Science.gov

Sample records for administrators rapsta study

  1. Retention and Attrition of Pacific School Teachers and Administrators (RAPSTA) Study: Guam. Research Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Development Cadre, Honolulu, HI.

    Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL) works closely with 10 American-affiliated Pacific entities: (1) American Samoa; (2) the Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands; (3) the Federated States of Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, Yap); (4) Guam; (5) Hawaii; (6) the Republic of the Marshall Islands; and (7) the Republic of Palau.…

  2. Retention and Attrition of Pacific School Teachers and Administrators (RAPSTA) Study: Hawai'i. Research Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Development Cadre, Honolulu, HI.

    Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL) works closely with 10 American-affiliated Pacific entities: (1)American Samoa; (2) the Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands; (3) the Federated States of Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, Yap); (4) Guam; (5) Hawaii; (6) the Republic of the Marshall Islands; and (7) the Republic of Palau.…

  3. Retention and Attrition of Pacific School Teachers and Administrators (RAPSTA) Study: Republic of Palau. Research Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Development Cadre, Honolulu, HI.

    Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL) works with 10 American-affiliated Pacific entities: American Samoa, the Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, Yap), Guam, Hawaii, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Republic of Palau. The survey raises awareness of the…

  4. Retention and Attrition of Pacific School Teachers and Administrators (RAPSTA) Study: Pohnpei State, Federated States of Micronesia. Research Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Development Cadre, Honolulu, HI.

    Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL) works with 10 American-affiliated Pacific entities: American Samoa, the Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, Yap), Guam, Hawaii, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Republic of Palau. The main purpose of this survey was to…

  5. Retention and Attrition of Pacific School Teachers and Administrators (RAPSTA) Study: Yap State, Federated States of Micronesia. Research Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Development Cadre, Honolulu, HI.

    Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL) works closely with 10 American-affiliated Pacific entities: (1) American Samoa; (2) the Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands; (3) the Federated States of Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, Yap); (4) Guam; (5) Hawaii; (6) the Republic of the Marshall Islands; and (7) the Republic of Palau.…

  6. Retention and Attrition of Pacific School Teachers and Administrators (RAPSTA) Study: Chuuk State, Federated States of Micronesia. Research Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Development Cadre, Honolulu, HI.

    Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL) works with 10 American-affiliated Pacific entities: (1) American Samoa; (2) the Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands; (3) the Federated States of Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, Yap); (4) Guam; (5) Hawaii; (6) the Republic of the Marshall Islands; and (7) the Republic of Palau. This…

  7. Study Shows Administrative Shortage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, John R., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Summarizes "Administrative Shortage in New England: The Evidence, the Causes, the Recommendations." High pressure, long hours, low salaries, and high housing costs are among the reasons cited for the shortage. Recommendations are centered on role identity, staff support, training, and recruitment. (SI)

  8. Alternative School Administration Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shellinger, Mark

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how principals spend their time and to test a new structure using business management trained staff to increase principal time spent on academic achievement and gap closure. Twenty-one elementary school principals were randomly selected for a week-long time-task analysis. Data collectors shadowed the…

  9. Administrative Utility Analysis: Study Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co., San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    This document summarizes the recommendations made as a result of a study on administrative utility analysis and vocational education programs for Puerto Rico. The major recommendation was that the Area of Vocational and Technical Education (AVTE) in the Puerto Rico Department of Education be restructured at the central organizational level, for…

  10. Prospective Administrators Studying Communities: Instruction and Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Donald B.; Huang, C. David

    Although individuals preparing for careers in educational administration have recognized the importance of the community for schools and school districts, they have often lacked a complex understanding of "community." This paper describes a community-study research project that was developed and implemented in a graduate educational administration…

  11. Study of School District Administration and Staffing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    School district administration and staffing patterns are examined in this report prepared in response to CRS 22-2-118, which requires the Colorado Department of Education to conduct a study to determine where savings of state and local funds may be realized. Section 1 offers an analysis of district staffing patterns from existing data. The second…

  12. A longitudinal study of administrative segregation.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, Maureen L; Klebe, Kelli J; Metzner, Jeffrey; Dvoskin, Joel; Fellner, Jamie; Stucker, Alysha

    2013-01-01

    The use of administrative segregation for inmates with and without mental illness has generated considerable criticism. Segregated inmates are locked in single cells for 23 hours per day, are subjected to rigorous security procedures, and have restricted access to programs. In this study, we examined whether inmates in segregation would show greater deterioration over time on psychological symptoms than would comparison offenders. The subjects were male inmates, with and without mental illness, in administrative segregation, general population, or special-needs prison. Subjects completed the Brief Symptom Inventory at regular intervals for one year. Results showed differentiation between groups at the outset and statistically significant but small positive change over time across all groups. All groups showed the same change pattern such that there was not the hypothesized differential change of inmates within administrative segregation. This study advances the empirical research, but replication research is needed to make a better determination of whether and under what conditions harm may or may not occur to inmates in solitary confinement. PMID:23503176

  13. [Organization, administration, and performance of clinical studies].

    PubMed

    Bachner, Mark; Steininger, Tanja; Gneist, Margit

    2008-01-01

    This contribution deals with all important organizational and administrative aspects of clinical studies in German speaking countries. All trials are to be executed in accordance with the Good Clinical Practice (GCP) Guidelines. GCP applies to the process of designing, conducting, recording, and reporting of clinical studies. Compliance with GCP facilitates the mutual acceptance of resulting clinical data by the respective regulatory authorities worldwide. Before initiating a clinical study the investigator has to obtain written and dated approval from the responsible ethics committee, the competent authorities, and the hospital administration. The investigator's study file contains all essential study documents. One of the most important tasks of an investigator is to properly inform the prospective subjects and to obtain their informed consent. All relevant treatment-related information has to be recorded in the patient files. These source data are transferred to case report forms. During monitoring visits, audits, and inspections, source data verification will be performed routinely. Any adverse events (AEs) must be documented according to the CTCAE, the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. All serious adverse events (SAEs) have to be reported to the sponsor immediately. At the end of the study a termination visit is performed, and all authorities are officially informed about the termination of the trial.

  14. Burnout among Special Education Administrators: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    Research on the extent of stress and burnout among special education administrators is not as well developed as research on the extent of stress and burnout among teachers. This study utilized the Maslach Burnout Inventory to determine levels of stress and burnout among administrators of special education. Results indicated administrators of…

  15. Administrative Reorganizational Needs in Chicano Studies at Cerritos College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinrichsen, Keith A.

    The Chicano Studies (CS) Program at Cerritos College (California) is administratively recognized but instructionally dependent, with courses offered through four of the college's Divisions. Pressure has been brought to bear by the Citizens' Resource Committee to grant the program administrative autonomy, a separate instructional budget, and a…

  16. School Administration Leadership Style and Academic Achievement: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brvenik-Estrella, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to gather current teacher and administrator perceptions on leadership in a school environment. The study sought to identify patterns of leadership style as elements in building a school climate that focused on performance and intrinsic rewards. The study also sought to establish an understanding of how leadership…

  17. Case Studies for School Administrators: Managing Change in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benham, Maenette K. P. Ah Nee

    This book examines case-based learning in educational leadership courses, discusses case-based learning as an educational tool, exemplifies methods of writing a case study, and contains 14 case-studies by teachers and administrators. "Stakeholders in a House of Cards," by Audrey Burgher, discusses integrating technology with innovation. "Reforming…

  18. Developing Strategic Leadership for Administrators: Private Vocational College Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jumnongya, Areeya; Sirisuthi, Chaiyuth; Chansirisira, Pacharawit

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to study and define a number of factors measuring quality and efficiency in administrators of private vocational college, and to test and evaluate the efficiency of the strategic leadership program. Twelve factors and 83 indicators were identified as vital for strategic leadership for private vocational college…

  19. Ethical and Social Values in Business Administration and Management Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Lozano, Mercedes; de los Rios-Bergillos, Araceli; Tirado-Valencia, Pilar; Millan-Lara, Salud

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to analyze the impact of the learning process in business administration and management of students' values, through the application of factor analysis to the information obtained in a survey consisting of students in the first and fifth year of studies. The study derived the following conclusions: First,…

  20. Study Abroad: Handbook for Advisers and Administrators. Guideline Series 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Foreign Student Affairs, Washington, DC.

    Guidelines on study abroad are presented to assist advisers, administrators, and faculty committees. Topics include the following: rationale for international education; educational opportunities abroad for U.S. students; development of advisory services; the nature of the profession of study abroad advising; desirable attributes and backgrounds…

  1. Case Study Digest: Preparing Teachers for Education Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Karen L., Ed.

    This case study digest is intended for classroom teachers who wish to discuss a variety of challenges in school leadership. The publication targets classroom teachers who desire leadership training and aspire to become school administrators. The case studies represent actual incidents experienced by school leaders. The cases are formatted to…

  2. Case Studies for Educational Leadership: Solving Administrative Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midlock, Stephen F.

    2010-01-01

    "Case Studies for Educational Leadership" gives educational leadership students an opportunity to project themselves into real-life administrative situations and prepare for their future positions in the field. Each case study contained in this practical first edition book asks students to analyze complex problems, consider the moral ramifications…

  3. The Future of Leisure Studies in Research Universities: Administrators' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dustin, Daniel; Collins, Rachel; Schultz, Jeremy; Browne, Laurie; Schwab, Keri; Rose, Jeff; Timmerman, Danielle; Altschuler, Ben; Jostad, Jeremy; Spencer, Callie; Newman, Jackie; Bricker, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    This article summarizes the content of a three-day administrative summit held at Zion Ponderosa Resort in southern Utah in late September 2010. Department chairs, heads, and deans representing 13 universities across North America offering leisure studies doctoral degrees, master's degrees, and undergraduate professional preparation degrees…

  4. School Leadership and Administration: Important Concepts, Case Studies and Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorton, Richard; Alston, Judy; Snowden, Petra

    2006-01-01

    This text helps prospective and experienced principals, administrators, and supervisors increase their knowledge and skills through concepts, case-studies, and simulations. This book contains the following two parts and fifteen chapters. Part I presents important theoretical concepts and research findings that can improve educators'…

  5. Principles of Economics: Course Administrative Manual [And] Unit Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbour, G. Jeffrey

    This learning package is a three-semester-hour, independent-study course in principles of economics designed for postsecondary, external degree students. Keyed to the commercially published textbook "Economics Today" (San Francisco, CA: Canfield Press, 1975), the package consists of an administrator manual, a student manual, 14 audiotapes, and a…

  6. Crossing the Line: A Qualitative Study of Administrative Interns' Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Lynn; Quick, Marilynn

    2011-01-01

    Internships serve as the bridge that spans the divide between being a teacher and an administrator. Most research on internships has emphasized the technical aspect of this experience, such as benefits and limitations of internships. The overall impact an internship experience has on an intern has been studied less extensively. This research study…

  7. A Study of Health Policies in Public School Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasch, Henry A.

    This study was undertaken to identify, classify, and interpret extant written school health policies. Furthermore, it was planned to ascertain whether schools were using standardized forms or systematic procedures to formulate school health policies. Administrators in school districts representing every geographical area of the U.S. were asked to…

  8. Administrative support of novice science teachers: A multiple case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacuone, Leann

    Novice science teachers leave the confines of colleges and universities to embark on a new adventure in education where they aim to influence young minds, make a difference in the world, and share their love for their content. They have learned their pedagogical skills with the support and assistance of fellow classmates, a supporting professor, and a cooperating teacher. These teachers enter their new place of employment and are met with many unexpected challenges, such as a lack of resources, no one to ask questions of, and a busy staff with already established relationships, causing them to feel an overall lack of support and resulting in many new teachers rethinking their career choice and leaving the field of education within 5 years of entering. This multiple-case study investigated the administrative support 4 novice science teachers received during an academic year and the novice teachers' perceptions of the support they received to answer the following research question: How do novice science teachers who have consistent interactions with administrators develop during their first year? To answer this question, semistructured interviews, reflection journals, observations, resumes, long-range plans, and student discipline referrals were collected. The findings from this study show novice science teachers who had incidents occur in the classroom requiring administrative assistance and guidance felt more confident in enforcing their classroom management policies and procedures as the year progressed to change student behavior. The novice science teachers perceived administrators who provided resources including technology, office supplies, science supplies, and the guidance of a mentor as supportive. Novice science teachers who engaged in dialogue after administrative observations, were provided the opportunity to attend professional development outside the district, and had a mentor who taught the same discipline made more changes to their instructional

  9. Animal Study on Primary Dysmenorrhoea Treatment at Different Administration Times

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Bao-Chan; Fang, Ling; Gao, Li-Na; Liu, Rui; Li, Ai-zhu

    2015-01-01

    The new methods of different administration times for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea are more widely used clinically; however, no obvious mechanism has been reported. Therefore, an animal model which is closer to clinical evaluation is indispensable. A novel animal experiment with different administration times, based on the mice oestrous cycle, for primary dysmenorrhoea treatment was explored in this study. Mice were randomly divided into two parts (one-cycle and three-cycle part) and each part includes five groups (12 mice per group), namely, Jingqian Zhitong Fang (JQF) 6-day group, JQF last 3-day group, Yuanhu Zhitong tablet group, model control group, and normal control group. According to the one-way ANOVAs, results (writhing reaction, and PGF2α, PGE2, NO, and calcium ions analysis by ELISA) of the JQF cycle group were in accordance with those of JQF last 3-day group. Similarly, results of three-cycle continuous administration were consistent with those of one-cycle treatment. In conclusion, the consistency of the experimental results illustrated that the novel animal model based on mice oestrous cycle with different administration times is more reasonable and feasible and can be used to explore in-depth mechanism of drugs for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea in future. PMID:25705236

  10. Ready, Set, Let's Go: An Evaluation Study of an Educational Administration Program for Beginning Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Lori

    After consulting more than 2,500 practicing administrators and other professionals, California's Commission on Teacher Credentialing (CTC) adopted new standards for administrator preparation. The strengths and weaknesses of a new program that teaches these standards are discussed. The paper It focuses on the program in terms of its new features:…

  11. Identifying Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax from Administrative Databases: A Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Frechette, Eric; Guidolin, Keegan; Seyam, Ayman; Choi, Yun-Hee; Jones, Sarah; McClure, J. Andrew; Winick-Ng, Jennifer; Welk, Blayne; Malthaner, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) is a disorder commonly encountered in healthy young individuals. There is no differentiation between PSP and secondary pneumothorax (SP) in the current version of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). This complicates the conduct of epidemiological studies on the subject. Objective. To validate the accuracy of an algorithm that identifies cases of PSP from administrative databases. Methods. The charts of 150 patients who consulted the emergency room (ER) with a recorded main diagnosis of pneumothorax were reviewed to define the type of pneumothorax that occurred. The corresponding hospital administrative data collected during previous hospitalizations and ER visits were processed through the proposed algorithm. The results were compared over two different age groups. Results. There were 144 cases of pneumothorax correctly coded (96%). The results obtained from the PSP algorithm demonstrated a significantly higher sensitivity (97% versus 81%, p = 0.038) and positive predictive value (87% versus 46%, p < 0.001) in patients under 40 years of age than in older patients. Conclusions. The proposed algorithm is adequate to identify cases of PSP from administrative databases in the age group classically associated with the disease. This makes possible its utilization in large population-based studies. PMID:27445518

  12. Departments of Higher Education and Educational Administration: Their Effect on the Study of Administration. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Glenn M.; Hughes, Sean

    Interviews with university and college department chairs or persons responsible for existing educational administration and higher education programs evaluated the effects of a merged structure (combining the two programs) on the study of administration. Sixteen universities were visited and program heads were interviewed. Identified advantages of…

  13. [Bias and confounding: pharmacoepidemiological study using administrative database].

    PubMed

    Nojiri, Shuko

    2015-01-01

    The provision of health care frequently creates digitalized data such as hospital-based electronic data, medication prescription records, and claims data collectively termed "administrative database research". The data source and analytical opportunities for study create risks that can lead to misinterpretation or bias the results. This review serves as an introduction to the concept of bias and confounding to help researchers conduct methodologically sound pharmacoepidemiologic research projects using administrative databases. Beyond general considerations for observational study, there are several unique issues related to database research that should be addressed. The risks of uninterpretable or biased results can be minimized by: providing a robust description of the data tables used; focusing on why and how they were created; measuring and reporting the accuracy of diagnostic and procedural codes used; and properly accounting for any time-dependent nature of variables. The hallmark of good research is rigorously careful analysis and interpretation. The promise for value of real world evidence using databases in medical decision making must be balanced against concerns related to observational inherited limitations for bias and confounding. Researchers should aim to avoid bias in the design of a study, adjust for confounding, and discuss the effects of residual bias on the results. PMID:26028416

  14. MASA Study of Administrator Evaluation, 1974-75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan Association of School Administrators, East Lansing.

    Intended primarily for Michigan administrators, this document presents a variety of information on administrator evaluation. A survey of Michigan superintendents revealed, among other things, that there is a very high interest in administrative evaluation, that 45 percent of the responding districts have no formal evaluation system, that 36…

  15. Hospital administrators as professionals: a study of occupational role identity.

    PubMed

    Storch, J L; Northcott, H C

    1989-01-01

    This study set out to examine how hospital administrators see themselves in relation to their occupational role, that is, do they see themselves primarily as professionals, as organizational men and women, or as some combination of both. The determinants of their perceptions of occupational role identity were also examined. Canadian hospital CEOs numbering 361 were surveyed with a 72 percent response rate showing wide variation in education and length of work experience. Findings indicate these CEOs manifest a combination of professional and organizational role identities with no apparent conflict between these identities and no systematic differences in role identity by type of education or by length of work experience. The structure of this integrated model of professionalism and its potential impact on the leadership role of the CEO is examined in this article.

  16. Reinstating nursing administration graduate study in federal nurse traineeships.

    PubMed

    Kersbergen, A L

    1994-01-01

    In 1992, the federal guidelines for funding nurse traineeships were amended to exclude nurses who pursue advanced degrees in nursing administration. This legislation expires soon, and final drafting of new legislation will be completed during the summer of 1994. The author presents information to use in advocating for reinstatement of nursing administration students as potential recipients of federal nurse traineeship dollars for advanced education. PMID:8057165

  17. Program for advanced study in public science policy and administration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenthal, A. H.

    1976-01-01

    The results and conclusions of the six-year effort concerned with the development and implementation of a university educational program intended to prepare scientists and engineers for upper-level management and administrative positions (as distinct from senior technical positions) were presented. This interdisciplinary program is at the graduate level, leading to a Master of Arts degree, and is given within a Division of Public Administration.

  18. The mat study: global insight into the medication administration process.

    PubMed

    Elganzouri, Erika; Standish, Cynthia; Androwich, Ida

    2009-01-01

    An important aspect of global patient safety that has recently become a focal topic is preventing adverse drug events. As many as 7,000 patients die every year as a result of medication errors. (1) According to Bates, Spell, & Cullen, adverse drug events can cost up to an average of $8.4 million per year in a 700 bed hospital, not including injury to patient or malpractice costs. (2) Errors can occur throughout the process of ordering a medicine, dispensing, retrieving, and administrating process. Safety measures have been implemented for physicians prescribing medication and pharmacists dispensing medication through MARs and CPOE. However, there is no safety net for nursing. Bar coding can offer that safety net and allow the nurse to verify "the five rights" of medication administration electronically. However, prior to implementation of a bar coding medication system (BCMA), it is important for an institution to gain full understanding of its current nursing work flow during the medication administration process.

  19. Time Management in Higher Education Administration: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Darrell R.; Dahl, Tor

    How do departmental chairpersons and deans in a major university setting manage their time? What are the major administrative activities and functions associated with such responsibilities? What relationships do these have with an ability to delegate, to control one's time for planning and self-initiated activities, or personal sense of…

  20. Time Management in Higher Education Administration: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Darrell R.; Dahl, Tor

    1976-01-01

    Drawing on data from a staff development project for administrators in a college at a major American university, it was determined that there is considerable commonality across individuals and that it is possible to deal with such issues as time management, job stress, and enjoyment on an organizational level. (Editor/JT)

  1. Ecological Methods in the Study of Administrative Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Myrtle; Eklund, Susan J.

    Qualitative/naturalistic inquiry intends to discover whatever naturally occurring order exists rather than to test various theories or conceptual frameworks held by the investigator. Naturalistic, ecological data are urgently needed concerning the behavior of educational administrators. Such data can considerably change the knowledge base of the…

  2. A Competitive Benchmarking Study of Noncredit Program Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alstete, Jeffrey W.

    1996-01-01

    A benchmarking project to measure administrative processes and financial ratios received 57 usable replies from 300 noncredit continuing education programs. Programs with strong financial surpluses were identified and their processes benchmarked (including response to inquiries, registrants, registrant/staff ratio, new courses, class size,…

  3. Investigating the Representation of African American Student Affairs Administrators: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Lamont A.

    2003-01-01

    Study applied the theory of representative bureaucracy to examine the representation of African American student affairs administrators in postsecondary institutions. Results showed African American student affairs administrators were underrepresented among student affairs administrators. Also, survey data showed that the percentage of African…

  4. 76 FR 55732 - Public Listening Sessions Regarding the Maritime Administration's Panama Canal Expansion Study...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... Maritime Administration Public Listening Sessions Regarding the Maritime Administration's Panama Canal... workshops regarding the expansion of the Panama Canal and the America's Marine Highway Program. The meetings... Administration (MARAD) should consider in the development of its comprehensive study of the 2014 Panama...

  5. [Educational game of medication administration: a validation study].

    PubMed

    Moreira, Amanda Portugal de Andrade; Sabóia, Vera Maria; Camacho, Alessandra Conceição Leite Funchal; Daher, Donizete Vago; Teixeira, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This is a methodological research, which aimed to determine the validity of an educational technology (ET) in the form of educational game of medicine administration, according to the judges and audience, using the theoretical stage of Pasquali model. Data were collected between September 2011 and May 2012 in two stages: 1) application and validation of TE by forty students of the 4th period of Nursing, at the Fluminense Federal University (target audience); 2) observation and validation of TE by 8 teachers (judges). The questionnaires were organized in Likert scale, with items distributed in blocks and analyzed quantitatively. The game was validated, since it has over 80% approval by the two groups, and may therefore be used as a TE in the discipline of Fundamentals of Nursing. The results were positive, demonstrating that students and teachers are more interested in content taught when most dynamic technologies are used in the classroom.

  6. Issues in Studying Administrative Faculty Salary Equity. AIR 1995 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brozovsky, Paul V.; McLaughlin, Gerald W.

    Considerations in conducting a study of salary equity for administrative faculty are addressed. The focus is whether there is a systematic difference in salary of administrative faculty based on race, sex, or age after all legitimate factors are removed. After defining the study population, attention is directed to the study model and research…

  7. Administrative Reinstatement Interlock Programs: Florida, a 10-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Voas, Robert B.; Tippetts, A. Scott; Grosz, Milton

    2013-01-01

    Background Interlocks reduce driving-under-the-influence (DUI) recidivism by 64%, but offenders resist installing them, preferring to risk driving while their driver’s licenses are revoked. One method of motivating offenders to install an interlock is require it for reinstatement of their driver’s license. This report updates an earlier evaluation of the administrative reinstatement interlock program (ARIP) procedure implemented in Florida in 2002. Method Driver records and interlock program records covering 120,000 DUI offenders were followed over 10 years. The flow through the sanction system—conviction, reinstatement, interlock program, and postinterlock period—is described. Logistical regression was used to identify the characteristics of offenders who installed interlocks, and survival analysis was used to evaluate the recidivism of offenders in the various stages in the ARIP. Results At any given time, approximately one third of the convicted offenders were serving their license-revocation periods. Half of the offenders who completed their revocation periods remain unqualified for reinstatement because they do not fulfill other requirements. ARIP offenders who do qualify for reinstatement and install interlocks have lower recidivism rates while the devices are on their vehicles. Conclusions After 10 years, Florida’s ARIP is a mature system that succeeds in forcing all offenders in the program who qualify for reinstatement to install an interlock for at least 6 months. However, half of all offenders who complete their mandatory revocation period are either unable to, or choose not to, qualify for reinstatement. PMID:23442206

  8. Administrative Support and Alternatively Certified Teachers: A Mixed Methods Study on New Teacher Support and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Erin M.

    2012-01-01

    A non-experimental study was conducted to examine the perceived administrative support needs of alternatively certified teachers and determine their impact on teacher retention. The study sought to identify the most valued administrative support needs of alternatively-certified teachers; to compare those needs by gender and tier teaching level;…

  9. 47 CFR 54.805 - Zone and study area above benchmark revenues calculated by the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Zone and study area above benchmark revenues... Mechanism § 54.805 Zone and study area above benchmark revenues calculated by the Administrator. (a) The following steps shall be performed by the Administrator to determine Zone Above Benchmark Revenues for...

  10. Stress and Coping in Higher Education: A Case Study of a Haitian American Woman Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfgang, Jeff Drayton; West-Olatunji, Cirecie A.; Overton, Jeanine; Shah, Bindi; Coral, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The authors applied Relational-Cultural Theory (RCT) to conduct a case study of an Afro-Caribbean woman administrator to explore her perceptions of stress and coping in higher education. While much has been written about the challenges facing Black faculty and students, this study focused on the experiences of a Black woman administrator in a…

  11. Community College Administrative Roles in Identifying Faculty for Future Management Positions: A Phenomenological Study of Retired Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knirk, Brian Doyle

    2013-01-01

    The community college system is beginning to see waves of retirements at all levels of the administrative structure. These retirements, in conjunction with expected growth in administrative positions, will result in system-wide administrative vacancies. Community colleges not already seeking new leaders are likely to find themselves in the midst…

  12. Educational Administration and Management. Reports Studies C.95.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Trevor; Persaud, Ganga

    This case study reports results of research on the extent of nonformal education in Guyana; comparison of commitment in private and public enterprises; and financial support, program organization and management, learners' background and objectives, content and methodology, and evaluation strategy. The first two chapters describe the study's…

  13. Women and Their Stories: Nine Case Studies in Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Rourke, Carolyn L.; Papalewis, Rosemary

    Following a thorough review of current studies and literature on women in leadership, this document examines the results of a study conducted to determine the significance of female gender in educational leadership, and how attitudes, values, perceptions, and life experiences of women differ from those of men and are reflected in female leadership…

  14. Building the Innovative and Entrepreneurial University: An Institutional Case Study of Administrative Academic Capitalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Kevin R.

    2016-01-01

    Although researchers have explored dimensions of academic capitalism among students and faculty members, knowledge of the roles of administrators at all levels is underdeveloped in the literature. This institutional case study of a public research-extensive university examines the roles of executive and managerial administrators in bringing a…

  15. A Study on the Legal Literacy of Urban Public School Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tie, Fatt Hee

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the legal literacy of urban public school administrators in Malaysia. Data were collected from 109 school administrators. The instrument that was administered to the respondents comprised two parts: Part 1, the background information of the respondents; and Part 2, items on the law related to schools, such as teachers'…

  16. Educational Management and Administration in Moray House College of Education. Teaching and Study: Current Developments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Douglas M.

    1972-01-01

    A Department of Educational Management and Administration was set up in May, 1968, which has been arranging inservice study groups on various aspects of school administration. One of its particular concerns is timetabling, including the most efficient use of teaching time and space. An Advisory Service is maintained for those individual…

  17. ACADEMIC ADMINISTRATORS AND UNIVERSITY GOALS--A STUDY IN CONFLICT AND COOPERATION. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GRAMBSCH, PAUL V.; GROSS, EDWARD

    A STUDY OF ADMINISTRATOR AND FACULTY PERCEPTION OF UNIVERSITY GOALS WAS DEVELOPED UTILIZING A QUESTIONNAIRE MAILED TO ALL ADMINISTRATIVE PERSONNEL AND TO A 10 PERCENT SAMPLE OF THE FACULTY MEMBERS OF 68 UNIVERSITIES. THE UNIVERSITIES WERE SELECTED BY CRITERIA WHICH INCLUDED THE GRANTING OF DOCTORAL DEGREES IN AT LEAST THREE OF FOUR FIELDS…

  18. No Child Left Behind and Administrative Costs: A Resource Dependence Study of Local School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neely, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    This study considers the impact of federal funding on the administrative expenditures of local school districts since the passage of the No-Child-Left-Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001. Under NCLB, federal education funds were made contingent upon a variety of accountability and reporting standards, creating new administrative costs and challenges for…

  19. Are Today's Beginning School Administrators Prepared for Their Jobs? A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paquette, Bonita Salsman

    2004-01-01

    The issue for this case study involves current administrators' views regarding how well prepared they felt for their school leadership positions after graduating from an educational leadership program in Florida. The author examines whether the courses that perspective school administrators are required to take during their graduate program…

  20. Administrators in North Carolina Community Colleges: A Comparative Study by Gender. Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillett-Karam, Rosemary; And Others

    As part of a study of the advancement and support of women in administrative positions at institutions of higher education in North Carolina, administrators at the state's community colleges were surveyed in 1996 to determine their characteristics, satisfaction with their careers, and experiences with respect to obstacles and mentors. Surveys were…

  1. FLORIDA LARGE BUILDING STUDY - POLK COUNTY ADMINISTRATION BUILDING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes an extensive characterization and parameter assessment study of a single, large building in Bartow, FL, with the purpose of assessing the impact on radon entry of design, construction, and operating features of the building, particularly the mechanical subsys...

  2. Cultures of the World: Administrative Manual [And] Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Charles Howard

    This learning package is a three-semester-hour, independent-study course in geography and cultures of the world designed for postsecondary, external degree students. Keyed to the commercially published textbook "Between Two Worlds: A New Introduction to Geography" (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1973), the package consists of an…

  3. Learning through Leading: A Self-Study in District Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Christina

    2016-01-01

    There is little research in the area of understanding educational leaders' psychological processes. This lack of understanding leaves educational leaders to develop their own sense-making practices while in the complex and stressful act of leading. This self-study, conducted over more than half a school year in 2014-2015, was my own effort to do…

  4. The effects of cannabinoid administration on sleep: a systematic review of human studies.

    PubMed

    Gates, Peter J; Albertella, Lucy; Copeland, Jan

    2014-12-01

    This paper reviews the literature regarding the effects of cannabinoid administration on sleep in humans. A literature search using a set of cannabinoid and sleep-related terms was conducted across eight electronic databases. Human studies that involved the administration of cannabinoids and at least one quantitative sleep-related measure were included. Review papers, opinion pieces, letters or editorials, case studies (final N < 7), published abstracts, posters, and non-English papers were excluded. Thirty-nine publications were included in the review. Findings were mixed and showed various effects of cannabinoid administration on several aspects of sleep. Methodological issues in the majority of studies to date, however, preclude any definitive conclusion.

  5. [Study of bioavailability of paclitaxel after sublingual administration].

    PubMed

    Samsonia, M; Lesiovskaia, E; Ghibradze, O; Kandelaki, M

    2015-05-01

    The bioavailability of sublingual form of paclitaxel, developed in the pharmacology laboratory of pharmaceutical company - Legion "Provisus" is studied. Sublingual form of paclitaxel is an alcoholic solution of paclitaxel (1 mg/ml) with penetrator - dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) addition. Experiments were performed on 180 white mongrel male mice each of 25-30 g. The animals were divided into three groups. The first group served for control. 10 mg/kg of taxol was injected (once) in the lateral tail vein of the first group animals. A solution was prepared by diluting taxol with physiological sodium chloride solution until to a final concentration of paclitaxel to 1 mg/ml. The dose of 10 mg/kg (single dose) was applied under the tongue of the second group animals. Paclitaxel (substance) was extracted with dichloromethane - Taxol (by liquid-liquid extraction) for the manufacturing of a sublingual form. Unlike the second group, the third group animals took the same dose of sublingual form of paclitaxel orally (by gavage). The concentration of paclitaxel in plasma was studied by reversed-phase HPLC with spectrophotometric detection at λ = 227 nm by Woo JS et al. (2003) method. Bioavailability was determined by comparing the concentration of paclitaxel in blood after sublingual and intravenous use of Taxol (as an area under the curve of concentration versus time). It is established that the bioavailability of sublingual forms of paclitaxel was 42.4%, Cmax = 615 ± 73 ng × ml(-1) and tmax = 30-35 min. The value of the initial volume of distribution of paclitaxel (Vd = 3,14 ± 0,85 l × kg(-1)) also shows its intensive penetration to the organs and tissues. The half-life of the drug on the terminal segment of concentration-time curve was averaged 1,06 ± 0,21 h. The results create the preconditions for further preclinical study of sublingual form of paclitaxel, as the bioavailability of paclitaxel after sublingual application allows to have a systemic effect on the tumor

  6. Organizational entrepreneurship and administrators of hospitals: case study of Iran.

    PubMed

    Raadabadi, Mehdi; Fayaz-Bakhsh, Ahmad; Nazari, Aslan; Mousavi, Seyed Masood; Fayaz-Bakhsh, Mohammadali

    2014-04-11

    Due to rapid changes of technology and scientific advances in health systems and need for fast planning in health care, entrepreneurial spirit among employers and employees is a crucial element. According to the field of entrepreneurship research has not been solved and where learning and innovation for healthcare organizations due to the nature of the work required. This study aims to examine the entrepreneurial activities within the hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran. To achieve the aim of the study, a questionnaire containing 29 items regarding the areas of innovation, creative behavior, flexibility, empowerment, rewarding systems and the management support was distributed among the hospitals' managers. Establishment of a culture of entrepreneurship in healthcare organizations led to the development unit controlled, changing the culture of the hospital. The analysis of the data showed that the majority of the managers agreed with all five areas of entrepreneurship namely the existence of innovation and innovative behavior, flexibility, decision making, rewarding and encouraging system, as well as management supportive system of personnel's new ideas. In fact, the managers generally had positive attitude towards entrepreneurship in their organizations The Pearson correlation test also showed that there is a significant relationship between the areas of entrepreneurship and the managers' age as well as their working experience (P<0.05). Entrepreneurial activities in healthcare can be improved through providing a suitable environment, adjusting reward and encouragement systems, giving more authority to subordinates, promoting awareness and education, and mobilizing managers to attract appropriate opportunities for organization. Further active involvement of employees, more stable in front of changes and increased ability managers to capture opportunities in domestic and foreign situation.

  7. Organizational Entrepreneurship and Administrators of Hospitals: Case Study of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Raadabadi, Mehdi; Fayaz-Bakhsh, Ahmad; Nazari, Aslan; Mousavi, Seyed Masood; Fayaz-Bakhsh, MohammadAli

    2014-01-01

    Due to rapid changes of technology and scientific advances in health systems and need for fast planning in health care, entrepreneurial spirit among employers and employees is a crucial element. According to the field of entrepreneurship research has not been solved and where learning and innovation for healthcare organizations due to the nature of the work required. This study aims to examine the entrepreneurial activities within the hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran. To achieve the aim of the study, a questionnaire containing 29 items regarding the areas of innovation, creative behavior, flexibility, empowerment, rewarding systems and the management support was distributed among the hospitals’ managers. Establishment of a culture of entrepreneurship in healthcare organizations led to the development unit controlled, changing the culture of the hospital. The analysis of the data showed that the majority of the managers agreed with all five areas of entrepreneurship namely the existence of innovation and innovative behavior, flexibility, decision making, rewarding and encouraging system, as well as management supportive system of personnel’s new ideas. In fact, the managers generally had positive attitude towards entrepreneurship in their organizations The Pearson correlation test also showed that there is a significant relationship between the areas of entrepreneurship and the managers’ age as well as their working experience (P<0.05). Entrepreneurial activities in healthcare can be improved through providing a suitable environment, adjusting reward and encouragement systems, giving more authority to subordinates, promoting awareness and education, and mobilizing managers to attract appropriate opportunities for organization. Further active involvement of employees, more stable in front of changes and increased ability managers to capture opportunities in domestic and foreign situation. PMID:24762370

  8. Organizational entrepreneurship and administrators of hospitals: case study of Iran.

    PubMed

    Raadabadi, Mehdi; Fayaz-Bakhsh, Ahmad; Nazari, Aslan; Mousavi, Seyed Masood; Fayaz-Bakhsh, Mohammadali

    2014-05-01

    Due to rapid changes of technology and scientific advances in health systems and need for fast planning in health care, entrepreneurial spirit among employers and employees is a crucial element. According to the field of entrepreneurship research has not been solved and where learning and innovation for healthcare organizations due to the nature of the work required. This study aims to examine the entrepreneurial activities within the hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran. To achieve the aim of the study, a questionnaire containing 29 items regarding the areas of innovation, creative behavior, flexibility, empowerment, rewarding systems and the management support was distributed among the hospitals' managers. Establishment of a culture of entrepreneurship in healthcare organizations led to the development unit controlled, changing the culture of the hospital. The analysis of the data showed that the majority of the managers agreed with all five areas of entrepreneurship namely the existence of innovation and innovative behavior, flexibility, decision making, rewarding and encouraging system, as well as management supportive system of personnel's new ideas. In fact, the managers generally had positive attitude towards entrepreneurship in their organizations The Pearson correlation test also showed that there is a significant relationship between the areas of entrepreneurship and the managers' age as well as their working experience (P<0.05). Entrepreneurial activities in healthcare can be improved through providing a suitable environment, adjusting reward and encouragement systems, giving more authority to subordinates, promoting awareness and education, and mobilizing managers to attract appropriate opportunities for organization. Further active involvement of employees, more stable in front of changes and increased ability managers to capture opportunities in domestic and foreign situation. PMID:24762370

  9. Public vs private administration of rural health insurance schemes: a comparative study in Zhejiang of China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoyuan; Mao, Zhengzhong; Rechel, Bernd; Liu, Chaojie; Jiang, Jialin; Zhang, Yinying

    2013-07-01

    Since 2003, China has experimented in some of the country's counties with the private administration of the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS), a publicly subsidized health insurance scheme for rural populations. Our study compared the effectiveness and efficiency of private vs public administration in four counties in one of China's most affluent provinces in the initial stage of the NCMS's implementation. The study was undertaken in Ningbo city of Zhejiang province. Out of 10 counties in Ningbo, two counties with private administration for the NCMS (Beilun and Ninghai) were compared with two others counties with public administration (Zhenhai and Fenghua), using the following indicators: (1) proportion of enrollees who were compensated for inpatient care; (2) average reimbursement-expense ratio per episode of inpatient care; (3) overall administration cost; (4) enrollee satisfaction. Data from 2004 to 2006 were collected from the local health authorities, hospitals and the contracted insurance companies, supplemented by a randomized household questionnaire survey covering 176 households and 479 household members. In our sample counties, private administration of the NCMS neither reduced transaction costs, nor improved the benefits of enrollees. Enrollees covered by the publicly administered NCMS were more likely to be satisfied with the insurance scheme than those covered by the privately administered NCMS. Experience in the selected counties suggests that private administration of the NCMS did not deliver the hoped-for results. We conclude that caution needs to be exercised in extending private administration of the NCMS.

  10. School District Administrative Costs, Regional Series, and Telecommunications. Special Study. Report to the Arizona Legislature by the Auditor General.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.

    The Arizona Office of the Auditor General conducted a study of Arizona school district administrative costs, regional services, and telecommunications. In the area of administrative costs, the study found that larger, unified districts were more cost effective in terms of district administrative costs per student and students per administrator.…

  11. The Joy of Social Work Administration: An Exploratory Qualitative Study of Human Service Administrators' Positive Perceptions of Their Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Larry D.; Hoefer, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Positive organizational psychology suggests that researchers should focus on the rewarding elements of work life, yet those in the fields of social work and nonprofit administration have not conducted research in line with this admonition. Indeed, the current focus on administrative challenges and problems may be part of the reason there is…

  12. State-of-The-Art Technologies Used in Training Delivery and Administration at the Institute of Public Administration: Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewain, Saleh A. S.

    2005-01-01

    The Institute of Public Administration (IPA), in Saudi Arabia, is a well renowned training institution designated for training civil servants in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This paper mainly discusses the uses of technologies in the administrative aspects of the IPA. The author also points out the obstacles faced and lessons learned from the…

  13. A Study on Components of Internal Control-Based Administrative System in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montri, Paitoon; Sirisuth, Chaiyuth; Lammana, Preeda

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the components of the internal control-based administrative system in secondary schools, and make a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to confirm the goodness of fit of empirical data and component model that resulted from the CFA. The study consisted of three steps: 1) studying of principles, ideas, and theories…

  14. Importance of sites of tracer administration and sampling in turnover studies

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J.

    1982-01-01

    Our recent studies with tritium and /sup 14/C-labeled lactate and alanine in starved rats revealed that the sites of tracer administration and sampling have a profound effect on the kinetics of the specific activity curves and the calculation of metabolic parameters. The importance of the sites of tracer administration and sampling for the experimental design and interpretation of tracer data in vivo is discussed.

  15. Servant First: A Multicase Study Exploring Servant Leadership in Community College Instructional Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Marvin Lee

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the application of servant leadership principles to community college instructional administration. The study conducted was a multicase research design. The conceptual framework for the study was based on Greenleaf's work in servant leadership as expressed in 10 characteristics of servant leaders…

  16. Use of patient registries and administrative datasets for the study of pediatric cancer.

    PubMed

    Rice, Henry E; Englum, Brian R; Gulack, Brian C; Adibe, Obinna O; Tracy, Elizabeth T; Kreissman, Susan G; Routh, Jonathan C

    2015-09-01

    Analysis of data from large administrative databases and patient registries is increasingly being used to study childhood cancer care, although the value of these data sources remains unclear to many clinicians. Interpretation of large databases requires a thorough understanding of how the dataset was designed, how data were collected, and how to assess data quality. This review will detail the role of administrative databases and registry databases for the study of childhood cancer, tools to maximize information from these datasets, and recommendations to improve the use of these databases for the study of pediatric oncology.

  17. Methods and Management: NIH Administrators, Federal Oversight, and the Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sejal S.

    2012-01-01

    Summary This article explores the 1965 controversy over the Framingham Heart Study in the midst of growing oversight into the management of science at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). It describes how, beginning in the early 1960s, federal overseers demanded that NIH administrators adopt particular management styles in administering programs and how these growing pressures led administrators to favor investigative pursuits that allowed for easy prospective accounting of program payoffs, especially those based on experimental methods designed to examine discrete interventions or outcomes of interest. In light of this changing managerial culture within the NIH, the Framingham study and other population laboratories—with their bases in observation and in open-ended study designs—became harder for NIH administrators to justify and defend. PMID:22643985

  18. Ethical Decision-Making in Academic Administration: A Qualitative Study of College Deans' Ethical Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catacutan, Maria Rosario G.; de Guzman, Allan B.

    2015-01-01

    Ethical decision-making in school administration has received considerable attention in educational leadership literature. However, most research has focused on principals working in secondary school settings while studies that explore ethical reasoning processes of academic deans have been significantly few. This qualitative study aims to…

  19. An Exploratory Study of Listening Practice Relative to Memory Testing and Lecture in Business Administration Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Robin T.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the combined impact of a memory test and subsequent listening practice in enhancing student listening abilities in collegiate business administration courses. The article reviews relevant literature and describes an exploratory study that was undertaken to compare the effectiveness of this technique with traditional…

  20. Cyberbullying: A Study of School Administrators' Perceptions and Responses to Online Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasenstab, Jean Jegglin

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative, phenomenological study examined the perspectives and responses of twelve school administrators who have responded to cyberbullying with a disciplinary action. The majority of the data collected for this study was gathered through individual semi-structured interviews. Supporting documentation such as entries in a reflective…

  1. Biography in the Study of Public Administration: Towards a Portrait of a Whitehall Mandarin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribbins, Peter; Sherratt, Brian

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on part of an on-going interview-based study of the eight permanent secretaries who served at the Department for Education from 1976 to 2012. Following a discussion of the relevance of biography to the study of public sector administrators, it presents a portrait of Sir Tim Lankester. Based on his own account and that of…

  2. Drug administration in animal studies of cardiac arrest does not reflect human clinical experience

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Joshua C.; Rittenberger, Jon C.; Menegazzi, James J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction To date, there is no evidence showing a benefit from any advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) medication in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOHCA), despite animal data to the contrary. One explanation may be a difference in the time to first drug administration. Our previous work has shown the mean time to first drug administration in clinical trials is 19.4 minutes. We hypothesized that the average time to drug administration in large animal experiments occurs earlier than in OOHCA clinical trials. Methods We conducted a literature review between 1990 and 2006 in MEDLINE using the following MeSH headings: swine, dogs, resuscitation, heart arrest, EMS, EMT, ambulance, ventricular fibrillation, drug therapy, epinephrine, vasopressin, amiodarone, lidocaine, magnesium, and sodium bicarbonate. We reviewed the abstracts of 331 studies and 197 full manuscripts. Exclusion criteria included: non-peer reviewed, all without primary animal data, and traumatic models. From these, we identified 119 papers that contained unique information on time to medication administration. The data are reported as mean, ranges, and 95% confidence intervals. Mean time to first drug administration in animal laboratory studies and clinical trials was compared with a t-test. Regression analysis was performed to determine if time to drug predicted ROSC. Results Mean time to first drug administration in 2378 animals was 9.5 minutes (range 3.0–28.0; 95% CI around mean 2.78, 16.22). This is less than the time reported in clinical trials (19.4 min, p<0.001). Time to drug predicted ROSC (Odds Ratio 0.844; 95% CI 0.738, 0.966). Conclusion Shorter drug delivery time in animal models of cardiac arrest may be one reason for the failure of animal studies to translate successfully into the clinical arena. PMID:17360097

  3. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF STATE LICENSING BOARDS FOR SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION AND OTHER SELECTED PROFESSIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOLINARI, RALPH G.; AND OTHERS

    COMPARISON OF THE COMPOSITION, CHARACTERISTICS, AND CURRENT LICENSING PRACTICES OF STATE LICENSING BOARDS FOR EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION WITH LICENSING PROGRAMS FOR SEVEN OTHER PROFESSIONS, (ACCOUNTANCY, ARCHITECTURE, DENTISTRY, ENGINEERING, LAW, MEDICINE, AND NURSING) WAS THE PURPOSE OF THIS NATIONWIDE STUDY. THE RESEARCH PROCEDURES WERE DIVIDED…

  4. A Quality Scorecard for the Administration of Online Education Programs: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Kaye

    2010-01-01

    As the demands for public accountability increase for the higher education, institutions are seeking methods for continuous improvement in order to demonstrate quality within programs and processes, including those provided through online education. A six round Delphi study was undertaken with 43 seasoned administrators of online education…

  5. Multiple Integrated Examinations: An Observational Study of Different Academic Curricula Based on a Business Administration Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardolino, Piermatteo; Noventa, Stefano; Formicuzzi, Maddalena; Cubico, Serena; Favretto, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    An observational study has been carried out to analyse differences in performance between students of different undergraduate curricula in the same written business administration examination, focusing particularly on possible effects of "integrated" or "multi-modular" examinations, a recently widespread format in Italian…

  6. Using Computers To Write Comprehensive Examinations: A Study of Doctoral Level Examinations in Educational Administration Departments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fansler, A. Gigi; And Others

    Comprehensive examinations, long a bastion in many doctoral programs, are one of many customs under scrutiny for possible change in a movement towards more authentic means of educational assessment. This preliminary study surveyed chairs of departments of educational administration from universities across the United States to learn how computers…

  7. Faculty and Administrator Beliefs Regarding Assessment of Student Learning Outcomes: A Community College Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strollo, Toni Marie

    2011-01-01

    This study examined higher education faculty and academic administrator (AO) beliefs regarding the value of assessment of student learning outcomes (ASLO) as a means for improving teaching and learning at a Southeastern community college known for its commitment as a learning college and as an exemplar for such efforts. Faculty and AOs at this…

  8. Understanding School System Administration: Studies of the Contemporary Chief Education Officer. Educational Policy Perspective Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leithwood, Kenneth, Ed.; Musella, Donald, Ed.

    This volume presents several distinctive but related empirical studies and opinion pieces about chief education officers (CEOs). The collection begins with (1) "Introduction: A Framework for Understanding School System Administration" (Kenneth Leithwood and Donald Musella). Section A, "Chief Education Officers' Practices and Effects," contains the…

  9. Case Studies in 21st Century School Administration: Addressing Challenges for Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David L.; Smith, Agnes

    2007-01-01

    Authors David L. Gray and Agnes E. Smith have written a book of cases to give prospective school leaders opportunities to resolve complex issues in K-12 school settings through reflective questions, activities, and authentic assessment tools for skill development. "Case Studies in 21st Century School Administration" presents thought-provoking case…

  10. Experimental Studies of the Influence of Organizational Effectiveness and Succession on the Administrative Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grusky, Oscar

    The present study, part of a larger investigation, attempted to examine the separate and joint effects of succession and effectiveness on administrative processes in laboratory-created 3-level formal organizations. Specifically, the investigation concerned itself with the impact of these two elements on communication relationships between managers…

  11. Health Literacy Assessment of the STOFHLA: Paper versus Electronic Administration Continuation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesser, Amy K.; Keene Woods, Nikki; Wipperman, Jennifer; Wilson, Rachel; Dong, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Low health literacy is associated with poor health outcomes. Research is needed to understand the mechanisms and pathways of its effects. Computer-based assessment tools may improve efficiency and cost-effectiveness of health literacy research. The objective of this preliminary study was to assess if administration of the Short Test of Functional…

  12. Crises in Campus Management. Case Studies in the Administration of Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauer, George J., Ed.

    The case study approach is used to analyze problems of college and university administration. Among the topics treated in this collection of essays are: from the expanding university to the steady state; university reorganization; the metropolitan state university; intercampus relations in multicampus universities; the politics of program reform;…

  13. Women and Minorities. Leaders in Transition: A National Study of Higher Education Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kathryn M.

    Career issues, educational concerns, and the professional, educational, and personal backgrounds of 2,896 senior college administrators were studied, with focus on the status of women and minorities. Women represented 20 percent of the sample; minorities, 8 percent. Women and minorities were largely registrars, librarians, and financial aid…

  14. A Preliminary Study of School Administrators' Use of Information and Communication Technologies: Bruneian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seyal, Afzaal H.

    2012-01-01

    The study surveyed 96 Bruneian primary schools administrators (principals) in using the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). Out of the five subscales used to assess the ICT usage, only two: curriculum integration and need assessment were found to be significant towards the use of the ICT. The results further indicate that majority of…

  15. A Case Study of MOOCs Design and Administration at Seoul National University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Cheolil; Kim, Sunyoung; Kim, Mihwa; Han, Songlee; Seo, Seungil

    2014-01-01

    This research, based on the case study of edX at Seoul National University, which is running Korea's first Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), discussed and proposed the roles of principal facilitators, the process, and the relationships among various facilitators in selecting, designing, opening and administrating MOOCs classes. Researches on…

  16. Introduction to Social Psychology: Administrative Manual [And] Student Manual [And] Unit Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Robert E.

    This learning package is a three-semester-hour, independent-study course in social psychology designed for postsecondary, external degree students. Keyed to the commercially published textbook "Social Psychology: Explorations in Understanding" (Del Mar, CA: CRM, 1974), the package consists of an administrator manual, a student manual, and a…

  17. [A questionnaire study on health administration in small enterprises in a rural region].

    PubMed

    Futatsuka, M; Nagano, M; Minami, R

    1996-11-01

    A questionnaire study on the health administration of industrial workers was performed on 230 enterprises in city A in a rural region. Responding subjects numbered 140 and the response rate was 60.9%. Subjects by scale were: 16% with more than 50 workers, 48% with from 10 to 49 workers and 36% with less than 10 workers, and the proportions by industry were: 32% manufacturing, 22% wholesale-retail trade and 14% construction. The subject proportions classified according to the health insurance scheme were: 59% government-managed health insurance, 15% national health insurance and 11% society-managed health insurance. The rate of periodic health examination was 100% in enterprises with more than 50 workers, 67.2% in those with from 10 to 49 workers and 51.0% in those with less than 10 workers. The main reasons why then did not receive health examinations were: 40% had no time available to conduct examinations, 21% believed such examinations were not necessary, and 19% did not know of such an examination system. They encountered some difficulties in promoting health; for example, the advanced age of workers, and no time or money to spare for health administration. They desired provision of facilities close at hand for health examination, health consultation and health information. The results of this study show the difficulty of promoting health administration in small scale enterprises and also that it is difficult to obtain accurate information on actUal conditions including health administration in small enterprises.

  18. Study of DNA metabolism of lymph-node cells by direct lymphatic administration of tritiated thymidine.

    PubMed

    Kett, K; Nyárády, J; Zadravecz, G; Kellermayer, M; Lukács, L

    1978-01-01

    A method for studying DNA metabolism in lymph-node cells by injecting tritiated thymidine intralymphatically is described. The administration of [3H]thymidine through a lymph vessel enabled a high concentration to be attained with only a small quantity of the precursor in close proximity to the cells. The significance of the method is that it may also be used in studies of metabolic processes in human lymph-nodes.

  19. Midazolam Premedication in Children: A Pilot Study Comparing Intramuscular and Intranasal Administration

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Christy; Udin, Richard D; Malamed, Stanley F; Good, David L; Forrest, Jane L

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of intramuscular and intranasal midazolam used as a premedication before intravenous conscious sedation. Twenty-three children who were scheduled to receive dental treatment under intravenous sedation participated. The patients ranged in age from 2 to 9 years (mean age, 5.13 years) and were randomly assigned to receive a dose of 0.2 mg/kg of midazolam premedication via either intramuscular or intranasal administration. All patients received 50% nitrous oxide and 50% oxygen inhalation sedation and local anesthetic (0.2 mL of 4% prilocaine hydrochloride) before venipuncture. The sedation level, movement, and crying were evaluated at the following time points: 10 minutes after drug administration and at the times of parental separation, passive papoose board restraint, nitrous oxide nasal hood placement, local anesthetic administration, and initial venipuncture attempt. Mean ratings for the behavioral parameters of sedation level, degree of movement, and degree of crying were consistently higher but not significant in the intramuscular midazolam group at all 6 assessment points. Intramuscular midazolam was found to be statistically more effective in providing a better sedation level and less movement at the time of venipuncture than intranasal administration. Our findings indicate a tendency for intramuscular midazolam to be more effective as a premedication before intravenous sedation. PMID:16048152

  20. Midazolam premedication in children: a pilot study comparing intramuscular and intranasal administration.

    PubMed

    Lam, Christy; Udin, Richard D; Malamed, Stanley F; Good, David L; Forrest, Jane L

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of intramuscular and intranasal midazolam used as a premedication before intravenous conscious sedation. Twenty-three children who were scheduled to receive dental treatment under intravenous sedation participated. The patients ranged in age from 2 to 9 years (mean age, 5.13 years) and were randomly assigned to receive a dose of 0.2 mg/kg of midazolam premedication via either intramuscular or intranasal administration. All patients received 50% nitrous oxide and 50% oxygen inhalation sedation and local anesthetic (0.2 mL of 4% prilocaine hydrochloride) before venipuncture. The sedation level, movement, and crying were evaluated at the following time points: 10 minutes after drug administration and at the times of parental separation, passive papoose board restraint, nitrous oxide nasal hood placement, local anesthetic administration, and initial venipuncture attempt. Mean ratings for the behavioral parameters of sedation level, degree of movement, and degree of crying were consistently higher but not significant in the intramuscular midazolam group at all 6 assessment points. Intramuscular midazolam was found to be statistically more effective in providing a better sedation level and less movement at the time of venipuncture than intranasal administration. Our findings indicate a tendency for intramuscular midazolam to be more effective as a premedication before intravenous sedation.

  1. Criminal liability research in vaccine administration by public health nurse: a case study of the Nantou vaccine administration case.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jui-Chu; Wang, Triumph

    2008-03-01

    Immunization is recognized as a powerful public health tool in disease control and eradication. Registered nurses (RNs) are the principal health professionals responsible for administering vaccines, not only in terms of childhood immunization but also increasingly in administering travel vaccines and annual influenza vaccinations. The RN often provides leadership in developing and maintaining a high quality program. The legal position of nurses when administering a vaccine conflicts with their role as care providers, and nurses must be aware of their legal position when administering a vaccine that has not been individually prescribed by a doctor. A recent case involving a baby who died after receiving a vaccine administered by a public health nurse without a doctor's prescription resulted in the prosecutor initiating a prosecution against the nurse and chief of Health Bureau for a violation of Article 28 of the Physician's Act and the criminal law. Although the nurse and Bureau Chief were judged not guilty, the first trial court pointed out that the behavior of this nurse still violated Article 28. This reflects the conflict that exists between empirical practice and legal regulations. In order to guarantee that prophylactic inoculation is implemented properly under legitimate and effective conditions (specially in remote districts), in May 23, 2006, Legislative Yuan passed an amendment to Article 4 of the Communicable Disease Control Act, which specified that no public health nurse can be prosecuted for violations of Article 28 of the Physician's Act as a result of vaccine administration. In the future, nurses in clinics located in remote districts may conduct prophylactic inoculation work without fear of the terms of Article 28 and focus on implementing public prophylactic inoculation responsibilities. However, a public health nurse can still be liable for the malpractice in criminal law during the vaccination. Therefore, following procedure is still necessary

  2. A STUDY ON PREPARING THE BCP FOR LOCAL ADMINISTRATION COSIDERING SUBSISTED RISK ANALYSIS OF ROAD NETWORK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, Akio; Ito, Norio; Kawamoto, Atsushi; Shiraki, Wataru

    For road networks in mountain site which are very important infrastructures for rescue and support operations in disaster, a study on preparing the BCP for local administrations at less favored area considering subsisted risk analysis is performed. As a risk the stop of road networks caused by collapse of natural slop or cut slop is considered. The effects of the stop of road networks are analyzed and the important of preparing the BCP is demonstrated.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of gallium nitrate after oral administration in adult horses--pilot study.

