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Sample records for admission blood glucose

  1. Prognostic Value of Admission Blood Glucose in Diabetic and Non-diabetic Patients with Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shichao; Pan, Yuesong; Zhao, Xingquan; Liu, Liping; Li, Hao; He, Yan; Wang, Yilong; Wang, Yongjun; Guo, Li

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to validate prognostic value of elevated admission blood glucose (ABG) for clinical outcomes in diabetic and non-diabetic patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in a representative large cohort. Data of ICH patients with onset time ≤24 h were derived from the China National Stroke Registry. Clinical outcomes included 3-month poor outcome (death or dependency) and death. Logistic regression was performed for the association between ABG and clinical outcomes, both in the entire cohort and in patients with and without diabetes mellitus. 2951 ICH patients were enrolled, including 267 (9.0%) diabetics. In the entire cohort, there was a trend to increased risk of poor outcome with increasing ABG levels (adjusted OR 1.09; 95% CI, 1.04-1.15; P < 0.001). The risk of poor outcome was significantly greatest for the highest quartile (≥7.53 mmol/L) of ABG (adjusted OR 1.54; 95% CI, 1.17-2.03; p = 0.002, P for trend 0.004). We got similar association in non-diabetics but not in diabetics. Elevated ABG confers a higher risk of poor outcome in non-diabetics than diabetics with similar glucose level. Elevated ABG is an independent predictor of 3-month poor outcome in ICH patients, the prognostic value of which is greater in non-diabetics than diabetics with similar glucose level. PMID:27562114

  2. Prognostic Value of Admission Blood Glucose in Diabetic and Non-diabetic Patients with Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shichao; Pan, Yuesong; Zhao, Xingquan; Liu, Liping; Li, Hao; He, Yan; Wang, Yilong; Wang, Yongjun; Guo, Li

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to validate prognostic value of elevated admission blood glucose (ABG) for clinical outcomes in diabetic and non-diabetic patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in a representative large cohort. Data of ICH patients with onset time ≤24 h were derived from the China National Stroke Registry. Clinical outcomes included 3-month poor outcome (death or dependency) and death. Logistic regression was performed for the association between ABG and clinical outcomes, both in the entire cohort and in patients with and without diabetes mellitus. 2951 ICH patients were enrolled, including 267 (9.0%) diabetics. In the entire cohort, there was a trend to increased risk of poor outcome with increasing ABG levels (adjusted OR 1.09; 95% CI, 1.04–1.15; P < 0.001). The risk of poor outcome was significantly greatest for the highest quartile (≥7.53 mmol/L) of ABG (adjusted OR 1.54; 95% CI, 1.17–2.03; p = 0.002, P for trend 0.004). We got similar association in non-diabetics but not in diabetics. Elevated ABG confers a higher risk of poor outcome in non-diabetics than diabetics with similar glucose level. Elevated ABG is an independent predictor of 3-month poor outcome in ICH patients, the prognostic value of which is greater in non-diabetics than diabetics with similar glucose level. PMID:27562114

  3. Relationship between glycated hemoglobin, Intensive Care Unit admission blood sugar and glucose control with ICU mortality in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoodpoor, Ata; Hamishehkar, Hadi; Shadvar, Kamran; Beigmohammadi, Mohammadtaghi; Iranpour, Afshin; Sanaie, Sarvin

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: The association between hyperglycemia and mortality is believed to be influenced by the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM). In this study, we evaluated the effect of preexisting hyperglycemia on the association between acute blood glucose management and mortality in critically ill patients. The primary objective of the study was the relationship between HbA1c and mortality in critically ill patients. Secondary objectives of the study were relationship between Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission blood glucose and glucose control during ICU stay with mortality in critically ill patients. Materials and Methods: Five hundred patients admitted to two ICUs were enrolled. Blood sugar and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) concentrations on ICU admission were measured. Age, sex, history of DM, comorbidities, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, sequential organ failure assessment score, hypoglycemic episodes, drug history, mortality, and development of acute kidney injury and liver failure were noted for all patients. Results: Without considering the history of diabetes, nonsurvivors had significantly higher HbA1c values compared to survivors (7.25 ± 1.87 vs. 6.05 ± 1.22, respectively, P < 0.001). Blood glucose levels in ICU admission showed a significant correlation with risk of death (P < 0.006, confidence interval [CI]: 1.004–1.02, relative risk [RR]: 1.01). Logistic regression analysis revealed that HbA1c increased the risk of death; with each increase in HbA1c level, the risk of death doubled. However, this relationship was not statistically significant (P: 0.161, CI: 0.933–1.58, RR: 1.2). Conclusions: Acute hyperglycemia significantly affects mortality in the critically ill patients; this relation is also influenced by chronic hyperglycemia. PMID:27076705

  4. Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other Dental Problems Diabetic Eye Disease Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia) What is hypoglycemia? Hypoglycemia, also called low ... actions can also help prevent hypoglycemia: Check blood glucose levels Knowing your blood glucose level can help ...

  5. An Observational Study of Blood Glucose Levels during Admission and 24 Hours Post-Operation in a Sample of Patients with Traumatic Injury in a Hospital in Kuala Lumpur

    PubMed Central

    Harun @ Haron, Rahmat; Imran, Musa Kamarul; Haspani, Mohammed Saffari Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been associated with an acute stress response mediated by the sympathoadrenomedullary axis, which can be assessed by measuring blood glucose level. Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted for a year in 2007 among 294 patients who had been treated for TBI in Hospital Kuala Lumpur. Patients fulfilling the set criteria were recruited into the study and data, including blood glucose level and Glasgow Outcome Score at 3-month follow-up, were collected. Results: 294 patients were included in the study: 50 females (17.0%) and 244 males (83.0%). The majority of cases were young adult patients (mean age of 34.2 years, SD 13.0). The mean blood glucose level during admission and post-surgery were 6.26 mmol/L (SD 1.30, n = 294) and 6.66 mmol/L (SD 1.44, n = 261), respectively. Specifically, the mean admission glucose level associated with mild TBI was 5.04 mmol/L (SD 0.71); moderate TBI, 5.78 mmol/L (SD 1.02); and severe TBI, 7.04 mmol/L (SD 1.18). The mean admission glucose level associated with a poor outcome in patients with isolated TBI was 6.98 mmol/L (SD 1.21). Patients with admission glucose of 5.56 mmol/L (SD 1.21) were more likely to have a favourable outcome. Conclusion: Mild, moderate, and severe TBI were associated with an increase in blood glucose levels during admission, and the mean increase in glucose levels is based on the severity of the isolated TBI. Surgical intervention did not cause further significant changes in blood glucose levels. Patients with isolated TBI and minimal increases in blood glucose levels were more likely to have a favourable outcome. PMID:22589675

  6. Blood Test: Glucose

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Blood Test: Glucose KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Glucose Print A A A Text Size What's in ... de sangre: glucosa What It Is A blood glucose test measures the amount of glucose (the main ...

  7. Monitor blood glucose - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100220.htm Monitoring blood glucose - Series—Monitoring blood glucose: Using a self-test meter To use the ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Blood Sugar A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  8. All about Blood Glucose

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Glucose Before meals: 80 to 130 mg/dl My Usual Results My Goals ______ to ______ ______ to ______ 2 ... the start of a meal: below 180 mg/dl below ______ below ______ What’s the best way to keep ...

  9. Blood glucose monitoring.

    PubMed

    Davey, Sarah

    2014-06-10

    I found the CPD article on blood glucose monitoring and management in acute stroke care interesting and informative. As I am a mental health nursing student, my knowledge of chronic physical conditions is limited, so I learned a lot. PMID:24894257

  10. Blood Glucose Monitoring Devices

    MedlinePlus

    ... Glucose NIH Medline Plus - Diabetes Spotlight FDA permits marketing of first system of mobile medical apps for ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  11. Breakfast, blood glucose, and cognition.

    PubMed

    Benton, D; Parker, P Y

    1998-04-01

    This article compares the findings of three studies that explored the role of increased blood glucose in improving memory function for subjects who ate breakfast. An initial improvement in memory function for these subjects was found to correlate with blood glucose concentrations. In subsequent studies, morning fasting was found to adversely affect the ability to recall a word list and a story read aloud, as well as recall items while counting backwards. Failure to eat breakfast did not affect performance on an intelligence test. It was concluded that breakfast consumption preferentially influences tasks requiring aspects of memory. In the case of both word list recall and memory while counting backwards, the decline in performance associated with not eating breakfast was reversed by the consumption of a glucose-supplemented drink. Although a morning fast also affected the ability to recall a story read aloud, the glucose drink did not reverse this decline. It appears that breakfast consumption influences cognition via several mechanisms, including an increase in blood glucose. PMID:9537627

  12. Blood Glucose Levels and Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdovinos, Maria G.; Weyand, David

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between varying blood glucose levels and problem behavior during daily scheduled activities was examined. The effects that varying blood glucose levels had on problem behavior during daily scheduled activities were examined. Prior research has shown that differing blood glucose levels can affect behavior and mood. Results of this…

  13. Neural control of blood glucose level.

    PubMed

    Niijima, A

    1986-01-01

    All of the experimental results described above can be categorized as follows: the relationship between glucose levels and pancreatic and adrenal nerve activities; innervations of the liver and their role in the regulation of blood glucose level; central integration of blood glucose level; glucose-sensitive afferent nerve fibers in the liver and regulation of blood glucose; oral and intestinal inputs involved in reflex control of blood glucose level. We showed that an increase in blood glucose content produced an increase in the activity of the pancreatic branch of the vagus nerve, whereas it induced a decrease in the activity of the adrenal nerve. It was also shown that a decrease in blood glucose activated the sympatho-adrenal system and suppressed the vago-pancreatic system. It seems rational that these responses are involved in the maintenance of blood glucose level. Studies on the innervation of the liver led us to a conclusion that sympathetic innervation of the liver might play a role in eliciting a prompt hyperglycemic response through liberation of norepinephrine from the nerve terminals, and that the vagal innervation synergically worked with the humoral factor (insulin) for glycogen synthesis in the hyperglycemic condition. The glucose-sensitive afferents from the liver seem to initiate a reflex control of blood glucose level. The gustatory information on EIR response, reported by STEFFENS, is supported by the electrophysiological observations. MEI's reports also indicated the importance of information from the intestinal glucoreceptors in the reflex control of insulin secretion. The role of integrative functions of the hypothalamus and brainstem through neuronal networks on neural control of blood glucose levels is also evident. A schematic diagram of the nervous networks involved in the regulation of the blood glucose levels is shown in Fig. 3. PMID:3550186

  14. Correlation between high blood IL-6 level, hyperglycemia, and glucose control in septic patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the blood IL-6 level, the blood glucose level, and glucose control in septic patients. Methods This retrospective observational study in a general ICU of a university hospital included a total of 153 patients with sepsis, severe sepsis, or septic shock who were admitted to the ICU between 2005 and 2010, stayed in the ICU for 7 days or longer, and did not receive steroid therapy prior to or after ICU admission. The severity of stress hyperglycemia, status of glucose control, and correlation between those two factors in these patients were investigated using the blood IL-6 level as an index of hypercytokinemia. Results A significant positive correlation between blood IL-6 level and blood glucose level on ICU admission was observed in the overall study population (n = 153; r = 0.24, P = 0.01), and was stronger in the nondiabetic subgroup (n = 112; r = 0.42, P < 0.01). The rate of successful glucose control (blood glucose level < 150 mg/dl maintained for 6 days or longer) decreased with increase in blood IL-6 level on ICU admission (P < 0.01). The blood IL-6 level after ICU admission remained significantly higher and the 60-day survival rate was significantly lower in the failed glucose control group than in the successful glucose control group (P < 0.01 and P < 0.01, respectively). Conclusions High blood IL-6 level was correlated with hyperglycemia and with difficulties in glucose control in septic patients. These results suggest the possibility that hypercytokinemia might be involved in the development of hyperglycemia in sepsis, and thereby might affect the success of glucose control. PMID:22494810

  15. Blood glucose measurement by infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zeller, H; Novak, P; Landgraf, R

    1989-02-01

    For the development of an implantable artificial endocrine pancreas, a sensor for blood glucose measurement is needed providing a long-term stability. This goal can be achieved by the application of infrared spectroscopy which, unlike electrochemical sensors, responds directly to the glucose molecule. An investigation under physiological conditions revealed five glucose absorption bands in the near and middle infrared range. These are 1040, 1085, 1109, 1160 and 1365 cm-1. Only the 1040 cm-1 frequency coincides with none of the other infrared-active blood substances like proteins, lipids and urea. Nevertheless, the other absorption bands too, especially the 1109 cm-1 frequency, can be used for blood glucose measurement, if the superimposed absorptions are compensated. Methods for the compensation have been found. Technically feasible embodiments of an infrared glucose sensor are described.

  16. Blood Glucose Measurements in Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Van Herpe, Tom; Mesotten, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Studies on tight glycemic control by intensive insulin therapy abruptly changed the climate of limited interest in the problem of hyperglycemia in critically ill patients and reopened the discussion on accuracy and reliability of glucose sensor devices. This article describes important components of blood glucose measurements and their interferences with the focus on the intensive care unit setting. Typical methodologies, organized from analytical accuracy to clinical accuracy, to assess imprecision and bias of a glucose sensor are also discussed. Finally, a list of recommendations and requirements to be considered when evaluating (time-discrete) glucose sensor devices is given. PMID:22401319

  17. Glucose metabolism in diabetic blood vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, B.J.; Crass, M.F. III

    1986-03-05

    Since glycolysis appears to be coupled to active ion transport in vascular smooth muscle, alterations in glucose metabolism may contribute to cellular dysfunction and angiopathy in diabetes. Uptake and utilization of glucose were studied in perfused blood vessels in which pulsatile flow and perfusion pressure were similar to those measured directly in vivo. Thoracic aortae isolated from 8-wk alloxan diabetic (D) and nondiabetic control rabbits were cannulated, tethered, and perfused with oxygenated buffer containing 7 or 25 mM glucose and tracer amounts of glucose-U/sup -14/ C. Norepinephrine (NE) (10/sup -6/ M) and/or insulin (I) (150 ..mu..U/ml) and albumin (0.2%) were added. NE-induced tension development increased glucose uptake 39% and /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and lactate production 2.3-fold. With 7 mM glucose, marked decreases in glucose uptake (74%), /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ (68%), lactate (30%), total tissue glycogen (75%), and tissue phospholipids (70%) were observed in D. Addition of I or elevation of exogenous glucose to 25 mM normalized glucose uptake, but had differential effects on the pattern of substrate utilization. Thus, in D, there was a marked depression of vascular glucose metabolism that was partially reversed by addition of low concentrations of insulin or D levels of glucose.

  18. Noninvasive blood glucose monitoring with laser diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiqin; Chen, Jianhong; Ooi, Ean Tat; Yeo, Joon Hock

    2006-02-01

    The non-invasive measurement of blood sugar level was studied by use of near infrared laser diodes. The in vitro and in vivo experiments were carried out using six laser diodes having wavelengths range from 1550 nm to 1750nm. Several volunteers were tested for OGTT (Oral Glucose Tolerance Test) experiment. We took blood from a fingertip and measured its concentration with a glucose meter while taking signal voltage from laser diodes system. The data of signal voltage were processed to do calibration and prediction; in this paper PLS (Partial Least Square) method was used to do modeling. For in vitro experiment, good linear relationship between predicted glucose concentration and real glucose concentration was obtained. For in vivo experiments, we got the blood sugar level distributions in Clarke error grid that is a reference for doctors to do diagnosis and treatment. In the Clarke error grid, 75% of all data was in area A and 25 % was in area B. From the in vitro and in vivo results we know that multiple laser diodes are suitable for non-invasive blood glucose monitoring.

  19. Blood glucose concentration in pediatric outpatient surgery.

    PubMed

    Somboonviboon, W; Kijmahatrakul, W

    1996-04-01

    Blood glucose concentration was measured in 84 pediatric patients who were scheduled for outpatient surgery at Chulalongkorn Hospital. They were allocated into 3 groups according to their ages, group 1:less than 1 year of age, group 2:1 to 5 years of age and group 3:over 5 years. The fasting times were approximately 8-12 hours. All patients received standard general anesthesia under mask. No glucose solution was given during operation. Preoperative mean blood glucose were 91.09 +/- 17.34, 89.55 +/- 18.69 and 82.14 +/- 16.14 mg/dl in group 1, 2 and 3 while the postoperative mean glucose values were 129.07 +/- 37.90, 115.62 +/- 29.63 and 111.53 +/- 23.07 mg/dl respectively. The difference between pre- and post-operative values were statistically significant difference (P < 0.01). None of the children had hypoglycemia even when fasting longer than expected. Increased postoperative glucose values may be due to stress response from surgery and anesthesia. We would suggest that the parents give the fluid to their children according to our instructions in order to prevent dehydration and hypoglycemia especially in small infants.

  20. Regulation of Blood Glucose by Hypothalamic Pyruvate Metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Tony K. T.; Gutierrez-Juarez, Roger; Pocai, Alessandro; Rossetti, Luciano

    2005-08-01

    The brain keenly depends on glucose for energy, and mammalians have redundant systems to control glucose production. An increase in circulating glucose inhibits glucose production in the liver, but this negative feedback is impaired in type 2 diabetes. Here we report that a primary increase in hypothalamic glucose levels lowers blood glucose through inhibition of glucose production in rats. The effect of glucose requires its conversion to lactate followed by stimulation of pyruvate metabolism, which leads to activation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium channels. Thus, interventions designed to enhance the hypothalamic sensing of glucose may improve glucose homeostasis in diabetes.

  1. Blood-Brain Glucose Transfer: Repression in Chronic Hyperglycemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gjedde, Albert; Crone, Christian

    1981-10-01

    Diabetic patients with increased plasma glucose concentrations may develop cerebral symptoms of hypoglycemia when their plasma glucose is rapidly lowered to normal concentrations. The symptoms may indicate insufficient transport of glucose from blood to brain. In rats with chronic hyperglycemia the maximum glucose transport capacity of the blood-brain barrier decreased from 400 to 290 micromoles per 100 grams per minute. When plasma glucose was lowered to normal values, the glucose transport rate into brain was 20 percent below normal. This suggests that repressive changes of the glucose transport mechanism occur in brain endothelial cells in response to increased plasma glucose.

  2. Autocorrelation optical coherence tomography for glucose quantification in blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, H.; Gilanie, G.; Hussain, F.; Ahmad, E.

    2015-12-01

    We report a new method for glucose monitoring in blood tissue based on the autocorrelation function (ACF) analysis in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT). We have determined the changes in OCT monitoring signals’ depth to characterize the modulations in ACFs for quantitative measurements of glucose concentrations in blood. We found that an increase in the concentration of glucose in blood results in decreased OCT monitoring signal due to the increase in the refractive index of the media.

  3. Change in blood glucose level in rats after immobilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platonov, R. D.; Baskakova, G. M.; Chepurnov, S. A.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments were carried out on male white rats divided into four groups. In group one the blood glucose level was determined immediately after immobilization. In the other three groups, two hours following immobilization, the blood glucose level was determined every 20 minutes for 3 hours 40 minutes by the glucose oxidase method. Preliminary immobilization for 2 hours removed the increase in the blood glucose caused by the stress reaction. By the 2nd hour of immobilization in the presence of continuing stress, the blood glucose level stabilized and varied within 42 + or - 5.5 and 47 + or - 8.1 mg %. Within 2 hours after the immobilization, the differences in the blood glucose level of the rats from the control groups were statistically insignificant.

  4. High Blood Glucose Levels Correlate with Tumor Malignancy in Colorectal Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ge; Zhang, Ting; Ren, Fan; Feng, Wen-Ming; Yao, Yunliang; Cui, Jie; Zhu, Guo-Liang; Shi, Qi-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background Research shows that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) affects the risk and prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, we conducted a retrospective study to investigate whether the clinicopathological features of CRC patients correlate with their blood glucose levels. Material/Methods We enrolled 391 CRC patients hospitalized in our center between 2008 and 2013. Data of their first fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-h postprandial glucose (2hPPG) level after admission, their clinicopathological features, and survival were collected. The correlations between blood glucose level and clinicopathological features were analyzed by Pearson chi-square analysis. Patient survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier and Cox-regression analysis. Results There were 116 out of the 391 CRC patients who had high blood glucose level (H-G group, 29.67%), among which 58 (14.83%), 18 (4.60%), and 40 (10.23%) were diabetes mellitus (DM), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and impaired fasting glucose (IFG), respectively, while 275 (70.33%) patients had normal glucose level (N-G group). Compared with the N-G group, patients in the H-G group had larger tumor diameters and lower tumor differentiation (p<0.05). A higher ratio of patients in the H-G group also had more advanced TNM staging and more ulcerative CRC gross type (p<0.05). No significant difference was observed in patient overall survival among different glucose groups. No effect of insulin therapy on CRC development and patient survival was observed. Conclusions Blood glucose level in CRC patients correlates significantly with local tumor malignancy, but no significant effect on distant metastasis and patient overall survival was observed. PMID:26644185

  5. Performance of Cleared Blood Glucose Monitors

    PubMed Central

    Klonoff, David C.; Prahalad, Priya

    2015-01-01

    Cleared blood glucose monitor (BGM) systems do not always perform as accurately for users as they did to become cleared. We performed a literature review of recent publications between 2010 and 2014 that present data about the frequency of inaccurate performance using ISO 15197 2003 and ISO 15197 2013 as target standards. We performed an additional literature review of publications that present data about the clinical and economic risks of inaccurate BGMs for making treatment decisions or calibrating continuous glucose monitors (CGMs). We found 11 publications describing performance of 98 unique BGM systems. 53 of these 98 (54%) systems met ISO 15197 2003 and 31 of the 98 (32%) tested systems met ISO 15197 2013 analytical accuracy standards in all studies in which they were evaluated. Of the tested systems, 33 were identified by us as FDA-cleared. Among these FDA-cleared BGM systems, 24 out of 32 (75%) met ISO 15197 2003 and 15 out of 31 (48.3%) met ISO 15197 2013 in all studies in which they were evaluated. Among the non-FDA-cleared BGM systems, 29 of 65 (45%) met ISO 15197 2003 and 15 out of 65 (23%) met ISO 15197 2013 in all studies in which they were evaluated. It is more likely that an FDA-cleared BGM system, compared to a non-FDA-cleared BGM system, will perform according to ISO 15197 2003 (χ2 = 6.2, df = 3, P = 0.04) and ISO 15197 2013 (χ2 = 11.4, df = 3, P = 0.003). We identified 7 articles about clinical risks and 3 articles about economic risks of inaccurate BGMs. We conclude that a significant proportion of cleared BGMs do not perform at the level for which they were cleared or according to international standards of accuracy. Such poor performance leads to adverse clinical and economic consequences. PMID:25990294

  6. Towards a Wearable Non-invasive Blood Glucose Monitoring Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Joseph Thomas; Solanki, J.; Choudhary, Om P.; Chouksey, S.; Malvia, N.; Chaturvedi, P.; Sen, P.

    2012-05-01

    Every day, about 150 Million people worldwide face the problem of diabetic metabolic control. Both the hypo- and hyper- glycaemic conditions of patients have fatal consequences and warrant blood glucose monitoring at regular interval. Existing blood glucose monitors can be widely classified into three classes viz., invasive, minimally invasive, and noninvasive. Invasive monitoring requires small volume of blood and are inappropriate for continuous monitoring of blood glucose. Minimally invasive monitors analyze tissue fluid or extract few micro litre of blood only. Also the skin injury is minimal. On the other hand, noninvasive devices are painless and void of any skin injury. We use an indigenously developed polarization sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography to measure the blood glucose levels. Current trends and recent results with the device are discussed.

  7. [Intelligent interpretation of home monitoring blood glucose data].

    PubMed

    Dió, Mihály; Deutsch, Tibor; Biczók, Tímea; Mészáros, Judit

    2015-07-19

    Self monitoring of blood glucose is the cornerstone of diabetes management. However, the data obtained by self monitoring of blood glucose have rarely been used with the highest advantage. Few physicians routinely download data from memory-equipped glucose meters and analyse these data systematically at the time of patient visits. There is a need for improved methods for the display and analysis of blood glucose data along with a modular approach for identification of clinical problems. The authors present a systematic methodology for the analysis and interpretation of self monitoring blood glucose data in order to assist the management of patients with diabetes. This approach utilizes the followings 1) overall quality of glycemic control; 2) severity and timing of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia; 3) variability of blood glucose readings; 4) various temporal patterns extracted from recorded data and 5) adequacy of self monitoring blood glucose data. Based on reliable measures of the quality of glycaemic control and glucose variability, a prioritized problem list is derived along with the probable causes of the detected problems. Finally, problems and their interpretation are used to guide clinicians to choose therapeutic actions and/or recommend behaviour change in order to solve the problems that have been identified.

  8. Serum glucose level at hospital admission correlates with left ventricular systolic dysfunction in nondiabetic, acute coronary patients: the Hellenic Heart Failure Study.

    PubMed

    Chrysohoou, Christina; Pitsavos, Christos; Aggelopoulos, Panagiotis; Skoumas, John; Tsiamis, Eleftherios; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the relation between serum glucose levels at hospital admission and left ventricular systolic function in nondiabetic patients with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Of the 1000 ACS patients who were consecutively enrolled during 2007-2008, 583 (63 +/- 13 years, 20% females) nondiabetic patients were studied in this work. Of these, 254 presented left ventricular systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction <40%). Biochemical measurements and detailed medical information were recorded in all participants. Patients having glucose levels at hospital admission in the highest tertile (>155 mg/dl) had lower left ventricular ejection fraction (40% vs 45%, P = 0.003), were older (66 +/- 11 vs 61 +/- 13, P = 0.004) and less physically active (49% vs 63%, P = 0.02), had higher troponin (14.7 +/- 39.7 vs 5.6 +/- 13.5, P = 0.03), higher brain natriuretic peptide (510.39 +/- 932.33 vs 213.4 +/- 301.14, P = 0.008), higher C-RP (42.26 +/- 55.26 vs 26.46 +/- 38.18, P = 0.04), lower creatinine clearance levels (68 +/- 33 vs.81 +/- 31, P = 0.009), higher white blood cell count (13 416 +/- 16 420 vs 9310 +/- 3020, P = 0.001), and lower body mass index (26.8 +/- 4 vs 27.2 +/- 4.4, P = 0.07), compared to those in the lowest tertile (<114 mg/dl). The multiadjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that a 10 mg/dl difference in glucose levels was independently associated with 8% (95% confidence interval 2%-14%) higher likelihood of left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Low glucose concentrations at hospital admission in nondiabetic post-ACS patients is a predictor for the appearance of left ventricular dysfunction, and could be a target marker for risk stratification.

  9. Self-monitoring of blood glucose.

    PubMed

    Garg, S K; Hirsch, I B

    2011-02-01

    Many would argue that the introduction of modern-day diabetes management started 30 years ago with the introduction of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) at home. While that may be true, it is interesting that many of today's fundamental questions have yet to be answered. Furthermore, the technology itself continues to change, to improve and to better exist with our non-diabetes technology. For example, the first SMBG 'apps' are available now for smart-phones (iPhone), and we can expect the phones themselves to participate more directly with SMBG and diabetes management. Still, both researchers (and payors) continue to ask some fundamental questions. 1. What is the efficacy of SMBG for patients not requiring insulin therapy? 2. What is the optimum frequency of SMBG for patients who do require insulin therapy? 3. What is the role of software to assist in data management for SMBG (for both patients and clinicians)? 4. What is the cost effectiveness of SMBG for all of the different patient populations with diabetes? 5. What is the ideal chemistry which results in the least amount of interfering substances with SMBG? 6. What is an acceptable accuracy for SMBG both at home and in the hospital? The accuracy question is more important than ever since all continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) for now are calibrated with SMBG results. 7 What is the best strategy for teaching patients how best to use their SMBG data? 8. What is the best way to integrate SMBG with insulin pump therapy? 9. What is the role of SMBG with today's CGM devices? 10. What will the role of SMBG be 5-10 years from now with future CGM devices? These are just some of the questions which need more thought and study as we move into 2011. In this chapter we have selected papers that appeared in the PubMed on this topic and chose those we thought were most influential in this area. We have then addressed many of these topics although answers are far from clear for many of them. Although SMBG is not 'new

  10. Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Elgart, Jorge F.; González, Lorena; Rucci, Enzo

    2014-01-01

    Although test strips for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) represent around 50% of diabetes treatment cost in Argentina, little is known about their current use and relationship with different types of treatment. We therefore aimed to estimate the current use of test strips and identify the major use drivers and the percentage they represent of total prescription costs in 2 entities of the social security system (SSS) of Argentina. Observational retrospective study measuring test strip prescriptions delivered by pharmacies from the province of Buenos Aires (8115 records collected during 3 months provided by the Colegio de Farmacéuticos de la Provincia de Buenos Aires) of affiliates with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) from 2 large entities of the SSS system. The average monthly test strips/patient used for SMBG was 97.5 ± 70.1. This number varied according to treatment: monotherapy with oral antidiabetic drugs (OAD) < combined OAD therapy < insulin treatment. Test strips represented a higher percentage of the total prescription cost in people under OAD monotherapy (84.6%) and lower in those with insulin analogs (46.9%). In our population, the type of hyperglycemia treatment was the main driver of test strip use for SMBG and its impact on the total prescription cost depends on the kind of such treatment. Since it has been shown that patients’ education and prescription audit can optimize test strip use and treatment outcomes, implementation of such strategies could appropriately support, optimize, and reduce ineffective test strip use in people with T2DM. PMID:25208965

  11. Extraction of glucose information in blood glucose measurement by noninvasive near-infrared spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Rong; Chen, Wenliang; Gu, Xiaoyu; Luo, Yunhan; Xu, Kexin

    2005-03-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy has been proposed as an effective way for measuring blood glucose non-invasively. However the change of spectrum due to an increase in glucose level is very small compared to the changes due to other variations such as absorption of major blood components, skin surface reflectance, temperature and pressure and so on. So the complexity of spectrum makes it difficult to identify unique glucose information. In this paper, the effect of background correction is discussed firstly. Then a simple substitution is proposed to compute the net analyte signal of glucose using the subspace spanned by the background spectra. For the in vitro experiment, the net analyte signals of glucose using the traditional methods and the subspace spanned by background have the same peaks in the absorption peaks of glucose for the glucose aqueous solution. For in vivo experiment, there is significant spectral difference between the subject who took OGTT test and the subject who took no glucose or water. And the net analyte signal of glucose is computed for OGTT test based on the subspace spanned by the spectra of subject who didn"t take glucose. Results show that, the spectral information induced by glucose taking is quite significant but it does not have the same peak at the absorption peak of glucose in near-infrared region.

  12. Effect of hydroxyethyl starch on blood glucose levels

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Soo Bin; Choi, Woo Young

    2016-01-01

    Background Hydroxyethyl starch (HES), a commonly used resuscitation fluid, has the property to induce hyperglycemia as it contains large ethyl starch, which can be metabolized to produce glucose. We evaluated the effect of 6% HES-130 on the blood glucose levels in non-diabetic patients undergoing surgery under spinal anesthesia. Methods Patients scheduled to undergo elective lower limb surgery were enrolled. Fifty-eight patients were divided into two groups according to the type of the main intravascular fluid used before spinal anesthesia (Group LR: lactated Ringer's solution, n = 30 vs. Group HES: 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4, n = 28). Blood glucose levels were measured at the following time points: 0 (baseline), 20 min (T1), 1 h (T2), 2 h (T3), 4 h (T4), and 6 h (T6). Results Mean blood glucose levels at T5 in the LR group and T4, T5 in the HES group, increased significantly compared to baseline. There were no significant changes in the serial differences of mean blood glucose levels from baseline between the two groups. Conclusions Administration of 6% HES-130 increased blood glucose levels within the physiologic limits, but the degree of glucose increase was not greater than that caused by administration of lactated Ringer's solution. In conclusion, we did not find evidence that 6% HES-130 induces hyperglycemia in non-diabetic patients. PMID:27482311

  13. Optical coherence tomography for blood glucose monitoring through signal attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pretto, Lucas R.; Yoshimura, Tania M.; Ribeiro, Martha S.; de Freitas, Anderson Z.

    2016-03-01

    Development of non-invasive techniques for glucose monitoring is crucial to improve glucose control and treatment adherence in patients with diabetes. Hereafter, Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) may offer a good alternative for portable glucometers, since it uses light to probe samples. Changes in the object of interest can alter the intensity of light returning from the sample and, through it, one can estimate the sample's attenuation coefficient (μt) of light. In this work, we aimed to explore the behavior of μt of mouse's blood under increasing glucose concentrations. Different samples were prepared in four glucose concentrations using a mixture of heparinized blood, phosphate buffer saline and glucose. Blood glucose concentrations were measured with a blood glucometer, for reference. We have also prepared other samples diluting the blood in isotonic saline solution to check the effect of a higher multiple-scattering component on the ability of the technique to differentiate glucose levels based on μt. The OCT system used was a commercial Spectral Radar OCT with 930 nm central wavelength and spectral bandwidth (FWHM) of 100 nm. The system proved to be sensitive for all blood glucose concentrations tested, with good correlations with the obtained attenuation coefficients. A linear tendency was observed, with an increase in attenuation with higher values of glucose. Statistical difference was observed between all groups (p<0.001). This work opens the possibility towards a non-invasive diagnostic modality using OCT for glycemic control, which eliminates the use of analytes and/or test strips, as in the case with commercially available glucometers.

  14. Effects of iriflophenone 3-C-β-glucoside on fasting blood glucose level and glucose uptake

    PubMed Central

    Pranakhon, Ratree; Aromdee, Chantana; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the biological activities of agar wood (Aquilaria sinensis Lour., Thymelaeaceae), is anti-hyperglycemic activity. The methanolic extract (ME) was proven to possess the fasting blood glucose activity in rat and glucose uptake transportation by rat adipocytes. Objective: To determine the decreasing fasting blood glucose level of constituents affordable for in vivo test. If the test was positive, the mechanism which is positive to the ME, glucose transportation, will be performed. Materials and Methods: The ME was separated by column chromatography and identified by spectroscopic methods. Mice was used as an animal model (in vivo), and rat adipocytes were used for the glucose transportation activity (in vitro). Result: Iriflophenone 3-C-β-glucoside (IPG) was the main constituent, 3.17%, and tested for the activities. Insulin and the ME were used as positive controls. The ME, IPG and insulin lowered blood glucose levels by 40.3, 46.4 and 41.5%, respectively, and enhanced glucose uptake by 152, 153, and 183%, respectively. Conclusion: These findings suggest that IPG is active in lowering fasting blood glucose with potency comparable to that of insulin. PMID:25709215

  15. Estriol blunts postprandial blood glucose rise in male rats through regulating intestinal glucose transporters.

    PubMed

    Yamabe, Noriko; Kang, Ki Sung; Lee, Woojung; Kim, Su-Nam; Zhu, Bao Ting

    2015-03-01

    Despite increased total food intake in healthy, late-stage pregnant women, their peak postprandial blood sugar levels are normally much lower than the levels seen in healthy nonpregnant women. In this study, we sought to determine whether estriol (E3), an endogenous estrogen predominantly produced during human pregnancy, contributes to the regulation of the postprandial blood glucose level in healthy normal rats. In vivo studies using rats showed that E3 blunted the speed and magnitude of the blood glucose rise following oral glucose administration, but it did not appear to affect the total amount of glucose absorbed. E3 also did not affect insulin secretion, but it significantly reduced the rate of intestinal glucose transport compared with vehicle-treated animals. Consistent with this finding, expression of the sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 and 2 was significantly downregulated by E3 treatment in the brush-border membrane and basolateral membrane, respectively, of enterocytes. Most of the observed in vivo effects were noticeably stronger with E3 than with 17β-estradiol. Using differentiated human Caco-2 enterocyte monolayer culture as an in vitro model, we confirmed that E3 at physiologically relevant concentrations could directly inhibit glucose uptake via suppression of glucose transporter 2 expression, whereas 17β-estradiol did not have a similar effect. Collectively, these data showed that E3 can blunt the postprandial glycemic surge in rats through modulating the level of intestinal glucose transporters.

  16. A data driven nonlinear stochastic model for blood glucose dynamics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Holt, Tim A; Khovanova, Natalia

    2016-03-01

    The development of adequate mathematical models for blood glucose dynamics may improve early diagnosis and control of diabetes mellitus (DM). We have developed a stochastic nonlinear second order differential equation to describe the response of blood glucose concentration to food intake using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) data. A variational Bayesian learning scheme was applied to define the number and values of the system's parameters by iterative optimisation of free energy. The model has the minimal order and number of parameters to successfully describe blood glucose dynamics in people with and without DM. The model accounts for the nonlinearity and stochasticity of the underlying glucose-insulin dynamic process. Being data-driven, it takes full advantage of available CGM data and, at the same time, reflects the intrinsic characteristics of the glucose-insulin system without detailed knowledge of the physiological mechanisms. We have shown that the dynamics of some postprandial blood glucose excursions can be described by a reduced (linear) model, previously seen in the literature. A comprehensive analysis demonstrates that deterministic system parameters belong to different ranges for diabetes and controls. Implications for clinical practice are discussed. This is the first study introducing a continuous data-driven nonlinear stochastic model capable of describing both DM and non-DM profiles.

  17. Temperature influence on non-invasive blood glucose measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiqin; Yeo, Joon Hock

    2009-02-01

    Regular monitoring of blood sugar level is important for the management of diabetes. The Near-Infra-Red (NIR) spectroscopy method is a promising approach and this involves some form of contact with the body skin. It is noted that the skin temperature does fluctuate with the environment and physiological conditions and the temperature has an influence on the glucose measurement. In this paper, in-vitro and in-vivo investigations on the temperature influence on blood glucose measurement were studied. The in-vitro results from FTIR spectrometer show that sample temperature has significant influence on water absorption, which significantly affects the glucose absorption measurement. The in-vivo results show that when skin temperature around the measurement site is taken into consideration, the prediction of blood glucose level greatly improves.

  18. Leptin modulates the daily rhythmicity of blood glucose.

    PubMed

    Grosbellet, Edith; Dumont, Stephanie; Schuster-Klein, Carole; Guardiola-Lemaitre, Beatrice; Pevet, Paul; Criscuolo, François; Challet, Etienne

    2015-06-01

    Leptin may affect central and/or peripheral timing, in addition to its well-known regulatory effects on metabolism. Here, we investigated whether leptin can impact rhythmicity of blood glucose and lipids. For that purpose, daily variations of blood glucose and lipids were compared between mice lacking functional leptin receptor (db/db) or deficient for leptin (ob/ob) and controls (db/+ and ob/+, respectively). Next, we investigated whether timed treatment with exogenous leptin in ob/ob mice could modulate blood glucose rhythm. Mice with defective leptin signaling (db/db and ob/ob) have the same phase-opposed timing in glycemia (11 and 9 h shift, respectively) compared to respective controls. By contrast, the phase of plasma lipids rhythms (e.g. triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acid - NEFA, high density lipoprotein - HDL, low density lipoprotein - LDL) remained essentially unchanged, whatever the genotype. Daily injections of leptin (1 mg/kg) in ob/ob mice during nighttime or daytime led to 1-2 h phase-advances of blood glucose rhythm and glucose arrhythmicity, respectively. These injections induced additional phase-dependent shifts of feeding rhythm (ranging from 2.6 h phase-delays to 2.6 h advances). The present study reveals a chronomodulatory role of leptin, and highlights that rhythmic leptin can be a determinant of daily variations of blood glucose and food intake, though not for lipids. PMID:26035479

  19. Finger temperature controller for non-invasive blood glucose measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiqin; Ting, Choon Meng; Yeo, Joon Hock

    2010-11-01

    Blood glucose level is an important parameter for doctors to diagnose and treat diabetes. The Near-Infra-Red (NIR) spectroscopy method is the most promising approach and this involves measurement on the body skin. However it is noted that the skin temperature does fluctuate with the environmental and physiological conditions and we found that temperature has important influences on the glucose measurement. In-vitro and in-vivo investigations on the temperature influence on blood glucose measurement have been carried out. The in-vitro results show that water temperature has significant influence on water absorption. Since 90% of blood components are water, skin temperature of measurement site has significant influence on blood glucose measurement. Also the skin temperature is related to the blood volume, blood volume inside capillary vessels changes with skin temperature. In this paper the relationship of skin temperature and signal from the skin and inside tissue was studied at different finger temperatures. Our OGTT (oral glucose tolerance test) trials results show the laser signals follow the skin temperature trend and the correlation of signal and skin temperature is much stronger than the correlation of signal and glucose concentration. A finger heater device is designed to heat and maintain the skin temperature of measurement site. The heater is controlled by an electronic circuit according to the skin temperature sensed by a thermocouple that is put close to the measurement site. In vivo trials were carried out and the results show that the skin temperature significantly influences the signal fluctuations caused by pulsate blood and the average signal value.

  20. Association of curry consumption with blood lipids and glucose levels

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Curcumin, an active ingredient in turmeric, is highly consumed in South Asia. However, curry that contains turmeric as its main spice might be the major source of curcumin in most other countries. Although curcumin consumption is not as high in these countries as South Asia, the regular consumption of curcumin may provide a significant health-beneficial effect. This study evaluated whether the moderate consumption of curry can affect blood glucose and lipid levels that become dysregulated with age. SUBJECTS/METHODS This study used data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted from 2012 to 2013, to assess curry consumption frequency as well as blood glucose and blood lipid levels. The levels of blood glucose and lipids were subdivided by age, sex, and body mass index, and compared according to the curry consumption level. The estimates in each subgroup were further adjusted for potential confounding factors, including the diagnosis of diseases, physical activity, and smoking. RESULTS After adjusting for the above confounding factors, the blood glucose and triglyceride levels were significantly lower in the moderate curry consumption group compared to the low curry consumption group, both in older (> 45) male and younger (30 to 44) female overweight individuals who have high blood glucose and triglyceride levels. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that curcumin consumption, in an ordinary diet, can have health-beneficial effects, including being helpful in maintaining blood glucose and triglyceride levels that become dysregulated with age. The results should be further confirmed in future studies. PMID:27087906

  1. Blood glucose monitors: a laboratory and patient assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Webb, D J; Lovesay, J M; Ellis, A; Knight, A H

    1980-01-01

    The four blood glucose monitors available in the United Kingdom were compared by asking the opinions of 24 patients who used each monitor for two weeks, by correlating their blood glucose results with those obtained in the laboratory, and by having the monitors examined by an electronics engineer. Of the battery-operated monitors, patients preferred the Hypocount (15) to the Glucochek (9). The mains-operated units were less popular, with little to choose between Eyetone and Reflomat. Under field conditions the blood glucose results obtained with the Glucochek correlated poorly with the standard reference method. In contrast the Hypocount, Eyetone, and Reflomat machines produced good correlations. Poor results with the Glucochek were mainly due to faulty timing systems. The patients' preference for the Hypocount was supported by tests of performance under laboratory conditions and by the electronics engineer's report. PMID:7362972

  2. Food-based ingredients to modulate blood glucose.

    PubMed

    Thondre, Pariyarath Sangeetha

    2013-01-01

    Maintenance of normal blood glucose levels is important for avoiding chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular problems, and obesity. Type 2 diabetes is one of the major health problems affecting the world population and this condition can be exacerbated by poor diet, low physical activity, and genetic abnormalities. Food plays an important role in the management of blood glucose and associated complications in diabetes. This is attributed to the ability of food-based ingredients to modulate blood glucose without causing any adverse health consequences. This chapter focuses on four important food groups such as cereals, legumes, fruits, and spices that have active ingredients such as soluble dietary fiber, polyphenols, and antinutrients with the ability to reduce glycemic and insulin response in humans. Other food ingredients such as simple sugars, sugar alcohols, and some proteins are also discussed in moderation.

  3. Whole blood glucose analysis based on smartphone camera module.

    PubMed

    Devadhasan, Jasmine Pramila; Oh, Hyunhee; Choi, Cheol Soo; Kim, Sanghyo

    2015-11-01

    Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors have received great attention for their high efficiency in biological applications. The present work describes a CMOS image sensor-based whole blood glucose monitoring system through a point-of-care (POC) approach. A simple poly-ethylene terephthalate (PET) chip was developed to carry out the enzyme kinetic reaction at various concentrations (110–586 mg∕dL) of mouse blood glucose. In this technique, assay reagent is immobilized onto amine functionalized silica (AFSiO2) nanoparticles as an electrostatic attraction in order to achieve glucose oxidation on the chip. The assay reagent immobilized AFSiO2 nanoparticles develop a semi-transparent reaction platform, which is technically a suitable chip to analyze by a camera module. The oxidized glucose then produces a green color according to the glucose concentration and is analyzed by the camera module as a photon detection technique; the photon number decreases when the glucose concentration increases. The combination of these components, the CMOS image sensor and enzyme immobilized PET film chip, constitute a compact, accurate, inexpensive, precise, digital, highly sensitive, specific, and optical glucose-sensing approach for POC diagnosis. PMID:26524683

  4. Whole blood glucose analysis based on smartphone camera module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devadhasan, Jasmine Pramila; Oh, Hyunhee; Choi, Cheol Soo; Kim, Sanghyo

    2015-11-01

    Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors have received great attention for their high efficiency in biological applications. The present work describes a CMOS image sensor-based whole blood glucose monitoring system through a point-of-care (POC) approach. A simple poly-ethylene terephthalate (PET) chip was developed to carry out the enzyme kinetic reaction at various concentrations (110-586 mg/dL) of mouse blood glucose. In this technique, assay reagent is immobilized onto amine functionalized silica (AFSiO2) nanoparticles as an electrostatic attraction in order to achieve glucose oxidation on the chip. The assay reagent immobilized AFSiO2 nanoparticles develop a semi-transparent reaction platform, which is technically a suitable chip to analyze by a camera module. The oxidized glucose then produces a green color according to the glucose concentration and is analyzed by the camera module as a photon detection technique; the photon number decreases when the glucose concentration increases. The combination of these components, the CMOS image sensor and enzyme immobilized PET film chip, constitute a compact, accurate, inexpensive, precise, digital, highly sensitive, specific, and optical glucose-sensing approach for POC diagnosis.

  5. The utility of blood glucose meters in biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    FitzGerald, Jennifer; Vermerris, Wilfred

    2005-06-01

    Most methods used to measure glucose concentrations in biotechnological settings are labour-intensive and/or expensive. With this in mind we have investigated the possibility of employing blood glucose meters, the use of which has the benefit of being fast, convenient and inexpensive, for this purpose. Accu-Chek Advantage (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN, U.S.A.) and Precision QID (Medisense, Abbott Laboratories, Indianapolis, IN, U.S.A.) meters were tested using glucose samples of known concentration, at pH 7.5 and 4.8. The Accu-Chek Advantage meter uses strips containing the enzyme glucose dehydrogenase. This meter showed a linear response for glucose concentrations between 0.50 and 6.0 g/litre, and the effect of pH was small. The Precision QID meter uses strips containing the enzyme glucose oxidase and is more sensitive to pH. The displayed glucose concentrations at low pH values were consistently lower than at higher pH values. At both pH values the response curve reached a plateau, which limited the effective range of this meter to a range of 0.30-2.5 g/litre. Unlike the Precision QID meter, the Accu-Chek Advantage meter also responded to xylose and arabinose. A synergistic effect of combining sugars was observed when a mixture of sugars consisting of glucose and arabinose, or glucose and xylose, was applied: the displayed concentrations were consistently higher than was expected on the basis of the individual calibration curves. The use of glucose meters is a fast and convenient alternative to existing methods and may be of particular use for screening purposes where a high degree of accuracy is not crucial. The choice of meter should depend on the application, and in this respect the pH, expected concentration range and the presence of other sugars are among the factors that should be considered.

  6. Hybrid CARS for Non-Invasive Blood Glucose Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xi; Pestov, Dmitry; Zhang, Aihua; Murawski, Robert; Sokolov, Alexei; Welch, George; Laane, Jaan; Scully, Marlan

    2007-10-01

    We develop a spectroscopy technique that combines the advantages of both the frequency-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and the time-resolved CARS. We use broadband preparation pulses to get an instantaneous coherent excitation of multiplex molecular vibration levels and subsequent optically shaped time-delayed narrowband probing pulse to detect these vibrations. This technique can suppress the nonresonant background and retrieve the molecular fingerprint signal efficiently and rapidly. We employ this technique to glucose detection, the final goal of which is accurate, non-invasive (i.e. painless) and continuous monitoring of blood glucose concentration in the Diabetes diagnosis to replace the current glucose measurement process, which requires painful fingerpricks and therefore cannot be performed more than a few times a day. We have gotten the CARS spectra of glucose aqueous solution down to 2 mM.

  7. Impact of Diet Composition on Blood Glucose Regulation.

    PubMed

    Russell, Wendy R; Baka, Athanasia; Björck, Inger; Delzenne, Nathalie; Gao, Dan; Griffiths, Helen R; Hadjilucas, Ellie; Juvonen, Kristiina; Lahtinen, Sampo; Lansink, Mirian; Loon, Luc Van; Mykkänen, Hannu; Östman, Elin; Riccardi, Gabriele; Vinoy, Sophie; Weickert, Martin O

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional management of blood glucose levels is a strategic target in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). To implement such an approach, it is essential to understand the effect of food on glycemic regulation and on the underlying metabolic derangements. This comprehensive review summarizes the results from human dietary interventions exploring the impact of dietary components on blood glucose levels. Included are the major macronutrients; carbohydrate, protein and fat, micronutrient vitamins and minerals, nonnutrient phytochemicals and additional foods including low-calorie sweeteners, vinegar, and alcohol. Based on the evidence presented in this review, it is clear that dietary components have significant and clinically relevant effects on blood glucose modulation. An integrated approach that includes reducing excess body weight, increased physical activity along with a dietary regime to regulate blood glucose levels will not only be advantages in T2DM management, but will benefit the health of the population and limit the increasing worldwide incidence of T2DM.

  8. Predictors of Daily Blood Glucose Monitoring in Appalachian Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffle, Holly; Ware, Lezlee J.; Ruhil, Anirudh V. S.; Hamel-Lambert, Jane; Denham, Sharon A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine factors contributing to successful diabetes self-management in Appalachia, as evidenced by daily blood glucose monitoring. Methods: A telephone survey (N = 3841) was conducted to assess health status and health care access. The current investigation is limited to the subset of this sample who report having diabetes (N =…

  9. Impact of Diet Composition on Blood Glucose Regulation.

    PubMed

    Russell, Wendy R; Baka, Athanasia; Björck, Inger; Delzenne, Nathalie; Gao, Dan; Griffiths, Helen R; Hadjilucas, Ellie; Juvonen, Kristiina; Lahtinen, Sampo; Lansink, Mirian; Loon, Luc Van; Mykkänen, Hannu; Östman, Elin; Riccardi, Gabriele; Vinoy, Sophie; Weickert, Martin O

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional management of blood glucose levels is a strategic target in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). To implement such an approach, it is essential to understand the effect of food on glycemic regulation and on the underlying metabolic derangements. This comprehensive review summarizes the results from human dietary interventions exploring the impact of dietary components on blood glucose levels. Included are the major macronutrients; carbohydrate, protein and fat, micronutrient vitamins and minerals, nonnutrient phytochemicals and additional foods including low-calorie sweeteners, vinegar, and alcohol. Based on the evidence presented in this review, it is clear that dietary components have significant and clinically relevant effects on blood glucose modulation. An integrated approach that includes reducing excess body weight, increased physical activity along with a dietary regime to regulate blood glucose levels will not only be advantages in T2DM management, but will benefit the health of the population and limit the increasing worldwide incidence of T2DM. PMID:24219323

  10. Dynamical Analysis in the Mathematical Modelling of Human Blood Glucose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Saebyok; Kang, Byungmin

    2012-01-01

    We want to apply the geometrical method to a dynamical system of human blood glucose. Due to the educational importance of model building, we show a relatively general modelling process using observational facts. Next, two models of some concrete forms are analysed in the phase plane by means of linear stability, phase portrait and vector…

  11. Urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and blood glucose levels during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Robledo, Candace A.; Peck, Jennifer D.; Stoner, Julie; Calafat, Antonia M.; Carabin, Hélène; Cowan, Linda; Goodman, Jean R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine associations between phthalate metabolite urinary concentrations during early pregnancy and blood glucose levels obtained at the time of screening for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods Upon initiation of prenatal care, women with a mean gestational age of 12.8 weeks were recruited for a study of environmental chemical exposures (n = 110) and provided a spot urinary specimen. Blood glucose concentrations (mg/dl) were obtained from the electronic medical record for those patients who did not experience a pregnancy loss and did not transfer care to another facility prior to glucose screening (n = 72). Urinary concentrations of nine phthalate metabolites and creatinine were measured at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Associations between tertiles of phthalate metabolites concentrations and blood glucose levels were estimated using linear regression. Results Compared to pregnant women in the lowest concentration tertile, women with the highest urinary concentrations (≥3rd tertile) of mono-iso-butyl phthalate (tertile: ≥15.3 μg/l, β = −18.3, 95% CI: −35.4, −1.2) and monobenzyl phthalate (tertile: ≥30.3 μg/l, β = −17.3, 95% CI: −34.1, −0.4) had lower blood glucose levels at the time of GDM screening after adjustment for urinary creatinine and demographic covariates. Conclusion Because maternal glucose levels increase during pregnancy to provide adequate nutrition for fetal growth and development, these findings may have implications for fetal health. However, given the limitations of our study, findings should be interpreted cautiously. PMID:25726127

  12. Electroacupuncture for control of blood glucose in diabetes: literature review.

    PubMed

    Peplow, Philip V; Baxter, G David

    2012-02-01

    Electrical stimulation at acupuncture points (acupoints) has been investigated for its utility in lowering blood glucose in hyperglycemic humans and animal models. Only two studies were found using electroacupuncture in human subjects, and in both of these, the participants were normal (nondiabetic) and electrical stimulation was carried out at several acupoints. It had a hypoglycemic effect in obese women with calorific restriction diet using electrical stimulation of 2 Hz for 30 minutes/day for 20 days, but no change occurred in blood glucose of fasted patients in the other study using 1 Hz for 15 minutes. Fourteen animal studies were found, of which, 11 were performed in diabetic and normal rats. A hypoglycemic effect was observed in fasted type 1 diabetic rats using the Zusanli (ST36) leg acupoint with electrical stimulation of 15 Hz for 30 minutes and 60 minutes. In fasted type 2 diabetic rats, blood glucose was lowered using the Zusanli acupoint with electrical stimulation parameters of 15 Hz and 10 mA for 30 minutes. Also, using the Zhongwan (CV12) abdomen acupoint with electrical stimulation parameters of 15 Hz and 10 mA for 90 minutes had a hypoglycemic effect in fasted type 2 diabetic rats. In fasted normal rats, electrical stimulation of 2 Hz or 15 Hz for 30 minutes at the Zusanli or Zhongwan acupoint caused a decrease in blood glucose. Future studies are required in fasted diabetic rats to determine the effect of electroacupuncture on blood levels of insulin, lipids, fatty acids and β-endorphin, and blood flow and nerve conduction velocity. Studies with fasted normal and diabetic human subjects treated by electroacupuncture are warranted using data from animal experiments to inform such studies. PMID:22309901

  13. Noninvasive biosensor and wireless interrogating system for glucose in blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Whitchurch, Ashwin K.; Sarukesi, K.

    2003-07-01

    Hypoglycemia-abnormal decrease in blood sugar-is a major obstacle in the management of diabetes and prevention of long-term complications, and it may impose serious effects on the brain, including impairment of memory and other cognitive functions. This paper presents the development of a non-invasive sensor with miniaturized telemetry device in a wrist-watch for monitoring glucose concentration in blood. The sensor concept is based on optical chirality of glucose level in the interstitial fluid. The wrist watch consists of a laser power source of the wavelength compatible with the glucose. A nanofilm with specific chirality is placed at the bottom of the watch. The light then passes through the film and illuminates a small area on the skin. It has been documented that there is certain concentration of sugar level is taken by the intertitial fluid from the blood stream and deposit a portion of it at the dead skin. The wrist-watch when in contact with the outer skin of the human will thus monitor the glucose concentration. A wireless monitoring system in the watch then downloads the data from the watch to a Palm or a laptop computer.

  14. Near-infrared spectral methods for noninvasively measuring blood glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Sun; Kong, Deyi; Mei, Tao; Tao, Yongchun

    2004-05-01

    Determination of blood glucose concentrations in diabetic patients is a frequently occurring procedure and an important tool for diabetes management. Use of noninvasive detection techniques can relieve patients from the pain of frequent finger pokes and avoid the infection of disease via blood. This thesis discusses current research and analyzes the advantages and shortages of different measurement methods, including: optical methods (Transmission, Polarimetry and scattering), then, we give emphasis to analyze the technology of near-infrared (NIR) spectra. NIR spectral range 700 nm ~2300 nm was used because of its good transparency for biological tissue and presence of glucose absorption band. In this work, we present an outline of noninvasive blood glucose measurement. A near-infrared light beam is passed through the finger, and the spectral components of the emergent beam are measured using spectroscopic techniques. The device includes light sources having the wavelengths of 600 nm - 1800 nm to illuminate the tissue. Receptors associated with the light sources for receiving light and generating a transmission signal representing the light transmitted are also provided. Once a transmission signal is received by receptors, and the high and low values from each of the signals are stored in the device. The averaged values are then analyzed to determine the glucose concentration, which is displayed on the device.

  15. Noninvasive blood glucose measurement using multiple laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooi, E. T.; Zhang, X. Q.; Chen, J. H.; Soh, P. H.; Ng, K.; Yeo, J. H.

    2007-02-01

    In the event of diabetes clinicians have advocated that frequent monitoring of a diabetic's blood glucose level is the key to avoid future complications (kidney failure, blindness, amputations, premature death, etc.,) associated with the disease. While the test-strip glucose meters available in current consumer markets allow for frequent monitoring, a more convenient technique that is accurate, painless and sample-free is preferable in a diabetic's daily routine. This paper presents a non-invasive blood glucose measurement technique using diffuse reflectance near infrared (NIR) signals. This technique uses a set of laser diodes, each operating at fixed wavelengths in the first overtone region. The NIR signals from the laser diodes are channeled to the measurement site viz., the nail-bed by means of optical fibers. A series of in vivo experiments have been performed on eight normal human subjects using a standard Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) protocol. The reflected NIR signals are inputs to a Partial Least Squares (PLS) algorithm for calibration and future predictions. The calibration models used are developed using in vivo datasets and are unique to a particular individual. The 1218 paired points collected from the eight test subjects plotted on the Clarke Error Grid, revealed that 87.3% of these points fall within the A zone while the remainder, within the B zone, both of which, are clinically accepted. The standard error of prediction was +/-13.14mg/dL for the best calibration model. A Bland-Altman analysis of the 1218 paired points yields a 76.3% confidence level for a measurement accuracy of +/-20mg/dL. These results demonstrate the initial potential of the technique for non-invasive blood glucose measurements in vivo.

  16. Development of Noninvasive Blood Glucose Sensor Using the Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Keiichi; Tamura, Kazuto; Kaneko, Wataru; Ishizawa, Hiroaki; Toba, Eiji

    Recently, diabetics have been steadily increasing, because change of diet, lack of exercise, increase an alcoholic intake, and increase a stress. It is a very serious problem for us. About 23.6 millions of people in Japan approach the danger of diabetes. Therefore, it is necessary to get insulin injection. And they have to measure blood glucose again and again a day. So, they are burden too heavy. This paper describes a new noninvasive measurement of blood glucose based on optical sensing. This uses Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of attenuated total reflection. Non-invasive measurement was carried out by using 3 methods. And standard error of prediction is about ±20mg/dl by 3 method. This paper also describes practical application of this method.

  17. Correlation between macrosomia body indices and maternal fasting blood glucose.

    PubMed

    Song, Y; Zhang, S; Song, W

    2014-05-01

    To explore the significance of neonatal body indices in identifying pathological macrosomia, we implemented a retrospective study of 254 neonates, including: 100 macrosomia of diabetic pregnancies, 77 macrosomia of healthy pregnancies and 77 normal neonates of healthy pregnancies, using their birth weight, body length, head circumference and chest circumference, to calculate neonatal body indices, multiple regression analysis of the correlation between newborn body indices and maternal fasting blood glucose. The Quetelet Index and Kaup Index of diabetic macrosomia is higher than that of non-diabetic macrosomia; HC:CC (ratio between head circumference and chest circumference) is reversed (p < 0.05). The multiple regression equation of neonatal body indices to maternal fasting blood glucose is BG = 6.959 + 0.031 QI -4.482 × HC:CC. Quetelet index and HC:CC have linear relationship with maternal fasting blood glucose (p < 0.05). Compared with birth weight, Quetelet Index and HC:CC could better reflect the effect of maternal metabolism on the fetus and be of great significance in the prediction of fetal macrosomia. PMID:24798112

  18. Sodium-glucose linked transporter-2 inhibitors: potential for renoprotection beyond blood glucose lowering?

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Richard E

    2014-10-01

    The proximal tubule's sodium-glucose linked transporter-2 (SGLT2) accounts for the vast majority of glucose reabsorption by the kidney. Its selective inhibition, accordingly, leads to substantial glycosuria, lowering blood glucose, and facilitating weight loss in individuals with diabetes. During the past year, two SGLT2 inhibitors, canagliflozin and dapagliflozin, have been approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Beyond their anti-hyperglycemic properties, however, this new class of drugs has several other attributes that provide a theoretical basis for kidney protection. Like agents that block the renin-angiotensin system, SGLT2 inhibitors also reduce single-nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR) in the chronically diseased kidney, though by quite different mechanisms. Additional potentially beneficial effects of SGLT2 inhibition include modest reductions in blood pressure and plasma uric acid. Finally, cell culture studies indicate that glucose uptake from the tubular lumen, as well as from the basolateral compartment, can contribute to proximal tubular production of extracellular matrix proteins. Whether such attributes will translate into reducing the progression of chronic kidney disease will require the undertaking of long-term, dedicated studies.

  19. Evaluation of the appropriateness of using glucometers for measuring the blood glucose levels in mice.

    PubMed

    Togashi, Yu; Shirakawa, Jun; Okuyama, Tomoko; Yamazaki, Shunsuke; Kyohara, Mayu; Miyazawa, Ayumi; Suzuki, Takafumi; Hamada, Mari; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    Glucometers are also widely used in diabetes research conducted using animal models. However, the appropriateness of measuring blood glucose levels using glucometers in animal models remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the consistency between the blood glucose levels measured by 11 models of glucometers and plasma glucose levels measured by a laboratory biochemical test in blood samples collected by retro-orbital sinus puncture or tail-tip amputation. In both blood samples obtained by retro-orbital sinus puncture and those obtained by tail-tip amputation, 10 of the 11 models of glucometers yielded higher glucose values, while 1 yielded lower glucose values, than the plasma glucose values yielded by the laboratory test, the differences being in direct proportion to the plasma glucose values. Most glucometers recorded higher blood glucose levels after glucose loading and lower blood glucose levels after insulin loading in retro-orbital sinus blood as compared to tail vein blood. Our data suggest that the blood glucose levels measured by glucometers in mice tended to be higher than the plasma glucose levels yielded by the biochemical test under the hyperglycemic state, and that differences in the measured levels were observed according to the blood collection method depending on the glycemia status. PMID:27151424

  20. Evaluation of the appropriateness of using glucometers for measuring the blood glucose levels in mice

    PubMed Central

    Togashi, Yu; Shirakawa, Jun; Okuyama, Tomoko; Yamazaki, Shunsuke; Kyohara, Mayu; Miyazawa, Ayumi; Suzuki, Takafumi; Hamada, Mari; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    Glucometers are also widely used in diabetes research conducted using animal models. However, the appropriateness of measuring blood glucose levels using glucometers in animal models remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the consistency between the blood glucose levels measured by 11 models of glucometers and plasma glucose levels measured by a laboratory biochemical test in blood samples collected by retro-orbital sinus puncture or tail-tip amputation. In both blood samples obtained by retro-orbital sinus puncture and those obtained by tail-tip amputation, 10 of the 11 models of glucometers yielded higher glucose values, while 1 yielded lower glucose values, than the plasma glucose values yielded by the laboratory test, the differences being in direct proportion to the plasma glucose values. Most glucometers recorded higher blood glucose levels after glucose loading and lower blood glucose levels after insulin loading in retro-orbital sinus blood as compared to tail vein blood. Our data suggest that the blood glucose levels measured by glucometers in mice tended to be higher than the plasma glucose levels yielded by the biochemical test under the hyperglycemic state, and that differences in the measured levels were observed according to the blood collection method depending on the glycemia status. PMID:27151424

  1. Development of a fluorescent method for simultaneous measurement of glucose concentrations in interstitial fluid and blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ting; Li, Dachao; Li, Guoqing; Chen, Limin; Lin, Yuan; Xu, Kexin; Lu, Luo

    2013-12-01

    Continuous blood glucose monitoring is of great clinical significance to patients with diabetes. One of the effective methods to monitor blood glucose is to measure glucose concentrations of interstitial fluid (ISF). However, a time-delay problem exists between ISF and blood glucose concentrations, which results in difficulty in indicating real-time blood glucose concentrations. Therefore, we developed a fluorescent method to verify the accuracy and reliability of simultaneous ISF and blood glucose measurement, especially incorporating it into research on the delay relationship between blood and ISF glucose changes. This method is based on a competitive reaction among borate polymer, alizarin and glucose. When glucose molecules combine with borate polymers in alizarin-borate polymer competitively, changes in fluorescence intensity demonstrate changes in glucose concentrations. By applying the measured results to the blood and ISF glucose delay relationship, we were able to calculate the time delay as an average of 2.16 ± 2.05 min for ISF glucose changes with reference to blood glucose concentrations.

  2. Detection of Protein Biomarker Using a Blood Glucose Meter

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Tian; Xiang, Yu; Lu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    mHeath technologies are recognized to play important roles in the future of personal care and medicine. However, their full potentials have not been reached, as most of current technologies are restricted to monitoring physical and behavioral parameters, such as body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, and physical movement, while direct monitoring of biomarkers in body fluids can provide much more accurate and useful information for medical diagnostics. A major barrier to realizing the full potential of mHealth is the high costs and long cycles of developing mHealth devices capable of monitoring biomarkers in body fluids. To lower the costs and shorten the developmental cycle, we have demonstrated the leveraging of the most successful portable medical monitoring device on the market, the blood glucose meter (BGM), with FDA-approved smartphone technologies that allow for wireless transmission and remote monitoring of a wide range of non-glucose targets. In this protocol, an aptamer-based assay for quantification of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) using an off-the-shelf BGM is described. In this assay, an aptamer-based target recognition system is employed. When IFN-γ binds to the aptamer, it triggers the release of a reporter enzyme, invertase, which can catalyze the conversion of sucrose (not detected by BGM) to glucose. The glucose being produced is then detected using a BGM. The system mimics a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), where the traditional immunoassay is replaced by an aptamer binding assay; the reporter protein is replaced by invertase, and finally the optical or fluorescence detector is replaced with widely available BGMs. PMID:25626534

  3. Detection of protein biomarker using a blood glucose meter.

    PubMed

    Lan, Tian; Xiang, Yu; Lu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    mHeath technologies are recognized to play important roles in the future of personal care and medicine. However, their full potentials have not been reached, as most of current technologies are restricted to monitoring physical and behavioral parameters, such as body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, and physical movement, while direct monitoring of biomarkers in body fluids can provide much more accurate and useful information for medical diagnostics. A major barrier to realizing the full potential of mHealth is the high costs and long cycles of developing mHealth devices capable of monitoring biomarkers in body fluids. To lower the costs and shorten the developmental cycle, we have demonstrated the leveraging of the most successful portable medical monitoring device on the market, the blood glucose meter (BGM), with FDA-approved smartphone technologies that allow for wireless transmission and remote monitoring of a wide range of non-glucose targets. In this protocol, an aptamer-based assay for quantification of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) using an off-the-shelf BGM is described. In this assay, an aptamer-based target recognition system is employed. When IFN-γ binds to the aptamer, it triggers the release of a reporter enzyme, invertase, which can catalyze the conversion of sucrose (not detected by BGM) to glucose. The glucose being produced is then detected using a BGM. The system mimics a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), where the traditional immunoassay is replaced by an aptamer binding assay; the reporter protein is replaced by invertase, and finally the optical or fluorescence detector is replaced with widely available BGMs. PMID:25626534

  4. Qualitative study of telemonitoring of blood glucose and blood pressure in type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Janet; Fairbrother, Peter; Pagliari, Claudia; Paterson, Mary; Pinnock, Hilary; Sheikh, Aziz; Wild, Sarah; McKinstry, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore the experiences of patients and professionals taking part in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of blood glucose, blood pressure (BP) and weight telemonitoring in type 2 diabetes supported by primary care, and identify factors facilitating or hindering the effectiveness of the intervention and those likely to influence its potential translation to routine practice. Design Qualitative study adopting an interpretive descriptive approach. Participants 23 patients, 6 nurses and 4 doctors who were participating in a RCT of blood glucose and BP telemonitoring. A maximum variation sample of patients from within the trial based on age, sex and deprivation status of the practice was sought. Setting 12 primary care practices in Scotland and England. Method Data were collected via recorded semistructured interviews. Analysis was inductive with themes presented within an overarching thematic framework. Multiple strategies were employed to ensure that the analysis was credible and trustworthy. Results Telemonitoring of blood glucose, BP and weight by people with type 2 diabetes was feasible. The data generated by telemonitoring supported self-care decisions and medical treatment decisions. Motivation to self-manage diet was increased by telemonitoring of blood glucose, and the ‘benign policing’ aspect of telemonitoring was considered by patients to be important. The convenience of home monitoring was very acceptable to patients although professionals had some concerns about telemonitoring increasing workload and costs. Conclusions Telemonitoring of blood glucose, BP and weight in primary care is a promising way of improving diabetes management which would be highly acceptable to the type of patients who volunteered for this study. Trial registration number ISRCTN71674628; Pre-results. PMID:26700275

  5. Cinnamon intake lowers fasting blood glucose: meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Davis, Paul A; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2011-09-01

    Cinnamon, the dry bark and twig of Cinnamomum spp., is a rich botanical source of polyphenolics that has been used for centuries in Chinese medicine and has been shown to affect blood glucose and insulin signaling. Cinnamon's effects on blood glucose have been the subject of many clinical and animal studies; however, the issue of cinnamon intake's effect on fasting blood glucose (FBG) in people with type 2 diabetes and/or prediabetes still remains unclear. A meta-analysis of clinical studies of the effect of cinnamon intake on people with type 2 diabetes and/or prediabetes that included three new clinical trials along with five trials used in previous meta-analyses was done to assess cinnamon's effectiveness in lowering FBG. The eight clinical studies were identified using a literature search (Pub Med and Biosis through May 2010) of randomized, placebo-controlled trials reporting data on cinnamon and/or cinnamon extract and FBG. Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (Biostat Inc., Englewood, NJ, USA) was performed on the identified data for both cinnamon and cinnamon extract intake using a random-effects model that determined the standardized mean difference ([i.e., Change 1(control) - Change 2(cinnamon)] divided by the pooled SD of the post scores). Cinnamon intake, either as whole cinnamon or as cinnamon extract, results in a statistically significant lowering in FBG (-0.49±0.2 mmol/L; n=8, P=.025) and intake of cinnamon extract only also lowered FBG (-0.48 mmol/L±0.17; n=5, P=.008). Thus cinnamon extract and/or cinnamon improves FBG in people with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes.

