Science.gov

Sample records for admission control policies

  1. Controlling the Front Gates: Effective Admissions Policies and Practices. Pathways to Juvenile Detention Reform 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlando, Frank

    This report identifies policies and practices essential to overcoming problems with admissions to juvenile detention facilities, using information from the Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative (JDAI). Chapter 1, "Why Objective Admissions Policies and Practices Are Critical to Detention Reform," describes factors contributing to…

  2. Decentralized control of Markovian decision processes: Existence Sigma-admissable policies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenland, A.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of formulating and analyzing Markov decision models having decentralized information and decision patterns is examined. Included are basic examples as well as the mathematical preliminaries needed to understand Markov decision models and, further, to superimpose decentralized decision structures on them. The notion of a variance admissible policy for the model is introduced and it is proved that there exist (possibly nondeterministic) optional policies from the class of variance admissible policies. Directions for further research are explored.

  3. College Admissions Policies for the 1970's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Entrance Examination Board, New York, NY.

    The papers included in this collection are (1) "Problems and Issues Confronting the Admissions Community" by Clyde Vroman; (2) "Frozen Assumptions in Admissions" by B. Alden Thresher; (3) "The Effect of Federal Programs on Admissions Policies" by John F. Morse; (4) "State Plans for Higher Education and Their Influence on Admissions" by Charles W.…

  4. Institutional Admissions Policies in Higher Education: A Widening Participation Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenbank, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This article analyses how higher education institutions (HEIs) have responded to government policy to increase the participation rates of students from lower social classes through their admissions policies. Design/methodology/approach: The article uses documentary evidence and interviews with institutional policy makers to examine HEI…

  5. University Admissions. Policy Note. Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    University admissions, like many other aspects of the higher education sector, are going through a time of significant change. From 2012, universities will receive full funding under the Commonwealth Grants Scheme (CGS) for as many places as they offer. Previously, the Government limited the number of funded places, with a tolerance band for…

  6. Challenges in College Admissions. A Report of a Survey of Undergraduate Admissions Policies, Practices, and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breland, Hunter M.; And Others

    The report summarizes undergraduate admissions policies, practices, and procedures at two- and four-year colleges and universities as of 1992. Information was drawn from a national survey, the third of a series conducted since 1979. A total of 2,024 institutions responded to the survey. An introductory chapter describes the surveys, their…

  7. 28 CFR 541.47 - Admission to control unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Admission to control unit. 541.47 Section... INMATE DISCIPLINE AND SPECIAL HOUSING UNITS Control Unit Programs § 541.47 Admission to control unit. Staff shall provide an inmate admitted to a control unit with: (a) Notice of the projected duration...

  8. 28 CFR 541.47 - Admission to control unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Admission to control unit. 541.47 Section 541.47 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT INMATE DISCIPLINE AND SPECIAL HOUSING UNITS Control Unit Programs § 541.47 Admission to control...

  9. Admissions Policies as a Mechanism for Social Engineering: The Case of the Bulgarian Communist Regime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyadjieva, Pepka Alexandrova

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses admissions policies to higher education during the Communist regime in Bulgaria (1946-89). It argues that under the conditions of the Bulgarian Communist regime, admissions policies were not only a component of the higher education system--viewed as an institution--but part and parcel of the process through which power was…

  10. Hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction before and after implementation of a comprehensive smoke-free policy in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Sebrié, Ernesto Marcelo; Sandoya, Edgardo; Hyland, Andrew; Bianco, Eduardo; Glantz, Stanton A; Cummings, K Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background Stimulated by the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, many countries in Latin America adopted comprehensive smoke-free policies. In March 2006, Uruguay became the first Latin American country to adopt 100% smoke-free national legislation, which ended smoking in all indoor public places and workplaces, including restaurants and bars. The objective of this study was to evaluate trends in hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease 2 years before and 2 years after the policy was implemented in Uruguay. Methods Reports of hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) (International Classification of Disease-10 I21) from 37 hospitals (79% of all hospital admissions in the country), representing the period 2 years before and 2 years after the adoption of a nationwide smoke-free policy in Uruguay (between 1 March 2004 and 29 February 2008), were reviewed. A time series analysis was undertaken to compare the average monthly number of events of hospital admission for AMI before and after the smoke-free law. Results A total of 7949 hospital admissions for AMI were identified during the 4-year study period. Two years after the smoke-free policy was enacted, hospital admissions for AMI fell by 22%. The same pattern and roughly the same magnitude of reduction in AMI admissions were observed for patients seen in public and private hospitals, men, women and people aged 40–65 years and older than 65 years. Conclusions The national smoke-free policy implemented in Uruguay in 2006 was associated with a significant reduction in hospital admissions for AMI. PMID:22337557

  11. The Evolution of Admissions and Retention Policies at an Historically White South African University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabokela, Reitumetse Obakeng

    1997-01-01

    Examines the effect of increased black student enrollment on admissions policies and procedures at the University of Cape Town (South Africa) from the 1983 passage of the Universities Amendment Act till 1995. Provides critical analysis of the university's academic development programs and alternative admissions criteria. Contains 24 references.…

  12. Contextual Admissions and Affirmative Action: Developments in Higher Education Policy in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Laura; Birds, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the value of explaining contextual admissions policy directives through the conceptual lenses of meritocracy and social reproduction. It is suggested that examining these concepts can assist in highlighting some of the ideological and practical complexities associated with contextual admissions whilst providing opportunities to…

  13. BSW Program Admission Policies: Is There Empirical Support for What We Do?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, James P.; Carter, Irene M.; Leslie, Donald R.

    2011-01-01

    Social work admission criteria are used to ensure student academic competence, identify personal characteristics associated with success in social work education and practice, predict success in class and field work, and promote diversity of the student body. However, evidence that supports the effectiveness of these admission policies is…

  14. Policy Analysis: An Analysis of Institutional Admissions and State Policies in Higher Education as They Impact Undocumented Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinas, Arcadio J., III

    2013-01-01

    The term residency and definition of that term is the driving force that acts as the foundation of many, if not all, state funded college and university admissions policies. With over 65,000 undocumented students graduating from American high schools every year, it is essential that state colleges and universities look at their admissions policies…

  15. MINORITY HIGHER EDUCATION PIPLINE: CONSEQUNCES OF CHANGES IN COLLEGE ADMISSIONS POLICY IN TEXAS*

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Angel L.; Tienda, Marta

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses administrative data for the two most selective Texas public institutions to examine the application, admission and enrollment consequences of rescinding affirmative action and implementing the top 10% admission regime. We simulate the gains and losses associated with each policy regime and also those from assigning minorities the application, admission and enrollment rates for white students. Challenging popular claims that the top 10% law restored diversification of Texas’s public flagships, our analyses that consider both changes in the size of high school graduation cohorts and institutional carrying capacity show that the uniform admission regime did not restore Hispanic and black representation at UT and TAMU even after four years. Simulations of gains and losses at each stage of the college pipeline across admission regimes for Hispanics and blacks confirm that affirmative action is the most efficient policy to diversify college campuses, even in highly segregated states like Texas. PMID:23077374

  16. MINORITY HIGHER EDUCATION PIPLINE: CONSEQUNCES OF CHANGES IN COLLEGE ADMISSIONS POLICY IN TEXAS.

    PubMed

    Harris, Angel L; Tienda, Marta

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses administrative data for the two most selective Texas public institutions to examine the application, admission and enrollment consequences of rescinding affirmative action and implementing the top 10% admission regime. We simulate the gains and losses associated with each policy regime and also those from assigning minorities the application, admission and enrollment rates for white students. Challenging popular claims that the top 10% law restored diversification of Texas's public flagships, our analyses that consider both changes in the size of high school graduation cohorts and institutional carrying capacity show that the uniform admission regime did not restore Hispanic and black representation at UT and TAMU even after four years. Simulations of gains and losses at each stage of the college pipeline across admission regimes for Hispanics and blacks confirm that affirmative action is the most efficient policy to diversify college campuses, even in highly segregated states like Texas.

  17. Racial and Ethnic Preference in College Admissions. Brookings Policy Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Thomas J.; Dickens, William T.

    This paper examines the use of racial and ethnic preferences in college admissions, focusing on the extent of their use and their impact on the careers of the intended beneficiaries in light of the California Civil Rights Initiative, which is designed to end such preferences. A study by Kane (1995) found that at the most selective four-year…

  18. Asian-Americans Give U. of California an Unexpected Fight over Admissions Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Largely because of their high aspirations for their children, many Chinese immigrants are acutely aware of the University of California's new undergraduate-admissions policy. With the new policy, the Board of Regents hopes to widen the applicant pool and give campuses more flexibility in selecting students. Asian-Americans bitterly oppose it,…

  19. AN EARLY ADMISSIONS PROGRAM. A COMMITTEE REPORT ON SCHOOL PLANNING FOR ADOPTING AN EARLY ADMISSIONS POLICY IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF MINNESOTA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BERGSTROM, HOWARD E.; AND OTHERS

    IT IS RECOMMENDED THAT EACH SCHOOL DISTRICT STUDY THE PROBLEM INVOLVED IN EARLY ADMISSION AND ADOPT A LOCAL POLICY PERMITTING THE ADMISSION OF QUALIFIED PUPILS REGARDLESS OF PRESENT AGE REQUIREMENTS. THE LOCAL SCHOOL DISTRICT, AFTER AN INITIAL SCREENING OF APPLICANTS, ASSUMED THE COST OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING IN ALL CASES WHERE THE COST OF SUCH…

  20. Self-organized call admission control for optical communication networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Bing; Liu, Lei; Wu, Jian; Lin, Jintong

    2008-11-01

    Call Admission Control (CAC) is widely used in optical communication networks to reduce network congestion. However, the conventional CAC scheme recommended by International Telecommunication Union -Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) has a serious deficiency under high traffic load. In this paper, the disadvantage of conventional CAC scheme is analyzed in detail, and a Self-organized Call Admission Control (SCAC) scheme is proposed to solve this disadvantage. This scheme is accord with the principle of self-organization system, so it can be easily implemented in practice. Numerical results show that the proposed scheme can improve the network performance to a great extent.

  1. A lexicographic approach to constrained MDP admission control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panfili, Martina; Pietrabissa, Antonio; Oddi, Guido; Suraci, Vincenzo

    2016-02-01

    This paper proposes a reinforcement learning-based lexicographic approach to the call admission control problem in communication networks. The admission control problem is modelled as a multi-constrained Markov decision process. To overcome the problems of the standard approaches to the solution of constrained Markov decision processes, based on the linear programming formulation or on a Lagrangian approach, a multi-constraint lexicographic approach is defined, and an online implementation based on reinforcement learning techniques is proposed. Simulations validate the proposed approach.

  2. Who's Coming to Campus? Admission Policies for Entering Freshmen at Public Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Cathy

    This report summarizes results of a survey of 104 institutions belonging to the National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges (NASULGC) in June 1996 concerning the institutions' admissions policies for first-year students. The report also includes data from a national survey of first-time, full-time freshmen enrolling in the…

  3. Is Canada Ready for Nationwide Collaboration on Medical School Admissions Practices and Policies?

    PubMed

    Hanson, Mark D; Moineau, Geneviève; Kulasegaram, Kulamakan Mahan; Hammond, Robert

    2016-11-01

    The report by the Association of Faculties of Medicine of Canada (AFMC) entitled "The Future of Medical Education in Canada: A Collective Vision for MD Education" includes recommendations to enhance admissions processes and increase national collaboration. To achieve these goals, the AFMC conducted a nationwide environmental scan appraising medical schools' readiness for national collaboration and progress toward establishing "made-in-Canada" admissions processes. A critical narrative review of the academic and gray literature was conducted as part of this environmental scan. Four core admissions practice and policy domains were identified: (1) social accountability strategies, (2) standardized admissions testing, (3) interviewing procedures, and (4) application procedures.In this article, the authors summarize and discuss the findings of this narrative review with regard to the four domains. They provide documentation of historical and present-day admissions factors relevant to Canadian medical schools' readiness for nationwide collaboration and a descriptive analysis of the facilitators and barriers to establishing "made-in-Canada" admissions processes.All four domains had facilitators and barriers. One barrier, however, cut across multiple domains-medical schools' pursuit of prestige and its potential to conflict with the goals of the other domains. The authors recommend holding a national forum to debate these issues and to advance the AFMC's goals, a process that will not be straightforward. Yet, national collaboration holds promise for applicants, medical schools, and Canada's diverse population of patients, so efforts toward this end must continue.

  4. BARTER: Behavior Profile Exchange for Behavior-Based Admission and Access Control in MANETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frias-Martinez, Vanessa; Stolfo, Salvatore J.; Keromytis, Angelos D.

    Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) are very dynamic networks with devices continuously entering and leaving the group. The highly dynamic nature of MANETs renders the manual creation and update of policies associated with the initial incorporation of devices to the MANET (admission control) as well as with anomaly detection during communications among members (access control) a very difficult task. In this paper, we present BARTER, a mechanism that automatically creates and updates admission and access control policies for MANETs based on behavior profiles. BARTER is an adaptation for fully distributed environments of our previously introduced BB-NAC mechanism for NAC technologies. Rather than relying on a centralized NAC enforcer, MANET members initially exchange their behavior profiles and compute individual local definitions of normal network behavior. During admission or access control, each member issues an individual decision based on its definition of normalcy. Individual decisions are then aggregated via a threshold cryptographic infrastructure that requires an agreement among a fixed amount of MANET members to change the status of the network. We present experimental results using content and volumetric behavior profiles computed from the ENRON dataset. In particular, we show that the mechanism achieves true rejection rates of 95% with false rejection rates of 9%.

  5. "City Blood Is No Better than Country Blood": The Populist Movement and Admissions Policies at Public Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelber, Scott

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on historical admissions policies and offers a more nuanced and more substantial treatment of the relationship between Populism and higher education. Prior accounts of admissions in the late nineteenth century have sensibly focused upon the tension between secondary school leaders who were mindful of their multiple…

  6. Admissions Policies and Risks to Equity and Educational Inclusion in the Context of School Reform in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner, Stephen M.

    2017-01-01

    Policy discourses in support of school reform in England have linked the objective of raising standards with that of tackling inequality. The assumption that a single policy strategy can tackle both objectives simultaneously is problematic. In this article, I examine issues of equity by studying admissions policy and practice. Drawing on a…

  7. Puerto Ricans and Higher Education Policies. Volume 1: Issues of Scholarship, Fiscal Policies and Admissions. Higher Education Task Force Discussion Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Camille, Ed.; Bosque-Perez, Ramon, Ed.

    This volume explores issues of scholarship, fiscal policies, and admissions in the higher education of Puerto Ricans, with the emphasis on Puerto Ricans on the U.S. mainland and a particular focus on Puerto Rican admissions to the City University of New York. The first paper, "The Centro's Models of Scholarship: Present Challenges to Twenty…

  8. Medication reconciliation at patient admission: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Antonio E.; Lombardi, Natália F.; Andrzejevski, Vânia S.; Frandoloso, Gibran; Correr, Cassyano J.; Carvalho, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To measure length of hospital stay (LHS) in patients receiving medication reconciliation. Secondary characteristics included analysis of number of preadmission medications, medications prescribed at admission, number of discrepancies, and pharmacists interventions done and accepted by the attending physician. Methods: A 6 month, randomized, controlled trial conducted at a public teaching hospital in southern Brazil. Patients admitted to general wards were randomized to receive usual care or medication reconciliation, performed within the first 72 hours of hospital admission. Results: The randomization process assigned 68 patients to UC and 65 to MR. LHS was 10±15 days in usual care and 9±16 days in medication reconciliation (p=0.620). The total number of discrepancies was 327 in the medication reconciliation group, comprising 52.6% of unintentional discrepancies. Physicians accepted approximately 75.0% of the interventions. Conclusion: These results highlight weakness at patient transition care levels in a public teaching hospital. LHS, the primary outcome, should be further investigated in larger studies. Medication reconciliation was well accepted by physicians and it is a useful tool to find and correct discrepancies, minimizing the risk of adverse drug events and improving patient safety. PMID:27011775

  9. Impact of admission and cache replacement policies on response times of jobs on data grids

    SciTech Connect

    Otoo, Ekow J.; Rotem, Doron; Shoshani, Arie

    2003-04-21

    Caching techniques have been used widely to improve the performance gaps of storage hierarchies in computing systems. Little is known about the impact of policies on the response times of jobs that access and process very large files in data grids particularly when data and computations on the data have to be co-located on the same host. In data intensive applications that access large data files over wide area network environment, such as data-grids, the combination of policies for job servicing (or scheduling), caching and cache replacement can significantly impact the performance of grid jobs. We present some preliminary results of a simulation study that combines an admission policy with a cache replacement policy when servicing jobs submitted to a storage resource manager. The results show that, in comparison to a first come first serve policy, the response times of jobs are significantly improved, for practical limits of disk cache sizes, when the jobs that are back-logged to access the same files are taken into consideration in scheduling the next file to be retrieved into the disk cache. Not only are the response times of jobs improved, but also the metric measures for caching policies, such as the hit ratio and the average cost per retrieval, are improved irrespective of the cache replacement policy.

  10. Call Admission Control Scheme Based on Statistical Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Takayuki; Oki, Eiji; Shiomoto, Kohei

    A call admission control (CAC) scheme based on statistical information is proposed, called the statistical CAC scheme. A conventional scheme needs to manage session information for each link to update the residual bandwidth of a network in real time. This scheme has a scalability problem in terms of network size. The statistical CAC rejects session setup requests in accordance to a pre-computed ratio, called the rejection ratio. The rejection ratio is computed by using statistical information about the bandwidth requested for each link so that the congestion probability is less than an upper bound specified by a network operator. The statistical CAC is more scalable in terms of network size than the conventional scheme because it does not need to keep accommodated session state information. Numerical results show that the statistical CAC, even without exact session state information, only slightly degrades network utilization compared with the conventional scheme.

  11. 49 CFR 382.121 - Employee admission of alcohol and controlled substances use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Employee admission of alcohol and controlled... SAFETY REGULATIONS CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES AND ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING General § 382.121 Employee admission of alcohol and controlled substances use. (a) Employees who admit to alcohol misuse or...

  12. A probabilistic approach for fair-efficient call admission control in wireless multiservice networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratogiannis, Dimitrios G.; Tsiropoulos, Georgios I.; Kanellopoulos, John D.; Cottis, Panayotis G.

    2010-12-01

    The efficiency of call admission control (CAC) schemes in multiclass wireless networks should be evaluated not only with regard to the call blocking probability (CBP) achieved for every service class (SC) supported but also with regard to quality of service (QoS) and network efficiency criteria. In this article, four CAC schemes offering priority to SCs of advanced QoS requirements, based on guard channel policy, are studied and evaluated taking into account fairness and throughput criteria in addition to CBP. For the performance evaluation of the proposed CAC schemes and to examine fairness issues, two fairness indices are introduced along with a throughput metric. The analytical results, validated through extensive simulations, indicate that by appropriate selection of the CAC parameters satisfactory fairness and throughput are achieved while achieving low CBP.

  13. Test-Optional Admission Policies and Their Effect on the Composition of the Student Body at King's College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmude, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    This study examined test-optional admission policies and their effect on the composition of the student body at King's College. According to the College Board (2009), students from underrepresented populations do not perform as well as White students on standardized tests. Therefore, higher education institutions have established test-optional…

  14. The Long-Term Impact of Admission Policies: A Comparative Study of Two Emergent Research Institutions in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Gloria; Horn, Catherine; Dizinno, Gerry; Barlow, Libby

    2013-01-01

    The present study explored the long-term impact of admission policies at two aspiring research institutions in Texas. Six years of longitudinal institutional data were analyzed for all full-time first time in college undergraduate students at both universities. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to identify relationships and…

  15. Formulating Recruitment and Retention Policies at the University of Delaware: From Affirmative Action to Diversity in Financial Aid and Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Johnie A., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    In 2003, the United States Supreme Court decided on two cases that involved affirmative action policies for admission to the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor Law School and the College of Literature, Science and the Arts. Those cases, "Gratz v. Bollinger" (2003) and "Grutter v. Bollinger" (2003) had implications for the…

  16. Burden's on U! the Impact of the "Fisher v. University of Texas at Austin" Decision on K-16 Admissions Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, David H. K.

    2014-01-01

    Using race as a factor in admissions policies was contested in "Fisher v. University of Texas at Austin." Although the U.S. Supreme Court firmly held in "Grutter v. Bollinger" that race can be considered among many factors in admitting students, the recent decision in "Fisher" has posed many questions and challenges…

  17. Admission and Retention Policies in Teacher Preparation Programs: Legal and Practical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsberg, Rick; Whaley, David

    2003-01-01

    Examined the legal climate regarding admissions and retention in teacher preparation programs and the current practices of selected programs. Data from legal/archival research and an online survey of 27 universities indicated that teacher preparation programs have more legal latitude than is being employed for admission and retention decisions.…

  18. Birth Outcomes of Latin Americans in Two Countries with Contrasting Immigration Admission Policies: Canada and Spain

    PubMed Central

    Urquia, Marcelo L.

    2015-01-01

    Background We delved into the selective migration hypothesis on health by comparing birth outcomes of Latin American immigrants giving birth in two receiving countries with dissimilar immigration admission policies: Canada and Spain. We hypothesized that a stronger immigrant selection in Canada will reflect more favourable outcomes among Latin Americans giving birth in Canada than among their counterparts giving birth in Spain. Materials and Methods We conducted a cross-sectional bi-national comparative study. We analyzed birth data of singleton infants born in Canada (2000–2005) (N = 31,767) and Spain (1998–2007) (N = 150,405) to mothers born in Spanish-speaking Latin American countries. We compared mean birthweight at 37–41 weeks gestation, and low birthweight and preterm birth rates between Latin American immigrants to Canada vs. Spain. Regression analysis for aggregate data was used to obtain Odds Ratios and Mean birthweight differences adjusted for infant sex, maternal age, parity, marital status, and father born in same source country. Results Latin American women in Canada had heavier newborns than their same-country counterparts giving birth in Spain, overall [adjusted mean birthweight difference: 101 grams; 95% confidence interval (CI): 98, 104], and within each maternal country of origin. Latin American women in Canada had fewer low birthweight and preterm infants than those giving birth in Spain [adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.82, 0.94 for low birthweight, and 0.88; 95% CI: 0.84, 0.93 for preterm birth, respectively]. Conclusion Latin American immigrant women had better birth outcomes in Canada than in Spain, suggesting a more selective migration in Canada than in Spain. PMID:26308857

  19. Admission control and quality adaptation in the distributed multimedia server system (DMSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbar, Mohammad M.; Manning, Eric G.; Shoja, Gholamali C.

    2001-07-01

    Transmission of the real-time components, such as video and voice of multimedia streams over internets requires pre-allocation of network bandwidth from source to destination, as well as CPU cycles, I/O bandwidth, etc. in the server and in the client providing multimedia services. This paper presents a distributed version of the Utility Model for admission control and Quality of Service (QoS) adaptation of a multi server multimedia service provider. We propose a broker for managing the resources of the servers. This version of the Utility Model is quasi-distributed, meaning that computations for resource allocation are done at a single site (the broker), but the resources considered are distributed over multiple servers. This paper presents the architecture of the broker and the algorithm used by the broker to select the sessions, so that the QoS requirements are met while revenue is maximized. The QoS adaptation policy used to achieve fault tolerance during server failure is described.

  20. Call Admission Control on Single Node Networks under Output Rate-Controlled Generalized Processor Sharing (ORC-GPS) Scheduler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanada, Masaki; Nakazato, Hidenori; Watanabe, Hitoshi

    Multimedia applications such as music or video streaming, video teleconferencing and IP telephony are flourishing in packet-switched networks. Applications that generate such real-time data can have very diverse quality-of-service (QoS) requirements. In order to guarantee diverse QoS requirements, the combined use of a packet scheduling algorithm based on Generalized Processor Sharing (GPS) and leaky bucket traffic regulator is the most successful QoS mechanism. GPS can provide a minimum guaranteed service rate for each session and tight delay bounds for leaky bucket constrained sessions. However, the delay bounds for leaky bucket constrained sessions under GPS are unnecessarily large because each session is served according to its associated constant weight until the session buffer is empty. In order to solve this problem, a scheduling policy called Output Rate-Controlled Generalized Processor Sharing (ORC-GPS) was proposed in [17]. ORC-GPS is a rate-based scheduling like GPS, and controls the service rate in order to lower the delay bounds for leaky bucket constrained sessions. In this paper, we propose a call admission control (CAC) algorithm for ORC-GPS, for leaky-bucket constrained sessions with deterministic delay requirements. This CAC algorithm for ORC-GPS determines the optimal values of parameters of ORC-GPS from the deterministic delay requirements of the sessions. In numerical experiments, we compare the CAC algorithm for ORC-GPS with one for GPS in terms of schedulable region and computational complexity.

  1. Merit and Admissions Policy: Case Studies from Pakistan. Discussion Paper Series No. 59 D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klitgaard, Robert E.; And Others

    Studies were conducted to determine whether measures of intellectual merit that are used as criteria for admission to the University of Karachi in Pakistan have predictive validity. The predictive validity of the intermediate examination score was studied with recent graduates of the pharmacy, medicine, and engineering schools. Additional studies…

  2. Nerd Harassment and Grade Inflation: Are College Admissions Policies Partly Responsible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, John H.

    Many, but not all, of the admissions selection criteria favored by U.S. colleges and universities unwittingly create incentives for educational dysfunctional behavior by secondary students, teachers and administrators, and by voters in school budget referenda. These include nerd harassment, peer cultures that denigrate achievement, various efforts…

  3. A Survey of Master's-Level Psychology Programs: Admissions Criteria and Program Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briihl, Deborah S.; Wasieleski, David T.

    2004-01-01

    This study summarizes the admission and program characteristics of American master's-level graduate programs housed in psychology departments. Individual programs (N = 253) from 163 colleges and universities provided data, including the use of grade point average, Graduate Record Exam scores, and other tests (Psychology Graduate Record Exam,…

  4. Z-Score Demystified: A Critical Analysis of the Sri Lankan University Admission Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnapala, Yajni; Silva, Karishma

    2011-01-01

    In the year 2001, the University Grants Commission of Sri Lanka successfully appealed to change the method of determining the cut-off scores for university admissions from raw scores to standardized z-scores. This standardization allegedly eliminated the discrepancy caused due to the assumption of equal difficulty levels across all subjects. This…

  5. Money Changes Everything: Funding Shocks and Optimal Admissions and Financial Aid Policies in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagler, Matthew G.

    2006-01-01

    The paper examines the effect of a shock to university funding on tuition net of financial aid, admissions selectivity, and enrollment levels chosen by an optimizing university. Whereas a positive shock, such as a major donation, results in lower net tuition and greater selectivity with respect to all students, its effect on enrollment may not be…

  6. Reduced Admissions for Acute Myocardial Infarction Associated with a Public Smoking Ban: Matched Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.

    2007-01-01

    There has been no research linking implementation of a public smoking ban and reduced incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) among nonsmoking patients. An ex post facto matched control group study was conducted to determine whether there was a change in hospital admissions for AMI among nonsmoking patients after a public smoking ban was…

  7. International Drug Control Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-24

    9 Methamphetamine Precursor Chemicals........................................................................ 11 Other Drug-Related...cannabis resin, coca leaf, cocaine, heroin, and opium. Psychotropic substances include ecstasy,2 LSD,3 amphetamine, and methamphetamine . Examples of other...are used to make methamphetamine , and potassium permanganate, which is used to make cocaine. With few exceptions, production and sale of controlled

  8. Excellence and Diversity: The Emergence of Selective Admission Policies in Dutch Higher Education--A Case Study on Amsterdam University College. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.15.10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reumer, Christoffel; van der Wende, Marijk

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the emergence of selective admission policies in Dutch university education. Such policies are being developed to promote excellence in a higher education system that is generally known to be "egalitarian" and increasingly criticized for a lack of differentiation. The changing policy context of admission in Dutch…

  9. The effect of funding policy on day of week admissions and discharges in hospitals: the cases of Austria and Canada.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Kevin J; Rauner, Marion S; Schaffhauser-Linzatti, Michaela Maria; Yap, Richard

    2003-03-01

    This paper compares two different funding policies for inpatients, the case-based approach in Austria versus the global budgeting approach in Canada. It examines the impact of these funding policies on length of stay of inpatients as one key measure of health outcome. In our study, six major clinical categories for inpatients are selected in which the day of the week for admission is matched to the particular day of the week of discharge for each individual case. The strategic statistical analysis proves that funding policies have a significant impact on the expected length of stay of inpatients. For all six clinical categories, Austrian inpatients stayed longer in hospitals compared to Canadian inpatients. Moreover, inpatients were not admitted and discharged equally throughout the week. We also statistically prove for certain clinical categories that more inpatients are discharged on certain days such as Mondays or Fridays depending on the funding policy. Our study is unique in the literature and our conclusions indicate that, with the right incentives in place, the length of stay can be decreased and discharge anomalies can be eliminated, which ultimately leads to a decrease in healthcare expenditures and an increase in healthcare effectiveness.

  10. Admission Requirements to Canadian Faculties of Medicine and Their Selection Policies = Conditions d'Admission aux Facultes de Medecine Canadiennes et Leurs Politiques de Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Canadian Medical Colleges, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Information is presented to help applicants to Canadian medical colleges realistically assess their chances for gaining admission. The guide is also intended for career counselors in high schools and higher education. One section provides statistics on the following characteristics that are associated with being selected: sex, age, Medical College…

  11. Decisive Routing and Admission Control According to Quality of Service Constraints

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    in pn sn1 tn1 sn2 tn2 sny tny ⎞ ⎟⎟⎟⎟⎟⎟⎠ Where the each row in the matrix corresponds to the following i1...n = input file size of...Preemptive Congestion Control Code Snippet The Decisive Routing and Admission Control According to Quality of Service Constraints code snippet of reaction to...simulation snippet of reaction to forecasted state of the network. The Kalman filter queue has reached a stated level of 45% of its capacity and

  12. Undocumented Immigrants and Institutional Admission Policy Transformation in a Community College: Exploring Policy-Making and Its Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunyoung; Chambers, Jessica A.

    2015-01-01

    Much of the research on undocumented students has primarily addressed the effects of state policy on undocumented students' access to college and financial aid; it has also examined the educational experiences and challenges unique to undocumented students. However, current literature lacks a thorough investigation of how community colleges…

  13. Recent Changes in UC Admissions Policies. Parent/Student Guide = Unos cambios recientes en los reglamentos de ingreso de la universidad de California. Guia de padres/estudiantes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EdSource, Inc., Palo Alto, CA.

    This parent/student guide describes recent changes in admissions policies at the University of California (UC). Traditionally, UC admitted the top 12.5% of high school graduating seniors, but beginning in 2001, the top 4% of students in the graduating class of every high school are eligible if they have completed 11 specific "a-f"…

  14. Effect of air pollution control on mortality and hospital admissions in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Dockery, Douglas W; Rich, David Q; Goodman, Patrick G; Clancy, Luke; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; George, Prethibha; Kotlov, Tania

    2013-07-01

    and 1998 bans, adjusting for influenza epidemics, weekly mean temperature, and local admissions for digestive diagnoses. Mean BS concentrations fell in all affected population centers post-ban compared with the pre-ban period, with decreases ranging from 4 to 35 microg/m3 (corresponding to reductions of 45% to 70%, respectively), but we observed no clear pattern in SO2 measured as total gaseous acidity associated with the bans. In comparisons with the pre-ban periods, no significant reduction was found in total death rates associated with the 1990 (1% reduction), 1995 (4% reduction), or 1998 (0% reduction) bans, nor for cardiovascular mortality (0%, 4%, and 1% reductions for the 1990, 1995, and 1998 bans, respectively). Respiratory mortality was reduced in association with the bans (17%, 9%, and 3%, respectively). We found a 4% decrease in hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease associated with the 1995 ban and a 3% decrease with the 1998 ban. Admissions for respiratory disease were not consistently lower after the bans; admissions for pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and asthma were reduced. However, underreporting of hospital admissions data and lack of control and comparison series tempered our confidence in these results. The successive coal bans resulted in immediate and sustained decreases in particulate concentrations in each city or town; with the largest decreases in winter and during the heating season. The bans were associated with reductions in respiratory mortality but no detectable improvement in cardiovascular mortality. The changes in hospital admissions for respiratory and cardiovascular disease were supportive of these findings but cannot be considered confirming. Detecting changes in public health indicators associated even with clear improvements in air quality, as in this case, remains difficult when there are simultaneous secular improvements in the same health indicators.

  15. Tobacco control policies of oncology nursing organizations.

    PubMed

    Sarna, Linda; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga

    2004-05-01

    Nurses, the largest group of health care professionals, and the policies of nursing organizations, have tremendous potential to promote health and tobacco control. Policies addressing tobacco use have been implemented by a variety of national and international nursing organizations. This article reviews existing tobacco control policies in oncology nursing organizations.

  16. A nested case–control study to determine the incidence and factors associated with unanticipated admissions following day care surgery

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Madhurita; Ponniah, Manickam; Jacob, KS

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Day care surgery offers respite from hospitalisation for specific surgical procedures and has many advantages. However, occasionally patients who undergo such surgery require hospitalisation for unanticipated complications. We aimed to determine their incidence and to identify factors associated with unanticipated admissions in a tertiary care hospital in South India. Methods: During the 3-month study, 63 cases requiring admission and 126 randomly selected controls were taken from the 776 procedures that were performed were compared. The variables studied were patients’ demographic characteristics, pre-operative medical illness, personal habits, American Society of Anesthesiologists status, the diagnosis and surgical procedures, time since last meal, duration of anaesthesia and surgery, experience of the surgeon and anaesthetist, and intraoperative management (techniques, drugs, monitoring, etc.). Univariate and bivariate statistics were used to determine factors associated with unanticipated admissions. Results: The incidence of unanticipated admissions following day care surgery was 8.11%. The reasons for admission were anaesthetic (33.33%), surgical (15.87%), medical (6.34%) and social (44.44%). The factors significantly associated with unanticipated admissions included duration of anaesthesia more than 50 min (odds ratio [OR]: 3.179; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.503–6.722), and starting the last case after 3 pm (OR: 10.095; 95% CI: 2.418–42.148). Conclusion: Unanticipated admissions following day care surgery occur mainly due to anaesthetic, surgical, medical and social reasons. PMID:27942057

  17. SIR-based call admission control for DS-CDMA cellular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhao; Elzarki, Magda

    1994-05-01

    Signal-to-interference ratio (SIR)-based call admission control (CAC) algorithms are proposed and studied in a DS-CDMA cellular system. Residual capacity is introduced as the additional number of initial calls a base station can accept such that system-wide outage probability will be guaranteed to remain below a certain level. The residual capacity at each cell is updated dynamically according to the reverse-link SIR measurements at the base station. A 2(sup k) factorial experimental design and analysis via computer simulations is used to study the impact of the parameters used in the algorithms. The influence of these parameters on system performance, namely blocking probability and outage probability, is then examined via simulation. The performance of the algorithms is compared together with that of a fixed call admission control scheme (fixed CAC) under both homogeneous and hot spot traffic loadings. The results show that SIR-based CAC always outperforms fixed CAC even under overload situations, which is not the case in FDMA/TDMA cellular systems. The primary benefit of SIR-based CAC in DS-CDMA cellular systems, however, lies in improving the system performance under hot spot traffics.