    PubMed

    Pollina, G F; Zagotto, G; Maritan, P; Iacopetti, I; Busetto, R

    2012-10-01

    Gallium (Ga), a metal in group IIIA of the periodic table, has shown a remarkable activity against bone resorption and could therefore possibly prove useful in the treatment of certain diseases in sport horses, for example navicular disease. The aim of this study was to gain more information concerning the kinetics of Ga after oral administration of gallium nitrate (GaN) in adult horses. Six horses received a single dose of 10 mg/kg of GaN mixed with the food ration. Absorption was slow (T(max) = 10 ± 3 h, T(½abs) = 2 ± 0.8 h), and a C(max) of 26 ± 11 μg/L was achieved. Excretion followed a one-phase elimination model, with a long half-life (T(½el) = 52 ± 14 h). By means of a mathematical model, we estimated that the plasmatic levels should reach 93 μg/L (1.33 μm) at steady state, following the repeated daily administration of 10 mg/kg of GaN. A three times lower concentration has been demonstrated as effective in inhibiting the osteolytic activity of osteoclasts in vitro. The results of this study suggest that the administration of oral GaN at a rate of 10 mg/kg per day may be considered for future clinical studies.

  4. Mixing and administration times of bypassing agents: observations from the Dosing Observational Study in Hemophilia (DOSE)

    PubMed Central

    Maahs, Jennifer; Donkin, Jennifer; Recht, Michael; Cooper, David L

    2014-01-01

    DOSE (Dosing Observational Study in Hemophilia) was a prospective, observational diary study designed to evaluate the use of bypassing agents in patients prescribed recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) as first-line treatment in the home setting. Patients with congenital hemophilia with inhibitors and caregivers participated, and as part of the study, the time spent preparing and administering product was recorded for bypassing agent (BPA) infusions. The aim of this manuscript is to present the results of the analysis of the time spent preparing and administering a single dose of either rFVIIa or plasma-derived activated prothrombin complex concentrate (pd-aPCC). Diaries were completed for 18 adult patients and 19 caregivers of 21 children with 176 BPA-treated bleeding episodes and 1,350 BPA infusions (1,270 rFVIIa, 80 pd-aPCC). The median preparation and administration times were 5.0 minutes and 5.0 minutes for rFVIIa and 29.0 minutes and 24.5 minutes for pd-aPCC, respectively. Preparation and administration times were significantly shorter with rFVIIa than pd-aPCC (P<0.0001). The significantly shorter combined preparation and administration time of rFVIIa, taking into consideration the faster-than-recommended aPCC infusion rates, suggests that rFVIIa permits a rapid and safe initiation of treatment once a bleeding episode is identified and a decision is made to treat at home. PMID:25187744

  5. [A 13-week toxicity study of simultaneous administration of cochineal and aluminum potassium sulfate in rats].

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Y; Umemura, T; Sai, K; Hasegawa, R; Momma, J; Saitoh, M; Matsushima, Y; Nakaji, Y; Tsuda, M; Kurokawa, Y

    1994-01-01

    Cochineal (C), a scarlet material extracted from the powdered pregnant insect, Dactylopius Coceus Costa, is used as a color food additive in the form of aluminum lakes. A 13 week subchronic toxicity study was conducted to investigate the effects of simultaneous administration of C and aluminum potassium sulfate (A). Male and female Wistar rats (5-weeks-old, 15 rats/group) were given diets containing 0.75%A and 0.75%C (1.5%AC), 1.5%A and 1.5%C (3%AC), 3%C alone or 3%A alone. The following results were obtained. 1) No toxic symptoms or death occurred in any treated group. Body weight gain in male rats of the 3%A group decreased significantly. 2) Serum levels of phospholipids, triglycerides (TG) and total cholesterol in male rats and TG in female rats fed 3%C, 3%A or 3%AC were significantly decreased at the 13th week. The serum level of glutamate dehydrogenase (GIDH) in male rats treated with 1.5% or 3%AC was increased at the 4th week but no difference from control was observed at the 13th week. 3) No histopathological changes attributable to A and/or C administration were observed. In this 13-week oral toxicity study, no dose-dependent synergistic effects of simultaneous administration of C and A were found except for an increase in serum GIDH.

  6. [Safety evaluation of new anticancer chemotherapy administration system: compared to the results from a former study-].

    PubMed

    Terui, Kentaro; Okajima, Hiroko; Nakajima, Yasuaki

    2011-09-01

    Anticancer drugs can cause genotoxicities such as mutagenicity and/or chromosomal abnormalities, and/or toxicities, such as fetal malformation or cancer. In recent years, the health risks to health care workers who handle anticancer drugs at work has been considered. In 2009, we researched the exposure risk of anticancer chemotherapy in a nursing administration area using fluorescein (which was used as a contamination detection agent), to identify the problem. The result of this investigation showed that three types of events caused the risk of toxic exposure: 1 . Priming with anticancer drugs; 2 . leakage from the infusion bag when removing the spike from IV containers(exchanging of IV bottle); and 3 . removal of the IV line from the patient without rinsing with normal saline. Taking measures to cope with those problems, we have introduced our new anticancer chemotherapy administration system for prevention against toxic exposure. This system was evaluated in a leak-proof infusion bag by using fluorescein, which was used in our former study. As a result, a leakage reaction has not been detected in any handling events. Although visible leakage of fluorescein is an effective way to identify the exposure risk in an administration area, the analysis is not clear, objective or numerical. Therefore, this system's safety should be assessed with a numerical analysis of the leakage reaction in a further study, such as an environmental contamination research.

  7. [A 13-week toxicity study of simultaneous administration of cochineal and aluminum potassium sulfate in rats].

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Y; Umemura, T; Sai, K; Hasegawa, R; Momma, J; Saitoh, M; Matsushima, Y; Nakaji, Y; Tsuda, M; Kurokawa, Y

    1994-01-01

    Cochineal (C), a scarlet material extracted from the powdered pregnant insect, Dactylopius Coceus Costa, is used as a color food additive in the form of aluminum lakes. A 13 week subchronic toxicity study was conducted to investigate the effects of simultaneous administration of C and aluminum potassium sulfate (A). Male and female Wistar rats (5-weeks-old, 15 rats/group) were given diets containing 0.75%A and 0.75%C (1.5%AC), 1.5%A and 1.5%C (3%AC), 3%C alone or 3%A alone. The following results were obtained. 1) No toxic symptoms or death occurred in any treated group. Body weight gain in male rats of the 3%A group decreased significantly. 2) Serum levels of phospholipids, triglycerides (TG) and total cholesterol in male rats and TG in female rats fed 3%C, 3%A or 3%AC were significantly decreased at the 13th week. The serum level of glutamate dehydrogenase (GIDH) in male rats treated with 1.5% or 3%AC was increased at the 4th week but no difference from control was observed at the 13th week. 3) No histopathological changes attributable to A and/or C administration were observed. In this 13-week oral toxicity study, no dose-dependent synergistic effects of simultaneous administration of C and A were found except for an increase in serum GIDH. PMID:8854902

  8. Subcutaneous administration of paclitaxel in dogs with cancer: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Silva, Daniella M; Franciosi, Aline I; Pezzini, Paula C F; Guérios, Simone D

    2015-08-01

    Intravenous paclitaxel has been underused in dogs due to severe and acute hypersensitivity reactions. Subcutaneous (SC) administration of paclitaxel and its safety are unknown. In this preliminary study, SC administration of paclitaxel was evaluated for hypersensitivity reactions and toxicity in 21 dogs with advanced cancer. Dogs received 1 to 5 paclitaxel doses, ranging from 85 to 170 mg/m(2), SC every 14 or 21 days. A total of 40 paclitaxel doses were administered and none of the 21 dogs developed systemic or acute local hypersensitivity reactions. Severe skin lesions at the injection site developed in 2 dogs after the 4th injection at the same location. Grade 4 neutropenia was observed in 50% of the dogs 5 days after the first treatment at 115 mg/m(2) (n = 14). Two animals developed Grade 5 diarrhea and died likely due to hemodynamic failure or sepsis. Paclitaxel can be administered SC in dogs with no hypersensitivity reaction.

  9. Brexpiprazole Alters Monoaminergic Systems following Repeated Administration: an in Vivo Electrophysiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Mansari, Mostafa El; Bundgaard, Christoffer; Blier, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Background: Brexpiprazole was recently approved as adjunctive therapy for depression and treatment of schizophrenia in adults. To complement results from a previous study in which its acute effects were characterized, the present study assessed the effect of repeated brexpiprazole administration on monoaminergic systems. Methods: Brexpiprazole (1mg/kg, subcutaneous) or vehicle was administered once daily for 2 and 14 days. Single-unit electrophysiological recordings from noradrenaline neurons in the locus coeruleus, serotonin neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus, dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area, and pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus CA3 region were obtained in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats under chloral hydrate anesthesia within 4 hours after final dosing. Results: Brexpiprazole blunted D2 autoreceptor responsiveness, while firing activity of ventral tegmental area dopaminergic neurons remained unaltered. Brexpiprazole increased the firing rate of locus coeruleus noradrenaline neurons and increased noradrenaline tone on α2-adrenergic receptors in the hippocampus. Administration of brexpiprazole for 2 but not 14 days increased the firing rate of serotonin neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus. In the hippocampus, serotonin1A receptor blockade significantly disinhibited pyramidal neurons after 2- and 14-day brexpiprazole administration. In contrast, no significant disinhibition occurred after 24-hour washout or acute brexpiprazole. Conclusions: Repeated brexpiprazole administration resulted in a marked occupancy of D2 autoreceptors, while discharge activity of ventral tegmental area dopaminergic neurons remained unaltered. Brexpiprazole enhanced serotonergic and noradrenergic tone in the hippocampus, effects common to antidepressant agents. Together, these results provide further insight in the neural mechanisms by which brexpiprazole exerts antidepressant and antipsychotic effects. PMID:26428352

  10. A Phenomenological Study of Perceptions of Identity and Leadership among African-American Female Administrators within Public Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowdy, June Pickett

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological study explores how African-American female administrators (individually and collectively) perceive the relationship between their identity and their leadership voice. The study focuses upon perceptions of 11 African-American female administrators who serve the 14 main campuses of the universities constituting the Pennsylvania…

  11. La Administradora: A Mixed Methods Study of the Resilience of Mexican American Women Administrators at Hispanic Serving Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez-Zamora, Sabrina Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study explored the resilience of Mexican American women administrators at Hispanic Serving Institutions (HSIs). The women administrators that were considered in this study included department chairs, deans, and vice presidents in a four-year public HSI. There is an underrepresentation of Mexican American women in higher…

  12. Safety of peripheral administration of phenylephrine in a neurologic intensive care unit: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Tim; Wolfe, Brianne; Davis, Gary; Ansari, Safdar

    2016-08-01

    Integral to the management of the neurocritically injured patient are the prevention and treatment of hypotension, maintenance of cerebral perfusion pressure, and occasionally blood pressure augmentation. When adequate volume resuscitation fails to meet perfusion needs, vasopressors are often used to restore end-organ perfusion. This has historically necessitated central venous access given well-documented incidence of extravasation injuries associated with peripheral administration of vasopressors. In this pilot study, we report our 6-month experience with peripheral administration of low-concentration phenylephrine (40 μg/mL) in our neurocritical care unit. We were able to administer peripheral phenylephrine, up to a dose of 2 μg/(kg min), for an average of 14.29hours (1-54.3) in 20 patients with only 1 possible minor complication and no major complications. This was achieved by adding additional safety measures in our computerized physician order entry system and additional nurse-driven safety protocols. Thus, with careful monitoring and safety precautions, peripheral administration of phenylephrine at an optimized concentration appears to have an acceptable safety profile for use in the neurocritical care unit up to a mean infusion time of 14hours. PMID:27288620

  13. Exploring the Way Teachers Feel about Feedback from Administrators and Administrator-Teacher Communication: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberge, Thomas Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Teachers and principals have vital roles in the success of our schools and the two must communicate with each other; however, principals must evaluate teachers' performance. The problem investigated for this research study was communication disparity as evidenced by how teachers interpret and react to principal's feedback, teachers' perceived…

  14. Is albumin administration in the acutely ill associated with increased mortality? Results of the SOAP study

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Jean-Louis; Sakr, Yasser; Reinhart, Konrad; Sprung, Charles L; Gerlach, Herwig; Ranieri, V Marco

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Albumin administration in the critically ill has been the subject of some controversy. We investigated the use of albumin solutions in European intensive care units (ICUs) and its relationship to outcome. Methods In a cohort, multicenter, observational study, all patients admitted to one of the participating ICUs between 1 May and 15 May 2002 were followed up until death, hospital discharge, or for 60 days. Patients were classified according to whether or not they received albumin at any time during their ICU stay. Results Of 3,147 admitted patients, 354 (11.2%) received albumin and 2,793 (88.8%) did not. Patients who received albumin were more likely to have cancer or liver cirrhosis, to be surgical admissions, and to have sepsis. They had a longer length of ICU stay and a higher mortality rate, but were also more severely ill, as manifested by higher simplified acute physiology score (SAPS) II and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores than the other patients. A Cox proportional hazard model indicated that albumin administration was significantly associated with decreased 30-day survival. Moreover, in 339 pairs matched according to a propensity score, ICU and hospital mortality rates were higher in the patients who had received albumin than in those who had not (34.8 versus 20.9% and 41.3 versus 27.7%, respectively, both p < 0.001). Conclusion Albumin administration was associated with decreased survival in this population of acutely ill patients. Further prospective randomized controlled trials are needed to examine the effects of albumin administration in sub-groups of acutely ill patients. PMID:16356223

  15. Doppler waveform study as indicator of change of portal pressure after administration of octreotide

    PubMed Central

    Haider, Shahbaz; Hussain, Qurban; Tabassum, Sumera; Hussain, Bilal; Durrani, Muhammad Rasheed; Ahmed, Fayyaz

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the effect of portal pressure lowering drug ‘octreotide’, by observing the Doppler waveform before and after the administration of intravenous bolus of octreotide and thus to assess indirectly its efficacy to lower the portal pressure. Methods: This quassi experimental study was carried out in Medical Department in collaboration with Radiology Department of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center Karachi Pakistan from September 10, 2015 to February 5, 2016. Cases were selected from patients admitted in Medical Wards and those attending Medical OPD. Diagnosis of cirrhosis was confirmed by Clinical Examination and Lab & Imaging investigation in Medical Department. Doppler waveform study was done by experienced radiologist in Radiology Department before and after administration of octreotide. Doppler signals were obtained from the right hepatic vein. Waveform tracings were recorded for five seconds and categorized as ‘monophasic’, ‘biphasic’ and ‘triphasic’. Waveform changes from one waveform to other were noted and analyzed. Results: Significant change i.e. from ‘monophasic’ to ‘biphasic’ or ‘biphasic’ to ‘triphasic’ was seen in 56% cases while ‘monophasic’ to ‘triphasic’ was seen in 20% cases. No change was seen in 24% cases. Improvement in waveform reflects lowering of portal vein pressure. Conclusion: Non invasive Hepatic vein Doppler waveform study showed improvement in Doppler waveform after administration of octreotide in 76% cases. Doppler waveform study has the potential of becoming non invasive ‘follow up tool’ of choice for assessing portal pressure in patients having variceal bleed due to portal hypertension. PMID:27648043

  16. Increased loss and decreased synthesis of hepatic glutathione after acute ethanol administration. Turnover studies.

    PubMed Central

    Speisky, H; MacDonald, A; Giles, G; Orrego, H; Israel, Y

    1985-01-01

    The effect of acute ethanol administration on rates of synthesis and utilization of hepatic glutathione (GSH) was studied in rats after a pulse of [35S]cysteine. A 35% decrease in hepatic GSH content 5h after administration of 4 g of ethanol/kg body wt. was accompanied by a 33% increase in the rate of GSH utilization. The decrease occurred without increases in hepatic oxidized glutathione (GSSG) or in the GSH/GSSG ratio. The rate of non-enzymic condensation of GSH with acetaldehyde could account for only 6% of the rate of hepatic GSH disappearance. The increased loss of [35S]GSH induced by ethanol was not accompanied by an increased turnover; rather, a 30% inhibition of GSH synthesis balanced the increased rate of loss, leaving the turnover rate unchanged. The rate of acetaldehyde condensation with cysteine in vitro occurred at about one-third of the rate of GSH loss in ethanol-treated animals. However, ethanol induced only a minor decrease in liver cysteine content, which did not precede, but followed, the decrease in GSH. The characteristics of 2-methylthiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid, the condensation product between acetaldehyde and cysteine, were studied and methodologies were developed to determine its presence in tissues. It was not found in the liver of ethanol-treated animals. Ethanol administration led to a marked increase (47%) in plasma GSH in the post-hepatic inferior vena cava, but not in its pre-hepatic segment. Data suggest that an increased loss of GSH from the liver constitutes an important mechanism for the decrease in GSH induced by ethanol. In addition, an inhibition of GSH synthesis is observed. PMID:3977847

  17. History and the Study of "Administration" (LAMPS) in Education: A Reflection on an Editorial for a Special Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribbins, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The special edition of JEAH published in August 2006 on "Administration and Leadership in Education: A Case for History?" argued that history has been seriously undervalued in the study of administration and leadership in education. My introductory editorial explained why this mattered and outlined the framework in which the papers it contained…

  18. The Art of Leadership: A Study of Administrative Practices in Florida's Schools of the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Kevin Gardner

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify common practices of school-of-the-arts administrators and to determine if these commonalities differ from the practices of effective school leaders in general. A sample of administrators (n = 92) completed a 3-part Likert survey based on the 21 attributes identified in the balanced leadership…

  19. School Administrator and Parent Perceptions of School, Family, and Community Partnerships in Middle School: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Jackie

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify, analyze, and compare the perceptions of parents and school administrators in regard to school-family partnerships in three middle schools in the State of Louisiana. The study investigated the similarities and dissimilarities between parent and school administrator perceptions, probed to determine…

  20. Is oxygen required before atropine administration in organophosphorus or carbamate pesticide poisoning? – A cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Konickx, L. A.; Bingham, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Early and adequate atropine administration in organophosphorus (OP) or carbamate insecticide poisoning improves outcome. However, some authors advise that oxygen must be given before atropine due to the risk of inducing ventricular dysrhythmias in hypoxic patients. Because oxygen is frequently unavailable in district hospitals of rural Asia, where the majority of patients with insecticide poisoning present, this guidance has significant implications for patient care. The published evidence for this advice is weak. We therefore performed a patient cohort analysis to look for early cardiac deaths in patients poisoned by anticholinesterase pesticides. Methods We analysed a prospective Sri Lankan cohort of OP or carbamate-poisoned patients treated with early atropine without the benefit of oxygen for evidence of early deaths. The incidence of fatal primary cardiac arrests within 3 h of admission was used as a sensitive (but non-specific) marker of possible ventricular dysrhythmias. Results The cohort consisted of 1957 patients. The incidence of a primary cardiac death within 3 h of atropine administration was 4 (0.2%) of 1957 patients. The majority of deaths occurred at a later time point from respiratory complications of poisoning. Conclusion We found no evidence of a high number of early deaths in an observational study of 1957 patients routinely given atropine before oxygen that might support guidance that oxygen must be given before atropine. The published literature indicates that early and rapid administration of atropine during resuscitation is life-saving. Therefore, whether oxygen is available or not, early atropinisation of OP- and carbamate-poisoned patients should be performed. PMID:24810796

  1. Facilitators and Barriers to Safe Medication Administration to Hospital Inpatients: A Mixed Methods Study of Nurses’ Medication Administration Processes and Systems (the MAPS Study)

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, Monsey; Barber, Nicholas; Franklin, Bryony Dean

    2015-01-01

    Context Research has documented the problem of medication administration errors and their causes. However, little is known about how nurses administer medications safely or how existing systems facilitate or hinder medication administration; this represents a missed opportunity for implementation of practical, effective, and low-cost strategies to increase safety. Aim To identify system factors that facilitate and/or hinder successful medication administration focused on three inter-related areas: nurse practices and workarounds, workflow, and interruptions and distractions. Methods We used a mixed-methods ethnographic approach involving observational fieldwork, field notes, participant narratives, photographs, and spaghetti diagrams to identify system factors that facilitate and/or hinder successful medication administration in three inpatient wards, each from a different English NHS trust. We supplemented this with quantitative data on interruptions and distractions among other established medication safety measures. Findings Overall, 43 nurses on 56 drug rounds were observed. We identified a median of 5.5 interruptions and 9.6 distractions per hour. We identified three interlinked themes that facilitated successful medication administration in some situations but which also acted as barriers in others: (1) system configurations and features, (2) behaviour types among nurses, and (3) patient interactions. Some system configurations and features acted as a physical constraint for parts of the drug round, however some system effects were partly dependent on nurses’ inherent behaviour; we grouped these behaviours into ‘task focused’, and ‘patient-interaction focused’. The former contributed to a more streamlined workflow with fewer interruptions while the latter seemed to empower patients to act as a defence barrier against medication errors by being: (1) an active resource of information, (2) a passive information resource, and/or (3) a

  2. Descriptive study of stress and satisfaction at work in the Saragossa university services and administration staff

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The notion of stress in connection with the work environment became an important topic during the 1970's, when the first studies on the subject were published and the term of work stress was first coined. In 1974, Freudenberger proposed the term burnout to refer to the condition of physical and emotional exhaustion, as well as the associated negative attitudes, resulting from the intense interaction in working with people. The aim of our study is to examine burnout and job satisfaction in Saragossa University Services and Administration Staff (SAS) and detect the main factors which could contribute to too much stress, because job stress has emerged as a major psychosocial influence on mental health, associated with burnout. Methods 24 people from the Services and Administration Staff in the University of Saragossa participated in the study. The research was carried out during the implementation of a module on Stress Management organised by the University of Saragossa and commissioned to the Unit for Research in Physical Therapy (University School of Health Sciences) from that University. This research is an exploratory research to improve the stress management program. A personal interview was carried out and additionally, participants were given the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Scale of Satisfaction at Work of Warr, Cook & Wall. Results However using small sample this is worth to state that participants present most of them low burnout levels in the burnout scale. Only in one person high exhaustion level was reflected, even though other seven showed mean levels; in the professional self-esteem section, most of them showed high self-esteem, with two cases of low self-esteem and five with mean level. With regard to satisfaction people participating in the study show mean levels in intrinsic as much as in extrinsic factors and general satisfaction. Conclusions Services and Administration Staff from the University of Saragossa shows low burnout levels

  3. Polyethylene glycol-polyvinyl alcohol grafted copolymer: study of the bioavailability after oral administration to rats.

    PubMed

    Heuschmid, Franziska F; Schuster, Paul; Lauer, Birthe; Fabian, Eric; Leibold, Edgar; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2013-07-01

    The absorption, urinary excretion, and the biliary excretion of a single oral dose of 10 or 1000 mg/kg bw of (14)C-polyethylene glycol-polyvinyl alcohol (PEG-PVA) grafted copolymer were studied in adult male and female rats. In a balance/excretion experiment, the total excretion of ingested radioactivity was determined over a period of 168 h and residual radioactivity was detected in selected tissues and the carcass. In a biliary excretion experiment, excretion of radioactivity via the bile duct was determined over a period of 48 h after administration of the substance to cannulated rats. Most, if not all, of the radioactivity (>100%) was excreted within 48 h via the feces regardless of sex or dose. Urinary excretion was very limited: 0.45-0.50% of dose at the low dose and 0.22-0.27% of dose at the high dose. At both dose levels, residual radioactivity in the carcass and all organs and tissues after 168 h was ≤ 0.02% of dose. Biliary excretion was 0.01-0.02% of dose. Based on these findings, the bioavailability of PEG-PVA grafted copolymer was determined to be <1% demonstrating that absorption was virtually negligible following a single oral administration to male and female rats. PMID:23321424

  4. Polyethylene glycol-polyvinyl alcohol grafted copolymer: study of the bioavailability after oral administration to rats.

    PubMed

    Heuschmid, Franziska F; Schuster, Paul; Lauer, Birthe; Fabian, Eric; Leibold, Edgar; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2013-07-01

    The absorption, urinary excretion, and the biliary excretion of a single oral dose of 10 or 1000 mg/kg bw of (14)C-polyethylene glycol-polyvinyl alcohol (PEG-PVA) grafted copolymer were studied in adult male and female rats. In a balance/excretion experiment, the total excretion of ingested radioactivity was determined over a period of 168 h and residual radioactivity was detected in selected tissues and the carcass. In a biliary excretion experiment, excretion of radioactivity via the bile duct was determined over a period of 48 h after administration of the substance to cannulated rats. Most, if not all, of the radioactivity (>100%) was excreted within 48 h via the feces regardless of sex or dose. Urinary excretion was very limited: 0.45-0.50% of dose at the low dose and 0.22-0.27% of dose at the high dose. At both dose levels, residual radioactivity in the carcass and all organs and tissues after 168 h was ≤ 0.02% of dose. Biliary excretion was 0.01-0.02% of dose. Based on these findings, the bioavailability of PEG-PVA grafted copolymer was determined to be <1% demonstrating that absorption was virtually negligible following a single oral administration to male and female rats.

  5. Transdermal testosterone administration in women with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome wasting: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Miller, K; Corcoran, C; Armstrong, C; Caramelli, K; Anderson, E; Cotton, D; Basgoz, N; Hirschhorn, L; Tuomala, R; Schoenfeld, D; Daugherty, C; Mazer, N; Grinspoon, S

    1998-08-01

    Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease is increasing rapidly among women, no prior studies have investigated gender-based therapeutic strategies for the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and its complications in this population. Markedly decreased serum androgen levels have been demonstrated in women with AIDS and may be a contributing factor to the wasting syndrome in this population. To assess the effects of androgen replacement therapy in women with AIDS wasting, we conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, pilot study of transdermal testosterone administration. The primary aim of the study was to determine efficacy in terms of the change in serum testosterone levels, safety parameters and tolerability. A secondary aim of the study was to investigate testosterone effects on weight, body composition, quality of life, and functional indexes. Fifty-three ambulatory women with the AIDS wasting syndrome defined as weight less than 90% of ideal body weight or weight loss of more than 10% of the preillness maximum, free of new opportunistic infection within 6 weeks of study initiation, and with screening serum levels of free testosterone less than the mean of the normal reference range (< 3 pg/mL) were enrolled in the study. Subjects were age 37 +/- 1 yr old (mean +/- SEM), weighed 92 +/- 2% of ideal body weight, and had lost 17 +/- 1% of their maximum weight. CD4 count was 324 +/- 36 cells/mm3, and viral burden was 102,382 +/- 28,580 copies. Subjects were randomized into three treatment groups, in which two placebo patches (PP), one active/one placebo patch (AP group), or two active patches (AA group) were applied twice weekly to the abdomen for 12 weeks. The expected nominal delivery rates of testosterone were 150 and 300 microg/day, respectively, for the AP and AA groups. Forty-five subjects completed the study (PP group, n = 13; AP group, n = 14; AA group, n = 18). Two additional subjects from the PP group and two from the AP

  6. The Background of Proposed Legislation to Study Public Lending Right in the United States: Issues in Policy, Law and Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, Dennis

    1986-01-01

    Discusses policy, law, and administrative issues that must be resolved by a national commission to study public lending right, which was proposed in a 1985 bill. Examples from the United Kingdom and other countries are used. (EM)

  7. Feasibility study: Application of RCM techniques for substation maintenance at the Bonneville Power Administration

    SciTech Connect

    Purucker, S.L.; Tonn, B.E.; Goeltz, R.T.; James, R.D.; Kercel, S.; Rizy, D.T.; Simpson, M.L.; Van Dyke, J.W.

    1992-05-28

    This feasibility study examines reliability centered maintenance (RCM) as it applies to Bonneville Power Administrations (BPA) substation maintenance program. Reliability techniques are examined in evaluated. Existing BPA equipment maintenance procedures are documented. Equipment failure history is considered. Economic impacts are estimated. Various equipment instrumentation methods are reviewed. Based on this analysis a prototype system is proposed. The prototype will be implemented in two phases. Phase 1 is to be completed in 1992, it includes instrumenting one power transformer and one oil circuit breaker. Software development will focus on displaying data. Phase 2 is to be completed the following year. The remaining transformers and breakers will be instrumented during the second phase. Software development will focus on predictive maintenance techniques and maintenance decision support.

  8. Comparative bioavailability study of two ibuprofen preparations after oral administration in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Bienert, Agnieszka; Szkutnik-Fiedler, Danuta; Dyderski, Stanisław; Grześkowiak, Edmund; Drobnik, Leon; Wolc, Anna; Slawińiska, Urszula

    2006-01-01

    The bioavailability of a new ibuprofen (2-(p-isobutylphenyl)propionic acid, CAS 15687-27-1) preparation was compared with a reference preparation of the drug in 23 healthy male volunteers, aged between 19 and 27. A single dose of 400 mg was given orally in the fasted state, using a randomized two-way crossover study. A washout period of two weeks separated both treatment periods. Ibuprofen plasma levels were determined by means of a validated HPLC method (UV detector). Values of 154.48 +/- 53.27 microg x h/ml (95 % confidence interval CI: 133.50-177.03) for the test, and 140.86 +/- 44.82 microg x h/ml (95% CI: 122.53-159.16) for the reference preparation AUC(0-infinity) demonstrate a nearly identical extent of drug absorption. Maximum plasma concentrations Cmax of 39.53 +/- 7.11 microg/ml (95 % CI: 35.97-41.78) and 37.71 +/- 8.67 microg/ml (95% CI: 33.37-40.46) achieved for the test and reference preparations did not differ significantly. AUC(0-infinity) and Cmax ratios (90% CI) were within the 80-125% interval required for bioequivalence as stipulated in the current international regulations of the European Agency for the Evalution of Medicinal Products and the Food and Drug Administration. Therefore it is concluded that the new ibuprofen preparation is therapeutically equivalent to the reference preparation for both, the extent and the rate of absorption, after single dose administration in healthy volunteers.

  9. A National Study of State Credentialing Requirements for Administrators of Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boscardin, Mary Lynn; Weir, Kerry; Kusek, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Unlike data that show that all states require credentials for special education teachers, national data indicate that only 27 states require licensure/certification/endorsement as an administrator of special education. The titles used by states to identify the local director of special education include administrator of special education, director…

  10. A Study of Difficulties and Approaches for Innovative Talents Training of Public Administration Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Yanhan; Wu, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The innovation is the soul of one nation making progresses. To build an innovative country, we need to train more innovative talents who is capable of public administration. The innovative talents training of public administration undergraduate faces a lot of problems, such as the influences of traditional culture, the constraint of education…

  11. Academic Librarians and Research: A Study of Canadian Library Administrator Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Selinda Adelle; Jacobs, Heidi L. M.; Cornwall, Dayna

    2013-01-01

    Within the literature exploring the role of research in academic librarianship, very little attention has been paid to the perspectives of upper library administrators. This perspective is critical because library administrators play a key role in hiring, evaluating, supporting, promoting, and tenuring professional librarians. As a way of bringing…

  12. Administration by Objectives: A Systematic Approach to Educational Planning in Virginia. Report of a Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, George W., III; Seawell, William H.

    This report presents (1) details of a program for educational administration by objectives and (2) the results of such a program developed by the Virginia State Department of Education to upgrade the quality of education in the public schools of that State. Administration by objectives is a systematic approach to education planning using…

  13. Exploring Paradoxes of Power in Small College Writing Administration Composition Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Libby Falk

    2004-01-01

    Drawing on concepts and practices from the fields of communication, conflict management, leadership, and feminist theory, as well as on her experience as a teacher-administrator, the author explores perceptions, sources, and consequences of power. She argues that effective small college writing administrators must understand the availability of…

  14. Climbing the Career Ladder: A Research Study of Women in School Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Effie H.; Montenegro, Xenia P.

    The career training offered to women in school administration by the American Association of School Administrators (AASA) in 1977 decreased the influence of external barriers on the participants' upward career mobility. Along with 31 non-trainees who served as a comparison group, all 75 AASA trainees responded in 1981 to a questionnaire collecting…

  15. Needs Assessment Studies of Certified Nurse Assistants and Administrators. Volume XXII, No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fair, Lillian; And Others

    As part of an educational needs assessment, a survey was conducted by William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) in Palatine, Illinois, of Certified Nursing Assistants (CNA) and of administrators at institutions known to employ CNA's. Survey instruments were mailed to two groups. The first group, 153 administrators at institutions employing CNA's, were…

  16. Results from the Veterans Health Administration ICD-10-CM/PCS Coding Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Weems, Shelley; Heller, Pamela; Fenton, Susan H

    2015-01-01

    The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) of the US Department of Veterans Affairs has been preparing for the October 1, 2015, conversion to the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification and Procedural Coding System (ICD-10-CM/PCS) for more than four years. The VHA's Office of Informatics and Analytics ICD-10 Program Management Office established an ICD-10 Learning Lab to explore expected operational challenges. This study was conducted to determine the effects of the classification system conversion on coding productivity. ICD codes are integral to VHA business processes and are used for purposes such as clinical studies, performance measurement, workload capture, cost determination, Veterans Equitable Resource Allocation (VERA) determination, morbidity and mortality classification, indexing of hospital records by disease and operations, data storage and retrieval, research purposes, and reimbursement. The data collection for this study occurred in multiple VHA sites across several months using standardized methods. It is commonly accepted that coding productivity will decrease with the implementation of ICD-10-CM/PCS. The findings of this study suggest that the decrease will be more significant for inpatient coding productivity (64.5 percent productivity decrease) than for ambulatory care coding productivity (6.7 percent productivity decrease). This study reveals the following important points regarding ICD-10-CM/PCS coding productivity: 1. Ambulatory care ICD-10-CM coding productivity is not expected to decrease as significantly as inpatient ICD-10-CM/PCS coding productivity. 2. Coder training and type of record (inpatient versus outpatient) affect coding productivity. 3. Inpatient coding productivity is decreased when a procedure requiring ICD-10-PCS coding is present. It is highly recommended that organizations perform their own analyses to determine the effects of ICD-10-CM/PCS implementation on coding productivity.

  17. Results from the Veterans Health Administration ICD-10-CM/PCS Coding Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Weems, Shelley; Heller, Pamela; Fenton, Susan H

    2015-01-01

    The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) of the US Department of Veterans Affairs has been preparing for the October 1, 2015, conversion to the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification and Procedural Coding System (ICD-10-CM/PCS) for more than four years. The VHA's Office of Informatics and Analytics ICD-10 Program Management Office established an ICD-10 Learning Lab to explore expected operational challenges. This study was conducted to determine the effects of the classification system conversion on coding productivity. ICD codes are integral to VHA business processes and are used for purposes such as clinical studies, performance measurement, workload capture, cost determination, Veterans Equitable Resource Allocation (VERA) determination, morbidity and mortality classification, indexing of hospital records by disease and operations, data storage and retrieval, research purposes, and reimbursement. The data collection for this study occurred in multiple VHA sites across several months using standardized methods. It is commonly accepted that coding productivity will decrease with the implementation of ICD-10-CM/PCS. The findings of this study suggest that the decrease will be more significant for inpatient coding productivity (64.5 percent productivity decrease) than for ambulatory care coding productivity (6.7 percent productivity decrease). This study reveals the following important points regarding ICD-10-CM/PCS coding productivity: 1. Ambulatory care ICD-10-CM coding productivity is not expected to decrease as significantly as inpatient ICD-10-CM/PCS coding productivity. 2. Coder training and type of record (inpatient versus outpatient) affect coding productivity. 3. Inpatient coding productivity is decreased when a procedure requiring ICD-10-PCS coding is present. It is highly recommended that organizations perform their own analyses to determine the effects of ICD-10-CM/PCS implementation on coding productivity. PMID

  18. Premedication with midazolam in intellectually disabled dental patients: Intramuscular or oral administration? A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Boku, Aiji; Sugimura, Mitsutaka; Oyamaguchi, Aiko; Inoue, Mika; Niwa, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of midazolam for dental care in patients with intellectual disability is poorly documented. The purpose of this study was to determine which method of premedication is more effective for these patients, 0.15 mg/kg of intramuscular midazolam or 0.3 mg/kg of oral midazolam. Material and Methods This study was designed and implemented as a non-randomized retrospective study. The study population was composed of patients with intellectual disability who required dental treatment under ambulatory general anesthesia from August 2009 through April 2013. Patients were administered 0.15 mg/kg of midazolam intramuscularly (Group IM) or 0.3 mg/kg orally (Group PO). The predictor variable was the method of midazolam administration. The outcome variables measured were Observer’s Assessment of Alertness/ Sedation (OAA/S) Scale scores, the level of cooperation when entering the operation room and for venous cannulation, post-anesthetic agitation and recovery time. Results Midazolam was administered intramuscularly in 23 patients and orally in 21 patients. More patients were successfully sedated with no resistance behavior during venous cannulation in Group PO than in Group IM (p=0.034). There were no differences in demographic data and other variables between the groups. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that oral premedication with 0.3 mg/kg of midazolam is more effective than 0.15 mg/kg of midazolam administered intramuscularly, in terms of patient resistance to venous cannulation. If both oral and intramuscular routes of midazolam are acceptable in intellectually disabled patients, the oral route is recommended. Key words:Premedication, midazolam, intellectual disability. PMID:27031068

  19. Results from the Veterans Health Administration ICD-10-CM/PCS Coding Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Weems, Shelley; Heller, Pamela; Fenton, Susan H.

    2015-01-01

    The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) of the US Department of Veterans Affairs has been preparing for the October 1, 2015, conversion to the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification and Procedural Coding System (ICD-10-CM/PCS) for more than four years. The VHA's Office of Informatics and Analytics ICD-10 Program Management Office established an ICD-10 Learning Lab to explore expected operational challenges. This study was conducted to determine the effects of the classification system conversion on coding productivity. ICD codes are integral to VHA business processes and are used for purposes such as clinical studies, performance measurement, workload capture, cost determination, Veterans Equitable Resource Allocation (VERA) determination, morbidity and mortality classification, indexing of hospital records by disease and operations, data storage and retrieval, research purposes, and reimbursement. The data collection for this study occurred in multiple VHA sites across several months using standardized methods. It is commonly accepted that coding productivity will decrease with the implementation of ICD-10-CM/PCS. The findings of this study suggest that the decrease will be more significant for inpatient coding productivity (64.5 percent productivity decrease) than for ambulatory care coding productivity (6.7 percent productivity decrease). This study reveals the following important points regarding ICD-10-CM/PCS coding productivity: Ambulatory care ICD-10-CM coding productivity is not expected to decrease as significantly as inpatient ICD-10-CM/PCS coding productivity.Coder training and type of record (inpatient versus outpatient) affect coding productivity.Inpatient coding productivity is decreased when a procedure requiring ICD-10-PCS coding is present. It is highly recommended that organizations perform their own analyses to determine the effects of ICD-10-CM/PCS implementation on coding productivity. PMID:26396553

  20. The prevalence of trimetazidine use in athletes in Poland: excretion study after oral drug administration.

    PubMed

    Jarek, Anna; Wójtowicz, Marzena; Kwiatkowska, Dorota; Kita, Monika; Turek-Lepa, Ewa; Chajewska, Katarzyna; Lewandowska-Pachecka, Sylwia; Pokrywka, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Stimulants, together with anabolic androgenic steroids, are regarded as one of the most popular doping substances in sport. Owing to a great variety of these substances and new designer drugs being introduced to the market, each year the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) updates the list of substances and methods prohibited in sport. On 1 January 2014, a new doping agent - trimetazidine (TMZ) - was added to the WADA Prohibited List. TMZ, a substance prohibited in competition, is classified in the S6b Specified Stimulant Group. TMZ is used as a well-known cardiologic drug with confirmed biochemical and clinical activity. According to knowledge of the pharmacology and mechanism of TMZ action, TMZ can be used by athletes to improve physical efficiency, especially in the case of endurance sports. This study presents the phenomena of TMZ use by Polish athletes involved in anti-doping control in the WADA-accredited laboratory in Warsaw (Poland) between 2008 and 2013. Samples were taken from the athletes of such disciplines as cycling, athletics, and triathlon. Moreover, the elimination study of TMZ has been conducted to establish the change of TMZ concentration in urine sample after oral administration of a single or double (during the long-term therapy) dose. TMZ was monitored in urine samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-nitrogen phosphorus detection (GC-MS-NPD).

  1. Neural changes induced by antipsychotic administration in adolescence: A review of studies in laboratory rodents.

    PubMed

    Moe, Aung Aung Kywe; Scott, James G; Burne, Thomas Hj; Eyles, Darryl W

    2016-08-01

    Adolescence is characterized by major remodelling processes in the brain. Use of antipsychotic drugs (APDs) in adolescents has increased dramatically in the last 20 years; however, our understanding of the neurobiological consequences of APD treatment on the adolescent brain has not kept the same pace and significant concerns have been raised. In this review, we examined currently available preclinical studies of the effects of APDs on the adolescent brain. In animal models of neuropsychiatric disorders, adolescent APD treatment appears to be protective against selected structural, behavioural and neurochemical phenotypes. In "neurodevelopmentally normal" adolescent animals, a range of short- and long-term alterations in behaviour and neurochemistry have been reported. In particular, the adolescent brain appears to be sensitive to long-term locomotor/reward effects of chronic atypical APDs in contrast with the outcomes in adults. Long-lasting changes in dopaminergic, glutamatergic and gamma-amino butyric acid-ergic systems induced by adolescent APD administration have been observed in the nucleus accumbens. A detailed examination of other potential target regions such as striatum, prefrontal cortex and ventral tegmental area is still required. Through identification of specific neural pathways targeted by adolescent APD treatment, future studies will expand the current knowledge on long-term neural outcomes which are of translational value. PMID:27413140

  2. Cytokines evaluation in nasal lavage of allergic children after Bacillus clausii administration: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ciprandi, Giorgio; Tosca, Maria Angela; Milanese, Manlio; Caligo, Giacomo; Ricca, Vittorio

    2004-04-01

    Respiratory infections are very frequent in children. Bacillus clausii has been demonstrated to exert some immunomodulatory activities and to be safe. We conducted a study to investigate whether B. clausii administration in allergic children with recurrent respiratory infections might modulate cytokine pattern. Ten children (mean age 4.4 yr) attending the nursery school were enrolled at the end of school year (i.e. in the summer). Bacillus clausii spores (Enterogermina): 2 billion spores per vial) were administered at the dosage schedule of two vials a day for 4 wk. A panel of cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1, IL-3, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, interferon (IFN)-gamma, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, was measured by immunoassay in the fluid recovered from nasal lavage, performed before and after the treatment. Bacillus clausii treatment induced a significant decrease of IL-4 levels (p < 0.01) and a significant increase of IFN-gamma (p < 0.05), IL-12 (p < 0.001), TGF-beta (p < 0.05), and IL-10 (p < 0.05) levels. Other cytokines were not significantly modified. In conclusion, this study shows that the B. clausii may exert immunomodulating activity by affecting cytokine pattern at nasal level in allergic children with recurrent respiratory infections. PMID:15059191

  3. Mission, Enrollment and Staffing Patterns, Funding Procedures, and Administration and Governance. The North Carolina Community College Study. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Junius A.; And Others

    In November 1985, the Research Triangle Institute conducted a study of enrollment, staffing, governance and administration, and budget allocations in the North Carolina community colleges. The study involved an analysis of public records related to enrollment, staffing, and finances; an extensive study, including on-site interviews, of 12…

  4. Postoperative bacteremia in periodontal flap surgery, with and without prophylactic antibiotic administration: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Asi, Kanwarjit S.; Gill, Amarjit S.; Mahajan, Sunil

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Many a times in clinical periodontology, the decision whether to prescribe prophylactic antibiotics or not, is perplexing.The present study was conducted to compare the bacteremias induced after periodontal flap surgeries with and without prophylactic antibiotics. Materials and Methods: The occurrence of postoperative bacteremia following periodontal flap surgery was studied in 30 patients. On these patients, 30 quadrant wise flap surgeries were carried out without any preoperative prophylactic antibiotics and 30 surgeries carried out after prophylactic administration of amoxycillin preoperatively. A blood sample was taken from each patient at the time of maximum surgical trauma and was cultured for micro-organisms and antibiotic sensitivity. Results: 18 out of 60 blood samples were positive for micro-organisms. There was a significant reduction in post operative bacteremia after amoxycillin prophylaxis (x2 - 7.96 with P<0.01) as post operative bacteremia was found in 14 of the non medicated patients as compared to only 4 of the pre medicated patients. The micro-organisms encountered in the study are as follows:- 1) Staphylococcus albus coagulase negative, 2) Klebsiella, 3) Psedomonas aerugenosa, 4) Streptococcus viridans, 5) Alpha hemolytic streptococcus, 6) Neisseria catarrhalis Conclusion: On the basis of the study, it is concluded that the incidence of postoperative bacteremia following periodontal flap surgery is not as high as previously reported. The clinical results show that Amoxicillin is highly effective in reducing postoperative bacteremia in periodontal flap surgery and thus in preventing the possible sequelae (Infective Endocarditis and other systemic maladies) in susceptible patients. However, cefotaxime and cephalexin may prove to be more effective in preventing the same. PMID:20922074

  5. Comparison of the lateral tail vein and the retro-orbital venous sinus routes of antibody administration in pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Schoch, Angela; Thorey, Irmgard S; Engert, Julia; Winter, Gerhard; Emrich, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    In pharmacokinetic studies, intravenous (i.v.) administration of antibodies to mice is usually done via the lateral tail vein. This approach can cause stress to the mice and has a high rate of failure because it is challenging to perform correctly. Administration via the retro-orbital venous sinus has been suggested as a good alternative to tail vein i.v. administration of antibodies. Evidence is still needed, however, to determine whether the route of administration has an effect on the absorption or the pharmacokinetic activity of the injected antibody. The authors compared serum concentrations and pharmacokinetic parameters of a therapeutic antibody administered via tail vein injection or via retro-orbital injection. The findings suggest that there is no difference in the absorption or pharmacokinetic activity of therapeutic antibodies when administered via the lateral tail vein versus the retro-orbital venous sinus.

  6. Promoting Women in Educational Administration: A Case Study of Conflict and Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkinson, Judith A.

    1978-01-01

    Describes Project ICES, a model for increasing the numbers of women holding administrative positions in Kansas's public school systems, the organizational characteristics that promoted conflict and participant stress, and the unplanned mechanism (organized anarchy) that reduced conflict. (Author/IRT)

  7. A comparative study of resident, family, and administrator expectations for service quality in nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Duffy, J A; Duffy, M; Kilbourne, W E

    2001-01-01

    This article compares the service quality expectations of residents, family, and administrators within a long-term-care context. Expectations for service quality are measured using the SERVQUAL scale. The results support the reliability of the SERVQUAL instrument for nursing home residents. Resident expectations were significantly different from administrators' expectations on all dimensions of quality. The findings are interpreted in terms of expectation formation and the nature of service encounters.

  8. A comparative study of resident, family, and administrator expectations for service quality in nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Duffy, J A; Duffy, M; Kilbourne, W E

    2001-01-01

    This article compares the service quality expectations of residents, family, and administrators within a long-term-care context. Expectations for service quality are measured using the SERVQUAL scale. The results support the reliability of the SERVQUAL instrument for nursing home residents. Resident expectations were significantly different from administrators' expectations on all dimensions of quality. The findings are interpreted in terms of expectation formation and the nature of service encounters. PMID:11482179

  9. Estimating the Prevalence of Treated Epilepsy Using Administrative Health Data and Its Validity: ESSENCE Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seo-Young; Chung, Soo-Eun; Kim, Dong Wook; Eun, So-Hee; Kang, Hoon Chul; Cho, Yong Won; Yi, Sang Do; Kim, Heung Dong

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Few of the epidemiologic studies of epilepsy have utilized well-validated nationwide databases. We estimated the nationwide prevalence of treated epilepsy based on a comprehensive medical payment database along with diagnostic validation. Methods We collected data on patients prescribed of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment service, which covers the entire population of Korea. To assess the diagnostic validity, a medical records survey was conducted involving 6,774 patients prescribed AEDs from 43 institutions based on regional clusters and referral levels across the country. The prevalence of treated epilepsy was estimated by projecting the diagnostic validity on the number of patients prescribed AEDs. Results The mean positive predictive value (PPV) for epilepsy was 0.810 for those prescribed AEDs with diagnostic codes that indicate epilepsy or seizure (Diagnosis-E), while it was 0.066 for those without Diagnosis-E. The PPV tended to decrease with age in both groups, with lower values seen in females. The prevalence was 3.84 per 1,000, and it was higher among males, children, and the elderly. Conclusions The prevalence of epilepsy in Korea was comparable to that in other East Asian countries. The diagnostic validity of administrative health data varies depending on the method of case ascertainment, age, and sex. The prescriptions of AEDs even without relevant diagnostic codes should be considered as a tracer for epilepsy.

  10. Pharmacokinetic study of indocyanine Green after intravenous administration by UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Chen, Dongxin; Hu, Wenhao; Lin, Guanyang; Huang, Shiyong

    2015-01-01

    Indocyanine Green is widely used in medical diagnosis and to evaluate liver function and other regional blood flows in clinical application or animal experiments. In this work, a sensitive and selective ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for determination of Indocyanine Green in rat plasma was developed and validated. After addition of rutin as an internal standard (IS), protein precipitation by acetonitrile-methanol (9:1, v/v) was used to prepare samples. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.7 μm) with 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile as the mobile phase with gradient elution. An electrospray ionization source was applied and operated in positive ion mode; multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode was used for quantification using target fragment ions m/z 753.4→330.2 for Indocyanine Green, and m/z 611.1→303.1 for IS. Calibration plots were linear throughout the range 20-5000 ng/mL for Indocyanine Green in rat plasma. Mean recoveries of Indocyanine Green in rat plasma ranged from 79.5% to 85.4%. RSD of intra-day and inter-day precision were both < 12%. The accuracy of the method was between 95.9% and 113.9%. The method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of Indocyanine Green after intravenous administration.

  11. Pharmacokinetic study of indocyanine Green after intravenous administration by UPLC-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu; Chen, Dongxin; Hu, Wenhao; Lin, Guanyang; Huang, Shiyong

    2015-01-01

    Indocyanine Green is widely used in medical diagnosis and to evaluate liver function and other regional blood flows in clinical application or animal experiments. In this work, a sensitive and selective ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for determination of Indocyanine Green in rat plasma was developed and validated. After addition of rutin as an internal standard (IS), protein precipitation by acetonitrile-methanol (9:1, v/v) was used to prepare samples. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.7 μm) with 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile as the mobile phase with gradient elution. An electrospray ionization source was applied and operated in positive ion mode; multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode was used for quantification using target fragment ions m/z 753.4→330.2 for Indocyanine Green, and m/z 611.1→303.1 for IS. Calibration plots were linear throughout the range 20-5000 ng/mL for Indocyanine Green in rat plasma. Mean recoveries of Indocyanine Green in rat plasma ranged from 79.5% to 85.4%. RSD of intra-day and inter-day precision were both < 12%. The accuracy of the method was between 95.9% and 113.9%. The method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of Indocyanine Green after intravenous administration. PMID:26629038

  12. Renal excretion profiles of psilocin following oral administration of psilocybin: a controlled study in man.

    PubMed

    Hasler, Felix; Bourquin, Daniel; Brenneisen, Rudolf; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2002-09-01

    In a clinical study eight volunteers received psilocybin (PY) in psychoactive oral doses of 212+/-25 microg/kg body weight. To investigate the elimination kinetics of psilocin (PI), the first metabolite of PY, urine was collected for 24 h and PI concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with column switching and electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). Sample workup included protection of the unstable PI with ascorbic acid, freeze-drying, and extraction with methanol. Peak PI concentrations up to 870 microg/l were measured in urine samples from the 2-4 h collection interval. The PI excretion rate in this period was 55.5+/-33.8 microg/h. The limit of quantitation (10 microg/L) was usually reached 24 h after drug administration. Within 24 h, 3.4+/-0.9% of the applied dose of PY was excreted as free PI. Addition of beta-glucuronidase to urine samples and incubation for 5 h at 40 degrees C led to twofold higher PI concentrations, although 18+/-7% of the amount of unconjugated PI was decomposed during incubation. We conclude that in humans PI is partially excreted as PI-O-glucuronide and that enzymatic hydrolysis extends the time of detectability for PI in urine samples.

  13. Reduction in Cerebral Perfusion after Heroin Administration: A Resting State Arterial Spin Labeling Study

    PubMed Central

    Denier, Niklaus; Gerber, Hana; Vogel, Marc; Klarhöfer, Markus; Riecher-Rossler, Anita; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A.; Lang, Undine E.; Borgwardt, Stefan; Walter, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Heroin dependence is a chronic relapsing brain disorder, characterized by the compulsion to seek and use heroin. Heroin itself has a strong potential to produce subjective experiences characterized by intense euphoria, relaxation and release from craving. The neurofunctional foundations of these perceived effects are not well known. In this study, we have used pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) in 15 heroin-dependent patients from a stable heroin-assisted treatment program to observe the steady state effects of heroin (60 min after administration). Patients were scanned in a cross-over and placebo controlled design. They received an injection of their regular dose of heroin or saline (placebo) before or after the scan. As phMRI method, we used a pulsed arterial spin labeling (ASL) sequence based on a flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) spin labeling scheme combined with a single-shot 3D GRASE (gradient-spin echo) readout on a 3 Tesla scanner. Analysis was performed with Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM 8), using a general linear model for whole brain comparison between the heroin and placebo conditions. We found that compared to placebo, heroin was associated with reduced perfusion in the left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the left medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and in the insula (both hemispheres). Analysis of extracted perfusion values indicate strong effect sizes and no gender related differences. Reduced perfusion in these brain areas may indicate self- and emotional regulation effects of heroin in maintenance treatment. PMID:24039715

  14. Long-term drug administration in the adult zebrafish using oral gavage for cancer preclinical studies

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Michelle; Henderson, Rachel E.; Garraway, Levi A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Zebrafish are a major model for chemical genetics, and most studies use embryos when investigating small molecules that cause interesting phenotypes or that can rescue disease models. Limited studies have dosed adults with small molecules by means of water-borne exposure or injection techniques. Challenges in the form of drug delivery-related trauma and anesthesia-related toxicity have excluded the adult zebrafish from long-term drug efficacy studies. Here, we introduce a novel anesthetic combination of MS-222 and isoflurane to an oral gavage technique for a non-toxic, non-invasive and long-term drug administration platform. As a proof of principle, we established drug efficacy of the FDA-approved BRAFV600E inhibitor, Vemurafenib, in adult zebrafish harboring BRAFV600E melanoma tumors. In the model, adult casper zebrafish intraperitoneally transplanted with a zebrafish melanoma cell line (ZMEL1) and exposed to daily sub-lethal dosing at 100 mg/kg of Vemurafenib for 2 weeks via oral gavage resulted in an average 65% decrease in tumor burden and a 15% mortality rate. In contrast, Vemurafenib-resistant ZMEL1 cell lines, generated in culture from low-dose drug exposure for 4 months, did not respond to the oral gavage treatment regimen. Similarly, this drug treatment regimen can be applied for treatment of primary melanoma tumors in the zebrafish. Taken together, we developed an effective long-term drug treatment system that will allow the adult zebrafish to be used to identify more effective anti-melanoma combination therapies and opens up possibilities for treating adult models of other diseases. PMID:27482819

  15. US Food and Drug Administration's Total Diet Study: dietary intake of perchlorate and iodine.

    PubMed

    Murray, Clarence William; Egan, Sara Kathleen; Kim, Henry; Beru, Nega; Bolger, Philip Michael

    2008-11-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has conducted the Total Diet Study (TDS) since 1961, which designed to monitor the US food supply for chemical contaminants, nutritional elements, and toxic elements. Recently, perchlorate was analyzed in TDS samples. Perchlorate is used as an oxidizing agent in rocket propellant, is found in other items (e.g., explosives, road flares, fireworks, and car airbags), occurs naturally in some fertilizers, and may be generated under certain climatic conditions. It has been detected in surface and groundwater and in food. Perchlorate at high (e.g., pharmacological) doses can interfere with iodide uptake into the thyroid gland, disrupting its function. The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) has identified that "the fetuses of pregnant women who might have hypothyroidism or iodide deficiency as the most sensitive population." This study reports on intake estimates of perchlorate and iodine, a precursor to iodide, using the analytical results from the TDS. Estimated average perchlorate and iodine daily intakes as well as the contribution of specific food groups to total intakes were estimated for 14 age/sex subgroups of the US population. The estimated smallest lower bound to the largest upper bound average perchlorate intakes by the 14 age/sex groups range from 0.08 to 0.39 micrograms per kilogram body weight per day (microg/kg bw/day), compared with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reference dose (RfD) of 0.7 microg/kg bw/day. Infants and children demonstrated the highest estimated intakes of perchlorate on a body weight basis. The estimated average iodine intakes by the 14 age/sex groups reveal a lower bound (ND=0) and upper bound (ND=LOD) range of average intakes from 138 to 353 microg/person/day. Estimated iodine intakes by infants 6-11 months exceed their adequate intake (AI), and intakes by children and adult age/sex groups exceed their relevant estimated average requirement (EAR).

  16. Comparative studies on the topical administration of mucopolysaccharide and heparin ointments in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Hoppensteadt, Debra A; Neville, Brian; Schultz, Christopher; Jeske, Walter; Raake, Wolfram; Fareed, Jawed

    2010-02-01

    Mucopolysaccharide polysulfate (MPS) represents a mammalian-derived sulfated polysaccharide. Because the origin and structure of heparins is similar to MPS, this study was conducted to compare 2 ointment formulations containing MPS or heparin with a placebo ointment on tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) released in nonhuman primates (Macaca mulatta). A primate colony composed of 18 animals, housed at Loyola University Medical Center, was used in compliance with an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC)-approved protocol. Mucopolysaccharide polysulfate (4.5%), heparin (4.5%), and a placebo ointment were topically applied to individual groups of primates in a crossover study for periods of up to 2 weeks. Blood samples were drawn on days 1, 2, 5, 7, and 10. The anticoagulant effects (activated partial thromboplastin time [APTT], Heptest, thrombin time [TT]), TFPI antigen and functional levels, thrombin activatable fibrinolytic inhibitor (TAFI), and antiheparin platelet factor 4 antibodies (AHPF4 abs) were measured in citrated plasma. All data were compiled as mean +/- 1 standard deviation and compared in groups. Topical administration of both the MPS and heparin ointments resulted in no measurable anticoagulant effects in the primate model; however, MPS produced a concentration-dependent release of TFPI antigen and a functional activity that was stronger than the effects observed with heparin. A decrease in TAFI activation was also observed in the MPS-treated primates. In addition, in the heparin-treated group, a slight increase in AHPF4 abs was observed. In conclusion, MPS showed a stronger release of TFPI than heparin that was not associated with a strong anticoagulant effect. Moreover, MPS downregulated TAFI, resulting in an enhanced fibrinolytic effect.