  6. Texturing Blood-Glucose-Monitoring Optics Using Oxygen Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    A method has been invented for utilizing directed, hyperthermal oxygen atoms and ions for texturing tips of polymeric optical fibers or other polymeric optical components for use in optical measurement of concentration of glucose in blood. The required texture of the sensory surface of such a component amounts to a landscape of microscopic hills having high aspect ratios (hills taller than they are wide), with an average distance between hills of no more than about 5 m. This limit on the average distance between hills is chosen so that blood cells (which are wider) cannot enter the valleys between the hills, where they could obstruct optical sensing of glucose in the blood plasma. On the other hand, the plasma is required to enter the valleys, and a high aspect ratio is intended to maximize the hillside and valley surface area in contact with the plasma, thereby making it possible to obtain a given level of optical glucose- measurement sensitivity with a relatively small volume of blood. The present method of texturing by use of directed, hyperthermal (particle energy >1 eV) oxygen atoms and ions stands in contrast to a prior method of texturing by use of thermal monatomic oxygen characterized by a temperature of the order of 0.5 eV. The prior method yields low-aspect- ratio (approximately hemispherical) craters that are tens of microns wide . too wide to exclude blood cells. The figure schematically depicts parts of a typical apparatus for texturing according to the present method. One or more polymeric optical components to be textured (e.g., multiple optical fibers bundled together for simultaneous processing) are mounted in a vacuum chamber facing a suitable ion- or atom-accelerating device capable of generating a beam of oxygen atoms and/or ions having kinetic energies >1 eV. Typically, such a device includes a heated cathode, in which case it is desirable to interpose a water-cooled thermal-radiation shield to prevent melting of the polymeric component(s) to

  7. Sensitivity of central chemoreceptors controlling blood glucose and body temperature during glucose deprivation.

    PubMed Central

    Fiorentini, A; Müller, E E

    1975-01-01

    1. The rise in blood glucose and the fall in body temperature which follows the injection of a glucose analogue, 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) into the lateral cerebral ventricle (I.C.V) of unanaesthetized rats were studied and found to be dose-dependent. These 2-DG induced responses are elicited by the impairment of glucose metabolism within central "glucoreceptors'. 2. 2DG induced hyperglycaemia and hypothermia were completely prevented and even the converse effects occurred when fivefold equimolar amounts of D-fructose were simultaneously injected I.C.V.; fructose, at equimolar doses, did not modify the effects of 2-DG. 3. D-xylose and D-ribose, even at high doses, did not influence 2-DG hyperglycaemia, but increased slightly the 2-DG induced hypothermia. This suggests that the pentose phosphate pathway is unable to support the metabolism within the glucoreceptors. 4. Pyruvate suppressed the 2-DG induced hyperglycaemia with a marked delay, while acetate (as ethyl ester) and a mixture of malate plus oxaloacetate did not prevent 2-DG induced effects. These results may be accounted for by the low dosage used. 5. Acetoacetate and 3-hydroxybutyrate did not prevent 2-DG hypothermia and hyperglycaemia. 6. An effective prevention of the 2-DG induced hyperglycaemia and hypothermia was achieved with fumarate and glutamate, indicating that the stimulation of the Krebs cycle within "glucoreceptors' removes the glucoprivic effects. 7. The results indicate that prevention of 2-DG induced effects occurred only with alternate source of metabolic fuel which can support high respiratory rates in brain tissue. It is concluded that central chemoreceptors are not specifically responsive to glucose, or hexoses, but to the rate of oxidative metabolism. PMID:1151783

  8. Blood Glucose Pattern Management in Diabetes: Creating Order from Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, John C.; Genovese, Stefano; Reach, Gérard

    2013-01-01

    Background Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is the most accessible way to assess glycemic patterns, and interpretation of these patterns can provide reasons for poor glycemic control and suggest management strategies. Furthermore, diabetes management based on blood glucose (BG) patterns is associated with improved patient outcomes. The aim of this review is therefore to evaluate the impact of pattern management in clinical practice. Methods We included a review of available literature, a discussion of obstacles to implementation of SMBG and pattern management, and suggestions on how clinicians and patients might work together to optimize this management feature. Results The literature review revealed eight publications specifically describing structured approaches to SMBG and pattern management. Specific information on how SMBG might be structured to detect BG patterns, however, remains limited. Barriers to pattern management include not just practical reasons, but emotional and psychological reasons as well. Conclusions Patterns are not always easy to detect or interpret, but on-meter and web-based tools can support both patients and clinicians. Ultimately, successful pattern management requires education and mutual commitment from the clinician and patient—ongoing collaboration is needed to obtain, review, and interpret SMBG values and to make changes based on the patterns. PMID:24351184

  9. Mango Supplementation Improves Blood Glucose in Obese Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Shirley F; Meister, Maureen; Mahmood, Maryam; Eldoumi, Heba; Peterson, Sandra; Perkins-Veazie, Penelope; Clarke, Stephen L; Payton, Mark; Smith, Brenda J; Lucas, Edralin A

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study examined the effects of freeze-dried mango (Mangifera indica L.) supplementation on anthropometrics, body composition, and biochemical parameters in obese individuals. Twenty obese adults (11 males and 9 females) ages 20- to 50-years old, received 10 g/day of ground freeze-dried mango pulp for 12 weeks. Anthropometrics, biochemical parameters, and body composition were assessed at baseline and final visits of the study. After 12 weeks, mango supplementation significantly reduced blood glucose in both male (−4.45 mg/dL, P = 0.018) and female (−3.56 mg/dL, P = 0.003) participants. In addition, hip circumference was reduced in male (−3.3 cm, P = 0.048) but not in female participants. However, there were no significant changes in body weight or composition in either gender. Our findings indicate that regular consumption of freeze-dried mango by obese individuals does not negatively impact body weight but provides a positive effect on fasting blood glucose. PMID:25210462

  10. Piceatannol lowers the blood glucose level in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Uchida-Maruki, Hiroko; Inagaki, Hiroyuki; Ito, Ryouichi; Kurita, Ikuko; Sai, Masahiko; Ito, Tatsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    We previously found that passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) seeds contained a high amount of piceatannol (3,5,3',4'-trans-tetrahydroxystilbene), a natural analog of resveratrol (3,5,4'-trans-trihydroxystilbene). Resveratrol has been proposed as a potential anti-metabolic disorder compound, by its activation of sirtuin and AMP-activated protein kinase. Many reports show that resveratrol ameliorates diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. However, it is not known whether piceatannol also affects diet-induced obesity. We explored the effect of piceatannol on high fat diet-fed mice. The results showed that piceatannol did not affect high fat diet-induced body weight gain or visceral fat gain in mice. However, piceatannol did reduce fasting blood glucose levels. Furthermore, to explore the potential of passion fruit seed extract containing piceatannol as a functional food, passion fruit seed extract was administered in a genetic diabetic mouse model (db/db mice). Single administration of passion fruit seed extract, as well as piceatannol reduced the blood glucose levels of these db/db mice. These results suggest that piceatannol and passion fruit seed extract may have potential application in the prevention of diabetes. PMID:25832644

  11. BRIGHT Guidelines on Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Basit, Abdul; Khan, Asima; Khan, Riasat Ali

    2014-01-01

    Pakistan, a developing country with limited resources, is having huge burden of diabetes and its complications. The local health care providers face limitations due to the related cost while emphasizing on self monitoring of blood glucose. The lack of health care infrastructure, non-affordability of the patients and non-existence of national guidelines are the most significant obstacles. Having realized these issues we decided to initiate a project of self monitoring of blood glucose, “BRIGHT (Better Recommendations, Implementation and Guideline development for Health care providers and their Training). After extensive literature search, the project team, approached and communicated with “Advisory Board for the Care of Diabetes (ABCD) of Pakistan” for their expert opinion and suggestions. The board members belong to the faculty of main teaching hospitals of the four provinces of Pakistan thus ensuring national representation. The endorsement of these guidelines has paved the way for their uniform implementation all over the country. Development of these Guidelines is the first part of BRIGHT project. In the next phase, we have started training of health care providers. Five mega programs have been conducted in this regard in the major cities. So far a patient’s log book has also been designed and distributed. Like all other guidelines, this is a living document which will be revised and updated from time to time in the light of new information which becomes available. PMID:25225546

  12. Chinese herbal medicines for people with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting blood glucose

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Suzanne J; Bensoussan, Alan; Chang, Dennis; Kiat, Hosen; Klupp, Nerida L; Liu, Jian Ping; Li, Xun

    2011-01-01

    Background Around 308 million people worldwide are estimated to have impaired glucose tolerance (IGT); 25% to 75% of these will develop diabetes within a decade of initial diagnosis. At diagnosis, half will have tissue-related damage and all have an increased risk for coronary heart disease. Objectives The objective of this review was to assess the effects and safety of Chinese herbal medicines for the treatment of people with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Search strategy We searched the following databases: The Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, AMED, a range of Chinese language databases, SIGLE and databases of ongoing trials. Selection criteria Randomised clinical trials comparing Chinese herbal medicines with placebo, no treatment, pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions in people with IGT or IFG were considered. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently extracted data. Trials were assessed for risk of bias against key criteria: random sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding of participants, outcome assessors and intervention providers, incomplete outcome data, selective outcome reporting and other sources of bias. Main results This review examined 16 trials lasting four weeks to two years involving 1391 participants receiving 15 different Chinese herbal medicines in eight different comparisons. No trial reported on mortality, morbidity or costs. No serious adverse events like severe hypoglycaemia were observed. Meta-analysis of eight trials showed that those receiving Chinese herbal medicines combined with lifestyle modification were more than twice as likely to have their fasting plasma glucose levels return to normal levels (i.e. fasting plasma glucose <7.8 mmol/L and 2hr blood glucose <11.1 mmol/L) compared to lifestyle modification alone (RR 2.07; 95% confidence intervall (CI) 1.52 to 2.82). Those receiving Chinese herbs were less likely to progress to diabetes over the duration of the

  13. Different training status may alter the continuous blood glucose kinetics in self-paced endurance running

    PubMed Central

    SUZUKI, YOSHIO; SHIMIZU, TOMOMI; OTA, MAKOTO; HIRATA, RYUZO; SATO, KENJI; TAMURA, YOSHIFUMI; IMANISHI, AKIO; WATANABE, MASAYUKI; SAKURABA, KEISHOKU

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of the systemic energy metabolism is to provide a source of energy, mainly glucose, for the brain; therefore, blood glucose levels would be expected to correlate with exercise performance. The individual training status may also affect the blood glucose levels. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between blood glucose levels and running velocity during prolonged running in athletes with different training statuses. Two female college athletes, a triathlete and a tennis player, ran a course that was 247.4 m in circumference for 5 h while wearing a continuous glucose monitoring system. Blood was obtained at time-points of −1, 1, 3 and 5 h. The athletes had free access to food and fluids throughout the run. The athletes ran at almost the same pace without a sudden decrease in pace. The blood glucose levels increased and remained high in the triathlete, whereas the tennis player remained hypoglycemic throughout the run. Carbohydrate ingestion did not affect the blood glucose levels. The magnitude of hormonal changes, e.g. insulin, adrenaline and cortisol, was greater in the tennis player. The blood glucose concentration did not correlate with the running velocity or the carbohydrate ingestion; however, a discrepancy in blood glucose transition was observed between the triathlete and the tennis player, indicating a possible association between the adaptation to endurance exercise and the blood glucose kinetics during prolonged running. PMID:26622425

  14. A Simple Laboratory Experiment to Determine the Kinetics of Mutarotation of D-Glucose Using a Blood Glucose Meter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perles, Carlos E.; Volpe, Pedro L. O.

    2008-01-01

    A simple commercial blood glucose meter is used to follow the kinetics of mutarotation of D-glucose in aqueous solution. The results may be compared with those obtained using an automatic polarimeter, if this is available This experiment is proposed for use by students in a general chemistry, biology, organic chemistry, and physical chemistry…

  15. Modeling and Measurement of Correlation between Blood and Interstitial Glucose Changes.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ting; Li, Dachao; Li, Guoqing; Zhang, Yiming; Xu, Kexin; Lu, Luo

    2016-01-01

    One of the most effective methods for continuous blood glucose monitoring is to continuously measure glucose in the interstitial fluid (ISF). However, multiple physiological factors can modulate glucose concentrations and affect the lag phase between blood and ISF glucose changes. This study aims to develop a compensatory tool for measuring the delay in ISF glucose variations in reference to blood glucose changes. A theoretical model was developed based on biophysics and physiology of glucose transport in the microcirculation system. Blood and interstitial fluid glucose changes were measured in mice and rats by fluorescent and isotope methods, respectively. Computer simulation mimicked curves were fitted with data resulting from fluorescent measurements of mice and isotope measurements of rats, indicating that there were lag times for ISF glucose changes. It also showed that there was a required diffusion distance for glucose to travel from center of capillaries to interstitial space in both mouse and rat models. We conclude that it is feasible with the developed model to continuously monitor dynamic changes of blood glucose concentration through measuring glucose changes in ISF with high accuracy, which requires correct parameters for determining and compensating for the delay time of glucose changes in ISF.

  16. Modeling and Measurement of Correlation between Blood and Interstitial Glucose Changes.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ting; Li, Dachao; Li, Guoqing; Zhang, Yiming; Xu, Kexin; Lu, Luo

    2016-01-01

    One of the most effective methods for continuous blood glucose monitoring is to continuously measure glucose in the interstitial fluid (ISF). However, multiple physiological factors can modulate glucose concentrations and affect the lag phase between blood and ISF glucose changes. This study aims to develop a compensatory tool for measuring the delay in ISF glucose variations in reference to blood glucose changes. A theoretical model was developed based on biophysics and physiology of glucose transport in the microcirculation system. Blood and interstitial fluid glucose changes were measured in mice and rats by fluorescent and isotope methods, respectively. Computer simulation mimicked curves were fitted with data resulting from fluorescent measurements of mice and isotope measurements of rats, indicating that there were lag times for ISF glucose changes. It also showed that there was a required diffusion distance for glucose to travel from center of capillaries to interstitial space in both mouse and rat models. We conclude that it is feasible with the developed model to continuously monitor dynamic changes of blood glucose concentration through measuring glucose changes in ISF with high accuracy, which requires correct parameters for determining and compensating for the delay time of glucose changes in ISF. PMID:27239479

  17. Modeling and Measurement of Correlation between Blood and Interstitial Glucose Changes

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ting; Li, Dachao; Li, Guoqing; Zhang, Yiming; Xu, Kexin; Lu, Luo

    2016-01-01

    One of the most effective methods for continuous blood glucose monitoring is to continuously measure glucose in the interstitial fluid (ISF). However, multiple physiological factors can modulate glucose concentrations and affect the lag phase between blood and ISF glucose changes. This study aims to develop a compensatory tool for measuring the delay in ISF glucose variations in reference to blood glucose changes. A theoretical model was developed based on biophysics and physiology of glucose transport in the microcirculation system. Blood and interstitial fluid glucose changes were measured in mice and rats by fluorescent and isotope methods, respectively. Computer simulation mimicked curves were fitted with data resulting from fluorescent measurements of mice and isotope measurements of rats, indicating that there were lag times for ISF glucose changes. It also showed that there was a required diffusion distance for glucose to travel from center of capillaries to interstitial space in both mouse and rat models. We conclude that it is feasible with the developed model to continuously monitor dynamic changes of blood glucose concentration through measuring glucose changes in ISF with high accuracy, which requires correct parameters for determining and compensating for the delay time of glucose changes in ISF. PMID:27239479

  18. Spurious hyperglycaemia--a hazard of finger prick blood glucose estimation.

    PubMed Central

    McInnes, E; Cohen, H

    1984-01-01

    Two diabetic patients presented in coma to the accident and emergency department. Although they were hypoglycaemic, the initial blood glucose reagent strip readings were high. We postulate that glucose contamination of their fingers occurred and resulted in spuriously high readings. A small survey highlights the problems resulting from such contamination. Correct handling of blood glucose reagent strips is stressed and we advise venous blood samples in all diabetic emergencies presenting to the accident and emergency department. PMID:6536275

  19. Fasting blood glucose and HbA1c in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Lindblad, Frank; Eickhoff, Malin; Forslund, Anders H; Isaksson, Johan; Gustafsson, Jan

    2015-04-30

    Reports of hypocortisolism and overweight in pediatric ADHD motivate an investigation of blood glucose regulation in this group. Fasting blood glucose and HbA1c were investigated in 10 children (10-15 years) with ADHD and 22 comparisons. Fasting blood glucose was similar in both groups. HbA1c values were higher in the ADHD-group. BMI-SDS was also higher in the ADHD-group but did not predict HbA1c. The results suggest an association between ADHD and an altered blood glucose homeostasis.

  20. The Effects of Blood Glucose Levels on Cognitive Performance: A Review of the Literature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Jolene; Barshi, Immanuel

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this review paper is to discuss the research literature on the effects of blood glucose levels on executive and non-executive functions in humans. The review begins with a brief description of blood glucose, how it has been studied, previous syntheses of prior studies, and basic results regarding the role of blood glucose on cognitive functioning. The following sections describe work that investigated the effect of blood glucose on both non-executive and executive functions (e.g., sensory processing, psychomotor functioning, attention, vigilance, memory, language and communication, judgement and decision-making, and complex task performance). Within each section, summaries of the findings and challenges to the literature are included. Measurement conversions of blood glucose levels, blood glucose values, and associated symptoms are depicted. References to the types of tests used to investigate blood glucose and cognitive performance are provided. For more detailed descriptions of references within (and in addition to) this paper, an annotated bibliography is also provided. Several moderator variables including individual differences and contextual variables related to the effects of blood glucose levels on performance (e.g., age, gender, time of day, familiarity with the task and symptom awareness, expectancy effects, dose dependent effects, time dependent effects, task specific effects, rising and falling blood glucose levels, and speed and/or accuracy trade-offs) are addressed later in the paper. Some suggestions for future experimental methodologies are also made.

  1. Fasting blood glucose and HbA1c in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Lindblad, Frank; Eickhoff, Malin; Forslund, Anders H; Isaksson, Johan; Gustafsson, Jan

    2015-04-30

    Reports of hypocortisolism and overweight in pediatric ADHD motivate an investigation of blood glucose regulation in this group. Fasting blood glucose and HbA1c were investigated in 10 children (10-15 years) with ADHD and 22 comparisons. Fasting blood glucose was similar in both groups. HbA1c values were higher in the ADHD-group. BMI-SDS was also higher in the ADHD-group but did not predict HbA1c. The results suggest an association between ADHD and an altered blood glucose homeostasis. PMID:25747679

  2. Slow post meal walking reduces the blood glucose response: an exploratory study in female Pakistani immigrants.

    PubMed

    Lunde, Marianne S H; Hjellset, Victoria Telle; Høstmark, Arne T

    2012-10-01

    Postprandial physical activity may blunt the blood glucose response. In diabetes prone female immigrants only slow walking is regularly performed raising the question of whether also this type of physical activity can attenuate their post meal blood glucose elevation. Using a cross over design, 11 female Pakistani immigrants living in Oslo were recruited to participate in three experiments where their blood glucose concentration was measured every 15 min for 2 h after intake of a high glycemic food, either while resting after the meal or doing very light post meal walking of two durations. Postprandial blood glucose peak value and incremental area under the 2 h blood glucose curve decreased with increasing duration of slow post meal walking. Also the blood pressure was lowered. Post meal walking can strongly attenuate the glycemic response to carbohydrates and reduce blood pressure in a high risk group of immigrants.

  3. An artificial pancreas provided a novel model of blood glucose level variability in beagles.

    PubMed

    Munekage, Masaya; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Takezaki, Yuka; Tamura, Takahiko; Namikawa, Tsutomu; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Although the effects on prognosis of blood glucose level variability have gained increasing attention, it is unclear whether blood glucose level variability itself or the manifestation of pathological conditions that worsen prognosis. Then, previous reports have not been published on variability models of perioperative blood glucose levels. The aim of this study is to establish a novel variability model of blood glucose concentration using an artificial pancreas. We maintained six healthy, male beagles. After anesthesia induction, a 20-G venous catheter was inserted in the right femoral vein and an artificial pancreas (STG-22, Nikkiso Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) was connected for continuous blood glucose monitoring and glucose management. After achieving muscle relaxation, total pancreatectomy was performed. After 1 h of stabilization, automatic blood glucose control was initiated using the artificial pancreas. Blood glucose level varied for 8 h, alternating between the target blood glucose values of 170 and 70 mg/dL. Eight hours later, the experiment was concluded. Total pancreatectomy was performed for 62 ± 13 min. Blood glucose swings were achieved 9.8 ± 2.3 times. The average blood glucose level was 128.1 ± 5.1 mg/dL with an SD of 44.6 ± 3.9 mg/dL. The potassium levels after stabilization and at the end of the experiment were 3.5 ± 0.3 and 3.1 ± 0.5 mmol/L, respectively. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that an artificial pancreas contributed to the establishment of a novel variability model of blood glucose levels in beagles.

  4. "City Blood Is No Better than Country Blood": The Populist Movement and Admissions Policies at Public Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelber, Scott

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on historical admissions policies and offers a more nuanced and more substantial treatment of the relationship between Populism and higher education. Prior accounts of admissions in the late nineteenth century have sensibly focused upon the tension between secondary school leaders who were mindful of their multiple…

  5. Evaluation of the Analytical Performance of the Coulometry-Based Optium Omega Blood Glucose Meter

    PubMed Central

    Solnica, Bogdan; Kusnierz-Cabala, Beata; Slowinska-Solnica, Krystyna; Witek, Przemyslaw; Cempa, Agnieszka; Malecki, Maciej T

    2011-01-01

    Background The goal of diabetes treatment is maintaining near normoglycemia based on self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). In this study, an evaluation of the analytical performance of the coulometry-based Optium Omega™ glucose meter designed for SMBG has been carried out. Methods The assessment of precision and between-lot variability was based on glucose measurements in ethylene-diaminetetraacetic acid venous blood samples. Glucose concentrations measured in 289 fresh capillary blood samples using the Omega glucose meter and the Biosen C_line analyzer were compared. Results Within-run imprecision coefficient of variation for the lower and higher glucose concentrations amounted to 5.09 and 2.1%, respectively. The relative lot-dependent differences found for the lower and higher glucose concentrations were equal to 6.8 and 2.6%, respectively. The glucose meter error calculated for various concentration ranges amounted from 2.22 to 4.48%. The glucose meter error met the accuracy criteria recommended by the International Organization for Standardization and the American Diabetes Association. The Passing-Bablok agreement test and error grid analysis with 96% of results in zone A indicated good concordance of results, including glucose concentrations below 100 mg/dl. Conclusions The evaluated Optium Omega glucose meter fits the analytical requirements for its use in blood glucose monitoring in diabetes patients. PMID:22226286

  6. The Impact of Opium Consumption on Blood Glucose, Serum Lipids and Blood Pressure, and Related Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Najafipour, Hamid; Beik, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Substance abuse has become a universal crisis in our modern age. Among illegal substances, opium and its derivatives have been ranked second in terms of usage after cannabis in the world. In many Asian regions, the use of opium enjoys a high social acceptance; hence, some common people and even medical practitioners believe that opium lowers blood glucose and pressure and treat dyslipidemia. How much this belief is scientifically justified? Method: The results of available studies on both humans and animals searched in different search engines up to mid-2016 were integrated (78 articles). Upon the findings we try to offer a more transparent picture of the effects of opium on the mentioned factors along with the probable underlying mechanisms of its action. Results: Taken together, a variety of evidences suggest that the consumption of opium has no scientific justification for amendment of these biochemical variables. The mechanisms proposed so far for the action of opium in the three above disorders are summarized at the end of the article. Short term effects seems to be mostly mediated through central nervous system (neural and hormonal mechanisms), but long term effects are often due to the structural and functional alterations in some body organs. Conclusion: Although opium may temporarily reduce blood pressure, but it increases blood glucose and most of blood lipids. Moreover its long term use has negative impacts and thus it aggravates diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Accordingly, it is necessary to inform societies about the potential disadvantages of unauthorized opium consumption. PMID:27790151

  7. Effectiveness of traditional Malaysian vegetables (ulam) in modulating blood glucose levels.

    PubMed

    Bachok, Mohd Faez; Yusof, Barakatun-Nisak Mohd; Ismail, Amin; Hamid, Azizah Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Ulam refers to a group of traditional Malaysian plants commonly consumed as a part of a meal, either in the raw form or after a short blanching process. Many types of ulam are thought to possess blood glucose-lowering properties, but relatively little is known on the effectiveness of ulam in modulating blood glucose levels in humans. This review aims to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of ulam in modulating blood glucose levels in humans. A literature review was conducted using multiple databases with no time restriction. Eleven studies were retrieved based on a priori inclusion and exclusion criteria. In these 11 studies, only Momordica charantia, locally known as "peria katak", was extensively studied, followed by Centella asiatica, locally known as "daun pegaga", and Alternanthera sessilis, locally known as "kermak putih". Of the 11 studies, 9 evaluated the effectiveness of M. charantia on blood glucose parameters, and 7 of which showed significant improvement in at least one parameter of blood glucose concentration. The remaining 2 studies reported nonsignificant improvements in blood glucose parameters, despite having high-quality study design according to Jadad scale. None of the studies related to C. asiatica and A. sessilis showed significant improvement in blood glucose-related parameters. Current clinical evidence does not support the popular claim that ulam has glucose-lowering effects, not even for M. charantia. Hence, further clinical investigation is needed to verify the glucose modulation effect of M. charantia, C. asiatica, and A. sessilis.

  8. Effectiveness of traditional Malaysian vegetables (ulam) in modulating blood glucose levels.

    PubMed

    Bachok, Mohd Faez; Yusof, Barakatun-Nisak Mohd; Ismail, Amin; Hamid, Azizah Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Ulam refers to a group of traditional Malaysian plants commonly consumed as a part of a meal, either in the raw form or after a short blanching process. Many types of ulam are thought to possess blood glucose-lowering properties, but relatively little is known on the effectiveness of ulam in modulating blood glucose levels in humans. This review aims to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of ulam in modulating blood glucose levels in humans. A literature review was conducted using multiple databases with no time restriction. Eleven studies were retrieved based on a priori inclusion and exclusion criteria. In these 11 studies, only Momordica charantia, locally known as "peria katak", was extensively studied, followed by Centella asiatica, locally known as "daun pegaga", and Alternanthera sessilis, locally known as "kermak putih". Of the 11 studies, 9 evaluated the effectiveness of M. charantia on blood glucose parameters, and 7 of which showed significant improvement in at least one parameter of blood glucose concentration. The remaining 2 studies reported nonsignificant improvements in blood glucose parameters, despite having high-quality study design according to Jadad scale. None of the studies related to C. asiatica and A. sessilis showed significant improvement in blood glucose-related parameters. Current clinical evidence does not support the popular claim that ulam has glucose-lowering effects, not even for M. charantia. Hence, further clinical investigation is needed to verify the glucose modulation effect of M. charantia, C. asiatica, and A. sessilis. PMID:25164446

  9. Association of age and admission mean arterial blood pressure in patients with stroke-data from a national stroke registry.

    PubMed

    Eizenberg, Yoav; Koton, Silvia; Tanne, David; Grossman, Ehud

    2016-05-01

    Elevated blood pressure (BP) upon admission is common in patients with ischemic stroke (IS) and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Older patients have a higher prevalence of stroke, but data on admission mean arterial pressure (MAP) patterns in older patients with stroke are scarce. All 6060 patients with IS (72%), ICH (8%) and transient ischemic attack (TIA; 20%) with data on BP and hypertension status on admission in the National Acute Stroke Israeli Registry were included. Admission MAP in the emergency department was studied by age group (<60, 60-74 and ⩾75 years) and stroke type. Linear regression models for admission MAP were produced, including age group, gender, hypertension status and stroke severity as covariates. Interactions between hypertension and age were assessed. Lower MAP (s.d.) was associated with older ages in hypertensive patients (113 (18) mm Hg for age <60 years, 109 (17) for age 60-74 years and 108 (19) for age ⩾75 years, P<0.0001) but not in non-hypertensive IS patients. Among patients with ICH and TIA, a significant negative association of MAP with age was observed for hypertensive patients (P=0.015 and P=0.023, respectively), whereas a significant positive association with age was found in non-hypertensive patients (P=0.023 and P=0.038, respectively). In adjusted regression models, MAP was significantly associated with hypertension in IS, ICH and TIA patients. The interaction between hypertension and age was significantly associated with MAP in IS and ICH patients. In hypertensive patients, the average admission MAP was lower in persons at older ages.

  10. A Simple Flow Cytometric Method to Measure Glucose Uptake and Glucose Transporter Expression for Monocyte Subpopulations in Whole Blood.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Clovis S; Anzinger, Joshua J; Butterfield, Tiffany R; McCune, Joseph M; Crowe, Suzanne M

    2016-01-01

    Monocytes are innate immune cells that can be activated by pathogens and inflammation associated with certain chronic inflammatory diseases. Activation of monocytes induces effector functions and a concomitant shift from oxidative to glycolytic metabolism that is accompanied by increased glucose transporter expression. This increased glycolytic metabolism is also observed for trained immunity of monocytes, a form of innate immunological memory. Although in vitro protocols examining glucose transporter expression and glucose uptake by monocytes have been described, none have been examined by multi-parametric flow cytometry in whole blood. We describe a multi-parametric flow cytometric protocol for the measurement of fluorescent glucose analog 2-NBDG uptake in whole blood by total monocytes and the classical (CD14(++)CD16(-)), intermediate (CD14(++)CD16(+)) and non-classical (CD14(+)CD16(++)) monocyte subpopulations. This method can be used to examine glucose transporter expression and glucose uptake for total monocytes and monocyte subpopulations during homeostasis and inflammatory disease, and can be easily modified to examine glucose uptake for other leukocytes and leukocyte subpopulations within blood. PMID:27584036

  11. Blood glucose levels in diabetic patients following corticosteroid injections into the hand and wrist

    PubMed Central

    Stepan, Jeffrey G.; London, Daniel A.; Boyer, Martin I.; Calfee, Ryan P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To quantify diabetic patients’ change in blood glucose levels after corticosteroid injection for common hand diseases and to assess which patient-level risk factors may predict an increase in blood glucose levels. Methods Patients were recruited for this case-crossover study in the clinic of fellowship-trained hand surgeons at a tertiary care center. Patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 or 2 receiving a corticosteroid injection recorded their morning fasting blood glucose levels for 14 days after their injection. Fasting glucose levels on days 1–7 after injection qualified as “case” data with levels on days 10–14 providing control data. A mixed model with a priori contrasts were used to compare post-injection blood glucose levels to baseline levels. A linear regression model was used to determine patient predictors of a post-injection rise in blood glucose levels. Results Forty of 67 patients (60%) recruited for the study returned completed blood glucose logs. There was a significant increase in fasting blood glucose levels following injection limited to post-injection days 1 and 2. Among patient risk factors in our linear regression model, type 1 diabetes and use of insulin each predicted a post-injection increase in blood glucose levels from baseline while higher HbA1c levels did not predict increases. Discussion Corticosteroid injections in the hand transiently increase blood glucose levels in diabetic patients. Patients with type 1 diabetes and insulin-dependent diabetics are more likely to experience this transient rise in blood glucose levels. Level of Evidence Therapeutic Level III PMID:24679910

  12. Comparison of blood glucose concentrations after administration of a glucose solution via the jugular vein and portal vein in cows.

    PubMed

    Braun, U; Heusmann, B; Camenzind, D; Haessig, M

    2007-10-01

    The goals of the present study were to determine whether the infusion of a glucose solution into the portal vein is tolerated in cows and whether the glucose concentration differs after administration of glucose into the jugular vein and portal vein. Fifteen healthy Swiss Braunvieh cows were used. An indwelling catheter was placed in both jugular veins and a balloon-tipped indwelling catheter with a diameter of 2 mm was placed in the portal vein under the guidance of ultrasonography. Three cows received 500 ml of 20% glucose solution over 60 min via the left jugular vein. Three other cows received the same solution over 60 min via the portal vein. Blood samples were collected from the right jugular vein before and for 24 h after the infusion of glucose for the determination of the concentrations of glucose and bilirubin and the activities of glutamate dehydrogenase, sorbitol dehydrogenase and gamma-glutamyl transferase. Infusion via the portal vein did not result in abnormalities in the general condition of the cows or increases in the concentration of bilirubin or the activities of liver enzymes. The blood glucose concentration increased to the same extent after both intraportal and intrajugular infusion. Over a 12-h period, three cows received 10 l of 20% glucose solution via the left jugular vein and three others received the same solution over a 12-h period via the portal vein. Blood samples were collected from the right jugular vein before and for 30 h after the start of infusion. Infusion via the portal vein did not affect the general condition of the cows or the activities of the liver enzymes. There was no significant difference in the blood glucose concentration between the two groups throughout the study.

  13. Self-monitoring of blood glucose: Advice for providers and patients.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Shannon; Manroa, Pooja; Doshi, Krupa

    2016-05-01

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose is a critical element in diabetes management. Providers must determine if and when patients are to perform glucose self-monitoring, set blood glucose targets, and help patients to interpret the results. Patients have a variety of continually evolving meters, supplies, and technology from which to choose. Making sense of these expectations and options is perhaps the greatest challenge for providers and patients. Working together, healthcare providers and certified diabetes educators can ensure that people with diabetes get the most out of self-monitoring of blood glucose. PMID:27168511

  14. Carbon dot based non enzymatic approach for the detection and estimation of glucose in blood serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanti Krishna, A.; Nair, Priya A.; Radhakumary, C.; Sreenivasan, K.

    2016-05-01

    In this study we generated a simple, reliable and selective approach based on carbon dots (CDs) and 4-cyanophenylboronic acid (CPBA) for blood glucose sensing. The methodology relies on the quenching of the emission of CDs by CPBA followed by its recovery by glucose. The system consisting of CDs and CPBA was characterised by Fourier transform infra red spectrum, transmissions electron microscopic, dynamic light scattering instrument, UV–visible and fluorescence techniques. The response of the probe, CD-BA in presence of different concentrations of glucose was assessed. Linear range was obtained for glucose concentrations ranging from 1 to 30 mM. Interferences by other saccharides and various biomolecules coexisting in blood serum were negligible. The chemo sensor thus developed has been successfully used for the estimation of glucose in human blood serum. The system being sensitive, efficient and easy to perform is a promising platform for blood glucose sensing.

  15. Carbon dot based non enzymatic approach for the detection and estimation of glucose in blood serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanti Krishna, A.; Nair, Priya A.; Radhakumary, C.; Sreenivasan, K.

    2016-05-01

    In this study we generated a simple, reliable and selective approach based on carbon dots (CDs) and 4-cyanophenylboronic acid (CPBA) for blood glucose sensing. The methodology relies on the quenching of the emission of CDs by CPBA followed by its recovery by glucose. The system consisting of CDs and CPBA was characterised by Fourier transform infra red spectrum, transmissions electron microscopic, dynamic light scattering instrument, UV-visible and fluorescence techniques. The response of the probe, CD-BA in presence of different concentrations of glucose was assessed. Linear range was obtained for glucose concentrations ranging from 1 to 30 mM. Interferences by other saccharides and various biomolecules coexisting in blood serum were negligible. The chemo sensor thus developed has been successfully used for the estimation of glucose in human blood serum. The system being sensitive, efficient and easy to perform is a promising platform for blood glucose sensing.

  16. Self-monitoring of tear glucose: the development of a tear based glucose sensor as an alternative to self-monitoring of blood glucose.

    PubMed

    La Belle, Jeffrey T; Adams, Anngela; Lin, Chi-En; Engelschall, Erica; Pratt, Breanna; Cook, Curtiss B

    2016-07-28

    Tear glucose sensing for diabetes management has long been sought as an alternative to more invasive self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). However, tear glucose sensors were known to have limitations, including correlation issues with blood glucose due to low sample volume, low concentration of glucose in the tear fluid, and evaporation of the tear sample. An engineering design approach to solve these problems led to the development of an integrated device capable of collecting the tear sample from the ocular surface with little to no stress on the eye, with an extremely low limit of detection, broad dynamic range, and rapid detection and analysis of sample. Here we present the development of a prototypical self-monitoring of tear glucose (SMTG) sensor, summarizing bench studies on the enzymes and their specificity, the development of the fluid capture device and its manufacture and performance and results of system testing in an animal study where safety, lag time and tear glucose to blood glucose correlation were assessed. PMID:27327531

  17. Development of a novel noninvasive sensor for determination of blood glucose concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeckle, Stefan; Rovati, Luigi; Ansari, Rafat R.

    2001-10-01

    Optical methods represent the most promising techniques to perform non-invasive glucose detection. Glucose concentration in the aqueous humor closely mimics glucose levels in the blood and therefore non-invasive optical measurement of glucose can be performed by an optical beam crossing the eye anterior chamber. We propose a polarimetric method that exploits the Brewster-reflection of circularly polarized light on the lens of the eye. After reflection, the resulting linearly polarized light is subject to rotation by the glucose in the aqueous humor and thus carries the concentration information. A preliminary experimental setup, using glucose samples in a beaker, was realized and investigated.

  18. Suggestion of a Numerical Model for the Blood Glucose Adjustment with Ingesting a Food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Takai, Hiroshi

    In this study, we present a numerical model of the time dependence of blood glucose value after ingesting a meal. Two numerical models are proposed in this paper to explain a digestion mechanism and an adjustment mechanism of blood glucose in the body, respectively. It is considered that models are exhibited by using simple equations with a transfer function and a block diagram. Additionally, the time dependence of blood glucose was measured, when subjects ingested a sucrose or a starch. As a result, it is clear that the calculated result of models using a computer can be fitted very well to the measured result of the time dependence of blood glucose. Therefore, it is considered that the digestion model and the adjustment model are useful models in order to estimate a blood glucose value after ingesting meals.

  19. Optical coherence tomography technique for noninvasive blood glucose monitoring: phantom, animal, and human studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, Kirill V.; Ashitkov, Taras V.; Larina, Irina V.; Petrova, Irina Y.; Eledrisi, Mohsen S.; Motamedi, Massoud; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2002-06-01

    Continuous noninvasive monitoring of blood glucose concentration can improve management of Diabetes Mellitus, reduce mortality, and considerably improve quality of life of diabetic patients. Recently, we proposed to use the OCT technique for noninvasive glucose monitoring. In this paper, we tested noninvasive blood glucose monitoring with the OCT technique in phantoms, animals, and human subjects. An OCT system with the wavelength of 1300 nm was used in our experiments. Phantom studies performed on aqueous suspensions of polystyrene microspheres and milk showed 3.2% decrease of exponential slope of OCT signals when glucose concentration increased from 0 to 100 mM. Theoretical calculations based on the Mie theory of scattering support the results obtained in phantoms. Bolus glucose injections and glucose clamping experiments were performed in animals (New Zealand rabbits and Yucatan micropigs). Good correlation between changes in the OCT signal slope and actual blood glucose concentration were observed in these experiments. First studies were performed in healthy human subjects (using oral glucose tolerance tests). Dependence of the slope of the OCT signals on the actual blood glucose concentration was similar to that obtained in animal studies. Our studies suggest that the OCT technique can potentially be used for noninvasive blood glucose monitoring.

  20. Blood Glucose Control Using a Novel Continuous Blood Glucose Monitor and Repetitive Intravenous Insulin Boluses: Exploiting Natural Insulin Pulsatility as a Principle for a Future Artificial Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Skjaervold, Nils K.; Östling, Dan; Hjelme, Dag R.; Spigset, Olav; Lyng, Oddveig

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to construct a glucose regulatory algorithm by employing the natural pulsatile pattern of insulin secretion and the oscillatory pattern of resting blood glucose levels and further to regulate the blood glucose level in diabetic pigs by this method. We developed a control algorithm based on repetitive intravenous bolus injections of insulin and combined this with an intravascular blood glucose monitor. Four anesthetized pigs were used in the study. The animals developed a mildly diabetic state from streptozotocin pretreatment. They were steadily brought within the blood glucose target range of 4.5–6.0 mmol/L in 21 to 121 min and kept within that range for 128 to 238 min (hypoglycemic values varied from 2.9 to 51.1 min). The study confirmed our hypotheses regarding the feasibility of this new principle for blood glucose control, and the algorithm was constantly improved during the study to produce the best results in the last animals. The main obstacles were the drift of the IvS-1 sensor and problems with the calibration procedure, which calls for an improvement in the sensor stability before this method can be applied fully in new studies in animals and humans. PMID:24369461

  1. Fasting Blood Glucose-A Missing Variable for GFR-Estimation in Type 1 Diabetes?

    PubMed Central

    Bjornstad, Petter; McQueen, R. Brett; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K.; Cherney, David; Pyle, Laura; Perkins, Bruce; Rewers, Marian; Maahs, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Estimation of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is one of the current clinical methods for identifying risk for diabetic nephropathy in subjects with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Hyperglycemia is known to influence GFR in T1D and variability in blood glucose at the time of eGFR measurement could introduce bias in eGFR. We hypothesized that simultaneously measured blood glucose would influence eGFR in adults with T1D. Methods Longitudinal multivariable mixed-models were employed to investigate the relationships between blood glucose and eGFR by CKD-EPI eGFRCYSTATIN C over 6-years in the Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 diabetes (CACTI) study. All subjects with T1D and complete data including blood glucose and cystatin C for at least one of the three visits (n = 616, 554, and 521, respectively) were included in the longitudinal analyses. Results In mixed-models adjusting for sex, HbA1c, ACEi/ARB, protein and sodium intake positive associations were observed between simultaneous blood glucose and eGFRCYSTATIN C (β±SE:0.14±0.04 per 10 mg/dL of blood glucose, p<0.0001), and hyperfiltration as a dichotomous outcome (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01–1.07 per 10 mg/dL of blood glucose, p = 0.02). Conclusions In our longitudinal data in subjects with T1D, simultaneous blood glucose has an independent positive effect on eGFRCYSTATIN C. The associations between blood glucose and eGFRCYSTATIN C may bias the accurate detection of early diabetic nephropathy, especially in people with longitudinal variability in blood glucose. PMID:24781861

  2. Accuracy of Point-of-Care Blood Glucose Measurements in Critically Ill Patients in Shock

    PubMed Central

    Buenaluz-Sedurante, Myrna; Jimeno, Cecilia Alegado

    2014-01-01

    A widely used method in monitoring glycemic status of ICU patients is point-of-care (POC) monitoring devices. A possible limitation to this method is altered peripheral blood flow in patients in shock, which may result in over/underestimations of their true glycemic status. This study aims to determine the accuracy of blood glucose measurements with a POC meter compared to laboratory methods in critically ill patients in shock. POC blood glucose was measured with a glucose-1-dehydrogenase-based reflectometric meter. The reference method was venous plasma glucose measured by a clinical chemistry analyzer (glucose oxidase-based). Outcomes assessed were concordance to ISO 15197:2003 minimum accuracy criteria for glucose meters, bias in glucose measurements obtained by the 2 methods using Bland–Altman analysis, and clinical accuracy through modified error grid analysis. A total of 186 paired glucose measurements were obtained. ISO 2003 accuracy criteria were met in 95.7% and 79.8% of POC glucose values in the normotensive and hypotensive group, respectively. Mean bias for the normotensive group was –12.4 mg/dL, while mean bias in the hypotensive group was –34.9 mg/dL. POC glucose measurements within the target zone for clinical accuracy were 90.2% and 79.8% for the normotensive and hypotensive group, respectively. POC blood glucose measurements were significantly less accurate in the hypotensive subgroup of ICU patients compared to the normotensive group. We recommend a lower threshold in confirming POC blood glucose with a central laboratory method if clinically incompatible. In light of recently updated accuracy standards, we also recommend alternative methods of glucose monitoring for the ICU population as a whole regardless of blood pressure status. PMID:25172876

  3. Clinical results from a noninvasive blood glucose monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blank, Thomas B.; Ruchti, Timothy L.; Lorenz, Alex D.; Monfre, Stephen L.; Makarewicz, M. R.; Mattu, Mutua; Hazen, Kevin

    2002-05-01

    Non-invasive blood glucose monitoring has long been proposed as a means for advancing the management of diabetes through increased measurement and control. The use of a near-infrared, NIR, spectroscopy based methodology for noninvasive monitoring has been pursued by a number of groups. The accuracy of the NIR measurement technology is limited by challenges related to the instrumentation, the heterogeneity and time-variant nature of skin tissue, and the complexity of the calibration methodology. In this work, we discuss results from a clinical study that targeted the evaluation of individual calibrations for each subject based on a series of controlled calibration visits. While the customization of the calibrations to individuals was intended to reduce model complexity, the extensive requirements for each individual set of calibration data were difficult to achieve and required several days of measurement. Through the careful selection of a small subset of data from all samples collected on the 138 study participants in a previous study, we have developed a methodology for applying a single standard calibration to multiple persons. The standard calibrations have been applied to a plurality of individuals and shown to be persistent over periods greater than 24 weeks.

  4. Utilization of Blood Glucose Data in Patient Education

    PubMed Central

    Kumah-Crystal, Yaa; Mulvaney, Shelagh

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have tested clinical and behavioral approaches for improving glycemic control in people with diabetes. We review research to identify how blood glucose (BG) values have been used in patient-focused clinical research and interventions. We sought to describe the frequency that BG values have been the focus of patient education research and to characterize the different methods to integrate BG into an intervention, the approaches implemented to support patient education and behavior change, and the nature of communication about BG values. Thirty-four eligible studies were identified that included patient education using BG values. Information regarding the study and intervention characteristics include: 1) Characteristics of the study sample, 2) How BG values were obtained, 3) Use of a graphical interface for BG values, 4) Use of a BG log, 5) BG interpretation and regimen adjustments, 6) Recommended actions to patient, 7) Modality of intervention, and 8) Intervention communication schedule. The review demonstrated that new BG technologies provide outstanding opportunities for greater access to BG data, and for patient support and intervention. However, it also indicated a need to improve and expand support for people with diabetes in their daily use of BG values to maintain and improve glycemic control. In order to make the most sustainable impact on behavior, generalizable skills such as problem solving need to be integrated into BG education. PMID:24057927

  5. Evaluation of the Capillary Blood Glucose Self-monitoring Program

    PubMed Central

    Augusto, Mariana Cristina; Nitsche, Maria José Trevizani; Parada, Cristina Maria Garcia de Lima; Zanetti, Maria Lúcia; Carvalhaes, Maria Antonieta de Barros Leite

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the structure, process and results of the Capillary Blood Glucose Self-monitoring Program in a Brazilian city. METHOD: epidemiological, cross-sectional study. The methodological framework of Donabedian was used to construct indicators of structure, process and outcome. A random sample (n = 288) of users enrolled and 96 health professionals who worked in the program was studied. Two questionnaires were used that were constructed for this study, one for professionals and one for users, both containing data for the evaluation of structure, process and outcome. Anthropometric measures and laboratory results were collected by consulting the patients' health records. The analysis involved descriptive statistics. RESULTS: most of the professionals were not qualified to work in the program and were not knowledgeable about the set of criteria for patient registration. None of the patients received complete and correct orientations about the program and the percentage with skills to perform conducts autonomously was 10%. As regards the result indicators, 86.4% of the patients and 81.3% of the professionals evaluated the program positively. CONCLUSION: the evaluation indicators designed revealed that one of the main objectives of the program, self-care skills, has not been achieved. PMID:25493676

  6. Blood Glucose Measurement in the Intensive Care Unit: What Is the Best Method?

    PubMed Central

    Le, Huong T.; Harris, Neil S.; Estilong, Abby J.; Olson, Arvid; Rice, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal glucose measurements are common among intensive care unit (ICU) patients for numerous reasons and hypoglycemia is especially dangerous because these patients are often sedated and unable to relate the associated symptoms. Additionally, wide swings in blood glucose have been closely tied to increased mortality. Therefore, accurate and timely glucose measurement in this population is critical. Clinicians have several choices available to assess blood glucose values in the ICU, including central laboratory devices, blood gas analyzers, and point-of-care meters. In this review, the method of glucose measurement will be reviewed for each device, and the important characteristics, including accuracy, cost, speed of result, and sample volume, will be reviewed, specifically as these are used in the ICU environment. Following evaluation of the individual measurement devices and after considering the many features of each, recommendations are made for optimal ICU glucose determination. PMID:23567008

  7. Predictive roles of intraoperative blood glucose for post-transplant outcomes in liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul Soo

    2015-06-14

    Diabetogenic traits in patients undergoing liver transplantation (LT) are exacerbated intraoperatively by exogenous causes, such as surgical stress, steroids, blood transfusions, and catecholamines, which lead to intraoperative hyperglycemia. In contrast to the strict glucose control performed in the intensive care unit, no systematic protocol has been developed for glucose management during LT. Intraoperative blood glucose concentrations typically exceed 200 mg/dL in LT, and extreme hyperglycemia (> 300 mg/dL) is common during the neohepatic phase. Only a few retrospective studies have examined the relationship between intraoperative hyperglycemia and post-transplant complications, with reports of infectious complications or mortality. However, no prospective studies have been conducted regarding the influence of intraoperative hyperglycemia in LT on post-transplant outcome. In addition to absolute blood glucose values, the temporal patterns in blood glucose levels during LT may serve as prognostic features. Persistent neohepatic hyperglycemia (without a decline) throughout LT is a useful indicator of early graft dysfunction. Moreover, intraoperative variability in glucose levels may predict the need for reoperation for hemorrhage after LT. Thus, there is an urgent need for guidelines for glucose control in these patients, as well as prospective studies on the impact of glucose control on various post-transplant complications. This report highlights some of the recent studies related to perioperative blood glucose management focused on LT and liver disease. PMID:26078559

  8. Application of optical coherence tomography for noninvasive blood glucose monitoring during hyperglycemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, Kirill V.; Ashitkov, Taras V.; Motamedi, Massoud; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2003-10-01

    Approximately 14 million people in the USA and more than 140 million people worldwide suffer from Diabetes Mellitus. The current glucose sensing technique involves a finger puncture several times a day to obtain a droplet of blood for chemical analysis. Recently we proposed to use optical coherence tomography (OCT) for continuous noninvasive blood glucose sensing through skin. In this paper we tested the OCT technique for noninvasive monitoring of blood glucose concentration in lip tissue of New Zealand rabbits and Yucatan micropigs during glucose clamping experiments. Obtained results show good agreement with results obtained in skin studies, good correlation of changes in the OCT signal slope measured at the depth of 250 to 500 μm with changes in blood glucose concentration, and higher stability of the OCT data points than that obtained from skin.

  9. Effect and potential mechanism of action of sea cucumber saponins on postprandial blood glucose in mice.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xueyuan; Wen, Min; Han, Xiuqing; Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Xue, Yong; Wang, Jingfeng; Xue, Changhu; Wang, Yuming

    2016-06-01

    Postprandial blood glucose control is the major goal in the treatment of diabetes. Here, we investigated the effect of sea cucumber saponins (SCSs) on postprandial blood glucose levels. SCS inhibited yeast as well as rat intestinal α-glucosidase activity in a dose-dependent manner and showed better inhibition of yeast α-glucosidases compared to the positive control. Further studies were performed using ICR mice treated with SCS and starch or SCS alone by oral gavage. Unexpectedly, SCS increased postprandial blood glucose levels a short time (1 h) after oral gavage. The serum corticosterone (CORT) level showed a consistent correlation with glucose levels. In vitro experiments confirmed that SCS treatment increased the secretion of CORT in the Y1 adrenal cell line. Overall, these studies demonstrated that SCS gavage could inhibit α-glucosidase activity but cannot attenuate postprandial blood glucose level within short time periods. The underlying mechanisms are probably related to increased serum CORT levels. PMID:26932154

  10. Effect and potential mechanism of action of sea cucumber saponins on postprandial blood glucose in mice.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xueyuan; Wen, Min; Han, Xiuqing; Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Xue, Yong; Wang, Jingfeng; Xue, Changhu; Wang, Yuming

    2016-06-01

    Postprandial blood glucose control is the major goal in the treatment of diabetes. Here, we investigated the effect of sea cucumber saponins (SCSs) on postprandial blood glucose levels. SCS inhibited yeast as well as rat intestinal α-glucosidase activity in a dose-dependent manner and showed better inhibition of yeast α-glucosidases compared to the positive control. Further studies were performed using ICR mice treated with SCS and starch or SCS alone by oral gavage. Unexpectedly, SCS increased postprandial blood glucose levels a short time (1 h) after oral gavage. The serum corticosterone (CORT) level showed a consistent correlation with glucose levels. In vitro experiments confirmed that SCS treatment increased the secretion of CORT in the Y1 adrenal cell line. Overall, these studies demonstrated that SCS gavage could inhibit α-glucosidase activity but cannot attenuate postprandial blood glucose level within short time periods. The underlying mechanisms are probably related to increased serum CORT levels.

  11. The relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose, and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Turkish women

    PubMed Central

    Cakmak, Huseyin Altug; Cakmak, Burcu Dincgez; Yumru, Ayse Ender; Aslan, Serkan; Enhos, Asim; Kalkan, Ali Kemal; Coskun, Ebru Inci; Acikgoz, Abdullah Serdar; Karatas, Suat

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and osteoporosis are important comorbidities commonly seen in postmenopausal women. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose, and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal Turkish women. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 270 consecutive patients who were admitted to an outpatient clinic with vasomotor symptoms and/or at least 1 year of amenorrhea were included. The patients were categorized into three groups according to their blood pressure and metabolic status as follows: normotensive, hypertensive nondiabetics, and hypertensive diabetics. The T- and z-scores of the proximal femur and lumbar vertebrae were measured with the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry method to assess the BMD of the study groups. Results Lumbar vertebral T-scores (P<0.001), lumbar vertebral z-scores (P<0.003), and proximal femoral T-scores (P<0.001) were demonstrated to be significantly lower in the hypertensive diabetic group compared to the hypertensive nondiabetic and normotensive groups. Systolic blood pressure was significantly inversely correlated with lumbar vertebral T-scores (r=−0.382; P=0.001), lumbar vertebral z-scores (r=−0.290; P=0.001), and proximal femoral T-scores (r=−0.340; P=0.001). Moreover, diastolic blood pressure was significantly inversely correlated with lumbar vertebral T-scores (r=−0.318; P=0.001), lumbar vertebral z-scores (r=−0.340; P=0.001), and proximal femoral T-scores (r=−0.304; P=0.001). Hypertension (odds ratio [OR]: 2.541, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.46–3.48, P=0.003), diabetes mellitus (OR: 2.136, 95% CI: 1.254–3.678, P=0.006), and age (OR: 1.069, 95% CI: 1.007–1.163, P=0.022) were found to be significant independent predictors of osteopenia in a multivariate analysis, after adjusting for other risk parameters. Conclusion The present study is the first to evaluate the relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose

  12. Monitoring of tissue optical properties using OCT: application for blood glucose analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, Kirill V.; Eledrisi, Mohsen S.; Ashitkov, Taras V.; Motamedi, Massoud; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2002-07-01

    Noninvasive monitoring of tissue optical properties in real time could significantly improve diagnostics and management of various diseases. Recently we proposed to use high- resolution Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) technique for measurement of tissue scattering coefficient at the depth of up to 1mm. Our pilot studies performed in vitro and in vivo demonstrated that measurement of tissue scattering with this technique can potentially be applied for noninvasive monitoring of blood glucose concentration. High resolution and coherent photon detection of the OCT technique allowed detection of glucose-induced changes in the scattering coefficient. In this paper we report results of in vivo studies performed in dog, New Zealand rabbits, and first human subjects. OCT system with the wavelength of 1300 nm was used in our experiments. OCT signal slope was measured and compared with actual blood glucose concentration. Bolus glucose injections and glucose clamping administrations were used in animal studies. OCT signals were recorded form human subjects during oral glucose tolerance test. Results obtained form both animal and human studies show good correlation between slope of the OCT signals and actual blood glucose concentration measured using standard glucometesr. Sensitivity and accuracy of blood glucose concentrations monitoring with the OCT is discussed. Obtained result suggest that OCT is a promising technique for noninvasive monitoring of tissue analytes including glucose.

  13. Internet-Based Contingency Management to Improve Adherence with Blood Glucose Testing Recommendations for Teens with Type 1 Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raiff, Bethany R.; Dallery, Jesse

    2010-01-01

    The current study used Internet-based contingency management (CM) to increase adherence with blood glucose testing to at least 4 times daily. Four teens diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes earned vouchers for submitting blood glucose testing videos over a Web site. Participants submitted a mean of 1.7 and 3.1 blood glucose tests per day during the 2…

  14. Effect of sucrose-containing snacks on blood glucose control.

    PubMed

    Wise, J E; Keim, K S; Huisinga, J L; Willmann, P A

    1989-06-01

    To determine whether ingestion of sucrose-containing snacks would affect blood glucose (BG) control, 16 subjects with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus participated in a 5-day double-blind study at a diabetes camp. Eight subjects in the sucrose group ate sucrose-sweetened snacks twice a day, and 8 subjects in the control group ingested snacks that were sweetened with aspartame. The percentage of total daily calories derived from added sucrose was 7% for the sucrose group and 1% for the control group. Metabolic control was assessed by daily capillary BG measurements obtained before meals and the bedtime snack and by determination of serum fructosamine (F) concentrations on arrival at camp (day 0) and after 5 days on the study protocol (day 5). No significant difference was seen between the groups on day 0 (sucrose group [mean +/- SD]: BG 9.9 +/- 3.6 mM, F 3.54 +/- 0.38 mM; control group: BG 9.1 +/- 2.8 mM, F 3.74 +/- 0.71 mM) or day 5 (sucrose group: BG 8.8 +/- 2.6 mM, F 2.94 +/- 0.32 mM; control group: BG 7.4 +/- 2.8 mM, F 2.92 +/- 0.59 mM). We conclude that ingestion of sucrose, added to snacks in an amount up to 7% of total energy intake, does not adversely affect short-term BG control.

  15. Cerebral glucose utilization and blood flow in Huntington's Disease (HD)

    SciTech Connect

    Phelps, M.E.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Wapenski, J.; Riege, W.; Baxter, L.R.

    1985-05-01

    Previous studies in the authors' Laboratory have been carried out on 13 patients symptomatic of HD (SHD) and 15 asymptomatic at-risk for HD (ARHD) with a ECAT II and identification of changes in caudate metabolism using an index technique. The authors report now studies of additional 28 subjects (11 SHD, 17 ARHD) studied drug free and compared to age/sex matched controls using the higher resolution NeuroECAT, FDG for glucose utilization (LCMRGlc) and 0-15 water for cerebral blood flow (CBF). Patients had neurological, psychiatric-tests, x-ray CT and were video taped to determine type, timing and amount of choreathetic movements during study. In SHD (disease duration 4.9 +- 2.7 yrs), significant decreases (30%) in LCMRGlc were found in striatum (SHD=19.3 +- 7.7, controls = 29.9 +- 5.8 ..mu.. moles/min/100g) despite no to moderate caudate atrophy on x-ray CT. Hemisphere and cortical CMRGlc were not significantly decreased. There was a significant correlation between disease duration and ratio of caudate to putamen (Cd/Put). Pattern of LCMRGlc and CBF matched in SHD. The caudate to hemisphere LCMRGlc ratio was not different between ARHD and controls except variance was about 4 times greater for ARHD (ARHD=1.21 +- 0.15, controls = 1.28 +- 0.04) indicating presence of subpopulations in ARHD group. Four ARHD subjects had a ratio of 1 Std. Dev. from mean of SHD (no normals had values in this range). The 2 ARHD subjects with lowest caudate LCMRGlc had Cd/Put ratios > 2 Std. Dev. from controls. Results show 1) LCMRGlc abnormalities in all SHD patients and subpopulations in ARHD, 2) metabolic alterations appear to begin in caudate and spread to putamen and that a Cd/Put value of 0.7 should be found at start of symptoms, and 3) cortex and thalamus are relatively spared in ARHD and early SHD.

  16. Effects of passive static stretching on blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study determined the effects of passive static stretching on blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. [Subjects] Fifteen patients (8 males and 7 females) with type 2 diabetes were recruited and randomly assigned to the control group or passive static stretching group. [Methods] Glycated hemoglobin was measured before and after the 8-week training period. [Results] Glycated hemoglobin levels decreased significantly in the passive static stretching group, and there were significant differences in blood glucose levels between the 2 groups. [Conclusion] Passive static stretching of the skeletal muscles may be an alternative to exercise to help regulate blood glucose levels in diabetes patients. PMID:26157241

  17. Application of optical lens of a CD writer for detecting the blood glucose semi-invasively

    SciTech Connect

    Meshram, N. D.; Dahikar, P. B.

    2014-10-15

    Recent technological advancements in the photonics industry have led to a resurgence of interest in optical glucose sensing and to realistic progress toward the development of an optical glucose sensor. Such a sensor has the potential to significantly improve the quality of life for the estimated 16 million diabetics in this country by making routine glucose measurements more convenient. Currently over 100 small companies and universities are working to develop noninvasive or minimally invasive glucose sensing technologies, and optical methods play a large role in these efforts. It has become overwhelmingly clear that frequent monitoring and tight control of blood sugar levels are requisite for effective management of Diabetes mellitus and reduction of the complications associated with this disease. The pain and trouble associated with current “finger-stick” methods for blood glucose monitoring result in decreased patient compliance and a failure to control blood sugar levels. Thus, the development of a convenient noninvasive blood glucose monitor holds the potential to significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with Diabetes. A method and apparatus for noninvasive measurement of blood glucose concentration based on transilluminated laser beam via the Index Finger has been reported in this paper. This method depends on photodiode based laser operating at 632.8 nm wavelength. During measurement, the index finger is inserted into the glucose sensing unit, the transilluminated optical signal is converted into an electrical signal, compared with the reference electrical signal, and the obtained difference signal is processed by signal processing unit which presents the results in the form of blood glucose concentration. This method would enable the monitoring blood glucose level of the diabetic patient continuously, safely and noninvasively.

  18. Application of optical lens of a CD writer for detecting the blood glucose semi-invasively

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshram, N. D.; Dahikar, P. B.

    2014-10-01

    Recent technological advancements in the photonics industry have led to a resurgence of interest in optical glucose sensing and to realistic progress toward the development of an optical glucose sensor. Such a sensor has the potential to significantly improve the quality of life for the estimated 16 million diabetics in this country by making routine glucose measurements more convenient. Currently over 100 small companies and universities are working to develop noninvasive or minimally invasive glucose sensing technologies, and optical methods play a large role in these efforts. It has become overwhelmingly clear that frequent monitoring and tight control of blood sugar levels are requisite for effective management of Diabetes mellitus and reduction of the complications associated with this disease. The pain and trouble associated with current "finger-stick" methods for blood glucose monitoring result in decreased patient compliance and a failure to control blood sugar levels. Thus, the development of a convenient noninvasive blood glucose monitor holds the potential to significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with Diabetes. A method and apparatus for noninvasive measurement of blood glucose concentration based on transilluminated laser beam via the Index Finger has been reported in this paper. This method depends on photodiode based laser operating at 632.8 nm wavelength. During measurement, the index finger is inserted into the glucose sensing unit, the transilluminated optical signal is converted into an electrical signal, compared with the reference electrical signal, and the obtained difference signal is processed by signal processing unit which presents the results in the form of blood glucose concentration. This method would enable the monitoring blood glucose level of the diabetic patient continuously, safely and noninvasively..

  19. Pre-germinated brown rice reduced both blood glucose concentration and body weight in Vietnamese women with impaired glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Bui, Thi Nhung; Le, Thi Hop; Nguyen, Do Huy; Tran, Quang Binh; Nguyen, Thi Lam; Le, Danh Tuyen; Nguyen, Do Van Anh; Vu, Anh Linh; Aoto, Hiromichi; Okuhara, Yasuhide; Ito, Yukihiko; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Kise, Mitsuo

    2014-01-01

    We have reported that newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients in Vietnam have a low body mass index (BMI) of around 23 and that the major factor for this is high white rice (WR) intake. Brown rice (BR) is known to be beneficial in the control of blood glucose levels; however, it has the property of unpleasant palatability. Pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) is slightly germinated by soaking BR in water as this reduces the hardness of BR and makes it easier to eat. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of a 4-mo PGBR administration on various parameters in Vietnamese women aged 45-65 y with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Sixty subjects were divided into a WR or PGBR group. For the first 2 wk, WR was replaced by 50% PGBR, then for 2 wk by 75% PGBR and from the second month 100%. Before the beginning of the study and at the end of the study, 1) anthropometric measurements, 2) a nutrition survey for 3 nonconsecutive days by the 24 h recall method and 3) blood biochemical examinations were conducted. Fasting plasma concentrations of glucose and lipids and the obesity-related measurements and blood pressure were favorably improved only in the PGBR diet group. The present results suggest that replacing WR with PGBR for 4 mo may be useful in controlling body weight as well as blood glucose and lipid levels in Vietnamese women with IGT.

  20. ALDH2 polymorphism is associated with fasting blood glucose through alcohol consumption in Japanese men

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Guang; Naito, Mariko; Wakai, Kenji; Morita, Emi; Kawai, Sayo; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Sadao; Kita, Yoshikuni; Takezaki, Toshiro; Tanaka, Keitaro; Morita, Makiko; Uemura, Hirokazu; Ozaki, Etsuko; Hosono, Satoyo; Mikami, Haruo; Kubo, Michiaki; Tanaka, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Associations between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes risk are inconsistent in epidemiologic studies. This study investigated the associations of ADH1B and ALDH2 polymorphisms with fasting blood glucose levels, and the impact of the associations of alcohol consumption with fasting blood glucose levels in Japanese individuals. This cross-sectional study included 907 men and 912 women, aged 35–69 years. The subjects were selected from among the Japan Multi-institutional Collaborative Cohort study across six areas of Japan. The ADH1B and ALDH2 polymorphisms were genotyped by Invader Assays. The ALDH2 Glu504Lys genotypes were associated with different levels of fasting blood glucose in men (P = 0.04). Mean fasting glucose level was positively associated with alcohol consumption in men with the ALDH2 504 Lys allele (Ptrend = 0.02), but not in men with the ALDH2 504Glu/Glu genotype (Ptrend = 0.45), resulting in no statistically significant interaction (P = 0.38). Alcohol consumption was associated with elevated fasting blood glucose levels compared with non-consumers in men (Ptrend = 0.002). The ADH1B Arg48His polymorphism was not associated with FBG levels overall or after stratification for alcohol consumption. These findings suggest that the ALDH2 polymorphism is associated with different levels of fasting blood glucose through alcohol consumption in Japanese men. The interaction of ALDH2 polymorphisms in the association between alcohol consumption and fasting blood glucose warrants further investigation. PMID:27303105

  1. Blood glucose fluctuation accelerates renal injury involved to inhibit the AKT signaling pathway in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ying, Changjiang; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Chang, Zhenzhen; Ling, Hongwei; Cheng, Xingbo; Li, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Blood glucose fluctuation is associated with diabetic nephropathy. However, the mechanism by which blood glucose fluctuation accelerates renal injury is not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of blood glucose fluctuation on diabetic nephropathy in rats and investigate its underlying mechanism. Diabetes in the rats was induced by a high sugar, high-fat diet, and a single dose of STZ (35 mg/kg)-injected intraperitoneally. Unstable blood sugar models were induced by subcutaneous insulin injection and intravenous glucose injection alternately. Body weight, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbAlc), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Scr), and Creatinine clearance (Ccr) were assessed. T-SOD activity and MDA level were measured by assay kit. Change in renal tissue ultrastructure was observed by light microscopy and electron microscopy. Phosphorylated ser/thr protein kinase (p-AKT) (phosphor-Ser473), phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (p-GSK-3β) (phosphor-Ser9), Bcl-2-associated X protein (BAX), B cell lymphoma/leukemia 2 (BCL-2), and cleaved-cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteinase-3 (caspase-3) levels were detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. We observed that BUN and Scr were increased in diabetic rats, and Ccr was decreased. Furthermore, blood glucose fluctuations could exacerbate the Ccr changes. Renal tissue ultrastructure was also seriously injured by glucose variability in diabetic rats. In addition, glucose fluctuation increased the oxidative stress of renal tissue. Moreover, fluctuating blood glucose decreased p-AKT level and BCL-2, and increased p-GSK-3β, BAX, cleaved-caspase-3 levels, and ratio of BAX/BCL-2 in the kidneys of diabetic rats. In conclusion, these results suggest that blood glucose fluctuation accelerated renal injury is due, at least in part to its oxidative stress promoting and inhibiting the AKT signaling pathway in diabetic rats. PMID:26860515

  2. Non-invasive blood glucose monitor based on spectroscopy using a smartphone.

    PubMed

    Dantu, Vishnu; Vempati, Jagannadh; Srivilliputhur, Srinivasan

    2014-01-01

    Development of a novel method for non-invasive measurement of blood glucose concentration using smartphone is discussed. Our research work has three major contributions to society and science. First, we modified and extended the Beer-Lambert's law in physics to accommodate for multiple wavelengths. This extension can aid researchers who wish to perform optical spectroscopy. Second, we successfully developed a creative and non-invasive way for diabetic patients to measure glucose levels via a smartphone. Researchers and chemists can now use their smartphones to determine the absorbance and, therefore, concentration of a chemical. Third, we created an inexpensive way to perform optical spectroscopy by using a smartphone. Monitoring blood glucose using a smartphone application that simply uses equipment already available on smartphones will improve the lives of diabetic patients who can continuously check their blood glucose levels while avoiding the current inconvenient, unhygienic, and costly invasive glucose meters.

  3. Regional brain glucose metabolism and blood flow in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Jakobsen, J.; Nedergaard, M.; Aarslew-Jensen, M.; Diemer, N.H. )

    1990-04-01

    Brain regional glucose metabolism and regional blood flow were measured from autoradiographs by the uptake of ({sup 3}H)-2-deoxy-D-glucose and ({sup 14}C)iodoantipyrine in streptozocin-induced diabetic (STZ-D) rats. After 2 days of diabetes, glucose metabolism in the neocortex, basal ganglia, and white matter increased by 34, 37, and 8%, respectively, whereas blood flow was unchanged. After 4 mo, glucose metabolism in the same three regions was decreased by 32, 43, and 60%. This reduction was paralleled by a statistically nonsignificant reduction in blood flow in neocortex and basal ganglia. It is suggested that the decrease of brain glucose metabolism in STZ-D reflects increased ketone body oxidation and reduction of electrochemical work.

  4. Effect of pertussis toxin pretreated centrally on blood glucose level induced by stress.

    PubMed

    Suh, Hong-Won; Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Sharma, Naveen; Im, Hyun-Ju; Hong, Jae-Seung

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, we examined the effect of pertussis toxin (PTX) administered centrally in a variety of stress-induced blood glucose level. Mice were exposed to stress after the pretreatment of PTX (0.05 or 0.1 µg) i.c.v. or i.t. once for 6 days. Blood glucose level was measured at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min after stress stimulation. The blood glucose level was increased in all stress groups. The blood glucose level reached at maximum level after 30 min of stress stimulation and returned to a normal level after 2 h of stress stimulation in restraint stress, physical, and emotional stress groups. The blood glucose level induced by cold-water swimming stress was gradually increased up to 1 h and returned to the normal level. The intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) or intrathecal (i.t.) pretreatment with PTX, a Gi inhibitor, alone produced a hypoglycemia and almost abolished the elevation of the blood level induced by stress stimulation. The central pretreatment with PTX caused a reduction of plasma insulin level, whereas plasma corticosterone level was further up-regulated in all stress models. Our results suggest that the hyperglycemia produced by physical stress, emotional stress, restraint stress, and the cold-water swimming stress appear to be mediated by activation of centrally located PTX-sensitive G proteins. The reduction of blood glucose level by PTX appears to due to the reduction of plasma insulin level. The reduction of blood glucose level by PTX was accompanied by the reduction of plasma insulin level. Plasma corticosterone level up-regulation by PTX in stress models may be due to a blood glucose homeostatic mechanism. PMID:27610033

  5. Effect of pertussis toxin pretreated centrally on blood glucose level induced by stress

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Hong-Won; Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Sharma, Naveen; Im, Hyun-Ju

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the effect of pertussis toxin (PTX) administered centrally in a variety of stress-induced blood glucose level. Mice were exposed to stress after the pretreatment of PTX (0.05 or 0.1 µg) i.c.v. or i.t. once for 6 days. Blood glucose level was measured at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min after stress stimulation. The blood glucose level was increased in all stress groups. The blood glucose level reached at maximum level after 30 min of stress stimulation and returned to a normal level after 2 h of stress stimulation in restraint stress, physical, and emotional stress groups. The blood glucose level induced by cold-water swimming stress was gradually increased up to 1 h and returned to the normal level. The intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) or intrathecal (i.t.) pretreatment with PTX, a Gi inhibitor, alone produced a hypoglycemia and almost abolished the elevation of the blood level induced by stress stimulation. The central pretreatment with PTX caused a reduction of plasma insulin level, whereas plasma corticosterone level was further up-regulated in all stress models. Our results suggest that the hyperglycemia produced by physical stress, emotional stress, restraint stress, and the cold-water swimming stress appear to be mediated by activation of centrally located PTX-sensitive G proteins. The reduction of blood glucose level by PTX appears to due to the reduction of plasma insulin level. The reduction of blood glucose level by PTX was accompanied by the reduction of plasma insulin level. Plasma corticosterone level up-regulation by PTX in stress models may be due to a blood glucose homeostatic mechanism. PMID:27610033

  6. Effect of pertussis toxin pretreated centrally on blood glucose level induced by stress

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Hong-Won; Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Sharma, Naveen; Im, Hyun-Ju

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the effect of pertussis toxin (PTX) administered centrally in a variety of stress-induced blood glucose level. Mice were exposed to stress after the pretreatment of PTX (0.05 or 0.1 µg) i.c.v. or i.t. once for 6 days. Blood glucose level was measured at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min after stress stimulation. The blood glucose level was increased in all stress groups. The blood glucose level reached at maximum level after 30 min of stress stimulation and returned to a normal level after 2 h of stress stimulation in restraint stress, physical, and emotional stress groups. The blood glucose level induced by cold-water swimming stress was gradually increased up to 1 h and returned to the normal level. The intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) or intrathecal (i.t.) pretreatment with PTX, a Gi inhibitor, alone produced a hypoglycemia and almost abolished the elevation of the blood level induced by stress stimulation. The central pretreatment with PTX caused a reduction of plasma insulin level, whereas plasma corticosterone level was further up-regulated in all stress models. Our results suggest that the hyperglycemia produced by physical stress, emotional stress, restraint stress, and the cold-water swimming stress appear to be mediated by activation of centrally located PTX-sensitive G proteins. The reduction of blood glucose level by PTX appears to due to the reduction of plasma insulin level. The reduction of blood glucose level by PTX was accompanied by the reduction of plasma insulin level. Plasma corticosterone level up-regulation by PTX in stress models may be due to a blood glucose homeostatic mechanism.