  18. Meeting Notes: The College Board Advocacy & Policy Center's Symposium on Admissions in the 21st Century (Reston, VA, July 2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Board Advocacy & Policy Center, 2012

    2012-01-01

    On July 24 and 25, 2012, members of the Task Force on Admissions in the 21st Century gathered in Reston, Virginia, to discuss the progress made by the implementation team in addressing action items from the Task Force's Preserving the Dream of America 2008 report; the current environment for admission; and actions to be taken to further the task…

  19. Evaluating Higher Education Policy in Turkey: Assessment of the Admission Procedure to Architecture, Planning, and Engineering Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cubukcu, Kemal Mert; Cubukcu, Ebru

    2009-01-01

    The admission procedure to higher education institutions in Turkey is based on the student's high school grades and Central University Entrance Examination (CUEE) score, with a much greater weight on the latter. However, whether the CUEE is an appropriate measure in the admission process to universities is still a much-debated question. This study…

  20. Call admission control for CDMA systems with Interference Guard Margin (IGM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huan; Kumar, Sunil; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    2002-01-01

    A call admission control (CAC) scheme and a resource-reservation estimation (RRE) method suitable for the interference-based wireless system, such as wide-band code division multiple access (W-CDMA), are proposed in this work. The proposed CAC scheme gives preferential treatment to high priority handoff calls by pre-reserving a certain amount of interference margin called the interference guard margin (IGM). The amount of guard margin is determined by the measurement performed by the RRE module in base stations. Each RRE module dynamically adjusts the level of guard margin by considering traffic conditions in neighboring cells based upon handoff requests. A service model is adopted to support multiple services, which includes mobile terminal's data rate, different levels of priorities, mobility and rate adaptivity characteristics. Simulations are conducted with OPNET to study the performance of the proposed scheme in terms of the objective function, blocking probabilities and system utilization under different traffic conditions.

  1. Voice Communications over 802.11 Ad Hoc Networks: Modeling, Optimization and Call Admission Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Changchun; Xu, Yanyi; Liu, Gan; Liu, Kezhong

    Supporting quality-of-service (QoS) of multimedia communications over IEEE 802.11 based ad hoc networks is a challenging task. This paper develops a simple 3-D Markov chain model for queuing analysis of IEEE 802.11 MAC layer. The model is applied for performance analysis of voice communications over IEEE 802.11 single-hop ad hoc networks. By using the model, we finish the performance optimization of IEEE MAC layer and obtain the maximum number of voice calls in IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks as well as the statistical performance bounds. Furthermore, we design a fully distributed call admission control (CAC) algorithm which can provide strict statistical QoS guarantee for voice communications over IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks. Extensive simulations indicate the accuracy of the analytical model and the CAC scheme.

  2. Equality Based Flow-Admission Control by Using Mixed Loss and Delay System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyata, Sumiko; Yamaoka, Katsunori

    We have proposed a novel call admission control (CAC) for maximizing total user satisfaction in a heterogeneous traffic network and showed the effectiveness of our CAC by using an optimal threshold from numerical analysis [1]. In our previous CAC, when a new broadband flow arrives and the total accommodated bandwidth is more than or equal to the threshold, the arriving new broadband flow is rejected. In actual networks, however, users may agree to wait for a certain period until the broadband flow, such as video, begins to play. In this paper, when total accommodated bandwidth is more than or equal to the threshold, arriving broadband flows wait instead of being rejected. As a result, we can greatly improve total user satisfaction.

  3. Scheduling and Call Admission Control A WiMax Mesh Networks View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Câmara, Daniel; Filali, Fethi

    This chapter discusses the problem of providing call admission control (CAC), scheduling and band reservation for wireless networks. It presents the importance of such procedures focusing mainly on WiMax mesh mode networks. The chapter also classifies some of the most known proposals presented in the literature to solve the scheduling and CAC problems for this kind of network. Differently of some other standards, in the IEEE 802.16 standard the scheduling and CAC procedures are mandatory. No node in the network can communicate, even in the mesh mode, without having the transmission previously scheduled. In this way scheduling becomes one of the most important processes to achieve spectral efficiency and, in consequence, to increase the network capacity.

  4. Heterogeneous voice flows-oriented call admission control in IEEE 802.11e WLANs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qi-lin; Huang, Zhen-jin; Wang, Shi-yi

    2014-04-01

    Considering the circumstance of heterogeneous voice flows, first, by applying Markov chain, this paper proposes an unsaturated analytical model for the IEEE 802.11e EDCA protocol, which considers the condition of non-ideal transmission channel and the character of the occurrence of backoff countdown at the beginning of time slot in EDCA protocol. Furthermore, according to the proposed model, the media access delay and throughput of a flow are analysed, and the flow-oriented call admission control (CAC) scheme is proposed. Finally, the simulation results are shown to confirm that the proposed CAC scheme can guarantee the requirements of throughput and delay of voice flows, and can admit more voice flows to improve the utilisation efficiency of network resources by choosing the appropriate values of the minimum contention window or the appropriate varieties of voice flows.

  5. Adaptive call admission control and resource allocation in multi server wireless/cellular network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Madhu; Mittal, Ragini

    2016-11-01

    The ever increasing demand of the subscribers has put pressure on the capacity of wireless networks around the world. To utilize the scare resources, in the present paper we propose an optimal allocation scheme for an integrated wireless/cellular model with handoff priority and handoff guarantee services. The suggested algorithm optimally allocates the resources in each cell and dynamically adjust threshold to control the admission. To give the priority to handoff calls over the new calls, the provision of guard channels and subrating scheme is taken into consideration. The handoff voice call may balk and renege from the system while waiting in the buffer. An iterative algorithm is implemented to generate the arrival rate of the handoff calls in each cell. Various performance indices are established in term of steady state probabilities. The sensitivity analysis has also been carried out to examine the tractability of algorithms and to explore the effects of system descriptors on the performance indices.

  6. Dynamic Multiple-Threshold Call Admission Control Based on Optimized Genetic Algorithm in Wireless/Mobile Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shengling; Cui, Yong; Koodli, Rajeev; Hou, Yibin; Huang, Zhangqin

    Due to the dynamics of topology and resources, Call Admission Control (CAC) plays a significant role for increasing resource utilization ratio and guaranteeing users' QoS requirements in wireless/mobile networks. In this paper, a dynamic multi-threshold CAC scheme is proposed to serve multi-class service in a wireless/mobile network. The thresholds are renewed at the beginning of each time interval to react to the changing mobility rate and network load. To find suitable thresholds, a reward-penalty model is designed, which provides different priorities between different service classes and call types through different reward/penalty policies according to network load and average call arrival rate. To speed up the running time of CAC, an Optimized Genetic Algorithm (OGA) is presented, whose components such as encoding, population initialization, fitness function and mutation etc., are all optimized in terms of the traits of the CAC problem. The simulation demonstrates that the proposed CAC scheme outperforms the similar schemes, which means the optimization is realized. Finally, the simulation shows the efficiency of OGA.

  7. Parenteral penicillin for children with meningococcal disease before hospital admission: case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Harnden, Anthony; Ninis, Nelly; Thompson, Matthew; Perera, Rafael; Levin, Michael; Mant, David; Mayon-White, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Objective To explore the impact on mortality and morbidity of parenteral penicillin given to children before admission to hospital with suspected meningococcal disease. Design Retrospective comparison of fatal and non-fatal cases. Setting England, Wales, and Northern Ireland; December 1997 to February 1999. Participants 158 children aged 0-16 years (26 died, 132 survived) in whom a general practitioner had made the diagnosis of meningococcal disease before hospital admission. Results Administration of parenteral penicillin by general practitioners was associated with increased odds ratios for death (7.4, 95% confidence interval 1.5 to 37.7) and complications in survivors (5.0, 1.7 to 15.0). Children who received penicillin had more severe disease on admission (median Glasgow meningococcal septicaemia prognostic score (GMSPS) 6.5 v 4.0, P = 0.002). Severity on admission did not differ significantly with time taken to reach hospital. Conclusions Children who were given parenteral penicillin by a general practitioner had more severe disease on reaching hospital than those who were not given penicillin before admission. The association with poor outcome may be because children who are more severely ill are being given penicillin before admission. PMID:16554335

  8. Policy iteration optimal tracking control for chaotic systems by using an adaptive dynamic programming approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Qing-Lai; Liu, De-Rong; Xu, Yan-Cai

    2015-03-01

    A policy iteration algorithm of adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) is developed to solve the optimal tracking control for a class of discrete-time chaotic systems. By system transformations, the optimal tracking problem is transformed into an optimal regulation one. The policy iteration algorithm for discrete-time chaotic systems is first described. Then, the convergence and admissibility properties of the developed policy iteration algorithm are presented, which show that the transformed chaotic system can be stabilized under an arbitrary iterative control law and the iterative performance index function simultaneously converges to the optimum. By implementing the policy iteration algorithm via neural networks, the developed optimal tracking control scheme for chaotic systems is verified by a simulation. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61034002, 61233001, 61273140, 61304086, and 61374105) and the Beijing Natural Science Foundation, China (Grant No. 4132078).

  9. Admission Control Over Internet of Vehicles Attached With Medical Sensors for Ubiquitous Healthcare Applications.

    PubMed

    Lin, Di; Labeau, Fabrice; Yao, Yuanzhe; Vasilakos, Athanasios V; Tang, Yu

    2016-07-01

    Wireless technologies and vehicle-mounted or wearable medical sensors are pervasive to support ubiquitous healthcare applications. However, a critical issue of using wireless communications under a healthcare scenario rests at the electromagnetic interference (EMI) caused by radio frequency transmission. A high level of EMI may lead to a critical malfunction of medical sensors, and in such a scenario, a few users who are not transmitting emergency data could be required to reduce their transmit power or even temporarily disconnect from the network in order to guarantee the normal operation of medical sensors as well as the transmission of emergency data. In this paper, we propose a joint power and admission control algorithm to schedule the users' transmission of medical data. The objective of this algorithm is to minimize the number of users who are forced to disconnect from the network while keeping the EMI on medical sensors at an acceptable level. We show that a fixed point of proposed algorithm always exists, and at the fixed point, our proposed algorithm can minimize the number of low-priority users who are required to disconnect from the network. Numerical results illustrate that the proposed algorithm can achieve robust performance against the variations of mobile hospital environments.

  10. An Improved Call Admission Control Mechanism with Prioritized Handoff Queuing Scheme for BWA Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Prasun; Saha Misra, Iti

    2014-10-01

    Nowadays, due to increased demand for using the Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) networks in a satisfactory manner a promised Quality of Service (QoS) is required to manage the seamless transmission of the heterogeneous handoff calls. To this end, this paper proposes an improved Call Admission Control (CAC) mechanism with prioritized handoff queuing scheme that aims to reduce dropping probability of handoff calls. Handoff calls are queued when no bandwidth is available even after the allowable bandwidth degradation of the ongoing calls and get admitted into the network when an ongoing call is terminated with a higher priority than the newly originated call. An analytical Markov model for the proposed CAC mechanism is developed to analyze various performance parameters. Analytical results show that our proposed CAC with handoff queuing scheme prioritizes the handoff calls effectively and reduces dropping probability of the system by 78.57% for real-time traffic without degrading the number of failed new call attempts. This results in the increased bandwidth utilization of the network.

  11. Ethnic and Gender Differences in Science Graduation at Selective Colleges with Implications for Admission Policy and College Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyth, Frederick L.; McArdle, John J.

    Emphasizing graduation rate, W. Bowen and D. Bok (1998) argue that race-sensitive admission at selective colleges enhances the educational attainment of underrepresented minority students, and that the effect increases with college selectivity. Focusing on graduation in science, however, R. Elliott and colleagues (1995) conclude that: (1)…

  12. Changes in admission rates for spreading odontogenic infection resulting from changes in government policy about the dental schedule and remunerations.

    PubMed

    Burnham, Richard; Bhandari, Rishi; Bridle, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The government changed the system of payment to general dental practitioners on 1 April 2005 from a fee/item to a banding system. The figures collected have shown that there has been a 62% increase in the number of patients who require admission for surgical treatment of spreading odontogenic infections compared with the 3-year period before this date.

  13. Gun Control: The Debate and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Christine

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview and background information on the debate over gun control, as well as several teaching ideas. Handouts include a list of related topics drawn from various disciplines (economics, U.S. history), seven arguments for and against gun control, and a set of policy evaluation guidelines. (MJP)

  14. Serials Control System Procedures and Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlembach, Mary C.

    This document includes procedures and policies for a networked serials control system originally developed at the Grainger Engineering Library Information Center at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC). The serials control systems encompass serials processing, public service, and end-user functions. The system employs a…

  15. Export Controls and Nonproliferation Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Export Control Classification Numbers ( ECCNs ). The ECCNs do not correspond one-for-one to single commodity technology, or software items: in some...cases an ECCN covers only a single, narrowly defined item, but in many cases multiple related items fall under the same ECCN . The reason for control of...each ECCN category may be single or multiple (e.g., for both National Security and Nuclear Proliferation) but the reason(s) listed may in fact apply

  16. Shocking Admission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Eric; Millman, Sierra

    2007-01-01

    Marilee Jones's career had been a remarkable success. She joined Massachusetts Institute of Technology's (MIT's) admissions office in 1979, landing a job in Cambridge at a time when boys ruled the sandbox of the admissions profession. Her job was to help MIT recruit more women, who then made up less than one-fifth of the institute's students. She…

  17. Use of a control chart to monitor diarrhoea admissions: a quality improvement exercise in West Kalimantan Provincial Hospital, Pontianak, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Purba, M

    1999-09-01

    Data on the number of admissions for diarrhoea each week to the West Kalimantan Provincial Hospital, Pontianak, Indonesia over a 5 year period, 1992-1996, were collected. After cleaning and exclusion of extreme values, transformation was then performed to ensure that the data were free of special cause variation and normally distributed. A control chart was then constructed to provide an 'early warning' system for hospital authorities in order to facilitate the management of the epidemic and to improve patient care.

  18. The Changing College Admissions Scene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjogren, Cliff

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the status of college admissions and some of the forces that influenced college admissions policies during each of four three-year periods: the Sputnik Era (1957-60), the Postwar Baby Boom Era (1964-67), the "New Groups" Era (1971-74), and the Stable Enrollment Era (1978-81). (PGD)

  19. Critical Issues in Crime Control Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Edith Elisabeth, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Entire issue discusses crime control policy in the United States, including such issues as the relation of social and environmental variables to criminal activity, dealing with the career offender, biological correlates of criminal behavior, juvenile delinquency, and white collar crime. (CS)

  20. Admission to Medical Education in Ten Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burn, Barbara B., Ed.

    As part of a study of access and admission to higher education in Germany and the United States, a group of papers on medical admissions in various countries was commissioned. The papers presented in this book reveal wide differences in admissions policies and procedures. Barbara Burn examines some of the major issues in a foreword: representation…

  1. Merit and Competition in Selective College Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killgore, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    Using interview data from 34 admissions officers at 17 elite colleges, this paper compares two perspectives shaping admissions policy. Admissions officers apply a "merit" perspective that relies on indicators of student academic and nonacademic achievement. They also employ a "competition" perspective that evaluates student characteristics…

  2. The Evolution of College Admission Requirements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, Andrew V.

    2012-01-01

    The development of college admissions requirements during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was basically the story of the admission policies and practices at Harvard College. Candidates for admission were examined on their ability to read and translate Latin and Greek, and a careful check was made of their character and background. With…

  3. Pharmacist provided medicines reconciliation within 24 hours of admission and on discharge: a randomised controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Cadman, Brit; Wright, David; Bale, Amanda; Barton, Garry; Desborough, James; Hammad, Eman A; Holland, Richard; Howe, Helen; Nunney, Ian; Irvine, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Background The UK government currently recommends that all patients receive medicines reconciliation (MR) from a member of the pharmacy team within 24 hours of admission and subsequent discharge. The cost-effectiveness of this intervention is unknown. A pilot study to inform the design of a future randomised controlled trial to determine effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a pharmacist-delivered service was undertaken. Method Patients were recruited 7 days a week from 5 adult medical wards in 1 hospital over a 9 month period and randomised using an automated system to intervention (MR within 24 hours of admission and at discharge) or usual care which may include MR (control). Recruitment and retention rates were determined. Length of stay (LOS), quality of life (EQ-5D-3L), unintentional discrepancies (UDs) and emergency readmission (ER) within 3 months were tested as outcome measures. The feasibility of identifying and measuring intervention-associated resources was determined. Result 200 patients were randomised to either intervention or control. Groups were comparable at baseline. 95 (99%) patients in the intervention received MR within 24 hours, while 62 (60.8%) control patients received MR at some point during admission. The intervention resolved 250 of the 255 UDs identified at admission. Only 2 UDs were identified in the intervention group at discharge compared with 268 in the control. The median LOS was 94 hours in the intervention arm and 118 hours in the control, with ER rates of 17.9% and 26.7%, respectively. Assuming 5% loss to follow-up 1120 patients (560 in each arm) are required to detect a 6% reduction in 3-month ER rates. Conclusions The results suggest that changes in outcome measures resulting from MR within 24 hours were in the appropriate direction and readmission within 3 months is the most appropriate primary outcome measure. A future study to determine cost-effectiveness of the intervention is feasible and warranted

  4. Media violence, gun control, and public policy.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, D M

    1996-07-01

    Public concern with the national level of violence is discussed, and the complexity of the issue delineated. Research findings in two key areas of the topic, media violence and availability of firearms, are examined, as is their applicability to public policy efforts and recommendations for the prevention of violence. An approach that combines efforts to counteract media violence with those aimed at effective gun control is outlined in terms of bringing about changes in attitudes toward violence and firearm possession.

  5. Responses to tobacco control policies among youth

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, M; Balch, G; Mermelstein, R

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Explore adolescents' response to current and potential tobacco control policy issues. Design: The 13 site Tobacco Control Network (TCN), sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, conducted 129 sex and ethnic homogeneous focus groups. Participants: 785 white, African American, Asian American/Pacific Islander, American Indian, and Hispanic adolescents who were primarily smokers from rural, urban, and suburban locations across the USA. Main outcome measures: Awareness, knowledge, opinions, and behaviour regarding laws and rules, prices, cigarette ingredients, and warning labels. Results: Teenagers were generally familiar with laws and rules about access and possession for minors, but believed them ineffective. They were knowledgeable about prices, and reported that a sharp and sudden increase could lead them to adjust their smoking patterns but could also have negative consequences. They found a list of chemical names of cigarette ingredients largely meaningless, but believed that disclosing and publicising their common uses could be an effective deterrent, especially for those who were not yet smoking. They were aware of current warning labels, but considered them uninformative and irrelevant. Conclusions: Understanding teenagers' attitudes and behaviours before implementing policies that will affect them will likely increase their effectiveness. Disclosing and publicising the chemical contents of cigarettes, and increasing prices quickly and sharply, are potentially effective areas for policy change to impact adolescent tobacco use. PMID:11891362

  6. Eliminating Standardized Tests in College Admissions: The New Affirmative Action?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwick, Rebecca

    1999-01-01

    Eliminating the Scholastic Aptitude Test for college admissions might seem a form of covert affirmative action. Although it is possible to design a workable admissions policy that excludes standardized tests (as 15 percent of colleges have done), banishing admissions tests to further a social-policy goal indirectly is unsound policy. (Contains 25…

  7. Civil Rights and the Changing Admissions Policy at a Mid-Western University: The Impact of Two Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayar, Adem; Kerns, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Due to the value of personal rights and freedoms, along with the associated questions and continuing problems, the issue of "civil rights" continues to be relevant in the twenty-first century. In the United States, the civil rights of disenfranchised people are adversely affected by various social, regional, and federal policies.…

  8. Equilibrium Control Policies for Markov Chains

    SciTech Connect

    Malikopoulos, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The average cost criterion has held great intuitive appeal and has attracted considerable attention. It is widely employed when controlling dynamic systems that evolve stochastically over time by means of formulating an optimization problem to achieve long-term goals efficiently. The average cost criterion is especially appealing when the decision-making process is long compared to other timescales involved, and there is no compelling motivation to select short-term optimization. This paper addresses the problem of controlling a Markov chain so as to minimize the average cost per unit time. Our approach treats the problem as a dual constrained optimization problem. We derive conditions guaranteeing that a saddle point exists for the new dual problem and we show that this saddle point is an equilibrium control policy for each state of the Markov chain. For practical situations with constraints consistent to those we study here, our results imply that recognition of such saddle points may be of value in deriving in real time an optimal control policy.

  9. Tobacco control in Europe: a policy review.

    PubMed

    Bertollini, Roberto; Ribeiro, Sofia; Mauer-Stender, Kristina; Galea, Gauden

    2016-06-01

    Tobacco is responsible for the death of 6 million people every year globally, of whom 700 000 are in Europe. Effective policies for tobacco control exist; however, the status of their implementation varies across the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region. In order to tackle the tobacco epidemic, action has been taken though the implementation of both legally binding and non-legally binding measures. This article aims to present the achievements and challenges of tobacco control in Europe, focussing on the available legally binding instruments such as the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and the revision of the Tobacco Products Directive at the European Union level. Tobacco still faces heavy lobbying of the tobacco industry, which has systematically contrasted policies to achieve public health objectives. The legal instruments for tobacco control in Europe presented here are not always adequately enforced in all the countries and there is certainly room for improving their implementation. Finally, the need for a strong political commitment towards the end-game of the tobacco epidemic is emphasised.

  10. A new LP formulation of the admission control problem modelled as an MDP under average reward criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrabissa, Antonio

    2011-12-01

    The admission control problem can be modelled as a Markov decision process (MDP) under the average cost criterion and formulated as a linear programming (LP) problem. The LP formulation is attractive in the present and future communication networks, which support an increasing number of classes of service, since it can be used to explicitly control class-level requirements, such as class blocking probabilities. On the other hand, the LP formulation suffers from scalability problems as the number C of classes increases. This article proposes a new LP formulation, which, even if it does not introduce any approximation, is much more scalable: the problem size reduction with respect to the standard LP formulation is O((C + 1)2/2 C ). Theoretical and numerical simulation results prove the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  11. 49 CFR 382.121 - Employee admission of alcohol and controlled substances use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-established voluntary self-identification program or policy that meets the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section; (2) The driver does not self-identify in order to avoid testing under the requirements of... and has successfully completed education or treatment requirements in accordance with the...

  12. 49 CFR 382.121 - Employee admission of alcohol and controlled substances use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-established voluntary self-identification program or policy that meets the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section; (2) The driver does not self-identify in order to avoid testing under the requirements of... and has successfully completed education or treatment requirements in accordance with the...

  13. The "Admissions" Side of BCCAT: An Update. Special Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2008

    2008-01-01

    To spearhead increased emphasis on admissions, the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) formed an Admissions Committee in Fall 2003. The committee recognized the importance of institutional autonomy in determining admissions policies and processes at each institution. Following initiation of the Student Transitions Project…

  14. Wildlife rabies control policy in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Smith, G C; Fooks, A R

    2006-01-01

    Following the outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in the United Kingdom (UK) in 2001, the British government initiated a review and update of the Rabies Contingency Plan to ensure that the implementation of control policies was proportionate and based on operational efficiency and appropriate command structures (see http://www.defra.gov.uk/animalh/rabies/default.htm). Control of classical rabies in wildlife will primarily be based on emergency oral vaccination around the focal outbreak, in line with European recommended practice. However, theoretical and practical experience suggests that vaccination may not be the most effective means of control in high-density populations of foxes. In this scenario, and when the primary case has been identified, vaccination may be supplemented by culling in some circumstances. The theoretical basis for this will be discussed. In the event of an outbreak of rabies in wildlife, the government's control strategy will be supported by output from computer models, which will simulate various control strategies to optimise methods and areas of control, and human resources.

  15. The Status of State Policies Concerning Birth Control Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parcel, Guy S.; Kenepp, Diana L.

    1972-01-01

    This study tried to determine the nature of existing policies concerning birth control education in each of the 50 states and District of Columbia and to obtain an interpretation of these policies. (Author)

  16. Association between Birth Order and Emergency Room Visits and Acute Hospital Admissions following Pediatric Vaccination: A Self-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Hawken, Steven; Kwong, Jeffrey C.; Deeks, Shelley L.; Crowcroft, Natasha S.; Ducharme, Robin; Manuel, Douglas G.; Wilson, Kumanan

    2013-01-01

    Objective We investigated the association between a child's birth order and emergency room (ER) visits and hospital admissions following 2-,4-,6- and 12-month pediatric vaccinations. Methods We included all children born in Ontario between April 1st, 2006 and March 31st, 2009 who received a qualifying vaccination. We identified vaccinations, ER visits and admissions using health administrative data housed at the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences. We used the self-controlled case series design to compare the relative incidence (RI) of events among 1st-born and later-born children using relative incidence ratios (RIR). Results For the 2-month vaccination, the RIR for 1st-borns versus later-born children was 1.37 (95% CI: 1.19–1.57), which translates to 112 additional events/100,000 vaccinated. For the 4-month vaccination, the RIR for 1st-borns vs. later-borns was 1.70 (95% CI: 1.45–1.99), representing 157 additional events/100,000 vaccinated. At 6 months, the RIR for 1st vs. later-borns was 1.27 (95% CI: 1.09–1.48), or 77 excess events/100,000 vaccinated. At the 12-month vaccination, the RIR was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.02–1.21), or 249 excess events/100,000 vaccinated. Conclusions Birth order is associated with increased incidence of ER visits and hospitalizations following vaccination in infancy. 1st-born children had significantly higher relative incidence of events compared to later-born children. PMID:24324662

  17. Quality of service policy control in virtual private networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yiqing; Wang, Hongbin; Zhou, Zhi; Zhou, Dongru

    2004-04-01

    This paper studies the QoS of VPN in an environment where the public network prices connection-oriented services based on source, destination and grade of service, and advertises these prices to its VPN customers (users). As different QoS technologies can produce different QoS, there are according different traffic classification rules and priority rules. The internet service provider (ISP) may need to build complex mechanisms separately for each node. In order to reduce the burden of network configuration, we need to design policy control technologies. We considers mainly directory server, policy server, policy manager and policy enforcers. Policy decision point (PDP) decide its control according to policy rules. In network, policy enforce point (PEP) decide its network controlled unit. For InterServ and DiffServ, we will adopt different policy control methods as following: (1) In InterServ, traffic uses resource reservation protocol (RSVP) to guarantee the network resource. (2) In DiffServ, policy server controls the DiffServ code points and per hop behavior (PHB), its PDP distributes information to each network node. Policy server will function as following: information searching; decision mechanism; decision delivering; auto-configuration. In order to prove the effectiveness of QoS policy control, we make the corrective simulation.

  18. Relationships among Reading Performance, Locus of Control and Achievement for Marginal Admission Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepper, Roger S.; Drexler, John A., Jr.

    The first phase of the study was a 2 x 2 factorial design, with locus of control and instructional method (lecture and demonstration) as independent variables and honor point average (HPA) as the dependent variable. The second phase used correlational techniques to test the extent to which reading performance and traditional predictors of…

  19. Investment policy, guidelines help providers control risk.

    PubMed

    Seidner, A G

    1989-03-01

    Because the financial markets are volatile, every healthcare organization should establish its own investment policy and guidelines. An investment policy reflects the views of a hospital's board of trustees, and helps the trustees avoid conflict of interest situations. Investment guidelines spell out management's approach to three critical investing components: safety of principal, liquidity, and yield.

  20. Profile in Action: Linking Admission and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes, Carla M.

    2013-01-01

    A profile-oriented retention strategy embraces the admission process as a powerful lever in improving retention and completion rates and recognizes that the student profile can be shaped by changes in admission policies or priorities--even within the current market position of the institution. In addition, the student body can be oriented toward…

  1. U.S. EPA Approves Californias New Trash Control Policy

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAN FRANCISCO -The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recently approved the State Water Resources Control Board's new water quality standards for trash in California's waters. The standards are part of the state's new Trash Control Policy, designed to k

  2. Medical-Grade Channel Access and Admission Control in 802.11e EDCA for Healthcare Applications.

    PubMed

    Son, Sunghwa; Park, Kyung-Joon; Park, Eun-Chan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the problem of assuring medical-grade quality of service (QoS) for real-time medical applications in wireless healthcare systems based on IEEE 802.11e. Firstly, we show that the differentiated channel access of IEEE 802.11e cannot effectively assure medical-grade QoS because of priority inversion. To resolve this problem, we propose an efficient channel access algorithm. The proposed algorithm adjusts arbitrary inter-frame space (AIFS) in the IEEE 802.11e protocol depending on the QoS measurement of medical traffic, to provide differentiated near-absolute priority for medical traffic. In addition, based on rigorous capacity analysis, we propose an admission control scheme that can avoid performance degradation due to network overload. Via extensive simulations, we show that the proposed mechanism strictly assures the medical-grade QoS and improves the throughput of low-priority traffic by more than several times compared to the conventional IEEE 802.11e.

  3. Medical-Grade Channel Access and Admission Control in 802.11e EDCA for Healthcare Applications

    PubMed Central

    Son, Sunghwa; Park, Kyung-Joon; Park, Eun-Chan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the problem of assuring medical-grade quality of service (QoS) for real-time medical applications in wireless healthcare systems based on IEEE 802.11e. Firstly, we show that the differentiated channel access of IEEE 802.11e cannot effectively assure medical-grade QoS because of priority inversion. To resolve this problem, we propose an efficient channel access algorithm. The proposed algorithm adjusts arbitrary inter-frame space (AIFS) in the IEEE 802.11e protocol depending on the QoS measurement of medical traffic, to provide differentiated near-absolute priority for medical traffic. In addition, based on rigorous capacity analysis, we propose an admission control scheme that can avoid performance degradation due to network overload. Via extensive simulations, we show that the proposed mechanism strictly assures the medical-grade QoS and improves the throughput of low-priority traffic by more than several times compared to the conventional IEEE 802.11e. PMID:27490666

  4. Ancillary effects of selected acid deposition control policies

    SciTech Connect

    Moe, R.J.; Lyke, A.J.; Nesse, R.J.

    1986-08-01

    NAPAP is examining a number of potential ways to reduce the precursors (sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) to acid deposition. However, the policies to reduce acid deposition will have other physical, biological and economic effects unrelated to acid deposition. For example, control policies that reduce sulfur dioxide emissions may also increase visibility. The effects of an acid deposition policy that are unrelated to acid deposition are referred to as ''ancillary'' effects. This reserch identifies and characterizes the principle physical and economic ancillary effects associated with acid deposition control and mitigation policies. In this study the ancillary benefits associated with four specific acid deposition policy options were investigated. The four policy options investigated are: (1) flue gas desulfurization, (2) coal blending or switching, (3) reductions in automobile emissions of NO/sub x/, and (4) lake liming. Potential ancillary benefits of each option were identified and characterized. Particular attention was paid to the literature on economic valuation of potential ancillary effects.

  5. Tobacco control, global health policy and development: towards policy coherence in global governance.

    PubMed

    Collin, Jeff

    2012-03-01

    The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) demonstrates the international political will invested in combating the tobacco pandemic and a newfound prominence for tobacco control within the global health agenda. However, major difficulties exist in managing conflicts with foreign and trade policy priorities, and significant obstacles confront efforts to create synergies with development policy and avoid tensions with other health priorities. This paper uses the concept of policy coherence to explore congruence and inconsistencies in objectives, policy, and practice between tobacco control and trade, development and global health priorities. Following the inability of the FCTC negotiations to satisfactorily address the relationship between trade and health, several disputes highlight the challenges posed to tobacco control policies by multilateral and bilateral agreements. While the work of the World Bank has demonstrated the potential contribution of tobacco control to development, the absence of non-communicable diseases from the Millennium Development Goals has limited scope to offer developing countries support for FCTC implementation. Even within international health, tobacco control priorities may be hard to reconcile with other agendas. The paper concludes by discussing the extent to which tobacco control has been pursued via a model of governance very deliberately different from those used in other health issues, in what can be termed 'tobacco exceptionalism'. The analysis developed here suggests that non-communicable disease (NCD) policies, global health, development and tobacco control would have much to gain from re-examining this presumption of difference.

  6. Tobacco control, global health policy and development: towards policy coherence in global governance

    PubMed Central

    Collin, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) demonstrates the international political will invested in combating the tobacco pandemic and a newfound prominence for tobacco control within the global health agenda. However, major difficulties exist in managing conflicts with foreign and trade policy priorities, and significant obstacles confront efforts to create synergies with development policy and avoid tensions with other health priorities. This paper uses the concept of policy coherence to explore congruence and inconsistencies in objectives, policy, and practice between tobacco control and trade, development and global health priorities. Following the inability of the FCTC negotiations to satisfactorily address the relationship between trade and health, several disputes highlight the challenges posed to tobacco control policies by multilateral and bilateral agreements. While the work of the World Bank has demonstrated the potential contribution of tobacco control to development, the absence of non-communicable diseases from the Millennium Development Goals has limited scope to offer developing countries support for FCTC implementation. Even within international health, tobacco control priorities may be hard to reconcile with other agendas. The paper concludes by discussing the extent to which tobacco control has been pursued via a model of governance very deliberately different from those used in other health issues, in what can be termed ‘tobacco exceptionalism’. The analysis developed here suggests that non-communicable disease (NCD) policies, global health, development and tobacco control would have much to gain from re-examining this presumption of difference. PMID:22345267

  7. Public Opinion in Puerto Rico on Alcohol Control Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, Eileen M.; Bernat, Debra H.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Vazquez, Mary Jo; Wagenaar, Alexander C.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the first study to assess public opinion of alcohol policies in Puerto Rico. In 2001, a telephone survey of 514 adults on the island assessed levels of support for 20 alcohol control policies covering five domains: (a) raising alcohol taxes, (b) restricting alcohol consumption in public places, (c) punishing adult providers…

  8. Post Admission Cognitive Therapy (PACT) for the Inpatient Treatment of Military Personnel with Suicidal Behaviors: A Multi-Site Randomized Controlled Trial

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    depression, trauma, sleep , suicide ideation), repeat number of psychiatric hospitalization(s), hope for one’s future, and acceptability of treatment (as...0106 TITLE: Post Admission Cognitive Therapy (PACT) for the Inpatient Treatment of Military Personnel with Suicidal Behaviors: A Multi- Site...Inpatient Treatment of Military Personnel with Suicidal Behaviors: A Multi-Site Randomized Controlled Trial Service Members and Veterans 5a

  9. Effectiveness of telemonitoring integrated into existing clinical services on hospital admission for exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: researcher blind, multicentre, randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Janet; McCloughan, Lucy; Todd, Allison; Krishan, Ashma; Lewis, Stephanie; Stoddart, Andrew; van der Pol, Marjon; MacNee, William; Sheikh, Aziz; Pagliari, Claudia; McKinstry, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Objective To test the effectiveness of telemonitoring integrated into existing clinical services such that intervention and control groups have access to the same clinical care. Design Researcher blind, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Setting UK primary care (Lothian, Scotland). Participants Adults with at least one admission for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the year before randomisation. We excluded people who had other significant lung disease, who were unable to provide informed consent or complete the study, or who had other significant social or clinical problems. Interventions Participants were recruited between 21 May 2009 and 28 March 2011, and centrally randomised to receive telemonitoring or conventional self monitoring. Using a touch screen, telemonitoring participants recorded a daily questionnaire about symptoms and treatment use, and monitored oxygen saturation using linked instruments. Algorithms, based on the symptom score, generated alerts if readings were omitted or breached thresholds. Both groups received similar care from existing clinical services. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was time to hospital admission due to COPD exacerbation up to one year after randomisation. Other outcomes included number and duration of admissions, and validated questionnaire assessments of health related quality of life (using St George’s respiratory questionnaire (SGRQ)), anxiety or depression (or both), self efficacy, knowledge, and adherence to treatment. Analysis was intention to treat. Results Of 256 patients completing the study, 128 patients were randomised to telemonitoring and 128 to usual care; baseline characteristics of each group were similar. The number of days to admission did not differ significantly between groups (adjusted hazard ratio 0.98, 95% confidence interval 0.66 to 1.44). Over one year, the mean number of COPD admissions was similar in both groups (telemonitoring 1.2 admissions per person

  10. Reduction in hospital admissions for pneumonia in non-institutionalised elderly people as a result of influenza vaccination: a case-control study in Spain.