  17. Administrators' Power Usage Styles and Their Impact on the Organizational Culture in Colleges of Education: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozcan, Kenan; Karatas, Ibrahim Hakan; Caglar, Çaglar; Polat, Murat

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to determine how power usage styles of administrators of faculties of education influence the organizational culture in their respective faculties in Turkey. Using the phenomenological method, a qualitative research method, researchers studied a group comprised of 20 academics from 7 different colleges of…

  18. An Evaluation Study of the Executive Master of Business Administration (EMBA) Degree: Examining the Transfer of Knowledge and Leadership Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Hye Lim

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of the Executive Master of Business Administration (EMBA) degree program in terms of transfer of knowledge and leadership practices. As EMBA programs have recently revamped their curriculum toward offering more practical skills, this study provided insight into the effectiveness of their curricula and…

  19. Perspectives on Transitioning to the Assistant Principalship among Peers: A Qualitative Study of Six New School Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workman, Everette H.

    2013-01-01

    The role of the assistant principal in the public schools is under studied and undervalued. As the largest group of school administrators and as future principals in training, the assistant principals' socialization process begs understanding. This study questions the transition from teacher to assistant principal, accounting for the setting and…

  20. The Impact of School Libraries on Academic Achievement: A Research Study Based on Responses from Administrators in Idaho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lance, Keith Curry; Rodney, Marcia J.; Schwarz, Bill

    2010-01-01

    Where administrators value strong library programs and can see them doing their part for student success, students are more likely to thrive academically. This is the over-arching conclusion that can be drawn from the latest study of the impact of school libraries--this one in Idaho. The study included survey responses from 176 principals and…

  1. A Case Study of Two Regional State Universities Qualifying as Learning Organizations Based on Administration and Staff Viewpoints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Tammy Morrison

    2011-01-01

    This case study of 2 state universities qualifying as learning organizations, based on administration and staff viewpoints, was completed using a qualitative methodology. The idea of what a learning organization is can be different depending on who or what is being analyzed. For this study, the work of theorists including W. Edwards Deming,…

  2. An Ethnographic Case Study of the Administrative Organization, Processes, and Behavior in an Innovative Senior High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brittenham, Lee Roy

    The major purposes of this study were to describe and explain, and then to generate grounded theory about the administrative organization, processes, and behavior in an innovative senior high school. The school selected for the study was nationally known for leadership in implementing individualized learning programs compatible with the model of…

  3. Cooperative Learning in Graduate Education: A Study of Its Effectiveness in Administrator Training in Two California Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, H. Woodrow; Townley, Arthur J.

    This paper presents findings from a study that explored students' perceptions of cooperative learning strategies used in educational administration classes. Specifically, the study sought to determine whether students perceived the strategies to be more effective than traditional methods in increasing their knowledge and retention and in improving…

  4. Performance Pay Preferences of College of Education Faculty and Administrators at One Historically Black University: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Corey Lee

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the attitudes and perceptions College of Education faculty and administrators have about performance pay at a Historically Black University (HBCU). A secondary purpose of the study was to determine the performance pay plan and specific measures of faculty productivity preferred by College of Education…

  5. Salivary Oxytocin Concentrations in Males following Intranasal Administration of Oxytocin: A Double-Blind, Cross-Over Study.

    PubMed

    Daughters, Katie; Manstead, Antony S R; Hubble, Kelly; Rees, Aled; Thapar, Anita; van Goozen, Stephanie H M

    2015-01-01

    The use of intranasal oxytocin (OT) in research has become increasingly important over the past decade. Although researchers have acknowledged a need for further investigation of the physiological effects of intranasal administration, few studies have actually done so. In the present double-blind cross-over study we investigated the longevity of a single 24 IU dose of intranasal OT measured in saliva in 40 healthy adult males. Salivary OT concentrations were significantly higher in the OT condition, compared to placebo. This significant difference lasted until the end of testing, approximately 108 minutes after administration, and peaked at 30 minutes. Results showed significant individual differences in response to intranasal OT administration. To our knowledge this is the largest and first all-male within-subjects design study to demonstrate the impact of intranasal OT on salivary OT concentrations. The results are consistent with previous research in suggesting that salivary OT is a valid matrix for OT measurement. The results also suggest that the post-administration 'wait-time' prior to starting experimental tasks could be reduced to 30 minutes, from the 45 minutes typically used, thereby enabling testing during peak OT concentrations. Further research is needed to ascertain whether OT concentrations after intranasal administration follow similar patterns in females, and different age groups. PMID:26669935

  6. Salivary Oxytocin Concentrations in Males following Intranasal Administration of Oxytocin: A Double-Blind, Cross-Over Study

    PubMed Central

    Daughters, Katie; Manstead, Antony S. R.; Hubble, Kelly; Rees, Aled; Thapar, Anita; van Goozen, Stephanie H. M.

    2015-01-01

    The use of intranasal oxytocin (OT) in research has become increasingly important over the past decade. Although researchers have acknowledged a need for further investigation of the physiological effects of intranasal administration, few studies have actually done so. In the present double-blind cross-over study we investigated the longevity of a single 24 IU dose of intranasal OT measured in saliva in 40 healthy adult males. Salivary OT concentrations were significantly higher in the OT condition, compared to placebo. This significant difference lasted until the end of testing, approximately 108 minutes after administration, and peaked at 30 minutes. Results showed significant individual differences in response to intranasal OT administration. To our knowledge this is the largest and first all-male within-subjects design study to demonstrate the impact of intranasal OT on salivary OT concentrations. The results are consistent with previous research in suggesting that salivary OT is a valid matrix for OT measurement. The results also suggest that the post-administration ‘wait-time’ prior to starting experimental tasks could be reduced to 30 minutes, from the 45 minutes typically used, thereby enabling testing during peak OT concentrations. Further research is needed to ascertain whether OT concentrations after intranasal administration follow similar patterns in females, and different age groups. PMID:26669935

  7. Understanding the causes of intravenous medication administration errors in hospitals: a qualitative critical incident study

    PubMed Central

    Keers, Richard N; Williams, Steven D; Cooke, Jonathan; Ashcroft, Darren M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the underlying causes of intravenous medication administration errors (MAEs) in National Health Service (NHS) hospitals. Setting Two NHS teaching hospitals in the North West of England. Participants Twenty nurses working in a range of inpatient clinical environments were identified and recruited using purposive sampling at each study site. Primary outcome measures Semistructured interviews were conducted with nurse participants using the critical incident technique, where they were asked to discuss perceived causes of intravenous MAEs that they had been directly involved with. Transcribed interviews were analysed using the Framework approach and emerging themes were categorised according to Reason's model of accident causation. Results In total, 21 intravenous MAEs were discussed containing 23 individual active failures which included slips and lapses (n=11), mistakes (n=8) and deliberate violations of policy (n=4). Each active failure was associated with a range of error and violation provoking conditions. The working environment was implicated when nurses lacked healthcare team support and/or were exposed to a perceived increased workload during ward rounds, shift changes or emergencies. Nurses frequently reported that the quality of intravenous dose-checking activities was compromised due to high perceived workload and working relationships. Nurses described using approaches such as subconscious functioning and prioritising to manage their duties, which at times contributed to errors. Conclusions Complex interactions between active and latent failures can lead to intravenous MAEs in hospitals. Future interventions may need to be multimodal in design in order to mitigate these risks and reduce the burden of intravenous MAEs. PMID:25770226

  8. Methodologic issues in population planning: studies of alternative patterns of administrative organization.

    PubMed

    Reinke, W A

    1973-01-01

    A systematic framework for the organization of family planning programs includes the specification of the problems, the assessment of the resources available, and then the establishment of objectives regarding the program structure, process, and result. Some of principals involved in administration of family planning programs are the needs for 1) development in a national context; 2) marketing methods; 3) central policy planning; 4) operations-oriented research; 4) political support; and 5) evaluation. No single system of organization for family planning programs is optimal, but this analysis may help to define problems involved administration.

  9. Bedside Availability of Prepared Oxytocin and Rapid Administration After Delivery to Prevent Postpartum Hemorrhage: An Observational Study in Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Moucheraud, Corrina; Gass, Jonathon; Lipsitz, Stuart; Spector, Jonathan; Agrawal, Priya; Hirschhorn, Lisa R; Gawande, Atul; Kodkany, Bhala

    2015-01-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage is a leading cause of maternal death worldwide. Rapid provision of uterotonics after childbirth is recommended to reduce the incidence and severity of postpartum hemorrhage. Data obtained through direct observation of childbirth practices, collected in a study of the World Health Organization's Safe Childbirth Checklist in Karnataka, India, were used to measure if oxytocin prepared for administration and available at the bedside before birth was associated with decreased time to administration after birth. This was an observational study of provider behavior: data were obtained during a baseline assessment of health worker practices prior to introduction of the Safe Childbirth Checklist, representing behavior in the absence of any intervention. Analysis was based on 330 vaginal deliveries receiving oxytocin at any point postpartum. Oxytocin was prepared and available at bedside for approximately 39% of deliveries. We found that advance preparation and bedside availability of oxytocin was associated with increased likelihood of oxytocin administration within 1 minute after delivery (adjusted risk ratio = 4.89, 95% CI = 2.61, 9.16), as well as with decreased overall time to oxytocin administration after delivery (2.9 minutes sooner in adjusted models, 95% CI = -5.0, -0.9). Efforts to reduce postpartum hemorrhage should include recommendations and interventions to ensure advance preparation and bedside availability of oxytocin to facilitate prompt administration of the medicine after birth. PMID:26085025

  10. A qualitative study to assess community barriers to malaria mass drug administration trials in the Gambia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mass drug administration (MDA) is a strategy widely used in the control of human parasitic diseases but has been rarely attempted with malaria, the most common and dangerous parasitic disease in humans. MDA is an intervention strategy that involves simultaneously dispensing treatment to an entire population in a given geographic area. With some areas in sub-Saharan Africa documenting a decline in malaria transmission, the feasibility of MDA to further reduce malaria transmission is being considered. Understanding community perceptions of such an activity is vitally important for the design of the study and gaining the support of participants in order to maximize compliance and adherence. Methods A qualitative study to assess factors likely to influence community acceptance of MDA in the seasonal and low malaria transmission setting of The Gambia was conducted. Using in-depth interviews, the perceptions, knowledge and attitudes of medical personnel and community members who have undergone MDA trials in The Gambia were investigated. Results Several major themes emerged, namely: 1) the importance of timing of rounds of MDA doses for maximum participation; 2) the need to educate the target population with accurate information on the procedures, drug regimen, and possible side effects to enhance adherence; 3) the need for continuous sensitization meetings to maintain and increase uptake of MDA; and, 4) the importance for defining roles in the delivery and assessment of MDA, including existing healthcare structures. Discussion To increase the likelihood of participation in MDA trials in this setting, activities should be undertaken just before and during the rainy season when community members are less mobile. Importantly, fears regarding blood sampling and side effects of the drug regimen need to be addressed prior to the start of the trial and repeated throughout the study period. Accurate and frequent communication is essential, and village leaders should

  11. Perceptions of Administrators' Servant Leadership Qualities at a Christian University: A Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burch, Michael J.; Swails, Patricia; Mills, Randy

    2015-01-01

    The servant leadership model is often touted as the best model for Administrators to use at Christian schools of higher education. Research indicated, however, that a disconnection between how leaders of an organization perceived the strengths and weaknesses of their leadership skills and how followers perceived those skills can be detrimental to…

  12. A Study of Community College Administrators' Perceptions of Orientations in Distance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Valerie Dee

    This 2002 dissertation investigated community college administrators perceptions of the importance of orientations for distance learners at community colleges in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States. Because distance learning has grown rapidly in the United States in recent years, challenges have arisen regarding how to prepare and…

  13. Self-Determination, Culture, and School Administration: A Phenomenological Study on Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Cecilia Marie

    2009-01-01

    While the benefits of obtaining an Associate's degree are evident, students often drop out before obtaining degrees. Because individuals with more education are more likely to be employed than those with less education, student success is a concern for community college administrators, policy makers, community leaders, and other stakeholders.…

  14. Implications of Preparing School Administrators for Knowledge Work Organizations: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulkeen, Thomas A.; Cooper, Bruce S.

    1992-01-01

    The Executive Leadership Program at Fordham University presents a model for practicing school administrators' continuing education that reflects a changing society and schools' changing needs. The program is based on four innovations: an intellectual/change agent approach; a clinical, field-based research experience; an instructional agenda…

  15. Critical Thought and Administrative Theory: Conceptual Approaches to the Study of Decision-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeakey, Carol C.

    1987-01-01

    Enlarges the epistemological debate between the logical positivists, preoccupied with socialization, role assignment, and behavior control, and the critical theorists, who repudiate functionalism, value-neutral principles, and "hard data" as detrimental to a comprehensive understanding of educational administration. Includes 47 endnotes. (MLH)

  16. Women's Studies for Teachers and Administrators: A Packet of Inservice Education Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froschl, Merle, Ed.; And Others

    This packet of materials is designed for elementary and secondary teachers and administrators who are engaged in inservice education and interested in the movement to eliminate sexism in schools. Two major purposes of the packet are to help a school district start an inservice course on sexism in education and to show the potential of such a…

  17. A Case Study of the Land of Enchantment Teacher Quality Partnership for Aspiring School Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizell, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    What are the considerations required to developing a leadership preparation program, and a professional development plan that bridges the theoretical perspective to the practitioners' perspective? An inquiry was conducted to gain insight into the individual perspectives of three diverse women administrators who participated in the Land of…

  18. Drug Administration Errors in an Institution for Individuals with Intellectual Disability: An Observational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Bemt, P. M. L. A.; Robertz, R.; de Jong, A. L.; van Roon, E. N.; Leufkens, H. G. M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Medication errors can result in harm, unless barriers to prevent them are present. Drug administration errors are less likely to be prevented, because they occur in the last stage of the drug distribution process. This is especially the case in non-alert patients, as patients often form the final barrier to prevention of errors.…

  19. Mortality Measurement at Advanced Ages: A Study of the Social Security Administration Death Master File

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilov, Leonid A.; Gavrilova, Natalia S.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate estimates of mortality at advanced ages are essential to improving forecasts of mortality and the population size of the oldest old age group. However, estimation of hazard rates at extremely old ages poses serious challenges to researchers: (1) The observed mortality deceleration may be at least partially an artifact of mixing different birth cohorts with different mortality (heterogeneity effect); (2) standard assumptions of hazard rate estimates may be invalid when risk of death is extremely high at old ages and (3) ages of very old people may be exaggerated. One way of obtaining estimates of mortality at extreme ages is to pool together international records of persons surviving to extreme ages with subsequent efforts of strict age validation. This approach helps researchers to resolve the third of the above-mentioned problems but does not resolve the first two problems because of inevitable data heterogeneity when data for people belonging to different birth cohorts and countries are pooled together. In this paper we propose an alternative approach, which gives an opportunity to resolve the first two problems by compiling data for more homogeneous single-year birth cohorts with hazard rates measured at narrow (monthly) age intervals. Possible ways of resolving the third problem of hazard rate estimation are elaborated. This approach is based on data from the Social Security Administration Death Master File (DMF). Some birth cohorts covered by DMF could be studied by the method of extinct generations. Availability of month of birth and month of death information provides a unique opportunity to obtain hazard rate estimates for every month of age. Study of several single-year extinct birth cohorts shows that mortality trajectory at advanced ages follows the Gompertz law up to the ages 102–105 years without a noticeable deceleration. Earlier reports of mortality deceleration (deviation of mortality from the Gompertz law) at ages below 100 appear to be

  20. An fMRI study on variation of visuospatial cognitive performance of young male due to highly concentrated oxygen administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Soon Cheol; Kim, Ik Hyeon; Tack, Gye Rae; Sohn, Jin Hun

    2004-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of 30% oxygen administration on the visuospatial cognitive performance using fMRI. Eight college students (right-handed, average age 23.5) were selected as subjects for this study. Oxygen supply equipment which gives 21% and 30% oxygen at a constant rate of 8L/min was developed for this study. To measure the performance of visuospatial cognition, two questionnaires with similar difficulty containing 20 questions each were also developed. Experiment was designed as two runs: run for visuospatial cognition test with normal air (21% of oxygen) and run for visuospatial cognition test with highly concentrated air (30% of oxygen). Run consists of 4 blocks and each block has 8 control problems and 5 visuospatial problems. Functional brain images were taken from 3T MRI using single-shot EPI method. Activities of neural network due to performing visuospatial cognition test were identified using subtraction procedure, and activation areas while performing visuospatial cognition test were extracted using double subtraction procedure. Activities were observed at occipital lobe, parietal lobe, and frontal lobe when performing visuospatial cognition test following both 21% and 30% oxygen administration. But in case of only 30% oxygen administration there were more activities at left precuneus, left cuneus, right postcentral gyrus, bilateral middle frontal gyri, right inferior frontal gyrus, left superior frontal gyrus, bilateral uvula, bilateral pyramis, and nodule compared with 21% oxygen administration. From results of visuospatial cognition test, accuracy rate increased in case of 30% oxygen administration. Thus it could be concluded that highly concentrated oxygen administration has positive effects on the visuospatial cognitive performance.

  1. Telephone Administration of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist: A Pilot Study of Feasibility in Children with Intellectual Disability and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Matthew; Milligan, Briana; Stein, Hannah; Teer, Olivia; Smith, Kahsi A.

    2013-01-01

    To advance clinical care and research in children with intellectual disability and autism there is a growing need for efficient means to measure behavioral severity and response to treatment. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of telephone administration of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Irritability Subscale (ABC-I). The…

  2. A Study of Self and Task Performance in Childcare Centres as Perceived by Caregivers under Local Administrative Organisations in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhulpat, Cheerapan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the opinions toward self and task performance in childcare centres as perceived by caregivers under the jurisdiction of the Local Administrative Organization. The four areas evaluated were caregiver characteristics, task performance, objectives of caregiving and educating young children and problems and…

  3. Changes in BSc Business Administration and Psychology Students' Learning Styles over One, Two and Three Years of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Tine

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge on general or discipline-specific changes in the learning styles of university students can be utilised in the design and execution of courses, but little is known of such changes. The study examined the changes in the learning styles of three year groups of BSc Business Administration and Psychology students from admittance to one, two…

  4. The Use of an e-Learning System for Agricultural Extension: A Case Study of the Rural Development Administration, Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Duk-Byeong; Cho, Yong-Been; Lee, Minsoo

    2007-01-01

    The study explores the e-learning system of the Computer-Based Agricultural Extension Program (CBAES) and examines the differences in user satisfaction and preferences between the two systems for Agricultural Education and Extension at the Rural Development Administration (RDA) in Korea. It also describes the architecture, services, user…

  5. Telephone administration of the aberrant behavior checklist: a pilot study of feasibility in children with intellectual disability and autism.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Matthew; Milligan, Briana; Stein, Hannah; Teer, Olivia; Smith, Kahsi A

    2013-09-01

    To advance clinical care and research in children with intellectual disability and autism there is a growing need for efficient means to measure behavioral severity and response to treatment. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of telephone administration of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Irritability Subscale (ABC-I). The ABC-I was administered by telephone to the primary caregivers of 39 subjects with intellectual disability and/or autism. The same primary caregiver of each subject was also mailed a written copy of the ABC-I with a self-addressed, stamped envelope. Scores obtained by telephone and written administration were highly correlated (r = 0.827, p < 0.001). Telephone administration of the ABC-I may be a feasible and efficient means of determining response to treatment in children with intellectual disability and/or autism, though these pilot findings need to be replicated in a larger sample.

  6. The meanings of cultural competence in mental health: an exploratory focus group study with patients, clinicians, and administrators.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Neil Krishan; Cedeño, Kryst; Guarnaccia, Peter; Kleinman, Arthur; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Cultural competence training is mandatory in the United States of America to alleviate minority health disparities though few studies have examined perceptions across stakeholders. We conducted separate focus groups with patients, clinicians, and administrators from the psychiatry department at one community hospital and compared responses to hospital policies. Stakeholders defined cultural competence through group-based or person-centered traits despite policies recommended person-centered approaches. Administrators and clinicians named clinician techniques for psycho-education whereas patients named these techniques for enlistment in treatment planning as equals. All groups named patient cultural views and institutional challenges as barriers to care, but only patients and administrators additionally named clinician biases as possible barriers. We discuss these discrepant perceptions and possible solutions to improve research, practice, and policy on cultural competence in mental health. PMID:27065092

  7. Relationship between School Administrators' Reports of Parental Involvement in School and Students' Substance Use: A National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Revathy; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between student substance use and school-level parental involvement as reported by administrators. Questionnaires were administered to school administrators and 111,652 students in 1,011 U.S. schools. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses conducted on 1998-2003 data from students and administrators indicate…

  8. A Qualitative Study of African-American Female Administrators in the Academy: Identification of Characteristics That Contribute to Their Advancement to Senior Level Positions of Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander-Lee, Mary Louise

    2014-01-01

    The qualitative study explored the (a) self-identity and individual experiences of five African American female higher education administrators, (b) educational and background preparedness of each African American female administrator, (c) individual support mechanisms of each African American female administrator, (i.e., mentoring, community and…

  9. Intrathecal Administration of Morphine Decreases Persistent Pain after Cesarean Section: A Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Moriyama, Kumi; Ohashi, Yuki; Motoyasu, Akira; Ando, Tadao; Moriyama, Kiyoshi; Yorozu, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Chronic pain after cesarean section (CS) is a serious concern, as it can result in functional disability. We evaluated the prevalence of chronic pain after CS prospectively at a single institution in Japan. We also analyzed perioperative risk factors associated with chronic pain using logistic regression analyses with a backward-stepwise procedure. Materials and Methods Patients who underwent elective or emergency CS between May 2012 and May 2014 were recruited. Maternal demographics as well as details of surgery and anesthesia were recorded. An anesthesiologist visited the patients on postoperative day (POD) 1 and 2, and assessed their pain with the Prince Henry Pain Scale. To evaluate the prevalence of chronic pain, we contacted patients by sending a questionnaire 3 months post-CS. Results Among 225 patients who questionnaires, 69 (30.7%) of patients complained of persistent pain, although no patient required pain medication. Multivariate analyses identified lighter weight (p = 0.011) and non-intrathecal administration of morphine (p = 0.023) as determinant factors associated with persistent pain at 3 months. The adjusted odds ratio of intrathecal administration of morphine to reduce persistent pain was 0.424, suggesting that intrathecal administration of morphine could decrease chronic pain by 50%. In addition, 51.6% of patients had abnormal wound sensation, suggesting the development of neuropathic pain. Also, 6% of patients with abnormal wound sensation required medication, yet no patients with persistent pain required medication. Conclusion Although no effect on acute pain was observed, intrathecal administration of morphine significantly decreased chronic pain after CS. PMID:27163790

  10. Building research administration applications for the academic health center: a case study.

    PubMed

    Guard, J Roger; Brueggemann, Ralph F; Highsmith, Robert F; Marine, Stephen A; Riep, Josette R; Schick, Leslie C

    2005-11-01

    The academic health center information environment is saturated with information of varying quality and overwhelming quantity. The most significant challenge is transforming data and information into knowledge. The University of Cincinnati Medical Center's (UCMC) focus is to develop an information architecture comprising data structures, Web services, and user interfaces that enable individuals to manage the information overload so that they can create new knowledge. UCMC has accomplished much of what is reported in this article with the help of a four-year Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems (IAIMS) operation grant awarded by the National Library of Medicine in 2003. In the UCMC vision for knowledge management, individuals have reliable, secure access to information that is filtered, organized, and highly relevant for specific tasks and personal needs. Current applications and tool sets will evolve to become the next generation knowledge management applications or smart digital services. When smart digital services are implemented, silo applications will disappear. A major focus of UCMC's IAIMS grant is research administration. Testing and building out existing and new research administration applications and digital services is underway. The authors review UCMC's progress and results in developing a software architecture, tools, and services for research administration. Included are sections on the evolution to full integration, the impact of the work at UCMC to date, lessons learned during this research and development process, and future plans and needs.

  11. Administrative Synergy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Weckstein, Daniel K.

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles to overcome in creating and sustaining an administrative professional learning community (PLC) is time. Administrators are constantly deluged by the tyranny of the urgent. It is a Herculean task to carve out time for PLCs, but it is imperative to do so. In this article, the authors describe how an administrative PLC…

  12. Effects of administration of probiotic strains on GALT of larval gilthead seabream: Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies.

    PubMed

    Picchietti, Simona; Mazzini, Massimo; Taddei, Anna Rita; Renna, Raffaella; Fausto, Anna Maria; Mulero, Victoriano; Carnevali, Oliana; Cresci, Alberto; Abelli, Luigi

    2007-01-01

    Two bacterial strains Lactobacillus fructivorans (AS17B), isolated from adult seabream (Sparus aurata L.) gut, and Lactobacillus plantarum (906), isolated from human faeces, were administered contemporaneously during seabream development using Brachionus plicatilis and/or Artemia salina and dry feed as vectors. Experimental group A received the probiotic strains already via rotifers from day 5 post-hatch (ph), whereas treatment of group B began with Artemia feeding from day 27 ph. Fish were sampled at day 28 ph (group A and control) and day 99 ph (groups A, B and control) for electron microscopy, histology and immunohistochemistry with the polyclonal antiserum ORa against homologous serum Ig and the mAb G7 specific for seabream acidophilic granulocytes. In all groups, timing and pattern of differentiation of the digestive tract did not differ. Furthermore, neither tissue damage nor manifest inflammation was provoked by probiotic administration. At day 28 ph, the developing GALT already housed mucosal leucocytes, including Ig(+) cells but no acidophilic granulocytes. No differences were seen between experimental groups. At day 99 ph, the density of Ig(+) cells (+51%) and acidophilic granulocytes (+284%) was significantly higher (p<0.05) in group A than in controls. Also group B had a higher density of Ig(+) cells (+17%) and acidophilic granulocytes (+130%) compared with controls, although less pronounced. Light and electron microscopy observations detailed the occurrence of heterogeneous populations of lymphocytes and granulocytes in the developing intestinal mucosa, and highlighted the net expansion of G7(+) acidophilic granulocytes (A +536%, B +292% vs. control) due to probiotic administration. Evidence is provided that early feeding with probiotic-supplemented diet increased the number of Ig(+) cells and acidophilic granulocytes in seabream gut and that the effects were more pronounced when administration started during gut metamorphosis. These results point to a

  13. Hypertonic fluid administration in patients with septic shock: a prospective randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    van Haren, Frank M P; Sleigh, James; Boerma, E Christiaan; La Pine, Mary; Bahr, Mohamed; Pickkers, Peter; van der Hoeven, Johannes G

    2012-03-01

    We assessed the short-term effects of hypertonic fluid versus isotonic fluid administration in patients with septic shock. This was a double-blind, prospective randomized controlled trial in a 15-bed intensive care unit. Twenty-four patients with septic shock were randomized to receive 250 mL 7.2% NaCl/6% hydroxyethyl starch (HT group) or 500 mL 6% hydroxyethyl starch (IT group). Hemodynamic measurements included mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), central venous pressure, stroke volume index, stroke volume variation, intrathoracic blood volume index, gastric tonometry, and sublingual microcirculatory flow as assessed by sidestream dark field imaging. Systolic tissue Doppler imaging velocities of the medial mitral annulus were measured using echocardiography to assess left ventricular contractility. Log transformation of the ratio MAP divided by the norepinephrine infusion rate (log MAP/NE) quantified the combined effect on both parameters. Compared with the IT group, hypertonic solution treatment resulted in an improvement in log MAP/NE (P = 0.008), as well as an increase in systolic tissue Doppler imaging velocities (P = 0.03) and stroke volume index (P = 0.017). No differences between the groups were found for preload parameters (central venous pressure, stroke volume variation, intrathoracic blood volume index) or for afterload parameters (systemic vascular resistance index, MAP). Hypertonic solution treatment decreased the need for ongoing fluid resuscitation (P = 0.046). No differences between groups were observed regarding tonometry or the sublingual microvascular variables. In patients with septic shock, hypertonic fluid administration did not promote gastrointestinal mucosal perfusion or sublingual microcirculatory blood flow in comparison to isotonic fluid. Independent of changes in preload or afterload, hypertonic fluid administration improved the cardiac contractility and vascular tone compared with isotonic fluid. The need for ongoing fluid

  14. Circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration are higher in women using hormonal contraceptives: data from two preliminary studies.

    PubMed

    Gaffey, Allison E; Wirth, Michelle M; Hoks, Roxanne M; Jahn, Allison L; Abercrombie, Heather C

    2014-07-01

    Exogenous cortisol administration has been used to test the influence of glucocorticoids on a variety of outcomes, including memory and affect. Careful control of factors known to influence cortisol and other endogenous hormone levels is central to the success of this research. While the use of hormonal birth control (HBC) is known to exert many physiological effects, including decreasing the salivary cortisol response to stress, it is unknown how HBC influences circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration. To determine those effects, we examined the role of HBC on participants' cortisol levels after receiving synthetic cortisol (hydrocortisone) in two separate studies. In Study 1, 24 healthy women taking HBC and 26 healthy men were administered a 0.1 mg/kg body weight intravenous dose of hydrocortisone, and plasma cortisol levels were measured over 3 h. In Study 2, 61 participants (34 women; 16 were on HBC) received a 15 mg hydrocortisone pill, and salivary cortisol levels were measured over 6 h. Taken together, results from these studies suggest that HBC use is associated with a greater cortisol increase following cortisol administration. These data have important methodological implications: (1) when given a controlled dose of hydrocortisone, cortisol levels may increase more dramatically in women taking HBC versus women not on HBC or men; and (2) in studies manipulating cortisol levels, women on hormonal contraceptives should be investigated as a separate group.

  15. An exploration of administrators' perceptions of elementary science: A case study of the role of science in two elementary schools based on the interactions of administrators with colleagues, science content and state standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brogdon, Lori-Anne Stelmark

    This research is a case study on the perceptions and attitudes of administrators in the area of elementary science and how their responses reflect agreement or dissonance with the perceptions of elementary teachers on the subject of science within the same district. The study used Likert-type surveys and interviews from both administrators and teachers on five key areas: 1) Attitudes towards science and teaching 2) Attitudes towards teaching science 3) Attitudes towards administrators 4) Time teaching science and 5) Attitudes about policy and standards. Survey data was analyzed within and across areas to identify similarity and difference within each group. The medians from the administrative and teacher surveys were then crossed referenced through the use of a Mann Whitney test to identify areas of similarity. Interview data was coded around three major themes: 1) Standards 2) Classroom Instruction and 3) Conversations. The findings show that even though administrators' perceptions favor the inclusion of science in the elementary classroom, both administrators and teachers in this study reported limited involvement from, and conversation with, each other on the topic of science education. Heavy reliance by the administrators was placed on the use of consultants to provide professional development in the area of science instruction and to review the use of state standards, resulting in limited conversation between administrators and teachers about science. Teachers reported a heavy reliance upon their colleagues in the area of science instruction and curriculum planning. In addition, both administrators and teachers reported a greater focus on math and English for classroom instruction. Findings in this research support implications that more focus should be placed on the role of administrators in the implementation of science instruction. Administrators can play a crucial role in the success of science programs at the building, district and state levels

  16. Evaluation of New Fluorescent Lipophosphoramidates for Gene Transfer and Biodistribution Studies after Systemic Administration.

    PubMed

    Belmadi, Nawal; Berchel, Mathieu; Denis, Caroline; Berthe, Wilfried; Sibiril, Yann; Le Gall, Tony; Haelters, Jean-Pierre; Jaffres, Paul-Alain; Montier, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of lung gene therapy is to reach the respiratory epithelial cells in order to deliver a functional nucleic acid sequence. To improve the synthetic carrier's efficacy, knowledge of their biodistribution and elimination pathways, as well as cellular barriers faced, depending on the administration route, is necessary. Indeed, the in vivo fate guides the adaptation of their chemical structure and formulation to increase their transfection capacity while maintaining their tolerance. With this goal, lipidic fluorescent probes were synthesized and formulated with cationic lipophosphoramidate KLN47 (KLN: Karine Le Ny). We found that such formulations present constant compaction properties and similar transfection results without inducing additional cytotoxicity. Next, biodistribution profiles of pegylated and unpegylated lipoplexes were compared after systemic injection in mice. Pegylation of complexes led to a prolonged circulation in the bloodstream, whereas their in vivo bioluminescent expression profiles were similar. Moreover, systemic administration of pegylated lipoplexes resulted in a transient liver toxicity. These results indicate that these new fluorescent compounds could be added into lipoplexes in small amounts without perturbing the transfection capacities of the formulations. Such additional properties allow exploration of the in vivo biodistribution profiles of synthetic carriers as well as the expression intensity of the reporter gene. PMID:26540038

  17. Evaluation of New Fluorescent Lipophosphoramidates for Gene Transfer and Biodistribution Studies after Systemic Administration

    PubMed Central

    Belmadi, Nawal; Berchel, Mathieu; Denis, Caroline; Berthe, Wilfried; Sibiril, Yann; Le Gall, Tony; Haelters, Jean-Pierre; Jaffres, Paul-Alain; Montier, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of lung gene therapy is to reach the respiratory epithelial cells in order to deliver a functional nucleic acid sequence. To improve the synthetic carrier’s efficacy, knowledge of their biodistribution and elimination pathways, as well as cellular barriers faced, depending on the administration route, is necessary. Indeed, the in vivo fate guides the adaptation of their chemical structure and formulation to increase their transfection capacity while maintaining their tolerance. With this goal, lipidic fluorescent probes were synthesized and formulated with cationic lipophosphoramidate KLN47 (KLN: Karine Le Ny). We found that such formulations present constant compaction properties and similar transfection results without inducing additional cytotoxicity. Next, biodistribution profiles of pegylated and unpegylated lipoplexes were compared after systemic injection in mice. Pegylation of complexes led to a prolonged circulation in the bloodstream, whereas their in vivo bioluminescent expression profiles were similar. Moreover, systemic administration of pegylated lipoplexes resulted in a transient liver toxicity. These results indicate that these new fluorescent compounds could be added into lipoplexes in small amounts without perturbing the transfection capacities of the formulations. Such additional properties allow exploration of the in vivo biodistribution profiles of synthetic carriers as well as the expression intensity of the reporter gene. PMID:26540038

  18. Comparative transcriptomics and metabolomics in a rhesus macaque drug administration study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kevin J.; Yin, Weiwei; Arafat, Dalia; Tang, Yan; Uppal, Karan; Tran, ViLinh; Cabrera-Mora, Monica; Lapp, Stacey; Moreno, Alberto; Meyer, Esmeralda; DeBarry, Jeremy D.; Pakala, Suman; Nayak, Vishal; Kissinger, Jessica C.; Jones, Dean P.; Galinski, Mary; Styczynski, Mark P.; Gibson, Greg

    2014-01-01

    We describe a multi-omic approach to understanding the effects that the anti-malarial drug pyrimethamine has on immune physiology in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Whole blood and bone marrow (BM) RNA-Seq and plasma metabolome profiles (each with over 15,000 features) have been generated for five naïve individuals at up to seven timepoints before, during and after three rounds of drug administration. Linear modeling and Bayesian network analyses are both considered, alongside investigations of the impact of statistical modeling strategies on biological inference. Individual macaques were found to be a major source of variance for both omic data types, and factoring individuals into subsequent modeling increases power to detect temporal effects. A major component of the whole blood transcriptome follows the BM with a time-delay, while other components of variation are unique to each compartment. We demonstrate that pyrimethamine administration does impact both compartments throughout the experiment, but very limited perturbation of transcript or metabolite abundance was observed following each round of drug exposure. New insights into the mode of action of the drug are presented in the context of pyrimethamine's predicted effect on suppression of cell division and metabolism in the immune system. PMID:25453034

  19. The conception of administrators regarding the formation of a healthcare consortium in Pernambuco, Brazil: a case study.

    PubMed

    e Silva, Keila S Brito; Bezerra, Adriana Falangola B

    2011-01-01

    The formation of healthcare consortia is a management strategy adopted by a number of cities in Brazil in order to minimize the difficulties the population has in access to services of greater technological complexity. As administrators are the main governmental actors in the promotion of this strategy, the aim of the present study was to identify the motives, expectations and difficulties faced by the mayors, and secretaries of health that make up a healthcare consortium undergoing a formation process in the rural, coastal zone of the state of Pernambuco. A descriptive, qualitative, case study was conducted. Data collection was carried out through semi-structured interviews held with mayors and secretaries of health of the municipalities participating in the consortium. Data were analyzed by means of content analysis, using the NVivo 2.0 software program. The administrators cited difficulty in access to specialized services and the high cost of transporting patients to distant locations for treatment as motives for the formation of the consortium. With the implantation of this healthcare strategy, the expectations are a reduction in costs regarding patient transportation, an increase in access to services of greater complexity, and negotiations with other spheres of government. The main difficulties faced are political-partisan conflicts and excessive bureaucracy. Although there were no considerable divergences in the administrators' perceptions, it was evident that those who initiated the formation of the consortium offered a deeper, more detailed discourse, thereby demonstrating greater involvement when compared to those who offered continuity to the process.

  20. Pharmacological study of the light/dark preference test in zebrafish (Danio rerio): Waterborne administration.

    PubMed

    Magno, Lílian Danielle Paiva; Fontes, Aldo; Gonçalves, Beatriz Maria Necy; Gouveia, Amauri

    2015-08-01

    Anxiety is a complex disorder; thus, its mechanisms remain unclear. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are a promising pharmacological model for anxiety research. Light/dark preference test is a behaviorally validated measure of anxiety in zebrafish; however, it requires pharmacological validation. We sought to evaluate the sensitivity of the light/dark preference test in adult zebrafish by immersing them in drug solutions containing clonazepam, buspirone, imipramine, fluoxetine, paroxetine, haloperidol, risperidone, propranolol, or ethanol. The time spent in the dark environment, the latency time to first crossing, and the number of midline crossings were analyzed. Intermediate concentrations of clonazepam administered for 600s decreased the time spent in the dark and increased locomotor activity. Buspirone reduced motor activity. Imipramine and fluoxetine increased time spent in the dark and the first latency, and decreased the number of alternations. Paroxetine did not alter the time in the dark; however, it increased the first latency time and decreased locomotor activity. Haloperidol decreased the time spent in the dark at low concentrations. Risperidone and propranolol did not change any parameters. Ethanol reduced the time spent in the dark and increased the number of crossings at intermediate concentrations. These results corroborate the previous work using intraperitoneal drug administration in zebrafish and rodents, suggesting that water drug delivery in zebrafish can effectively be used as an animal anxiety model.

  1. Modulatory Effect of Gonadotropins on Rats’ Ovaries after Nandrolone Decanoate Administration: A Stereological Study

    PubMed Central

    Bordbar, Hossein; Mesbah, Fakhroddin; Talaei, Tahereh; Dehghani, Farzaneh; Mirkhani, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nandrolone decanoate (ND) is an anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) which influences the ovarian structure and function. We assessed the effects of ND on the ovarian volume, number of primordial follicles, and level of hormones and also evaluated the modulatory effects of gonadotropins on the histopathological changes imposed by the administration of ND. Methods: Six groups of Sprague-Dawley adult female rats (n=30) were used. The experimental rats were injected intraperitoneally with 3 and 10 mg/kg ND with or without human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG), 10 IU weekly for one month. The vehicle and control rats were administered olive oil and saline, respectively, for the same period of time. The ovarian volume and number of primordial follicles were estimated by stereological methods. Results: The results showed a decrease in the ovarian volume, number of primordial follicles, and level of gonadotropins in the ND-treated animals compared with the vehicle groups. In the rats treated with 3 mg/kg of ND with hMG, an increase in the ovarian volume and number of primordial follicles was shown as compared to the rats treated with the same dose of ND without hMG. Conclusion: ND exerted detrimental effects on the dimensions of the ovary, number of follicles, and level of sex hormones. However, hMG, prevented the harmful effects of ND (at least in a low dose) on the ovarian follicles. PMID:24453393

  2. Administrative Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  3. Administrative Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doran, Dorothy; And Others

    This guide is intended to assist business education teachers in administrative support courses. The materials presented are based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for the occupations of receptionist, secretary, and administrative assistant. Word processing skills have been infused into each of the three sections. The…

  4. Graduate Management Admission Test Outcomes and the Academic Achievement: A Study on Masters of Business Administration Students at Makerere University, Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamala, Robert; Kizito, Saint Omala; Kakumba, Umar

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates whether the outcomes of the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) can predict the academic achievement of enrollees in masters programs. The study is based on administrative data of 516 Masters of Business Administration (MBA) enrollees at the College of Business and Management Science, Makerere University in the 2011…

  5. Attitudes about Second-Career Teachers: An Exploratory Q Study of School Administrators and Classroom Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coladonato, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    Although considerable attention has been directed at understanding second-career teachers (SCTs), few studies appear in the literature that have reported on opinions and viewpoints about SCTs. This study is an in-depth examination that explores the attitudes held about SCTs. The focus of this study is to apply an innovative methodology in…

  6. A comparative study on chronic administration of Go Ghrita (cow ghee) and Avika Ghrita (ewe ghee) in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Dipali J; Vyas, Hitesh A; Vyas, Mahesh Kumar; Ashok, B K; Ravishankar, B

    2012-07-01

    Ghrita (ghee) is the foremost substance of Indian cuisine from centuries. Ayurvedic classics described eight kinds of ghee from eight different animal milk, among them ghee made from cow milk is said to be the superior and ghee of ewe milk is said to be the inferior and also detrimental to heart. The present study was undertaken to evaluate chronic administration of cow ghee (Go Ghrita) and ghee of ewe milk (Avika Ghrita) to experimental animals. Experiment was carried out on Wistar strain albino rats and study was done at two dose levels. The test drugs were administered orally for 45 consecutive days. Parameters, such as gross behavior, body weight, weight of important organs, total fecal fat content, electrocardiogram, serum biochemical parameters, and histopathology of different organs were studied. Both the test drugs did not alter the gross behavior, body weight, weight of organs, and cytoarchitecture of different organs to significant extent. Avika Ghrita at a low dose significantly decreased triglyceride content, significantly prolonged QTc and at both dose levels it significantly shortened the PR interval. This study shows chronic administration of Avika Ghrita and Go Ghrita has no marked differences between them except the QTc prolongation in Avika Ghrita. This may be the basis for the classics to categorize Avika Ghrita as Ahridya. PMID:23723655

  7. A comparative study on chronic administration of Go Ghrita (cow ghee) and Avika Ghrita (ewe ghee) in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Dipali J.; Vyas, Hitesh A.; Vyas, Mahesh Kumar; Ashok, B. K.; Ravishankar, B.

    2012-01-01

    Ghrita (ghee) is the foremost substance of Indian cuisine from centuries. Ayurvedic classics described eight kinds of ghee from eight different animal milk, among them ghee made from cow milk is said to be the superior and ghee of ewe milk is said to be the inferior and also detrimental to heart. The present study was undertaken to evaluate chronic administration of cow ghee (Go Ghrita) and ghee of ewe milk (Avika Ghrita) to experimental animals. Experiment was carried out on Wistar strain albino rats and study was done at two dose levels. The test drugs were administered orally for 45 consecutive days. Parameters, such as gross behavior, body weight, weight of important organs, total fecal fat content, electrocardiogram, serum biochemical parameters, and histopathology of different organs were studied. Both the test drugs did not alter the gross behavior, body weight, weight of organs, and cytoarchitecture of different organs to significant extent. Avika Ghrita at a low dose significantly decreased triglyceride content, significantly prolonged QTc and at both dose levels it significantly shortened the PR interval. This study shows chronic administration of Avika Ghrita and Go Ghrita has no marked differences between them except the QTc prolongation in Avika Ghrita. This may be the basis for the classics to categorize Avika Ghrita as Ahridya. PMID:23723655

  8. Hydrogenated castor oil nanoparticles as carriers for the subcutaneous administration of tilmicosin: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Han, C; Qi, C M; Zhao, B K; Cao, J; Xie, S Y; Wang, S L; Zhou, W Z

    2009-04-01

    Tilmicosin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) were prepared with hydrogenated castor oil (HCO) by o/w emulsion-solvent evaporation technique. The nanoparticle diameters, surface charges, drug loadings and encapsulation efficiencies of different formulations were 90 approximately 230 nm, -6.5 approximately -12.5 mV, 40.3 approximately 59.2% and 5.7 approximately 11.7% (w/w), respectively. In vitro release studies of the tilmicosin-loaded nanoparticles showed a sustained release and the released tilmicosin had the same antibacterial activity as that of the free drug. Pharmacokinetics study after subcutaneous administration to Balb/c mice demonstrated that a single dose of tilmicosin-loaded nanoparticles resulted in sustained serum drug levels (>0.1 microg/mL) for 8 days, as compared with only 5 h for the same amount of tilmicosin phosphate solution. The time to maximum concentration (Tmax), half-life of absorption (T(1/2) ab) and half-life of elimination (T(1/2) el) of tilmicosin-loaded nanoparticles were much longer than those of tilmicosin phosphate solution. Tissue section showed that drug-loaded nanoparticles caused no inflammation at the injection site. Cytotoxicity study in cell culture and acute toxicity test in mice demonstrated that the nanoparticles had little or no toxicity. The results of this exploratory study suggest that the HCO-SLN could be a useful system for the delivery of tilmicosin by subcutaneous administration.

  9. Use of High-Performance Liquid Chromatography To Study the Pharmacokinetics of Colistin Sulfate in Rats following Intravenous Administration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian; Milne, Robert W.; Nation, Roger L.; Turnidge, John D.; Smeaton, Timothy C.; Coulthard, Kingsley

    2003-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of colistin was investigated using specific high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to measure the concentrations of colistin and colistin A and B in plasma and urine in five rats after administration of an intravenous bolus of 1 mg of colistin sulfate/kg of body weight. There were differences in the pharmacokinetic behaviors of unbound colistin A and B. This is the first report of the use of HPLC to study the pharmacokinetics of colistin and its two major components. PMID:12709357

  10. National Job Corps Study: Findings Using Administrative Earnings Records Data. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schochet; Peter Z.; McConnell, Sheena; Burghardt, John

    2003-01-01

    The National Job Corps Study has been conducted since 1993 to provide Congress and program managers with the information they need to assess how well Job Corps attains its goal of helping students become more responsible, employable, and productive citizens. The cornerstone of the study was the random assignment of all youths found eligible for…

  11. Remote sensing of land processes: Sponsored programs of study by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asrar, G.; Wickland, D. E.; Baltuck, M.; Ruzek, M. J.; Murphy, R. E.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Land Processes Program consists of four interrelated disciplines which support studying the terrestrial geology, ecology, hydrology, and remote sensing science. The first three represent the space based components of classical science disciplines, while the last discipline is the study of the physics, biology, and chemistry of the land surface as it relates to the interaction of electromagnetic energy with the land surface.

  12. Developing and Implementing an International Studies Minor: A Liberal Arts-Business Administration Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krajewski, Lorraine A.; Patrick, Joe A.

    Louisiana State University in Shreveport developed an International Studies minor as a partnership between the academic disciplines of Business and Liberal Arts. The minor consists of 24 hours of coursework, including a foreign language course at the sophomore level; a course titled "Introduction to International Studies"; 9 hours of core courses…

  13. State Politics, Students, Administrators, and Faculty: Teaching American Studies in Idaho.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Sheila Ruzycki

    A professor who teaches an American Studies course at the University of Idaho contends that she has her work cut out for her. According to the professor, Idaho's conservative political climate has led to her learning to negotiate. This paper first describes the development of an American Studies core course that began in the 1980s and continues…

  14. Basic Camp Director Education Course. Student Guide to Home Study. Camp Administration Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Teri

    Project STRETCH's (Strategies to Try out Resources to Enhance the Training of Camp directors serving the Handicapped) home study student guide for the basic camp director education course begins with a brief course overview, the desired outcomes of camp director education, instructions on phases I and II of home study, a student needs assessment…

  15. A Study of Professional Aspirations and Perceived Obstacles: A Case for Administrative Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shultz, Eileen L.; Easter, Linda M.

    This study surveyed 170 faculty members at a public, mid-sized eastern university, comparing men's and women's aspirations and perceived obstacles to attaining various levels of executive positions in higher education. The study used the Academic Goals and Aspirations Survey, which requested demographic information regarding rank, status,…

  16. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Manned Spacecraft Center data based requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The results are summarized of a study to determine the requirements of a data management system to meet the needs of MSC in mission planning and program and resource management during the 1975 time frame. The study addresses overall system requirements, implementation considerations, and cost/benefit comparisions.

  17. Directory of National Standards Relating to Archives Administration and Records Management: A RAMP Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roper, Michael

    Prepared under contract with the International Council on Archives (ICA), this study is designed to provide archivists, records managers, and other interested professionals with both a reference and planning tool in the area of methods, norms and standards. The study is based on responses to a questionnaire which was submitted to selected…

  18. Issues in Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    School administrators need to study and analyze the pros and cons of issues before making decisions. Ultimately, decisions need to be made by administrators as to which philosophies of education to implement in resolving conflicting points of view. More research studies would lead to an increased number of syntheses of the pros and cons of certain…

  19. The eye drop chart: a pilot study for improving administration of and compliance with topical treatments in glaucoma patients

    PubMed Central

    McVeigh, Katherine Anne; Vakros, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    Aim In order to improve patient education, compliance, and administration of eye drops prescribed for patients suffering with glaucoma within a UK ophthalmology department, an eye drop chart (EDC) was designed, developed, and piloted with patients attending the glaucoma clinic over 1 month. Methods A cross-sectional prospective pilot study of 25 patients using an administration aid and a self-reported questionnaire. Chi-square tests were used to compare responses pre- and postintervention. Results Results demonstrated an impressive improvement in nine of eleven categories assessed regarding drop administration and compliance. Patients stating that they always wash their hands increased significantly from 64% (13 participants) to 92% (23 participants) (P=0.029), and those who always shake the bottle improved from 40% (10) to 84% (21) (P=0.001). Punctal occlusion techniques improved from 44% (11) to 72% (18) (P=0.015). Finally, patients who always discarded the bottle after 28 days of use rose from 68% to 92%, though the difference was not significant (P=0.09). Only the number of drops being administered to the eye and the length of time left between the application of drops remained relatively unchanged. Sixty-four percent reported finding EDC helpful or useful, 52% had positive responses when asked if they would continue using EDC, and 88% would recommend it to a friend. Conclusion Although there are limitations to the data as they are subjective, descriptive, and limited to sample size of 25, the results of this pilot study have shown promise. The EDC appears to be a cost-effective way at improving patients’ use of topical ocular medications. PMID:26005325

  20. Barriers and Facilitators to Career Advancement by Top-Level, Entry-Level and Non-Administrative Women in Public School Districts: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Eman Ibrahim El-Desouki

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the barriers and facilitators to career advancement among women administrators occupying top-level positions, those occupying entry-level positions and those in non-administrative positions in both rural and urban public school districts in central Pennsylvania. The need to increase the awareness of the…

  1. A Study of the Perceptions of Doctor of Nursing (DNP) Program Administrators regarding the Integration of Acupuncture and Acupressure in DNP Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voight, Rebecca W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative descriptive study was to explore the perceptions of DNP administrators regarding the extent acupuncture and acupressure are addressed in DNP curricula. Five research questions were addressed: 1. What are the perspectives of DNP program administrators regarding acupuncture and acupressure? 2. What are the…

  2. Faculty Roles, Responsibilities, and Involvement in Campus Safety Initiatives as Perceived by Faculty and Administrators: A Case Study at a Large State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollings, Meda Janeen

    2010-01-01

    The study addressed the problem of campus safety and the extent to which faculty and administrators are aware of institutional security policies. Further, the research compared perceptions of administrators and faculty regarding faculty awareness of and involvement in campus safety policy initiatives. The research sought to determine if the…

  3. A Mixed Method Study Measuring the Perceptions of Administrators, Classroom Teachers and Professional Staff on the Use of iPads in a Midwest School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckerle, Andrea Laux

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to assess the perceptions of classroom teachers, administrators and professional support staff in one Midwest school district regarding the usefulness and effectiveness of the iPad device as an instructional and support tool within the classroom. The need to address classroom teacher, administrator and…

  4. Identifying the Latent Failures Underpinning Medication Administration Errors: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Lawton, Rebecca; Carruthers, Sam; Gardner, Peter; Wright, John; McEachan, Rosie R C

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The primary aim of this article was to identify the latent failures that are perceived to underpin medication errors. Study Setting The study was conducted within three medical wards in a hospital in the United Kingdom. Study Design The study employed a cross-sectional qualitative design. Data Collection Methods Interviews were conducted with 12 nurses and eight managers. Interviews were transcribed and subject to thematic content analysis. A two-step inter-rater comparison tested the reliability of the themes. Principal Findings Ten latent failures were identified based on the analysis of the interviews. These were ward climate, local working environment, workload, human resources, team communication, routine procedures, bed management, written policies and procedures, supervision and leadership, and training. The discussion focuses on ward climate, the most prevalent theme, which is conceptualized here as interacting with failures in the nine other organizational structures and processes. Conclusions This study is the first of its kind to identify the latent failures perceived to underpin medication errors in a systematic way. The findings can be used as a platform for researchers to test the impact of organization-level patient safety interventions and to design proactive error management tools and incident reporting systems in hospitals. PMID:22375850

  5. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Manned Spacecraft Center data base requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the types of data that the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) should automate in order to make available essential management and technical information to support MSC's various functions and missions. In addition, the software and hardware capabilities to best handle the storage and retrieval of this data were analyzed. Based on the results of this study, recommendations are presented for a unified data base that provides a cost effective solution to MSC's data automation requirements. The recommendations are projected through a time frame that includes the earth orbit space station.

  6. Risk Management for Study Abroad Programs: Issues and Resources to Inform Program Development, Administration, and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides a practical background to the health and safety risks and challenges for U.S. colleges and universities and other program providers. Potential risks, field-based guidelines, good practices, and resources to support the management of risks by study abroad offices will be covered.

  7. The Effects of an Internet2 Implementation at the Food and Drug Administration: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Melinda Elena

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the potential effects of an Internet2 implementation at the FDA. Because Internet2 does not currently exist in the FDA, research will be made to compare the tools used today to transmit data to what may develop with an Internet2 presence. These effects will be assessed from the point-of-view of the…

  8. Gender in Schools: A Qualitative Study of Students in Educational Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Mary Lou; Ridenour, Carolyn S.

    2006-01-01

    Students who aspire to become school principals and superintendents must be prepared to lead schools committed to serving boys and girls equitably. In this qualitative study, 122 graduate students in a cultural diversity course maintained journals of their experiences. The authors kept records of teaching the course and of selected written…

  9. A Study of Female Central Office Administrators and Their Aspirations to the Superintendency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muñoz, Ava J.; Pankake, Anita; Ramalho, Elizabeth Murakami; Mills, Shirley; Simonsson, Marie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the motivations of females aspiring to school superintendency positions in Texas. We report on a reanalysis of data from two previous studies and how the findings build an understanding of previously documented obstacles and barriers female candidates encounter in their journey toward the superintendency.…

  10. Mass Hysteria or Toxic Fumes? A Case Study for University Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engs, Ruth C.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Traces the historical background and describes the symptomology relating to mass hysteria and psychogenic illness. After prescribing a case study of an incident of such behavior at a mid-western university, explores the implications for staff training in student areas. (Author/KW)

  11. Revisioning a School Administrator Preparation Program: A North Carolina Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Joy C.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a descriptive case study of the process used at one of North Carolina's public universities to respond to a state-mandated "revisioning" directive for educational leadership preparation programs. The case provides an overview of the state educational leadership policy context, discussion of state and local…

  12. Developing Ethnic Talent in the Dutch National Tax Administration: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glastra, Folke J.; Meerman, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The lack of career movement of members of ethnic minority groups in work organizations has been widely documented. The purpose of this paper is to gain insight into conditions for the realization of diversity goals in the case of talent development. Design/methodology/approach: In a case study of management development in the Dutch…

  13. Computerization of School Administration: Impact on the Principal's Role--A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telem, Moshe

    2001-01-01

    Describes a study at an Israeli high school that investigated changes in the principal's role as the result of the introduction of a school management information system (SMIS). Discusses information handling and flow, interrelations with teachers, accountability, instruction evaluation, supervision, feedback, frequency of meetings, and shared…

  14. Case Study: How Perceived Behaviors of Administrative Support Influence Teacher Retention Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Educational reform is taking the nation, teachers are nearing retirement age, some teachers are choosing early retirement, and teachers are exiting the profession at a significant rate. Collectively, these trends in education present staffing and training concerns for today's schools. The purpose of this case study was to examine how…

  15. Expectation-Based Efficiency and Quality Improvements in Research Administration: Multi-Institutional Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saha, Dhanonjoy C.; Ahmed, Abrar; Hanumandla, Shailaja

    2011-01-01

    Conventional wisdom may support the presumed notion that higher expectations increase efficiency and improve quality. However, this claim may only be validated when workers are equipped with appropriate tools, training, and a conducive work environment. This study implements various interventions, observes outcomes, and analyzes data collected in…

  16. Individual Factors That Encourage the Use of Virtual Platforms of Administrative Sciences Students: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arias, Alejandro Valencia; Naffah, Salim Chalela; Bermudez Hernández, Jonathan; Bedoya Pérez, Luz Mirelia

    2015-01-01

    Higher education Institutions have incorporated into their educational processes the virtual learning platforms use, in their search to answers to the dynamic and changing needs of young students, thus students have practical training in the use of information technologies and communication (ICT) in their curses. However, few studies have been…

  17. Business Administration Students as Surrogates for IT Professionals: Summary of a Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Melinda; St. John, Jeremy; Guynes, Carl S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report a summary of the results of a study which examined the appropriateness of using business school students as surrogates for IT professionals by comparing cognitive styles, physiological characteristics, and basic demographic data among the two groups. Cognitive style refers to the way individuals think,…

  18. A Case Study of Qualitative Research: Methods and Administrative Impact. AIR 1983 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoen, Jane; Warner, Sean

    A case study in program evaluation that demonstrates the effectiveness of qualitative research methods is presented. Over a 5-year period, the Union for Experimenting Colleges and Universities in Ohio offered a baccalaureate program (University Without Walls) to local employees of a national manufacturing firm. The institutional research office…

  19. Exploring the Dynamics of Directed Studies Courses: Student, Instructor, and Administrator Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hvenegaard, Glen; Link, Anne-Marie L.; Moore, Sean E.; Wesselius, Janet C.