  7. Optical coherence tomography for glucose monitoring in blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, Hafeez; Hussain, Fayyaz; Ikram, Masroor

    2015-08-01

    In this review, we have discussed the potential application of the emerging imaging modality, i.e., optical coherence tomography (OCT) for glucose monitoring in biological tissues. OCT provides monitoring of glucose diffusion in different fibrous tissues like in sclera by determining the permeability rate with acceptable accuracy both in type 1 and in type 2 diabetes. The maximum precision of glucose measurement in Intralipid suspensions, for example, with the OCT technique yields the accuracy up to 4.4 mM for 10 % Intralipid and 2.2 mM for 3 % Intralipid.

  8. Adaptive Blood Glucose Monitoring and Insulin Measurement Devices for Visually Impaired Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petzinger, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    This article describes devices that people with visual impairments and diabetes can use to monitor blood glucose levels and measure insulin. A table lists devices, their manufacturers (including address and telephone number), and comments about the devices. (DB)

  9. Effect of Vanadate on Elevated Blood Glucose and Depressed Cardiac Performance of Diabetic Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyliger, Clayton E.; Tahiliani, Arun G.; McNeill, John H.

    1985-03-01

    The trace element vanadium has an unclear biological function. Vanadate, an oxidized form of vanadium, appears to have an insulin-like action. The effect of vanadate on blood glucose and cardiac performance was assessed in female Wistar rats 6 weeks after they were made diabetic with streptozotocin. When vanadate was administered for a 4-week period to the diabetic rats, their blood glucose was not significantly different from that of nondiabetic controls despite a low serum insulin. In contrast, blood glucose was increased about threefold in the diabetic rats that were not treated with vanadate; these rats also had low insulin levels. Cardiac performance was depressed in the untreated diabetic animals, but the cardiac performance of the vanadate-treated diabetic animals was not significantly different from that of nondiabetic controls. Thus vanadate controlled the high blood glucose and prevented the decline in cardiac performance due to diabetes.

  10. The effects of food deprivation and incentive motivation on blood glucose levels and cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Green, M W; Elliman, N A; Rogers, P J

    1997-11-01

    The current study investigated the relationships between blood glucose levels, mild food deprivation, sympathetic arousal, and cognitive processing efficiency. Subjects (n = 82) were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions, comprising combined manipulations of food deprivation and incentive motivation. Baseline and mid-session measurements of blood glucose, blood pressure and pulse rate were taken. Subjects completed a number of measures of cognitive processing efficiency and self report measures of affective and somatic state. Although glucose levels were lowered following food deprivation, there was no significant detrimental effect of food deprivation on task performance. However, improved recognition memory processing times were associated with deprivation. Incentive motivation was associated with faster simple reaction times and higher diastolic blood pressure. There were no significant relationships between glucose levels and task performance, further supporting the hypothesis that the brain is relatively invulnerable to short food deprivation. PMID:9399371

  11. Kinetic Parameters for the Noncatalyzed and Enzyme-Catalyzed Mutarotation of Glucose Using a Blood Glucometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardee, John R.; Delgado, Bryan; Jones, Wray

    2011-01-01

    The kinetic parameters for the conversion of alpha-D-glucose to beta-D-glucose were measured using a blood glucometer. The reaction order, rate constant, and Arrhenius activation energy are reported for the noncatalyzed reaction and turnover number and Michaelis constant are reported for the reaction catalyzed by porcine kidney mutarotase. The…

  12. Modelling, verification, and calibration of a photoacoustics based continuous non-invasive blood glucose monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai, Praful P.; Sanki, Pradyut K.; Sarangi, Satyabrata; Banerjee, Swapna

    2015-06-01

    This paper examines the use of photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) at an excitation wavelength of 905 nm for making continuous non-invasive blood glucose measurements. The theoretical background of the measurement technique is verified through simulation. An apparatus is fabricated for performing photoacoustic measurements in vitro on glucose solutions and in vivo on human subjects. The amplitude of the photoacoustic signals measured from glucose solutions is observed to increase with the solution concentration, while photoacoustic amplitude obtained from in vivo measurements follows the blood glucose concentration of the subjects, indicating a direct proportionality between the two quantities. A linear calibration method is applied separately on measurements obtained from each individual in order to estimate the blood glucose concentration. The estimated glucose values are compared to reference glucose concentrations measured using a standard glucose meter. A plot of 196 measurement pairs taken over 30 normal subjects on a Clarke error grid gives a point distribution of 82.65% and 17.35% over zones A and B of the grid with a mean absolute relative deviation (MARD) of 11.78% and a mean absolute difference (MAD) of 15.27 mg/dl (0.85 mmol/l). The results obtained are better than or comparable to those obtained using photoacoustic spectroscopy based methods or other non-invasive measurement techniques available. The accuracy levels obtained are also comparable to commercially available continuous glucose monitoring systems.

  13. The Health Behavior Schedule-II for Diabetes Predicts Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Maxwell T.; Cho, Sungkun; Heiby, Elaine M.; Lee, Chun-I; Lahtela, Adrienne L.

    2006-01-01

    The Health Behavior Schedule-II for Diabetes (HBS-IID) is a 27-item questionnaire that was evaluated as a predictor of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). The HBS-IID was completed by 96 adults with Type 2 diabetes. Recent glycosylated hemoglobin HbA1c and fasting blood glucose results were taken from participants' medical records. Only 31.3%…

  14. Interstitial Fluid Glucose Is Not Just a Shifted-in-Time but a Distorted Mirror of Blood Glucose: Insight from an In Silico Study

    PubMed Central

    Schiavon, Michele; Dalla Man, Chiara; Basu, Ananda; Basu, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Glucose sensors measure glucose concentration in the interstitial fluid (ISF), remote from blood. ISF glucose is well known to be “delayed” with respect to blood glucose (BG). However, ISF glucose is not simply a shifted-in-time version of BG but exhibits a more complex pattern. Methods: To gain insight into this problem, one can use linear systems theory. However, this may lose a more clinical readership, thus we use simulation and two case studies to convey our thinking in an easier way. In particular, we consider BG concentration measured after meal and exercise in 12 healthy volunteers, whereas ISF glucose is simulated using a well-accepted model of blood–ISF glucose kinetics, which permits calculation of the equilibration time, a parameter characterizing the system. Two metrics are defined: blood and ISF glucose difference at each time point and time to reach the same glucose value in blood and ISF. Results: The simulation performed and the two metrics show that the relationship between blood–ISF glucose profiles is more complex than a pure shift in time and that the pattern depends on both equilibration time and BG. Conclusions: In this in silico study, we have illustrated, with simple case studies, the meaning of the of ISF glucose with respect to BG. Understanding that ISF glucose is not just a shifted-in-time version but a distorted mirror of BG is important for a correct use of continuous glucose monitoring for diabetes management. PMID:27253751

  15. Depletion of norepinephrine of the central nervous system Down-regulates the blood glucose level in d-glucose-fed and restraint stress models.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Su; Lee, Jae-Ryeong; Sharma, Naveen; Suh, Hong-Won

    2016-05-01

    DSP-4[N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride] is a neurotoxin that depletes norepinephrine. The catecholaminergic system has been implicated in the regulation of blood glucose level. In the present study, the effect of DSP-4 administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) or intrathecally (i.t.) on blood glucose level was examined in d-glucose-fed and restraint stress mice models. Mice were pretreated once i.c.v. or i.t. with DSP-4 (10-40μg) for 3days, and d-glucose (2g/kg) was fed orally. Blood glucose level was measured 0 (prior to glucose feeding or restraint stress), 30, 60, and 120min after d-glucose feeding or restraint stress. The i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with DSP-4 attenuated blood glucose level in the d-glucose-fed model. Plasma corticosterone level was downregulated in the d-glucose-fed model, whereas plasma insulin level increased in the d-glucose-fed group. The i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with DSP-4 reversed the downregulation of plasma corticosterone induced by feeding d-glucose. In addition, the d-glucose-induced increase in plasma insulin was attenuated by the DSP-4 pretreatment. Furthermore, i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with DSP-4 reduced restraint stress-induced increases in blood glucose levels. Restraint stress increased plasma corticosterone and insulin levels. The i.c.v. pretreatment with DSP-4 attenuated restraint stress-induced plasma corticosterone and insulin levels. Our results suggest that depleting norepinephrine at the supraspinal and spinal levels appears to be responsible for downregulating blood glucose levels in both d-glucose-fed and restraint stress models.

  16. Multiple enzyme-doped thread-based microfluidic system for blood urea nitrogen and glucose detection in human whole blood

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yu-An

    2015-01-01

    This research presents a multiple enzyme-doped thread-based microfluidic system for blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and glucose detection in human whole blood. A novel enzyme-doped thread coated with a thin polyvinylchloride (PVC) membrane is produced for on-site electrochemical detection of urea and glucose in whole blood. Multiple enzymes can be directly applied to the thread without delicate pretreatment or a surface modification process prior to sealing the thread with PVC membrane. Results indicate that the developed device exhibits a good linear dynamic range for detecting urea and glucose in concentrations from 0.1 mM–10.0 mM (R2 = 0.9850) and 0.1 mM–13.0 mM (R2 = 0.9668), which is suitable for adoption in detecting the concentrations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN, 1.78–7.12 mM) and glucose (3.89–6.11 mM) in serum. The detection result also shows that the developed thread-based microfluidic system can successfully separate and detect the ions, BUN, and glucose in blood. The calculated concentrations of BUN and glucose ante cibum (glucose before meal) in the whole blood sample are 3.98 mM and 4.94 mM, respectively. The developed thread-based microfluidic system provides a simple yet high performance for clinical diagnostics. PMID:25825613

  17. Cerebrospinal fluid ionic regulation, cerebral blood flow, and glucose use during chronic metabolic alkalosis

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeck, H.K.; Kuschinsky, W. )

    1989-10-01

    Chronic metabolic alkalosis was induced in rats by combining a low K+ diet with a 0.2 M NaHCO3 solution as drinking fluid for either 15 or 27 days. Local cerebral blood flow and local cerebral glucose utilization were measured in 31 different structures of the brain in conscious animals by means of the iodo-(14C)antipyrine and 2-(14C)deoxy-D-glucose method. The treatment induced moderate (15 days, base excess (BE) 16 mM) to severe (27 days, BE 25 mM) hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis and K+ depletion. During moderate metabolic alkalosis no change in cerebral glucose utilization and blood flow was detectable in most brain structures when compared with controls. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) K+ and H+ concentrations were significantly decreased. During severe hypochloremic alkalosis, cerebral blood flow was decreased by 19% and cerebral glucose utilization by 24% when compared with the control values. The decrease in cerebral blood flow during severe metabolic alkalosis is attributed mainly to the decreased cerebral metabolism and to a lesser extent to a further decrease of the CSF H+ concentration. CSF K+ concentration was not further decreased. The results show an unaltered cerebral blood flow and glucose utilization together with a decrease in CSF H+ and K+ concentrations at moderate metabolic alkalosis and a decrease in cerebral blood flow and glucose utilization together with a further decreased CSF H+ concentration at severe metabolic alkalosis.

  18. Blood Glucose, Diet-Based Glycemic Load and Cognitive Aging Among Dementia-Free Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Andel, Ross; McEvoy, Cathy; Dahl Aslan, Anna K.; Finkel, Deborah; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Although evidence indicates that Type II Diabetes is related to abnormal brain aging, the influence of elevated blood glucose on long-term cognitive change is unclear. In addition, the relationship between diet-based glycemic load and cognitive aging has not been extensively studied. The focus of this study was to investigate the influence of diet-based glycemic load and blood glucose on cognitive aging in older adults followed for up to 16 years. Methods. Eight-hundred and thirty-eight cognitively healthy adults aged ≥50 years (M = 63.1, SD = 8.3) from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging were studied. Mixed effects growth models were utilized to assess overall performance and change in general cognitive functioning, perceptual speed, memory, verbal ability, and spatial ability as a function of baseline blood glucose and diet-based glycemic load. Results. High blood glucose was related to poorer overall performance on perceptual speed as well as greater rates of decline in general cognitive ability, perceptual speed, verbal ability, and spatial ability. Diet-based glycemic load was related to poorer overall performance in perceptual speed and spatial ability. Conclusion. Diet-based glycemic load and, in particular, elevated blood glucose appear important for cognitive performance/cognitive aging. Blood glucose control (perhaps through low glycemic load diets) may be an important target in the detection and prevention of age-related cognitive decline. PMID:25149688

  19. Blood glucose regulation mechanism in depressive disorder animal model during hyperglycemic states.

    PubMed

    Lim, Su-Min; Park, Soo-Hyun; Sharma, Naveen; Kim, Sung-Su; Lee, Jae-Ryeong; Jung, Jun-Sub; Suh, Hong-Won

    2016-06-01

    Depression is more common among diabetes people than in the general population. In the present study, blood glucose change in depression animal model was characterized by various types of hyperglycemia models such as d-glucose-fed-, immobilization stress-, and drug-induced hyperglycemia models. First, the ICR mice were enforced into chronic restraint stress for 2h daily for 2 weeks to produce depression animal model. The animals were fed with d-glucose (2g/kg), forced into restraint stress for 30min, or administered with clonidine (5μg/5μl) supraspinally or spinally to produce hyperglycemia. The blood glucose level in depression group was down-regulated compared to that observed in the normal group in d-glucose-fed-, restraint stress-, and clonidine-induced hyperglycemia models. The up-regulated corticosterone level induced by d-glucose feeding or restraint stress was reduced in the depression group while the up-regulation of plasma corticosterone level is further elevated after i.t. or i.c.v. clonidine administration in the depression group. The up-regulated insulin level induced by d-glucose feeding or restraint stress was reduced in the depression group. On the other hand, blood corticosterone level in depression group was up-regulated compared to the normal group after i.t. or i.c.v. clonidine administration. Whereas the insulin level in depression group was not altered when mice were administered clonidine i.t. or i.c.v. Our results suggest that the blood glucose level in depression group is down-regulated compared to the normal group during d-glucose-fed-, immobilization stress-, and clonidine-induced hyperglycemia in mice. The down-regulation of the blood glucose level might be one of the important pathophysiologic changes in depression.

  20. Blood glucose regulation mechanism in depressive disorder animal model during hyperglycemic states.

    PubMed

    Lim, Su-Min; Park, Soo-Hyun; Sharma, Naveen; Kim, Sung-Su; Lee, Jae-Ryeong; Jung, Jun-Sub; Suh, Hong-Won

    2016-06-01

    Depression is more common among diabetes people than in the general population. In the present study, blood glucose change in depression animal model was characterized by various types of hyperglycemia models such as d-glucose-fed-, immobilization stress-, and drug-induced hyperglycemia models. First, the ICR mice were enforced into chronic restraint stress for 2h daily for 2 weeks to produce depression animal model. The animals were fed with d-glucose (2g/kg), forced into restraint stress for 30min, or administered with clonidine (5μg/5μl) supraspinally or spinally to produce hyperglycemia. The blood glucose level in depression group was down-regulated compared to that observed in the normal group in d-glucose-fed-, restraint stress-, and clonidine-induced hyperglycemia models. The up-regulated corticosterone level induced by d-glucose feeding or restraint stress was reduced in the depression group while the up-regulation of plasma corticosterone level is further elevated after i.t. or i.c.v. clonidine administration in the depression group. The up-regulated insulin level induced by d-glucose feeding or restraint stress was reduced in the depression group. On the other hand, blood corticosterone level in depression group was up-regulated compared to the normal group after i.t. or i.c.v. clonidine administration. Whereas the insulin level in depression group was not altered when mice were administered clonidine i.t. or i.c.v. Our results suggest that the blood glucose level in depression group is down-regulated compared to the normal group during d-glucose-fed-, immobilization stress-, and clonidine-induced hyperglycemia in mice. The down-regulation of the blood glucose level might be one of the important pathophysiologic changes in depression. PMID:27034116

  1. Delaying time to first nocturnal void may have beneficial effects on reducing blood glucose levels.

    PubMed

    Juul, Kristian Vinter; Jessen, Niels; Bliwise, Donald L; van der Meulen, Egbert; Nørgaard, Jens Peter

    2016-09-01

    Experimental studies disrupting sleep and epidemiologic studies of short sleep durations indicate the importance of deeper and longer sleep for cardiometabolic health. We examined the potential beneficial effects of lengthening the first uninterrupted sleep period (FUSP) on blood glucose. Long-term data (≥3 months of treatment) were derived from three clinical trials, testing low-dose (10-100 µg) melt formulations of desmopressin in 841 male and female nocturia patients (90 % of which had nocturnal polyuria). We performed post hoc multiple regression with non-fasting blood glucose as dependent variable and the following potential covariates/factors: time-averaged change of FUSP since baseline, age, gender, race, ethnicity, baseline glucose, baseline weight, change in weight, patient metabolic status (normal, metabolic syndrome, type II diabetes), dose, follow-up interval, and time of random glucose sampling. Increases in FUSP resulted in statistically significant reductions in blood glucose (p = 0.0131), even after controlling for all remaining covariates. Per hour increase in time to first void was associated with glucose decreases of 1.6 mg/dL. This association was more pronounced in patients with increased baseline glucose levels (test of baseline glucose by FUSP change interaction: p < 0.0001). Next to FUSP change, other statistically significant confounding factors/covariates also associated with glucose changes were gender, ethnicity, metabolic subgroup, and baseline glucose. These analyses indicate that delaying time to first void may have beneficial effects on reducing blood glucose in nocturia patients. These data are among the first to suggest that improving sleep may have salutary effects on a cardiometabolic measure. PMID:27003433

  2. Electromagnetic Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted from GSM Mobile Phones Decreases the Accuracy of Home Blood Glucose Monitors.

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, Smj; Gholampour, M; Haghani, M; Mortazavi, G; Mortazavi, Ar

    2014-09-01

    Mobile phones are two-way radios that emit electromagnetic radiation in microwave range. As the number of mobile phone users has reached 6 billion, the bioeffects of exposure to mobile phone radiation and mobile phone electromagnetic interference with electronic equipment have received more attention, globally. As self-monitoring of blood glucose can be a beneficial part of diabetes control, home blood glucose testing kits are very popular. The main goal of this study was to investigate if radiofrequency radiation emitted from a common GSM mobile phone can alter the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. Forty five female nondiabetic students aged 17-20 years old participated in this study. For Control-EMF group (30 students), blood glucose concentration for each individual was measured in presence and absence of radiofrequency radiation emitted by a common GSM mobile phone (HTC touch, Diamond 2) while the phone was ringing. For Control- Repeat group (15 students), two repeated measurements were performed for each participant in the absence of electromagnetic fields. The magnitude of the changes between glucose levels in two repeated measurements (|ΔC|) in Control-Repeat group was 1.07 ± 0.88 mg/dl while this magnitude for Control-EMF group was 7.53 ± 4.76 mg/dl (P < 0.001, two-tailed test). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the electromagnetic interference in home blood glucose monitors. It can be concluded that electromagnetic interference from mobile phones has an adverse effect on the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. We suggest that mobile phones should be used at least 50 cm away from home blood glucose monitors.

  3. A vitamin, mineral, herb dietary supplement effect on blood glucose in uncontrolled type II diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    González, Michael J; Ricart, Carlos M; Miranda-Massari, Jorge

    2004-06-01

    We tested a dietary supplement formulated with a synergistic combination of vitamins, minerals, herbals in a group of 15 patients with uncontrolled diabetes type II. The supplement was given for 30 days. Fasting blood glucose was measured prior to the supplementation and at the end of the 30 days treatment period. Blood glucose was significantly reduced in all patients with no adverse effects. This orthomolecular correction of faulty glucose metabolism with a combination of nontoxic, safe and fairly inexpensive nutraceuticals needs to be further substantiated. Nervertheless the idea of correcting metabolism with micronutrients is a new concept of genetic nutritioneering that seems appealing and cost effective. PMID:15377060

  4. Historical achievements of self-monitoring of blood glucose technology development in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shigeki

    2011-09-01

    Japanese companies were the first in the world to achieve a colorimetric glucose measurement meter back in 1973. Over the following 40 or so years, they succeeded in achieving a much greater level of user-friendliness and performance and in so doing, have contributed to the spread of self-monitoring of blood glucose. This article aims to unravel the history of blood glucose measurement's technological developments; to look at the direction and features of the development path Japan is taking; as well as to introduce some Japanese products that are on the market.

  5. Polarization sensitive optical low-coherence reflectometry for blood glucose monitoring in human subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solanki, Jitendra; Choudhary, Om Prakash; Sen, P.; Andrews, J. T.

    2013-07-01

    A device based on polarization sensitive optical low-coherence reflectometry is developed to monitor blood glucose levels in human subjects. The device was initially tested with tissue phantom. The measurements with human subjects for various glucose concentration levels are found to be linearly dependent on the ellipticity obtainable from the home-made phase-sensitive optical low-coherence reflectometry device. The linearity obtained between glucose concentration and ellipticity are explained with theoretical calculations using Mie theory. A comparison of results with standard clinical methods establishes the utility of the present device for non-invasive glucose monitoring.

  6. Glucose transporter of the human brain and blood-brain barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Kalaria, R.N.; Gravina, S.A.; Schmidley, J.W.; Perry, G.; Harik, S.I.

    1988-12-01

    We identified and characterized the glucose transporter in the human cerebral cortex, cerebral microvessels, and choroid plexus by specific D-glucose-displaceable (3H)cytochalasin B binding. The binding was saturable, with a dissociation constant less than 1 microM. Maximal binding capacity was approximately 7 pmol/mg protein in the cerebral cortex, approximately 42 pmol/mg protein in brain microvessels, and approximately 27 pmol/mg protein in the choroid plexus. Several hexoses displaced specific (3H)cytochalasin B binding to microvessels in a rank-order that correlated well with their known ability to cross the blood-brain barrier; the only exception was 2-deoxy-D-glucose, which had much higher affinity for the glucose transporter than the natural substrate, D-glucose. Irreversible photoaffinity labeling of the glucose transporter of microvessels with (3H)cytochalasin B, followed by solubilization and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, labeled a protein band with an average molecular weight of approximately 55,000. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies specific to the human erythrocyte glucose transporter immunocytochemically stained brain blood vessels and the few trapped erythrocytes in situ, with minimal staining of the neuropil. In the choroid plexus, blood vessels did not stain, but the epithelium reacted positively. We conclude that human brain microvessels are richly endowed with a glucose transport moiety similar in molecular weight and antigenic characteristics to that of human erythrocytes and brain microvessels of other mammalian species.

  7. Using meta-differential evolution to enhance a calculation of a continuous blood glucose level.

    PubMed

    Koutny, Tomas

    2016-09-01

    We developed a new model of glucose dynamics. The model calculates blood glucose level as a function of transcapillary glucose transport. In previous studies, we validated the model with animal experiments. We used analytical method to determine model parameters. In this study, we validate the model with subjects with type 1 diabetes. In addition, we combine the analytic method with meta-differential evolution. To validate the model with human patients, we obtained a data set of type 1 diabetes study that was coordinated by Jaeb Center for Health Research. We calculated a continuous blood glucose level from continuously measured interstitial fluid glucose level. We used 6 different scenarios to ensure robust validation of the calculation. Over 96% of calculated blood glucose levels fit A+B zones of the Clarke Error Grid. No data set required any correction of model parameters during the time course of measuring. We successfully verified the possibility of calculating a continuous blood glucose level of subjects with type 1 diabetes. This study signals a successful transition of our research from an animal experiment to a human patient. Researchers can test our model with their data on-line at https://diabetes.zcu.cz. PMID:27393799

  8. Photoacoustic blood glucose and skin measurement based on optical scattering effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zuomin; Myllyla, Risto A.

    2002-07-01

    Non-invasive blood glucose determination has been investigated by more than 100 research groups in the world during the past fifteen years. The commonly optical methods are based on the capacity of near-IR light to penetrate a few hundreds micrometers or a few millimeters into human tissue where it interacts with glucose. A change of glucose concentration may modify the optical parameters in tissue, with the result that its glucose concentration can be extracted by analyzing the received optical signals. This paper demonstrates that glucose affects on the scattering coefficient of human blood, by applying the streak camera and pulsed photoacoustic techniques; and drinking water seems also affecting on PA signal from skin surface.

  9. Energized by love: thinking about romantic relationships increases positive affect and blood glucose levels.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Sarah C E; Campbell, Lorne; Loving, Timothy J

    2014-10-01

    We assessed the impact of thinking of a current romantic partner on acute blood glucose responses and positive affect over a short period of time. Participants in romantic relationships were randomly assigned to reflect on their partner, an opposite-sex friend, or their morning routine. Blood glucose levels were assessed prior to reflection, as well as at 10 and 25 min postreflection. Results revealed that individuals in the routine and friend conditions exhibited a decline in glucose over time, whereas individuals in the partner condition did not exhibit this decline (rather, a slight increase) in glucose over time. Reported positive affect following reflection was positively associated with increases in glucose, but only for individuals who reflected on their partner, suggesting this physiological response reflects eustress. These findings add to the literature on eustress in relationships and have implications for relationship processes.

  10. Development of portable health monitoring system for automatic self-blood glucose measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Huijun; Mizuno, Yoshihumi; Nakamachi, Eiji; Morita, Yusuke

    2010-02-01

    In this study, a new HMS (Health Monitoring System) device is developed for diabetic patient. This device mainly consists of I) 3D blood vessel searching unit and II) automatic blood glucose measurement (ABGM) unit. This device has features such as 1)3D blood vessel location search 2) laptop type, 3) puncturing a blood vessel by using a minimally invasive micro-needle, 4) very little blood sampling (10μl), and 5) automatic blood extraction and blood glucose measurement. In this study, ABGM unit is described in detail. It employs a syringe type's blood extraction mechanism because of its high accuracy. And it consists of the syringe component and the driving component. The syringe component consists of a syringe itself, a piston, a magnet, a ratchet and a micro-needle whose inner diameter is about 80μm. And the syringe component is disposable. The driving component consists of body parts, a linear stepping motor, a glucose enzyme sensor and a slider for accurate positioning control. The driving component has the all-in-one mechanism with a glucose enzyme sensor for compact size and stable blood transfer. On designing, required thrust force to drive the slider is designed to be greater than the value of the blood extraction force. Further, only one linear stepping motor is employed for blood extraction and transportation processes. The experimental result showed more than 80% of volume ratio under the piston speed 2.4mm/s. Further, the blood glucose was measured successfully by using the prototype unit. Finally, the availability of our ABGM unit was confirmed.

  11. Paper membrane-based SERS platform for the determination of glucose in blood samples.

    PubMed

    Torul, Hilal; Çiftçi, Hakan; Çetin, Demet; Suludere, Zekiye; Boyacı, Ismail Hakkı; Tamer, Uğur

    2015-11-01

    In this report, we present a paper membrane-based surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) platform for the determination of blood glucose level using a nitrocellulose membrane as substrate paper, and the microfluidic channel was simply constructed by wax-printing method. The rod-shaped gold nanorod particles were modified with 4-mercaptophenylboronic acid (4-MBA) and 1-decanethiol (1-DT) molecules and used as embedded SERS probe for paper-based microfluidics. The SERS measurement area was simply constructed by dropping gold nanoparticles on nitrocellulose membrane, and the blood sample was dropped on the membrane hydrophilic channel. While the blood cells and proteins were held on nitrocellulose membrane, glucose molecules were moved through the channel toward the SERS measurement area. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to confirm the effective separation of blood matrix, and total analysis is completed in 5 min. In SERS measurements, the intensity of the band at 1070 cm(-1) which is attributed to B-OH vibration decreased depending on the rise in glucose concentration in the blood sample. The glucose concentration was found to be 5.43 ± 0.51 mM in the reference blood sample by using a calibration equation, and the certified value for glucose was 6.17 ± 0.11 mM. The recovery of the glucose in the reference blood sample was about 88 %. According to these results, the developed paper-based microfluidic SERS platform has been found to be suitable for use for the detection of glucose in blood samples without any pretreatment procedure. We believe that paper-based microfluidic systems may provide a wide field of usage for paper-based applications.

  12. Paper membrane-based SERS platform for the determination of glucose in blood samples.

    PubMed

    Torul, Hilal; Çiftçi, Hakan; Çetin, Demet; Suludere, Zekiye; Boyacı, Ismail Hakkı; Tamer, Uğur

    2015-11-01

    In this report, we present a paper membrane-based surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) platform for the determination of blood glucose level using a nitrocellulose membrane as substrate paper, and the microfluidic channel was simply constructed by wax-printing method. The rod-shaped gold nanorod particles were modified with 4-mercaptophenylboronic acid (4-MBA) and 1-decanethiol (1-DT) molecules and used as embedded SERS probe for paper-based microfluidics. The SERS measurement area was simply constructed by dropping gold nanoparticles on nitrocellulose membrane, and the blood sample was dropped on the membrane hydrophilic channel. While the blood cells and proteins were held on nitrocellulose membrane, glucose molecules were moved through the channel toward the SERS measurement area. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to confirm the effective separation of blood matrix, and total analysis is completed in 5 min. In SERS measurements, the intensity of the band at 1070 cm(-1) which is attributed to B-OH vibration decreased depending on the rise in glucose concentration in the blood sample. The glucose concentration was found to be 5.43 ± 0.51 mM in the reference blood sample by using a calibration equation, and the certified value for glucose was 6.17 ± 0.11 mM. The recovery of the glucose in the reference blood sample was about 88 %. According to these results, the developed paper-based microfluidic SERS platform has been found to be suitable for use for the detection of glucose in blood samples without any pretreatment procedure. We believe that paper-based microfluidic systems may provide a wide field of usage for paper-based applications. PMID:26363778

  13. Cultural diversity as a factor in self-monitoring blood glucose in gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Langer, O; Langer, N; Piper, J M; Elliott, B; Anyaegbunam, A

    1995-01-01

    The routine use of self-monitoring of capillary blood glucose by pregnant diabetic patients currently provides the basis for both clinical management and ongoing investigation. Strategies must therefore be developed to ensure that these data are reliable and accurately reported by patients and are not influenced by diverse socioeconomic levels or varied geographic locations. To explore this issue, we used glucose reflectance meters with a memory microchip capable of storing up to 440 consecutive blood glucose determinations. Two diverse groups of women from Texas and New York who had gestational diabetes performed self-monitoring of blood glucose from diagnosis until delivery. Both groups recorded their blood glucose results daily in a logbook. The reporting performance of all the participating subjects resulted in an actual compliance rate of 60% to 70% of testings required of the patients. Comparison of African-American, Mexican-American, and white populations revealed no significant differences in patient performance or compliance. Moreover, no differences were found between the groups at different geographic locations (New York, Texas) in patients' willingness and ability to comply with the regimen of self-monitoring blood glucose. These findings suggest that the use of memory reflectance meters, in conjunction with patient education and positive interaction between patient and care provider, will result in high patient compliance regardless of socioeconomic level or ethnic diversity.

  14. The Association between Concentrations of Green Tea and Blood Glucose Levels.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Koutatsu; Iso, Hiroyasu; Sasaki, Satoshi; Fukino, Yoko

    2009-01-01

    Our objective was to examine whether habitual green tea consumption is associated with blood glucose levels and other biomarkers of glucose metabolism. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 35 male volunteers, 23-63 years old and residing in Shizuoka Prefecture in Japan. Biochemical data were measured and we conducted a questionnaire survey on health, lifestyle, and nutrition, as well as frequency of consumption and concentrations (1%, 2%, and 3%) of green tea. Men who consumed a 3% concentration of green tea showed lower mean values of fasting blood glucose and fructosamine than those who consumed a 1% concentration. Fasting blood glucose levels were found to be significantly associated with green tea concentration (beta = -0.14, p = 0.03). However, green tea consumption frequency showed no significant differences in mean levels of blood glucose, fructosamine and hemoglobin A(1c.) In conclusion, our findings suggest that the consumption of green tea at a high concentration has the potential to reduce blood glucose levels.

  15. Measurement of tissue optical properties with optical coherence tomography: Implication for noninvasive blood glucose concentration monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, Kirill V.

    Approximately 14 million people in the USA and more than 140 million people worldwide suffer from diabetes mellitus. The current glucose sensing technique involves a finger puncture several times a day to obtain a droplet of blood for analysis. There have been enormous efforts by many scientific groups and companies to quantify glucose concentration noninvasively using different optical techniques. However, these techniques face limitations associated with low sensitivity, accuracy, and insufficient specificity of glucose concentrations over a physiological range. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), a new technology, is being applied for noninvasive imaging in tissues with high resolution. OCT utilizes sensitive detection of photons coherently scattered from tissue. The high resolution of this technique allows for exceptionally accurate measurement of tissue scattering from a specific layer of skin compared with other optical techniques and, therefore, may provide noninvasive and continuous monitoring of blood glucose concentration with high accuracy. In this dissertation work I experimentally and theoretically investigate feasibility of noninvasive, real-time, sensitive, and specific monitoring of blood glucose concentration using an OCT-based biosensor. The studies were performed in scattering media with stable optical properties (aqueous suspensions of polystyrene microspheres and milk), animals (New Zealand white rabbits and Yucatan micropigs), and normal subjects (during oral glucose tolerance tests). The results of these studies demonstrated: (1) capability of the OCT technique to detect changes in scattering coefficient with the accuracy of about 1.5%; (2) a sharp and linear decrease of the OCT signal slope in the dermis with the increase of blood glucose concentration; (3) the change in the OCT signal slope measured during bolus glucose injection experiments (characterized by a sharp increase of blood glucose concentration) is higher than that measured in

  16. Effect of Local Heating on Postprandial Blood Glucose Excursions Using the InsuPad Device

    PubMed Central

    Bitton, Gabriel; Reimer, André; Krichbaum, Michael; Kulzer, Bernhard; Haak, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The InsuPad is a medical device to accelerate insulin resorption by applying local heat at the insulin injection site. This crossover study examined the impact of the InsuPad use on postprandial glucose excursions under daily life conditions. In 1 study phase, diabetic patients used the InsuPad when injecting bolus insulin before breakfast and dinner and measured their blood glucose 5 times daily (before breakfast, lunch, and dinner and after breakfast and dinner). In the other study phase, blood glucose measurements were maintained without using the InsuPad. The order of the study phases was randomized. Twenty patients with a high insulin demand took part (30% type 1 diabetes, age 53.7 ± 8.9 years, diabetes duration 14.9 ± 7.4 years; HbA1c 8.3 ± 0.8%; total daily insulin demand 0.97 ± 0.32 IU per kg). Postprandial glucose excursion was reduced by 15.4 mg/dl (95% CI 9.7-21.2 mg/dl; P = .011) after breakfast and dinner if InsuPad was used. The mean blood glucose was lower by 8.8 mg/dl (95% CI 0:3-18:0 mg/dl; P = .099) when using the InsuPad. Safety parameters and the percentage of hypoglycemic (< 60 mg/dl) or hyperglycemic (> 300 mg/dl) blood glucose measurements were not negatively affected by InsuPad use (hypoglycemic values 1.4% vs 1.5%, P = .961; hyperglycemic values 2.6% vs 4.0%, P = .098). Local heating of the insulin injection site by use of the InsuPad device is an effective and safe method to reduce postprandial blood glucose excursions under daily life conditions without negative side effects on the occurrence of low or high blood glucose values. PMID:25113814

  17. Is blood glucose associated with descending modulation of spinal nociception as measured by the nociceptive flexion reflex?

    PubMed Central

    Terry, Ellen L; Güereca, Yvette M; Martin, Satin L; Rhudy, Jamie L

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Prior research has shown a relationship between blood glucose levels and some forms of self-regulation (eg, executive function), with low blood glucose levels associated with impaired self-regulation. Further, engagement in self-regulation tasks depletes blood glucose. Given these relationships, the present study examined whether blood glucose is associated with another form of self-regulation, ie, descending pain modulatory processes. Methods Forty-seven (32 female) pain-free participants were recruited and completed testing. Blood glucose was measured from finger sticks and a digital meter before and after experimental pain tests. Pain tests included the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR) threshold to assess descending modulation of spinal nociception, but also electric pain threshold to assess perceptual pain detection. The Stroop color word naming test was also assessed before and after pain testing to examine changes in executive function. Results Results indicated that mean blood glucose levels decreased after pain testing, but Stroop performance did not significantly change. Importantly, changes in blood glucose were correlated with NFR threshold, such that decreases in blood glucose were associated with lower NFR thresholds (reduced descending inhibition). Changes in blood glucose were unrelated to pain threshold or executive function. Conclusion This study suggests that glucose depletion may impair performance of descending inhibitory processes, without impacting the perceptual detection of pain (pain threshold). Although findings need to be replicated, maintaining adequate glucose levels may be necessary to support inhibition of spinal nociception. PMID:27110138

  18. Tunable laser diode system for noninvasive blood glucose measurements.

    PubMed

    Olesberg, Jonathon T; Arnold, Mark A; Mermelstein, Carmen; Schmitz, Johannes; Wagner, Joachim

    2005-12-01

    Optical sensing of glucose would allow more frequent monitoring and tighter glucose control for people with diabetes. The key to a successful optical noninvasive measurement of glucose is the collection of an optical spectrum with a very high signal-to-noise ratio in a spectral region with significant glucose absorption. Unfortunately, the optical throughput of skin is low due to absorption and scattering. To overcome these difficulties, we have developed a high-brightness tunable laser system for measurements in the 2.0-2.5 microm wavelength range. The system is based on a 2.3 microm wavelength, strained quantum-well laser diode incorporating GaInAsSb wells and AlGaAsSb barrier and cladding layers. Wavelength control is provided by coupling the laser diode to an external cavity that includes an acousto-optic tunable filter. Tuning ranges of greater than 110 nm have been obtained. Because the tunable filter has no moving parts, scans can be completed very quickly, typically in less than 10 ms. We describe the performance of the present laser system and avenues for extending the tuning range beyond 400 nm. PMID:16390586

  19. Study on optical measurement conditions for noninvasive blood glucose sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kexin; Chen, Wenliang; Jiang, Jingying; Qiu, Qingjun

    2004-05-01

    Utilizing Near-infrared Spectroscopy for non-invasive glucose concentration sensing has been a focusing topic in biomedical optics applications. In this paper study on measuring conditions of spectroscopy on human body is carried out and a series of experiments on glucose concentration sensing are conducted. First, Monte Carlo method is applied to simulate and calculate photons" penetration depth within skin tissues at 1600 nm. The simulation results indicate that applying our designed optical probe, the detected photons can penetrate epidermis of the palm and meet the glucose sensing requirements within the dermis. Second, we analyze the influence of the measured position variations and the contact pressure between the optical fiber probe and the measured position on the measured spectrum during spectroscopic measurement of a human body. And, a measurement conditions reproduction system is introduced to enhance the measurement repeatability. Furthermore, through a series of transmittance experiments on glucose aqueous solutions sensing from simple to complex we found that though some absorption variation information of glucose can be obtained from measurements using NIR spectroscopy, while under the same measuring conditions and with the same modeling method, choices toward measured components reduce when complication degree of components increases, and this causes a decreased prediction accuracy. Finally, OGTT experiments were performed, and a PLS (Partial Least Square) mathematical model for a single experiment was built. We can easily get a prediction expressed as RMSEP (Root Mean Square Error of Prediction) with a value of 0.5-0.8mmol/dl. But the model"s extended application and reliability need more investigation.

  20. Blood glucose. The diabetes math of too high, too low, and just right.

    PubMed

    Gebel, Erika

    2011-04-01

    Medicine is full of numbers that describe the health of a human body. Most basically, there are numbers like body temperature, an indication of fever and infection, and blood pressure, a measure of the circulatory system's health. The mathematics of medicine is particularly crucial when it comes to diabetes. If you regularly test your blood glucose with a meter, you're familiar with some of the most important numbers for managing this condition. There are also different types of laboratory tests for blood glucose, each with its own numerical language. Here's how they all add up. PMID:21491825

  1. Effect of glucose on the optical properties of arterial blood using Mie theory simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, Neil T.; Leahy, Martin J.

    2005-08-01

    The glucose concentration in arterial plasma has immediate effects on the optical properties of blood-bearing tissue due primarily to the alteration of refractive index mismatch between the scattering particles (red blood cells) and the medium (plasma). The influence of these effects on pulse oximetry is investigated using a numerical model based on Mie theory. The objective is to determine whether or not physiological fluctuations in blood glucose levels could sufficiently vary the optical properties to shift the calibration curve of a commercial pulse oximeter significantly.

  2. A non-invasive blood glucose meter design using multi-type sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, D.; Nguyen, Hienvu; Roveda, Janet

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we present a design of a multi optical modalities blood glucose monitor. The Monte Carlo tissues optics simulation with typical human skin model suggests the SNR ratio for a detector sensor is 104 with high sensitivity that can detect low blood sugar limit at 1 mMole/dL ( <20 mg/dL). A Bayesian filtering algorithm is proposed for multisensor fusion to identify whether e user has the danger of having diabetes. The new design has real time response (on the average of 2 minutes) and provides great potential to perform real time monitoring for blood glucose.

  3. A correction method using a support vector machine to minimize hematocrit interference in blood glucose measurements.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jaeyeon; Park, Hodong; Cho, Sungpil; Nam, Hakhyun; Lee, Kyoung-Joung

    2014-09-01

    Point-of-care testing glucose meters are widely used, important tools for determining the blood glucose levels of people with diabetes, patients in intensive care units, pregnant women, and newborn infants. However, a number of studies have concluded that a change in hematocrit (Hct) levels can seriously affect the accuracy of glucose measurements. The aim of this study was to develop an algorithm for glucose calculation with improved accuracy using the Hct compensation method that minimizes the effects of Hct on glucose measurements. The glucose concentrations in this study were calculated with an adaptive calibration curve using linear fitting prediction and a support vector machine, which minimized the bias in the glucose concentrations caused by the Hct interference. This was followed by an evaluation of performance according to the international organization for standardization (ISO) 15197:2013 based on bias with respect to the reference method, the coefficient of variation, and the valid blood samples/total blood samples within the ±20% and 15% error grids. Chronoamperometry was performed to verify the effect of Hct variation and to compare the proposed method. As a result, the average coefficients of variation for chronoamperometry and the Hct compensation method were 2.43% and 3.71%, respectively, while the average biases (%) for these methods were 12.08% and 5.69%, respectively. The results of chronoamperometry demonstrated that a decrease in Hct levels increases glucose concentrations, whereas an increase in Hct levels reduces glucose concentrations. Finally, the proposed method has improved the accuracy of glucose measurements compared to existing chronoamperometry methods.

  4. Noninvasive blood glucose sensing on human body with near-infrared reflection spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhen-hao; Hao, Chang-ning; Zhang, Lin-lin; Huang, Yan-chao; Shi, Yi-qin; Jiang, Geng-ru; Duan, Jun-li

    2011-08-01

    The non-invasive blood glucose sensing method has shown its high impact on the clinic application. This can make the measurement on the clinically relevant concentrations of glucose be free from the pain of patient. The transmission spectrum study indicates that the dependence of glucose concentration on the absorbance is in linear manner for the glucose concentration in the region of 30mg/dL to 4.5×104mg/dL. By the near infrared reflection spectroscopy of fiber spectrometer, the reflection band between 1.2μm and 1.35μm can be used to correlated with the glucose concentration in the range of 30 to 300 mg/dL. This reflection band is finally used to measure the glucose concentration effect in non-invasive manner, which gives the statistical significance of P value 0.02. Our experiment result shows that it is possible to get the glucose concentration by the near infrared reflection spectrum measurement on the human forefinger. This non-invasive blood glucose sensing method may useful in clinic after more experiment for different people.

  5. Method and apparatus for non-invasive monitoring of blood glucose

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Graham H.; Watson, Roger M.; Noell, J. Oakey

    1992-06-09

    A new and improved method and apparatus are provided for non-invasive monitoring of changes in blood glucose concentration in a tissue specimen and particularly in an individual. The method uses acoustic velocity measurements for monitoring the effect of glucose concentration upon the density and adiabatic compressibility of the serum. In a preferred embodiment, the acoustic velocity measurements are made through the earlobe of a subject by means of an acoustic probe or monitor which includes a transducer for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic energy pulses to and from the blood flowing in the subject's earlobe and a reflector for facilitating reflection of the acoustic pulses from the blood. The probe is designed in such a way that when properly affixed to an ear, the transducer is positioned flush against the anterior portion of an earlobe while the reflector is positioned flush against the interior portion of the earlobe. A microthermocouple is provided on the probe for monitoring the internal temperature of the blood being sampled. An electrical system, essentially comprising a frequency generator, a time intervalometer and an oscilloscope, is linked to the glucose monitoring probe. The electrical system analyzes selected ones of the pulses reflected from the blood sample in order to determine therefrom the acoustic velocity of the blood which, in turn, provides a representation of the blood glucose concentration levels at the time of the acoustic velocity measurements.

  6. ALDH2 polymorphism is associated with fasting blood glucose through alcohol consumption in Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guang; Naito, Mariko; Wakai, Kenji; Morita, Emi; Kawai, Sayo; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Sadao; Kita, Yoshikuni; Takezaki, Toshiro; Tanaka, Keitaro; Morita, Makiko; Uemura, Hirokazu; Ozaki, Etsuko; Hosono, Satoyo; Mikami, Haruo; Kubo, Michiaki; Tanaka, Hideo

    2016-05-01

    Associations between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes risk are inconsistent in epidemiologic studies. This study investigated the associations of ADH1B and ALDH2 polymorphisms with fasting blood glucose levels, and the impact of the associations of alcohol consumption with fasting blood glucose levels in Japanese individuals. This cross-sectional study included 907 men and 912 women, aged 35-69 years. The subjects were selected from among the Japan Multi-institutional Collaborative Cohort study across six areas of Japan. The ADH1B and ALDH2 polymorphisms were genotyped by Invader Assays. The ALDH2 Glu504Lys genotypes were associated with different levels of fasting blood glucose in men (P = 0.04). Mean fasting glucose level was positively associated with alcohol consumption in men with the ALDH2 504 Lys allele (P trend = 0.02), but not in men with the ALDH2 504Glu/Glu genotype (P trend = 0.45), resulting in no statistically significant interaction (P = 0.38). Alcohol consumption was associated with elevated fasting blood glucose levels compared with non-consumers in men (P trend = 0.002). The ADH1B Arg48His polymorphism was not associated with FBG levels overall or after stratification for alcohol consumption. These findings suggest that the ALDH2 polymorphism is associated with different levels of fasting blood glucose through alcohol consumption in Japanese men. The interaction of ALDH2 polymorphisms in the association between alcohol consumption and fasting blood glucose warrants further investigation. PMID:27303105

  7. Comparison of breath gases, including acetone, with blood glucose and blood ketones in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Blaikie, Tom P J; Edge, Julie A; Hancock, Gus; Lunn, Daniel; Megson, Clare; Peverall, Rob; Richmond, Graham; Ritchie, Grant A D; Taylor, David

    2014-11-25

    Previous studies have suggested that breath gases may be related to simultaneous blood glucose and blood ketone levels in adults with type 2 and type 1 diabetes. The aims of this study were to investigate these relationships in children and young people with type 1 diabetes in order to assess the efficacy of a simple breath test as a non-invasive means of diabetes management. Gases were collected in breath bags and measurements were compared with capillary blood glucose and ketone levels taken at the same time on a single visit to a routine hospital clinic in 113 subjects (59 male, age 7 years 11 months-18 years 3 months) with type 1 diabetes. The patients were well-controlled with relatively low concentrations of the blood ketone measured (β hydroxybutyrate, 0-0.4 mmol l(-1)). Breath acetone levels were found to increase with blood β hydroxybutyrate levels and a significant relationship was found between the two (Spearman's rank correlation ρ = 0.364, p < 10(-4)). A weak positive relationship was found between blood glucose and breath acetone (ρ = 0.16, p = 0.1), but led to the conclusion that single breath measurements of acetone do not provide a good measure of blood glucose levels in this cohort. This result suggests a potential to develop breath gas analysis to provide an alternative to blood testing for ketone measurement, for example to assist with the management of type 1 diabetes.

  8. Accessibility attributes of blood glucose meter and home blood pressure monitor displays for visually impaired persons.

    PubMed

    Blubaugh, Morgan V; Uslan, Mark M

    2012-03-01

    The vast majority of diabetes-related self-management technology utilizes small visual displays (SVDs) that often produce a low level of contrast and suffer from high levels of reflection (glare). This is a major accessibility issue for the 3.5 million Americans with diabetes who have reduced vision. The purpose of this article is to gather comparative data on the key display attributes of the SVDs used in blood glucose meters (BGMs) and home blood pressure monitors (HBPMs) on the market today and determine which displays offer the best prospect for being accessible to people with reduced vision. Nine BGMs and eight HBPMs were identified for this study on the basis of amount of devices sold, fullfunctionality speech output, and advanced display technologies. An optical instrumentation system obtained contrast, reflection (glare), and font height measurements for all 17 displays. The contrast, reflection, and font-height values for the BGMs and HBPMs varied greatly between models. The Michelson contrast values for the BGMs ranged from 11% to 98% and font heights ranged 0.39-1.00 in. for the measurement results. The HBPMs had Michelson contrast values ranging 55-96% and font height ranging 0.28-0.94 in. for the measurement results. Due largely to the lack of display design standards for the technical requirements of SVDs, there is tremendous variability in the quality and readability of BGM and HBPM displays. There were two BGMs and one HBPM that exhibited high-contrast values and large font heights, but most of the devices exhibited either poor contrast or exceptionally high reflection.

  9. Prevalence of morning hyperglycaemia: determinants of fasting blood glucose concentrations in insulin-treated diabetics.

    PubMed

    Francis, A J; Home, P D; Walford, S; Alberti, K G; Mann, N; Reeves, W G

    1985-03-01

    A rise in blood glucose concentration at the end of the night, and consequent morning hyperglycaemia, are well recognized events in some diabetic patients. In 94 patients on twice daily insulin injections we have examined the prevalence and extent of morning hyperglycaemia, and its relation to control, insulin therapy, and insulin antibody levels. Blood glucose reached the highest level of the day before or after breakfast in 83% of patients, and in 50% this value was 2 mmol/l greater than any other time of day. Patients with higher fasting concentrations did not have worse blood glucose control over the rest of the day. No correlation was found between fasting blood glucose concentrations and the evening dose of intermediate acting insulin or the level of insulin antibodies. No consistent change in fasting blood glucose concentrations occurred with changes in antibody levels in patients switched between pork and beef insulin. Morning hyperglycaemia was as common with both insulin species. Pre- and post-breakfast hyperglycaemia is common and significant in insulin-treated diabetic patients. It is not directly related to diabetic control at other times of the day, and is independent of insulin species and insulin antibody levels.

  10. The fluctuation of blood glucose, insulin and glucagon concentrations before and after insulin therapy in type 1 diabetes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arif, Idam; Nasir, Zulfa

    2015-09-01

    A dynamical-systems model of plasma glucose, insulin and glucagon concentrations has been developed to investigate the effects of insulin therapy on blood glucose, insulin and glucagon regulations in type 1 diabetic patients. Simulation results show that the normal regulation of blood glucose concentration depends on insulin and glucagon concentrations. On type 1 diabetic case, the role of insulin on regulating blood glucose is not optimal because of the destruction of β cells in pancreas. These β cells destructions cause hyperglycemic episode affecting the whole body metabolism. To get over this, type 1 diabetic patients need insulin therapy to control the blood glucose level. This research has been done by using rapid acting insulin (lispro), long-acting insulin (glargine) and the combination between them to know the effects of insulin therapy on blood glucose, insulin and glucagon concentrations. Simulation results show that these different types of insulin have different effects on blood glucose concentration. Insulin therapy using lispro shows better blood glucose control after consumption of meals. Glargin gives better blood glucose control between meals and during sleep. Combination between lispro and glargine shows better glycemic control for whole day blood glucose level.

  11. Conversion of oral glucose to lactate in dogs. Primary site and relative contribution to blood lactate

    SciTech Connect

    Youn, J.H.; Bergman, R.N. )

    1991-06-01

    The authors evaluated the relative contribution of oral glucose to arterial lactate and the relative role of the splanchnic bed in converting glucose to lactate in dogs. After an oral glucose load (1.2 g/kg) spiked with (U-14C)glucose (16.9 muCi/kg; protocol 1, n = 7), arterial blood lactate increased from 0.43 {plus minus} 0.03 mM at basal to a peak of 1.04 {plus minus} 0.07 mM at 45 min and then slowly decreased to 0.47 {plus minus} 0.07 mM at 240 min. Arterial blood {sup 14}Clactate peaked at 60 min and then decreased to {approximately} 35% of the peak at 4 h. When arterial blood lactate peaked at 45 min, the proportion of arterial lactate that was derived from oral glucose was 34 {plus minus} 3%. The integrated area under the curve of lactate derived from exogenous glucose was 40 {plus minus} 2% of that of total lactate. The splanchnic bed released lactate and {sup 14}Clactate during the initial 2 h after oral {sup 14}Cglucose. Thus, the splanchnic bed apparently contributed to the conversion of exogenous glucose to lactate. In the matched experiments (protocol 2, n = 5), dogs were given the same amount of oral glucose but no {sup 14}Cglucose, and (U-14C)lactate was infused into the right atrium to match the splanchnic {sup 14}Clactate release from the first experiment. Despite a well-matched splanchnic {sup 14}Clactate contribution, arterial concentrations of {sup 14}Clactate were markedly lower in protocol 2 compared with protocol 1. The integrated area under the {sup 14}Clactate profile in protocol 2 was only 11 {plus minus} 1% of that in protocol 1. These results indicate that the splanchnic bed is responsible for only 11% of arterial blood lactate that was derived from oral glucose. They concluded that (1) after oral glucose loading, a major portion of circulating lactate has its origin not in exogenous glucose but in endogenous sources, and (2) the splanchnic bed is not the major site of oral glucose conversion to lactate after glucose ingestion.

  12. Acute Inactivity Impairs Glycemic Control but Not Blood Flow to Glucose Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Leryn J; Credeur, Daniel P; Holwerda, Seth W; Leidy, Heather J; Fadel, Paul J; Thyfault, John P

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Insulin-stimulated increases in skeletal muscle blood flow play a role in glucose disposal. Indeed, 7 days of aerobic exercise in type 2 diabetes patients increased blood flow responses to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and improved glucose tolerance. More recent work suggests that reduced daily physical activity impairs glycemic control (GC) in healthy individuals. Herein, we sought to determine if an acute reduction in daily activity (from >10,000 to <5,000 steps/day) for 5 days (RA5) in healthy individuals reduced insulin-stimulated blood flow and GC in parallel and if a 1 day return to activity (RTA1) improved these outcomes. Methods OGTTs were performed as a stimulus to increase insulin in 14 healthy, recreationally active men (24±1.1 yrs) at baseline, RA5, and RTA1. Measures of insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index) and femoral and brachial artery blood flow were made during the OGTT. Free living measures of GC including peak postprandial glucose (peak PPG) were also made via continuous glucose monitoring. Results Femoral and brachial artery blood flow increased during the OGTT but neither was significantly impacted by changes in physical activity (p>0.05). However, insulin sensitivity was decreased by RA5 (11.3±1.5 to 8.0±1.0; p<0.05). Likewise, free living GC measures of peak post prandial blood glucose (113±3 to 123±5 mg/dL; p<0.05) was significantly increased at RA5. Interestingly, insulin sensitivity and GC as assessed by peak PPG were not restored after RTA1 (p>0.05). Conclusions Thus, acute reductions in physical activity impaired GC and insulin sensitivity; however blood flow responses to an OGTT were not affected. Further, a 1 day return to activity was not sufficient to normalize GC following 5 days of reduced daily physical activity. PMID:25207931

  13. Lack of correlation of glucose levels in filtered blood plasma to density and conductivity measurements.

    PubMed

    Gordon, David M; Ash, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to determine whether the glucose level of a blood plasma sample from a diabetic patient could be predicted by measuring the density and conductivity of ultrafiltrate of plasma created by a 30,000 m.w. cutoff membrane. Conductivity of the plasma filtrate measures electrolyte concentration and should correct density measurements for changes in electrolytes and water concentration. In vitro studies were performed measuring conductivity and density of solutions of varying glucose and sodium chloride concentrations. Plasma from seven hospitalized patients with diabetes was filtered across a 30,000 m.w. cutoff membrane. The filtrate density and conductivity were measured and correlated to glucose levels. In vitro studies confirmed the ability to predict glucose from density and conductivity measurements, in varying concentrations of glucose and saline. In plasma filtrate, the conductivity and density measurements of ultrafiltrate allowed estimation of glucose in some patients with diabetes but not others. The correlation coefficient for the combined patient data was 0.45 which was significant but only explained 20% of the variability in the glucose levels. Individually, the correlation was significant in only two of the seven patients with correlation coefficients of 0.79 and 0.88. The reasons for lack of correlation are not clear, and cannot be explained by generation of idiogenic osmoles, effects of alcohol dehydrogenase, water intake, etc. This combination of physical methods for glucose measurement is not a feasible approach to measuring glucose in plasma filtrate.

  14. Methazolamide Is a New Hepatic Insulin Sensitizer That Lowers Blood Glucose In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Konstantopoulos, Nicky; Molero, Juan C.; McGee, Sean L.; Spolding, Briana; Connor, Tim; de Vries, Melissa; Wanyonyi, Stephen; Fahey, Richard; Morrison, Shona; Swinton, Courtney; Jones, Sharon; Cooper, Adrian; Garcia-Guerra, Lucia; Foletta, Victoria C.; Krippner, Guy; Andrikopoulos, Sofianos; Walder, Ken R.

    2012-01-01

    We previously used Gene Expression Signature technology to identify methazolamide (MTZ) and related compounds with insulin sensitizing activity in vitro. The effects of these compounds were investigated in diabetic db/db mice, insulin-resistant diet-induced obese (DIO) mice, and rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. MTZ reduced fasting blood glucose and HbA1c levels in db/db mice, improved glucose tolerance in DIO mice, and enhanced the glucose-lowering effects of exogenous insulin administration in rats with STZ-induced diabetes. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps in DIO mice revealed that MTZ increased glucose infusion rate and suppressed endogenous glucose production. Whole-body or cellular oxygen consumption rate was not altered, suggesting MTZ may inhibit glucose production by different mechanism(s) to metformin. In support of this, MTZ enhanced the glucose-lowering effects of metformin in db/db mice. MTZ is known to be a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (CAI); however, CAIs acetazolamide, ethoxyzolamide, dichlorphenamide, chlorthalidone, and furosemide were not effective in vivo. Our results demonstrate that MTZ acts as an insulin sensitizer that suppresses hepatic glucose production in vivo. The antidiabetic effect of MTZ does not appear to be a function of its known activity as a CAI. The additive glucose-lowering effect of MTZ together with metformin highlights the potential utility for the management of type 2 diabetes. PMID:22586591

  15. Glucose Transporters are Abundant in Cells with "Occluding" Junctions at the Blood-Eye Barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harik, Sami I.; Kalaria, Rajesh N.; Whitney, Paul M.; Andersson, Lars; Lundahl, Per; Ledbetter, Steven R.; Perry, George

    1990-06-01

    We studied the distribution of the "erythroid/brain" glucose transporter protein in the human and rat eye by immunocytochemistry with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to the C terminus of the human erythrocyte glucose transporter. We found intense immunocytochemical staining in the endothelium of microvessels of the retina, optic nerve, and iris but not in microvessels of the choroid, ciliary body, sclera, and other retro-orbital tissues. In addition, we found marked immunocytochemical staining of retinal pigment epithelium, ciliary body epithelium, and posterior epithelium of the iris. The common feature of all those endothelial and epithelial cells that stained intensely for the glucose transporter is the presence of "occluding" intercellular junctions, which constitute the anatomical bases of the blood-eye barriers. We propose that a high density of the glucose transporter is a biochemical concomitant of epithelial and endothelial cells with barrier characteristics, at least in tissues that have a high metabolic requirement for glucose.

  16. Glucose transporters are abundant in cells with "occluding" junctions at the blood-eye barriers.

    PubMed Central

    Harik, S I; Kalaria, R N; Whitney, P M; Andersson, L; Lundahl, P; Ledbetter, S R; Perry, G

    1990-01-01

    We studied the distribution of the "erythroid/brain" glucose transporter protein in the human and rat eye by immunocytochemistry with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to the C terminus of the human erythrocyte glucose transporter. We found intense immunocytochemical staining in the endothelium of microvessels of the retina, optic nerve, and iris but not in microvessels of the choroid, ciliary body, sclera, and other retro-orbital tissues. In addition, we found marked immunocytochemical staining of retinal pigment epithelium, ciliary body epithelium, and posterior epithelium of the iris. The common feature of all those endothelial and epithelial cells that stained intensely for the glucose transporter is the presence of "occluding" intercellular junctions, which constitute the anatomical bases of the blood-eye barriers. We propose that a high density of the glucose transporter is a biochemical concomitant of epithelial and endothelial cells with barrier characteristics, at least in tissues that have a high metabolic requirement for glucose. Images PMID:2190218

  17. [A model study on noninvasive blood glucose measurement with multi-wavelength infrared array].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Bian, Zhengzhong; Zhang, Dalong

    2003-12-01

    The concentration of glucose in the blood may soon be measured noninvasively by near infrared multi-wavelength sensor array without the painful puncture for obtaining a drop of blood. For overcoming the limitation of low measuring accurate degree and unstable working state, according to the Lambert-Beer Law, the authors analyzed the feature of blood adsorption spectroscopy and designed an infrared multi-wavelength blood glucose measuring sensor array to surmount the difficulties in noninvasive blood glucose measurement. The key technique, most suitable for detecting site and the influencing factors from human body were discussed, and the Mixture of Expert(ME) algorithm was adopted in building calibration model with multiple parameters of human body. It can overcome the existing problems and get more exact blood glucose information from the weak changes in spectral signals. Also presented and addressed in this paper are the detailed implementing steps of ME and the system, as well as the problems need to be solved. PMID:14716885

  18. Effect of sulfonylureas administered centrally on the blood glucose level in immobilization stress model.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Naveen; Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Lim, Su-Min; Kim, Sung-Su; Jung, Jun-Sub; Hong, Jae-Seung; Suh, Hong-Won

    2015-05-01

    Sulfonylureas are widely used as an antidiabetic drug. In the present study, the effects of sulfonylurea administered supraspinally on immobilization stress-induced blood glucose level were studied in ICR mice. Mice were once enforced into immobilization stress for 30 min and returned to the cage. The blood glucose level was measured 30, 60, and 120 min after immobilization stress initiation. We found that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection with 30 µg of glyburide, glipizide, glimepiride or tolazamide attenuated the increased blood glucose level induced by immobilization stress. Immobilization stress causes an elevation of the blood corticosterone and insulin levels. Sulfonylureas pretreated i.c.v. caused a further elevation of the blood corticosterone level when mice were forced into the stress. In addition, sulfonylureas pretreated i.c.v. alone caused an elevation of the plasma insulin level. Furthermore, immobilization stress-induced insulin level was reduced by i.c.v. pretreated sulfonylureas. Our results suggest that lowering effect of sulfonylureas administered supraspinally against immobilization stress-induced increase of the blood glucose level appears to be primarily mediated via elevation of the plasma insulin level. PMID:25954123

  19. Blood glucose responses of diabetes mellitus type II patients to some local fruits.

    PubMed

    Guevarra, M T; Panlasigui, L N

    2000-12-01

    To determine the glucose responses of diabetes mellitus type II subjects to fruits, four locally available fruits (containing 25 g of available carbohydrates per serving portion) of chico, mango, pineapple, and papaya were tested among ten type II diabetic subjects, using wheat bread as the control. Results of the in vivo test indicated that chico and mango had significantly lower (P ≤ 0.05) blood glucose areas compared to wheat bread. Chico and mango also had a much lower glycemic index (GI), 57 and 59, respectively, compared to pineapple, 73 and papaya, 86. Differences in glucose responses to fruits and their varying GI are attributed to the amount of fiber, type and amount of sugars found, presence of antinutrients, acidity and physical characteristics of the fruits when chewed. The high fiber content of chico (7.9%), its fructose content (5.3%), its grainy texture when chewed and the presence of antinutrients (saponin, sapotin and achrasaponin) may contribute to its slow digestion and absorption. The low GI and blood glucose response of mango may be because of its fructose content (3.0%), acidity content (malic, citric and tartaric) and its phytic acid content (0.03%). Furthermore, starch, which is a possible factor contributing to low GI, is present in chico (0.8%) and mango (0.3%). Pineapple and papaya, the test fruits that elicited higher blood glucose responses and GI, have much lower fiber contents, less acids and contain glucose and sucrose sugars.

  20. Low Red Blood Cell Vitamin C Concentrations Induce Red Blood Cell Fragility: A Link to Diabetes Via Glucose, Glucose Transporters, and Dehydroascorbic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Hongbin; Li, Hongyan; Wang, Yu; Niyyati, Mahtab; Wang, Yaohui; Leshin, Jonathan; Levine, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Strategies to prevent diabetic microvascular angiopathy focus on the vascular endothelium. Because red blood cells (RBCs) are less deformable in diabetes, we explored an original concept linking decreased RBC deformability to RBC ascorbate and hyperglycemia. We characterized ascorbate concentrations from human and mouse RBCs and plasma, and showed an inverse relationship between RBC ascorbate concentrations and deformability, measured by osmotic fragility. RBCs from ascorbate deficient mice were osmotically sensitive, appeared as spherocytes, and had decreased β-spectrin. These aberrancies reversed with ascorbate repletion in vivo. Under physiologic conditions, only ascorbate's oxidation product dehydroascorbic acid (DHA), a substrate for facilitated glucose transporters, was transported into mouse and human RBCs, with immediate intracellular reduction to ascorbate. In vitro, glucose inhibited entry of physiologic concentrations of dehydroascorbic acid into mouse and human RBCs. In vivo, plasma glucose concentrations in normal and diabetic mice and humans were inversely related to respective RBC ascorbate concentrations, as was osmotic fragility. Human RBC β-spectrin declined as diabetes worsened. Taken together, hyperglycemia in diabetes produced lower RBC ascorbate with increased RBC rigidity, a candidate to drive microvascular angiopathy. Because glucose transporter expression, DHA transport, and its inhibition by glucose differed for mouse versus human RBCs, human experimentation is indicated. PMID:26870799

  1. Smart point-of-care systems for molecular diagnostics based on nanotechnology: whole blood glucose analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devadhasan, Jasmine P.; Kim, Sanghyo

    2015-07-01

    Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors are received great attention for their high efficiency in biological applications. The present work describes a CMOS image sensor-based whole blood glucose monitoring system through a point-of-care (POC) approach. A simple poly-ethylene terephthalate (PET) film chip was developed to carry out the enzyme kinetic reaction at various concentrations of blood glucose. In this technique, assay reagent was adsorbed onto amine functionalized silica (AFSiO2) nanoparticles in order to achieve glucose oxidation on the PET film chip. The AFSiO2 nanoparticles can immobilize the assay reagent with an electrostatic attraction and eased to develop the opaque platform which was technically suitable chip to analyze by the camera module. The oxidized glucose then produces a green color according to the glucose concentration and is analyzed by the camera module as a photon detection technique. The photon number decreases with increasing glucose concentration. The simple sensing approach, utilizing enzyme immobilized AFSiO2 nanoparticle chip and assay detection method was developed for quantitative glucose measurement.