    PubMed Central

    Puig-Barberà, J; Márquez-Calderón, S; Masoliver-Fores, A; Lloria-Paes, F; Ortega-Dicha, A; Gil-Martín, M; Calero-Martínez, M J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effectiveness of influenza vaccine in preventing hospital admission for pneumonia in non-institutionalised elderly people. DESIGN: This was a case-control study. SETTING: All three public hospitals in the Castellón area of Spain. PARTICIPANTS: Cases were people aged 65 or more not living in an institution who were admitted to hospital for pneumonia between November 15, 1994 and March 31, 1995. Each case was matched with two sex matched control subjects aged 65 years or older admitted to hospital in the same week for acute abdominal surgical conditions or trauma. The sampling of incident cases was consecutive. Eighty three cases and 166 controls were identified and included in the study. MEASUREMENTS: Trained interviewers completed a questionnaire for each subject on the vaccination status, smoking habits, previous diseases, health care use, social contacts, family background, the vaccination status of the family carer, home characteristics, and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: The adjusted odds ratio of the influenza vaccination preventing admission to hospital for pneumonia was 0.21 (95% confidence interval 0.09, 0.55). The variables which best explained the risk of being a case were age, intensity of social contacts, health care use, previous diseases, and the existence of a vaccinated family carer. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza vaccination reduced significantly hospital admissions for pneumonia in non-institutionalised elderly people. PMID:9425463

  11. Tobacco control and trade policy: proactive strategies for integrating policy norms.

    PubMed

    Drope, Jeffrey; Lencucha, Raphael

    2013-01-01

    Palpable tension continues at the intersection of tobacco control and trade policy. Through consideration of four major tobacco control-related trade disputes, we suggest how to empower public health proponents in the face of entrenched economic policymaking norms. We argue that a more effective pro-tobacco control message should: (a) seek to be broadly consistent with core principles of the world trading system, (b) boldly assert countries' international commitments to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, (c) marshal deep scientific evidence, and (d) come from a broad range of actors, including from low- and middle-income countries as well as from other trade policy community members.

  12. Urban stormwater source control policies: why and how?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrucci, G.; Deroubaix, J.-F.; Tassin, B.

    2014-09-01

    Stormwater source control is becoming a common strategy for urban stormwater management in many countries. It relies on regulations or other policy instruments compelling or inciting implementation, for each new urban development, of small-scale facilities to locally store and manage stormwater. Local authorities that pioneered source control since the 1980s have already observed that small-scale facilities systematically implemented over a catchment are able to influence its hydrological behaviour. This capability is the main strength of source control, as it allows compensation for the negative effects of urbanization. Yet, it also represents its main risk: if initial decision-making is not sufficiently accurate, source control can produce long-term negative effects. Because of its current spreading, source control will acquire an increasing role as a driver of hydrological changes in urban catchments, and the directions of these changes depend on current policy-making practices. This paper presents an analysis and a critical discussion of the main objectives that policy-makers attribute to stormwater source control. The investigation is based on a sample of French case studies, completed by a literature review for international comparison. It identifies four main objectives, some typical of urban stormwater management and some more innovative: flood reduction, receiving waters protection, sustainable development, costs reduction. The discussion focuses on how current policy-making practices are able to translate these objectives in concrete policy instruments, and on which knowledge and tools could improve this process. It is shown that for some objectives, basic knowledge is available, but the creation of policy instruments which are effective at the catchment scale and adapted to local conditions is still problematic. For other objectives, substantial lacks of knowledge exist, casting doubts on long-term effectiveness of current policy instruments. Research

  13. Transmittal of OAQPS Interim Control Policy Statement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  14. Tobacco control in the Russian Federation- a policy analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Russian Federation (Russia) has one of the highest smoking rates in the world. The purpose of this study is to analyze past and current trends of the tobacco epidemic in the Russian Federation, review current tobacco control policy responses, and identify areas of opportunity for policy priorities. Methods We used a policy triangle as analytical framework to examine content, context, and processes of Russian tobacco control policy. The analysis was based on secondary data on supply and demand sides of the Russian tobacco epidemic, tobacco-related economic and health effects during Russia’s economic transition, and compliance of Russian tobacco policy with international standards and regulations. Results Tobacco-promoting strategies have specifically targeted women and youth. Russia’s approval of a “National Tobacco Control Concept” and draft for a comprehensive tobacco control bill increasingly align national legislature with the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). However, several structural and cultural factors represent substantial barriers to the policy process. The influence of transnational tobacco companies on policy processes in Russia has so far impeded a full implementation of the FCTC mandates. Conclusions Several strategies have been identified as having the potential to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use in Russia and decrease tobacco-related national health and economic burden: adjusting national tobacco policy by raising tobacco tax from the current lowest level in Europe to at least 70%; consequent enforcement of a complete smoking ban in public places; marketing restrictions; and smoking cessation interventions integrated into primary care. Russia’s tobacco control efforts need to target women and youths specifically to efficiently counter industry efforts. PMID:23339756

  15. Current status of tobacco policy and control.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, Luca; Jardin, Bianca; Carpenter, Matthew J; Cummings, K Michael; Silvestri, Gerard A

    2012-07-01

    Behaviors pertaining to tobacco use have changed significantly over the past century. Compared with 1964, smoking prevalence rates have halved from 40% to 20%, and as a result there has been a slow but steady decline in the rates of tobacco-induced diseases such as heart disease and cancer. Growing awareness of the health risks of smoking was aided by the US Surgeon Reports that were issued on a nearly annual basis starting from 1964. Concerns about the hazards of breathing in second-hand smoke further contributed to the declining social acceptance of smoking, which evolved into regulatory actions restricting smoking on buses, planes, retail outlets, restaurants, and bars. Today, 23 states and 493 localities have comprehensive laws restricting indoor smoking. This paper examines public policies that have made a significant impact on smoking and lung cancer rates and discusses potential future research directions to further reduce the diseases caused by smoking.

  16. Current Status of Tobacco Policy and Control

    PubMed Central

    Paoletti, Luca; Jardin, Bianca; Carpenter, Matthew; Cummings, K. Michael; Silvestri, Gerard A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Tobacco use behaviors have changed significantly over the past century. Compared to 1964, smoking prevalence rates have halved from 40% to 20% and as a result there has been a slow but steady decline in the rates of tobacco-induced diseases such as heart disease and cancer. Growing awareness of the health risks of smoking were aided by the United States Surgeon Reports which were issued on a nearly annual basis starting in 1964. Concerns about the hazards of breathing in secondhand smoke pollution further contributed to the declining social acceptance of smoking, which evolved into regulatory actions restricting smoking on buses, planes, retail outlets, restaurants and bars. Today, 23 states and 493 localities have comprehensive laws restricting indoor smoking. This paper examines public policies that have made a significant impact on smoking and lung cancer rates and discusses potential future research directions to further reduce the diseases caused by smoking. PMID:22847588

  17. Air Pollution Control Policies in China: A Retrospective and Prospects.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yana; Andersson, Henrik; Zhang, Shiqiu

    2016-12-09

    With China's significant role on pollution emissions and related health damage, deep and up-to-date understanding of China's air pollution policies is of worldwide relevance. Based on scientific evidence for the evolution of air pollution and the institutional background of environmental governance in China, we examine the development of air pollution control policies from the 1980s and onwards. We show that: (1) The early policies, until 2005, were ineffective at reducing emissions; (2) During 2006-2012, new instruments which interact with political incentives were introduced in the 11th Five-Year Plan, and the national goal of reducing total sulfur dioxide (SO₂) emissions by 10% was achieved. However, regional compound air pollution problems dominated by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ground level ozone (O₃) emerged and worsened; (3) After the winter-long PM2.5 episode in eastern China in 2013, air pollution control policies have been experiencing significant changes on multiple fronts. In this work we analyze the different policy changes, the drivers of changes and key factors influencing the effectiveness of policies in these three stages. Lessons derived from the policy evolution have implications for future studies, as well as further reforming the management scheme towards air quality and health risk oriented directions.

  18. Air Pollution Control Policies in China: A Retrospective and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yana; Andersson, Henrik; Zhang, Shiqiu

    2016-01-01

    With China’s significant role on pollution emissions and related health damage, deep and up-to-date understanding of China’s air pollution policies is of worldwide relevance. Based on scientific evidence for the evolution of air pollution and the institutional background of environmental governance in China, we examine the development of air pollution control policies from the 1980s and onwards. We show that: (1) The early policies, until 2005, were ineffective at reducing emissions; (2) During 2006–2012, new instruments which interact with political incentives were introduced in the 11th Five-Year Plan, and the national goal of reducing total sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions by 10% was achieved. However, regional compound air pollution problems dominated by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ground level ozone (O3) emerged and worsened; (3) After the winter-long PM2.5 episode in eastern China in 2013, air pollution control policies have been experiencing significant changes on multiple fronts. In this work we analyze the different policy changes, the drivers of changes and key factors influencing the effectiveness of policies in these three stages. Lessons derived from the policy evolution have implications for future studies, as well as further reforming the management scheme towards air quality and health risk oriented directions. PMID:27941665

  19. Identifying cost-effective dynamic policies to control epidemics.

    PubMed

    Yaesoubi, Reza; Cohen, Ted

    2016-12-10

    We describe a mathematical decision model for identifying dynamic health policies for controlling epidemics. These dynamic policies aim to select the best current intervention based on accumulating epidemic data and the availability of resources at each decision point. We propose an algorithm to approximate dynamic policies that optimize the population's net health benefit, a performance measure which accounts for both health and monetary outcomes. We further illustrate how dynamic policies can be defined and optimized for the control of a novel viral pathogen, where a policy maker must decide (i) when to employ or lift a transmission-reducing intervention (e.g. school closure) and (ii) how to prioritize population members for vaccination when a limited quantity of vaccines first become available. Within the context of this application, we demonstrate that dynamic policies can produce higher net health benefit than more commonly described static policies that specify a pre-determined sequence of interventions to employ throughout epidemics. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction before and after implementation of a comprehensive smoke-free policy in Uruguay: experience through 2010

    PubMed Central

    Sebrié, Ernesto Marcelo; Sandoya, Edgardo; Bianco, Eduardo; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K Michael; Glantz, Stanton A

    2015-01-01

    Background Comprehensive smoke-free laws have been followed by drops in hospitalisations for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), including in a study with 2 years follow-up for such a law in Uruguay. Methods Multiple linear and negative binomial regressions for AMI admissions (ICD-10 code 121) from 37 hospitals for 2 years before and 4 years after Uruguay implemented a 100% nationwide smoke-free law. Results Based on 11 135 cases, there was a significant drop of −30.9 AMI admissions/month (95% CI −49.8 to −11.8, p=0.002) following implementation of the smoke-free law. The effect of the law did not increase or decrease over time following implementation (p=0.234). This drop represented a 17% drop in AMI admissions following the law (IRR=0.829, 95% CI 0.743 to 0.925, p=0.001). Conclusions Adding two more years of follow-up data confirmed that Uruguay’s smoke-free law was followed by a substantial and sustained reduction in AMI hospitalisations. PMID:25324157

  1. The Confidence Game in Honors Admissions and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzy, Annmarie

    2013-01-01

    Annmarie Guzy, an expert with almost three decades of experience in post-secondary honors education, responds to Jerry Herron's essay, "Notes toward an Excellent Marxist-Elitist Honors Admissions Policy," which argues that "a well-conceived admissions policy tells us much more than whom to recruit; it becomes the basis for a…

  2. Student Incentives and Preferential Treatment in College Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pastine, Ivan; Pastine, Tuvana

    2012-01-01

    We consider a framework in which the optimal admissions policy of a purely academic-quality oriented college implements preferential treatment in favor of the student from the deprived socioeconomic background which maximizes the competition between candidates. We find that the exact form of the preferential treatment admissions policy matters for…

  3. Considerations for policy on man-made debris propagation control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fielder, D.

    1985-01-01

    The present rates of man-made, space object propagation are such that there is a real probability of self propagation which, if uncontrolled can lead to a serious limitation to future uses of spacecraft for beneficial purposes. Effective control over the debris issue requires adoption and adherence to policy at a world wide level (any one nation's unknowing, selfish or deliberately adverse action can conceivably jeopardize other useful applications of space satellites for years into the future). The near-term environment may not seriously jeopardize the near-term missions. However, absence of control and/or nonadherence to a control policy in the near-term can result in a debris environment that can severely limit long - term mission opportunities. The data upon which these observations are based continues to be investigated. These investigations tend to validate the preceding observations and emphasize the need for near-term action to establish responsible control policy and implementation actions.

  4. Analysis of Access Control Policies in Operating Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hong

    2009-01-01

    Operating systems rely heavily on access control mechanisms to achieve security goals and defend against remote and local attacks. The complexities of modern access control mechanisms and the scale of policy configurations are often overwhelming to system administrators and software developers. Therefore, mis-configurations are common, and the…

  5. The Impacts of State Control Policies on College Tuition Increase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Mikyong Minsun; Ko, Jangwan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined state efforts to control tuition increases over the past 10 years. Using data from 50 states and 540 public 4-year universities and colleges, we examined average tuition increases in dollar amount and percentage of change by the type of state tuition control policy and by the authority for tuition-setting power. The state…

  6. Seeking the Admission Hybrid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucido, Jerome A.

    2012-01-01

    When one thinks of seminal publications in college admission, the first piece that comes to mind is B. Alden Thresher's "College Admissions in the Public Interest" (1966). Thresher's work, relevant to this day, is credited with being the foundational document of the admission profession. McDonough and Robertson's 1995 study, commissioned by NACAC,…

  7. Dimensions underlying legislator support for tobacco control policies

    PubMed Central

    de Guia, N A; Cohen, J; Ashley, M; Ferrence, R; Rehm, J; Studlar, D; Northrup, D

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To propose and test a new classification system for characterising legislator support for various tobacco control policies. Design: Cross sectional study. Subjects: Federal and provincial legislators in Canada serving as of October 1996 who participated in the Canadian Legislator Study (n = 553; response rate 54%). Main outcome measures: A three factor model (Voters, Tobacco industry, Other interest groups) that assigns nine tobacco control policies according to legislators' hypothesised perceptions of which group is more directly affected by these policies. Results: Based on confirmatory factor analysis, the proposed model had an acceptable fit and showed construct validity. Multivariate analysis indicated that three of the predictors (believing that the government has a role in health promotion, being a non-smoker, and knowledge that there are more tobacco than alcohol caused deaths) were associated with all three factor scales. Several variables were associated with two of the three scales. Some were unique to each scale. Conclusions: Based on our analyses, legislator support for tobacco control policies can be grouped according to our a priori factor model. The information gained from this work can help advocates understand how legislators think about different types of tobacco control policies. This could lead to the development of more effective advocacy strategies. PMID:12773721

  8. Beyond Declines in Student Body Diversity: How Campus-Level Administrators Understand a Prohibition on Race-Conscious Postsecondary Admissions Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garces, Liliana M.; Cogburn, Courtney D.

    2015-01-01

    Guided by a bottom-up policy implementation framework, this study draws from semi-structured interviews of 14 campus-level administrators charged with implementing diversity policy at the University of Michigan to investigate how an affirmative action ban (Proposal 2) influenced their efforts in support of racial/ethnic diversity at the…

  9. Translating evidence into policy for cardiovascular disease control in India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are leading causes of premature mortality in India. Evidence from developed countries shows that mortality from these can be substantially prevented using population-wide and individual-based strategies. Policy initiatives for control of CVD in India have been suggested but evidence of efficacy has emerged only recently. These initiatives can have immediate impact in reducing morbidity and mortality. Of the prevention strategies, primordial involve improvement in socioeconomic status and literacy, adequate healthcare financing and public health insurance, effective national CVD control programme, smoking control policies, legislative control of saturated fats, trans fats, salt and alcohol, and development of facilities for increasing physical activity through better urban planning and school-based and worksite interventions. Primary prevention entails change in medical educational curriculum and improved healthcare delivery for control of CVD risk factors-smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes. Secondary prevention involves creation of facilities and human resources for optimum acute CVD care and secondary prevention. There is need to integrate various policy makers, develop effective policies and modify healthcare systems for effective delivery of CVD preventive care. PMID:21306620

  10. A supervisory control policy over an acoustic communication network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhadi, Alireza; Dumon, Jonathan; Canudas-de-Wit, Carlos

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a supervisory multi-agent control policy over an acoustic communication network subject to imperfections (packet dropout and transmission delay) for localisation of an underwater flow source (e.g., source of chemical pollution, fresh water, etc.) with an unknown location at the bottom of the ocean. A two-loop control policy combined with a coding strategy for reliable communication is presented to perform the above task. A simulator is developed and used to evaluate the trade-offs between quality of communication, transmission delay and control for a fleet of autonomous underwater vehicles supervised over a noisy acoustic communication network by an autonomous surface vessel. It is illustrated that without compensation of the effects of severe random packet dropout, localisation of an unknown underwater flow source is not possible for the condition simulated just by implementing a two-loop control policy. But a two-loop control policy combined with a strategy for reliable communication locates the unknown location of flow source.

  11. Exposure to Tobacco Marketing and Support for Tobacco Control Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, David; Costello, Mary-Jean; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Topham, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the salience of tobacco marketing on postsecondary campuses and student support for tobacco control policies. Methods: Face-to-face surveys were conducted with 1690 students at 3 universities in southwestern Ontario. Results: Virtually all (97%) students reported noticing tobacco marketing in the past year, and 35% reported…

  12. International trade agreements challenge tobacco and alcohol control policies.

    PubMed

    Zeigler, Donald W

    2006-11-01

    This report reviews aspects of trade agreements that challenge tobacco and alcohol control policies. Trade agreements reduce barriers, increase competition, lower prices and promote consumption. Conversely, tobacco and alcohol control measures seek to reduce access and consumption, raise prices and restrict advertising and promotion in order to reduce health and social problems. However, under current and pending international agreements, negotiated by trade experts without public health input, governments and corporations may challenge these protections as constraints on trade. Advocates must recognise the inherent conflicts between free trade and public health and work to exclude alcohol and tobacco from trade agreements. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control has potential to protect tobacco policies and serve as a model for alcohol control.

  13. Neighbourhood control policies and the spread of infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, L; Haydon, D T; Shaw, D J; Chase-Topping, M E; Keeling, M J; Woolhouse, M E J

    2003-01-01

    We present a model of a control programme for a disease outbreak in a population of livestock holdings. Control is achieved by culling infectious holdings when they are discovered and by the pre-emptive culling of livestock on holdings deemed to be at enhanced risk of infection. Because the pre-emptive control programme cannot directly identify exposed holdings, its implementation will result in the removal of both infected and uninfected holdings. This leads to a fundamental trade-off: increased levels of control produce a greater reduction in transmission by removing more exposed holdings, but increase the number of uninfected holdings culled. We derive an expression for the total number of holdings culled during the course of an outbreak and demonstrate that there is an optimal control policy, which minimizes this loss. Using a metapopulation model to incorporate local clustering of infection, we examine a neighbourhood control programme in a locally spreading outbreak. We find that there is an optimal level of control, which increases with increasing basic reproduction ratio, R(0); moreover, implementation of control may be optimal even when R(0) < 1. The total loss to the population is relatively insensitive to the level of control as it increases beyond the optimal level, suggesting that over-control is a safer policy than under-control. PMID:12964992

  14. Effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in prevention of hospital admissions for rotavirus gastroenteritis among young children in Belgium: case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Braeckman, Tessa; Van Herck, Koen; Meyer, Nadia; Pirçon, Jean-Yves; Soriano-Gabarró, Montse; Heylen, Elisabeth; Zeller, Mark; Azou, Myriam; Capiau, Heidi; De Koster, Jan; Maernoudt, Anne-Sophie; Raes, Marc; Verdonck, Lutgard; Verghote, Marc; Vergison, Anne; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Van Ranst, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination among young children in Belgium. Design Prospective case-control study. Setting Random sample of 39 Belgian hospitals, February 2008 to June 2010. Participants 215 children admitted to hospital with rotavirus gastroenteritis confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and 276 age and hospital matched controls. All children were of an eligible age to have received rotavirus vaccination (that is, born after 1 October 2006 and aged ≥14 weeks). Main outcome measure Vaccination status of children admitted to hospital with rotavirus gastroenteritis and matched controls. Results 99 children (48%) admitted with rotavirus gastroenteritis and 244 (91%) controls had received at least one dose of any rotavirus vaccine (P<0.001). The monovalent rotavirus vaccine accounted for 92% (n=594) of all rotavirus vaccine doses. With hospital admission as the outcome, the unadjusted effectiveness of two doses of the monovalent rotavirus vaccine was 90% (95% confidence interval 81% to 95%) overall, 91% (75% to 97%) in children aged 3-11 months, and 90% (76% to 96%) in those aged ≥12 months. The G2P[4] genotype accounted for 52% of cases confirmed by polymerase chain reaction with eligible matched controls. Vaccine effectiveness was 85% (64% to 94%) against G2P[4] and 95% (78% to 99%) against G1P[8]. In 25% of cases confirmed by polymerase chain reaction with eligible matched controls, there was reported co-infection with adenovirus, astrovirus and/or norovirus. Vaccine effectiveness against co-infected cases was 86% (52% to 96%). Effectiveness of at least one dose of any rotavirus vaccine (intention to vaccinate analysis) was 91% (82% to 95%). Conclusions Rotavirus vaccination is effective for the prevention of admission to hospital for rotavirus gastroenteritis among young children in Belgium, despite the high prevalence of G2P[4] and viral co-infection. PMID:22875947

  15. Policy on management of post-removal site control. Directive

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-03

    The directive transmits the OSWER policy on management of post-removal site control for Fund-financed removal activities and communicating decisions to States on the use of institutional controls. It provides procedures to ensure that, when necessary and to the extent practicable, provision for post-removal site control at both National Priorities List (NPL) and non-NPL sites is made prior to initiation of a Fund-financed removal action. Procedures are also provided for communicating decisions to States on the use of institutional controls when waste is left on-site following a removal action.

  16. Using policy management for optical VPN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherkaoui, Omar; Chen, Ken; Serhouchni, Ahmed

    2001-10-01

    This paper presents a Policy-based Control Plane, which allows Carrier Optical Network to dynamically configure and deploy Optical Virtual Private Networks (Optical VPNs) over multiple administration domains. A configurable policy-based control mechanism is required to regulate and control the information propagation across both UNI and NNI interfaces and the actions allowed on behalf of the users. The proposed framework extend the ITU Control Plane by adding based IP-centric policy mechanisms like admission control protocol COPS (Common Open Policy Service).

  17. Do stormwater source control policies deliver the right hydrologic outcomes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrucci, Guido; Rioust, Emilie; Deroubaix, José-Frédéric; Tassin, Bruno

    2013-04-01

    SummaryThe number of stormwater source control (SC) regulations adopted by local authorities is rapidly growing in many countries. We can expect that, in the near future, the hydrologic behavior of many urban and periurban catchments will reflect this diffusion. This paper discusses SC regulations through two complementary approaches: starting on three French case-studies, it analyzes how regulations are developed today and identifies a set of shortcuts in policy-making practices. Then, the hydrologic model of a periurban catchment in the Paris region is used to test the impacts that these regulations can produce if widely applied. The main finding is that inertia in policy-making, driving a singular focus on flow-rate based regulations, can produce negative impacts in the long-term. Further efforts on volume-based regulations are advocated, both in terms of research and policy-making.

  18. Why Have Tobacco Control Policies Stalled? Using Genetic Moderation to Examine Policy Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Jason M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Research has shown that tobacco control policies have helped produce the dramatic decline in use over the decades following the 1964 surgeon general’s report. However, prevalence rates have stagnated during the past two decades in the US, even with large tobacco taxes and expansions of clean air laws. The observed differences in tobacco control policy effectiveness and why policies do not help all smokers are largely unexplained. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the importance of genetics in explaining response to tobacco taxation policy by testing the potential of gene-policy interaction in determining adult tobacco use. Methods A moderated regression analysis framework was used to test interactive effects between genotype and tobacco policy in predicting tobacco use. Cross sectional data of US adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) linked with genotype and geocodes were used to identify tobacco use phenotypes, state-level taxation rates, and variation in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (CHRNA6) genotype. Tobacco use phenotypes included current use, number of cigarettes smoked per day, and blood serum cotinine measurements. Results Variation in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor was found to moderate the influence of tobacco taxation on multiple measures of tobacco use. Individuals with the protective G/G polymorphism (51% of the sample) responded to taxation while others had no response. The estimated differences in response by genotype were C/C genotype: b = −0.016 se  = 0.018; G/C genotype: b = 0.014 se  = 0.017; G/G genotype: b = −0.071 se 0.029. Conclusions This study provides novel evidence of “gene-policy” interaction and suggests a genetic mechanism for the large differences in response to tobacco policies. The inability for these policies to reduce use for individuals with specific genotypes suggests alternative methods may be needed to further reduce use

  19. Nuclear nonproliferation, controls and US policy. Study report

    SciTech Connect

    Sasser, R.E.

    1993-03-17

    The world has lived under a nuclear threat since the US used nuclear weapons in World War II. After the war, superpowers evolved that provided nuclear umbrellas to their alliances. The recent decline and breakup of the USSR was hailed by many as the notice that nuclear weapons could be greatly reduced and that the entire world would be a safer place. What has evolved, unfortunately, is a still dangerous and complex world where nations are scrambling for sovereignty, power and status with continued emphasis on nuclear weapons. The US is deeply involved in developing nonproliferation policy to encompass this new environment of a changed world structure and a new balance of power. This paper examines this problem in depth starting with the sheer magnitude of the problem and then delving into each of the more prominent nonproliferation controls measures. These measures are examined for advantages, disadvantages and applicability to US policy. The Iraq pursuit of nuclear weapons and the UN and US response and actions are examined as a case study to determine lessons learned for US policy. Finally, existing US policy is examined to allow suggestion of policy changes based on the paper research.

  20. Re-evaluating Russia's biological weapons policy, as reflected in the Criminal Code and Official Admissions: insubordination leading to a president's subordination.

    PubMed

    Knoph, Jan T; Westerdahl, Kristina S

    2006-01-01

    Half-heartedly acknowledged by the Russian Federation, the Soviet Union ran the world's largest offensive program for biological weapons, breaching the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention. Russia criminalized biological weapons in 1993 only to decriminalize them in 1996, but in 2003 president Putin partly recriminalized them. None of these changes were declared within the Convention. Several well-known official statements, when reviewed in their context, turned out to admit to neither an offensive program nor a breach of the Convention. Thus, the Russian biological weapons policy is more ambiguous than usually depicted, and various policy shapers can be discerned.

  1. A Pollution Control Strategy Game: Costs of Control Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierma, Thomas J.; Walbert, Mark S.

    1987-01-01

    Describes an interactive classroom game designed to enhance student understanding of air pollution control strategies. Discusses the game's focus on the differences in compliance costs that can occur between the three principal control approaches of emission limits, emission permits, and emission taxes. (TW)

  2. Building the evidence base for effective tobacco control policies: the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (the ITC Project).

    PubMed

    Fong, G T; Cummings, K M; Shopland, D R

    2006-06-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) is a seminal event in tobacco control and in global health. Scientific evidence guided the creation of the FCTC, and as the treaty moves into its implementation phase, scientific evidence can be used to guide the formulation of evidence-based tobacco control policies. The International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC Project) is a transdisciplinary international collaboration of tobacco control researchers who have created research studies to evaluate and understand the psychosocial and behavioural impact of FCTC policies as they are implemented in participating ITC countries, which together are inhabited by over 45% of the world's smokers. This introduction to the ITC Project supplement of Tobacco Control presents a brief outline of the ITC Project, including a summary of key findings to date. The overall conceptual model and methodology of the ITC Project--involving representative national cohort surveys created from a common conceptual model, with common methods and measures across countries--may hold promise as a useful paradigm in efforts to evaluate and understand the impact of population-based interventions in other important domains of health, such as obesity.

  3. Variation in rates of hospital admission for appendicitis in Wales.

    PubMed Central

    West, R R; Carey, M J

    1978-01-01

    In a study designed to investigate the variations in rates of admission to hospital for appendicitis in Wales Hospital Activity Analysis listings were analysed according to the sex and age of the patients and the month and day of the week of admission. The incidence of hospitalisation was greatest among boys aged 10-14 and girls aged 15-19. The number of admissions was higher on weekdays than at weekends, but there were no seasonal variations. Durations of stay differed between the 17 health districts. We conclude that admission rates vary mainly because of differing hospital admission policies. Admission is not wholly governed by the sudden onset of abdominal pain; other factors include the threshold of consultation of each patient, the referral habits of general practitioners, the availability of hospital beds, and the degree to which doctors and patients expect admission. PMID:656866

  4. Pareto Efficient Policy for Supervisory Power Management Control

    SciTech Connect

    Malikopoulos, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    n this paper we address the problem of online optimization of the supervisory power management control in parallel hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). We model HEV opera- tion as a controlled Markov chain using the long-run expected average cost per unit time criterion, and we show that the control policy yielding the Pareto optimal solution minimizes the average cost criterion online. The effectiveness of the proposed solution is validated through simulation and compared to the solution derived with dynamic programming using the average cost criterion.

  5. International trade agreements: a threat to tobacco control policy.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, E R; Brenner, J E; Houston, T P

    2005-08-01

    International covenants establish a role for governments in ensuring the conditions for human health and wellbeing, which has been recognised as a central human right. International trade agreements, conversely, prioritize the rights of corporations over health and human rights. International trade agreements are threatening existing tobacco control policies and restrict the possibility of implementing new controls. This situation is unrecognised by many tobacco control advocates in signatory nations, especially those in developing countries. Recent agreements on eliminating various trade restrictions, including those on tobacco, have expanded far beyond simply international movement of goods to include internal tobacco distribution regulations and intellectual property rules regulating advertising and labelling. Our analysis shows that to the extent trade agreements protect the tobacco industry, in itself a deadly enterprise, they erode human rights principles and contribute to ill health. The tobacco industry has used trade policy to undermine effective barriers to tobacco importation. Trade negotiations provide an unwarranted opportunity for the tobacco industry to assert its interests without public scrutiny. Trade agreements provide the industry with additional tools to obstruct control policies in both developed and developing countries and at every level. The health community should become involved in reversing these trends, and help promote additional measures to protect public health.

  6. International trade agreements: a threat to tobacco control policy

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, E; Brenner, J; Houston, T

    2005-01-01

    International covenants establish a role for governments in ensuring the conditions for human health and wellbeing, which has been recognised as a central human right. International trade agreements, conversely, prioritise the rights of corporations over health and human rights. International trade agreements are threatening existing tobacco control policies and restrict the possibility of implementing new controls. This situation is unrecognised by many tobacco control advocates in signatory nations, especially those in developing countries. Recent agreements on eliminating various trade restrictions, including those on tobacco, have expanded far beyond simply international movement of goods to include internal tobacco distribution regulations and intellectual property rules regulating advertising and labelling. Our analysis shows that to the extent trade agreements protect the tobacco industry, in itself a deadly enterprise, they erode human rights principles and contribute to ill health. The tobacco industry has used trade policy to undermine effective barriers to tobacco importation. Trade negotiations provide an unwarranted opportunity for the tobacco industry to assert its interests without public scrutiny. Trade agreements provide the industry with additional tools to obstruct control policies in both developed and developing countries and at every level. The health community should become involved in reversing these trends, and help promote additional measures to protect public health. PMID:16046697

  7. What Admissions Officials Think

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Over the past two decades, college admissions has become a prime-time preoccupation. Most people know at least something about the process, especially if they have a teenager in high school and a college guide on their coffee table. Nonetheless, widespread public misconceptions persist about admissions requirements, the selection process, and the…

  8. The Administration of Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Clifford C.

    1978-01-01

    Among all the tasks of the admissions officer in developing a successful marketing program, the hardest may be that of convincing other college administrators of the importance of admissions to the institution's survival. Discussed are long-range planning, budgeting, staff selection and training, and implementing a plan. (Author/LBH)

  9. Technology in International Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    In a relatively short time, technology applications have become an essential feature of the admissions business. They make the jobs of international admissions professionals easier in many ways, allowing for more robust communication with applicants and counselors, a streamlined application process, and quicker access to information about…

  10. Virtual Control Policy for Binary Ordered Resources Petri Net Class

    PubMed Central

    Rovetto, Carlos A.; Concepción, Tomás J.; Cano, Elia Esther

    2016-01-01

    Prevention and avoidance of deadlocks in sensor networks that use the wormhole routing algorithm is an active research domain. There are diverse control policies that will address this problem being our approach a new method. In this paper we present a virtual control policy for the new specialized Petri net subclass called Binary Ordered Resources Petri Net (BORPN). Essentially, it is an ordinary class constructed from various state machines that share unitary resources in a complex form, which allows branching and joining of processes. The reduced structure of this new class gives advantages that allow analysis of the entire system’s behavior, which is a prohibitive task for large systems because of the complexity and routing algorithms. PMID:27548170

  11. Virtual Control Policy for Binary Ordered Resources Petri Net Class.

    PubMed

    Rovetto, Carlos A; Concepción, Tomás J; Cano, Elia Esther

    2016-08-18

    Prevention and avoidance of deadlocks in sensor networks that use the wormhole routing algorithm is an active research domain. There are diverse control policies that will address this problem being our approach a new method. In this paper we present a virtual control policy for the new specialized Petri net subclass called Binary Ordered Resources Petri Net (BORPN). Essentially, it is an ordinary class constructed from various state machines that share unitary resources in a complex form, which allows branching and joining of processes. The reduced structure of this new class gives advantages that allow analysis of the entire system's behavior, which is a prohibitive task for large systems because of the complexity and routing algorithms.