    2013-01-01

    North American universities are encouraged to increase opportunities for undergraduate research experiences (UREs). To this end, many universities offer directed studies courses (DSCs) which are 1-2 semester long courses involving one-on-one instruction, with a focus on student-led independent research. Building on the understanding of dynamics…

  20. Studies in Leading and Organizing Schools. A Volume in Research and Theory in Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoy, Wayne, Ed.; Miskel, Cecil, Ed.

    This collection of research reports is intended to advance the understanding of schools through empirical study and theoretical analysis. The reports are as follows: "The Punctuated Equilibrium of National Reading Policy: Literacy's Changing Images and Venues" (Celia Sims and Cecil Miskel); "Productive Campus Leadership Responses to…

  1. A Study of Coordinated Service Provision and Administrative Procedures in Selected University Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Strom Thurmond Inst. of Government and Public Affairs.

    This study investigated the existence of coordinated/consolidated services between colleges and universities and their communities by surveying 27 university communities of similar size and/or characteristics to Clemson University (South Carolina). The report begins with the profiles of the universities selected: their size in acreage, enrollment,…

  2. Oral administration of grass pollen to hay fever patients. An efficacy study in oral hyposensitization.

    PubMed

    Taudorf, E; Laursen, L C; Djurup, R; Kappelgaard, E; Pedersen, C T; Søborg, M; Wilkinson, P; Weeke, B

    1985-07-01

    Oral hyposensitization is still widely used in the treatment of allergic diseases, but controlled studies proving a beneficial effect are lacking. Fifty-eight hay fever patients were admitted to a double-blind placebo efficacy study in oral hyposensitization. An enterosoluble tablet containing timothy whole pollen or placebo was taken daily. Preseasonally, the actively treated patients received 4,315,000 PNU (880,260 AUR) and totally for 6 months 8,915,000 PNU (1,818,660 AUR). Such high doses have never been tried in similar studies. A new principle has been used - "the pollen count interval method" - in the evaluation of symptom and medication score. The study failed to prove any beneficial effect of oral hyposensitization measured by symptom score, medication score, nasal provocation test or skin prick test. There was no change in timothy specific IgE and IgG which could be caused by the treatment. The possibility that oral hyposensitization might be an effective treatment of hay fever in the future is discussed, but it is concluded that the present regimens cannot be recommended.

  3. Sucrose administration to partially hepatectomized rats: a possible model to study ethanol-induced inhibition of liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Salinas, J; Aranda-Fraustro, A; Paredes-Díaz, R; Hernández-Muñoz, R

    1996-09-01

    Although acute ethanol treatment drastically inhibits liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy, the exact mechanisms involved remain obscure. On the other hand, it is known that early carbohydrate administration promotes a more successful restoration of the liver mass. Therefore, carbohydrate administration could be an experimental approach for studying ethanol action on the regenerating liver. In rats subjected to two-thirds partial hepatectomy, ethanol was administered alone or in combination with a variety of carbohydrates (glucose, fructose, glucose plus fructose, sucrose and maltose). In liver samples, regeneration parameters and histological assessment were performed. Blood ethanol and metabolites reflecting liver function were assayed. Ethanol intake strongly decreased the incorporation of [3H]thymidine into liver DNA, the concentration of DNA/g of tissue, and thymidine kinase activity. In this group, severe alterations in cell structure (i.e. abundant fat droplets and abnormal mitochondria) were found. Carbohydrates readily improved the survival rate of ethanol-intoxicated hepatectomized rats. Sucrose was effective in reverting the ethanol-induced alterations in liver structure and the parameters of liver regeneration, and partially blocked the ethanol-induced alterations in serum levels of albumin, triacylglycerols and ammonia without modifying the blood levels and clearance of ethanol. Data suggest that the beneficial action of sucrose might be related to an adequate supply of energetic sources at early times of liver regeneration, rather than altering ethanol bioavailability. Thus, the present model could be an experimental approach for studying the metabolic alterations involved in the ethanol-induced inhibition of the liver regeneration.

  4. Study of Educational Hospital Employees’ Satisfaction with the Administration of the Health Reform Plan in Ghazvin, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Gholami, Soheyla; Oveisi, Sonia; Ghamari, Fatemeh; Etedal, Mahboobeh Ghorban; Rajaee, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Employee satisfaction is considered to be an important component in the promotion of service quality and increased efficiency and effectiveness in the reform plan for a healthcare system. Neglecting this issue could result in a lack of success in achieving the healthcare system’s objectives. The healthcare reform plan is being implemented to achieve the objectives of the healthcare system. Thus, given the key role of hospital employees in implementing the reform plan, the aim of this study was to determine the levels of hospital employees’ satisfaction with their jobs. Methods This was a qualitative study in 2015 that included thematic analysis, and 138 employees of the Kosar, Rajaii, and Ghods Hospitals participated. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews, and the data were analyzed using content analysis. Results After analyzing the data collected by interviewing the employees, 132 codes were identified. The codes were classified into five general concepts including opinions about 1) the reform plan and its administrative barriers, 2) changes in visits, 3) changes in working conditions, 4) changes in salaries and 5) General satisfaction of personnel. Conclusion Increasing workloads, stagnant salaries, and the shortage of personnel were the main factors that reduced the satisfaction of the hospitals’ employees with the administration of the healthcare reform plan. PMID:26767104

  5. Data reporting constraints for the lymphatic filariasis mass drug administration activities in two districts in Ghana: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Aryeetey, Richmond; Boateng, Richard; Anto, Francis; Aikins, Moses; Gyapong, Margaret; Gyapong, John

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Timely and accurate health data are important for objective decision making and policy formulation. However, little evidence exists to explain why poor quality routine health data persist. This study examined the constraints to data reporting for the lymphatic filariasis mass drug administration programme in two districts in Ghana. This qualitative study focused on timeliness and accuracy of mass drug administration reports submitted by community health volunteers. Methods: The study is nested within a larger study focusing on the feasibility of mobile phone technology for the lymphatic filariasis programme. Using an exploratory study design, data were obtained through in-depth interviews (n = 7) with programme supervisors and focus group discussions (n = 4) with community health volunteers. Results were analysed using thematic content analysis. Results: Reasons for delays in reporting were attributed to poor numeracy skills among community health volunteers, difficult physical access to communities, high supervisor workload, poor adherence reporting deadlines, difficulty in reaching communities within allocated time and untimely release of programme funds. Poor accuracy of data was mainly attributed to inadequate motivation for community health volunteers and difficulty calculating summaries. Conclusion: This study has shown that there are relevant issues that need to be addressed in order to improve the quality of lymphatic filariasis treatment coverage reports. Some of the factors identified are problems within the health system; others are specific to the community health volunteers and the lymphatic filariasis programme. Steps such as training on data reporting should be intensified for community health volunteers, allowances for community health volunteers should be re-evaluated and other non-monetary incentives should be provided for community health volunteers. PMID:26770791

  6. Post-injury administration of allicin attenuates ischemic brain injury through sphingosine kinase 2: In vivo and in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jia-Ji; Chang, Ting; Cai, Wen-Ke; Zhang, Zhuo; Yang, Yong-Xiang; Sun, Chao; Li, Zhu-Yi; Li, Wei-Xin

    2015-10-01

    Allicin, one of the main biologically active compounds derived from garlic, has been shown to exert various pharmacological activities and is considered to have therapeutic potential for many pathologic conditions. In the present study, we investigated the potential post-ischemic neuroprotective effects of allicin and its underlying mechanisms. Using a rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model, we found that intraperitoneal treatment with 50 mg/kg allicin significantly reduced brain infarct volume, attenuated cerebral edema and decreased the neurological deficit score. Allicin treatment also diminished TUNEL positive cells and inhibited the activation of caspase-3 after MCAO. These protective effects could be observed even if the administration was delayed to 6 h after injury. In addition, we evaluated the in vitro protective effects of allicin against oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) induced neuronal injury in primary cultured cortical neurons. Allicin (50 μM) increased neuronal viability, decreased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and inhibited apoptotic neuronal death after OGD. These protective effects could be observed even if the administration was delayed to 4 h after injury. Furthermore, allicin significantly increased the expression of sphingosine kinases 2 (Sphk2) both in vivo and in vitro. Pretreatment with the Sphk2 inhibitor ABC294640 partially reversed the protective effects of allicin against MCAO and OGD injury, indicating that an Sphk2-mediated mechanism was involved in allicin-induced protection in our models. The combination of findings suggests that post-injury administration of allicin has potential as a neuroprotective strategy for ischemic stroke. PMID:26275594

  7. Customer orientation among employees in public administration: a transnational, longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Korunka, Christian; Scharitzer, Dieter; Carayon, Pascale; Hoonakker, Peter; Sonnek, Angelika; Sainfort, Francois

    2007-05-01

    The relation between ergonomic principles and quality management initiatives, both, in the private and public sector, has received increasing attention in the recent years. Customer orientation among employees is not only an important quality principle, but also an essential prerequisite for customer satisfaction, especially in service organizations. In this context, the objective of introducing new public management (NPM) in public-service organizations is to increase customer orientation among employees who are at the forefront of service providing. In this study, we developed a short scale to measure perceived customer orientation. In two separate longitudinal studies carried out in Austria and the US, we analyzed changes in customer orientation resulting from the introduction of NPM. In both organizations, we observed a significant increase in customer orientation. Perceived customer orientation was related to job characteristics, organizational characteristics and employee quality of working life. Creating positive influences on these characteristics within the framework of an organizational change process has positive effects on employee customer orientation.

  8. Guidelines for contingency planning NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) ADP security risk reduction decision studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, F. G.

    1984-01-01

    Guidance is presented to NASA Computer Security Officials for determining the acceptability or unacceptability of ADP security risks based on the technical, operational and economic feasibility of potential safeguards. The risk management process is reviewed as a specialized application of the systems approach to problem solving and information systems analysis and design. Reporting the results of the risk reduction analysis to management is considered. Report formats for the risk reduction study are provided.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of human activated protein C. 2nd communication: tissue distribution study of a lyophilized purified human activated protein C after single or repeated intravenous administration in male mice and placental transfer and milk passage study after intravenous administration in pregnant and lactating mice.

    PubMed

    Ishii, S; Mochizuki, T; Nagao, T; Kudo, S; Fujita, A; Taniguchi, K; Kondo, S; Kiyoki, M

    1995-05-01

    Tissue distribution studies of human activated protein C (CAS 42617-41-4, APC) were performed in mice after single or repeated administration, and placental transfer and milk passage study were investigated. At 15 min after a single intravenous administration of 125I-APC, radioactivity was mainly distributed to the blood and blood rich organ, such as liver, and then rapidly eliminated. The radioactivity distributed to tissues was almost negligible at 24 h after administration except for the thyroid. The qualitative study of the distribution of radioactivity to tissues by whole body autoradiography demonstrated the correspondence to the result of the quantitative assay of distribution of radioactivity after single administration of 125I-APC. The influence of repeated administration of APC on its pharmacokinetic disposition was studied by administering 125I-APC once a day to mice for 14 days. Though plasma radioactivity at 15 min in mice during repeated administration of 125I-APC was almost similar to that at 15 min after a single administration, the radioactivity at 24 h after administration was 2 times higher than that after a single administration. The profile of plasma radioactivity during and after repeated administration corresponded to the simulation curve which was described with the pharmacokinetic parameters obtained previously after the single administration. Distribution profile after repeated administration at 15 min after the 4th, 7th, 10th and 14th administration was almost similar to that at 15 min after a single administration except for the thyroid and spleen. In the thyroid, the radioactivity was 500 times higher than that after a single administration, and HPLC analysis demonstrated that the radioactivity was attributed to thyroglobulin. As to the spleen, the radioactivity was about 52% of that after a single administration. During the repeated administration, the spleen became larger than that after a single administration and the final weight

  10. Haemoptysis in adults: a 5-year study using the French nationwide hospital administrative database.

    PubMed

    Abdulmalak, Caroline; Cottenet, Jonathan; Beltramo, Guillaume; Georges, Marjolaine; Camus, Philippe; Bonniaud, Philippe; Quantin, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    Haemoptysis is a serious symptom with various aetiologies. Our aim was to define the aetiologies, outcomes and associations with lung cancer in the entire population of a high-income country.This retrospective multicentre study was based on the French nationwide hospital medical information database collected over 5 years (2008-2012). We analysed haemoptysis incidence, aetiologies, geographical and seasonal distribution and mortality. We studied recurrence, association with lung cancer and mortality in a 3-year follow-up analysis.Each year, ~15 000 adult patients (mean age 62 years, male/female ratio 2/1) were admitted for haemoptysis or had haemoptysis as a complication of their hospital stay, representing 0.2% of all hospitalised patients. Haemoptysis was cryptogenic in 50% of cases. The main aetiologies were respiratory infections (22%), lung cancer (17.4%), bronchiectasis (6.8%), pulmonary oedema (4.2%), anticoagulants (3.5%), tuberculosis (2.7%), pulmonary embolism (2.6%) and aspergillosis (1.1%). Among incident cases, the 3-year recurrence rate was 16.3%. Of the initial cryptogenic haemoptysis patients, 4% were diagnosed with lung cancer within 3 years. Mortality rates during the first stay and at 1 and 3 years were 9.2%, 21.6% and 27%, respectively.This is the first epidemiological study analysing haemoptysis and its outcomes in an entire population. Haemoptysis is a life-threatening symptom unveiling potentially life-threatening underlying conditions.

  11. [Analgesia using oral administration of tilidine naloxone for extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy. A double blind study].

    PubMed

    Hankemeier, U; Herberhold, D; Graff, J

    1991-05-01

    Reduction in pain perception during ESWL due to a technical modification of the lithotriptor was expected and prompted a reassessment of anaesthesia techniques for ESWL. In this study the need for analgesic treatment had to be investigated. After satisfactory preliminary results in a previous pilot study, the value of the oral combination of the anti-anxiety drug dipotassium clorazepate on the evening before ESWL together with the analgesic tilidine-naloxone before treatment was tested in a randomised double-blind study in 120 patients. In case of intolerable pain during the treatment all patients were free to ask for additional intravenous analgesic medication (fentanyl). During ESWL, 28.3% of the tilidine-N group patients and 6.7% of the placebo group were pain-free, whereas intolerable pain was reported by 30% of the tilidine-N group and 56.7% of the placebo group. Therefore, 70% of the tilidine-N group patients were treated without any additional analgesic or sedative medication. The good experience with this oral anaesthesia approach, the lack of significant side effects and a good acceptance by the patients warrant further recommendation of this technique.

  12. Drug self-administration studies: a novel reinforcement schedule enhances choice.

    PubMed

    Meisch, Richard A; Gomez, Thomas H

    2013-06-01

    Relative reinforcing effects of different ethanol and different cocaine doses were studied under concurrent independent fixed-ratio (FR) schedules and concurrent nonindependent FR schedules with rhesus monkeys. Nonindependent FR schedules differed from independent FR schedules in that responses on either side counted towards the FR requirements of two concurrently presented choices. Thus, responses on the right operandum counted toward completion of both right and left FR schedules and, symmetrically, responses on the left did the same. Nonindependent schedules allow the number of responses per drug delivery to vary considerably, unlike independent schedules, thereby making the number of responses per delivery a sensitive dependent variable. In contrast, standard independent schedules do not allow responses per drug delivery to vary; the required number of responses is an independent variable. Three rhesus monkeys were subjects, and choices between different doses of ethanol or cocaine were studied. Larger doses maintained higher response rates than smaller doses - consistent with previous choice studies. By using nonindependent schedules, however, graded responses per drug delivery and increased switching between sides were obtained, providing additional data and useful measures of choice. PMID:23549451

  13. Retrospective study of Heparin Administration for Ischemic Stroke when there is an IV-tPA Contraindication

    PubMed Central

    Hakma, Zakaria; Stofko, Douglas L.; Binning, Mandy Jo; Liebman, Kenneth; Veznedaroglu, Erol

    2014-01-01

    Background: The majority of patients presenting with an ischemic stroke arrive after the 3-4.5 h time window allowed for intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV tPA) administration. Most of the literature on heparin use in acute ischemic stroke does not describe dose-adjusted intravenous unfractionated heparin (IV UFH) without bolus, a common method of administration. This study was designed to test whether an anticoagulation regimen of intravenous dose-adjusted UFH with no bolus, in patients with a contraindication to IV TPA, administered within 24 h of an acute ischemic stroke could be effective and safe. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of 273 patients over two consecutive years with acute ischemic stroke, who were outside the window for IV tPA. All patients had imaging studies on admission. The primary outcome measure of the study was to evaluate the safety of dose-adjusted IV UFH use in the setting of acute stroke. We looked at duration of heparin infusion, average partial thromboplastin time (PTT) value, and the incidence of new hemorrhagic events. Results: A total of 273 patients met the inclusion criteria. These patients received heparin infusion within 24 h of symptom onset. The duration of intravenous heparin infusion ranged from 1 to 18 days with a mean of 4 days. Mean PTT value was 72.4. Hemorrhagic complications occurred in 26 patients (9.5%), and included 12 asymptomatic petechial or hemorrhagic conversion (4.3%), 2 symptomatic intracranial hemorrhages (0.7%), 5 gastrointestinal bleeds (2 requiring transfusion and interventions), 2 patients experienced benign hematuria, 4 patients with groin hematomas, and one neck hematoma. Conclusion: This study suggests that intravenous dose-adjusted UFH with no bolus can be administered to patients with acute ischemic stroke with relative safety. PMID:24991465

  14. Study on The Reproductive Organs and Fertility of The Male Mice following Administration of Metronidazole

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Mrinalini; Singh, Poonam

    2013-01-01

    Background: Metronidazole (MTZ) is commonly used as an antibacterial and antiprotozoal drug. Various doses of MTZ have been reported to inhibit spermatogenic activity and sperm indices. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, dose-dependent effects of MTZ on the structural and functional integrity of the testis and accessory reproductive organs have been investigated. Adult male mice of Swiss strain were administered orally with MTZ at the doses of 250 mg/kgBW/day and 500 mg/kgBW/day for 28 consecutive days to study the changes in the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, sperm indices and fertility. Reversal effects of the drug were also studied on the same mice, 42 days after cessation of the treatment. Results: Therapeutic dose of MTZ (250 mg/kgBW/day) neither altered the weights of the testis, epididymis and seminal vesicle nor their histoarchitecture and sperm indices. The drug at the high dose (500 mg/kg BW/day) caused significant reductions in the weights of the testis and epididymis. Histoarchitecture of the testis and epididymis at the high dose revealed marked regressive changes while that of seminal vesicle remained unaffected. Significant reductions were noticed in the motility, viability and count of epididymal spermatozoa while the concentrations of epididymal sialic acid and seminal vesicular fructose remained unaltered after the treatment. No significant changes were noticed in the mating ability as well as in the level of serum testosterone in the treated mice. Fertility of the male mice treated with high dose of MTZ declined markedly leading to an increase in pre- and postimplantation loss while a significant decrease was noticed in the number of live blastocysts in females impregnated with such males. MTZinduced changes in the male reproductive organs and fertility were reinstated 42 days after cessation of the treatment. Conclusion: High dose of MTZ induced reversible deleterious effects on the male reproduction and fertility. PMID

  15. Multifactorial comparative proteomic study of cytochrome P450 2E1 function in chronic alcohol administration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Kou, Yan; Wang, Xiaodong; Cederbaum, Arthur; Wang, Rong

    2014-01-01

    With the use of iTRAQ technique, a multifactorial comparative proteomic study can be performed. In this study, to obtain an overview of ethanol, CYP2E1 and gender effects on liver injury and gain more insight into the underlying molecular mechanism, mouse liver proteomes were quantitatively analyzed using iTRAQ under eight conditions including mice of different genders, wild type versus CYP2E1 knockout, and normal versus alcohol diet. A series of statistical and bioinformatic analyses were explored to simplify and clarify multifactorial comparative proteomic data. First, with the Principle Component analysis, six proteins, CYP2E1, FAM25, CA3, BHMT, HIBADH and ECHS1, involved in oxidation reduction, energy and lipid metabolism and amino acid metabolism, were identified as the most differentially expressed gene products across all of the experimental conditions of our chronic alcoholism model. Second, hierarchical clustering analysis showed CYP2E1 knockout played a primary role in the overall differential protein expression compared with ethanol and gender factors. Furthermore, pair-wise multiple comparisons have revealed that the only significant expression difference lied in wild-type and CYP2E1 knockout mice both treated with ethanol. Third, K-mean clustering analysis indicated that the CYP2E1 knockout had the reverse effect on ethanol induced oxidative stress and lipid oxidation. More importantly, IPA analysis of proteomic data inferred that the gene expressions of two upstream regulators, NRF2 and PPARα, regulated by chronic alcohol feeding and CYP2E1 knockout, are involved in ethanol induced oxidative stress and lipid oxidation. The present study provides an effectively comprehensive data analysis strategy to compare multiple biological factors, contributing to biochemical effects of alcohol on the liver. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with data set identifier of PXD000635.

  16. Morphometric, structural, and ultrastructural studies of tench (Tinca tinca L. ) hepatocytes after copper sulfate administration

    SciTech Connect

    Roncero, V.; Duran, E.; Soler, F.; Masot, J.; Gomez, L. )

    1992-02-01

    A structural, ultrastructural, and morphometric study was made of the liver parenchyma of 12 adult tench (Tinca tinca, L.) subjected to acute experimental copper sulfate poisoning. The lesions observed were characterized by the accumulation in the cytoplasm of large amounts of hemoglobinemic pigment produced by intense hemolysis, initially in Kuppfer cells and by the last stage of the experiment in hepatocytes. This process became increasingly severe, and culminated in the massive necrosis of large areas of liver parenchyma, which led to the death of tench 12 days after the start of the experiment.

  17. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration interdisciplinary studies in space technology at the University of Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, B. G.

    1974-01-01

    A broad range of research projects contained in a cooperative space technology program at the University of Kansas are reported as they relate to the following three areas of interdisciplinary interest: (1) remote sensing of earth resources; (2) stability and control of light and general aviation aircraft; and (3) the vibrational response characteristics of aeronautical and space vehicles. Details of specific research efforts are given under their appropriate departments, among which are aerospace engineering, chemical and petroleum engineering, environmental health, water resources, the remote sensing laboratory, and geoscience applications studies.

  18. Intra-tracheal Administration of Haemophilus influenzae in Mouse Models to Study Airway Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Venuprasad, K; Theivanthiran, Balamayooran; Cantarel, Brandi

    2016-03-02

    Here, we describe a detailed procedure to efficiently and directly deliver Haemophilus influenzae into the lower respiratory tracts of mice. We demonstrate the procedure for preparing H. influenzae inoculum, intra-tracheal instillation of H. influenzae into the lung, collection of broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF), analysis of immune cells in the BALF, and RNA isolation for differential gene expression analysis. This procedure can be used to study the lung inflammatory response to any bacteria, virus or fungi. Direct tracheal instillation is mostly preferred over intranasal or aerosol inhalation procedures because it more efficiently delivers the bacterial inoculum into the lower respiratory tract with less ambiguity.

  19. Success factors for strategic change initiatives: a qualitative study of healthcare administrators' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kash, Bita Arbab; Spaulding, Aaron; Johnson, Christopher E; Gamm, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Success factors related to the implementation of change initiatives are well documented and discussed in the management literature, but they are seldom studied in healthcare organizations engaged in multiple strategic change initiatives. The purpose of this study was to identify key success factors related to implementation of change initiatives based on rich qualitative data gathered from health leader interviews at two large health systems implementing multiple change initiatives. In-depth personal interviews with 61 healthcare leaders in the two large systems were conducted and inductive qualitative analysis was employed to identify success factors associated with 13 change initiatives. Results from this analysis were compared to success factors identified in the literature, and generalizations were drawn that add significantly to the management literature, especially to that in the healthcare sector. Ten specific success factors were identified for the implementation of change initiatives. The top three success factors were (1) culture and values, (2) business processes, and (3) people and engagement. Two of the identified success factors are unique to the healthcare sector and not found in the literature on change models: service quality and client satisfaction (ranked fourth of 10) and access to information (ranked ninth). Results demonstrate the importance of human resource functions, alignment of culture and values with change, and business processes that facilitate effective communication and access to information to achieve many change initiatives. The responses also suggest opportunities for leaders of healthcare organizations to more formally recognize the degree to which various change initiatives are dependent on one another.

  20. Studies on the safety of glucose and paraben-containing neostigmine for intrathecal administration.

    PubMed

    Gurun, M S; Leinbach, R; Moore, L; Lee, C S; Owen, M D; Eisenach, J C

    1997-08-01

    Initial toxicity testing of neostigmine for intrathecal (IT) injection was performed with preservative-free isobaric solution, yet currently available formulations contain the preservatives methyl- and propylparaben and are usually mixed with glucose to yield hyperbaric solutions. Since it has been proposed that preservatives and hyperbaricity increase the risk of neurotoxicity after IT injection, we examined the safety of chronically administered IT neostigmine containing these additives in sheep and rats. Rats receiving daily IT injections of glucose alone or of glucose with preservative-containing neostigmine, 5 and 10 microg, exhibited dose-related antinociception, tremor, and rigidity. In comparison to our previously published study of neostigmine injection in solution without glucose, rats receiving IT neostigmine with glucose displayed less rigidity, tremor, and salivation. Sheep receiving daily injection of glucose alone or with preservative-containing neostigmine, 1 mg, for 14 days exhibited no histologic evidence of neurotoxicity, nor did they exhibit abnormalities in cerebrospinal fluid chemistry aside from those caused by inflammation. Spinal cord histologic examination in both species revealed fibrosis and inflammation secondary to the catheter without evidence of neuronal damage. These studies support the safety of paraben- and glucose-containing IT neostigmine.

  1. Fruit, vegetable, and fish consumption and heart rate variability: the Veterans Administration Normative Aging Study123

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Katherine L; O'Neill, Marie S; Sparrow, David; Vokonas, Pantel S; Hu, Howard; Schwartz, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Background: Higher intakes of fruit, vegetables, and dark fish may prevent sudden cardiac death and arrhythmias, but the exact mechanisms are not fully understood. Objective: We examined whether high consumption of fruit, vegetables, and dark fish would be associated with beneficial changes in heart rate variability (HRV). Design: HRV variables were measured among 586 older men with 928 total observations from November 2000 to June 2007 in the Normative Aging Study, a community-based longitudinal study of aging. Dietary intake was evaluated with a self-administered semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire and categorized into quartiles. Results: After controlling for potential confounders, intake of green leafy vegetables was positively associated with normalized high-frequency power and inversely associated with normalized low-frequency power (P for trend < 0.05). These significant associations were retained after further adjustment for healthy lifestyle factors, such as physical activity and use of multivitamins. No significant association was seen between HRV measures and intakes of other fruit and vegetables, vitamin C, carotenoids, tuna and dark-meat fish, or n–3 (omega-3) fatty acids. An effect modification of intake of noncitrus fruit by obesity and of total vegetables and cruciferous vegetables by cigarette smoking was seen, which warrants further investigation. Conclusion: These findings suggest that higher intake of green leafy vegetables may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease through favorable changes in cardiac autonomic function. PMID:19158214

  2. Customer orientation among employees in public administration: a transnational, longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Korunka, Christian; Scharitzer, Dieter; Carayon, Pascale; Hoonakker, Peter; Sonnek, Angelika; Sainfort, Francois

    2007-05-01

    The relation between ergonomic principles and quality management initiatives, both, in the private and public sector, has received increasing attention in the recent years. Customer orientation among employees is not only an important quality principle, but also an essential prerequisite for customer satisfaction, especially in service organizations. In this context, the objective of introducing new public management (NPM) in public-service organizations is to increase customer orientation among employees who are at the forefront of service providing. In this study, we developed a short scale to measure perceived customer orientation. In two separate longitudinal studies carried out in Austria and the US, we analyzed changes in customer orientation resulting from the introduction of NPM. In both organizations, we observed a significant increase in customer orientation. Perceived customer orientation was related to job characteristics, organizational characteristics and employee quality of working life. Creating positive influences on these characteristics within the framework of an organizational change process has positive effects on employee customer orientation. PMID:16759625

  3. Topical Administration of Pirfenidone Increases Healing of Chronic Diabetic Foot Ulcers: A Randomized Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Janka-Zires, Marcela; Uribe-Wiechers, Ana Cecilia; Juárez-Comboni, Sonia Citlali; López-Gutiérrez, Joel; Escobar-Jiménez, Jarod Jazek; Gómez-Pérez, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    Only 30 percent of chronic diabetic foot ulcers heal after 20 weeks of standard treatment. Pirfenidone is a drug with biological, anti-inflammatory, and antifibrotic effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of topical pirfenidone added to conventional treatment in noninfected chronic diabetic foot ulcers. This was a randomized crossover study. Group 1 received topical pirfenidone plus conventional treatment for 8 weeks; after this period, they were switched to receive conventional treatment only for 8 more weeks. In group 2, the order of the treatments was the opposite. The end points were complete ulcer healing and size reduction. Final data were obtained from 35 ulcers in 24 patients. Fifty-two percent of ulcers treated with pirfenidone healed before 8 weeks versus 14.3% treated with conventional treatment only (P = 0.025). Between 8 and 16 weeks, 30.8% ulcers that received pirfenidone healed versus 0% with conventional treatment (P = 0.081). By week 8, the reduction in ulcer size was 100% [73–100] with pirfenidone versus 57.5% with conventional treatment [28.9–74] (P = 0.011). By week 16, the reduction was 93% [42.7–100] with pirfenidone and 21.8% [8–77.5] with conventional treatment (P = 0.050). The addition of topical pirfenidone to conventional treatment significantly improves the healing of chronic diabetic noninfected foot ulcers. PMID:27478849

  4. Orthopedic Implant Value Drivers: A Qualitative Survey Study of Hospital Purchasing Administrators.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuan Silvia; Vannabouathong, Christopher; Sprague, Sheila; Bhandari, Mohit

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic, degenerative disease that is highly prevalent in the population, yet the factors that affect purchasing decisions related to this condition are poorly understood. A questionnaire was developed and administered to hospital executives across North America to determine the factors that affect purchasing decisions related to OA. Thirty-four individuals participated in the survey. Clinical evidence and cost effectiveness were deemed to be the most important factors in the process of making purchasing decisions. The most important considerations for adopting new technology were whether there was sufficient evidence in the literature, followed by thoughts of key opinion leaders, and cost of intervention/device. Ongoing research is still needed, but the current study allowed us to identify some trends in the data, providing new insight on how hospital purchasing decisions are made, which could have an immediate impact on those currently involved with making these decisions.

  5. Day treatment and psychotropic drugs in the aftercare of schizophrenic patients. A Veterans Administration cooperative study.

    PubMed

    Linn, M W; Caffey, E M; Klett, C J; Hogarty, G E; Lamb, H R

    1979-09-01

    Schizophrenic patients referred for day treatment at the time of discharge from ten hospitals were randomly assigned to receive day treatment plus drugs or to receive drugs alone. They were tested before assignment and at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months on social functioning, symptoms, and attitudes. Community tenure and costs were also measured. The ten day centers were described on process variables every six months for the four years of the study. Some centers were found to be effective in treating chronic schizophrenic patients and others were not. All centers improved the patients' social functioning. Six of the centers were found to significantly delay relapse, reduce sumptoms, and change some attitudes. Costs for patients in these centers were not significantly different from the group receiving only drugs. More professional staff hours, group therapy, and a high patient turnover treatment philosophy were associated with poor-result centers. More occupational therapy and a sustained nonthreatening environment were more characteristic of successful outcome centers.

  6. Pilot study of the safety of starting administration of low-dose aspirin and cilostazol in acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Keishi; Komatsu, Yoji; Sato, Naoaki; Higuchi, Osamu; Kujiraoka, Yuji; Kamezaki, Takao; Suzuki, Kensuke; Matsumura, Akira

    2011-01-01

    Progressive stroke is a serious problem due to the associated morbidity and mortality. Aspirin is recommended for acute ischemic stroke, but does not reduce the frequency of stroke progression. No standard treatment has been approved for the prevention of stroke progression. Cilostazol, which reduces platelet aggregation about 3 hours after single administration, does not increase the frequency of bleeding events when compared with aspirin or a placebo. Moreover, the combination of 100 mg aspirin and 200 mg cilostazol does not increase the frequency of bleeding events compared with only 100 mg aspirin, and thus is expected to prevent stroke progression with a high degree of safety. The present study investigated the safety of this combination of two drugs administered at the above concentrations in 54 patients with acute ischemic stroke within 48 hours of stroke onset. Modified National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) measurements were performed at baseline and again on day 4 to 7. Progressive stroke was defined as an increase greater than or equal to 1 point on NIHSS. Patient scores on the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) were evaluated at baseline and 3 months after enrollment. Stroke progression occurred in 11.1% of the patients. The percentages of patients with mRS score from 0 to 2 were 42.6% and 75% at baseline and 3 months, respectively. No symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage or major extracranial hemorrhage occurred. These results suggest that administration of aspirin and cilostazol is safe for acute ischemic stroke.

  7. Bioequivalence Study of Two Long-Acting Formulations of Oxytetracycline Following Intramuscular Administration in Bovines

    PubMed Central

    Mestorino, Nora; Marchetti, María Laura; Lucas, Mariana Florencia; Modamio, Pilar; Zeinsteger, Pedro; Fernández Lastra, Cecilia; Segarra, Ignacio; Mariño, Eduardo Luis

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioequivalence of two commercial long-acting formulations based on oxytetracycline (OTC) hydrochloride between the reference formulation (Terramycin LA, Pfizer) and a test formulation (Cyamicin LA, Fort Dodge Saude Animal). Both formulations were administered in a single intramuscular route at a dose of 20 mg OTC/kg of body weight in clinically healthy bovines. The study was carried out according to a one-period parallel design. Plasma samples were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The limit of quantitation was 0.050 μg/mL with an accuracy of 101.67% with a coefficient of variation of 13.15%. Analysis of variance and 90% confidence interval tests were used to compare the bioavailability parameters (maximum plasma concentration, Cmax, and the area under the concentration-versus-time curve extrapolated to infinity, AUC0–∞) of both products. In the case of the time to maximum concentration (Tmax), non-parametric tests based on Wilcoxon’s signed rank test were preferred. The comparison of the mean AUC0–∞ values did not reveal any significant differences (311.40 ± 93.05 μg h/mL and 287.71 ± 45.31 μg h/mL, respectively). The results were similar for the Tmax (3.58 ± 0.90 h versus 3.42 ± 0.51 h). However, when comparing the mean Cmax some significant differences were found (8.73 ± 3.66 μg/mL and 10.43 ± 3.84 μg/mL, respectively). The 90% confidence intervals for the ratio of AUC0–∞ and Tmax values for the reference and test product are within the interval 80–125%, but the 90% confidence intervals for the ratio of Cmax falls outside the proposed interval. It was concluded that Cmax of test product are not within the 20% of those of the reference, thus suggesting that test OTC is not bioequivalent to the reference formulation. PMID:27446938

  8. Bioequivalence Study of Two Long-Acting Formulations of Oxytetracycline Following Intramuscular Administration in Bovines.

    PubMed

    Mestorino, Nora; Marchetti, María Laura; Lucas, Mariana Florencia; Modamio, Pilar; Zeinsteger, Pedro; Fernández Lastra, Cecilia; Segarra, Ignacio; Mariño, Eduardo Luis

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioequivalence of two commercial long-acting formulations based on oxytetracycline (OTC) hydrochloride between the reference formulation (Terramycin LA, Pfizer) and a test formulation (Cyamicin LA, Fort Dodge Saude Animal). Both formulations were administered in a single intramuscular route at a dose of 20 mg OTC/kg of body weight in clinically healthy bovines. The study was carried out according to a one-period parallel design. Plasma samples were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The limit of quantitation was 0.050 μg/mL with an accuracy of 101.67% with a coefficient of variation of 13.15%. Analysis of variance and 90% confidence interval tests were used to compare the bioavailability parameters (maximum plasma concentration, C max, and the area under the concentration-versus-time curve extrapolated to infinity, AUC0-∞) of both products. In the case of the time to maximum concentration (T max), non-parametric tests based on Wilcoxon's signed rank test were preferred. The comparison of the mean AUC0-∞ values did not reveal any significant differences (311.40 ± 93.05 μg h/mL and 287.71 ± 45.31 μg h/mL, respectively). The results were similar for the T max (3.58 ± 0.90 h versus 3.42 ± 0.51 h). However, when comparing the mean C max some significant differences were found (8.73 ± 3.66 μg/mL and 10.43 ± 3.84 μg/mL, respectively). The 90% confidence intervals for the ratio of AUC0-∞ and T max values for the reference and test product are within the interval 80-125%, but the 90% confidence intervals for the ratio of C max falls outside the proposed interval. It was concluded that C max of test product are not within the 20% of those of the reference, thus suggesting that test OTC is not bioequivalent to the reference formulation. PMID:27446938

  9. Comparative in vitro study of the antimicrobial activities of different commercial antibiotic products for intravenous administration

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The antimicrobial resistance is a global problem, probably due to the indiscriminate and irrational use of antibiotics, prescriptions for incorrect medicines or incorrect determinations of dose, route and/or duration. Another consideration is the uncertainty of patients receiving antibiotics about whether the quality of a generic medicine is equal to, greater than or less than its equivalent brand-name drug. The antibiotics behaviors must be evaluated in vitro and in vivo in order to confirm their suitability for therapeutic use. Methods The antimicrobial activities of Meropenem and Piperacillin/Tazobactam were studied by microbiological assays to determine their potencies (content), minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs), critical concentrations and capacity to produce spontaneous drug-resistant mutants. Results With respect to potency (content) all the products fulfill USP requirements, so they should all be considered pharmaceutical equivalents. The MIC values of the samples evaluated (trade marks and generics) were the same for each strain tested, indicating that all products behaved similarly. The critical concentration values were very similar for all samples, and the ratios between the critical concentration of the standard and those of each sample were similar to the ratios of their specific antibiotic contents. Overall, therefore, the results showed no significant differences among samples. Finally, the production of spontaneous mutants did not differ significantly among the samples evaluated. Conclusions All the samples are pharmaceutical equivalents and the products can be used in antimicrobial therapy. PMID:20113478

  10. A 4-week Repeated Dose Toxicity Study of Glycine in Rats by Gavage Administration

    PubMed Central

    Shibui, Yusuke; Miwa, Tadashi; Yamashita, Mayumi; Chin, Keigi; Kodama, Terutaka

    2013-01-01

    In order to examine the toxicity profile of glycine, an authorized food additive, a solution of glycine in water for injection was administered orally (via gavage) to male SD rats (Crl:CD(SD)) once daily for 4 weeks at doses of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg/day in a volume of 10 mL/kg. Control animals received vehicle only. No animals died, and no glycine-related changes were observed in body weight, food consumption, water consumption, hematology, organ weight, gross pathological examination or histopathological examination. In urinalysis, daily urinary volume and urinary Cl excretion were significantly higher in the 2000 mg/kg/day dose group, and urine pH and urinary protein showed lower trends in the glycine-treated groups. However, these changes were considered to be of little toxicological significance, because there were no histopathological changes in the kidneys or urinary bladder and no changes in other urinary parameters. As regards blood chemistry, phospholipids were significantly higher in the 2000 mg/kg/day dose group. However, the increase was small and was not considered to be toxicologically significant. In conclusion, none of the animals in any of the glycine-treated groups showed changes that were considered toxicologically significant. Therefore, the no-observed-adverse-effect level of glycine was estimated to be at least 2000 mg/kg/day under the conditions of this study. PMID:24526813

  11. A 4-week Repeated Dose Toxicity Study of Glycine in Rats by Gavage Administration.

    PubMed

    Shibui, Yusuke; Miwa, Tadashi; Yamashita, Mayumi; Chin, Keigi; Kodama, Terutaka

    2013-12-01

    In order to examine the toxicity profile of glycine, an authorized food additive, a solution of glycine in water for injection was administered orally (via gavage) to male SD rats (Crl:CD(SD)) once daily for 4 weeks at doses of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg/day in a volume of 10 mL/kg. Control animals received vehicle only. No animals died, and no glycine-related changes were observed in body weight, food consumption, water consumption, hematology, organ weight, gross pathological examination or histopathological examination. In urinalysis, daily urinary volume and urinary Cl excretion were significantly higher in the 2000 mg/kg/day dose group, and urine pH and urinary protein showed lower trends in the glycine-treated groups. However, these changes were considered to be of little toxicological significance, because there were no histopathological changes in the kidneys or urinary bladder and no changes in other urinary parameters. As regards blood chemistry, phospholipids were significantly higher in the 2000 mg/kg/day dose group. However, the increase was small and was not considered to be toxicologically significant. In conclusion, none of the animals in any of the glycine-treated groups showed changes that were considered toxicologically significant. Therefore, the no-observed-adverse-effect level of glycine was estimated to be at least 2000 mg/kg/day under the conditions of this study. PMID:24526813

  12. A Case Study of Early Experience with Implementation of Collaborative Care in the Veterans Health Administration

    PubMed Central

    Kunik, Mark E.; Shepherd, Alexandra; Kirchner, JoAnn; Gottumukkala, Aruna

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Primary care remains critically important for those who suffer from mental disorders. Although collaborative care, which integrates mental health services into primary care, has been shown to be more effective than usual care, its implementation has been slow and the experience of providers and patients with collaborative care is less well known. The objective of this case study was to examine the effects of collaborative care on patient and primary care provider (PCP) experiences and communication during clinical encounters. Participating physicians completed a self-administered visit reconstruction questionnaire in which they logged details of patient visits and described their perceptions of the visits and the influence of collaborative care. Audio recordings of visits were analyzed to assess the extent of discussion about colocated mental health services and visit time devoted to mental health topics. The main outcome measures were the extent of discussion and recommendation for collaborative care during clinical visits and providers' experiences based on their responses to the visit reconstruction questionnaire. Providers surveyed expressed enthusiasm about collaborative care and cited the time constraint of office visits and lack of specialty support as the main reasons for limiting their discussion of mental health topics with patients. Despite the availability of mental health providers at the same clinic, PCPs missed many opportunities to address mental health issues with their patients. Ongoing education for PCPs regarding how to conduct a “warm handoff” to colocated providers will need to be an integral part of the implementation of collaborative care. (Population Health Management 2010;13:331–337) PMID:21090989

  13. Intracerebral administration of CpG oligonucleotide for patients with recurrent glioblastoma: a phase II study.

    PubMed

    Carpentier, Alexandre; Metellus, Philippe; Ursu, Renata; Zohar, Sarah; Lafitte, Francois; Barrié, Maryline; Meng, Yuxia; Richard, Margaretha; Parizot, Christophe; Laigle-Donadey, Florence; Gorochov, Guy; Psimaras, Dimitri; Sanson, Marc; Tibi, Annick; Chinot, Olivier; Carpentier, Antoine F

    2010-04-01

    Immunostimulating oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG motifs (CpG-ODN) have shown promising efficacy in cancer models when injected locally. In a phase I clinical trial, intratumoral infusions of CpG-ODN in glioblastoma (GBM) patients were well tolerated at doses up to 20 mg. This phase II trial was designed to study the efficacy of a local treatment by CpG-ODN in patients with recurrent GBMs. Patients with recurrent GBM occurring at least 3 months after radiotherapy, and previously treated with 1 or 2 regimens of chemotherapy received 20 mg of CpG-ODN (CpG-28) by convection-enhanced delivery. The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients without tumor progression 6 months after inclusion. Secondary endpoints were tolerance, survival, and radiological response. Thirty-four patients were enrolled in two centers between November 2004 and March 2006. Thirty-one patients received CpG-ODN treatment. The progression-free survival (PFS) at 6 months was 19%. One partial response and 3 minor responses were observed. The median overall survival was 28 weeks. Eight patients (24%) were alive 1 year after inclusion and 5 patients (15%) were alive after 2 years. Treatment was usually well tolerated. As reported previously, the most common toxicities were lymphopenia, mild fever, seizures, and transient neurological worsening. Despite a few cases showing a radiological response, CpG-28 showed modest activity on the 6-month PFS in this patient population. The molecular or clinical characteristics of a subgroup of patients that could potentially benefit from such an approach remain to be defined. PMID:20308317

  14. Sedation and mechanical antinociception after intravenous administration of detomidine in donkeys: a dosage-effect study.

    PubMed

    Lizarraga, Ignacio; Castillo-Alcala, Fernanda; Varner, Kelley M; Robinson, Lauren S

    2015-02-21

    There is limited, useful, scientific information on detomidine in donkeys. This study compared the effects of intravenous saline, detomidine (10, 13.5, 17 and 20 μg/kg) and acepromazine (50 μg/kg) in donkeys by computing areas under the curve for 0-30, 30-60 and 60-120 minutes (AUC0-30, AUC30-60 and AUC60-120) for sedation scores, head heights and mechanical nociceptive thresholds (MNTs). For sedation scores, all detomidine treatments, except 10 μg/kg, increased AUC0-30 values compared with saline, and AUC0-30 values were larger for 17 μg/kg detomidine than for acepromazine. All head height AUC values were lower for detomidine than for saline (except AUC60-120 for 10 μg/kg detomidine) and acepromazine (except AUC0-30 for 10 and 20 μg/kg detomidine, and AUC60-120 for 10 μg/kg detomidine). For MNTs, all detomidine treatments increased AUC0-30 and AUC30-60 values compared with saline and acepromazine; AUC30-60 values were smaller for 10 μg/kg than for 17 and 20 μg/kg detomidine. MNT AUC60-120 values were larger for 20 μg/kg detomidine than for saline, 10 μg/kg detomidine and acepromazine. Detomidine induced sedation and antinociception, but only antinociception was dosage dependent. Selection of detomidine dosage for donkeys may depend on the required duration of sedation and/or degree of analgesia.

  15. An investigation into the vancomycin concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid due to vancomycin intraventricular administration in newborns: a study of 13 cases.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Nobuaki; Hisata, Ken; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2015-06-01

    Treatment against shunt infection by transvenous antimicrobial treatment is difficult, with a high risk of relapse. Consequently, to maintain a sufficient cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentration, intraventricular administration is utilized in combination with the transvenous administration of vancomycin (VCM). Few studies have so far investigated the optimum administration dose for newborns and the concentration in the CSF. Therefore, we chronologically measured the VCM concentration in the CSF after VCM intraventricular administration in newborns and attempted to elucidate the optimum administration method.The participants consisted of newborns admitted to Juntendo University Neonatal intensive care unit from March 2007 to June 2011 who underwent interventricular shunting placement. VCM was intraventricularly administered to 10 patients for a total of 13 cases. The CSF concentration of VCM was chronologically measured at 12 to 120  hours following the intraventricular administration of VCM.The intraventricular administration groups with VCM of 20 (n = 6) and 10  mg (n = 2) had a high concentration in the CSF at 24  hours following administration (95-168  mg/L), with the concentration remaining high at 72  hours (13.2-72  mg/L). At the same time, in the 5  mg group (n = 5), the concentration in the CSF 24  hours following VCM administration was sufficiently maintained (33.2-62.9  mg/L), with a sufficient trough concentration still maintained at 72  hours (11.7-16.5  mg/L).The concentration in the CSF is prolonged in newborns, thus allowing a sufficient therapeutic range to be maintained even at an intraventricular administration of 5  mg. It is therefore believed that the monitoring of the CSF is very important regarding the administration interval because the VCM concentration in the CSF differs depending on the case.

  16. Neurophysiological effects of acute oxytocin administration: systematic review and meta-analysis of placebo-controlled imaging studies

    PubMed Central

    Wigton, Rebekah; Radua, Jocham; Allen, Paul; Averbeck, Bruno; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; McGuire, Philip; Shergill, Sukhi S.; Fusar-Poli, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Background Oxytocin (OXT) plays a prominent role in social cognition and may have clinical applications for disorders such as autism, schizophrenia and social anxiety. The neural basis of its mechanism of action remains unclear. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review of placebo-controlled imaging studies using OXT as a pharmacological manipulator of brain activity. Results We identified a total of 21 studies for inclusion in our review, and after applying additional selection criteria, 11 of them were included in our fMRI voxel-based meta-analysis. The results demonstrate consistent alterations in activation of brain regions, including the temporal lobes and insula, during the processing of social stimuli, with some variation dependent on sex and task. The meta-analysis revealed significant left insular hyperactivation after OXT administration, suggesting a potential modulation of neural circuits underlying emotional processing. Limitations This quantitative review included only a limited number of studies, thus the conclusions of our analysis should be interpreted cautiously. This limited sample size precluded a more detailed exploration of potential confounding factors, such as sex or other demographic factors, that may have affected our meta-analysis. Conclusion Oxytocin has a wide range of effects over neural activity in response to social and emotional processing, which is further modulated by sex and task specificity. The magnitude of this neural activation is largest in the temporal lobes, and a meta-analysis across all tasks and both sexes showed that the left insula demonstrated the most robust activation to OXT administration. PMID:25520163

  17. Recent Change in Treatment of Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation in Japan: An Epidemiological Study Based on a National Administrative Database.

    PubMed

    Murata, Atsuhiko; Okamoto, Kohji; Mayumi, Toshihiko; Muramatsu, Keiji; Matsuda, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the time trends and hospital factors affecting the use of drugs for infectious disease-associated disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) based on a national administrative database. A total of 14 324 patients with infectious disease-associated DIC were referred to 1041 hospitals from 2010 to 2012 in Japan. Patients' data were collected from the administrative database to determine time trends and hospital factors affecting the use of drugs for DIC. Three study periods were established, namely, the fiscal years 2010 (n = 3308), 2011 (n = 5403), and 2012 (n = 5613). The use of antithrombin, heparin, protease inhibitors, and recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin (rhs-TM) for DIC was evaluated. The frequency of use of antithrombin, heparin, and protease inhibitors decreased while that of rhs-TM significantly increased from 2010 to 2012 in Japan (25.1% in 2010, 43.1% in 2011, and 56.8% in 2012; P < .001, respectively). Logistic regression showed that the study period was associated with the use of rhs-TM in patients with DIC. The odds ratio (OR) for 2011 was 2.34 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.12-2.58; P < .001) whereas that for 2012 was 4.34 (95% CI, 3.94-4.79; P < .001). A large hospital size was the most significant factor associated with the use of rhs-TM in patients with DIC (OR, 3.14; 95% CI, 2.68-3.66; P < .001). The use of rhs-TM has dramatically increased. A large hospital size was significantly associated with the increased use of rhs-TM in patients with DIC from 2010 to 2012 in Japan.

  18. Administrative IT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Katherine, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    When it comes to Administrative IT solutions and processes, best practices range across the spectrum. Enterprise resource planning (ERP), student information systems (SIS), and tech support are prominent and continuing areas of focus. But widespread change can also be accomplished via the implementation of campuswide document imaging and sharing,…

  19. Database Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  20. ADMINISTRATIVE CLIMATE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRUCE, ROBERT L.; CARTER, G.L., JR.

    IN THE COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, STYLES OF LEADERSHIP PROFOUNDLY AFFECT THE QUALITY OF THE SERVICE RENDERED. ACCORDINGLY, MAJOR INFLUENCES ON ADMINISTRATIVE CLIMATE AND EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY ARE EXAMINED IN ESSAYS ON (1) SOURCES OF JOB SATISFACTION AND DISSATISFACTION, (2) MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES BASED ON JOB-RELATED SATISFACTIONS AND NEEDS,…

  1. Engineering Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    This book is intended to acquaint naval engineering officers with their duties in the engineering department. Standard shipboard organizations are analyzed in connection with personnel assignments, division operations, and watch systems. Detailed descriptions are included for the administration of directives, ship's bills, damage control, training…

  2. Comparative study of doses of exogenous progesterone administration needed to delay parturition in Jcl:MCH(ICR) mice.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Haruo; Eto, Tomoo; Endo, Keiko; Itai, Gen; Kamisako, Tsutomu; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Ito, Mamoru

    2010-01-01

    The effects of progesterone (P4) used in physiological studies and in delayed parturition in reproductive engineering were examined. A dose of 0.25, 0.5, 1, or 2 mg of P4 was repeatedly administered to Jcl:MCH(ICR) mice on days 17 and 18 of gestation, and plasma concentrations of P4 were investigated. The P4 concentrations in mothers and fetuses after administration of exogenous P4 were no differences between doses of 1 and 2 mg. Jcl:MCH(ICR) mothers administered a P4 dose of 1 mg did not give birth. Therefore, we consider 2 mg of P4 is an overdose and that it is evident that a dose of 1 mg P4 is sufficient to induce delayed parturition.

  3. Feasibility study: Application of RCM techniques for substation maintenance at the Bonneville Power Administration. [Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM)

    SciTech Connect

    Purucker, S.L.; Tonn, B.E.; Goeltz, R.T.; James, R.D.; Kercel, S.; Rizy, D.T.; Simpson, M.L.; Van Dyke, J.W.

    1992-05-28

    This feasibility study examines reliability centered maintenance (RCM) as it applies to Bonneville Power Administrations (BPA) substation maintenance program. Reliability techniques are examined in evaluated. Existing BPA equipment maintenance procedures are documented. Equipment failure history is considered. Economic impacts are estimated. Various equipment instrumentation methods are reviewed. Based on this analysis a prototype system is proposed. The prototype will be implemented in two phases. Phase 1 is to be completed in 1992, it includes instrumenting one power transformer and one oil circuit breaker. Software development will focus on displaying data. Phase 2 is to be completed the following year. The remaining transformers and breakers will be instrumented during the second phase. Software development will focus on predictive maintenance techniques and maintenance decision support.

  4. The effects of acute ethanol administration on ethanol withdrawal-induced anxiety-like syndrome in rats: A biochemical study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Jaya; Hapidin, Hermizi; Get Bee, Yvonne-Tee; Ismail, Zalina

    2016-02-01

    Withdrawal from long-term ethanol consumption results in overexcitation of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the amygdala, which induces an anxiety-like syndrome. Most alcoholics that suffer from such symptoms frequently depend on habitual drinking as self-medication to alleviate their symptoms. Metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5) and protein kinase C (PKC) epsilon have been reported to mediate acute and chronic effects of ethanol. This study explores the changes in mGlu5 and PKC epsilon in the amygdala following acute administration of ethanol during ethanol withdrawal (EW) induced anxiety. Male Wistar rats were fed a modified liquid diet containing low-fat cow milk, sucrose, and maltodextrin, with a gradual introduction of 2.4%, 4.8% and 7.2% ethanol for 20 days. Six hours into EW, the rats were intraperitoneally injected with normal saline and ethanol (2.5 g/kg, 20% v/v), and exposed to open-field and elevated plus maze tests. Then, amygdala tissue was dissected from the rat brain for Western blot and gene expression studies. EW-induced anxiety was accompanied by a significant increase in mGlu5, total PKC epsilon, and phosphorylated PKC epsilon protein levels, and also of mRNA of mGlu5 (GRM5) in the amygdala. Acute administration of ethanol significantly attenuated EW-induced anxiety as well as an EW-induced increase in GRM5. The acute challenge of ethanol to EW rats had little effect on the phosphorylated and total protein levels of PKC epsilon in the amygdala. Our results demonstrate that amygdala PKC epsilon may not be directly involved in the development of anxiety following EW.

  5. Pharmacokinetic study of enrofloxacin in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after a single oral administration in medicated feed.

    PubMed

    Teles, J A; Castello Branco, L C; Del Bianchi, M; Pilarski, F; Reyes, F G R

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the disposition kinetics of enrofloxacin (ENR) in the plasma and its distribution in the muscle tissue of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after a single oral dose of 10 mg/kg body weight via medicated feed. The fish were kept at a temperature between 28 and 30 °C. The collection period was between 30 min and 120 h after administration of the drug. The samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD). The ENR was slowly absorbed and eliminated from the plasma (Cmax = 1.24 ± 0.37 μg/mL; Tmax = 8 h; T1/2Ke  = 19.36 h). ENR was efficiently distributed in the muscle tissue and reached maximum values (2.17 ± 0.74 μg/g) after 8 h. Its metabolite, ciprofloxacin (CIP), was detected and quantified in the plasma (0.004 ± 0.005 μg/mL) and muscle (0.01 ± 0.011 μg/g) for up to 48 h. After oral administration, the mean concentration of ENR in the plasma was well above the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC50 ) for most bacteria already isolated from fish except for Streptococcus spp. This way the dose used in this study allowed for concentrations in the blood to treat the diseases of tilapia. PMID:26270353

  6. A new administration form of the nasal decongestant oxymetazoline: a study on the change of ostial patency in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Jannert, M; Fryksmark, U; Ackerhans, M; Nilson, K

    1994-06-01

    A new administration form of the nasal decongestant oxymetazoline and the effect on patency of the maxillary ostium was investigated in five healthy volunteers. Registration and comparison of the equivalent diameter after administration of placebo spray and oxymetazoline spray, placebo solution and oxymetazoline solution were performed. It is our impression that administration of solution with the new spring-bellows container compared to spray oxymetazoline, is a more effective way of increasing the equivalent diameter of the maxillary ostium.

  7. Intranasal administration of nanostructured lipid carriers containing CNS acting drug: pharmacodynamic studies and estimation in blood and brain.

    PubMed

    Alam, M Intakhab; Baboota, Sanjula; Ahuja, Alka; Ali, Mushir; Ali, Javed; Sahni, Jasjeet K

    2012-09-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate and compare the efficacy of duloxetine (DLX) loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) with DLX solution pharmacodynamically following intranasal administration. The study was further conducted to estimate DLX concentration in brain and blood. DLX was administered to albino Wistar rats either intranasally or orally in solution form (DLX solution) or encapsulated in NLC (DLX-NLC). These were evaluated in-vivo for pharmacodynamic studies for depression by forced swimming test and locomotor activity test. Intranasal DLX-NLC treatment exhibited improved behavioural analysis results (swimming, climbing, and immobility) than the DLX solution after 24 h of study. Furthermore, DLX-NLC significantly increased the total swimming and climbing time when compared with control and significantly reduced the immobility period. The intranasal DLX-NLC demonstrated improved locomotor activity when compared with DLX solution. Amount of DLX was quantified in blood and brain after the forced swimming test. The intranasal DLX-NLC demonstrated higher concentration in brain compared with DLX solution. Thus, intranasal DLX-NLC was found to be a promising formulation for the treatment of depression.