  2. Impaired Glucose Tolerance or Newly Diagnosed Diabetes Mellitus Diagnosed during Admission Adversely Affects Prognosis after Myocardial Infarction: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    George, Anish; Bhatia, Raghav T.; Buchanan, Gill L.; Whiteside, Anne; Moisey, Robert S.; Beer, Stephen F.; Chattopadhyay, Sudipta; Sathyapalan, Thozhukat; John, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prognostic effect of newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus (NDM) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) post myocardial infarction (MI). Research Design and Methods Retrospective cohort study of 768 patients without preexisting diabetes mellitus post-MI at one centre in Yorkshire between November 2005 and October 2008. Patients were categorised as normal glucose tolerance (NGT n = 337), IGT (n = 279) and NDM (n = 152) on pre- discharge oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Primary end-point was the first occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) including cardiovascular death, non-fatal MI, severe heart failure (HF) or non-haemorrhagic stroke. Secondary end-points were all cause mortality and individual components of MACE. Results Prevalence of NGT, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), IGT and NDM changed from 90%, 6%, 0% and 4% on fasting plasma glucose (FPG) to 43%, 1%, 36% and 20% respectively after OGTT. 102 deaths from all causes (79 as first events of which 46 were cardiovascular), 95 non fatal MI, 18 HF and 9 non haemorrhagic strokes occurred during 47.2 ± 9.4 months follow up. Event free survival was lower in IGT and NDM groups. IGT (HR 1.54, 95% CI: 1.06–2.24, p = 0.024) and NDM (HR 2.15, 95% CI: 1.42–3.24, p = 0.003) independently predicted MACE free survival. IGT and NDM also independently predicted incidence of MACE. NDM but not IGT increased the risk of secondary end-points. Conclusion Presence of IGT and NDM in patients presenting post-MI, identified using OGTT, is associated with increased incidence of MACE and is associated with adverse outcomes despite adequate secondary prevention. PMID:26571120

  3. Evidence for fatty acids mediating CL 316,243-induced reductions in blood glucose in mice.

    PubMed

    MacPherson, Rebecca E K; Castellani, Laura; Beaudoin, Marie-Soleil; Wright, David C

    2014-10-01

    CL 316,243, a β3-adrenergic agonist, was developed as an antiobesity and diabetes drug and causes rapid decreases in blood glucose levels in mice. The mechanisms mediating this effect have not been fully elucidated; thus, the purpose of the current study was to examine the role of fatty acids and interleukin-6, reputed mediators of insulin secretion, in this process. To address this question, we used physiological and pharmacological approaches in combination with knockout mouse models. CL 316,243 treatment in male C57BL6 mice increased plasma fatty acids, glycerol, interleukin-6, and insulin and reduced blood glucose concentrations 2 h following injections. The ability of CL 316,243 to increase insulin and fatty acids and reduce glucose was preserved in interleukin-6-deficient mice. CL 316,243-induced drops in blood glucose occurred in parallel with increases in circulating fatty acids but prior to increases in plasma interleukin-6. CL 316,243-mediated increases in plasma insulin levels and reductions in blood glucose were attenuated when mice were pretreated with the lipase inhibitor nicotinic acid or in whole body adipose tissue triglyceride lipase knockout mice. Collectively, our findings demonstrate an important role for fatty acids in mediating the effects of CL 316,243 in mice. Not only do our results provide new insight into the mechanisms of action of CL 316,243, but they also hint at an unappreciated aspect of adipose tissue -pancreas cross-talk. PMID:25096179

  4. A comprehensive evaluation of strip performance in multiple blood glucose monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Katz, Laurence B; Macleod, Kirsty; Grady, Mike; Cameron, Hilary; Pfützner, Andreas; Setford, Steven

    2015-05-01

    Accurate self-monitoring of blood glucose is a key component of effective self-management of glycemic control. Accurate self-monitoring of blood glucose results are required for optimal insulin dosing and detection of hypoglycemia. However, blood glucose monitoring systems may be susceptible to error from test strip, user, environmental and pharmacological factors. This report evaluated 5 blood glucose monitoring systems that each use Verio glucose test strips for precision, effect of hematocrit and interferences in laboratory testing, and lay user and system accuracy in clinical testing according to the guidelines in ISO15197:2013(E). Performance of OneTouch(®) VerioVue™ met or exceeded standards described in ISO15197:2013 for precision, hematocrit performance and interference testing in a laboratory setting. Performance of OneTouch(®) Verio IQ™, OneTouch(®) Verio Pro™, OneTouch(®) Verio™, OneTouch(®) VerioVue™ and Omni Pod each met or exceeded accuracy standards for user performance and system accuracy in a clinical setting set forth in ISO15197:2013(E). PMID:25702769

  5. Magnesium enhances exercise performance via increasing glucose availability in the blood, muscle, and brain during exercise.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsuan-Ying; Cheng, Fu-Chou; Pan, Huan-Chuan; Hsu, Jaw-Cheng; Wang, Ming-Fu

    2014-01-01

    Glucose mobilization and utilization in the periphery and central nervous system are important during exercise and are responsible for exercise efficacy. Magnesium (Mg) is involved in energy production and plays a role in exercise performance. This study aimed to explore the effects of Mg on the dynamic changes in glucose and lactate levels in the muscle, blood and brain of exercising rats using a combination of auto-blood sampling and microdialysis. Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with saline or magnesium sulfate (MgSO4, 90 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min before treadmill exercise (20 m/min for 60 min). Our results indicated that the muscle, blood, and brain glucose levels immediately increased during exercise, and then gradually decreased to near basal levels in the recovery periods of both groups. These glucose levels were significantly enhanced to approximately two-fold (P<0.05) in the Mg group. Lactate levels in the muscle, blood, and brain rapidly and significantly increased in both groups during exercise, and brain lactate levels in the Mg group further elevated (P<0.05) than those in the control group during exercise. Lactate levels significantly decreased after exercise in both groups. In conclusion, Mg enhanced glucose availability in the peripheral and central systems, and increased lactate clearance in the muscle during exercise. PMID:24465574

  6. Blood glucose levels in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with sunitinib

    PubMed Central

    Billemont, B; Medioni, J; Taillade, L; Helley, D; Meric, J B; Rixe, O; Oudard, S

    2008-01-01

    Sunitinib, a multitargeted tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, extends survival of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) and gastrointestinal stromal tumours. Between October 2005 and March 2007, we retrospectively reviewed blood glucose level variations associated with sunitinib therapy in patients treated for mRCC. Nineteen of the patients had type II diabetes. All 19 patients had a decrease in blood glucose level (mean 1.77 mmol l−1) after 4 weeks of treatment. This was followed by re-elevation in the 2-week rest period. After two cycles of sunitinib administration, two patients had stopped blood glucose-lowering drugs whereas five other patients had normalised their blood glucose level. On the basis of pre-clinical data, we hypothesise that several mechanisms could be involved in this process, such as capillary regression of pancreatic islets, IGF-1 modulation through HIF1-α or NF-κB activation. In addition, a decrease of glucose uptake in the context of concomitant gastrointestinal toxicity cannot be excluded. Glycaemic control should be carefully evaluated in diabetic patients treated with sunitinib, and routine monitoring is warranted. PMID:18841151

  7. Determination of Blood Glucose Concentration by Using Wavelet Transform and Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Ashok, Vajravelu; Kumar, Nirmal

    2013-01-01

    Background: Early and non-invasive determination of blood glucose level is of great importance. We aimed to present a new technique to accurately infer the blood glucose concentration in peripheral blood flow using non-invasive optical monitoring system. Methods: The data for the research were obtained from 900 individuals. Of them, 750 people had diabetes mellitus (DM). The system was designed using a helium neon laser source of 632.8 nm wavelength with 5mW power, photo detectors and digital storage oscilloscope. The laser beam was directed through a single optical fiber to the index finger and the scattered beams were collected by the photo detectors placed circumferentially to the transmitting fiber. The received signals were filtered using band pass filter and finally sent to a digital storage oscilloscope. These signals were then decomposed into approximation and detail coefficients using modified Haar Wavelet Transform. Back propagation neural and radial basis functions were employed for the prediction of blood glucose concentration. Results: The data of 450 patients were randomly used for training, 225 for testing and the rest for validation. The data showed that outputs from radial basis function were nearer to the clinical value. Significant variations could be seen from signals obtained from patients with DM and those without DM. Conclusion: The proposed non-invasive optical glucose monitoring system is able to predict the glucose concentration by proving that there is a definite variation in hematological distribution between patients with DM and those without DM. PMID:23645958

  8. [Effect of glucose and swine blood on the effectiveness of the "SK" medium].

    PubMed

    Jóźwik, E; Kafel, S; Uradziński, J

    1990-01-01

    The effectiveness of the "SK" medium for growth of bacteria producing green discoloration in cured meat products was examined with the addition of various amounts of glucose (0.0%, 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.5% and 1.0%), pig blood (0.0%, 2.5% and 5.0%). It was found that pig blood in the medium was indispensable for growth and differentiation of the green-producing bacteria, and that its optimum concentration is 5%. The effectiveness of the medium was with addition of 0.1% glucose. PMID:2101179

  9. [Effect of glucose and swine blood on the effectiveness of the "SK" medium].

    PubMed

    Jóźwik, E; Kafel, S; Uradziński, J

    1990-01-01

    The effectiveness of the "SK" medium for growth of bacteria producing green discoloration in cured meat products was examined with the addition of various amounts of glucose (0.0%, 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.5% and 1.0%), pig blood (0.0%, 2.5% and 5.0%). It was found that pig blood in the medium was indispensable for growth and differentiation of the green-producing bacteria, and that its optimum concentration is 5%. The effectiveness of the medium was with addition of 0.1% glucose.

  10. Effects of different levels of coconut fiber on blood glucose, serum insulin and minerals in rats.

    PubMed

    Sindurani, J A; Rajamohan, T

    2000-01-01

    The effect of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) from coconut kernel (Cocos nucifera L) in rats fed 5%, 15% and 30% level on the concentration of blood glucose, serum insulin and excretion of minerals was studied. Increase in the intake of fiber resulted in significant decrease in the level of blood glucose and serum insulin. Faecal excretion of Cu, Cr, Mn, Mg, Zn and Ca was found to increase in rats fed different levels of coconut fiber when compared to fiber free group. The result of the present investigation suggest that inclusion of coconut fiber in the diet results in significant hypoglycemic action.

  11. The physiology of willpower: linking blood glucose to self-control.

    PubMed

    Gailliot, Matthew T; Baumeister, Roy F

    2007-11-01

    Past research indicates that self-control relies on some sort of limited energy source. This review suggests that blood glucose is one important part of the energy source of self-control. Acts of self-control deplete relatively large amounts of glucose. Self-control failures are more likely when glucose is low or cannot be mobilized effectively to the brain (i.e., when insulin is low or insensitive). Restoring glucose to a sufficient level typically improves self-control. Numerous self-control behaviors fit this pattern, including controlling attention, regulating emotions, quitting smoking, coping with stress, resisting impulsivity, and refraining from criminal and aggressive behavior. Alcohol reduces glucose throughout the brain and body and likewise impairs many forms of self-control. Furthermore, self-control failure is most likely during times of the day when glucose is used least effectively. Self-control thus appears highly susceptible to glucose. Self-control benefits numerous social and interpersonal processes. Glucose might therefore be related to a broad range of social behavior.

  12. [Gestational diabetes mellitus: importance of blood glucose monitoring].

    PubMed

    Flores Le-Roux, Juana A; Benaiges Boix, David; Pedro-Botet, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is common during pregnancy, and is frequently associated with maternal and perinatal complications. Intensive treatment of hyperglycaemia during pregnancy has been shown to reduce perinatal morbidity. In women with pregestational type 1 or 2 diabetes, hyperglycaemia during labour and delivery is an important factor in the development of neonatal hypoglycaemia. There are no generally accepted recommendations for women with GDM. Recent studies evaluating patients with GDM show that peripartum glucose control can be achieved in these women without the need for insulin use in the majority of cases. Hyperglycaemia during labour is not related with treatment established during pregnancy but rather with non-compliance of endocrinological follow-up. Factors such as ethnic origin, neonatal hypoxaemia, and large for gestational age seem to play an important role in the development of neonatal hypoglycaemia.

  13. The food and drug administration is now preparing to establish tighter performance requirements for blood glucose monitors.

    PubMed

    Klonoff, David C

    2010-05-01

    On March 16 and 17, 2010, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) presented a public meeting about blood glucose monitoring at the Gaithersberg Hilton Hotel. The meeting was intended to present expert opinions and solicit input from the public about whether to develop new regulatory policies for blood glucose monitors. The meeting was divided into three sections: (1) Clinical Accuracy Requirements for Blood Glucose Monitors, (2) Interferences and Limitations of Blood Glucose Monitors, and (3) Tight Glycemic Control. Many officials from the Center for Devices and Radiologic Health and the Office of In Vitro Diagnostic Devices, which are the parts of FDA that regulate approval of blood glucose monitors, either spoke on the agenda or attended in the audience. Approximately 300 people attended; they were mostly clinicians (such as adult endocrinologists, pediatric endocrinologists, internists, clinical chemists, intensivists, surgeons, nurses, and diabetes educators) or industry officials from companies involved in glucose monitoring, pharmaceutical products, data analysis, or regulatory consulting. PMID:20513313

  14. Classification of diabetes and measurement of blood glucose concentration noninvasively using near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhe; Li, Gang; Yan, Wen-Juan; Lin, Ling

    2014-11-01

    Developing noninvasive blood glucose monitoring method is an to immense need to alleviate the pain and suffering of diabetics associated with the frequent pricking of skin for taking blood sample. A hybrid algorithm for multivariate calibration is proposed to improve the prediction performance of classification of diabetes and measurement of blood glucose concentration by near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy noninvasively. The algorithm is based on wavelet prism modified uninformative variable elimination approach (WP-mUVE) combined with least squares support vector machine (LSSVM), named as WP-mUVE-LSSVM. The method is successfully applied to diabetic classification experiment (in vivo) and blood glucose concentration measurement experiment (in vivo) respectively. Human tongue is selected as the measuring site in this study. To evaluate effectiveness of pretreatment method and quality of calibration models, several usually used pretreatment methods and kernel functions of LSSVM are introduced comparing with our method. Higher quality data is obtained by our pretreatment method owing to the elimination of varying background and noise of spectra data simultaneously. Better prediction accuracy and adaptability are obtained by LSSVM model with radial basis kernel function. The results indicate that WP-mUVE-LSSVM holds promise for the classification of diabetes and measurement of blood glucose concentration noninvasively based on human tongue using NIR spectroscopy.

  15. PSECMAC intelligent insulin schedule for diabetic blood glucose management under nonmeal announcement.

    PubMed

    Teddy, S D; Quek, C; Lai, E M-K; Cinar, A

    2010-03-01

    Therapeutically, the closed-loop blood glucose-insulin regulation paradigm via a controllable insulin pump offers a potential solution to the management of diabetes. However, the development of such a closed-loop regulatory system to date has been hampered by two main issues: 1) the limited knowledge on the complex human physiological process of glucose-insulin metabolism that prevents a precise modeling of the biological blood glucose control loop; and 2) the vast metabolic biodiversity of the diabetic population due to varying exogneous and endogenous disturbances such as food intake, exercise, stress, and hormonal factors, etc. In addition, current attempts of closed-loop glucose regulatory techniques generally require some form of prior meal announcement and this constitutes a severe limitation to the applicability of such systems. In this paper, we present a novel intelligent insulin schedule based on the pseudo self-evolving cerebellar model articulation controller (PSECMAC) associative learning memory model that emulates the healthy human insulin response to food ingestion. The proposed PSECMAC intelligent insulin schedule requires no prior meal announcement and delivers the necessary insulin dosage based only on the observed blood glucose fluctuations. Using a simulated healthy subject, the proposed PSECMAC insulin schedule is demonstrated to be able to accurately capture the complex human glucose-insulin dynamics and robustly addresses the intraperson metabolic variability. Subsequently, the PSECMAC intelligent insulin schedule is employed on a group of type-1 diabetic patients to regulate their impaired blood glucose levels. Preliminary simulation results are highly encouraging. The work reported in this paper represents a major paradigm shift in the management of diabetes where patient compliance is poor and the need for prior meal announcement under current treatment regimes poses a significant challenge to an active lifestyle.

  16. Blood optical properties at various glucose level values in THz frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, S. I.; Borovkova, M. A.; Strepitov, M. A.; Khodzitsky, M. K.

    2015-07-01

    The number of diabetics is rapidly growing every day in all parts of the world. By the year 2010, the number of patients suffering from diabetes had amounted to more than 230 million people, which is estimated as 3.5% of the whole world adult population [1]. According to expert forecasts, this number is projected to double by the year 2025, which is going to be 7% of whole Earth population. It was calculated that every 10 seconds someone in the world dies due to diabetes and its complications, which is 3 million people per year. The average life expectancy of children with diabetes is less than 28.3 years of onset. Diabetes is considered to be the fourth most common cause of death in industrialized countries. Vascular complications due to diabetes cause early disability and high mortality. Mortality from heart diseases and strokes is 2-3 times more likely for patients suffering from diabetes, whereas blindness, nephropathy and lower limbs gangrene happen respectively 10, 12-15 times, and almost 20 times more often for diabetics than general population. The number and strength of complications depend directly on the blood glucose level control quality. At the moment, the blood glucose level measurements are performed by glucometers [2,3]. This method requires that a patient makes a finger puncture for every measurement. About five punctures per day should be done for proper glucose monitoring, which is about 1,800 punctures per year. Besides, each measurement by glucometer requires a distinct test strip. Expenses for 1,800 test strips could be estimated as about 450 euros per year. It is also necessary to take into account that each puncture has a risk of blood poisoning. Using non-invasive techniques for glucose level control could reduce the amount of possible risky manipulations by 1800 per year. Moreover, it is worth mentioning that only eight of ten fingers are suitable for puncturing, and the constant skin damage which cannot be avoided is quite annoying for

  17. Non-invasive in vitro sensing of D-glucose in pig blood.

    PubMed

    Melikyan, Harutyun; Danielyan, Emma; Kim, Seungwan; Kim, Jongchel; Babajanyan, Arsen; Lee, Jungha; Friedman, Barry; Lee, Kiejin

    2012-04-01

    We have developed an electromagnetic resonant spiral sensor and have measured the glycemia in pig blood and the concentration of D-glucose in aqueous solution by using a real-time electromagnetic interaction phenomenon between the microwave sensor and the liquid. We could determine the concentration of glucose with a minimal resolution of 5 mg/dl in the 100-600 mg/dl concentration range at operating frequencies of about 7.65 GHz (for the glucose aqueous solution) and 7.77 GHz (for the pig blood sample). The change in the glucose concentration brings the changes of the microwave reflection coefficient due to the electromagnetic interaction between the resonator and the glucose solution. The in vitro results show the measured signal-to-noise ratio of about 34 dB, and the minimum detectible signal level of about 0.022 dB/(mg/dl). Our proposed system provides a unique approach for non-invasive and non-contact glucose monitoring, and it may serve as a bloodless glucometer.

  18. Effect of training on the performance of blood glucose monitoring using a reagent strip (Glucoprofil).

    PubMed

    Chantelau, E; Starostina, E G; Antsiferov, M B

    1990-11-01

    A relatively simple, new test-strip for blood-glucose monitoring, the Glucoprofil strip with a reaction-zone of film-foil, was evaluated by testing 100 different blood glucose concentrations between 2.1 and 29.7 mmol/l. The results were obtained visually before and after training to read the color changes of the strip according to the scale on the strip-container. Plasma glucose measurements with the Beckman Glucose-Analyzer were used for reference. The results show that the Glucoprofil-strip readings correlated well with the reference method (r = 0.97), thorough training provided. The mean deviation of the strip results was less than 1 mmol/l. Similar results were obtained using another blood glucose strip, the Haemoglukotest 20-800 R. Our study indicates that the performance of the Glucoprofil strip is satisfactory, and hence the strip may be useful for clinical purposes. Consistent with previous reports we could demonstrate that training improved the reading results of the Glucoprofil strip.

  19. Design and In Vitro Interference Test of Microwave Noninvasive Blood Glucose Monitoring Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Heungjae; Naylon, Jack; Luzio, Steve; Beutler, Jan; Birchall, James; Martin, Chris; Porch, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    A design of a microwave noninvasive continuous blood glucose monitoring sensor and its interference test results are presented. The novelty of the proposed sensor is that it comprises two spatially separated split-ring resonators, where one interacts with the change in glucose level of a sample under test while the other ring is used as a reference. The reference ring has a slightly different resonant frequency and is desensitized to the sample owing to its location, thus allowing changes in temperature to be calibrated out. From an oral glucose tolerance test with two additional commercially available sensors (blood strip and continuous glucose monitor) in parallel, we obtained encouraging performance for our sensor comparable with those of the commercial sensors. The effects of endogenous interferents common to all subjects, i.e., common sugars, vitamins (ascorbic acid), and metabolites (uric acid) have also been investigated by using a large Franz cell assembly. From the interference test, it is shown that the change in sensor response is dominated by changes in glucose level for concentrations relevant to blood, and the effects of interferents are negligible in comparison. PMID:26568639

  20. Glucagon Receptor Blockade With a Human Antibody Normalizes Blood Glucose in Diabetic Mice and Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Haruka; Kim, Jinrang; Aglione, JohnPaul; Lee, Joseph; Cavino, Katie; Na, Erqian; Rafique, Ashique; Kim, Jee Hae; Harp, Joyce; Valenzuela, David M; Yancopoulos, George D; Murphy, Andrew J; Gromada, Jesper

    2015-08-01

    Antagonizing glucagon action represents an attractive therapeutic option for reducing hepatic glucose production in settings of hyperglycemia where glucagon excess plays a key pathophysiological role. We therefore generated REGN1193, a fully human monoclonal antibody that binds and inhibits glucagon receptor (GCGR) signaling in vitro. REGN1193 administration to diabetic ob/ob and diet-induced obese mice lowered blood glucose to levels observed in GCGR-deficient mice. In diet-induced obese mice, REGN1193 reduced food intake, adipose tissue mass, and body weight. REGN1193 increased circulating levels of glucagon and glucagon-like peptide 1 and was associated with reversible expansion of pancreatic α-cell area. Hyperglucagonemia and α-cell hyperplasia was observed in fibroblast growth factor 21-deficient mice treated with REGN1193. Single administration of REGN1193 to diabetic cynomolgus monkeys normalized fasting blood glucose and glucose tolerance and increased circulating levels of glucagon and amino acids. Finally, administration of REGN1193 for 8 weeks to normoglycemic cynomolgus monkeys did not cause hypoglycemia or increase pancreatic α-cell area. In summary, the GCGR-blocking antibody REGN1193 normalizes blood glucose in diabetic mice and monkeys but does not produce hypoglycemia in normoglycemic monkeys. Thus, REGN1193 provides a potential therapeutic modality for diabetes mellitus and acute hyperglycemic conditions. PMID:26020795

  1. Melatonin Signaling Controls the Daily Rhythm in Blood Glucose Levels Independent of Peripheral Clocks.

    PubMed

    Owino, Sharon; Contreras-Alcantara, Susana; Baba, Kenkichi; Tosini, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin is rhythmically secreted by both the pineal gland and retina in a circadian fashion, with its peak synthesis occurring during the night. Once synthesized, melatonin exerts its effects by binding to two specific G-protein coupled receptors-melatonin receptor type 1(MT1) and melatonin receptor type 2(MT2). Recent studies suggest the involvement of MT1 and MT2 in the regulation of glucose homeostasis; however the ability of melatonin signaling to impart timing cues on glucose metabolism remains poorly understood. Here we report that the removal of MT1 or MT2 in mice abolishes the daily rhythm in blood glucose levels. Interestingly, removal of melatonin receptors produced small effects on the rhythmic expression patterns of clock genes within skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue. Taken together, our data suggest that the loss of the daily rhythm in blood glucose observed in MT1(-/-) and MT2(-/-) mice does not occur as a consequence of 'disrupted' clocks within insulin sensitive tissues. Finally our results highlight a diurnal contribution of melatonin receptor signaling in the daily regulation of blood glucose levels.

  2. Functional identification of a neurocircuit regulating blood glucose

    PubMed Central

    Meek, Thomas H.; Nelson, Jarrell T.; Matsen, Miles E.; Dorfman, Mauricio D.; Guyenet, Stephan J.; Damian, Vincent; Allison, Margaret B.; Scarlett, Jarrad M.; Nguyen, Hong T.; Thaler, Joshua P.; Olson, David P.; Myers, Martin G.; Schwartz, Michael W.; Morton, Gregory J.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies implicate the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus (VMN) in glycemic control. Here, we report that selective inhibition of the subset of VMN neurons that express the transcription factor steroidogenic-factor 1 (VMNSF1 neurons) blocks recovery from insulin-induced hypoglycemia whereas, conversely, activation of VMNSF1 neurons causes diabetes-range hyperglycemia. Moreover, this hyperglycemic response is reproduced by selective activation of VMNSF1 fibers projecting to the anterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (aBNST), but not to other brain areas innervated by VMNSF1 neurons. We also report that neurons in the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN), a brain area that is also implicated in the response to hypoglycemia, make synaptic connections with the specific subset of glucoregulatory VMNSF1 neurons that project to the aBNST. These results collectively establish a physiological role in glucose homeostasis for VMNSF1 neurons and suggest that these neurons are part of an ascending glucoregulatory LPBN→VMNSF1→aBNST neurocircuit. PMID:27001850

  3. Protective coating and hyperthermal atomic oxygen texturing of optical fibers used for blood glucose monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of producing cones and pillars on polymethylmethacralate (PMMA) optical fibers for glucose monitoring. The method, in one embodiment, consists of using electron beam evaporation to deposit a non-contiguous thin film of aluminum on the distal ends of the PMMA fibers. The partial coverage of aluminum on the fibers is randomly, but rather uniformly distributed across the end of the optical fibers. After the aluminum deposition, the ends of the fibers are then exposed to hyperthermal atomic oxygen, which oxidizes the areas that are not protected by aluminum. The resulting PMMA fibers have a greatly increased surface area and the cones or pillars are sufficiently close together that the cellular components in blood are excluded from passing into the valleys between the cones and pillars. The optical fibers are then coated with appropriated surface chemistry so that they can optically sense the glucose level in the blood sample than that with conventional glucose monitoring.

  4. Non-invasive blood glucose monitoring with Raman spectroscopy: prospects for device miniaturization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wróbel, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    The number of patients with diabetes has reached over 350 million, and still continues to increase. The need for regular blood glucose monitoring sparks the interest in the development of modern detection technologies. One of those methods, which allows for noninvasive measurements, is Raman spectroscopy. The ability of infrared light to penetrate deep into tissues allows for obtaining measurements through the skin without its perforation. This paper presents the limitations and possibilities of non-invasive blood glucose monitoring with Raman spectroscopy. Especially focusing on the possibilities for device miniaturization. Such device incorporates a Raman spectrometer, a fiber-optical probe, and a computing device (microcontroller, smartphone, etc.) which calculates the glucose concentration using specialized algorithms. Simplification of device design, as well as turbidity correction technique and a new proposed method of synchronized detection are described.

  5. Blood glucose changes in diabetic children and adolescents engaged in most common sports activities.

    PubMed

    Corigliano, Gerardo; Iazzetta, Nicolangelo; Corigliano, Marco; Strollo, Felice

    2006-01-01

    Circulating insulin levels decrease and substrate glycogenolysis-mediated conversion into glucose increases just a few minutes after normal subjects start exercising, but during sustained physical activity muscles massively utilize blood glucose, thus causing glycogenolysis to increase further until the end of the session. After that, in order to get liver and muscle glycogen stores up to pre-exercise levels again, blood glucose is mostly utilized, thus causing late-onset hypoglycaemia in the absence of any extra carbohydrate supply and rebound hyperglycaemia after a while. This and other patho-physiological mechanisms are dealt with in the present paper, and practical hints are provided to the clinician to cope with children-specific adaptation phenomena to exercise in t1DM.

  6. The Effect of Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring Among Inmates With Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hunter Buskey, Robin N; Mathieson, Kathleen; Leafman, Joan S; Feinglos, Mark N

    2015-10-01

    The increasing prevalence and risk of complications from diabetes necessitate patient participation and attentiveness to select appropriate foods, perform regular physical activity, and be active in diabetes management and self-maintenance. Diabetes is often largely asymptomatic; consequently, early diagnosis and treatment are necessary. Inmates are a unique population challenged by the increased prevalence of chronic conditions including diabetes. Diabetes standards for inmates contain diagnostic and treatment management guidelines that incorporate personal glucose monitoring for insulin users. In December 2009, the Federal Bureau of Prisons initiated a program to distribute glucose meters to insulin-dependent inmates to facilitate self-monitoring blood glucose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of these glucose meters on hemoglobin A1c levels. PMID:26276137

  7. 75 FR 2549 - Clinical Accuracy Requirements for Point of Care Blood Glucose Meters; Public Meeting; Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Clinical Accuracy Requirements for Point of Care Blood Glucose Meters; Public Meeting; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public meeting; request for comments. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing...

  8. A Method for Manipulating Blood Glucose and Measuring Resulting Changes in Cognitive Accessibility of Target Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Prokosch, Marjorie L; Hill, Sarah E

    2016-01-01

    Much research in social psychology has investigated the impact of bodily energy need on cognition and decision-making. As such, blood glucose, the body's primary energy source, has been of special interest to researchers for years. Fluctuations in blood glucose have been linked to a variety of changes in cognitive and behavioral processes, such as self-control, political attitudes, and eating behavior. To help meet growing interest in the links between bodily energy need and these processes, this manuscript offers a simple methodology to experimentally manipulate blood glucose using a fasting procedure followed by administration of a sugar-sweetened, unsweetened, or artificially-sweetened beverage. This is followed by presentation of a method for measuring resulting changes in implicit cognition using a lexical decision-task. In this task, participants are asked to identify whether strings of letters are words or non-words and response latencies are recorded. Sample results from a recent publication are presented as an example of the applications for the experimental manipulation of blood glucose and the lexical decision task measures. PMID:27585282

  9. Comprehensive Experiment--Clinical Biochemistry: Determination of Blood Glucose and Triglycerides in Normal and Diabetic Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiao, Li; Xiujuan, Shi; Juan, Wang; Song, Jia; Lei, Xu; Guotong, Xu; Lixia, Lu

    2015-01-01

    For second year medical students, we redesigned an original laboratory experiment and developed a combined research-teaching clinical biochemistry experiment. Using an established diabetic rat model to detect blood glucose and triglycerides, the students participate in the entire experimental process, which is not normally experienced during a…

  10. Ultrasound-triggered regulation of blood glucose levels using injectable nano-network.

    PubMed

    Di, Jin; Price, Jennifer; Gu, Xiao; Jiang, Xiaoning; Jing, Yun; Gu, Zhen

    2014-06-01

    The integration of an injectable insulin-encapsulated nano-network with a focused ultrasound system (FUS) can remotely regulate insulin release both in vitro and in vivo. A single subcutaneous injection of the nano-network with intermittent FUS administration facilitates reduction of the blood glucose levels in type 1 diabetic mice for up to 10 d. PMID:24255016

  11. Blood Glucose Monitoring as a Teaching Tool for Endocrinology: A New Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moats, Robert K., II

    2009-01-01

    The education of new allied health professionals and nurses in proper endocrine evaluation and care has become critical in recent years, especially considering the greatly increased prevalence of diabetes in adults and children. The evaluation of blood glucose levels in human volunteers over time is a powerful teaching tool for endocrinology that…

  12. Correlations between blood glucose and breath components from portable gas sensors and PTR-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Righettoni, M; Schmid, A; Amann, A; Pratsinis, S E

    2013-09-01

    Acetone is one of the most abundant volatile compounds in the human breath and might be important for monitoring diabetic patients. Here, a portable acetone sensor consisting of flame-made, nanostructured, Si-doped WO3 sensing films was used to analyse the end tidal fraction of the breath (collected in Tedlar bags) from eight healthy volunteers after overnight fasting (morning) and after lunch (afternoon). After breath sampling, the gaseous components were also analysed by proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-TOF-MS), and each person's blood glucose level was measured. The portable sensor accurately detected the presence of acetone with fast response/recovery times (<12 s) and a high signal-to-noise ratio. Statistical analysis of the relationship between the PTR-TOF-MS measurements of breath gases (e.g., acetone, isoprene, ethanol and methanol), sensor response and the blood glucose level was performed for both sampling periods. The best correlations were found after overnight fasting (morning): in particular, between blood glucose level and breath acetone (Pearson's 0.98 and Spearman's 0.93). Whereas the portable sensor response correlated best with the blood glucose (Pearson's 0.96 and Spearman's 0.81) and breath acetone (Pearson's 0.92 and Spearman's 0.69). PMID:23959908

  13. Monitoring of glucose levels in mouse blood with noninvasive optical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, H.; Ahmed, E.; Ikram, M.

    2014-02-01

    We report the quantification/monitoring of glucose levels in a blood sample using optical diffuse reflectance (ODR) underlying variations in optical parameters with a white light source (at peak wavelength ˜600 nm and range 450-850 nm) and in blood in vivo using M-mode optical coherence tomography (OCT) in terms of the translational diffusion coefficient (DT). In the ODR experiments, we have investigated two types of mono-dispersive particles, i.e. polystyrene microspheres (PMSs) with diameters of 1.4 μm (variable concentrations) and 2.6 μm (fixed concentration) in a water phantom by observing changes in the reduced scattering coefficient. We believe that these differences in optical properties will be helpful for the understanding and optimal use of laser applications in blood glucometry without piercing the skin. In the OCT experiments, this idea of glucose monitoring was applied on an in vivo normal mouse without injection of glucose intravenously to provide the threshold levels by envisioning/identifying a blood vessel by speckle variance (SV-OCT) using a dorsal skinfold mouse windows chamber model. We report an average value of translation decorrelation time τT = 41.18 ± 1.92 ms and DT = 8.90 × 10-14 m2 s-1 underlying the dynamic light scattering (DLS). Our results have a potential application in the quantification of higher glucose levels in vivo administrated intravenously.

  14. Cinnamon intake lowers fasting blood glucose: an updated meta-analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVE – To determine if meta-analysis of recent clinical studies of cinnamon intake by people with Type II diabetes and/or prediabetes resulted in significant changes in fasting blood glucose. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS -- Published clinical studies were identified using a literature search (P...

  15. Radially oriented nanostrand electrodes to boost glucose sensing in mammalian blood.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Naeem; El-Safty, Sherif A; Abdelsalam, Mamdouh E; Shenashen, Mohamed A; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2016-03-15

    Architecture of nanoscale electrochemical sensors for ultra-trace detection of glucose in blood is important in real-life sampling and analysis. To broaden the application of electrochemical sensing of glucose, we fabricated, for the first time, a glucose sensor electrode based on radially oriented NiO nanostrands (NSTs) onto 3D porous Ni foam substrate for monitoring, as well as selective and sensitive sensing of glucose in mammalian blood. The simple, scalable one-pot fabrication of this NST-Ni sensor design enabled control of the pattern of radially oriented NSTs onto 3D porous Ni foam substrate. The radial orientation of NST-Ni electrode onto the interior of the 3D porous substrate with controlled crystal structure size and atomic arrangement along the axis of the strands, intrinsic surface defects, and superior surface properties, such as hydrophilicity, high surface energy, and high density led to highly exposed catalytic active sites. The hierarchical NST-Ni electrode was used to develop a sensitive and selective sensor over a wide range of glucose concentrations among actively competitive ions, chemical species and molecular agents, and multi-cyclic sensing assays. The NST-Ni electrode shows significant glucose sensing performance in terms of unimpeded diffusion pathways, a wide range of concentration detection, and lower limit of detection (0.186 µM) than NiO nanosheet (NS)-Ni foam electrode pattern, indicating the effectiveness of the shape-dependent structural architecture of NST-Ni electrode. In this study, the NST-Ni electrode is fabricated to develop a simple, selective method for detecting glucose in physiological fluids (e.g., mammalian blood). PMID:26496219

  16. Impairment of brain endothelial glucose transporter by methamphetamine causes blood-brain barrier dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Methamphetamine (METH), an addictive psycho-stimulant drug with euphoric effect is known to cause neurotoxicity due to oxidative stress, dopamine accumulation and glial cell activation. Here we hypothesized that METH-induced interference of glucose uptake and transport at the endothelium can disrupt the energy requirement of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) function and integrity. We undertake this study because there is no report of METH effects on glucose uptake and transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to date. Results In this study, we demonstrate that METH-induced disruption of glucose uptake by endothelium lead to BBB dysfunction. Our data indicate that a low concentration of METH (20 μM) increased the expression of glucose transporter protein-1 (GLUT1) in primary human brain endothelial cell (hBEC, main component of BBB) without affecting the glucose uptake. A high concentration of 200 μM of METH decreased both the glucose uptake and GLUT1 protein levels in hBEC culture. Transcription process appeared to regulate the changes in METH-induced GLUT1 expression. METH-induced decrease in GLUT1 protein level was associated with reduction in BBB tight junction protein occludin and zonula occludens-1. Functional assessment of the trans-endothelial electrical resistance of the cell monolayers and permeability of dye tracers in animal model validated the pharmacokinetics and molecular findings that inhibition of glucose uptake by GLUT1 inhibitor cytochalasin B (CB) aggravated the METH-induced disruption of the BBB integrity. Application of acetyl-L-carnitine suppressed the effects of METH on glucose uptake and BBB function. Conclusion Our findings suggest that impairment of GLUT1 at the brain endothelium by METH may contribute to energy-associated disruption of tight junction assembly and loss of BBB integrity. PMID:21426580

  17. Food intake and blood glucose in normal and diabetic cats fed ad libitum.

    PubMed

    Martin, G J; Rand, J S

    1999-12-01

    Ten diabetic cats were studied at intervals for up to 12 months with twice-daily insulin injections. Ten clinically healthy cats were also studied. Diets fed were based on the individual cat's performance, using mainly commercial dry or canned cat foods and fresh meat. In most cases more than one food was offered. Food was given fresh twice daily, and the cats allowed to eat ad libitum. The food intake and blood glucose were measured every 2 h in diabetic cats after insulin injection and in diabetic and normal cats without insulin injections. Food was quantified by the energy consumed (kJ ME), crude protein (g), crude fat (g), and carbohydrate (g). The blood glucose in 10 diabetic cats was measured for 2 h following a 20-min meal. Both diabetic cats and normal cats showed similar patterns of eating, with a higher food intake in the 2 h after fresh food was placed. Both groups of cats ate multiple small meals spread through the day and night. There was little or no correlation between the blood glucose and the amount of food consumed over the previous 2-h period, in insulin- or non-insulin-treated diabetic cats, or in normal cats. An overnight fast did not significantly alter morning blood glucose in diabetic cats. No demonstrable appetite stimulation occurred following an occurrence of low blood glucose; however, recorded incidences were few. No post-prandial hyperglycaemia was seen in the 10 diabetic cats during a 2-h period following the ingestion of typical cat foods.

  18. Effect of Dipyridamole Injected for Myocardial Perfusion Imaging on Blood Glucose Concentration; A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Arabi, Mohsen; Akhavein, Alireza; Seyedabadi, Mohammad; Eftekhari, Mansooreh; Javadi, Hamid; Nabipour, Iraj; Assadi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dipyridamole inhibits adenosine reuptake and increases cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate (cAMP) levels in platelets, erythrocytes and endothelial cells, all of which influence blood glucose. Acute hyperglycaemia reduces endothelium-dependent vasodilation and suppresses coronary microcirculation; which, in theory, can alter the outcome of a radionuclide scan. Aim The present study was conducted with the aim to investigate the changes in blood glucose level of patients receiving dipyridamole for cardiac scan. Materials and Methods A total of 293 patients (85 men and 208 women, age: 60.59±10.43 years) were included in the study. Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG) was measured before and 8 min after dipyridamole (0.568 mg/kg) injection during myocardial perfusion imaging. The data in different groups were analysed by paired t-test. Results There was not a significant difference between first (106.89 ± 19.21mg/dL) and second (107.98 ± 17.57 mg/dL) FBG measurements (p= 0.293). However, when the patients were grouped based on the quartiles of first measurement, there was an increase in FBG following dipyridamole injection in the first quartile (mean difference: 7.15±21.27 mg/dL, p<0.01); in contrast, FBG levels showed a significant decrease after dipyridamole administration in the 4th quartile (mean difference: -9.53±18.20 mg/dL, p<0.001). The differences in 2nd and 3rd quartiles were negligible. The patients were divided into normal, ischemic and fixed lesions based on the outcome of scans, then the possible correlation of dipyridamole-induced FBG alteration and scan results were investigated. There were no significant difference between the FBG values before and after dipyridamole injection and the final outcome of scan. Conclusion The effects of dipyridamole on blood glucose highly depend on the initial blood glucose level. PMID:27656528

  19. Performance Evaluation of Three Blood Glucose Monitoring Systems Using ISO 15197

    PubMed Central

    Bedini, José Luis; Wallace, Jane F.; Pardo, Scott; Petruschke, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Background: Blood glucose monitoring is an essential component of diabetes management. Inaccurate blood glucose measurements can severely impact patients’ health. This study evaluated the performance of 3 blood glucose monitoring systems (BGMS), Contour® Next USB, FreeStyle InsuLinx®, and OneTouch® Verio™ IQ, under routine hospital conditions. Methods: Venous blood samples (N = 236) obtained for routine laboratory procedures were collected at a Spanish hospital, and blood glucose (BG) concentrations were measured with each BGMS and with the available reference (hexokinase) method. Accuracy of the 3 BGMS was compared according to ISO 15197:2013 accuracy limit criteria, by mean absolute relative difference (MARD), consensus error grid (CEG) and surveillance error grid (SEG) analyses, and an insulin dosing error model. Results: All BGMS met the accuracy limit criteria defined by ISO 15197:2013. While all measurements of the 3 BGMS were within low-risk zones in both error grid analyses, the Contour Next USB showed significantly smaller MARDs between reference values compared to the other 2 BGMS. Insulin dosing errors were lowest for the Contour Next USB than compared to the other systems. Conclusions: All BGMS fulfilled ISO 15197:2013 accuracy limit criteria and CEG criterion. However, taking together all analyses, differences in performance of potential clinical relevance may be observed. Results showed that Contour Next USB had lowest MARD values across the tested glucose range, as compared with the 2 other BGMS. CEG and SEG analyses as well as calculation of the hypothetical bolus insulin dosing error suggest a high accuracy of the Contour Next USB. PMID:26445813

  20. Changes in blood glucose and plasma insulin levels induced by bradykinin in anaesthetized rats

    PubMed Central

    Damas, Jacques; Hallet, Claude; Lefebvre, Pierre J

    2001-01-01

    The influence of bradykinin (BK) on blood glucose and plasma insulin levels was investigated in anaesthetized rats. Blood glucose level was dose-dependently increased by intravenous infusion of BK. This effect of BK was enhanced by captopril, an inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Des-Arg9-bradykinin (DABK), a kinin B1 receptor agonist, did not modify blood glucose levels while the effect of BK was inhibited by Hoe-140, a kinin B2 receptor antagonist. The effect of BK was reduced by the NO-synthase inhibitor, Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), and by the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin. The effect of BK was suppressed by the association of propranolol with phentolamine or phenoxybenzamine. It was also reduced by hexamethonium, a ganglion-blocking drug. In adrenalectomized rats, the infusion of BK slightly decreased blood glucose levels. The hyperglycaemic effect of adrenaline was suppressed by propranolol associated with phentolamine or phenoxybenzamine, but it was not modified by L-NAME. Infusion of BK did not modify plasma insulin levels. However, after phentolamine and propranolol, BK induced a transient 2 fold rise in plasma insulin levels. The release of insulin was dose-dependent and inhibited by Hoe-140. We conclude that infusion of BK induces, via a stimulation of B2 receptors, the release of NO and of prostanoids. The latter agents activate through a reflex pathway the release of catecholamines from the adrenal medulla. This release increases blood glucose levels and reduces plasma insulin levels. After adrenoceptor inhibition, BK induces a secretion of insulin, via the stimulation of B2 receptors. PMID:11704652

  1. A novel automated discontinuous venous blood monitoring system for ex vivo glucose determination in humans.

    PubMed

    Schaller, R; Feichtner, F; Köhler, H; Bodenlenz, M; Plank, J; Wutte, A; Mader, J K; Ellmerer, M; Hellmich, R; Wedig, H; Hainisch, R; Pieber, T R; Schaupp, L

    2009-03-15

    Intensive insulin therapy reduces mortality and morbidity in critically ill patients but imposes great demands on medical staff who must take frequent blood samples for the determination of glucose levels. A solution to this resourcing problem would be provided by an automated blood monitoring system. The aim of the present clinical study was to evaluate such a system comprising an automatic blood sampling unit linked to a glucose biosensor. Our approach was to determine the correlation and system error of the sampling unit alone and of the combined system with respect to reference levels over 12h in humans. Two venous cannulae were inserted to connect the automatic and reference systems to the subjects. Blood samples were taken at 15 and 30 min intervals. The median Pearson coefficient of correlation between manually and automatically withdrawn blood samples was 0.982 for the sampling unit alone and 0.950 for the complete system. The biosensor had a linear range up to 20 mmoll(-1) and a 95% response time of <2 min. Clark Error Grid analysis showed that 96.93% of the data (228 data pairs) was in zone A and 3.07% in zone B. Insulin Titration Error Grid analysis suggested an acceptable treatment in 99.56% of cases. Implementation of a "Keep Vein Open" saline infusion into the automated blood sampling system reduced blood withdrawal failures through occluded catheters fourfold. In summary, automated blood sampling from a peripheral vein coupled with automatic glucose determination is a promising alternative to frequent manual blood sampling. PMID:19135351

  2. Calibration Experiments Conducted for Noninvasive Blood Glucose Sensing Through the Eye

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Bockle, Stefan; Suh, Kwang I.; Rovati, Luigi L.

    2004-01-01

    There are more than 16 million diabetics in the United States and more than 100 million worldwide. Diabetes can lead to severe complications over time such as blindness, renal and cardiovascular diseases, and peripheral neuropathy in the limbs. Poor blood circulation in diabetics can lead to gangrene and the subsequent amputation of extremities. In addition, this pathology is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States. The most effective way to manage diabetes is frequent blood glucose monitoring performed by the patients themselves. However, because of pain, inconvenience, and the fear of developing infections from finger-prick blood tests or implants, many patients monitor their blood glucose levels less frequently than is recommended by their physicians. Therefore, a noninvasive, painless, and convenient method to monitor blood glucose would greatly benefit diabetics. Likewise, detecting, preventing, and treating the untoward effects of prolonged space travel (e.g., a human mission to Mars) in real-time requires the development of noninvasive diagnostic technologies that are compact and powerful. As a "window to the body," the eye offers the opportunity to use light in various forms to detect ocular and systemic abnormalities long before clinical symptoms appear and to help develop preventative and therapeutic countermeasures early. The noninvasive feature of these technologies permits frequent repetition of tests, enabling an evaluation of the response to therapy.

  3. Analytical model for real time, noninvasive estimation of blood glucose level.

    PubMed

    Adhyapak, Anoop; Sidley, Matthew; Venkataraman, Jayanti

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents an analytical model to estimate blood glucose level from measurements made non-invasively and in real time by an antenna strapped to a patient's wrist. Some promising success has been shown by the RIT ETA Lab research group that an antenna's resonant frequency can track, in real time, changes in glucose concentration. Based on an in-vitro study of blood samples of diabetic patients, the paper presents a modified Cole-Cole model that incorporates a factor to represent the change in glucose level. A calibration technique using the input impedance technique is discussed and the results show a good estimation as compared to the glucose meter readings. An alternate calibration methodology has been developed that is based on the shift in the antenna resonant frequency using an equivalent circuit model containing a shunt capacitor to represent the shift in resonant frequency with changing glucose levels. Work under progress is the optimization of the technique with a larger sample of patients.

  4. A signal processing application for evaluating self-monitoring blood glucose strategies in a software agent model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhanle; Paranjape, Raman

    2015-07-01

    We propose the signal processing technique of calculating a cross-correlation function and an average deviation between the continuous blood glucose and the interpolation of limited blood glucose samples to evaluate blood glucose monitoring frequency in a self-aware patient software agent model. The diabetic patient software agent model [1] is a 24-h circadian, self-aware, stochastic model of a diabetic patient's blood glucose levels in a software agent environment. The purpose of this work is to apply a signal processing technique to assist patients and physicians in understanding the extent of a patient's illness using a limited number of blood glucose samples. A second purpose of this work is to determine an appropriate blood glucose monitoring frequency in order to have a minimum number of samples taken that still provide a good understanding of the patient's blood glucose levels. For society in general, the monitoring cost of diabetes is an extremely important issue, and these costs can vary tremendously depending on monitoring approaches and monitoring frequencies. Due to the cost and discomfort associated with blood glucose monitoring, today, patients expect monitoring frequencies specific to their health profile. The proposed method quantitatively assesses various monitoring protocols (from 6 times per day to 1 time per week) in nine predefined categories of patient agents in terms of risk factors of health status and age. Simulation results show that sampling 6 times per day is excessive, and not necessary for understanding the dynamics of the continuous signal in the experiments. In addition, patient agents in certain conditions only need to sample their blood glucose 1 time per week to have a good understanding of the characteristics of their blood glucose. Finally, an evaluation scenario is developed to visualize this concept, in which appropriate monitoring frequencies are shown based on the particular conditions of patient agents. This base line can

  5. The use of silicon microfabrication technology in painless blood glucose monitoring.

    PubMed

    Smart, W H; Subramanian, K

    2000-01-01

    A unique minimally invasive system for painless blood testing is now being commercialized for measurement of blood glucose concentration by diabetics. The novel component of this system, a consumable microsampling and assay device, consists of a tough, flexible silicon microneedle comparable in cross-section to a human hair integrated with a silicon microcuvette. This microneedle is capable of reliably taking a very small sample of whole blood completely painlessly, unlike sticks with the much larger metal lancet that must be used in all other current systems. The device permits a one-step process that avoids the need to transfer blood from a skin puncture to a test strip, thus minimizing blood required and possible mess. The small hand-held instrument containing the consumable is touched to the skin of the arm or any other part of the body, not necessarily the tip of the finger, and held there for one second. During this time, the microneedle is advanced and then withdrawn under microprocessor control, puncturing the skin and drawing less than 200 nanoliters of blood into the microcuvette, where the assay is performed automatically. The instrument calculates the blood glucose concentration, displays the result, and holds it in memory for recall. The consumable is produced by silicon microelectromechanical systems technology and can be produced in high volume at low unit cost. This technology shows promise of being extended to other analytes and to continuous monitoring.

  6. Glucose tolerance, blood lipid, insulin and glucagon concentration after single or continuous administration of aspartame in diabetics.

    PubMed

    Okuno, G; Kawakami, F; Tako, H; Kashihara, T; Shibamoto, S; Yamazaki, T; Yamamoto, K; Saeki, M

    1986-04-01

    A nutritive sweetener, aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methylester) was administered orally to normal controls and diabetic patients in order to evaluate effects on blood glucose, lipids and pancreatic hormone secretion. An oral glucose tolerance test was also performed in the same subjects as a control study of aspartame administration. In 7 normal controls and 22 untreated diabetics, a single dose of 500 mg aspartame, equivalent to 100 g glucose in sweetness, induced no increase in blood glucose concentration. Rather, a small but significant decrease in blood glucose was noticed 2 or 3 h after administration. The decrease in blood glucose was found to be smallest in the control and became greater as the diabetes increased in severity. No significant change in blood insulin or glucagon concentration during a 3-h period was observed in either the controls or the diabetics. The second study was designed to determine the effects of 2 weeks' continuous administration of 125 mg aspartame, equal in sweetness to the mean daily consumption of sugar (20-30 g) in Japan, to 9 hospitalized diabetics with steady-state glycemic control. The glucose tolerance showed no significant change after 2 weeks' administration. Fasting, 1 h and 2 h postprandial blood glucose, blood cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol were also unaffected. From these and other published results, aspartame would seem to be a useful alternative nutrient sweetener for patients with diabetes mellitus.

  7. New Criteria for Assessing the Accuracy of Blood Glucose Monitors meeting, October 28, 2011.

    PubMed

    Walsh, John; Roberts, Ruth; Vigersky, Robert A; Schwartz, Frank

    2012-03-01

    Glucose meters (GMs) are routinely used for self-monitoring of blood glucose by patients and for point-of-care glucose monitoring by health care providers in outpatient and inpatient settings. Although widely assumed to be accurate, numerous reports of inaccuracies with resulting morbidity and mortality have been noted. Insulin dosing errors based on inaccurate GMs are most critical. On October 28, 2011, the Diabetes Technology Society invited 45 diabetes technology clinicians who were attending the 2011 Diabetes Technology Meeting to participate in a closed-door meeting entitled New Criteria for Assessing the Accuracy of Blood Glucose Monitors. This report reflects the opinions of most of the attendees of that meeting. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the public, and several medical societies are currently in dialogue to establish a new standard for GM accuracy. This update to the FDA standard is driven by improved meter accuracy, technological advances (pumps, bolus calculators, continuous glucose monitors, and insulin pens), reports of hospital and outpatient deaths, consumer complaints about inaccuracy, and research studies showing that several approved GMs failed to meet FDA or International Organization for Standardization standards in postapproval testing. These circumstances mandate a set of new GM standards that appropriately match the GMs' analytical accuracy to the clinical accuracy required for their intended use, as well as ensuring their ongoing accuracy following approval. The attendees of the New Criteria for Assessing the Accuracy of Blood Glucose Monitors meeting proposed a graduated standard and other methods to improve GM performance, which are discussed in this meeting report.

  8. Monitoring of glucose, salt and pure water in human whole blood: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Imran, Muhammad; Ullah, Hafeez; Akhtar, Munir; Sial, Muhammad Aslam; Ahmed, Ejaz; Durr-E-Sabeeh; Ahmad, Mukhtar; Hussain, Fayyaz

    2016-07-01

    Designing and implementation of non-invasive methods for glucose monitoring in blood is main focus of biomedical scientists to provide a relief from skin puncturing of diabete patient. The objective of this research work is to investigate the shape deformations and the aggregation of red blood cells (RBCs) in the human blood after addition of three different analytes i) (0mM-400mM: Range) of glucose (C(6)H(12)O(6)), ii) (0mM-400mM: range) of pure salt (NaCl) and iii) (0mM- 350mM: range) of pure water (H(2)O). We have observed that the changes in the shape of individual cells from biconcave discs to spherical shapes and eventually the lysis of the cells at optimum concentration of glucose, salts and pure water. This demonstration also provides a base line to facilitate diabetes during partial diagnosis and monitoring of the glucose levels qualitatively both in research laboratories and clinical environment. PMID:27393437

  9. Big brains and blood glucose: common ground for diabetes mellitus in humans and healthy dolphins.

    PubMed

    Venn-Watson, Stephanie K; Ridgway, Sam H

    2007-08-01

    Healthy Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) have a sustained postprandial hyperglycemia, producing a prolonged glucose tolerance curve and a transient, diabetes mellitus-like state during 6 to 72 h of fasting. To further assess dolphins as comparative models for diabetes in humans, we hypothesized that a suite of hematological and clinical biochemistry changes during the fasting state may mimic those reported in humans with diabetes. We conducted a retrospective analysis of covariance to compare fasting and nonfasting hematologic and serum biochemical data, including 1161 routine blood samples from 52 healthy bottlenose dolphins (age, 1 to 49 y; male and female) collected during 1998 through 2005. Most changes found in dolphins during the fasting state--including significantly increased glucose, platelets, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and alkaline phosphatase; significantly decreased serum uric acid; and shifts toward a metabolic acidodic state (significantly increased blood CO2)--have been previously associated with diabetes mellitus in humans. Therefore, healthy bottlenose dolphins may be the first complete and natural comparative animal model for diabetes mellitus in humans. Similarities between dolphins and humans, including metabolic changes associated with high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets; large brain-to-mass ratios; high central nervous system demands for glucose; and similarly unique blood glucose-carrying capacities should be further assessed to better understand the potential evolutionary paths of diabetes mellitus in these 2 species.

  10. Silica-dispersed glucose oxidase for glucose sensing: in vitro testing in serum and blood and the effect of condensation pH

    PubMed Central

    Harris, James M.; Lopez, Gabriel P.; Reichert, William M.

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the feasibility of using glucose oxidase (GOx) dispersed in a silica matrix for glucose monitoring in whole blood, and then to assess whether the flexibility of silica sol-gel chemistry could be exploited to enhance glucose sensor performance and stability. Silica-dispersed GOx was deployed on platinized platinum (Pt) wire to form a Clark-type amperometric glucose sensor. Sensors were calibrated using buffered glucose standard solutions, and then tested against glucose spiked human serum and whole blood. All serum and whole blood measurements met the minimum FDA requirement of falling within the “A+B region” of a Clark Error Grid. To our knowledge this is the first report of using silica-dispersed GOx to measure glucose in whole blood. The effect of condensation pH on sensor performance was assessed by dispersing GOx in silica condensed at pH 3, 7 and 12, and then testing the sensor response against glucose calibration standards. The pH 12 silica sensors had statistically faster response time, and higher sensor sensitivity compared to pH 7, pH 3 silica and glutaraldehyde crosslinked sensors. Membranes of the pH 12 silica had statistically higher glucose diffusion coefficient than did the pH 7 and 3 sensors. GOx dispersed in pH 12 silica also had the longest half life. We hypothesize that the gel-like pH 12 silica gels provided reduced barriers to glucose diffusion, and the more aqueous microenvironment provided greater stability for the enzyme. PMID:23024461

  11. Influence of hemorrhage on adrenal secretion, blood glucose and serum insulin in the awake pig.

    PubMed Central

    Carey, L C; Curtin, R; Sapira, J D

    1976-01-01

    A study was performed to quantitate the adrenal medullary and cortical response to hemorrhage in awake animals bled at different rates and to relate these responses to simultaneous changes in blood glucose and serum insulin. A series of awake pigs were bled either slowly or rapidly of 30% of their calculated blood volume. Infusions of exogenous epinephrine were performed in an additional series of unbled animals and infusions of epinephrine plus hydrocortisone were similarly performed in an additonal series. Increase in blood glucose and epinephrine secretion rate following hemorrhage were found to be significantly dependent upon the rate of initial hemorrhage. Cortisol secretion was found to rise significantly during and following hemorrhage in both rapidly and slowly bled animals. Serum insulin levels remained at baseline levels during shock, despite the presence of significant hyperglycemia. In unbled animals infused with epinephrine at rates comparable to those measured in shock, elevations in blood glucose were markedly lower, shifting to the right of the dose-response curve during hemorrhage. Simultaneous infusions of cortisol and epinephrine resulted in a dose-response curve which did not differ significantly from that following infusion of epinephrine alone. Images Fig. 2. PMID:1247317

  12. Blood concentrations of amino acids, glucose and lactate during experimental swine dysentery.

    PubMed

    Jonasson, R; Essén-Gustavsson, B; Jensen-Waern, M

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine blood concentrations of amino acids, glucose and lactate in association with experimental swine dysentery. Ten pigs (approximately 23kg) were orally inoculated with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. Eight animals developed muco-haemorrhagic diarrhoea with impaired general appearance, changes in white blood cell counts and increased levels of the acute phase protein Serum Amyolid A. Blood samples were taken before inoculation, during the incubation period, during clinical signs of dysentery and during recovery. Neither plasma glucose nor lactate concentrations changed during the course of swine dysentery, but the serum concentrations of gluconeogenic non-essential amino acids decreased during dysentery. This was mainly due to decreases in alanine, glutamine, serine and tyrosine. Lysine increased during dysentery and at the beginning of the recovery period, and leucine increased during recovery. Glutamine, alanine and tyrosine levels show negative correlations with the numbers of neutrophils and monocytes. In conclusion, swine dysentery altered the blood concentrations of amino acids, but not of glucose or lactate.

  13. Performance Evaluation and Labeling Comprehension of a New Blood Glucose Monitoring System with Integrated Information Management

    PubMed Central

    List, Susan M; Starks, Nykole; Baum, John; Greene, Carmine; Pardo, Scott; Parkes, Joan L; Schachner, Holly C; Cuddihy, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Background This study evaluated performance and product labeling of CONTOUR® USB, a new blood glucose monitoring system (BGMS) with integrated diabetes management software and a universal serial bus (USB) port, in the hands of untrained lay users and health care professionals (HCPs). Method Subjects and HCPs tested subject's finger stick capillary blood in parallel using CONTOUR USB meters; deep finger stick blood was tested on a Yellow Springs Instruments (YSI) glucose analyzer for reference. Duplicate results by both subjects and HCPs were obtained to assess system precision. System accuracy was assessed according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15197:2003 guidelines [within ±15 mg/dl of mean YSI results (samples <75 mg/dl) and ±20% (samples ≥75 mg/dl)]. Clinical accuracy was determined by Parkes error grid analysis. Subject labeling comprehension was assessed by HCP ratings of subject proficiency. Key system features and ease-of-use were evaluated by subject questionnaires. Results All subjects who completed the study (N = 74) successfully performed blood glucose measurements, connected the meter to a laptop computer, and used key features of the system. The system was accurate; 98.6% (146/148) of subject results and 96.6% (143/148) of HCP results exceeded ISO 15197:2003 criteria. All subject and HCP results were clinically accurate (97.3%; zone A) or associated with benign errors (2.7%; zone B). The majority of subjects rated features of the BGMS as “very good” or “excellent.” Conclusions CONTOUR USB exceeded ISO 15197:2003 system performance criteria in the hands of untrained lay users. Subjects understood the product labeling, found the system easy to use, and successfully performed blood glucose testing. PMID:22027308

  14. Anemia, Blood Transfusion Requirements and Mortality Risk in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Adults Requiring Acute Medical Admission to Hospital in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kerkhoff, Andrew D.; Lawn, Stephen D.; Schutz, Charlotte; Burton, Rosie; Boulle, Andrew; Cobelens, Frank J.; Meintjes, Graeme

    2015-01-01

    Background. Morbidity and mortality remain high among hospitalized patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in sub-Saharan Africa despite widespread availability of antiretroviral therapy. Severe anemia is likely one important driver, and some evidence suggests that blood transfusions may accelerate HIV progression and paradoxically increase short-term mortality. We investigated the relationship between anemia, blood transfusions, and mortality in a South African district hospital. Methods. Unselected consecutive HIV-infected adults requiring acute medical admission to a Cape Town township district hospital were recruited. Admission hemoglobin concentrations were used to classify anemia severity according to World Health Organization/AIDS Clinical Trials Group criteria. Vital status was determined at 90 days, and Cox regression analyses were used to determine independent predictors of mortality. Results. Of 585 HIV-infected patients enrolled, 578 (98.8%) were included in the analysis. Anemia was detected in 84.8% of patients and was severe (hemoglobin, 6.5–7.9 g/dL) or life-threatening (hemoglobin, <6.5 g/dL) in 17.3% and 13.3%, respectively. Within 90 days of the date of admission, 13.5% (n = 78) patients received at least 1 blood transfusion with red cell concentrate and 77 (13.3%) patients died. In univariable analysis, baseline hemoglobin and receipt of blood transfusion were associated with increased mortality risk. However, in multivariable analysis, neither hemoglobin nor receipt of a blood transfusion were independently associated with greater mortality risk. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome-defining illnesses other than tuberculosis and impaired renal function independently predicted mortality. Conclusions. Newly admitted HIV-infected adults had a high prevalence of severe or life-threatening anemia and blood transfusions were frequently required. However, after adjustment for confounders, blood transfusions did not confer an

  15. The business of self-monitoring of blood glucose: a market profile.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Mark D

    2009-09-01

    The market for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) approached $8.8 billion worldwide in 2008. Yet despite dramatic double-digit growth in sales of SMBG products since 1980, the business is now facing declining prices and slower dollar growth. Given that SMBG meters and test strips are viewed by consumers and insurers as essentially generic products, it will be extremely challenging for new market entrants to displace well-entrenched existing competitors without a truly innovative technology. Also, in the face of declining glucose test strip prices, market expansion can only occur through identification of more of the undiagnosed diabetes population and convincing existing diabetes patients to adopt glucose testing or to test more frequently. Ultimately, a combination of technology innovations, patient education, and economic incentives may be needed to significantly expand the SMBG market and build sustainable long-term dollar growth for SMBG vendors.

  16. Point-of-Care Blood Glucose Testing for Diabetes Care in Hospitalized Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Glycemic control in hospitalized patients with diabetes requires accurate near-patient glucose monitoring systems. In the past decade, point-of-care blood glucose monitoring devices have become the mainstay of near-patient glucose monitoring in hospitals across the world. In this article, we focus on its history, accuracy, clinical use, and cost-effectiveness. Point-of-care devices have evolved from 1.2 kg instruments with no informatics to handheld lightweight portable devices with advanced connectivity features. Their accuracy however remains a subject of debate, and new standards for their approval have now been issued by both the International Organization for Standardization and the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. While their cost-effectiveness remains to be proved, their clinical value for managing inpatients with diabetes remains unchallenged. This evidence-based review provides an overall view of its use in the hospital setting. PMID:25355711

  17. High activity enables life on a high-sugar diet: blood glucose regulation in nectar-feeding bats.

    PubMed

    Kelm, Detlev H; Simon, Ralph; Kuhlow, Doreen; Voigt, Christian C; Ristow, Michael

    2011-12-01

    High blood glucose levels caused by excessive sugar consumption are detrimental to mammalian health and life expectancy. Despite consuming vast quantities of sugar-rich floral nectar, nectar-feeding bats are long-lived, provoking the question of how they regulate blood glucose. We investigated blood glucose levels in nectar-feeding bats (Glossophaga soricina) in experiments in which we varied the amount of dietary sugar or flight time. Blood glucose levels increased with the quantity of glucose ingested and exceeded 25 mmol l(-1) blood in resting bats, which is among the highest values ever recorded in mammals fed sugar quantities similar to their natural diet. During normal feeding, blood glucose values decreased with increasing flight time, but only fell to expected values when bats spent 75 per cent of their time airborne. Either nectar-feeding bats have evolved mechanisms to avoid negative health effects of hyperglycaemia, or high activity is key to balancing blood glucose levels during foraging. We suggest that the coevolutionary specialization of bats towards a nectar diet was supported by the high activity and elevated metabolic rates of these bats. High activity may have conferred benefits to the bats in terms of behavioural interactions and foraging success, and is simultaneously likely to have increased their efficiency as plant pollinators.

  18. High activity enables life on a high-sugar diet: blood glucose regulation in nectar-feeding bats

    PubMed Central

    Kelm, Detlev H.; Simon, Ralph; Kuhlow, Doreen; Voigt, Christian C.; Ristow, Michael

    2011-01-01

    High blood glucose levels caused by excessive sugar consumption are detrimental to mammalian health and life expectancy. Despite consuming vast quantities of sugar-rich floral nectar, nectar-feeding bats are long-lived, provoking the question of how they regulate blood glucose. We investigated blood glucose levels in nectar-feeding bats (Glossophaga soricina) in experiments in which we varied the amount of dietary sugar or flight time. Blood glucose levels increased with the quantity of glucose ingested and exceeded 25 mmol l−1 blood in resting bats, which is among the highest values ever recorded in mammals fed sugar quantities similar to their natural diet. During normal feeding, blood glucose values decreased with increasing flight time, but only fell to expected values when bats spent 75 per cent of their time airborne. Either nectar-feeding bats have evolved mechanisms to avoid negative health effects of hyperglycaemia, or high activity is key to balancing blood glucose levels during foraging. We suggest that the coevolutionary specialization of bats towards a nectar diet was supported by the high activity and elevated metabolic rates of these bats. High activity may have conferred benefits to the bats in terms of behavioural interactions and foraging success, and is simultaneously likely to have increased their efficiency as plant pollinators. PMID:21490011

  19. Opium can differently alter blood glucose, sodium and potassium in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Karam, Gholamreza Asadi; Rashidinejad, Hamid Reza; Aghaee, Mohammad Mehdi; Ahmadi, Jafar; Rahmani, Mohammad Reza; Mahmoodi, Mehdi; Azin, Hosein; Mirzaee, Mohammad Reza; Khaksari, Mohammad

    2008-04-01

    To determine the effects of opium on serum glucose, potassium and sodium in male and female Wistar rat, opium solution (60 mg/kg) injected intraperitoneally and the same volume of distilled water was used as control (7 rats in each group). Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, 120, 240 and 360 minutes after injection from orbit cavity and the values of serum glucose, sodium (Na(+)) and potassium (K(+)) were measured. The data were then analyzed by the repeated measure ANOVA based on sex and case-control group. P < 0.05 considered as significant difference. Serum glucose increased significantly at 30, 60, 120 and 240 minutes after opium solution injection, in female rats compared to a control group. However, the male rats had this rise at 30, 60 and 120 minutes after opium solution injection compared to control group. While serum glucose in male rats was significantly higher than females at 30, 60 and 120 minutes, this value was higher in the female rats at 360 minutes. Therefore, serum glucose alterations following opium injection was significantly different in groups and in the sexes at different times. Sodium (Na(+)) rose at 60, 240 and 360 minutes significantly in all rats compared to control group. However, sodium alteration following opium injection was significantly different only between treated and control groups but sex-independent at all times. Potassium (K(+)) increased significantly at 60, 120, 240 and 360 minutes in male rats, compared to a control group. In female rats K(+) significantly raised at 30, 120, 240 and 360 minutes. Therefore, the alteration of K(+) in male and female rats was found time dependent and sex independent. According to our results, opium increased serum glucose in male and female rats differently, and it interferes with metabolic pathways differently on a gender dependent basis. Opium raised serum Na(+) and K(+), thus it interfere with water regulation and blood pressure via different mechanism.

  20. Antihyperglycemic effect of Persea duthieion blood glucose levels and body weight in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Khushbakht; Zakir, Muhammad; Khan, Haroon; Khan, Ihsaan Ullah; Ayaz, Sultan; Khan, Iqbal; Khan, Jafar; Khan, Murad Ali

    2016-05-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the antihyperglycemic effect of Persea duthieion blood glucose concentration and body weight in alloxan induced diabetic hyperglycemic rabbits. The results illustrated significant antihyperglycemic activity of crude extract with 17.44% and 28.02% amelioration at 25 and 50mg/kg p.o. respectively after 24th day of drug treatment; equally supported by body weight recovery. Upon fractionation, most dominant antihyperglycemic effect was displayed by aqueous fraction with 22.12% and 34.43% effect followed by ethyl acetate fraction with 24.32% and 32.05% effect at 25 and 50mg/kg p.o. respectively after 24th day of drug treatment. The effect on blood glucose was also reflected on body weight of animals. In conclusion, our study documented marked antihyperglycemic activity of extract/fractions of P. duthiei. PMID:27166552

  1. Effects of long duration exercise on cognitive function, blood glucose, and counterregulatory hormones in male cyclists.

    PubMed

    Grego, Fabien; Vallier, Jean-Marc; Collardeau, Maya; Bermon, Stéphane; Ferrari, Patricia; Candito, Mirande; Bayer, Pascale; Magnié, Marie-Noëlle; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2004-07-01

    Electrocortical effects of long duration exercise on cognitive function were investigated by analyzing P300 amplitude and latency changes during a 3-h cycling exercise. P300 components were measured in 12 well-trained cyclists and blood glucose, cortisol, insulin, glycerol, and free fatty acids (FFAs) epinephrine and norepinephrine were analyzed. Results indicated that P300 components were affected by exercise with a temporary increase in amplitude between the 1st and the 2nd hour and an increase in latency after 2 h of exercise concomitant with some hormonal changes, including an increase in cortisol and epinephrine and a decrease in blood glucose. These findings suggest a combined effect of arousal and central fatigue on electrocortical indices of cognitive function during acute physical exercise. PMID:15196681

  2. Antihyperglycemic effect of Persea duthieion blood glucose levels and body weight in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Khushbakht; Zakir, Muhammad; Khan, Haroon; Khan, Ihsaan Ullah; Ayaz, Sultan; Khan, Iqbal; Khan, Jafar; Khan, Murad Ali

    2016-05-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the antihyperglycemic effect of Persea duthieion blood glucose concentration and body weight in alloxan induced diabetic hyperglycemic rabbits. The results illustrated significant antihyperglycemic activity of crude extract with 17.44% and 28.02% amelioration at 25 and 50mg/kg p.o. respectively after 24th day of drug treatment; equally supported by body weight recovery. Upon fractionation, most dominant antihyperglycemic effect was displayed by aqueous fraction with 22.12% and 34.43% effect followed by ethyl acetate fraction with 24.32% and 32.05% effect at 25 and 50mg/kg p.o. respectively after 24th day of drug treatment. The effect on blood glucose was also reflected on body weight of animals. In conclusion, our study documented marked antihyperglycemic activity of extract/fractions of P. duthiei.

  3. Diabetes, insulin-mediated glucose metabolism and Sertoli/blood-testis barrier function

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Marco G.; Martins, Ana D.; Cavaco, José E.; Socorro, Sílvia; Oliveira, Pedro F.

    2013-01-01

    Blood testis barrier (BTB) is one of the tightest blood-barriers controlling the entry of substances into the intratubular fluid. Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is an epidemic metabolic disease concurrent with falling fertility rates, which provokes severe detrimental BTB alterations. It induces testicular alterations, disrupting the metabolic cooperation between the cellular constituents of BTB, with dramatic consequences on sperm quality and fertility. As Sertoli cells are involved in the regulation of spermatogenesis, providing nutritional support for germ cells, any metabolic alteration in these cells derived from DM may be responsible for spermatogenesis disruption, playing a crucial role in fertility/subfertility associated with this pathology. These cells have a glucose sensing machinery that reacts to hormonal fluctuations and several mechanisms to counteract hyper/hypoglycemic events. The role of DM on Sertoli/BTB glucose metabolism dynamics and the metabolic molecular mechanisms through which DM and insulin deregulation alter its functioning, affecting male reproductive potential will be discussed. PMID:24665384

  4. Scale space methods for analysis of type 2 diabetes patients' blood glucose values.

    PubMed

    Skrøvseth, Stein Olav; Godtliebsen, Fred

    2011-01-01

    We describe how scale space methods can be used for quantitative analysis of blood glucose concentrations from type 2 diabetes patients. Blood glucose values were recorded voluntarily by the patients over one full year as part of a self-management process, where the time and frequency of the recordings are decided by the patients. This makes a unique dataset in its extent, though with a large variation in reliability of the recordings. Scale space and frequency space techniques are suited to reveal important features of unevenly sampled data, and useful for identifying medically relevant features for use both by patients as part of their self-management process, and provide useful information for physicians. PMID:21436873

  5. Scale Space Methods for Analysis of Type 2 Diabetes Patients' Blood Glucose Values

    PubMed Central

    Skrøvseth, Stein Olav; Godtliebsen, Fred

    2011-01-01

    We describe how scale space methods can be used for quantitative analysis of blood glucose concentrations from type 2 diabetes patients. Blood glucose values were recorded voluntarily by the patients over one full year as part of a self-management process, where the time and frequency of the recordings are decided by the patients. This makes a unique dataset in its extent, though with a large variation in reliability of the recordings. Scale space and frequency space techniques are suited to reveal important features of unevenly sampled data, and useful for identifying medically relevant features for use both by patients as part of their self-management process, and provide useful information for physicians. PMID:21436873

  6. Garlic intake lowers fasting blood glucose: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Hou, Li-qiong; Liu, Yun-hui; Zhang, Yi-yi

    2015-01-01

    Garlic is a common spicy flavouring agent also used for certain therapeutic purposes. Garlic's effects on blood glucose have been the subject of many clinical and animal studies, however, studies reporting hypoglycemic effects of garlic in humans are conflicting. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify relevant trials of garlic or garlic extracts on markers of glycemic control [fasting blood glucose (FBG), postprandial glucose (PPG), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c)]. A meta-analysis of the effect of garlic intake on human was done to assess garlic's effectiveness in lowering glucose levels. Two reviewers extracted data from each of the identified studies. Seven eligible randomized controlled trials with 513 subjects were identified. Pooled analyses showed that garlic intake results in a statistically significant lowering in FBG [SMD=-1.67; 95% CI (-2.80, -0.55), p=0.004]. Our pooled analyses did not include PPG control and HbA1c outcomes. Because only 1 study included in the meta-analysis reported PPG variables and only 2 studies reported HbA1c variables. In conclusion, the current meta-analysis showed that the administration of garlic resulted in a significant reduction in FBG concentrations. More trials are needed to investigate the effectiveness of garlic on HbA1c and PPG.