  12. 78 FR 54623 - Effects of Foreign Policy-Based Export Controls

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... relating to the following: 1. Information on the effect of foreign policy-based export controls on sales of... controls more effective. 6. Information that illustrates the effect of foreign policy-based export controls... Bureau of Industry and Security Effects of Foreign Policy-Based Export Controls AGENCY: Bureau...

  13. Predicting Academic Success Using Admission Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidovitch, Nitza; Soen, Dan

    2015-01-01

    This study, conducted at a tertiary education institution in Israel, following two previous studies, was designed to deal again with a question that is a topic of debate in Israel and worldwide: Is there justification for the approach that considers restrictive university admission policies an efficient tool for predicting students' success at the…

  14. The Control of Environmental Tobacco Smoke: A Policy Review

    PubMed Central

    McNabola, Aonghus; Gill, Laurence William

    2009-01-01

    According to World Health Organisation figures, 30% of all cancer deaths, 20% of all coronary heart diseases and strokes and 80% of all chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are caused by cigarette smoking. Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure has also been shown to be associated with disease and premature death in non-smokers. In response to this environmental health issue, several countries have brought about a smoking ban policy in public places and in the workplace. Countries such as the U.S., France, Italy, Ireland, Malta, the Netherlands, Sweden, Scotland, Spain, and England have all introduced policies aimed at reducing the population exposure to ETS. Several investigations have monitored the effectiveness of these smoking ban policies in terms of ETS concentrations, human health and smoking prevalence, while others have also investigated a number of alternatives to smoking ban policy measures. This paper reviews the state of the art in research, carried out in the field of ETS, smoking bans and Tobacco Control to date and highlights the need for future research in the area. PMID:19440413

  15. Administration knowledge of economic costs of foreign policy export controls

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-02

    The Export Administration Act of 1979 requires consultation, as appropriate, with businesses affected by proposed controls and consideration of the controls economic impact. GAO found that although there was minimal formal business consultation, the business community and the Commerce and State Departments did provide decision-makers with the essential economic arguments against the use of export controls. Administration economic analyses usually did not provide estimates of the controls indirect effects, but important limits exist to Commerce's ability to better quantify such economic costs. GAO's review does not support the conclusion that the administration might have acted differently had it been aware of the total economic costs, and it shifts the debate back to the usefulness of such foreign policy controls.

  16. Modeling Preferential Admissions at Elite Liberal Arts Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cockburn, Sally; Hewitt, Gordon; Kelly, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a model that simulates the effects of varying preferential admissions policies on the academic profile of a set of 35 small liberal arts colleges. An underlying assumption is that all schools in the set use the same ratio of preferential to non-preferential admissions. The model predicts that even drastic changes…

  17. Agricultural pollution control under Spanish and European environmental policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Yolanda; Albiac, José

    2004-10-01

    Nonpoint pollution from agriculture is an important environmental policy issue in Spain and the European Union. Agricultural pollution in Spain is being addressed by the National Irrigation Plan and by the European Water Framework Directive. This article contributes to the ongoing policy decision process by analyzing nonpoint pollution control and presenting results on the efficiency of abatement measures. Results question the reliance of the Water Framework Directive on water pricing as a pollution instrument for reaching good status for all waters because higher water prices close to full recovery cost advocated by the directive appear to be inefficient as an emission control instrument. Another important result is that abatement measures based on input taxes and standards on nitrogen appear to be more suitable than the National Irrigation Plan subsidies designed to promote irrigation investments. The results also contribute with further evidence to the discussion on the appropriate instrument base for pollution control, proving that nonpoint pollution control instruments cannot be assessed accurately without a correct understanding of the key underlying biophysical processes. Nonpoint pollution is characterized by nonlinearities, dynamics, and spatial dependency, and neglect of the dynamic aspects may lead to serious consequences for the design of measures. Finally, a quantitative assessment has been performed to explore discriminating measures based on crop pollution potential on vulnerable soils. No significant welfare gains are found from discriminating control, although results are contingent upon the level of damage, and discrimination could be justified in areas with valuable ecosystems and severe pollution damages.

  18. Effect of pharmaceutical care on medication adherence and hospital admission in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Li; Yang, Xinyun; Li, Jie; Liu, Lianghui; Luo, Hongying; Zheng, Zeguang

    2014-01-01

    Background Poor adherence leads to a high rate of exacerbation and poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, few strategies are acceptable and effective in improving medication adherence. We investigated whether pharmaceutical care by clinical pharmacists could reinforce medication adherence to reduce exacerbation and improve HRQoL. Methods A randomized controlled study was carried out at The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University from February 2012 to January 2014. Non-adherence patients were randomly assigned to receive pharmaceutical care or to usual care. The pharmaceutical care consisted of individualized education and a series of telephone counseling for 6 months provided by clinical pharmacists. Medication adherence was measured by pill counts plus direct interview at 1- and 6-month pharmaceutical care and one-year follow-up. Severe exacerbations were defined as events that led to hospitalization for acute COPD attack. An interview was conducted to investigate hospital admissions and evaluate severe exacerbations at one-year follow-up. HRQoL was measured by St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire at 6 months. Results At 6-month pharmaceutical care and one-year follow-up, the pharmaceutical care group exhibited higher medication adherence than the usual care group (73.4±11.1 vs. 55.7±11.9, P=0.016 and 54.4±12.5 vs. 66.5±8.6, P=0.039, respectively). There are 60 acute exacerbations resulted in a hospital admission in the usual group while 37 ones in the pharmaceutical care group during one-year follow-up (P=0.01). Hospital admissions due to acute exacerbation in the pharmaceutical care group were 56.3% less than the usual care group (P=0.01). There was a significant difference in the symptoms and impact subscales respectively at 6-month pharmaceutical care between two groups (P=0.032, P=0.018). Conclusions Individualized pharmaceutical care improved medication

  19. 12 CFR 1233.4 - Internal controls, policies, procedures, and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REPORTING OF FRAUDULENT FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS § 1233.4 Internal controls, policies, procedures, and training... controls, policies, procedures, and an operational training program to discover and report fraud or... the effectiveness of the internal controls, policies, procedures, and operational training program...

  20. 12 CFR 1233.4 - Internal controls, policies, procedures, and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REPORTING OF FRAUDULENT FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS § 1233.4 Internal controls, policies, procedures, and training... controls, policies, procedures, and an operational training program to discover and report fraud or... the effectiveness of the internal controls, policies, procedures, and operational training program...

  1. 12 CFR 1233.4 - Internal controls, policies, procedures, and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REPORTING OF FRAUDULENT FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS § 1233.4 Internal controls, policies, procedures, and training... controls, policies, procedures, and an operational training program to discover and report fraud or... the effectiveness of the internal controls, policies, procedures, and operational training program...

  2. 12 CFR 1233.4 - Internal controls, policies, procedures, and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REPORTING OF FRAUDULENT FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS § 1233.4 Internal controls, policies, procedures, and training... controls, policies, procedures, and an operational training program to discover and report fraud or... the effectiveness of the internal controls, policies, procedures, and operational training program...

  3. HIV / AIDS and STDs control: new policy perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mathew, N M

    1998-01-01

    The prevention and control of HIV/AIDS is a social as well as a public health issue. This approach is reflected in new policy initiatives developed by the Government of India's National AIDS Control Organization in 1997. Future strategies will be based on a multisectoral, partnership-oriented approach. Bilateral agencies are encouraged to establish interventions in areas such as sexually transmitted disease (STD) control, condom distribution, counseling, health care, and hospice care. Special campaigns focused on youth and adolescents, including the inclusion of HIV/AIDS in the school curriculum, are planned. New strategies will be developed to address the HIV risk associated with drug abuse. The home- and community-based care of HIV/AIDS patients will be promoted, with emphasis on emotional and social support needs. Other areas to be addressed include the integration of STD control with primary health care, a blood transfusion policy, education for commercial sex workers, an end to discrimination against people with AIDS, and expansion of the national sentinel surveillance system.

  4. Comparison of CATs, CURB-65 and PMEWS as Triage Tools in Pandemic Influenza Admissions to UK Hospitals: Case Control Analysis Using Retrospective Data

    PubMed Central

    Myles, Puja R.; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S.; Lim, Wei Shen; Nicholson, Karl G.; Brett, Stephen J.; Enstone, Joanne E.; McMenamin, James; Openshaw, Peter J. M.; Read, Robert C.; Taylor, Bruce L.; Bannister, Barbara; Semple, Malcolm G.

    2012-01-01

    Triage tools have an important role in pandemics to identify those most likely to benefit from higher levels of care. We compared Community Assessment Tools (CATs), the CURB-65 score, and the Pandemic Medical Early Warning Score (PMEWS); to predict higher levels of care (high dependency - Level 2 or intensive care - Level 3) and/or death in patients at or shortly after admission to hospital with A/H1N1 2009 pandemic influenza. This was a case-control analysis using retrospectively collected data from the FLU-CIN cohort (1040 adults, 480 children) with PCR-confirmed A/H1N1 2009 influenza. Area under receiver operator curves (AUROC), sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values and negative predictive values were calculated. CATs best predicted Level 2/3 admissions in both adults [AUROC (95% CI): CATs 0.77 (0.73, 0.80); CURB-65 0.68 (0.64, 0.72); PMEWS 0.68 (0.64, 0.73), p<0.001] and children [AUROC: CATs 0.74 (0.68, 0.80); CURB-65 0.52 (0.46, 0.59); PMEWS 0.69 (0.62, 0.75), p<0.001]. CURB-65 and CATs were similar in predicting death in adults with both performing better than PMEWS; and CATs best predicted death in children. CATs were the best predictor of Level 2/3 care and/or death for both adults and children. CATs are potentially useful triage tools for predicting need for higher levels of care and/or mortality in patients of all ages. PMID:22509303

  5. Student Admission and Attendance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majestic, Ann L.

    1988-01-01

    Considers the North Carolina statutes that define the process for admitting students to public schools and ensuring their attendance. Examines cases relating to issues of school admission and compulsory attendance. (MLF)

  6. Hospice Admission Assessment.

    PubMed

    Moon, Paul J

    2017-04-01

    Hospice admission assessment is a pivotal encounter for patient/family and hospice representative. For patient/family, the admission is the threshold by which a particular level of care can commence and, symbolically, a certain marker in health status trajectory is reached. For hospice representative, the admission episode is an occasion to inaugurate an ambience that can serve to frame future hospice care experiences for the patient/family. Through a narrative lens, hospice admission assessment can be seen as experiential time and space, where patient's and family's stories are mindfully and deliberately witnessed and explored. Through the practice of narrative mining, the hospice representative can better understand others' offered stories of reality, which will better inform the plan of palliation and hospice care.

  7. Post Admission Cognitive Therapy (PACT) for the Inpatient Treatment of Military Personnel with Suicidal Behaviors: A Multi-Site Randomized Controlled Trial

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    proposal addresses this important gap and aims to evaluate an innovative suicide intervention , Post Admission Cognitive Therapy (PACT). Left...cognitive behavioral intervention program, titled, Post Admission Cognitive Therapy (PACT), for military service members and beneficiaries admitted...listening to digital recordings of therapy sessions and/or reviewing of typed transcribed sessions for the purposes of treatment refinement and integrity

  8. Eradication versus control: the economics of global infectious disease policies.

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Scott

    2004-01-01

    A disease is controlled if, by means of a public policy, the circulation of an infectious agent is restricted below the level that would be sustained by individuals acting independently to control the disease. A disease is eliminated if it is controlled sufficiently to prevent an epidemic from occurring in a given geographical area. Control and elimination are achieved locally, but a disease can only be eradicated if it is eliminated everywhere. Eradication is plainly a more demanding goal, but it has two advantages over control. First, the economics of eradication can be very favourable when eradication not only reduces infections but also avoids the need for vaccinations in future. Indeed, when eradication is feasible, it will either pay to control it to a fairly low level or to eradicate it. This suggests that, from an economics perspective, diseases that are eliminated in high-income countries are prime candidates for future eradication efforts. Second, the incentives for countries to participate in an eradication initiative can be strong; indeed they can be even stronger than an international control programme. Moreover, high-income countries typically benefit so much that they will be willing to finance elimination in developing countries. Full financing of an eradication effort by nation-states is not always guaranteed, but it can be facilitated by a variety of means. Hence, from the perspective of economics and international relations, eradication has a number of advantages over control. The implications for smallpox and polio eradication programmes are discussed. PMID:15628206

  9. Legislators' beliefs on tobacco control policies in Nevada.

    PubMed

    York, Nancy L; Pritsos, Chris A; Gutierrez, Antonio P

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify Nevada legislators' views on comprehensive smoke-free (SF) policy development. The Nevada Clean Indoor Air Act (NCIAA) is a weak law that prohibits smoking in most indoor public places, excluding stand-alone bars and casino gaming areas. Nevada's state senators and assembly members were contacted to participate in the study. A literature review guided modifications of an instrument previously used to measure county-level officials' policy views in Kentucky. Descriptive statistics were conducted for selected variables, while independent t tests and one-way analysis of variance were used to examine differences between various groups. 23 of 63 legislators participated. Even though the majority of officials recognized smoking as a health hazard and nicotine as addictive, there was not overwhelming support for strengthening the NCIAA, raising cigarette excise taxes or providing cessation benefits to citizens. Officials believed that the NCIAA was having a negative economic impact on smaller gaming businesses, but not on the casino industry. Democrats were more likely than Republicans to agree that raising the excise tax by $1 is important for needed state revenues. 63% of legislators believed that they would be persuaded to strengthen the NCIAA regardless of its financial impact on small businesses, if their constituents supported such a move. No other state relies on gaming revenues as much as Nevada. Given that legislators are strongly influenced by their constituents' views, policy advocates need to establish grassroots support for strengthening the current NCIAA and also tobacco control laws in general.

  10. Tobacco Policies in Louisiana: Recommendations for Future Tobacco Control Investment from SimSmoke, a Policy Simulation Model.

    PubMed

    Levy, David; Fergus, Cristin; Rudov, Lindsey; McCormick-Ricket, Iben; Carton, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Despite the presence of tobacco control policies, Louisiana continues to experience a high smoking burden and elevated smoking-attributable deaths. The SimSmoke model provides projections of these health outcomes in the face of existing and expanded (simulated) tobacco control polices. The SimSmoke model utilizes population data, smoking rates, and various tobacco control policy measures from Louisiana to predict smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. The model begins in 1993 and estimates are projected through 2054. The model is validated against existing Louisiana smoking prevalence data. The most powerful individual policy measure for reducing smoking prevalence is cigarette excise tax. However, a comprehensive cessation treatment policy is predicted to save the most lives. A combination of tobacco control policies provides the greatest reduction in smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. The existing Louisiana excise tax ranks as one of the lowest in the country and the legislature is against further increases. Alternative policy measures aimed at lowering prevalence and attributable deaths are: cessation treatments, comprehensive smoke-free policies, and limiting youth access. These three policies have a substantial effect on smoking prevalence and attributable deaths and are likely to encounter more favor in the Louisiana legislature than increasing the state excise tax.

  11. 39 CFR 962.12 - Depositions; interrogatories; admission of facts; production and inspection of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Depositions; interrogatories; admission of facts... Depositions; interrogatories; admission of facts; production and inspection of documents. (a) General Policy.... (d) Admission of facts. After the issuance of a Notice of Hearing described in § 962.6, a party...

  12. 39 CFR 962.12 - Depositions; interrogatories; admission of facts; production and inspection of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Depositions; interrogatories; admission of facts... Depositions; interrogatories; admission of facts; production and inspection of documents. (a) General Policy.... (d) Admission of facts. After the issuance of a Notice of Hearing described in § 962.6, a party...

  13. 39 CFR 962.12 - Depositions; interrogatories; admission of facts; production and inspection of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Depositions; interrogatories; admission of facts... Depositions; interrogatories; admission of facts; production and inspection of documents. (a) General Policy.... (d) Admission of facts. After the issuance of a Notice of Hearing described in § 962.6, a party...

  14. Reliable multicast protocol specifications flow control and NACK policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John R.; Montgomery, Todd L.; Whetten, Brian

    1995-01-01

    This appendix presents the flow and congestion control schemes recommended for RMP and a NACK policy based on the whiteboard tool. Because RMP uses a primarily NACK based error detection scheme, there is no direct feedback path through which receivers can signal losses through low buffer space or congestion. Reliable multicast protocols also suffer from the fact that throughput for a multicast group must be divided among the members of the group. This division is usually very dynamic in nature and therefore does not lend itself well to a priori determination. These facts have led the flow and congestion control schemes of RMP to be made completely orthogonal to the protocol specification. This allows several differing schemes to be used in different environments to produce the best results. As a default, a modified sliding window scheme based on previous algorithms are suggested and described below.

  15. Analysis of national water-pollution-control policies. 2. Agricultural sediment control

    SciTech Connect

    Gianessi, L.P.; Peskin, H.M.

    1981-08-01

    A national water network model is used to analyze the likely effects of agricultural sediment-control policies on the quality of the nation's waters. This analysis is believed superior to previous assessments based mainly on erosion estimates without accounting for the characteristics of the receiving water or the contribution of pollutants from nonagricultural activities. Specifically, while the earlier assessments concluded that agriculture-related pollution problems are widespread and ubiquitous, this analysis concludes that it is probably more efficient to focus sediment-related pollution-control policies on about one third of the nation's agricultural regions. 30 references, 5 figures, 11 tables.

  16. Impact of tornadoes on hospital admissions for acute cardiovascular events

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Palacios, Federico; Casanegra, Ana Isabel; Shapiro, Alan; Phan, Minh; Hawkins, Beau; Li, Ji; Stoner, Julie; Tafur, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of data describing cardiovascular events after tornado outbreaks. We proposed to study the effects of tornadoes on the incidence of cardiovascular events at a tertiary care institution. Population and methods Hospital admission records from a single center situated in a tornado-prone area three months before and after a 2013 tornado outbreak were abstracted. To control for seasonal variation, we also abstracted data from the same period of the prior year (control). Hospital admissions for cardiovascular events (CVEs) including acute myocardial infarction, stroke and venous thromboembolism (VTE) were summated by zip codes, and compared by time period. Results There were 22,607 admissions analyzed, of which 6,705 (30%), 7,980 (35%), and 7,922 (35%) were during the pre-tornado, post-tornado, and control time frames, respectively. There were 344 CVE in the controls, 317 CVE in pre-tornado and 364 CVEs in post tornado periods. There was no difference in the prevalence of CVE during the post-tornado season compared with the control (PPR = 1.05 95% CI: 0.91 to 1.21, p = 0.50) or the pre-tornado season (PPR= 0.96, 95% CI: 0.83 to 1.21, p = 0.63). Conclusion In conclusion, tornado outbreaks did not increase the prevalence of cardiovascular events. In contrast to the effect of hurricanes, implementation of a healthcare policy change directed toward the early treatment and prevention of cardiovascular events after tornadoes does not seem warranted. PMID:26388119

  17. Public attitudes towards smoking and tobacco control policy in Russia

    PubMed Central

    Danishevski, Kirill; Gilmore, Anna; McKee, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background Since the political transition in 1991, Russia has been targeted intensively by the transnational tobacco industry. Already high smoking rates among men have increased further; traditionally low rates among women have more than doubled. The tobacco companies have so far faced little opposition as they shape the discourse on smoking in Russia. This paper asks what ordinary Russians really think about possible actions to reduce smoking. Methods A representative sample of the Russian population (1600 respondents) was interviewed face-to-face in November 2007. Results Only 14% of respondents considered tobacco control in Russia adequate, while 37% felt that nothing was being done at all. There was support for prices keeping pace with or even exceeding inflation. Over 70% of all respondents favoured a ban on sales from street kiosks, while 56% believed that existing health warnings (currently 4% of front and back of packs) were inadequate. The current policy of designating a few tables in bars and restaurants as non-smoking was supported by less than 10% of respondents, while almost a third supported a total ban, with 44% supporting provision of equal space for smokers and non-smokers. Older age, non-smoking status and living a smaller town all emerged as significantly associated with the propensity to support of antismoking measures. The tobacco companies were generally viewed as behaving like most other companies in Russia, with three-quarters believing that they definitely or maybe bribe politicians. Knowledge of impact of smoking on health was limited with significant underestimation of dangers and addictive qualities of tobacco. A third believed that light cigarettes are safer than normal. Conclusion The majority of the Russian population would support considerable strengthening of tobacco control policies but there is also a need for effective public education campaigns. PMID:18653793

  18. Emerging policies to control nonpoint source pollution of groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harter, T.

    2014-12-01

    Water quality impairment is among the highest ranking public issues of concern in the developed world. While, in Europe and North America, many water quality programs have been put in place over the past half century, regulators difficulties tackling the geographically most widespread water quality degradation in these regions: pollution of groundwater (as opposed to surface water) from diffuse sources (as opposed to point sources), including contamination with nitrate (affecting drinking water supplies in rural areas and at the rural-urban interface) and salinity (affecting irrigation water quality). Other diffuse pollution contaminants include pesticides and emerging contaminants (e.g., antibiotics and pathogens from animal farming). The geographic and hydrologic characteristics of nonpoint source pollution of groundwater are distinctly different from other types of water pollution: individually liable sources are contiguous across the landscape, and internally heterogeneous in space and time. On annually aggregated time scales (most relevant to groundwater), sources are continuously emitting pollution, while pollution levels typically do not exceed MCLs by less than a factor 2. An analysis of key elements of existing water pollution policies to control groundwater pollution from diffuse sources demonstrates the lack of both, science and institutional capacity, while existing point-source approaches cannot be applied toward the control of diffuse pollution to groundwater. For the latter, a key to a successful policy is a tiered, three-way monitoring program based on proxy compliance metrics instead of direct measurement of pollutant discharge, research linking actual pollutant discharges to proxy metrics, and long-term regional groundwater monitoring to establish large scale, long-term trends. Several examples of emerging regulations from California and the EU are given to demonstrate these principles.

  19. Public policy for the control of tobacco-related disease.

    PubMed

    Bierer, M F; Rigotti, N A

    1992-03-01

    Public policies concerning tobacco shape the environment of the smoker and nonsmoker alike. These policies use diverse means to achieve the common goal of reducing tobacco use and its attendant health consequences. Educational interventions such as warning labels, school curricula, and public service announcements serve to inform the public about the hazards of tobacco smoke. These are countered by the pervasive marketing of tobacco products by the tobacco industry, despite a ban on tobacco advertising on radio and television. Further restrictions on tobacco advertising and promotion have been proposed and await action. Cigarette excise taxes and smoker-nonsmoker insurance premium differentials discourage smoking by making it more costly to purchase cigarettes. Conversely, health insurance reimbursement for smoking cessation programs could reduce the cost of giving up the habit and might encourage cessation. Restricting or banning smoking in public places and workplaces decreases a smoker's opportunities to smoke, further inhibiting this behavior. Reducing the availability of cigarettes to children and adolescents may help to prevent them from starting to smoke. The environment of the smoker is conditioned by this pastiche of influences. Physicians who become involved in tobacco-control issues have the opportunity to alter the environmental influences on their patients. This is likely to be synergistic with physicians' efforts inside the office to encourage individual smokers to quit. As a first step toward advocacy outside the office, physicians can help to create a smoke-free health-care facility in their own institution. Beyond that, advocacy groups or the voluntary health organizations (e.g., American Lung Association) provide avenues for physicians to take a stand on community issues relevant to tobacco control. Physicians who take these steps to alter the environment of smokers beyond the office are likely to magnify the effect of their work with individual

  20. The Admissions Equity Struggle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Eric

    2012-01-01

    It has been a long, litigious road from Heman Sweatt, an African-American mail carrier who wanted to attend the prestigious, all-White law school at the University of Texas at Austin in 1946, to Abigail Fisher, a White high school student who failed to win undergraduate admission to the same university a half-century later. Depending on what the…

  1. Relationship of Antimicrobial Control Policies and Hospital and Infection Control Characteristics to Antimicrobial Resistance Rates

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Elaine L.; Quiros, Dave; Giblin, Tara; Lin, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Background Antibiotic misuse and noncompliance with infection control precautions have contributed to increasing levels of antimicrobial resistance in hospitals. Objectives To assess the extent to which resistance is monitored in infection control programs and to correlate resistance rates with characteristics of antimicrobial control policies, provider attitudes and practices, and systems-level indicators of implementation of the hand hygiene guideline of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Methods An on-site survey of intensive care unit staff and infection control directors of 33 hospitals in the United States was conducted. The following data were collected: antimicrobial control policies; rates during the previous 12 months of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and ceftazidime-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae; an implementation score of systems-level efforts to implement the guideline; staff attitudes toward practice guidelines; and observations of staff hand hygiene. Variables associated with resistance rates were examined for independent effects by using logistic regression. Results Resistance rates for S aureus, enterococci, and K pneumoniae were 52.5%, 18.2%, and 16.0%, respectively. Ten (30.3%) hospitals had an antibiotic control policy. No statistically significant correlation was observed between staff attitudes toward practice guidelines, observed hand hygiene behavior, or having an antibiotic use policy and resistance rates. In logistic regression analysis, higher scores on measures of systems-level efforts to implement the guideline were associated with lower rates of resistant S aureus and enterococci (P=.046). Conclusions Organizational-level factors independent of the practices of individual clinicians may be associated with rates of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:17322010

  2. 47 CFR 1.20003 - Policies and procedures for employee supervision and control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... separate appendix to the policies and procedures document: (i) The name and a description of the job... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Policies and procedures for employee....20003 Policies and procedures for employee supervision and control. A telecommunications carrier...

  3. Associations of Tobacco Control Policies With Birth Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Baum, Christopher F.; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE It is unclear whether the benefits of tobacco control policies extend to pregnant women and infants, especially among racial/ethnic minority and low socioeconomic populations that are at highest risk for adverse birth outcomes. OBJECTIVE To examine the associations of state cigarette taxes and the enactment of smoke-free legislation with US birth outcomes according to maternal race/ethnicity and education. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Using a quasi-experimental approach, we analyzed repeated cross sections of US natality files with 16 198 654 singleton births from 28 states and Washington, DC, between 2000 and 2010. We first used probit regression to model the associations of 2 tobacco control policies with the probability that a pregnant woman smoked (yes or no). We then used linear or probit regression to estimate the associations of the policies with birth outcomes. We also examined the association of taxes with birth outcomes across maternal race/ethnicity and education. EXPOSURES State cigarette taxes and smoke-free restaurant legislation. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Birth weight (in grams), low birth weight (<2500 g), preterm delivery (<37 weeks), small for gestational age (<10th percentile for gestational age and sex), and large for gestational age (>90th percentile for gestational age and sex). RESULTS White and black mothers with the least amount of education (0–11 years) had the highest prevalence of maternal smoking during pregnancy (42.4% and 20.0%, respectively) and the poorest birth outcomes, but the strongest responses to cigarette taxes. Among white mothers with a low level of education, every $1.00 increase in the cigarette tax reduced the level of smoking by 2.4 percentage points (−0.0024 [95% CI, −0.0004 to −0.0001]), and the birth weight of their infants increased by 5.41 g (95% CI, 1.92–8.89 g). Among black mothers with a low level of education, tax increases reduced smoking by 2.1 percentage points (−0.0021 [95% CI

  4. 21 CFR 1401.2 - The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions. 1401.2 Section 1401.2 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1401.2 The Office of National Drug Control Policy—organization and functions....

  5. 21 CFR 1401.2 - The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions. 1401.2 Section 1401.2 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1401.2 The Office of National Drug Control Policy—organization and functions....

  6. Admissions Criteria in Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwanke, Dean

    1981-01-01

    A review of the literature on the topic of admissions criteria in teacher education is presented. Bibliographic annotations review surveys, studies, models, and guidelines on various aspects of admissions criteria, as well as attracting and retaining quality students. (JN)

  7. The effect of hospital infection control policy on the prevalence of surgical site infection in a tertiary hospital in South-South Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Brisibe, Seiyefa Fun-Akpa; Ordinioha, Best; Gbeneolol, Precious K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a significant cause of morbidity, emotional stress and financial cost to the affected patients and health care institutions; and infection control policy has been shown to reduce the burden of SSIs in several health care institutions. This study assessed the effects of the implementation of the policy on the prevalence of SSI in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Patients and Methods: A review of the records of all Caesarean sections carried out in the hospital, before and 2 years after the implementation of the infection control policy was conducted. Data collected include the number and characteristics of the patients that had Caesarean section in the hospital during the period and those that developed SSI while on admission. Results: The proportion of patients with SSI decreased from 13.33% to 10.34%, 2 years after the implementation of the policy (P-value = 0.18). The implementation of the policy did not also result in any statistically significant change in the nature of the wound infection (P-value = 0.230), in the schedule of the operations (P-value = 0.93) and in the other predisposing factors of the infections (P-value = 0.72); except for the significant decrease in the infection rate among the un-booked patients (P-value = 0.032). Conclusion: The implementation of the policy led to a small decrease in SSI, due to the non-implementation of some important aspects of the WHO policy. The introduction of surveillance activities, continuous practice reinforcing communications and environmental sanitation are recommended to further decrease the prevalence of SSI in the hospital. PMID:26229228

  8. Traditional vs. Contemporary Management Control Practices for Developing Public Health Policies.

    PubMed

    Naranjo-Gil, David; Sánchez-Expósito, María Jesús; Gómez-Ruiz, Laura

    2016-07-14

    Public health policies must address multiple goals and complex community health needs. Recently, management control practices have emerged to provide a broader type of information for evaluating the effectiveness of healthcare policies, and relate activities and processes to multiple strategic outcomes. This study compares the effect of traditional and contemporary management control practices on the achievement of public health policies. It is also analyzed how two different uses of such practices (enabling vs. coercive) facilitate the achievement of public health policies. Relationships are explored using data collected from managers from public health agencies and public hospitals in Spain. The findings show that contemporary management control practices are more suitable than traditional practices to achieve public health policies. Furthermore, results show that public health policies are better achieved when managers use management control practices in an enabling way rather than in a coercive way.

  9. Traditional vs. Contemporary Management Control Practices for Developing Public Health Policies

    PubMed Central

    Naranjo-Gil, David; Sánchez-Expósito, María Jesús; Gómez-Ruiz, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Public health policies must address multiple goals and complex community health needs. Recently, management control practices have emerged to provide a broader type of information for evaluating the effectiveness of healthcare policies, and relate activities and processes to multiple strategic outcomes. This study compares the effect of traditional and contemporary management control practices on the achievement of public health policies. It is also analyzed how two different uses of such practices (enabling vs. coercive) facilitate the achievement of public health policies. Relationships are explored using data collected from managers from public health agencies and public hospitals in Spain. The findings show that contemporary management control practices are more suitable than traditional practices to achieve public health policies. Furthermore, results show that public health policies are better achieved when managers use management control practices in an enabling way rather than in a coercive way. PMID:27428985

  10. The path to impact of operational research on tuberculosis control policies and practices in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Probandari, Ari; Widjanarko, Bagoes; Mahendradhata, Yodi; Sanjoto, Hary; Cerisha, Ancila; Nungky, Saverina; Riono, Pandu; Simon, Sumanto; Farid, Muhammad Noor; Giriputra, Sardikin; Putra, Artawan Eka; Burhan, Erlina; Wahyuni, Chatarina U.; Mustikawati, Dyah; Widianingrum, Christina; Tiemersma, Edine W.; Alisjahbana, Bachti

    2016-01-01

    Background Operational research is currently one of the pillars of the global strategy to control tuberculosis. Indonesia initiated capacity building for operational research on tuberculosis over the last decade. Although publication of the research in peer-reviewed journals is an important indicator for measuring the success of this endeavor, the influence of operational research on policy and practices is considered even more important. However, little is known about the process by which operational research influences tuberculosis control policy and practices. Objective We aimed to investigate the influence of operational research on tuberculosis control policy and practice in Indonesia between 2004 and 2014. Design Using a qualitative study design, we conducted in-depth interviews of 50 researchers and 30 policy makers/program managers and performed document reviews. Transcripts of these interviews were evaluated while applying content analysis. Results Operational research contributed to tuberculosis control policy and practice improvements, including development of new policies, introduction of new practices, and reinforcement of current program policies and practices. However, most of these developments had limited sustainability. The path from the dissemination of research results and recommendations to policy and practice changes was long and complex. The skills, interests, and political power of researchers and policy makers, as well as health system response, could influence the process. Conclusions Operational research contributed to improving tuberculosis control policy and practices. A systematic approach to improve the sustainability of the impact of operational research should be explored. PMID:26928217

  11. The path to impact of operational research on tuberculosis control policies and practices in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Probandari, Ari; Widjanarko, Bagoes; Mahendradhata, Yodi; Sanjoto, Hary; Cerisha, Ancila; Nungky, Saverina; Riono, Pandu; Simon, Sumanto; Noor Farid, Muhammad; Giriputra, Sardikin; Putra, Artawan Eka; Burhan, Erlina; Wahyuni, Chatarina U; Mustikawati, Dyah; Widianingrum, Christina; Tiemersma, Edine W; Alisjahbana, Bachti; On Behalf Of The Tuberculosis Operational Research Group Torg

    2016-01-01

    Background Operational research is currently one of the pillars of the global strategy to control tuberculosis. Indonesia initiated capacity building for operational research on tuberculosis over the last decade. Although publication of the research in peer-reviewed journals is an important indicator for measuring the success of this endeavor, the influence of operational research on policy and practices is considered even more important. However, little is known about the process by which operational research influences tuberculosis control policy and practices. Objective We aimed to investigate the influence of operational research on tuberculosis control policy and practice in Indonesia between 2004 and 2014. Design Using a qualitative study design, we conducted in-depth interviews of 50 researchers and 30 policy makers/program managers and performed document reviews. Transcripts of these interviews were evaluated while applying content analysis. Results Operational research contributed to tuberculosis control policy and practice improvements, including development of new policies, introduction of new practices, and reinforcement of current program policies and practices. However, most of these developments had limited sustainability. The path from the dissemination of research results and recommendations to policy and practice changes was long and complex. The skills, interests, and political power of researchers and policy makers, as well as health system response, could influence the process. Conclusions Operational research contributed to improving tuberculosis control policy and practices. A systematic approach to improve the sustainability of the impact of operational research should be explored.

  12. Residuals Charges for Pollution Control: A Policy Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, A. Myrick, III; Haveman, Robert H.

