. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of Donner Lab Administrator Baird G. Whaley, August 15, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    Baird G. Whaley, Donner Lab Administrator, was interviewed by representatives of US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments (OHRE). The purpose of the interview was to capture the remembrances of Mr. Whaley concerning what he could relate on activities at the Donner Lab that pertain to the OHRE responsibilities. Following a brief biographical sketch, Mr. Whaley relates his experiences in administration at the LAB including funding activities, staffing concerns, intralaboraory politics, and remembrances of John Lawrence, John Gofman, Cornelius Tobias, Jim Born, Alex Margolis, B.V.A. Low- Beer, and Ed Alpen. Further patient care procedures for Donner Clinic Research Programs were discussed.

  9. Increasing Coverage in Mass Drug Administration for Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination in an Urban Setting: a Study of Malindi Town, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Njomo, Doris W.; Mukoko, Dunstan A.; Nyamongo, Nipher K.; Karanja, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Implementation of Mass Drug Administration (MDA) in urban settings is an obstacle to Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) elimination. No urban-specific guidelines on MDA in urban areas exist. Malindi district urban area had received 4 MDA rounds by the time the current study was implemented. Programme data showed average treatment coverage of 28.4% (2011 MDA), far below recommended minimum of 65–80%. Methods To identify, design and test strategies for increased treatment coverage in urban areas, a quasi-experimental study was conducted in Malindi urban area. Three sub-locations with lowest treatment coverage in 2011 MDA were purposively selected. In the pre-test phase, 947 household heads sampled using systematic random method were interviewed for quantitative data. For qualitative data, 12 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with single sex adult and youth male and female groups and 3 with community drug distributors (CDDs) were conducted. Forty in-depth interviews with opinion leaders and self-administered questionnaires with District Public Health officers purposively selected were carried out. The quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 and statistical significance assessed by χ2 test.The qualitative data were analyzed manually according to study's themes. Results and Discussion The identified strategies were implemented prior to and during 2012 MDA in two sub-locations (experimental) while in the third (control), usual MDA strategies were applied. In the post-test phase, 2012 MDA coverage in experimental and control sub-locations was comparatively assessed for effect of the newly designed strategies on urban MDA. Results indicated improved treatment coverage in experimental sub-locations, 77.1% in Shella and 66.0% in Barani. Central (control) sub-location also attained high coverage, 70.4% indicating average treatment coverage of 71%. Conclusion The identified strategies contributed to increased treatment coverage in experimental sites and

  10. An Action-Oriented Perspective on Caring Leadership: A Qualitative Study of Higher Education Administrators' Positive Leadership Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uusiautti, Satu

    2013-01-01

    Interest in human experiences, especially positive experiences, has been increasing ever since positive psychology gained a foothold in public attention. In this research, higher education administrators from Finland and the USA ("N"?=?13) were asked to describe positive or successful situations or chains of events in which their…

  11. Which Master of Business Administration (MBA)? Factors Influencing Prospective Students' Choice of MBA Programme--An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Factors which influence students' selection of a Master of Business Administration programme are identified and the variation in their relative importance across the student population investigated. This research also identifies the features of a university which attracts students, as well as examining the students' perceptions of the management…

  12. Statewide Administration of the ACT: A Key Component in Improving Student Access to College and Work. Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACT, Inc., 2009

    2009-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing focus among states on the importance of preparing all students for college and work. Statewide administration of the ACT provides all students, including those who have never considered college as an option, with the opportunity to identify academic strengths and weaknesses, explore educational and…

  13. Administrators and Researchers -- Coworkers in University Planning. A Case Study of a Successful Cooperative Venture in Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crouch, Kathleen; And Others

    A cooperative effort by administrators and institutional researchers to assess the public image of an institution of higher education as one step in the planning process is described. Discussed are the interpersonal dynamics occurring in the recognition of the general problem, the formulation of specific questions, the design of the survey…

  14. Using Organization Development Concept to Conduct Administrative Assessment of Health Promoting Schools in Taiwan--A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jen-Jen; Yeh, Gwo-Liang; Tseng, Chie-Chien; Chen, Wei William; Hwu, Yin-Jinn; Jiang, Donald Dah-Shyong

    2009-01-01

    The Health Promoting School (HPS) programs in Taiwan were initiated and implemented with funding from Department of Health and Ministry of Education during the initial phase. The purpose of this article was to describe the application of organization development (OD) concept in the administrative assessment of HPS programs and to present results…

  15. A Study of the Attitudes of Public School Teachers and Administrators in Middle Tennessee Concerning Ethical Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peach, Larry; Reddick, Thomas L.

    A two-part questionnaire concerning ethical behavior was prepared and distributed to 300 public school teachers and 75 administrators in the middle geographic region of Tennessee. Part I of the questionnaire asked respondents to position 18 different behaviors on a five-point scale from "ethical" to "very unethical." Part II asked respondents how…

  16. EXTENSION ADMINISTRATION AND STATE LEGISLATIVE PROCESS--A CASE STUDY OF THE 71ST MISSOURI GENERAL ASSEMBLY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KYD, STIRLING

    TO GAIN UNDERSTANDING OF MISSOURI'S LEGISLATIVE PROCESS AND AID ADMINISTRATORS OF THE EXTENSION DIVISION, THE AUTHOR INVESTIGATED THE 71ST GENERAL ASSEMBLY. HE READ PUBLICATIONS, INTERVIEWED LOBBYISTS, AND CONDUCTED OPEN ENDED DEPTH INTERVIEWS WITH LEGISLATORS SELECTED TO COMPRISE THE LEADERSHIP OF THE ASSEMBLY. HIS DISSERTATION PRESENTS THE…

  17. A Comparative Study of the Administrative and Leadership Styles of Corporate Presidents and School Superintendents As Chief Executive Officers (CEOs).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Guy R.

    This paper compares the managerial, administrative, and leadership styles of public-school superintendents and presidents of public corporations. Data were derived from questionnaires mailed to eight superintendents and seven corporate presidents. Findings show that superintendents and corporate presidents used similar leadership…

  18. From Theory to Practice: Utilizing Integrative Seminars as Bookends to the Master of Public Administration Program of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, Margaret; Holmes, Maja Husar

    2013-01-01

    Integrative seminar style courses are most often used as an application-oriented capstone in place of a thesis or comprehensive exam requirement in Master of Public Administration (MPA) degree programs. This article describes and discusses the benefits of a unique approach of one National Association of Schools of Public Affairs and Administration…

  19. Mock Interview Strategy: An Action Research Study of Administrator and Teacher Candidates' Preparation for Interview Field Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harchar, Rayma

    2005-01-01

    Schools of graduate and undergraduate education can be of great help to each other. To be an effective interviewer or interviewee, a person must have experience. The perceived self-efficacy of interviewing skills may help in actual interviews. A mock interview strategy is proposed to help administrator and teacher candidates become proficient in…

  20. Strengthening Institutional Research Administration in Uganda: A Case Study on Developing Collaborations among Academic and Research Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakande, Nelson; Namirembe, Regina; Kaye, Dan K.; Mugyenyi, Peter N.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the presence of several funded research projects at academic and research institutions in sub-Saharan Africa, the quality of the pre/post grant award process in these institutions is inadequate. There is a need to strengthen research administration through infrastructural, organizational, and human resource development to match the dynamic…

  1. Culture and Leadership in Educational Administration: A Historical Study of What Was and What Might Have Been

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the consequences for school leadership of the abandonment of Waller's insights into the school as a social organism and the embracing of the cult of efficiency as the foundation for the analysis of school culture. Tracing the separation of conception from execution, leadership from teaching, administration from education…

  2. A Case Study of Selected Female Elementary School Leaders' Perspectives on the Transition from Teacher to Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasson, Julie

    2011-01-01

    The transition from the comfort of a familiar role, that of teacher, to the discomfort of a new role, that of school administrator, is a transformative process. Transforming oneself requires leaving what is known and venturing into the unknown. Researchers have illuminated women's struggle to attain school leadership positions, but the…

  3. Preclinical Studies on Intestinal Administration of Antisense Oligonucleotides as a Model for Oral Delivery for Treatment of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    van Putten, Maaike; Young, Courtney; van den Berg, Sjoerd; Pronk, Amanda; Hulsker, Margriet; Karnaoukh, Tatyana G; Vermue, Rick; van Dijk, Ko Willems; de Kimpe, Sjef; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke

    2014-01-01

    Antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) used to reframe dystrophin mRNA transcripts for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients are tested in clinical trials. Here, AONs are administered subcutaneously and intravenously, while the less invasive oral route would be preferred. Oral delivery of encapsulated AONs supplemented with a permeation enhancer, sodium caprate, has been successfully used to target tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression in liver. To test the feasibility of orally delivered AONs for DMD, we applied 2′-O-methyl phosphorothioate AONs (with or without sodium caprate supplementation) directly to the intestine of mdx mice and compared pharmacokinetics and -dynamics with intravenous, intraperitoneal, and subcutaneous delivery. Intestinally infused AONs were taken up, but resulted in lower plasma levels compared to other delivery routes, although bioavailability could be largely improved by supplementation of sodium caprate. After intestinal infusion, AON levels in all tissues were lower than for other administration routes, as were the ratios of target versus nontarget organ levels, except for diaphragm and heart where comparable levels and ratios were observed. For each administration route, low levels of exon skipping in triceps was observed 3 hours post-AON administration. These data suggest that oral administration of naked 2′-O-methyl phosphorothioate AONs may be feasible, but only when high AON concentrations are used in combination with sodium caprate. PMID:25405468

  4. Group Dynamics: Toward a Study of the Administrative/Supervisory Leadership Role Within Group Decision-Making Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, Francis, II

    Group processes are an integral part of the educational enterprise, but "effectiveness of group processes" does not necessarily follow from the simple act of group formation. The administrator has the responsibility of exercising effective group leadership. Group formation, group task functions or assignments, and decision-making processes are…

  5. From Child Study to Efficiency: District Administrators and the Use of Testing in the Chicago Public Schools, 1899 to 1928

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Ann Marie

    2011-01-01

    Historians have documented the dramatic battle over the mass introduction of IQ testing waged by Chicago's unionised teachers in 1924 against Superintendent McAndrew and the Chicago Board of Education. The efforts of Chicago's mid-level district administrators and their work with principals and teachers to address the real and perceived…

  6. A prospective study on sexual function and mood in female-to-male transsexuals during testosterone administration and after sex reassignment surgery.

    PubMed

    Costantino, Antonietta; Cerpolini, Silvia; Alvisi, Stefania; Morselli, Paolo Giovanni; Venturoli, Stefano; Meriggiola, Maria Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Testosterone administration in female-to-male transsexual subjects aims to develop and maintain the characteristics of the desired sex. Very little data exists on its effects on sexuality of female-to-male transsexuals. The aim of this study was to evaluate sexual function and mood of female-to-male transsexuals from their first visit, throughout testosterone administration and after sex reassignment surgery. Participants were 50 female-to-male transsexual subjects who completed questionnaires assessing sexual parameters and mood. The authors measured reproductive hormones and hematological parameters. The results suggest a positive effect of testosterone treatment on sexual function and mood in female-to-male transsexual subjects. PMID:23470169

  7. The Uses of Research Sponsored by the Administration on Aging (AoA). Case Study No. 3. Volunteer Surveys of Nursing Homes. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Roberta C.; Heinsohn, Ingrid

    This case study, one in a series of research efforts designed to examine the utilization of the Administration on Aging's research, examines the Nursing Home Information Project (NHIP), which developed a methodology whereby a local organization with access to volunteers could produce a consumer guide to nursing homes in its community. (Three…

  8. Funding and Administrative Coordination of the Baja Field Studies Program at Glendale Community College during the Years 1974 to 1983: A Historical Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercade, Jose A.

    Glendale Community College's (GCC's) Baja Field Studies Program began in 1974 as a faculty-initiated overseas field program in marine biology and developed into a college-wide, interdisciplinary program offering different courses under the leadership of a program coordinator. As changes in funding and administration took place due to the altered…

  9. Creating an Effective Educational Environment for Adult Learners: A Qualitative, Multi-Case Study of Off-Campus Center Administrator's Use of Invitational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKnight, Carolyn P.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative, multi-case study was designed to examine off-campus centers and their administrators in creating an effective learning environment for adult learners. Serving as the conceptual framework, invitational leadership theory is a holistic approach which nurtures the belief that everyone is intrinsically motivated and it is the leaders'…

  10. An Action Research Study of Mexican Teachers' and Administrators' Experiences in Developing and Implementing a Service Learning Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acuna, Kym

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the High Tec Middle School teachers' and administrators' knowledge of the service learning model upon which the school's service learning program has been based, their views regarding their role in student character formation through service learning, and the teachers' feelings of…

  11. The Link between Unit Size and Performance Quality Assessments of Teaching and Administrative Faculty: A Case Study of the Ariel University Center of Samaria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidovitch, Nitza; Soen, Dan

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the association between faculty and department size at the Ariel University Center, and assessment scores granted by students to members of the administrative and teaching staff. The main research question relates to any link between unit size and assessment scores. Furthermore, this study seeks an answer to the question of…

  12. The Uses of Research Sponsored by the Administration on Aging (AoA). Case Study No. 6. The Home Equity Conversion Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Kristina; Heinsohn, Ingrid

    This case study, one in a series of research efforts designed to examine the utilization of the Administration on Aging's research, describes the different types of uses of findings of the Home Equity Conversion Project (HECP), which developed ways of converting home equity into usable income. The first chapter describes the project and overviews…

  13. A Study of the Relationships between Indicators of Georgia Alternative School Effectiveness and Measures of Student Success as Perceived by Alternative School Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obleton, Eddie V.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between Georgia alternative school administrators' perceptions of student success factors and the three domains of essential elements of effective alternative schools. The success factors included: dropout rate, average grade point average (GPA), average absences per student,…

  14. The Uses of Research Sponsored by the Administration on Aging (AoA). Case Study No. 2. Older Americans Resources and Services (OARS). Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.; Heinsohn, Ingrid

    This case study, one in a series of research efforts designed to examine the utilization of the Administration on Aging's research, discusses reasons for the wide utilization of the Older Americans Resources and Services (OARS) research. (The OARS methodology assesses the levels of functioning of individual elderly persons. The resulting…

  15. Delaware Student Testing Program: Report of Student Questionnaire Survey, 2002 DSTP Administration for Grades 3, 5, 8, 10, and 11 in Reading, Writing, Mathematics, Science, and Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware State Dept. of Education, Dover. Assessment and Accountability Branch.

    With the administration of the 2002 Delaware Student Testing Program (DSTP), a questionnaire was given to students in grades 3, 5, 8, and 10 about Opportunity to Learn, Reading, Writing, and Mathematics, and to all students in grades 4, 6, 8, and 11 about Opportunity to Learn, Science, and Social Studies. Students responses to the questions were…

  16. A Comparative Case Study Analysis of Administrators Perceptions on the Adaptation of Quality and Continuous Improvement Tools to Community Colleges in the State of Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattis, Ted B.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether community college administrators in the state of Michigan believe that commonly known quality and continuous improvement tools, prevalent in a manufacturing environment, can be adapted to a community college model. The tools, specifically Six Sigma, benchmarking and process mapping have played a…

  17. The Study of High School Administrators' Perceptions of the Future of Women as Athletic Directors in the State of Missouri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Christine H.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine high school administrators' perceptions of the future of women as athletic directors in the state of Missouri. Superintendents, high school principals, athletic directors (ADs) in Missouri completed a Likert survey in an effort to understand perceptual context as to why more women are not in positions…

  18. The Uses of Research Sponsored by the Administration on Aging (AoA). Case Study No. 1. Transportation Services for the Elderly. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.; Heinsohn, Ingrid

    This case study, one in a series of research efforts designed to examine the utilization of the Administration on Aging's research, describes the different types of uses of materials produced by a research project on improvement of transportation services for the elderly. (The materials are a state-of-the-art report, planning handbook, and…

  19. Evaluation of analgesic effect of local administration of morphine after iliac crest bone graft harvesting: A double blind study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Devinder; Gombar, K K; Bhatia, Nidhi; Gombar, Satinder; Garg, Sudhir

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective: Pain is a complex process influenced by both physiological and psychological factors. In spite of an armamentarium of analgesic drugs and techniques available to combat post-operative pain, appropriate selection, and effective management for relief of post-operative pain still poses unique challenges. The discovery of peripheral opioid receptors has led to growing interest in the use of locally applied opioids (intra-articular, intra-pleural, intra-peritoneal, and perineural) for managing acute pain. As bone graft harvesting is associated with significant post-operative pain and there is a paucity of literature on the use of peripheral opioids at the iliac crest bone harvesting site, the present study was planned to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of local administration of morphine after iliac crest bone graft harvesting. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients, 20-50 years of age scheduled to undergo elective surgery for delayed and non-union fracture both bone leg with bone grafting under general anaesthesia (GA) were randomly assigned to one of the four groups of 15 patients each: group 1: 2.5 ml normal saline (NS) +2.5 ml NS infiltrated into the harvest site at 2 sites + 1 ml NS intramuscularly (i/m); Group 2: 2.5 ml NS + 2.5 ml NS infiltrated into the harvest site at 2 sites + 5 mg morphine in 1 ml i/m.; Group 3: 2.5 mg (2.5 ml) morphine + 2.5 mg (2.5 ml) morphine infiltrated into the harvest site at 2 sites + 1 ml NS i/m; Group 4: 0.5 mg naloxone (2.5 ml) +5 mg (2.5 ml) morphine infiltrated into the harvest site at 2 sites + 1 ml NS i/m. Pain from the bone graft site and operative site was assessed for 24 h post-operatively. Results: The patients who had received morphine infiltration (Group 3) had significantly less pain scores at the graft site at 4, 6, and 10 post-operative hours. They also had significantly less morphine consumption and overall better pain relief as compared to the other groups. Conclusions: Morphine

  20. Preliminary study of the intense sympathetic discharge induced centrally after lateral ventricular administration of whole venom of Dendroaspis polylepis.