  8. Comparative study on toxic effects induced by oral or intravascular administration of commonly used disinfectants and surfactants in rats.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yuying; Zhang, Shanshan; Tang, Meng; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Yiqing; Hieda, Yoko; Takeshita, Haruo

    2012-07-01

    Accidental ingestion or injection of household products sometimes occurs due to their accessibility, but the toxic manifestations have not been well characterized when they are internally administered. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxic effects induced by ingestion or injection of different ionic surfactants and disinfectants in rats. The test drugs involved benzalkonium and benzethonium (BZK and BZT, both cationic surfactants used as disinfectants), alkyldiaminoethylglycine (AEG, an amphoteric surfactant used as a disinfectant), linear alkylbenzenesulfonate (LAS, an anionic surfactant), polyoxyethylene cetylether (PEC, a nonionic surfactant), chlorhexidine (CHX, not a surfactant but a disinfectant) and saline (control). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered one of the test drugs orally (p.o.), intravenously (i.v.) or intraarterially (i.a.). The fatal effects appeared rapidly (<30 min) in i.v.-administered rats, while taking hours (>5 h) in i.a./p.o.-administered rats after a dose of around LD(50) , although the progress and degree of toxic effects varied among the drugs tested. In intravascular administration, BZK and BZT were fatal at doses of 15-20 mg kg(-1) . Higher concentrations in lung and kidney than in blood were determined. CHX showed a high toxic effect compared with cationic surfactants. The rats administered anionic (LAS) or amphoteric (AEG) surfactant died in less than 24 h at doses over 100 mg kg(-1) . In p.o. administration, the toxic effects were concentration/dose-dependent, and all rats administered high doses of surfactants except for PEC died at 5-20 h. The overall toxic ranks could be: cationic surfactant/CHX> anionic/amphoteric surfactant > nonionic surfactant.

  9. Evaluation of hyperglycaemic response to intra-operative dexamethasone administration in patients undergoing elective intracranial surgery: A randomised, prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Rakesh; Naqash, Imtiaz A.; Bajwa, Sukhminder Jit Singh; Dutta, Vikas; Ramzan, Altaf Umar; Zahoor, Syed Amir

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim: The glucocorticoid dexamethasone in a bolus dose of 8-10 mg followed by quarterly dose of 4 mg is commonly used during intracranial surgery so as to reduce oedema and vascular permeability. However, the detrimental hyperglycaemic effects of dexamethasone may override its potentially beneficial effects. The present prospective, randomised study aimed at comparing the degree and magnitude of hyperglycaemia induced by prophylactic administration of dexamethasone in patients undergoing elective craniotomy. Materials and Methods: Sixty American Society of Anaesthesiologist (ASA) grade-I and II patients were randomly assigned to three groups of 20 patients each. Group-I received dexamethasone during surgery for the first time. Group-II received dexamethasone in addition to receiving it pre-operatively, whereas Group-III (control group) patients were administered normal saline as placebo. Baseline blood glucose (BG) was measured in all the three groups before induction of anaesthesia and thereafter after every hour for 4 h and then two-hourly. Besides intra- and intergroup comparison of BG, peak BG concentration was also recorded for each patient. Statistical analysis was carried out with analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Student's t-test and value of P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Baseline BG reading were higher and statistically significant in Group-II as compared with Group-I and Group-III (P < 0.05). However, peak BG levels were significantly higher in Group-I than in Group-II and III (P < 0.05). Similarly, the magnitude of change in peak BG was significantly higher in Group-I as compared to Group-II and III (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Peri-operative administration of dexamethasone during neurosurgical procedures can cause significant increase in BG concentration especially in patients who receive dexamethasone intra-operatively only. PMID:27057213

  10. Health Economics Studies Information Exchange; Reports of Current Research in Health Economics, and Medical Care Administration. Publication No. 1719.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Arlington, VA. Home Economics Branch.

    The first volume of a continuing series reporting research in progress in health economics and medical care organization and administration was compiled by contacting (1) graduate schools offering degrees in the health professions, sociology, economics, public administration, and public health, (2) charitable foundations indicating an interest in…

  11. 3 to 1: That's the Best Ratio of Tenure-Track Faculty to Administrators, a Study Concludes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    In the long-running debate over how many administrators are too many, two economic researchers believe they have identified an ideal ratio. For colleges to operate most effectively, they say, each institution should employ three tenured or tenure-track faculty for every one full-time administrator. What the ratio is now is difficult to say, though…

  12. A Phenomenological Study of Perceptions of Early Childhood Administrators Related to Transformational Leadership, Educational Paths, and Organizational Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Lori

    2012-01-01

    Early childhood (EC) administrators could be the most important contributors to quality experiences in EC settings; they are also responsible for the caliber of experiences for children and staff. A quality EC program is licensed and accredited with administrators who have professional preparation and work experience and can lead and manage EC…

  13. Administrators in Action--Managing Public Monies and Processing Emotion in School Activities: A Teaching Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenuto, Penny L.; Gardiner, Mary E.; Yamamoto, Julie K.

    2015-01-01

    This teaching case describes school administrators in action performing day-to-day leadership tasks, managing public funds in school activities, and interacting with others appropriately. The case focuses on administrative challenges in handling and managing school activity funds. A method for processing emotion is discussed to assist…

  14. Biases in detection of apparent “weekend effect” on outcome with administrative coding data: population based study of stroke

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linxin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the accuracy of coding of admissions for stroke on weekdays versus weekends and any impact on apparent outcome. Design Prospective population based stroke incidence study and a scoping review of previous studies of weekend effects in stroke. Setting Primary and secondary care of all individuals registered with nine general practices in Oxfordshire, United Kingdom (OXVASC, the Oxford Vascular Study). Participants All patients with clinically confirmed acute stroke in OXVASC identified with multiple overlapping methods of ascertainment in 2002-14 versus all acute stroke admissions identified by hospital diagnostic and mortality coding alone during the same period. Main outcomes measures Accuracy of administrative coding data for all patients with confirmed stroke admitted to hospital in OXVASC. Difference between rates of “false positive” or “false negative” coding for weekday and weekend admissions. Impact of inaccurate coding on apparent case fatality at 30 days in weekday versus weekend admissions. Weekend effects on outcomes in patients with confirmed stroke admitted to hospital in OXVASC and impacts of other potential biases compared with those in the scoping review. Results Among 92 728 study population, 2373 episodes of acute stroke were ascertained in OXVASC, of which 826 (34.8%) mainly minor events were managed without hospital admission, 60 (2.5%) occurred out of the area or abroad, and 195 (8.2%) occurred in hospital during an admission for a different reason. Of 1292 local hospital admissions for acute stroke, 973 (75.3%) were correctly identified by administrative coding. There was no bias in distribution of weekend versus weekday admission of the 319 strokes missed by coding. Of 1693 admissions for stroke identified by coding, 1055 (62.3%) were confirmed to be acute strokes after case adjudication. Among the 638 false positive coded cases, patients were more likely to be admitted on weekdays than at weekends (536

  15. Characterization and release studies of liposomal gels containing glutathione/cyclodextrins complexes potentially useful for cutaneous administration.

    PubMed

    Cutrignelli, Annalisa; Lopedota, Angela; Denora, Nunzio; Laquintana, Valentino; Tongiani, Serena; Franco, Massimo

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this work is to develop and characterize a formulation intended for the cutaneous administration of glutathione (γ-glutamylcysteinylglycine, GSH), potentially useful for cellular defense against UV-induced damage. For this purpose, liposomes containing GSH or GSH/cyclodextrins(CDs) inclusion complexes as well as liposomes dispersed within a hydrophilic gel, were evaluated. These formulations were designed in order to obtain a system combining the advantages of liposomes as vehicles for topical drug delivery with those of CDs as penetration enhancers. The studied CDs were the natural (β-CD) and chemically modified (i.e., HP-β-CD and CH3 -β-CD) cyclodextrins. The prepared liposomes showed homogeneous size distribution, mean diameter in the range 622-1435 nm, small positive charge (+3.1 to +6.6 mV), and encapsulation efficiency of the peptide in the range 13.6%-23.7%. Release studies showed that the presence of the oligosaccharide may influence to some extent the amount of drug released, whereas stability studies clearly point out that the incorporation in a hydrophilic gel of 2-hydroxyethylcellulose insures a stable formulation maintaining unchanged the characteristics of liposomal vesicles.

  16. Prions efficiently cross the intestinal barrier after oral administration: Study of the bioavailability, and cellular and tissue distribution in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Urayama, Akihiko; Concha-Marambio, Luis; Khan, Uffaf; Bravo-Alegria, Javiera; Kharat, Vineetkumar; Soto, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Natural forms of prion diseases frequently originate by oral (p.o.) infection. However, quantitative information on the gastro-intestinal (GI) absorption of prions (i.e. the bioavailability and subsequent biodistribution) is mostly unknown. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the fate of prions after oral administration, using highly purified radiolabeled PrPSc. The results showed a bi-phasic reduction of PrPSc with time in the GI, except for the ileum and colon which showed sustained increases peaking at 3–6 hr, respectively. Plasma and whole blood 125I-PrPSc reached maximal levels by 30 min and 3 hr, respectively, and blood levels were constantly higher than plasma. Upon crossing the GI-tract 125I-PrPSc became associated to blood cells, suggesting that binding to cells decreased the biological clearance of the agent. Size-exclusion chromatography revealed that oligomeric 125I-PrPSc were transported from the intestinal tract, and protein misfolding cyclic amplification showed that PrPSc in organs and blood retained the typical prion self-replicating ability. Pharmacokinetic analysis found the oral bioavailability of 125I-PrPSc to be 33.6%. Interestingly, 125I-PrPSc reached the brain in a quantity equivalent to the minimum amount needed to initiate prion disease. Our findings provide a comprehensive and quantitative study of the fate of prions upon oral infection. PMID:27573341

  17. Social Media Policy on Campus: A Case Study of the Development and Implementation of a Social Media Policy for University Administrators, Faculty, and Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garber, Michelle Brooks

    2011-01-01

    This single-site qualitative study sought to address the challenges associated with the growing use of social media by university administrators, faculty, and staff (Wandel, 2007) through a case study analysis of a university with a social media policy for university employees. The study describes the development and implementation of a university…

  18. Studies of lipid profile, liver function and kidney function parameters of rat plasma after chronic administration of "Sulavajrini Vatika".

    PubMed

    Kundu, N Krishna; Ullah, M Obayed; Hamid, Kaiser; Urmi, Kaniz Fatima; Bulbul, Israt Jahan; Khan, Muhammad Atikul Islam; Akter, Momita; Choudhuri, M S K

    2012-07-15

    The successful use of Ayurvedic medicines is for many years but there is no guideline for studying the toxicity of these preparations through preclinical or clinical investigations. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of conventionally prepared Sulavajrini Vatika (SBB), an Ayurvedic formulation on various biochemical parameters of experimental animals after chronic administration. The animal used was albino rats (Rattus norvegicus: Sprague-Dawley strain) and SBB was administered orally at a single dose of 100 mg kg(-1) b.wt. day(-1), up to 62 days. During the study, forty rats, equally of both sexes, were randomly grouped into four where one male and one female group were used as control and other groups were used as test. Among the lipid components, Triglyceride (TG) was decreased very high significantly in both sexes of animal. The decrease of Total Cholesterol (TC), Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were also highly significant. Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) decreased in all SBB treated group. In the liver function parameters, the total protein and albumin content were increased very high significantly in both sexes of rat. But the bilirubin was decreased insignificantly in male and female rats. Serum Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase (GPT), Glutamic Oxaloacetic Transaminase (GOT) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) were decreased in all treated animals and it was very high significant. In case of kidney function parameters, creatinine was increased very high significantly but the urea was decreased very high significantly in both sexes of rat. The decrease in uric acid was not significant in none of the sexes of rat. The present study confirms that SBB can be contributory for the complications in diabetics with hyperlipidemia and nephropathy as it lowers most of the lipids components and improves liver function and kidney function parameters.

  19. 21 CFR 20.106 - Studies and reports prepared by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Drug Administration are not available for public disclosure: (1) Internal audits of agency needs and performance. (2) Records relating to the internal planning and budget process. (3) Legislative proposals...

  20. A Review of the Literature on College Administrators and Administrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, George; Uhse, Stefan

    A review of the extensive literature on college administration and college administrators reveals there are relatively few empirical studies in the field. It was also observed that: there is widespread agreement on a few broad principles; there has been a heavy emphasis on human relations and proper administrative procedures; there are fundamental…

  1. Health-selective migration among patients with rheumatoid arthritis in Québec: a cohort study using administrative data.

    PubMed

    Labrecque, Jeremy A; Kyle, Ryan P; Joseph, Lawrence; Bernatsky, Sasha

    2016-09-01

    Little is known about how rheumatoid arthritis (RA) affects an individual's ability to relocate. The current literature suggests the relationship between health and migration is often disease-specific. We sought to estimate the impact of RA diagnosis on migration within a Canadian province, comparing migration rates in residents before and after RA diagnosis. We identified a cohort of 81,181 individuals diagnosed with RA between 1998 and 2009 using Québec administrative databases. A migration was defined as a change in the first three characters of the postal code. We categorized migrations as urban or rural depending upon an individual's origin and destination. We estimated the association between RA diagnosis and migration by fitting marginal models using a generalized estimating equations approach, adjusting for age, sex, and population level socioeconomic status indicators. The vast majority of moves after RA diagnosis were within urban areas. RA diagnosis was associated with increased migration except for people around age 50 moving within urban areas. Although RA was associated with increased inter-urban migration in many demographic groups, the net result did not translate to higher rates of rural-to-urban migration after RA diagnosis. Our results suggest fairly complex associations between RA diagnosis and migration. Both age and location (urban or rural) modify this effect. Overall, we did not see a greater movement from rural-to-urban areas after RA diagnosis. This is of interest for studies of regional environmental effects on chronic disease patterns. PMID:27460818

  2. Health-selective migration among patients with rheumatoid arthritis in Québec: a cohort study using administrative data.

    PubMed

    Labrecque, Jeremy A; Kyle, Ryan P; Joseph, Lawrence; Bernatsky, Sasha

    2016-09-01

    Little is known about how rheumatoid arthritis (RA) affects an individual's ability to relocate. The current literature suggests the relationship between health and migration is often disease-specific. We sought to estimate the impact of RA diagnosis on migration within a Canadian province, comparing migration rates in residents before and after RA diagnosis. We identified a cohort of 81,181 individuals diagnosed with RA between 1998 and 2009 using Québec administrative databases. A migration was defined as a change in the first three characters of the postal code. We categorized migrations as urban or rural depending upon an individual's origin and destination. We estimated the association between RA diagnosis and migration by fitting marginal models using a generalized estimating equations approach, adjusting for age, sex, and population level socioeconomic status indicators. The vast majority of moves after RA diagnosis were within urban areas. RA diagnosis was associated with increased migration except for people around age 50 moving within urban areas. Although RA was associated with increased inter-urban migration in many demographic groups, the net result did not translate to higher rates of rural-to-urban migration after RA diagnosis. Our results suggest fairly complex associations between RA diagnosis and migration. Both age and location (urban or rural) modify this effect. Overall, we did not see a greater movement from rural-to-urban areas after RA diagnosis. This is of interest for studies of regional environmental effects on chronic disease patterns.

  3. Persistence of Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 9843 on human tonsillar surface after oral administration in fermented oatmeal gruel. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Stjernquist-Desatnik, A; Warfving, H; Johansson, M L

    2000-01-01

    The occurrence of Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 9843 on tonsillar scrapings was studied after single-dose administration. Six healthy volunteers gargled 100 ml of fermented oatmeal gruel containing 2 x 10(11) colony forming units (cfu) of Lb. plantarum DSM 9843 for 2 min and then swallowed it. Two healthy volunteers drank 50 ml fermented oatmeal gruel (containing 1 x 10(11) cfu of Lb. plantarum DSM 9843) mixed with 50 ml fruit juice, and in another experiment, 5 ml fermented oatmeal gruel (containing 1 x 10(10) cfu of Lb. plantarum DSM 9843) mixed with 95 ml fruit juice. Lb. plantarum DSM 9843 were found in tonsillar scrapings 4-8 h after intake of 2 x 10(11) cfu, for 5-8 h after intake of 1 x 10(11) cfu, and finally up to 4 h after intake of 1 x 10(10) cfu. On electron microscopy micrographs, short rod-shaped bacteria were visible 1 h after intake of the fermented oatmeal gruel, but not 2 h after intake. The results suggest that Lb. plantarum DSM 9843 possess an ability to adhere to tonsillar cells.

  4. A pilot study of the effects of chronic paroxetine administration on hippocampal N-acetylaspartate in generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Mathew, S J; Price, R B; Shungu, D C; Mao, X; Smith, E L P; Amiel, J M; Coplan, J D

    2010-08-01

    The neural basis of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is poorly characterized. The effect of chronic administration (12 weeks) of paroxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, on N-acetylaspartate (NAA), a marker of neuronal viability, was evaluated in adults with GAD using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging ((1)H MRSI) at 1.5 T. We hypothesized that, pretreatment abnormalities in hippocampal NAA/creatine (NAA/Cr) would normalize with symptomatic improvement. Nine GAD patients (mean age = 41.7 year; 4 females) received 12 weeks of open-label paroxetine treatment, flexibly dosed up to 60 mg/day. Clinical outcome was assessed with the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A). Multislice ( 1)H MRSI scans were performed at unmedicated baseline and following 6 and 12 weeks of treatment. Ten untreated healthy volunteers (HVs) (mean age = 37.1 year; 4 females) received scans at the same intervals. All patients achieved remission (HAM-A study failed to support an association between a hippocampal neuronal marker and anxiolytic response to paroxetine, and suggests further investigation of potential trait-like hippocampal abnormalities in GAD.

  5. [Study of serum concentrations and urinary excretion of secnidazole after oral administration in man. Comparison with tinidazole].

    PubMed

    Populaire, P; Decouvelaere, B; Renard, A; Pasquier, P

    1980-11-01

    Secnidazole, a derivative of 5-nitro imidazole exhibits trichomonacid, amoebicid and antimicrobial properties; it has been studied in view of its biological fate in healthy volunteers (man and woman) comparatively with tinidazole. Both products were administered orally to the same volunteers at the single dose level of 2 g. The seric concentrations and the pharmacokinetic profile were determined up to the 72nd hour after drug administration. The whole urinary excretion (unchanged product + metabolites) during the same period was determined in percent of the administered dose level. Secnidazole is particularly different from tinidazole owing to its slower blood clearance. The apparent average half-life in the ten volunteers (5 men and 5 women) is about 17 hours for secnidazole and 13 hours for tinidazole. However, for both drugs, a difference between men and women was demonstrated: in female volunteers, the decrease in blood concentrations occurs a little quicker than in male volunteers. Regarding urinary excretion, it is also a little greater in female volunteers than in male volunteers. PMID:7003510

  6. In vivo study of the mucus-permeating properties of PEG-coated nanoparticles following oral administration.

    PubMed

    Inchaurraga, Laura; Martín-Arbella, Nekane; Zabaleta, Virginia; Quincoces, Gemma; Peñuelas, Ivan; Irache, Juan M

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the mucus-permeating properties of poly(ethyleneglycol)-coated nanoparticles prepared from the copolymer of methyl vinyl ether and maleic anhydride (Gantrez® AN) after oral administration in rats. Nanoparticles were "decorated" with PEGs of different molecular masses (PEG2000, PEG6000 and PEG10000) at a PEG-to-polymer ratio of 0.125. All the PEG-coated nanoparticles displayed a mean size of ∼150 nm, slightly negative ζ values and a "brush" conformation as determined from the calculation of the PEG density. For in vivo studies, nanoparticles were labelled with either (99m)Tc or fluorescent tags. Naked nanoparticles displayed a higher ability to interact with the mucosa of the stomach than with the small intestine. However, these interactions were restricted to the mucus layer covering the epithelial surface, as visualised by fluorescence microscopy. On the contrary, PEG-coated nanoparticles moved rapidly to the intestine, as determined by imaging, and, then, were capable to develop important interactions with the mucosa, reaching the surface of the epithelium. These mucus permeating properties were more intense for nanoparticles coated with PEG2000 or PEG6000 than with PEG10000. However, the capability of nanocarriers to develop adhesive interactions within the mucosa decreased when prepared at excessive PEG densities.

  7. A comparative pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic study of FSK0808 versus reference filgrastim after repeated subcutaneous administration in healthy Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Matsuguma, Kyoko; Matsuki, Shunji; Sakamoto, Kei; Shiramoto, Masanari; Nakagawa, Misato; Kimura, Miyuki; Irie, Shin; Kaneko, Daiki; Ohnishi, Akihiro

    2015-03-01

    FSK0808, a biosimilar of filgrastim, is a recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor developed by Fuji Pharmaceuticals and Mochida Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, crossover study in healthy Japanese men, comparing the number of CD34-positive cells (CD34(+) cells) after repeated subcutaneous administration of either FSK0808 or the reference filgrastim (Gran(®) ). As primary endpoints, we compared the maximum number of CD34(+) cells (CD34(+)  Cmax ) and the time to reach CD34(+) Cmax (CD34(+) tmax ). As secondary endpoints, we compared the area under the curve for the number of CD34(+) cells over time at the 410 hours time point (CD34(+) AUC0-410 ), the parameters used to calculate the pharmacodynamic index of the absolute neutrophil count, and the pharmacokinetic parameters. Regarding the CD34(+) Cmax and the CD34(+) AUC0-410 values, the 95% confidence interval (CI) of the differences between the mean values for each drug was within the range of log(0.8)-log(1.25). With respect to the differences in the median values between drugs, the ratio against the reference filgrastim median value in the 95% CI was within the range of ± 0.2 for the CD34(+) tmax value. From these results, we considered that these drugs display equivalent pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties. PMID:27128214

  8. A micro case study of the legal and administrative arrangements for river health in the Kangaroo River (NSW).

    PubMed

    Mooney, C; Farrier, D

    2002-01-01

    Kangaroo Valley is a drinking water supply catchment for Kangaroo Valley village, parts of the Southern Highlands and Sydney. It is also a popular recreation area both for swimming and canoeing. Land use has traditionally been dominated by dairy farming but there has been significant and continuing development of land for hobby farms and rural residential subdivision. Dairy industry restructuring has affected the viability of some farms in the Valley and created additional pressure for subdivision. River health is a function of flows, water quality, riparian vegetation, geomorphology and aquatic habitat and riverine biota. River flows in the Kangaroo River are affected by water extraction and storage for urban water supply and extraction by commercial irrigators and riparian land holders which have a significant impact at low flows. Current water quality often does not meet ANZECC Guidelines for primary contact and recreation and the river is a poor source of raw drinking water. Key sources of contaminants are wastewater runoff from agriculture, and poorly performing on-site sewage management systems. Riparian vegetation, which is critical to the maintenance of in-stream ecosystems suffers from uncontrolled stock access and weed infestation. The management of land use and resulting diffuse pollution sources is critical to the long term health of the river. The Healthy Rivers Commission of New South Wales Independent Inquiry into the Shoalhaven River System Final Report July, 1999 found that the longer term protection of the health of the Kangaroo River is contingent upon achievement of patterns of land use that have regard to land capability and also to the capability of the river to withstand the impacts of inappropriate or poorly managed land uses. This micro case study of Kangaroo Valley examines the complex legal and administrative arrangements with particular reference to the management of diffuse pollution for river health. In the past, diffuse pollution has

  9. A micro case study of the legal and administrative arrangements for river health in the Kangaroo River (NSW).

    PubMed

    Mooney, C; Farrier, D

    2002-01-01

    Kangaroo Valley is a drinking water supply catchment for Kangaroo Valley village, parts of the Southern Highlands and Sydney. It is also a popular recreation area both for swimming and canoeing. Land use has traditionally been dominated by dairy farming but there has been significant and continuing development of land for hobby farms and rural residential subdivision. Dairy industry restructuring has affected the viability of some farms in the Valley and created additional pressure for subdivision. River health is a function of flows, water quality, riparian vegetation, geomorphology and aquatic habitat and riverine biota. River flows in the Kangaroo River are affected by water extraction and storage for urban water supply and extraction by commercial irrigators and riparian land holders which have a significant impact at low flows. Current water quality often does not meet ANZECC Guidelines for primary contact and recreation and the river is a poor source of raw drinking water. Key sources of contaminants are wastewater runoff from agriculture, and poorly performing on-site sewage management systems. Riparian vegetation, which is critical to the maintenance of in-stream ecosystems suffers from uncontrolled stock access and weed infestation. The management of land use and resulting diffuse pollution sources is critical to the long term health of the river. The Healthy Rivers Commission of New South Wales Independent Inquiry into the Shoalhaven River System Final Report July, 1999 found that the longer term protection of the health of the Kangaroo River is contingent upon achievement of patterns of land use that have regard to land capability and also to the capability of the river to withstand the impacts of inappropriate or poorly managed land uses. This micro case study of Kangaroo Valley examines the complex legal and administrative arrangements with particular reference to the management of diffuse pollution for river health. In the past, diffuse pollution has

  10. Reduction of Tendon Adhesions following Administration of Adaprev, a Hypertonic Solution of Mannose-6-Phosphate: Mechanism of Action Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Jason K. F.; Metcalfe, Anthony D.; Wong, Richard; Bush, Jim; Platt, Chris; Garcon, Arnaud; Goldspink, Nick; McGrouther, Duncan A.; Ferguson, Mark W. J.

    2014-01-01

    Repaired tendons may be complicated by progressive fibrosis, causing adhesion formation or tendon softening leading to tendon rupture and subsequent reduced range of motion. There are few therapies available which improve the gliding of damaged tendons in the hand. We investigate the role of Mannose 6-phosphate (M6P) in a 600 mM hypertonic solution (Adaprev) on tendon adhesion formation in vivo using a mouse model of severed tendon in conjunction with analysis of collagen synthesis, cellular proliferation and receptors involved in TGF beta signalling. Cytotoxicity was assessed by measuring tissue residency, mechanical strength and cell viability of tendons after treatment with Adaprev. To elicit potential modes of action, in vitro and ex vivo studies were performed investigating phosphorylation of p38, cell migration and proliferation. Adaprev treatment significantly (p<0.05) reduced the development of adhesions and improved collagen organisation without reducing overall collagen synthesis following tendon injury in vivo. The bioavailability of Adaprev saw a 40% reduction at the site of administration over 45 minutes and tendon fibroblasts tolerated up to 120 minutes of exposure without significant loss of cell viability or tensile strength. These favourable effects were independent of CI-MPR and TGF-β signalling and possibly highlight a novel mechanism of action related to cellular stress demonstrated by phosphorylation of p38. The effect of treatment reduced tendon fibroblast migration and transiently halted tendon fibroblast proliferation in vitro and ex vivo. Our studies demonstrate that the primary mode of action for Adaprev is potentially via a physical, non-chemical, hyperosmotic effect. PMID:25383548

  11. Influence of pregnancy on the febrile response to ICV administration of PGE1 in rats studied in a thermocline.

    PubMed

    Eliason, H L; Fewell, J E

    1997-05-01

    Rats near term of pregnancy have an attenuated febrile response to intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) when they are studied at an ambient temperature below their thermoneutral zone. Given that nonshivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue is impaired in rodents near term of pregnancy, it is possible that the attenuated febrile response is forced by impairment of this component of the autonomic thermoregulatory response. If this were the case, then near-term pregnant rats should develop a "normal" fever after PGE1 administration if they were studied in a thermocline where they could utilize behavioral as well as autonomic thermoregulatory effectors to increase their body core temperature (Tbc). Experiments were, therefore, carried out on 13 nonpregnant and 14 pregnant chronically instrumented rats in a thermocline (temperature gradient 10-40 degrees C) to investigate their Tbc responses to ICV injection of PGE1. ICV injection of 0.2 microgram PGE1 produced significant increases in Tbc and fever index in both nonpregnant and pregnant animals (day 19 of gestation); the increases, however, were significantly attenuated in the pregnant compared with the nonpregnant rats. Behavioral (e.g., selected ambient temperature) and autonomic (e.g., oxygen consumption) thermoregulatory effectors were activated to increase Tbc after ICV PGE1 in both groups of animals, but the duration of activation was shortened in pregnant compared with nonpregnant rats. The abbreviated thermoregulatory effector responses and the resulting attenuated febrile response to PGE1 in the pregnant rats may have resulted from a pregnancy-related activation of an endogenous antipyretic system.

  12. Using GIS servers and interactive maps in spectral data sharing and administration: Case study of Ahvaz Spectral Geodatabase Platform (ASGP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karami, Mojtaba; Rangzan, Kazem; Saberi, Azim

    2013-10-01

    With emergence of air-borne and space-borne hyperspectral sensors, spectroscopic measurements are gaining more importance in remote sensing. Therefore, the number of available spectral reference data is constantly increasing. This rapid increase often exhibits a poor data management, which leads to ultimate isolation of data on disk storages. Spectral data without precise description of the target, methods, environment, and sampling geometry cannot be used by other researchers. Moreover, existing spectral data (in case it accompanied with good documentation) become virtually invisible or unreachable for researchers. Providing documentation and a data-sharing framework for spectral data, in which researchers are able to search for or share spectral data and documentation, would definitely improve the data lifetime. Relational Database Management Systems (RDBMS) are main candidates for spectral data management and their efficiency is proven by many studies and applications to date. In this study, a new approach to spectral data administration is presented based on spatial identity of spectral samples. This method benefits from scalability and performance of RDBMS for storage of spectral data, but uses GIS servers to provide users with interactive maps as an interface to the system. The spectral files, photographs and descriptive data are considered as belongings of a geospatial object. A spectral processing unit is responsible for evaluation of metadata quality and performing routine spectral processing tasks for newly-added data. As a result, by using internet browser software the users would be able to visually examine availability of data and/or search for data based on descriptive attributes associated to it. The proposed system is scalable and besides giving the users good sense of what data are available in the database, it facilitates participation of spectral reference data in producing geoinformation.

  13. Switching from subcutaneous insulin injection to oral vildagliptin administration in hemodialysis patients with type 2 diabetes: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Naoshi; Babazono, Tetsuya; Hanai, Ko; Uchigata, Yasuko

    2016-08-01

    We conducted this pilot study to examine efficacy and safety of switching from subcutaneous injection of insulin to oral administration of a DPP-4 inhibitor, vildagliptin, in type 2 diabetic patients undergoing hemodialysis. Consecutive type 2 diabetic patients on hemodialysis who were switched from insulin to vildagliptin between August 2010 and April 2011 were extracted from the hospital database. In patients whose post-switch increase in glycated albumin (GA) levels was <1.5 % without resuming insulin at least 24 weeks, the switch was defined as efficacious. In patients who resumed insulin therapy due to worsening of glycemic control or in patients whose GA levels increased by 1.5 % or more, the switch was considered inefficacious. To predict patients in whom switch to vildagliptin proved efficacious, receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and logistic regression analysis were performed. A total of 20 patients were extracted; insulin dose was 12 ± 4 units/day; levels of GA and HbA1c was 21.0 ± 3.7 % and 6.5 ± 0.6 %, respectively. Among them, 11 patients were efficaciously switched to vildagliptin. ROC analysis and logistic analysis showed that patients with a shorter duration of diabetes, as well as lower levels of GA and HbA1c, appeared to have a higher likelihood of successful treatment switches. None of the patients developed hypoglycemic symptoms, ketoacidosis, or serious adverse events. In conclusion, efficacious change from insulin to vildagliptin was possible in approximately a half of type 2 diabetic dialysis patients. Long-term follow-up studies including large number of patients are needed to confirm these results. PMID:27193434

  14. Prions efficiently cross the intestinal barrier after oral administration: Study of the bioavailability, and cellular and tissue distribution in vivo.

    PubMed

    Urayama, Akihiko; Concha-Marambio, Luis; Khan, Uffaf; Bravo-Alegria, Javiera; Kharat, Vineetkumar; Soto, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Natural forms of prion diseases frequently originate by oral (p.o.) infection. However, quantitative information on the gastro-intestinal (GI) absorption of prions (i.e. the bioavailability and subsequent biodistribution) is mostly unknown. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the fate of prions after oral administration, using highly purified radiolabeled PrP(Sc). The results showed a bi-phasic reduction of PrP(Sc) with time in the GI, except for the ileum and colon which showed sustained increases peaking at 3-6 hr, respectively. Plasma and whole blood (125)I-PrP(Sc) reached maximal levels by 30 min and 3 hr, respectively, and blood levels were constantly higher than plasma. Upon crossing the GI-tract (125)I-PrP(Sc) became associated to blood cells, suggesting that binding to cells decreased the biological clearance of the agent. Size-exclusion chromatography revealed that oligomeric (125)I-PrP(Sc) were transported from the intestinal tract, and protein misfolding cyclic amplification showed that PrP(Sc) in organs and blood retained the typical prion self-replicating ability. Pharmacokinetic analysis found the oral bioavailability of (125)I-PrP(Sc) to be 33.6%. Interestingly, (125)I-PrP(Sc) reached the brain in a quantity equivalent to the minimum amount needed to initiate prion disease. Our findings provide a comprehensive and quantitative study of the fate of prions upon oral infection. PMID:27573341

  15. Administrators' Decisions about Resource Allocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, William E.; Folkins, John W.; Hakel, Milton D.; Kennell, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Do academic administrators make decisions about resource allocation differently depending on the discipline receiving the funding? Does an administrator's academic identity influence these decisions? This study explored those questions with a sample of 1,690 academic administrators at doctoral-research universities. Participants used fictional…

  16. The Audio-Visual Services in Fifteen African Countries. Comparative Study on the Administration of Audio-Visual Services in Advanced and Developing Countries. Part Four. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jongbloed, Harry J. L.

    As the fourth part of a comparative study on the administration of audiovisual services in advanced and developing countries, this UNESCO-funded study reports on the African countries of Cameroun, Republic of Central Africa, Dahomey, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Libya, Mali, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Swaziland, Tunisia, Upper Volta and Zambia. Information…

  17. A Study on the Attitudes of Students, Instructors, and Educational Principals to Electronic Administration of Final-Semester Examinations in Payame Noor University in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omidian, Faranak; Nedayeh Ali, Farzaneh

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the attitudes of students, instructors, and educational principals to electronic administration of final-semester examinations at undergraduate and post- graduate levels in Payame Noor University in Khuzestan. The statistical population of this study consisted of all educational principals, instructors, of…

  18. An Evaluation Study of an Executive Master of Business Administration (EMBA) Program in an Urban City: Examining the Transfer of Knowledge and Leadership Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Hye Lim

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of the Executive Master of Business Administration (EMBA) degree program in terms of transfer of knowledge and leadership practices. Based on a review of literature related to adult learning theories, EMBA programs, the importance of evaluation practices, and leadership practices, this study was designed to…

  19. A Comparison of Mail and Telephone Administration of District-Level Questionnaires for the School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) 2006: Effects on Estimates and Data Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denniston, Maxine; Brener, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Background: The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) is a national study periodically conducted to assess school health policies and programs at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. For SHPPS 2006, district-level questionnaires were designed for telephone administration, but mixed-mode data collection that also used…

  20. Fractionated administration of irinotecan and cisplatin for treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer: a phase II study of Okayama Lung Cancer Study Group

    PubMed Central

    Ueoka, H; Tanimoto, M; Kiura, K; Tabata, M; Takigawa, N; Segawa, Y; Takata, I; Eguchi, K; Okimoto, N; Harita, S; Kamei, H; Shibayama, T; Watanabe, Y; Hiraki, S; Harada, M

    2001-01-01

    A phase II study of fractionated administration of irinotecan (CPT-11) and cisplatin (CDDP) in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was conducted. Between January 1996 and January 1998, 44 previously untreated patients with stage IIIB or IV NSCLC were enrolled. CDDP at a dose of 60 mg m–2was given first and followed by CPT-11 at a dose of 50 mg m–2. Both drugs were given by 1-hour infusion on days 1 and 8, and repeated every 4 weeks up to 4 cycles. 42 patients were evaluated for response and 44 for survival and toxicity. 20 patients (48%: 95% confidence interval 32–63%) achieved an objective response. The median duration of responses was 8 months, and the median survival time and the 1-year survival rate were 12.5 months and 56.8%, respectively. Major toxicities were neutropenia and diarrhoea. Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia occurred in 70.5% of the patients and one patient died of sepsis. Grade 3 or 4 diarrhoea was experienced in 25.0%, but manageable by conventional therapy. In conclusion, fractionated administration of CPT-11 and CDDP was highly effective for advanced NSCLC with manageable toxicities. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11437395

  1. Prediction of left atrial thrombi in patients with atrial tachyarrhythmias during warfarin administration: retrospective study in Hyogo College of Medicine.

    PubMed

    Kishima, Hideyuki; Mine, Takanao; Kodani, Takeshi; Masuyama, Tohru

    2015-05-01

    Some patients experience a left atrial thrombus (LAT) in spite of taking warfarin. We aimed to clarify the characteristics of patients with LAT during warfarin administration and investigated whether the CHADS2 or CHA2DS2-VASc scores are useful predictors of LAT. We studied 230 patients (169 males, age 65 ± 10 years) who underwent transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) prior to cardioversion or catheter ablation of atrial tachyarrhythmias between 2008 and 2012. All patients were taking oral warfarin. LAT was detected in 19 patients (8.3%) using TEE. LAT was significantly associated with the presence of hypertension (P = 0.0035), prior congestive heart failure (P < 0.0001), structural heart disease (P = 0.0012), persistent arrhythmias (P < 0.0001), the absence of SR during TEE (P = 0.0070), left ventricular ejection fraction (P < 0.0001), left atrial diameter (P = 0.0015), left ventricular dimension during end diastole (P = 0.0215), left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH; P < 0.0001), and the E/e' ratio (P = 0.0074). A multivariate analysis showed that LVH (P = 0.0065, OR 5.591, 95% CI 1.618–19.316) and persistent arrhythmia (P = 0.0364, OR 12.121, 95% CI 1.171–125.451) were independently associated with LAT. Moreover, the mean CHADS2 (2.3 ± 0.9 vs. 1.4 ± 1.2) and CHA2DS2-VASc scores (3.8 ± 1.2 vs. 2.8 ± 1.7) were higher in the patients with than without LAT. However, a multivariate analysis showed that the CHADS2/CHA2DS2-VASc scores did not associate with LAT. LVH and persistent arrhythmia may be useful for predicting LAT in patients with atrial tachyarrhythmias.

  2. Metabolism and urinary disposition of N,N-dimethyltryptamine after oral and smoked administration: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Riba, Jordi; McIlhenny, Ethan H; Bouso, José Carlos; Barker, Steven A

    2015-05-01

    N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) is a widely distributed plant alkaloid that displays partial agonist activity at the 5-HT2A receptor and induces intense psychedelic effects in humans when administered parenterally. However, self-administration studies have reported a total lack of activity following oral intake. This is thought to be due to extensive degradation by monoamine oxidase (MAO). Despite increased use of DMT and DMT-containing preparations, such as the plant tea ayahuasca, the biotransformation of DMT in humans when administered alone is relatively unknown. Here we used high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/electrospray ionization (ESI)/selected reaction monitoring (SRM)/tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to characterize the metabolism and disposition of oral and smoked DMT. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were obtained from 6 DMT users before and after intake of 25 mg DMT doses on two separate sessions. In one session, DMT was taken orally and in another it was smoked. After oral ingestion, no psychotropic effects were experienced and no DMT was recovered in urine. MAO-dependent indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) represented 97% of the recovered compounds, whereas DMT-N-oxide (DMT-NO) accounted for only 3%. When the smoked route was used, the drug was fully psychoactive, unmetabolized DMT and DMT-NO rose to 10% and 28%, respectively, and IAA levels dropped to 63%. An inverse correlation was found between the IAA/DMT-NO ratio and subjective effects scores. These findings show that in the smoked route a shift from the highly efficient MAO-dependent to the less efficient CYP-dependent metabolism takes place. This shift leads to psychoactivity and is analogous to that observed in ayahuasca preparations combining DMT with MAO inhibitors.

  3. Pharmacokinetic study between a bilayer matrix fentalyl patch and a monolayer matrix fentanyl patch: single dose administration in healthy volunteers*

    PubMed Central

    Zecca, Ernesto; Manzoni, Andrea; Centurioni, Fabio; Farina, Alberto; Bonizzoni, Erminio; Seiler, Dan; Perrone, Tania; Caraceni, Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Aims Transdermal fentanyl is a well established treatment for cancer pain. The aim of the present study is to assess the relative bioavailability of fentanyl from two different transdermal systems by evaluating plasma drug concentrations after single administration of Fentalgon® (test), a novel bilayer matrix type patch, and Durogesic SMAT (reference), a monolayer matrix type patch. In the Fentalgon patch the upper 6% fentanyl reservoir layer maintains a stable concentration gradient between the lower 4% donor layer and the skin. The system provides a constant drug delivery over 72 h. Methods This was an open label, single centre, randomized, single dose, two period crossover clinical trial, that included 36 healthy male volunteers. The patches were applied to non-irritated and non-irradiated skin on the intraclavicular pectoral area. Blood samples were collected at different time points (from baseline to 120 h post-removal of the devices) and fentanyl concentrations were determined using a validated LC/MS/MS method. Bioequivalence was to be claimed if the 90% confidence interval of AUC(0,t) and Cmax ratios (test: reference) were within the acceptance range of 80–125% and 75–133%, respectively. Results The 90% confidence intervals of the AUC(0,t) ratio (116.3% [109.6, 123.4%]) and Cmax ratio (114.4% [105.8, 123.8%] were well included in the acceptance range and the Cmax ratio also met the narrower bounds of 80–125%. There was no relevant difference in overall safety profiles of the two preparations investigated, which were adequately tolerated, as expected for opioid-naïve subjects. Conclusions The new bilayer matrix type patch, Fentalgon®, is bioequivalent to the monolayer matrix type Durogesic SMAT fentanyl patch with respect to the rate and extent of exposure of fentanyl (Eudra/CT no. 2005-000046-36). PMID:25612845

  4. Intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone improves the repairing process of rat calvaria defects: A histomorphometric and radiodensitometric study

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Eduardo-de-Paula; Marques, Marcelo-Rocha; Dias da Silva, Marco-Antônio; Manzi, Flávio-Ricardo; Barros, Silvana-Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of intermittent treatment of parathyroid hormone (PTH (1-34)) on the bone regeneration of critically-sized rat calvarial bone defects. Material and Methods Thirty-two male rats were trephined (4mm fullthickness diameter), in the central part of the parietal bones and divided into 2 groups of 16. The PTH group received subcutaneous injections of PTH (1-34) at 40µg/kg, 3 times a week and the control (CTL) group received the vehicle in the same regimen. The rats were sacrificed at 4 weeks post-treatment regimen, the parietal bones were extracted and samples were evaluated through histomorphometry and radiodensitometry. Results The histological observations showed that the PTH group presented more “island-like” new bone between the defect margins with fibrous tissues than did the CTL group. The PTH group significantly exhibited greater histologic bone formation than did the CTL group (1.5mm ±0.7; 1.9 mm ± 0.6, p<0.05/ for residual bone defect). The radiodensitometry analysis revealed significant differences among the PTH and CTL groups (2.1 Al eq. ±0.04; 1.8Al eq. ±0.06, p<0.05), demonstrating an increase in bone mineral density. The PTH treatment contributed to the bone formation with a higher amount of mineral and/or fibrous tissue when compared with the CTL group. Conclusions The results suggest that it was possible to increase the process of bone regeneration by accelerating the healing process in rat calvarial defects through intermittent administration of the PTH treatment. Key words: Bone, skull, rats, bone regeneration, bone density. PMID:26034928

  5. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of Donner Lab Administrator Baird G. Whaley, August 15, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    Baird G. Whaley, Donner Lab Administrator, was interviewed by representatives of US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments (OHRE). The purpose of the interview was to capture the remembrances of Mr. Whaley concerning what he could relate on activities at the Donner Lab that pertain to the OHRE responsibilities. Following a brief biographical sketch, Mr. Whaley relates his experiences in administration at the LAB including funding activities, staffing concerns, intralaboraory politics, and remembrances of John Lawrence, John Gofman, Cornelius Tobias, Jim Born, Alex Margolis, B.V.A. Low- Beer, and Ed Alpen. Further patient care procedures for Donner Clinic Research Programs were discussed.

  6. Increasing Coverage in Mass Drug Administration for Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination in an Urban Setting: a Study of Malindi Town, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Njomo, Doris W.; Mukoko, Dunstan A.; Nyamongo, Nipher K.; Karanja, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Implementation of Mass Drug Administration (MDA) in urban settings is an obstacle to Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) elimination. No urban-specific guidelines on MDA in urban areas exist. Malindi district urban area had received 4 MDA rounds by the time the current study was implemented. Programme data showed average treatment coverage of 28.4% (2011 MDA), far below recommended minimum of 65–80%. Methods To identify, design and test strategies for increased treatment coverage in urban areas, a quasi-experimental study was conducted in Malindi urban area. Three sub-locations with lowest treatment coverage in 2011 MDA were purposively selected. In the pre-test phase, 947 household heads sampled using systematic random method were interviewed for quantitative data. For qualitative data, 12 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with single sex adult and youth male and female groups and 3 with community drug distributors (CDDs) were conducted. Forty in-depth interviews with opinion leaders and self-administered questionnaires with District Public Health officers purposively selected were carried out. The quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 and statistical significance assessed by χ2 test.The qualitative data were analyzed manually according to study's themes. Results and Discussion The identified strategies were implemented prior to and during 2012 MDA in two sub-locations (experimental) while in the third (control), usual MDA strategies were applied. In the post-test phase, 2012 MDA coverage in experimental and control sub-locations was comparatively assessed for effect of the newly designed strategies on urban MDA. Results indicated improved treatment coverage in experimental sub-locations, 77.1% in Shella and 66.0% in Barani. Central (control) sub-location also attained high coverage, 70.4% indicating average treatment coverage of 71%. Conclusion The identified strategies contributed to increased treatment coverage in experimental sites and

  7. Which Master of Business Administration (MBA)? Factors Influencing Prospective Students' Choice of MBA Programme--An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Factors which influence students' selection of a Master of Business Administration programme are identified and the variation in their relative importance across the student population investigated. This research also identifies the features of a university which attracts students, as well as examining the students' perceptions of the management…

  8. An Action-Oriented Perspective on Caring Leadership: A Qualitative Study of Higher Education Administrators' Positive Leadership Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uusiautti, Satu

    2013-01-01

    Interest in human experiences, especially positive experiences, has been increasing ever since positive psychology gained a foothold in public attention. In this research, higher education administrators from Finland and the USA ("N"?=?13) were asked to describe positive or successful situations or chains of events in which their…

  9. EXTENSION ADMINISTRATION AND STATE LEGISLATIVE PROCESS--A CASE STUDY OF THE 71ST MISSOURI GENERAL ASSEMBLY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KYD, STIRLING

    TO GAIN UNDERSTANDING OF MISSOURI'S LEGISLATIVE PROCESS AND AID ADMINISTRATORS OF THE EXTENSION DIVISION, THE AUTHOR INVESTIGATED THE 71ST GENERAL ASSEMBLY. HE READ PUBLICATIONS, INTERVIEWED LOBBYISTS, AND CONDUCTED OPEN ENDED DEPTH INTERVIEWS WITH LEGISLATORS SELECTED TO COMPRISE THE LEADERSHIP OF THE ASSEMBLY. HIS DISSERTATION PRESENTS THE…

  10. Reactions of the Target Teacher and Administrator Population Prior to Implementation. Handwriting Implementation Project Study, Report #2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachs, Judyth; Logan, Lloyd

    Questionnaires were sent to 2,161 teachers and to administrators in 118 primary schools in the Brisbane North Region (Australia) to determine their attitudes toward the implementation of a new handwriting syllabus. The questionnaire also solicited information on educational experience, the importance of handwriting, the teaching of handwriting,…

  11. Using Organization Development Concept to Conduct Administrative Assessment of Health Promoting Schools in Taiwan--A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jen-Jen; Yeh, Gwo-Liang; Tseng, Chie-Chien; Chen, Wei William; Hwu, Yin-Jinn; Jiang, Donald Dah-Shyong

    2009-01-01

    The Health Promoting School (HPS) programs in Taiwan were initiated and implemented with funding from Department of Health and Ministry of Education during the initial phase. The purpose of this article was to describe the application of organization development (OD) concept in the administrative assessment of HPS programs and to present results…

  12. A Comparative Study of the Administrative and Leadership Styles of Corporate Presidents and School Superintendents As Chief Executive Officers (CEOs).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Guy R.

    This paper compares the managerial, administrative, and leadership styles of public-school superintendents and presidents of public corporations. Data were derived from questionnaires mailed to eight superintendents and seven corporate presidents. Findings show that superintendents and corporate presidents used similar leadership…

  13. Culture and Leadership in Educational Administration: A Historical Study of What Was and What Might Have Been

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the consequences for school leadership of the abandonment of Waller's insights into the school as a social organism and the embracing of the cult of efficiency as the foundation for the analysis of school culture. Tracing the separation of conception from execution, leadership from teaching, administration from education…

  14. Statewide Administration of the ACT: A Key Component in Improving Student Access to College and Work. Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACT, Inc., 2009

    2009-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing focus among states on the importance of preparing all students for college and work. Statewide administration of the ACT provides all students, including those who have never considered college as an option, with the opportunity to identify academic strengths and weaknesses, explore educational and…

  15. Group Dynamics: Toward a Study of the Administrative/Supervisory Leadership Role Within Group Decision-Making Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, Francis, II

    Group processes are an integral part of the educational enterprise, but "effectiveness of group processes" does not necessarily follow from the simple act of group formation. The administrator has the responsibility of exercising effective group leadership. Group formation, group task functions or assignments, and decision-making processes are…

  16. A Study of the Attitudes of Public School Teachers and Administrators in Middle Tennessee Concerning Ethical Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peach, Larry; Reddick, Thomas L.

    A two-part questionnaire concerning ethical behavior was prepared and distributed to 300 public school teachers and 75 administrators in the middle geographic region of Tennessee. Part I of the questionnaire asked respondents to position 18 different behaviors on a five-point scale from "ethical" to "very unethical." Part II asked respondents how…

  17. Strengthening Institutional Research Administration in Uganda: A Case Study on Developing Collaborations among Academic and Research Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakande, Nelson; Namirembe, Regina; Kaye, Dan K.; Mugyenyi, Peter N.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the presence of several funded research projects at academic and research institutions in sub-Saharan Africa, the quality of the pre/post grant award process in these institutions is inadequate. There is a need to strengthen research administration through infrastructural, organizational, and human resource development to match the dynamic…

  18. A Case Study of Selected Female Elementary School Leaders' Perspectives on the Transition from Teacher to Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasson, Julie

    2011-01-01

    The transition from the comfort of a familiar role, that of teacher, to the discomfort of a new role, that of school administrator, is a transformative process. Transforming oneself requires leaving what is known and venturing into the unknown. Researchers have illuminated women's struggle to attain school leadership positions, but the…

  19. From Theory to Practice: Utilizing Integrative Seminars as Bookends to the Master of Public Administration Program of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, Margaret; Holmes, Maja Husar

    2013-01-01

    Integrative seminar style courses are most often used as an application-oriented capstone in place of a thesis or comprehensive exam requirement in Master of Public Administration (MPA) degree programs. This article describes and discusses the benefits of a unique approach of one National Association of Schools of Public Affairs and Administration…

  20. River basin administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Management of international rivers and their basins is the focus of the Centre for Comparative Studies on (International) River Basin Administration, recently established at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. Water pollution, sludge, and conflicting interests in the use of water in upstream and downstream parts of a river basin will be addressed by studying groundwater and consumption of water in the whole catchment area of a river.Important aspects of river management are administrative and policy aspects. The Centre will focus on policy, law, planning, and organization, including transboundary cooperation, posing standards, integrated environmental planning on regional scale and environmental impact assessments.

  1. A prospective study on sexual function and mood in female-to-male transsexuals during testosterone administration and after sex reassignment surgery.

    PubMed

    Costantino, Antonietta; Cerpolini, Silvia; Alvisi, Stefania; Morselli, Paolo Giovanni; Venturoli, Stefano; Meriggiola, Maria Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Testosterone administration in female-to-male transsexual subjects aims to develop and maintain the characteristics of the desired sex. Very little data exists on its effects on sexuality of female-to-male transsexuals. The aim of this study was to evaluate sexual function and mood of female-to-male transsexuals from their first visit, throughout testosterone administration and after sex reassignment surgery. Participants were 50 female-to-male transsexual subjects who completed questionnaires assessing sexual parameters and mood. The authors measured reproductive hormones and hematological parameters. The results suggest a positive effect of testosterone treatment on sexual function and mood in female-to-male transsexual subjects.

  2. The Link between Unit Size and Performance Quality Assessments of Teaching and Administrative Faculty: A Case Study of the Ariel University Center of Samaria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidovitch, Nitza; Soen, Dan

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the association between faculty and department size at the Ariel University Center, and assessment scores granted by students to members of the administrative and teaching staff. The main research question relates to any link between unit size and assessment scores. Furthermore, this study seeks an answer to the question of…

  3. The Study of High School Administrators' Perceptions of the Future of Women as Athletic Directors in the State of Missouri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Christine H.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine high school administrators' perceptions of the future of women as athletic directors in the state of Missouri. Superintendents, high school principals, athletic directors (ADs) in Missouri completed a Likert survey in an effort to understand perceptual context as to why more women are not in positions…

  4. Creating an Effective Educational Environment for Adult Learners: A Qualitative, Multi-Case Study of Off-Campus Center Administrator's Use of Invitational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKnight, Carolyn P.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative, multi-case study was designed to examine off-campus centers and their administrators in creating an effective learning environment for adult learners. Serving as the conceptual framework, invitational leadership theory is a holistic approach which nurtures the belief that everyone is intrinsically motivated and it is the leaders'…

  5. Funding and Administrative Coordination of the Baja Field Studies Program at Glendale Community College during the Years 1974 to 1983: A Historical Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercade, Jose A.

    Glendale Community College's (GCC's) Baja Field Studies Program began in 1974 as a faculty-initiated overseas field program in marine biology and developed into a college-wide, interdisciplinary program offering different courses under the leadership of a program coordinator. As changes in funding and administration took place due to the altered…

  6. A Comparative Case Study Analysis of Administrators Perceptions on the Adaptation of Quality and Continuous Improvement Tools to Community Colleges in the State of Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattis, Ted B.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether community college administrators in the state of Michigan believe that commonly known quality and continuous improvement tools, prevalent in a manufacturing environment, can be adapted to a community college model. The tools, specifically Six Sigma, benchmarking and process mapping have played a…

  7. The Uses of Research Sponsored by the Administration on Aging (AoA). Case Study No. 6. The Home Equity Conversion Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Kristina; Heinsohn, Ingrid

    This case study, one in a series of research efforts designed to examine the utilization of the Administration on Aging's research, describes the different types of uses of findings of the Home Equity Conversion Project (HECP), which developed ways of converting home equity into usable income. The first chapter describes the project and overviews…

  8. Administrative integration of vertical HIV monitoring and evaluation into health systems: a case study from South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kawonga, Mary; Fonn, Sharon; Blaauw, Duane

    2013-01-01

    Background In light of an increasing global focus on health system strengthening and integration of vertical programmes within health systems, methods and tools are required to examine whether general health service managers exercise administrative authority over vertical programmes. Objective To measure the extent to which general health service (horizontal) managers, exercise authority over the HIV programme's monitoring and evaluation (M&E) function, and to explore factors that may influence this exercise of authority. Methods This cross-sectional survey involved interviews with 51 managers. We drew ideas from the concept of ‘exercised decision-space’ – traditionally used to measure local level managers’ exercise of authority over health system functions following decentralisation. Our main outcome measure was the degree of exercised authority – classified as ‘low’, ‘medium’ or ‘high’ – over four M&E domains (HIV data collection, collation, analysis, and use). We applied ordinal logistic regression to assess whether actor type (horizontal or vertical) was predictive of a higher degree of exercised authority, independent of management capacity (training and experience), and M&E knowledge. Results Relative to vertical managers, horizontal managers had lower HIV M&E knowledge, were more likely to exercise a higher degree of authority over HIV data collation (OR 7.26; CI: 1.9, 27.4), and less likely to do so over HIV data use (OR 0.19; CI: 0.05, 0.84). A higher HIV M&E knowledge score was predictive of a higher exercised authority over HIV data use (OR 1.22; CI: 0.99, 1.49). There was no association between management capacity and degree of authority. Conclusions This study demonstrates a HIV M&E model that is neither fully vertical nor integrated. The HIV M&E is characterised by horizontal managers producing HIV information while vertical managers use it. This may undermine policies to strengthen integrated health system planning and

  9. Comparison between intraperitoneal and subcutaneous phencyclidine administration in Sprague-Dawley rats: a locomotor activity and gene induction study.