    1972-01-01

    Contrasts the effects of a policy of regulation of pollutant discharge by enforcement of a permit system with the likely consequences of a policy of charging for effluents, thus increasing the cost of discharge. The charge for residuals is favored, and it is suggested that trials of the system be conducted, perhaps with a federal tax on emission…

  13. Policy makers' perspectives on tobacco control advocates' roles in regulation development

    PubMed Central

    Montini, T.; Bero, L.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To identify, from policy makers' perspectives, strategies that enhance tobacco control advocates' effectiveness in the regulatory arena.
DESIGN—Key informant interview component of a comparative case study of regulatory agencies in the USA.
SUBJECTS—Policy makers involved in the development of four regulatory tobacco control policies (three state and one federal).
METHODS—Interviews of policy makers, field notes, and deliberation minutes were coded inductively.
RESULTS—Policy makers considered both written commentary and public testimony when developing tobacco control regulations. They triaged written commentary based upon whether the document was from a peer reviewed journal, a summary of research evidence, or from a source considered credible. They coped with in-person testimony by avoiding being diverted from the scientific evidence, and by assessing the presenters' credibility. Policy makers suggested that tobacco control advocates should: present science in a format that is well organised and easily absorbed; engage scientific experts to participate in the regulatory process; and lobby to support the tobacco control efforts of the regulatory agency.
CONCLUSIONS—There is an important role for tobacco control advocates in the policy development process in regulatory agencies.


Keywords: health policy; regulations; policy makers PMID:11544384

  14. Loneliness and nursing home admission among rural older adults.

    PubMed

    Russell, D W; Cutrona, C E; de la Mora, A; Wallace, R B

    1997-12-01

    In this study, the authors tested the relation between loneliness and subsequent admission to a nursing home over a 4-year time period in a sample of approximately 3,000 rural older Iowans. Higher levels of loneliness were found to increase the likelihood of nursing home admission and to decrease the time until nursing home admission. The influence of extremely high loneliness on nursing home admission remained statistically significant after controlling for other variables, such as age, education, income, mental status, physical health, morale, and social contact, that were also predictive of nursing home admission. Several mechanisms are proposed to explain the link between extreme loneliness and nursing home admission. These include loneliness as a precipitant of declines in mental and physical health and nursing home placement as a strategy to gain social contact with others. Implications for preventative interventions are discussed.

  15. A Review of Alcohol and Other Drug Control Policy Research

    PubMed Central

    Treno, Andrew J.; Marzell, Miesha; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Holder, Harold

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This article provides a historical review of alcohol and other drug policy research and its impact on public health over the past 75 years. We begin our summary with the state of the field circa 1940 and trace the development across the subsequent decades. We summarize current thinking and suggest possible future directions the field of alcohol and other drug policy may take. Specific topics discussed include the minimum legal drinking age, pricing and taxation, hours and days of sale, outlet density, and privatization effects. The future of drug policy research is also considered. Method: A comprehensive search of the literature identified empirical studies, reviews, and commentaries of alcohol and other drug policy research published from 1940 to 2013 that contributed to the current state of the field. Results: Our review demonstrates the historical emergence of alcohol problems as a public health issue over the early part of the 20th century, the public health policy response to this issue, subsequent research, and current and future research trends. Conclusions: Alcohol and other drug policy research over the last several decades has made great strides in its empirical and theoretical sophistication of evaluating alcohol policy effects. This history is not only remarkable for its analytic complexity, but also for its conceptual sophistication. PMID:24565316

  16. Toward Effective Water Pipe Tobacco Control Policy in the United States: Synthesis of Federal, State, and Local Policy Texts.

    PubMed

    Colditz, Jason B; Ton, Jessica N; James, A Everette; Primack, Brian A

    2016-01-05

    Purpose . Water pipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is growing in popularity among U.S. young adults and is associated with health risks similar to those of cigarette smoking. The purpose of this study is to examine existing tobacco control policies (TCPs) in order to investigate how they engage WTS. Approach . A systematic synthesis of content and legal interactions among federal, state, and local TCP documents. Setting . Pennsylvania, which represents a politically and demographically diverse microcosm of the United States. Participants . No human subjects. Method . Federal and state TCPs were retrieved via public legal repositories. Local policy searches were conducted via county/municipal Web sites, inclusive of 13 localities that had autonomous health departments or existing TCPs based on a National Cancer Institute report. Full-text TCPs were double coded within a grounded theory framework for health policy analysis. Emergent codes were used to compare and contrast policy texts and to examine legal interactions among TCPs. Results . Examination of policy categories including youth access, use restrictions, and taxation revealed WTS as largely omitted from current TCPs. WTS was sometimes addressed as an "other" tobacco product under older TCPs, though ambiguities in language led to questionable enforceability. State preemptions have rolled back or prevented well-tailored reforms at the local level. Federal preemptions have likewise constrained state TCPs. Conclusion . Outdated, preempted, and unclear policies limit the extent to which TCPs engage WTS. Health advocates might target these aspects of TCP reform.

  17. Social Organization in Bars: Implications for Tobacco Control Policy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Juliet P.; Antin, Tamar M.J.; Moore, Roland S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers social roles and relationships of the patrons, staff and owners of bars as critical factors determining adherence to public health policies, and specifically California’s smokefree workplace law. Specific elements of social organization in bars affecting health policy include the community within which the bar is set, the unique identity the bar creates, the bar staff and patrons who enact this identity, and their bar society. These elements were found to contribute to the development of power relations within the bar and solidarity against the outside world, resulting in either resistance to or compliance with smokefree workplace policy. PMID:22522904

  18. 40 CFR 89.604 - Conditional admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., the importer must store the nonroad engine at a location where the Administrator has reasonable access...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Importation of Nonconforming Nonroad Engines § 89.604 Conditional admission. (a) A nonroad engine offered for importation under §...

  19. The global tobacco control 'endgame': change the policy environment to implement the FCTC.

    PubMed

    Cairney, Paul; Mamudu, Hadii

    2014-11-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC) has prompted major change in tobacco control globally. However, policy implementation has been uneven, making 'smoke free' outcomes possible in some countries, but not others. We identify the factors that would improve implementation. We describe an ideal type of 'comprehensive tobacco control regimes', where policy environments are conducive to the implementation of tobacco control measures designed to eradicate tobacco use. The ideal type requires that a country have certain policy processes: the department of health takes the policy lead; tobacco is 'framed' as a public health problem; public health groups are consulted at the expense of tobacco interests; socioeconomic conditions are conducive to policy change; and, the scientific evidence is 'set in stone' within governments. No country will meet all these criteria in the short term, and the gap between the ideal type and the current state is wide in many countries. However, the WHO experience provides a model for progress.

  20. The economics of tobacco control: evidence from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project.

    PubMed

    Tauras, John A; Chaloupka, Frank J; Quah, Anne Chiew Kin; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2014-03-01

    Over the past few decades, the importance of economic research in advancing tobacco control policies has become increasingly clear. Extensive research has demonstrated that increasing tobacco taxes and prices is the single most cost-effective tobacco control measure. The research contained in this supplement adds to this evidence and provides new insights into how smokers respond to tax and price changes using the rich data on purchase behaviours, brand choices, tax avoidance and evasion, and tobacco use collected systematically and consistently across countries and over time by the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Project. The findings from this research will help inform policymakers, public health professionals, advocates, and others seeking to maximise the public health and economic benefits from higher taxes.

  1. Comparison of tobacco control policies in the Eastern Mediterranean countries based on Tobacco Control Scale scores.

    PubMed

    Heydari, G; Talischi, F; Masjedi, M R; Alguomani, H; Joossens, L; Ghafari, M

    2012-08-01

    This cross-sectional survey aimed to provide an overview of tobacco control strategies in the countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). A questionnaire to collate data on implementation of 6 major policies was developed based on the previously published Tobacco Control Scale and using MPOWER measures of the WHO Tobacco Free Initiative and the Tobacco Atlas. Only 3 of the 21 countries scored higher than 50 out of 100: Islamic Republic of Iran (61), Jordan (55) and Egypt (51) More than half of countries scored less than 26. Highest scores were achieved by Afghanistan in cigarette pricing, Oman in smoking bans in public places, Islamic Republic of Iran in budgeting, prohibition of advertisements and health warnings against smoking and Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia and Kuwait in tobacco cessation programmes. The low mean total score in EMR countries (29.7) compared with European countries (47.2) highlights the need for better future planning and policy-making for tobacco control in the Region.

  2. Interactions between greenhouse gas policies and acid rain control strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, D.E.; Kane, R.L.; Mansueti, L.

    1997-12-31

    Conventional wisdom and much of the public policy debate have usually drawn a clean delineation between acid rain issues and global warming concerns. This traditional approach of evaluating one policy at a time is too simplistic to serve as a framework for electric utilities making major capital investment and fuel procurement decisions to comply with various environmental requirements. Potential Climate change regulation can affect acid rain compliance decisions, and acid rain compliance decisions will affect future GHG emissions. This paper explores two categories of linkages between these different environmental issues. First, the assumptions one makes regarding future climate change policies can have a profound impact on the economic attractiveness of various acid rain compliance strategies. Second, decisions regarding acid rain compliance strategy can have greenhouse gas implications that might prove more or less difficult to address in future climate change legislation.

  3. Trends in Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia and impacts of infection control practices including universal MRSA admission screening in a hospital in Scotland, 2006–2010: retrospective cohort study and time-series intervention analysis

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Becky; López-Lozano, José-Maria; Gould, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To describe secular trends in Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) and to assess the impacts of infection control practices, including universal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) admission screening on associated clinical burdens. Design Retrospective cohort study and multivariate time-series analysis linking microbiology, patient management and health intelligence databases. Setting Teaching hospital in North East Scotland. Participants All patients admitted to Aberdeen Royal Infirmary between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2010: n=420 452 admissions and 1 430 052 acute occupied bed days (AOBDs). Intervention Universal admission screening programme for MRSA (August 2008) incorporating isolation and decolonisation. Primary and secondary measures Hospital-wide prevalence density, hospital-associated incidence density and death within 30 days of MRSA or methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bacteraemia. Results Between 2006 and 2010, prevalence density of all SAB declined by 41%, from 0.73 to 0.50 cases/1000 AOBDs (p=0.002 for trend), and 30-day mortality from 26% to 14% (p=0.013). Significant reductions were observed in MRSA bacteraemia only. Overnight admissions screened for MRSA rose from 43% during selective screening to >90% within 4 months of universal screening. In multivariate time-series analysis (R2 0.45 to 0.68), universal screening was associated with a 19% reduction in prevalence density of MRSA bacteraemia (−0.035, 95% CI −0.049 to −0.021/1000 AOBDs; p<0.001), a 29% fall in hospital-associated incidence density (−0.029, 95% CI −0.035 to −0.023/1000 AOBDs; p<0.001) and a 46% reduction in 30-day mortality (−15.6, 95% CI −24.1% to −7.1%; p<0.001). Positive associations with fluoroquinolone and cephalosporin use suggested that antibiotic stewardship reduced prevalence density of MRSA bacteraemia by 0.027 (95% CI 0.015 to 0.039)/1000 AOBDs. Rates of MSSA bacteraemia were not

  4. Addressing Teachers' Feelings of Lack of Control over Policy Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    This study reports on how an American Education System course, traditionally taught with broad objectives, was contextualized for science teachers. Using pre-assessment data, specific policy issues were targeted with the objective of increasing teachers' feelings of influence over issues. The approach used was adapted from exposure therapy, a…

  5. Tobacco Control Policy Advocacy Attitudes and Self-Efficacy among Ethnically Diverse High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Amelie G.; Velez, Luis F.; Chalela, Patricia; Grussendorf, Jeannie; McAlister, Alfred L.

    2006-01-01

    This study applied self-efficacy theory to assess empowerment to advocate on behalf of tobacco control policies. The Youth Tobacco Survey with added policy advocacy self-efficacy, attitudes, and outcome expectations scales was given to 9,177 high school students in Texas. Asians showed the lowest prevalence of experimentation and current smoking,…

  6. Evaluation of the 1990 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Smoke-Free Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emont, Seth L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Telephone surveys of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention employees investigated the impact of an agencywide smoking policy that initially restricted, then banned, smoking. Nearly all of the employees and 56 percent of the smokers supported the policy. One quarter of the smokers reported increased interest in quitting following policy…

  7. Hospital admissions before and after shipyard closure.

    PubMed Central

    Iversen, L.; Sabroe, S.; Damsgaard, M. T.

    1989-01-01

    To determine the effect of job loss on health an investigation was made of admissions to hospitals in 887 men five years before and three years after the closure of a Danish shipyard. The control group comprised 441 men from another shipyard. The information on hospital admissions was obtained from the Danish national register of patients. The relative risk of admission in the control group dropped significantly in terms of the number of men admitted from the study group from 1.29 four to five years before closure to 0.74 in the three years after closure. This was especially true of admissions due to accidents (1.33 to 0.46) and diseases of the digestive system (4.53 to 1.03). For diseases of the circulatory system, particularly cardiovascular diseases, the relative risk increased from 0.8 to 1.60, and from 1.0 to 2.6 respectively. These changes in risk of illness after redundancy are probably a consequence of a change from the effects of a high risk work environment to the effects of psychosocial stresses such as job insecurity and unemployment. PMID:2511968

  8. Students' opinion of tobacco control policies recommended for US colleges: a national survey

    PubMed Central

    Rigotti, N; Regan, S; Moran, S; Wechsler, H

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Comprehensive tobacco control policies for US colleges and universities have been proposed by several groups in order to counter the rising use of tobacco by students enrolled in these institutions. Student opinion of these policies is not known, and concern about student opposition is one barrier that deters administrators from adopting the policies. This study measured student support for recommended college tobacco control policies. Design: Mailed survey of US college students (2001 Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study). Setting: 119 nationally representative, four-year colleges and universities in the USA. Participants: 10 904 randomly selected undergraduate students enrolled at participating schools. Main outcome measures: Students' opinion of 7 proposed tobacco control policies. Results: A majority of students supported each policy. Over three quarters of students favoured smoke-free policies for all college buildings, residences, and dining areas, while 71% supported prohibiting tobacco advertising and sponsorship of campus social events, 59% favoured prohibiting tobacco sales on campus, and 51% supported smoke-free campus bars. All policies had more support among non-smokers than smokers (p < 0.001). Among smokers, support for policies was inversely related to intention to quit and intensity of tobacco consumption. Because college students' tobacco consumption is low, a majority of smokers favoured banning smoking in college buildings and dining areas and prohibiting tobacco marketing on campus. Conclusions: Student support for proposed campus tobacco control policies is strong, even among smokers, and broadly based across demographic subgroups. These findings should provide reassurance to college administrators who are considering adopting these policies. PMID:12958381

  9. Static Enforcement of Static Separation-of-Duty Policies in Usage Control Authorization Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jianfeng; Li, Ruixuan; Hu, Jinwei; Xu, Dewu

    Separation-of-Duty (SoD) is a fundamental security principle for prevention of fraud and errors in computer security. It has been studied extensively in traditional access control models. However, the research of SoD policy in the recently proposed usage control (UCON) model has not been well studied. This paper formulates and studies the fundamental problem of static enforcement of static SoD (SSoD) policies in the context of UCONA, a sub-model of UCON only considering authorizations. Firstly, we define a set-based specification of SSoD policies, and the safety checking problem for SSoD in UCONA. Secondly, we study the problem of determining whether an SSoD policy is enforceable. Thirdly, we show that it is intractable (coNP-complete) to direct statically enforce SSoD policies in UCONA, while checking whether a UCONA state satisfies a set of static mutually exclusive attribute (SMEA) constraints is efficient, which provides a justification for using SMEA constraints to enforce SSoD policies. Finally, we introduce a indirect static enforcement for SSoD policies in UCONA. We show how to generate the least restrictive SMEA constraints for enforcing SSoD policies in UCONA, by using the attribute-level SSoD requirement as an intermediate step. The results are fundamental to understanding SSoD policies in UCON.

  10. 21 CFR 1404.135 - May the Office of National Drug Control Policy exclude a person who is not currently...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false May the Office of National Drug Control Policy....135 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General § 1404.135 May the Office of National Drug Control Policy exclude a person who is...

  11. 21 CFR 1404.135 - May the Office of National Drug Control Policy exclude a person who is not currently...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May the Office of National Drug Control Policy....135 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General § 1404.135 May the Office of National Drug Control Policy exclude a person who is...

  12. 21 CFR 1404.135 - May the Office of National Drug Control Policy exclude a person who is not currently...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false May the Office of National Drug Control Policy....135 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General § 1404.135 May the Office of National Drug Control Policy exclude a person who is...

  13. 21 CFR 1404.135 - May the Office of National Drug Control Policy exclude a person who is not currently...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false May the Office of National Drug Control Policy....135 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General § 1404.135 May the Office of National Drug Control Policy exclude a person who is...

  14. 21 CFR 1404.135 - May the Office of National Drug Control Policy exclude a person who is not currently...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May the Office of National Drug Control Policy....135 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General § 1404.135 May the Office of National Drug Control Policy exclude a person who is...

  15. Optimal Admission to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albaek, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses admission decisions when students from different high school tracks apply for admission to university programmes. I derive a criterion that is optimal in the sense that it maximizes the graduation rates of the university programmes. The paper contains an empirical analysis that documents the relevance of theory and illustrates…

  16. Arms Control and Proliferation Challenges to the Reset Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    of Strategic Studies Institute (SSI) publications enjoy full academic freedom, provided they do not disclose clas- sified information, jeopardize...operations security, or misrepre- sent official U.S. policy. Such academic freedom empowers them to offer new and sometimes controversial perspectives in...record of academic outreach with leading institutions of higher learning, research, and debate on these selfsame issues of na- tional security

  17. Federal Control Out of Control: The Office for Civil Rights' Hidden Policies on Bilingual Education. CEO Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlejohn, Jim

    This report examines the policies and practices of the Department of Education's Office of Civil Rights (OCR) for determining whether school systems are providing appropriate educational services to language minority students who are learning English as a Second Language (ESL). Data are drawn from OCR documents in the public domain, including…

  18. The administration`s non-proliferation and export control policy

    SciTech Connect

    1993-11-01

    On September 27, during his speech to the United Nations, President Bill Clinton outlined his administration`s arm control policies, urging tighter restraints on international export control policies and measures to enhance nuclear non-proliferation. That same day, the White House released a fact sheet summarizing the framework for U.S. efforts to prevent proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and missiles that deliver them.

  19. The conceptual framework of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project.

    PubMed

    Fong, G T; Cummings, K M; Borland, R; Hastings, G; Hyland, A; Giovino, G A; Hammond, D; Thompson, M E

    2006-06-01

    This paper describes the conceptual model that underlies the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC Project), whose mission is to measure the psychosocial and behavioural impact of key policies of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) among adult smokers, and in some countries, among adult non-smokers and among youth. The evaluation framework utilises multiple country controls, a longitudinal design, and a pre-specified, theory-driven conceptual model to test hypotheses about the anticipated effects of specific policies. The ITC Project consists of parallel prospective cohort surveys of representative samples of adult smokers currently in nine countries (inhabited by over 45% of the world's smokers), with other countries being added in the future. Collectively, the ITC Surveys constitute the first-ever international cohort study of tobacco use. The conceptual model of the ITC Project draws on the psychosocial and health communication literature and assumes that tobacco control policies influence tobacco related behaviours through a causal chain of psychological events, with some variables more closely related to the policy itself (policy-specific variables) and other variables that are more downstream from the policy, which have been identified by health behaviour and social psychological theories as being important causal precursors of behaviour (psychosocial mediators). We discuss the objectives of the ITC Project and its potential for building the evidence base for the FCTC.

  20. Is Contextualised Admission the Answer to the Access Challenge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mountford-Zimdars, Anna; Moore, Joanne; Graham, Janet

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the idea of contextualising applicants to higher education in order to widen access. First, the meaning of contextualised admissions (CAs) is discussed before laying out the rationale for contextualising applicants and the beneficiaries of the policy. The final sections discuss key critiques of CA and conclude by arguing that…

  1. Training New Admissions Recruiters: A Guide for Survival and Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Roger M.; Wilkinson, Christine Kajikawa

    This volume is a guide for new college admissions recruiters and their supervisors. Chapter 1 discusses office space and related policy and telephone and computer equipment use as well as other important practical information. Chapter 2 discusses the recruiter's duty to become completely informed about his/her institution in various categories.…

  2. Equilibrium Tuition, Applications, Admissions and Enrollment in the College Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Chao

    2010-01-01

    I develop and structurally estimate an equilibrium model of the college market. Students, who are heterogeneous in both abilities and preferences, make college application decisions, subject to uncertainty and application costs. Colleges observe only noisy measures of student ability and set up tuition and admissions policies to compete for more…

  3. Provisional Admission Practices: Blending Access and Support to Facilitate Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Andrew Howard; Clinedinst, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This report examines provisional admission as an initiative that can expand four-year college access and success for students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. Provisional admission policies and programs enable students to enroll at an institution under specific conditions. Students are often required to meet certain academic…

  4. Pervasive Preferences: Racial and Ethnic Discrimination in Undergraduate Admissions across the Nation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Robert; Nagai, Althea K.

    The admissions policies of 47 colleges and universities were studied to consider the issue of racial and ethnic discrimination in undergraduate admissions. The Center for Equal Opportunity asked schools for data about students' application status, racial and ethnic group membership, verbal and mathematics Scholastic Assessment Test scores, and…

  5. The role of evidence-based media advocacy in the promotion of tobacco control policies.

    PubMed

    Lane, Ch'uyasonqo H; Carter, Marina I

    2012-06-01

    This article discusses the role of evidence-based media advocacy in the promotion of tobacco control policies. Evidence is a driving force for campaigns seeking to implement a tobacco control policy. An effective campaign is based in evidence that demonstrates why a policy should be implemented, and what the potential benefits are. Media advocacy is the process of disseminating information through the communications media where the aim is to effect action, such as a change of policy, or to alter the public's view of an issue. Discussion focuses on: 1) the importance of, and methods for, collecting and communicating evidence and information to make it clear and usable for legislators, the media, and the public; and 2) the role of earned and paid media in advancing tobacco control issues. The discussion is made within the context of a specific advocacy example; in this case the 2010 campaign to increase the tobacco tax in Mexico.

  6. Toward a Policy on Regulation of the Weight Control Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Eileen M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes fraud and health risks to consumers from the unregulated weight control industry, reviews safe weight loss guidelines, notes the role of health educators, and argues for increased regulatory control measures. (SM)

  7. Foreign policy and arms control: The view from China

    SciTech Connect

    Daoyu, Li

    1993-12-01

    The great changes that have taken place in international relations in the past few years have created a new political an economic environment in the world, with both opportunities and challenges to the overall objective of peace and development. While the international community has finally shaken off the Cold War pattern of confrontation between the two military blocs, it is not yet free from the threat of political instability, regional conflict, and even the scourges of war. There is still along way to go in realizing the cardinal goal of complete prohibition and thorough destruction of all types of weapons of mass destruction. We continue to be confronted by so many contrasts between accomplishments and lapses, by gaps between words and deeds, and by double standards. China`s stated primary foreign policy objective is to maintain world peace, promote common progress and create favorable external conditions for China`s development. Guided by the independent foreign policy of peace, China refrains from joining any alliance, and is always opposed to hegemonism and power politics.

  8. Influence of export control policy on the competitiveness of machine tool producing organizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahrstrom, Jeffrey D.

    The possible influence of export control policies on producers of export controlled machine tools is examined in this quantitative study. International market competitiveness theories hold that market controlling policies such as export control regulations may influence an organization's ability to compete (Burris, 2010). Differences in domestic application of export control policy on machine tool exports may impose throttling effects on the competitiveness of participating firms (Freedenberg, 2010). Commodity shipments from Japan, Germany, and the United States to the Russian market will be examined using descriptive statistics; gravity modeling of these specific markets provides a foundation for comparison to actual shipment data; and industry participant responses to a user developed survey will provide additional data for analysis using a Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance. There is scarce academic research data on the topic of export control effects within the machine tool industry. Research results may be of interest to industry leadership in market participation decisions, advocacy arguments, and strategic planning. Industry advocates and export policy decision makers could find data of interest in supporting positions for or against modifications of export control policies.

  9. Environmental and policy interventions to control tobacco use and prevent cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Brownson, R C; Koffman, D M; Novotny, T E; Hughes, R G; Eriksen, M P

    1995-11-01

    Despite its declining prevalence during the past few decades, tobacco use remains one of the most significant public health issues of the 1990s. Environmental and policy interventions are among the most cost-effective approaches to control tobacco use and prevent cardiovascular diseases. In this article, the authors review and offer to state and local health departments and other public health partners a summary of recommended policy and environmental interventions that have either reduced or show potential to reduce tobacco use. Priority recommendations include clean indoor air policies, restrictions on tobacco advertising and promotion, policies limiting youth access to tobacco, comprehensive school health programs, and excise taxes and other economic incentives. Many of these recommendations should be integrated with other health promotion interventions to also improve nutrition and physical activity. The authors also highlight several successful interventions and strategies used to establish policies at the state and local levels.

  10. 28 CFR 549.42 - Involuntary admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SERVICES Administrative Safeguards for Psychiatric Treatment and Medication § 549.42 Involuntary admission... voluntarily consent either to psychiatric admission or to medication, is subject to judicial...

  11. 32 CFR 242.5 - Admission procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... HEALTH SCIENCES § 242.5 Admission procedures. (a) Application—(1) Civilians. Civilians seeking admission to the School of Medicine shall make direct application following instructions published in...

  12. Policy Innovation and Policy Pathways: Tuberculosis Control in Sri Lanka, 1948–1990

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    This paper, based on World Health Organization and Sri Lankan sources, examines the attempts to control tuberculosis in Sri Lanka from independence in 1948. It focuses particularly on the attempt in 1966 to implement a World Health Organization model of community-orientated tuberculosis control that sought to establish a horizontally structured programme through the integration of control into the general health services. The objective was to create a cost- effective method of control that relied on a simple bacteriological test for case finding and for treatment at the nearest health facility that would take case detection and treatment to the rural periphery where specialist services were lacking. In the late 1940s and early 1950s, Sri Lanka had already established a specialist control programme composed of chest clinics, mass X-ray, inpatient and domiciliary treatment, and social assistance for sufferers. This programme had both reduced mortality and enhanced awareness of the disease. This paper exposes the obstacles presented in trying to impose the World Health Organization’s internationally devised model onto the existing structure of tuberculosis control already operating in Sri Lanka. One significant hindrance to the WHO approach was lack of resources but, equally important, was the existing medical culture that militated against its acceptance. PMID:27628860

  13. Policy Innovation and Policy Pathways: Tuberculosis Control in Sri Lanka, 1948-1990.

    PubMed

    Jones, Margaret

    2016-10-01

    This paper, based on World Health Organization and Sri Lankan sources, examines the attempts to control tuberculosis in Sri Lanka from independence in 1948. It focuses particularly on the attempt in 1966 to implement a World Health Organization model of community-orientated tuberculosis control that sought to establish a horizontally structured programme through the integration of control into the general health services. The objective was to create a cost- effective method of control that relied on a simple bacteriological test for case finding and for treatment at the nearest health facility that would take case detection and treatment to the rural periphery where specialist services were lacking. In the late 1940s and early 1950s, Sri Lanka had already established a specialist control programme composed of chest clinics, mass X-ray, inpatient and domiciliary treatment, and social assistance for sufferers. This programme had both reduced mortality and enhanced awareness of the disease. This paper exposes the obstacles presented in trying to impose the World Health Organization's internationally devised model onto the existing structure of tuberculosis control already operating in Sri Lanka. One significant hindrance to the WHO approach was lack of resources but, equally important, was the existing medical culture that militated against its acceptance.

  14. The conceptual framework of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project

    PubMed Central

    Fong, G T; Cummings, K M; Borland, R; Hastings, G; Hyland, A; Giovino, G A; Hammond, D; Thompson, M E

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the conceptual model that underlies the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC Project), whose mission is to measure the psychosocial and behavioural impact of key policies of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) among adult smokers, and in some countries, among adult non‐smokers and among youth. The evaluation framework utilises multiple country controls, a longitudinal design, and a pre‐specified, theory‐driven conceptual model to test hypotheses about the anticipated effects of specific policies. The ITC Project consists of parallel prospective cohort surveys of representative samples of adult smokers currently in nine countries (inhabited by over 45% of the world's smokers), with other countries being added in the future. Collectively, the ITC Surveys constitute the first‐ever international cohort study of tobacco use. The conceptual model of the ITC Project draws on the psychosocial and health communication literature and assumes that tobacco control policies influence tobacco related behaviours through a causal chain of psychological events, with some variables more closely related to the policy itself (policy‐specific variables) and other variables that are more downstream from the policy, which have been identified by health behaviour and social psychological theories as being important causal precursors of behaviour (psychosocial mediators). We discuss the objectives of the ITC Project and its potential for building the evidence base for the FCTC. PMID:16754944

  15. A review of existing models and methods to estimate employment effects of pollution control policies

    SciTech Connect

    Darwin, R.F.; Nesse, R.J.

    1988-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide information about existing models and methods used to estimate coal mining employment impacts of pollution control policies. The EPA is currently assessing the consequences of various alternative policies to reduce air pollution. One important potential consequence of these policies is that coal mining employment may decline or shift from low-sulfur to high-sulfur coal producing regions. The EPA requires models that can estimate the magnitude and cost of these employment changes at the local level. This paper contains descriptions and evaluations of three models and methods currently used to estimate the size and cost of coal mining employment changes. The first model reviewed is the Coal and Electric Utilities Model (CEUM), a well established, general purpose model that has been used by the EPA and other groups to simulate air pollution control policies. The second model reviewed is the Advanced Utility Simulation Model (AUSM), which was developed for the EPA specifically to analyze the impacts of air pollution control policies. Finally, the methodology used by Arthur D. Little, Inc. to estimate the costs of alternative air pollution control policies for the Consolidated Coal Company is discussed. These descriptions and evaluations are based on information obtained from published reports and from draft documentation of the models provided by the EPA. 12 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Feedback control policies employed by people using intracortical brain-computer interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willett, Francis R.; Pandarinath, Chethan; Jarosiewicz, Beata; Murphy, Brian A.; Memberg, William D.; Blabe, Christine H.; Saab, Jad; Walter, Benjamin L.; Sweet, Jennifer A.; Miller, Jonathan P.; Henderson, Jaimie M.; Shenoy, Krishna V.; Simeral, John D.; Hochberg, Leigh R.; Kirsch, Robert F.; Bolu Ajiboye, A.

    2017-02-01

    Objective. When using an intracortical BCI (iBCI), users modulate their neural population activity to move an effector towards a target, stop accurately, and correct for movement errors. We call the rules that govern this modulation a ‘feedback control policy’. A better understanding of these policies may inform the design of higher-performing neural decoders. Approach. We studied how three participants in the BrainGate2 pilot clinical trial used an iBCI to control a cursor in a 2D target acquisition task. Participants used a velocity decoder with exponential smoothing dynamics. Through offline analyses, we characterized the users’ feedback control policies by modeling their neural activity as a function of cursor state and target position. We also tested whether users could adapt their policy to different decoder dynamics by varying the gain (speed scaling) and temporal smoothing parameters of the iBCI. Main results. We demonstrate that control policy assumptions made in previous studies do not fully describe the policies of our participants. To account for these discrepancies, we propose a new model that captures (1) how the user’s neural population activity gradually declines as the cursor approaches the target from afar, then decreases more sharply as the cursor comes into contact with the target, (2) how the user makes constant feedback corrections even when the cursor is on top of the target, and (3) how the user actively accounts for the cursor’s current velocity to avoid overshooting the target. Further, we show that users can adapt their control policy to decoder dynamics by attenuating neural modulation when the cursor gain is high and by damping the cursor velocity more strongly when the smoothing dynamics are high. Significance. Our control policy model may help to build better decoders, understand how neural activity varies during active iBCI control, and produce better simulations of closed-loop iBCI movements.

  17. Managing ISR sharing policies at the network edge using Controlled English

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parizas, Christos; Pizzocaro, Diego; Preece, Alun; Zerfos, Petros

    2013-05-01

    In domains such as emergency response and military operations the sharing of Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) assets among different coalition partners is regulated through policies. Traditionally, poli­ cies are created at the center of a coalitions network by high-level decision makers and expressed in low-level policy languages (e.g. Common Information Model SPL) by technical personnel, which makes them difficult to be understood by non-technical users at the edge of the network. Moreover, policies must often be modified by negotiation among coalition partners, typically in rapid response to the changing operational situation. Com­ monly, the users who must cope first with situational changes are those on the edge, so it would be very effective if they were able to create and negotiate policies themselves. We investigate the use of Controlled English (CE) as a means to define a policy representation that is both human-friendly and machine processable. We show how a CE model can capture a variety of policy types, including those based on a traditional asset ownership model, and those defining team-based asset sharing across a coalition. The use of CE is intended to benefit coalition networks by bridging the gap between technical and non-technical users in terms of policy creation and negoti­ ation, while at the same time being directly processable by a policy-checking system without transformation to any other technical representation.

  18. Birth control policies in Iran: a public health and ethics perspective.

    PubMed

    Aloosh, Mehdi; Saghai, Yashar

    2016-06-01

    In less than one generation, a unique demographic transition has taken place in Iran. A population growth rate of 4.06% in 1984 fell to 1.15% in 1993 and a total fertility rate of 6.4 births per woman in 1984 declined to 1.9 in 2010. In 2012, Iranian policymakers shifted away from a birth control policy towards a pro-natalist policy. At first glance, this may seem reasonable since its goal is to avoid the consequences of an aging population. However, we argue that the policy package raises serious public health, socioeconomic, environmental and ethical concerns and is likely to fail on its own terms.

  19. Educational innovation for infection control in Tanzania: bridging the policy to practice gap

    PubMed Central

    Whitfield, Ann; Thomas, Susan; Gower, Shelley; Michael, Rene

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of hospital acquired infection in developing countries is between two to 20 times higher than in developed countries and is attributable to multiple causes. Evidence-based international policies and guidelines developed to improve infection prevention and control are often not used in practice in these countries. To combat this challenge, this article presents an innovative educational framework used to bridge the gap between policy written by global health agencies and the realities of practice in Tanzania.

  20. Barriers to adopting and implementing local-level tobacco control policies.

    PubMed

    Satterlund, Travis D; Cassady, Diana; Treiber, Jeanette; Lemp, Cathy

    2011-08-01

    Although California communities have been relatively successful in adopting and implementing a wide range of local tobacco control policies, the process has not been without its setbacks and barriers. Little is known about local policy adoption, and this paper examines these processes related to adopting and implementing outdoor smoke-free policies, focusing on the major barriers faced by local-level tobacco control organizations in this process. Ninety-six projects funded by the California Tobacco Control Program submitted final evaluation reports pertaining to an outdoor smoking objective, and the reports from these projects were analyzed. The barriers were grouped in three primary areas: politically polarizing barriers, organizational barriers, and local political orientation. The barriers identified in this study underscore the need for an organized action plan in adopting local tobacco policy. The authors also suggest potential strategies to offset the barriers, including: (1) having a "champion" who helps to carry an objective forward; (2) tapping into a pool of youth volunteers; (3) collecting and using local data as a persuasive tool; (4) educating the community in smoke-free policy efforts; (5) working strategically within the local political climate; and (6) demonstrating to policymakers the constituent support for proposed policy.