    PubMed

    Kyegombe, D B; Njoroge, D; Wangai, J; Telang, B V

    1977-01-01

    Lateral ventricular administration of 100 microgram of Dendroaspis polylepis venom is cats consistently produced a marked rise in arterial blood pressure, heart rate dilatation of pupils and piloerection. This intense central sympathetic discharge occurred after a latent period of 11.7 +/- 0.72 min. Bilateral adrenelectomy abolished the sympathetic discharge showing that central release of catecholamines from the adrenal medulla may play an important role in elicting the cardiovascular response. PMID:885604

  1. The novel 5-HT1A receptor agonist, NLX-112 reduces l-DOPA-induced abnormal involuntary movements in rat: A chronic administration study with microdialysis measurements.

    PubMed

    McCreary, Andrew C; Varney, Mark A; Newman-Tancredi, Adrian

    2016-06-01

    Although l-DOPA alleviates the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), it elicits troublesome l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) in a majority of PD patients after prolonged treatment. This is likely due to conversion of l-DOPA to dopamine as a 'false neurotransmitter' from serotoninergic neurons. The highly selective and efficacious 5-HT1A receptor agonist, NLX-112 (befiradol or F13640) shows potent activity in a rat model of LID (suppression of Abnormal Involuntary Movements, AIMs) but its anti-AIMs effects have not previously been investigated following repeated administration. Acute administration of NLX-112 (0.04 and 0.16 mg/kg i.p.) reversed l-DOPA (6 mg/kg)-induced AIMs in hemiparkinsonian rats with established dyskinesia. The activity of NLX-112 was maintained following repeated daily i.p. administration over 14 days and was accompanied by pronounced decrease of striatal 5-HT extracellular levels, as measured by in vivo microdialysis, indicative of the inhibition of serotonergic activity. A concurrent blunting of l-DOPA-induced surge in dopamine levels on the lesioned side of the brain was observed upon NLX-112 administration and these neurochemical responses were also seen after 14 days of treatment. NLX-112 also suppressed the expression of AIMs in rats that were being primed for dyskinesia by repeated l-DOPA administration. However, when treatment of these rats with NLX-112 was stopped, l-DOPA then induced AIMs with scores that resembled those of control rats. The present study shows that the potent anti-AIMs activity of NLX-112 is maintained upon repeated administration and supports the ongoing clinical development of NLX-112 as a novel antidyskinetic agent for PD patients receiving l-DOPA treatment. PMID:26777281

  2. The effects of repeated administration of camphor-crataegus berry extract combination on blood pressure and on attentional performance - a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Erfurt, L; Schandry, R; Rubenbauer, S; Braun, U

    2014-09-25

    The present study investigated the effects of repeated administration of Korodin(®), a combination of camphor and crataegus berry extract, on blood pressure and attentional functioning. This study was conducted based on a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind design. 54 persons participated (33 female, 21 male) with a mean age of 24.3 years. Blood pressure and body mass index were in the normal range. Participants received 20 drops of either Korodin(®) or a placebo for four times with interjacent time intervals of about 10 min. Blood pressure was measured sphygmomanometrically before and after each administration. Attentional performance was quantified by using two paper-and-pencil tests, the d2 Test of Attention and Digit Symbol Test. Greater increases in blood pressure occurred after the four Korodin(®) administrations in comparison to the four placebo administrations. The performance in two parameters of d2 Test of Attention was consistently superior after the intake of Korodin(®). The excellent tolerability and safety of Korodin(®), even after a total consumption of 80 drops, was confirmed. PMID:25172798

  3. Information for School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowitz, Gerald T.; And Others

    Modern management theory, based on the reduction of uncertainties, demands the collection and manipulation of large amounts of information. School Administrators choke in the process of trying to digest a proliferation of data, only some of which are useful. The aims of the study were to explore the extent to which large amounts of data could be…

  4. Hispanic Administrators in Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballestero, Victor; Wright, Sam

    2008-01-01

    The study was designed to provide information on Hispanic administrators in the Commonwealth of Kentucky. The data was obtained from Kentucky school Superintendents or their designees in 175 public school districts. The Hispanic survey contained six questions. The survey was mailed to Kentucky Superintendents on April 21, 2008. A follow-up survey…

  5. Administrative Utility Analysis: Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co., San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    Appendixes to a study on administrative utility analysis and vocational education programs for the Area of Vocational and Technical Education (AVTE) in the Puerto Rico Department of Education contain the planning and budgeting system elements, position descriptions, and information on the growth of vocational education in Puerto Rico. The elements…

  6. Influence of chronic administration of anabolic androgenic steroids and taurine on haemostasis profile in rats: a thrombelastographic study.

    PubMed

    Roşca, Adrian E; Badiu, Corin; Uscătescu, Valentina; Stoian, Irina; Mirică, Radu; Braga, Radu I; Pavel, Bogdan; Zăgrean, Leon

    2013-04-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic derivatives of testosterone with thrombogenic potential in high doses and long-term administration. Taurine, a widely distributed amino-sulfonic acid, is known for its beneficial effects in hypercoagulable states. In order to assess the impact of chronic administration of high doses of AAS and taurine upon haemostasis process in rats, 40 male Wistar rats were divided into four equal groups: control group (group C) - no treatment; androgen group (group A) - received 10 mg/kg per week of nandrolone decanoate (DECA); taurine (group T) - received oral supplementation of 2% taurine in drinking water; androgen and taurine group (group AT) - concomitant administration of DECA and taurine. After 12 weeks, blood samples were collected and haemostasis parameters were assessed with the thrombelastographic (TEG) analysis system: reaction time, clot kinetics (K, α), final clot strength, coagulation index and the clot lysis (Ly30). Nandrolone significantly decreased reaction time in group A compared with control (P<0.001), whereas taurine significantly increase reaction time (P=0.01), and this effect was maintained in group AT compared with group A (P=0.009). Similar differences between groups have been recorded for the clot kinetics parameters K, α. The final clot strength and coagulation index were significantly increased in group A versus group C (P=0.04, respectively P<0.001), but not in group AT versus group C (P>0.05). There were no differences in clot lysis, as shown by Ly30. Nandrolone produces an accelerated clot development and an increased clot firmness in Wistar rats. Taurine association ensures a protective effect against this hypercoagulable state, partially restoring the altered parameters of the coagulation profile. PMID:23160242

  7. A study on the interaction and evolution of the spatial expansion and administrative division adjustment in Beijing metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongfu; Dang, Anrong

    2008-10-01

    Since 1990s and especially since 2000, the city space of Beijing has grown rapidly. There's no doubt that the urban construction land area is expanding to the suburban areas, which is the result of rapid social and economic growth in the city and also closely related to the reform of "turning county into district". In other words, the adjustment of administrative division in Beijing interacts with the expansion of urban construction land space. Beijing turns counties into districts and introduces regional offices are two distinct evidence. As for the interaction, there're both advantages and disadvantages and the focus of the article is to explore how to exploit the favorable conditions and avoid unfavorable ones. The article takes the town administrative region as the minimum space unit so as to better explore the anisotropism and regional differences of city space expansion as well as the impact caused by the adjustment of administrative divisions. With initial analysis, we find that: firstly, on the contrary to the sharp reduction of farming land, the city construction land are for residential communities, factories and mines increases the fastest; secondly, the big central cluster expansion has great regional difference and the three directions of northwest, north and south grows the fastest, which is mainly caused by the positive guidance of trunk roads including highway construction; thirdly, the land area in central cluster used for new construction projects is mainly located in suburban area, but exurb districts of Daxing and Changping also take up a considerable proportion; fourthly, as for the key exurb towns including Changping, Shunyi, and Fangshan, the built-up area also grows rapidly.

  8. Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamics Studies of Nicotine After Oral Administration in Mice: Effects of Methoxsalen, a CYP2A5/6 Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The use of novel oral nicotine delivery devices and compositions for human consumption and for animal research studies has been increasing in the last several years. Methods: Studies were undertaken to examine whether the systemic administration of methoxsalen, an inhibitor of human CYP2A6 and mouse CYP2A5, would modulate nicotine pharmacokinetics and pharmacological effects (antinociception in the tail-flick, and hot-plate tests, and hypothermia) in male ICR mouse after acute oral nicotine administration. Results: Administration of intra peritoneal (ip) methoxsalen significantly increased nicotine’s Cmax, prolonged the plasma half-life (fourfold decrease) of nicotine, and increased its area under the curve (AUC) compared with ip vehicle treatment. Methoxsalen pretreatment prolonged the duration of nicotine-induced antinociception and hypothermia (15mg/kg, po) for periods up to 6- and 24-hr postnicotine administration, respectively. Additionally, methoxsalen potentiated nicotine-induced antinociception and hypothermia as evidenced by leftward shifts in nicotine’s dose–response curve. Furthermore, this prolongation of nicotine’s effects after methoxsalen was associated with a parallel prolongation of nicotine plasma levels in mice. These data strongly suggest that variation in the rates of nicotine metabolic inactivation substantially alter pharmacological effects of nicotine given orally. Conclusion: We have shown that the pharmacological effects of inhibiting nicotine’s metabolism after oral administration in mice are profound. Our results suggest that inhibiting nicotine metabolism can be used to dramatically enhance nicotine’s bioavailability and its resulting pharmacology, which further supports this inhibitory approach for clinical development of an oral nicotine replacement therapy. PMID:23884323

  9. Toward an Applied Administrative Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Roger L. M.

    1983-01-01

    A study of 65 articles from the 1981 volumes of "Administrative Science Quarterly" and "Harvard Business Review," using smallest space analysis, found that the few studies adopting subjective (instead of objective) approaches to analyzing organizational change were most likely to provide a basis for an applied administrative science. (Author/RW)

  10. Impact of age, sex and route of administration on adverse events after opioid treatment in the emergency department: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Daoust, Raoul; Paquet, Jean; Lavigne, Gilles; Piette, Éric; Chauny, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The efficacy of opioids for acute pain relief in the emergency department (ED) is well recognized, but treatment with opioids is associated with adverse events ranging from minor discomforts to life-threatening events. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of age, sex and route of administration on the incidence of adverse events due to opioid administration in the ED. METHODS: Real-time archived data were analyzed retrospectively in a tertiary care urban hospital. All consecutive patients (≥16 years of age) who were assigned to an ED bed and received an opioid between March 2008 and December 2012 were included. Adverse events were defined as: nausea/vomiting (minor); systolic blood pressure (SBP) <90 mmHg, oxygen saturation (Sat) <92% and respiration rate <10 breaths/min (major) within 2 h of the first opioid doses. RESULTS: In the study period, 31,742 patients were treated with opioids. The mean (± SD) age was 55.8±20.5 years, and 53% were female. The overall incidence of adverse events was 12.0% (95% CI 11.6% to 12.4%): 5.9% (95% CI 5.6% to 6.2%) experienced nausea/vomiting, 2.4% (95% CI 2.2% to 2.6%) SBP <90 mmHg, 4.7% (95% CI 4.5% to 4.9%) Sat that dropped to <92% and 0.09% respiration rate <10 breaths/min. After controlling for confounding factors, these adverse events were associated with: female sex (more nausea/vomiting, more SBP <90 mmHg, less Sat <92%); age ≥65 years (less nausea/vomiting, more SBP <90 mmHg, more Sat <92%); and route of administration (intravenous > subcutaneous > oral). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of adverse events associated with opioid administration in the ED is generally low and is associated with age, sex and route of administration. PMID:25664538

  11. Senior Administrators Should Have Administrative Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Gary J.

    1987-01-01

    Recognizing that termination is viewed by the employee as the equivalent to capital punishment of a career, an administrative contract can reduce the emotional and financial entanglements that often result. Administrative contracts are described. (MLW)

  12. Nonfatal Suicidal Behaviors in U.S. Army Administrative Records, 2004–2009: Results from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS)

    PubMed Central

    Ursano, Robert J.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Heeringa, Steven G.; Cox, Kenneth L.; Naifeh, James A.; Fullerton, Carol S.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Aliaga, Pablo A.; Vegella, Patti; Mash, Holly Herberman; Buckley, Christina; Colpe, Lisa J.; Schoenbaum, Michael; Stein, Murray B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although the U.S. Army suicide rate is known to have risen sharply over the past decade, information about medically documented, nonfatal suicidal behaviors is far more limited. Here we examine trends and sociodemographic correlates of suicide attempts, suspicious injuries, and suicide ideation among regular Army soldiers. Methods Data come from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS) Historical Administrative Data Study (HADS), which integrates administrative records for all soldiers on active duty during the years 2004 through 2009 (n = 1.66 million). Results We identified 21,740 unique regular Army soldiers with a nonfatal suicidal event documented at some point during the HADS study period. There were substantial increases in the annual incidence rates of suicide attempts (179–400/100,000 person-years) and suicide ideation (557–830/100,000 person-years), but not suspicious injuries. Using hierarchical classification rules to identify the first instance of each soldier's most severe behavior, we found increased risk of all outcomes among those who were female, non-Hispanic White, never married, lower-ranking enlisted, less educated, and of younger age when entering Army service. These sociodemographic associations significantly differed across outcomes, despite some patterns that appear similar. Conclusion Results provide a broad overview of nonfatal suicidal trends in the U.S. Army during 2004 through 2009 and demonstrate that integration of multiple administrative data systems enriches analysis of the predictors of such events. PMID:26168022

  13. Safety of Ferric Carboxymaltose Immediately after Infliximab Administration, in a Single Session, in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients with Iron Deficiency: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Cortes, Xavier; Borrás-Blasco, Joaquín; Molés, Jose Ramón; Boscá, Maia; Cortés, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Aim To obtain preliminary safety and efficacy data on intravenous (IV) administration of infliximab (IFX) and ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients in a single treatment session. Methods A two-phase non-interventional, observational, prospective pilot study was performed to evaluate safety and efficacy of FCM given immediately after IFX. IBD patients were recruited consecutively in the outpatient clinic in two groups. Control group patients (n = 12) received FCM on a separate day from IFX. Subsequently, single-session group patients (n = 33) received FCM after IFX on the same day. All patients received 5mg/kg IFX and 1000mg FCM for iron-restricted anemia (IRA) or 500mg FCM for iron deficiency without anemia. Safety assessment was performed by recording adverse events (AEs) during and immediately after infusion, 30 minutes afterwards, and via follow-up at 7 days and 8 weeks. For efficacy assessment, hematological parameters were assessed prior to FCM infusion (pre-FCM) and after 8 weeks. Economic impact of FCM given immediately after IFX was assessed. Results All 45 patients (35 Crohn´s disease, 10 ulcerative colitis) received IFX 5mg/kg. 21 patients received 500mg FCM and 24 received 1000mg. FCM administration immediately after IFX corrected iron deficiency or IRA as shown by increases in hematological parameters. No AEs were reported during the safety evaluation at the end of FCM or IFX administration, 30 minutes, 7 days and 8 weeks afterwards, in either control or single-session groups. Total cost per patient for single-session administration was 354.63€; for patients receiving IFX and FCM on separate days, it was 531.94€, giving a 177.31€ per-patient cost saving. Conclusion Single-session administration of FCM after IFX was safe and effective in IBD patients and can offer a good cost-benefit ratio and improve treatment adherence. To our knowledge, this study is the first to evaluate FCM and IFX administration in a single

  14. Public School Administrators: Components of Burnout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wax, Anne S.; Hales, Loyde W.