  7. Variations in Postprandial Blood Glucose Responses and Satiety after Intake of Three Types of Bread

    PubMed Central

    Lunde, Marianne S. H.; Hjellset, Victoria T.; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd; Høstmark, Arne T.

    2011-01-01

    Background. The magnitude and duration of postprandial blood glucose (PPG) elevations are important risk factors of diabetes and coronary heart diseases. Aim. To study PPG after ingestion of breads with and without pea fibre and rapeseed oil. Methods. After fasting overnight, 10 Pakistani immigrant women participated in three experiments having a crossover design and involving ingestion of various types of bread: regular coarse bread or fibre enriched-bread with two levels of rapeseed oil, all providing 25 g available carbohydrates (CHO). Blood glucose and satiety were determined before the meal and every 15 min over the next 2 hours. Results. Intake of an amount of pea fibre-enriched bread containing 25 g CHO attenuated, the postprandial peak glucose value, the incremental area under the glucose versus time curve during 15 to 75 min, and the glycemic profile, and increased duration of satiety (P < .05), as compared with intake of regular bread with 25 g carbohydrate. Conclusion. Pea fibre-enriched breads can reduce PPG and prolong satiety. PMID:21773021

  8. Fraction SX of maitake mushroom favorably influences blood glucose levels and blood pressure in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Preuss, Harry G; Echard, Bobby; Fu, Jia; Perricone, Nicholas V; Bagchi, Debasis; Kaylor, Mark; Zhuang, Cun

    2012-10-01

    We assessed whether fraction SX derived from maitake mushroom could play a beneficial role in the treatment of a laboratory model of type-1 diabetes by decreasing circulating glucose levels and lowering blood pressure (BP). We injected 50 mg/kg body weight (BW) streptozotocin (STZ) intraperitoneally (i.p.) into 48 male Sprague-Dawley rats (SD) to produce a laboratory model of type-1 diabetes. SD were divided into four groups of 12 SD. A control group ate straight pulverized rat chow. To three treatment groups, we added into the pulverized rat chow: gliclazide (10 mg/kg), pioglitazone (10-30 mg/kg), or maitake SX (2.5 g/kg). In addition to measuring BW, circulating glucose level, and BP, the following procedures were also carried out: insulin challenge (insulin sensitivity), losartan challenge (renin-angiotensin system activity), Nw-nitro-L arginine-methyl ester hydrochloride (LNAME) challenge (nitric oxide [NO] system activity), and evaluation of serum angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity. All treatments compared with control generally decreased circulating glucose levels, but only the maitake SX consistently enhanced measured insulin sensitivity. We found that maitake SX could significantly lower systolic blood pressure (SBP) in diabetic SD. In general, only SD receiving maitake SX, not the two drugs, showed decreased activity of the renin-angiotensin system and increased NO system activity compared with control under the conditions examined. Our results suggest that maitake SX may be useful for treating perturbations in glucose-insulin metabolism and elevated BP in type-1 diabetes.

  9. Effects of cabergoline on blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Bahar, Adele; Kashi, Zahra; Daneshpour, Ezzatossadat; Akha, Ozra; Ala, Shahram

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Cabergoline is a long-acting agonist of dopamine, which has a high affinity to dopamine receptors (type 2). Treatment using a dopaminergic agonist reduces hypothalamic stimulation that increases during liver gluconeogenesis, lipids synthesis, and insulin resistance. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of cabergoline on blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods: This study was a double-blind, controlled clinical trial in patients with type 2 DM. The patients received treatments of a placebo (control group; n = 20) or cabergoline 0.5 mg (cabergoline group; n = 20) using the sequential method, once per week for 3 months, while using previously prescribed glucose-lowering drugs. All tests, such as levels of fasting blood glucose, 2-hour post-prandial glucose, complete lipid profile, prolactin, alanine amino transferase, aspartate amino transferase, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and serum insulin, and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance were measured at baseline and at 3-month follow-up. Results: The fasting blood sugar levels were significantly different between placebo and cabergoline groups after 3 months of treatment (P = 0.004). The prolactin levels were significantly different from beginning of the treatment to 6 months later (P = 0.001). In the cabergoline group, there was a significant decrease in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) levels after 3 months (P = 0.003). Overall, 65%and 45% patients in the cabergoline and control groups, respectively, responded to treatment (HbA1C<7%). Conclusion: Cabergoline may be useful as a long-acting antidiabetic agent in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:27749534

  10. Diurnal Variation in Oral Glucose Tolerance: Blood Sugar and Plasma Insulin Levels Morning, Afternoon, and Evening

    PubMed Central

    Jarrett, R. J.; Baker, I. A.; Keen, H.; Oakley, N. W.

    1972-01-01

    Twenty-four subjects received three oral glucose tolerance tests, in the morning, afternoon, and evening of separate days. The mean blood sugar levels in the afternoon and evening tests were similar, and they were both significantly higher than those in the morning test. Plasma immunoreactive insulin levels, however, were highest in the morning test. The pattern of insulin levels during the afternoon and evening tests resembled that described as typical of maturity-onset diabetes. PMID:5058728

  11. Blood glucose regulation in diabetics. A flatness based nonlinear control simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocha, Guillermo; Podestá, Melina; Mazzadi, Alejandro; Amorena, Carlos; D'Atellis, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Flat systems are a generalization of linear systems, but the techniques used for controlling flat systems are much different than many of the existing techniques for linear systems. In this paper we present the flatness-based control of blood glucose regulation in human system. A non-near model, he Bergman Minimal Model, is used o represent he dynamics of blood regulation in humans and because of the flatness property, he system variables can be expressed as functions of he at output and heir time derivatives and a control aw developed.

  12. Method for Texturing Surfaces of Optical Fiber Sensors Used for Blood Glucose Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Disclosed is a method and the resulting product thereof comprising a solid light-conducting fiber with a point of attachment and having a textured surface site consisting a textured distal end prepared by being placed in a vacuum and then subjected to directed hyperthermal beams comprising oxygen ions or atoms. The textured distal end comprises cones or pillars that are spaced upon from each other by less than 1 micron and are extremely suitable to prevent cellular components of blood from entering the valleys between the cones or pillars so as to effectively separate the cellular components in the blood from interfering with optical sensing of the glucose concentration for diabetic patients.

  13. Energetic atomic and ionic oxygen textured optical surfaces for blood glucose monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Disclosed is a method and the resulting product thereof comprising a solid light-conducting fiber with a point of attachment and having a textured surface site consisting a textured distal end prepared by being placed in a vacuum and then subjected to directed hyperthermal beams comprising oxygen ions or atoms. The textured distal end comprises cones or pillars that are spaced upon from each other by less than 1 micron and are extremely suitable to prevent cellular components of blood from entering the valleys between the cones or pillars so as to effectively separate the cellular components in the blood from interfering with optical sensing of the glucose concentration for diabetic patients.

  14. [Effects of cactus, alove veral, momorcica charantia on reducing the blood glucose of diabetic mice].

    PubMed

    Lin, X; Shen, X; Long, Z; Yang, Q

    2001-07-01

    The effects of cactus, alove veral and momorcica charantia on reducing the blood glucose level of mice were observed. The diabetic model with no symptom in mice was established by injection of streptozotocin(STZ) 80 mg/kg BW into abdominal cavity for 11 days. The diabetic mice were randomly divided into 8 groups: STZ diabetic model, diet A, diet B, cactus, alove veral, momordica charantia and glyburide groups. Cactus (60 g/kg BW), alove veral (60 g/kg BW), and momordica charantia (30 g/kg BW) were administrated orally each day to the diabetic mice for another 21 days. Serum glucose of mice fasting for 12 hours and 2 hours after meal was determined with the method of glucose-oxidase at the 21th day of the experiment. The results showed that serum glucose levels of diabetic mice were significantly higher than the normal control group (P < 0.01). After giving diet A, cactus, alove veral and momorcica charantia juice for 21 days, the serum glucose concentration of these diabetic mice were significantly lower than STZ diabetic model group (P < 0.01) but still higher than the normal control group.

  15. Influence of reversible obesity on eating behavior, blood glucose, and insulin in the rat.

    PubMed

    Steffens, A B

    1975-06-01

    Excessive food intake, resulting in extreme obesity, was induced in rats by electrical stimulation (three 30-min sessions per day for 3 wk) of the lateral hypothalamus (LH). Outside the stimulation sessions no voluntary food intake occurred duringthese weeks. In the subsequent recovery period, accurate records of spontaneous feeding were made. Blood levels of glucose, insulin, and free fatty acids (FFA)were determined during the stimulation period as well as the recovery period. Duringfeeding elicited by electrical stimulation of the LH in the obese phase, there was alarge increase in the glucose level. The insulin level, very high in the intervals between the stimulation sessions, showed no change, a small decline, or a large decrease,respectively, during stimulation in the morning, the afternoon, or the night. If food was withheld during stimulation, there was a large increase in the glucose level and alarge decrease in the insulin level. The first spontaneous meal after the termination of stimulation was extremely postponed, viz, until the glucose and insulin levels returned to normal for the first time. The insulin response to the first spontaneous mealwas exaggerated. Although in the following period (about 10 days) a rapid decrease inbody weight occurred, food intake was only minimal. The insulin level was high and the glucose levelsubnormal during that period. The insulin and glucose levels were normal again only after recovery of normal body weight and food intake. It is tentatively concluded that the regulation of body energy stores (body weight) is achieved through the control of food intake by circulating insulin and glucose levels.

  16. Effects of laser acupoint irradiation on blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui-Hui, Liu; Guo-Xin, Xiong; Li-Ping, Zhang

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the effects of semiconductor laser acupoint irradiation on blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and physical fitness in type 2 diabetes mellitus, 44 cases of type 2 diabetic patients were randomly divided into a control group and a treatment group. All patients in both groups were given a drug treatment. The Hegu, Quchi and Zusanli acupoints of patients in the treatment group were then irradiated daily for 15 d with a 10 MW semiconductor laser. Before and after treatment, patients in both groups underwent a variety of tests and measurements: a two-hour postprandial blood glucose test; a glycosylated hemoglobin test and body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and body fat percentage (BFP) measurements. The data detected after treatment greatly decreased in the treatment group and was significantly different from that in the control group. It is shown that the acupoint irradiation with a semiconductor laser can improve two-hour postprandial blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and some physical fitness measurements in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

  17. Effect of Iranian Honey bee (Apis mellifera) Venom on Blood Glucose and Insulin in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Seyyedeh Mahbubeh; Imani, Sohrab; Haghighi, Saeid; Mousavi, Seyyedeh Elaheh; Karimi, Akbar

    2012-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is an important disease. This disease is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from perturbation in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. Honey bee venom contains a wide range of polypeptide agents. The principle components of bee venom are mellitin and phospholipase A2. These components increase insulin secretion from the β-cells of pancreas. This study was conducted to show the hypoglycemic effect of honey bee venom on alloxan induced diabetic male rats. Methods: Eighteen adult male rats weighting 200±20 g were placed into 3 randomly groups: control, alloxan monohydrate-induced diabetic rat and treated group that received honey bee venom daily before their nutrition for four months. Forty eight hours after the last injection, blood was collected from their heart, serum was dissented and blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride and total cholesterol were determined. Results: Glucose serum, triglyceride and total cholesterol level in treated group in comparison with diabetic group was significantly decreased (P< 0.01). On the other hand, using bee venom causes increase in insulin serum in comparison with diabetic group (P< 0.05). Conclusion: Honeybee venom (apitoxin) can be used as therapeutic option to lower blood glucose and lipids in diabetic rats. PMID:23378971

  18. Identification of informative bands in the short-wavelength NIR region for non-invasive blood glucose measurement

    PubMed Central

    Uwadaira, Yasuhiro; Ikehata, Akifumi; Momose, Akiko; Miura, Masayo

    2016-01-01

    The “glucose-linked wavelength” in the short-wavelength near-infrared (NIR) region, in which the light intensity reflected from the hand palm exhibits a good correlation to the blood glucose value, was investigated. We performed 391 2-h carbohydrate tolerance tests (CTTs) using 34 participants and a glucose-linked wavelength was successfully observed in almost every CTT; however, this wavelength varied between CTTs even for the same person. The large resulting data set revealed the distribution of the informative wavelength. The blood glucose values were efficiently estimated by a simple linear regression with clinically acceptable accuracies. The result suggested the potential for constructing a personalized low-invasive blood glucose sensor using short-wavelength NIR spectroscopy. PMID:27446701

  19. Acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on blood glucose and polysomnography levels in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Kido, Megumi; Asakawa, Akihiro; Koyama, Ken-Ichiro K; Takaoka, Toshio; Tajima, Aya; Takaoka, Shigeru; Yoshizaki, Yumiko; Okutsu, Kayu; Takamine, Kazunori T; Sameshima, Yoshihiro; Inui, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Background. Alcohol consumption is a lifestyle factor associated with type 2 diabetes. This relationship is reportedly different depending on the type of alcohol beverage. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on biochemical parameters, physical and emotional state, and sleep patterns. Methods. Six healthy subjects (three men and three women; age, 28.8 ± 9.5 years; body mass index, 21.4 ± 1.6 kg/m(2)) consumed three different types of alcohol beverages (beer, shochu, and sake, each with 40 g ethanol) or mineral water with dinner on different days in the hospital. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, and 12 h after drinking each beverage, and assessments of physical and emotional state were administered at the same time. In addition, sleep patterns and brain waves were examined using polysomnography. Results. Blood glucose levels at 1 h and the 12-h area under the curve (AUC) value after drinking shochu were significantly lower than that with water and beer. The 12-h blood insulin AUC value after drinking shochu was significantly lower than that with beer. Blood glucose × insulin level at 1 h and the 2-h blood glucose × insulin AUC value with shochu were significantly lower than that with beer. The insulinogenic indexes at 2 h with beer and sake, but not shochu, were significantly higher than that with water. The visual analogue scale scores of physical and emotional state showed that the tipsiness levels with beer, shochu, and sake at 1 h were significantly higher than that with water. These tipsiness levels were maintained at 2 h. The polysomnography showed that the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep latency with shochu and sake were shorter than that with water and beer. Conclusions. Acute consumption of alcohol beverages with a meal resulted in different responses in postprandial glucose and insulin levels as well as REM sleep latency. Alcohol beverage type should be taken into consideration

  20. Acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on blood glucose and polysomnography levels in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kido, Megumi; Asakawa, Akihiro; Koyama, Ken-Ichiro K.; Takaoka, Toshio; Tajima, Aya; Takaoka, Shigeru; Yoshizaki, Yumiko; Okutsu, Kayu; Takamine, Kazunori T.; Sameshima, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Background. Alcohol consumption is a lifestyle factor associated with type 2 diabetes. This relationship is reportedly different depending on the type of alcohol beverage. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on biochemical parameters, physical and emotional state, and sleep patterns. Methods. Six healthy subjects (three men and three women; age, 28.8 ± 9.5 years; body mass index, 21.4 ± 1.6 kg/m2) consumed three different types of alcohol beverages (beer, shochu, and sake, each with 40 g ethanol) or mineral water with dinner on different days in the hospital. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, and 12 h after drinking each beverage, and assessments of physical and emotional state were administered at the same time. In addition, sleep patterns and brain waves were examined using polysomnography. Results. Blood glucose levels at 1 h and the 12-h area under the curve (AUC) value after drinking shochu were significantly lower than that with water and beer. The 12-h blood insulin AUC value after drinking shochu was significantly lower than that with beer. Blood glucose × insulin level at 1 h and the 2-h blood glucose × insulin AUC value with shochu were significantly lower than that with beer. The insulinogenic indexes at 2 h with beer and sake, but not shochu, were significantly higher than that with water. The visual analogue scale scores of physical and emotional state showed that the tipsiness levels with beer, shochu, and sake at 1 h were significantly higher than that with water. These tipsiness levels were maintained at 2 h. The polysomnography showed that the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep latency with shochu and sake were shorter than that with water and beer. Conclusions. Acute consumption of alcohol beverages with a meal resulted in different responses in postprandial glucose and insulin levels as well as REM sleep latency. Alcohol beverage type should be taken into consideration

  1. Clinical review: Consensus recommendations on measurement of blood glucose and reporting glycemic control in critically ill adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The management reporting and assessment of glycemic control lacks standardization. The use of different methods to measure the blood glucose concentration and to report the performance of insulin treatment yields major disparities and complicates the interpretation and comparison of clinical trials. We convened a meeting of 16 experts plus invited observers from industry to discuss and where possible reach consensus on the most appropriate methods to measure and monitor blood glucose in critically ill patients and on how glycemic control should be assessed and reported. Where consensus could not be reached, recommendations on further research and data needed to reach consensus in the future were suggested. Recognizing their clear conflict of interest, industry observers played no role in developing the consensus or recommendations from the meeting. Consensus recommendations were agreed for the measurement and reporting of glycemic control in clinical trials and for the measurement of blood glucose in clinical practice. Recommendations covered the following areas: How should we measure and report glucose control when intermittent blood glucose measurements are used? What are the appropriate performance standards for intermittent blood glucose monitors in the ICU? Continuous or automated intermittent glucose monitoring - methods and technology: can we use the same measures for assessment of glucose control with continuous and intermittent monitoring? What is acceptable performance for continuous glucose monitoring systems? If implemented, these recommendations have the potential to minimize the discrepancies in the conduct and reporting of clinical trials and to improve glucose control in clinical practice. Furthermore, to be fit for use, glucose meters and continuous monitoring systems must match their performance to fit the needs of patients and clinicians in the intensive care setting. See related commentary by Soto-Rivera and Agus, http://ccforum.com/content/17

  2. Spectroscopic imaging of blood vessels only near the skin surface for non-invasive blood glucose measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Masaru; Sato, Shun; Abeygunawardhana, Pradeep K. W.; Suzuki, Satoru; Nishiyama, Akira; Wada, Kenji; Ishimaru, Ichiro

    2015-07-01

    To realize the non-invasive blood glucose measurement, it will be effective to acquire the spectroscopic imaging of blood vessels only near the skin surface for eliminating other biological-component's disturbances. Our proposed imaging-type 2-dimensional Fourier spectroscopic imaging can limit the measuring depth into focal plane with high light detection sensitivity. Thus, the proposed method will be suitable for measuring only near the skin surface with detecting weak reflected light from inner biomembrane. But reflectance of skin surface is more than 1000 times larger than inner skin's reflectance. Paying attention on Fresnel reflection, fingers what were illuminated by p-polarized beam from Brewster's angle were observed with crossed-Nicol dark field optics. We successfully acquired spectroscopic characteristics of hemoglobin at vein area near the skin surface.

  3. [GLUCOSE CONTENT FLUCTUATION IN BLOOD OF NEWBORN RATS DEPENDING ON SEASON AND PATTERN OF SPONTANEOUS MOTOR ACTIVITY].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, N N; Selina, E N

    2015-01-01

    Earlier we have shown that in newborn rats the glucose level in blood serum changes depending on the pattern of spontaneous periodic motor activity (SPMA). During rest periods, both under dominant decasecond rhythm and under dominant minute rhythm, the glucose level in blood serum is higher than during activity periods. We have also shown that the glucose level in the blood serum rises with age reaching the level of adult animals by day 10. In the present study carried out on 3-10-day-old rats under conditions of free behavior the blood glucose content was investigated in different periods of cycle during different seasons. It is found that in newborn rats of all ages studied (3-, 5-, 7-, and 10-day-old ones) the lowest glucose concentration in the blood is observed in the winter period. In spring its level increases and in summer reaches the maximum different significantly from the winter and spring levels in all age groups except day 5. In autumn the glucose level decreases and approaches the spring values but it is still different from the winter indices. In 5-day-old rats statistically significant differences of glucose levels in different seasons were not observed. The data obtained provide evidence of seasonal fluctuations of the glucose level in blood serum of newborn rats. At the same time during all seasons except spring the dependence of glucose level on the pattern of motor activity persists. In spring these differences are smoothed. Key words: ontogenesis, motor activity, metabolic factors, glucose, seasonal variations. PMID:26856074

  4. Performance of two updated blood glucose monitoring systems: an evaluation following ISO 15197:2013.

    PubMed

    Pleus, Stefan; Baumstark, Annette; Rittmeyer, Delia; Jendrike, Nina; Haug, Cornelia; Freckmann, Guido

    2016-05-01

    Objective For patients with diabetes, regular self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is essential to ensure adequate glycemic control. Therefore, accurate and reliable blood glucose measurements with SMBG systems are necessary. The international standard ISO 15197 describes requirements for SMBG systems, such as limits within which 95% of glucose results have to fall to reach acceptable system accuracy. The 2013 version of this standard sets higher demands, especially regarding system accuracy, than the currently still valid edition. ISO 15197 can be applied by manufacturers to receive a CE mark for their system. Research design and methods This study was an accuracy evaluation following ISO 15197:2013 section 6.3 of two recently updated SMBG systems (Contour * and Contour TS; Bayer Consumer Care AG, Basel, Switzerland) with an improved algorithm to investigate whether the systems fulfill the requirements of the new standard. For this purpose, capillary blood samples of approximately 100 participants were measured with three test strip lots of both systems and deviations from glucose values obtained with a hexokinase-based comparison method (Cobas Integra † 400 plus; Roche Instrument Center, Rotkreuz, Switzerland) were determined. Percentages of values within the acceptance criteria of ISO 15197:2013 were calculated. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02358408). Main outcome Both updated systems fulfilled the system accuracy requirements of ISO 15197:2013 as 98.5% to 100% of the results were within the stipulated limits. Furthermore, all results were within the clinically non-critical zones A and B of the consensus error grid for type 1 diabetes. Conclusions The technical improvement of the systems ensured compliance with ISO 15197 in the hands of healthcare professionals even in its more stringent 2013 version. Alternative presentation of system accuracy results in radar plots provides additional information with certain advantages. In addition

  5. The effect of moderate glycemic energy bar consumption on blood glucose and mood in dancers.

    PubMed

    Brown, Derrick; Wyon, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    Ingesting quality carbohydrates has been shown to be essential for dancers. Given that most dance classes take place in the morning, it has been recommended that dancers eat a well-balanced breakfast containing carbohydrates, fats, and protein as a means of fuelling this activity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a moderate glycemic index energy (MGI) bar or a fasting condition on dancers' blood glucose levels and perceived pleasure-displeasure response during the first dance class of the day. In a randomized counterbalanced design, 10 female preprofessional dance students took their regular scheduled contemporary dance class, on four separate occasions. On each occasion, they consumed either a commercially prepared carbohydrate (CHO)-dense energy bar (47.3 g CHO) or water (FAST). Plasma glucose responses and pleasure-displeasure affect were measured before and at two time points during the class. Dancers who consumed the MGI bar had significantly greater peak blood glucose levels at all time points than those who fasted (p<0.05). Regarding affective state measures, participants who had breakfast had significantly greater pleasure scores than those who only ingested water(p<0.05). In conclusion, results suggest that CHO with an MGI value positively impacts blood glucose concentrations during a dance class. Further, we conclude that skipping breakfast can have an unfavorable effect on the pleasure-displeasure state of dancers. These findings highlight the impact of breakfast on how one feels, as well as the physiological and metabolic benefits of CHO as an exogenous energy source in dancers. PMID:24647459

  6. The Effect of Abelmoschus Esculentus on Blood Levels of Glucose in Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Khosrozadeh, Maryam; Heydari, Naval; Abootalebi, Malihe

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that results in hyperglycemia. According to the statistics of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), this problem has a fast growing prevalence and, unfortunately, leaves permanent complications on different body systems. For this reasons, nowadays attentions has been paid to the traditional medicine such as Okra (Abelmoscus esculentus). The aim of this study was the evaluation of the effect of Okra (Abelmoscus esculentus) on blood levels of glucose in diabetes. Methods: This is a review article, which was obtained by a search in databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, and Magiran by using keywords such as diabetes, Okra, and hypoglycemic effect. Results: Various studies on Okra (Abelmoscus esculentus) showed that Abelmoscus esculentus (AE)/Okra extract has a hypoglycemic effect that helps decrease blood glucose level. Its properties can be a useful remedy to manage diabetes mellitus. In addition, it leads to inhibition of cholesterol absorption and subsequently decreases the level of lipid and fat in the blood. The results of an investigation on diabetic mice by using this material has shown the same effect and confirmed this conclusion. Conclusion: Based on the positive effects of Okra on reducing blood sugar level, the widespread use of this plant is recommended. Clearly, further research is required. PMID:27516694

  7. An enzymatic glucose/O2 biofuel cell operating in human blood.

    PubMed

    Cadet, Marine; Gounel, Sébastien; Stines-Chaumeil, Claire; Brilland, Xavier; Rouhana, Jad; Louerat, Frédéric; Mano, Nicolas

    2016-09-15

    Enzymatic biofuel cells (BFCs) may power implanted medical devices and will rely on the use of glucose and O2 available in human bodily fluids. Other than well-established experiments in aqueous buffer, little work has been performed in whole human blood because it contains numerous inhibiting molecules. Here, we tested our BFCs in 30 anonymized, random and disease-free whole human blood samples. We show that by designing our anodic and cathodic bioelectrocatalysts with osmium based redox polymers and home-made enzymes we could reach a high selectivity and biofunctionnality. After optimization, BFCs generate power densities directly proportional to the glycaemia of human blood and reached a maximum power density of 129µWcm(-2) at 0.38V vs. Ag/AgCl at 8.22mM glucose. This is to our knowledge the highest power density attained so far in human blood and open the way for the powering of integrated medical feedback loops. PMID:27107143

  8. Involvement of α(2)-adrenergic receptor in the regulation of the blood glucose level induced by immobilization stress.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yu-Jung; Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Sharma, Naveen; Suh, Hong-Won

    2015-01-01

    The blood glucose profiles were characterized after mice were forced into immobilization stress with various exposure durations. The blood glucose level was significantly enhanced by immobilization stress for 30 min or 1 h, respectively. On the other hand, the blood glucose level was not affected in the groups which were forced into immobilization stress for 2 or 4 h. We further examined the effect of yohimbine (an α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist) administered systemically or centrally in the immobilization stress model. Mice were pretreated intraperitoneally (i.p.; from 0.5 to 5 mg/kg), intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.; from 1 to 10 µg/5 µl), or intrathecally (i.t.; from 1 to 10 µg/5 µl) with yohimbine for 10 min and then, forced into immobilization stress for 30 min. The blood glucose level was measured right after immobilization stress. We found that up-regulation of the blood glucose level induced by immobilization stress was abolished by i.p. pretreatment with yohimbine. And the immobilization stress-induced blood glucose level was not inhibited by i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with yohimbine at a lower dose (1 µg/5 µl). However, immobilization stress-induced blood glucose level was significantly inhibited by i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with yohimbine at higher doses (5 and 10 µg/5 µl). In addition, the i.p. (5 mg/kg), i.c.v. (10 µg/5 µl), or i.t. (10 µg/5 µl) pretreatment with yohimbine reduced hypothalamic glucose transporter 4 expression. The involvement of α2-adrenergic receptor in regulation of immobilization stress- induced blood glucose level was further confirmed by the i.p, i.c.v, or i.t pretreatment with idazoxan, another specific α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist. Finally, i.p., i.c.v., or i.t. pretreatment with yohimbine attenuated the blood glucose level in D-glucose-fed model. We suggest that α2-adrenergic receptors located at the peripheral, the brain and the spinal cord play important roles in the up

  9. Control of blood glucose in a group of diabetic scuba divers.

    PubMed

    Edge, C J; Grieve, A P; Gibbons, N; O'Sullivan, F; Bryson, P

    1997-09-01

    A preliminary study to examine the hypothesis that the ability of well-controlled (defined as no hypoglycemic episodes within the last 12 mo., HbAlc < 9.0%, and none of the long-term complications of diabetes type I) diabetic scuba divers to control their serum glucose and dive without becoming hypoglycemic during a simulated dive to 27 meters of seawater in controlled environment is impaired. An open, controlled, crossover study compared blood glucose levels, hematocrits, and hematologic cell counts in a group of eight type I diabetic scuba divers to those from eight age- and sex-matched, normoglycemic control scuba divers. Each diver did one simulated dive and one control exercise on the surface on 2 consecutive days. The simulated dive was done to depth of 375 kPa in a hyperbaric chamber, the control exercise was done at ambient pressure. The order of the dive and the control exercise was randomized. No statistically significant differences were observed between serum glucose levels in the diabetic divers measured during the simulated dive to 375 kPa vs. the serum glucose levels in the diabetic divers measured during the control exercise at the same time points. All divers with type I diabetes remained free of symptoms and signs of hypoglycemia throughout the course of the trial, and no diabetic subject had a serum glucose less than 4 mmol/liter before the end of the trial. As the sample size was small, larger studies including subject with type II diabetes will be necessary to extend these results to the diabetic diving population at large. The authors conclude that, contrary to advice issued by most diving agencies to scuba divers, it may be safe to allow well-controlled subjects with type I diabetes with no long-term complications to undertake scuba diving, and that high partial pressures of oxygen do not seem to lower serum glucose levels significantly in the diabetic diver during the dive.

  10. Lowering blood glucose during hip surgery does not influence coagulation activation

    PubMed Central

    Sechterberger, Marjolein K.; Hermanides, Jeroen; Poolman, Rudolf W.; Kal, Jasper E.; Meijers, Joost C.M.; Hoekstra, Joost B.L.; Hans DeVries, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hyperglycaemia during and after hip surgery is associated with coagulation activation and an increased risk of venous thromboembolism. Whether lowering of glucose levels during hip surgery diminishes coagulation activation is unknown. We investigated the efficacy of the human GLP-1 analogue liraglutide to lower glucose during and after hip surgery and studied its influence on coagulation activation. Methods A total of 37 obese subjects who underwent hip surgery were randomized to subcutaneous liraglutide or placebo for 4 consecutive days, starting one day prior to surgery. Glucose levels and coagulation indices at three fixed time-points (pre-operative, 2 h post-operative and 3 days post-operative) were measured. Results Liraglutide reduced glucose at day three post-surgery (median glucose (IQR) liraglutide 5.5 (5.2–5.7) vs. placebo 5.8 (5.5–6.2); difference 0.3 mmol/L, P = 0.04). Changes in 6 out of 8 coagulation indices studied did not differ between the two groups. Only D-dimer levels were significantly lower in the liraglutide group at day three post-surgery and FVIII levels were significantly higher in the liraglutide group 2 h post-surgery. Conclusion Although the human GLP-1 analogue liraglutide moderately reduced post-operative blood glucose levels in non-diabetic and prediabetic obese patients undergoing elective hip surgery, no changes were observed with respect to coagulation activation. PMID:26675337

  11. A comparative study on effect of metformin and metformin-conjugated nanotubes on blood glucose homeostasis in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Mirazi, Naser; Shoaei, Jamileh; Khazaei, Ardeshir; Hosseini, Abdolkarim

    2015-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most prevalent metabolic disorders. Carbon nanotubes have the advantage to cross the plasma membrane without damaging the cells, improving the biological effect of a drug and reducing its side effects. In the present study, the effect of metformin and metformin-conjugated nanotubes was investigated on blood glucose level in the streptozotocin-induced male diabetic rats. Diabetes in the animals was induced with a single dose of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg; i.p.) and after 3 days the blood glucose was analyzed. Animals showing fasting blood glucose higher than 250 mg/dL were considered as diabetic rats. The animals were treated with metformin and metformin-conjugated nanotubes (150 mg/kg; p.o.) daily and every 48-h for 1 week. Changes in animals' serum blood glucose level were evaluated daily during the treatment period. The results of this study showed that metformin reduced blood glucose levels in diabetic animals. Metformin-conjugated nanotubes significantly reduced the blood glucose levels in diabetic rats (p < 0.01). There was no significant difference in blood glucose level between metformin and metformin-conjugated nanotubes groups (p > 0.05). However, when both formulations of metformin were administered every 48-h, metformin-conjugated nanotubes reduced glycaemia for a longer time than metformin alone (p < 0.001). This study showed that the metformin-conjugated nanotubes would be able to reduce the blood glucose, prolong drug delivery and efficacy duration in animals which were treated with metformin-conjugated nanotubes compared with metformin alone.

  12. ASVCP guidelines: quality assurance for portable blood glucose meter (glucometer) use in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Karen L; Freeman, Kathleen P

    2016-03-01

    Portable blood glucose meters (PBGM, glucometers) are a convenient, cost effective, and quick means to assess patient blood glucose concentration. The number of commercially available PBGM is constantly increasing, making it challenging to determine whether certain glucometers may have benefits over others for veterinary testing. The challenge in selection of an appropriate glucometer from a quality perspective is compounded by the variety of analytic methods used to quantify glucose concentrations and disparate statistical analysis in many published studies. These guidelines were developed as part of the ASVCP QALS committee response to establish recommendations to improve the quality of testing using point-of-care testing (POCT) handheld and benchtop devices in veterinary medicine. They are intended for clinical pathologists and laboratory professionals to provide them with background knowledge and specific recommendations for quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC), and to serve as a resource to assist the provision of advice to veterinarians and technicians to improve the quality of results obtained when using PBGM. These guidelines are not intended to be all-inclusive; rather they provide a minimum standard for management of PBGM in the veterinary setting.

  13. Spectrum correction considering light source fluctuation for non-invasive blood glucose sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Satoru; Ishida, Akane; Abeygunawardhana, Pradeep K. W.; Wada, Kenji; Nishiyama, Akira; Ishimaru, Ichiro

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to correct baseline shift in absorbance spectrums caused by light source fluctuation. To improve quantitative evaluation performance of blood glucose level, baseline shift is corrected by multiple scatter correction (MSC). Moreover, to increase the effect of the MSC, water vapor absorbance is subtracted, and relative glucose absorbance are calculated by dividing with hemoglobin absorbance at 1544 [cm-1]. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed spectrum correction method, light source fluctuation is simulated on the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and we apply the proposed method to the spectrums measured by FT-IR. From the simulation results, the baseline shift was successfully reduced by proposed method.

  14. A Risk Based Neural Network Approach for Predictive Modeling of Blood Glucose Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Frandes, Mirela; Timar, Bogdan; Lungeanu, Diana

    2016-01-01

    For type 1 diabetes patients, maintaining the blood glucose (BG) at normal values is a challenging task due to e.g. variable insulin reactions, diets, lifestyles, emotional conditions, etc. Hyperglycemic and hypoglycemic events can generate various complications (e.g. diabetic ketoacidosis, retinopathy, neuropathy, etc.), so predicting BG values in time is of great importance for diabetes self-management. Herein, we propose a non-linear autoregressive neural network approach, based on the minimal dataset available from a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensor, with an integrated measure of intra-patient BG variability. The method kept the balance between accuracy and complexity, allowing a fast response with no additional effort or discomfort for the patient. PMID:27577449

  15. Gestational diabetes mellitus identification based on self-monitoring of blood glucose.

    PubMed

    Allard, Catherine; Sahyouni, Elie; Menard, Julie; Houde, Ghislaine; Pesant, Marie-Hélène; Perron, Patrice; Ouellet, Annie; Moutquin, Jean-Marie; Ardilouze, Jean-Luc; Hivert, Marie-France

    2015-04-01

    In Sherbrooke, the gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) Regional Committee proposed GDM screening during the first trimester for all pregnant women based on a 50 g glucose challenge test (50 g GCT) followed directly by capillary self-monitoring blood glucose (SMBG) at home. We evaluated implementation of committee's recommendations on the clinical trajectory of women receiving prenatal care at our institution. We analyzed data collected systematically by the Blood Sampling in Pregnancy clinic from 2008 to 2011. We evaluated the clinical trajectory of 7710 pregnant women to assess GDM screening/diagnoses and referral rates to the diabetes care centre (DCC) for education and treatment during both the first and second trimesters. The Canadian Diabetes Association glycemic treatment targets in women with GDM were used as diagnosis thresholds and DCC referral decisions: Fasting glucose of 5.3 mmol/L and postprandial 2 h glucose of 6.7 mmol/L. We found that pregnant women were 28.0±4.8 years old, and their body mass indexes were 24.5±5.5 kg/m(2). During the first trimester, 47% of women were screened for GDM, mostly (84%) using the 50 g GCT. Following SMBG, 5.7% were referred to the DCC. Only 32% of women with early GDM had >1 GDM risk factor. Thereafter, 67% of normoglycemic women screened during the first trimester were screened again during the second trimester. Among women screened during the second trimester, most screening was done using 50 g GCT, and 8.8% were referred to the DCC following SMBG. Implementation of 50 g GCT testing followed by direct home SMBG was well implemented in our area. The importance of early GDM screening and rescreening during the second trimester still needs to be emphasized.

  16. Facts and artefacts regarding correlation between skin electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and blood glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ollmar, Stig; Nicander, Ingrid; Åberg, Peter; Bolinder, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Earlier observations on possible co-variation between skin EIS and blood glucose prompted us to map and include other factors at play in the predictive model. Skin pH would be one such factor. A cohort of 20 diabetics was investigated, taking around 30 measurements spread over each of two different days 2-21 days apart. Each measurement comprises skin EIT in the frequency range 1kHz to 2.5MHz, skin pH, and immediately evaluated blood samples. There is a co-variation for some, but not all, test persons. The relationship gets stronger on the group level by adding pH-information, but is still poor or non-existent for some test persons. Non-invasive EIS measurements on skin is influenced by skin hydration, blood glucose, skin pH, body location, season, environmental factors, and variables not yet understood. Since impedance related parameters are used to estimate skin hydration, users of such devices should be aware that skin pH may influence as much as the water content of the stratum corneum.

  17. Blood glucose self-monitoring in non-insulin-treated type 2 diabetes: a qualitative study of patients' perspectives.

    PubMed Central

    Peel, Elizabeth; Parry, Odette; Douglas, Margaret; Lawton, Julia

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Self-monitoring of blood glucose is controversial in the management of type 2 diabetes. Some research suggests that self-monitoring improves glycaemic control, whereas other research is sceptical about its value for people with type 2 diabetes who are not on insulin. Although blood glucose meters are widely available and used by this group, patients' own views are absent from the debate. AIM: To explore the pros and cons of glucose monitoring from the patients' perspectives. DESIGN OF STUDY: Qualitative repeat-interview study. SETTING: Patients were recruited from 16 general practices and three hospital clinics within four local healthcare cooperatives in Lothian, Scotland. METHOD: Interview data from 40 patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes within the previous 6 months were analysed using thematic analysis informed by grounded theory. We report findings from round 1 and round 2 interviews. RESULTS: Glucose monitoring can heighten patients' awareness of the impact of lifestyle; for example, dietary choices, on blood glucose levels. Glucose monitoring amplifies a sense of 'success' or 'failure' about self-management, often resulting in anxiety and self-blame if glucose readings remain consistently high. Moreover, monitoring can negatively effect patients' self-management when readings are counter-intuitive. CONCLUSION: Our analysis highlights the importance of understanding the meanings that newly diagnosed patients attach to glucose self-monitoring. To maximise the positive effects of self-monitoring, health professionals should ensure that patients understand the purpose of monitoring and should clarify with patients how readings should be interpreted. PMID:15006123

  18. Investigation of the Blood Glucose Lowering Potential of the Jamaican Momordica charantia (Cerasee) Fruit in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, A; McKoy, M-L; Singh, P

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Momordica charantia (MC) fruit has been documented to possess antidiabetic properties. However, these studies were not without controversy surrounding the blood glucose-lowering ability and the mechanism of action in diabetes therapy. In an effort to evaluate such claims in the Jamaican MC species known as cerasee, aqueous extracts of the unripe fruit were studied in normal and diabetic rats. Normal male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into groups (n = 6) orally administered distilled water, 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution, the aqueous extract (400 mg/kg body weight) and glibenclamide (15 mg/kg body weight), respectively prior to assessment of fasting blood glucose (FBG) concentration. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was conducted in normoglycaemic rats orally administered distilled water, 10% DMSO solution, glibenclamide (15 mg/kg body weight) or aqueous extracts of the fruit (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight). Blood glucose concentration was also monitored in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats administered the aqueous extract (250 mg/kg body weight) or water vehicle after an overnight fast. The aqueous extracts showed no hypoglycaemic or antidiabetic activity. However, the administration of the aqueous extracts (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) resulted in significant improvement in glucose tolerance of glucose-primed normoglycaemic rats during the OGTT. These data suggest that the glucose-lowering mechanism of the Jamaican MC fruit species likely involves altered glucose absorption across the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:26624580

  19. Association between DNA Methylation in Whole Blood and Measures of Glucose Metabolism: KORA F4 Study.

    PubMed

    Kriebel, Jennifer; Herder, Christian; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Wahl, Simone; Kunze, Sonja; Molnos, Sophie; Volkova, Nadezda; Schramm, Katharina; Carstensen-Kirberg, Maren; Waldenberger, Melanie; Gieger, Christian; Peters, Annette; Illig, Thomas; Prokisch, Holger; Roden, Michael; Grallert, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation has been postulated to affect glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity and the risk of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, we performed an epigenome-wide association study for measures of glucose metabolism in whole blood samples of the population-based Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg F4 study using the Illumina HumanMethylation 450 BeadChip. We identified a total of 31 CpG sites where methylation level was associated with measures of glucose metabolism after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, and estimated white blood cell proportions and correction for multiple testing using the Benjamini-Hochberg (B-H) method (four for fasting glucose, seven for fasting insulin, 25 for homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]; B-H-adjusted p-values between 9.2x10(-5) and 0.047). In addition, DNA methylation at cg06500161 (annotated to ABCG1) was associated with all the aforementioned phenotypes and 2-hour glucose (B-H-adjusted p-values between 9.2x10(-5) and 3.0x10(-3)). Methylation status of additional three CpG sites showed an association with fasting insulin only after additional adjustment for body mass index (BMI) (B-H-adjusted p-values = 0.047). Overall, effect strengths were reduced by around 30% after additional adjustment for BMI, suggesting that this variable has an influence on the investigated phenotypes. Furthermore, we found significant associations between methylation status of 21 of the aforementioned CpG sites and 2-hour insulin in a subset of samples with seven significant associations persisting after additional adjustment for BMI. In a subset of 533 participants, methylation of the CpG site cg06500161 (ABCG1) was inversely associated with ABCG1 gene expression (B-H-adjusted p-value = 1.5x10(-9)). Additionally, we observed an enrichment of the top 1,000 CpG sites for diabetes-related canonical pathways using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. In conclusion, our study indicates that DNA methylation and diabetes

  20. Association between DNA Methylation in Whole Blood and Measures of Glucose Metabolism: KORA F4 Study

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, Simone; Kunze, Sonja; Molnos, Sophie; Volkova, Nadezda; Schramm, Katharina; Carstensen-Kirberg, Maren; Waldenberger, Melanie; Gieger, Christian; Peters, Annette; Illig, Thomas; Prokisch, Holger; Roden, Michael; Grallert, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation has been postulated to affect glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity and the risk of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, we performed an epigenome-wide association study for measures of glucose metabolism in whole blood samples of the population-based Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg F4 study using the Illumina HumanMethylation 450 BeadChip. We identified a total of 31 CpG sites where methylation level was associated with measures of glucose metabolism after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, and estimated white blood cell proportions and correction for multiple testing using the Benjamini-Hochberg (B-H) method (four for fasting glucose, seven for fasting insulin, 25 for homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]; B-H-adjusted p-values between 9.2x10-5 and 0.047). In addition, DNA methylation at cg06500161 (annotated to ABCG1) was associated with all the aforementioned phenotypes and 2-hour glucose (B-H-adjusted p-values between 9.2x10-5 and 3.0x10-3). Methylation status of additional three CpG sites showed an association with fasting insulin only after additional adjustment for body mass index (BMI) (B-H-adjusted p-values = 0.047). Overall, effect strengths were reduced by around 30% after additional adjustment for BMI, suggesting that this variable has an influence on the investigated phenotypes. Furthermore, we found significant associations between methylation status of 21 of the aforementioned CpG sites and 2-hour insulin in a subset of samples with seven significant associations persisting after additional adjustment for BMI. In a subset of 533 participants, methylation of the CpG site cg06500161 (ABCG1) was inversely associated with ABCG1 gene expression (B-H-adjusted p-value = 1.5x10-9). Additionally, we observed an enrichment of the top 1,000 CpG sites for diabetes-related canonical pathways using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. In conclusion, our study indicates that DNA methylation and diabetes-related traits

  1. New Approaches to Display of Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose Data

    PubMed Central

    Rodbard, David

    2009-01-01

    Background There is a need for improved methods for display and analysis of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) data to facilitate identification of clinical problems, assist the clinician in the interpretation of daily patterns and longitudinal trends, serve as a guide to locating the most important segments of logbook data, and permit rapid analysis of the patient's pattern of glucose monitoring. Methods We developed prototype software to display SMBG data in a two-dimensional color-coded array: Time of day is displayed on the horizontal axis; date or sequential day is displayed on the vertical axis. Each glucose value is shown by a color-coded symbol categorizing it as “very high,” “high,” “within target range,” “low,” or “very low.” The number of categories and their ranges can be defined by the user, and different target ranges and limits for the categories can be used for different times of day. Placing the cursor over any observation activates a “pop-up box” showing the date, day of week, time of day, glucose value, and ancillary information. Several options and variations are available. Results This new type of display is compact, serves as a guide to assist the physician in locating the most important segments of the logbook, and permits display of glucose data from 90 or more days in a chart as small as 4 by 4 inches. This analysis permits rapid identification of measurements that are above or below the target range and facilitates rapid evaluation of patterns observed on different days or days of the week. Conclusion These new approaches complement other popular graphical displays by conveying information efficiently and effectively to the physician, other health care providers, the patient, and family caregivers in a new and novel, concise, standardized yet flexible format. PMID:20144425

  2. Impact of time since last caloric intake on blood glucose levels.

    PubMed

    Moebus, Susanne; Göres, Laura; Lösch, Christian; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz

    2011-09-01

    Blood glucose (BG) is usually measured after a caloric restriction of at least 8 h; however evidence-based recommendations for the duration of a fasting status are missing. Here we analyze the effect of fasting duration on levels of BG to determine the minimal fasting duration to achieve comparable BG levels to conventional fasting measurements. We used data of a cross-sectional study on primary care patients, performed in October 2005. We included 28,024 individuals (age-range 18-99 years; 63% women) without known diabetes mellitus and without missing data for BG and fasting status. We computed general linear models, adjusting for age, sex, time of blood withdrawal, systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, total- and HDL-cholesterol, physical activity, smoking, intake of beta-blocker and alcohol. We tested the intra-individual variability with respect to fasting status. Overall, the mean BG differed only slightly between individuals fasting ≥ 8 h and those fasting <8 h (men: 5.1 ± 0.8 mmol/L versus 5.2 ± 1.2 mmol/L; women: 4.9 ± 0.7 mmol/L, 5.0 ± 1.0 mmol/L). After 3 h of fasting differences of BG diminished in men to -0.08 mmol/L (95%-CI: -0.15; -0.01 mmol/L), in women to -0.07 mmol/L (-0.12; -0.03 mmol/L) compared to individuals fasting ≥ 8 h. Noteworthy, age, time of day of blood withdrawal, physical activity, and intake of hard liquor influenced BG levels considerably. Our data challenge the necessity for a fasting duration of ≥ 8 h when measuring blood glucose, suggesting a random sampling or a fasting duration of 3 h as sufficient. Rather, our study indicates that essentially more effort on the assessment of additional external/internal factors on BG levels is necessary. PMID:21822717

  3. A Multicenter Performance Evaluation of a Blood Glucose Monitoring System in 21 Leading Hospitals in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Bedini, José Luis; Wallace, Jane F.; Petruschke, Thorsten; Pardo, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-monitoring of blood glucose is crucial for the effective self-management of diabetes. The present study evaluated the accuracy of the Contour® XT blood glucose monitoring system (BGMS) compared to the reference method in a large multicenter study under routine lab conditions at each hospital site. Methods: This study was conducted at 21 leading hospitals in Spain using leftover whole blood samples (n = 2100). Samples were tested with the BGMS using 1 commercial strip lot and the local laboratory hexokinase method. BGMS accuracy was assessed and results were compared to ISO 15197:2013 accuracy limit criteria and by using mean absolute relative difference analysis (MARD), consensus (Parkes) error grid (CEG), and surveillance error grid analyses (SEG). Results: Pooled analysis of 2100 measurements from all sites showed that 99.43% of the BGMS results were within the ranges accepted by the accuracy limit criteria. The overall MARD was 3.85%. MARD was 4.47% for glucose concentrations < 70 mg/dL and 3.81% for concentrations of 70-300 mg/dL. In CEG, most results (99.8%) were within zone A (“no effect on clinical action”); the remaining ones (0.2%) were in zone B (“little to no effect on clinical action”). The SEG analysis showed that most of the results (98.4%) were in the “no risk” zone, with the remaining results in the “slight, lower” risk zone. Conclusions: This is the largest multicenter study of Contour XT BGMS to date, and shows that this BGMS meets the ISO 15197:2013 accuracy limit criteria under local routine conditions in 21 leading Spanish hospitals. PMID:26253142

  4. Parathyroidectomy Ameliorates Glucose and Blood Pressure Control in a Patient with Primary Hyperparathyroidism, Type 2 Diabetes, and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Alok; Singh, Sunita

    2015-01-01

    Effect of parathyroidectomy on glucose control and hypertension is controversial. Here, we report a case of a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypertension in whom parathyroidectomy ameliorated both glucose control and blood pressure. Once high serum calcium levels were noticed, ultrasonography of neck confirmed a well-defined oval hypoechoic mass posterior to the right lobe of the thyroid, confirmed by scintiscan. Parathyroidectomy resulted in improvement of blood pressure and blood glucose. We could stop insulin and antihypertensive medications. We conclude that in patients with type 2 diabetes with vague complaints like fatigue, body ache, and refractory hypertension, as a part of the diagnostic workup, clinicians should also check serum calcium levels and parathyroid hormone to rule out hyperparathyroidism. Correction of hyperparathyroidism may result in improvement of hypertension and glucose control. PMID:26380561

  5. Patient and healthcare professional satisfaction with a new, high accuracy blood glucose meter with color range indicator and wireless connectivity.

    PubMed

    Katz, Laurence B; Grady, Mike; Stewart, Lorna; Cameron, Hilary

    2016-07-01

    Accurate self-monitoring of blood glucose is a key component of effective self-management of glycemic control. The OneTouch VerioFlex(™) (OTVF) blood glucose monitoring system (BGMS) was evaluated for accuracy in a clinical setting. Patients also used OTVF for a 1-wk trial period and reported their level of satisfaction with meter features. In a separate study, healthcare professionals used an on-line simulator of the BGMS and answered questions about its potential utility to their patients. OTVF was accurate over a wide glucose range and met lay user and system accuracy blood glucose standards described in ISO15197:2013 as well as the accuracy requirements to fulfill US FDA expectations for 510(k) clearance of BGMS. Patients and healthcare professionals felt the features of OTVF, which has the capability to connect wirelessly to mobile devices and interact wirelessly with diabetes management software, could provide significant benefits to them or their patients.

  6. Admission glycaemia and outcome in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Müdespacher, Damaris; Radovanovic, Dragana; Camenzind, Edoardo; Essig, Manfred; Bertel, Osmund; Erne, Paul; Eberli, Franz Robert; Gutzwiller, Felix

    2007-12-01

    Some studies of patients with acute myocardial infarction have reported that hyperglycaemia at admission may be associated with a worse outcome. This study sought to evaluate the association of blood glucose at admission with the outcome of unselected patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Using the Acute Myocardial Infarction and unstable angina in Switzerland (AMIS Plus) registry, ACS patients were stratified according to their blood glucose on admission: group 1: 2.80-6.99 mmol/L, group 2: 7.00-11.09 mmol/L and group 3: > 11.10 mmol/L. Odds ratios for in-hospital mortality were calculated using logistic regression models. Of 2,786 patients, 73% were male and 21% were known to have diabetes. In-hospital mortality increased from 3% in group 1 to 7% in group 2 and to 15% in group 3. Higher glucose levels were associated with larger enzymatic infarct sizes (p<0.001) and had a weak negative correlation with angiographic or echographic left ventricular ejection fraction. High admission glycaemia in ACS patients remains a significant independent predictor of in-hospital mortality (adjusted OR 1.08; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.05-1.14, p<0.001) per mmol/L. The OR for in-hospital mortality was 1.04 (95% CI 0.99-1.1; p=0.140) per mmol/L for patients with diabetes but 1.21 (95% CI 112-1.30; p<0.001) per mmol/L for non-diabetic patients. In conclusion, elevated glucose level in ACS patients on admission is a significant independent predictor of in-hospital mortality and is even more important for patients who do not have known diabetes.

  7. The impact of high-dose vitamin C on blood glucose testing in ¹⁸F-FDG PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Bahr, Rebekah L; Wilson, Don C

    2015-03-01

    Complementary and alternative therapies in addition to standard oncology protocols are commonly sought by cancer patients; however, few patients disclose their complementary treatments to their cancer care team. A lack of communication may result in unforeseen side effects and the potential for some alternative therapies to interfere with or inhibit conventional treatment. High-dose vitamin C therapy, in particular, may lead to an inability to measure a patient's blood glucose level before (18)F-FDG injection for PET/CT scanning. We report a case of a 52-y-old woman referred for (18)F-FDG PET/CT to evaluate the extent of recurrent colorectal cancer. The PET/CT scan immediately followed a single intravenous dose of 25 g of ascorbic acid from her naturopath. A glucometer that applies the glucose oxidase method for measuring fasting blood glucose was used, for which high doses of vitamin C are listed as a contraindication. The high concentration of ascorbic acid in the patient's blood sample interfered with the chemical reaction on the glucose strip, and therefore no blood glucose measurement could be attained. With more patients receiving alternative and complementary cancer therapies, it is important to know what the implications of orthomolecular therapy might be on routine blood glucose testing for (18)F-FDG PET scans. (18)F-FDG is in direct competition with glucose; therefore, elevated blood glucose levels will cause a decrease in (18)F-FDG absorption and may lead to a false-negative scan. PMID:25104819

  8. Shocking Admission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Eric; Millman, Sierra

    2007-01-01

    Marilee Jones's career had been a remarkable success. She joined Massachusetts Institute of Technology's (MIT's) admissions office in 1979, landing a job in Cambridge at a time when boys ruled the sandbox of the admissions profession. Her job was to help MIT recruit more women, who then made up less than one-fifth of the institute's students. She…

  9. Energetic Atomic and Ionic Oxygen Textured Optical Surfaces for Blood Glucose Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Disclosed is a method and the resulting product thereof comprising a solid light-conducting fiber with a point of attachment and having a textured surface site consisting of a textured distal end prepared by being placed in a vacuum and then subjected to directed hyperthermal beams comprising oxygen ions or atoms. The textured distal end comprises cones or pillars that are spaced upon from each other by less than 1 micron and are extremely suitable to prevent cellular components of blood from entering the valleys between the cones or pillars so as to effectively separate the cellular components in the blood from interfering with optical sensing of the glucose concentration for diabetic patients.

  10. Blood glucose concentration and risk of pancreatic cancer: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Wei-Chih; Wu, Ming-Shiang; Lin, Jaw-Town; Wang, Hsiu-Po

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate potential linear and non-linear dose-response relations between blood glucose and risk of pancreatic cancer. Design Systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. Data sources Search of PubMed, Scopus, and related reviews before 30 November 2013 without language restriction. Eligibility criteria Prospective studies evaluating the association between blood glucose concentration and pancreatic cancer. Retrospective and cross sectional studies excluded to avoid reverse causality. Data extraction and synthesis Two reviewers independently extracted relevant information and assessed study quality with the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Random effects dose-response meta-analysis was conducted to assess potential linear and non-linear dose-response relations. Results Nine studies were included for analysis, with a total of 2408 patients with pancreatic cancer. There was a strong linear dose-response association between fasting blood glucose concentration and the rate of pancreatic cancer across the range of prediabetes and diabetes. No non-linear association was detected. The pooled rate ratio of pancreatic cancer per 0.56 mmol/L (10 mg/dL) increase in fasting blood glucose was 1.14 (95% confidence interval 1.06 to 1.22; P<0.001) without significant heterogeneity. Sensitivity analysis excluding blood glucose categories in the range of diabetes showed similar results (pooled rate ratio per 0.56 mmol/L increase in fasting blood glucose was 1.15, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.27; P=0.003), strengthening the association between prediabetes and pancreatic cancer. Conclusions Every 0.56 mmol/L increase in fasting blood glucose is associated with a 14% increase in the rate of pancreatic cancer. As prediabetes can be improved or even reversed through lifestyle changes, early detection of prediabetes coupled with lifestyle changes could represent a viable strategy to curb the increasing incidence of pancreatic cancer. PMID

  11. Association between maternal diet factors and hemoglobin levels, glucose tolerance, blood pressure and gestational age in a Hispanic population.

    PubMed

    Soto, Roxana; Guilloty, Natacha; Anzalota, Liza; Rosario, Zaira; Cordero, José F; Palacios, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the dietary patterns of pregnant women in northern Puerto Rico and explore associations between diet factors with pregnancy related measurements. This analysis is based on the Puerto Rico Testsite for Exploring Contamination Threats (PROTECT), a prospective cohort that is studying environmental risk factors for preterm births in PR. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) around 20-28 weeks of gestation. The following pregnancy related measures were collected from the medical records: hemoglobin, blood glucose, blood pressure and gestational age. Potential associations between diet factors and pregnancy measures were assessed using chi square analysis with SPSS. A total of 180 participants completed the FFQ; low hemoglobin levels was found in 19.2%, high blood glucose levels was found in 21.1% by fasting blood glucose test and 24.6%by 1-hour 50 g oral glucose screening test, high blood pressure was found in 2.9% (systolic) and 6.5% (diastolic), and pre-term birth was found in 10.4% of the participants. High consumption of rice, desserts and sweets was associated with higher levels of fasting blood glucose levels (p < 0.05), while high consumption of vegetables was associated with higher 1-hour glucose challenge test (p < 0.05).No other significant associations were found. In conclusion, consumption of high dense energy food diets in pregnancy, such as rice, sweets and desserts, can lead to high levels of blood glucose and can be a potential predictor of other pregnancy complications during pregnancy in these study participants, such as gestational diabetes. PMID:26817380

  12. Value of Self-Monitoring Blood Glucose Pattern Analysis in Improving Diabetes Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Parkin, Christopher G.; Davidson, Jaime A.

    2009-01-01

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is an important adjunct to hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) testing. This action can distinguish between fasting, preprandial, and postprandial hyperglycemia; detect glycemic excursions; identify and monitor resolution of hypoglycemia; and provide immediate feedback to patients about the effect of food choices, activity, and medication on glycemic control. Pattern analysis is a systematic approach to identifying glycemic patterns within SMBG data and then taking appropriate action based upon those results. The use of pattern analysis involves: (1) establishing pre- and postprandial glucose targets; (2) obtaining data on glucose levels, carbohydrate intake, medication administration (type, dosages, timing), activity levels and physical/emotional stress; (3) analyzing data to identify patterns of glycemic excursions, assessing any influential factors, and implementing appropriate action(s); and (4) performing ongoing SMBG to assess the impact of any therapeutic changes made. Computer-based and paper-based data collection and management tools can be developed to perform pattern analysis for identifying patterns in SMBG data. This approach to interpreting SMBG data facilitates rational therapeutic adjustments in response to this information. Pattern analysis of SMBG data can be of equal or greater value than measurement of HbA1c levels. PMID:20144288

  13. Neuronal response of the hippocampal formation to injury: blood flow, glucose metabolism, and protein synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kameyama, M.; Wasterlain, C.G.; Ackermann, R.F.; Finch, D.; Lear, J.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1983-02-01

    The reaction of the hippocampal formation to entorhinal lesions was studied from the viewpoints of cerebral blood flow ((/sup 123/I)isopropyl-iodoamphetamine(IMP))-glucose utilization ((/sup 14/C)2-deoxyglucose), and protein synthesis ((/sup 14/C)leucine), using single- and double-label autoradiography. Researchers' studies showed decreased glucose utilization in the inner part, and increased glucose utilization in the outer part of the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus, starting 3 days after the lesion; increased uptake of (/sup 123/I)IMP around the lesion from 1 to 3 days postlesion; and starting 3 days after the lesion, marked decrease in (/sup 14/C)leucine incorporation into proteins and cell loss in the dorsal CA1 and dorsal subiculum in about one-half of the rats. These changes were present only in animals with lesions which invaded the ventral hippocampal formation in which axons of CA1 cells travel. By contrast, transsection of the 3rd and 4th cranial nerves resulted, 3 to 9 days after injury, in a striking increase in protein synthesis in the oculomotor and trochlear nuclei. These results raise the possibility that in some neurons the failure of central regeneration may result from the cell's inability to increase its rate of protein synthesis in response to axonal injury.

  14. Evaluation of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase stability in stored blood samples

    PubMed Central

    Jalil, Norunaluwar; Azma, Raja Zahratul; Mohamed, Emida; Ithnin, Azlin; Alauddin, Hafiza; Baya, Siti Noor; Othman, Ainoon

    2016-01-01

    Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the commonest cause of neonatal jaundice in Malaysia. Recently, OSMMR2000-D G6PD Assay Kit has been introduced to quantitate the level of G6PD activity in newborns delivered in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC). As duration of sample storage prior to analysis is one of the matters of concern, this study was conducted to identify the stability of G6PD enzyme during storage. A total of 188 cord blood samples from normal term newborns delivered at UKMMC were selected for this study. The cord bloods samples were collected in ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) tubes and refrigerated at 2-8 °C. In addition, 32 out of 188 cord blood samples were spotted on chromatography paper, air-dried and stored at room temperature. G6PD enzyme activities were measured daily for 7 days using the OSMMR2000-D G6PD Assay Kit on both the EDTA blood and dried blood samples. The mean value for G6PD activity was compared between days of analysis using Student Paired T-Test. In this study, 172 out of 188 cord blood samples showed normal enzyme levels while 16 had levels corresponding to severe enzyme deficiency. The daily mean G6PD activity for EDTA blood samples of newborns with normal G6PD activity showed a significant drop on the fourth day of storage (p < 0.005) while for samples with severely deficient G6PD activity, significant drop was seen on third day of storage (p = 0.002). Analysis of dried cord blood showed a significant reduction in enzyme activity as early as the second day of storage (p = 0.001). It was also noted that mean G6PD activity for spotted blood samples were lower compared to those in EDTA tubes for all days (p = 0.001). Thus, EDTA blood samples stored at 2-8 °C appeared to have better stability in terms of their G6PD enzyme level as compared to dried blood samples on filter paper, giving a storage time of up to 3 days. PMID:27103895

  15. Empirically establishing blood glucose targets to achieve HbA1c goals.

    PubMed

    Wei, Nancy; Zheng, Hui; Nathan, David M

    2014-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the average fasting, postprandial, and bedtime self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) concentrations associated with specified HbA1c levels using data from the A1c-Derived Average Glucose (ADAG) study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The ADAG study was a multicenter observational study that used continuous glucose monitoring and SMBG testing to determine the relationship between mean average glucose and HbA1c. We used the SMBG data from 470 of the ADAG study participants (237 with type 1 diabetes and 147 with type 2 diabetes) to determine the average fasting, premeal, 90-min postmeal, and bedtime blood glucose (BG) for predefined target HbA1c groups between 5.5 and 8.5% (37-69 mmol/mol). t Tests were used to compare mean BG values between type 1 and type 2 diabetes groups. RESULTS The average fasting BG needed to achieve predefined HbA1c target levels of 5.5-6.49% (37-47 mmol/mol), 6.5-6.99% (48-52 mmol/mol), 7.0-7.49% (52-58 mmol/mol), 7.5-7.99% (58-64 mmol/mol), and 8.0-8.5% (64-69 mmol/mol) were 122 mg/dL with 95% CI 117-127, 142 mg/dL (135-150), 152 mg/dL (143-162), 167 mg/dL (157-177), and 178 mg/dL (164-192), respectively. Postmeal BG to achieve the HbA1c level of 6.5-6.99% (48-52 mmol/mol) and 7.0-7.49% (52-58 mmol/mol) were 139 mg/dL (134-144) and 152 mg/dL (147-157), respectively. Bedtime BG was 153 mg/dL (145-161) and 177 mg/dL (166-188), respectively. CONCLUSIONS We have determined the average BG at premeal, postmeal, and bedtime to achieve a variety of HbA1c targets. These results, based on empirical data, will help patients and providers set realistic day-to-day SMBG targets to achieve individualized HbA1c goals.

  16. Dietary intake, food pattern, and abnormal blood glucose status of middle-aged adults: a cross-sectional community-based study in Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Hlaing, Hlaing Hlaing; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan

    2016-01-01

    Background Lifestyle changes, particularly dietary intake, had resulted in increasing trends of type-2 diabetes mellitus worldwide. However, dietary intake is diverse across country contexts. This study aimed to compare the dietary intake, food patterns, and blood glucose among middle-aged adults living in urban and suburban areas in Mandalay city, Myanmar, and explore their relationships. Methods A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted during June–November 2014. Adults aged 35–64 were randomly selected and requested to record all food they ate in a 4-day diary. Fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose values were measured over two consecutive days. Dietary intakes were calculated in terms of energy, macronutrients, glycemic index, and glycemic load, and food patterns were identified by factor analysis. The relationships between food pattern, dietary intake, and blood glucose were assessed. Results Of 440 participants, dietary intake between urban and suburban residents was significantly different. Six food patterns were identified. There was no difference in fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose between urban and suburban residents, but a strong correlation between fasting blood glucose and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose was found (correlation coefficient=0.8). Identification of abnormal blood glucose status using original fasting and converted 2-hour postprandial values showed substantial agreement (prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted Kappa=0.8). Relationships between food patterns and blood glucose or abnormal blood glucose status were not found. Conclusion Food patterns were associated with dietary intake, not with abnormal blood glucose status. Two-hour postprandial blood glucose was highly correlated with fasting blood glucose and may be used for identifying abnormal blood glucose status. PMID:27150795

  17. Hematocrit Interference of Blood Glucose Meters for Patient Self-Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Ramljak, Sanja; Lock, John Paul; Schipper, Christina; Musholt, Petra B.; Forst, Thomas; Lyon, Martha; Pfützner, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Background Abnormal hematocrit levels may interfere with glucose readings of patient self-assessment blood glucose (BG) meters. The aim of this laboratory investigation was to assess the potential influence of hematocrit variations on a variety of BG meters applying different measurement technologies. Methods Venous heparinized blood was manipulated to contain three different BG concentrations (50–90, 120–180, and 280–350 mg/dl) and five different hematocrit levels (25%, 35%, 45%, 55%, and 65%). After careful oxygenation to normal blood oxygen pressure (65–100 mmHg), each sample was measured (eight times) with the following devices: Accu-Chek® Aviva, Nano, and Active, Breeze®2 and Contour®, FreeStyle Freedom Lite®, GlucoDr. auto™, Glucofix® mio Plus, GlucoLab™, GlucoMen® LX Plus, Nova Max® Link, Nova Max® Plus, OneTouch® Ultra®2 and Verio®,On Call® Plus and Platinum, Optium Xceed®, Precision Xceed®, and TaiDoc Fora TD-4227. A YSI 2300 STAT Plus™ glucose analyzer served as reference method. Stability to hematocrit influence was assumed, with <10% mean glucose result bias between the highest and lowest hematocrit levels. Results Six of the investigated meters showed a stable performance in this investigation: Accu-Chek Active (7%), Glucofix mio Plus (5%), GlucoMen LX Plus (4%), NovaMax Plus (4%), Nova Max Link (7%), and OneTouch Verio (3%). All other meters failed this hematocrit interference test, with FreeStyle Freedom Lite (11%), and On Call Platinum (12%) being the better devices and On Call Plus (68%), GlucoLab (51%), TaiDoc Fora TD-4227 (39%), and Breeze 2 (38%) showing the worst performance. Conclusions Hematocrit may affect BG meter performance in daily routine. In case of interference, low hematocrit values (<35%) result in too high readings. Our results encourage use of meters that are not affected by hematocrit interference. PMID:23439176

  18. Baselines representing blood glucose clearance improve in vitro prediction of the glycaemic impact of customarily consumed food quantities.

    PubMed

    Monro, John A; Mishra, Suman; Venn, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Glycaemic responses to foods reflect the balance between glucose loading into, and its clearance from, the blood. Current in vitro methods for glycaemic analysis do not take into account the key role of glucose disposal. The present study aimed to develop a food intake-sensitive method for measuring the glycaemic impact of food quantities usually consumed, as the difference between release of glucose equivalents (GGE) from food during in vitro digestion and a corresponding estimate of clearance of them from the blood. Five foods - white bread, fruit bread, muesli bar, mashed potato and chickpeas - were consumed on three occasions by twenty volunteers to provide blood glucose response (BGR) curves. GGE release during in vitro digestion of the foods was also plotted. Glucose disposal rates estimated from downward slopes of the BGR curves allowed GGE dose-dependent cumulative glucose disposal to be calculated. By subtracting cumulative glucose disposal from cumulative in vitro GGE release, accuracy in predicting the in vivo glycaemic effect from in vitro GGE values was greatly improved. GGE(in vivo) = 0.99GGE(in vitro)+0.75 (R(2) 0.88). Furthermore, the difference between the curves of cumulative GGE release and disposal closely mimicked in vivo incremental BGR curves. We conclude that valid measurement of the glycaemic impact of foods may be obtained in vitro, and expressed as grams of glucose equivalents per food quantity, by taking account not only of GGE release from food during in vitro digestion, but also of blood glucose clearance in response to the food quantity.

  19. Hunger games: fluctuations in blood glucose levels influence support for social welfare.

    PubMed

    Aarøe, Lene; Petersen, Michael Bang

    2013-12-01

    Social-welfare policies are a modern instantiation of a phenomenon that has pervaded human evolutionary history: resource sharing. Ancestrally, food was a key shared resource in situations of temporary hunger. If evolved human psychology continues to shape how individuals think about current, evolutionarily novel conditions, this invites the prediction that attitudes regarding welfare politics are influenced by short-term fluctuations in hunger. Using blood glucose levels as a physiological indicator of hunger, we tested this prediction in a study in which participants were randomly assigned to conditions in which they consumed soft drinks containing either carbohydrates or an artificial sweetener. Analyses showed that participants with experimentally induced low blood glucose levels expressed stronger support for social welfare. Using an incentivized measure of actual sharing behavior (the dictator game), we further demonstrated that this increased support for social welfare does not translate into genuinely increased sharing motivations. Rather, we suggest that it is "cheap talk" aimed at increasing the sharing efforts of other individuals.