  1. A Case Study in Policy Change: Mayoral Control in New York City's Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlynn, Adam

    2010-01-01

    During the 33 years New York City schools were controlled primarily by community school boards, the city's mayors posited that greater mayoral influence was the cure for the ills afflicting the city's schools. This paper applies theories of policy change to the 30-year battle for control of New York's schools while highlighting the role of the…

  2. 47 CFR 1.20003 - Policies and procedures for employee supervision and control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policies and procedures for employee supervision and control. 1.20003 Section 1.20003 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL... for employee supervision and control. A telecommunications carrier shall: (a) Appoint a senior...

  3. Linking Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2003 and 2006 Data to Tobacco Control Policy in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinha, Dhirendra Narain; Gupta, Prakash C.; Reddy, K. Srinath; Prasad, Vinayak M.; Rahman, Khalilur; Warren, Charles W.; Jones, Nathan R.; Asma, Samira

    2008-01-01

    Background: India made 2 important policy statements regarding tobacco control in the past decade. First, the India Tobacco Control Act (ITCA) was signed into law in 2003 with the goal to reduce tobacco consumption and protect citizens from exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). Second, in 2005, India ratified the World Health Organization Framework…

  4. School Decentralization and Community Control: Policy in Search of a Research Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spivak, Harriet

    The relationship between research and educational policy in the areas of school system decentralization and community control is analyzed in this dissertation. The literature on decentraliztion and community control is reviewed. It is contended that existing empirical research on these subjects has not systematically tested the assumptions…

  5. The Policy of "Pumping the Recharge" Is Out of Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balleau, W. Peter

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogeologists have spent several scientific generations in understanding the source of water to well fields and the effects of wells on the interrelated surface water system. The benchmark is by Theis [1940], who emphasized that some groundwater is initially mined during aquifer development and, after sufficient time, well discharge will be made up by diminution of both rejected recharge and natural discharge. Rejected recharge is water that would reside in the aquifer, except for a lack of space available. Theis advised that a perennial safe yield is equivalent to the amount of rejected recharge and natural discharge that is "feasible to utilize." His term "feasible" may have anticipated many current issues about aquifer sustainability. Papers published this year on the Ogallala aquifer in the central United States and on the global groundwater "footprint" [Scanlon et al., 2012; Gleeson et al., 2012] focus on recharge as an index of sustainability and have been featured in the popular press. However, I argue in this Forum that natural recharge rates alone cannot serve to address the core policy question regarding sustainable aquifer conditions in response to well field stresses. For the sake of users of hydrologic guidance, advisors on this topic may wish to reconsider the safe nature of "pumping the recharge."

  6. Building capacity for tobacco control research and policy

    PubMed Central

    Stillman, F; Yang, G; Figueiredo, V; Hernandez‐Avila, M; Samet, J

    2006-01-01

    The Fogarty International Center (FIC) initiative, “International Tobacco and Health Research Capacity Building Program” represents an important step in US government funding for global tobacco control. Low‐ and middle‐income countries of the world face a rising threat to public health from the rapidly escalating epidemic of tobacco use. Many are now parties to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and capacity development to meet FCTC provisions. One initial grant provided through the FIC was to the Institute for Global Tobacco Control (IGTC) at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (JHSPH) to support capacity building and research programmes in China, Brazil, and Mexico. The initiative's capacity building effort focused on: (1) building the evidence base for tobacco control, (2) expanding the infrastructure of each country to deliver tobacco control, and (3) developing the next generation of leaders as well as encouraging networking throughout the country and with neighbouring countries. This paper describes the approach taken and the research foci, as well some of the main outcomes and some identified challenges posed by the effort. Individual research papers are in progress to provide more in‐depth reporting of study results. PMID:16723670

  7. Knowledge based systems: From process control to policy analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Marinuzzi, J.G.

    1993-06-01

    Los Alamos has been pursuing the use of Knowledge Based Systems for many years. These systems are currently being used to support projects that range across many production and operations areas. By investing time and money in people and equipment, Los Alamos has developed one of the strongest knowledge based systems capabilities within the DOE. Staff of Los Alamos` Mechanical & Electronic Engineering Division are using these knowledge systems to increase capability, productivity and competitiveness in areas of manufacturing quality control, robotics, process control, plant design and management decision support. This paper describes some of these projects and associated technical program approaches, accomplishments, benefits and future goals.

  8. Knowledge based systems: From process control to policy analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Marinuzzi, J.G.

    1993-01-01

    Los Alamos has been pursuing the use of Knowledge Based Systems for many years. These systems are currently being used to support projects that range across many production and operations areas. By investing time and money in people and equipment, Los Alamos has developed one of the strongest knowledge based systems capabilities within the DOE. Staff of Los Alamos' Mechanical Electronic Engineering Division are using these knowledge systems to increase capability, productivity and competitiveness in areas of manufacturing quality control, robotics, process control, plant design and management decision support. This paper describes some of these projects and associated technical program approaches, accomplishments, benefits and future goals.

  9. 22 CFR 229.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Admission. 229.300 Section 229.300 Foreign... and Recruitment Prohibited § 229.300 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the basis of sex, be denied admission, or be subjected to discrimination in admission, by any recipient to which §§...

  10. 22 CFR 229.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Admission. 229.300 Section 229.300 Foreign... and Recruitment Prohibited § 229.300 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the basis of sex, be denied admission, or be subjected to discrimination in admission, by any recipient to which §§...

  11. 22 CFR 146.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Admission. 146.300 Section 146.300 Foreign... Recruitment Prohibited § 146.300 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the basis of sex, be denied admission, or be subjected to discrimination in admission, by any recipient to which §§ 146.300...

  12. 10 CFR 1042.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Admission. 1042.300 Section 1042.300 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Prohibited § 1042.300 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the basis of sex, be denied admission, or be subjected to discrimination in admission, by any recipient to which §§ 1042.300 through...

  13. 44 CFR 68.9 - Admissible evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Admissible evidence. 68.9 Section 68.9 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... admissible. (b) Documentary and oral evidence shall be admissible. (c) Admissibility of non-expert...

  14. 45 CFR 618.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 618.300 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the basis of sex, be denied admission, or be subjected to discrimination in admission, by...

  15. Bimanual coordination as task-dependent linear control policies.

    PubMed

    Diedrichsen, Jörn; Dowling, Noreen

    2009-06-01

    When we perform actions with two hands in everyday life, coordination has to change very quickly depending on task goals. Here, we study these task-dependent changes using a bimanual reaching task in which participants move two separate cursors to two visual targets, or move a single cursor, displayed at the average position of the two hands, to a single target. During the movement, one of the hands is perturbed in a random direction using a viscous curl field. We have previously shown that feedback control, the structure of noise, and adaptation change between these two tasks as predicted by optimal control theory: feedback control is independent when the hands control two cursors, but becomes dependent when they move one cursor together. The same changes are observed even on trials in which no visual feedback about the cursor position is given. One assumption in this model is that coordinative motor commands can be described as a linear function of the state of the left and right hands. Here we test the assumption by studying the feedback corrections for 25 combinations of force fields applied to the two hands. Our study shows that feedback gains are constant across all levels of force fields strength, providing strong evidence that intermanual coordination for this task can accurately be explained by optimal task-dependent linear feedback gains.

  16. Changing policy and practice in the control of pediatric schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Mutapi, Francisca

    2015-03-01

    Schistosomiasis is a chronic disease that affects ∼200 million people. The extended health impact of the disease has been estimated to exceed that of malaria or tuberculosis and to be nearer to that of HIV/AIDS. Within endemic areas, children carry the heaviest burden of infection. Infection/disease is controlled by the treatment of infected subjects with the anthelminthic drug praziquantel. Global initiatives from Partners of Parasite Control, including the World Health Organization (WHO), advocate regular school-based deworming strategies to reduce the development of severe morbidity, promote school-child health and development, and improve the cognitive potential of children. Until recently, preschool-aged children were excluded from schistosome treatment, creating a health inequity in affected populations. In 2010, the WHO updated their recommendations for the treatment of schistosomiasis in preschool-aged children (ie, children aged ≤5 years). This change was the culmination of several decades of research on schistosome epidemiology, immunology, and pathology in this age group. The recent development of a pediatric formulation of praziquantel (soon to enter clinical trials) should advance control efforts in preschool-aged children, with the goal of including these children in preventative chemotherapy (as currently occurs for soil-transmitted helminths). This review discusses the research work supporting the WHO revision of recommendations for treating preschool-aged children, as well as current barriers and knowledge gaps in pediatric schistosomiasis control.

  17. A Short Guide to U.S. Arms Control Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Norman, Ed.; Sussman, Colleen, Ed.

    Steps the United States is taking to lessen the danger of war while building international confidence and security are described. The commitment of the United States to arms control is based on the conviction that the United States and the Soviet Union have a common interest in the avoidance of nuclear war and the survival of the human race. A…

  18. The effectiveness of alcohol control policies on alcohol-related traffic fatalities in the United States.

    PubMed

    Chang, Koyin; Wu, Chin-Chih; Ying, Yung-Hsiang

    2012-03-01

    Multiple alcohol control policies have been enacted since the early 1980s to keep drunk drivers off the roads and to prevent more alcohol-related traffic fatalities. In this paper, we analyze nine traffic policies to determine the extent to which each policy contributes to effective alcohol-related fatality prevention. Compared with the existing literature, this paper addresses a more comprehensive set of traffic policies. In addition, we used a panel GLS model that holds regional effects and state-specific time effects constant to analyze their impact on alcohol-related fatalities with two distinct rates: alcohol-related traffic deaths per capita and alcohol-related traffic deaths per total traffic deaths. While per capita alcohol-related traffic deaths is used more often in other studies, alcohol-related traffic deaths per total traffic deaths better reflects the impact of policies on deterring drunk driving. In addition, regional analyses were conducted to determine the policies that are more effective in certain regions. The findings of this study suggest that zero tolerance laws and increased beer taxes are the most effective policies in reducing alcohol-related fatalities in all regions.

  19. Integrating smoking control policies into employee benefits: a survey of large California corporations.

    PubMed Central

    Schauffler, H H

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Public health policy promotes the use of risk-rating health insurance and payment for smoking cessation as economic incentives to encourage smoking cessation. This study was undertaken to learn more about the adoption of these policies in large corporations. METHODS. A random sample survey of 280 private California corporations with more than 500 employees was undertaken to document the prevalence of policies integrating smoking control into employee benefit designs. RESULTS. Only 8.6% of large corporations had ever considered risk-rating health insurance premiums using smoking status and only 2.15% had implemented a risk-rating policy. Nearly 20% of the companies offered health insurance plans that covered smoking cessation services. Subsidization or payment for smoking cessation outside health insurance was provided by over 37% of the companies surveyed, and 87% had adopted formal work-site smoking policies. CONCLUSION. Benefit policies that provide financial support to smokers to participate in smoking cessation services are much more prevalent and are viewed more positively by the benefits managers in large corporations than are policies to risk-rate health insurance premiums on the basis of smoking. PMID:8362996

  20. Advance and Retreat: Tobacco Control Policy in the U.S. Military

    PubMed Central

    Arvey, Sarah R.; Malone, Ruth E.

    2009-01-01

    This archival study explored why military tobacco control initiatives have thus far largely failed to meet their goals. We analyzed more than 5,000 previously undisclosed internal tobacco industry documents made public via an online database and additional documents obtained from the U.S. military. In four case studies, we illustrate how pressures exerted by multiple political actors resulted in weakening or rescinding military tobacco control policy initiatives. Our findings suggest that lowering military smoking rates will require health policymakers to better anticipate and counter political opponents. The findings also suggest that effective tobacco control policies may require strong, explicit implementation instructions and high-level Department of Defense support. Finally, policy designers should also consider ways to reduce or eliminate existing perverse incentives to increase tobacco consumption, such as allowing exchange store tobacco sales to fund Morale, Recreation, and Welfare Programs. PMID:19160617

  1. Advance and retreat: tobacco control policy in the U.S. military.

    PubMed

    Arvey, Sarah R; Malone, Ruth E

    2008-10-01

    This archival study explored why military tobacco control initiatives have thus far largely failed to meet their goals. We analyzed more than 5,000 previously undisclosed internal tobacco industry documents made public via an online database and additional documents obtained from the U.S. military. In four case studies, we illustrate how pressures exerted by multiple political actors resulted in weakening or rescinding military tobacco control policy initiatives. Our findings suggest that lowering military smoking rates will require health policymakers to better anticipate and counter political opponents. The findings also suggest that effective tobacco control policies may require strong, explicit implementation instructions and high-level Department of Defense support. Finally, policy designers should also consider ways to reduce or eliminate existing perverse incentives to increase tobacco consumption, such as allowing exchange store tobacco sales to fund Morale, Recreation, and Welfare Programs.

  2. Optimal switching policy for performance enhancement of distributed parameter systems based on event-driven control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Wen-Ying; Cui, Bao-Tong; Lou, Xu-Yang; Li, Wen

    2014-07-01

    This paper aims to improve the performance of a class of distributed parameter systems for the optimal switching of actuators and controllers based on event-driven control. It is assumed that in the available multiple actuators, only one actuator can receive the control signal and be activated over an unfixed time interval, and the other actuators keep dormant. After incorporating a state observer into the event generator, the event-driven control loop and the minimum inter-event time are ultimately bounded. Based on the event-driven state feedback control, the time intervals of unfixed length can be obtained. The optimal switching policy is based on finite horizon linear quadratic optimal control at the beginning of each time subinterval. A simulation example demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed policy.

  3. The effect of school district nutrition policies on dietary intake and overweight: a synthetic control approach.

    PubMed

    Bauhoff, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    School nutrition policies aim to eliminate ubiquitous unhealthy foods and beverages from schools to improve adolescent dietary behavior and reduce childhood obesity. This paper evaluates the impact of an early nutrition policy, Los Angeles Unified School District's food-and-beverage standards of 2004, using two large datasets on food intake and physical measures. I implement cohort and cross-section estimators using "synthetic" control groups, combinations of unaffected districts that are reweighted to closely resemble the treatment unit in the pre-intervention period. The results indicate that the policy was mostly ineffective at reducing the prevalence of overweight or obesity 8-15 months after the intervention but significantly decreased consumption of two key targets, soda and fried foods. The policy's impact on physical outcomes appears to be mitigated by substitution toward foods that are still (or newly) available in the schools.

  4. Off-policy integral reinforcement learning optimal tracking control for continuous-time chaotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Qing-Lai; Song, Rui-Zhuo; Sun, Qiu-Ye; Xiao, Wen-Dong

    2015-09-01

    This paper estimates an off-policy integral reinforcement learning (IRL) algorithm to obtain the optimal tracking control of unknown chaotic systems. Off-policy IRL can learn the solution of the HJB equation from the system data generated by an arbitrary control. Moreover, off-policy IRL can be regarded as a direct learning method, which avoids the identification of system dynamics. In this paper, the performance index function is first given based on the system tracking error and control error. For solving the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation, an off-policy IRL algorithm is proposed. It is proven that the iterative control makes the tracking error system asymptotically stable, and the iterative performance index function is convergent. Simulation study demonstrates the effectiveness of the developed tracking control method. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61304079 and 61374105), the Beijing Natural Science Foundation, China (Grant Nos. 4132078 and 4143065), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2013M530527), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. FRF-TP-14-119A2), and the Open Research Project from State Key Laboratory of Management and Control for Complex Systems, China (Grant No. 20150104).

  5. Writing social determinants into and out of cancer control: an assessment of policy practice.

    PubMed

    Carter, Stacy M; Hooker, L Claire; Davey, Heather M

    2009-04-01

    A large literature concurs that social determinants of health (SDH) are demonstrable, important, and insufficiently attended to in policy and practice. A resulting priority for research should be to determine how the social determinants of health can best be addressed. In this paper we support the more effective transfer of social determinants research into policy by: (1) describing a qualitative analysis of thirty-two cancer control policy documents from six English-speaking OECD countries and two transnational organizations, demonstrating great variability in the treatment of social determinants in these policies; (2) critiquing these various policy practices in relation to their likely impact on social determinants of health; and (3) advancing a tool that policy writers can use to assess the way in which social determinants of health have been addressed in their work. In the sample of policy documents, the distinction between structural and intermediate determinants, population-based and targeted interventions, and their respective relationships to equity were not always clear. The authors identified four approaches to social determinants (acknowledging SDH, auditing SDH, stating aims regarding SDH and setting out actions on SDH), and five ways of writing about the relationship between social determinants and cancer risk. These five discourses implied, respectively: that group membership was intrinsically risky; that not enough was known about SDH; that risk arose from choices made by individuals; that groups were constrained by circumstance; or that structural change was necessary. Socio-cultural factors were generally presented negatively, though New Zealand policies modeled a possible alternative. Based on their empirical work, the authors propose a matrix and a set of questions to guide the development and assessment of health policy.

  6. Public support for tobacco control policy extensions in Western Australia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Michael; Wood, Lisa; Ferguson, Renee; Houghton, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Policy makers seeking to introduce new tobacco control measures need to anticipate community support to assist them in planning appropriate implementation strategies. This study assessed community support for plain packaging and smoking bans in outdoor locations in Australia. Design Analytical cross-sectional survey. Setting and participants 2005 Western Australian adults participated in a computer-assisted telephone interview. Random household telephone numbers were used to obtain a representative sample. Outcome measures Support for plain packaging of cigarettes and smoking bans at outdoor venues by demographic characteristics. Results Around half of the survey respondents supported plain packaging and almost a further quarter reported being neutral on the issue. Only one in three smokers disagreed with the introduction of a plain packaging policy. A majority of respondents supported smoking bans at five of the six nominated venues, with support being strongest among those with children under the age of 15 years. The venues with the highest levels of support were those where smoke-free policies had already been voluntarily introduced by the venue managers, where children were most likely to be in attendance, and that were more limited in size. Conclusions The study results demonstrate community support for new tobacco control policies. This evidence can be used by public policy makers in their deliberations relating to the introduction of more extensive tobacco control regulations. PMID:22382124

  7. The politics of markets: The acid rain control policy in the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments

    SciTech Connect

    Kete, N.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis is a review and critique of the development of the acid rain control policy codified as Title IV of the Clean Air Act. The amendments include provisions to address acid rain-air pollution that has been transformed and transported over long distances. Title IV also embodies the first large scale adoption of market principles and economic incentives in the cause of environmental protection. The acid rain control amendments are being hailed as a break with past environmental protection practice and are being offered as a model for further regulatory reform. The thesis looks at the roots of the acid rain policy and considers the set of legal, social, and economic relations embedded in the policy which define the nature of its legal controls over pollution and its inverse, environmental quality. It explores whether the creation of the emissions allowance trading system changes the social relationships that prevailed under the pre-amended Clean Air Act. It responds to and rebuts the concerns of some critics that the policy represents an alienation of the public's right to clean air. A review of the acid rain policymaking process provides a recent and concrete example of the two central concerns inherent in public policy: the making of decisions that establish institutional arrangements, or structures, that both constrain and liberate individual action at the operational level; and the search for the boundary between autonomous behavior and collective decision making. The policy responds to regulatory reform recommendations concerned with improving the effectiveness, accountability, and cost-effectiveness of environmental protection. As a model for future policymaking, the policy goes beyond and encompasses more than the welfare economics ideal of static economic efficiency and the [open quotes]free market environmentalism[close quotes] emphasis on private property and common law.

  8. Fine-grained policy control in U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) multimodal signatures database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Kelly; Grueneberg, Keith; Wood, David; Calo, Seraphin

    2014-06-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) Multimodal Signatures Database (MMSDB) consists of a number of colocated relational databases representing a collection of data from various sensors. Role-based access to this data is granted to external organizations such as DoD contractors and other government agencies through a client Web portal. In the current MMSDB system, access control is only at the database and firewall level. In order to offer finer grained security, changes to existing user profile schemas and authentication mechanisms are usually needed. In this paper, we describe a software middleware architecture and implementation that allows fine-grained access control to the MMSDB at a dataset, table, and row level. Result sets from MMSDB queries issued in the client portal are filtered with the use of a policy enforcement proxy, with minimal changes to the existing client software and database. Before resulting data is returned to the client, policies are evaluated to determine if the user or role is authorized to access the data. Policies can be authored to filter data at the row, table or column level of a result set. The system uses various technologies developed in the International Technology Alliance in Network and Information Science (ITA) for policy-controlled information sharing and dissemination1. Use of the Policy Management Library provides a mechanism for the management and evaluation of policies to support finer grained access to the data in the MMSDB system. The GaianDB is a policy-enabled, federated database that acts as a proxy between the client application and the MMSDB system.

  9. Telecommuting, Control, and Boundary Management: Correlates of Policy Use and Practice, Job Control, and Work-Family Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Lautsch, Brenda A.; Eaton, Susan C.

    2006-01-01

    We examine professionals' use of telecommuting, perceptions of psychological job control, and boundary management strategies. We contend that work-family research should distinguish between descriptions of flexibility use (formal telecommuting policy user, amount of telecommuting practiced) and how the individual psychologically experiences…

  10. Economic policies for tobacco control in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ross, H; Chaloupka, F J

    2006-01-01

    Raising tobacco taxes can have an income distributional impact on the population. Since lower socio-economic groups usually smoke more, they also contribute more to total cigarette tax collection. Thus, those who can afford it least contribute the most in terms of tobacco taxes. This means that tobacco taxes are regressive. However, tobacco tax increases are likely to be progressive, decreasing the relative tax incidence on the poor, vis-à-vis the rich. This is based on the premise that the poor are likely to be more sensitive to price changes, and would thus reduce their cigarette consumption by a greater percentage than the rich in response to an excise tax-induced increase in cigarette prices. Recent empirical studies confirm this hypothesis by demonstrating that the price responsiveness of cigarette demand increases with income. Research in China confirmed that reducing cigarette expenditures could release household resources for spending on food, housing, and other goods that improve living standards. Therefore, in the long run, tobacco control measures will reduce social inequality.

  11. Effectiveness of Hospital-Wide Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Infection Control Policies Differs by Ward Specialty

    PubMed Central

    Sadsad, Rosemarie; Sintchenko, Vitali; McDonnell, Geoff D.; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L.

    2013-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of preventable nosocomial infections and is endemic in hospitals worldwide. The effectiveness of infection control policies varies significantly across hospital settings. The impact of the hospital context towards the rate of nosocomial MRSA infections and the success of infection control is understudied. We conducted a modelling study to evaluate several infection control policies in surgical, intensive care, and medical ward specialties, each with distinct ward conditions and policies, of a tertiary public hospital in Sydney, Australia. We reconfirm hand hygiene as the most successful policy and find it to be necessary for the success of other policies. Active screening for MRSA, patient isolation in single-bed rooms, and additional staffing were found to be less effective. Across these ward specialties, MRSA transmission risk varied by 13% and reductions in the prevalence and nosocomial incidence rate of MRSA due to infection control policies varied by up to 45%. Different levels of infection control were required to reduce and control nosocomial MRSA infections for each ward specialty. Infection control policies and policy targets should be specific for the ward and context of the hospital. The model we developed is generic and can be calibrated to represent different ward settings and pathogens transmitted between patients indirectly through health care workers. This can aid the timely and cost effective design of synergistic and context specific infection control policies. PMID:24340085

  12. Effectiveness of hospital-wide methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection control policies differs by ward specialty.

    PubMed

    Sadsad, Rosemarie; Sintchenko, Vitali; McDonnell, Geoff D; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L

    2013-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of preventable nosocomial infections and is endemic in hospitals worldwide. The effectiveness of infection control policies varies significantly across hospital settings. The impact of the hospital context towards the rate of nosocomial MRSA infections and the success of infection control is understudied. We conducted a modelling study to evaluate several infection control policies in surgical, intensive care, and medical ward specialties, each with distinct ward conditions and policies, of a tertiary public hospital in Sydney, Australia. We reconfirm hand hygiene as the most successful policy and find it to be necessary for the success of other policies. Active screening for MRSA, patient isolation in single-bed rooms, and additional staffing were found to be less effective. Across these ward specialties, MRSA transmission risk varied by 13% and reductions in the prevalence and nosocomial incidence rate of MRSA due to infection control policies varied by up to 45%. Different levels of infection control were required to reduce and control nosocomial MRSA infections for each ward specialty. Infection control policies and policy targets should be specific for the ward and context of the hospital. The model we developed is generic and can be calibrated to represent different ward settings and pathogens transmitted between patients indirectly through health care workers. This can aid the timely and cost effective design of synergistic and context specific infection control policies.

  13. If supply-oriented drug policy is broken, can harm reduction help fix it? Melding disciplines and methods to advance international drug-control policy.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Victoria A; Paoli, Letizia

    2012-01-01

    Critics of the international drug-control regime contend that supply-oriented policy interventions are not just ineffective, but, in focusing almost exclusively on supply reduction, they also produce unintended adverse consequences. Evidence from the world heroin market supports their claims. The balance of the effects of policy is yet unknown, but the prospect of adverse consequences underlies a central paradox of contemporary supply-oriented policy. In this paper, we evaluate whether harm reduction, a subject of intense debate in the demand-oriented drug-policy community, can provide a unifying foundation for supply-oriented drug policy and speak more directly to policy goals. Our analysis rests on an extensive review of the literature on harm reduction and draws insight from other policy communities' disciplines and methods. First, we explore the paradoxes of supply-oriented policy that initially motivated our interest in harm reduction; second, we consider the conceptual and technical challenges that have contributed to the debate on harm reduction and assess their relevance to a supply-oriented application; third, we examine responses to those challenges, i.e., various tools (taxonomies, models, and measurement strategies), that can be used to identify, categorize, and assess harms. Despite substantial conceptual and technical challenges, we find that harm reduction can provide a basis for assessing the net consequences of supply-oriented drug policy, choosing more rigorously amongst policy options, and identifying new options. In addition, we outline a practical path forward for assessing harms and policy options. On the basis of our analysis, we suggest pursuing a harm-based approach and making a clearer distinction between supply-oriented and supply-reduction policy.

  14. Community-Based School Finance and Accountability: A New Era for Local Control in Education Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez Heilig, Julian; Ward, Derrick R.; Weisman, Eric; Cole, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Top-down accountability policies have arguably had very limited impact over the past 20 years. Education stakeholders are now contemplating new forms of bottom-up accountability. In 2013, policymakers in California enacted a community-based approach that creates the Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF) process for school finance to increase…

  15. A policy iteration approach to online optimal control of continuous-time constrained-input systems.

    PubMed

    Modares, Hamidreza; Naghibi Sistani, Mohammad-Bagher; Lewis, Frank L

    2013-09-01

    This paper is an effort towards developing an online learning algorithm to find the optimal control solution for continuous-time (CT) systems subject to input constraints. The proposed method is based on the policy iteration (PI) technique which has recently evolved as a major technique for solving optimal control problems. Although a number of online PI algorithms have been developed for CT systems, none of them take into account the input constraints caused by actuator saturation. In practice, however, ignoring these constraints leads to performance degradation or even system instability. In this paper, to deal with the input constraints, a suitable nonquadratic functional is employed to encode the constraints into the optimization formulation. Then, the proposed PI algorithm is implemented on an actor-critic structure to solve the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation associated with this nonquadratic cost functional in an online fashion. That is, two coupled neural network (NN) approximators, namely an actor and a critic are tuned online and simultaneously for approximating the associated HJB solution and computing the optimal control policy. The critic is used to evaluate the cost associated with the current policy, while the actor is used to find an improved policy based on information provided by the critic. Convergence to a close approximation of the HJB solution as well as stability of the proposed feedback control law are shown. Simulation results of the proposed method on a nonlinear CT system illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  16. Mandatory Production Controls. Issues in Agricultural Policy. Agriculture Information Bulletin Number 520.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Mandatory restrictions on agricultural production continue to be suggested as an alternative policy for reducing price-depressing surplus production, increasing farm income, and cutting farm program costs. A mandatory production control program (MPCP) can be implemented through two methods: (1) acreage allotments, which restrict individual farmers…

  17. School Autonomy and Government Control: School Leaders' Views on a Changing Policy Landscape in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higham, Rob; Earley, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The Conservative-Liberal Democrat Coalition government elected in 2010 has argued contemporary reform will increase the autonomy of schools in England. Given the complexities that exist, however, in the balance between autonomy and control, we explore how school leaders view autonomy as it exists within the wider policy framework. The article…

  18. Soviet Education Policy 1917-1935: From Ideology to Bureaucratic Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauglo, Jon

    1988-01-01

    Examining early Soviet educational policy, Lauglo analyzes the initial expression of Marxist humanist values, popular participation, and the value of productive work for general education. Discusses the routinization into a Stalinist pattern of bureaucratically controlled utilitarianism and comments briefly on recent indications of change in…

  19. Association of School Nutrition Policy and Parental Control with Childhood Overweight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Lee, Chung Gun

    2012-01-01

    Background: Schools and parents may play important roles in preventing childhood obesity by affecting children's behaviors related to energy balance. This study examined how school nutrition policy and parental control over children's eating and physical activity habits are associated with the children's overweight/obesity (hereafter overweight)…

  20. Results from an evaluation of tobacco control policies at the 2010 Shanghai World Expo

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Zheng, PinPin; Fu, Hua; Berg, Carla; Kegler, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Background Large-scale international events such as World Expos and Olympic Games have the potential to strengthen smoke-free norms globally. The Shanghai 2010 World Expo was one of the first large-scale events to implement and evaluate the adoption of strict tobacco control policies. Objective To evaluate implementation of tobacco control policies at the 2010 World Expo in Shanghai, China. Methods This mixed methods evaluation was conducted from July to October 2010. Observations were conducted in all 155 pavilions and outdoor queuing areas, all 45 souvenir shops, a random sample of restaurants (51 of 119) and selected outdoor non-smoking areas in all sections of the Expo. In addition, intercept surveys were completed with 3022 visitors over a 4-month period. Results All pavilions and souvenir shops were smoke-free. Restaurants were smoke-free, with only 0.1% of customers observed smoking. Smoking was more common in outdoor non-smoking areas, but still relatively rare overall with only 4.5% of visitors observed smoking. Tobacco products were not sold or marketed in any public settings except for three pavilions that had special exemptions from the policy. Overall, 80.3% of visitors were aware of the smoke-free policy at the World Expo, 92.5% of visitors supported the policy and 97.1% of visitors were satisfied with the smoke-free environment. Conclusions Tobacco control policies at the World Expo sites were generally well-enforced and accepted although compliance was not 100%, particularly in outdoor non-smoking areas. PMID:23708269

  1. Infection Control Practice in the Operating Room: Staff Adherence to Existing Policies in a Developing Country

    PubMed Central

    Cawich, Shamir O; Tennant, Ingrid A; McGaw, Clarence D; Harding, Hyacinth; Walters, Christine A; Crandon, Ivor W

    2013-01-01

    Context: Infection control interventions are important for containing surgery-related infections. For this reason, the modern operating room (OR) should have well-developed infection control policies. The efficacy of these policies depends on how well the OR staff adhere to them. There is a lack of available data documenting adherence to infection control policies. Objective: To evaluate OR staff adherence to existing infection control policies in Jamaica. Methods: We administered a questionnaire to all OR staff to assess their training, knowledge of local infection control protocols, and practice with regard to 8 randomly selected guidelines. Adherence to each guideline was rated with fixed-choice items on a 4-point Likert scale. The sum of points determined the adherence score. Two respondent groups were defined: adherent (score > 26) and nonadherent (score ≤ 26). We evaluated the relationship between respondent group and age, sex, occupational rank, and time since completion of basic medical training. We used χ2 and Fisher exact tests to assess associations and t tests to compare means between variables of interest. Results: The sample comprised 132 participants (90 physicians and 42 nurses) with a mean age of 36 (standard deviation ± 9.5) years. Overall, 40.1% were adherent to existing protocols. There was no significant association between the distribution of adherence scores and sex (p = 0.319), time since completion of basic training (p = 0.595), occupational rank (p = 0.461), or age (p = 0.949). Overall, 19% felt their knowledge of infection control practices was inadequate. Those with working knowledge of infection control practices attained it mostly through informal communication (80.4%) and self-directed research (62.6%). Conclusion: New approaches to the problem of nonadherence to infection control guidelines are needed in the Caribbean. Several unique cultural, financial, and environmental factors influence adherence in this region, in contrast to

  2. Tobacco control policies and perinatal and child health: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol

    PubMed Central

    Been, Jasper V; Mackenbach, Johan P; Millett, Christopher; Basu, Sanjay; Sheikh, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Children experience considerable morbidity and mortality due to tobacco smoke exposure. Tobacco control policies may benefit child health by reducing this exposure. We aim to comprehensively assess the effects of the range of tobacco control policies advocated by the WHO on perinatal and child health. Methods and analysis We will systematically search 19 electronic literature databases (from inception) for published studies, and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for unpublished studies. Additional work will be identified via handsearching references and citations, and through consulting an international panel of experts. No language restrictions will apply. Following Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) guidelines, randomised and clinical controlled trials, controlled before-and-after studies, and interrupted time series designs, are eligible. Studies of interest will assess the impact of any of the WHO-advocated tobacco control policies contained in the MPOWER acronym (except ‘Monitoring tobacco use’) on at least one outcome of interest among children aged 0–12 years. The primary outcomes are: perinatal mortality, preterm birth, asthma exacerbations requiring hospital attendance and respiratory infections requiring hospital attendance. Data will be extracted using customised forms and authors will be contacted to obtain missing information. Risk of bias will be assessed using EPOC criteria. Findings will be reported in narrative and tabular form. Between-study heterogeneity will be assessed clinically and statistically using I2. If appropriate and possible, random-effects meta-analysis will be conducted for each unique combination of intervention and outcome. Subgroup analyses will be performed to assess the influence of the comprehensiveness of each policy, and to explore the impact of each policy according to socioeconomic status. Ethics and dissemination No ethical assessment is necessary as we

  3. Emergence of viral diseases: mathematical modeling as a tool for infection control, policy and decision making.

    PubMed

    Louz, Derrick; Bergmans, Hans E; Loos, Birgit P; Hoeben, Rob C

    2010-08-01

    Mathematical modeling can be used for the development and implementation of infection control policy to combat outbreaks and epidemics of communicable viral diseases. Here an outline is provided of basic concepts and approaches used in mathematical modeling and parameterization of disease transmission. The use of mathematical models is illustrated, using the 2001 UK foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) epidemic, the 2003 global severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic, and human influenza pandemics, as examples. This provides insights in the strengths, limitations, and weaknesses of the various models, and demonstrates their potential for supporting policy and decision making.