    The objectives of this study of public school administrators were to determine the level of burnout experienced by school administrators, the relationships between burnout and stress measures, the factors associated with burnout, and the relationships between administrative level and components of the Administrative Role Perception Inventory…

  15. Validation of administrative hospital data for identifying incident pancreatic and periampullary cancer cases: a population-based study using linked cancer registry and administrative hospital data in New South Wales, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Creighton, Nicola; Walton, Richard; Roder, David; Aranda, Sanchia; Currow, David

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Informing cancer service delivery with timely and accurate data is essential to cancer control activities and health system monitoring. This study aimed to assess the validity of ascertaining incident cases and resection use for pancreatic and periampullary cancers from linked administrative hospital data, compared with data from a cancer registry (the ‘gold standard’). Design, setting and participants Analysis of linked statutory population-based cancer registry data and administrative hospital data for adults (aged ≥18 years) with a pancreatic or periampullary cancer case diagnosed during 2005–2009 or a hospital admission for these cancers between 2005 and 2013 in New South Wales, Australia. Methods The sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of pancreatic and periampullary cancer case ascertainment from hospital admission data were calculated for the 2005–2009 period through comparison with registry data. We examined the effect of the look-back period to distinguish incident cancer cases from prevalent cancer cases from hospital admission data using 2009 and 2013 as index years. Results Sensitivity of case ascertainment from the hospital data was 87.5% (4322/4939), with higher sensitivity when the cancer was resected (97.9%, 715/730) and for pancreatic cancers (88.6%, 3733/4211). Sensitivity was lower in regional (83.3%) and remote (85.7%) areas, particularly in areas with interstate outflow of patients for treatment, and for cases notified to the registry by death certificate only (9.6%). The PPV for the identification of incident cases was 82.0% (4322/5272). A 2-year look-back period distinguished the majority (98%) of incident cases from prevalent cases in linked hospital data. Conclusions Pancreatic and periampullary cancer cases and resection use can be ascertained from linked hospital admission data with sufficient validity for informing aspects of health service delivery and system-level monitoring. Limited tumour clinical

  16. Teachers' and Administrators' Perceptions of Knowledge Management Competence of High School Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memisoglu, Salih Pasa

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine the teachers' and administrators' perceptions of knowledge management competence in high school administration. The study was conducted using the screening model and the study group consisted of 162 teachers and 35 administrators working at eight high schools in Turkey. Administrators' knowledge management competence…

  17. Reprint of "Pharmacological study of the light/dark preference test in zebrafish (Danio rerio): Waterborne administration".

    PubMed

    Magno, Lílian Danielle Paiva; Fontes, Aldo; Gonçalves, Beatriz Maria Necy; Gouveia, Amauri

    2015-12-01

    Anxiety is a complex disorder; thus, its mechanisms remain unclear. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are a promising pharmacological model for anxiety research. Light/dark preference test is a behaviorally validated measure of anxiety in zebrafish; however, it requires pharmacological validation. We sought to evaluate the sensitivity of the light/dark preference test in adult zebrafish by immersing them in drug solutions containing clonazepam, buspirone, imipramine, fluoxetine, paroxetine, haloperidol, risperidone, propranolol, or ethanol. The time spent in the dark environment, the latency time to first crossing, and the number of midline crossings were analyzed. Intermediate concentrations of clonazepam administered for 600s decreased the time spent in the dark and increased locomotor activity. Buspirone reduced motor activity. Imipramine and fluoxetine increased time spent in the dark and the first latency, and decreased the number of alternations. Paroxetine did not alter the time in the dark; however, it increased the first latency time and decreased locomotor activity. Haloperidol decreased the time spent in the dark at low concentrations. Risperidone and propranolol did not change any parameters. Ethanol reduced the time spent in the dark and increased the number of crossings at intermediate concentrations. These results corroborate the previous work using intraperitoneal drug administration in zebrafish and rodents, suggesting that water drug delivery in zebrafish can effectively be used as an animal anxiety model. PMID:26569548

  18. Does postmenopausal estrogen administration increase the risk of breast cancer? Contributions of animal, biochemical, and clinical investigative studies to a resolution of the controversy.

    PubMed

    Zumoff, B

    1998-01-01

    Despite nearly six decades of epidemiological studies, meta-analyses, and reviews, there is still considerable controversy in the literature about the question, does postmenopausal estrogen administration increase the risk of breast cancer? In an effort to resolve the controversy, a number of animal, biochemical, and clinical investigative studies in this field have been reviewed. The following summary formulation is proposed: 1. Administration of estrogen is inherently capable of promoting the growth of breast cancer, and therefore of increasing the incidence of clinical breast cancer. 2. Human response to estrogen is like that of the low-cancer-incidence strains of mice studied by Lacassagne, in that large doses and prolonged administration are required to induce clinical breast cancer. 3. The blood levels of estradiol produced by the usual doses of postmenopausal estrogen are relatively low, equivalent to those of the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. These levels may be near the threshold for producing breast-cancer-promoting effects; therefore, the tumor response will vary greatly in different populations, depending on genetic susceptibility factors: a. The prevalence of a family history of premenopausal breast cancer in a first-degree relative. b. The prevalence of abnormal BRCA1, BRCA2, and p53 genes. c. The prevalence of increased 16 alpha-hydroxylation of estradiol. d. The prevalence of smokers who are slow acetylators. 4. Consumption of alcohol (5 grams or more daily) along with the postmenopausal estrogen administration results in elevation of blood estradiol levels to values equivalent to those of the periovulatory peak of the menstrual cycle, which may be well above the threshold for producing breast-cancer-promoting effects in all women. The risk for cancer will therefore be uniformly increased in women who use alcohol and take estrogen. 5. Increased risk of breast cancer from postmenopausal estrogen administration can be eliminated by taking

  19. Neuroproteome Changes after Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury and Tissue Plasminogen Activator Administration in Rats: A Quantitative iTRAQ Proteomics Study

    PubMed Central

    Merali, Zamir; Gao, Meah MingYang; Bowes, Tim; Chen, Jian; Evans, Kenneth; Kassner, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The thrombolytic, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) is the only approved therapy for acute ischemic stroke (AIS). When administered after AIS, rt-PA has many adverse pleiotropic actions, which are currently poorly understood. The identification of proteins showing differential expression after rt-PA administration may provide insight into these pleiotropic actions. In this study we used a 2D-LC MS/MS iTRAQ proteomic analysis, western blotting, and pathway analysis to analyze changes in protein expression 24-hours after rt-PA administration in the cortical brain tissue of 36 rats that underwent a sham or transient middle cerebral artery occlusion surgery. After rt-PA administration we reported alterations in the expressions of 18 proteins, many of which were involved in excitatory neurotransmitter function or cytoskeletal structure. The expression changes of GAD2 and EAAT1 were validated with western blot. The interactions between the identified proteins were analyzed with the IPA pathway analysis tool and three proteins: DPYSL2, RTN4, and the NF-kB complex, were found to have characteristics of being key proteins in the network. The differential protein expressions we observed may reflect pleiotropic actions of rt-PA after experimental stroke, and shine light on the mechanisms of rt-PA's adverse effects. This may have important implications in clinical settings where thrombolytic therapy is used to treat AIS. PMID:24879061

  20. Comparative pharmacokinetic study of paeoniflorin after oral administration of pure paeoniflorin, extract of Cortex Moutan and Shuang-Dan prescription to rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Zhu, Zhenyu; Zhang, Guoqing; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Hai; Zhu, Dongliang; Chai, Yifeng

    2009-09-25

    Shuang-Dan (SD) is a traditional Chinese prescription containing Cortex Moutan and Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae and commonly used for treating cardiovascular disease. Paeoniflorin is a main effective ingredient of Cortex Moutan and the pharmacokinetic differences of paeoniflorin following oral administration of pure paeoniflorin, Cortex Moutan extract and SD decoction to rats were studied with approximately the same dose of 30mg/kg paeoniflorin. At different time points (5, 10, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 210, 270, 360, 450min), plasma concentration of paeoniflorin was determined using a simple and rapid HPLC-MS method. Unpaired student's t-test was used for the statistical comparison. A bimodal phenomenon was observed in the plasma profile after oral administration of Cortex Moutan extract. Statistically significant increase (P<0.05) in pharmacokinetic parameters of paeoniflorin including AUC(0-t), AUC(0-infinity) and MRT were obtained after oral administration of Cortex Moutan or SD decoction comparing with pure paeoniflorin. The investigation showed that among all calculated parameters, AUC(0-t), AUC(0-infinity), MRT, k(e) and T(1/2), there were no significant differences between the two decoctions. The results indicated that the reason which delay the elimination of paeoniflorin and enhance its bioavailability might be some ingredients in Cortex Moutan extract. PMID:19635542

  1. Pharmacokinetics of R 82913 in AIDS patients: a phase I dose-finding study of oral administration compared with intravenous infusion.

    PubMed Central

    De Wit, S; Hermans, P; Sommereijns, B; O'Doherty, E; Westenborghs, R; van de Velde, V; Cauwenbergh, G F; Clumeck, N

    1992-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of oral administration of R 82913, or tetrahydroimidazol [4,5,1-jk]-benzodiazepin-2(1H)-one or -thione (TIBO), was compared with those of intravenous administration in five AIDS patients. TIBO was administered as a single daily 1-h infusion of 100 mg for 29 days and orally as a single daily dose for 14 days with three consecutive regimens of 100, 200, and 100 mg with probenecid (1 g) daily. Each cycle was followed by a wash-out period. Oral bioavailability of TIBO appears to be low and is not improved by the adjunction of probenecid. Trough levels obtained with oral administration systematically remained far below the 90% inhibitory concentration of TIBO against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Tolerance of TIBO was excellent. No clinical efficacy could be demonstrated. p24 antigenemia decreased significantly in one patient under intravenous therapy. TIBO derivatives are promising anti-HIV-1 agents in vitro, but improvement of oral bioavailability is needed before implementation of long-term efficacy and tolerability studies. Moreover, rapid emergence of resistance, which has been recently documented, constitutes a major problem with most nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. PMID:1482134

  2. A 1H-NMR Based Study on Hemolymph Metabolomics in Eri Silkworm after Oral Administration of 1-Deoxynojirimycin

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Ming-Jie; Lin, Xiao-Dong; Lin, Qiu-Ting; Wen, De-Fu; Zhang, Mei-Ling; Wang, Xian-Qin; Gao, Hong-Chang; Xu, Jia-Ping

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate whether 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) modulates glycometabolism and has toxicity in Eri silkworm (Samia cynthia ricini, Saturniidae). In this paper, hemolymph metabolites were used to explore metabolic changes after oral administration of DNJ or mulberry latex and to characterize the biological function of DNJ at the metabolic and systemic levels. Hemolymph samples were collected from fourth-instar larvae of Eri silkworm and ex-vivo high-resolution 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were acquired from the collected hemolymph samples. Then the obtained spectra were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and independent-samples t-test. Metabolic pattern recognition analysis of hemolymph samples indicated that the groups of 0.25% DNJ, latex, and the mixture of 0.5% DNJ and latex (1:1) were significantly different from the control group. Moreover, compared to the control group, the groups of 0.25% DNJ, latex, and the mixture of 0.5% DNJ and latex (1:1) showed the decreased levels of citrate, succinate, fumarate, malate, and glutamine in hemolymph, the groups of 0.25% DNJ and the mixture of 0.5% DNJ and latex (1:1) showed the increased levels of trehalose and lactate. In addition, mulberry leaves exude latex was highly toxic to Eri silkworm because rich unidentified high-molecular-weight factor (s) acted as toxic substances. In our results, latex caused 20 deaths among 50 fourth-instar larvae of Eri silkmoth, but DNJ or the mixture did not caused death. All these results suggest that DNJ has a positive impact on the reverse glycometabolism by modulating glycometabolism and inhibiting glucogenesis and energy metabolism. DNJ is a secure substance as a single-ingredient antidiabetic medicine due to its nontoxicity and bioactivity. PMID:26148185

  3. A comparative study of the effects of the intravenous self-administration or subcutaneous minipump infusion of nicotine on the expression of brain neuronal nicotinic receptor subtypes.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Milena; Mugnaini, Manolo; Tessari, Michela; Zoli, Michele; Gaimarri, Annalisa; Manfredi, Irene; Pistillo, Francesco; Clementi, Francesco; Gotti, Cecilia

    2010-08-01

    Long-term nicotine exposure changes neuronal acetylcholine nicotinic receptor (nAChR) subtype expression in the brains of smokers and experimental animals. The aim of this study was to investigate nicotine-induced changes in nAChR expression in two models commonly used to describe the effects of nicotine in animals: operant (two-lever presses) intravenous self-administration (SA) and passive subcutaneous nicotine administration via an osmotic minipump (MP). In the MP group, alpha4beta2 nAChRs were up-regulated in all brain regions, alpha6beta2* nAChRs were down-regulated in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and caudate-putamen, and alpha7 nAChRs were up-regulated in the caudal cerebral cortex (CCx); the up-regulation of alpha4beta2alpha5 nAChRs in the CCx was also suggested. In the SA group, alpha4beta2 up-regulation was lower and limited to the CCx and NAc; there were no detectable changes in alpha6beta2* or alpha7 nACRs. In the CCx of the MP rats, there was a close correlation between the increase in alpha4beta2 binding and alpha4 and beta2 subunit levels measured by means of Western blotting, demonstrating that the up-regulation was due to an increase in alpha4beta2 proteins. Western blotting also showed that the increase in the beta2 subunit exceeded that of the alpha4 subunit, suggesting that a change in alpha4beta2 stoichiometry may occur in vivo as has been shown in vitro. These results show that nicotine has an area-specific effect on receptor subtypes, regardless of its administration route, but the effect is quantitatively greater in the case of MP administration. PMID:20439469

  4. An administrative data validation study of the accuracy of algorithms for identifying rheumatoid arthritis: the influence of the reference standard on algorithm performance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We have previously validated administrative data algorithms to identify patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using rheumatology clinic records as the reference standard. Here we reassessed the accuracy of the algorithms using primary care records as the reference standard. Methods We performed a retrospective chart abstraction study using a random sample of 7500 adult patients under the care of 83 family physicians contributing to the Electronic Medical Record Administrative data Linked Database (EMRALD) in Ontario, Canada. Using physician-reported diagnoses as the reference standard, we computed and compared the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values for over 100 administrative data algorithms for RA case ascertainment. Results We identified 69 patients with RA for a lifetime RA prevalence of 0.9%. All algorithms had excellent specificity (>97%). However, sensitivity varied (75-90%) among physician billing algorithms. Despite the low prevalence of RA, most algorithms had adequate positive predictive value (PPV; 51-83%). The algorithm of “[1 hospitalization RA diagnosis code] or [3 physician RA diagnosis codes with ≥1 by a specialist over 2 years]” had a sensitivity of 78% (95% CI 69–88), specificity of 100% (95% CI 100–100), PPV of 78% (95% CI 69–88) and NPV of 100% (95% CI 100–100). Conclusions Administrative data algorithms for detecting RA patients achieved a high degree of accuracy amongst the general population. However, results varied slightly from our previous report, which can be attributed to differences in the reference standards with respect to disease prevalence, spectrum of disease, and type of comparator group. PMID:24956925

  5. Use of an Electronic Medication Administration Record (eMAR) for Surveillance of Medication Omissions: Results of a One Year Study of Antimicrobials in the Inpatient Setting

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Bruce R.; Sabuda, Deana M.; Bresee, Lauren C.; Conly, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Medication administration omissions (MAO) are usually considered medication errors but not all MAO are clinically relevant. We determined the frequency of clinically relevant MAO of antimicrobial drugs in adult hospitals in Calgary, Alberta, Canada based on electronic medication administration record (eMAR). Methods We examined 2011 data from eMAR records on medical wards and developed a reproducible assessment scheme to categorize and determine clinical relevance of MAO. We applied this scheme to records from 2012 in a retrospective cohort study to quantify clinically relevant MAO. Significant predictors of clinically relevant MAO were identified. Results A total of 294,718 dose records were assessed of which 10,282 (3.49%) were for doses not administered. Among these 4903 (1.66% of total); 47.68% of MAO were considered clinically relevant. Significant positive predictors of clinically relevant MAO included inhaled (OR 4.90, 95% CI 3.54-6.94) and liquid oral (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.18-1.47) route of medication compared to solid oral and irregular dose schedules. Evening nursing shift compared to night shift (OR 0.77 95% CI 0.70-0.85) and parenteral (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.46-0.54) were negative predictors, The commonest reasons for relevant MAO were patient preference, unspecified reason, administration access issues, drug not available or patient condition. Conclusion Assessment of MAO by review of computer records provides a greater scope and sample size than directly observed medication administration assessments without “observer” effect. We found that MAO of antimicrobials in inpatients were uncommon but were seen more frequently with orally administered antimicrobials which may have significance to antimicrobial stewardship initiatives. PMID:25856373