    PubMed

    Kalinichev, Mikhail; Robbins, Melanie J; Hartfield, Elizabeth M; Maycox, Peter R; Moore, Susan H; Savage, Kevin M; Austin, Nigel E; Jones, Declan N C

    2008-02-15

    In a putative model of acute phencyclidine (PCP)-induced psychosis we evaluated effects of the drug on locomotor activity (LMA) and immediate early gene (IEG) induction in the rat using two routes of drug administration, intraperitoneal (i.p.) and subcutaneous (s.c.). Adult male rats received saline or PCP (1.0-5.0 mg/kg) either i.p or s.c. and were assessed for LMA for 60 min. At the end of the LMA testing animals were culled and blood and brain samples were collected for PCP concentration analysis. Separate cohorts of animals received 5.0 mg/kg PCP (i.p. or s.c.) and were used to investigate (1) the pharmacokinetics of PCP or (2) induction of IEG (Arc, c-fos, BDNF, junB, Krox-20, sgk-1, NURR1, fra-2, Krox-24, and egr-3) mRNA expression in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Administration of PCP resulted in locomotor hyperactivity which was more robust and longer-lasting in animals dosed s.c. compared to i.p.-treated-animals. Differences in hyperlocomotion were paralleled by higher concentrations of PCP in the blood and in the brain of s.c.-treated animals compared to i.p.-treated animals. The differences in the concentration of PCP between the two routes of administration were detected 30 min after dosing and persisted for up to 4 h. Administration of PCP via the s.c. route resulted in induction of more IEGs and consistently larger magnitudes of induction than that via the i.p. route. Therefore, we have outlined the dosing conditions to induce rapid and robust effect of acute PCP on behaviour, gene induction, and pharmacokinetic profile, to allow investigation of this as a potential animal model of acute psychosis.

  10. Effect of the photoperiod and administration of melatonin on the pars tuberalis of viscacha (Lagostomus maximus maximus): an ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Romera, Edith Perez; Mohamed, Fabian; Fogal, Teresa; Dominguez, Susana; Piezzi, Ramón; Scardapane, Luis

    2010-05-01

    The pituitary pars tuberalis (PT) is a glandular zone exhibiting well-defined structural characteristics. Morphologically, it is formed by specific secretory cells, folliculostellate cells, and migratory cells coming from the pars distalis. The purpose of this work was to investigate differences in specific cellular characteristics in the PT of viscachas captured in summer (long photoperiod) and winter (short photoperiod), as well as the effects of chronic melatonin administration in viscachas captured in summer and kept under long photoperiod. In summer, the PT-specific cells exhibited cell-like characteristics with an important secretory activity and a moderate amount of glycogen. In winter, the PT-specific granulated cells showed ultrastructural variations with signs of a reduced synthesis activity. Also, PT showed a high amount of glycogen and a great number of cells in degeneration. After melatonin administration, the ultrastructural characteristics were similar to those observed in winter, but the amount of glycogen was higher. These results suggest possible functional implications as a result of morphological differences between long and short photoperiods, and are in agreement with the variations of the pituitary-gonadal axis, probably in response to the natural photoperiod changes through the pineal melatonin. The ultrastructural differences observed in PT, after melatonin administration, were similar to those observed in the short photoperiod, thus supporting the hypothesis that these cytological changes are induced by melatonin.

  11. Administrative Utility Analysis: Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co., San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    Appendixes to a study on administrative utility analysis and vocational education programs for the Area of Vocational and Technical Education (AVTE) in the Puerto Rico Department of Education contain the planning and budgeting system elements, position descriptions, and information on the growth of vocational education in Puerto Rico. The elements…

  12. A study on the interaction and evolution of the spatial expansion and administrative division adjustment in Beijing metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongfu; Dang, Anrong

    2008-10-01

    Since 1990s and especially since 2000, the city space of Beijing has grown rapidly. There's no doubt that the urban construction land area is expanding to the suburban areas, which is the result of rapid social and economic growth in the city and also closely related to the reform of "turning county into district". In other words, the adjustment of administrative division in Beijing interacts with the expansion of urban construction land space. Beijing turns counties into districts and introduces regional offices are two distinct evidence. As for the interaction, there're both advantages and disadvantages and the focus of the article is to explore how to exploit the favorable conditions and avoid unfavorable ones. The article takes the town administrative region as the minimum space unit so as to better explore the anisotropism and regional differences of city space expansion as well as the impact caused by the adjustment of administrative divisions. With initial analysis, we find that: firstly, on the contrary to the sharp reduction of farming land, the city construction land are for residential communities, factories and mines increases the fastest; secondly, the big central cluster expansion has great regional difference and the three directions of northwest, north and south grows the fastest, which is mainly caused by the positive guidance of trunk roads including highway construction; thirdly, the land area in central cluster used for new construction projects is mainly located in suburban area, but exurb districts of Daxing and Changping also take up a considerable proportion; fourthly, as for the key exurb towns including Changping, Shunyi, and Fangshan, the built-up area also grows rapidly.

  13. Influence of chronic administration of anabolic androgenic steroids and taurine on haemostasis profile in rats: a thrombelastographic study.

    PubMed

    Roşca, Adrian E; Badiu, Corin; Uscătescu, Valentina; Stoian, Irina; Mirică, Radu; Braga, Radu I; Pavel, Bogdan; Zăgrean, Leon

    2013-04-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic derivatives of testosterone with thrombogenic potential in high doses and long-term administration. Taurine, a widely distributed amino-sulfonic acid, is known for its beneficial effects in hypercoagulable states. In order to assess the impact of chronic administration of high doses of AAS and taurine upon haemostasis process in rats, 40 male Wistar rats were divided into four equal groups: control group (group C) - no treatment; androgen group (group A) - received 10 mg/kg per week of nandrolone decanoate (DECA); taurine (group T) - received oral supplementation of 2% taurine in drinking water; androgen and taurine group (group AT) - concomitant administration of DECA and taurine. After 12 weeks, blood samples were collected and haemostasis parameters were assessed with the thrombelastographic (TEG) analysis system: reaction time, clot kinetics (K, α), final clot strength, coagulation index and the clot lysis (Ly30). Nandrolone significantly decreased reaction time in group A compared with control (P<0.001), whereas taurine significantly increase reaction time (P=0.01), and this effect was maintained in group AT compared with group A (P=0.009). Similar differences between groups have been recorded for the clot kinetics parameters K, α. The final clot strength and coagulation index were significantly increased in group A versus group C (P=0.04, respectively P<0.001), but not in group AT versus group C (P>0.05). There were no differences in clot lysis, as shown by Ly30. Nandrolone produces an accelerated clot development and an increased clot firmness in Wistar rats. Taurine association ensures a protective effect against this hypercoagulable state, partially restoring the altered parameters of the coagulation profile. PMID:23160242

  14. Influence of chronic administration of anabolic androgenic steroids and taurine on haemostasis profile in rats: a thrombelastographic study.

    PubMed

    Roşca, Adrian E; Badiu, Corin; Uscătescu, Valentina; Stoian, Irina; Mirică, Radu; Braga, Radu I; Pavel, Bogdan; Zăgrean, Leon

    2013-04-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic derivatives of testosterone with thrombogenic potential in high doses and long-term administration. Taurine, a widely distributed amino-sulfonic acid, is known for its beneficial effects in hypercoagulable states. In order to assess the impact of chronic administration of high doses of AAS and taurine upon haemostasis process in rats, 40 male Wistar rats were divided into four equal groups: control group (group C) - no treatment; androgen group (group A) - received 10 mg/kg per week of nandrolone decanoate (DECA); taurine (group T) - received oral supplementation of 2% taurine in drinking water; androgen and taurine group (group AT) - concomitant administration of DECA and taurine. After 12 weeks, blood samples were collected and haemostasis parameters were assessed with the thrombelastographic (TEG) analysis system: reaction time, clot kinetics (K, α), final clot strength, coagulation index and the clot lysis (Ly30). Nandrolone significantly decreased reaction time in group A compared with control (P<0.001), whereas taurine significantly increase reaction time (P=0.01), and this effect was maintained in group AT compared with group A (P=0.009). Similar differences between groups have been recorded for the clot kinetics parameters K, α. The final clot strength and coagulation index were significantly increased in group A versus group C (P=0.04, respectively P<0.001), but not in group AT versus group C (P>0.05). There were no differences in clot lysis, as shown by Ly30. Nandrolone produces an accelerated clot development and an increased clot firmness in Wistar rats. Taurine association ensures a protective effect against this hypercoagulable state, partially restoring the altered parameters of the coagulation profile.

  15. Concise Review: Review and Perspective of Cell Dosage and Routes of Administration From Preclinical and Clinical Studies of Stem Cell Therapy for Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Golpanian, Samuel; Schulman, Ivonne H.; Ebert, Ray F.; Heldman, Alan W.; DiFede, Darcy L.; Yang, Phillip C.; Wu, Joseph C.; Bolli, Roberto; Perin, Emerson C.; Simari, Robert D.; Wolf, Ariel; Hare, Joshua M.

    2016-01-01

    An important stage in the development of any new therapeutic agent is establishment of the optimal dosage and route of administration. This can be particularly challenging when the treatment is a biologic agent that might exert its therapeutic effects via complex or poorly understood mechanisms. Multiple preclinical and clinical studies have shown paradoxical results, with inconsistent findings regarding the relationship between the cell dose and clinical benefit. Such phenomena can, at least in part, be attributed to variations in cell dosing or concentration and the route of administration (ROA). Although clinical trials of cell-based therapy for cardiovascular disease began more than a decade ago, specification of the optimal dosage and ROA has not been established. The present review summarizes what has been learned regarding the optimal cell dosage and ROA from preclinical and clinical studies of stem cell therapy for heart disease and offers a perspective on future directions. Significance Preclinical and clinical studies on cell-based therapy for cardiovascular disease have shown inconsistent results, in part because of variations in study-specific dosages and/or routes of administration (ROA). Future preclinical studies and smaller clinical trials implementing cell-dose and ROA comparisons are warranted before proceeding to pivotal trials. PMID:26683870

  16. Toward an Applied Administrative Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Roger L. M.

    1983-01-01

    A study of 65 articles from the 1981 volumes of "Administrative Science Quarterly" and "Harvard Business Review," using smallest space analysis, found that the few studies adopting subjective (instead of objective) approaches to analyzing organizational change were most likely to provide a basis for an applied administrative science. (Author/RW)

  17. Central Administrations of Public Multi-Campus College and University Systems. Core Functions and Cost Pressures with Reference to the Central Administration of the State University of New York. Studies in Public Higher Education. Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnstone, D. Bruce

    This essay examines the administration of public multi-campus universities, focusing in particular on central administration and the State University of New York (SUNY) system and on responses to the need for fiscal austerity. Before treatment of the main topic begins, the essay offers a look at five reasons for the suspicion and resentment that…

  18. Manitoba mothers and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders study (MBMomsFASD): protocol for a population-based cohort study using linked administrative data

    PubMed Central

    Singal, Deepa; Brownell, Marni; Hanlon-Dearman, Ana; Chateau, Dan; Longstaffe, Sally; Roos, Leslie L

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a significant public health concern. To prevent FASD, factors that place women at risk for giving birth to children with FASD must be investigated; however, there are little data in this area. This paper describes the development of the Manitoba mothers and FASD study, a retrospective cohort of mothers whose children were diagnosed with FASD, generated to investigate: (1) risk factors associated with giving birth to children with FASD; (2) maternal physical and health outcomes, as well as the usage of health and social services. Methods The study population will be identified by linking children diagnosed with FASD from a provincially centralised FASD assessment clinic (from 31 March 1999 to 31 March 2012) to their birth mothers using de-identified administrative health data housed at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy. Preliminary analysis has identified over 700 mothers, which is the largest sample size in this field to date. A comparison cohort of women with children who did not have an FASD diagnosis matched on the region of residence, date of birth of child with FASD and socioeconomic status will be generated to compare exposures and outcomes. Potential demographic, socioeconomic, family history, and physical and mental health risk factors will be investigated by linking a range of health and social databases, furthering insight into the root causes of drinking during pregnancy. The longitudinal data will allow us to document the usage patterns of healthcare and social services throughout significant periods in these women's lives to identify opportunities for prevention. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained by the University of Manitoba's Health Research Ethics Board and the Manitoba Health Information Privacy Committee. Dissemination of study results will include engagement of stakeholders and policymakers through presentations and reports for policymakers, in parallel with

  19. LC determination and pharmacokinetic study of the main phenolic components of Portulaca oleracea L. extract in rat plasma after oral administration.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhongzhe; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Wenjie; Du, Yang; Wang, Yunjiao; Zhai, Yanjun; Ying, Xixiang; Kang, Tingguo

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the pharmacokinetics of hesperidin (HP), ferulic acid (FA) and p-coumaric acid (CA) in rat plasma after oral administration of Portulaca oleracea L. extract (POE). The plasma concentrations were determined by HPLC with vitexin-2″-O-rhamnoside (VR) as internal standard. The calibration curves were linear over the range 0.1-5 µg mL(-1), 0.1-5 µg mL(-1)and 0.015-3 µg mL(-1) for HP, FA and CA, respectively. The validated method was suitable to the pharmacokinetic study of HP, FA and CA in rats after oral administration at a single dose of POE. PMID:22250700

  20. Long-term administration of 4G-beta-D-galactosylsucrose (lactosucrose) enhances intestinal calcium absorption in young women: a randomized, placebo-controlled 96-wk study.

    PubMed

    Teramoto, Fusako; Rokutan, Kazuhito; Sugano, Yasuko; Oku, Kazuyuki; Kishino, Eriko; Fujita, Koki; Hara, Kozo; Kishi, Kyouichi; Fukunaga, Masao; Morita, Tetsuro

    2006-10-01

    This study determined the effect of long-term administration of 4(G)-beta-D-galactosylsucrose (lactosucrose; LS) on intestinal calcium absorption. In a randomized, single-blind, parallel-group study, LS (n=9, 6.0 g twice daily) or a placebo (maltose; n=8, 6.0 g twice daily) was administered to healthy young women for 92 wk: the study also included a 4-wk post-administration period. All participants completed the study. Dietary nutrient intake; fecal weight, pH, and moisture content; fecal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), putrefactive products, ammonia, and minerals (calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and iron); and serum calcium and osteocalcin concentrations were measured every 24 wk. Urinary pyridinoline (PYR) and deoxypyridinoline (DPD), and urinary calcium excretion were measured every 12 wk. Significant effects of oligosaccharide treatment, time, and the interaction between oligosaccharide treatment and time were observed for fecal pH, SCFA, ammonia, and putrefactive product values (p<0.05). Fecal pH, ammonia, and putrefactive product values decreased in the LS group, and the fecal SCFA concentration significantly increased during the administration period; these changes were not observed 4 wk post-administration. To examine the mineral balance of calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus in detail, all the participants completed a 6-d mineral balance study, sometime between week 56 and 60 of the longer study. During the mineral balance study, the daily calcium intake was set at 400 mg; all feces and urine were collected each day for 6 d after an 8-d acclimation period. In the balance study, fecal calcium excretion was significantly lower in the LS group than in the placebo group (p<0.05), and apparent calcium absorption and retention, apparent magnesium and phosphorus absorption, and magnesium retention were significantly higher in the LS group than in the placebo group (p<0.05). Our results suggest that the administration of LS produces a long

  1. Senior Administrators Should Have Administrative Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Gary J.

    1987-01-01

    Recognizing that termination is viewed by the employee as the equivalent to capital punishment of a career, an administrative contract can reduce the emotional and financial entanglements that often result. Administrative contracts are described. (MLW)

  2. Effects of Propyithiouracil (PTU) Administration on the Synthesis and Secretion of Thyroglobulin in the Rat Thyroid Gland: A Quantitative Immuno-electron Microscopic Study Using Immunogold Technique.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xue; Yamamoto, Koichi; Shu, Lu; Katoh, Ryohei; Kawaoi, Akira

    1997-01-01

    To clarify the effects of an antithyroid drug on the kinetics of thyroglobulin synthesis, secretion, and reabsorption in the thyroid follicles, propylthiouracil (PTU) was administered to rats and the thyroid glands were examined by a refined post-embedding immunogold technique during and after withdrawal of PTU. Seven-wk-old male Wistar rats were administered with S mg of PTU/d through a gastric tube, and sacrificed at 1 and 2 wk of administration and at 1, 2, and 3 d, and 1, 2, 3, and 4 wk, after discontinuation. The administration of PTU caused a remarkable dilatation of the rER and Golgi apparatus, but these areas gradually recovered after withdrawal of PTU. During the experiment, no significant change in the density of thyroglobulin (Tg) was observed except for a transient increase immediately after withdrawal of PTU. The expression of Tg on subapical vesicles (SV) and follicular colloid took a relatively parallel course; increasing during administration of PTU and decreasing with a transient peak immediately after treatment was discontinued. In contrast to the remarkable changes in the morphology of compartments involved in Tg synthesis, the development of colloid droplets and formation of secondary lysosomes were suppressed during and after discontinuing administration of PTU. However, the basic pattern of the gradient of Tg density among the cellular compartments was essentially retained in the experimental group. Thus the present immunoelectron-microscopic study provided evidence that administration of PTU stimulates the synthesis and secretion of Tg in the follicular epithelium in vivo, and, also, suppresses reabsorption and degradation of Tg. Further, it was speculated that the density gradient of Tg among the compartments involved in Tg synthesis, secretion and storage is regulated by an unknown constitutive mechanism and not by the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-TSH receptor-mediated system.

  3. Effect of acute and prolonged tianeptine administration on the 5-HT transporter: electrophysiological, biochemical and radioligand binding studies in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Piñeyro, G; Deveault, L; Blier, P; Dennis, T; de Montigny, C

    1995-02-01

    In the present study, in vivo extracellular unitary recordings, in vitro [3H]5-HT uptake and [3H]cyanoimipramine binding assays were used to assess the effect of acute and prolonged administration of the putative antidepressant tianeptine, on the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) transporter. Microiontophoretic application of tianeptine onto dorsal hippocampus CA3 pyramidal neurons, as well as its intravenous administration (2 mg/kg), increased their firing frequency. Following intracerebroventricular administration of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine, the activation induced by the microiontophoretic application of tianeptine remained unchanged, thus suggesting that the 5-HT carrier is not involved in this effect. Furthermore, in spite of its activating effect on CA3 pyramidal neuron firing frequency, the intravenous administration of tianeptine did not alter the time of recovery of these neurons from microiontophoretic applications of 5-HT, an index of 5-HT uptake activity. In keeping with this observation, the acute administration of tianeptine did not change the effectiveness of the 5-HT reuptake blocker paroxetine (1 mg/kg, i.v.) in prolonging the suppressant effect of microiontophoretically-applied 5-HT. However, in rats that had received tianeptine for 14 days (20 mg/kg/day, s.c.), the recovery time from the suppressant effect of microiontophoretic applications of 5-HT was reduced by 40% and the effectiveness of paroxetine (1 mg/kg, i.v.) was decreased. These effects were no longer observed following a 48 h washout period. In a second series of experiments, the ability of tianeptine to interfere with the uptake blocking capacity of paroxetine was assessed in vitro, using hippocampal slices obtained from rats that had been treated with tianeptine for 14 days (20 mg/kg/day, s.c.; by minipump).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. The Smoking MUMS (Maternal Use of Medications and Safety) Study: protocol for a population-based cohort study using linked administrative data

    PubMed Central

    Havard, Alys; Jorm, Louisa R; Preen, David; Daube, Michael; Kemp, Anna; Einarsdóttir, Kristjana; Randall, Deborah; Tran, Duong Thuy

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Approximately 14% of Australian women smoke during pregnancy. Although the risk of adverse outcomes is reduced by smoking cessation, less than 35% of Australian women quit smoking spontaneously during pregnancy. Evidence for the efficacy of bupropion, varenicline or nicotine replacement therapy as smoking cessation aids in the non-pregnant population suggest that pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation is worth exploring in women of childbearing age. Currently, little is known about the utilisation, effectiveness and safety of pharmacotherapies for smoking cessation during pregnancy; neither the extent to which they are used prior to pregnancy nor whether their use has changed in response to related policy reforms. The Smoking MUMS (Maternal Use of Medications and Safety) Study will explore these issues using linked person-level data for a population-based cohort of Australian mothers. Methods and analysis The cohort will be assembled by linking administrative health records for all women who gave birth in New South Wales or Western Australia since 2003 and their children, including records relating to childbirth, use of pharmaceuticals, hospital admissions, emergency department presentations and deaths. These longitudinal linked data will be used to identify utilisation of smoking cessation pharmacotherapies during and between pregnancies and to explore the associated smoking cessation rates and maternal and child health outcomes. Subgroup and temporal analyses will identify potential differences between population groups including indigenous mothers and social security recipients and track changes associated with policy reforms that have made alternative smoking cessation pharmacotherapies available. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained for this study. To enhance the translation of the project's findings into policy and practice, policy and clinical stakeholders will be engaged through a reference group and a policy forum will be

  5. Nonfatal Suicidal Behaviors in U.S. Army Administrative Records, 2004–2009: Results from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS)

    PubMed Central

    Ursano, Robert J.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Heeringa, Steven G.; Cox, Kenneth L.; Naifeh, James A.; Fullerton, Carol S.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Aliaga, Pablo A.; Vegella, Patti; Mash, Holly Herberman; Buckley, Christina; Colpe, Lisa J.; Schoenbaum, Michael; Stein, Murray B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although the U.S. Army suicide rate is known to have risen sharply over the past decade, information about medically documented, nonfatal suicidal behaviors is far more limited. Here we examine trends and sociodemographic correlates of suicide attempts, suspicious injuries, and suicide ideation among regular Army soldiers. Methods Data come from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS) Historical Administrative Data Study (HADS), which integrates administrative records for all soldiers on active duty during the years 2004 through 2009 (n = 1.66 million). Results We identified 21,740 unique regular Army soldiers with a nonfatal suicidal event documented at some point during the HADS study period. There were substantial increases in the annual incidence rates of suicide attempts (179–400/100,000 person-years) and suicide ideation (557–830/100,000 person-years), but not suspicious injuries. Using hierarchical classification rules to identify the first instance of each soldier's most severe behavior, we found increased risk of all outcomes among those who were female, non-Hispanic White, never married, lower-ranking enlisted, less educated, and of younger age when entering Army service. These sociodemographic associations significantly differed across outcomes, despite some patterns that appear similar. Conclusion Results provide a broad overview of nonfatal suicidal trends in the U.S. Army during 2004 through 2009 and demonstrate that integration of multiple administrative data systems enriches analysis of the predictors of such events. PMID:26168022

  6. Selection of area-level variables from administrative data: an intersectional approach to the study of place and child development.

    PubMed

    Kershaw, Paul; Forer, Barry

    2010-05-01

    Given data limitations, neighborhood effects scholarship relies heavily on administrative data to measure area-level constructs. We provide new evidence to guide the selection of indicators from routinely collected sources, focusing on effects on early child development. Informed by an analytic paradigm attuned to the intersection of race, class, and sex, along with population-level data in British Columbia, Canada, our findings signal the need for greater precision when choosing variables in place of the now dominant approaches for measuring constructs like income/wealth, employment, family structure and race/ethnicity. We also provide new evidence about which area-level variables associate with the different domains of child development, as well as how area-level associations vary across urban and rural contexts. PMID:20089438

  7. Subcellular localization of neptunium-237 in lung and kidney after intratracheal administration in the rat: An ultrastructural and microanalytical study

    SciTech Connect

    Boulahdour, H.; Berry, J.P.; Galle, P.; Poncy, J.L.

    1996-12-01

    Chronic intratacheal administration of {sup 237}Np to rats was performed during 6 weeks. The total dose administered was 45.8 kBq. Two methods, electron microscopy and electron probe X-ray microanalysis, were used to determined the intracellular sites of localization of {sup 237}Np. Clusters of dense granules were observed in nuclei of pneumocytes and proximal tubular cells of the kidneys. These clusters have been shown to contain neptunium associated with phosphorus, sulfur and calcium. Alternations of nuclei and ultrastructural cytoplasmic lesions were observed. The absorbed doses in lungs and kidneys were very low. These results suggest that the chemical toxicity of {sup 237}Np is more important than its radiological toxicity. 30 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Subcellular localization of neptunium-237 in lung and kidney after intratracheal administration in the rat: an ultrastructural and microanalytical study.

    PubMed

    Boulahdour, H; Poncy, J L; Berry, J P; Galle, P

    1996-12-01

    Chronic intratracheal administration of 237Np to rate was performed during 6 weeks. The total dose administered was 45.8 kBq. Two methods, electron microscopy and electron probe X-ray microanalysis, were used to determine the intracellular sites of localization of 237Np. Clusters of dense granules were observed in nuclei of pneumocytes and proximal tubular cells of the kidneys. These clusters have been shown to contain neptunium associated with phosphorus, sulfur and calcium. Alterations of nuclei and ultrastructural cytoplasmic lesions were observed. The absorbed doses in lungs and kidneys were very low. These results suggest that the chemical toxicity of 237Np is more important than its radiological toxicity.

  9. Two Studies in Political Development on Canada's Resource Frontier; Political Development on Canadian Reserves; The Administrator's Role in Single Enterprise Communities. Center for Settlement Studies, Series 2: Research Reports Nos. 11 and 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichern, P. H., Jr.; And Others

    Given in this publication are two studies on political development. The first study focused on the progress toward local self-government and decision-making on Canadian reserves as compared to the neighboring resource frontier communities. The second study examined the role of the company administrator in the development, especially the political…

  10. Public School Administrators: Components of Burnout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wax, Anne S.; Hales, Loyde W.

    The objectives of this study of public school administrators were to determine the level of burnout experienced by school administrators, the relationships between burnout and stress measures, the factors associated with burnout, and the relationships between administrative level and components of the Administrative Role Perception Inventory…

  11. Teachers' and Administrators' Perceptions of Knowledge Management Competence of High School Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memisoglu, Salih Pasa

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine the teachers' and administrators' perceptions of knowledge management competence in high school administration. The study was conducted using the screening model and the study group consisted of 162 teachers and 35 administrators working at eight high schools in Turkey. Administrators' knowledge management competence…

  12. Validation of administrative hospital data for identifying incident pancreatic and periampullary cancer cases: a population-based study using linked cancer registry and administrative hospital data in New South Wales, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Creighton, Nicola; Walton, Richard; Roder, David; Aranda, Sanchia; Currow, David

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Informing cancer service delivery with timely and accurate data is essential to cancer control activities and health system monitoring. This study aimed to assess the validity of ascertaining incident cases and resection use for pancreatic and periampullary cancers from linked administrative hospital data, compared with data from a cancer registry (the ‘gold standard’). Design, setting and participants Analysis of linked statutory population-based cancer registry data and administrative hospital data for adults (aged ≥18 years) with a pancreatic or periampullary cancer case diagnosed during 2005–2009 or a hospital admission for these cancers between 2005 and 2013 in New South Wales, Australia. Methods The sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of pancreatic and periampullary cancer case ascertainment from hospital admission data were calculated for the 2005–2009 period through comparison with registry data. We examined the effect of the look-back period to distinguish incident cancer cases from prevalent cancer cases from hospital admission data using 2009 and 2013 as index years. Results Sensitivity of case ascertainment from the hospital data was 87.5% (4322/4939), with higher sensitivity when the cancer was resected (97.9%, 715/730) and for pancreatic cancers (88.6%, 3733/4211). Sensitivity was lower in regional (83.3%) and remote (85.7%) areas, particularly in areas with interstate outflow of patients for treatment, and for cases notified to the registry by death certificate only (9.6%). The PPV for the identification of incident cases was 82.0% (4322/5272). A 2-year look-back period distinguished the majority (98%) of incident cases from prevalent cases in linked hospital data. Conclusions Pancreatic and periampullary cancer cases and resection use can be ascertained from linked hospital admission data with sufficient validity for informing aspects of health service delivery and system-level monitoring. Limited tumour clinical

  13. Reprint of "Pharmacological study of the light/dark preference test in zebrafish (Danio rerio): Waterborne administration".

    PubMed

    Magno, Lílian Danielle Paiva; Fontes, Aldo; Gonçalves, Beatriz Maria Necy; Gouveia, Amauri

    2015-12-01

    Anxiety is a complex disorder; thus, its mechanisms remain unclear. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are a promising pharmacological model for anxiety research. Light/dark preference test is a behaviorally validated measure of anxiety in zebrafish; however, it requires pharmacological validation. We sought to evaluate the sensitivity of the light/dark preference test in adult zebrafish by immersing them in drug solutions containing clonazepam, buspirone, imipramine, fluoxetine, paroxetine, haloperidol, risperidone, propranolol, or ethanol. The time spent in the dark environment, the latency time to first crossing, and the number of midline crossings were analyzed. Intermediate concentrations of clonazepam administered for 600s decreased the time spent in the dark and increased locomotor activity. Buspirone reduced motor activity. Imipramine and fluoxetine increased time spent in the dark and the first latency, and decreased the number of alternations. Paroxetine did not alter the time in the dark; however, it increased the first latency time and decreased locomotor activity. Haloperidol decreased the time spent in the dark at low concentrations. Risperidone and propranolol did not change any parameters. Ethanol reduced the time spent in the dark and increased the number of crossings at intermediate concentrations. These results corroborate the previous work using intraperitoneal drug administration in zebrafish and rodents, suggesting that water drug delivery in zebrafish can effectively be used as an animal anxiety model.

  14. Development of Suppositories Containing Flutamide-Loaded Alginate-Tamarind Microparticles for Rectal Administration: In Vitro and in Vivo Studies.

    PubMed

    Patil, Bharati Shivajirao; Mahajan, Hitendra Shaligram; Surana, Sanjay Javerilal

    2015-01-01

    In the present work the absorption of flutamide from suppositories containing hydrophilic tamarind alginate microparticles after rectal administration in rats was investigated with the purpose of enhancing bioavailability and to avoid hepatic toxicity. Microparticles were developed by ionic gelation method and optimized using one factorial design of response surface methodology. The optimized batch of microparticles had tamarind gum-sodium alginate (1 : 3) ratio and showed entrapment efficiency 94.969% and mucoadhesion strength 94.646% with desirability of 0.961. Suppositories loaded with microparticles were developed by fusion method using poloxamer 407 and poloxamer 188 in combination as suppository base. Kinetic analysis of the release data of microparticle-loaded suppositories showed time-independent release of drug. Higher values of 'n' (>0.89) represent Super Case II-type drug release. The pharmacokinetics of flutamide from flutamide tamarind alginate microparticle-loaded suppository were compared with oral suspension. Cmax of microparticle-loaded suppository was significantly larger than that of oral suspension (1.711 and 0.859 µg/mL, respectively). PMID:26521849

  15. [Kindergarten Scheduling Study: Results for Administrators, Results for Teachers, Midwestern State Survey, Midwest University Professors Study. Volume I, Numbers 1-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelstein, Judith M.

    A comparison of full-day, alternate-day (FDAD) and half-day, every-day (HDED) kindergartens in Iowa assessed instructional time; congruence between goals and outcomes; and principal, teacher, and pupil attitudes. Findings were gathered from surveys of school administrators and teachers, as well as from questionnaires sent to directors of early…

  16. Does postmenopausal estrogen administration increase the risk of breast cancer? Contributions of animal, biochemical, and clinical investigative studies to a resolution of the controversy.

    PubMed

    Zumoff, B

    1998-01-01

    Despite nearly six decades of epidemiological studies, meta-analyses, and reviews, there is still considerable controversy in the literature about the question, does postmenopausal estrogen administration increase the risk of breast cancer? In an effort to resolve the controversy, a number of animal, biochemical, and clinical investigative studies in this field have been reviewed. The following summary formulation is proposed: 1. Administration of estrogen is inherently capable of promoting the growth of breast cancer, and therefore of increasing the incidence of clinical breast cancer. 2. Human response to estrogen is like that of the low-cancer-incidence strains of mice studied by Lacassagne, in that large doses and prolonged administration are required to induce clinical breast cancer. 3. The blood levels of estradiol produced by the usual doses of postmenopausal estrogen are relatively low, equivalent to those of the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. These levels may be near the threshold for producing breast-cancer-promoting effects; therefore, the tumor response will vary greatly in different populations, depending on genetic susceptibility factors: a. The prevalence of a family history of premenopausal breast cancer in a first-degree relative. b. The prevalence of abnormal BRCA1, BRCA2, and p53 genes. c. The prevalence of increased 16 alpha-hydroxylation of estradiol. d. The prevalence of smokers who are slow acetylators. 4. Consumption of alcohol (5 grams or more daily) along with the postmenopausal estrogen administration results in elevation of blood estradiol levels to values equivalent to those of the periovulatory peak of the menstrual cycle, which may be well above the threshold for producing breast-cancer-promoting effects in all women. The risk for cancer will therefore be uniformly increased in women who use alcohol and take estrogen. 5. Increased risk of breast cancer from postmenopausal estrogen administration can be eliminated by taking

  17. Pharmacokinetics of R 82913 in AIDS patients: a phase I dose-finding study of oral administration compared with intravenous infusion.

    PubMed Central

    De Wit, S; Hermans, P; Sommereijns, B; O'Doherty, E; Westenborghs, R; van de Velde, V; Cauwenbergh, G F; Clumeck, N

    1992-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of oral administration of R 82913, or tetrahydroimidazol [4,5,1-jk]-benzodiazepin-2(1H)-one or -thione (TIBO), was compared with those of intravenous administration in five AIDS patients. TIBO was administered as a single daily 1-h infusion of 100 mg for 29 days and orally as a single daily dose for 14 days with three consecutive regimens of 100, 200, and 100 mg with probenecid (1 g) daily. Each cycle was followed by a wash-out period. Oral bioavailability of TIBO appears to be low and is not improved by the adjunction of probenecid. Trough levels obtained with oral administration systematically remained far below the 90% inhibitory concentration of TIBO against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Tolerance of TIBO was excellent. No clinical efficacy could be demonstrated. p24 antigenemia decreased significantly in one patient under intravenous therapy. TIBO derivatives are promising anti-HIV-1 agents in vitro, but improvement of oral bioavailability is needed before implementation of long-term efficacy and tolerability studies. Moreover, rapid emergence of resistance, which has been recently documented, constitutes a major problem with most nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. PMID:1482134

  18. Histopathological study of the hepatic and renal toxicity associated with the co-administration of imatinib and acetaminophen in a preclinical mouse model.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Inthisham; Pasupati, Thanikachalam; Judson, John Paul; Segarra, Ignacio

    2010-06-01

    Imatinib, a selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is the first line treatment against chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML) and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). Several fatal cases have been associated with imatinib hepatotoxicity. Acetaminophen, an over-the-counter analgesic, anti-pyretic drug, which can cause hepatotoxicity, is commonly used in cancer pain management. We assessed renal and hepatic toxicity after imatinib and acetaminophen co-administration in a preclinical model. Four groups of male ICR mice (30-35 g) were fasted overnight and administered either saline solution orally (baseline control), imatinib 100 mg/kg orally (control), acetaminophen 700 mg/kg intraperitoneally (positive control) or co-administered imatinib 100 mg/kg orally and acetaminophen 700 mg/kg intraperitoneally (study group), and sacrificed at 15 min, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h and 6 h post-administration (n = 4 per time point). The liver and kidneys were harvested for histopathology assessment. The liver showed reversible cell damage like feathery degeneration, microvesicular fatty change, sinusoidal congestion and pyknosis, when imatinib or acetaminophen were administered separately. The damage increased gradually with time, peaked at 2 h but resolved by 4 h. When both drugs were administered concurrently, the liver showed irreversible damage (cytolysis, karyolysis and karyorrhexis) which did not resolve by 6 h. Very minor renal changes were observed. Acetaminophen and imatinib co-administration increased hepatoxicity which become irreversible, probably due to shared P450 biotransformation pathways and transporters in the liver.

  19. Comparative studies of oral administration of marine collagen peptides from Chum Salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) pre- and post-acute ethanol intoxication in female Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jiang; Li, Qiong; Lin, Bing; Yu, Yongchao; Ding, Ye; Dai, Xiaoqian; Li, Yong

    2014-09-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of an oral administration of marine collagen peptides (MCPs) pre- and post-acute ethanol intoxication in female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. MCPs were orally administered to rats at doses of 0 g per kg bw, 2.25 g per kg bw, 4.5 g per kg bw and 9.0 g per kg bw, prior to or after the oral administration of ethanol. Thirty minutes after ethanol treatment, the effect of MCPs on motor incoordination and hypnosis induced by ethanol were investigated using a screen test, fixed speed rotarod test (5 g per kg bw ethanol) and loss of righting reflex (7 g per kg bw ethanol). In addition, the blood ethanol concentrations at 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after ethanol administration (5 g per kg bw ethanol) were measured. The results of the screen test and fixed speed rotarod test suggested that treatment with MCPs at 4.5 g per kg bw and 9.0 g per kg bw prior to ethanol could attenuate ethanol-induced loss of motor coordination. Moreover, MCP administered both pre- and post-ethanol treatment had significant potency to alleviate the acute ethanol induced hypnotic states in the loss of righting reflex test. At 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after ethanol ingestion at 5 g per kg bw, the blood ethanol concentration (BEC) of control rats significantly increased compared with that in the 4.5 g per kg bw and 9.0 g per kg bw MCP pre-treated groups. However, post-treatment with MCPs did not exert a significant inhibitory effect on the BEC of the post-treated groups until 120 minutes after ethanol administration. Therefore, the anti-inebriation effect of MCPs was verified in SD rats with the possible mechanisms related to inhibiting ethanol absorption and facilitating ethanol metabolism. Moreover, the efficiency was better when MCPs were administered prior to ethanol.

  20. An administrative data validation study of the accuracy of algorithms for identifying rheumatoid arthritis: the influence of the reference standard on algorithm performance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We have previously validated administrative data algorithms to identify patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using rheumatology clinic records as the reference standard. Here we reassessed the accuracy of the algorithms using primary care records as the reference standard. Methods We performed a retrospective chart abstraction study using a random sample of 7500 adult patients under the care of 83 family physicians contributing to the Electronic Medical Record Administrative data Linked Database (EMRALD) in Ontario, Canada. Using physician-reported diagnoses as the reference standard, we computed and compared the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values for over 100 administrative data algorithms for RA case ascertainment. Results We identified 69 patients with RA for a lifetime RA prevalence of 0.9%. All algorithms had excellent specificity (>97%). However, sensitivity varied (75-90%) among physician billing algorithms. Despite the low prevalence of RA, most algorithms had adequate positive predictive value (PPV; 51-83%). The algorithm of “[1 hospitalization RA diagnosis code] or [3 physician RA diagnosis codes with ≥1 by a specialist over 2 years]” had a sensitivity of 78% (95% CI 69–88), specificity of 100% (95% CI 100–100), PPV of 78% (95% CI 69–88) and NPV of 100% (95% CI 100–100). Conclusions Administrative data algorithms for detecting RA patients achieved a high degree of accuracy amongst the general population. However, results varied slightly from our previous report, which can be attributed to differences in the reference standards with respect to disease prevalence, spectrum of disease, and type of comparator group. PMID:24956925

  1. A 1H-NMR Based Study on Hemolymph Metabolomics in Eri Silkworm after Oral Administration of 1-Deoxynojirimycin

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Ming-Jie; Lin, Xiao-Dong; Lin, Qiu-Ting; Wen, De-Fu; Zhang, Mei-Ling; Wang, Xian-Qin; Gao, Hong-Chang; Xu, Jia-Ping

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate whether 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) modulates glycometabolism and has toxicity in Eri silkworm (Samia cynthia ricini, Saturniidae). In this paper, hemolymph metabolites were used to explore metabolic changes after oral administration of DNJ or mulberry latex and to characterize the biological function of DNJ at the metabolic and systemic levels. Hemolymph samples were collected from fourth-instar larvae of Eri silkworm and ex-vivo high-resolution 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were acquired from the collected hemolymph samples. Then the obtained spectra were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and independent-samples t-test. Metabolic pattern recognition analysis of hemolymph samples indicated that the groups of 0.25% DNJ, latex, and the mixture of 0.5% DNJ and latex (1:1) were significantly different from the control group. Moreover, compared to the control group, the groups of 0.25% DNJ, latex, and the mixture of 0.5% DNJ and latex (1:1) showed the decreased levels of citrate, succinate, fumarate, malate, and glutamine in hemolymph, the groups of 0.25% DNJ and the mixture of 0.5% DNJ and latex (1:1) showed the increased levels of trehalose and lactate. In addition, mulberry leaves exude latex was highly toxic to Eri silkworm because rich unidentified high-molecular-weight factor (s) acted as toxic substances. In our results, latex caused 20 deaths among 50 fourth-instar larvae of Eri silkmoth, but DNJ or the mixture did not caused death. All these results suggest that DNJ has a positive impact on the reverse glycometabolism by modulating glycometabolism and inhibiting glucogenesis and energy metabolism. DNJ is a secure substance as a single-ingredient antidiabetic medicine due to its nontoxicity and bioactivity. PMID:26148185

  2. Inaccurate Ascertainment of Morbidity and Mortality due to Influenza in Administrative Databases: A Population-Based Record Linkage Study

    PubMed Central

    Muscatello, David J.; Amin, Janaki; MacIntyre, C. Raina; Newall, Anthony T.; Rawlinson, William D.; Sintchenko, Vitali; Gilmour, Robin; Thackway, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Background Historically, counting influenza recorded in administrative health outcome databases has been considered insufficient to estimate influenza attributable morbidity and mortality in populations. We used database record linkage to evaluate whether modern databases have similar limitations. Methods Person-level records were linked across databases of laboratory notified influenza, emergency department (ED) presentations, hospital admissions and death registrations, from the population (∼6.9 million) of New South Wales (NSW), Australia, 2005 to 2008. Results There were 2568 virologically diagnosed influenza infections notified. Among those, 25% of 40 who died, 49% of 1451 with a hospital admission and 7% of 1742 with an ED presentation had influenza recorded on the respective database record. Compared with persons aged ≥65 years and residents of regional and remote areas, respectively, children and residents of major cities were more likely to have influenza coded on their admission record. Compared with older persons and admitted patients, respectively, working age persons and non-admitted persons were more likely to have influenza coded on their ED record. On both ED and admission records, persons with influenza type A infection were more likely than those with type B infection to have influenza coded. Among death registrations, hospital admissions and ED presentations with influenza recorded as a cause of illness, 15%, 28% and 1.4%, respectively, also had laboratory notified influenza. Time trends in counts of influenza recorded on the ED, admission and death databases reflected the trend in counts of virologically diagnosed influenza. Conclusions A minority of the death, hospital admission and ED records for persons with a virologically diagnosed influenza infection identified influenza as a cause of illness. Few database records with influenza recorded as a cause had laboratory confirmation. The databases have limited value for estimating incidence

  3. Incidence of Hospitalization for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection amongst Children in Ontario, Canada: A Population-Based Study Using Validated Health Administrative Data

    PubMed Central

    Pisesky, Andrea; Benchimol, Eric I.; Wong, Coralie A.; Hui, Charles; Crowe, Megan; Belair, Marc-Andre; Pojsupap, Supichaya; Karnauchow, Tim; O'Hearn, Katie; Yasseen, Abdool S.; McNally, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Importance RSV is a common illness among young children that causes significant morbidity and health care costs. Objective Routinely collected health administrative data can be used to track disease incidence, explore risk factors and conduct health services research. Due to potential for misclassification bias, the accuracy of data-elements should be validated prior to use. The objectives of this study were to validate an algorithm to accurately identify pediatric cases of hospitalized respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) from within Ontario’s health administrative data, estimate annual incidence of hospitalization due to RSV and report the prevalence of major risk factors within hospitalized patients. Study Design and Setting A retrospective chart review was performed to establish a reference-standard cohort of children from the Ottawa region admitted to the Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario (CHEO) for RSV-related disease in 2010 and 2011. Chart review data was linked to Ontario’s administrative data and used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of algorithms of RSV-related ICD-10 codes within provincial hospitalization and emergency department databases. Age- and sex-standardized incidence was calculated over time, with trends in incidence assessed using Poisson regression. Results From a total of 1411 admissions, chart review identified 327 children hospitalized for laboratory confirmed RSV-related disease. Following linkage to administrative data and restriction to first admissions, there were 289 RSV patients in the reference-standard cohort. The best algorithm, based on hospitalization data, resulted in sensitivity 97.9% (95%CI: 95.5–99.2%), specificity 99.6% (95%CI: 98.2–99.8%), PPV 96.9% (95%CI: 94.2–98.6%), NPV 99.4% (95%CI: 99.4–99.9%). Incidence of hospitalized RSV in Ontario from 2005–2012 was 10.2 per 1000 children under 1 year and 4.8 per 1000 children aged 1 to 3 years. During the surveillance period, there was no identifiable

  4. Validity of ICD-9-CM codes for breast, lung and colorectal cancers in three Italian administrative healthcare databases: a diagnostic accuracy study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Abraha, Iosief; Serraino, Diego; Giovannini, Gianni; Stracci, Fabrizio; Casucci, Paola; Alessandrini, Giuliana; Bidoli, Ettore; Chiari, Rita; Cirocchi, Roberto; De Giorgi, Marcello; Franchini, David; Vitale, Maria Francesca; Fusco, Mario; Montedori, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Administrative healthcare databases are useful tools to study healthcare outcomes and to monitor the health status of a population. Patients with cancer can be identified through disease-specific codes, prescriptions and physician claims, but prior validation is required to achieve an accurate case definition. The objective of this protocol is to assess the accuracy of International Classification of Diseases Ninth Revision—Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes for breast, lung and colorectal cancers in identifying patients diagnosed with the relative disease in three Italian administrative databases. Methods and analysis Data from the administrative databases of Umbria Region (910 000 residents), Local Health Unit 3 of Napoli (1 170 000 residents) and Friuli-Venezia Giulia Region (1 227 000 residents) will be considered. In each administrative database, patients with the first occurrence of diagnosis of breast, lung or colorectal cancer between 2012 and 2014 will be identified using the following groups of ICD-9-CM codes in primary position: (1) 233.0 and (2) 174.x for breast cancer; (3) 162.x for lung cancer; (4) 153.x for colon cancer and (5) 154.0–154.1 and 154.8 for rectal cancer. Only incident cases will be considered, that is, excluding cases that have the same diagnosis in the 5 years (2007–2011) before the period of interest. A random sample of cases and non-cases will be selected from each administrative database and the corresponding medical charts will be assessed for validation by pairs of trained, independent reviewers. Case ascertainment within the medical charts will be based on (1) the presence of a primary nodular lesion in the breast, lung or colon–rectum, documented with imaging or endoscopy and (2) a cytological or histological documentation of cancer from a primary or metastatic site. Sensitivity and specificity with 95% CIs will be calculated. Dissemination Study results will be disseminated widely through

  5. The impact of structural integrity and route of administration on the antibody specificity against three cow’s milk allergens - a study in Brown Norway rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Characterisation of the specific antibody response, including the epitope binding pattern, is an essential task for understanding the molecular mechanisms of food allergy. Examination of antibody formation in a controlled environment requires animal models. The purpose of this study was to examine the amount and types of antibodies raised against three cow’s milk allergens; β-lactoglobulin (BLG), α-lactalbumin (ALA) and β-casein upon oral or intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration. A special focus was given to the relative amount of antibodies raised against linear versus conformational epitopes. Methods Specific antibodies were raised in Brown Norway (BN) rats. BN rats were dosed either (1) i.p. with the purified native cow’s milk allergens or (2) orally with skimmed milk powder (SMP) alone or together with gluten, without the use of adjuvants. The allergens were denatured by reduction and alkylation, resulting in unfolding of the primary structure and a consequential loss of conformational epitopes. The specific IgG1 and IgE responses were analysed against both the native and denatured form of the three cow’s milk allergens, thus allowing examination of the relative amount of linear versus conformational epitopes. Results The inherent capacity to induce specific IgG1 and IgE antibodies were rather similar upon i.p. administration for the three cow’s milk allergens, with BLG = ALA > β-casein. Larger differences were found between the allergens upon oral administration, with BLG > ALA > β-casein. Co-administration of SMP and gluten had a great impact on the specific antibody response, resulting in a significant reduced amount of antibodies. Together results indicated that most antibodies were raised against conformational epitopes irrespectively of the administration route, though the relative proportions between linear and conformational epitopes differed remarkably between the allergens. Conclusions This study showed that the

  6. Quantitative determination of gracillin by HPLC-MS/MS after oral administration and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinxin; Xue, Xuanji; Zhao, Jing; Guo, Zengjun; Ito, Yoichiro; Sun, Wenji

    2016-09-01

    A sensitive and credible high performance liquid chromatography hyphenated to mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was established to quantify the concentration of gracillin in rat plasma. The plasma samples were subjected to a direct protein precipitation process with acetonitrile as a precipitant in a single-step. Ginsenoside Rb1 was selected as an internal standard (IS). The chromatographic separation of analyte and IS were carried out on an Inersil ODS-3 C18 column (250×4.6mm, 5μm) with a binary solvent system containing acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water at a flow rate of 1mLmin(-1) under a gradient elution mode. Mass spectrometric detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer by the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode to examine the precursor-to-daughter ion transitions of 1110.3→948.2 for IS and 886.1→739.9 for gracillin, respectively, in a positive electrospray ionization mode. The calibration curve showed a promising linearity over a concentration range of 0.065-800ngmL(-1) with a better regression coefficient of r(2)=0.9960. The intra- and inter-day precisions (as relative standard deviation) of the assay at three quality control levels were all less than 3.48%, while the intra- and inter-day accuracies (as relative error) ranged from -8.43% to 9.74%, whose data were within the acceptable limits. The mean extraction recoveries of analyte from rat plasma were all more than 74.11%, and no notable matrix effect was observed. Stability experiments revealed that gracillin remained stable throughout the analytical procedure under various stored conditions. The above validated method was successfully used to investigate the pharmacokinetic behaviors of gracillin orally administrated to rats at three proportion doses. The pharmacokinetic analysis would pave the way for understanding the pharmacological actions and provide a meaningful foundation for further development and application in preclinical and clinical use of

  7. Quantitative determination of gracillin by HPLC-MS/MS after oral administration and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinxin; Xue, Xuanji; Zhao, Jing; Guo, Zengjun; Ito, Yoichiro; Sun, Wenji

    2016-09-01

    A sensitive and credible high performance liquid chromatography hyphenated to mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was established to quantify the concentration of gracillin in rat plasma. The plasma samples were subjected to a direct protein precipitation process with acetonitrile as a precipitant in a single-step. Ginsenoside Rb1 was selected as an internal standard (IS). The chromatographic separation of analyte and IS were carried out on an Inersil ODS-3 C18 column (250×4.6mm, 5μm) with a binary solvent system containing acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water at a flow rate of 1mLmin(-1) under a gradient elution mode. Mass spectrometric detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer by the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode to examine the precursor-to-daughter ion transitions of 1110.3→948.2 for IS and 886.1→739.9 for gracillin, respectively, in a positive electrospray ionization mode. The calibration curve showed a promising linearity over a concentration range of 0.065-800ngmL(-1) with a better regression coefficient of r(2)=0.9960. The intra- and inter-day precisions (as relative standard deviation) of the assay at three quality control levels were all less than 3.48%, while the intra- and inter-day accuracies (as relative error) ranged from -8.43% to 9.74%, whose data were within the acceptable limits. The mean extraction recoveries of analyte from rat plasma were all more than 74.11%, and no notable matrix effect was observed. Stability experiments revealed that gracillin remained stable throughout the analytical procedure under various stored conditions. The above validated method was successfully used to investigate the pharmacokinetic behaviors of gracillin orally administrated to rats at three proportion doses. The pharmacokinetic analysis would pave the way for understanding the pharmacological actions and provide a meaningful foundation for further development and application in preclinical and clinical use of

  8. New Scheme of Intermittent Benznidazole Administration in Patients Chronically Infected with Trypanosoma cruzi: a Pilot Short-Term Follow-Up Study with Adult Patients

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez, María Gabriela; Hernández, Yolanda; Bertocchi, Graciela; Fernández, Marisa; Lococo, Bruno; Ramírez, Juan Carlos; Cura, Carolina; Albizu, Constanza Lopez; Schijman, Alejandro; Abril, Marcelo; Sosa-Estani, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    There is a clinical need to test new schemes of benznidazole administration that are expected to be at least as effective as the current therapeutic scheme but safer. This study assessed a new scheme of benznidazole administration in chronic Chagas disease patients. A pilot study with intermittent doses of benznidazole at 5 mg/kg/day in two daily doses every 5 days for a total of 60 days was designed. The main criterion of response was the comparison of quantitative PCR (qPCR) findings prior to and 1 week after the end of treatment. The safety profile was assessed by the rate of suspensions and severity of adverse effects. Twenty patients were analyzed for safety, while qPCR was tested for 17 of them. The average age was 43 ± 7.9 years; 55% were female. Sixty-five percent of treated subjects showed detectable qPCR results prior to treatment of 1.45 (0.63 to 2.81) and 2.1 (1.18 to 2.78) parasitic equivalents per milliliter of blood (par.eq/ml) for kinetoplastic DNA (kDNA) qPCR and nuclear repetitive sequence satellite DNA (SatDNA) qPCR, respectively. One patient showed detectable PCR at the end of treatment (1/17), corresponding to 6% treatment failure, compared with 11/17 (65%) patients pretreatment (P = 0.01). Adverse effects were present in 10/20 (50%) patients, but in only one case was treatment suspended. Eight patients showed mild adverse effects, whereas moderate reactions with increased liver enzymes were observed in two patients. The main accomplishment of this pilot study is the promising low rate of treatment suspension. Intermittent administration of benznidazole emerges a new potential therapeutic scheme, the efficacy of which should be confirmed by long-term assessment posttreatment. PMID:26596935

  9. New Scheme of Intermittent Benznidazole Administration in Patients Chronically Infected with Trypanosoma cruzi: a Pilot Short-Term Follow-Up Study with Adult Patients.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, María Gabriela; Hernández, Yolanda; Bertocchi, Graciela; Fernández, Marisa; Lococo, Bruno; Ramírez, Juan Carlos; Cura, Carolina; Albizu, Constanza Lopez; Schijman, Alejandro; Abril, Marcelo; Sosa-Estani, Sergio; Viotti, Rodolfo

    2016-02-01

    There is a clinical need to test new schemes of benznidazole administration that are expected to be at least as effective as the current therapeutic scheme but safer. This study assessed a new scheme of benznidazole administration in chronic Chagas disease patients. A pilot study with intermittent doses of benznidazole at 5 mg/kg/day in two daily doses every 5 days for a total of 60 days was designed. The main criterion of response was the comparison of quantitative PCR (qPCR) findings prior to and 1 week after the end of treatment. The safety profile was assessed by the rate of suspensions and severity of adverse effects. Twenty patients were analyzed for safety, while qPCR was tested for 17 of them. The average age was 43 ± 7.9 years; 55% were female. Sixty-five percent of treated subjects showed detectable qPCR results prior to treatment of 1.45 (0.63 to 2.81) and 2.1 (1.18 to 2.78) parasitic equivalents per milliliter of blood (par.eq/ml) for kinetoplastic DNA (kDNA) qPCR and nuclear repetitive sequence satellite DNA (SatDNA) qPCR, respectively. One patient showed detectable PCR at the end of treatment (1/17), corresponding to 6% treatment failure, compared with 11/17 (65%) patients pretreatment (P = 0.01). Adverse effects were present in 10/20 (50%) patients, but in only one case was treatment suspended. Eight patients showed mild adverse effects, whereas moderate reactions with increased liver enzymes were observed in two patients. The main accomplishment of this pilot study is the promising low rate of treatment suspension. Intermittent administration of benznidazole emerges a new potential therapeutic scheme, the efficacy of which should be confirmed by long-term assessment posttreatment. PMID:26596935

  10. New Scheme of Intermittent Benznidazole Administration in Patients Chronically Infected with Trypanosoma cruzi: a Pilot Short-Term Follow-Up Study with Adult Patients.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, María Gabriela; Hernández, Yolanda; Bertocchi, Graciela; Fernández, Marisa; Lococo, Bruno; Ramírez, Juan Carlos; Cura, Carolina; Albizu, Constanza Lopez; Schijman, Alejandro; Abril, Marcelo; Sosa-Estani, Sergio; Viotti, Rodolfo

    2016-02-01

    There is a clinical need to test new schemes of benznidazole administration that are expected to be at least as effective as the current therapeutic scheme but safer. This study assessed a new scheme of benznidazole administration in chronic Chagas disease patients. A pilot study with intermittent doses of benznidazole at 5 mg/kg/day in two daily doses every 5 days for a total of 60 days was designed. The main criterion of response was the comparison of quantitative PCR (qPCR) findings prior to and 1 week after the end of treatment. The safety profile was assessed by the rate of suspensions and severity of adverse effects. Twenty patients were analyzed for safety, while qPCR was tested for 17 of them. The average age was 43 ± 7.9 years; 55% were female. Sixty-five percent of treated subjects showed detectable qPCR results prior to treatment of 1.45 (0.63 to 2.81) and 2.1 (1.18 to 2.78) parasitic equivalents per milliliter of blood (par.eq/ml) for kinetoplastic DNA (kDNA) qPCR and nuclear repetitive sequence satellite DNA (SatDNA) qPCR, respectively. One patient showed detectable PCR at the end of treatment (1/17), corresponding to 6% treatment failure, compared with 11/17 (65%) patients pretreatment (P = 0.01). Adverse effects were present in 10/20 (50%) patients, but in only one case was treatment suspended. Eight patients showed mild adverse effects, whereas moderate reactions with increased liver enzymes were observed in two patients. The main accomplishment of this pilot study is the promising low rate of treatment suspension. Intermittent administration of benznidazole emerges a new potential therapeutic scheme, the efficacy of which should be confirmed by long-term assessment posttreatment.

  11. An Evaluation of Mass Drug Administration Compliance Against Filariasis of Tikamgarh District of Madhya Pradesh-A Household-Based Community Study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sandeep; Patel, Meena; Kushwah, Sugriv Singh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Mass drug administration (MDA) means once-in-a-year administration of diethyl carbamazine (DEC) tablet to all people (excluding children under 2 years, pregnant women and severely ill persons) in identified endemic areas. It aims at cessation of transmission of lymphatic filariasis. Objective: To study the coverage and compliance of MDA in Tikamgarh district during the campaign in April 2010. Materials and Methods: The activities under MDA involved administration of DEC tablets to eligible population from endemic area by health staff and Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS) functionaries referred as drug distributors (DD) make house-to-house visits on select dates in 2010. DEC was administered to all people (excluding children under 2 years, pregnant women and severely ill persons) with the instruction to ingest the tablet preferably on the spot. Study Design: Cross-sectional population based house-to-house visit. Setting: Urban and rural areas in Tikamgarh district identified as endemic for filariasis where MDA 2010 was undertaken. Study Variables: Exploratory - Rural and urban clusters of Tikamgarh district; Outcome - coverage, compliance, actual coverage, side effects. Analysis: Percentage and proportions. Results: Four clusters, each comprising 30 households from Tikamgarh endemic district, yielded an eligible population of 641. The coverage rate was 607 (94.6% of eligible) with variation across different areas. The compliance with drug ingestion was 89.9% with a gap of 10.1% to be targeted by intensive IEC. The effective coverage (85.2%) was just above the target (85%). Side effects of DEC were minimum, transient and drug-specific. Overall coverage was marginally better in rural areas. The causes of poor coverage and compliance have been discussed and relevant suggestions have been made. PMID:24479075

  12. An Open, Randomized, Single-Center, Crossover Pharmacokinetic Study of Meropenem after Intraperitoneal and Intravenous Administration in Patients Receiving Automated Peritoneal Dialysis.