  4. National malaria vector control policy: an analysis of the decision to scale-up larviciding in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Tesfazghi, Kemi; Hill, Jenny; Jones, Caroline; Ranson, Hilary; Worrall, Eve

    2016-01-01

    Background: New vector control tools are needed to combat insecticide resistance and reduce malaria transmission. The World Health Organization (WHO) endorses larviciding as a supplementary vector control intervention using larvicides recommended by the WHO Pesticides Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES). The decision to scale-up larviciding in Nigeria provided an opportunity to investigate the factors influencing policy adoption and assess the role that actors and evidence play in the policymaking process, in order to draw lessons that help accelerate the uptake of new methods for vector control. Methods: A retrospective policy analysis was carried out using in-depth interviews with national level policy stakeholders to establish normative national vector control policy or strategy decision-making processes and compare these with the process that led to the decision to scale-up larviciding. The interviews were transcribed, then coded and analyzed using NVivo10. Data were coded according to pre-defined themes from an analytical policy framework developed a priori. Results: Stakeholders reported that the larviciding decision-making process deviated from the normative vector control decision-making process. National malaria policy is normally strongly influenced by WHO recommendations, but the potential of larviciding to contribute to national economic development objectives through larvicide production in Nigeria was cited as a key factor shaping the decision. The larviciding decision involved a restricted range of policy actors, and notably excluded actors that usually play advisory, consultative and evidence generation roles. Powerful actors limited the access of some actors to the policy processes and content. This may have limited the influence of scientific evidence in this policy decision. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that national vector control policy change can be facilitated by linking malaria control objectives to wider socioeconomic considerations and

  5. Domestic politics, citizen activism, and U. S. nuclear arms control policy

    SciTech Connect

    Knopf, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    The author seeks to ascertain whether and how citizens' movements concerning nuclear arms control and disarmament affect US arms control policy. The author employs a comparative case study methodology. He examines cases of the Eisenhower and Kennedy Administrations during the period of protest against nuclear testing, and the Reagan Administration during the nuclear weapons freeze campaign and the subsequent campaign for a comprehensive test ban. He hows there are four mechanisms through which public advocacy efforts can influence arms control policy, identifies the conditions under which each can be effective, and details the type of impact each mechanism has. Domestic activism interacts with broader public opinion in a way that creates electoral pressure; with elite-level debates in a way that removes a consensus behind presidential policy or changes the winning coalition in Congress; with bureaucratic politics, by generating ideas that have utility for some agents within the Executive; or with the public diplomacy of foreign governments, especially the Soviet Union. Citizens' movements had an impact on policy in each of the cases studied. The type and extent of impact, and the mechanisms involved in giving activism influence, are different for each case.

  6. Legacy Status as a Signal in College Admissions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    empirical support for any claims about legacy admits in the literature. The main assertion in favor of legacy admits is financial .1 William R...Fitzsimmons, dean of admissions and financial aid at Harvard, defends the school’s legacy policy because it helps raise funds that...and logit are inconsequential for this data set. Probit is used for computational simplicity because Stata automatically computes marginal effects. An

  7. [Dutch tobacco control policy: milestones in the past and a look into the future].

    PubMed

    Willemsen, M C

    2017-01-01

    - As early as 1975, the Health Council of the Netherlands was aware of what an effective tobacco control policy should constitute.- Centre-right governments in the 1980's and 1990's impeded the implementation of such a policy. In 1988, the Tobacco Act was introduced, but this had no effect on smoking rates.- In 2002, the Tobacco Act was amended, introducing more far-reaching measures, which resulted in a reduction in the number of smokers.- To accelerate the downward trend in smoking rates, more investments need to be made in mass media campaigns, and tobacco tax rates will need to be increased each year.- One of the concrete measures recommended in 1975 by the Health Council of the Netherlands, which has still not materialised, is reducing the number of tobacco vendors. New regulations for this policy are expected to be developed in the coming years.

  8. The Status and Future Challenges of Tobacco Control Policy in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco use is the most important preventable risk factor for premature death. The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), the first international public health treaty, came into force in 2005. This paper reviews the present status of tobacco control policies in Korea according to the WHO FCTC recommendations. In Korea, cigarette use is high among adult males (48.2% in 2010), and cigarette prices are the lowest among the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries with no tax increases since 2004. Smoke-free policies have shown incremental progress since 1995, but smoking is still permitted in many indoor public places. More than 30% of non-smoking adults and adolescents are exposed to second-hand smoke. Public education on the harmful effects of tobacco is currently insufficient and the current policies have not been adequately evaluated. There is no comprehensive ban on tobacco advertising, promotion, or sponsorship in Korea. Cigarette packages have text health warnings on only 30% of the main packaging area, and misleading terms such as "mild" and "light" are permitted. There are nationwide smoking cessation clinics and a Quitline service, but cessation services are not covered by public insurance schemes and there are no national treatment guidelines. The sale of tobacco to minors is prohibited by law, but is poorly enforced. The socioeconomic inequality of smoking prevalence has widened, although the government considers inequality reduction to be a national goal. The tobacco control policies in Korea have faltered recently and priority should be given to the development of comprehensive tobacco control policies. PMID:24921015

  9. The status and future challenges of tobacco control policy in Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hong-Jun

    2014-05-01

    Tobacco use is the most important preventable risk factor for premature death. The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), the first international public health treaty, came into force in 2005. This paper reviews the present status of tobacco control policies in Korea according to the WHO FCTC recommendations. In Korea, cigarette use is high among adult males (48.2% in 2010), and cigarette prices are the lowest among the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries with no tax increases since 2004. Smoke-free policies have shown incremental progress since 1995, but smoking is still permitted in many indoor public places. More than 30% of non-smoking adults and adolescents are exposed to second-hand smoke. Public education on the harmful effects of tobacco is currently insufficient and the current policies have not been adequately evaluated. There is no comprehensive ban on tobacco advertising, promotion, or sponsorship in Korea. Cigarette packages have text health warnings on only 30% of the main packaging area, and misleading terms such as "mild" and "light" are permitted. There are nationwide smoking cessation clinics and a Quitline service, but cessation services are not covered by public insurance schemes and there are no national treatment guidelines. The sale of tobacco to minors is prohibited by law, but is poorly enforced. The socioeconomic inequality of smoking prevalence has widened, although the government considers inequality reduction to be a national goal. The tobacco control policies in Korea have faltered recently and priority should be given to the development of comprehensive tobacco control policies.

  10. Addressing the Proximal Causes of Obesity: The Relevance of Alcohol Control Policies

    PubMed Central

    Rabinovich, Lila

    2012-01-01

    Many policy measures to control the obesity epidemic assume that people consciously and rationally choose what and how much they eat and therefore focus on providing information and more access to healthier foods. In contrast, many regulations that do not assume people make rational choices have been successfully applied to control alcohol, a substance — like food — of which immoderate consumption leads to serious health problems. Alcohol-use control policies restrict where, when, and by whom alcohol can be purchased and used. Access, salience, and impulsive drinking behaviors are addressed with regulations including alcohol outlet density limits, constraints on retail displays of alcoholic beverages, and restrictions on drink “specials.” We discuss 5 regulations that are effective in reducing drinking and why they may be promising if applied to the obesity epidemic. PMID:22554409

  11. La reconnaissance des acquis experientiels: etude de cas de la politique d'admission des adultes a l'Universite de Laval (Recognition of Experiential Learning: Case Study of the Politics of Adult Admissions to the University of Laval.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heon, Lucie; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A study of 400 University of Laval adult applicants under its new admission policy suggest that while student age and experience appear to be important factors in gaining admission, they are enhanced by the closeness of the experience to academic or cognitive learning combined with a high school diploma and grades above 65%. (MSE)

  12. A Comprehensive Examination of the Influence of State Tobacco Control Programs and Policies on Youth Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Loomis, Brett R.; Han, Beth; Gfroerer, Joe; Kuiper, Nicole; Couzens, G. Lance; Dube, Shanta; Caraballo, Ralph S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the influence of tobacco control policies (tobacco control program expenditures, smoke-free air laws, youth access law compliance, and cigarette prices) on youth smoking outcomes (smoking susceptibility, past-year initiation, current smoking, and established smoking). Methods. We combined data from the 2002 to 2008 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health with state and municipality population data from the US Census Bureau to assess the associations between state tobacco control policy variables and youth smoking outcomes, focusing on youths aged 12 to 17 years. We also examined the influence of policy variables on youth access when these variables were held at 2002 levels. Results. Per capita funding for state tobacco control programs was negatively associated with all 4 smoking outcomes. Smoke-free air laws were negatively associated with all outcomes except past-year initiation, and cigarette prices were associated only with current smoking. We found no association between these outcomes and retailer compliance with youth access laws. Conclusions. Smoke-free air laws and state tobacco control programs are effective strategies for curbing youth smoking. PMID:23327252

  13. Institutional Control Policies and Implementation for the Area 5 and Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Vefa Yucel, Greg Shott, Denise Wieland, et al.

    2007-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) has implemented varying institutional control policies in performance assessment/composite analysis (PA/CA) calculations for the Area 5 and Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) (Shott et al., 1998; 2000; Bechtel Nevada [BN] and Neptune and Company Inc. [Neptune], 2006). The facilities are within the actively maintained boundaries of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) that are enforced by NNSA/NSO. Under current policies, access required for exposure of the member of public (MOP) or the inadvertent human intruder (IHI) is prohibited. Uncertainties affecting institutional control policies are the duration and effectiveness of the controls during the post-closure period. Implementing a uniform set of institutional control policies for the RWMSs that encompasses waste management and environmental restoration programs and is consistent with the end-state vision for the environmental management programs for the NTS (DOE, 2006) is a primary goal of the maintenance program. The NNSA/NSO Performance Management Plan (DOE, 2002) complies with DOE Policy P455.1, 'Use of Risk-Based End States' (DOE, 2003a). Expected future land uses are a driver in selecting acceptable end state conditions and clean-up goals for the NTS. NNSA/NSO Environmental Management's (EM's) land management assumptions and framework for Environmental Management activities are as follows: The NTS will remain under federal control in perpetuity as an NNSA test site, and the large buffer zone surrounding the NTS (the Nevada Test and Training Range) is assumed to remain under the control of the U.S. Air Force. There are no plans for transfer of any NTS lands to other agencies or public entities. Access will continue to be restricted to the NTS and the surrounding areas. For management purposes, NNSA/NV EM activities have been established based on the source of contamination and type of waste

  14. Effectiveness of national air pollution control policies on the air quality in metropolitan areas of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuxiao; Xing, Jia; Zhao, Bin; Jang, Carey; Hao, Jiming

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effectiveness of national air pollution controls is important for control policy design to improve the future air quality in China. This study evaluated the effectiveness of major national control policies implemented recently in China through a modeling analysis. The sulfur dioxide (SO2) control policy during the 11th Five Year Plan period (2006-2010) had succeeded in reducing the national SO2 emission in 2010 by 14% from its 2005 level, which correspondingly reduced ambient SO2 and sulfate (SO4(2-)) concentrations by 13%-15% and 8%-10% respectively over east China. The nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) control policy during the 12th Five Year Plan period (2011-2015) targets the reduction of the national NO(x) emission in 2015 by 10% on the basis of 2010. The simulation results suggest that such a reduction in NO(x) emission will reduce the ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrate (NO3(-)), 1-hr maxima ozone (O3) concentrations and total nitrogen deposition by 8%, 3%-14%, 2% and 2%-4%, respectively over east China. The application of new emission standards for power plants will further reduce the NO2, NO3(-), 1-hr maxima O(3 concentrations and total nitrogen deposition by 2%-4%, 1%-6%, 0-2% and 1%-2%, respectively. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the inter-provincial impacts of emission reduction in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and the Yangtze River Delta, which indicated the need to implement joint regional air pollution control.

  15. 32 CFR 242.5 - Admission procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... HEALTH SCIENCES § 242.5 Admission procedures. (a) Application—(1) Civilians. Civilians seeking admission... conditionally select candidates to fill available class spaces. Those conditionally selected shall be the...

  16. An Innovative Approach for Decreasing Fall Trauma Admissions from Geriatric Living Facilities: Preliminary Investigation.

    PubMed

    Evans, Tracy; Gross, Brian; Rittenhouse, Katelyn; Harnish, Carissa; Vellucci, Ashley; Bupp, Katherine; Horst, Michael; Miller, Jo Ann; Baier, Ron; Chandler, Roxanne; Rogers, Frederick B

    2015-12-01

    Geriatric living facilities have been associated with a high rate of falls. We sought to develop an innovative intervention approach targeting geriatric living facilities that would reduce geriatric fall admissions to our Level II trauma center. In 2011, a Trauma Prevention Taskforce visited 5 of 28 local geriatric living facilities to present a fall prevention protocol composed of three sections: fall education, risk factor identification, and fall prevention strategies. To determine the impact of the intervention, the trauma registry was queried for all geriatric fall admissions attributed to patients living at local geriatric living facilities. The fall admission rate (total fall admissions/total beds) of the pre-intervention period (2010-2011) was compared with that of the postintervention period (2012-2013) at the 5 intervention and 23 control facilities. A P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. From 2010 to 2013, there were 487 fall admissions attributed to local geriatric living facilities (intervention: 179 fall admissions; control: 308 fall admissions). The unadjusted fall rate decreased at intervention facilities from 8.9 fall admissions/bed pre-intervention to 8.1 fall admissions/bed postintervention, whereas fall admission rates increased at control sites from 5.9 to 7.7 fall admissions/bed during the same period [control/intervention odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.32, 1.05-1.67; period OR, 95%CI = 1.55, 1.18-2.04, P = 0.002; interaction of control/intervention group and period OR 95% CI = 0.68, 0.46-1.00, P = 0.047]. An aggressive intervention program targeting high-risk geriatric living facilities resulted in a statistically significant decrease in geriatric fall admissions to our Level II trauma center.

  17. Top 10% Admissions in the Borderlands: Access and Success of Borderland Top Students at Texas Public Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodríguez, Cristóbal

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on Texas Borderland students admitted through the Texas Top 10% admissions policy, which assumes that Top 10% students are college ready for any public university and provides Top 10% high school graduates automatic admission to any 4-year public university in Texas. Using descriptive and inferential statistics, results…

  18. College Admissions in Twenty-First-Century America: The Role of Grades, Tests, and Games of Chance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwick, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    In this essay, Rebecca Zwick confronts the controversy surrounding the use of standardized tests in college admissions. She examines the degree to which the SAT and its lesser known cousin, the ACT, limit access to college, particularly for racial and ethnic minorities, and considers two alternative admissions policies that do not involve tests:…

  19. Social Equity and the One Florida Initiative: Minority Student Admission, Retention, and Graduation in the University System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffourc, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    Executive Order 99-281 (1999), commonly known as the "One Florida Initiative," abolished affirmative action policies in university admissions, state employment, and state contracting. This dissertation studies the impact that the implementation of this initiative has had on the admission, retention and graduation rates of minority…

  20. Tobacco control policies and perinatal health: a national quasi-experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Peelen, Myrthe J.; Sheikh, Aziz; Kok, Marjolein; Hajenius, Petra; Zimmermann, Luc J.; Kramer, Boris W.; Hukkelhoven, Chantal W.; Reiss, Irwin K.; Mol, Ben W.; Been, Jasper V.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether changes in perinatal outcomes occurred following introduction of key tobacco control policies in the Netherlands: smoke-free legislation in workplaces plus a tobacco tax increase and mass media campaign (January-February 2004); and extension of the smoke-free law to the hospitality industry, accompanied by another tax increase and mass media campaign (July 2008). This was a national quasi-experimental study using Netherlands Perinatal Registry data (2000–2011; registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02189265). Primary outcome measures were: perinatal mortality, preterm birth, and being small-for-gestational age (SGA). The association with timing of the tobacco control policies was investigated using interrupted time series logistic regression analyses with adjustment for confounders. Among 2,069,695 singleton births, there were 13,027 (0.6%) perinatal deaths, 116,043 (5.6%) preterm live-births and 187,966 (9.1%) SGA live-births. The 2004 policies were not associated with significant changes in the odds of developing any of the primary outcomes. After the 2008 policy change, a -4.4% (95% CI -2.4; -6.4, p < 0.001) decrease in odds of being SGA was observed. A reduction in SGA births, but not preterm birth or perinatal mortality, was observed in the Netherlands after extension of the smoke-free workplace law to bars and restaurants in conjunction with a tax increase and mass media campaign. PMID:27103591

  1. First passage times in M2[X ]|G |1 |R queue with hysteretic overload control policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechinkin, Alexander V.; Razumchik, Rostislav R.; Zaryadov, Ivan S.

    2016-06-01

    One of the reported approaches towards the solution of overload problem in networks of SIP servers is the implementation of multi-level hysteretic control of arrivals in SIP servers. Each level, being the parameter of the policy, specifies operation mode of SIP server i.e. it implicitly indicates what SIP server must do with the arriving packets. The choice of parameters' values is not guided by standards and is usually left for the network owner. In general, all operation modes of the considered policy can be grouped into two groups: normal mode (when all arriving packets are accepted) and congested mode (when part or all arriving packets are being dropped). Such grouping may serve as the criteria for choosing parameters' values of the policy: pick those values which minimize SIP server sojourn time in congested mode. In this short note we propose some analytical results which facilitate the solution of stated minimization problem. The considered mathematical model of SIP server is the queueing system M2[X ]|G |1 |R with batch arrivals and bi-level hysteretic control policy, which specifies three operation modes: normal (customers both flows are accepted), overload (only customers from one flow are accepted), discard (customers from both flows are blocked/lost)). The switching between modes can occur only on service completions. Analytical method allowing computation of stationary sojourn times in different operation modes (as well as first passage times between modes) is presented in brief. Numerical example is given.

  2. Korean male smokers' perceptions of tobacco control policies in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Seog; Nam, Kyoung A

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this secondary data analysis is to report Korean male smokers' perceptions of tobacco control policies in the United States. Descriptive data from four focus groups held in New York City in 2003 are presented. Focus group interviews were used to collect data, and the two investigators independently analyzed all four recorded group sessions. Korean male immigrants living in New York City area were recruited, and 22 volunteered to participate. Exclusion criteria included immigration to the United States before age 12, no smoking history, and use of chemical substance other than tobacco. Korean men differed in perceptions of the policies based on smoking status and length of U.S. residency. Among current smokers, recent immigrants had difficulty understanding smoking restrictions, whereas longtime residents complained of price increases. Both groups suggested that policies target the tobacco industry and do not target smokers. In contrast, former smokers supported more regulation of public smoking and suggested use of more aggressive antismoking campaigns. Public policymakers should take into consideration cultural attitudes and beliefs about smoking behavior in the design and implementation of tobacco control policies that affect ethnic groups whose cultural and value orientations may differ from the mainstream.

  3. Smoke-free policies and the social acceptability of smoking in Uruguay and Mexico: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project

    PubMed Central

    Boado, Marcelo; Sebrié, Ernesto M.; Bianco, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Little research has been conducted to determine the psychosocial and behavioral impacts of smoke-free policies in middle-income countries. Methods Cross-sectional data were analyzed from the 2006 waves of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation. Survey comparing adult smokers in Mexico (n = 1,080), where smoke-free legislation at that time was weak, and Uruguay (n = 1,002), where comprehensive smoke-free legislation was implemented. Analyses aimed to determine whether exposure to smoke-free policies and perceived antismoking social norms were associated with smokers’ receiving cues about the bothersome nature of secondhand smoke (SHS), with smokers’ reactance against such cues, and with smokers’ level of support for smoke-free policies in different venues. Results In bivariate analyses, Uruguayan smokers were more likely than Mexican smokers to experience verbal anti-SHS cues, lower reactance against anti-SHS cues, stronger antismoking societal norms, and stronger support for 100% smoke-free policies in enclosed workplaces, restaurants, and bars. In multivariate models for both countries, the strength of voluntary smoke-free policies at home was independently associated with support for smoke-free policies across all venues queried, except for in bars among Uruguayans. Perceived strength of familial antismoking norms was consistently associated with all indicators of the social acceptability of smoking in Uruguay but only with the frequency of receiving anti-SHS verbal cues in Mexico. Discussion These results are generally consistent with previous research indicating that comprehensive smoke-free policies are likely to increase the social unacceptability of smoking and that resistance against such policies is likely to diminish once such policies are in place. PMID:19380383

  4. Tobacco industry interference with tobacco control policies in Poland: legal aspects and industry practices

    PubMed Central

    Balwicki, Łukasz; Stokłosa, Michał; Balwicka-Szczyrba, Małgorzata; Tomczak, Wioleta

    2016-01-01

    Background Since 2006, when Poland ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), there have been efforts to improve tobacco control regulation in the country. At the same time, at the European Union level, Poland took part in discussions over revision of the Tobacco Tax Directive and the Tobacco Products Directive. This study aims to explore the tobacco industry's tactics to interfere with the creation of those policies. Methods Analysis of 257 documents obtained through freedom of information request. Results We identified three means that the tobacco industry used to interfere with tobacco control policies: creating a positive attitude, expressing a will to be a part of the policymaking process, and exerting pressure. We found that those tactics have often been used unethically, with the industry providing the government with ready legislation proposals, overstating its contribution to the economy and the government revenues, misrepresenting the illicit cigarette problem and misusing scientific evidence. The industry also used legal threats, including use of bilateral trade agreements, against implementation of tobacco control measures. The companies lobbied together directly and through third parties, with the cigarette excise tax structure being the only area of disagreement among the companies. The industry also pushed the Polish government to challenge tobacco control policies in countries with stronger public policy standards, including UK display bans and the Australian plain-packaging law. Conclusions From an object of regulation, the tobacco industry in Poland became a partner with the government in legislative work. Implementation of provisions of Article 5.3 of the WHO FCTC could prevent further industry interference. PMID:26418616

  5. 18 CFR 1317.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Admission. 1317.300 Section 1317.300 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION ON... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 1317.300 Admission. (a) General....

  6. 18 CFR 1317.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Admission. 1317.300 Section 1317.300 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION ON... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 1317.300 Admission. (a) General....

  7. 38 CFR 23.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Admission. 23.300 Section 23.300 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 23.300 Admission. (a) General....

  8. 18 CFR 1317.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Admission. 1317.300 Section 1317.300 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION ON... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 1317.300 Admission. (a) General....

  9. 36 CFR 1211.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Admission. 1211.300 Section 1211.300 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL RULES... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 1211.300 Admission. (a) General....

  10. An Economic Model for Selective Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haglund, Alma

    1978-01-01

    The author presents an economic model for selective admissions to postsecondary nursing programs. Primary determinants of the admissions model are employment needs, availability of educational resources, and personal resources (ability and learning potential). As there are more applicants than resources, selective admission practices are…

  11. 17 CFR 12.33 - Admissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... REPARATIONS Discovery § 12.33 Admissions. (a) Request for admissions. Any party may, within the time permitted... truth of any matters set forth in the request that relate to statements or opinions of fact or of the...) Reply. Each matter of which an admission is requested shall be separately set forth. The matter...

  12. The Journal of College Admission Ethics Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveland, Elaina C., Ed.; Raynor, Joyce, Ed.

    This book is the first significant body of literature on ethics in college admission published by the National Association for College Admission Counseling. The series is a select compilation of articles on ethics published in the Journal of College Admission in 1998 and 1999. The book is a source of information for the beginning and experienced…

  13. Reducing admissions for people with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Allan, Belinda

    Reversing the rise in emergency hospital admissions is an NHS priority. These admissions impact on elective capacity and waiting times and are unsustainable. The risk of hospitalisation for people with diabetes is almost twice that for others. Commissioners need to address admissions associated with diabetes and new guidance offers best-practice solutions.

  14. The Role of Noncognitive Assessment in Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoerle, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Confident that understanding and employing new approaches to assessment is a top priority for admissions professionals, the Secondary School Admission Test Board (SSATB) recently launched a Think Tank on the Future of Admission Assessment, with a two-year timeline and a charge to educate its membership and inspire greater innovation in admissions…

  15. Toward a Sociology of Law School Admissions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erlanger, Howard S.

    1984-01-01

    The law school admission process plays a major role in determining the social class origins and ethnic composition of the bar, and perhaps also the nonlegal skills lawyers will have. Research is incomplete; consideration of admission criteria, the composition and processes of admissions committees, and applicant self-selection is advisable. (MSE)

  16. 29 CFR 36.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 36.300 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the basis of sex, be denied admission, or...

  17. 10 CFR 1042.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 1042.300 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the basis of sex, be denied admission,...

  18. 10 CFR 1042.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 1042.300 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the basis of sex, be denied admission,...

  19. 29 CFR 36.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 36.300 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the basis of sex, be denied admission, or...

  20. 29 CFR 36.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 36.300 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the basis of sex, be denied admission, or...

  1. 7 CFR 501.2 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Admission. 501.2 Section 501.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER, NEBRASKA § 501.2 Admission. Admission to...

  2. 7 CFR 501.2 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Admission. 501.2 Section 501.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER, NEBRASKA § 501.2 Admission. Admission to...

  3. 7 CFR 501.2 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Admission. 501.2 Section 501.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER, NEBRASKA § 501.2 Admission. Admission to...

  4. 7 CFR 501.2 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Admission. 501.2 Section 501.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER, NEBRASKA § 501.2 Admission. Admission to...

  5. 7 CFR 501.2 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Admission. 501.2 Section 501.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER, NEBRASKA § 501.2 Admission. Admission to...

  6. Coalition Warfare Program (CWP): secure policy controlled information query and dissemination over a Bices network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, Andrew; Pham, Tien; Karr, Todd; Bent, Graham; Harries, Dominic; Knox, Alan

    2013-05-01

    In 2006, the US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) established a collaborative research alliance with academia and industry, called the International Technology Alliance (ITA) to address fundamental issues concerning Network and Information Sciences. Under the ITA research program, a US-UK transition project on "ITA Policy Controlled Information Query and Dissemination" was funded in 2011 by OSD's Coalition Warfare Program (CWP). The goal of this CWP project is to develop an extensible capability of performing distributed federated query and information dissemination across a coalition network of distributed disparate data/information sources with access­ controlled policies. The CWP project is lead by US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and UK Defence Science Technology Laboratory (Dstl) with software development by IBM UK and IBM US. The CWP project exploits two key technology components developed within the ITA, namely the Gaian Database and integrated Access Policy Decision and Enforcement mechanisms. The Gaian Database (GaianDB) is a Dynamic Distributed Federated Database (DDFD) that addresses a need to share information among coalition members by providing a means for policy-controlled access to data across a network of heterogeneous data sources. GaianDB implements a SQL-compliant Store-Locally-Query-Anywhere (SLQA) approach providing software applications with global access to data from any node in the database network via standard SQL queries. Security policy is stored locally and enforced at the database node level, reducing potential for unauthorized data access and waste of network bandwidth. A key metric of success for a CWP project is the transition of coalition-related technology from TRL-3 or 4 to TRL-6 or higher. Thus, the end goal of this CWP project was to demonstrate the GaianDB and policy technology within an operational environment at the NATO Intelligence Fusion Centre (NIFC) at Molesworth RAF. An initial

  7. Control policies for a water-treatment system using the Markov Decision Process.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiam, Tze; Mitchell, Cary; Yih, Yuehwern

    In order to build a decision-making tool for choosing a control policy from a set of predefined policies for a water-treatment system, a simulation was developed. This technology-independent simulation focuses on the functions of a simplified representation of the water system based on documentation by NASA in the Baseline Value and Assumption Documents (BVAD). The clean-water requirement (consumption) and dirty-water generation (production) are based on crewmember demographics, activity schedules, and intensity of each activity. The water system consists of hygiene and potable-water subsystems. The hygiene-water subsystem supplies water for purposes such as laundry, urinal flush, dish wash, oral hygiene, and shower. The potable-water subsystem supplies water for drinking and re-hydration of food. Due to a lack of stochastic property descriptions for a real-world system in the BVAD, stochastic variables are introduced in this research to reflect a more realistic system. These variables describe the magnitude of deviation of system variables from their theoretical values through predetermined statistical distributions. These variables include hygiene and potable-water-treatment efficiencies, amounts of hygiene and potable water consumed, and amount of dirty water produced following potable-water consumption. Conditions of the system occurring hourly result from the intricate interaction of crewmembers and the water system. The primary measure of the condition of the system is the "state" representation of the system, assessed at the beginning of every hour. Conditions of the system examined include the amount of clean water available for consumption, amount of overflow (in excess of storage capacity) of clean and dirty water, amount of hourly water deficiency, amount of accumulated water deficiency, etc. State transitions of the system based on these assessments are affected by the stochastic properties of the system described above. The transitions also depend on

  8. Mexico SimSmoke: how changes in tobacco control policies would impact smoking prevalence and smoking attributable deaths in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, Nancy L; Thrasher, James F; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Cummings, K Michael; Meza, Rafael; Zhang, Yian; Levy, David T

    2016-02-02

    We examined the effect of tobacco control policies in Mexico on smoking prevalence and smoking-related deaths using the Mexico SimSmoke model. The model is based on the previously developed SimSmoke simulation model of tobacco control policy, and uses population size, smoking rates and tobacco control policy data for Mexico. It assesses, individually, and in combination, the effect of six tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking-related deaths. Policies included: cigarette excise taxes, smoke-free laws, anti-smoking public education campaigns, marketing restrictions, access to tobacco cessation treatments and enforcement against tobacco sales youth. The model estimates that, if Mexico were to adopt strong tobacco control policies compared to current policy levels, smoking prevalence could be reduced by 30% in the next decade and by 50% by 2053; an additional 470,000 smoking-related premature deaths could be averted over the next 40 years. The greatest impact on smoking and smoking-related deaths would be achieved by raising excise taxes on cigarettes from 55% to at least 70% of the retail price, followed by strong youth access enforcement and access to cessation treatments. Implementing tobacco control policies in Mexico could reduce smoking prevalence by 50%, and prevent 470,000 smoking-related deaths by 2053.

  9. The importance of environmental variability and management control error to optimal harvest policies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunter, C.M.; Runge, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    State-dependent strategies (SDSs) are the most general form of harvest policy because they allow the harvest rate to depend, without constraint, on the state of the system. State-dependent strategies that provide an optimal harvest rate for any system state can be calculated, and stochasticity can be appropriately accommodated in this optimization. Stochasticity poses 2 challenges to harvest policies: (1) the population will never be at the equilibrium state; and (2) stochasticity induces uncertainty about future states. We investigated the effects of 2 types of stochasticity, environmental variability and management control error, on SDS harvest policies for a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) model, and contrasted these with a harvest policy based on maximum sustainable yield (MSY). Increasing stochasticity resulted in more conservative SDSs; that is, higher population densities were required to support the same harvest rate, but these effects were generally small. As stochastic effects increased, SDSs performed much better than MSY. Both deterministic and stochastic SDSs maintained maximum mean annual harvest yield (AHY) and optimal equilibrium population size (Neq) in a stochastic environment, whereas an MSY policy could not. We suggest 3 rules of thumb for harvest management of long-lived vertebrates in stochastic systems: (1) an SDS is advantageous over an MSY policy, (2) using an SDS rather than an MSY is more important than whether a deterministic or stochastic SDS is used, and (3) for SDSs, rankings of the variability in management outcomes (e.g., harvest yield) resulting from parameter stochasticity can be predicted by rankings of the deterministic elasticities.

  10. Alcohol control in the news: the politics of media representations of alcohol policy in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lawhon, Mary; Herrick, Clare

    2013-10-01

    Media coverage of the "problems" associated with alcohol is widespread in countries of the global North and now, increasingly, in those of the global South. However, despite this mounting ubiquity, there have been very few analyses either of newspaper coverage of alcohol or of media coverage of alcohol policy, especially outside Europe and North America. This article argues that given international concern with the long-term health, economic, social, and developmental consequences of risky drinking in the global South, an exploration of newspaper coverage of nascent alcohol policy in such a context is both timely and valuable. Indeed, such analyses bring to the fore the deeply contextual and contingent nature of alcohol's problematization in politics, policy, and public life. To examine these assertions, we explore the "attention allocation" processes of two South African alcohol control policies--the Western Cape Liquor Bill and the city of Cape Town's liquor bylaws--in two regional English-language newspapers between 2007 and 2011. In so doing, the article highlights the particularities of the political valence of alcohol in the South African context. Furthermore, it also draws out the tensions between alcohol as a source of livelihoods in a context of endemic unemployment and chronic poverty and alcohol as a causal factor in poverty, crime, violence, and social disintegration. In contrast to media coverage of alcohol policy in Europe and North America, this analysis of the South African press suggests that liquor consumption is far less likely to be framed as an express health risk, forcing us to question how preventative policy efforts should best proceed.

  11. Individual rights advocacy in tobacco control policies: an assessment and recommendation

    PubMed Central

    Katz, J

    2005-01-01

    Efforts to control environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) could be assisted if the tobacco control movement gave greater emphasis to the issue of individual rights. Benefits that may accrue from the promotion of a clear individual rights perspective in tobacco control include adding coherence to the tobacco control advocacy agenda and winning support from those who may have been concerned about loss of personal freedom, excessive governmental power, use of social coercion, or the rights of smokers. Risks also attend to such a policy. It might inadvertently assist the tobacco industry, stir resistance to ETS limitation efforts, or confuse tobacco control supporters. On balance, though, liabilities are outweighed by the ethical and operational merits in tobacco control of a heightened pro-individual rights stance. PMID:16046700

  12. Controlling Environmental Policy: The limits of public law in Germany and the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, S.R.

    1995-12-31

    In Controlling Environmental Policy: The Limits of public law in Germany and the United States, Yale University Law Professor Susan Rose-Ackerman provides an informative description and critique of environmental policy-making in Germany, with frequent cross-references to the comparable attributes of the American system. As described by Rose-Ackerman, the German system shares many features of its American counterpart, particularly its reliance on engineering-based command-and-control regulatory strategies and a complex division of regulatory responsibility between national and state governments. Yet, these surface similarities mask important differences. According to the author, the German bureaucracy operates with less effective legislative and judicial supervision than its American counterpart, and Germany delegates more authority for both making and implementing environmental policymaking to the state governments.

  13. NRRI summary of Florida Public Service Commission: Fraud control policies of seven major Florida utilities

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The Florida Public Service Commission (PSC) Staff recently completed an audit of fraud control policies and programs at the State`s largest regulated electric and local telephone utilities. The purpose of the audit was to examine the ability of Florida`s largest regulated utilities to deter, detect, and resolve occurrences of fraud. The Staff audited the state`s seven largest regulated electric and local telephone utilities: Florida Power Corporation, Florida Power and Light, Gulf Power Corporation, Tampa Electric Company, GTE-Florida, BellSouth Telecommunications (Southern Bell), and Sprint United/Centel. The audit scope was limited to fraudulent acts committed by employees, contractors, suppliers, or agents of the seven utilities. Information regarding the utilities` fraud control policies and programs was obtained through surveys, document requests, and interviews with managers and officers.

  14. Deadlock-free genetic scheduling algorithm for automated manufacturing systems based on deadlock control policy.

    PubMed

    Xing, KeYi; Han, LiBin; Zhou, MengChu; Wang, Feng

    2012-06-01

    Deadlock-free control and scheduling are vital for optimizing the performance of automated manufacturing systems (AMSs) with shared resources and route flexibility. Based on the Petri net models of AMSs, this paper embeds the optimal deadlock avoidance policy into the genetic algorithm and develops a novel deadlock-free genetic scheduling algorithm for AMSs. A possible solution of the scheduling problem is coded as a chromosome representation that is a permutation with repetition of parts. By using the one-step look-ahead method in the optimal deadlock control policy, the feasibility of a chromosome is checked, and infeasible chromosomes are amended into feasible ones, which can be easily decoded into a feasible deadlock-free schedule. The chromosome representation and polynomial complexity of checking and amending procedures together support the cooperative aspect of genetic search for scheduling problems strongly.