  6. Validity of ICD-9-CM codes for breast, lung and colorectal cancers in three Italian administrative healthcare databases: a diagnostic accuracy study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Abraha, Iosief; Serraino, Diego; Giovannini, Gianni; Stracci, Fabrizio; Casucci, Paola; Alessandrini, Giuliana; Bidoli, Ettore; Chiari, Rita; Cirocchi, Roberto; De Giorgi, Marcello; Franchini, David; Vitale, Maria Francesca; Fusco, Mario; Montedori, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Administrative healthcare databases are useful tools to study healthcare outcomes and to monitor the health status of a population. Patients with cancer can be identified through disease-specific codes, prescriptions and physician claims, but prior validation is required to achieve an accurate case definition. The objective of this protocol is to assess the accuracy of International Classification of Diseases Ninth Revision—Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes for breast, lung and colorectal cancers in identifying patients diagnosed with the relative disease in three Italian administrative databases. Methods and analysis Data from the administrative databases of Umbria Region (910 000 residents), Local Health Unit 3 of Napoli (1 170 000 residents) and Friuli-Venezia Giulia Region (1 227 000 residents) will be considered. In each administrative database, patients with the first occurrence of diagnosis of breast, lung or colorectal cancer between 2012 and 2014 will be identified using the following groups of ICD-9-CM codes in primary position: (1) 233.0 and (2) 174.x for breast cancer; (3) 162.x for lung cancer; (4) 153.x for colon cancer and (5) 154.0–154.1 and 154.8 for rectal cancer. Only incident cases will be considered, that is, excluding cases that have the same diagnosis in the 5 years (2007–2011) before the period of interest. A random sample of cases and non-cases will be selected from each administrative database and the corresponding medical charts will be assessed for validation by pairs of trained, independent reviewers. Case ascertainment within the medical charts will be based on (1) the presence of a primary nodular lesion in the breast, lung or colon–rectum, documented with imaging or endoscopy and (2) a cytological or histological documentation of cancer from a primary or metastatic site. Sensitivity and specificity with 95% CIs will be calculated. Dissemination Study results will be disseminated widely through

  7. The impact of structural integrity and route of administration on the antibody specificity against three cow’s milk allergens - a study in Brown Norway rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Characterisation of the specific antibody response, including the epitope binding pattern, is an essential task for understanding the molecular mechanisms of food allergy. Examination of antibody formation in a controlled environment requires animal models. The purpose of this study was to examine the amount and types of antibodies raised against three cow’s milk allergens; β-lactoglobulin (BLG), α-lactalbumin (ALA) and β-casein upon oral or intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration. A special focus was given to the relative amount of antibodies raised against linear versus conformational epitopes. Methods Specific antibodies were raised in Brown Norway (BN) rats. BN rats were dosed either (1) i.p. with the purified native cow’s milk allergens or (2) orally with skimmed milk powder (SMP) alone or together with gluten, without the use of adjuvants. The allergens were denatured by reduction and alkylation, resulting in unfolding of the primary structure and a consequential loss of conformational epitopes. The specific IgG1 and IgE responses were analysed against both the native and denatured form of the three cow’s milk allergens, thus allowing examination of the relative amount of linear versus conformational epitopes. Results The inherent capacity to induce specific IgG1 and IgE antibodies were rather similar upon i.p. administration for the three cow’s milk allergens, with BLG = ALA > β-casein. Larger differences were found between the allergens upon oral administration, with BLG > ALA > β-casein. Co-administration of SMP and gluten had a great impact on the specific antibody response, resulting in a significant reduced amount of antibodies. Together results indicated that most antibodies were raised against conformational epitopes irrespectively of the administration route, though the relative proportions between linear and conformational epitopes differed remarkably between the allergens. Conclusions This study showed that the

  8. Incidence of Hospitalization for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection amongst Children in Ontario, Canada: A Population-Based Study Using Validated Health Administrative Data

    PubMed Central

    Pisesky, Andrea; Benchimol, Eric I.; Wong, Coralie A.; Hui, Charles; Crowe, Megan; Belair, Marc-Andre; Pojsupap, Supichaya; Karnauchow, Tim; O'Hearn, Katie; Yasseen, Abdool S.; McNally, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Importance RSV is a common illness among young children that causes significant morbidity and health care costs. Objective Routinely collected health administrative data can be used to track disease incidence, explore risk factors and conduct health services research. Due to potential for misclassification bias, the accuracy of data-elements should be validated prior to use. The objectives of this study were to validate an algorithm to accurately identify pediatric cases of hospitalized respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) from within Ontario’s health administrative data, estimate annual incidence of hospitalization due to RSV and report the prevalence of major risk factors within hospitalized patients. Study Design and Setting A retrospective chart review was performed to establish a reference-standard cohort of children from the Ottawa region admitted to the Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario (CHEO) for RSV-related disease in 2010 and 2011. Chart review data was linked to Ontario’s administrative data and used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of algorithms of RSV-related ICD-10 codes within provincial hospitalization and emergency department databases. Age- and sex-standardized incidence was calculated over time, with trends in incidence assessed using Poisson regression. Results From a total of 1411 admissions, chart review identified 327 children hospitalized for laboratory confirmed RSV-related disease. Following linkage to administrative data and restriction to first admissions, there were 289 RSV patients in the reference-standard cohort. The best algorithm, based on hospitalization data, resulted in sensitivity 97.9% (95%CI: 95.5–99.2%), specificity 99.6% (95%CI: 98.2–99.8%), PPV 96.9% (95%CI: 94.2–98.6%), NPV 99.4% (95%CI: 99.4–99.9%). Incidence of hospitalized RSV in Ontario from 2005–2012 was 10.2 per 1000 children under 1 year and 4.8 per 1000 children aged 1 to 3 years. During the surveillance period, there was no identifiable

  9. Forced Abstinence from Cocaine Self-Administration is Associated with DNA Methylation Changes in Myelin Genes in the Corpus Callosum: a Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, David A.; Huang, Wen; Hamon, Sara C.; Maili, Lorena; Witkin, Brian M.; Fox, Robert G.; Cunningham, Kathryn A.; Moeller, F. Gerard

    2012-01-01

    Background: Human cocaine abuse is associated with alterations in white matter integrity revealed upon brain imaging, an observation that is recapitulated in an animal model of continuous cocaine exposure. The mechanism through which cocaine may affect white matter is unknown and the present study tested the hypothesis that cocaine self-administration results in changes in DNA methylation that could result in altered expression of several myelin genes that could contribute to the effects of cocaine on white matter integrity. Methods: In the present study, we examined the impact of forced abstinence from cocaine self-administration on chromatin associated changes in white matter. To this end, rats were trained to self-administer cocaine (0.75 mg/kg/0.1 mL infusion) for 14 days followed by forced abstinence for 1 day (n = 6) or 30 days (n = 6) before sacrifice. Drug-free, sham surgery controls (n = 7) were paired with the experimental groups. Global DNA methylation and DNA methylation at specific CpG sites in the promoter regions ofmyelin basic protein (Mbp), proteolipid protein-1 (Plp1), and SRY-related HMG-box-10 (Sox10) genes were analyzed in DNA extracted from corpus callosum. Results: Significant differences in the overall methylation patterns of the Sox10 promoter region were observed in the corpus callosum of rats at 30 days of forced abstinence from cocaine self-administration relative to sham controls; the −189, −142, −93, and −62 CpG sites were significantly hypomethylated point-wise at this time point. After correction for multiple comparisons, no differences in global methylation or the methylation patterns of Mbp or Plp1 were found. Conclusion: Forced abstinence from cocaine self-administration was associated with differences in DNA methylation at specific CpG sites in the promoter region of the Sox10 gene in corpus callosum. These changes may be related to reductions in normal age related changes in DNA methylation and

  10. Quantitative determination of gracillin by HPLC-MS/MS after oral administration and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinxin; Xue, Xuanji; Zhao, Jing; Guo, Zengjun; Ito, Yoichiro; Sun, Wenji

    2016-09-01

    A sensitive and credible high performance liquid chromatography hyphenated to mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was established to quantify the concentration of gracillin in rat plasma. The plasma samples were subjected to a direct protein precipitation process with acetonitrile as a precipitant in a single-step. Ginsenoside Rb1 was selected as an internal standard (IS). The chromatographic separation of analyte and IS were carried out on an Inersil ODS-3 C18 column (250×4.6mm, 5μm) with a binary solvent system containing acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water at a flow rate of 1mLmin(-1) under a gradient elution mode. Mass spectrometric detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer by the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode to examine the precursor-to-daughter ion transitions of 1110.3→948.2 for IS and 886.1→739.9 for gracillin, respectively, in a positive electrospray ionization mode. The calibration curve showed a promising linearity over a concentration range of 0.065-800ngmL(-1) with a better regression coefficient of r(2)=0.9960. The intra- and inter-day precisions (as relative standard deviation) of the assay at three quality control levels were all less than 3.48%, while the intra- and inter-day accuracies (as relative error) ranged from -8.43% to 9.74%, whose data were within the acceptable limits. The mean extraction recoveries of analyte from rat plasma were all more than 74.11%, and no notable matrix effect was observed. Stability experiments revealed that gracillin remained stable throughout the analytical procedure under various stored conditions. The above validated method was successfully used to investigate the pharmacokinetic behaviors of gracillin orally administrated to rats at three proportion doses. The pharmacokinetic analysis would pave the way for understanding the pharmacological actions and provide a meaningful foundation for further development and application in preclinical and clinical use of

  11. Machine-learning prediction of cancer survival: a retrospective study using electronic administrative records and a cancer registry

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sunil; Tran, Truyen; Luo, Wei; Phung, Dinh; Kennedy, Richard Lee; Broad, Adam; Campbell, David; Kipp, David; Singh, Madhu; Khasraw, Mustafa; Matheson, Leigh; Ashley, David M; Venkatesh, Svetha

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Using the prediction of cancer outcome as a model, we have tested the hypothesis that through analysing routinely collected digital data contained in an electronic administrative record (EAR), using machine-learning techniques, we could enhance conventional methods in predicting clinical outcomes. Setting A regional cancer centre in Australia. Participants Disease-specific data from a purpose-built cancer registry (Evaluation of Cancer Outcomes (ECO)) from 869 patients were used to predict survival at 6, 12 and 24 months. The model was validated with data from a further 94 patients, and results compared to the assessment of five specialist oncologists. Machine-learning prediction using ECO data was compared with that using EAR and a model combining ECO and EAR data. Primary and secondary outcome measures Survival prediction accuracy in terms of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results The ECO model yielded AUCs of 0.87 (95% CI 0.848 to 0.890) at 6 months, 0.796 (95% CI 0.774 to 0.823) at 12 months and 0.764 (95% CI 0.737 to 0.789) at 24 months. Each was slightly better than the performance of the clinician panel. The model performed consistently across a range of cancers, including rare cancers. Combining ECO and EAR data yielded better prediction than the ECO-based model (AUCs ranging from 0.757 to 0.997 for 6 months, AUCs from 0.689 to 0.988 for 12 months and AUCs from 0.713 to 0.973 for 24 months). The best prediction was for genitourinary, head and neck, lung, skin, and upper gastrointestinal tumours. Conclusions Machine learning applied to information from a disease-specific (cancer) database and the EAR can be used to predict clinical outcomes. Importantly, the approach described made use of digital data that is already routinely collected but underexploited by clinical health systems. PMID:24643167

  12. Immune profile of asplenic patients following single or double vaccine administration: A longitudinal cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Doğan, Sait Murat; Aykas, Ahmet; Yücel, Evrim Şefika; Okut, Gökalp; Şimşek, Cenk; Çayhan, Kürşat; Zengel, Baha; Uslu, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Splenectomy poses a lifelong threat for the development of uncontrolled sepsis despite vaccination. As it is impractical to measure the levels of each antibody against 23 most frequent bacterial serotypes, different surrogate markers of immune response should be identified. Material and Methods: Forty-eight patients with benign disorders were vaccinated with Pneumo-23 and Act-HIB before or at the day of surgery. The immunological response and opsonization capacity of the patients after splenectomy was analyzed through the quantitative measurement of IgG, IgM, C3, and C4 titers; flow-cytometric analysis of (CD3+) T-lymphocytes and (CD19+) B-lymphocytes; and isolation of CD27+ B cells by immunomagnetic positive selection. Blood samples were drawn at the sixth month and 5 and 7 years after surgery. Results: The mean follow-up period was 98.4 months. All the patients in this series had normal IgG, C3, C4 levels and a normal distribution of CD19+ B-cells and CD8+ T-cells in three follow-up periods. Moreover, C3 levels markedly improved to 133.5±37.3 mg/dL at 5 years and remained stable thereafter. CD19+ B-lymphocyte values have progressively improved to the normal range in 98% patients at 7 years. Further, low levels of CD27+ B-cell population (memory cells) was observed in only 12.5% patients at the last follow-up. Adequate seroconversion of IgG, IgM with normal C3, C4, and CD19+ B-cell levels were accomplished in almost all patients. Early postoperative death and late overwhelming infections did not occur. Conclusion: Our results are indicative of the resumption of the immune function following Pneumo-23 and Act-HIB administrations, instigated by the probable activation of B cells and adequate production of C3, C4, IgG, and IgM antibodies in remote lymphoid tissues. PMID:26504413

  13. A pharmacokinetic/clinical approach to postulate a local action of intra-articular xylazine administration in the horse: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Di Salvo, A; Della Rocca, G; Bazzica, C; Giontella, A; Cagnardi, P; Nannarone, S

    2014-10-01

    The study aims to evaluate whether the analgesic effect of intra-articular (IA) route of xylazine administered to horses following arthroscopic surgery is due to a local or a systemic action. Two connected studies were performed. In the first, 1 mg/kg b.w. of xylazine was injected IA, and blood samples were taken to assess drug systemic absorption. In addition, systemic effects of the drug (sedation, ataxia or reduction of respiratory and cardiac rate) were registered. Control horses injected with saline IA were included in the study to exclude the influence of anaesthesia in the occurrence of these manifestations. In the second study, 1 mg/kg b.w. of xylazine was administered intravenously (i.v.) in healthy horses. Blood samples were collected to determine the concentrations of xylazine, and the same signs of systemic effects of the drug were recorded. By correlating these parameters, a systemic 'no effect' concentration was defined. Pharmacokinetic data after IA administration resulted in some xylazine absorption (bioavailability equal to 58.12%) with values above the systemic 'no effect' concentration. The occurrence of some signs related to systemic effects in horses receiving IA xylazine was significant compared with horses receiving saline. In conclusion, a systemic action of the drug after IA administration cannot be excluded. PMID:24606045

  14. New Scheme of Intermittent Benznidazole Administration in Patients Chronically Infected with Trypanosoma cruzi: a Pilot Short-Term Follow-Up Study with Adult Patients.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, María Gabriela; Hernández, Yolanda; Bertocchi, Graciela; Fernández, Marisa; Lococo, Bruno; Ramírez, Juan Carlos; Cura, Carolina; Albizu, Constanza Lopez; Schijman, Alejandro; Abril, Marcelo; Sosa-Estani, Sergio; Viotti, Rodolfo

    2016-02-01

    There is a clinical need to test new schemes of benznidazole administration that are expected to be at least as effective as the current therapeutic scheme but safer. This study assessed a new scheme of benznidazole administration in chronic Chagas disease patients. A pilot study with intermittent doses of benznidazole at 5 mg/kg/day in two daily doses every 5 days for a total of 60 days was designed. The main criterion of response was the comparison of quantitative PCR (qPCR) findings prior to and 1 week after the end of treatment. The safety profile was assessed by the rate of suspensions and severity of adverse effects. Twenty patients were analyzed for safety, while qPCR was tested for 17 of them. The average age was 43 ± 7.9 years; 55% were female. Sixty-five percent of treated subjects showed detectable qPCR results prior to treatment of 1.45 (0.63 to 2.81) and 2.1 (1.18 to 2.78) parasitic equivalents per milliliter of blood (par.eq/ml) for kinetoplastic DNA (kDNA) qPCR and nuclear repetitive sequence satellite DNA (SatDNA) qPCR, respectively. One patient showed detectable PCR at the end of treatment (1/17), corresponding to 6% treatment failure, compared with 11/17 (65%) patients pretreatment (P = 0.01). Adverse effects were present in 10/20 (50%) patients, but in only one case was treatment suspended. Eight patients showed mild adverse effects, whereas moderate reactions with increased liver enzymes were observed in two patients. The main accomplishment of this pilot study is the promising low rate of treatment suspension. Intermittent administration of benznidazole emerges a new potential therapeutic scheme, the efficacy of which should be confirmed by long-term assessment posttreatment. PMID:26596935