  20. Practical approaches for self-monitoring of blood glucose: an Asia-Pacific perspective.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Subhankar; Ji, Linong; Suwanwalaikorn, Sompongse; Yu, Neng-Chun; Tan, Eng Kiat

    2015-03-01

    Comprehensive glycemic control is necessary to improve outcomes and avoid complications in individuals with diabetes. Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is a key enabler of glycemic assessment, providing real-time information that complements HbA1c monitoring and supports treatment optimization. However, SMBG is under-utilized by patients and physicians within the Asia-Pacific region, because of barriers such as the cost of monitoring supplies, lack of diabetes self-management skills, or concerns about the reliability of blood glucose readings. Practice recommendations in international and regional guidelines vary widely, and may not be detailed or specific enough to guide SMBG use effectively. This contributes to uncertainty among patients and physicians about how best to utilize this tool: when and how often to test, and what action(s) to take in response to high or low readings. In developing a practical SMBG regimen, the first step is to determine the recommended SMBG frequency and intensity needed to support the chosen treatment regimen. If there are practical obstacles to monitoring, such as affordability or access, physicians should identify the most important aspects of glycemic control to target for individual patients, and modify monitoring patterns accordingly. This consensus paper proposes a selection of structured, flexible SMBG patterns that can be tailored to the clinical, educational, behavioral, and financial requirements of individuals with diabetes.

  1. Body mass index and blood glucose in psychiatric and general practice populations

    PubMed Central

    McAvoy, Sarah; Cordiner, Matthew; Kelly, Jackie; Chiwanda, Laura; Jefferies, Christine; Miller, Kirsteen; Shajahan, Polash

    2016-01-01

    Aims and method Using a retrospective observational approach, we aimed to discern whether there was a difference in metabolic parameters between psychiatric and general practice populations in the same locality. Second, we aimed to establish differences in metabolic parameters of patients taking olanzapine, clozapine or aripiprazole. Results Patients with psychiatric illness had a body mass index (BMI) comparable to that of the general practice population (28.7 v. 29.7 kg/m2), but blood glucose was significantly lower in the general practice population (4.8 v. 6.1 mmol/L). Olanzapine was associated with the lowest BMI (26.1 kg/m2) and aripiprazole the highest (32.2 kg/m2), with no difference in blood glucose between antipsychotics. Clinical implications Awareness of environmental factors and how they affect individuals is important and medications are not the only cause of metabolic effects. There may be a channelling bias present, meaning practitioners are cognisant of potential metabolic effects prior to prescribing. Overall monitoring of physical health is important regardless of potential cause. PMID:27280032

  2. Effect of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaf extract on the blood glucose and insulin levels of inbred type 2 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Oladeinde, F O; Kinyua, A M; Laditan, A A; Michelin, R; Bryant, J L; Denaro, F; Makinde, J M; Williams, A L; Kennedy, A P; Bronner, Y

    2007-01-01

    The effects of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (CA) leaf extract and chlorpropamide on blood glucose and insulin levels in the inbred type 2 diabetic mice are reported. After treatment with CA, the glucose levels were measured at 0 and 2-hour intervals in experimental groups and controls. Group I received no treatment and served as control; Group II was the reference and it received chlorpropamide; Groups I-III were moderately diabetic, 100-300 mg/dL blood glucose levels while Group IV were severely diabetic (> 300 mg/dL). Groups III and IV received CA and served as test groups. There was no significant difference between the blood glucose levels at 0 and 2 hours for the control group, (P>0.23) but there were statistically significant differences for Group II (P<0.0002); Group III (P<0.002) and Group IV (P<0.0001). For moderately diabetic mice, CA and chlorpropamide decreased the glucose levels by 25.6% and 16.3% respectively while for the severely diabetic mice CA decreased the blood glucose by 43.7%. It is proposed that CA has an insulinogenic property that possibly stimulated dormant beta-cells to secrete insulin. The histopathology of several organs in the treated animals was found to differ from the expected. The islets of Langerhans for example were found to be preserved in the time frame examined. Also the liver and kidney were found to display milder pathology in the treated groups. PMID:17531147

  3. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) increases pain behavior and the blood glucose level: possible involvement of glucocorticoid system.

    PubMed

    Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kang, Yu-Jung; Jung, Jun-Sub; Ryu, Ohk-Hyun; Choi, Moon-Gi; Choi, Seong-Soo; Suh, Hong-Won

    2013-10-01

    The possible involvement of glucocorticoid system in interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-induced nociception and the blood glucose level was studied in ICR mice. In the first experiment, mice were treated intrathecally (i.t.) with IL-1β (100 pg). Corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA (hypothalamus) and c-Fos mRNA (pituitary gland, spinal cord, and the adrenal gland) levels were measured at 30, 60 and 120 min after IL-1β administration. We found that i.t. injection with IL-1β increased CRH mRNA level in the hypothalamus. The IL-1β administered i.t. elevated c-Fos mRNA levels in the spinal cord, pituitary and adrenal glands. Furthermore, i.t. administration of IL-1β significantly increased the plasma corticosterone level up to 60 min. In addition, the adrenalectomy caused the reductions of the blood glucose level and pain behavior induced by IL-1β injected i.t. in normal and D-glucose-fed groups. Furthermore, intraperitoneal (i.p.) pretreatment with RU486 (100mg/kg) attenuated the blood glucose level and pain behavior induced by IL-1β administered i.t. in normal and D-glucose-fed groups. Our results suggest that IL-1β administered i.t. increases the blood glucose level and pain behavior via an activation of the glucocorticoid system. PMID:23773309

  4. Accuracy of devices for self-monitoring of blood glucose: A stochastic error model.

    PubMed

    Vettoretti, M; Facchinetti, A; Sparacino, G; Cobelli, C

    2015-01-01

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) devices are portable systems that allow measuring glucose concentration in a small drop of blood obtained via finger-prick. SMBG measurements are key in type 1 diabetes (T1D) management, e.g. for tuning insulin dosing. A reliable model of SMBG accuracy would be important in several applications, e.g. in in silico design and optimization of insulin therapy. In the literature, the most used model to describe SMBG error is the Gaussian distribution, which however is simplistic to properly account for the observed variability. Here, a methodology to derive a stochastic model of SMBG accuracy is presented. The method consists in dividing the glucose range into zones in which absolute/relative error presents constant standard deviation (SD) and, then, fitting by maximum-likelihood a skew-normal distribution model to absolute/relative error distribution in each zone. The method was tested on a database of SMBG measurements collected by the One Touch Ultra 2 (Lifescan Inc., Milpitas, CA). In particular, two zones were identified: zone 1 (BG≤75 mg/dl) with constant-SD absolute error and zone 2 (BG>75mg/dl) with constant-SD relative error. Mean and SD of the identified skew-normal distributions are, respectively, 2.03 and 6.51 in zone 1, 4.78% and 10.09% in zone 2. Visual predictive check validation showed that the derived two-zone model accurately reproduces SMBG measurement error distribution, performing significantly better than the single-zone Gaussian model used previously in the literature. This stochastic model allows a more realistic SMBG scenario for in silico design and optimization of T1D insulin therapy.

  5. Effect of flaxseed gum on reduction of blood glucose and cholesterol in type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Goutam; Mitra, Analava; Pal, Kunal; Rousseau, Dérick

    2009-01-01

    The effects of ingestion of flaxseed gum on blood glucose and cholesterol, particularly low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, in type 2 diabetes were evaluated. Flaxseed gum was incorporated in wheat flour chapattis. Sixty patients of type 2 diabetes were fed a daily diet for 3 months, along with six wheat flour chapattis containing flaxseed gum (5 g), as per the recommendations of the American Diabetic Association. The control group (60 individuals) consumed an identical diet but the chapattis were without gum. The blood biochemistry profiles monitored before starting the study and at monthly intervals showed fasting blood sugar in the experimental group decreased from 154 ± 8 mg/dl to 136 ± 7 mg/dl (P=0.03) while the total cholesterol reduced from 182 ± 11 mg/dl to 163 ± 9 mg/dl (P=0.03). Results showed a decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol from 110 ± 8 mg/dl to 92 ± 9 mg/dl (P=0.02). The study demonstrated the efficacy of flax gum in the blood biochemistry profiles of type 2 diabetes. PMID:19548163

  6. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency among Male Blood Donors in Sana’a City, Yemen

    PubMed Central

    Al-Nood, Hafiz A.; Bazara, Fakiha A.; Al-Absi, Rashad; Habori, Molham AL

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency among Yemeni people from different regions of the country living in the capital city, Sana’a, giving an indication of its overall prevalence in Yemen. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among Yemeni male blood donors attending the Department of Blood Bank at the National Centre of the Public Health Laboratories in the capital city, Sana’a, Yemen. Fluorescent spot method was used for screening, spectrophotometeric estimation of G-6-PD activity and separation by electrophoresis was done to determine the G-6-PD phenotype. Results Of the total 508 male blood donors recruited into the study, 36 were G-6-PD deficient, giving a likely G-6-PD deficiency prevalence of 7.1%. None of these deficient donors had history of anemia or jaundice. Thirty-five of these deficient cases (97.2%) showed severe G-6-PD deficiency class II (<10% of normal activity), and their phenotyping presumptively revealed a G-6-PD-Mediterranean variant. Conclusion The results showed a significant presence of G-6-PD deficiency with predominance of a severe G-6-PD deficiency type in these blood donors in Sana’a City, which could represent an important health problem through occurrence of hemolytic anemia under oxidative stress. A larger sample size is needed to determine the overall prevalence of G-6-PD deficiency, and should be extended to include DNA analysis to identify its variants in Yemen. PMID:22359725

  7. Bedside monitoring of subcutaneous interstitial glucose in type 1 diabetic subjects using microdialysis and infrared spectrometry with optimal correlation to blood glucose concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heise, H. Michael; Damm, Uwe; Kondepati, Venkata R.; Mader, J. K.; Ellmerer, M.

    2007-02-01

    Infrared spectroscopy has been successfully employed in multi-component assays for the study of various biomedical samples. Two areas have found particular interest, i.e. in-vitro analysis in the clinical laboratory and point-of-care applications. With regard to the latter field, in-vivo blood glucose monitoring is an important topic for improving glycemic control in critically ill patients with non-adequate blood glucose regulation, similar to the situation faced for diabetic patients. For such application, a continuously operated mid-infrared spectroscopic system in combination with a subcutaneously implanted microdialysis probe and coupled by micro-fluidics has been developed. Using the dialysis process, the interstitial fluid matrix can be significantly simplified, since high molecular mass compounds such as proteins are separated. However, the micro-dialysis recovery rate is variable over time, so that a simultaneous determination of this parameter was implemented using the losses of an acetate marker from the perfusate across the dialysis membrane. Clinical measurements were carried out on type 1 diabetic subjects, with experiments lasting up to 28 hours. The concentrations of glucose, acetate and other components in the dialysates from interstitial body fluids were investigated. Two different multivariate calibration strategies, i.e. partial least squares (PLS) and classical least squares (CLS) regressions were applied. The results led to excellent correlation of the subcutaneous interstitial concentrations with those of laboratory blood glucose readings. Clarke-Error-Grid evaluations were employed for assessing the clinical applicability of the method.

  8. Effect of curcumin supplementation on blood glucose, plasma insulin, and glucose homeostasis related enzyme activities in diabetic db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Seo, Kwon-Il; Choi, Myung-Sook; Jung, Un Ju; Kim, Hye-Jin; Yeo, Jiyoung; Jeon, Seon-Min; Lee, Mi-Kyung

    2008-09-01

    We investigated the effect of curcumin on insulin resistance and glucose homeostasis in male C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice and their age-matched lean non-diabetic db/+ mice. Both db/+ and db/db mice were fed with or without curcumin (0.02%, wt/wt) for 6 wks. Curcumin significantly lowered blood glucose and HbA 1c levels, and it suppressed body weight loss in db/db mice. Curcumin improved homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and glucose tolerance, and elevated the plasma insulin level in db/db mice. Hepatic glucokinase activity was significantly higher in the curcumin-supplemented db/db group than in the db/db group, whereas glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activities were significantly lower. In db/db mice, curcumin significantly lowered the hepatic activities of fatty acid synthase, beta-oxidation, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme reductase, and acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase. Curcumin significantly lowered plasma free fatty acid, cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations and increased the hepatic glycogen and skeletal muscle lipoprotein lipase in db/db mice. Curcumin normalized erythrocyte and hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, gluthathione peroxidase) in db/db mice that resulted in a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation. However, curcumin showed no effect on the blood glucose, plasma insulin, and glucose regulating enzyme activities in db/+ mice. These results suggest that curcumin seemed to be a potential glucose-lowering agent and antioxidant in type 2 diabetic db/db mice, but had no affect in non-diabetic db/+ mice.

  9. Admissions Testing & Institutional Admissions Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossler, Don; Kalsbeek, David

    2009-01-01

    The array of admissions models and the underlying, and sometimes conflicting goals people have for college admissions, create the dynamics and the tensions that define the contemporary context for enrollment management. The senior enrollment officer must ask, for example, how does an institution try to assure transparency, equality of access,…

  10. Blood Glucose Meters Employing Dynamic Electrochemistry Are Stable against Hematocrit Interference in a Laboratory Setting

    PubMed Central

    Pfützner, Andreas; Musholt, Petra B.; Schipper, Christina; Demircik, Filiz; Hengesbach, Carina; Flacke, Frank; Sieber, Jochen; Forst, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background Hematocrit (HCT) is known to be a confounding factor that interferes with many blood glucose (BG) measurement technologies, resulting in wrong readings. Dynamic electrochemistry has been identified as one possible way to correct for these potential deviations. The purpose of this laboratory investigation was to assess the HCT stability of four BG meters known to employ dynamic electrochemistry (BGStar and iBGStar, Sanofi; Wavesense Jazz, AgaMatrix; Wellion Linus, MedTrust) in comparison with three other devices (GlucoDock, Medisana; OneTouch Verio Pro, LifeScan; FreeStyle Freedom InsuLinx, Abbott-Medisense). Methods Venous heparinized blood was immediately aliquoted after draw and manipulated to contain three different BG concentrations (60–90, 130–160, and 280–320 mg/dl) and five different HCT levels (25%, 35%, 45%, 55%, and 60%). After careful oxygenation to normal blood oxygen pressure, each of the resulting 15 different samples was measured six times with three devices and three strip lots of each meter. The YSI Stat 2300 served as laboratory reference method. Stability to HCT influence was assumed when less than 10% difference occurred between the highest and lowest mean glucose deviations in relation to HCT concentrations [hematocrit interference factor (HIF)]. Results Five of the investigated self-test meters showed a stable performance with the different HCT levels tested in this investigation: BGStar (HIF 4.6%), iBGStar (6.6%), Wavesense Jazz (4.1%), Wellion Linus (8.5%), and OneTouch Verio Pro (6.2%). The two other meters were influenced by HCT (FreeStyle InsuLinx 17.8%; GlucoDock 46.5%). Conclusions In this study, meters employing dynamic electrochemistry, as used in the BGStar and iBGStar devices, were shown to correct for potential HCT influence on the meter results. Dynamic electrochemistry appears to be an effective way to handle this interfering condition. PMID:24351179

  11. Carotid Intima Media Thickness in Nondiabetic Hypertensive Nigerians: Role of Fasting and Postprandial Blood Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Okeahialam, B. N.; Muoneme, S. A.; Kolade-Yunusa, H. O.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims. Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) tracks atherosclerotic vascular disease. Hypertension and diabetes chiefly contribute to atherosclerosis with 75% of symptomatic cardiovascular disease cases having dysglycaemia even in normal cases. Hypothesising that postprandial hyperglycaemia contributes to cardiovascular morbidity, we sought to determine if any relationship existed between glycaemic profile in nondiabetic hypertensives and atherosclerosis. Methods. In a study of CIMT in nondiabetic, statin-naïve hypertensives, we evaluated fasting blood glucose (FBG) and 2-hour postprandial sugar (2hPPBG) in the patients and compared them with the CIMT. CIMT was measured on both sides, 1 cm proximal to the carotid bulb using a 7.5 mHz transducer of ALOKA SSD-3500 ultrasound machine. Results. The subjects with complete data were 86 (63 F). The mean (SD) of CIMT was 0.89 (0.15) mm, FBG 4.8 (0.097) mmol/L, and 2hPPBG 6.5 (1.81) mmol/L. There was no significant correlation between FBG and 2hPPBG with CIMT. Blood pressure had no bearing on this. When blood glucose data were divided into quartiles and post hoc multiple comparison was done, there was significant difference in CIMT for the different ranges. This was not so for 2hPPBG. Conclusion. Though expected from other studies, we did not show any significant correlation between FBG and 2hPPBG status and CIMT. This may be our pattern as the degree of excursion of 2hPPBG was low. There may be a threshold level above which PPBG starts to impact CIMT. PMID:27144025

  12. Carotid Intima Media Thickness in Nondiabetic Hypertensive Nigerians: Role of Fasting and Postprandial Blood Glucose.

    PubMed

    Okeahialam, B N; Muoneme, S A; Kolade-Yunusa, H O

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims. Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) tracks atherosclerotic vascular disease. Hypertension and diabetes chiefly contribute to atherosclerosis with 75% of symptomatic cardiovascular disease cases having dysglycaemia even in normal cases. Hypothesising that postprandial hyperglycaemia contributes to cardiovascular morbidity, we sought to determine if any relationship existed between glycaemic profile in nondiabetic hypertensives and atherosclerosis. Methods. In a study of CIMT in nondiabetic, statin-naïve hypertensives, we evaluated fasting blood glucose (FBG) and 2-hour postprandial sugar (2hPPBG) in the patients and compared them with the CIMT. CIMT was measured on both sides, 1 cm proximal to the carotid bulb using a 7.5 mHz transducer of ALOKA SSD-3500 ultrasound machine. Results. The subjects with complete data were 86 (63 F). The mean (SD) of CIMT was 0.89 (0.15) mm, FBG 4.8 (0.097) mmol/L, and 2hPPBG 6.5 (1.81) mmol/L. There was no significant correlation between FBG and 2hPPBG with CIMT. Blood pressure had no bearing on this. When blood glucose data were divided into quartiles and post hoc multiple comparison was done, there was significant difference in CIMT for the different ranges. This was not so for 2hPPBG. Conclusion. Though expected from other studies, we did not show any significant correlation between FBG and 2hPPBG status and CIMT. This may be our pattern as the degree of excursion of 2hPPBG was low. There may be a threshold level above which PPBG starts to impact CIMT. PMID:27144025

  13. Blood and urine responses to ingesting fluids of various salt and glucose concentrations. [to combat orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Mary A.; Riddle, Jeanne; Charles, John B.; Bungo, Michael W.

    1991-01-01

    To compensate for the reduced blood and fluid volumes that develop during weightlessness, the Space Shuttle crewmembers consume salt tablets and water equivalent to 1 l of normal saline, about 2 hrs before landing. This paper compares the effects on blood, urine, and cardiovascular variables of the ingestion of 1 l of normal (0.9 percent) saline with the effects of distilled water, 1 percent glucose, 0.74 percent saline with 1 percent glucose, 0.9 percent saline with 1 percent glucose, and 1.07 percent saline. It was found that the expansion of plasma volume and the concentration of urine were greater 4 hrs after ingestion of 1.07 percent saline solution than after ingestion of normal saline and that the solutions containig glucose did not enhance any variables as compared with normal saline.

  14. Cinnamon extract improves fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin level in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ting; Sheng, Hongguang; Wu, Johnna; Cheng, Yuan; Zhu, Jianming; Chen, Yan

    2012-06-01

    For thousands of years, cinnamon has been used as a traditional treatment in China. However, there are no studies to date that investigate whether cinnamon supplements are able to aid in the treatment of type 2 diabetes in Chinese subjects. We hypothesized cinnamon should be effective in improving blood glucose control in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. To address this hypothesis, we performed a randomized, double-blinded clinical study to analyze the effect of cinnamon extract on glycosylated hemoglobin A(1c) and fasting blood glucose levels in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. A total of 66 patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited and randomly divided into 3 groups: placebo and low-dose and high-dose supplementation with cinnamon extract at 120 and 360 mg/d, respectively. Patients in all 3 groups took gliclazide during the entire 3 months of the study. Both hemoglobin A(1c) and fasting blood glucose levels were significantly reduced in patients in the low- and high-dose groups, whereas they were not changed in the placebo group. The blood triglyceride levels were also significantly reduced in the low-dose group. The blood levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and liver transaminase remained unchanged in the 3 groups. In conclusion, our study indicates that cinnamon supplementation is able to significantly improve blood glucose control in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes.

  15. In-situ monitoring of blood glucose level for dialysis machine by AAA-battery-size ATR Fourier spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosono, Satsuki; Sato, Shun; Ishida, Akane; Suzuki, Yo; Inohara, Daichi; Nogo, Kosuke; Abeygunawardhana, Pradeep K.; Suzuki, Satoru; Nishiyama, Akira; Wada, Kenji; Ishimaru, Ichiro

    2015-07-01

    For blood glucose level measurement of dialysis machines, we proposed AAA-battery-size ATR (Attenuated total reflection) Fourier spectroscopy in middle infrared light region. The proposed one-shot Fourier spectroscopic imaging is a near-common path and spatial phase-shift interferometer with high time resolution. Because numerous number of spectral data that is 60 (= camera frame rare e.g. 60[Hz]) multiplied by pixel number could be obtained in 1[sec.], statistical-averaging improvement realize high-accurate spectral measurement. We evaluated the quantitative accuracy of our proposed method for measuring glucose concentration in near-infrared light region with liquid cells. We confirmed that absorbance at 1600[nm] had high correlations with glucose concentrations (correlation coefficient: 0.92). But to measure whole-blood, complex light phenomenon caused from red blood cells, that is scattering and multiple reflection or so, deteriorate spectral data. Thus, we also proposed the ultrasound-assisted spectroscopic imaging that traps particles at standing-wave node. Thus, if ATR prism is oscillated mechanically, anti-node area is generated around evanescent light field on prism surface. By elimination complex light phenomenon of red blood cells, glucose concentration in whole-blood will be quantify with high accuracy. In this report, we successfully trapped red blood cells in normal saline solution with ultrasonic standing wave (frequency: 2[MHz]).

  16. Red blood cell sodium-proton exchange in hypertensive blacks with insulin-resistant glucose disposal.

    PubMed

    Canessa, M; Falkner, B; Hulman, S

    1993-08-01

    To define the potential pathogenic role of hyperinsulinemia as a mediator of alterations in sodium transport, we have examined red blood cell Na(+)-H+ and Na(+)-Li+ exchanges in a young adult black population characterized for blood pressure and insulin-mediated glucose disposal. Normotensive and mildly hypertensive blacks (blood pressure, 120 +/- 2/76 +/- 2 and 139 +/- 3/94 +/- 2 mm Hg, respectively) with a mean age of 26.1 years were studied for insulin sensitivity with the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp (molar index of insulin sensitivity, M/I = moles glucose metabolized/insulin in milliliters of plasma). Na(+)-H+ exchange (U = mmol/L cell.h) was measured before and after the insulin clamp as a function of cell pH to determine the maximum transport rate. In the normotensive subjects, 18 were insulin sensitive (M/I = 9.37 +/- 0.6 x 10(4)) and 4 were insulin resistant (M/I = 3.64 +/- 0.6 x 10(4)). In the hypertensive subjects, 4 were insulin sensitive (M/I = 9.15 +/- 1.1 x 10(4)) and 16 were insulin resistant (M/I = 3.02 +/- 0.3 x 10(4)). The maximum rate of Na(+)-H+ exchange was significantly higher in all hypertensive vs normotensive individuals (35 +/- 3 vs 23 +/- 3 U, P < .005). Na(+)-H+ exchange activity was higher in insulin-resistant vs insulin-sensitive hypertensive subjects (40 +/- 3 vs 20 +/- 2 U, P < .001) but not in insulin-resistant normotensive subjects. Na(+)-Li+ exchange was not different in hypertensive and normotensive individuals but was higher in all insulin-resistant compared with all insulin-sensitive subjects (0.26 +/- 0.03 vs 0.16 +/- 0.02 U, P < .01). Na(+)-Li+ exchange also was higher in insulin-resistant vs insulin-sensitive normotensive subjects (0.35 +/- 0.03 vs 0.15 +/- 0.02 U, P < .001) and in insulin-resistant hypertensive subjects vs insulin-sensitive normotensive subjects (0.24 +/- 0.03 vs 0.15 +/- 0.02 U, P < .001). A stepwise multiple regression analysis for all variables revealed that with Na(+)-H+ exchange as a dependent

  17. The use of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy for the quantitative determination of glucose concentration in whole blood.

    PubMed

    Shen, Y C; Davies, A G; Linfleld, E H; Elsey, T S; Taday, P F; Arnone, D D

    2003-07-01

    Fourier-transform infrared transmission spectroscopy has been used for the determination of glucose concentration in whole blood samples from 28 patients. A 4-vector partial least-squares calibration model, using the spectral range 950-1200 cm(-1), yielded a standard-error-of-prediction of 0.59 mM for an independent test set. For blood samples from a single patient, we found that the glucose concentration was proportional to the difference between the values of the second derivative spectrum at 1082 cm(-1) and 1093 cm(-1). This indicates that spectroscopy at these two specific wavenumbers alone could be used to determine the glucose concentration in blood plasma samples from a single patient, with a prediction error of 0.95 mM. PMID:12884933

  18. Effects of Petroselinum crispum extract on pancreatic B cells and blood glucose of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Yanardağ, Refiye; Bolkent, Sehnaz; Tabakoğlu-Oğuz, Ayse; Ozsoy-Saçan, Ozlem

    2003-08-01

    This study investigated both morphologically and biochemically whether parsley (Petroselinum crispum), which is used as a folk remedy to decrease blood glucose, has any antidiabetic effect on pancreatic B cells of rats. Parsley extract was given to male diabetic rats. In the diabetic group given parsley extract, it was detected that the number of secretory granules and cells in islets and other morphologic changes were not different from the control diabetic group, while the blood glucose levels in the diabetic group given the plant extract were reduced in comparison to the diabetic group. In addition, a decrease was observed in the weight of the control diabetic group and the diabetic group given the plant extract. It is suggested that the plant therapy can provide blood glucose homeostasis and cannot regenerate B cells of the endocrine pancreas.

  19. Effect of Fasting Blood Glucose Level on Heart Rate Variability of Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lutfi, Mohamed Faisal; Elhakeem, Ramaze Farouke

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies reported increased risk of cardiac events in subjects with fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels lower than the diagnostic threshold of diabetes mellitus. However, whether increased cardiac events in those with upper normal FBG is secondary to the shift of their cardiac sympathovagal balance towards sympathetic predominance is unknown. Aims To assess the association between FBG levels and cardiac autonomic modulation (CAM) in euglycaemic healthy subjects based on heart rate variability (HRV) derived indices. Subjects and Methods The study enrolled 42 healthy young adults. Following sociodemographic and clinical assessment, blood samples were collected to measure FBG levels. Five minutes ECG recordings were performed to all participants to obtain frequency domain HRV measurements, namely the natural logarithm (Ln) of total power (LnTP), very low frequency (LnVLF), low frequency (LnLF) and high frequency (LnHF), low frequency/ high frequency ratio (LnLF/HF), normalized low frequency (LF Norm) and high frequency (HF Norm). Results FBG levels correlated positively with LnHF (r = 0.33, P = 0.031) and HF Norm (r = 0.35, P = 0.025) and negatively with LF Norm (r = -0.35, P = 0.025) and LnLF/HF (r = -0.33, P = 0.035). LnHF and HF Norm were significantly decreased in subjects with the lower (4.00 (1.34) ms2/Hz and 33.12 (11.94) n.u) compared to those with the upper FBG quartile (5.64 (1.63) ms2/Hz and 49.43 (17.73) n.u, P = 0.013 and 0.032 respectively). LF Norm and LnLF/HF were significantly increased in subjects with the lower (66.88 (11.94) n.u and 0.73 (0.53)) compared to those with the higher FBG quartile (50.58 (17.83) n.u and 0.03 (0.79), P = 0.032 and 0.038 respectively). Conclusion The present study is the first to demonstrate that rise of blood glucose concentration, within physiological range, is associated with higher parasympathetic, but lower sympathetic CAM. Further researches are needed to set out the glycemic threshold beyond which

  20. Consensus Report of the Coalition for Clinical Research—Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Klonoff, David C.; Bergenstal, Richard; Blonde, Lawrence; Boren, Suzanne Austin; Church, Timothy S.; Gaffaney, Jenifer; Jovanovič, Lois; Kendall, David M.; Kollman, Craig; Kovatchev, Boris P.; Leippert, Claudia; DDG, Diabetesberaterin; Owens, David R.; Polonsky, William H.; Reach, Gérard; Renard, Eric; Riddell, Michael C.; Rubin, Richard R.; Schnell, Oliver; Siminiero, Linda M.; Vigersky, Robert A.; Wilson, Darrell M.; Wollitzer, Alison Okada

    2008-01-01

    The Coalition for Clinical Research—Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose Scientific Board, a group of nine academic clinicians and scientists from the United States and Europe, convened in San Francisco, California, on June 11–12, 2008, to discuss the appropriate uses of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and the measures necessary to accurately assess the potential benefit of this practice in noninsulin-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Thirteen consultants from the United States, Europe, and Canada from academia, practice, and government also participated and contributed based on their fields of expertise. These experts represent a range of disciplines that include adult endocrinology, pediatric endocrinology, health education, mathematics, statistics, psychology, nutrition, exercise physiology, and nursing. This coalition was organized by Diabetes Technology Management, Inc. Among the participants, there was consensus that: protocols assessing the performance of SMBG in noninsulin treated T2DM must provide the SMBG intervention subjects with blood glucose (BG) goals and instructions on how to respond to BG data in randomized controlled trials (RCTs);intervention subjects in clinical trials of SMBG-driven interventions must aggressively titrate their therapeutic responses or lifestyle changes in response to hyperglycemia;control subjects in clinical trials of SMBG must be isolated from SMBG-driven interventions and not be contaminated by physician experience with study subjects receiving a SMBG intervention;the best endpoints to measure in a clinical trial of SMBG in T2DM include delta Hemoglobin A1c levels, hyperglycemic events, hypoglycemic events, time to titrate noninsulin therapy to a maximum necessary dosage, and quality of life indices;either individual randomization or cluster randomization may be appropriate methods for separating control subjects from SMBG intervention subjects, provided that precautions are taken to avoid bias and that the

  1. G6PC2 Modulates Fasting Blood Glucose In Male Mice in Response to Stress.

    PubMed

    Boortz, Kayla A; Syring, Kristen E; Dai, Chunhua; Pound, Lynley D; Oeser, James K; Jacobson, David A; Wang, Jen-Chywan; McGuinness, Owen P; Powers, Alvin C; O'Brien, Richard M

    2016-08-01

    The glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic 2 (G6PC2) gene is expressed specifically in pancreatic islet beta cells. Genome-wide association studies have shown that single nucleotide polymorphisms in the G6PC2 gene are associated with variations in fasting blood glucose (FBG) but not fasting plasma insulin. Molecular analyses examining the functional effects of these single nucleotide polymorphisms demonstrate that elevated G6PC2 expression is associated with elevated FBG. Studies in mice complement these genome-wide association data and show that deletion of the G6pc2 gene lowers FBG without affecting fasting plasma insulin. This suggests that, together with glucokinase, G6PC2 forms a substrate cycle that determines the glucose sensitivity of insulin secretion. Because genome-wide association studies and mouse studies demonstrate that elevated G6PC2 expression raises FBG and because chronically elevated FBG is detrimental to human health, increasing the risk of type 2 diabetes, it is unclear why G6PC2 evolved. We show here that the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone strongly induces human G6PC2 promoter activity and endogenous G6PC2 expression in isolated human islets. Acute treatment with dexamethasone selectively induces endogenous G6pc2 expression in 129SvEv but not C57BL/6J mouse pancreas and isolated islets. The difference is due to a single nucleotide polymorphism in the C57BL/6J G6pc2 promoter that abolishes glucocorticoid receptor binding. In 6-hour fasted, nonstressed 129SvEv mice, deletion of G6pc2 lowers FBG. In response to the stress of repeated physical restraint, which is associated with elevated plasma glucocorticoid levels, G6pc2 gene expression is induced and the difference in FBG between wild-type and knockout mice is enhanced. These data suggest that G6PC2 may have evolved to modulate FBG in response to stress. PMID:27300767

  2. Postprandial blood glucose control in type 1 diabetes for carbohydrates with varying glycemic index foods.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Shogo; Noguchi, Claudia Cecilia Yamamoto; Furutani, Eiko

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of type 1 diabetes consists of maintaining postprandial normoglycemia using the correct prandial insulin dose according to food intake. Nonetheless, it is hardly achieved in practice, which results in several diabetes-related complications. In this study we present a feedforward plus feedback blood glucose control system that considers the glycemic index of foods. It consists of a preprandial insulin bolus whose optimal bolus dose and timing are stated as a minimization problem, which is followed by a postprandial closed-loop control based on model predictive control. Simulation results show that, for a representative carbohydrate intake of 50 g, the present control system is able to maintain postprandial glycemia below 140 mg/dL while preventing postprandial hypoglycemia as well. PMID:25571074

  3. Acute hepatitis C virus infection related to capillary blood glucose meter

    PubMed Central

    Inayat, Faisal; Rai, Aitzaz BinSultan

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects an estimated 130-150 million people worldwide, becoming the major cause of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver transplantation. There are various preventable modes of transmission of HCV infection, including needlestick and sharps injuries. However, HCV infection secondary to needlestick injury by a capillary blood glucose meter (CBGM) lancet has not been previously well reported. We describe an unusual case of a 25-year-old male medical student, acquiring acute HCV infection with a lancing device of CBGM. The source patient was a 54-year-old diabetic male with positive anti-HCV test results. In our patient, after 3 months of initial exposure, a standard set of investigations confirmed the diagnosis of acute HCV infection with the same genotype (3a) as the source. The CBGM, as in our case, may have a role in the transmission of HCV infection warranting radical advancements in diabetes screening and monitoring technology. PMID:26739982

  4. Comprehensive experiment-clinical biochemistry: determination of blood glucose and triglycerides in normal and diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Li; Xiujuan, Shi; Juan, Wang; Song, Jia; Lei, Xu; Guotong, Xu; Lixia, Lu

    2015-01-01

    For second year medical students, we redesigned an original laboratory experiment and developed a combined research-teaching clinical biochemistry experiment. Using an established diabetic rat model to detect blood glucose and triglycerides, the students participate in the entire experimental process, which is not normally experienced during a standard clinical biochemistry exercise. The students are not only exposed to techniques and equipment but are also inspired to think more about the biochemical mechanisms of diseases. When linked with lecture topics about the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids, the students obtain a better understanding of the relevance of abnormal metabolism in relation to diseases. Such understanding provides a solid foundation for the medical students' future research and for other clinical applications.

  5. Does sugar content matter? Blood plasma glucose levels in an occasional and a specialist avian nectarivore.

    PubMed

    Witteveen, Minke; Brown, Mark; Downs, Colleen T

    2014-01-01

    Nectar composition within a plant pollinator group can be variable, and bird pollinated plants can be segregated into two groups based on their adaptations to either a specialist or an occasional bird pollination system. Specialist nectarivores rely primarily on nectar for their energy requirements, while occasional nectarivores meet their energy requirements from nectar as well as from seeds, fruit and insects. Avian blood plasma glucose concentration (PGlu) is generally high compared with mammals. It is also affected by a range of factors including species, gender, age, ambient temperature, feeding pattern, reproductive status, circadian rhythm and moult status, among others. We examined whether sugar content affected PGlu of two avian nectarivores, a specialist nectarivore the Amethyst Sunbird Chalcomitra amethystina, and an occasional nectarivore the Cape White-eye Zosterops virens, when fed sucrose-hexose sugar solution diets of varying concentrations (5%-35%). Both species regulated PGlu within a range which was affected by sampling time (fed or fasted) and not dietary sugar concentration. The range in mean PGlu was broader in Amethyst Sunbirds (11.52-16.51mmol/L) compared with Cape White-eyes (14.33-15.85mmol/L). This suggests that these birds are not constrained by dietary sugar concentration with regard to PGlu regulation, and consequently selective pressure on plants for their nectar characteristics is due to reasons other than glucose regulation. PMID:24095723

  6. Dynamic quantitative photothermal monitoring of cell death of individual human red blood cells upon glucose depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasudevan, Srivathsan; Chen, George Chung Kit; Andika, Marta; Agarwal, Shuchi; Chen, Peng; Olivo, Malini

    2010-09-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) have been found to undergo ``programmed cell death,'' or eryptosis, and understanding this process can provide more information about apoptosis of nucleated cells. Photothermal (PT) response, a label-free photothermal noninvasive technique, is proposed as a tool to monitor the cell death process of living human RBCs upon glucose depletion. Since the physiological status of the dying cells is highly sensitive to photothermal parameters (e.g., thermal diffusivity, absorption, etc.), we applied linear PT response to continuously monitor the death mechanism of RBC when depleted of glucose. The kinetics of the assay where the cell's PT response transforms from linear to nonlinear regime is reported. In addition, quantitative monitoring was performed by extracting the relevant photothermal parameters from the PT response. Twofold increases in thermal diffusivity and size reduction were found in the linear PT response during cell death. Our results reveal that photothermal parameters change earlier than phosphatidylserine externalization (used for fluorescent studies), allowing us to detect the initial stage of eryptosis in a quantitative manner. Hence, the proposed tool, in addition to detection of eryptosis earlier than fluorescence, could also reveal physiological status of the cells through quantitative photothermal parameter extraction.

  7. Association between self-monitoring of blood glucose and diet among minority patients with diabetes*

    PubMed Central

    McANDREW, Lisa M.; HOROWITZ, Carol R.; LANCASTER, Kristie J.; QUIGLEY, Karen S.; POGACH, Leonard M.; MORA, Pablo A.; LEVENTHAL, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Background Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is used to regulate glucose control. It is unknown whether SMBG can motivate adherence to dietary recommendations. We predicted that participants who used more SMBG would also report lower fat and greater fruit and vegetable consumption. Methods The present study was a cross-sectional study of 401 primarily minority individuals living with diabetes in East Harlem, New York. Fat intake and fruit and vegetable consumption were measured with the Block Fruit/Vegetable/Fiber and Fat Screeners. Results Greater frequency of SMBG was associated with lower fat intake (rs = −0.15; P < 0.01), but not fruit and vegetable consumption. The effects of SMBG were not moderated by insulin use; thus, the relationship was significant for those individuals both on and not on insulin. A significant interaction was found between frequency of SMBG and changing one’s diet in response to SMBG on total fat intake. The data suggest that participants who use SMBG to guide their diet do not have to monitor multiple times a day to benefit. Conclusion The present study found that the frequency of SMBG was associated with lower fat intake. Patients are often taught to use SMBG to guide their self-management. This is one of the first studies to examine whether SMBG is associated with better dietary intake. PMID:21599868

  8. Does sugar content matter? Blood plasma glucose levels in an occasional and a specialist avian nectarivore.

    PubMed

    Witteveen, Minke; Brown, Mark; Downs, Colleen T

    2014-01-01

    Nectar composition within a plant pollinator group can be variable, and bird pollinated plants can be segregated into two groups based on their adaptations to either a specialist or an occasional bird pollination system. Specialist nectarivores rely primarily on nectar for their energy requirements, while occasional nectarivores meet their energy requirements from nectar as well as from seeds, fruit and insects. Avian blood plasma glucose concentration (PGlu) is generally high compared with mammals. It is also affected by a range of factors including species, gender, age, ambient temperature, feeding pattern, reproductive status, circadian rhythm and moult status, among others. We examined whether sugar content affected PGlu of two avian nectarivores, a specialist nectarivore the Amethyst Sunbird Chalcomitra amethystina, and an occasional nectarivore the Cape White-eye Zosterops virens, when fed sucrose-hexose sugar solution diets of varying concentrations (5%-35%). Both species regulated PGlu within a range which was affected by sampling time (fed or fasted) and not dietary sugar concentration. The range in mean PGlu was broader in Amethyst Sunbirds (11.52-16.51mmol/L) compared with Cape White-eyes (14.33-15.85mmol/L). This suggests that these birds are not constrained by dietary sugar concentration with regard to PGlu regulation, and consequently selective pressure on plants for their nectar characteristics is due to reasons other than glucose regulation.

  9. A retrospective review of the roles of multifunctional glucose-6-phosphatase in blood glucose homeostasis: Genesis of the tuning/retuning hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Nordlie, Robert C.; Foster, James D.

    2010-01-01

    In a scientific career spanning from 1955–2000, my research focused on phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase. Grounded in basic enzymology, and initially pursuing the steady-state rate behavior of isolated preparations of these critically important gluconeogenic enzymes, our key findings were confirmed and extended by in situ enzyme rate experiments exploiting isolated liver perfusions. These efforts culminated in the discovery of the liver cytosolic isozyme of carboxykinase, known today as (GTP)PEPCK-C (EC4.1.1.32) and also revealed a biosynthetic function and multicomponent nature of glucose-6-phosphatase (EC3.1.3.9). Discovery that glucose-6-phosphatase possessed an intrinsically biosynthetic activity, now known as carbamyl-P:glucose phosphotransferase– along with a deeper consideration of the enzyme’s hydrolytic activity as well as the action of liver glucokinase resulted in the evolution of Tuning/Retuning Hypothesis for blood glucose homeostasis in health and disease. This THEN & NOW review shares with the reader the joy and exhilaration of major scientific discovery and also contrasts the methodologies and approaches on which I relied with those currently in use. PMID:20603134

  10. Clinical Implications and Economic Impact of Accuracy Differences among Commercially Available Blood Glucose Monitoring Systems

    PubMed Central

    Budiman, Erwin S.; Samant, Navendu; Resch, Ansgar

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite accuracy standards, there are performance differences among commercially available blood glucose monitoring (BGM) systems. The objective of this analysis was to assess the potential clinical and economic impact of accuracy differences of various BGM systems using a modeling approach. Methods We simulated additional risk of hypoglycemia due to blood glucose (BG) measurement errors of five different BGM systems based on results of a real-world accuracy study, while retaining other sources of glycemic variability. Using data from published literature, we estimated an annual additional number of required medical interventions as a result of hypoglycemia. We based our calculations on patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and T2DM requiring multiple daily injections (MDIs) of insulin in a U.S. health care system. We estimated additional costs attributable to treatment of severe hypoglycemic episodes resulting from BG measurement errors.. Results Results from our model predict an annual difference of approximately 296,000 severe hypoglycemic episodes from BG measurement errors for T1DM (105,000 for T2DM MDI) patients for the estimated U.S. population of 958,800 T1DM and 1,353,600 T2DM MDI patients, using the least accurate BGM system versus patients using the most accurate system in a U.S. health care system. This resulted in additional direct costs of approximately $339 million for T1DM and approximately $121 million for T2DM MDI patients per year. Conclusions Our analysis shows that error patterns over the operating range of BGM meter may lead to relevant clinical and economic outcome differences that may not be reflected in a common accuracy metric or standard. PMID:23566995

  11. Development of the Diabetes Technology Society Blood Glucose Monitor System Surveillance Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Klonoff, David C.; Lias, Courtney; Beck, Stayce; Parkes, Joan Lee; Kovatchev, Boris; Vigersky, Robert A.; Arreaza-Rubin, Guillermo; Burk, Robert D.; Kowalski, Aaron; Little, Randie; Nichols, James; Petersen, Matt; Rawlings, Kelly; Sacks, David B.; Sampson, Eric; Scott, Steve; Seley, Jane Jeffrie; Slingerland, Robbert; Vesper, Hubert W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Inaccurate blood glucsoe monitoring systems (BGMSs) can lead to adverse health effects. The Diabetes Technology Society (DTS) Surveillance Program for cleared BGMSs is intended to protect people with diabetes from inaccurate, unreliable BGMS products that are currently on the market in the United States. The Surveillance Program will provide an independent assessment of the analytical performance of cleared BGMSs. Methods: The DTS BGMS Surveillance Program Steering Committee included experts in glucose monitoring, surveillance testing, and regulatory science. Over one year, the committee engaged in meetings and teleconferences aiming to describe how to conduct BGMS surveillance studies in a scientifically sound manner that is in compliance with good clinical practice and all relevant regulations. Results: A clinical surveillance protocol was created that contains performance targets and analytical accuracy-testing studies with marketed BGMS products conducted by qualified clinical and laboratory sites. This protocol entitled “Protocol for the Diabetes Technology Society Blood Glucose Monitor System Surveillance Program” is attached as supplementary material. Conclusion: This program is needed because currently once a BGMS product has been cleared for use by the FDA, no systematic postmarket Surveillance Program exists that can monitor analytical performance and detect potential problems. This protocol will allow identification of inaccurate and unreliable BGMSs currently available on the US market. The DTS Surveillance Program will provide BGMS manufacturers a benchmark to understand the postmarket analytical performance of their products. Furthermore, patients, health care professionals, payers, and regulatory agencies will be able to use the results of the study to make informed decisions to, respectively, select, prescribe, finance, and regulate BGMSs on the market. PMID:26481642

  12. Accessibility of blood glucose monitoring systems for blind and visually impaired people.

    PubMed

    Uslan, Mark M; Eghtesadi, Khosrow; Burton, Darren

    2003-01-01

    Blindness and visual impairment are prevalent among people with diabetes. Blood glucose monitoring systems (BGMSs) have revolutionized diabetes care, but none of the 30 or so commercially available monitoring systems was designed to be fully accessible to blind and visually impaired persons. Seventeen BGMSs were evaluated for accessible use by people who are blind or visually impaired. Features and functionalities (e.g., operating procedures, user interface design, device specifications, and computer interface capabilities) were examined and tabulated, as was usability and accessibility. A subset of these systems with the highest degree of accessibility was selected and thoroughly examined and tested. Additionally, 12 people who are blind or visually impaired and who were issued BGMSs by their physician or diabetes educator were interviewed and videotaped using their meters. Of the 17 BGMSs, only four had voice output capability, an essential component of accessibility for blind and visually impaired persons. The six BGMSs without voice output that had the largest display fonts were found to have few accessibility features for visually impaired persons. Users indicated that voice output and portability were desired attributes of an accessible BGMS. None of the BGMSs evaluated had all of the required accessibility attributes, including the four systems that had voice output capability. The four systems with voice output were much bulkier and heavier than those that did not have this capability. Recommendations are made for design and development of BGMSs that would increase effective usage by blind and visually impaired persons, including integrating text to speech and streamlining the blood glucose monitoring process. PMID:12828828

  13. Alteration of blood glucose levels in the rat following exposure to hyperbaric oxygen.

    PubMed

    Eynan, Mirit; Mullokandov, Michael; Krinsky, Nitzan; Biram, Adi; Arieli, Yehuda

    2015-09-01

    Findings regarding blood glucose level (BGL) on exposure to hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) are contradictory. We investigated the influence of HBO on BGL, and of BGL on latency to central nervous system oxygen toxicity (CNS-OT). The study was conducted on five groups of rats: Group 1, exposure to oxygen at 2.5 atmospheres absolute (ATA), 90 min/day for 7 days; Group 2, exposure to oxygen once a week from 2 to 6 ATA in increments of 1 ATA/wk, for a period of time calculated as 60% of the latency to CNS-OT (no convulsions); Group 3, exposure to 6 ATA breathing a gas mixture with a pO2 of 0.21; Group 4, received 10 U/kg insulin to induce hypoglycemia before exposure to HBO; Group 5, received 33% glucose to induce hyperglycemia before exposure to HBO. Blood samples were drawn before and after exposures for measurement of BGL. No change was observed in BGL after exposure to oxygen at 2.5 ATA, 90 min/day for 7 days. BGL was significantly elevated after exposure to oxygen at 6 ATA until the appearance of convulsions, and following exposure to 4, 5, and 6 ATA without convulsions (P < 0.01). No change was observed in BGL after exposure to 6 ATA breathing a gas mixture with a pO2 of 0.21. Hypoglycemia shortened latency to CNS oxygen toxicity, whereas hyperglycemia had no effect. Our results demonstrate an influence of HBO exposure on elevation of BGL, starting at 4 ATA. This implies that BGL may serve as a marker for the generation of CNS-OT.

  14. Effects of Water Extracts of Graptopetalum paraguayense on Blood Pressure, Fasting Glucose, and Lipid Profiles of Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Chi-Hua; Chen, Shu-Ju; Liu, Jen-Tzu; Tseng, Yu-Fen

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effects of water extracts of Graptopetalum paraguayense (WGP, 4 g/d) on blood pressure, blood glucose level, and lipid profiles in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS). Participants with MS (n = 54) were randomly assigned to the placebo (n = 28) and WGP groups (n = 26), and the intervention was administered for 12 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), fasting glucose (FG), lipid profiles (total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high density lipoprotein (HDL-C)), and antioxidant enzymes activities (catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)) were measured. Forty-two subjects completed the study (placebo, n = 19; WGP, n = 23). FG, SBP, and LDL-C levels were significantly lower and HDL-C level and antioxidant enzymes activities (CAT and SOD) were significantly higher after WGP supplementation. Blood pressure, FG, and lipid profiles were significantly correlated with antioxidant enzymes activities after supplementation (P < 0.05). The present study demonstrated a significant reduction in blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipid profiles and an increase in antioxidant enzymes activities in subjects with MS after WGP supplementation. Taken together, the antioxidative capacity of WGP might exert a beneficial effect on MS. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01463748. PMID:24371832

  15. Effects of water extracts of Graptopetalum paraguayense on blood pressure, fasting glucose, and lipid profiles of subjects with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yen, Chi-Hua; Chen, Shu-Ju; Liu, Jen-Tzu; Tseng, Yu-Fen; Lin, Ping-Ting

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effects of water extracts of Graptopetalum paraguayense (WGP, 4 g/d) on blood pressure, blood glucose level, and lipid profiles in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS). Participants with MS (n = 54) were randomly assigned to the placebo (n = 28) and WGP groups (n = 26), and the intervention was administered for 12 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), fasting glucose (FG), lipid profiles (total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high density lipoprotein (HDL-C)), and antioxidant enzymes activities (catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)) were measured. Forty-two subjects completed the study (placebo, n = 19; WGP, n = 23). FG, SBP, and LDL-C levels were significantly lower and HDL-C level and antioxidant enzymes activities (CAT and SOD) were significantly higher after WGP supplementation. Blood pressure, FG, and lipid profiles were significantly correlated with antioxidant enzymes activities after supplementation (P < 0.05). The present study demonstrated a significant reduction in blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipid profiles and an increase in antioxidant enzymes activities in subjects with MS after WGP supplementation. Taken together, the antioxidative capacity of WGP might exert a beneficial effect on MS. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01463748.

  16. Effects of clozapine administration on body weight, glucose tolerance, blood glucose concentrations, plasma lipids, and insulin in male C57BL/6 mice: A parallel controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hai-Yan; Liang, Hai-Xia; Liang, Guang-Rong; Zhang, Gui-Xiang; Li, Huan-De

    2008-01-01

    Background: Clozapine has been associated with metabolic adverse events (AEs) (eg, elevated body weight, blood glucose concentrations, cholesterol, triglycerides [TG]), all of which have deleterious effects on health and medication compliance. However, little focus has been directed toward finding a suitable experimental model to study the metabolic AEs associated with clozapine. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of clozapine administration for 28 days on body weight, glucose tolerance, blood glucose concentrations, plasma lipids, and insulin in C57BL/6 mice. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were grouped and treated with clozapine 2 or 10 mg/kg or vehicle intraperitoneally QD for 28 days. Body weight was assessed on days 0 (baseline), 7, 14, 21, and 28, and glucose tolerance, blood glucose concentrations, insulin (calculated by insulin resistance index [IRI]), and plasma lipids (including total cholesterol, TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) were assessed on day 29. Results: Sixty 10-week-old, male C57BL/6 mice were included in the study and were divided into 3 groups (20 mice per group). The body weight significantly decreased in the clozapine 10-mg-treated group on days 14, 21, and 28 compared with the vehicle group (mean [SD] body weight: 21.61 [1.05] vs 22.79 [1.11], 22.53 [1.05] vs 24.17 [1.24], and 22.21 [1.07] vs 24.99 [1.39] g, respectively; all, P < 0.05). In the clozapine 10-mg/kg group, blood glucose concentrations significantly increased 0, 30, 60, and 120 minutes after glucose administration compared with the vehicle group (mean [SD]: 6.67 [1.25], 25.34 [5.85], 12.68 [3.39], and 7.52 [1.45] mmol/L, respectively, vs 4.61 [0.78], 21.54 [6.55], 11.46 [3.46], and 6.55 [1.42] mmol/L, respectively; all P < 0.05). The clozapine 10-mg/kg group also had significant increases in plasma insulin concentrations compared with the vehicle group (12.70 [5.27] vs 7.62 [4.54] μIU/mL; P < 0.05) and

  17. Native fluorescence spectroscopy of blood plasma of rats with experimental diabetes: identifying fingerprints of glucose-related metabolic pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirshin, Evgeny; Cherkasova, Olga; Tikhonova, Tatiana; Berlovskaya, Elena; Priezzhev, Alexander; Fadeev, Victor

    2015-05-01

    We present the results of a native fluorescence spectroscopy study of blood plasma of rats with experimental diabetes. It was shown that the fluorescence emission band shape at 320 nm excitation is the most indicative of hyperglycemia in the blood plasma samples. We provide the interpretation of this fact based on the changes in reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate concentration due to glucose-related metabolic pathways and protein fluorescent cross-linking formation following nonenzymatic glycation.

  18. Reliable long-term continuous blood glucose monitoring for patients in critical care using microdialysis and infrared spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heise, H. Michael; Damm, Uwe; Kondepati, Venkata R.

    2006-02-01

    For clinical research, in-vivo blood glucose monitoring is an ongoing important topic to improve glycemic control in patients with non-adequate blood glucose regulation. Critically ill patients received much interest, since the intensive insulin therapy treatment, as established for diabetics, reduces mortality significantly. Despite the existence of commercially available, mainly amperometric biosensors, continued interest is in infrared spectroscopic techniques for reagent-free glucose monitoring. For stable long-term operation, avoiding also sensor recalibration, a bed-side device coupled to a micro-dialysis probe was developed for quasi-continuous glucose monitoring. Multivariate calibration is required for glucose concentration prediction due to the complex composition of dialysates from interstitial body fluid. Measurements were carried out with different test persons, each experiment lasting for more than 8 hours. Owing to low dialysis recovery rates, glucose concentrations in the dialysates were between 0.83 and 4.44 mM. Standard errors of prediction (SEP) obtained with Partial Least Squares (PLS) calibration and different cross-validation strategies were mainly between 0.13 and 0.18 mM based on either full interval data or specially selected spectral variables.

  19. In a sweet mood? Effects of experimental modulation of blood glucose levels on mood-induction during fMRI.

    PubMed

    Kohn, N; Toygar, T; Weidenfeld, C; Berthold-Losleben, M; Chechko, N; Orfanos, S; Vocke, S; Durst, A; Laoutidis, Z G; Karges, W; Schneider, F; Habel, U

    2015-06-01

    Glucose is the primary source of energy for the human brain. Previous literature has shown that varying blood glucose levels may have a strong impact on behaviour, subjective mood, and the intensity of the BOLD signal measured in fMRI. Therefore, blood glucose levels varying even within the normal range may interact with cognitive and emotional processing as well as BOLD signal. Here, in a placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover study on 20 healthy women, we show that overnight fasting, compared to an elevated glucose condition, influences brain activation and the affective state during mood induction. Results indicate that our brain may compensate for low glucose levels during fasting by stronger recruitment of the brain areas relevant to the task at hand. Additionally, we systematically tested the effect of prior cognitive effort on behavioural and neural patterns and found that elevated activation is only associated with maintained performance as long as no prior cognitively challenging task is administered. Prior cognitive effort leads to deteriorated performance and a further increase in emotion-associated brain activation in the pregenual anterior and posterior cingulate, the superior frontal gyrus, and the pre-SMA. These results are in line with the strength model of self-regulation. Our results corroborate the strength model of self-regulation and extend it to affect regulation processes. Additionally, our observations suggest that experimentally controlling for fasting state or glucose levels may be beneficial, especially when studying processes that involve self-regulation. PMID:25795339

  20. Colorimetric Quantification of Glucose and Cholesterol in Human Blood Using a Nanocomposite Entrapping Magnetic Nanoparticles and Oxidases.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moon Il; Cho, Daeyeon; Park, Hyun Gyu

    2015-10-01

    In this study, a microscale well-plate colorimetric assay for the multiplexed detection of glucose and cholesterol in clinical human blood samples has been developed. This system utilized one-pot nanocomposite entrapping Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as peroxidase mimetics and glucose oxidase (GOx)/cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) in mesoporous silica to detect glucose and cholesterol in blood samples. The sensing mechanism involves the generation of H2O2 by the catalytic action of an immobilized oxidase on the target molecules in the sample. This subsequently activates the MNPs in the mesopores, thereby leading to the conversion of the substrate into a colored end product. This strategy is used to detect the target glucose or cholesterol molecules in the concentration range of 15-250 mg/dL. The response is highly linear and the lower detection limit is 7.5 mg/dL. The aforementioned colorimetric assay is extremely convenient, and it exhibits a high degree of linearity, precision, and reproducibility when employing real human blood samples. Therefore, this assay can be used in clinical practice for the multiplexed and reliable quantification of glucose and cholesterol. PMID:26726446

  1. Factors affecting initial training success of blood glucose testing in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Reamer, Lisa A; Haller, Rachel L; Thiele, Erica J; Freeman, Hani D; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes can be a problem for captive chimpanzees. Accurate blood glucose (BG) readings are necessary to monitor and treat this disease. Thus, obtaining voluntary samples from primates through positive reinforcement training (PRT) is critical. The current study assessed the voluntary participation of 123 chimpanzees in BG sampling and investigated factors that may contribute to individual success. All subjects participate in regular PRT sessions as part of a comprehensive behavioral management program. Basic steps involved in obtaining BG values include: voluntarily presenting a finger/toe; allowing digit disinfection; holding for the lancet device; and allowing blood collection onto a glucometer test strip for analysis. We recorded the level of participation (none, partial, or complete) when each chimpanzee was first asked to perform the testing procedure. Nearly 30% of subjects allowed the entire procedure in one session, without any prior specific training for the target behavior. Factors that affected this initial successful BG testing included sex, personality (chimpanzees rated higher on the factor "openness" were more likely to participate with BG testing), and past training performance for "present-for-injection" (chimpanzees that presented for their most recent anesthetic injection were more likely to participate). Neither age, rearing history, time since most recent anesthetic event nor social group size significantly affected initial training success. These results have important implications for captive management and training program success, underlining individual differences in training aptitude and the need for developing individual management plans in order to provide optimal care and treatment for diabetic chimpanzees in captivity.

  2. Factors affecting initial training success of blood glucose testing in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Reamer, Lisa A; Haller, Rachel L; Thiele, Erica J; Freeman, Hani D; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes can be a problem for captive chimpanzees. Accurate blood glucose (BG) readings are necessary to monitor and treat this disease. Thus, obtaining voluntary samples from primates through positive reinforcement training (PRT) is critical. The current study assessed the voluntary participation of 123 chimpanzees in BG sampling and investigated factors that may contribute to individual success. All subjects participate in regular PRT sessions as part of a comprehensive behavioral management program. Basic steps involved in obtaining BG values include: voluntarily presenting a finger/toe; allowing digit disinfection; holding for the lancet device; and allowing blood collection onto a glucometer test strip for analysis. We recorded the level of participation (none, partial, or complete) when each chimpanzee was first asked to perform the testing procedure. Nearly 30% of subjects allowed the entire procedure in one session, without any prior specific training for the target behavior. Factors that affected this initial successful BG testing included sex, personality (chimpanzees rated higher on the factor "openness" were more likely to participate with BG testing), and past training performance for "present-for-injection" (chimpanzees that presented for their most recent anesthetic injection were more likely to participate). Neither age, rearing history, time since most recent anesthetic event nor social group size significantly affected initial training success. These results have important implications for captive management and training program success, underlining individual differences in training aptitude and the need for developing individual management plans in order to provide optimal care and treatment for diabetic chimpanzees in captivity. PMID:24706518

  3. Counting the cost of diabetic hospital admissions from a multi-ethnic population in Trinidad.

    PubMed

    Gulliford, M C; Ariyanayagam-Baksh, S M; Bickram, L; Picou, D; Mahabir, D

    1995-12-01

    Many middle-income countries are experiencing an increase in diabetes mellitus but patterns of morbidity and resource use from diabetes in developing countries have not been well described. We evaluated hospital admission with diabetes among different ethnic groups in Trinidad. We compiled a register of all patients with diabetes admitted to adult medical, general surgical, and ophthalmology wards at Port of Spain Hospital, Trinidad. During 26 weeks, 1447 patients with diabetes had 1722 admissions. Annual admission rates, standardized to the World Population, for the catchment population aged 30-64 years were 1031 (95% CI 928 to 1134) per 100,000 in men and 1354 (1240 to 1468) per 100,000 in women. Compared with the total population, admission rates were 33% higher in the Indian origin population and 47% lower in those of mixed ethnicity. The age-standardized rate of amputation with diabetes in the general population aged 30-64 years was 54 (37 to 71) per 100,000. The hospital admission fatality rate was 8.9% (95%CI 7.6% to 10.2%). Mortality was associated with increasing age, admission with hyperglycaemia, elevated serum creatinine, cardiac failure or stroke and with lower-limb amputation during admission. Diabetes accounted for 13.6% of hospital admissions and 23% of hospital bed occupancy. Admissions associated with disorders of blood glucose control or foot problems accounted for 52% of diabetic hospital bed occupancy. The annual cost of admissions with diabetes was conservatively estimated at TT+ 10.66 million (UK 1.24 million pounds). In this community diabetes admission rates were high and varied according to the prevalence of diabetes. Admissions, fatalities and resource use were associated with acute and chronic complications of diabetes. Investing in better quality preventive clinical care for diabetes might provide an economically advantageous policy for countries like Trinidad and Tobago.

  4. Evaluation of the Analytical Performance of the Coulometry-Based Optium Omega Blood Glucose Meter: What Do Such Evaluations Show?

    PubMed Central

    Krouwer, Jan S

    2011-01-01

    The article entitled “Evaluation of the Analytical Performance of the Coulometry-Based Optium Omega Blood Glucose Meter”, by Solnica and colleagues in this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology demonstrates that the Optium Omega blood glucose meter meets the analytical requirements for glucose meter performance and it is stated that the results are clinically useful. The authors studied precision, bias, and reagent lot-to-lot error sources. The ultimate goal of an evaluation is to estimate the distribution of errors (from any source) that will be experienced in routine use. The data collection and analysis methods to achieve this are discussed, as are the standards used to compare the results. Claiming clinical usefulness is almost a boilerplate statement in evaluations but meeting standards does not prove clinical usefulness. PMID:22226287

  5. Evaluation of the analytical performance of the coulometry-based Optium Omega blood glucose meter: what do such evaluations show?

    PubMed

    Krouwer, Jan S

    2011-11-01

    The article entitled "Evaluation of the Analytical Performance of the Coulometry-Based Optium Omega Blood Glucose Meter", by Solnica and colleagues in this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology demonstrates that the Optium Omega blood glucose meter meets the analytical requirements for glucose meter performance and it is stated that the results are clinically useful. The authors studied precision, bias, and reagent lot-to-lot error sources. The ultimate goal of an evaluation is to estimate the distribution of errors (from any source) that will be experienced in routine use. The data collection and analysis methods to achieve this are discussed, as are the standards used to compare the results. Claiming clinical usefulness is almost a boilerplate statement in evaluations but meeting standards does not prove clinical usefulness.

  6. Hollow optical-fiber based infrared spectroscopy for measurement of blood glucose level by using multi-reflection prism.

    PubMed

    Kino, Saiko; Omori, Suguru; Katagiri, Takashi; Matsuura, Yuji

    2016-02-01

    A mid-infrared attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy system employing hollow optical fibers and a trapezoidal multi-reflection ATR prism has been developed to measure blood glucose levels. Using a multi-reflection prism brought about higher sensitivity, and the flat and wide contact surface of the prism resulted in higher measurement reproducibility. An analysis of in vivo measurements of human inner lip mucosa revealed clear signatures of glucose in the difference spectra between ones taken during the fasting state and ones taken after ingestion of glucose solutions. A calibration plot based on the absorption peak at 1155 cm(-1) that originates from the pyranose ring structure of glucose gave measurement errors less than 20%.

  7. Hollow optical-fiber based infrared spectroscopy for measurement of blood glucose level by using multi-reflection prism

    PubMed Central

    Kino, Saiko; Omori, Suguru; Katagiri, Takashi; Matsuura, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    A mid-infrared attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy system employing hollow optical fibers and a trapezoidal multi-reflection ATR prism has been developed to measure blood glucose levels. Using a multi-reflection prism brought about higher sensitivity, and the flat and wide contact surface of the prism resulted in higher measurement reproducibility. An analysis of in vivo measurements of human inner lip mucosa revealed clear signatures of glucose in the difference spectra between ones taken during the fasting state and ones taken after ingestion of glucose solutions. A calibration plot based on the absorption peak at 1155 cm−1 that originates from the pyranose ring structure of glucose gave measurement errors less than 20%. PMID:26977373

  8. Hollow optical-fiber based infrared spectroscopy for measurement of blood glucose level by using multi-reflection prism.

    PubMed

    Kino, Saiko; Omori, Suguru; Katagiri, Takashi; Matsuura, Yuji

    2016-02-01

    A mid-infrared attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy system employing hollow optical fibers and a trapezoidal multi-reflection ATR prism has been developed to measure blood glucose levels. Using a multi-reflection prism brought about higher sensitivity, and the flat and wide contact surface of the prism resulted in higher measurement reproducibility. An analysis of in vivo measurements of human inner lip mucosa revealed clear signatures of glucose in the difference spectra between ones taken during the fasting state and ones taken after ingestion of glucose solutions. A calibration plot based on the absorption peak at 1155 cm(-1) that originates from the pyranose ring structure of glucose gave measurement errors less than 20%. PMID:26977373

  9. Behavioral Self-Regulation in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes: Negative Affectivity and Blood Glucose Symptom Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiebe, Deborah J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Adolescents who were more internally focused were more able to discern which symptoms actually covaried with blood glucose (BG) fluctuations; those with higher trait anxiety tended to misattribute non-diabetes-related symptoms to BG levels. Interactions suggested those who both attend to internal physical sensations and experience-heightened…

  10. Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Training on Body Composition and Blood Glucose in Overweight and Obese Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Zhaowei; Sun, Shengyan; Liu, Min

    2016-01-01

    This study was to determine the effects of five-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, blood glucose, and relevant systemic hormones when compared to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in overweight and obese young women. Methods. Eighteen subjects completed 20 sessions of HIIT or MICT for five weeks. HIIT involved 60 × 8 s cycling at ~90% of peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak) interspersed with 12 s recovery, whereas MICT involved 40-minute continuous cycling at 65% of V˙O2peak. V˙O2peak, body composition, blood glucose, and fasting serum hormones, including leptin, growth hormone, testosterone, cortisol, and fibroblast growth factor 21, were measured before and after training. Results. Both exercise groups achieved significant improvements in V˙O2peak (+7.9% in HIIT versus +11.7% in MICT) and peak power output (+13.8% in HIIT versus +21.9% in MICT) despite no training effects on body composition or the relevant systemic hormones. Blood glucose tended to be decreased after the intervention (p = 0.062). The rating of perceived exertion in MICT was higher than that in HIIT (p = 0.042). Conclusion. Compared with MICT, short-term HIIT is more time-efficient and is perceived as being easier for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and fasting blood glucose for overweight and obese young women. PMID:27774458

  11. Laboratory Exercise: Study of Digestive and Regulatory Processes through the Exploration of Fasted and Postprandial Blood Glucose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopper, Mari K.; Maurer, Luke W.

    2013-01-01

    Digestive physiology laboratory exercises often explore the regulation of enzyme action rather than systems physiology. This laboratory exercise provides a systems approach to digestive and regulatory processes through the exploration of postprandial blood glucose levels. In the present exercise, students enrolled in an undergraduate animal…

  12. [The net analyte preprocessing combined with radial basis partial least squares regression applied in noninvasive measurement of blood glucose].

    PubMed

    Li, Qing-Bo; Huang, Zheng-Wei

    2014-02-01

    In order to improve the prediction accuracy of quantitative analysis model in the near-infrared spectroscopy of blood glucose, this paper, by combining net analyte preprocessing (NAP) algorithm and radial basis functions partial least squares (RBFPLS) regression, builds a nonlinear model building method which is suitable for glucose measurement of human, named as NAP-RBFPLS. First, NAP is used to pre-process the near-infrared spectroscopy of blood glucose, in order to effectively extract the information which only relates to glucose signal from the original near-infrared spectra, so that it could effectively weaken the occasional correlation problems of the glucose changes and the interference factors which are caused by the absorption of water, albumin, hemoglobin, fat and other components of the blood in human body, the change of temperature of human body, the drift of measuring instruments, the changes of measuring environment, and the changes of measuring conditions; and then a nonlinear quantitative analysis model is built with the near-infrared spectroscopy data after NAP, in order to solve the nonlinear relationship between glucose concentrations and near-infrared spectroscopy which is caused by body strong scattering. In this paper, the new method is compared with other three quantitative analysis models building on partial least squares (PLS), net analyte preprocessing partial least squares (NAP-PLS) and RBFPLS respectively. At last, the experimental results show that the nonlinear calibration model, developed by combining NAP algorithm and RBFPLS regression, which was put forward in this paper, greatly improves the prediction accuracy of prediction sets, and what has been proved in this paper is that the nonlinear model building method will produce practical applications for the research of non-invasive detection techniques on human glucose concentrations.

  13. Effects of aerobic exercise on blood glucose in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Shahgholian, Nahid; KarimiFard, Ozra; Shahidi, Shahrzad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Peritoneal dialysis has a number of complications including increased blood glucose. Although exercise has been suggested to resolve this complication, most patients are not active. The present study aimed at determining the effects of twice-weekly, 40-min sessions of pedaling on a stationary bicycle on mean fasting blood sugar (FBS) and 2-h postprandial blood sugar (PPBS) among continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, convenience sampling was used to select 22 patients [age: 51.4 (12.3) years] undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis [mean duration: 12.5 (8.5) months] from university hospitals in Isfahan, Iran. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups (test and control). The test group participated in an 8-week exercise program in which they pedaled a stationary bicycle with an intensity of four on Borg Scale of Perceived Exertion. FBS and PPBS were measured at baseline and at the end of the 8th and 16th sessions of exercise. Data were analyzed with Student's t-test and repeated measures analysis of variance. Results: After the eighth session, the mean FBS and PPBS levels were lower in the test group than in the control group. However, the differences were not statistically significant. After 16 sessions of exercise, the mean FBS and PPBS levels in the intervention group were significantly less than the in control group. Conclusions: Forty minutes of pedaling on a stationary bicycle for two times a week can significantly reduce mean FBS and PPBS levels in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients. PMID:25878690

  14. Assessment of Blood Glucose and Electrolytes during Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Patients of Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Bilal, Muhammad; Haseeb, Abdul; Khan, Mohammad Hassaan; Khetpal, Akash; Saad, Muhammad; Arshad, Mohammad Hussham; Dar, Mudassir Iqbal; Hasan, Najya; Rafiq, Rafia; Sherwani, Maryam; Abbas, Haider; Sultan, Ayesha; Inam, Maha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Perioperative hyperglycemia has been shown to be related to higher levels of morbidity and mortality in patients on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), both diabetic and non-diabetic. Blood electrolytes, like sodium, potassium, calcium, and chloride play a very important role in the normal functioning of the body and can lead to a variety of clinical disorders if they become deficient. A minimal number of studies have been conducted on the simultaneous perioperative changes in both blood glucose and electrolyte levels during CPB in Pakistan. Therefore, our aim is to record and compare the changes in blood glucose and electrolyte levels during CPB in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, observational study conducted on 200 patients who underwent CABG with CPB, from October 2014 to March 2015. The patients were recruited from the Cardiac Surgery Ward, Civil Hospital Karachi after they complied with the inclusion criteria. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the trend of the changes perioperatively for the two groups. Results: There was no significant difference in changes in blood glucose between the two groups (P = 0.62). The only significant difference detected between the two groups was for PaCO2 (P = 0.001). Besides, further analysis revealed insignificant group differences for the trend changes in other blood electrolytes (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Our findings highlighted that there is no significant difference in blood electrolytes changes and the increase in blood glucose levels between diabetic and non-diabetic patients. PMID:27157174

  15. Physical Activity, Blood Glucose and C-Peptide in Healthy School-Children, a Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Ludvigsson, Johnny

    2016-01-01

    Aim To further elucidate the relationship between physical activity and several risk factors for development of diabetes (glucose, C-peptide and obesity) over time. Methods A prospective longitudinal study where physical activity was measured on 199 children from Kalmar and Linköping at age 8, and the same 107 children from Linköping again at age 12. Anthropometric data was collected and blood was analyzed for C-peptide and f-glucose. The children in the study were representative for the general Swedish child population, and on an average lean. Results High physical activity was related to lower C-peptide at age 8 and 12. This correlation was especially pronounced in boys, who also were more physically active than girls at both time points. The association seen at 8 years of age was similar at age 12 in most children. Children with higher BMI Z-Score had a higher fasting C-peptide (age 12) but linear regression showed that children with more steps per day were less likely to have a higher fasting C-peptide irrespective of BMI. Longitudinal follow-up showed that a decrease in physical activity increased insulin resistance and β-cell load. Conclusions Already in young children, physical activity improves insulin sensitivity and decreases the need of C-peptide over time. This seems to become even more pronounced with increasing age when children are followed longitudinally. Low physical activity increases the load on insulin producing β-cells, might increase the risk for both type 1- and 2 diabetes. PMID:27270732

  16. Problems of comparing blood glucose molality and molarity determined with an Omni, an EML 105 and an Ebio analyser.

    PubMed

    Haeckel, Rainer; Hänecke, Petra

    2003-07-01

    The comparability between glucose concentrations measured in various sample systems is still a matter of debate. Decision limits are usually determined in venous plasma and then converted to either blood or to the aqueous compartment (activity). The conversion factors recommended have not yet been generally accepted. In the present study, glucose concentrations were determined in blood and plasma with an Ebio analyser (molarity) and in the aqueous compartment with both an EML 105 and an Omni (molality). All analytical results were referred to the same aqueous standard solution. The Ebio results agreed with reference method values in control materials. Concentrations determined in the various sample systems from patients (molarity) correlated well with the molality values measured either with the EML or the Omni. However, the mean values of the EML were not consistent with those derived theoretically by considering the different water content. With the Omni, only molality values in whole blood appeared plausible, but not in plasma, although the two sample systems should provide identical molality values. The EML results were almost identical in whole blood and plasma. Theoretically, glucose molality would be the ideal diagnostic quantity. However, no diagnostic advantage of molality determined in whole blood with the Omni vs. molarity values could be detected in a group of 40 non-diabetic and 27 diabetic subjects.