    PubMed

    Wiesholzer, Martin; Pichler, Petra; Reznicek, Gottfried; Wimmer, Michaela; Kussmann, Manuel; Balcke, Peter; Burgmann, Heinz; Zeitlinger, Markus; Poeppl, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic profile of meropenem in automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) patients. In 6 patients without peritonitis, a single dose of 0.5 g of meropenem was applied intraperitoneally (i.p.) or intravenously (i.v.) and concentrations in serum and dialysate were measured at specified intervals over 24 h with high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The mean maximum concentrations of meropenem in serum (Cmax) were 27.2 mg/liter (standard deviation [SD], ±6.9) and 10.1 mg/liter (SD, ±2.5) and in dialysate were 3.6 mg/liter (SD, ±2.3) and 185.8 mg/liter (SD, ±18.7) after i.v. and i.p. administrations, respectively. The mean areas under the curve from 0 to 24 (AUC0-24) of meropenem in serum were 173.5 mg · h/liter (SD, ±29.7) and 141.4 mg · h/liter (SD, ±37.5) (P = 0.046) and in dialysate were 42.6 mg · h/liter (SD, ±20.0) and 623.4 mg · h/liter (SD, ±84.1) (P = 0.028) after i.v. and i.p. administrations, respectively. The ratios for dialysate exposure over plasma exposure after i.v. and i.p. treatments were 0.2 (SD, ±0.1) and 4.6 (SD, ±0.9), respectively (P = 0.031). A mean target value of 40% T>MIC (time for which the free meropenem concentration exceeds the MIC) for clinically relevant pathogens with EUCAST susceptibility breakpoints of 2 mg/liter was reached in serum after i.p. and i.v. administrations and in dialysate after i.p. but not after i.v. administration. The present data indicate that low i.p. exposure limits the i.v. use of meropenem for PD-associated peritonitis. In contrast, i.p. administration not only results in superior concentrations in dialysate but also might be used to treat systemic infections. PMID:26902765

  13. Subcutaneous versus intravenous administration of heparin in the treatment of deep vein thrombosis; which do patients prefer? A randomized cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Robinson, A M; McLean, K A; Greaves, M; Channer, K S

    1993-02-01

    Patient preference for intravenous or subcutaneous heparin in the treatment of deep venous thrombosis was assessed in a randomized cross-over study. Twenty patients with venographically proven deep venous thrombosis were randomized to receive subcutaneous or intravenous heparin for 3 days followed by 3 days of the other treatment. Discomfort at the injection site, assessed by visual analogue scale, was significantly less for the subcutaneous than the intravenous administration route (P < 0.001), mobility was thought to be better when receiving subcutaneous heparin (P < 0.005) and patients' overall preference was for subcutaneous treatment (P < 0.001). PMID:8506190

  14. EPA/Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Near Road Collaboration Project: Las Vegas Near Road Study – MSAT Results

    EPA Science Inventory

    The series of studies conducted as part of the National Near Road Study focused on the collection of criteria air pollutants and mobile source air toxics (MSATs). The six priority compounds of interest were diesel particulate matter, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, acrolein, acetaldehyde...

  15. Public Pedagogy and Writing Program Administration: A Comparative, Cross-Institutional Study of Going Public in Rhetoric and Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Ashley J.

    2012-01-01

    In this project, I theorize public pedagogy in rhetoric and composition by examining a series of case studies within the writing programs and departments of the University of Arizona, Syracuse University, and Oberlin College. This cross-institutional study employs comparative analysis of historical, pedagogical, and institutional documents, as…

  16. The Tissue Distribution and Urinary Excretion Study of Gallic Acid and Protocatechuic Acid after Oral Administration of Polygonum Capitatum Extract in Rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Feng-Wei; Deng, Qing-Fang; Zhou, Xin; Gong, Xiao-Jian; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Hua-Guo; Zhao, Chao

    2016-03-24

    In the present study, we investigated the tissue distribution and urinary excretion of gallic acid (GA) and protocatechuic acid (PCA) after rat oral administration of aqueous extract of Polygonum capitatum (P. capitatum, named Herba Polygoni Capitati in China). An UHPLC-MS/MS analytical method was developed and adopted for quantification of GA and PCA in different tissue homogenate and urine samples. Interestingly, we found that GA and PCA showed a relatively targeted distribution in kidney tissue after dosing 60 mg/kg P. capitatum extract (equivalent to 12 mg/kg of GA and 0.9 mg/kg of PCA). The concentrations of GA and PCA in the kidney tissue reached 1218.62 ng/g and 43.98 ng/g, respectively, at one hour after oral administration. The results helped explain the empirical use of P. capitatum for kidney diseases in folk medicine. Further studies on urinary excretion of P. capitatum extract indicated that GA and PCA followed a concentrated elimination over a 4-h period. The predominant metabolites were putatively identified to be 4-methylgallic acid (4-OMeGA) and 4-methylprotocatechuic acid (4-OMePCA) by analyzing their precursor ions and characteristic fragment ions using tandem mass spectrometry. However, the amount of unchanged GA and PCA that survived the metabolism were about 14.60% and 15.72% of the total intake, respectively, which is reported for the first time in this study.

  17. The Tissue Distribution and Urinary Excretion Study of Gallic Acid and Protocatechuic Acid after Oral Administration of Polygonum Capitatum Extract in Rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Feng-Wei; Deng, Qing-Fang; Zhou, Xin; Gong, Xiao-Jian; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Hua-Guo; Zhao, Chao

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the tissue distribution and urinary excretion of gallic acid (GA) and protocatechuic acid (PCA) after rat oral administration of aqueous extract of Polygonum capitatum (P. capitatum, named Herba Polygoni Capitati in China). An UHPLC-MS/MS analytical method was developed and adopted for quantification of GA and PCA in different tissue homogenate and urine samples. Interestingly, we found that GA and PCA showed a relatively targeted distribution in kidney tissue after dosing 60 mg/kg P. capitatum extract (equivalent to 12 mg/kg of GA and 0.9 mg/kg of PCA). The concentrations of GA and PCA in the kidney tissue reached 1218.62 ng/g and 43.98 ng/g, respectively, at one hour after oral administration. The results helped explain the empirical use of P. capitatum for kidney diseases in folk medicine. Further studies on urinary excretion of P. capitatum extract indicated that GA and PCA followed a concentrated elimination over a 4-h period. The predominant metabolites were putatively identified to be 4-methylgallic acid (4-OMeGA) and 4-methylprotocatechuic acid (4-OMePCA) by analyzing their precursor ions and characteristic fragment ions using tandem mass spectrometry. However, the amount of unchanged GA and PCA that survived the metabolism were about 14.60% and 15.72% of the total intake, respectively, which is reported for the first time in this study. PMID:27023501

  18. Higher and longer stress-induced increase in dopamine concentrations in the nucleus accumbens of animals predisposed to amphetamine self-administration. A microdialysis study.

    PubMed

    Rougé-Pont, F; Piazza, P V; Kharouby, M; Le Moal, M; Simon, H

    1993-01-29

    Individual vulnerability to the reinforcing effects of drugs appears to be a crucial factor in the development of addiction in humans. In the rat, individuals at risk for psychostimulant self-administration (SA) may be identified from their locomotor reactivity to a stress situation such as exposure to a novel environment. Animals with high locomotor responses to novelty (high responders, HR) acquire amphetamine SA, while animals with low responses (low responders, LR) do not. In this study we examined by microdialysis whether stress-induced extracellular dopamine (DA) concentrations in the nucleus accumbens differed between these two groups of animals. This neurotransmitter was studied because it is thought to be involved in the reinforcing effects of psychostimulants. Furthermore, previous studies have shown that HR animals have a higher basal DOPAC/DA ratio in the nucleus accumbens and higher extracellular concentrations of dopamine in this structure in response to cocaine. The stress procedure used in this experiment consisted of a 10 min tail-pinch. HR animals displayed a higher and longer stress-induced changes in DA concentrations than the LR group. Regression analysis showed that stress-induced changes in DA levels accounted for 75% of the variance observed in the locomotor response to a novel environment. Since higher DA activity in the nucleus accumbens has been reported in animals in which the propensity to psychostimulant SA is induced by brain lesions or life events, this biochemical modification may be one neurobiological substrate of the predisposition to acquire psychostimulant self-administration. PMID:8448654

  19. Petroleum Resource Management and Assessment project for the Western Siberian Administration Russia. TDA feasibility study. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the study is: (1) To determine the nature and availability of the information necessary for Resource Assessment in oil fields to be open to foreign investment; (2) To determine what resources are required to implement the 'Alberta Model' of Resource Management in Siberia; (3) To establish a pilot Data Collection and Information System, including software, hardware and technology; (4) To indicate whether the studied database model and related software can meet Russia's long term requirements for information management in the petroleum sector; (5) The transfer of information techniques to the Russian implementation teams; and (6) To define the requirements for a resource/economic study.

  20. Computerization of High School Pedagogical Administration--Its Effect on Principal-Parents Interrelations: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telem, Moshe

    2003-01-01

    Case study of the impact of school management information systems on principal-parent interrelations concerning learning, behavior, and attendance at a vocational high school in Israel. (Contains 82 references.) (PKP)

  1. Novice Administrators: Psychological and Physiological Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Linda J.; Kosmoski, Georgia J.; Pollack, Dennis R.

    Novice school administrators find that demands for excellence have grown while budgets have shrunk. This paper reports on a study that examined the stress levels of beginning administrators. Two of the key questions for the study--Is the stress experienced by new school administrators manageable or out of control? and Does the job put beginning…

  2. Individual Innovativeness Levels of Educational Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coklar, Ahmet Naci

    2012-01-01

    In the present study carried out with 190 educational administrators, the individual innovativeness of educational administrators was examined. As a result of the study, it was found out that the educational administrators considered themselves as early adaptors. It was also revealed that professional seniority was not important in terms of…

  3. 2010 Profile of a Research Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shambrook, Jennifer; Roberts, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper expands upon the seminal work of Roberts and House, which described the first empirical study of the demographic profile of a research administrator. The original work was based upon data from the 2005 Research Administrator Survey (RAS), a regional study of research administrators in the southeastern United States. In this paper,…

  4. A Comparative Study of Administrator and Special Education Teacher Perceptions of Special Education Teacher Attrition and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheldrake, Danielle Angelina

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study identifies perceived causes of and solutions to the attrition of special education teachers. Researchers have documented that special education teaching positions encounter higher attrition rates than their general education peers (Katsiyannis, Zhang, & Conroy in Olivarez & Arnold, 2006; Mitchell & Arnold,…

  5. A Case Study of Student Assessment Programs in a College of Business Administration at a Southern HBCU

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell Haynes, Janel Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed method sequential explanatory case study was to describe the relationship of a student outcomes assessment program, as measured by the Peregrine Academic Leveling Course, (ALC), to the academic performance, determined by scores on the Peregrine Common Professional Component (CPC) examination, of students enrolled during…

  6. A Case Study of the Diversity Culture of an American University Athletic Department: Perceptions of Senior Level Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, John N.; Cunningham, George B.

    2012-01-01

    The topic of diversity has received considerable attention from scholars who study sport within the context of higher education in the USA. But despite this interest in the topic, an in-depth focus on how college and university athletic departments effectively manage diversity is missing from the literature. Therefore, we conducted an intrinsic…

  7. Pharmacokinetic study of harmane and its 10 metabolites in rat after intravenous and oral administration by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuping; Teng, Liang; Liu, Wei; Cheng, Xuemei; Jiang, Bo; Wang, Zhengtao; Wang, Chang-Hong

    2016-09-01

    Context The β-carboline alkaloid harmane is widely distributed in common foods, beverages and hallucinogenic plants. Harmane exerts potential in therapies for Alzheimer's and depression diseases. However, little information on its dynamic metabolic profiles and pharmacokinetics in vivo is currently available. Objective This study investigates the dynamic metabolic profiles and pharmacokinetic properties of harmane and its metabolites in rats in vivo. Materials and methods A highly selective, sensitive and rapid ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method was developed and well-validated for simultaneous quantitative determination of harmane and its uncertain endogenous metabolite harmine, as well as for semiquantitative determination of 10 harmane metabolites in rats after intravenous injection and oral administration of harmane at 1.0 and 30.0 mg/kg, respectively. Results The calibration curves of harmane and harmine showed excellent linearity within the concentration range of 1-2000 ng/mL with acceptable accuracy, precision, selectivity, recovery, matrix effect and stability. Ten metabolites, including harmane but not harmine, were detected and identified after intravenous and oral administration of harmane. The absolute bioavailability of harmane following an oral dose was 19.41 ± 3.97%. According to the AUC0-t values of all the metabolites, the metabolic levels of phase II metabolites were higher than those of phase I metabolites, and the sulphation pathways were the dominant metabolic routes for harmane in both routes of administration. Discussion and conclusion The pharmacokinetic properties of harmane and its 10 metabolites in rats were determined. Sulphate conjugation was the predominant metabolic process of harmane in rats. PMID:26730489

  8. Case study of municipal air pollution policies: Houston's Air Toxic Control Strategy under the White Administration, 2004-2009.

    PubMed

    Bruhl, Rebecca J; Linder, Stephen H; Sexton, Ken

    2013-05-01

    Local government has traditionally played only a minor role in regulating airborne toxic pollutants. However, from 2004 to 2009, the City of Houston implemented a novel, municipality-based air toxics reduction strategy to address what it considered unacceptable health risks and an insufficient regulatory response from state and federal agencies. The city's effort to exert local control over stationary sources of air toxics represents a unique opportunity to study the selection and performance of policy tools and to consider their ramifications for the design of future air pollution control strategies. The results of this case study demonstrate the potential for municipal government to use a combination of cooperative and confrontational policies to stimulate responses from private industry and state and federal regulators as part of a strategy to address local air quality problems.

  9. [The enantioselective pharmacokinetic study of desvenlafaxine sustained release tablet in Chinese healthy male volunteers after oral administration].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yin-xia; Du, Jiang-bo; Zhang, Yi-fan; Chen, Xiao-yan; Zhong, Da-fang

    2015-04-01

    A chiral LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous analysis of desvenlafaxine (DVS) enantiomers in human plasma was developed and applied to a pharmacokinetic study on 12 Chinese healthy volunteers. d6-Desvenlafaxine was used as internal standard (IS). Chromatographic separation was performed on the Astec Chirobiotic V chiral column (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 μm). The assay was linear over the concentration range of 0.500-150 ng x mL(-1) for both enantiomers (r2 > 0.99). The method was successfully applied to a stereoselective pharmacokinetic study of 100 mg desvenlafaxine sustained release tablets on 12 Chinese healthy volunteers under fasting conditions. The results showed that the pharmacokinetic parameters were similar to both enantiomers in Chinese healthy volunteers. The AUC(0-t), and C(max) of the two enantiomers were about 1.5 times higher than those of blacks and whites reported in the literature.

  10. Leflunomide biodegradable microspheres intended for intra-articular administration: Development, anti-inflammatory activity and histopathological studies.

    PubMed

    El-Setouhy, Doaa Ahmed; Abdelmalak, Nevine Shawky; Anis, Shady E; Louis, Dina

    2015-11-30

    Leflunomide, the disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug was formulated as microspheres for prolonged drug release in the form of intraarticular injection. Eight formulations were developed using three biodegradable PDLG polymers (lactide/glycolide copolymer) and polycaprolactone (PLC) at two drug:polymer ratios (1:2 and 1:4). Solvent evaporation method was employed using polyvinyl alcohol or hydropxypropyl methylcellulose as stabilizers. Formulations were assessed for encapsulation efficiency, yield, particle size, release pattern and SEM. F6 (PDLG 5010), with appropriate particle size and prolonged drug release, was chosen for in-vivo studies using arthritis induced rats, which were intrarticularly injected with F6 or took oral Avara(®). Nuclear factor-kappa B measurements and histopathologic studies were conducted. There was significant reduction of inflammation caused by both F6 and oral Avara(®). Histopathologic studies showed minimal infiltration by chronic inflammatory cells and no angiogenesis in F6 compared to Avara(®). Results also revealed biocompatibility of the polymer used.

  11. Mood fluctuations in Parkinson’s disease: a pilot study comparing the effects of intravenous and oral levodopa administration

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Irene Hegeman; Frank, Samuel; LaDonna, Kori A; Wang, Hongkun; McDermott, Michael P; Kurlan, Roger

    2005-01-01

    Objectives Parkinson’s disease (PD) is associated with motor fluctuations that have been shown to improve when stable plasma levodopa levels are achieved with continuous levodopa infusions. Many patients also develop mood fluctuations. In this pilot study, we gathered preliminary information about the relationship between changing mood states and plasma levodopa levels. Methods Six patients with idiopathic PD and histories of motor and mood fluctuations participated in a double-blind levodopa infusion study. Subjects received active oral carbidopa/levodopa and a placebo levodopa infusion on one day and placebo oral carbidopa/levodopa and an active levodopa infusion on the other day, in a randomly determined order. Evaluations included serial plasma levodopa levels and assessments of mood and motor states. Results Only 4 of the 6 subjects demonstrated mood fluctuations on at least one of the treatment days. All subjects achieved more stable plasma levodopa levels on the active infusion day. Two subjects experienced fewer mood fluctuations on the active infusion day and two experienced fewer on the oral day. Conclusions The results of this pilot study suggest that the relationship between mood state and plasma levodopa level may vary among PD patients. PMID:18568104

  12. E-government factors to reduce administrative and finance corruption in Arab countries: Case study Iraqi oil sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, M. A.; Eman, Y.; Hussein, A. H.; Hasson, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Arab countries face the corruption issues in its several public organizations. The corruption in these countries is considered as the main challenge. The oil sector is one of the public sectors that have huge level of corruption. However, the Iraqi economy had become dependable on oil sector daring the last three decades, and on the contrary, of what other oil countries did. The capital is considered as one of the essential factor for economic development. The revenues of oil exports will stay the essential source for economic development in Iraq in the future in order to reduce being dependable on oil. Since the beginning of the 3rd thousands, the world witnessed great rise in the demand on oil, but the Iraqi exports of crude oil come to be less than its similarities in the seventeenths of last century. So our oil sector is still in need of deep study. This study focuses on technological technique that can make huge decrease for corruption in oil sector in Iraq. However, e-government is considered as the best techniques that can decrease the corruption. Thus, this study bases on challenges that effect on build successful e-government project in Iraqi oil industry.

  13. The Relationship between Job Involvement and School Administrative Effectiveness as Perceived by Administration Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Ruilin; Xie, Jingchen; Jeng, Yoau-Chau; Wang, Zheng-Hong

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships between "job involvement" and "school administrative effectiveness" as perceived by junior high school administration teachers. The findings are as follows. (1) The current status of "job involvement" and "school administrative effectiveness" as perceived by administration teachers is…

  14. Contemporary Development Trends in Administrative-Legal Relations in the System of Administrative Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdikerimova, Aynur A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to determine the main contemporary development trends in administrative-legal relations in the field of administrative justice. In order to examine theoretical and practical issues of modern administrative justice, normative legal acts identifying the relations in the system of administrative justice in the Republic in…

  15. Development of cationic solid lipid nanoparticles with factorial design-based studies for topical administration of doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Taveira, Stephânia F; Araújo, Luciana M P de Campos; de Santana, Danielle C A S; Nomizo, Auro; de Freitas, Luiz Alexandre P; Lopez, Renata F V

    2012-04-01

    Topical chemotherapy using doxorubicin, a powerful anticancer drug, can be used as an alternative with reduced systemic toxicity when treating skin cancer. The aim of the present work was to use factorial design-based studies to develop cationic solid lipid nanoparticles containing doxorubicin; further investigations into the influence of these particles on the drug's cytotoxicity and cellular uptake in B16F10 murine melanoma cells were performed. A 32 full factorial design was applied for two different lipid phases; one phase used stearic acid and the other used a 1:2 mixture of stearic acid and glyceryl behenate. The two factors investigated included the ratio between the lipid and the water phase and the ratio between the surfactant (poloxamer) and the co-surfactant (cetylpyridinium chloride). It was observed that the studied factors did not affect the mean diameter or the polydispersity of the obtained nanoparticles; however, they did significantly affect the zeta potential values. Optimised formulations with particle sizes ranging from 251 to 306 nm and positive zeta potentials were selected for doxorubicin incorporation. High entrapment efficiencies were achieved (97%) in formulations with higher amounts of stearic acid, suggesting that cationic charges on doxorubicin molecules may interact with the negative charges in stearic acid. Melanoma culture cell experiments showed that cationic solid lipid nanoparticles without drug were not cytotoxic to melanoma cells. The encapsulation of doxorubicin significantly increased cytotoxicity, indicating the potential of these nanoparticles for the treatment of skin cancer.

  16. [A relative bioavailability study of 2 oral formulations of omeprazole after their administration in repeated doses to healthy volunteers].

    PubMed

    Richards, J P; Gimeno, M; Moreland, T A; McEwen, J

    1999-04-01

    To determine the relative bioavailability of Ulceral (study formula) with respect to Losec (reference standard formula) and establish their bioequivalence daily doses of 20 mg of omeprazole were given during 5 consecutive days to 24 healthy volunteers. No significant differences were observed in the area under the curve (AUC0-t), a parameter directly related to the inhibition of acid secretion induced by omeprazole. The confidence interval of 90% for the difference between the two formulations for AUC0-t was within the interval of acceptance (0.80-1.25). The confidence interval for the difference between the two formulations for Cmax were also within the range of acceptance (0.70-1.43). In relation to the time for achieving (Cmax (tmax), the difference between the two formulations and the confidence interval of 95% for the tmax was 0.75 (-0.5-1.75) h indicating that no significant differences were observed between the two treatments. This study confirms the bioequivalence of Ulceral with the standard reference formulation as well as the tolerability of the two formulae. PMID:10349786

  17. A 90-day subchronic toxicity study with sodium formononetin-3'-sulphonate (Sul-F) delivered to dogs via intravenous administration.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunmei; Li, Guisheng; Gao, Yonglin; Sun, Chengfeng; Wang, Xiaoyan

    2016-06-01

    Sodium formononetin-3'-sulphonate (Sul-F) is a water-soluble derivate of formononetin, and an increasing number of studies have shown that Sul-F not only possesses favorable water solubility but also exhibits good lipid-lowering and bioactivities. In the current study, the toxicity of Sul-F was evaluated in dogs after 90-day intravenous infusion. Dogs were treated with Sul-F at dose of 0, 33.3, 100, and 300 mg/kg, and observed for 90-day followed by 28-day recovery period. Weekly measurement of body weight, temperature and food consumption were conducted. Ophthalmoscopy, ECG examination, urinalysis, serum biochemistry and hematology examination were performed at pre-test, on days 45 and 90, and following by 28-day recovery period. Histological examination was performed on day 90 and 28-day recovery period. No mortality, ophthalmic abnormalities or treatment-related findings in body weight, clinical chemistry, hematology, and histopathological examination were detected. However, a white crystal (non-metabolic Sul-F), transient vomiting and recoverable vascular stimulation were observed in 300 mg/kg/day Sul-F treated dogs. Under the conditions, the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) for Sul-F was 100 mg/kg in dogs.

  18. Circulating non–transferrin-bound iron after oral administration of supplemental and fortification doses of iron to healthy women: a randomized study1234

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Maria; Egli, Ines; Foman, Jasmin Tajeri; Zeder, Christophe; Westerman, Mark E; Hurrell, Richard F

    2014-01-01

    Background: After the oral administration of iron, the production of circulating non–transferrin-bound iron may contribute to an increased risk of illness in malaria-endemic areas that lack effective medical services. Objective: In healthy women with a range of body iron stores, we aimed to determine effects on the production of circulating non–transferrin-bound iron resulting from the oral administration of 1) a supplemental dose of iron (60 mg) with water, 2) a supplemental dose of iron (60 mg) with a standard test meal, and 3) a fortification dose of iron (6 mg) with a standard test meal. Design: With the use of serum ferritin as the indicator, healthy women with replete iron stores (ferritin concentration >25 μg/L; n = 16) and reduced iron stores (ferritin concentration ≤25 μg/L; n = 16) were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, crossover study. After the oral administration of aqueous solutions of ferrous sulfate isotopically labeled with 54Fe, 57Fe, or 58Fe, blood samples were collected for 8 h, and iron absorption was estimated by erythrocyte incorporation at 14 d. Results: At 4 h, serum non–transferrin-bound iron reached peaks with geometric mean (95% CI) concentrations of 0.81 μmol/L (0.56, 1.1 μmol/L) for 60 mg Fe with water and 0.26 μmol/L (0.15, 0.38 μmol/L) for 60 mg Fe with food but was at assay limits of detection (0.1 μmol Fe/L) for 6 mg Fe with food. For the 60 mg Fe without food, the area under the curve over 8 h for serum non–transferrin-bound iron was positively correlated with the amount of iron absorbed (R = 0.49, P < 0.01) and negatively correlated with serum ferritin (R = −0.39, P < 0.05). Conclusions: In healthy women, the production of circulating non–transferrin-bound iron is determined by the rate and amount of iron absorbed. The highest concentrations of non–transferrin-bound iron resulted from the administration of supplemental doses of iron without food. Little or no circulating non–transferrin-bound iron

  19. Pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence study of escitalopram oxalate formulations after single-dose administration in healthy Chinese male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Tian, Yuan; Zhang, Zun-Jian; Wang, Na; Ren, Xiaolei; Chen, Yun

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the bioavailability of escitalopram (CAS 128196-01-0) from two escitalopram oxalate (CAS 219861-08-2) tablets (escitalopram 10 mg tablet as test preparation and 10 mg tablet commercially available original tablet of the drug as reference preparation) in 20 Chinese healthy male volunteers, aged between 19 and 27. The study was conducted according to an open, randomized, single blind, 2-way crossover study design with a wash-out phase of 14 d. Blood samples for pharmacokinetic profiling were taken up to 156 h post-dose, and escitalopram plasma concentrations were determined with a validated liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) method. Maximum plasma concentrations (C(max)) of 9.85 +/- 1.79 ng/ml (test) and 9.92 +/- 2.14 ng/ml (reference) were achieved. Areas under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-infinity)) of 428.40 +/- 140.25 ng x h/ml (test) and 413.73 +/- 144.81 ng x h/ml (reference), AUC(0-t) of 401.33 +/- 120.61 ng x h/ml (test), 385.42 +/- 117.73 ng x h/ml (reference) were calculated. The median T(max) was 4.3 +/- 1.8h, 4.1 +/- 1.5 h for test and reference formulation, respectively. Plasma elimination half-lives (t 1/2) of 36.30 +/- 8.93 h (test), 36.70 +/- 9.99 h (reference) were determined. Both primary target parameters, AUC(0-infinity) and AUC(0-t) were tested parametrically by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and relative bioavailabilities were 105.1 +/- 10.8% for AUC(0-infinity), 104.9 +/- 11.1% for AUC(0-t). Bioequivalence between test and reference preparation was demonstrated for both parameters, AUC(0-infinity) and AUC(0-t). The 90% confidence intervals of the T/R-ratios of logarithmically transformed data were in the generally accepted range of 80%-125%. That means that the test formulation is bioequivalent to the reference formulation for escitalopram. PMID:19537522

  20. Postnatal administration of dihydrotestosterone to the male rat abolishes sexual dimorphism in the accessory olfactory bulb: a volumetric study.

    PubMed

    Valencia, A; Collado, P; Calés, J M; Segovia, S; Pérez Laso, C; Rodríguez Zafra, M; Guillamón, A

    1992-07-24

    The regulatory action of the non-aromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on sexual differentiation of the volume of the rat accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) was studied. Postnatal treatment with DHT (180 micrograms/day) carried out daily between days 6 and 20 produced a drastic reduction in overall AOB size and that of its constituent neural layers in genetic males with respect to intact and control males. The volumetric measures found in DHT-treated males did not differ from those shown by the intact females. These results, which indicate a demasculinization and a feminization of the AOB volume in gonadally intact male rats induced by DHT, are discussed in relation to the presumably regulatory role of DHT on neuron populations during the sexual organizational process of the brain.

  1. NMR-based metabonomic study of the sub-acute toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in rats after oral administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Qian; Yan, Guangyan; Deng, Pengchi; Peng, Feng; Lin, Hongjun; Xu, Youzhi; Cao, Zhixing; Zhou, Tian; Xue, Aiqin; Wang, Yanli; Cen, Xiaobo; Zhao, Ying-Lan

    2010-03-01

    As titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are widely used commercially, their potential toxicity on human health has attracted particular attention. In the present study, the oral toxicological effects of TiO2 NPs (dosed at 0.16, 0.4 and 1 g kg - 1, respectively) were investigated using conventional approaches and metabonomic analysis in Wistar rats. Serum chemistry, hematology and histopathology examinations were performed. The urine and serum were investigated by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) using principal components and partial least squares discriminant analysis. The metabolic signature of urinalysis in TiO2 NP-treated rats showed increases in the levels of taurine, citrate, hippurate, histidine, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), citrulline, α-ketoglutarate, phenylacetylglycine (PAG) and acetate; moreover, decreases in the levels of lactate, betaine, methionine, threonine, pyruvate, 3-D-hydroxybutyrate (3-D-HB), choline and leucine were observed. The metabonomics analysis of serum showed increases in TMAO, choline, creatine, phosphocholine and 3-D-HB as well as decreases in glutamine, pyruvate, glutamate, acetoacetate, glutathione and methionine after TiO2 NP treatment. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were elevated and mitochondrial swelling in heart tissue was observed in TiO2 NP-treated rats. These findings indicate that disturbances in energy and amino acid metabolism and the gut microflora environment may be attributable to the slight injury to the liver and heart caused by TiO2 NPs. Moreover, the NMR-based metabolomic approach is a reliable and sensitive method to study the biochemical effects of nanomaterials.

  2. HPLC determination of five polyphenols in rat plasma after intravenous administration of hawthorn leaves extract and its application to pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Si-Yuan; Chai, Ji-Yan; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Liu, Xun; DU, Yang; Cheng, Zhong-Zhe; Ying, Xi-Xiang; Kang, Ting-Guo

    2010-11-01

    A simple and specific HPLC-UV method was developed to simultaneously determine five active compounds including vitexin-4"-O-glucoside (VG), vitexin-2"-O-rhamnoside (VR), vitexin (VIT), rutin (RUT) and hyperoside (HP) in rat plasma after intravenous administrating the hawthorn leaves extract (HLE). With baicalin as internal standard (I.S.), sample pretreatment involved a one-step extraction with methanol of 0.2 ml plasma. The HPLC assay was carried out using a Phenomsil C18 analytical column with UV detection at 332 nm. The mobile phase consisted of methanol-acetonitrile-tetrahydrofuran-1% glacial acetic acid (6:1.5:18.5:74, v/v/v/v). The calibration curves were liner over the range of 2.030-500.5, 0.1513-75.64, 0.2507-12.54, 0.5128-25.64 and 0.4032-20.16 µg/ml for VG, VR, VIT, RUT and HP, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSD) of the intra- and inter-day precisions for the analysis of the five analytes were between 1.0 and 8.9% with accuracies (relative error) below 8.2% for the analysis of the five analytes. The average extraction recoveries of five analytes were more than 82.67 ± 4.74%. The HPLC method herein described was fully validated and successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic studies after intravenous administration of HLE solution to rats over three doses.

  3. Fructose:glucose ratios--a study of sugar self-administration and associated neural and physiological responses in the rat.

    PubMed

    Levy, AnneMarie; Marshall, Paul; Zhou, Yan; Kreek, Mary Jeanne; Kent, Katrina; Daniels, Stephen; Shore, Ari; Downs, Tiana; Fernandes, Maria Fernanda; Mutch, David M; Leri, Francesco

    2015-05-22

    This study explored whether different ratios of fructose (F) and glucose (G) in sugar can engender significant differences in self-administration and associated neurobiological and physiological responses in male Sprague-Dawley rats. In Experiment 1, animals self-administered pellets containing 55% F + 45% G or 30% F + 70% G, and Fos immunoreactivity was assessed in hypothalamic regions regulating food intake and reward. In Experiment 2, rats self-administered solutions of 55% F + 42% G (high fructose corn syrup (HFCS)), 50% F + 50% G (sucrose) or saccharin, and mRNA of the dopamine 2 (D2R) and mu-opioid (MOR) receptor genes were assessed in striatal regions involved in addictive behaviors. Finally, in Experiment 3, rats self-administered HFCS and sucrose in their home cages, and hepatic fatty acids were quantified. It was found that higher fructose ratios engendered lower self-administration, lower Fos expression in the lateral hypothalamus/arcuate nucleus, reduced D2R and increased MOR mRNA in the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens core, respectively, as well as elevated omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the liver. These data indicate that a higher ratio of fructose may enhance the reinforcing effects of sugar and possibly lead to neurobiological and physiological alterations associated with addictive and metabolic disorders.

  4. Fructose:Glucose Ratios—A Study of Sugar Self-Administration and Associated Neural and Physiological Responses in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Levy, AnneMarie; Marshall, Paul; Zhou, Yan; Kreek, Mary Jeanne; Kent, Katrina; Daniels, Stephen; Shore, Ari; Downs, Tiana; Fernandes, Maria Fernanda; Mutch, David M.; Leri, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    This study explored whether different ratios of fructose (F) and glucose (G) in sugar can engender significant differences in self-administration and associated neurobiological and physiological responses in male Sprague-Dawley rats. In Experiment 1, animals self-administered pellets containing 55% F + 45% G or 30% F + 70% G, and Fos immunoreactivity was assessed in hypothalamic regions regulating food intake and reward. In Experiment 2, rats self-administered solutions of 55% F + 42% G (high fructose corn syrup (HFCS)), 50% F + 50% G (sucrose) or saccharin, and mRNA of the dopamine 2 (D2R) and mu-opioid (MOR) receptor genes were assessed in striatal regions involved in addictive behaviors. Finally, in Experiment 3, rats self-administered HFCS and sucrose in their home cages, and hepatic fatty acids were quantified. It was found that higher fructose ratios engendered lower self-administration, lower Fos expression in the lateral hypothalamus/arcuate nucleus, reduced D2R and increased MOR mRNA in the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens core, respectively, as well as elevated omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the liver. These data indicate that a higher ratio of fructose may enhance the reinforcing effects of sugar and possibly lead to neurobiological and physiological alterations associated with addictive and metabolic disorders. PMID:26007337

  5. Spin-trapping studies of hepatic free radicals formed following the acute administration of ethanol to rats: In vivo detection of 1-hydroxyethyl radicals with PBN

    SciTech Connect

    Reinke, L.A.; Kotake, Y.; McCay, P.B.; Janzen, E.G. )

    1991-01-01

    The generation of free radicals in rat liver following the acute oral administration of ethanol was studied with the spin-trapping method, using a deuterated derivative of phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN-d14) as the spin-trapping agent. After administration of ethanol and PBN-d14 to rats, organic extracts of the liver were prepared and subjected to ESR spectroscopy. In the case of ethanol-treated rats, the ESR spectra indicated that mixtures of radicals had been trapped, while spectra from control rats were essentially negative. The predominant spin adduct detected after ethanol treatment is proposed to be from a carbon-centered, primary alkyl radical, based on gamma-hydrogen hyperfine splitting patterns observed with PBN-d14. Oxygen-centered radicals also contributed to the ESR spectra. Liver extracts also contained low concentrations of the 1-hydroxyethyl radical spin adduct, which was indicated by weak spectral lines corresponding to those of the 1-13C-ethanol adduct. These data confirm previous suggestions that ethanol is metabolized to a free radical metabolite in rat liver. In addition, some information on types of lipid radicals generated during alcohol intoxication has been obtained.

  6. Cardiac troponin I in isoproterenol-induced cardiac injury in the Hanover Wistar rat: studies on low dose levels and routes of administration.

    PubMed

    Brady, Sally; York, Malcolm; Scudamore, Cheryl; Williams, Thomas; Griffiths, William; Turton, John

    2010-02-01

    The current studies demonstrate the effect of low-dose intraperitoneal (IP) administration of isoprotenerol (ISO) and subcutaneous (SC) versus IP routes of administration of ISO on serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) levels in female Hanover Wistar rats, providing additional evidence to support acceptance of cTnI as a cardiac biomarker. At 2 hr postdosing with 0-500 microg/kg ISO, mean serum cTnI levels were increased in a dose-related fashion at > or =10 microg/kg with no evidence of cardiac pathology. At 24 h, cTnI concentrations were generally at control levels, but histologic cardiomyocyte injury was evident in a proportion of the animals given > or =10 microg/kg. In a second experiment, rats given SC ISO at 5,000 microg/kg and necropsied at 0, 1, 2, and 4 hr postdosing had higher levels of serum cTnI than animals given the same dose IP.

  7. Fructose:glucose ratios--a study of sugar self-administration and associated neural and physiological responses in the rat.

    PubMed

    Levy, AnneMarie; Marshall, Paul; Zhou, Yan; Kreek, Mary Jeanne; Kent, Katrina; Daniels, Stephen; Shore, Ari; Downs, Tiana; Fernandes, Maria Fernanda; Mutch, David M; Leri, Francesco

    2015-05-01

    This study explored whether different ratios of fructose (F) and glucose (G) in sugar can engender significant differences in self-administration and associated neurobiological and physiological responses in male Sprague-Dawley rats. In Experiment 1, animals self-administered pellets containing 55% F + 45% G or 30% F + 70% G, and Fos immunoreactivity was assessed in hypothalamic regions regulating food intake and reward. In Experiment 2, rats self-administered solutions of 55% F + 42% G (high fructose corn syrup (HFCS)), 50% F + 50% G (sucrose) or saccharin, and mRNA of the dopamine 2 (D2R) and mu-opioid (MOR) receptor genes were assessed in striatal regions involved in addictive behaviors. Finally, in Experiment 3, rats self-administered HFCS and sucrose in their home cages, and hepatic fatty acids were quantified. It was found that higher fructose ratios engendered lower self-administration, lower Fos expression in the lateral hypothalamus/arcuate nucleus, reduced D2R and increased MOR mRNA in the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens core, respectively, as well as elevated omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the liver. These data indicate that a higher ratio of fructose may enhance the reinforcing effects of sugar and possibly lead to neurobiological and physiological alterations associated with addictive and metabolic disorders. PMID:26007337

  8. Simultaneous determination and pharmacokinetic study of stachydrine and leonurine in rat plasma after oral administration of Herba Leonuri extract by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Li, Baohong; Wu, Jindong; Li, Xianglu

    2013-03-25

    A simple, sensitive and specific method was developed for simultaneous determination of stachydrine and leonurine in rat plasma using diphenhydramine as an internal standard (IS). The separation was performed on an Agilent ZORBAX Eclipse XDB-C(18) column (150mm×4.6mm, i.d., 5μm) at a flow rate of 0.6mL/min, and the mixture of methanol-water containing 0.1% formic acid was used as the mobile phase. The lower limits of quantitation (LLOQs) in rat plasma were 0.895 and 0.287ng/mL for stachydrine and leonurine, respectively. Intra- and inter-day precisions were within 14.4% and accuracies were not more than 3.0%. After single oral administration of 14.5g/kg Herba Leonuri extract, C(max) of stachydrine and leonurine in rat plasma were respectively 1608±267 and 43.3±8.2ng/mL, while T(max) values were respectively 0.75±0.27 and 0.83±0.26h. The results demonstrated that the present LC-MS/MS method was sensitive enough for pharmacokinetic study of stachydrine and leonurine following oral administration of Herba Leonuri extract.

  9. Simultaneous LC-MS/MS determination of five tripterygium pyridine alkaloids in dog plasma and its application to their pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of tripterygium glycosides tablets.

    PubMed

    Su, Meng-xiang; Song, Min; Yang, Da-song; Shi, Jin-fang; Di, Bin; Hang, Tai-jun

    2015-05-15

    A sensitive and selective liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of five pyridine alkaloids contained in tripterygium glycosides tablets (triptolide, wilforine, wilforgine, wilfording and wilfortrine) in dog plasma. The analysis was carried out on a Sepax GP-Phenyl column using a mixture of methanol and 10mmol/L ammonium formate buffer solution containing 0.1% formic acid (75:25, v/v) as the mobile phase pumped at a flow-rate of 1.0mL/min. All MS data were obtained in the positive ESI mode with selective multiple reaction monitoring of ion transitions. The method was fully validated to be accurate and precise with a linear range of 0.2-1000ng/mL for triptolide and 0.05-1000ng/mL for the other four pyridine alkaloids. The intra-day and inter-day precisions (relative standard deviation, RSD, %) were within 10.6% and 14.0%, respectively, and the relative error (RE, %) were all less than 13.1%. The method was successfully applied to multi-components pharmacokinetic study of the five pyridine alkaloids in beagle dogs after a single oral administration of 3mg/kg and 30mg/kg tripterygium glycosides tablets, respectively, and a multiple oral administration of 30mg/kg for 6 consecutive days. PMID:25855315

  10. Study of the Effect of Route of Administration of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Cisplatin-Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Sprague Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Moustafa, Fatma E; Sobh, Mohamed-A; Abouelkheir, Mohamed; Khater, Youmna; Mahmoud, Khalid; Saad, Mohamed-Ahdy; Sobh, Mohamed A

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to ameliorate cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). The present study compares the efficacy of different routes of MSCs administration on kidney damage and regeneration after cisplatin-induced AKI. Methods A single intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin (5 mg/kg) was used to induce AKI in 160 rats. MSCs (5×106) were given by either intravenous, intra-arterial or kidney sub capsular injection one day after cisplatin injection. Suitable control groups were included. Rats were sacrificed at 4, 7, 11 and 30 days after cisplatin injection. Kidney function parameters, kidney tissue oxidative stress markers, and scoring for renal tissue injury, regeneration and chronicity were all determined. Results MSCs by any routes were able to ameliorate kidney function deterioration and renal tissue damage induced by cisplatin. The overall results of the three routes were equal. Differences between the different routes in one parameter were transient and inconsistent with other parameters. Conclusions Changing the route of MSCs injection does not have a major influence on the outcome. Future evaluation should focus on differences between the routes of administration considering the long term safety. PMID:27426089

  11. Pharmacokinetic studies of phellodendrine in rat plasma and tissues after intravenous administration using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Liu, Xin-Guang; Wang, Hui-Ying; Dong, Xin; Gao, Wen; Xu, Xiao-Jun; Li, Ping; Yang, Hua

    2016-09-01

    Phellodendrine, a quaternary ammonium alkaloid extracted from the dried bark of Phellodendrom chinensis Schneid and Phellodendrom amurense Rupr, has the effect of suppressing cellular immune response, reducing blood pressure and antinephritis. However, few investigations have been conducted for the pharmacokinetic study of phellodendrine. Thus, a rapid, simple and reliable ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QQQ MS/MS) method has been established for quantification of phellodendrine in rat plasma and tissues by using magnoflorine as internal standard. The chromatographic separation was achieved on an Agilent ZORBAX SB-C18 column (4.6mm×50mm, 1.8μm) by gradient elution using 0.1% aqueous formic acid (A) and methanol (B). Triple quadrupole mass detection with multiple reaction monitoring mode was used to monitor the ion transitions, at m/z 342.20→192.20 for phellodendrine and m/z 342.20→58.20 for internal standard, respectively. The developed method was fully validated and successfully applied to the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution study of phellodendrine after intravenous administration. The lower limits of quantification were 0.5ng/mL for plasma samples, 2.5ng/g for brain and 1ng/g for other tested tissues. Precisions and accuracy values were within the Food and Drug Administration acceptance criteria, the recovery and matrix effects were between 87.8-113.5%. The area under the curve (AUC0-t) ranged from 15.58 to 57.41mg/L min and Cmax were between 1.63-4.93mg/L. The results showed that phellodendrine was eliminated in 120min in plasma and most of tissues and the highest concentrations of phellodendrine were found in the kidney. This study may provide a basis for the further study of phellodendrine.

  12. Validation and ease of use of a new pen device for self-administration of recombinant human growth hormone: results from a two-center usability study

    PubMed Central

    Rapaport, Robert; Saenger, Paul; Schmidt, Heinrich; Hasegawa, Yukihiro; Colle, Michel; Loche, Sandro; Marcantonio, Sandra; Bonfig, Walter; Zabransky, Markus; Lifshitz, Fima

    2013-01-01

    Close adherence to the recommended treatment regimen is important for the success of recombinant human growth hormone therapy, although nonadherence can be common. Ease of use and safety during use/storage are among several important factors in the design of a growth hormone injection device intended for long-term use. This study was performed to validate the usability and assess the ease of use of a new pen device (SurePal™) that has been developed to support daily administration of the recombinant human growth hormone product, Omnitrope® (somatropin). The primary objectives of the study were to assess if study participants, representing intended users of the pen in clinical practice, were able to perform an injection procedure into an injection pad effectively and safely and disassemble the pen without receiving a needlestick injury. A total of 106 participants (61 adults and 45 children/adolescents) were enrolled at two study centers (one in the US, one in Germany). Results for both primary usability tasks met the predefined acceptance criteria, with >85% of participants successfully performing each task. All of the other tasks/handling steps assessed were also successfully performed by most participants, with high success rates reflected in the high proportion of participants who classified each task as “very easy” or “easy”. After a second use of the device, 87%–97% of participants rated it as “very easy” or “easy” to use. In summary, the new pen device is safe and easy to use for both adults and children, and will help to support effective, long-term daily administration of the recombinant human growth hormone product, Omnitrope®. PMID:24039458

  13. Validation and ease of use of a new pen device for self-administration of recombinant human growth hormone: results from a two-center usability study.

    PubMed

    Rapaport, Robert; Saenger, Paul; Schmidt, Heinrich; Hasegawa, Yukihiro; Colle, Michel; Loche, Sandro; Marcantonio, Sandra; Bonfig, Walter; Zabransky, Markus; Lifshitz, Fima

    2013-01-01

    Close adherence to the recommended treatment regimen is important for the success of recombinant human growth hormone therapy, although nonadherence can be common. Ease of use and safety during use/storage are among several important factors in the design of a growth hormone injection device intended for long-term use. This study was performed to validate the usability and assess the ease of use of a new pen device (SurePal™) that has been developed to support daily administration of the recombinant human growth hormone product, Omnitrope® (somatropin). The primary objectives of the study were to assess if study participants, representing intended users of the pen in clinical practice, were able to perform an injection procedure into an injection pad effectively and safely and disassemble the pen without receiving a needlestick injury. A total of 106 participants (61 adults and 45 children/adolescents) were enrolled at two study centers (one in the US, one in Germany). Results for both primary usability tasks met the predefined acceptance criteria, with >85% of participants successfully performing each task. All of the other tasks/handling steps assessed were also successfully performed by most participants, with high success rates reflected in the high proportion of participants who classified each task as "very easy" or "easy". After a second use of the device, 87%-97% of participants rated it as "very easy" or "easy" to use. In summary, the new pen device is safe and easy to use for both adults and children, and will help to support effective, long-term daily administration of the recombinant human growth hormone product, Omnitrope®.

  14. Opportunistic diseases in HIV-infected patients in Gabon following the administration of highly active antiretroviral therapy: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Okome-Nkoumou, Madeleine; Guiyedi, Vincent; Ondounda, Magloire; Efire, Nora; Clevenbergh, Philippe; Dibo, Mireille; Dzeing-Ella, Arnaud

    2014-02-01

    Opportunistic diseases cause substantial morbidity and mortality to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) leading to immune reconstitution is the most effective treatment of preventing opportunistic diseases. This retrospective study established an epidemiologic profile of opportunistic diseases 10 years after the introduction of HAART. The HIV antiretroviral therapy-naive patients matching inclusion criteria were included. The primary outcome was the prevalence of opportunistic diseases. From January 1, 2002 to September 30, 2010, 654 opportunistic diseases were identified in 458 patients. Pulmonary tuberculosis, herpes zoster, cerebral toxoplasmosis, oral candidiasis, and severe pneumonia accounted for 22.05%, 15.94%, 14.19%, 14.19%, and 9.39%, respectively. Cryptococcal meningitis and pneumocystosis accounted for 0.44% and 0.21%, respectively. The prevalence of opportunistic diseases in Gabon remains high. New guidelines emphasize the importance of initiating antiretroviral therapy early to reconstitute the immune system, and reduce disease risk, and treat the primary opportunistic infection of pulmonary tuberculosis.

  15. Butorphanol and Ketamine Combined in Infusion Solutions for Patient-Controlled Analgesia Administration: A Long-Term Stability Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fuchao; Xiong, Hui; Yang, Jinguo; Fang, Baoxia; Zhu, Jun; Zhou, Benhong

    2015-01-01

    Background Ketamine in subanesthetic dose added to butorphanol has been reported to give superior pain control when used for intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) after surgery. However, this admixture is not available commercially and stability data applicable to hospital practice are limited. Material/Methods The butorphanol-ketamine admixtures were prepared in polyolefin bags and stored in the dark at 4°C, 25°C, or 37°C for 15 days. The initial concentrations were 50–150 microgram/ml for butorphanol and 1–4 mg/ml for ketamine, respectively. The stabilities were determined by visual inspection, pH measurement, and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay of drug concentrations. Results Over the 15 days, all solutions were clear in appearance, and no color change or precipitation was observed among the three temperatures. The percentages of initial concentration of each drug were over 95% during the study period, and the pH value did not change significantly. Conclusions The results indicate that the drug mixtures of butorphanol and ketamine in 0.9% sodium chloride injection were stable for 15 days when stored in polyolefin bags at 4°C, 25°C, or 37°C. PMID:25896429

  16. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic study of a phospholipid-based phase separation gel for once a month administration of octreotide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengxin; Shan, Fengying; Zou, Yang; Sun, Xun; Zhang, Zhi-Rong; Fu, Yao; Gong, Tao

    2016-05-28

    As a natural somatostatin analog, octreotide acetate (OCT) has been extensively used in cancer treatment and growth hormone related diseases. The clinical application of OCT, however, is greatly limited by its short half-life, rapid elimination and clearance in vivo. In the current study, a high content phospholipid-based phase separation gel platform (PPSG) was presented, which could be injected in the soluble state and underwent rapid phase-separation into a gel-like implant after a single subcutaneous injection. OCT was dispersed homogeneously in the PPSG pre-gel solution to afford OCT-loaded PPSG (OCT-PPSG) after a single subcutaneous injection, which displayed controlled and sustained release profiles for up to 30days in rats, rabbits and Beagle dogs. OCT-PPSG showed a less significant burst phase followed by a steady plasma concentration of OCT compared with Sandostatin(®) (LAR) in Beagle dogs. Moreover, OCT-PPSG was demonstrated to show remarkable antitumor efficacy in both a primary rat model and a xenograft mouse model of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). PPSG thus represented a promising and viable in situ forming gel platform material for the long-term sustained release of peptides and protein drugs.

  17. Subcutaneous administration of interleukin 2 and interferon-alpha-2b in advanced renal cell carcinoma: a confirmatory study.

    PubMed Central

    Facendola, G.; Locatelli, M. C.; Pizzocaro, G.; Piva, L.; Pegoraro, C.; Pallavicini, E. B.; Signaroldi, A.; Meregalli, M.; Lombardi, F.; Beretta, G. D.

    1995-01-01

    Recent clinical studies have suggested that the combination of subcutaneous recombinant human interleukin 2 (rIL-2) and interferon alpha (rIFN-alpha) is especially promising in advanced renal cell carcinoma. We assessed the safety, activity and toxicity of home therapy with these two agents in 50 patients. Each treatment cycle consisted of a 2 day pulse phase, with 9 x 10(6) IU m-2 of rIL-2 being given subcutaneously every 12 h, followed by a 6 week maintenance phase during which rIL-2 1.8 x 10(6) IU m-2 was administered subcutaneously every 12 h on days 1-5 and rIFN-alpha 2b 5 x 10(6) IU m-2 once a day on days 1, 3 and 5. Objective responses (CR+PR) occurred in 9/50 (18%) patients, six of whom (12%) achieved a complete response. Disease stabilisation was observed in 17 cases (34%) and 18 patients progressed during therapy. In the other six cases, treatment was interrupted early for toxicity or patient refusal. One patient died of myocardial infarction during the second cycle. The overall median survival was 12 months. Home therapy with subcutaneous rIL-2 + rIFN-alpha 2b proved to be active, feasible and moderately toxic, but serious adverse events can sometimes occur. PMID:8519672

  18. Metabolic profile modifications in milk after enrofloxacin administration studied by liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Junza, A; Saurina, J; Barrón, D; Minguillón, C

    2016-08-19

    High resolution accurate mass spectrometry (HRMS) operating in full scan MS mode was used in the search and identification of metabolites in raw milk from cows medicated with enrofloxacin. Data consisting of m/z features were taken throughout the entire chromatogram of milk samples from medicated animals and were compared with blank samples. Twenty six different compounds were identified. Some of them were attributed to structures related to enrofloxacin while others were dipeptides or tripeptides. Additionally, enrofloxacin was administered in a controlled treatment for three days. Milk was collected daily from the first day of treatment and until four days after in the search for the identified compounds. The obtained data were chemometrically treated by Principal Component Analysis. Samples were classified by this method into three different groups corresponding to days 1-2, day 3 and days 4-7 considering the different concentration profile evolution of metabolites during the days studied. Tentative metabolic pathways were designed to rationalize the presence of the newly identified compounds. PMID:27425761

  19. Transportation Security Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... content Official website of the Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration A - Z Index What Can I Bring? Search form Apples Main menu Administrator Travel Security Screening Special Procedures TSA Pre✓® Passenger Support Travel ...

  20. Pharmacokinetic study of enclosed hemoglobin and outer lipid component after the administration of hemoglobin vesicles as an artificial oxygen carrier.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Kazuaki; Urata, Yukino; Anraku, Makoto; Maruyama, Toru; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Sakai, Hiromi; Horinouchi, Hirohisa; Kobayashi, Koichi; Tsuchida, Eishun; Kai, Toshiya; Otagiri, Masaki

    2009-07-01

    The hemoglobin vesicle (HbV) is an artificial oxygen carrier that encapsulates a concentrated Hb solution in lipid vesicles (liposomes). The pharmacokinetic properties of HbV were investigated in mice and rats. With use of HbV in which the internal Hb was labeled with (125)I ((125)I-HbV) and cell-free (125)I-Hb, it was found that encapsulation of Hb increased the half-life by 30 times, accompanied by decreased distribution in both the liver and kidney. The half-life of HbV was increased, and the uptake clearance for the liver and spleen were decreased with increasing doses of HbV. In an in vitro study, the specific uptake and degradation of HbV in RAW 264.7 cells were found, but this was not the case for parenchymal and endothelial cells. The pharmacokinetics of HbV components (internal Hb and liposomal lipid) were also investigated using (125)I-HbV and (3)H-HbV (liposomal cholesterol was radiolabeled with tritium-3). The time courses for the plasma concentration curves of (125)I-HbV, (3)H-HbV, and iron derived from HbV suggest that HbV maintain an intact structure in the blood circulation up to 24 h after injection. (125)I-HbV and (3)H-HbV were distributed mainly to the liver and spleen. Internal Hb disappeared from both the liver and spleen 5 days after injection, and the liposomal cholesterol disappeared at approximately 14 days. Internal Hb was excreted into the urine and cholesterol into feces via biliary excretion. These results suggest that the HbV has a reasonable blood retention and metabolic and excretion performance and could be used as an oxygen carrier.

  1. NASA, NOAA administrators nominated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    President Ronald Reagan recently said he intended to nominate James Montgomery Beggs as NASA Administrator and John V. Byrne as NOAA Administrator. These two positions are key scientific posts that have been vacant since the start of the Reagan administration on January 20. The President also said he intends to nominate Hans Mark as NASA Deputy Administrator. At press time, Reagan had not designated his nominee for the director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy.

  2. Pilot feasibility study of an emergency paediatric kit for intra-rectal quinine administration used by the personnel of community-based health care units in Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Ndiaye, Jean Louis A; Tine, Roger C; Faye, Babacar; Dieye, El Hadj Lamine; Diack, Pape Amadou; Lameyre, Valérie; Gaye, Oumar; Sow, Husseyn Dembel

    2007-01-01

    Background Quinine injection is the reference treatment for malaria when oral administration is impossible. Quinine can also be administered by the intra-rectal route and, over the last ten years, a series of studies have been conducted in children to determine the ideal dose and dilution in the African situation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility and usefulness of a kit for an immediate administration of quinine alkaloids (Quinimax®) by community health workers, prior to transfer of the child to a more sophisticated health care establishment. Methods A prospective, open, descriptive community intervention study conducted in northern Senegal at six village Health Units in children fewer than ten years of age with non-per-os malaria. Controls were given the routine care prior to transfer to a Health Center, and cases were in addition administered Quinimax® (20 mg/ml) via the intra-rectal route before transfer. Patients were followed through complete cure and parasitological tests were carried out on Days 0, 3 and 7. Results 134 patients (79 cases/55 controls) were recruited between November 2003 and May 2004 or October and November 2004. The two groups were comparable at inclusion. In the case group, oral drugs could be administered after a mean of 16.8 hours versus 33.6 hours in the control group. Time-to cure was shorter in cases than in controls. Complete parasite clearance was obtained in all patients by Day 7. The kit was well accepted by all concerned and more than 80% of community health workers judged the kit easy to use. Conclusion The emergency paediatric kit is a useful tool in the management of malaria in children who cannot be treated orally. It is feasible and easy to use for health workers in community-based Health Units where, according to the WHO, nearly 80% of malarial morbidity and mortality occurs. PMID:18005442

  3. Effect of in utero exposure to endocrine disruptors on fetal steroidogenesis governed by the pituitary-gonad axis: a study in rats using different ways of administration.