  15. New Scheme of Intermittent Benznidazole Administration in Patients Chronically Infected with Trypanosoma cruzi: a Pilot Short-Term Follow-Up Study with Adult Patients

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez, María Gabriela; Hernández, Yolanda; Bertocchi, Graciela; Fernández, Marisa; Lococo, Bruno; Ramírez, Juan Carlos; Cura, Carolina; Albizu, Constanza Lopez; Schijman, Alejandro; Abril, Marcelo; Sosa-Estani, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    There is a clinical need to test new schemes of benznidazole administration that are expected to be at least as effective as the current therapeutic scheme but safer. This study assessed a new scheme of benznidazole administration in chronic Chagas disease patients. A pilot study with intermittent doses of benznidazole at 5 mg/kg/day in two daily doses every 5 days for a total of 60 days was designed. The main criterion of response was the comparison of quantitative PCR (qPCR) findings prior to and 1 week after the end of treatment. The safety profile was assessed by the rate of suspensions and severity of adverse effects. Twenty patients were analyzed for safety, while qPCR was tested for 17 of them. The average age was 43 ± 7.9 years; 55% were female. Sixty-five percent of treated subjects showed detectable qPCR results prior to treatment of 1.45 (0.63 to 2.81) and 2.1 (1.18 to 2.78) parasitic equivalents per milliliter of blood (par.eq/ml) for kinetoplastic DNA (kDNA) qPCR and nuclear repetitive sequence satellite DNA (SatDNA) qPCR, respectively. One patient showed detectable PCR at the end of treatment (1/17), corresponding to 6% treatment failure, compared with 11/17 (65%) patients pretreatment (P = 0.01). Adverse effects were present in 10/20 (50%) patients, but in only one case was treatment suspended. Eight patients showed mild adverse effects, whereas moderate reactions with increased liver enzymes were observed in two patients. The main accomplishment of this pilot study is the promising low rate of treatment suspension. Intermittent administration of benznidazole emerges a new potential therapeutic scheme, the efficacy of which should be confirmed by long-term assessment posttreatment. PMID:26596935

  16. EPA/Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Near Road Collaboration Project: Las Vegas Near Road Study – MSAT Results

    EPA Science Inventory

    The series of studies conducted as part of the National Near Road Study focused on the collection of criteria air pollutants and mobile source air toxics (MSATs). The six priority compounds of interest were diesel particulate matter, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, acrolein, acetaldehyde...

  17. Public Pedagogy and Writing Program Administration: A Comparative, Cross-Institutional Study of Going Public in Rhetoric and Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Ashley J.

    2012-01-01

    In this project, I theorize public pedagogy in rhetoric and composition by examining a series of case studies within the writing programs and departments of the University of Arizona, Syracuse University, and Oberlin College. This cross-institutional study employs comparative analysis of historical, pedagogical, and institutional documents, as…

  18. Making Sense of Decoding and Spelling: An Adult Reading Course of Study--Teachers' and Administrators' Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacArthur, Charles A.; Alamprese, Judith A.; Knight, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    "Making Sense of Decoding and Spelling: An Adult Reading Course of Study" is an evidence-based course of study designed to teach adult learners to decode and spell words more accurately and fluently. It is designed to be used as one component of a comprehensive adult reading course. The target population for the course is adult basic education…

  19. An Open, Randomized, Single-Center, Crossover Pharmacokinetic Study of Meropenem after Intraperitoneal and Intravenous Administration in Patients Receiving Automated Peritoneal Dialysis.

    PubMed

    Wiesholzer, Martin; Pichler, Petra; Reznicek, Gottfried; Wimmer, Michaela; Kussmann, Manuel; Balcke, Peter; Burgmann, Heinz; Zeitlinger, Markus; Poeppl, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic profile of meropenem in automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) patients. In 6 patients without peritonitis, a single dose of 0.5 g of meropenem was applied intraperitoneally (i.p.) or intravenously (i.v.) and concentrations in serum and dialysate were measured at specified intervals over 24 h with high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The mean maximum concentrations of meropenem in serum (Cmax) were 27.2 mg/liter (standard deviation [SD], ±6.9) and 10.1 mg/liter (SD, ±2.5) and in dialysate were 3.6 mg/liter (SD, ±2.3) and 185.8 mg/liter (SD, ±18.7) after i.v. and i.p. administrations, respectively. The mean areas under the curve from 0 to 24 (AUC0-24) of meropenem in serum were 173.5 mg · h/liter (SD, ±29.7) and 141.4 mg · h/liter (SD, ±37.5) (P = 0.046) and in dialysate were 42.6 mg · h/liter (SD, ±20.0) and 623.4 mg · h/liter (SD, ±84.1) (P = 0.028) after i.v. and i.p. administrations, respectively. The ratios for dialysate exposure over plasma exposure after i.v. and i.p. treatments were 0.2 (SD, ±0.1) and 4.6 (SD, ±0.9), respectively (P = 0.031). A mean target value of 40% T>MIC (time for which the free meropenem concentration exceeds the MIC) for clinically relevant pathogens with EUCAST susceptibility breakpoints of 2 mg/liter was reached in serum after i.p. and i.v. administrations and in dialysate after i.p. but not after i.v. administration. The present data indicate that low i.p. exposure limits the i.v. use of meropenem for PD-associated peritonitis. In contrast, i.p. administration not only results in superior concentrations in dialysate but also might be used to treat systemic infections. PMID:26902765

  20. Organization/Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, Ellen Earle

    Patterns that emerged from reviewing 26 syllabi for courses on organization and administration in higher education are discussed, and six sample syllabi are presented. The syllabi focused more on organization than administration. Of the 26 syllabi, 19 dealt with organization and administration generally; 5 with administration in a specific…

  1. Petroleum Resource Management and Assessment project for the Western Siberian Administration Russia. TDA feasibility study. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the study is: (1) To determine the nature and availability of the information necessary for Resource Assessment in oil fields to be open to foreign investment; (2) To determine what resources are required to implement the 'Alberta Model' of Resource Management in Siberia; (3) To establish a pilot Data Collection and Information System, including software, hardware and technology; (4) To indicate whether the studied database model and related software can meet Russia's long term requirements for information management in the petroleum sector; (5) The transfer of information techniques to the Russian implementation teams; and (6) To define the requirements for a resource/economic study.

  2. High-dose pyridoxine and magnesium administration in children with autistic disorder: an absence of salutary effects in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Findling, R L; Maxwell, K; Scotese-Wojtila, L; Huang, J; Yamashita, T; Wiznitzer, M

    1997-08-01

    Several reports have described salutary effects such as decreased physical aggression and improved social responsiveness being associated with the administration of high doses of pyridoxine and magnesium (HDPM) in open-labeled and controlled studies of patients with autism. Despite this fact, this intervention remains controversial. A 10-week double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was undertaken to examine both the efficacy and safety of HDPM in autism. Twelve patients were enrolled, and 10 patients (mean age 6 years 3 months) were able to complete the study. HDPM at an average dose of 638.9 mg of pyridoxine and 216.3 mg of magnesium oxide was ineffective in ameliorating autistic behaviors as assessed by the Children's Psychiatric Rating Scale (CPRS), the Clinical Global Impression Scale, and the NIMH Global Obsessive Compulsive Scale. Furthermore, no clinically significant side effects were noted during HDPM administration. A trend for a transient change on the CPRS was found that was possibly due to a placebo response. This study raises doubts about the clinical effectiveness of HDPM in autistic disorder. PMID:9261669

  3. The Tissue Distribution and Urinary Excretion Study of Gallic Acid and Protocatechuic Acid after Oral Administration of Polygonum Capitatum Extract in Rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Feng-Wei; Deng, Qing-Fang; Zhou, Xin; Gong, Xiao-Jian; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Hua-Guo; Zhao, Chao

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the tissue distribution and urinary excretion of gallic acid (GA) and protocatechuic acid (PCA) after rat oral administration of aqueous extract of Polygonum capitatum (P. capitatum, named Herba Polygoni Capitati in China). An UHPLC-MS/MS analytical method was developed and adopted for quantification of GA and PCA in different tissue homogenate and urine samples. Interestingly, we found that GA and PCA showed a relatively targeted distribution in kidney tissue after dosing 60 mg/kg P. capitatum extract (equivalent to 12 mg/kg of GA and 0.9 mg/kg of PCA). The concentrations of GA and PCA in the kidney tissue reached 1218.62 ng/g and 43.98 ng/g, respectively, at one hour after oral administration. The results helped explain the empirical use of P. capitatum for kidney diseases in folk medicine. Further studies on urinary excretion of P. capitatum extract indicated that GA and PCA followed a concentrated elimination over a 4-h period. The predominant metabolites were putatively identified to be 4-methylgallic acid (4-OMeGA) and 4-methylprotocatechuic acid (4-OMePCA) by analyzing their precursor ions and characteristic fragment ions using tandem mass spectrometry. However, the amount of unchanged GA and PCA that survived the metabolism were about 14.60% and 15.72% of the total intake, respectively, which is reported for the first time in this study. PMID:27023501

  4. Computerization of High School Pedagogical Administration--Its Effect on Principal-Parents Interrelations: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telem, Moshe

    2003-01-01

    Case study of the impact of school management information systems on principal-parent interrelations concerning learning, behavior, and attendance at a vocational high school in Israel. (Contains 82 references.) (PKP)

  5. A Case Study of Student Assessment Programs in a College of Business Administration at a Southern HBCU

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell Haynes, Janel Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed method sequential explanatory case study was to describe the relationship of a student outcomes assessment program, as measured by the Peregrine Academic Leveling Course, (ALC), to the academic performance, determined by scores on the Peregrine Common Professional Component (CPC) examination, of students enrolled during…

  6. A Case Study of the Diversity Culture of an American University Athletic Department: Perceptions of Senior Level Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, John N.; Cunningham, George B.

    2012-01-01

    The topic of diversity has received considerable attention from scholars who study sport within the context of higher education in the USA. But despite this interest in the topic, an in-depth focus on how college and university athletic departments effectively manage diversity is missing from the literature. Therefore, we conducted an intrinsic…

  7. Network Organizational Development in the Public Sector: A Case Study of the Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Robert; Wamsley, Gary; Schroder, Aaron; Robins, David B.

    2000-01-01

    Does information technology "pull" the organizational management toward change in terms of authority and control, or is information technology "pushed" through the organization, by management, to maintain its existing system of authority and control? These conflicting positions are explored through a case study of the Federal Emergency Management…

  8. A Study of the Applicability of Scientific Management Techniques for the Administration of Small, Private Church-Related Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Albert S.

    Experiences with various modern management techniques and practices in selected small, private church-related colleges were studied. For comparative purposes, practices in public colleges and universities were also assessed. Management techniques used in small companies were identified through review of the literature and the management seminars…

  9. Achievement Testing Program Provincial Report. June 1993 Administration. Grade Level 3 Language Learning, Grade 6 Social Studies, Grade 9 Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Student Evaluation Branch.

    The annual report on achievement testing in Alberta (Canada) includes test results for third-grade students in language learning (for the regular English program), sixth-grade students in social studies, and ninth-grade students in science. Results are regarded in terms of curriculum standards, assessment standards, and achievement standards.…

  10. A Comparative Study of Administrator and Special Education Teacher Perceptions of Special Education Teacher Attrition and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheldrake, Danielle Angelina

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study identifies perceived causes of and solutions to the attrition of special education teachers. Researchers have documented that special education teaching positions encounter higher attrition rates than their general education peers (Katsiyannis, Zhang, & Conroy in Olivarez & Arnold, 2006; Mitchell & Arnold,…

  11. A Comparative Study of the Career Development Patterns of Male and Female Library Administrators in Large Public Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greiner, Joy M.

    1985-01-01

    This nationwide study, conducted to investigate extent to which sex of individual is controlling factor relating to salaries, career progression, and library support, compared the careers of male and female public library directors serving populations of 100,000 or more in continental United States. Questionnaire is appended. (21 references) (EJS)

  12. A NATIONWIDE STUDY OF THE ADMINISTRATION OF VOCATIONAL-TECHNICAL EDUCATION AT THE STATE LEVEL. VOLUME ONE. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SWANSON, J. CHESTER

    THE OBJECTIVES OF FIVE RELATIVELY INDEPENDENT STUDIES WERE TO DESCRIBE AND INDICATE DIFFERENCES OF ORGANIZATION, PERSONNEL, AND SERVICE IN THE STATES, IDENTIFY AND ANALYZE PERCEPTIONS OF STATE AGENCY ROLES AND FUNCTIONS, ANALYZE ACTIVITIES OF SELECTED PROFESSIONAL STAFF POSITIONS, DESIGN AND FIELD TEST AN INSTRUMENT FOR SELF ANALYSIS OF STATE…

  13. The Perceptions of Administrators in the Implementation of Professional Learning Communities: A Case Study in an Oklahoma School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaques, Shelley

    2010-01-01

    In January of 2002, President George Bush implemented the No Child left behind act that required all students to be proficient on state standards by the year 2014. One way a school district in Oklahoma met these new requirements was through the implementation of the principles of a Professional Learning Community. This case study was designed…

  14. Novice Administrators: Psychological and Physiological Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Linda J.; Kosmoski, Georgia J.; Pollack, Dennis R.

    Novice school administrators find that demands for excellence have grown while budgets have shrunk. This paper reports on a study that examined the stress levels of beginning administrators. Two of the key questions for the study--Is the stress experienced by new school administrators manageable or out of control? and Does the job put beginning…

  15. Individual Innovativeness Levels of Educational Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coklar, Ahmet Naci

    2012-01-01

    In the present study carried out with 190 educational administrators, the individual innovativeness of educational administrators was examined. As a result of the study, it was found out that the educational administrators considered themselves as early adaptors. It was also revealed that professional seniority was not important in terms of…

  16. 2010 Profile of a Research Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shambrook, Jennifer; Roberts, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper expands upon the seminal work of Roberts and House, which described the first empirical study of the demographic profile of a research administrator. The original work was based upon data from the 2005 Research Administrator Survey (RAS), a regional study of research administrators in the southeastern United States. In this paper,…

  17. E-government factors to reduce administrative and finance corruption in Arab countries: Case study Iraqi oil sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, M. A.; Eman, Y.; Hussein, A. H.; Hasson, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Arab countries face the corruption issues in its several public organizations. The corruption in these countries is considered as the main challenge. The oil sector is one of the public sectors that have huge level of corruption. However, the Iraqi economy had become dependable on oil sector daring the last three decades, and on the contrary, of what other oil countries did. The capital is considered as one of the essential factor for economic development. The revenues of oil exports will stay the essential source for economic development in Iraq in the future in order to reduce being dependable on oil. Since the beginning of the 3rd thousands, the world witnessed great rise in the demand on oil, but the Iraqi exports of crude oil come to be less than its similarities in the seventeenths of last century. So our oil sector is still in need of deep study. This study focuses on technological technique that can make huge decrease for corruption in oil sector in Iraq. However, e-government is considered as the best techniques that can decrease the corruption. Thus, this study bases on challenges that effect on build successful e-government project in Iraqi oil industry.

  18. Leflunomide biodegradable microspheres intended for intra-articular administration: Development, anti-inflammatory activity and histopathological studies.