  17. Glucose test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... person with diabetes constantly manages their blood's sugar (glucose) levels. After a blood sample is taken and tested, it is determined whether the glucose levels are low or high. If glucose levels ...

  18. Suspension properties of whole blood and its components under glucose influence studied in patients with acute coronary syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinova, Lidia I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Denisova, Tatyana P.; Dovgalevsky, Pavel Y.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2004-05-01

    The protocol of our study includes men with acute myocardial infarction, stable angina pectoris of II and III functional classes and unstable angina pectoris. Patients with arterial hypertension, disorders in carbohydrate metabolism were excluded from the study. Blood samples taken under standardized conditions, were stabilized with citrate sodium 3,8% (1:9). Erythrocytes and platelets aggregation activity under glucose influence (in vitro) was studied by means of computer aided microphotometer -- a visual analyzer. Erythrocyte and platelets were united in special subsystem of whole blood. Temporal and functional characteristics of their aggregation were analyzed by creation of phase patterns fragments. The received data testify to interrelation of erythrocytes and platelets processes of aggregation under conditions of increasing of glucose concentration of the incubatory environment, which temporal and functional characteristics may be used for diagnostics and the prognosis of destabilization coronary blood flow at an acute coronary syndrome.

  19. Glucose supplementation has minimal effects on blood neutrophil functionand gene expression in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During early lactation, glucose availability is low and the effect of glucose supply on bovine polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) function is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of glucose supplementation on the function and transcriptomic inflammatory respons...

  20. Investigation on how to choose measurement sites for non-invasive near-infrared blood glucose sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jingying; Zou, Da; Min, Xiaolin; Ma, Zhenhe; Xu, Kexin

    2012-03-01

    With the changing of human diet and the future of an aging society, the number of diabetic patients is growing rapidly and steadily. The major therapeutic method to that disease is monitoring the blood glucose concentration frequently to adjust the dose of the drugs and insulin. In order to avoid the painful finger prick, we choose the ear lobe as a measurement site with finger as a reference. Firstly, we compare the blood glucose concentration results of ear lobe and finger during an oral glucose tolerance test, the results showed a good correlation of the two sites. Secondly, the three-layered skin structure of finger and ear lobe has been studied by using optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique. The result shows that the thickness of each layer at ear lobe is thinner. Finally, the difference between reflectance spectra of finger and ear lobe is compared due to the diverse skin thickness. The results still show a higher absorbance value for ear lobe. In conclusion, the ear lobe is an ideal measurement site for noninvasive blood glucose sensing.

  1. High dose flaxseed oil supplementation may affect fasting blood serum glucose management in human type 2 diabetics.

    PubMed

    Barre, Douglas E; Mizier-Barre, Kazimiera A; Griscti, Odette; Hafez, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized partially by elevated fasting blood serum glucose and insulin concentrations and the percentage of hemoglobin as HbA1c. It was hypothesized that each of blood glucose and its co-factors insulin and HbA1c and would show a more favorable profile as the result of flaxseed oil supplementation. Patients were recruited at random from a population pool responding to a recruitment advertisement in the local newspaper and 2 area physicians. Completing the trial were 10 flaxseed oil males, 8 flaxseed oil females, 8 safflower (placebo) oil males and 6 safflower oil females. Patients visited on two pre-treatment occasions each three months apart (visits 1 and 2). At visit 2 subjects were randomly assigned in double blind fashion and in equal gender numbers to take flaxseed oil or safflower oil for three further months until visit 3. Oil consumption in both groups was approximately 10 g/d. ALA intake in the intervention group was approximately 5.5 g/d. Power was 0.80 to see a difference of 1 mmol of glucose /L using 12 subjects per group with a p < 0.05. Flaxseed oil had no impact on fasting blood serum glucose, insulin or HbA1c levels. It is concluded that high doses of flaxseed oil have no effect on glycemic control in type 2 diabetics.

  2. Factors Affecting Initial Training Success of Blood Glucose Testing in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Reamer, Lisa A.; Haller, Rachel L.; Thiele, Erica J.; Freeman, Hani D.; Lambeth, Susan P.; Schapiro, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes can be a problem for captive chimpanzees. Accurate blood glucose (BG) readings are necessary to monitor and treat this disease. Thus, obtaining voluntary samples from primates through positive reinforcement training (PRT) is critical. The current study assessed the voluntary participation of 123 chimpanzees in BG sampling and investigated factors that may contribute to individual success. All subjects participate in regular PRT sessions as part of a comprehensive behavioral management program. Basic steps involved in obtaining BG values include: voluntarily presenting a finger/toe; allowing digit disinfection; holding for the lancet device; and allowing blood collection onto a glucometer test strip for analysis. We recorded the level of participation (none, partial, or complete) when each chimpanzee was first asked to perform the testing procedure. Nearly 30% of subjects allowed the entire procedure in one session, without any prior specific training for the target behavior. Factors that affected this initial successful BG testing included sex, personality (chimpanzees rated higher on the factor “openness” were more likely to participate with BG testing), and past training performance for “present-for-injection” (chimpanzees that presented for their most recent anesthetic injection were more likely to participate). Neither age, rearing history, time since most recent anesthetic event nor social group size significantly affected initial training success. These results have important implications for captive management and training program success, underlining individual differences in training aptitude and the need for developing individual management plans in order to provide optimal care and treatment for diabetic chimpanzees in captivity. PMID:24706518

  3. Effect of red blood cell glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency on patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Tanphaichitr, Voravarn S; Chonlasin, Rachaneekorn; Suwantol, Lerlugsn; Pung-Amritt, Parichat; Tachavanich, Kalaya; Yogsan, Suthee; Viprakasit, Vip

    2002-08-01

    Eighty nine males aged 1-13 years diagnosed with dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and admitted to the Department of Pediatrics Siriraj Hospital from March 1998 to April 2000 were included in this study. 17 cases (19.1%) had red blood cell glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency and 72 cases (80.9%) had normal G-6-PD enzyme activities. Most of the patients were classified as DHF grade II in severity. 3 of 17 G-6-PD deficient cases had serious complications and all of them had acute intravascular hemolysis requiring blood transfusions. One of these also had hematemesis, one had azothemia and the other one had renal failure and severe liver failure with hepatic encephalopathy. In the cases without obvious hemolytic or hepatic complications, G-6-PD deficient cases had mildly but significantly higher total birirubin and indirect bilirubin, as well as a lower hematocrit than those who had normal G-6-PD. Reticulocyte count was low during the acute phase, however, during recovery, the levels were significantly increased in both groups. In the non G-6-PD deficient group, G-6-PD enzyme levels were significantly decreased during the acute phase compared to the normal controls but rose significantly to normal levels during the recovery phase. There were no statistically significant differences in other laboratory data. All patients recovered fully from DHF. The prevalence of G-6-PD deficiency in male patients who had DHF in this study was 19.1 per cent which was higher than the prevalence in a previous study of 12 per cent in Bangkok. This may imply that G-6-PD deficient males suffer more from DHF compared to normal G-6-PD subjects.

  4. Determination of total creatine kinase activity in blood serum using an amperometric biosensor based on glucose oxidase and hexokinase.

    PubMed

    Kucherenko, I S; Soldatkin, O O; Lagarde, F; Jaffrezic-Renault, N; Dzyadevych, S V; Soldatkin, A P

    2015-11-01

    Creatine kinase (CK: adenosine-5-triphosphate-creatine phosphotransferase) is an important enzyme of muscle cells; the presence of a large amount of the enzyme in blood serum is a biomarker of muscular injuries, such as acute myocardial infarction. This work describes a bi-enzyme (glucose oxidase and hexokinase based) biosensor for rapid and convenient determination of CK activity by measuring the rate of ATP production by this enzyme. Simultaneously the biosensor determines glucose concentration in the sample. Platinum disk electrodes were used as amperometric transducers. Glucose oxidase and hexokinase were co-immobilized via cross-linking with BSA by glutaraldehyde and served as a biorecognition element of the biosensor. The biosensor work at different concentrations of CK substrates (ADP and creatine phosphate) was investigated; optimal concentration of ADP was 1mM, and creatine phosphate - 10 mM. The reproducibility of the biosensor responses to glucose, ATP and CK during a day was tested (relative standard deviation of 15 responses to glucose was 2%, to ATP - 6%, to CK - 7-18% depending on concentration of the CK). Total time of CK analysis was 10 min. The measurements of creatine kinase in blood serum samples were carried out (at 20-fold sample dilution). Twentyfold dilution of serum samples was chosen as optimal for CK determination. The biosensor could distinguish healthy and ill people and evaluate the level of CK increase. Thus, the biosensor can be used as a test-system for CK analysis in blood serum or serve as a component of multibiosensors for determination of important blood substances. Determination of activity of other kinases by the developed biosensor is also possible for research purposes.

  5. Determination of total creatine kinase activity in blood serum using an amperometric biosensor based on glucose oxidase and hexokinase.

    PubMed

    Kucherenko, I S; Soldatkin, O O; Lagarde, F; Jaffrezic-Renault, N; Dzyadevych, S V; Soldatkin, A P

    2015-11-01

    Creatine kinase (CK: adenosine-5-triphosphate-creatine phosphotransferase) is an important enzyme of muscle cells; the presence of a large amount of the enzyme in blood serum is a biomarker of muscular injuries, such as acute myocardial infarction. This work describes a bi-enzyme (glucose oxidase and hexokinase based) biosensor for rapid and convenient determination of CK activity by measuring the rate of ATP production by this enzyme. Simultaneously the biosensor determines glucose concentration in the sample. Platinum disk electrodes were used as amperometric transducers. Glucose oxidase and hexokinase were co-immobilized via cross-linking with BSA by glutaraldehyde and served as a biorecognition element of the biosensor. The biosensor work at different concentrations of CK substrates (ADP and creatine phosphate) was investigated; optimal concentration of ADP was 1mM, and creatine phosphate - 10 mM. The reproducibility of the biosensor responses to glucose, ATP and CK during a day was tested (relative standard deviation of 15 responses to glucose was 2%, to ATP - 6%, to CK - 7-18% depending on concentration of the CK). Total time of CK analysis was 10 min. The measurements of creatine kinase in blood serum samples were carried out (at 20-fold sample dilution). Twentyfold dilution of serum samples was chosen as optimal for CK determination. The biosensor could distinguish healthy and ill people and evaluate the level of CK increase. Thus, the biosensor can be used as a test-system for CK analysis in blood serum or serve as a component of multibiosensors for determination of important blood substances. Determination of activity of other kinases by the developed biosensor is also possible for research purposes. PMID:26452867

  6. Influence of urea on the glucose measurement by electrocatalytic sensor in the extracorporeal blood circulation of a sheep.

    PubMed

    Saeger, S; Preidel, W; von Lucadou, I; Ruprecht, L; Lager, W

    1991-01-01

    In an animal experiment with the electrocatalytic glucose sensor, measurements were carried out over one week in the extracorporeal circulation of a sheep. Glucose tolerance tests were performed, and the influence of increased urea concentrations in the blood on the glucose determination was investigated. The sensor constructed as a flow-through cell was integrated via a vascular graft outside the body into the carotid artery of the animal and activated by an external electronic unit of measurement. The glucose concentration was determined by measuring the impedance of the electrode/membrane system at various potentials. By means of a subsequent correlation analysis of the measured values obtained over one week, a calibration valid for the entire measurement period was established. After a zero adjustment, it was even possible to adopt the calibration from the glucose measurement of the preceding animal experiment. The investigations of the influence of urea on the glucose measurement showed that the error in measurement of the sensor, which is 20% on average, is only insignificantly increased when the urea level is raised beyond the maximum physiological concentration. PMID:1759967

  7. The effect of different alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin and plasma glucose in humans.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, L C; Couri, S; Trugo, N F; Lollo, P C B

    2014-09-01

    In the present work we studied the effects of four alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin concentrations and plasma glucose concentrations in men and women. The volunteers were healthy non-smokers and they were divided according to sex into two groups of ten individuals. The alcoholic beverages used in the study were beer, red wine, whisky and "cachaça". In men, ingestion of the distilled drinks promoted a spike in blood alcohol levels more quickly than ingestion of the fermented drinks. In women, beer promoted the lowest blood alcohol levels over the 6h of the experiment. Whisky promoted highest blood alcohol levels in both sexes. The ingestion of wine promoted a significant difference in relation to the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) as a function of gender. The ingestion of cachaça by women produced BAC levels significantly smaller than those obtained for wine.

  8. Phenotype and Age Differences in Blood Gas Characteristics, Electrolytes, Hemoglobin, Plasma Glucose and Cortisol in Female Squirrel Monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brizzee, K. R.; Ordy, J. M.; Dunlap, W. P.; Kendrick, R.; Wengenack, T. M.

    1988-01-01

    Due to its small size, lower cost, tractable nature, successful breeding in captivity and its status near the middle of the primate phylogenetic scale, the squirrel monkey has become an attractive primate model for basic and biomedical research. Although the squirrel monkey now is being used more extensively in many laboratories with diverse interests, only fragmentary reports have been published regarding basic physiological characteristics, or baseline blood reference values of different phenotypes, particularly blood gases, hematology and serum chemical constituents. It is becoming recognized increasingly that these baseline blood reference values are important not only in the care and maintenance of the squirrel monkey, but are critical for assessing normal physiological status, as well as the effects of various experimental treatments. The purpose of this study was to compare differences in blood gases, electrolytes, hematology, blood glucose and cortisol among young and old Bolivian (Roman type) and Colombian (Gothic type) phenotypes of the squirrel monkey.

  9. A Soluble Activin Receptor Type IIB Does Not Improve Blood Glucose in Streptozotocin-Treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qian; Guo, Tingqing; Portas, Jennifer; McPherron, Alexandra C.

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), or insulin dependent DM, is accompanied by decreased muscle mass. The growth factor myostatin (MSTN) is a negative regulator of muscle growth, and a loss of MSTN signaling has been shown to increase muscle mass and prevent the development of obesity, insulin resistance and lipodystrophic diabetes in mice. The effects of MSTN inhibition in a T1DM model on muscle mass and blood glucose are unknown. We asked whether MSTN inhibition would increase muscle mass and decrease hyperglycemia in mice treated with streptozotocin (STZ) to destroy pancreatic beta cells. After diabetes developed, mice were treated with a soluble MSTN/activin receptor fused to Fc (ACVR2B:Fc). ACVR2B:Fc increased body weight and muscle mass compared to vehicle treated mice. Unexpectedly, ACVR2B:Fc reproducibly exacerbated hyperglycemia within approximately one week of administration. ACVR2B:Fc treatment also elevated serum levels of the glucocorticoid corticosterone. These results suggest that although MSTN/activin inhibitors increased muscle mass, they may be counterproductive in improving health in patients with T1DM. PMID:25561902

  10. Non-invasive detection of fasting blood glucose level via electrochemical measurement of saliva.

    PubMed

    Malik, Sarul; Khadgawat, Rajesh; Anand, Sneh; Gupta, Shalini

    2016-01-01

    Machine learning techniques such as logistic regression (LR), support vector machine (SVM) and artificial neural network (ANN) were used to detect fasting blood glucose levels (FBGL) in a mixed population of healthy and diseased individuals in an Indian population. The occurrence of elevated FBGL was estimated in a non-invasive manner from the status of an individual's salivary electrochemical parameters such as pH, redox potential, conductivity and concentration of sodium, potassium and calcium ions. The samples were obtained from 175 randomly selected volunteers comprising half healthy and half diabetic patients. The models were trained using 70 % of the total data, and tested upon the remaining set. For each algorithm, data points were cross-validated by randomly shuffling them three times prior to implementing the model. The performance of the machine learning technique was reported in terms of four statistically significant parameters-accuracy, precision, sensitivity and F1 score. SVM using RBF kernel showed the best performance for classifying high FBGLs with approximately 85 % accuracy, 84 % precision, 85 % sensitivity and 85 % F1 score. This study has been approved by the ethical committee of All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India with the reference number: IEC/NP-278/01-08-2014, RP-29/2014. PMID:27350930

  11. Reducing risk of closed loop control of blood glucose in artificial pancreas using fractional calculus.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, Mahboobeh; Bogdan, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare costs in the US are among the highest in the world. Chronic diseases such as diabetes significantly contribute to these extensive costs. Despite technological advances to improve sensing and actuation devices, we still lack a coherent theory that facilitates the design and optimization of efficient and robust medical cyber-physical systems for managing chronic diseases. In this paper, we propose a mathematical model for capturing the complex dynamics of blood glucose time series (e.g., time dependent and fractal behavior) observed in real world measurements via fractional calculus concepts. Building upon our time dependent fractal model, we propose a novel model predictive controller for an artificial pancreas that regulates insulin injection. We verify the accuracy of our controller by comparing it to conventional non-fractal models using real world measurements and show how the nonlinear optimal controller based on fractal calculus concepts is superior to non-fractal controllers in terms of average risk index and prediction accuracy. PMID:25571075

  12. Air pollution and fasting blood glucose: A longitudinal study in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Linping; Zhou, Yong; Li, Shanshan; Williams, Gail; Kan, Haidong; Marks, Guy B; Morawska, Lidia; Abramson, Michael J; Chen, Shuohua; Yao, Taicheng; Qin, Tianbang; Wu, Shouling; Guo, Yuming

    2016-01-15

    Limited studies have examined the associations between air pollutants [particles with diameters of 10 μm or less (PM10), sulphur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)] and fasting blood glucose (FBG). We collected data for 27,685 participants who were followed during 2006 and 2008. Generalized Estimating Equation models were used to examine the effects of air pollutants on FBG while controlling for potential confounders. We found that increased exposure to NO2, SO2 and PM10 was significantly associated with increased FBG levels in single pollutant models (p<0.001). For exposure to 4 days' average of concentrations, a 100 μg/m(3) increase in SO2, NO2, and PM10 was associated with 0.17 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.15-0.19), 0.53 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.42-0.65), and 0.11 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.07-0.15) increase in FBG, respectively. In the multi-pollutant models, the effects of SO2 were enhanced, while the effects of NO2 and PM10 were alleviated. The effects of air pollutants on FBG were stronger in female, elderly, and overweight people than in male, young and underweight people. In conclusion, the findings suggest that air pollution increases the levels of FBG. Vulnerable people should pay more attention on highly polluted days to prevent air pollution-related health issues. PMID:26433332

  13. Air pollution and fasting blood glucose: A longitudinal study in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Linping; Zhou, Yong; Li, Shanshan; Williams, Gail; Kan, Haidong; Marks, Guy B; Morawska, Lidia; Abramson, Michael J; Chen, Shuohua; Yao, Taicheng; Qin, Tianbang; Wu, Shouling; Guo, Yuming

    2016-01-15

    Limited studies have examined the associations between air pollutants [particles with diameters of 10 μm or less (PM10), sulphur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)] and fasting blood glucose (FBG). We collected data for 27,685 participants who were followed during 2006 and 2008. Generalized Estimating Equation models were used to examine the effects of air pollutants on FBG while controlling for potential confounders. We found that increased exposure to NO2, SO2 and PM10 was significantly associated with increased FBG levels in single pollutant models (p<0.001). For exposure to 4 days' average of concentrations, a 100 μg/m(3) increase in SO2, NO2, and PM10 was associated with 0.17 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.15-0.19), 0.53 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.42-0.65), and 0.11 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.07-0.15) increase in FBG, respectively. In the multi-pollutant models, the effects of SO2 were enhanced, while the effects of NO2 and PM10 were alleviated. The effects of air pollutants on FBG were stronger in female, elderly, and overweight people than in male, young and underweight people. In conclusion, the findings suggest that air pollution increases the levels of FBG. Vulnerable people should pay more attention on highly polluted days to prevent air pollution-related health issues.

  14. [EXPRESSION OF GENES, WHICH CONTROL GLUCOSE METABOLISM, IN BLOOD CELLS OF THE OBESE BOYS WITH INSULIN RESISTANCE].

    PubMed

    Tiazhka, O V; Minchenko, D O; Davydov, V V; Moliavko, O S; Budreiko, O A; Kulieshova, D K; Minchenko, O H

    2015-01-01

    We studied the expression of genes, which responsible for glucose metabolism, in the blood of obese boys with and without of insulin resistance as well as in normal (control) individuals. It was shown that the expression level of PFKFB3 gene is increased, PFKFB1 and INSIG2--is decreased, but HK2 gene--significantly does not change in the blood cells of obese boys with normal insulin sensitivity as compared to control group. Insulin resistance in obese boys leads to up-regulation of INSIG2 gene expression as well as to down-regulation of PFKFB1, PFKFB3, and HK2 genes in the blood.cells as compared to obese patients with normal insulin sensitivity. Results of this study provide evidence that obesity affects the expression of the subset of glucose metabolism-related genes in the blood cells and that insulin resistance in obesity is associated with changes in the expression level of PFKFB1, PFKFB3, HK2, and INSIG2 genes, which contribute to the development of insulin resistance as well as glucose intolerance. PMID:26827442

  15. Bio-enhancing Effect of Piperine with Metformin on Lowering Blood Glucose Level in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Atal, Shubham; Atal, Sarjana; Vyas, Savita; Phadnis, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is the most rampant metabolic pandemic of the 21st century. Piperine, the chief alkaloid of Piper nigrum (black pepper) is widely used in alternative and complementary therapies has been extensively studied for its bio-enhancing property. Objective: To evaluate the bio-enhancing effect of piperine with metformin in lowering blood glucose levels in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Materials and Methods: Piperine was isolated from an extract of fruits of P. nigrum. Alloxan-induced (150 mg/kg intraperitoneal) diabetic mice were divided into four groups. Group I (control 2% gum acacia 2 g/100 mL), Group II (metformin 250 mg/kg), Group III (metformin and piperine 250 mg/kg + 10 mg/kg), and Group IV (metformin and piperine 125 mg/kg + 10 mg/kg). All the drugs were administered orally once daily for 28 days. Blood glucose levels were estimated at day 0, day 14, and end of the study (day 28). Results: The combination of piperine with therapeutic dose of metformin (10 mg/kg + 250 mg/kg) showed significantly more lowering of blood glucose level as compared to metformin alone on both 14th and 28th day (P < 0.05). Piperine in combination with sub-therapeutic dose of metformin (10 mg/kg + 125 mg/kg) showed significantly more lowering of blood glucose as compared to control group and also showed greater lowering of blood glucose as compared to metformin (250 mg/kg) alone. Conclusion: Piperine has the potential to be used as a bio-enhancing agent in combination with metformin which can help reduce the dose of metformin and its adverse effects. SUMMARY Piperine is known for its bioenhancing property. This study evaluates the effect of piperine in combination with oral antidiabetic drug metformin. Drugs were administered for 28 days in alloxan induced diabetic mice and blood glucose lowering effect was seen. Results showed significantly better effect of combination of piperine with therapeutic dose of metformin in comparison to metformin alone. Piperine

  16. Hepatitis B outbreak in a nursing home associated with reusable lancet devices for blood glucose monitoring, Northern Germany 2010.

    PubMed

    Diercke, Michaela; Monazahian, Masyar; Petermann, Holger; Gerlich, Wolfram H; Schüttler, Christian G; Wend, Ulrike; Dehnert, Manuel; Dreesman, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    In September 2010, an outbreak of acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections in a nursing home was notified to public health authorities in Northern Germany. To identify the route of transmission and prevent further cases a retrospective cohort study was conducted. Blood samples of residents were tested for serologic markers of HBV infection and HBV subgenotypes and sequences were analyzed. Outbreak-related cases were defined as residents of the nursing home with detection of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and the HBV DNA sequence of the outbreak strain in 2010. Information on possible risk factors as patient care, invasive diagnostic, and therapeutical procedures was collected using a standardized questionnaire. Risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated with exact Poisson regression and binomial regression. Sixty-four residents were included in the study, 5 of them were outbreak-related cases, 12 had a past HBV infection. The outbreak strain belonged to HBV genotype D2 (HBsAg subtype ayw3, Ala118) which is not prevalent in Germany but in Eastern Europe. All cases (median age 81) were female, had diabetes, blood glucose monitoring, and chiropody. In multivariable analysis only blood glucose monitoring was associated with HBV infection (RR = 22, 95%CI 3.0-∞). Blood glucose monitoring was reported to be done by nursing home staff with patient-based reusable lancet devices. In nursing home settings the use of single use lancets for blood glucose monitoring is recommended strongly to prevent transmission. National guidelines on the handling of point-of-care devices and reusable equipment in long-term care facilities should be developed.

  17. Toothbrushing, Blood Glucose and HbA1c: Findings from a Random Survey in Chinese Population.

    PubMed

    Su, Lingyu; Liu, Wenzhao; Xie, Bingwu; Dou, Lei; Sun, Jun; Wan, Wenjuan; Fu, Xiaoming; Li, Guangyue; Huang, Jiao; Xu, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Both diabetes and periodontal disease are prevalent in China. Poor oral hygiene practice is the major cause of periodontal disease. An association between oral hygiene practice and blood glucose level was reported in individuals with diabetes, but not in the general population. We examined the association in a population-based random survey recruiting 2,105 adults without previously diagnosed diabetes in Chongqing city, China. Plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were measured, and a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test was conducted for each respondent. Self-reported toothbrushing frequency was used as a proxy for oral hygiene practice. In a linear model controlling for potential confounders (demographic characteristics, socio-economic status, lifestyle risk factors, BMI, dental visit frequency, etc.), urban residents who barely brushed their teeth had an increase of 0.50 (95% CI: 0.10-0.90) mmol/L in fasting plasma glucose, and an increase of 0.26% (0.04-0.47%) in HbA1c, relative to those brushing ≥twice daily; for rural residents, the effects were 0.26 (0.05-0.48) mmol/L in fasting plasma glucose and 0.20% (0.09-0.31%) in HbA1c. Individuals with better oral practice tended to have lower level of blood glucose and HbA1c. Establishing good oral health behavioral habits may be conducive to diabetes prevention and control in the general population. PMID:27385509

  18. Toothbrushing, Blood Glucose and HbA1c: Findings from a Random Survey in Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Su, Lingyu; Liu, Wenzhao; Xie, Bingwu; Dou, Lei; Sun, Jun; Wan, Wenjuan; Fu, Xiaoming; Li, Guangyue; Huang, Jiao; Xu, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Both diabetes and periodontal disease are prevalent in China. Poor oral hygiene practice is the major cause of periodontal disease. An association between oral hygiene practice and blood glucose level was reported in individuals with diabetes, but not in the general population. We examined the association in a population-based random survey recruiting 2,105 adults without previously diagnosed diabetes in Chongqing city, China. Plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were measured, and a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test was conducted for each respondent. Self-reported toothbrushing frequency was used as a proxy for oral hygiene practice. In a linear model controlling for potential confounders (demographic characteristics, socio-economic status, lifestyle risk factors, BMI, dental visit frequency, etc.), urban residents who barely brushed their teeth had an increase of 0.50 (95% CI: 0.10–0.90) mmol/L in fasting plasma glucose, and an increase of 0.26% (0.04–0.47%) in HbA1c, relative to those brushing ≥twice daily; for rural residents, the effects were 0.26 (0.05–0.48) mmol/L in fasting plasma glucose and 0.20% (0.09–0.31%) in HbA1c. Individuals with better oral practice tended to have lower level of blood glucose and HbA1c. Establishing good oral health behavioral habits may be conducive to diabetes prevention and control in the general population. PMID:27385509

  19. Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia consensus statement on perioperative blood glucose management in diabetic patients undergoing ambulatory surgery.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Girish P; Chung, Frances; Vann, Mary Ann; Ahmad, Shireen; Gan, Tong J; Goulson, Daniel T; Merrill, Douglas G; Twersky, Rebecca

    2010-12-01

    Optimal evidence-based perioperative blood glucose control in patients undergoing ambulatory surgical procedures remains controversial. Therefore, the Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia has developed a consensus statement on perioperative glycemic management in patients undergoing ambulatory surgery. A systematic review of the literature was conducted according the protocol recommended by the Cochrane Collaboration. The consensus panel used the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system for providing suggestions. It was revealed that there is insufficient evidence to provide strong recommendations for the posed clinical questions. In the absence of high-quality evidence, recommendations were based on general principles of blood glucose control in diabetics, drug pharmacology, and data from inpatient surgical population, as well as clinical experience and judgment. In addition, areas of further research were also identified.

  20. Bats: Body mass index, forearm mass index, blood glucose levels and SLC2A2 genes for diabetes.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanxing; Zhu, Lei; Huang, Wenjie; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Shuyi

    2016-01-01

    Bats have an unusually large volume of endocrine tissue, with a large population of beta cells, and an elevated sensitivity to glucose and insulin. This makes them excellent animal models for studying diabetes mellitus. We evaluated bats as models for diabetes in terms of lifestyle and genetic factors. For lifestyle factors, we generated data sets of 149 body mass index (BMI) and 860 forearm mass index (FMI) measurements for different species of bats. Both showed negative inter-species correlations with blood glucose levels in sixteen bats examined. The negative inter-species correlations may reflect adaptation of a small insectivorous ancestor to a larger frugivore. We identified an 11 bp deletion in the proximal promoter of SLC2A2 that we predicted would disrupt binding sites for the transcription repressor ZNF354C. In frugivorous bats this could explain the relatively high expression of this gene, resulting in a better capacity to absorb glucose and decrease blood glucose levels. PMID:27439361

  1. Bats: Body mass index, forearm mass index, blood glucose levels and SLC2A2 genes for diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Fanxing; Zhu, Lei; Huang, Wenjie; Irwin, David M.; Zhang, Shuyi

    2016-01-01

    Bats have an unusually large volume of endocrine tissue, with a large population of beta cells, and an elevated sensitivity to glucose and insulin. This makes them excellent animal models for studying diabetes mellitus. We evaluated bats as models for diabetes in terms of lifestyle and genetic factors. For lifestyle factors, we generated data sets of 149 body mass index (BMI) and 860 forearm mass index (FMI) measurements for different species of bats. Both showed negative inter-species correlations with blood glucose levels in sixteen bats examined. The negative inter-species correlations may reflect adaptation of a small insectivorous ancestor to a larger frugivore. We identified an 11 bp deletion in the proximal promoter of SLC2A2 that we predicted would disrupt binding sites for the transcription repressor ZNF354C. In frugivorous bats this could explain the relatively high expression of this gene, resulting in a better capacity to absorb glucose and decrease blood glucose levels. PMID:27439361

  2. Effect of acute anemia on endurance capacity, glucose and lactate kinetics, and the relative distribution of blood flow in rodents

    SciTech Connect

    Gregg, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanisms investigated include lactate and glucose kinetics and alterations in the relative distribution of blood flow during submaximal exercise. Acute plasma transfusions were performed to lower the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood. Vo{sub 2max} decreased 18% in both sedentary and endurance trained animals. The sedentary anemic animals suffered a 78% decrease in distance when run to exhaustion whereas the trained anemic animals suffered only a 39% decrease in endurance distance, compared to the respective controls. Continuous infusions of (6-{sup 3}H)glucose and (U-{sup 14}C)lactate were performed. At rest there were no differences in the glucose of lactate turnover rates between anemic and control animals. There was an increase in the rates of glucose turnover in anemic animals compared to control animals, as well as elevated lactate turnover rates during exercise compared to control animals. Acute anemia resulted in an increase in sympathetic stimulation during exercise. Furthermore, epinephrine levels were significantly correlated to rate of lactate turnover.

  3. A case of perioperative glucose control by using an artificial pancreas in a patient with glycogen storage disease.

    PubMed

    Yatabe, Tomoaki; Nakamura, Ryu; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Munekage, Masaya; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2016-03-01

    A 57-year-old woman was diagnosed with type I glycogen storage disease in her twenties. She had undergone hepatectomy under general anesthesia with epidural anesthesia. Fifty minutes after the induction of anesthesia, a 20-gauge venous catheter was inserted in the patient's right hand, and an artificial pancreas (STG-55, Nikkiso Co., Tokyo, Japan) was connected for continuous glucose monitoring and automatic glucose control. Insulin was infused when the blood glucose level reached 120 mg/dL or higher, and glucose was infused when the level fell to 100 mg/dL or lower. After the Pringle maneuver, the blood glucose level increased, and insulin was administered automatically via an artificial pancreas. Hypoglycemia did not occur during the operation. After total parenteral nutrition was started in the intensive care unit (ICU), the blood glucose level increased, and the artificial pancreas controlled the blood glucose level through automatic insulin administration. Thirty-four hours after admission to the ICU, the artificial pancreas was removed because the blood sampling failed. After the removal of the artificial pancreas, blood glucose level was measured every 2 h until extubation. During the ICU stay, hypoglycemia never occurred, with the average blood glucose level being 144 mg/dL. In conclusion, the use of an artificial pancreas for perioperative blood glucose management in a patient with glycogen storage disease had the beneficial effect of enabling the management of blood glucose levels without hypoglycemia.

  4. 8th Annual Symposium on Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG): April 16-18, 2015, Republic of Malta.

    PubMed

    Parkin, Christopher G; Homberg, Anita; Hinzmann, Rolf

    2015-11-01

    International experts in the fields of diabetes, diabetes technology, endocrinology, mobile health, sport science, and regulatory issues gathered for the 8(th) Annual Symposium on Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG) with a focus on personalized diabetes management. The aim of this meeting was to facilitate new collaborations and research projects to improve the lives of people with diabetes. The 2015 meeting comprised a comprehensive scientific program, parallel interactive workshops, and two keynote lectures.

  5. 7th Annual Symposium on Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG), May 8–10, 2014, Helsinki, Finland

    PubMed Central

    Mlinac, Anita; Hinzmann, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Abstract International experts in the fields of diabetes, diabetes technology, endocrinology, mobile health, sport science, and regulatory issues gathered for the 7th Annual Symposium on Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG). The aim of this meeting was to facilitate new collaborations and research projects to improve the lives of people with diabetes. The 2014 meeting comprised a comprehensive scientific program, parallel interactive workshops, and two keynote lectures. PMID:25211215

  6. 8th Annual Symposium on Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG): April 16-18, 2015, Republic of Malta.

    PubMed

    Parkin, Christopher G; Homberg, Anita; Hinzmann, Rolf

    2015-11-01

    International experts in the fields of diabetes, diabetes technology, endocrinology, mobile health, sport science, and regulatory issues gathered for the 8(th) Annual Symposium on Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG) with a focus on personalized diabetes management. The aim of this meeting was to facilitate new collaborations and research projects to improve the lives of people with diabetes. The 2015 meeting comprised a comprehensive scientific program, parallel interactive workshops, and two keynote lectures. PMID:26496678

  7. Community pharmacy-based intervention to improve self-monitoring of blood glucose in type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Uta; Hämmerlein, Andrea; Casper, Annette; Schulz, Martin

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is clearly correlated with increased life expectancy and quality of life in type 2 diabetic patients. Objective The objective of our study was to record and assess the errors patients make in preparing, performing, and processing self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). Furthermore, the study aimed to determine to what extent a single standardized SMBG instruction session in a community pharmacy might reduce the number of patients making errors or the number of errors per patient. Methods Between May and October 2005, SMBG of 462 randomly selected patients with type 2 diabetes was monitored in 32 pharmacies specialized in diabetes care. The patients performed blood glucose self-tests using their own blood glucose meters. Self-testing was monitored using a standardized documentation sheet on which any error made during the performance of the test was recorded. If necessary, patients were instructed in the accurate operation of their meter and the use of the necessary equipment. Additionally, patients obtained written instructions. Six weeks later, assessment of the quality of patient’s SMBG was repeated. Results During the first observation, 383 patients (83%) made at least one mistake performing SMBG. By the time of the second observation, this frequency had fallen to 189 (41%) (p<0.001). The average number of mistakes fell from 3.1 to 0.8 per patient. Mistakes that may potentially have led to inaccurate readings were initially recorded for 283 (61%) and at study end for 110 (24%) patients (p<0.001). Conclusion It is important to periodically instruct type 2 diabetic patients in the proper SMBG technique in order to ensure accurate measurements. In this study it was shown that community pharmacies specialized in diabetes care can provide this service effectively. PMID:25214909

  8. 8th Annual Symposium on Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG): April 16–18, 2015, Republic of Malta

    PubMed Central

    Homberg, Anita; Hinzmann, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Abstract International experts in the fields of diabetes, diabetes technology, endocrinology, mobile health, sport science, and regulatory issues gathered for the 8th Annual Symposium on Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG) with a focus on personalized diabetes management. The aim of this meeting was to facilitate new collaborations and research projects to improve the lives of people with diabetes. The 2015 meeting comprised a comprehensive scientific program, parallel interactive workshops, and two keynote lectures. PMID:26496678

  9. Multicommuted flow system for the determination of glucose in animal blood serum exploiting enzymatic reaction and chemiluminescence detection

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Cherrine K.; Martelli, Patrícia B.; Lima, José L. F. C.; Saraiva, Maria Lúcia M. F. S.

    2003-01-01

    An automatic flow procedure based on multicommutation dedicated for the determination of glucose in animal blood serum using glucose oxidase with chemiluminescence detection is described. The flow manifold consisted of a set of three-way solenoid valves assembled to implement multicommutation. A microcomputer furnished with an electronic interface and software written in Quick BASIC 4.5 controlled the manifold and performed data acquisition. Glucose oxidase was immobilized on porous silica beads (glass aminopropyl) and packed in a minicolumn (15 × 5 mm). The procedure was based on the enzymatic degradation of glucose, producing hydrogen peroxide, which oxidized luminol in the presence of hexacyanoferrate(III), causing the chemiluminescence. The system was tested by analysing a set of serum animal samples without previous treatment. Results were in agreement with those obtained with the conventional method (LABTEST Kit) at the 95% confidence level. The detection limit and variation coefficient were estimated as 12.0 mg l−1 (99.7% confidence level) and 3.5% (n = 20), respectively. The sampling rate was about 60 determinations h−1 with sample concentrations ranging from 50 to 600 mg l−1 glucose. The consumptions of serum sample, hexacyanoferrate(III) and luminol were 46 μl, 10.0 mg and 0.2 mg/determination, respectively. PMID:18924619

  10. Identification of individualised empirical models of carbohydrate and insulin effects on T1DM blood glucose dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cescon, Marzia; Johansson, Rolf; Renard, Eric; Maran, Alberto

    2014-07-01

    One of the main limiting factors in improving glucose control for type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) subjects is the lack of a precise description of meal and insulin intake effects on blood glucose. Knowing the magnitude and duration of such effects would be useful not only for patients and physicians, but also for the development of a controller targeting glycaemia regulation. Therefore, in this paper we focus on estimating low-complexity yet physiologically sound and individualised multi-input single-output (MISO) models of the glucose metabolism in T1DM able to reflect the basic dynamical features of the glucose-insulin metabolic system in response to a meal intake or an insulin injection. The models are continuous-time second-order transfer functions relating the amount of carbohydrate of a meal and the insulin units of the accordingly administered dose (inputs) to plasma glucose evolution (output) and consist of few parameters clinically relevant to be estimated. The estimation strategy is continuous-time data-driven system identification and exploits a database in which meals and insulin boluses are separated in time, allowing the unique identification of the model parameters.

  11. Self-monitoring of blood glucose: use, frequency drivers, and cost in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Elgart, Jorge F; González, Lorena; Rucci, Enzo; Gagliardino, Juan J

    2014-11-01

    Although test strips for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) represent around 50% of diabetes treatment cost in Argentina, little is known about their current use and relationship with different types of treatment. We therefore aimed to estimate the current use of test strips and identify the major use drivers and the percentage they represent of total prescription costs in 2 entities of the social security system (SSS) of Argentina. Observational retrospective study measuring test strip prescriptions delivered by pharmacies from the province of Buenos Aires (8115 records collected during 3 months provided by the Colegio de Farmacéuticos de la Provincia de Buenos Aires) of affiliates with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) from 2 large entities of the SSS system. The average monthly test strips/patient used for SMBG was 97.5 ± 70.1. This number varied according to treatment: monotherapy with oral antidiabetic drugs (OAD) < combined OAD therapy < insulin treatment. Test strips represented a higher percentage of the total prescription cost in people under OAD monotherapy (84.6%) and lower in those with insulin analogs (46.9%). In our population, the type of hyperglycemia treatment was the main driver of test strip use for SMBG and its impact on the total prescription cost depends on the kind of such treatment. Since it has been shown that patients' education and prescription audit can optimize test strip use and treatment outcomes, implementation of such strategies could appropriately support, optimize, and reduce ineffective test strip use in people with T2DM. PMID:25208965

  12. Impacts of small arteriovenous malformations (AVM) on regional cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, R.S.; Yeh, S.H.; Chu, L.S.

    1994-05-01

    This study assessed the effects of small AVMs (<3 cm) on the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT and on the glucose metabolism (rCGlcM) by [F-18]-FDG PET. Seven AVM patients (pts) were studied. All AVMs were confirmed by cerebral angiography and CT/MR scans. Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT and [F-18]-PDG PET images were interpreted visually to detect the changes of rCBF and rCGlcM. All pts except one brain stem AVM had defects in the regions of nidi on HMPAO and FDG images. FDG PET disclosed low rCGlcM in surrounding areas of AVMs in 6 pts, while HMPAO SPECT detected only 4 cases. One AVM had increased rCBF surrounding the nidus despite of decreased rCGlcM in the same region. Five pts had abnormal rCGlcM over ipsilateral remote cortex but only one had corresponding abnormal rCBF. Contralateral cortical hypofunction was noted in 3 pts by FDG PET but none by HMPAO SPECT. Cross cerebellar diaschisis was found in 2 AVMs by FDG PET and only one by HMPAO SPECT. All regions with abnormal HMPAO uptake did not look as discernibly as seen on the FDG PET scan. CT/MR scans detected the nidi of AVMs of all pts and old hemorrhage in one pt. In conclusion, either HMPAO SPECT or FDG PET is sensitive to detect the functional abnormalities in the region of nidus of small AVM and the surrounding brain tissue. FDG PET is better than HMPAO SPECT to detect functional changes in the remote cortex and diaschisis.

  13. Self-monitoring of blood glucose levels and intensified insulin therapy. Acceptability and efficacy in childhood diabetes.

    PubMed

    Geffner, M E; Kaplan, S A; Lippe, B M; Scott, M L

    1983-06-01

    Prospective studies have shown that children and adolescents with diabetes have a high prevalence of serious complications and a sharp reduction in life expectancy. Recently, self-monitoring of blood glucose levels has become available and, for the first time, provides a method for determining the concentration of blood glucose with considerable accuracy. We have introduced this method of control assessment to our pediatric diabetic patient population in conjunction with a program of intensified insulin administration (two or more injections per day). This is a report of the ready acceptance of these methods by children and adolescents and their parents (53/63, or 84%). The effectiveness of this program is evidenced by a progressive and significant reduction in the percentage of glycosylated hemoglobin during a period of 18 months in a majority of the subjects. These observations suggest that improved glycemic control can be achieved in young diabetics by using multiple insulin injections and self-monitoring of blood glucose levels. Whether such control can lead to a better long-term outlook for diabetics remains to be seen.

  14. Near-infrared noninvasive blood glucose prediction without using multivariate analyses: introduction of imaginary spectra due to scattering change in the skin.

    PubMed

    Maruo, Katsuhiko; Yamada, Yukio

    2015-04-01

    A noninvasive measurement method is proposed and examined to continuously predict blood glucose contents using near-infrared diffuse reflection difference spectra measured at the skin tissue without using multivariate analyses. Using the modified Beer’s law, the difference spectra are assumed to be synthesized from four major components in the human skin (water, protein, glucose, and fat) and a scattering equivalent component called baseline. As a result, one of the origins of the errors in blood glucose prediction using near-infrared is found to be the similarity of the shapes of the absorption spectrum between glucose and baseline. After separating the glucose contributions from the difference spectra at the characteristic wavelengths of baseline and fat, an imaginary component combining baseline and fat is introduced by considering that both the change in the fat contribution and the generation of baseline originate from the change in scattering in the skin. The imaginary component enables us to reduce the errors in blood glucose prediction. In contrast to the methods using multivariate analyses, the calculation process of the blood glucose contents from the measured reflection spectra is clear in this method, thus, it is easy to estimate the origins of the changes and contributions of the components in the measured difference spectra. The proposed method may become a useful tool for realization of noninvasive blood glucose prediction using near-infrared spectroscopy. PMID:25859836

  15. Performance of a New Meter Designed for Assisted Monitoring of Blood Glucose and Point-of-Care Testing

    PubMed Central

    MacRury, Sandra; Srinivasan, Aparna; Mahoney, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Blood glucose (BG) meters used for assisted monitoring of blood glucose (AMBG) require different attributes compared with meters designed for home use. These include safety considerations (i.e., minimized risk of blood-borne pathogen transmission), capability for testing multiple blood sample types, and enhanced performance specifications. The OneTouch® Verio™Pro+ BG meter is designed to incorporate all of these attributes. Methods Meter accuracy was assessed in clinical studies with arterial, venous, and capillary blood samples with a hematocrit range of 22.9–59.8%. The effect of interferents, including anticoagulants, on accuracy was evaluated. The meter disinfection protocol was validated, and instructions for use and user acceptance of the system were assessed. Results A total of 97% (549/566) of BG measures from all blood sample types and 95.5% (191/200) of arterial blood samples were within ±12 mg/dl or 12.5% of reference measurements. The system was unaffected by 4 anticoagulants and 57 of 59 endogenous and exogenous compounds; it was affected by 2 compounds: pralidoxime iodide and xylose. Bleach wipes were sufficient to disinfect the meter. Users felt that the meter's quality control (QC) prompts would help them to comply with regulatory requirements. Conclusions The meter provided accurate measurements of different blood samples over a wide hematocrit range and was not affected by 57 physiologic and therapeutic compounds. The QC prompts and specific infection-mitigating design further aid to make this meter system practical for AMBG in care facilities. PMID:23566997

  16. Elevated Fasting Blood Glucose Is Predictive of Poor Outcome in Non-Diabetic Stroke Patients: A Sub-Group Analysis of SMART

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lixin; Peng, Bin; Zhu, Yicheng; Cui, Liying

    2016-01-01

    Background Although increasing evidence suggests that hyperglycemia following acute stroke adversely affects clinical outcome, whether the association between glycaemia and functional outcome varies between stroke patients with\\without pre-diagnosed diabetes remains controversial. We aimed to investigate the relationship between the fasting blood glucose (FBG) and the 6-month functional outcome in a subgroup of SMART cohort and further to assess whether this association varied based on the status of pre-diagnosed diabetes. Methods Data of 2862 patients with acute ischemic stroke (629 with pre-diagnosed diabetics) enrolled from SMART cohort were analyzed. Functional outcome at 6-month post-stroke was measured by modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and categorized as favorable (mRS:0–2) or poor (mRS:3–5). Binary logistic regression model, adjusting for age, gender, educational level, history of hypertension and stroke, baseline NIHSS and treatment group, was used in the whole cohort to evaluate the association between admission FBG and functional outcome. Stratified logistic regression analyses were further performed based on the presence/absence of pre-diabetes history. Results In the whole cohort, multivariable logistical regression showed that poor functional outcome was associated with elevated FBG (OR1.21 (95%CI 1.07–1.37), p = 0.002), older age (OR1.64 (95% CI1.38–1.94), p<0.001), higher NIHSS (OR2.90 (95%CI 2.52–3.33), p<0.001) and hypertension (OR1.42 (95%CI 1.13–1.98), p = 0.04). Stratified logistical regression analysis showed that the association between FBG and functional outcome remained significant only in patients without pre-diagnosed diabetes (OR1.26 (95%CI 1.03–1.55), p = 0.023), but not in those with premorbid diagnosis of diabetes (p = 0.885). Conclusion The present results demonstrate a significant association between elevated FBG after stroke and poor functional outcome in patients without pre-diagnosed diabetes, but not in diabetics

  17. The long term oral regulation of blood glucose in diabetic patients by using of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 expressing CTB-IGF-1 hybrid protein.

    PubMed

    Bazi, Zahra; Jalili, Mahsa; Hekmatdoost, Azita

    2013-11-01

    Regarding to the high prevalence and comorbidities of chronic high blood glucose in diabetic patients and the limited efficacy and current painful treatments. It is necessary to improve new treatments that are non-invasive and long-term for controlling blood glucose. Recent studies have shown that the healthy microflora in different body organs can perform as the gene vectors for expressing different types of gene therapies in situ. We have proposed that by constructing a recombinant Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 that expresses CTB-IGF-1 hybrid gene under control of ompC glucose sensitive promoter, the intestinal glucose level can be regulated. This method in comparison with other methods is a non-invasive way to control the blood glucose orally and it can be used for all types of diabetes. PMID:24074833

  18. A single dual-emissive nanofluorophore test paper for highly sensitive colorimetry-based quantification of blood glucose.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Yujie; Liu, Cui; Zhang, Ruilong; Zhang, Liying; Du, Shuhu; Liu, Bianhua; Han, Ming-Yong; Zhang, Zhongping

    2016-12-15

    Fluorescent test papers are promising for the wide applications in the assays of diagnosis, environments and foods, but unlike classical dye-absorption-based pH test paper, they are usually limited in the qualitative yes/no type of detection by fluorescent brightness, and the colorimetry-based quantification remains a challenging task. Here, we report a single dual-emissive nanofluorophore probe to achieve the consecutive color variations from blue to red for the quantification of blood glucose on its as-prepared test papers. Red quantum dots were embedded into silica nanoparticles as a stable internal standard emission, and blue carbon dots (CDs) were further covalently linked onto the surface of silica, in which the ratiometric fluorescence intensity of blue to red is controlled at 5:1. While the oxidation of glucose induced the formation of Fe(3+) ions, the blue emission of CDs was thus quenched by the electron transfer from CDs to Fe(3+), displaying a serial of consecutive color variations from blue to red with the dosage of glucose. The high-quality test papers printed by the probe ink exhibited a dosage-sensitive allochromatic capability with the clear differentiations of ~5, 7, 9, 11mM glucose in human serum (normal: 3-8mM). The blood glucose determined by the test paper was almost in accordance with that measured by a standard glucometer. The method reported here opens a window to the wide applications of fluorescent test paper in biological assays. PMID:27448542

  19. Comparison of a Point-of-Care Glucometer and a Laboratory Autoanalyzer for Measurement of Blood Glucose Concentrations in Domestic Pigeons ( Columba livia domestica).

    PubMed

    Mohsenzadeh, Mahdieh Sadat; Zaeemi, Mahdieh; Razmyar, Jamshid; Azizzadeh, Mohammad

    2015-09-01

    Biochemical analysis is necessary for diagnosis and monitoring of diseases in birds; however, the small volume of blood that can be safely obtained from small avian species often limits laboratory diagnostic testing. Consequently, a suitable methodology requiring only a small volume of blood must be used. This study was designed to compare blood glucose concentrations in domestic pigeons ( Columba livia domestica) as measured by a commercial, handheld, human glucometer and a standard autoanalyzer. During the first phase of the study, whole blood samples obtained from 30 domestic pigeons were used to measure the blood glucose concentration with a glucometer, the packed cell volume (PCV), and the total erythrocyte count (nRBC). Plasma separated from the each sample was then used to obtain the plasma glucose concentration with the autoanalyzer. During the second phase of the study, 30 pigeons were assigned to 2 equal groups (n = 15). Hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia was induced in each group by intravenous injection of insulin or glucose, respectively. Blood was collected and processed, and glucose concentrations, PCV, and nRBC were measured as previously described. Linear-regression models demonstrated a significant relationship between results measured by the glucometer and autoanalyzer results from normoglycemic (correlation coefficient [R] = 0.43, P = .02), hypoglycemic (R = 0.95; P < .001), and hyperglycemic (R = 0.81; P < .001) birds. The results of this study suggest that we can predict the real blood-glucose concentration of pigeons by using results obtained by a glucometer.

  20. Consensus report: the current role of self-monitoring of blood glucose in non-insulin-treated type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Klonoff, David C; Blonde, Lawrence; Cembrowski, George; Chacra, Antonio Roberto; Charpentier, Guillaume; Colagiuri, Stephen; Dailey, George; Gabbay, Robert A; Heinemann, Lutz; Kerr, David; Nicolucci, Antonio; Polonsky, William; Schnell, Oliver; Vigersky, Robert; Yale, Jean-François

    2011-11-01

    The Coalition for Clinical Research--Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose Scientific Board convened a meeting in San Francisco, CA, July 20-21, 2011, to discuss the current practice of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in non-insulin-treated (NIT) type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Twelve physician panel members from academia, practice, and government attended this meeting. These experts came from the United States, Brazil, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, and the United Kingdom. In addition, three consultants from Australia, Germany, and the United States contributed to the group's final report. This coalition was organized by Diabetes Technology Society. Self-monitoring of blood glucose was studied from eight perspectives related to patients with NIT T2DM: (1) epidemiological studies; (2) randomized controlled trials (RCT)s and meta-analyses; (3) targets, timing, and frequency of SMBG use; (4) incidence and role of SMBG in preventing hypoglycemia with single-drug regimens and combination regimens consisting of antihyperglycemic agents other than secretagogues and insulin; (5) comparison of SMBG with continuous glucose monitoring; (6) technological capabilities and limitations of SMBG; (7) barriers to appropriate use of SMBG; and (8) methods and end points for appropriate future clinical trials. The panel emphasized recent studies, which reflect the current approach for applying this intervention. Among the participants there was consensus that: SMBG is an established practice for patients with NIT T2DM, and to be most effective, it should be performed in a structured format where information obtained from this measurement is used to guide treatment; New, high-quality efficacy data from RCTs have demonstrated efficacy of SMBG in NIT T2DM in trials reported since 2008; Both patients and health care professionals require education on how to respond to the data for SMBG to be effective; and Additional well-defined studies are needed to assess the benefits and costs of

  1. Effects of a soybean nutrition bar on the postprandial blood glucose and lipid levels in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Urita, Yoshihisa; Noda, Tsuneyuki; Watanabe, Daisuke; Iwashita, Soh; Hamada, Koichiro; Sugimoto, Motonobu

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the influence of a soybean nutrition bar made from whole soy powder on the blood glucose, insulin and lipid levels in comparison with a test cookie with the same amount of energy in patients with diabetes mellitus. In the cross-over designed study, meal tolerance tests using the soybean nutrition bar and test cookie were performed. Two kinds of test meals were used: Study 1 80 kcal, Study 2 592 kcal. The blood glucose response was significantly lower in the soybean nutrition bar trial than in the cookie trial (Studies 1 and 2, p < 0.001). The blood insulin response was also significantly lower in the soybean nutrition bar trial than in the cookie trial (Study 2, p < 0.001). The blood triglyceride and non-esterified fatty acid responses were not significantly different between the two trials, nor were the changes in breath H₂ enrichment (Study 2). The soybean nutrition bar did not induce postprandial hyperglycaemia in diabetic patients unlike the isoenergetic test cookies.

  2. The effect of music on the level of cortisol, blood glucose and physiological variables in patients undergoing spinal anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Mottahedian Tabrizi, Elaheh; Sahraei, Hedayat; Movahhedi Rad, Saeid; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Lak, Marziyeh

    2012-01-01

    Surgical procedures performed using spinal anesthetic techniques present a special challenge to anesthesiologists, because patients are awake and are exposed to multiple anxiety provoking visual and auditory stimuli. Therefore, this study was carried out to define the effect of music on the level of cortisol, blood glucose and physiological variables in patients under spinal anesthesia. In this semi-experimental research, 90 men aging from 18-48 years with ASA (acetylsalicylic acid) class I, who underwent urological and abdominal surgery, were investigated. Patients were divided randomly into three groups of thirty subjects. Music group (headphone with music), Silence group (headphone without music) and the control group (without interference). The level of cortisol and blood sugar was measured half an hour before and after the operation. Moreover, the physiological indicators in each of these three groups were monitored and recorded from ten minutes before getting spinal anesthesia to ten minutes after the operation. The level of blood cortisol didn't have any increase in the music group after operation compared to the time before that. However, in the groups of silence and control this level had risen (p< 0.05). The level of blood glucose in music group had declined and in the other two groups it had increased. Our data showed that listening to music during surgery under regional anesthesia has effects on cortisol levels and some of the physiological variables. Therefore the researcher offers to be used music therapy as a complementary method in patients on the reduce anxiety. PMID:27350774

  3. The Effects of Cinnamomum Cassia on Blood Glucose Values are Greater than those of Dietary Changes Alone

    PubMed Central

    Hoehn, Ashley N.; Stockert, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    Eighteen type II diabetics (9 women and 9 men) participated in a 12-week trial that consisted of 2 parts, a 3-week control phase followed by a 9-week experimental phase where half of the subjects received 1000 mg of Cinnamomum cassia while the other half received 1000 mg of a placebo pill. All of the subjects that were in the cinnamon group had a statistically significant decrease in their blood sugar levels with a P-value of 3.915 × 10−10. The subjects in the cinnamon group had an average overall decrease in their blood sugar levels of about 30 mg/dL, which is comparable to oral medications available for diabetes. All subjects were educated on appropriate diabetic diets and maintained that diet for the entire 12 week study. Greater decreases in blood glucose values were observed in patients using the cinnamon compared to those using the dietary changes alone. PMID:23882151

  4. Blood glucose and meal patterns in time-blinded males, after aspartame, carbohydrate, and fat consumption, in relation to sweetness perception.

    PubMed

    Melanson, K J; Westerterp-Plantenga, M S; Campfield, L A; Saris, W H

    1999-12-01

    In a study of the impact of aspartame, fat, and carbohydrate on appetite, we monitored blood glucose continuously for 431 (SE 16) min. Ten healthy males (19-31 years) participated in three time-blinded visits. As blood glucose was monitored, appetite ratings were scored at randomized times. On the first meal initiation, volunteers consumed one of three isovolumetric drinks (aspartame, 1 MJ simple carbohydrate, and 1 MJ high-fat; randomized order). High-fat and high-carbohydrate foods were available ad libitum subsequently. Blood glucose patterns following the carbohydrate drink (+1.78 (SE 0.28) mmol/l in 38 (SE 3) min) and high-fat drink (+0.83 (SE 0.28) mmol/l in 49 (SE 6) min) were predictive of the next intermeal interval (R 0.64 and R 0.97 respectively). Aspartame ingestion was followed by blood glucose declines (40% of subjects), increases (20%), or stability (40%). These patterns were related to the volunteers' perception of sweetness of the drink (R 0.81, P = 0.014), and were predictive of subsequent intakes (R -0.71, P = 0.048). For all drinks combined, declines in blood glucose and meal initiation were significantly associated (chi 2 16.8, P < 0.001), the duration of blood glucose responses and intermeal intervals correlated significantly (R 0.715, P = 0.0001), and sweetness perception correlated negatively with hunger suppression (R -0.471, P = 0.015). Effects of fat, carbohydrate, and aspartame on meal initiation, meal size, and intermeal interval relate to blood glucose patterns. Varied blood glucose responses after aspartame support the controversy over its effects, and may relate to sweetness perception.

  5. The effect of anti-emetic doses of dexamethasone on postoperative blood glucose levels in non-diabetic and diabetic patients: a prospective randomised controlled study.

    PubMed

    Tien, M; Gan, T J; Dhakal, I; White, W D; Olufolabi, A J; Fink, R; Mishriky, B M; Lacassie, H J; Habib, A S

    2016-09-01

    There are few data regarding postoperative hyperglycaemia in non-diabetic compared with diabetic patients following postoperative nausea and vomiting prophylaxis with dexamethasone. Eighty-five non-diabetic patients and patients with type-2 diabetes were randomly allocated to receive intravenous dexamethasone (8 mg) or ondansetron (4 mg). Blood glucose levels were measured at baseline and then 2, 4 and 24 h following induction of anaesthesia. In non-diabetic patients, the mean (SD) maximum blood glucose was higher in those who received dexamethasone compared with ondansetron (9.1 (2.2) mmol.l(-1) vs. 7.8 (1.4) mmol.l(-1) , p = 0.04). In diabetic patients, the mean (SD) maximum blood glucose was also higher in those who received dexamethasone compared with ondansetron (14.0 (2.5) mmol.l(-1) vs. 10.7 (2.4) mmol.l(-1) , p < 0.01). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that dexamethasone administration was a significant predictor of maximum postoperative blood glucose increase (p < 0.01) after adjusting for potential confounders. There was no interaction between baseline blood glucose level, or presence or absence of diabetes, and dexamethasone administration. We conclude that dexamethasone increases postoperative blood glucose levels in both non-diabetics and diabetics. PMID:27523051

  6. Lack of effect of sodium nitroprusside on insulin-mediated blood flow and glucose disposal in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Meneilly, G S; Battistini, B; Floras, J S

    2000-03-01

    Insulin increases skeletal muscle blood flow in healthy young subjects by a nitric oxide (NO)-dependent mechanism. Impairment of this mechanism may contribute to the insulin resistance of normal aging, a state characterized by reduced endothelial production of NO, an attenuated effect of insulin on skeletal muscle blood flow, and resistance to insulin-mediated glucose uptake (IMGU). We tested the hypothesis that the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) would augment insulin-mediated vasodilation and thus increase IMGU in healthy elderly subjects. Experiments were performed with young (n = 9; age, 25 +/- 1 years; body mass index [BMI], 24 +/- 1 kg/m2) and old (n = 10; age, 78 +/- 2 years; BMI, 25 +/- 1 kg/m2) healthy subjects. Each group underwent two studies in random order. In one study (control), insulin was infused using the euglycemic clamp protocol for 240 minutes at a rate of 40 mU/m2/min (young) and 34 mU/m2/min (old). In the other study (SNP), SNP was coinfused with insulin from 120 to 240 minutes. At regular intervals in each study, blood samples were obtained and calf blood flow was measured using venous occlusion plethysmography. Glucose and insulin values were similar in control and SNP studies in both age groups. In the young, SNP had no effect on blood flow to the calf, but its action in calf resistance vessels augmented insulin-mediated vasodilation, since incremental calf vascular conductance was greater during SNP infusion (control v SNP, 0.027 +/- 0.002 v 0.040 +/- 0.008 mL/100 mL/min/mm Hg, P< .0001). However, SNP had no effect on insulin-mediated glucose disposal. In the elderly, SNP reduced the blood flow to the calf, but this was countered by its effect on calf resistance vessels such that vascular conductance was unaffected (control v SNP, 0.012 +/- 0.003 v 0.011 +/- 0.003 mL/100 mL/min/mm Hg, P = nonsignificant [NS]). Steady-state (180 to 240 minutes) glucose disposal (control v SNP, 7.47 +/- 0.47 v 6.54 +/- 0.56 mg/kg/min, P < .01) rates

  7. The Association Between Food Prices and the Blood Glucose Level of US Adults With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Anekwe, Tobenna D.; Rahkovsky, Ilya

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the association between the price of healthy and less-healthy food groups and blood sugar among US adults with type 2 diabetes. Methods. We linked 1999–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey health information to food prices contained in the Quarterly Food-at-Home Price Database. We regressed blood sugar levels on food prices from the previous calendar quarter, controlling for market region and a range of other covariates. We also examined whether the association between food prices and blood sugar varies among different income groups. Results. The prices of produce and low-fat dairy foods were associated with blood sugar levels of people with type 2 diabetes. Specifically, higher prices for produce and low-fat dairy foods were associated with higher levels of glycated hemoglobin and fasting plasma glucose 3 months later. Food prices had a greater association with blood sugar for low-income people than for higher-income people, and in the expected direction. Conclusions. Higher prices of healthy foods were associated with increased blood sugar among people with type 2 diabetes. The association was especially pronounced among low-income people with type 2 diabetes. PMID:24524504

  8. Comprehensive investigation of postmortem glucose levels in blood and body fluids with regard to the cause of death in forensic autopsy cases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian-Hua; Michiue, Tomomi; Inamori-Kawamoto, Osamu; Ikeda, Sayuko; Ishikawa, Takaki; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2015-11-01

    The serum glucose level is regulated within a narrow range by multiple factors under physiological conditions, but is greatly modified in the death process and after death. The present study comprehensively investigated glucose levels in blood and body fluids, including pericardial fluid (PCF), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and vitreous humor, reviewing forensic autopsy cases (n=672). Right heart blood glucose level was often higher than at other sites, and the CSF glucose level was the lowest, showing greater dissociation in acute/subacute death cases. The glucose level was higher in the diabetic (high HbA1c) than in the non-diabetic (low HbA1c) group at each site (p<0.01-0.0001). Fatal diabetic ketoacidosis cases had evidently high glucose levels at each site; whereas in the non-diabetic group, blood glucose level was higher in fatal alcohol abuse, saltwater drowning, electrocution, cerebrovascular disease and sudden cardiac death due to ischemic heart disease. Fatal methamphetamine (MA) abuse, sepsis, malnutrition (starvation) and hypoglycemia due to antidiabetics showed markedly lower blood glucose levels. Ketones in bilateral cardiac blood and PCF were increased in diabetic ketoacidosis and fatal alcohol abuse as well as in most cases of hyperthermia (heatstroke), hypothermia (cold exposure) and malnutrition. These findings suggest that combined analysis of glucose, HbA1c and ketones in blood and body fluids is useful to investigate not only fatal diabetic metabolic disorders but also death processes due to other causes, including alcohol and MA abuse, as well as thermal disorders, sepsis and malnutrition.

  9. Longitudinal 3-week tracking of blood glucose concentration from thermo-optical response measurements on human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Shu-jen; Kantor, Stan; Hanna, Charles; Shain, Eric; Hohs, Ronald; Khalil, Omar S.

    2006-08-01

    We designed a dual-sensor instrument for measuring optical signals from the arms of human volunteers. The instrument had two temperature-controlled localized reflectance optical probes. Each probe had one illumination fiber and four detection fibers at different source-detector distances. The two probes were maintained at 30 °C. Thirty seconds after contact with the skin one was heated and the other was cooled at the same rate. The effect of heating and cooling on the signal was measured and correlated with blood glucose concentration. The measurements were performed 3 to 5 times a day for each volunteer over the span of three weeks. The data points from the first two weeks were used to establish a calibration model for each volunteer, which was used to predict glucose values from the third week optical data. Successftil calibration was possible for two of the three volunteers.

  10. [The effect of the main protein source in rations of ewes and the time of blood collection on the glucose and triacylglycerol levels in blood at the beginning of lactation].

    PubMed

    Hatzipanagiotou, A; Liamadis, D; Hatzikas, A

    1994-01-01

    The effect of the protein source of the ration (soybean meal, cottonseed cake, corn gluten and fish meal) and the time (period) of blood sample taking was examined on the content of glucose and triacylglycerols in the blood during the initial lactation period. Thirty-six ewes of the Thessaloniki crossbred type were randomly allocated to 4 groups. The ewes of each group were fed ad libitum with one of the 4 different rations, respectively. From each ewe 4 blood samples were taken in different times. The experimental design was factorial 4x4 with 9 replicates with main factors the main protein source (ration), as well as the time of blood sample taking. The protein source effect on glucose and triacylglycerol concentration in blood was not significant, while that of time of blood sample taking was significant. The interaction "ration" X "time" of sampling for the glucose and TGC concentration was not significant. PMID:7487483

  11. Microdialysis based monitoring of subcutaneous interstitial and venous blood glucose in Type 1 diabetic subjects by mid-infrared spectrometry for intensive insulin therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heise, H. Michael; Kondepati, Venkata Radhakrishna; Damm, Uwe; Licht, Michael; Feichtner, Franz; Mader, Julia Katharina; Ellmerer, Martin

    2008-02-01

    Implementing strict glycemic control can reduce the risk of serious complications in both diabetic and critically ill patients. For this purpose, many different blood glucose monitoring techniques and insulin infusion strategies have been tested towards the realization of an artificial pancreas under closed loop control. In contrast to competing subcutaneously implanted electrochemical biosensors, microdialysis based systems for sampling body fluids from either the interstitial adipose tissue compartment or from venous blood have been developed, which allow an ex-vivo glucose monitoring by mid-infrared spectrometry. For the first option, a commercially available, subcutaneously inserted CMA 60 microdialysis catheter has been used routinely. The vascular body interface includes a double-lumen venous catheter in combination with whole blood dilution using a heparin solution. The diluted whole blood is transported to a flow-through dialysis cell, where the harvesting of analytes across the microdialysis membrane takes place at high recovery rates. The dialysate is continuously transported to the IR-sensor. Ex-vivo measurements were conducted on type-1 diabetic subjects lasting up to 28 hours. Experiments have shown excellent agreement between the sensor readout and the reference blood glucose concentration values. The simultaneous assessment of dialysis recovery rates renders a reliable quantification of whole blood concentrations of glucose and metabolites (urea, lactate etc) after taking blood dilution into account. Our results from transmission spectrometry indicate, that the developed bed-side device enables reliable long-term glucose monitoring with reagent- and calibration-free operation.