    PubMed

    Kariyazono, Yudai; Taura, Junki; Hattori, Yukiko; Ishii, Yuji; Narimatsu, Shizuo; Fujimura, Masatake; Takeda, Tomoki; Yamada, Hideyuki

    2015-12-01

    The effects of endocrine disruptors on testicular steroidogenesis in fetal rats were investigated in a study involving in utero exposure. In the major part of this study, pregnant rats at gestational day (GD)15 were given a single oral administration of the test substance, and then the expression of the following mRNAs in GD20 fetuses was determined: testicular steroidogenic acute-regulatory protein (StAR), a cholesterol transporter mediating the rate-limiting step of steroidogenesis, a ß-subunit of pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH), and a regulator of gonadal steroidogenesis. Among the substances tested, only di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) reduced the expression of fetal testicular StAR. The others listed below exhibited little effect on fetal StAR: 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenylether, tributyltin chloride, atrazine, permethrin, cadmium chloride (Cd), lead acetate (Pb) and methylmercury (CH3HgOH). None of them, including DEHP, lacked the ability to reduce the expression of pituitary LHß mRNA. The present study also examined the potential of metals as modifiers of fetal steroidogenesis by giving them to pregnant dams in drinking water during GD1 and GD20. Under these conditions, Cd and Pb at a low concentration (0.01 ppm) significantly attenuated the fetal testicular expression of StAR mRNA without a concomitant reduction in LHß. No such effect was detected with CH3HgOH even at 1 ppm. These results suggest that: 1) DEHP, Cd and Pb attenuate the fetal production of sex steroids by directly acting on the testis, and 2) chronic treatment during the entire gestational period is more useful than a single administration for determining the hazardous effect of a suspected endocrine disruptor on fetal steroidogenesis.

  4. A Philosophy of Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruening, William H.

    Justification is given for paying relatively large salaries to college administrators, specifically the president or chancellor and the chief academic officer. Three administrative task areas are discussed as criteria: management, administration per se, and leadership. It is contended that only leadership can be used as a criterion for…

  5. Database Administration: Concepts, Tools, Experiences, and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong-Hong, Belkis; Marron, Beatrice

    The concepts of data base administration, the role of the data base administrator (DBA), and computer software tools useful in data base administration are described in order to assist data base technologists and managers. A study of DBA's in the Federal Government is detailed in terms of the functions they perform, the software tools they use,…

  6. Infrastructure and Administrative Support for Online Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, John D.; Barefield, Amanda C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the availability and effectiveness of administrative support elements for online teaching faculty, and introduce a faculty validated Matrix for use as a guide in development of administrative support for online programs. When administrators make decisions about the infrastructure support needs of a current…

  7. Exploring the Experiences of Administrative Interns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamison, Kimberly; Clayton, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify how current administrative interns enrolled in a university administrator preparation program describe and make meaning of their internship experiences. Design/methodology/approach: For this qualitative study, the researchers interviewed administrative interns enrolled in one university preparation…

  8. Administrative benchmarks for Medicare, Medicaid HMOs.

    PubMed

    1998-11-01

    Plus, check out benchmark data on Medicare and Medicaid administrative costs. Every provider knows that HMOs take a slice of the Medicare or Medicaid premium for their administrative costs before they determine provider capitation. But how much does administration really cost? Here's some PMPM data from a study by the Sherlock Company.

  9. Administrative Actions for Noncompliance; Lesser Administrative Actions. Direct final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the regulation describing lesser administrative actions that may be imposed on an Institutional Review Board (IRB) that has failed to comply with FDA's IRB regulations. We are clarifying that FDA may require the IRB to withhold approval of new FDA-regulated studies, stop the enrollment of new subjects in ongoing studies, and terminate ongoing studies, or any combination of these actions until the noncompliance with FDA's IRB regulations is corrected. We are taking this action to ensure clarity and improve the accuracy of the regulations.

  10. Evaluation of a revised U.S. Food and Drug Administration method for the detection of Cronobacter in powdered infant formula: a collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Noe, Kathy E; Thompson, Sandra; Elems, Carol A; Brown, Eric W; Lampel, Keith A; Hammack, Thomas S

    2012-06-01

    A revised U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) method for the isolation and detection of Cronobacter from powdered infant formula was recently developed, which combines real-time PCR, chromogenic agars, and RAPID ID 32E biochemical tests. This method provides an expedient analysis within 24 to 48 h. A collaborative validation study involving four different laboratories was conducted to compare the revised FDA method with the reference FDA method using casein- and soy-based powdered infant formula inoculated with different Cronobacter strains. Valid results from 216 test portions and controls from collaborating laboratories were obtained and showed that the revised FDA method performed significantly better than the reference FDA method. Newly revised PCR protocols and VITEK 2 were also evaluated to be integrated into the complete detection procedure.

  11. The 2006 Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Range Reference Atmosphere Model Validation Study and Sensitivity Analysis to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Lee; Merry, Carl; Decker, Ryan; Harrington, Brian

    2008-01-01

    The 2006 Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) Range Reference Atmosphere (RRA) is a statistical model summarizing the wind and thermodynamic atmospheric variability from surface to 70 kin. Launches of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Shuttle from Kennedy Space Center utilize CCAFS RRA data to evaluate environmental constraints on various aspects of the vehicle during ascent. An update to the CCAFS RRA was recently completed. As part of the update, a validation study on the 2006 version was conducted as well as a comparison analysis of the 2006 version to the existing CCAFS RRA database version 1983. Assessments to the Space Shuttle vehicle ascent profile characteristics were performed to determine impacts of the updated model to the vehicle performance. Details on the model updates and the vehicle sensitivity analyses with the update model are presented.

  12. The 2006 Kennedy Space Center Range Reference Atmosphere Model Validation Study and Sensitivity Analysis to the Performance of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Space Shuttle Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Lee; Decker, Ryan; Harrington, Brian; Merry, Carl

    2008-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Range Reference Atmosphere (RRA) is a statistical model that summarizes wind and thermodynamic atmospheric variability from surface to 70 km. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Shuttle program, which launches from KSC, utilizes the KSC RRA data to evaluate environmental constraints on various aspects of the vehicle during ascent. An update to the KSC RRA was recently completed. As part of the update, the Natural Environments Branch at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) conducted a validation study and a comparison analysis to the existing KSC RRA database version 1983. Assessments to the Space Shuttle vehicle ascent profile characteristics were performed by JSC/Ascent Flight Design Division to determine impacts of the updated model to the vehicle performance. Details on the model updates and the vehicle sensitivity analyses with the update model are presented.

  13. The Precise Observation System for the Safe Use of Medicines (POSSUM): An Approach for Studying Medication Administration Errors in the Field.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, Johanna I; Raban, Magdalena Z; Lehnbom, Elin C; Li, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Medication administration errors (MAEs) in hospital are frequent and significantly more likely to result in serious harm to patients than other medication error types. Many interventions have been proposed in order reduce MAEs and the amount of harm associated with these errors. A major limitation in assessing the effectiveness of these interventions has been the lack of robust measures for assessing changes in MAEs and associated harms. Drawing upon extensive foundational research we have developed a robust approach and data collection software to be applied in direct observational studies of nurses to allow measurement of changes in MAE rates. We report how this approach is being applied in a large stepped-wedge cluster randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of an electronic medication management system to reduce MAEs in a paediatric hospital. PMID:27577460

  14. Studies on the nephrotoxicity of p-nitrophenylarsonic acid: changes in rat kidney and urinary enzyme activities following the administration of p-nitrophenylarsonic acid.

    PubMed

    Price, R G

    1979-02-01

    Histological studies showed that the administration of p-nitrophenylarsonic acid to rats resulted in renal tubular necrosis. The nephrotoxin was administered intraperitoneally and doses greater than 30 mg/kg were found to be fatal. The severity of the renal lesion depended on the amount of the nephrotoxin used. Elevated serum urea levels, urinary protein and volume were recorded over an 8-day period following the injection of the nephrotoxin. These changes were paralleled by an increase in the activity of lactate dehydrogenase, acid and alkaline phosphatase, N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase and beta-glucosidase in the urine. beta-Glycosidase activities increased in kidney homogenates, immediately after the injection of the nephrotoxin, but this eventually fell to well below the normal range. Subcellular fractions were prepared from sucrose homogenates by differential centrifugation and beta-glycosidases and cytochrome oxidase were used as enzyme markers. Only minor changes in the activity of cytochrome oxidase activity resulted from the administration of p-nitrophenylarsonic acid. One of the earliest indications of renal damage was a decrease in lysosomal latency. The activities of the lysosomal and soluble enzymes were elevated above normal during the first two days after the injection of p-nitrophenylarsonic acid, but they fell to values, significantly lower than normal, on the third day. The isoenzymic forms of beta-galactosidase, beta-glucosidase and N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase in normal and damaged kidneys were studied, using starch gel electrophoresis. The activities of both the lysosomal and the soluble forms of these enzymes decreased following the injection of the nephrotoxin, confirming the results obtained with whole homogenates. The relationship between the changes in renal enzyme activity and urinary enzyme excretion during the nephrotoxic process is discussed.

  15. Neurotoxicity after intracarotid 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea administration in the rat: Hemodynamic changes studied by double-tracer autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Nagahiro, S.; Yamamoto, Y.L.; Diksic, M.; Mitsuka, S.; Sugimoto, S.; Feindel, W. )

    1991-07-01

    Changes in blood-brain (BBB) permeability and local cerebral blood flow after intracarotid administration of 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) were examined quantitatively in rats with double-tracer autoradiography using (14C)alpha-amino-isobutyric acid and (18F)fluoroantipyrine. Forty-eight female Wistar rats were divided into four groups. The control group (Group 1) received 1 ml of 5% dextrose. The other three groups received three different doses of BCNU dissolved in 5% dextrose: Group 2 rats received 1 mg, Group 3 3 mg, and Group 4 10 mg. The tracer study was performed on Day 1 or Days 4 to 12 after intracarotid administration of BCNU. In 11 rats in Group 2, there were no changes of BBB permeability. Transient BBB permeability changes were seen in the striatum or hippocampus in 3 of the 5 rats (60%) in Group 3 within 24 hours. In 8 of 9 rats (89%) in the same group, late BBB permeability changes were observed in the hypothalamus with or without histological changes. BBB permeability changes were seen in all rats of Group 4. Focal increase of local cerebral blood flow on the infused side compared with the non-infused side of the brain was observed, although not at a significant level, in 5 of 25 rats examined with (18F)fluoroantipyrine. The results of BBB permeability and histological examinations and study of heterogenous distribution by (18F)fluorodeoxyglucose indicated that the ipsilateral subcortical structures such as the hypothalamus, amygdala, internal capsule, and caudate putamen have the highest incidence of neurotoxicity, which are closely related to histopathological damage seen in human BCNU leucoencephalopathy.

  16. Factors associated with Institutional delivery service utilization among mothers in Bahir Dar City administration, Amhara region: a community based cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High maternal mortality is a continued challenge for the achievement of the fifth millennium development goal in Sub-Saharan African countries including Ethiopia. Although institutional delivery service utilization ensures safe birth and a key to reduce maternal mortality, interventions at the community and/or institutions were unsatisfactorily reduced maternal mortality. Institutional delivery service utilization is affected by the interaction of personal, socio-cultural, behavioral and institutional factors. Therefore this study was designed to assess factors associated with institutional delivery service use among mothers in Bahir Dar city administration. Methods A community based cross sectional study was conducted in Bahir Dar City administration Northwest of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Four hundred eighty four mothers were included in the study. Data were collected by trained female data collectors. Descriptive statistics, binary and multivariable logistic regression analyses were computed. Statistical significance was considered at p < 0.05 and the strength of statistical association was assessed by odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals. Result In this study, 78.8% of women gave birth to their current child at health institution. The multivariable logistic regression showed that, attending primary education (AOR = 4.7[95% CI:1.3-16.7], secondary education (AOR = 3.5[95% CI:1.1-10.7]), age at first marriage; first time marriage at 15–19 years (AOR = 5.4[95% CI:2.0-15.0]) and first time marriage at 20–24 years (AOR = 5.0[95% CI:1.5-16.8] and gestational age at first ANC visit (first trimester) (AOR = 5.3[1.3-22.2]) and second trimester (AOR = 2.8[95% CI:0.7-11.]) were independent factors affecting institutional delivery service utilization. Conclusion In this study, institutional delivery service utilization is optimal, urban mothers were more likely to practice institutional delivery. This study indicated that

  17. A pharmacokinetic and residual study of sulfadiazine/trimethoprim in mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) with single- and multiple-dose oral administrations.

    PubMed

    Wang, W; Luo, L; Xiao, H; Zhang, R; Deng, Y; Tan, A; Jiang, L

    2016-06-01

    A pharmacokinetic and tissue residue study of sulfadiazine combined with trimethoprim (SDZ/TMP = 5/1) was conducted in Siniperca chuatsi after single- (120 mg/kg) or multiple-dose (an initial dose of 120 mg/kg followed by a 5-day consecutive dose of 60 mg/kg) oral administrations at 28 °C. The absorption half-life (t1/2α ), elimination half-life (t1/2β ), volume of distribution (Vd /F), and the total body clearance (ClB /F) for SDZ and TMP were 4.3 ± 1.7 to 6.3 ± 1.8 h and 2.4 ± 1.0 to 3.9 ± 0.9 h, 25.9 ± 4.5 to 53.0 ± 5.6 h and 11.8 ± 3.5 to 17.1 ± 3.4 h, 2.34 ± 0.78 to 3.67 ± 0.99 L/kg and 0.39 ± 0.01 to 1.33 ± 0.57 L/kg, and 0.03 ± 0.01 to 0.06 ± 0.01 L/kg·h and 0.02 ± 0.01 to 0.05 ± 0.01 L/kg·h, respectively, after the single dose. The elimination half-life (t1/2β ) and mean residue time (MRT) for SDZ and TMP were 68.8 ± 7.8 to 139.8 ± 12.3 h and 34.0 ± 5.5 to 56.1 ± 6.8 h, and 99.3 ± 6.1 to 201.7 ± 11.5 h and 49.1 ± 3.5 to 81.0 ± 5.1 h, respectively, after the multiple-dose administration. The daily oral SDZ/TMP administration might cause a high tissue concentration and long t1/2β , thereby affecting antibacterial activity. The withdrawal time for this oral SDZ/TMP formulation (according to the accepted guidelines in Europe for maximum residue limits, <0.1 mg/kg of tissues for sulfonamides, and <0.05 mg/kg for TMP) should not be <36 days for fish. PMID:26669806

  18. 26 CFR 301.7430-4 - Reasonable administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Judicial Proceedings Civil Actions by the United... witnesses; (iii) Reasonable costs of any study, analysis, engineering report, test or project that...

  19. 26 CFR 301.7430-4 - Reasonable administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Judicial Proceedings Civil Actions by the United... witnesses; (iii) Reasonable costs of any study, analysis, engineering report, test or project that...

  20. 26 CFR 301.7430-4 - Reasonable administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Judicial Proceedings Civil Actions by the United... witnesses; (iii) Reasonable costs of any study, analysis, engineering report, test or project that...

  1. 26 CFR 301.7430-4 - Reasonable administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Judicial Proceedings Civil Actions by the United... witnesses; (iii) Reasonable costs of any study, analysis, engineering report, test or project that...

  2. Preclinical Studies of Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) Administration in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiangde; Fang, Qiuhong; Kim, Huijung

    2016-01-01

    Background In the last two decades, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been pre-clinically utilized in the treatment of a variety of kinds of diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of the current study was to systematically review and conduct a meta-analysis on the published pre-clinical studies of MSC administration in the treatment of COPD in animal models. Methods and Results A systematic search of electronic databases was performed. Statistical analysis was performed using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software (Version 3). The pooled Hedges’s g with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) was adopted to assess the effect size. Random effect model was used due to the heterogeneity between the studies. A total of 20 eligible studies were included in the current systematic review. The overall meta-analysis showed that MSC administration was significantly in favor of attenuating acute lung injury (Hedges’s g = -2.325 ± 0.145 with 95% CI: -2.609 ~ -2.040, P < 0.001 for mean linear intercept, MLI; Hedges’s g = -3.488 ± 0.504 with 95% CI: -4.476 ~ -2.501, P < 0.001 for TUNEL staining), stimulating lung tissue repair (Hedges’s g = 3.249 ± 0.586 with 95% CI: 2.103~ 4.394, P < 0.001) and improving lung function (Hedges’s g = 2.053 ± 0.408 with 95% CI: 1.253 ~ 2.854, P< 0.001). The mechanism of MSC therapy in COPD is through ameliorating airway inflammation (Hedges’s g = -2.956 ± 0.371 with 95% CI: -3.683 ~ -2.229, P< 0.001) and stimulating cytokine synthesis that involves lung tissue repair (Hedges’s g = 3.103 ± 0.734 with 95% CI: 1.664 ~ 4.541, P< 0.001). Conclusion This systematic review and meta-analysis suggest a promising role for MSCs in COPD treatment. Although the COPD models may not truly mimic COPD patients, these pre-clinical studies demonstrate that MSC hold promise in the treatment of chronic lung diseases including COPD. The mechanisms of MSCs role in preclinical COPD treatment may be associated with

  3. Impact of an electronic medication administration record on medication administration efficiency and errors.

    PubMed

    McComas, Jeffery; Riingen, Michelle; Chae Kim, Son

    2014-12-01

    The study aims were to evaluate the impact of electronic medication administration record implementation on medication administration efficiency and occurrence of medication errors as well as to identify the predictors of medication administration efficiency in an acute care setting. A prospective, observational study utilizing time-and-motion technique was conducted before and after electronic medication administration record implementation in November 2011. A total of 156 cases of medication administration activities (78 pre- and 78 post-electronic medication administration record) involving 38 nurses were observed at the point of care. A separate retrospective review of the hospital Midas+ medication error database was also performed to collect the rates and origin of medication errors for 6 months before and after electronic medication administration record implementation. The mean medication administration time actually increased from 11.3 to 14.4 minutes post-electronic medication administration record (P = .039). In a multivariate analysis, electronic medication administration record was not a predictor of medication administration time, but the distractions/interruptions during medication administration process were significant predictors. The mean hospital-wide medication errors significantly decreased from 11.0 to 5.3 events per month post-electronic medication administration record (P = .034). Although no improvement in medication administration efficiency was observed, electronic medication administration record improved the quality of care with a significant decrease in medication errors.

  4. Comparison of Metformin and Simvastatin Administration in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Before Intra-Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection Cycle: A Prospective, Randomized, Clinical Trial Study

    PubMed Central

    Pourmatroud, Elham; Mohammadjafari, Razieh; Roozitalab, Mandana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Drugs administration as a pretreatment regiment before ICSI cycle in PCOs patients could enhance the success rate. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of metformin with Simvastatin in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOs) candidates for intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) before starting the cycle. Patients and Methods: In this prospective, double blind, randomized clinical trial the efficacy of these drugs was evaluated in 40 women with PCO syndrome (20 patients in each group; A: simvastatin and B: metformin) candidates for ICSI. In the both groups, metformin and simvastatin administrated for eight weeks before starting the ICSI cycle. Endocrine, metabolic and clinical parameters were measured before and after drug therapy; also, the results of ICSI cycle evaluated in the both groups. Results: Both drugs improved hirsutism score significantly, but simvastatin better than metformin (Group A, 24.5 ± 3.6 P: 0.0001 VS Group B, 22.9 ± 5.9 P: 0.003). The reduction in body mass index (BMI) was not significant in the groups. Simvastatin reduced some biochemical parameters such as FSH, LH, testosterone, total cholesterol, LDL and increased HDL level significantly, whereas metformin decreased FSH, TG, testosterone and total cholesterol significantly. Overall, respectively 35% and 30% of patients treated with metformin and Simvastatin became pregnant. There was no significant difference between the effects of these two drugs on ICSI cycle results like oocyte in meiosis2 (M2) phase (1.35 ± 1.6 vs. 2 ± 3.87, P value: 0.4) and the number of Grade A, embryo (1.2 ± 1.3 vs. 1.1 ± 1.4, P value: 0.7). Conclusions: Simvastatin effectively improved hyperandrogenism signs and symptoms in patients with PCO, but this effect as a pretreatment regiment was not more expressive than metformin in ICSI cycle outcome. PMID:26756007

  5. Intravesical administration of combined hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) for the treatment of female recurrent urinary tract infections: a European multicentre nested case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Ciani, Oriana; Arendsen, Erik; Romancik, Martin; Lunik, Richard; Costantini, Elisabetta; Di Biase, Manuel; Morgia, Giuseppe; Fragalà, Eugenia; Roman, Tomaskin; Bernat, Marian; Guazzoni, Giorgio; Tarricone, Rosanna; Lazzeri, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To compare the clinical effectiveness of the intravesical administration of combined hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate (HA+CS) versus current standard management in adult women with recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTIs). Setting A European Union-based multicentre, retrospective nested case–control study. Participants 276 adult women treated for RUTIs starting from 2009 to 2013. Interventions Patients treated with either intravesical administration of HA+CS or standard of care (antimicrobial/immunoactive prophylaxis/probiotics/cranberry). Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome was occurrence of bacteriologically confirmed recurrence within 12 months. Secondary outcomes were time to recurrence, total number of recurrences, health-related quality of life and healthcare resource consumption. Crude and adjusted results for unbalanced characteristics are presented. Results 181 patients treated with HA+CS and 95 patients treated with standard of care from 7 centres were included. The crude and adjusted ORs (95% CI) for the primary end point were 0.77 (0.46 to 1.28) and 0.51 (0.27 to 0.96), respectively. However, no evidence of improvement in terms of total number of recurrences (incidence rate ratio (95% CI), 0.99 (0.69 to 1.43)) or time to first recurrence was seen (HR (95% CI), 0.99 (0.61 to 1.61)). The benefit of intravesical HA+CS therapy improves when the number of instillations is ≥5. Conclusions Our results show that bladder instillations of combined HA+CS reduce the risk of bacteriologically confirmed recurrences compared with the current standard management of RUTIs. Total incidence rates and hazard rates were instead non-significantly different between the 2 groups after adjusting for unbalanced factors. In contrast to what happens with antibiotic prophylaxis, the effectiveness of the HA+CS reinstatement therapy improves over time. Trial registration number NCT02016118. PMID:27033958

  6. Guideline-concordant administration of prothrombin complex concentrate and vitamin K is associated with decreased mortality in patients with severe bleeding under vitamin K antagonist treatment (EPAHK study)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In vitamin K antagonist (VKA)-treated patients with severe hemorrhage, guidelines recommend prompt VKA reversal with prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) and vitamin K. The aim of this observational cohort study was to evaluate the impact of guideline concordant administration of PCC and vitamin K on seven-day mortality. Methods Data from consecutive patients treated with PCC were prospectively collected in 44 emergency departments. Type of hemorrhage, coagulation parameters, type of treatment and seven-day mortality mortality were recorded. Guideline-concordant administration of PCC and vitamin K (GC-PCC-K) were defined by at least 20 IU/kg factor IX equivalent PCC and at least 5 mg of vitamin K performed within a predefined time frame of eight hours after admission. Multivariate analysis was used to assess the effect of appropriate reversal on seven-day mortality in all patients and in those with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). Results Data from 822 VKA-treated patients with severe hemorrhage were collected over 14 months. Bleeding was gastrointestinal (32%), intracranial (32%), muscular (13%), and “other” (23%). In the whole cohort, seven-day mortality was 13% and 33% in patients with ICH. GC-PCC-K was performed in 38% of all patients and 44% of ICH patients. Multivariate analysis showed a two-fold decrease in seven-day mortality in patients with GC-PCC-K (odds ratio (OR) = 2.15 (1.20 to 3.88); P = 0.011); this mortality reduction was also observed when only ICH was considered (OR = 3.23 (1.53 to 6.79); P = 0.002). Conclusions Guideline-concordant VKA reversal with PCC and vitamin K within eight hours after admission was associated with a significant decrease in seven-day mortality. PMID:24762166

  7. Joint National Cancer Institute-Food and Drug Administration workshop on research strategies, study designs, and statistical approaches to biomarker validation for cancer diagnosis and detection.

    PubMed

    Maruvada, Padma; Srivastava, Sudhir

    2006-06-01

    Cancer remains the second leading cause of death in the United States, in spite of tremendous advances made in therapeutic and diagnostic strategies. Successful cancer treatment depends on improved methods to detect cancers at early stages when they can be treated more effectively. Biomarkers for early detection of cancer enable screening of asymptomatic populations and thus play a critical role in cancer diagnosis. However, the approaches for validating biomarkers have yet to be addressed clearly. In an effort to delineate the ambiguities related to biomarker validation and related statistical considerations, the National Cancer Institute, in collaboration with the Food and Drug Administration, conducted a workshop in July 2004 entitled "Research Strategies, Study Designs, and Statistical Approaches to Biomarker Validation for Cancer Diagnosis and Detection." The main objective of this workshop was to review basic considerations underpinning the study designs, statistical methodologies, and novel approaches necessary to rapidly advance the clinical application of cancer biomarkers. The current commentary describes various aspects of statistical considerations and study designs for cancer biomarker validation discussed in this workshop.

  8. The Impact on National Death Index Ascertainment of Limiting Submissions to Social Security Administration Death Master File Matches in Epidemiologic Studies of Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Hermansen, Sigurd W.; Leitzmann, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    Although many epidemiologists use the National Death Index (NDI) as the “gold standard” for ascertainment of US mortality, high search costs per year and per subject for large cohorts warrant consideration of less costly alternatives. In this study, for 1995–2001 deaths, the authors compared matches of a random sample of 11,968 National Institutes of Health (NIH)-AARP Diet and Health Study subjects to the Social Security Administration's Death Master File (DMF) and commercial list updates (CLU) with matches of those subjects to the NDI. They examined how varying the lower limits of estimated DMF match probabilities (m scores of 0.60, 0.20, and 0.05) altered the benefits and costs of mortality ascertainment. Observed DMF/CLU ascertainment of NDI-identified decedents increased from 89.8% to 95.1% as m decreased from 0.60 (stringent) to 0.20 (less stringent) and increased further to 96.4% as m decreased to 0.05 (least stringent). At these same cutpoints, the false-match probability increased from 0.4% of the sample to 0.6% and then 2.3%. Limiting NDI cause-of-death searches to subjects found in DMF searches using less stringent match criteria, further supplemented by CLU vital status updates, improves vital status assessment while increasing substantially the cost-effectiveness of ascertaining mortality in large prospective cohort studies. PMID:19251755

  9. First-in-Human Proof-of-Concept Study: Intralesional Administration of BQ788, an Endothelin Receptor B Antagonist, to Melanoma Skin Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Hunger, Robert E.; Garrod, Terence; Dubuis, Benoit; Hunziker, Thomas; van den Oord, Joost J.; Lahav-le Coutre, Ronit

    2015-01-01

    Lessons Learned Local tolerance of intralesional treatment of melanoma skin metastases with BQ788 is excellent. Hints of efficacy are observed, consisting of both direct effects (decreased expression of endothelin receptor B [EDNRB] and of survival factors, reduced proliferation) and indirect effects (enhanced immune cell infiltration and angiogenesis). Patients in future trials should be screened for EDNRB expression level prior to treatment because only patients with high EDNRB-expressing melanomas (four of five) responded to BQ788. Future studies should be performed for at least 2 weeks because reduced lesion growth was observed in the only patient that was treated for longer than 1 week. Background. This first-in-human proof-of-concept study aimed to check whether safety and preclinical results obtained by intratumoral administration of BQ788, an endothelin receptor B (EDNRB) antagonist, can be repeated in human melanoma patients. Methods. Three patients received a single intralesional BQ788 application of 3 mg. After 3–7 days, the lesions were measured and removed for analysis. The administered dose was increased to a cumulative dosage of 8 mg in patient 4 (4 × 2.0 mg, days 0–3; lesion removed on day 4) and to 10 mg in patient 5 (3 × 3.3 mg, days 0, 3, and 10; lesion removed after 14 days). Control lesions were simultaneously treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). All samples were processed and analyzed without knowledge of the clinical findings. Results. No statistical evaluation was possible because of the number of patients (n = 5) and the variability in the mode of administration. No adverse events were observed, regardless of administered dose. All observations were in accordance with results obtained in preclinical studies. Accordingly, no difference in degree of tumor necrosis was detected between BQ788- and PBS-treated samples. In addition, both EDNRB and Ki67 showed decreased expression in patients 2 and 5 and, to a lesser extent, in

  10. Pathological complete response rate in hormone receptor-negative breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant FEC, followed by weekly paclitaxel administration: A retrospective study and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    KIBA, TAKAYOSHI; MORII, NAO; TAKAHASHI, HIROTOSHI; OZAKI, SHINJI; ATSUMI, MISAO; MASUMOTO, FUMI; YAMASHIRO, HIROYASU

    2016-01-01

    While tumor size, the presence of inflammatory carcinoma and lymph node involvement are the main prognostic factors of women with locally advanced breast cancer, the prognostic value of the estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status has not been fully clarified. The present study examined the therapeutic efficacy of a neoadjuvant fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide regimen (FEC), followed by weekly paclitaxel and/or trastuzumab administration, in the treatment of hormone receptor-negative breast cancer patients. Between April 2012 and February 2014, 14 patients with hormone receptor-negative local breast cancer (triple-negative type, 9 patients; HER2 type, 5 patients) were included in the study. In all cases, the histological type of the primary cancer was invasive ductal carcinoma. Among the 14 women who received the regimen, 5 presented with stage I cancer (35.7%), 3 with stage IIA (21.4%), 3 with stage IIB (21.4%), 1 with stage IIIB (7.1%) and 2 with stage IIIC (14.3%), according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system. With regard to the tumor-node-metastasis classification, 5 patients were T1N0M0 (35.7%), 3 were T2N0M0 (21.4%), 3 were T2N1M0 (21.4%), 2 were T3N3M0 (14.3%) and 1 was T4N1M0 (7.1%). The pathological response was evaluated using resected tissue following neoadjuvant chemotherapy, according to the criteria established by the Japanese Breast Cancer Society. Patients were classified into pathological responders (grades 2 and 3, 71.4% of all patients) and non-responders (grade 1, 28.6% of all patients). A pathological complete response (pCR) was achieved in 50.0% of all cases (7/14); 44.4% of triple-negative-type cases (4/9) and 60.0% of HER2-type cases (3/5). Hematological and non-hematological toxicity was reversible and manageable. No patients withdrew from treatment, and favorable compliance was achieved. The present study demonstrated that neoadjuvant FEC followed

  11. Veterans Administration Databases

    Cancer.gov

    The Veterans Administration Information Resource Center provides database and informatics experts, customer service, expert advice, information products, and web technology to VA researchers and others.

  12. Pharmacokinetic studies of ginkgolide K in rat plasma and tissues after intravenous administration using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhi-Ying; Liu, Xin-Guang; Guo, Ru-Zhou; Dong, Xin; Gao, Wen; Li, Ping; Yang, Hua

    2015-04-15

    Ginkgolide K (GK), a derivative compound of ginkgolide B, has been recently isolated from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba. It is a powerful natural platelet activate factor (PAF) antagonist, and also has obvious protect effects for cerebral ischemia. However, no reports have been described for the pharmacokinetic study of GK. In this study, a simple, sensitive and reliable ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method has been developed for the determination of GK in rat plasma and tissues. Biological samples were pretreated by an efficient liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. The chromatographic separation was achieved on an Agilent ZORBAX SB-Aq column (4.6 mm × 50 mm, 1.8 μm) with a mobile phase of 0.5% aqueous formic acid (A)-menthol (B). Quantitation was carried out on a triple quadruple mass spectrometry using positive electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Diazepam was used as internal standard (IS). The ion transitions monitored were set at m/z 407.10 → 389.20 and m/z 285.08 → 193.10 for GK and IS, respectively. The developed method was fully validated and successfully applied to the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution study of GK after intravenous administration. The current results have indicated that pharmacokinetic parameters of GK vary in a dose-dependent manner with rapid elimination in 4h. The major distribution tissues of GK in rats were liver and kidney. This study would provide critical information to promote the future study of GK.

  13. LC-MS/MS determination and urinary excretion study of seven alkaloids in healthy Chinese volunteers after oral administration of Shuanghua Baihe tablets.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Minlu; Liu, Ruijuan; Wu, Yao; Gu, Pan; Zheng, Lu; Liu, Yujie; Ma, Pengcheng; Ding, Li

    2016-01-25

    An LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of magnoflorine, berberrubine, jatrorrhizine, coptisine, epiberberine, palmatine and berberine in human urine. The sample preparation procedure involved the four-fold dilution of the urine samples with acetonitrile/water (1:3, v/v). The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Hedera ODS-2 column under gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min with acetonitrile and water containing 0.5% formic acid as the mobile phase. The mass detection was performed in the positive mode. Calibration curves of the seven alkaloids showed good linearity (correlation coefficients>0.9973) over their concentration ranges. To meet the requirements of urinary excretion study for each alkaloid in human, the lower limit of quantification was set at different values from 0.05063 ng/mL to 2.034 ng/mL for the seven alkaloids, respectively. The intra- and inter-batch precision and accuracy were all within ± 15%. No matrix effect was observed for the analytes. The validated method was applied to the excretion study for the seven alkaloids in healthy Chinese volunteers after oral administration of Shuanghua Baihe tablets. The average 72 h cumulative urinary excretion of magnoflorine, berberrubine, jatrorrhizine, coptisine, epiberberine, palmatine and berberine accounted for 1.81%, 0.27%, 0.29%, 0.046%, 0.027%, 0.010% and 0.021% of the respective administered dose.

  14. Simultaneous Analysis of Quercetin and Naringenin in Rat Plasma by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry: Application to a Pharmacokinetic Study After Oral Administration.

    PubMed

    Ni, Boran; Cao, Sali; Feng, Lijun; Yin, Xingbin; Wang, Wenping; Zhang, Xin; Ni, Jian

    2016-09-01

    A rapid and specific LC-MS-MS method has been developed for simultaneous analysis of quercetin and naringenin in rat plasma. The method was applied to the pharmacokinetics studies of quercetin and naringenin after oral administration of Pollen Typhae extract. The samples were prepared by the protein precipitation method. The analysis was carried out on an ACQUITY UPLC™ BEH C18 column with gradient elution using mobile phase, which included acetonitrile and water (containing 0.1% formic acid). The flow rate was 0.4 mL/min. All analytes including internal standard (IS) were monitored by selected reaction monitoring with an electrospray ionization source. Linear responses were obtained for quercetin ranging from 0.5 to 100 ng/mL and naringenin ranging from 5 to 1000 ng/mL. The intra- and interday precisions (RSD) were less than 10.78 and 11.20%. The extraction recovery of the analytes was acceptable. Stability studies showed that quercetin and naringenin were stable in the preparation and analytical process. The validated method was successfully used to determine the concentration-time profiles of quercetin and naringenin. PMID:27199443

  15. Simultaneous determination of nine coumarins in rat plasma by HPLC-MS/MS for pharmacokinetics studies following oral administration of Fraxini Cortex extract.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Minmin; Ding, Weijing; Wang, Shuang; Wang, Chunying; Du, Yingfeng; Xu, Huijun; Wang, Qiao; Jin, Shumin

    2016-07-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of nine coumarins including aesculin, aesculetin, fraxin, fraxetin, scopoletin, isoscopoletin, 6-hydroxy-7,8-dimethoxy coumarin, 8-hydroxy-6,7-dimethoxy coumarin and umbelliferone in rat plasma using nodakenin as the internal standard (IS). The plasma samples were pretreated by a one-step direct protein precipitation with methanol. The chromatographic separation was carried out on a C18 column with a gradient mobile phase consisting of methanol and water (containing 0.05% acetic acid). All analytes and IS were quantitated through electrospray ionization in negative ion multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. This method was fully validated in terms of the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, precision (intra- and inter-day), matrix effect, recovery as well as the stability of the analyte under various conditions, and the results satisfied the requirements of biological sample measurement. The validated method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of the nine coumarins in rat plasma after oral administration of Fraxini Cortex aqueous extract, among which the pharmacokinetics of four coumarins including fraxetin, isoscopoletin, 6-hydroxy-7,8-dimethoxy coumarin and 8-hydroxy-6,7-dimethoxy coumarin were studied for the first time.

  16. UHPLC-MS simultaneous determination and pharmacokinetic study of three aromatic acids and one monoterpene in rat plasma after oral administration of Shaofu Zhuyu decoction.

    PubMed

    Su, Shulan; Cui, Wenxia; Duan, Jin-Ao; Hua, Yongqing; Guo, Jianming; Shang, Erxin; Liu, Pei; Tang, Yuping

    2013-01-01

    We developed a sensitive and rapid method for determination of ferulic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, and paeoniflorin in rat plasma based on ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The separation of the four compounds was carried out on an AcQuity UHPLC™ BEH C18 column using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and water (containing 0.1% formic acid). Electrospray ionization in positive and negative ion mode and multiple reaction monitoring was used to identify and quantify active components. All calibration curves gave good linearity (r > 0.991) over the concentration range from 4.24-2875 ngmL(-1) for all components. The precision of the in vivo study was evaluated by intraday and interday assays and the percentages of RSD were all within 10.6%. The recovery ranged from 60.2 to 77.9%. The method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of all three aromatic acids and one monoterpene in rat plasma. Furthermore, we compared the pharmacokinetics profile of the four compounds in normal and primary dysmenorrhea rats' plasma following oral administration of Shaofu Zhuyu decoction (SFZYD) and its ethanol supernatant extract (SFE). PMID:23711150

  17. Analysis of warning letters issued by the US Food and Drug Administration to clinical investigators, institutional review boards and sponsors: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Yashashri C; Saiyed, Aafreen A

    2015-05-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issues warning letters to all research stakeholders if unacceptable deficiencies are found during site visits. Warning letters issued by the FDA between January 2011 and December 2012 to clinical investigators and institutional review boards (IRBs) were reviewed for various violation themes and compared to similar studies in the past. Warning letters issued to sponsors between January 2005 and December 2012 were analysed for the first time for a specific set of violations using descriptive statistics. Failure to protect subject safety and to report adverse events to IRBs was found to be significant compared to prior studies for clinical investigators, while failure to follow standard operating procedures and maintain documentation was noted as significant in warning letters to IRBs. Failure to maintain minutes of meeting and to follow written procedures for continuing review were new substantial violations in warning letters issued to IRBs. Forty-six warning letters were issued to sponsors, the most common violations being failure to follow a monitoring schedule (58.69%), failure to obtain investigator agreement (34.78%), failure to secure investigators' compliance (30.43%), and failure to maintain data records and ship documents to investigators (30.43%). Appropriate methods for handling clinical trial procedural violations should be developed and implemented worldwide.

  18. Chronic Administration of Bacopa Monniera Increases BDNF Protein and mRNA Expressions: A Study in Chronic Unpredictable Stress Induced Animal Model of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Ritabrata; Hazra, Somoday; Ghosh, Anup Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Objective The present study aimed to investigate whether graded doses of Bacopa Monniera (BM) extract could produce antidepressant-like effects in chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) induced depression in rats and its possible mechanism(s). Methods Rats were subjected to an experimental setting of CUS. The effect of BM extract treatment in CUS-induced depression was examined using behavioral tests including the sucrose consumption, open field test and shuttle box escape test. The mechanism underlying the antidepressant-like action of BM extract was examined by measuring brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein and mRNA expression in brain tissues of CUS-exposed rats. Results Exposure to CUS for 4 weeks caused depression-like behavior in rats, as indicated by significant decreases in sucrose consumption, locomotor activity and escape latency. In addition, it was found that BDNF protein and mRNA levels in the hippocampus and frontal cortex were lower in CUS-treated rats, as compared to controls. Daily administration of the graded doses of BM extract during the 4-week period of CUS significantly suppressed behavioral changes and attenuated the CUS-induced decrease in BDNF protein and mRNA levels in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Conclusion The results suggest that BM extract alleviates depression induced by CUS. Present study also confirms that 80-120 mg/kg doses of BM extract have significantly higher antidepressant-like activity. PMID:25110503

  19. UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS determination and pharmacokinetic study of two alkaloid components in rat plasma after oral administration of the extract of Corydalis bungeana Turcz.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunjuan; Xiao, Yang; Wang, Zhibin; Wang, Shuhong; Chen, Lijuan; Wu, Lijun; Liu, Gaofeng

    2014-06-01

    Corynoline and acetycorynoline are active compounds of Corydalis bungeana Turcz. with various pharmacological effects such as sedation, anti-leptospira and liver injury protection effects. A specific, simple and sensitive UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the pharmacokinetic study of corynoline and acetycorynoline in rat plasma. Corynoline and acetycorynoline were extracted from plasma samples by liquid-liquid extraction. The analysis was carried out on an Agilent SB-C18 column (1.8 μm, 50 mm×2.1mm) with the mobile phase of acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid (80:20, v/v). The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode via electrospray ionization (ESI) source in positive mode. The current UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS assay was validated for linearity, intra-day and inter-day precisions, accuracy, extraction recovery and stability. The lower limits of quantification were 0.10 ng/mL for corynoline and 0.353 ng/mL for acetycorynoline. Intra-day and inter-day precision were less than 12.3% and accuracy ranged from 0.18% to 14.9%. The mean extraction recoveries of analytes and internal standard (IS) from rat plasma were all more than 76.2%. This validated method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study in rats after oral administration of corynoline, acetycorynoline and the extract of Corydalis bungeana Turcz.

  20. Analysis of warning letters issued by the US Food and Drug Administration to clinical investigators, institutional review boards and sponsors: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Yashashri C; Saiyed, Aafreen A

    2015-05-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issues warning letters to all research stakeholders if unacceptable deficiencies are found during site visits. Warning letters issued by the FDA between January 2011 and December 2012 to clinical investigators and institutional review boards (IRBs) were reviewed for various violation themes and compared to similar studies in the past. Warning letters issued to sponsors between January 2005 and December 2012 were analysed for the first time for a specific set of violations using descriptive statistics. Failure to protect subject safety and to report adverse events to IRBs was found to be significant compared to prior studies for clinical investigators, while failure to follow standard operating procedures and maintain documentation was noted as significant in warning letters to IRBs. Failure to maintain minutes of meeting and to follow written procedures for continuing review were new substantial violations in warning letters issued to IRBs. Forty-six warning letters were issued to sponsors, the most common violations being failure to follow a monitoring schedule (58.69%), failure to obtain investigator agreement (34.78%), failure to secure investigators' compliance (30.43%), and failure to maintain data records and ship documents to investigators (30.43%). Appropriate methods for handling clinical trial procedural violations should be developed and implemented worldwide. PMID:24965716

  1. Discrepancies between survey and administrative data on the use of mental health services in the general population: findings from a study conducted in Québec

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Population surveys and health services registers are the main source of data for the management of public health. Yet, the validity of survey data on the use of mental health services has been questioned repeatedly due to the sensitive nature of mental illness and to the risk of recall bias. The main objectives of this study were to compare data on the use of mental health services from a large scale population survey and a national health services register and to identify the factors associated with the discrepancies observed between these two sources of data. Methods This study was based on the individual linkage of data from the cycle 1.2 of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS-1.2) and from the health services register of the Régie de l'assurance maladie du Québec (RAMQ). The RAMQ is the governmental agency managing the Quebec national health insurance program. The analyses mostly focused on the 637 Quebecer respondents who were recorded as users of mental health services in the RAMQ and who were self-reported users or non users of these services in the CCHS-1.2. Results Roughly 75%, of those recorded as users of mental health services users in the RAMQ's register did not report using mental health services in the CCHS-1.2. The odds of disagreement between survey and administrative data were higher in seniors, individuals with a lower level of education, legal or de facto spouses and mothers of young children. They were lower in individuals with a psychiatric disorder and in frequent and more recent users of mental health services according to the RAMQ's register. Conclusions These findings support the hypotheses that social desirability and recall bias are likely to affect the self-reported use of mental health services in a population survey. They stress the need to refine the investigation of mental health services in population surveys and to combine survey and administrative data, whenever possible, to obtain an optimal estimation of the

  2. A study of the quality and effectiveness of the Airway Science Electronic Systems program to meet the workforce needs of the Federal Aviation Administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedge, Clarence Alvin

    1999-11-01

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of the study was to determine the quality and effectiveness of the Airway Science Electronics Systems program to meet the workforce needs of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The study was to research traditional FAA hired electronics technicians and Airway Science degree graduate electronics technicians. More specially, the study sought (1) to compare the traditional electronics training course requirements to the Airway Science curriculum course requirements, (2) to examine the ratio of Airway Science Electronics Systems graduates to graduates of other Airway Science options and also related electronics training and (3) to determine strengths and weaknesses in the Airway Science Electronics System. Findings and conclusions. The data were obtained by questionnaires sent to (1) the 61 recognized Airway Science Institutions, (2) personal interviews with department chairmen who are members of the Oklahoma City Aviation Aerospace Alliance and (3) personal interviews were also conducted with Electronics Technicians and supervisors at the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. It was found that the present area of airway science curriculum encompasses Airway Science Management, Airway Computer Science, Airway Electronics Systems, Aviation Maintenance Management and Aircraft Systems Management. Programs in airway science are designed specifically to help prepare individuals for meeting the requirements for a strong educational background for tomorrow's aviation leaders. The data indicated that the majority of airway science students pursue careers with the FAA but also find even greater opportunities in industry. The data also shows that in the surveyed schools with approved airway science programs, Airway Science Management was the most frequent offered program.

  3. The Administrative Power Grab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorenson, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    Administrative power for some school teachers can be an aphrodisiac that can be applied negatively, especially when a leader has devastating instinct for the weaknesses of others. A leader's intellect and heart closes shop and ceases to function when drunk on power. In this article, the author describes how the use of administrative power can be…

  4. Innovation in Administrator Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Don

    An innovative administrator preparation program based on guidelines established by national boards and commissions is described in this paper. The California State University, Fresno, administrator education curriculum was reorganized by faculty and an advisory committee of 11 superintendents to meet the needs of local school districts. The…

  5. Migrant Education Administrative Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Compensatory Education.

    Relating specifically to the North Carolina migrant education program's administrative responsibilities, this guide is designed to aid administrators in program management, monitoring project activities, project evaluation, self-assessment, determining needs for training and staff development, site-visit preparation, policy development, and…

  6. Administration of Computer Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Gene F.

    Computing at Stanford University has, until recently, been performed at one of five facilities. The Stanford hospital operates an IBM 370/135 mainly for administrative use. The university business office has an IBM 370/145 for its administrative needs and support of the medical clinic. Under the supervision of the Stanford Computation Center are…

  7. Justifying Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Colin; Lakomski, Gabriele

    1993-01-01

    The traditional conceptions of science dominating educational administration are mistaken. Unacceptable epistemologies, like those implicit in logical positivism, justify knowledge solely in terms of empirical adequacy. An improved science of educational administration embraces a coherent global theory accounting for all the phenomena of human…

  8. Test Administration Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Kirk A.; Bergstrom, Betty A.

    2013-01-01

    The need for increased exam security, improved test formats, more flexible scheduling, better measurement, and more efficient administrative processes has caused testing agencies to consider converting the administration of their exams from paper-and-pencil to computer-based testing (CBT). Many decisions must be made in order to provide an optimal…

  9. Champions of Children. Administrators . . .

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, John; Olds, H. Robert

    Today, in an era of taxpayer revolts, lack of clarity in values, and changing family structure, children need advocates in the political arena as well as in the schools. This pamphlet suggests that administrators are in an excellent position to defend the rights of children on all fronts. It focuses on what administrators have done and specific…

  10. The School Personnel Administrator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Rodney F.

    This paper provides an overview of the development of the school-personnel administrator role. It first describes the influence of the science-management and human-relations movements and the behavioral sciences on personnel administration and human resource management. It next discusses the role of the personnel-performance-appraisal system and…

  11. Tenure for Administrators?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holyer, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The practice of granting tenure to academic administrators, especially presidents and academic deans, seems fairly prevalent. However, it is important to consider the possible advantages and disadvantages carefully before making such an offer. Boards interested in attracting talented administrators empowered to do what is in the best interest of…

  12. 47 CFR 54.715 - Administrative expenses of the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Administrative expenses of the Administrator. 54.715 Section 54.715 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Administration § 54.715 Administrative expenses of the Administrator. (a) The annual administrative expenses...

  13. Women in Academic Administration at the University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomas, Marina; Lavie, Jose Manuel; Duran, Maria del Mar; Guillamon, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    In this article we summarize the most relevant findings from a research study that endeavours to incorporate a gender perspective in the study of university administration. The study analyses the role of women in both horizontal and vertical administrative structures in four Catalan universities, taking into account their expectations and…

  14. Gender ratios of administrative prevalence and incidence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) across the lifespan: A nationwide population-based study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Charles Lung-Cheng; Weng, Shih-Feng; Ho, Chung-Han

    2016-10-30

    To verify the hypothesis that there is different gender ratio of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among adults compared to children and adolescents in the clinical setting among Asian population. The nationwide population-based database containing data on enrollees in the National Health Insurance program in Taiwan during 2000-2007 was used in this study, and we investigated the lifetime gender ratios of administrative prevalence and incidence in healthcare-seeking ADHD patients (n=228,029). The male-to-female ratios of diagnosed incidence and prevalence of child/adolescent ADHD (age <20 years) ranged from 3.39 to 4.07 and 3.87-4.31, respectively. The male-to-female ratios of diagnosed incidence and prevalence of ADHD in the adult group (age 20-65 years) ranged from 0.24 to 0.76 and 0.35-0.98, respectively. In conclusion, there was substantially increased female-to-male ratio in adults ADHD compared to children and adolescents in the clinical setting. Further researches on the management and mechanism are needed. PMID:27525828

  15. Evaluation of clinical efficacy and safety of once daily topical administration of 1% oxiconazole cream and lotion in dermatophytosis : an open label, non comparative multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Jerajani, H R; Amladi, S T; Bongale, R; Adepu, V; Tendolkar, U M; Sentamilselvi, G; Janaki, V R; Janaki, C; Vidhya, S; Marfatia, Y S; Patel, K; Sharma, N; Cooverji, N D

    2000-01-01

    The clinical efficacy and safety of once daily topical administration of 1% oxiconazole cream and lotion was assessed in an open label, non comparative trial in tinea cruris, tinea corporis and tinea pedis patients. In treated patients, severity scores of erythema, pruritus, scaling, vesicles, papules and burning showed a progressive fall over a period of 4 weeks at all the study centres. With lotion, mean percentage improvement of symptoms varied from 35% (week 1) to 87.6 - 98.7% (week 4). With cream, it varied from 35% (week 1) to 82.5 - 99.5% (week 4). Overall global evaluation response showed clear, excellent and good response in 60%, 21% and 17% of the patients treated with lotion respectively. With cream, excellent and good response was observed in 71%, 10% and 16% of the patients respectively. In T. pedis patients, clear, excellent and good response was observed in 4/8, 2/8 and 1/8 patients respectively with lotion. Cream showed clear (8/15), excellent (4/15) and good (1/15) in these patients. None of the patients out of 178 enrolled, reported any side effect during the trial.

  16. Improvement in Long-Term Memory following Chronic Administration of Eryngium planum Root Extract in Scopolamine Model: Behavioral and Molecular Study

    PubMed Central

    Ozarowski, Marcin; Thiem, Barbara; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L.; Piasecka, Anna; Kachlicki, Piotr; Szulc, Michal; Kaminska, Ewa; Bogacz, Anna; Kujawski, Radoslaw; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Kujawska, Malgorzata; Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga; Budzianowski, Jaromir; Kędziora, Izabela; Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka; Czerny, Boguslaw; Bobkiewicz-Kozłowska, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Eryngium planum L. (EP) is as a rare medicinal plant with a lot of potentials as pharmaceutical crops. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of subchronic (28-fold) administration of a 70% ethanol extract of EP roots (200 mg/kg, p.o.) on behavioral and cognitive responses in Wistar rats linked with acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), and beta-secretase (BACE-1) mRNA levels and AChE and BuChE activities in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. On the last day of experiment, 30 min after the last dose of EP or Huperzine A (HU), scopolamine (SC) was given at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg b.w. intraperitoneally. The results of a passive avoidance test showed an improvement in long-term memory produced by the EP extract in both scopolamine-induced rats and control group. EP caused an insignificant inhibition of AChE and BuChE activities in the frontal cortex and the hippocampus. EP decreased mRNA AChE, BuChE, and BACE-1 levels, especially in the cortex. Our results suggest that the EP extract led to the improvement of the long-term memory in rats coupled with total saponin content. The mechanism of EP action is probably complicated, since HPLC-MS analysis showed 64 chemical compounds (phenolics, saponins) in the extract of EP roots. PMID:26483842

  17. Gender ratios of administrative prevalence and incidence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) across the lifespan: A nationwide population-based study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Charles Lung-Cheng; Weng, Shih-Feng; Ho, Chung-Han

    2016-10-30

    To verify the hypothesis that there is different gender ratio of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among adults compared to children and adolescents in the clinical setting among Asian population. The nationwide population-based database containing data on enrollees in the National Health Insurance program in Taiwan during 2000-2007 was used in this study, and we investigated the lifetime gender ratios of administrative prevalence and incidence in healthcare-seeking ADHD patients (n=228,029). The male-to-female ratios of diagnosed incidence and prevalence of child/adolescent ADHD (age <20 years) ranged from 3.39 to 4.07 and 3.87-4.31, respectively. The male-to-female ratios of diagnosed incidence and prevalence of ADHD in the adult group (age 20-65 years) ranged from 0.24 to 0.76 and 0.35-0.98, respectively. In conclusion, there was substantially increased female-to-male ratio in adults ADHD compared to children and adolescents in the clinical setting. Further researches on the management and mechanism are needed.

  18. Assessement of the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and excretion studies of a novel antiplatelet agent S007-867, following administration to rats.

    PubMed

    Chandasana, Hardik; Chhonker, Yashpal S; Laxman, Tulsankar Sachin; Prasad, Yarra Durga; K S, Anil Kumar; Dikshit, Dinesh K; Bhatta, Rabi S

    2016-07-01

    S007-867 is a promising novel antiplatelet agent with better efficacy and lesser bleeding risk than existing agents. The present study investigated the absorption, tissue distribution, and excretion of S007-867 in rat model for further advancement of the molecule. A simple and robust ultra fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) bioanalytical method was used to determine S007-867 in various matrices. Following oral administration, the compound was quickly dispersed in the various tissues and peak concentration levels were achieved within 0.5-1 h. Overall, exposure of drug, i.e., AUC in different tissues was found in the order of small intestine > liver > heart > spleen > lungs > kidney > brain. The total recoveries of the S007-867 within 96 h were 3.36% in urine and faeces. This might be due to a first-pass effect by the liver and intestine as most of the drug was eliminated in metabolite form. These findings provide a crucial information about further development of S007-867 as antithrombotic agent. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Prospective randomized study of the benefits of preoperative corticosteroid administration on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury and cytokine response in patients undergoing hepatic resection1

    PubMed Central

    Aldrighetti, Luca; Arru, Marcella; Finazzi, Renato; Soldini, Laura; Catena, Marco; Ferla, Gianfranco

    2007-01-01

    Background. Hepatic injury secondary to warm ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) remains an important clinical issue following liver surgery. The aim of this prospective, randomized study was to determine whether steroid administration may reduce liver injury and improve short-term outcome. Patients and methods. Forty-three patients undergoing liver resection were randomized to a steroid group or a control group. Patients in the steroid group received 500 mg of methylprednisolone preoperatively. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate amminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin, anti-thrombin III (AT-III), prothrombin time (PT), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were compared between the two groups. Length of stay and type and number of complications were recorded. Results. Postoperative serum levels of ALT, AST, total bilirubin, and inflammatory cytokines were significantly lower in the steroid group than in controls. The postoperative level of AT-III in the control group was significantly lower than in the steroid group (ANOVA p < 0.01). The incidence of postoperative complications in the control group tended to be significantly higher than that in the steroid group. Conclusion. These results suggest that steroid pretreatment represents a potentially important biologic modifier of I/R injury and may contribute to maintenance of coagulant/anticoagulant homeostasis. PMID:18333219

  20. Route of administration (enteral or parenteral) affects the contribution of L-glutamine to de novo L-arginine synthesis in mice: a stable-isotope study.

    PubMed

    Boelens, Petra G; Melis, Gerdien C; van Leeuwen, Paul A; ten Have, Gabrie A; Deutz, Nicolaas E

    2006-10-01

    A pathway from enteral L-glutamine as substrate for L-arginine synthesis is suggested by previous studies. L-Glutamine and L-glutamine dipeptides exhibit numerous beneficial effects in experimental and clinical studies. In trauma patients, enteral L-glutamine supply increased plasma L-arginine. The present study was designed to quantify the contribution of L-glutamine to the de novo L-citrulline and L-arginine synthesis in mice when L-glutamine is administered in a high dose of labeled L-glutamine or L-alanyl-L-glutamine by the enteral or parenteral route. For this purpose, male Swiss mice (n = 43) underwent a laparotomy, and catheters were inserted for sampling and infusion. A primed, constant, and continuous infusion of L-alanyl-L-[2-(15)N]glutamine (dipeptide groups) or L-[2-(15)N]glutamine (free L-glutamine groups), simultaneously with L-[ureido-(13)C,(2)H(2)]citrulline and L-[guanidino-(15)N(2),(2)H(2)]arginine, was given (steady-state model). Mice received the L-glutamine tracers intravenously (jugular vein) or enterally (duodenum). Enrichments of metabolites were measured by LC-MS. Arterial L-glutamine concentrations were the highest in the intravenous dipeptide group. L-Glutamine was converted to L-citrulline and L-arginine when L-[2-(15)N]glutamine and L-alanyl-L-[2-(15)N]glutamine were given by enteral or parenteral route. The contribution of L-glutamine to the de novo synthesis of L-citrulline and L-arginine was higher in the enteral groups when compared with the intravenous groups (P < 0.005). Therefore, the route of administration (enteral or parenteral) affects the contribution of L-glutamine, provided as free molecule or dipeptide, to the de novo synthesis of L-arginine in mice.