    PubMed

    El-Setouhy, Doaa Ahmed; Abdelmalak, Nevine Shawky; Anis, Shady E; Louis, Dina

    2015-11-30

    Leflunomide, the disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug was formulated as microspheres for prolonged drug release in the form of intraarticular injection. Eight formulations were developed using three biodegradable PDLG polymers (lactide/glycolide copolymer) and polycaprolactone (PLC) at two drug:polymer ratios (1:2 and 1:4). Solvent evaporation method was employed using polyvinyl alcohol or hydropxypropyl methylcellulose as stabilizers. Formulations were assessed for encapsulation efficiency, yield, particle size, release pattern and SEM. F6 (PDLG 5010), with appropriate particle size and prolonged drug release, was chosen for in-vivo studies using arthritis induced rats, which were intrarticularly injected with F6 or took oral Avara(®). Nuclear factor-kappa B measurements and histopathologic studies were conducted. There was significant reduction of inflammation caused by both F6 and oral Avara(®). Histopathologic studies showed minimal infiltration by chronic inflammatory cells and no angiogenesis in F6 compared to Avara(®). Results also revealed biocompatibility of the polymer used. PMID:26392248

  19. Pharmacokinetic study of harmane and its 10 metabolites in rat after intravenous and oral administration by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuping; Teng, Liang; Liu, Wei; Cheng, Xuemei; Jiang, Bo; Wang, Zhengtao; Wang, Chang-Hong

    2016-09-01

    Context The β-carboline alkaloid harmane is widely distributed in common foods, beverages and hallucinogenic plants. Harmane exerts potential in therapies for Alzheimer's and depression diseases. However, little information on its dynamic metabolic profiles and pharmacokinetics in vivo is currently available. Objective This study investigates the dynamic metabolic profiles and pharmacokinetic properties of harmane and its metabolites in rats in vivo. Materials and methods A highly selective, sensitive and rapid ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method was developed and well-validated for simultaneous quantitative determination of harmane and its uncertain endogenous metabolite harmine, as well as for semiquantitative determination of 10 harmane metabolites in rats after intravenous injection and oral administration of harmane at 1.0 and 30.0 mg/kg, respectively. Results The calibration curves of harmane and harmine showed excellent linearity within the concentration range of 1-2000 ng/mL with acceptable accuracy, precision, selectivity, recovery, matrix effect and stability. Ten metabolites, including harmane but not harmine, were detected and identified after intravenous and oral administration of harmane. The absolute bioavailability of harmane following an oral dose was 19.41 ± 3.97%. According to the AUC0-t values of all the metabolites, the metabolic levels of phase II metabolites were higher than those of phase I metabolites, and the sulphation pathways were the dominant metabolic routes for harmane in both routes of administration. Discussion and conclusion The pharmacokinetic properties of harmane and its 10 metabolites in rats were determined. Sulphate conjugation was the predominant metabolic process of harmane in rats. PMID:26730489

  20. Reduction of atherosclerosis by administration of dehydroepiandrosterone. A study in the hypercholesterolemic New Zealand white rabbit with aortic intimal injury.

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, G B; Bush, D E; Weisman, H F

    1988-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is an endogenous steroid that blocks carcinogenesis, retards aging, and exerts antiproliferative properties. In vitro, it is a potent inhibitor of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the first committed step of the pentose phosphate pathway. In man, serum levels of DHEA and its sulfate peak in early adulthood and drop markedly with age. Epidemiologic evidence indicates that low levels of DHEA or its sulfate conjugate are linked to an increased risk of developing cancer or of death from cardiovascular disease. Like cancer, atherosclerosis is a proliferative process characterized by both initiation and promotion phases. This similarity provided a framework in which to study the antiatherogenic effects of DHEA. Rabbits were randomly assigned to four groups. Two groups of rabbits received aortic endothelial injury by balloon catheter and were fed a 2% cholesterol diet for 12 wk. DHEA, 0.5%, was incorporated into the diet of one group receiving the 2% cholesterol diet and endothelial injury and also into the diet of one of the control groups. Animals were killed after 12 wk and aortas, hearts, and livers were studied. Plasma samples were analyzed for total cholesterol, VLDL, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, DHEA, and DHEA-sulfate levels. The atherogenic insult resulted in severe atherosclerosis in animals not treated with DHEA. In those receiving DHEA there was an almost 50% reduction in plaque size (P = 0.006), inversely related to the serum level of DHEA attained. Fatty infiltration of the heart and liver were also markedly reduced. These beneficial actions were not attributable to differences in body weight gain, food intake, total plasma cholesterol or distribution of cholesterol among the VLDL, LDL, or HDL fractions. The results show that high levels of plasma DHEA inhibit the development of atherosclerosis and they provide an important experimental link to the epidemiologic studies correlating low DHEA-sulfate plasma levels with an enhanced

  1. A 90-day subchronic toxicity study with sodium formononetin-3'-sulphonate (Sul-F) delivered to dogs via intravenous administration.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunmei; Li, Guisheng; Gao, Yonglin; Sun, Chengfeng; Wang, Xiaoyan

    2016-06-01

    Sodium formononetin-3'-sulphonate (Sul-F) is a water-soluble derivate of formononetin, and an increasing number of studies have shown that Sul-F not only possesses favorable water solubility but also exhibits good lipid-lowering and bioactivities. In the current study, the toxicity of Sul-F was evaluated in dogs after 90-day intravenous infusion. Dogs were treated with Sul-F at dose of 0, 33.3, 100, and 300 mg/kg, and observed for 90-day followed by 28-day recovery period. Weekly measurement of body weight, temperature and food consumption were conducted. Ophthalmoscopy, ECG examination, urinalysis, serum biochemistry and hematology examination were performed at pre-test, on days 45 and 90, and following by 28-day recovery period. Histological examination was performed on day 90 and 28-day recovery period. No mortality, ophthalmic abnormalities or treatment-related findings in body weight, clinical chemistry, hematology, and histopathological examination were detected. However, a white crystal (non-metabolic Sul-F), transient vomiting and recoverable vascular stimulation were observed in 300 mg/kg/day Sul-F treated dogs. Under the conditions, the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) for Sul-F was 100 mg/kg in dogs. PMID:26924788

  2. [A relative bioavailability study of 2 oral formulations of omeprazole after their administration in repeated doses to healthy volunteers].

    PubMed

    Richards, J P; Gimeno, M; Moreland, T A; McEwen, J

    1999-04-01

    To determine the relative bioavailability of Ulceral (study formula) with respect to Losec (reference standard formula) and establish their bioequivalence daily doses of 20 mg of omeprazole were given during 5 consecutive days to 24 healthy volunteers. No significant differences were observed in the area under the curve (AUC0-t), a parameter directly related to the inhibition of acid secretion induced by omeprazole. The confidence interval of 90% for the difference between the two formulations for AUC0-t was within the interval of acceptance (0.80-1.25). The confidence interval for the difference between the two formulations for Cmax were also within the range of acceptance (0.70-1.43). In relation to the time for achieving (Cmax (tmax), the difference between the two formulations and the confidence interval of 95% for the tmax was 0.75 (-0.5-1.75) h indicating that no significant differences were observed between the two treatments. This study confirms the bioequivalence of Ulceral with the standard reference formulation as well as the tolerability of the two formulae. PMID:10349786

  3. A prospective double-blind study of side effects associated with the administration of amantadine for influenza A virus prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Bryson, Y J; Monahan, C; Pollack, M; Shields, W D

    1980-05-01

    During a study of efficacy of amantadine prophylaxis of influenza A virus infection in young adults, gross and subtle side effects were monitored. Eighty-eight students were randomly selected to receive either amantadine or placebo for four weeks or both in a sequential crossover design of two weeks each. Side effects (i.e., dizziness, nervousness, and insomnia) occurred in 33% of those receiving amantadine and in 10% of those receiving placebo (P less than 0.005). Although side effects were well tolerated by most subjects, six volunteers discontinued amantadine because of marked complaints. Cessation of side effects occurred in more than half of those continuing amantadine. Sixteen students receiving amantadine had decreased performance on sustained attention tasks as compared with ones receiving placebo (P less than 0.05). Gross and subtle side effects of amantadine observed in this study on currently recommended dosage are higher than previously reported, which may be an important factor in consideration of mass prophylaxis. PMID:7373087

  4. Erythema-inducing effects of solvents following epicutaneous administration to man--studied by laser Doppler flowmetry.

    PubMed

    Wahlberg, J E

    1984-06-01

    Skin exposure to solvents can cause erythema, edema, scaling, and, eventually, irritant contact dermatitis. The irritant potential of chemicals is usually assessed by visual scoring, but in recent years a more objective measuring technique, laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF), has been introduced for the assessment of erythema. The method is noninvasive and allows continuous recording. In the present study 11 solvents were applied for 5 min or less to the volar forearms of a man and the kinetics of the response is shown. For seven solvents (dimethyl sulfoxide, trichloroethylene, n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, toluene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,1,2-trichloroethane) an increase was found over the pretreatment values, whereas four solvents (methyl ethyl ketone, ethanol, propylene glycol, distilled water) did not influence blood flow. The findings are discussed in relation to the macroscopic picture (whitening and erythema) and in relation to previous studies of the edema-inducing effects of the same solvents on man and experimental animals. It is concluded that LDF is well worth trying in cases of marginal irritancy and for predictive testing, since it seems to be more sensitive and reliable than the naked eye. PMID:6236553

  5. The Relationship between Job Involvement and School Administrative Effectiveness as Perceived by Administration Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Ruilin; Xie, Jingchen; Jeng, Yoau-Chau; Wang, Zheng-Hong

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships between "job involvement" and "school administrative effectiveness" as perceived by junior high school administration teachers. The findings are as follows. (1) The current status of "job involvement" and "school administrative effectiveness" as perceived by administration teachers is…

  6. Pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence study of escitalopram oxalate formulations after single-dose administration in healthy Chinese male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Tian, Yuan; Zhang, Zun-Jian; Wang, Na; Ren, Xiaolei; Chen, Yun

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the bioavailability of escitalopram (CAS 128196-01-0) from two escitalopram oxalate (CAS 219861-08-2) tablets (escitalopram 10 mg tablet as test preparation and 10 mg tablet commercially available original tablet of the drug as reference preparation) in 20 Chinese healthy male volunteers, aged between 19 and 27. The study was conducted according to an open, randomized, single blind, 2-way crossover study design with a wash-out phase of 14 d. Blood samples for pharmacokinetic profiling were taken up to 156 h post-dose, and escitalopram plasma concentrations were determined with a validated liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) method. Maximum plasma concentrations (C(max)) of 9.85 +/- 1.79 ng/ml (test) and 9.92 +/- 2.14 ng/ml (reference) were achieved. Areas under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-infinity)) of 428.40 +/- 140.25 ng x h/ml (test) and 413.73 +/- 144.81 ng x h/ml (reference), AUC(0-t) of 401.33 +/- 120.61 ng x h/ml (test), 385.42 +/- 117.73 ng x h/ml (reference) were calculated. The median T(max) was 4.3 +/- 1.8h, 4.1 +/- 1.5 h for test and reference formulation, respectively. Plasma elimination half-lives (t 1/2) of 36.30 +/- 8.93 h (test), 36.70 +/- 9.99 h (reference) were determined. Both primary target parameters, AUC(0-infinity) and AUC(0-t) were tested parametrically by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and relative bioavailabilities were 105.1 +/- 10.8% for AUC(0-infinity), 104.9 +/- 11.1% for AUC(0-t). Bioequivalence between test and reference preparation was demonstrated for both parameters, AUC(0-infinity) and AUC(0-t). The 90% confidence intervals of the T/R-ratios of logarithmically transformed data were in the generally accepted range of 80%-125%. That means that the test formulation is bioequivalent to the reference formulation for escitalopram. PMID:19537522

  7. Comparative studies of oral administration of marine collagen peptides from Chum Salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) pre- and post-acute ethanol intoxication in female Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jiang; Li, Qiong; Lin, Bing; Yu, Yongchao; Ding, Ye; Dai, Xiaoqian; Li, Yong

    2014-09-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of an oral administration of marine collagen peptides (MCPs) pre- and post-acute ethanol intoxication in female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. MCPs were orally administered to rats at doses of 0 g per kg bw, 2.25 g per kg bw, 4.5 g per kg bw and 9.0 g per kg bw, prior to or after the oral administration of ethanol. Thirty minutes after ethanol treatment, the effect of MCPs on motor incoordination and hypnosis induced by ethanol were investigated using a screen test, fixed speed rotarod test (5 g per kg bw ethanol) and loss of righting reflex (7 g per kg bw ethanol). In addition, the blood ethanol concentrations at 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after ethanol administration (5 g per kg bw ethanol) were measured. The results of the screen test and fixed speed rotarod test suggested that treatment with MCPs at 4.5 g per kg bw and 9.0 g per kg bw prior to ethanol could attenuate ethanol-induced loss of motor coordination. Moreover, MCP administered both pre- and post-ethanol treatment had significant potency to alleviate the acute ethanol induced hypnotic states in the loss of righting reflex test. At 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after ethanol ingestion at 5 g per kg bw, the blood ethanol concentration (BEC) of control rats significantly increased compared with that in the 4.5 g per kg bw and 9.0 g per kg bw MCP pre-treated groups. However, post-treatment with MCPs did not exert a significant inhibitory effect on the BEC of the post-treated groups until 120 minutes after ethanol administration. Therefore, the anti-inebriation effect of MCPs was verified in SD rats with the possible mechanisms related to inhibiting ethanol absorption and facilitating ethanol metabolism. Moreover, the efficiency was better when MCPs were administered prior to ethanol. PMID:24992080

  8. Descriptive Analysis of Medication Administration During Inpatient Cardiopulmonary Arrest Resuscitation (from the Mayo Registry for Telemetry Efficacy in Arrest Study).

    PubMed

    Snipelisky, David; Ray, Jordan; Matcha, Gautam; Roy, Archana; Dumitrascu, Adrian; Harris, Dana; Bosworth, Veronica; Clark, Brooke; Thomas, Colleen S; Heckman, Michael G; Vadeboncoeur, Tyler; Kusumoto, Fred; Burton, M Caroline

    2016-05-15

    Advanced cardiovascular life support guidelines exist, yet there are variations in clinical practice. Our study aims to describe the utilization of medications during resuscitation from in-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest. A retrospective review of patients who suffered a cardiopulmonary arrest from May 2008 to June 2014 was performed. Clinical and resuscitation data, including timing and dose of medications used, were extracted from the electronic medical record and comparisons made. A total of 94 patients were included in the study. Patients were divided into different groups based on the medication combination used during resuscitation: (1) epinephrine; (2) epinephrine and bicarbonate; (3) epinephrine, bicarbonate, and calcium; (4) epinephrine, bicarbonate, and epinephrine drip; and (5) epinephrine, bicarbonate, calcium, and epinephrine drip. No difference in baseline demographics or clinical data was present, apart from history of dementia and the use of calcium channel blockers. The number of medications given was correlated with resuscitation duration (Spearman's rank correlation = 0.50, p <0.001). The proportion of patients who died during the arrest was 12.5% in those who received epinephrine alone, 30.0% in those who received only epinephrine and bicarbonate, and 46.7% to 57.9% in the remaining groups. Patients receiving only epinephrine had shorter resuscitation durations compared to that of the other groups (p <0.001) and improved survival (p = 0.003). In conclusion, providers frequently use nonguideline medications in resuscitation efforts for in-hospital cardiopulmonary arrests. Increased duration and mortality rates were found in those resuscitations compared with epinephrine alone, likely due to the longer resuscitation duration in the former groups. PMID:27015887

  9. NMR-based metabonomic study of the sub-acute toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in rats after oral administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Qian; Yan, Guangyan; Deng, Pengchi; Peng, Feng; Lin, Hongjun; Xu, Youzhi; Cao, Zhixing; Zhou, Tian; Xue, Aiqin; Wang, Yanli; Cen, Xiaobo; Zhao, Ying-Lan

    2010-03-01

    As titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are widely used commercially, their potential toxicity on human health has attracted particular attention. In the present study, the oral toxicological effects of TiO2 NPs (dosed at 0.16, 0.4 and 1 g kg - 1, respectively) were investigated using conventional approaches and metabonomic analysis in Wistar rats. Serum chemistry, hematology and histopathology examinations were performed. The urine and serum were investigated by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) using principal components and partial least squares discriminant analysis. The metabolic signature of urinalysis in TiO2 NP-treated rats showed increases in the levels of taurine, citrate, hippurate, histidine, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), citrulline, α-ketoglutarate, phenylacetylglycine (PAG) and acetate; moreover, decreases in the levels of lactate, betaine, methionine, threonine, pyruvate, 3-D-hydroxybutyrate (3-D-HB), choline and leucine were observed. The metabonomics analysis of serum showed increases in TMAO, choline, creatine, phosphocholine and 3-D-HB as well as decreases in glutamine, pyruvate, glutamate, acetoacetate, glutathione and methionine after TiO2 NP treatment. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were elevated and mitochondrial swelling in heart tissue was observed in TiO2 NP-treated rats. These findings indicate that disturbances in energy and amino acid metabolism and the gut microflora environment may be attributable to the slight injury to the liver and heart caused by TiO2 NPs. Moreover, the NMR-based metabolomic approach is a reliable and sensitive method to study the biochemical effects of nanomaterials.