  12. Diabetes alters the blood glucose response to ketamine in streptozotocin-diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huayong; Li, Li; Xia, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Ketamine is a commonly used short-acting anesthetic and recently attempted to treat pain which is a complication of diabetes. In this study we investigated the effect of ketamine on glucose levels of normal rats and diabetic rats. The results showed that no significance between the glucose levels in ketamine treatment group and saline treatment group at all time points was observed in normal rats. Ketamine did not produce hyperglycemia in normal fasted rats. However, ketamine dose dependently elevated glucose in diabetic rats from 80 mg/kg to 120 mg/kg at 1 hour after injection. The glucose did not return to the levels before treatment in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Insulin revealed a powerful potency in decreasing glucose levels in diabetic rats. Ketamine did not induce acute hyperglycemia any more after diabetic rats pretreated with insulin. Serum corticosterone was significantly increased in all treatment groups including saline group after 1 hour treatment compared with baseline values. Then the corticosterone declined in both saline treatment groups. However, ketamine induced a more significant increase in corticosterone at 1 hour after injection compared with that of saline control group of diabetic rats. And no decline trend of corticosterone was observed after ketamine treatment 2 hours. Insulin did not reduce the elevated corticosterone level induced by ketamine either. The results suggested that the diabetic rats had a risk of hyperglycaemia when they were treated with ketamine. Pretreatment with insulin is a good symptomatic treatment for hyperglycaemia induced by ketamine. PMID:26379948

  13. Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring Patterns in Mexican Americans: Further Lessons from the Starr County Border Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas, Heather E.; García, Alexandra A.; Winter, Mary; Brown, Adama; Hanis, Craig L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: The purpose was to describe patterns of home self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in Mexican Americans with type 2 diabetes mellitus enrolled in a diabetes self-management education protocol. Research questions were as follows: (1) What were the patterns and rates of home glucose self-monitoring over the 6-month course of the study? (2) What were the differences in monitoring rates between experimental and control groups? (3) What were the relationships between rates of monitoring and glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C), gender, and years with diabetes? Subjects and Methods: We used a randomized (by group) repeated-measures pretest/posttest control group design. Glucometer data from an experimental group (diabetes self-management education plus nurse case management) and a comparison group (diabetes self-management education only) were analyzed. Data were collected at baseline and at 3 and 6 months. Results: Overall average SMBG rates were low. Experimental and control group monitoring levels were not significantly different. More females than males never monitored glucose values, but more females than males checked at least one time per week. Those participants who checked their glucose levels more than once per week had diabetes for a longer period of time. Rates of monitoring were not strongly associated with A1C levels at 3 and 6 months, but at 6 months A1C levels were statistically significantly different based on whether or not individuals monitored their glucose levels (P=0.03, n=71). Conclusions: SMBG rates were low in this study despite SMBG education and access to free glucometers and test strips. The lower rates of SMBG may reflect the effects of unexpected environmental challenges, but exact causes remain unclear. Reasons for low rates of SMBG need to be explored further, especially in underserved communities. PMID:25291318

  14. Effect of Guava in Blood Glucose and Lipid Profile in Healthy Human Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Rakavi, R; Mangaraj, Manaswini

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The fruit of Psidium guajava (P.guajava) is known to contain free sugars yet the fruit juice showed hypoglycaemic effect. Hypoglycaemic activity of guava leaves has been well documented but not for guava fruit. Aim So we aimed to evaluate the effect of ripe guava (with peel and without peel) fruit supplementation on blood glucose and lipid profile in healthy human subjects. Materials and Methods Randomized Controlled study undertaken in: 1) Baseline; 2) 6 weeks supplementation phase. Forty five healthy MBBS students were included and randomly enrolled into Group A, Group B and Group C. In Baseline phase: Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) and serum lipid profile was done in all 3 groups. Group A were supplemented with 400g of ripe guava with peel and group B without peel, for 6 weeks. Rest 15 treated as control i.e., Group C. Result Supplementation of ripe guava fruit with peel reduced BMI as well as blood pressure (p<0.05) in group A, whereas the FPG, Total cholesterol, Triglycerides were found significantly increased (p<0.05). Group B registered a significant fall (p<0.05) in BMI as well as blood pressure. Fall in FPG level after guava pulp supplementation was not significant. Serum Total cholesterol, Triglycerides and Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDLc) levels decreased significantly (p<0.05) indicating that guava pulp without peel may have a favourable effect on lipid levels and blood sugar as well. Conclusion Guava fruit without peel is more effective in lowering blood sugar as well as serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDLc. It increases HDLc levels also. PMID:27790420

  15. Palm oil and ground nut oil supplementation effects on blood glucose and antioxidant status in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Adewale, Olabiyi Folorunso; Isaac, OlatunjiOlusola; Tunmise, Makinwa Temitope; Omoniyi, OguntibejuOluwafemi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of two common cooking oils (palm oil, PO) and (groundnut oil, GO) supplementation on the antioxidant status and diabetic indices in Alloxan (100mg/kg) induced diabetic Wistar rats. A total of forty-eight Wistar rats of both sexes were used for this study. They were divided into four groups of 12 animals each as: control, diabetic non-supplemented, diabetic supplemented with PO (200mg/kg/day) and diabetic supplemented with GO (200mg/kg/day) rats. Blood glucose, plasma vitamin E, SOD, Total Protein and Albumin levels were measured using standard laboratory procedures. After three weeks of supplementation there was a significant (p<0.05) reduction in blood glucose of supplemented groups compared with the diabetic non-supplemented group. Plasma Vitamins C and E, SOD, and Albumin levels were significantly (p<0.05) increased in the supplemented groups when compared with the diabetic non-supplemented group. However, the plasma levels of these parameters were found to be significantly (p<0.05) higher in the GO supplemented rats compared with the PO supplemented group. The plasma vitamin C levels in the diabetic groups were lower than in other groups while increased levels in the plasma total protein were not significant. There was no significant difference in the measured parameters in reference to the gender of the animals. It was concluded from this study that GO exhibited superior antioxidant activities and that the supplementation of red palm oil and ground nut oil as a source of antioxidant was beneficial in diabetic state as it reduced blood glucose and enhance antioxidant status.

  16. Sweetened blood sweetens behavior. Ego depletion, glucose, guilt, and prosocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hanyi; Bègue, Laurent; Sauve, Laure; Bushman, Brad J

    2014-10-01

    Although guilt feels bad to the individual, it is good for society because guilty feelings can prompt people to perform good deeds. Previous research shows that fatigue decreases guilty feelings and helpful behavior. This present research tests whether glucose restores guilty feelings and increases helpful behavior. Depleted participants watched a movie about butchering animals for their meat or skin and were told to express no emotions, whereas non-depleted participants watched the same movie, but could express their emotions. Afterwards they drank a glucose or placebo beverage. Having participants play a game in which another person was punished for their errors induced guilt. Finally, participants played a dictator game in which they could leave lottery tickets for the next participant. Depleted participants felt less guilty and helped less than non-depleted participants, and those who consumed a placebo beverage felt less guilt and helped less than those who consumed a glucose beverage. PMID:24882450

  17. Effects of short-term nocturnal and diurnal food deprivation on subsequent feeding in intact and VMH lesioned rats: relation to blood glucose level.

    PubMed

    Larue-Achagiotis, C; Le Magnen, J

    1982-02-01

    Ad lib feeding responses were studied in VMH lesioned rats, following 2 to 6 hours of food deprivation during the dark and the light phases of the diurnal cycle. The correlation between glucose level at the time of restoration of food and these feeding responses was examined. At night, VMH as well as intact rats increased their food intake significantly following 2 to 6 hours of food deprivation. In both groups, the responses were correlated with a decrease in blood glucose which was dependent on the duration of previous food deprivation. During the day, in normal rats, food deprivation did not induce a change either in subsequent food intake or in blood glucose level. On the contrary, VMH lesioned rats increased their food intake following diurnal food deprivation as they did at night. But, surprisingly, this increase was not associated with a fall of blood glucose.

  18. Preservation of blood glucose homeostasis in slow-senescing somatotrophism-deficient mice subjected to intermittent fasting begun at middle or old age.

    PubMed

    Arum, Oge; Saleh, Jamal K; Boparai, Ravneet K; Kopchick, John J; Khardori, Romesh K; Bartke, Andrzej

    2014-06-01

    Poor blood glucose homeostatic regulation is common, consequential, and costly for older and elderly populations, resulting in pleiotrophically adverse clinical outcomes. Somatotrophic signaling deficiency and dietary restriction have each been shown to delay the rate of senescence, resulting in salubrious phenotypes such as increased survivorship. Using two growth hormone (GH) signaling-related, slow-aging mouse mutants we tested, via longitudinal analyses, whether genetic perturbations that increase survivorship also improve blood glucose homeostatic regulation in senescing mammals. Furthermore, we institute a dietary restriction paradigm that also decelerates aging, an intermittent fasting (IF) feeding schedule, as either a short-term or a sustained intervention beginning at either middle or old age, and assess its effects on blood glucose control. We find that either of the two genetic alterations in GH signaling ameliorates fasting hyperglycemia; additionally, both longevity-inducing somatotrophic mutations improve insulin sensitivity into old age. Strikingly, we observe major and broad improvements in blood glucose homeostatic control by IF: IF improves ad libitum-fed hyperglycemia, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity, and reduces hepatic gluconeogenesis, in aging mutant and normal mice. These results on correction of aging-resultant blood glucose dysregulation have potentially important clinical and public health implications for our ever-graying global population, and are consistent with the Longevity Dividend concept. PMID:24789008

  19. Effect of oral administration of bark extracts of Pterocarpus santalinus L. on blood glucose level in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Kameswara Rao, B; Giri, R; Kesavulu, M M; Apparao, C

    2001-01-01

    The effect of administration of different doses of Pterocarpus santalinus L. bark extracts in normal and diabetic rats, on blood glucose levels was evaluated in this study. Among the three fractions (aqueous, ethanol and hexane), ethanolic fraction at the dose of 0.25 g/kg body weight showed maximum antihyperglycemic activity. The same dose did not cause any hypoglycemic activity in normal rats. The results were compared with the diabetic rats treated with glibenclamide and the antihyperglycemic activity of ethanolic extract of PS bark at the dose of 0.25 g/kg b.w. was found to be more effective than that of glibenclamide. PMID:11137350

  20. Blood Sugar

    MedlinePlus

    Blood sugar, or glucose, is the main sugar found in your blood. It comes from the food you eat, and is your body's main source of energy. Your blood carries glucose to all of your body's cells to use ...

  1. Effect of local heating on postprandial blood glucose excursions using the InsuPad device: results of an outpatient crossover study.

    PubMed

    Hermanns, Norbert; Bitton, Gabriel; Reimer, André; Krichbaum, Michael; Kulzer, Bernhard; Haak, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    The InsuPad is a medical device to accelerate insulin resorption by applying local heat at the insulin injection site. This crossover study examined the impact of the InsuPad use on postprandial glucose excursions under daily life conditions. In 1 study phase, diabetic patients used the InsuPad when injecting bolus insulin before breakfast and dinner and measured their blood glucose 5 times daily (before breakfast, lunch, and dinner and after breakfast and dinner). In the other study phase, blood glucose measurements were maintained without using the InsuPad. The order of the study phases was randomized. Twenty patients with a high insulin demand took part (30% type 1 diabetes, age 53.7 ± 8.9 years, diabetes duration 14.9 ± 7.4 years; HbA1c 8.3 ± 0.8%; total daily insulin demand 0.97 ± 0.32 IU per kg). Postprandial glucose excursion was reduced by 15.4 mg/dl (95% CI 9.7-21.2 mg/dl; P = .011) after breakfast and dinner if InsuPad was used. The mean blood glucose was lower by 8.8 mg/dl (95% CI 0:3-18:0 mg/dl; P = .099) when using the InsuPad. Safety parameters and the percentage of hypoglycemic (< 60 mg/dl) or hyperglycemic (> 300 mg/dl) blood glucose measurements were not negatively affected by InsuPad use (hypoglycemic values 1.4% vs 1.5%, P = .961; hyperglycemic values 2.6% vs 4.0%, P = .098). Local heating of the insulin injection site by use of the InsuPad device is an effective and safe method to reduce postprandial blood glucose excursions under daily life conditions without negative side effects on the occurrence of low or high blood glucose values. PMID:25113814

  2. Prognostic accuracy of cerebral blood flow measurement by perfusion computed tomography, at the time of emergency room admission, in acute stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Wintermark, Max; Reichhart, Marc; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Maeder, Philippe; Chalaron, Marc; Schnyder, Pierre; Bogousslavsky, Julien; Meuli, Reto

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prognostic accuracy of perfusion computed tomography (CT), performed at the time of emergency room admission, in acute stroke patients. Accuracy was determined by comparison of perfusion CT with delayed magnetic resonance (MR) and by monitoring the evolution of each patient's clinical condition. Twenty-two acute stroke patients underwent perfusion CT covering four contiguous 10mm slices on admission, as well as delayed MR, performed after a median interval of 3 days after emergency room admission. Eight were treated with thrombolytic agents. Infarct size on the admission perfusion CT was compared with that on the delayed diffusion-weighted (DWI)-MR, chosen as the gold standard. Delayed magnetic resonance angiography and perfusion-weighted MR were used to detect recanalization. A potential recuperation ratio, defined as PRR = penumbra size/(penumbra size + infarct size) on the admission perfusion CT, was compared with the evolution in each patient's clinical condition, defined by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). In the 8 cases with arterial recanalization, the size of the cerebral infarct on the delayed DWI-MR was larger than or equal to that of the infarct on the admission perfusion CT, but smaller than or equal to that of the ischemic lesion on the admission perfusion CT; and the observed improvement in the NIHSS correlated with the PRR (correlation coefficient = 0.833). In the 14 cases with persistent arterial occlusion, infarct size on the delayed DWI-MR correlated with ischemic lesion size on the admission perfusion CT (r = 0.958). In all 22 patients, the admission NIHSS correlated with the size of the ischemic area on the admission perfusion CT (r = 0.627). Based on these findings, we conclude that perfusion CT allows the accurate prediction of the final infarct size and the evaluation of clinical prognosis for acute stroke patients at the time of emergency evaluation. It may also provide

  3. The association between glucose levels and hospital outcomes in patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Ebtesam A.; Limsuwat, Chok; Nantsupawat, Teerapat; Berdine, Gilbert G.; Nugent, Kenneth M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Corticosteroids used for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations can cause hyperglycemia in hospitalized patients, and hyperglycemia may be associated with increased mortality, length of stay (LOS), and re-admissions in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We did three retrospective studies using charts from July 2008 through June 2009, January 2006 through December 2010, and October 2010 through March 2011. We collected demographic and clinical information, laboratory results, radiographic results, and information on LOS, mortality, and re-admission. RESULTS: Glucose levels did not predict outcomes in any of the studied cohorts, after adjustment for covariates in multivariable analysis. The first database included 30 patients admitted to non-intensive care unit (ICU) hospital beds. Six of 20 non-diabetic patients had peak glucoses above 200 mg/dl. Nine of the ten diabetic patients had peak glucoses above 200 mg/dl. The maximum daily corticosteroid dose had no apparent effect on the glucose levels. The second database included 217 patients admitted to ICUs. The initial blood glucose was higher in patients who died than those who survived using bivariate analysis (P = 0.015; odds ratio, OR, 1.01) but not in multivariable analysis. Multivariable logistic regression analysis also demonstrated that glucose levels did not affect LOS. The third database analyzing COPD re-admission rates included 81 patients; the peak glucose levels were not associated with re-admission. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that COPD patients treated with corticosteroids developed significant hyperglycemia, but the increase in blood glucose levels did not correlate with the maximum dose of corticosteroids. Blood glucose levels were not associated with mortality, LOS, or re-admission rates. PMID:25829959

  4. Understanding the connection between spiritual well-being and physical health: an examination of ambulatory blood pressure, inflammation, blood lipids and fasting glucose.

    PubMed

    Holt-Lunstad, Julianne; Steffen, Patrick R; Sandberg, Jonathan; Jensen, Bryan

    2011-12-01

    Growing research has demonstrated a link between spiritual well-being and better health; however, little is known about possible physiological mechanisms. In a sample of highly religious healthy male and female adults (n = 100) ages 19-59 (m = 28.28) we examined the influence of spiritual well-being, as measured by the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being (FACIT-Sp-Ex), on physiological risk factors for heart disease. Specifically we examined 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (BP), inflammation (hs-C-reactive protein), fasting glucose, and blood lipids. Regression analyses reveal that higher levels of spiritual-wellness (total FACIT-Sp-Ex score) was significantly related to lower systolic ambulatory BP (β = -.345; P < .001), diastolic ambulatory BP (β = -.24; P = .02), hs-C-reactive protein (β = -.23; P = .04), fasting glucose (β = -.28; P = .006), and marginally lower triglycerides (β = -.21; P = .09) and VLDL (β = -.21; P = .10) controlling for age, gender, and church attendance. Results remained generally consistent across the Meaning, Peace, Faith and Additional Spiritual Concerns subscales of the FACIT-Sp-Ex. Spiritual well-being may be cardio protective.

  5. [Effect of a dehydrated extract of nopal (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) on blood glucose].

    PubMed

    Frati-Munari, A C; de León, C; Ariza-Andraca, R; Bañales-Ham, M B; López-Ledesma, R; Lozoya, X

    1989-01-01

    To assess if a dehydrated extract of nopal stems retains the effect on glycemia of the entire nopal stems two experiments were performed. A. Six patients with type II diabetes mellitus in fasting condition received 30 capsules containing 10.1 +/- 0.3 g of the extract, and serum glucose levels were measured hourly from 0 to 180 minutes. B. Six healthy volunteers received 30 capsules with the extract followed by 74 g of dextrose orally. Serum glucose measurements were made in a similar fashion. In each experiment a control test with empty capsules was performed. Nopal extract did not reduce fasting glycemia in diabetic subjects. Nevertheless, the extract diminished the increase of serum glucose which followed a dextrose load. Peak serum glucose was 20.3 +/- 18.2 mg/dl (X +/- SD) lower in the test with nopal than in the control one (P less than 0.025). Dehydrated extract of nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill) did not show acute hypoglycemic effect, although could attenuate postprandial hyperglycemia. PMID:2561256

  6. EFFECTS OF ADMINISTRATION ROUTE, DIETARY CONDITION, AND BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL ON KINETICS AND UPTAKE OF 18F-FDG IN MICE

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Koon-Pong; Sha, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoli; Huang, Sung-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    The effects of dietary condition and blood glucose level on the kinetics and uptake of 18F-FDG in mice were systematically investigated using intraperitoneal and tail-vein injection. Methods Dynamic PET was performed for 60 min on 23 isoflurane-anesthetized male C57BL/6 mice after intravenous (n = 11) or intraperitoneal (n = 12) injection of 18F-FDG. Five and 6 mice in the intravenous and intraperitoneal groups, respectively, were kept fasting overnight (18 ± 2 h), and the others were fed ad libitum. Serial blood samples were collected from the femoral artery to measure 18F-FDG and glucose concentrations. Image data were reconstructed using filtered backprojection with CT-based attenuation correction. The standardized uptake value (SUV) was estimated from the 45- to 60-min image. The metabolic rate of glucose (MRGlu) and 18F-FDG uptake constant (Ki) were derived by Patlak graphical analysis. Results In the brain, SUV and Ki were significantly higher in fasting mice with intraperitoneal injection, but MRGlu did not differ significantly under different dietary states and administration routes. Cerebral Ki was inversely related to elevated blood glucose levels, irrespective of administration route or dietary state. In myocardium, SUV, Ki, and MRGlu were significantly lower in fasting than in nonfasting mice for both routes of injection. Myocardial SUV and Ki were strongly dependent on the dietary state, and Ki did not correlate with the blood glucose level. Similar results were obtained for skeletal muscle, although the differences were not as pronounced. Conclusions Intraperitoneal injection is a valid alternative route, providing pharmacokinetic data equivalent to data from tail-vein injection for small-animal 18F-FDG PET. Cerebral Ki varies inversely with blood glucose level, but the measured cerebral MRGlu does not correlate with blood glucose level or dietary condition. Conversely, the Ki values of the myocardium and skeletal muscle are strongly dependent on

  7. Blood glucose measurement in vivo using hollow-fiber based, mid-infrared ATR probe with multi-reflection prism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kino, Saiko; Omori, Suguru; Matsuura, Yuji

    2016-03-01

    An attenuated-total-reflection (ATR), mid-infrared spectroscopy system that consists of hollow optical fibers, a trapezoidal multi-reflection ATR prism, and a conventional FT-IR spectrometer has been developed to measure blood glucose levels. Owing to the low transmission loss and high flexibility of the hollow-optical fiber, the system can measure any sites of the human body where blood capillaries are close to the surface of mucosa, such as inner lips. Using a multi-reflection prism brought about higher sensitivity, and the flat and wide contact surface of the prism resulted in higher measurement reproducibility. The results of in-vivo measurement of human inner lips showed the feasibility of the proposed system, and the measurement errors were within 20%.

  8. Beneficial effect of chromium-rich yeast on glucose tolerance and blood lipids in elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Offenbacher, E G; Pi-Sunyer, F X

    1980-11-01

    Twenty-four volunteers, mean age 78, including eight mildly non-insulin-dependent diabetics, were randomly allocated to one of two groups and were fed (daily for 8 wk) 9 g of either chromium-rich brewers' yeast (experimental) or chromium-poor torula yeast (control). Before and after yeast supplementation, the serum glucose and insulin response to 100 g oral glucose was measured at 30 min intervals for 2 h. Fasting serum cholesterol, total lipids, and triglycerides were also determined. In the total experimental group (normals + diabetics) and in both the diabetic and nondiabetic experimental subgroups, glucose tolerance improved significantly and insulin output decreased after supplementation. Cholesterol and total lipids fell significantly after supplementation in the total experimental group. The cholesterol decrease was particularly marked in hypercholesterolemic subjects (cholesterol > 300 mg/dl). In the control group, no significant change in glucose tolerance, insulin, triglycerides, or total lipids was found. Cholesterol was significantly lowered in the nondiabetic but not in the diabetic group. Thus, chromium-rich brewers' yeast improved glucose tolerance and total lipids in elderly subjects, while chromium-poor torula yeast did not. An improvement in insulin sensitivity also occurred with brewers' yeast supplementation. This supports the thesis that elderly people may have a low level of chromium and that an effective source for chromium repletion, such as brewers' yeast, may improve their carbohydrate tolerance and total lipids. The improvement in serum cholesterol in some control subjects, as well as in the total experimental group, also suggests the presence of a hypocholesterolemic factor other than chromium in both brewers' and torula yeast.

  9. Daily Fasting Blood Glucose Rhythm in Male Mice: A Role of the Circadian Clock in the Liver.

    PubMed

    Ando, Hitoshi; Ushijima, Kentaro; Shimba, Shigeki; Fujimura, Akio

    2016-02-01

    Fasting blood glucose (FBG) and hepatic glucose production are regulated according to a circadian rhythm. An early morning increase in FBG levels, which is pronounced among diabetic patients, is known as the dawn phenomenon. Although the intracellular circadian clock generates various molecular rhythms, whether the hepatic clock is involved in FBG rhythm remains unclear. To address this issue, we investigated the effects of phase shift and disruption of the hepatic clock on the FBG rhythm. In both C57BL/6J and diabetic ob/ob mice, FBG exhibited significant daily rhythms with a peak at the beginning of the dark phase. Light-phase restricted feeding altered the phase of FBG rhythm mildly in C57BL/6J mice and greatly in ob/ob mice, in concert with the phase shifts of mRNA expression rhythms of the clock and glucose production-related genes in the liver. Moreover, the rhythmicity of FBG and Glut2 expression was not detected in liver-specific Bmal1-deficient mice. Furthermore, treatment with octreotide suppressed the plasma growth hormone concentration but did not affect the hepatic mRNA expression of the clock genes or the rise in FBG during the latter half of the resting phase in C57BL/6J mice. These results suggest that the hepatic circadian clock plays a critical role in regulating the daily FBG rhythm, including the dawn phenomenon. PMID:26653333

  10. Daily Fasting Blood Glucose Rhythm in Male Mice: A Role of the Circadian Clock in the Liver.

    PubMed

    Ando, Hitoshi; Ushijima, Kentaro; Shimba, Shigeki; Fujimura, Akio

    2016-02-01

    Fasting blood glucose (FBG) and hepatic glucose production are regulated according to a circadian rhythm. An early morning increase in FBG levels, which is pronounced among diabetic patients, is known as the dawn phenomenon. Although the intracellular circadian clock generates various molecular rhythms, whether the hepatic clock is involved in FBG rhythm remains unclear. To address this issue, we investigated the effects of phase shift and disruption of the hepatic clock on the FBG rhythm. In both C57BL/6J and diabetic ob/ob mice, FBG exhibited significant daily rhythms with a peak at the beginning of the dark phase. Light-phase restricted feeding altered the phase of FBG rhythm mildly in C57BL/6J mice and greatly in ob/ob mice, in concert with the phase shifts of mRNA expression rhythms of the clock and glucose production-related genes in the liver. Moreover, the rhythmicity of FBG and Glut2 expression was not detected in liver-specific Bmal1-deficient mice. Furthermore, treatment with octreotide suppressed the plasma growth hormone concentration but did not affect the hepatic mRNA expression of the clock genes or the rise in FBG during the latter half of the resting phase in C57BL/6J mice. These results suggest that the hepatic circadian clock plays a critical role in regulating the daily FBG rhythm, including the dawn phenomenon.

  11. Enzymatic etching of gold nanorods by horseradish peroxidase and application to blood glucose detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saa, Laura; Coronado-Puchau, Marc; Pavlov, Valeri; Liz-Marzán, Luis M.

    2014-06-01

    Gold nanorods (AuNRs) have become some of the most used nanostructures for biosensing and imaging applications due to their plasmon-related optical response, which is highly sensitive toward minute changes in the AuNR aspect ratio. In this context, H2O2 has been used to trigger the chemical etching of AuNRs, thereby inducing a decrease of their aspect ratio. However, special conditions and relatively high concentrations of H2O2 are usually required, preventing the applicability of the system for biodetection purposes. To overcome this limitation we have introduced a biocatalytic species, the enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP) that is able to induce a gradual oxidation of AuNRs in the presence of trace concentrations of H2O2. Interestingly, the presence of halide ions has also been found to be essential for this process. As a consequence, other enzymatic reactions, such as those catalyzed by glucose oxidase, can be easily coupled to HRP activity, allowing the detection of different amounts of glucose. On the basis of these findings, we developed a highly sensitive and simple colorimetric assay that can be read out by the naked eye and allows the detection of physiological glucose concentrations in human serum.Gold nanorods (AuNRs) have become some of the most used nanostructures for biosensing and imaging applications due to their plasmon-related optical response, which is highly sensitive toward minute changes in the AuNR aspect ratio. In this context, H2O2 has been used to trigger the chemical etching of AuNRs, thereby inducing a decrease of their aspect ratio. However, special conditions and relatively high concentrations of H2O2 are usually required, preventing the applicability of the system for biodetection purposes. To overcome this limitation we have introduced a biocatalytic species, the enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP) that is able to induce a gradual oxidation of AuNRs in the presence of trace concentrations of H2O2. Interestingly, the presence of

  12. Time-series analysis of continuously monitored blood glucose: the impacts of geographic and daily lifestyle factors.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Sean T; Greaves, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is known to be associated with environmental, behavioral, and lifestyle factors. However, the actual impacts of these factors on blood glucose (BG) variation throughout the day have remained relatively unexplored. Continuous blood glucose monitors combined with human activity tracking technologies afford new opportunities for exploration in a naturalistic setting. Data from a study of 40 patients with diabetes is utilized in this paper, including continuously monitored BG, food/medicine intake, and patient activity/location tracked using global positioning systems over a 4-day period. Standard linear regression and more disaggregated time-series analysis using autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) are used to explore patient BG variation throughout the day and over space. The ARIMA models revealed a wide variety of BG correlating factors related to specific activity types, locations (especially those far from home), and travel modes, although the impacts were highly personal. Traditional variables related to food intake and medications were less often significant. Overall, the time-series analysis revealed considerable patient-by-patient variation in the effects of geographic and daily lifestyle factors. We would suggest that maps of BG spatial variation or an interactive messaging system could provide new tools to engage patients and highlight potential risk factors.

  13. The protective activity of Urtica dioica leaves on blood glucose concentration and beta-cells in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Golalipour, Mohammad Jafar; Khori, Vahid

    2007-04-15

    This study was done to determine the protective activity of the hydroalcholic extract of Urtica dioica leaves on Hyperglycemia and beta-cells in hyperglycemic rats. Thirty Wistar rats were allocated in groups of normal, Diabetic and treatment. Hyperglycemia in Rats induced by 80 mg kg(-1) streptozotocin. In treatment group, animals received hydroalcholic extract of Urtica dioica 100 mg kg(-1) day(-1) for five days, intraperitoneally and then hyperglycemia induced by streptozotocin. The blood glucose concentration was measured by using a Glucometer in 1st, 3rd and 5th weeks. In the end of 5th weeks the animals in each group were sacrificed by anesthesia and whole pancreas in three groups extracted and fixed in bouin's fluid and stained by chromealum hematoxiline-phloxine and beta cells were counted in three groups by Olympus microscope. Mean +/- SE of blood glucose concentrations in the end of fifth weeks were 99.4 +/-5.0, 454.7 +/- 34.5 and 303.6 +/- 100.6 in control, diabetic and treatment groups, respectively (p < 0.05). The percentages of beta-cells in control, diabetic and treatment groups were 73.6, 1.9 and 22.9%, respectively. The percentage of beta-cells in treatment group comparing with diabetic group was significant (p < 0.05). This study showed that the protective administration of hydroalcholic extract of Urtica dioica has hypoglycemic effect and protective activity of beta-cells of langerhans in hyperglycemic rats. PMID:19069917

  14. Effect of Carthamus tinctorius (Safflower) on fasting blood glucose and insulin levels in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Qazi, Nasreen; Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Rizwani, Ghazala H; Feroz, Zeeshan

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major threat to present and future generations. The role of herbal medication has emerged as a safe alternative to currently available medication due to its decreased potential to produce side effects, hence effect of Carthamus tinctorius was observed on fasting blood glucose and insulin levels in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits. Thirty five healthy male rabbits were divided into 5 groups with 7 rabbits in each (Normal control, diabetic control, diabetic treated with glibenclamide, diabetic treated with Carthamus tinctorius extract at doses of 200 and 300mg/kg of body weight). Drug and extract were given orally for 30 days and the values for blood glucose levels were observed after 15(th) and 30(th) day of treatment by using standard reagent kits provided by Human Germany. While insulin levels were checked at the end of the study by using Architect i1000 by Abbott Diagnostics USA. Animals were also observed for any gross toxicity during the study. Results revealed that Carthamus tinctorius has significant hypoglycemic effect at 200mg/kg and 300mg/kg doses as compared to diabetic control group. Insulin levels were significantly increased in Glibenclamide treated as well as Carthamus tinctorius treated groups as compared to diabetic control.

  15. The effects of aqueous extract of alfalfa on blood glucose and lipids in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Amraie, Esmaiel; Farsani, Masome Khosravi; Sadeghi, Leila; Khan, Tayaba Naim; Adavi, Zohrab

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is a common metabolic disorder that is specified by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. The use of nonpharmacological treatments (herbal agents) is a new approach in the management of diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of alfalfa on blood glucose and serum lipids in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In this study, 32 female rats (210–250 g) were used which were divided randomly into 4 groups including intact control group, diabetic control group, and 2 diabetic groups which received 250 and 500 mg/kg doses of aqueous extract of alfalfa, respectively. In the diabetic groups, alloxan-monohydrate was injected peritoneally to create diabetic condition. The two last groups orally received aqueous extract of alfalfa for 21 days. At the end of experiment, sugar, cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density and low-density lipoprotein, and aspartate aminotransferase (ALT) and alanine aminotransferase (AST) levels were measured in the samples. Consumption of aqueous alfalfa extract significantly reduced glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in the diabetic rats but enhanced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. ALT and AST liver enzyme levels were also reduced in blood. Histological examination showed that the aqueous alfalfa extract caused reconstruction of damaged liver and enhanced Langerhans islets’ diameter in pancreas. Therefore, all signs of diabetes were improved by oral administration of alfalfa in defined dose. PMID:26525173

  16. Oligosaccharide and creatine supplementation on glucose and urea nitrogen in blood and serum creatine kinase in basketball athletes.

    PubMed

    Shi, Daling

    2005-01-01

    The effects of oligosaccharide and creatine (Cr) supplementation on glucose, lactic acid and urea nitrogen levels in blood and activity of serum creatine kinase (CK) were explored. Twenty CUBA male athletes were divided into 4 groups: group A (supplementation of Cr alone), group B (supplementation of oligosaccharide), group C (supplementation of oligosaccharide and Cr) and group D (placebo control group). By using orthogonal L4 table (2(3)), the experiment was performed. There were factors including oligosaccharide (carbohydrate, CHO), Cr and their correlation. Each factor had two levels: supplementation and no-supplementation. The results showed that the supplementation of CHO or Cr alone, combined supplementation of CHO and Cr could significantly reduce the glucose, urea nitrogen levels in blood and serum CK activity after competition in the athletes. Moreover, the effects of combined supplementation of CHO and Cr were more satisfactory. It was concluded that supplementation of CHO and Cr could promote the recovery of physical performance and athletic abilities after athletics in basketball athletes.

  17. Physical and mathematical aspects of blood-glucose- and insulin-level kinetics in patients with coronary heart disease and high risk of its development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisova, Tatyana P.; Malinova, Lidia I.; Malinov, Igor A.

    2001-05-01

    The intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed to estimate the kinetics of blood glucose and insulin levels. Glucose was injected in individual standardized dose (0.5 g. per 1 kg of body weight). Three groups of patients were checked up: 1) patients with coronary heart disease verified by cicatricial alterations in myocardium found by electrocardiographic and echocardiographic methods; 2) children of patients with transmural myocardial infarction practically healthy at the moment of study; 3) persons practically healthy at the moment of study without any indications on cardiovascular diseases and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus among all ancestors and relatives who frequently were long-livers. Last groups didn't differ by age and sex. Peripheral blood glucose level, immunoreactive and free insulin (tested by muscular tissue) were studied just before glucose injection (on an empty stomach) and 4 times after it. The received discrete data were approximated by high degree polynomials, the estimation of blood glucose and insulin time functions symmetric was performed. The deceleration of degradation of insulin circulating in peripheral blood and the time decrease of second phase of insulin secretion were analytically established. This fact proves the complicated mechanism of insulin alterations in atherosclerosis, consisting not only of insulin resistance of peripheral tissues but of decrease of plastic processes in insulin- generating cells.

  18. Optimizing Display, Analysis, Interpretation and Utility of Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG) Data for Management of Patients with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Rodbard, David

    2007-01-01

    Background Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) data have not been used to fullest advantage. Few physicians routinely download data from memory-equipped glucose meters and perform systematic analyses and interpretation of the data. There is need for improved methods for display and analysis of SMBG data, for a systematic approach for identification and prioritization of clinical problems revealed by SMBG, for characterization of blood glucose variability, and for clinical decision support. Methods We have developed a systematic approach to the analysis and interpretation of SMBG data to assist in the management of patients with diabetes. This approach utilizes the following criteria: 1) Overall quality of glycemic control; 2) Hypoglycemia (frequency, severity, timing); 3) Hyperglycemia; 4) Variability; 5) Pattern analysis; and 6) Adequacy of monitoring. The “Pattern analysis” includes assessment of: trends by date and by time of day; relationship of blood glucose to meals; post-prandial excursions; the effects of day of the week, and interactions between time of day and day of the week. Results The asymmetrical distribution of blood glucose values makes it difficult to interpret the mean and standard deviation. Use of the median (50th percentile) and Inter-Quartile Range (IQR) overcomes these difficulties: IQR is the difference between the 75th and 25th percentiles. SMBG data can be used to predict the A1c level and indices of the risks of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia. Conclusion Given reliable measures of glucose variability, one can apply a strategy to progressively reduce glucose variability and then increase the intensity of therapy so as to reduce median blood glucose and hence A1c, while minimizing the risk of hypoglycemia. PMID:19888382

  19. Uptake and metabolism of glucose, alanine and lactate by red blood cells of the American eel Anguilla rostrata

    PubMed

    Soengas; Moon

    1995-01-01

    The uptake and metabolism of glucose, alanine and lactate were assessed in red blood cells (RBCs) of the American eel Anguilla rostrata. l-Lactate was metabolized at the highest rates as assessed by O2 consumption and CO2 production, followed by glucose and alanine (rates were approximately half of those observed for lactate). A saturable (Km 10.36±0.60 mmol l-1, Jmax 27.42±2.16 µmol 3-OMG l-1 cell water min-1), sodium-independent but cytochalasin-B-sensitive carrier for d-glucose was observed, which was stereospecific and inhibited by other hexoses. These characteristics are in agreement with those reported for the GLUT-1 glucose carrier of human and Japanese eel erythrocytes. These cells also contained a saturable carrier for l-lactate in the concentration range 0­10 mmol l-1 (Km 6.74±0.36 mmol l-1, Jmax 2.29±0.09 mmol lactate l-1 cell water min-1) whereas, at higher concentrations (10­40 mmol l-1), transport occurred by simple diffusion. The carrier was stereospecific, sodium-independent, fully inhibited by alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate, DIDS and pyruvate, but less sensitive to SITS, IBCLA and pCMBS. We suggest that this carrier is similar to the H+/monocarboxylate carrier found in mammalian RBCs. Despite the fact that l-alanine transport did not saturate, transport was stereospecific because it was inhibited by d-alanine. These experiments do not, therefore, exclude the existence of an alanine carrier in the eel RBC. The rates of substrate uptake exceeded the ability of the RBC to metabolize the substrate (using 1 mmol l-1 extracellular concentration), with uptake rate/metabolic rate ratios being 2 for alanine, 5 for glucose and 151 for lactate. These experiments indicate that uptake does not limit the ability of the American eel RBC to utilize glucose, alanine or lactate, but that the mechanism(s) of substrate uptake is species-specific.

  20. Determination of hemoglobin A1c and fasting blood glucose reference intervals in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    McTighe, Margaret S; Hansen, Barbara C; Ely, John J; Lee, D Rick

    2011-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), reaching epidemic proportions in humans, has emerged as a disease in aging captive populations of adult chimpanzees; however, little information is available regarding T2DM in chimpanzees. Our goals were to: (1) distinguish between normal, healthy chimpanzees and those with early (prediabetes) or advanced diabetes; (2) establish and compare the fasting (16 h) blood glucose reference range for chimpanzees at our facility with published reference ranges; and (3) establish hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) reference intervals for healthy, nondiabetic chimpanzees and define threshold values for prediabetes and diabetes. If reliable, our reference ranges for FBG and HbA1c could become clinical tools for screening animals at risk and for monitoring therapeutic progress. The overall incidence of T2DM in our colony of 260 chimpanzees is 0.8% but is increased to 3.7% in animals older than 30 y (geriatric). For our defined reference intervals, chimpanzees with FBG or HbA1c levels up to the 85th percentile (glucose, less than or equal to 105 mg/dL; HbA1c, less than or equal to 5.0%) were considered healthy; those whose values lay between the 86th and 95th percentiles (glucose, 106 to 119 mg/dL; HbA1c, 5.1% to 5.2%) were possibly prediabetic, and animals whose values exceeded the 95th percentile (glucose, greater than or equal to 120 mg/dL; HbA1c, greater than 5.3%) were identified as potentially having diabetes. We found that our FBG range was comparable to other published results, with a positive correlation between HbA1c and glucose. Furthermore, the negligible HbA1c response to acute stress or recent food consumption suggests that HbA1c is highly useful for evaluating glycemic control during treatment of diabetic chimpanzees and is more informative concerning overall glucose control than are FBG levels alone. PMID:21439208

  1. Determination of Hemoglobin A1c and Fasting Blood Glucose Reference Intervals in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    McTighe, Margaret S; Hansen, Barbara C; Ely, John J; Lee, D Rick

    2011-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), reaching epidemic proportions in humans, has emerged as a disease in aging captive populations of adult chimpanzees; however, little information is available regarding T2DM in chimpanzees. Our goals were to: (1) distinguish between normal, healthy chimpanzees and those with early (prediabetes) or advanced diabetes; (2) establish and compare the fasting (16 h) blood glucose reference range for chimpanzees at our facility with published reference ranges; and (3) establish hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) reference intervals for healthy, nondiabetic chimpanzees and define threshold values for prediabetes and diabetes. If reliable, our reference ranges for FBG and HbA1c could become clinical tools for screening animals at risk and for monitoring therapeutic progress. The overall incidence of T2DM in our colony of 260 chimpanzees is 0.8% but is increased to 3.7% in animals older than 30 y (geriatric). For our defined reference intervals, chimpanzees with FBG or HbA1c levels up to the 85th percentile (glucose, less than or equal to 105 mg/dL; HbA1c, less than or equal to 5.0%) were considered healthy; those whose values lay between the 86th and 95th percentiles (glucose, 106 to 119 mg/dL; HbA1c, 5.1% to 5.2%) were possibly prediabetic, and animals whose values exceeded the 95th percentile (glucose, greater than or equal to 120 mg/dL; HbA1c, greater than 5.3%) were identified as potentially having diabetes. We found that our FBG range was comparable to other published results, with a positive correlation between HbA1c and glucose. Furthermore, the negligible HbA1c response to acute stress or recent food consumption suggests that HbA1c is highly useful for evaluating glycemic control during treatment of diabetic chimpanzees and is more informative concerning overall glucose control than are FBG levels alone. PMID:21439208

  2. Effects of agave nectar versus sucrose on weight gain, adiposity, blood glucose, insulin, and lipid responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Hooshmand, Shirin; Holloway, Brittany; Nemoseck, Tricia; Cole, Sarah; Petrisko, Yumi; Hong, Mee Young; Kern, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Agave nectar is a fructose-rich liquid sweetener derived from a plant, and is often promoted as a low glycemic alternative to refined sugar. However, little scientific research has been conducted in animals or humans to determine its metabolic and/or health effects. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of agave nectar versus sucrose on weight gain, adiposity, fasting plasma blood glucose, insulin, and lipid levels. Eighteen (n=18) male ICR mice (33.8±1.6 g) were divided into two groups (n=6 for agave nectar and n=12 for sucrose) and provided free access to one of two diets of equal energy densities differing only in a portion of the carbohydrate provided. Diets contained 20% carbohydrate (by weight of total diet) from either raw agave nectar or sucrose. Epididymal fat pads were excised, and blood was collected after 34 days. Weight gain (4.3±2.2 vs. 8.4±3.4 g), fat pad weights (0.95±0.54 vs. 1.75±0.66 g), plasma glucose (77.8±12.2 vs. 111.0±27.9 mg/dL), and insulin (0.61±0.29 vs. 1.46±0.81 ng/mL) were significantly lower (P≤.05) for agave nectar-fed mice compared to sucrose-fed mice respectively. No statistically significant differences in total cholesterol or triglycerides were detected. These results suggest that in comparison to sucrose, agave nectar may have a positive influence on weight gain and glucose control. However, more research with a larger sample of animals and/or with human subjects is warranted. PMID:25011004

  3. Effects of agave nectar versus sucrose on weight gain, adiposity, blood glucose, insulin, and lipid responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Hooshmand, Shirin; Holloway, Brittany; Nemoseck, Tricia; Cole, Sarah; Petrisko, Yumi; Hong, Mee Young; Kern, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Agave nectar is a fructose-rich liquid sweetener derived from a plant, and is often promoted as a low glycemic alternative to refined sugar. However, little scientific research has been conducted in animals or humans to determine its metabolic and/or health effects. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of agave nectar versus sucrose on weight gain, adiposity, fasting plasma blood glucose, insulin, and lipid levels. Eighteen (n=18) male ICR mice (33.8±1.6 g) were divided into two groups (n=6 for agave nectar and n=12 for sucrose) and provided free access to one of two diets of equal energy densities differing only in a portion of the carbohydrate provided. Diets contained 20% carbohydrate (by weight of total diet) from either raw agave nectar or sucrose. Epididymal fat pads were excised, and blood was collected after 34 days. Weight gain (4.3±2.2 vs. 8.4±3.4 g), fat pad weights (0.95±0.54 vs. 1.75±0.66 g), plasma glucose (77.8±12.2 vs. 111.0±27.9 mg/dL), and insulin (0.61±0.29 vs. 1.46±0.81 ng/mL) were significantly lower (P≤.05) for agave nectar-fed mice compared to sucrose-fed mice respectively. No statistically significant differences in total cholesterol or triglycerides were detected. These results suggest that in comparison to sucrose, agave nectar may have a positive influence on weight gain and glucose control. However, more research with a larger sample of animals and/or with human subjects is warranted.

  4. Higher Accuracy of Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose in Insulin-Treated Patients in Germany: Clinical and Economical Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Schnell, Oliver; Erbach, Michael; Wintergerst, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Background: Accuracy standards of blood glucose (BG) meters are currently under review. Revised standards are expected to tighten accuracy requirements. Regarding clinical and financial impact of BG meter accuracy, very little data are available. The aim of this study was to analyze potential cost savings related to higher accuracy of glucose meters in Germany. Methods: As a model for calculation, a reduction of meter error from 20% to 5% was applied. The health economic analysis was based on four main pillars: (1) number of insulin-treated patients; (2) costs for glucose monitoring in Germany; (3) data of a modeling analysis on the impact on hypoglycemic episodes, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and, subsequently, myocardial infarctions; and (4) costs of diabetes-related complications in Germany. A reduction of meter error from 20% to 5% was identified to be associated with a 10% reduction in severe hypoglycemic episodes and a 0.39% reduction in HbA1c, which translates into a 0.5% reduction of myocardial infarctions. Results: According to the health economic analysis, the reduction in severe hypoglycemic episodes and myocardial infarctions led to cost savings of €24.14 per patient per year. Considering 390,000 type 1 diabetes patients or 2.3 million insulin-treated patients in Germany, these savings could be equal to a reduction in health care expenditures of more than €9.4 million and €55.5 million, respectively. Conclusions: Potential cost savings and clinical effects due to higher accuracy of BG meters should provide an impetus to implementation of tighter accuracy standards and development of glucose meters that provide highest possible accuracy. PMID:23911172

  5. Does Ramadan fasting alter body weight and blood lipids and fasting blood glucose in a healthy population? A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kul, Seval; Savaş, Esen; Öztürk, Zeynel Abidin; Karadağ, Gülendam

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis of self-controlled cohort studies comparing body weights, blood levels of lipids and fasting blood glucose levels before and after Ramadan taking into account gender differences. Several databases were searched up to June 2012 for studies showing an effect of Ramadan fasting in healthy subjects, yielding 30 articles. The primary finding of this meta-analysis was that after Ramadan fasting, low-density lipoprotein (SMD = -1.67, 95 % CI = -2.48 to -0.86) and fasting blood glucose levels (SMD = -1.10, 95 % CI = -1.62 to -0.58) were decreased in both sex groups and also in the entire group compared to levels prior to Ramadan. In addition, in the female subgroup, body weight (SMD = -0.04, 95 % CI = -0.20, 0.12), total cholesterol (SMD = 0.05, 95 % CI = -0.51 to 0.60), and triglyceride levels (SMD = 0.03, 95 % CI = -0.31, 0.36) remained unchanged, while HDL levels (SMD = 0.86, 95 % CI = 0.11 to 1.61, p = 0.03) were increased. In males, Ramadan fasting resulted in weight loss (SMD = -0.24, 95 % CI = -0.36, -0.12, p = 0.001). Also, a substantial reduction in total cholesterol (SMD = -0.44, 95 % CI = -0.77 to -0.11) and LDL levels (SMD = -2.22, 95 % CI = -3.47 to -0.96) and a small decrease in triglyceride levels (SMD = -0.35, 95 % CI = -0.67 to -0.02) were observed in males. In conclusion, by looking at this data, it is evident that Ramadan fasting can effectively change body weight and some biochemical parameters in healthy subjects especially in males compared to pre-Ramadan period.

  6. Regulation of Blood Glucose Concentration in Type 1 Diabetics Using Single Order Sliding Mode Control Combined with Fuzzy On-line Tunable Gain, a Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    Dinani, Soudabeh Taghian; Zekri, Maryam; Kamali, Marzieh

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is considered as a global affecting disease with an increasing contribution to both mortality rate and cost damage in the society. Therefore, tight control of blood glucose levels has gained significant attention over the decades. This paper proposes a method for blood glucose level regulation in type 1 diabetics. The control strategy is based on combining the fuzzy logic theory and single order sliding mode control (SOSMC) to improve the properties of sliding mode control method and to alleviate its drawbacks. The aim of the proposed controller that is called SOSMC combined with fuzzy on-line tunable gain is to tune the gain of the controller adaptively. This merit causes a less amount of control effort, which is the rate of insulin delivered to the patient body. As a result, this method can decline the risk of hypoglycemia, a lethal phenomenon in regulating blood glucose level in diabetics caused by a low blood glucose level. Moreover, it attenuates the chattering observed in SOSMC significantly. It is worth noting that in this approach, a mathematical model called minimal model is applied instead of the intravenously infused insulin-blood glucose dynamics. The simulation results demonstrate a good performance of the proposed controller in meal disturbance rejection and robustness against parameter changes. In addition, this method is compared to fuzzy high-order sliding mode control (FHOSMC) and the superiority of the new method compared to FHOSMC is shown in the results.

  7. Regulation of Blood Glucose Concentration in Type 1 Diabetics Using Single Order Sliding Mode Control Combined with Fuzzy On-line Tunable Gain, a Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Dinani, Soudabeh Taghian; Zekri, Maryam; Kamali, Marzieh

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is considered as a global affecting disease with an increasing contribution to both mortality rate and cost damage in the society. Therefore, tight control of blood glucose levels has gained significant attention over the decades. This paper proposes a method for blood glucose level regulation in type 1 diabetics. The control strategy is based on combining the fuzzy logic theory and single order sliding mode control (SOSMC) to improve the properties of sliding mode control method and to alleviate its drawbacks. The aim of the proposed controller that is called SOSMC combined with fuzzy on-line tunable gain is to tune the gain of the controller adaptively. This merit causes a less amount of control effort, which is the rate of insulin delivered to the patient body. As a result, this method can decline the risk of hypoglycemia, a lethal phenomenon in regulating blood glucose level in diabetics caused by a low blood glucose level. Moreover, it attenuates the chattering observed in SOSMC significantly. It is worth noting that in this approach, a mathematical model called minimal model is applied instead of the intravenously infused insulin–blood glucose dynamics. The simulation results demonstrate a good performance of the proposed controller in meal disturbance rejection and robustness against parameter changes. In addition, this method is compared to fuzzy high-order sliding mode control (FHOSMC) and the superiority of the new method compared to FHOSMC is shown in the results. PMID:26284169

  8. Self-Blood Glucose Monitoring in Diabetes Mellitus (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... that allow you to download data to a computer. This is most helpful for people who test ... sugar results from the continuous monitor to your computer, allowing you to see blood sugar trends over ...

  9. Can the Accuracy of Home Blood Glucose Monitors be affected by the Received Signal Strength of 900 MHz GSM Mobile Phones?

    PubMed Central

    Eslami, J.; Ghafaripour, F.; Mortazavi, S.A.R.; Mortazavi, S.M.J.; Shojaei-fard, M.B.

    2015-01-01

    Background People who use home blood glucose monitors may use their mobile phones in the close vicinity of medical devices. This study is aimed at investigating the effect of the signal strength of 900 MHz GSM mobile phones on the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. Methods Sixty non-diabetic volunteer individuals aged 21 - 28 years participated in this study. Blood samples were analyzed for glucose level by using a common blood glucose monitoring system. Each blood sample was analyzed twice, within ten minutes in presence and absence of electromagnetic fields generated by a common GSM mobile phone during ringing. Blood samples were divided into 3 groups of 20 samples each. Group 1: exposure to mobile phone radiation with weak signal strength. Group2: exposure to mobile phone radiation with strong signal strength. Group3: exposure to a switched–on mobile phone with no signal strength. Results The magnitude of the changes in the first, second and third group between glucose levels of two measurements (׀ΔC׀) were 7.4±3.9 mg/dl, 10.2±4.5 mg/dl, 8.7±8.4 mg/dl respectively. The difference in the magnitude of the changes between the 1st and the 3rd groups was not statistically significant. Furthermore, the difference in the magnitude of the changes between the 2nd and the 3rd groups was not statistically significant. Conclusion Findings of this study showed that the signal strength of 900 MHz GSM mobile phones cannot play a significant role in changing the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. PMID:26688798

  10. Changes in Serum Lipids and Blood Glucose in Non Diabetic Patients with Metabolic Syndrome after Mixed Meals of Different Composition

    PubMed Central

    Branchi, Adriana; Torri, Adriana; Berra, Cristina; Colombo, Emanuela; Sommariva, Domenico

    2012-01-01

    Aims. To investigate the postprandial changes in serum lipoproteins and blood glucose and to verify whether different nutrient composition of the meal elicits different response in patients with (MetS+) and without (MetS−) metabolic syndrome. Research Design and Methods. 50 MetS+ patients and 50 age- and sex-matched MetS− consumed a regular lunch chosen among those more similar to their usual diet. Blood was drawn in the morning after 12-hour fasting and 2 and 4:30 hours after the meal. Results. Serum triglycerides increased more in MetS+ (35%, 4:30 hours after the meal) than in MetS− (29%), HDL-cholesterol decreased 2 hours after the meal in both groups (−4% and −5%, resp.). Blood sugar similarly increased in both groups (19%, 2 hours after the meal in MetS+ and 17% in MetS−) and plasma insulin increased more and remained high longer in MetS+ (73.5 and 52.3 μU/mL, 2 and 4:30 hours after the meal) than in MetS− (46.7 and 21.6 μU/mL). Difference in nutrient composition of the meal (carbohydrate 57%, fat 28% versus carbohydrate 45%, fat 35%) was not associated with differences in postprandial levels of triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, glucose, and insulin within each group. Conclusions. As compared with MetS−, MetS+ patients show a greater hypertriglyceridemic and hyperinsulinemic response to a regular lunch whatever the carbohydrate or fat content of the meal. PMID:22474578

  11. Cryopreservation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity inside red blood cells: developing a specimen repository in support of development and evaluation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency tests

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a common human enzyme deficiency. It is characterized by abnormally low levels of G6PD activity. Individuals with G6PD deficiency are at risk of undergoing acute haemolysis when exposed to 8‒aminoquinoline-based drugs, such as primaquine. For this reason it is imperative to identify individuals with G6PD deficiency prior to administering these anti-malarial drugs. There is a need for the development and evaluation of point-of-care G6PD deficiency screening tests suitable for areas of the developing world where malarial treatments are frequently administered. The development and evaluation of new G6PD tests will be greatly assisted with the availability of specimen repositories. Methods Cryopreservation of erythrocytes was evaluated as a means to preserve G6PD activity. Blood specimens from 31 patients including ten specimens with normal G6PD activity, three with intermediate activity, and 18 with deficient activity were cryopreserved for up to six months. Results Good correlation in G6PD activity between fresh and cryopreserved specimens (R2 = 0.95). The cryopreserved specimens show an overall small drop in mean G6PD activity of 0.23 U/g Hb (P=0.23). Cytochemical staining showed that intracellular G6PD activity distribution within the red blood cell populations is preserved during cryopreservation. Furthermore, the mosaic composition of red blood cells in heterozygous women is also preserved for six months or more. The fluorescent spot and the BinaxNOW qualitative tests for G6PD deficiency also showed high concordance in G6PD status determination between cryopreserved specimens and fresh specimens. Conclusions A methodology for establishing a specimen panel for evaluation of G6PD tests is described. The approach is similar to that used in several malaria research facilities for the cryopreservation of parasites in clinical specimens and axenic cultures. Specimens stored in this manner will aid

  12. A high isoflavone diet decreases 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activation and does not correct selenium-induced elevations in fasting blood glucose in mice.

    PubMed

    Stallings, Michael T; Cardon, Brandon R; Hardman, Jeremy M; Bliss, Tyler A; Brunson, Scott E; Hart, Chris M; Swiss, Maria D; Hepworth, Squire D; Christensen, Merrill J; Hancock, Chad R

    2014-04-01

    Selenium (Se) has been implicated as a micronutrient that decreases adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and may increase diabetes risk by reducing insulin sensitivity. Soy isoflavones (IF) are estrogen-like compounds that have been shown to attenuate insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, adiposity, and increased AMPK activation. We hypothesized that a high IF (HIF) diet would prevent the poor metabolic profile associated with high Se intake. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in basal glucose metabolism and AMPK signaling in response to an HIF diet and/or supplemental Se in a mouse model. Male FVB mice were divided into groups receiving either a control diet with minimal IF (low IF) or an HIF diet. Each dietary group was further subdivided into groups receiving either water or Se at a dose of 3 mg Se/kg body weight daily, as Se-methylselenocysteine (SMSC). After 5 months, mice receiving SMSC had elevated fasting glucose (P < .05) and a tendency for glucose intolerance (P = .08). The increase in dietary IF did not result in improved fasting blood glucose. Interestingly, after 6 months, HIF-fed mice had decreased basal AMPK activation in liver and skeletal muscle tissue (P < .05). Basal glucose metabolism was changed by SMSC supplementation as evidenced by increased fasting blood glucose and glucose intolerance. High dietary IF levels did not protect against aberrant blood glucose. In FVB mice, decreased basal AMPK activation is not the mechanism through which Se exerts its effect. These results suggest that more research must be done to elucidate the role of Se and IF in glucose metabolism.

  13. Postprandial blood glucose response to grape seed extract in healthy participants: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Sapwarobol, Suwimol; Adisakwattana, Sirichai; Changpeng, Sawitree; Ratanawachirin, Wilwan; Tanruttanawong, Kanokporn; Boonyarit, Waridtha

    2012-01-01

    Background: The consumption of a high carbohydrate diet may be associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity. Previous studies in vitro have revealed that grape seed extract (GSE) inhibited the intestinal α-glucosidases and α-pancreatic amylase that may delay carbohydrate digestion and absorption, resulting in the suppression of postprandial glycemia. The objective of the study was to assess whether consumption of GSE together with high carbohydrate meal affects postprandial glycemia in healthy participants. Materials and Methods: The study used acute, randomized, controlled crossover design in which eight healthy subjects (four female and four male, mean aged 21.25 ± 3.69 years; body mass index =20.28 ± 1.40 kg/m2) received high carbohydrate (HC) meal (73.6 %) together with or without 100 and 300 mg GSE. Results: Results showed that postprandial plasma glucose concentrations at 15 min and 30 min after ingestion HC meal together with 100 mg GSE (5.33 ± 0.41 mmol/L and 5.62 ± 0.47 mmol/L, respectively) and 300 mg GSE (5.27 ± 0.29 mmol/L; 5.75 ± 0.44 mmol/L, respectively) were significantly lower than that of HC meal (P<0.05). There was statistically significant difference in the 2 h area under the glucose response curve between HC meal and HC meal plus GSE. Conclusions: GSE reduces postprandial plasma glucose in healthy participants. The delayed and attenuated hyperglycemia may have a useful strategy to prevent development of diabetes in the healthy population. PMID:23060692

  14. Synthesis and characterisation of glucose-functional glycopolymers and gold nanoparticles: study of their potential interactions with ovine red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Laura E; Phillips, Daniel J; Deller, Robert C; Davies, Gemma-Louise; Gibson, Matthew I

    2015-03-20

    Carbohydrate-protein interactions can assist with the targeting of polymer- and nano-delivery systems. However, some potential protein targets are not specific to a single cell type, resulting in reductions in their efficacy due to undesirable non-specific cellular interactions. The glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1) is expressed to different extents on most cells in the vasculature, including human red blood cells and on cancerous tissue. Glycosylated nanomaterials bearing glucose (or related) carbohydrates, therefore, could potentially undergo unwanted interactions with these transporters, which may compromise the nanomaterial function or lead to cell agglutination, for example. Here, RAFT polymerisation is employed to obtain well-defined glucose-functional glycopolymers as well as glycosylated gold nanoparticles. Agglutination and binding assays did not reveal any significant binding to ovine red blood cells, nor any haemolysis. These data suggest that gluco-functional nanomaterials are compatible with blood, and their lack of undesirable interactions highlights their potential for delivery and imaging applications.

  15. Effect of the magnetized water supplementation on blood glucose, lymphocyte DNA damage, antioxidant status, and lipid profiles in STZ-induced rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye-Jin

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of magnetized water supplementation on blood glucose, DNA damage, antioxidant status, and lipid profiles in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. There were three groups of 4-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats used in the study: control group (normal control group without diabetes); diabetes group (STZ-induced diabetes control); and magnetized water group (magnetized water supplemented after the induction of diabetes using STZ). Before initiating the study, diabetes was confirmed by measuring fasting blood glucose (FBS > 200 dl), and the magnetized water group received magnetized water for 8 weeks instead of general water. After 8 weeks, rats were sacrificed to measure the fasting blood glucose, insulin concentration, glycated hemoglobin level, degree of DNA damage, antioxidant status, and lipid profiles. From the fourth week of magnetized water supplementation, blood glucose was decreased in the magnetized water group compared to the diabetes group, and such effect continued to the 8th week. The glycated hemoglobin content in the blood was increased in the diabetes group compared to the control group, but decreased significantly in the magnetized water group. However, decreased plasma insulin level due to induced diabetes was not increased by magnetized water supplementation. Increased blood and liver DNA damages in diabetes rats did significantly decrease after the administration of magnetized water. In addition, antioxidant enzyme activities and plasma lipid profiles were not different among the three groups. In conclusion, the supplementation of magnetized water not only decreased the blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels but also reduced blood and liver DNA damages in STZ-induced diabetic rats. From the above results, it is suggested that the long-term intake of the magnetized water over 8 weeks may be beneficial in both prevention and treatment of complications in diabetic patients. PMID:23423956

  16. Effect of Cucurbita ficifolia and Probiotic Yogurt Consumption on Blood Glucose, Lipid Profile, and Inflammatory Marker in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bayat, Azade; Azizi-Soleiman, Fatemeh; Heidari-Beni, Motahar; Feizi, Awat; Iraj, Bijan; Ghiasvand, Reza; Askari, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Control of blood sugar, hypertension, and dyslipidemia are key factors in diabetes management. Cucurbita ficifolia (pumpkin) is a vegetable which has been used traditionally as a remedy for diabetes in Iran. In addition, consumption of probiotics may have beneficial effects on people with Type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was an investigation of the effects of C. ficifolia and probiotic yogurt consumption alone or at the same time on blood glucose and serum lipids in diabetic patients. Methods: Eighty eligible participants randomly were assigned to four groups: 1 - green C. ficifolia (100 g); 2 - probiotic yogurt (150 g); 3 - C. ficifolia plus probiotic yogurt (100 g C. ficifolia plus 150 g yogurt); and 4 -control (dietary advice) for 8 weeks. Blood pressure, glycemic response, lipid profile, and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured before and after the intervention. Results: Total cholesterol (TC) decreased significantly in yogurt and yogurt plus C. ficifolia groups (within groups P = 0.010, and P < 0.001, respectively). C. ficifolia plus yogurt consumption resulted in a decrease in triglyceride (TG) and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (within groups P < 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively). All interventions led to a significant decrease in blood sugar, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), hsCRP, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level within groups. Blood pressure decreased significantly in Cucurbita group and yogurt group (within groups P < 0.001, and P = 0.001 for systolic blood pressure [SBP] and P < 0.001, and P = 0.004 for diastolic blood pressure [DBP], respectively). All variables changed between groups significantly except LDL-C level. Conclusions: Variables including TG, HDL-C, TC, fasting blood sugar, HbA1c, SBP, DBP, and hsCRP changed beneficially between groups. It seems that consumption of C. ficifolia and probiotic yogurt may help treatment of diabetic patients. PMID:26955460

  17. The role of red blood cell S-nitrosation in nitrite bioactivation and its modulation by leucine and glucose

    PubMed Central

    Wajih, Nadeem; Liu, Xiaohua; Shetty, Pragna; Basu, Swati; Wu, Hanzhi; Hogg, Neil; Patel, Rakesh P.; Furdui, Cristina M.; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2016-01-01

    Previous work has shown that red blood cells (RBCs) reduce nitrite to NO under conditions of low oxygen. Strong support for the ability of red blood cells to promote nitrite bioactivation comes from using platelet activation as a NO-sensitive process. Whereas addition of nitrite to platelet rich plasma in the absence of RBCs has no effect on inhibition of platelet activation, when RBCs are present platelet activation is inhibited by an NO-dependent mechanism that is potentiated under hypoxia. In this paper, we demonstrate that nitrite bioactivation by RBCs is blunted by physiologically-relevant concentrations of nutrients including glucose and the important signaling amino acid leucine. Our mechanistic investigations demonstrate that RBC mediated nitrite bioactivation is largely dependent on nitrosation of RBC surface proteins. These data suggest a new expanded paradigm where RBC mediated nitrite bioactivation not only directs blood flow to areas of low oxygen but also to areas of low nutrients. Our findings could have profound implications for normal physiology as well as pathophysiology in a variety of diseases including diabetes, sickle cell disease, and arteriosclerosis. PMID:27156251

  18. Effect of vanadate administration on blood glucose and insulin levels as well as on the exocrine pancreatic function in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Bendayan, M; Gingras, D

    1989-08-01

    In the present study, streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with their corresponding controls, were treated orally with sodium metavanadate. A gradual increase of the vanadate concentration up to 0.8 mg/ml in the drinking water, lowered the blood glucose levels of the diabetic animals to normal values without changing the insulin levels. On the other hand, vanadate did not affect the blood glucose levels of the non-diabetic animals; it did however induce lower levels of circulating insulin in these animals. The lowering of the glycaemic values of the diabetic animals was closely related to the consumption of vanadate. When the treatment was ceased, the blood glucose levels rose rapidly. The diabetic animals responded to the vanadate treatment with two sensitivities; while the large majority of the diabetic animals displayed stable normoglycaemic values, others had fluctuating values. Amylase content in the exocrine pancreas of these two subgroups of animals was studied separately and compared to that from the non-treated control and diabetic animals. The presence of amylase in the pancreatic acinar cells was assessed by the protein A-gold immunocytochemical approach and biochemical determinations. Amylase was found to be very low in the non-treated diabetic animals. Lowering of the blood glucose levels induced by the vanadate treatment restored the amylase to levels similar to those of the controls. However, vanadate-treated diabetic animals with fluctuating levels of blood glucose, demonstrated only a partial recovery of amylase. Thus, vanadate treatment was found to have a normalizing effect on blood glucose levels in diabetic animals as well as restoring amylase content in the pancreas of diabetic animals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. A systematic approach for the accurate non-invasive estimation of blood glucose utilizing a novel light-tissue interaction adaptive modelling scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybynok, V. O.; Kyriacou, P. A.

    2007-10-01

    Diabetes is one of the biggest health challenges of the 21st century. The obesity epidemic, sedentary lifestyles and an ageing population mean prevalence of the condition is currently doubling every generation. Diabetes is associated with serious chronic ill health, disability and premature mortality. Long-term complications including heart disease, stroke, blindness, kidney disease and amputations, make the greatest contribution to the costs of diabetes care. Many of these long-term effects could be avoided with earlier, more effective monitoring and treatment. Currently, blood glucose can only be monitored through the use of invasive techniques. To date there is no widely accepted and readily available non-invasive monitoring technique to measure blood glucose despite the many attempts. This paper challenges one of the most difficult non-invasive monitoring techniques, that of blood glucose, and proposes a new novel approach that will enable the accurate, and calibration free estimation of glucose concentration in blood. This approach is based on spectroscopic techniques and a new adaptive modelling scheme. The theoretical implementation and the effectiveness of the adaptive modelling scheme for this application has been described and a detailed mathematical evaluation has been employed to prove that such a scheme has the capability of extracting accurately the concentration of glucose from a complex biological media.

  20. Suppressive effect of the hot-water extract of Ficus pseudopalma Blanco leaves on the postprandial increase in blood glucose level in mice.

    PubMed

    Salonga, Reginald B; Hisaka, Shinsuke; Mendoza, Jasmin S; Takaya, Yoshiaki; Niwa, Masatake; Binag, Christina A; Nose, Mitsuhiko

    2013-10-01

    The use of medicinal plants with anti-diabetic properties continues because of the high cost of diabetes mellitus treatment. In the Bicol region of the Philippines, one local source is the leaves of Ficus pseudopalma Blanco (Philippine fig), which is utilized as an ingredient of their cuisine, and the decoction of its leaves is believed to have a blood-glucose lowering effect. The aim of this study was to evaluate the blood-glucose lowering effect of F. pseudoplama using sugar/carbohydrate-loaded and normoglycemic mice. The results showed that the hot-water extract of the leaves significantly suppressed the increase of blood glucose levels after glucose, maltose and starch loading. On the other hand, the extract did not show any hypoglycemic activity in either fasted or non-fasted mice as compared to the positive control drugs. These results suggest that F. pseudopalma is potentially useful for the management of blood glucose levels in the postprandial condition, as believed in the Bicol region of the Philippines.

  1. Study on the postprandial blood glucose suppression effect of D-psicose in borderline diabetes and the safety of long-term ingestion by normal human subjects.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Noriko; Iida, Tetsuo; Yamada, Takako; Okuma, Kazuhiro; Takehara, Isao; Yamamoto, Takashi; Yamada, Koji; Tokuda, Masaaki

    2010-01-01

    This clinical study was conducted to investigate the safety and effect of D-psicose on postprandial blood glucose levels in adult men and women, including borderline diabetes patients. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover experiment of single ingestion was conducted on 26 subjects who consumed zero or 5 g of D-psicose in tea with a standard meal. The blood glucose levels at fasting and 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after the meal were compared. The blood glucose level was significantly lower 30 and 60 min after the meal with D-psicose (p<0.01, p<0.05), and a significant decrease was also shown in the area under the curve (p<0.01). The results suggest that D-psicose had an effect to suppress the postprandial blood glucose elevation mainly in borderline diabetes cases. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled parallel-group experiment of long-term ingestion was conducted on 17 normal subjects who took 5 g of D-psicose or D-glucose with meals three times a day for 12 continuous weeks. Neither any abnormal effects nor clinical problems caused by the continuous ingestion of D-psicose were found.

  2. Glucose intolerance in dairy goats with pregnancy toxemia: Lack of correlation between blood pH and beta hydroxybutyric acid values.

    PubMed

    Lima, Miguel S; Cota, João B; Vaz, Yolanda M; Ajuda, Inês G; Pascoal, Rita A; Carolino, Nuno; Hjerpe, Charles A

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed the response to a glucose tolerance test in dairy goats with pregnancy toxemia (PT), in healthy, pregnant, non-lactating dairy goats in the last month of gestation (HP), and in healthy, lactating, non-pregnant, dairy goats in mid-lactation (HL). A 500 mL volume of a 5% glucose solution was administered by the IV route. Blood glucose concentrations returned to pre-infusion levels by 90 min in all 8 HL goats, and by 180 min in all 8 HP goats. In contrast, concentrations of blood glucose were still significantly above pre-infusion levels at 180 min post-infusion in all 8 PT goats. Thus, marked glucose intolerance was demonstrated in the PT goats, and mild intolerance was noted in the HP goats. In 25 goats diagnosed with PT and having blood beta hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) values ≥ 2.9 mmol/L, the correlation coefficient for BHBA with blood pH was non-significant. PMID:27247464

  3. Clinical trial of Cecropia obtusifolia and Marrubium vulgare leaf extracts on blood glucose and serum lipids in type 2 diabetics.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Arellano, A; Aguilar-Santamaría, L; García-Hernández, B; Nicasio-Torres, P; Tortoriello, J

    2004-11-01

    Cecropia obtusifolia and Marrubium vulgare have been widely used in Mexican traditional medicine for the control of type 2 diabetes. In order to evaluate the clinical effect produced by the aqueous extract from these species on type 2 non-controlled diabetes mellitus, a total of 43 outpatients were included. Based on the European NIDDM (policy group) criteria, only patients with poor response to the conventional treatment were selected. All patients maintained their medical treatment and also received a prepared infusion of the dry leaves of the plant treatment for 21 days. In a double-blind manner, the patients were randomly grouped as follows: 22 patients were treated with C. obtusifolia and 21 with M. vulgare. The fasting blood glucose values were reduced by 15.25% on patients treated with C. obtusifolia, while cholesterol and triglycerides were decreased by 14.62% and 42.0%, respectively (ANOVA p< 0.02). In the case of patients treated with M. vulgare, the plasma glucose level was reduced by 0.64% and cholesterol and triglycerides by 4.16% and 5.78%, respectively. When the results were compared between groups, significant differences in glucose and cholesterol diminution were found. The obtained results showed that the infusion prepared with the leaves of C. obtusifolia (containing 2.99+/-0.14mg of chlorogenic acid/g of dried plant) produced beneficial effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms when it was administered as an adjunct on patients with type 2 diabetes with poor response to conventional medical treatment.

  4. Oxidant injury of caucasian glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase—deficient red