  10. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination and pharmacokinetic study of apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucoside in rat plasma after intravenous administration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zaixing; Ying, Xixiang; Meng, Shu; Zhu, Xu; Jiang, Hong; Cao, Qishen; Li, Xuying; Meng, Fanhao

    2011-05-01

    The present study was designed to validate an analytical method based on HPLC for the quantitative measurement of the Apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucoside (AGL) in rat plasma after intravenous administration. HPLC analysis was done using a C18 column, UV detection at 335 nm, and a mobile phase of methanol:0.2% phosphoric acid (1:1, v/v). Good linearity was observed over the range of 0.06-7.20 μg/mL with a lower limit of quantication of 0.06 μg/mL. The intra-and inter-day precision values were below 9.97%. No interference peaks or matrix effects were observed. The method was fully validated and successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of AGL. PMID:21656359

  11. Pharmacokinetic studies of phellodendrine in rat plasma and tissues after intravenous administration using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Liu, Xin-Guang; Wang, Hui-Ying; Dong, Xin; Gao, Wen; Xu, Xiao-Jun; Li, Ping; Yang, Hua

    2016-09-01

    Phellodendrine, a quaternary ammonium alkaloid extracted from the dried bark of Phellodendrom chinensis Schneid and Phellodendrom amurense Rupr, has the effect of suppressing cellular immune response, reducing blood pressure and antinephritis. However, few investigations have been conducted for the pharmacokinetic study of phellodendrine. Thus, a rapid, simple and reliable ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QQQ MS/MS) method has been established for quantification of phellodendrine in rat plasma and tissues by using magnoflorine as internal standard. The chromatographic separation was achieved on an Agilent ZORBAX SB-C18 column (4.6mm×50mm, 1.8μm) by gradient elution using 0.1% aqueous formic acid (A) and methanol (B). Triple quadrupole mass detection with multiple reaction monitoring mode was used to monitor the ion transitions, at m/z 342.20→192.20 for phellodendrine and m/z 342.20→58.20 for internal standard, respectively. The developed method was fully validated and successfully applied to the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution study of phellodendrine after intravenous administration. The lower limits of quantification were 0.5ng/mL for plasma samples, 2.5ng/g for brain and 1ng/g for other tested tissues. Precisions and accuracy values were within the Food and Drug Administration acceptance criteria, the recovery and matrix effects were between 87.8-113.5%. The area under the curve (AUC0-t) ranged from 15.58 to 57.41mg/L min and Cmax were between 1.63-4.93mg/L. The results showed that phellodendrine was eliminated in 120min in plasma and most of tissues and the highest concentrations of phellodendrine were found in the kidney. This study may provide a basis for the further study of phellodendrine. PMID:27428451

  12. Fructose:glucose ratios--a study of sugar self-administration and associated neural and physiological responses in the rat.

    PubMed

    Levy, AnneMarie; Marshall, Paul; Zhou, Yan; Kreek, Mary Jeanne; Kent, Katrina; Daniels, Stephen; Shore, Ari; Downs, Tiana; Fernandes, Maria Fernanda; Mutch, David M; Leri, Francesco

    2015-05-01

    This study explored whether different ratios of fructose (F) and glucose (G) in sugar can engender significant differences in self-administration and associated neurobiological and physiological responses in male Sprague-Dawley rats. In Experiment 1, animals self-administered pellets containing 55% F + 45% G or 30% F + 70% G, and Fos immunoreactivity was assessed in hypothalamic regions regulating food intake and reward. In Experiment 2, rats self-administered solutions of 55% F + 42% G (high fructose corn syrup (HFCS)), 50% F + 50% G (sucrose) or saccharin, and mRNA of the dopamine 2 (D2R) and mu-opioid (MOR) receptor genes were assessed in striatal regions involved in addictive behaviors. Finally, in Experiment 3, rats self-administered HFCS and sucrose in their home cages, and hepatic fatty acids were quantified. It was found that higher fructose ratios engendered lower self-administration, lower Fos expression in the lateral hypothalamus/arcuate nucleus, reduced D2R and increased MOR mRNA in the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens core, respectively, as well as elevated omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the liver. These data indicate that a higher ratio of fructose may enhance the reinforcing effects of sugar and possibly lead to neurobiological and physiological alterations associated with addictive and metabolic disorders. PMID:26007337

  13. Study of the Effect of Route of Administration of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Cisplatin-Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Sprague Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Moustafa, Fatma E; Sobh, Mohamed-A; Abouelkheir, Mohamed; Khater, Youmna; Mahmoud, Khalid; Saad, Mohamed-Ahdy; Sobh, Mohamed A

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to ameliorate cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). The present study compares the efficacy of different routes of MSCs administration on kidney damage and regeneration after cisplatin-induced AKI. Methods A single intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin (5 mg/kg) was used to induce AKI in 160 rats. MSCs (5×106) were given by either intravenous, intra-arterial or kidney sub capsular injection one day after cisplatin injection. Suitable control groups were included. Rats were sacrificed at 4, 7, 11 and 30 days after cisplatin injection. Kidney function parameters, kidney tissue oxidative stress markers, and scoring for renal tissue injury, regeneration and chronicity were all determined. Results MSCs by any routes were able to ameliorate kidney function deterioration and renal tissue damage induced by cisplatin. The overall results of the three routes were equal. Differences between the different routes in one parameter were transient and inconsistent with other parameters. Conclusions Changing the route of MSCs injection does not have a major influence on the outcome. Future evaluation should focus on differences between the routes of administration considering the long term safety. PMID:27426089

  14. Simultaneous LC-MS/MS determination of five tripterygium pyridine alkaloids in dog plasma and its application to their pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of tripterygium glycosides tablets.

    PubMed

    Su, Meng-xiang; Song, Min; Yang, Da-song; Shi, Jin-fang; Di, Bin; Hang, Tai-jun

    2015-05-15

    A sensitive and selective liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of five pyridine alkaloids contained in tripterygium glycosides tablets (triptolide, wilforine, wilforgine, wilfording and wilfortrine) in dog plasma. The analysis was carried out on a Sepax GP-Phenyl column using a mixture of methanol and 10mmol/L ammonium formate buffer solution containing 0.1% formic acid (75:25, v/v) as the mobile phase pumped at a flow-rate of 1.0mL/min. All MS data were obtained in the positive ESI mode with selective multiple reaction monitoring of ion transitions. The method was fully validated to be accurate and precise with a linear range of 0.2-1000ng/mL for triptolide and 0.05-1000ng/mL for the other four pyridine alkaloids. The intra-day and inter-day precisions (relative standard deviation, RSD, %) were within 10.6% and 14.0%, respectively, and the relative error (RE, %) were all less than 13.1%. The method was successfully applied to multi-components pharmacokinetic study of the five pyridine alkaloids in beagle dogs after a single oral administration of 3mg/kg and 30mg/kg tripterygium glycosides tablets, respectively, and a multiple oral administration of 30mg/kg for 6 consecutive days. PMID:25855315

  15. Fructose:Glucose Ratios—A Study of Sugar Self-Administration and Associated Neural and Physiological Responses in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Levy, AnneMarie; Marshall, Paul; Zhou, Yan; Kreek, Mary Jeanne; Kent, Katrina; Daniels, Stephen; Shore, Ari; Downs, Tiana; Fernandes, Maria Fernanda; Mutch, David M.; Leri, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    This study explored whether different ratios of fructose (F) and glucose (G) in sugar can engender significant differences in self-administration and associated neurobiological and physiological responses in male Sprague-Dawley rats. In Experiment 1, animals self-administered pellets containing 55% F + 45% G or 30% F + 70% G, and Fos immunoreactivity was assessed in hypothalamic regions regulating food intake and reward. In Experiment 2, rats self-administered solutions of 55% F + 42% G (high fructose corn syrup (HFCS)), 50% F + 50% G (sucrose) or saccharin, and mRNA of the dopamine 2 (D2R) and mu-opioid (MOR) receptor genes were assessed in striatal regions involved in addictive behaviors. Finally, in Experiment 3, rats self-administered HFCS and sucrose in their home cages, and hepatic fatty acids were quantified. It was found that higher fructose ratios engendered lower self-administration, lower Fos expression in the lateral hypothalamus/arcuate nucleus, reduced D2R and increased MOR mRNA in the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens core, respectively, as well as elevated omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the liver. These data indicate that a higher ratio of fructose may enhance the reinforcing effects of sugar and possibly lead to neurobiological and physiological alterations associated with addictive and metabolic disorders. PMID:26007337

  16. Pharmacokinetic study of six flavones in rat plasma and tissues after oral administration of 'JiangYaBiFeng' using SPE-HPLC-DAD.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hua-jin; Yang, Ran; Guo, Cheng; Wang, Qing-wen; Qu, Ling-bo; Li, Jian-jun

    2011-12-01

    In this study, a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with diode array detection (DAD) for simultaneous determination of six flavones including baicalein, sophoricoside, rutin, baicalin, quercetin and genistein in rat plasma and tissues after oral administration of JiangYaBifeng (JYBF) tablets was developed. The investigated analytes in plasma and tissues were extracted and purified with liquid-liquid extraction and solid phase extraction (SPE). Chromatographic separation was accomplished on a DIONEX Acclaim C18 column (250mm×4.6mm, 5.0μm particle size) with a simple linear gradient elution. The calibration curves for all the flavones had good linearity in the measured range with R(2) higher than 0.9983. The relative errors (REs) of the intra- and inter-day accuracy at different flavones levels were all less than ±10%. The proposed method enables unambiguous identification and quantification of investigated flavones in vivo. This is the first report on determination of the major flavones in rat plasma and tissues after oral administration of JYBF tablets. The results provided a meaningful basis for evaluating the clinical application of this medicine. PMID:21831556

  17. Spin-trapping studies of hepatic free radicals formed following the acute administration of ethanol to rats: In vivo detection of 1-hydroxyethyl radicals with PBN

    SciTech Connect

    Reinke, L.A.; Kotake, Y.; McCay, P.B.; Janzen, E.G. )

    1991-01-01

    The generation of free radicals in rat liver following the acute oral administration of ethanol was studied with the spin-trapping method, using a deuterated derivative of phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN-d14) as the spin-trapping agent. After administration of ethanol and PBN-d14 to rats, organic extracts of the liver were prepared and subjected to ESR spectroscopy. In the case of ethanol-treated rats, the ESR spectra indicated that mixtures of radicals had been trapped, while spectra from control rats were essentially negative. The predominant spin adduct detected after ethanol treatment is proposed to be from a carbon-centered, primary alkyl radical, based on gamma-hydrogen hyperfine splitting patterns observed with PBN-d14. Oxygen-centered radicals also contributed to the ESR spectra. Liver extracts also contained low concentrations of the 1-hydroxyethyl radical spin adduct, which was indicated by weak spectral lines corresponding to those of the 1-13C-ethanol adduct. These data confirm previous suggestions that ethanol is metabolized to a free radical metabolite in rat liver. In addition, some information on types of lipid radicals generated during alcohol intoxication has been obtained.

  18. Subcutaneous administration of interleukin 2 and interferon-alpha-2b in advanced renal cell carcinoma: a confirmatory study.

    PubMed Central

    Facendola, G.; Locatelli, M. C.; Pizzocaro, G.; Piva, L.; Pegoraro, C.; Pallavicini, E. B.; Signaroldi, A.; Meregalli, M.; Lombardi, F.; Beretta, G. D.

    1995-01-01

    Recent clinical studies have suggested that the combination of subcutaneous recombinant human interleukin 2 (rIL-2) and interferon alpha (rIFN-alpha) is especially promising in advanced renal cell carcinoma. We assessed the safety, activity and toxicity of home therapy with these two agents in 50 patients. Each treatment cycle consisted of a 2 day pulse phase, with 9 x 10(6) IU m-2 of rIL-2 being given subcutaneously every 12 h, followed by a 6 week maintenance phase during which rIL-2 1.8 x 10(6) IU m-2 was administered subcutaneously every 12 h on days 1-5 and rIFN-alpha 2b 5 x 10(6) IU m-2 once a day on days 1, 3 and 5. Objective responses (CR+PR) occurred in 9/50 (18%) patients, six of whom (12%) achieved a complete response. Disease stabilisation was observed in 17 cases (34%) and 18 patients progressed during therapy. In the other six cases, treatment was interrupted early for toxicity or patient refusal. One patient died of myocardial infarction during the second cycle. The overall median survival was 12 months. Home therapy with subcutaneous rIL-2 + rIFN-alpha 2b proved to be active, feasible and moderately toxic, but serious adverse events can sometimes occur. PMID:8519672

  19. Treatment of muscle injuries by local administration of autologous conditioned serum: a pilot study on sportsmen with muscle strains.

    PubMed

    Wright-Carpenter, T; Klein, P; Schäferhoff, P; Appell, H J; Mir, L M; Wehling, P

    2004-11-01

    Muscle injuries represent a major part of sports injuries and are a challenging problem in traumatology. Strain injuries are the most common muscle injuries after contusions. These injuries can lead to significant pain and disability causing time to be lost to training and competition. Despite the frequency of strain injuries the treatment available is limited and is generally not sufficient to enhance muscle regeneration efficiently when fast resumption of sport activity is a primary target. A number of growth factors play a specific role in regeneration and it has been proven that a previously described method of physically and chemically stimulating whole blood (to produce autologous conditioned serum) induces concentration increases in FGF-2, HGF, and TGF-beta1. A preliminary study was conducted on muscle strain injuries in professional sportsmen receiving either: 1. autologous conditioned serum (ACS) or 2. Actovegin/Traumeel treatment as control. Assessment of recovery from injury was done by: 1. sport professional's ability to participate to 100 % under competition conditions in their respective sport and 2. MRI analysis. A significant difference in the recovery time from injury was demonstrated: 16.6 +/- 0.9 in the ACS treated instead of 22.3 +/- 1.2 (mean +/- SEM) days in the Actovegin/Traumeel control group (p = 0.001). MRI analysis supported the observed acceleration of the lesion recovery time. We conclude that ACS injection is a promising approach to reduce the time to recovery from muscle injury. PMID:15532001

  20. Butorphanol and Ketamine Combined in Infusion Solutions for Patient-Controlled Analgesia Administration: A Long-Term Stability Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fuchao; Xiong, Hui; Yang, Jinguo; Fang, Baoxia; Zhu, Jun; Zhou, Benhong

    2015-01-01

    Background Ketamine in subanesthetic dose added to butorphanol has been reported to give superior pain control when used for intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) after surgery. However, this admixture is not available commercially and stability data applicable to hospital practice are limited. Material/Methods The butorphanol-ketamine admixtures were prepared in polyolefin bags and stored in the dark at 4°C, 25°C, or 37°C for 15 days. The initial concentrations were 50–150 microgram/ml for butorphanol and 1–4 mg/ml for ketamine, respectively. The stabilities were determined by visual inspection, pH measurement, and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay of drug concentrations. Results Over the 15 days, all solutions were clear in appearance, and no color change or precipitation was observed among the three temperatures. The percentages of initial concentration of each drug were over 95% during the study period, and the pH value did not change significantly. Conclusions The results indicate that the drug mixtures of butorphanol and ketamine in 0.9% sodium chloride injection were stable for 15 days when stored in polyolefin bags at 4°C, 25°C, or 37°C. PMID:25896429

  1. Metabolic profile modifications in milk after enrofloxacin administration studied by liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Junza, A; Saurina, J; Barrón, D; Minguillón, C

    2016-08-19

    High resolution accurate mass spectrometry (HRMS) operating in full scan MS mode was used in the search and identification of metabolites in raw milk from cows medicated with enrofloxacin. Data consisting of m/z features were taken throughout the entire chromatogram of milk samples from medicated animals and were compared with blank samples. Twenty six different compounds were identified. Some of them were attributed to structures related to enrofloxacin while others were dipeptides or tripeptides. Additionally, enrofloxacin was administered in a controlled treatment for three days. Milk was collected daily from the first day of treatment and until four days after in the search for the identified compounds. The obtained data were chemometrically treated by Principal Component Analysis. Samples were classified by this method into three different groups corresponding to days 1-2, day 3 and days 4-7 considering the different concentration profile evolution of metabolites during the days studied. Tentative metabolic pathways were designed to rationalize the presence of the newly identified compounds. PMID:27425761

  2. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic study of a phospholipid-based phase separation gel for once a month administration of octreotide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengxin; Shan, Fengying; Zou, Yang; Sun, Xun; Zhang, Zhi-Rong; Fu, Yao; Gong, Tao

    2016-05-28

    As a natural somatostatin analog, octreotide acetate (OCT) has been extensively used in cancer treatment and growth hormone related diseases. The clinical application of OCT, however, is greatly limited by its short half-life, rapid elimination and clearance in vivo. In the current study, a high content phospholipid-based phase separation gel platform (PPSG) was presented, which could be injected in the soluble state and underwent rapid phase-separation into a gel-like implant after a single subcutaneous injection. OCT was dispersed homogeneously in the PPSG pre-gel solution to afford OCT-loaded PPSG (OCT-PPSG) after a single subcutaneous injection, which displayed controlled and sustained release profiles for up to 30days in rats, rabbits and Beagle dogs. OCT-PPSG showed a less significant burst phase followed by a steady plasma concentration of OCT compared with Sandostatin(®) (LAR) in Beagle dogs. Moreover, OCT-PPSG was demonstrated to show remarkable antitumor efficacy in both a primary rat model and a xenograft mouse model of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). PPSG thus represented a promising and viable in situ forming gel platform material for the long-term sustained release of peptides and protein drugs. PMID:27040814

  3. Sequential alternate administration of tamoxifen and medroxyprogesterone acetate in advanced breast cancer: clinical-biological randomized study.

    PubMed

    De Lena, M; Tommasi, S; Schittulli, F; Lorusso, V; Paradiso, A

    1990-04-30

    From January 1985 to September 1988, 60 women with advanced breast cancer were randomized in two arms to receive: A) tamoxifen (TAM) (20 mg/die) until progression or B) TAM (20 mg/die for 14 days) then medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) (1500 mg/die p.o. for 14 days) followed by 7 days of wash-out before repeating the TAM/MPA treatment. All patients were post-menopausal, previously untreated with hormone therapy, and with tumor receptor status determined immediately before randomization; all had objectively evaluable lesions. In order to verify hormone receptor variations due to the antiestrogen, when possible a second biopsy was performed after the initial 14 day cycle of TAM. Thirty-one and 29 patients were included respectively in arms A and B. Objective regression (CR + PR) was observed in 58% of group A and 75% of group B, with CR in 11% and 23%, respectively. Differences were not statistically significant. Median time to progression was 12 months for group A and 9 for group B. Overall survival has not yet been reached in group A while it was 34 months for patients of group B. Metrorrhagia was observed in two cases of group A and in 6 of group B, and thrombophlebitis in 1 and 3 cases, respectively. The second biopsy confirmed a clear increase of PgR content in 8/11 cases (75%). Plasma level variations of TAM, N-desmethyl TAM and MPA were checked at various intervals on 3 patients of group B, and confirmed that our schedule is able to produce a drug wash-out period for tumor cells. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that while the manipulation of hormone receptors seems possible, results indicating better overall survival and time to progression were not obtained with alternate sequential TAM-MPA therapy. PMID:2139523

  4. Relationship between chronic tadalafil administration and improvement of endothelial function in men with erectile dysfunction: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Aversa, A; Greco, E; Bruzziches, R; Pili, M; Rosano, G; Spera, G

    2007-01-01

    Men with erectile dysfunction (ED) frequently have a disproportionate burden of comorbid vascular disorders including atherosclerotic disease. We investigated whether scheduled tadalafil is better than on-demand (OD) in improving endothelium-dependent vasodilatation of cavernous arteries in men with ED and whether this effect is also exerted on markers of endothelial function. We did an open-label, randomized, crossover study including 20 male outclinic patients aged 18 years or older (mean age 54 years) who had at least a 3-month history of ED of any severity or etiology. Tadalafil (20 mg) on alternate days (ADs) or OD was administered for 4 weeks. Primary end points were variations of basal inflow (peak systolic velocity (PSV)) and flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of cavernous arteries compared with baseline at penile Duplex ultrasound. Secondary end points were variations of Q13-SIEDY scores regarding morning erections and of markers of endothelial function, that is, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM), intercellular cell adhesion molecule, endothelin-1 (ET-1), insulin and C-reactive protein (CRP). PSVs and FMD were higher after AD treatment when compared with OD and baseline, respectively (P=0.0001), and improvements were maintained from 2 weeks after discontinuation (P<0.005). Patients receiving tadalafil AD experienced a significant improvement of morning erections as compared to AD treatment (P<0.0001); ET1, VCAM and CRP showed a robust decrease after chronic vs OD regimes (P<0.05), with concomitant increase in insulin levels (P<0.05), without any variation in blood pressure and other laboratory parameters. Chronic but not OD tadalafil improves endothelial function with sustained effects from its discontinuation. Chronic treatment also produces a dramatic increase in morning erections, which determines better oxygenation to the penis, thus providing a rationale for vascular rehabilitation. PMID:16943794

  5. Perioperative use of anti-rheumatic agents does not increase early postoperative infection risks: a Veteran Affairs' administrative database study.

    PubMed

    Abou Zahr, Zaki; Spiegelman, Andrew; Cantu, Maria; Ng, Bernard

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a novel technique that predicts stopping of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and biologic agents (BA) from the Veterans Affairs (VA) database and compare infection risks of rheumatoid arthritis patients who stopped versus continued DMARDs/BA perioperatively. We identified 6,024 patients on 1 DMARD or BA in the perioperative period between 1999 and 2009. Time gap between medication stop date and the next start date predicted drug stoppage (X). Time gap between surgery date and stop date predicted whether stoppage was before surgery (Y). Chart review from Houston VA was used for validation. ROC analyses were performed on chart review data to obtain X and Y cutoffs. The primary endpoints were wound infections and other infections within 30 days. ROC analyses found X ≥ 33 (AUC = 0.954) and Y ≥ -11 (AUC = 0.846). Risk of postoperative infections was not different when stopping and continuing DMARDs/BA preoperatively. Stopping BA after surgery was associated with higher odds of postoperative wound (OR 14.15, 95 % CI 1.76-113.76) and general infection (OR 9.2, 95 % CI 1.99-42.60) compared to not stopping. Stopping DMARDs after surgery was associated with increased risk of postoperative general infection (OR 1.84, 95 % CI 1.07-3.16) compared with not stopping. There was positive association between stopping DMARDs after surgery and postoperative wound infection but failed to achieve statistical significance (OR 1.67, 95 % CI 0.96-2.91). There was no significant difference in postoperative infection risk when stopping or continuing DMARD/BA. Our new validated method can be utilized in the VA and other databases to predict drug stoppage. PMID:25187198

  6. Efficacy of oxytocin administration early after psychotrauma in preventing the development of PTSD: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Currently few evidence based interventions are available for the prevention of PTSD within the first weeks after trauma. Increased risk for PTSD development is associated with dysregulated fear and stress responses prior to and shortly after trauma, as well as with a lack of perceived social support early after trauma. Oxytocin is a potent regulator of these processes. Therefore, we propose that oxytocin may be important in reducing adverse consequences of trauma. The ‘BONDS’ study is conducted in order to assess the efficacy of an early intervention with intranasal oxytocin for the prevention of PTSD. Methods/Design In this multicenter double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial we will recruit 220 Emergency Department patients at increased risk of PTSD. Trauma-exposed patients are screened for increased PTSD risk with questionnaires assessing peri-traumatic distress and acute PTSD symptoms within 7 days after trauma. Baseline PTSD symptom severity scores and neuroendocrine and psychophysiological measures will be collected within 10 days after trauma. Participants will be randomized to 7.5 days of intranasal oxytocin (40 IU) or placebo twice a day. Follow-up measurements at 1.5, 3 and 6 months post-trauma are collected to assess PTSD symptom severity (the primary outcome measure). Other measures of symptoms of psychopathology, and neuroendocrine and psychophysiological disorders are secondary outcome measures. Discussion We hypothesize that intranasal oxytocin administered early after trauma is an effective pharmacological strategy to prevent PTSD in individuals at increased risk, which is both safe and easily applicable. Interindividual and contextual factors that may influence the effects of oxytocin treatment will be considered in the analysis of the results. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Registry: NTR3190. PMID:24679046

  7. Administration for Community Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... by Acting Assistant Secretary for Aging and ACL Administrator Edwin Walker at the HCBS Conference (08/29/ ... Remarks by Assistant Secretary on Aging and ACL Administrator Kathy Greenlee at the n4a Answers on Aging ...

  8. The New Administrative Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kenneth C.

    1988-01-01

    The past decade has seen dramatic changes in administrative computing, including more systems, more applications, a new group of computer users, and new opportunities for computer use in campus administration. (Author/MSE)

  9. Transportation Security Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... content Official website of the Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration When I fly can I bring my... ... to know if you could bring through the security checkpoint. Main menu Administrator Travel Security Screening Special ...

  10. A comparative study of calcium absorption following a single serving administration of calcium carbonate powder versus calcium citrate tablets in healthy premenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haiyuan; Bua, Peter; Capodice, Jillian

    2014-01-01

    Background Calcium is an essential mineral often taken as a daily, long-term nutritional supplement. Data suggests that once-daily dosing is important with regard to long-term compliance of both drugs and nutritional supplements. Objective This study was undertaken to compare the bioavailability of a single serving of two calcium supplements in healthy, premenopausal women. Design A two-period, crossover bioavailability study of a single serving of calcium citrate tablets (two tablets=500 mg calcium) versus a single serving of calcium carbonate powder (one packet of powder=1,000 mg calcium) was performed in healthy women aged between 25 and 45. All subjects were on a calcium-restricted diet 7 days prior to testing and fasted for 12 h before being evaluated at 0, 1, 2, and 4 h after oral administration of the test agents. Blood measurements for total and ionized calcium and parathyroid hormone were performed and adverse events were monitored. Results Twenty-three women were evaluable with a mean age of 33.2±8.71. Results showed that administration of a single serving of a calcium carbonate powder resulted in greater absorption in total and ionized calcium versus a single serving of calcium citrate tablets at 4 h (4.25±0.21 vs. 4.16±0.16, p=0.001). There were minimal side effects and no reported serious adverse events. Conclusions This study shows that a single serving of a calcium carbonate powder is more bioavailable than a single serving of calcium citrate tablets. This may be beneficial for long-term compliance. PMID:24772062

  11. NASA, NOAA administrators nominated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    President Ronald Reagan recently said he intended to nominate James Montgomery Beggs as NASA Administrator and John V. Byrne as NOAA Administrator. These two positions are key scientific posts that have been vacant since the start of the Reagan administration on January 20. The President also said he intends to nominate Hans Mark as NASA Deputy Administrator. At press time, Reagan had not designated his nominee for the director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy.

  12. A Philosophy of Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruening, William H.

    Justification is given for paying relatively large salaries to college administrators, specifically the president or chancellor and the chief academic officer. Three administrative task areas are discussed as criteria: management, administration per se, and leadership. It is contended that only leadership can be used as a criterion for…

  13. School Business Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, K. Forbis; And Others

    This textbook reviews the principal concerns within each of 13 major responsibility areas in school business administration. The first chapter assesses the political, social, and economic context in which schools function and school administrators work. The role and function of the school business administrator within this context is addressed in…

  14. LC-MS/MS determination and pharmacokinetics study of puerarin and daidzein in rat plasma after oral administration of Gegenqinlian decoction and Radix Puerariae extract

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yifan; Yuan, Jin; Wang, Ying; Wang, Yue; An, Rui; Wang, Xinhong

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gegenqinlian decoction (GQD) is a famous traditional medicine recipe. It is composed of four herbs including Radix Puerariae (GG), Radix Scutellariae (HQ), Rhizoma Coptidis (HL) and Radix Glycyrrhizae (GC), which is widely used for treating gastro-intestinal disorders in the clinical practice of Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of puerarin and daidzein in rats following oral administration of Gegenqinlian Decoction and Radix Puerariae extract. Thus, a sensitive and selective liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of puerarin and daidzein in rat plasma following oral administration of Gegenqinlian Decoction and Radix Puerariae extract. Materials and Methods: Chromatographic separation was performed on a Shiseido CAPCELL PAK C18 analytical column (100 mm × 2.0 mm i.d., 5 μm) by linear gradient elution, with water (0.1% formic acid)-acetonitrile (0.1% formic acid) as mobile phase. Detection was carried out by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using electrospray ionization in the positive ion mode. Results: The calibration curves were linear over a range of 7.80-1560 ng/mL for puerarin and 6.30-1260 ng/mL for daidzein. The intra- and inter-day precision values were less than 13.6% and their average recoveries was in the range of 77.8% and 88.6% for puerarin and was between 76.3 and 86.8% for daidzein, respectively. Conclusion: The validated method was applied to the comparative pharmacokinetic studies of puerarin and daidzein after oral administration of Gegenqinlian Decoction and Radix Puerariae extract. The pharmacokinetic parameters showed that puerarin and daidzein from Gegenqinlian Decoction were absorbed more effectively with slower elimination in rat plasma than that from Radix Puerariae extract. These results revealed that as far as the Radix Puerariae extract was concerned, it is very valuable to

  15. The 2006 Kennedy Space Center Range Reference Atmosphere Model Validation Study and Sensitivity Analysis to the Performance of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Space Shuttle Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Lee; Decker, Ryan; Harrington, Brian; Merry, Carl

    2008-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Range Reference Atmosphere (RRA) is a statistical model that summarizes wind and thermodynamic atmospheric variability from surface to 70 km. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Shuttle program, which launches from KSC, utilizes the KSC RRA data to evaluate environmental constraints on various aspects of the vehicle during ascent. An update to the KSC RRA was recently completed. As part of the update, the Natural Environments Branch at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) conducted a validation study and a comparison analysis to the existing KSC RRA database version 1983. Assessments to the Space Shuttle vehicle ascent profile characteristics were performed by JSC/Ascent Flight Design Division to determine impacts of the updated model to the vehicle performance. Details on the model updates and the vehicle sensitivity analyses with the update model are presented.

  16. The 2006 Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Range Reference Atmosphere Model Validation Study and Sensitivity Analysis to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Lee; Merry, Carl; Decker, Ryan; Harrington, Brian

    2008-01-01

    The 2006 Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) Range Reference Atmosphere (RRA) is a statistical model summarizing the wind and thermodynamic atmospheric variability from surface to 70 kin. Launches of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Shuttle from Kennedy Space Center utilize CCAFS RRA data to evaluate environmental constraints on various aspects of the vehicle during ascent. An update to the CCAFS RRA was recently completed. As part of the update, a validation study on the 2006 version was conducted as well as a comparison analysis of the 2006 version to the existing CCAFS RRA database version 1983. Assessments to the Space Shuttle vehicle ascent profile characteristics were performed to determine impacts of the updated model to the vehicle performance. Details on the model updates and the vehicle sensitivity analyses with the update model are presented.

  17. The Precise Observation System for the Safe Use of Medicines (POSSUM): An Approach for Studying Medication Administration Errors in the Field.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, Johanna I; Raban, Magdalena Z; Lehnbom, Elin C; Li, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Medication administration errors (MAEs) in hospital are frequent and significantly more likely to result in serious harm to patients than other medication error types. Many interventions have been proposed in order reduce MAEs and the amount of harm associated with these errors. A major limitation in assessing the effectiveness of these interventions has been the lack of robust measures for assessing changes in MAEs and associated harms. Drawing upon extensive foundational research we have developed a robust approach and data collection software to be applied in direct observational studies of nurses to allow measurement of changes in MAE rates. We report how this approach is being applied in a large stepped-wedge cluster randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of an electronic medication management system to reduce MAEs in a paediatric hospital. PMID:27577460

  18. [An a priori risk analysis study. Securisation of transfusion of blood product in a hospital: from the reception in the medical unit to its administration].

    PubMed

    Bertrand, E; Lévy, R; Boyeldieu, D

    2013-12-01

    Following an ABO accident after transfusion of red blood cells, an a priori risk analysis study is being performed in a hospital. The scope of this analysis covers from the reception of the blood product in the medical unit to its administration. The risk analysis enables to identify the potentially dangerous situations and the evaluation of the risks in order to propose corrective measures (precautionary or protective) and bring the system back to an acceptable risk level. The innovative concept of an a priori risk analysis in the medical field allows the extension of the analysis of this transfusion risk to other hospitals. In addition, it allows the extension of the use of this approach to other medical fields. PMID:24176607

  19. Administrative Actions for Noncompliance; Lesser Administrative Actions. Direct final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the regulation describing lesser administrative actions that may be imposed on an Institutional Review Board (IRB) that has failed to comply with FDA's IRB regulations. We are clarifying that FDA may require the IRB to withhold approval of new FDA-regulated studies, stop the enrollment of new subjects in ongoing studies, and terminate ongoing studies, or any combination of these actions until the noncompliance with FDA's IRB regulations is corrected. We are taking this action to ensure clarity and improve the accuracy of the regulations. PMID:27044118

  20. Database Administration: Concepts, Tools, Experiences, and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong-Hong, Belkis; Marron, Beatrice

    The concepts of data base administration, the role of the data base administrator (DBA), and computer software tools useful in data base administration are described in order to assist data base technologists and managers. A study of DBA's in the Federal Government is detailed in terms of the functions they perform, the software tools they use,…