  15. Radon, Smoking, and Lung Cancer: The Need to Refocus Radon Control Policy

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, David; Philbert, Martin A.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer, and the risk is significantly higher for smokers than for nonsmokers. More than 85% of radon-induced lung cancer deaths are among smokers. The most powerful approach for reducing the public health burden of radon is shaped by 2 overarching principles: public communication efforts that promote residential radon testing and remediation will be the most cost effective if they are primarily directed at current and former smokers; and focusing on smoking prevention and cessation is the optimal strategy for reducing radon-induced lung cancer in terms of both public health gains and economic efficiency. Tobacco control policy is the most promising route to the public health goals of radon control policy. PMID:23327258

  16. Selling the Russians the Rope? Soviet Technology Policy and U.S. Export Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    be met simultaneously. Soviet managers have every incentive to concentrate on the ones that will earn them their bonuses and preserve their jobs...Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. The study undertakes a systematic analysis of Soviet management of technological innovation, particularly in...implications for export-control policy. Five Soviet experiments in the management of innova- tion stand out as especially significant: (1) full-cycle planning

  17. Perceptions of industry responsibility and tobacco control policy by US tobacco company executives in trial testimony

    PubMed Central

    Chaiton, Michael; Ferrence, Roberta; LeGresley, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Objective Trial testimony from the United States provides a unique opportunity to examine strategies of the American tobacco industry. This paper examines congruence between the arguments for tobacco control policy presented by representatives of the American tobacco industry at trial and the stages of responsibility associated with corporate social responsibility principles in other industries. Data sources Trial testimony collected and coded by the Deposition and Trial Testimony Archive (DATTA). Study selection All available testimony was gathered from representative senior staff from major tobacco companies: Brown & Williamson, Philip Morris, RJ Reynolds, and Liggett. Data extraction Transcripts from each witness selected were collected and imported in text format into WinMax, a qualitative data program. The documents were searched for terms relating to tobacco control policies, and relevant terms were extracted. A hand search of the documents was also conducted by reading through the testimony. Inferred responsibility for various tobacco control policies (health information, second‐hand smoking, youth smoking) was coded. Data synthesis The level of responsibility for tobacco control policy varied according to the maturity of the issue. For emerging issues, US tobacco company representatives expressed defensiveness while, for more mature issues, such as youth smoking, they showed increased willingness to deal with the issue. This response to social issues is consistent with corporate social responsibility strategies in other industries. Conclusion While other industries use corporate social responsibility programmes to address social issues to protect their core business product, the fundamental social issue with tobacco is the product itself. As such, the corporate nature of tobacco companies is a structural obstacle to reducing harm caused by tobacco use. PMID:17130631

  18. Impacts of U.S. Export Control Policies on Science and Technology Activities and Competitiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-25

    1 U.S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES COMMITTEE ON SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY HEARING CHARTER Impacts of U.S. Export Control Policies on Science and...On Wednesday, February 25, 2009 at 10:00 am in room 2318 Rayburn House Office Building, the Committee on Science and Technology will hold a...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Science and Technology,Washington,DC 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION

  19. Equivalences between nonuniform exponential dichotomy and admissibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Linfeng; Lu, Kening; Zhang, Weinian

    2017-01-01

    Relationship between exponential dichotomies and admissibility of function classes is a significant problem for hyperbolic dynamical systems. It was proved that a nonuniform exponential dichotomy implies several admissible pairs of function classes and conversely some admissible pairs were found to imply a nonuniform exponential dichotomy. In this paper we find an appropriate admissible pair of classes of Lyapunov bounded functions which is equivalent to the existence of nonuniform exponential dichotomy on half-lines R± separately, on both half-lines R± simultaneously, and on the whole line R. Additionally, the maximal admissibility is proved in the case on both half-lines R± simultaneously.

  20. Effects of a pharmacist-led structured medication review in primary care on drug-related problems and hospital admission rates: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Elfsson, Birgitta; Danielsson, Birgitta; Midlöv, Patrik; Hasselström, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To determine whether a pharmacist-led medications review in primary care reduces the number of drugs and the number of drug-related problems. Design. Prospective randomized controlled trial. Setting. Liljeholmen Primary Care Centre, Stockholm, Sweden. Subjects. 209 patients aged ≥ 65 years with five or more different medications. Intervention. Patients answered a questionnaire regarding medications. The pharmacist reviewed all medications (prescription, non-prescription, and herbal) regarding recommendations and renal impairment, giving advice to patients and GPs. Each patient met the pharmacist before seeing their GP. Control patients received their usual care. Main outcome measures. Drug-related problems and number of drugs. Secondary outcomes included health care utilization and self-rated health during 12 months of follow-up. Results. No significant difference was seen when comparing change in drug-related problems between the groups. However, a significant decrease in drug-related problems was observed in the intervention group (from 1.73 per patient at baseline to 1.31 at follow-up, p < 0.05). The change in number of drugs was more pronounced in the intervention group (p < 0.046). Intervention group patients were not admitted to hospital on fewer occasions or for fewer days, and there was no significant difference between the two groups regarding utilization of primary care during follow-up. Self-rated health remained unchanged in the intervention group, whereas a drop (p < 0.02) was reported in the control group. This resulted in a significant difference in change in self-rated health between the groups (p < 0.047). Conclusions. The addition of a skilled pharmacist to the primary care team may contribute to reductions in numbers of drugs and maintenance of self-rated health in elderly patients with polypharmacy. PMID:25347723

  1. Readiness for smoke-free policy and overall strength of tobacco control in rural tobacco-growing communities.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Ellen J; Rayens, Mary Kay; York, Nancy

    2013-03-01

    Rural, tobacco-growing areas are disproportionately affected by tobacco use, secondhand smoke, and weak policies. The study determined whether overall strength of Resources, Capacity, and Efforts in tobacco control predicts readiness for smoke-free policy in rural communities, controlling for county population size and pounds of tobacco produced. This was a correlational, cross-sectional analysis of data from key informants (n = 148) and elected officials (n = 83) from 30 rural counties who participated in telephone interviews examining smoke-free policy. Six dimensions of community readiness (knowledge, leadership, resources, community climate, existing smoke-free policies, and political climate) were identified and summed to assess overall readiness for smoke-free policy. General strength of overall Resources, Capacity and Efforts in tobacco control at the county level was measured. Readiness for smoke-free policy was lower in communities with higher smoking rates, higher tobacco production, and smaller population. Efforts related to general tobacco control (i.e., media advocacy, training, and technical assistance) predicted readiness for local smoke-free policy development (standardized β = .35, p = .05), controlling for county population size and pounds of tobacco produced. Given that small, rural tobacco-growing communities are least ready for smoke-free policy change, tailoring and testing culturally sensitive approaches that account for this tobacco-growing heritage are warranted.

  2. Injury news coverage, relative concern, and support for alcohol-control policies: an impersonal impact explanation.

    PubMed

    Slater, Michael D; Hayes, Andrew F; Chung, Adrienne H

    2015-01-01

    Research on the impersonal impact hypothesis suggests that news (especially print) coverage of health and safety risks primarily influences perceptions of risk as a societal issue, and not perceptions of personal risk. The authors propose that the impersonal impact of news-impact primarily on concerns about social-level risks-will mediate effects of news stories on support for public health policies; such effects substantively matter as evidence suggests health policies, in turn, have important effects on protective behaviors and health outcomes. In an experiment using 60 randomly selected violent crime and accident news stories manipulated to contain or not contain reference to alcohol use as a causative factor, the authors find that the effect of stories that mention alcohol as a causative factor on support for alcohol-control policies is mediated by social-level concern and not by personal-level concern. In so doing, the authors provide a theoretical explanation as well as empirical evidence regarding the potential for news coverage-including breaking or episodic news-to influence health-related public policy.

  3. Improving Nutrition and Physical Activity Policies in Afterschool Programs: Results from a Group-Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, Erica L.; Giles, Catherine M.; deBlois, Madeleine E.; Gortmaker, Steven L.; Chinfatt, Sherene; Cradock, Angie L.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Afterschool programs can be health-promoting environments for children. Written policies positively influence nutrition and physical activity (PA) environments, but effective strategies for building staff capacity to write such policies have not been evaluated. This study measures the comprehensiveness of written nutrition, PA, and screen time policies in afterschool programs and assesses impact of the Out of School Nutrition and Physical Activity (OSNAP) intervention on key policies. METHODS Twenty afterschool programs in Boston, MA participated in a group-randomized, controlled trial from September 2010 to June 2011. Intervention program staff attended learning collaboratives focused on practice and policy change. The Out-of-School Time (OST) Policy Assessment Index evaluated written policies. Inter-rater reliability and construct validity of the measure and impact of the intervention on written policies were assessed. RESULTS The measure demonstrated moderate to excellent inter-rater reliability (Spearman’s r=0.53 to 0.97) and construct validity. OSNAP was associated with significant increases in standards-based policy statements surrounding snacks (+2.6, p=0.003), beverages (+2.3, p=0.008), screen time (+0.8, p=0.046), family communication (+2.2, p=0.002), and a summary index of OSNAP goals (+3.3, p=0.02). CONCLUSIONS OSNAP demonstrated success in building staff capacity to write health-promoting policy statements. Future research should focus on determining policy change impact on practices. PMID:24941286

  4. Racism, Gun Ownership and Gun Control: Biased Attitudes in US Whites May Influence Policy Decisions

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Kerry; Forrest, Walter; Lynott, Dermot; Daly, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objective Racism is related to policies preferences and behaviors that adversely affect blacks and appear related to a fear of blacks (e.g., increased policing, death penalty). This study examined whether racism is also related to gun ownership and opposition to gun controls in US whites. Method The most recent data from the American National Election Study, a large representative US sample, was used to test relationships between racism, gun ownership, and opposition to gun control in US whites. Explanatory variables known to be related to gun ownership and gun control opposition (i.e., age, gender, education, income, conservatism, anti-government sentiment, southern vs. other states, political identification) were entered in logistic regression models, along with measures of racism, and the stereotype of blacks as violent. Outcome variables included; having a gun in the home, opposition to bans on handguns in the home, support for permits to carry concealed handguns. Results After accounting for all explanatory variables, logistic regressions found that for each 1 point increase in symbolic racism there was a 50% increase in the odds of having a gun at home. After also accounting for having a gun in the home, there was still a 28% increase in support for permits to carry concealed handguns, for each one point increase in symbolic racism. The relationship between symbolic racism and opposition to banning handguns in the home (OR1.27 CI 1.03,1.58) was reduced to non-significant after accounting for having a gun in the home (OR1.17 CI.94,1.46), which likely represents self-interest in retaining property (guns). Conclusions Symbolic racism was related to having a gun in the home and opposition to gun control policies in US whites. The findings help explain US whites’ paradoxical attitudes towards gun ownership and gun control. Such attitudes may adversely influence US gun control policy debates and decisions. PMID:24204867

  5. Technology, public policy and control of transboundary livestock diseases in our lifetimes.

    PubMed

    Breeze, R G

    2006-04-01

    There are no technological barriers to eliminating major transboundary livestock diseases. 'Elimination' means that diseases no longer threaten livestock in the developed world nor the livelihoods of hundreds of millions of small farmers elsewhere. The problem is not lack of technology but failure of public policy. Developed country policy should actively combat accidental and intentional introductions; protect livestock against future advanced biological weapons; minimise the economic impacts after introduction by any means; abandon mass slaughter as a control tool; engage in disease removal in pursuit of a global economic, societal, and environmental agenda; and make appropriate national and cooperative investments. This is the moment for policy change because transboundary livestock disease elimination now involves powerful government ministries outside ministries of agriculture that are concerned about disease threats from many sources. Change can acquire support from the public and many organisations with shared interests. New policy is needed to change the belief that government is solely responsible for excluding disease, responding to introductions, and compensating farmers for losses during eradication. Effective border control and domestic preparedness programmes depend upon government and industry working together with costs falling upon those responsible in the form of 'user fees'. Compensation for stock slaughtered during outbreak control should be covered by private insurance. Government and industry should share the costs of an effective surveillance, diagnostic and response system. Surveillance must achieve or approach real-time understanding of the disease situation at all stages and in all places and be accessible over the Internet by diverse government agencies and stakeholders in-country and abroad. Traditional responses must be abandoned because they encourage terrorism. Regulatory approval processes must be modernized because they cannot keep

  6. Tobacco-Control Policies in Tobacco-Growing States: Where Tobacco Was King

    PubMed Central

    Fallin, Amanda; Glantz, Stanton A

    2015-01-01

    Context The 5 major tobacco-growing states (Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia) are disproportionately affected by the tobacco epidemic, with higher rates of smoking and smoking-induced disease. These states also have fewer smoke-free laws and lower tobacco taxes, 2 evidence-based policies that reduce tobacco use. Historically, the tobacco farmers and hospitality associations allied with the tobacco companies to oppose these policies. Methods This research is based on 5 detailed case studies of these states, which included key informant interviews, previously secret tobacco industry documents (available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu), and media articles. This was supplemented with additional tobacco document and media searches specifically for this article. Findings The tobacco companies were particularly concerned about blocking tobacco-control policies in the tobacco-growing states by promoting a pro-tobacco culture, beginning in the late 1960s. Nevertheless, since 2003, there has been rapid progress in the tobacco-growing states’ passage of smoke-free laws. This progress came after the alliance between the tobacco companies and the tobacco farmers fractured and hospitality organizations stopped opposing smoke-free laws. In addition, infrastructure built by National Cancer Institute research projects (COMMIT and ASSIST) led to long-standing tobacco-control coalitions that capitalized on these changes. Although tobacco production has dramatically fallen in these states, pro-tobacco sentiment still hinders tobacco-control policies in the major tobacco-growing states. Conclusions The environment has changed in the tobacco-growing states, following a fracture of the alliance between the tobacco companies and their former allies (tobacco growers and hospitality organizations). To continue this progress, health advocates should educate the public and policymakers on the changing reality in the tobacco-growing states, notably the

  7. Policies and Programs for Prevention and Control of Diabetes in Iran: A Document Analysis.

    PubMed

    Faraji, Obeidollah; Etemad, Koorosh; Akbari Sari, Ali; Ravaghi, Hamid

    2015-04-19

    Trend analysis in 2005 to 2011 showed high growth in diabetes prevalence in Iran. Considering the high prevalence of diabetes in the country and likely to increase its prevalence in the future, the analysis of diabetes-related policies and programs is very important and effective in the prevention and control of diabetes. Therefore, the aim of the study was an analysis of policies and programs related to prevention and control of diabetes in Iran in 2014. This study was a policy analysis using deductive thematic content analysis of key documents. The health policy triangle framework was used in the data analysis. PubMed and ScienceDirect databases were searched to find relevant studies and documents. Also, hand searching was conducted among references of the identified studies. MAXQDA 10 software was used to organize and analyze data. The main reasons to take into consideration diabetes in Iran can be World Health Organization (WHO) report in 1989, and high prevalence of diabetes in the country. The major challenges in implementing the diabetes program include difficulty in referral levels of the program, lack of coordination between the private sector and the public sector and the limitations of reporting system in the specialized levels of the program. Besides strengthening referral system, the government should allocate more funds to the program and more importance to the educational programs for the public. Also, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and the private sector should involve in the formulation and implementation of the prevention and control programs of diabetes in the future.

  8. The evolution of NOx control policy for coal-fired power plants in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Dallas Burtraw; David A. Evans

    2003-12-15

    Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) contribute to formation of particulate matter and ozone, and also to acidification of the environment. The electricity sector is responsible for about 20% of NOx emissions in the United States, and the sector has been the target of both prescriptive (command-and-control) and flexible (cap-and-trade) approaches to regulation. The paper summarises the major NOx control policies affecting this sector in the USA, and provides some perspectives as to their effectiveness. While both prescriptive and flexible approaches continue to play an important role, significant new proposals have wholly embraced a cap-and-trade approach. 20 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Policies for control and prevention of infections related to healthcare assistance in Brazil: a conceptual analysis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Hadelândia Milon de; Silva, Cristiane Pavanello Rodrigues; Lacerda, Rúbia Aparecida

    2016-01-01

    This article is a theoretical-reflexive study that aims to discuss the development and changes in the quality of healthcare assistance to the patient over the years in Brazil, in light of the policies of control and prevention of Healthcare-associated Infection (HAI). Aspects of HAI and the process of change in health policy in Brazil, as well as the quality of assistance associated with its control, are approached in relation to policies of patient safety. There are various new theoretical and practical proposals created in Brazil. In spite of the difficulty of measuring patient safety, directed to the prevention and control of HAI, we emphasize that to only create policies and establish norms, guidelines, and indicators is not sufficient. If no structural support or conditions exist for interventions in the practices of healthcare professionals, aiming at results in acceptable levels, the control of HAI will not be achieved. Resumo Trata-se um estudo teórico-reflexivo, que objetiva discutir a evolução e as mudanças na qualidade da assistência ao paciente, ao longo dos anos no Brasil, à luz das políticas de controle e prevenção da Infecção Relacionada à Assistência à Saúde (IRAS). Aspectos sobre IRAS e o processo de mudança nas políticas de saúde no Brasil, bem como a qualidade da assistência associada ao seu controle, são abordados em relação às políticas de segurança do paciente. Há novas e várias propostas teóricas e práticas criadas no Brasil. Apesar da dificuldade de medir a segurança do paciente, direcionada à prevenção e controle das IRAS, enfatiza-se que somente criar políticas, estabelecer normas, diretrizes e indicadores não são suficientes. Se não houver suporte de estrutura e condições para as intervenções nas práticas dos profissionais na assistência prestada ao paciente, visando resultados em níveis aceitáveis, o controle das IRAS não será alcançado.

  10. 32 CFR 643.35 - Policy-Mineral leasing on lands controlled by the Department of the Army.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Policy-Mineral leasing on lands controlled by the... OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Policy § 643.35 Policy—Mineral leasing on lands... 1975, hereinafter referred to as the act, amended the Mineral Leasing Act for Acquired Lands (30...

  11. Validating Self-Reports of Illegal Drug Use to Evaluate National Drug Control Policy: A Reanalysis and Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magura, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Illicit drug use remains at high levels in the U.S. The federal Office of National Drug Control Policy evaluates the outcomes of national drug demand reduction policies by assessing annual changes in drug use from several federally sponsored annual national surveys. Such survey methods, relying exclusively on drug use as self-reported on…

  12. Improving air pollution control policy in China--A perspective based on cost-benefit analysis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jinglei; Yuan, Zengwei; Liu, Xuewei; Xia, Xiaoming; Huang, Xianjin; Dong, Zhanfeng

    2016-02-01

    To mitigate serious air pollution, the State Council of China promulgated the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan in 2013. To verify the feasibility and validity of industrial energy-saving and emission-reduction policies in the action plan, we conducted a cost-benefit analysis of implementing these policies in 31 provinces for the period of 2013 to 2017. We also completed a scenario analysis in this study to assess the cost-effectiveness of different measures within the energy-saving and the emission-reduction policies individually. The data were derived from field surveys, statistical yearbooks, government documents, and published literatures. The results show that total cost and total benefit are 118.39 and 748.15 billion Yuan, respectively, and the estimated benefit-cost ratio is 6.32 in the S3 scenario. For all the scenarios, these policies are cost-effective and the eastern region has higher satisfactory values. Furthermore, the end-of-pipe scenario has greater emission reduction potential than energy-saving scenario. We also found that gross domestic product and population are significantly correlated with the benefit-cost ratio value through the regression analysis of selected possible influencing factors. The sensitivity analysis demonstrates that benefit-cost ratio value is more sensitive to unit emission-reduction cost, unit subsidy, growth rate of gross domestic product, and discount rate among all the parameters. Compared with other provinces, the benefit-cost ratios of Beijing and Tianjin are more sensitive to changes of unit subsidy than unit emission-reduction cost. These findings may have significant implications for improving China's air pollution prevention policy.

  13. Tobacco Control and Treatment for the Pediatric Clinician: Practice, Policy, and Research Updates.

    PubMed

    Jenssen, Brian P; Wilson, Karen M

    2017-04-01

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States, and exposure to tobacco smoke harms children from conception forward. There is no safe level of tobacco exposure. Although overall smoking rates have declined, the advent of new products, such as electronic cigarettes, threatens to perpetuate nicotine addiction without clear health benefits. In addition to reviewing traditional and new tobacco products, we discuss the unique role that pediatricians should play in tobacco treatment and control efforts. New policies and technologies can empower pediatric clinicians and pediatric health care systems to help parent smokers quit, and new policies outside of the health care setting might help prevent smoking initiation as well as improve cessation treatments. Future research is needed to continue to study the consequences of tobacco use exposure as well as the best ways to help patients and parents stop tobacco use.

  14. Policy-based secure communication with automatic key management for industrial control and automation systems

    DOEpatents

    Chernoguzov, Alexander; Markham, Thomas R.; Haridas, Harshal S.

    2016-11-22

    A method includes generating at least one access vector associated with a specified device in an industrial process control and automation system. The specified device has one of multiple device roles. The at least one access vector is generated based on one or more communication policies defining communications between one or more pairs of devices roles in the industrial process control and automation system, where each pair of device roles includes the device role of the specified device. The method also includes providing the at least one access vector to at least one of the specified device and one or more other devices in the industrial process control and automation system in order to control communications to or from the specified device.

  15. Immigration Policy in the United States: Future Prospects for the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986. Program for Resarch on Immigration Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espenshade, Thomas J.; And Others

    Immigration to the United States has fluctuated considerably over the course of the nation's history and has elicited various policy responses at different times. In recent years, concern about undocumented, illegal immigration has given rise to efforts to reform immigration law. The Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) of 1986 was intended…

  16. Tuberculosis control in China: use of modelling to develop targets and policies.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsien-Ho; Wang, Lixia; Zhang, Hui; Ruan, Yunzhou; Chin, Daniel P; Dye, Christopher

    2015-11-01

    It is unclear if current programmes in China can achieve the post-2015 global targets for tuberculosis - 50% reduction in incidence and a 75% reduction in mortality by 2025. Chinese policy-makers need to maintain the recent decline in the prevalence of tuberculosis, while revising control policies to cope with an epidemic of drug-resistant tuberculosis and the effects of ongoing health reform. Health reforms are expected to shift patients from tuberculosis dispensaries to designated hospitals. We developed a mathematical model of tuberculosis control in China to help set appropriate targets and prioritize interventions that might be implemented in the next 10 years. This model indicates that, even under the most optimistic scenario - improved treatment in tuberculosis dispensaries, introduction of a new effective regimen for the treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis and optimal care of cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis - the current global targets for tuberculosis are unlikely to be reached. However, reductions in the incidence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis should be feasible. We conclude that a shift of patients from tuberculosis dispensaries to designated hospitals is likely to hamper efforts at tuberculosis control if cure rates in the designated hospitals cannot be maintained at a high level. Our results can inform the planning of tuberculosis control in China.

  17. Tuberculosis control in China: use of modelling to develop targets and policies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lixia; Zhang, Hui; Ruan, Yunzhou; Chin, Daniel P; Dye, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Abstract It is unclear if current programmes in China can achieve the post-2015 global targets for tuberculosis – 50% reduction in incidence and a 75% reduction in mortality by 2025. Chinese policy-makers need to maintain the recent decline in the prevalence of tuberculosis, while revising control policies to cope with an epidemic of drug-resistant tuberculosis and the effects of ongoing health reform. Health reforms are expected to shift patients from tuberculosis dispensaries to designated hospitals. We developed a mathematical model of tuberculosis control in China to help set appropriate targets and prioritize interventions that might be implemented in the next 10 years. This model indicates that, even under the most optimistic scenario – improved treatment in tuberculosis dispensaries, introduction of a new effective regimen for the treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis and optimal care of cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis – the current global targets for tuberculosis are unlikely to be reached. However, reductions in the incidence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis should be feasible. We conclude that a shift of patients from tuberculosis dispensaries to designated hospitals is likely to hamper efforts at tuberculosis control if cure rates in the designated hospitals cannot be maintained at a high level. Our results can inform the planning of tuberculosis control in China. PMID:26549907

  18. Historical analysis of SO{sub 2} pollution control policies in China

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, C.L.; Yin, H.Q.; Ai, N.S.; Huang, Z.W.

    2009-03-15

    Coal is not only an important energy source in China but also a major source of air pollution. Because of this, China's national sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions have been the highest in the world for many years, and since the 1990s, the territory of China's south and southwest has become the third largest acid-rain-prone region in the world. In order to control SO{sub 2} emissions, the Chinese government has formulated and promulgated a series of policies and regulations, but it faces great difficulties in putting them into practice. In this retrospective look at the history of SO{sub 2} control in China, we found that Chinese SO{sub 2} control policies have become increasingly strict and rigid. We also found that the environmental policies and regulations are more effective when central officials consistently give environmental protection top priority. Achieving China's environmental goals, however, has been made difficult by China's economic growth. Part of this is due to the practice of environmental protection appearing in the form of an ideological 'campaign' or 'storm' that lacks effective economic measures. More recently, better enforcement of environmental laws and regulations has been achieved by adding environmental quality to the performance assessment metrics for leaders at all levels. To continue making advances, China needs to reinforce the economic and environmental assessments for pollution control projects and work harder to integrate economic measures into environmental protection. Nonetheless, China has a long way to go before economic growth and environmental protection are balanced.

  19. Public attitudes towards alcohol control policies in Scotland and England: Results from a mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Li, Jessica; Lovatt, Melanie; Eadie, Douglas; Dobbie, Fiona; Meier, Petra; Holmes, John; Hastings, Gerard; MacKintosh, Anne Marie

    2017-03-01

    The harmful effects of heavy drinking on health have been widely reported, yet public opinion on governmental responsibility for alcohol control remains divided. This study examines UK public attitudes towards alcohol policies, identifies underlying dimensions that inform these, and relationships with perceived effectiveness. A cross-sectional mixed methods study involving a telephone survey of 3477 adult drinkers aged 16-65 and sixteen focus groups with 89 adult drinkers in Scotland and England was conducted between September 2012 and February 2013. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to reduce twelve policy statements into underlying dimensions. These dimensions were used in linear regression models examining alcohol policy support by demographics, drinking behaviour and perceptions of UK drinking and government responsibility. Findings were supplemented with a thematic analysis of focus group transcripts. A majority of survey respondents supported all alcohol policies, although the level of support varied by type of policy. Greater enforcement of laws on under-age sales and more police patrolling the streets were strongly supported while support for pricing policies and restricting access to alcohol was more divided. PCA identified four main dimensions underlying support on policies: alcohol availability, provision of health information and treatment services, alcohol pricing, and greater law enforcement. Being female, older, a moderate drinker, and holding a belief that government should do more to reduce alcohol harms were associated with higher support on all policy dimensions. Focus group data revealed findings from the survey may have presented an overly positive level of support on all policies due to differences in perceived policy effectiveness. Perceived effectiveness can help inform underlying patterns of policy support and should be considered in conjunction with standard measures of support in future research on alcohol control policies.

  20. Modelling geographic variation in the cost-effectiveness of control policies for infectious vector diseases: the example of Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Riquelme, Marianela; Chalabi, Zaid; Lord, Joanne; Guhl, Felipe; Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Davies, Clive; Fox-Rushby, Julia

    2008-03-01

    Few cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) models have accounted for geographic variation in input parameters. This paper describes a deterministic discrete-time multi-state model to estimate the cost-effectiveness of vector control policies for Chagas disease, where implementation varies according to village characteristics. The model outputs include the total number of new infections, disability adjusted life years (DALYs) incurred, costs of associated healthcare, and total costs of the Ministry of Health's control policy for house surveillance and spraying. Incremental net benefits were estimated to determine Colombian villages in which it is cost-effective to implement the control policy. The robustness of these conclusions was evaluated by deterministic sensitivity analyses. The model should help provide a decision-support system to compare control policies and to allocate resources geographically.

  1. Understanding post 9/11 drug control policy and politics in Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Latypov, Alisher

    2009-09-01

    This paper exposes contemporary drug policy challenges in Central Asia by focusing on a single point in the history of drug control, in a single region of the global war against drugs and terrorism, and on one agency whose mission is to help make the world safer from crime, drugs and terrorism. By looking closely at the post 9/11 security-oriented donor priorities, I conclude that, in Central Asia, the rhetoric of the taking a more 'balanced approach' to drug policy is bankrupt. When enacted by the national law enforcement agencies in the Central Asian republics, the 'Drug Free' aspirational goal is driving the HIV epidemic among IDUs. The face-saving 'containment' thesis does not reflect the drug situation in this region but rather the failure to adopt an evidence-based approach. The harm reduction agenda continues to face many challenges including resistance to substitution treatment, the harm from drug treatment, from poorly designed drug prevention programmes and from repressive counter-narcotics policies and practices.

  2. Management and control of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB): Addressing policy needs for India.

    PubMed

    Atre, Sachin R; Murray, Megan B

    2016-05-06

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) challenges TB control efforts because of delays in diagnosis plus its long-term treatment which has toxic effects. Of TB high-incidence countries, India carries the highest burden of MDR-TB cases. We describe policy issues in India concerning MDR-TB diagnosis and management in a careful review of the literature including a systematic review of studies on the prevalence of MDR-TB. Of 995 articles published during 2001-2016 and retrieved from the PubMed, only 20 provided data on the population prevalence of MDR-TB. We further reviewed and describe diagnostic criteria and treatment algorithms in use and endorsed by the Revised National TB Control Program of India. We discuss problems encountered in treating MDR-TB patients with standardized regimens. Finally, we provide realistic suggestions for policymakers and program planners to improve the management and control of MDR-TB in India.Journal of Public Health Policy advance online publication, 6 May 2016; doi:10.1057/jphp.2016.14.

  3. The impacts of recent smoking control policies on individual smoking choice: the case of Japan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This article comprehensively examines the impact of recent smoking control policies in Japan, increases in cigarette taxes and the enforcement of the Health Promotion Law, on individual smoking choice by using multi-year and nationwide individual survey data to overcome the analytical problems of previous Japanese studies. In the econometric analyses, I specify a simple binary choice model based on a random utility model to examine the effects of smoking control policies on individual smoking choice by employing the instrumental variable probit model to control for the endogeneity of cigarette prices. The empirical results show that an increase in cigarette prices statistically significantly reduces the smoking probability of males by 1.0 percent and that of females by 1.4 to 2.0 percent. The enforcement of the Health Promotion Law has a statistically significant effect on reducing the smoking probability of males by 15.2 percent and of females by 11.9 percent. Furthermore, an increase in cigarette prices has a statistically significant negative effect on the smoking probability of office workers, non-workers, male manual workers, and female unemployed people, and the enforcement of the Health Promotion Law has a statistically significant effect on decreasing the smoking probabilities of office workers, female manual workers, and male non-workers. JEL classification C25, C26, I18 PMID:23497490

  4. 45 CFR 2555.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Admission. 2555.300 Section 2555.300 Public... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 2555.300 Admission. (a) General. No..., by any recipient to which §§ 2555.300 through 2555.310 apply, except as provided in §§ 2555.225...

  5. 6 CFR 17.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Admission. 17.300 Section 17.300 Domestic... in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 17.300 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the... which §§ 17.300 through 17.310 apply, except as provided in §§ 17.225 and 17.230. (b)...

  6. 40 CFR 5.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Admission. 5.300 Section 5.300... in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 5.300 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the basis... which §§ 5.300 through §§ 5.310 apply, except as provided in §§ 5.225 and 5.230. (b)...

  7. 15 CFR 8a.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Admission. 8a.300 Section 8a.300... in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 8a.300 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the... which §§ 8a.300 through §§ 8a.310 apply, except as provided in §§ 8a.225 and §§ 8a.230. (b)...

  8. 45 CFR 2555.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Admission. 2555.300 Section 2555.300 Public... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 2555.300 Admission. (a) General. No..., by any recipient to which §§ 2555.300 through 2555.310 apply, except as provided in §§ 2555.225...

  9. 14 CFR 1253.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Admission. 1253.300 Section 1253.300... in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 1253.300 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the... which §§ 1253.300 through §§ 1253.310 apply, except as provided in §§ 1253.225 and §§ 1253.230....

  10. The need for the use of XACML access control policy in a distributed EHR and some performance considerations.

    PubMed

    Sucurovic, Snezana; Milutinovic, Veljko

    2008-01-01

    The Internet based distributed large scale information systems implements attribute based access control (ABAC) rather than Role Based Access Control (RBAC). The reason is that the Internet is identity less and that ABAC scales better. EXtensible Access Control Markup Language is standardized language for writing access control policies, access control requests and access control responses in ABAC. XACML can provide decentralized administration and credentials distribution. In year 2002 version of CEN ENV 13 606 attributes have been attached to EHCR components and in such a system ABAC and XACML have been easy to implement. This paper presents writing XACML policies in the case when attributes are in hierarchical structure. It is presented two possible solutions to write XACML policy in that case and that the solution when set functions are used is more compact and provides 10% better performances.

  11. Temporal variation in major trauma admissions

    PubMed Central

    Kieffer, WKM; Michalik, DV; Gallagher, K; McFadyen, I; Bernard, J; Rogers, BA

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Trauma is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the UK. Since the inception of the trauma networks, little is known of the temporal pattern of trauma admissions. Methods Trauma Audit and Research Network data for 1 April 2011 to 31 March 2013 were collated from two large major trauma centres (MTCs) in the South East of England: Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust (BSUH) and St George's University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (SGU). The number of admissions and the injury severity score by time of admission, by weekdays versus weekend and by month/season were analysed. Results There were 1,223 admissions at BSUH and 1,241 at SGU. There was significant variation by time of admission; there were more admissions in the afternoons (BSUH p<0.001) and evenings (SGU p<0.001). There were proportionally more admissions at the weekends than on weekdays (BSUH p<0.001, SGU p=0.028). There was significant seasonal variation in admissions at BSUH (p<0.001) with more admissions in summer and autumn. No significant seasonal variation was observed at SGU (p=0.543). Conclusions The temporal patterns observed were different for each MTC with important implications for resource planning of trauma care. This study identified differing needs for different MTCs and resource planning should be individualised to the network. PMID:26741676

  12. Influence of homelessness on acute admissions to hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Lissauer, T; Richman, S; Tempia, M; Jenkins, S; Taylor, B

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to look at the influence of homelessness on acute medical admissions. A prospective case-controlled study was therefore performed on all homeless children admitted through the accident and emergency department over one year, comparing them with the next age matched admission from permanent housing. Assessments made were: whether homelessness or other social factors influenced the doctors' decision to admit; differences in severity of illness; length of stay; and use of primary care. The admitting doctors completed a semi-structured questionnaire during admission about social factors that influenced their decision to admit and graded the severity of the child's illness. The length of hospital stay was recorded. The family's social risk factors and accommodation were assessed at a home visit using a standardised questionnaire and by observation. Seventy homeless children were admitted. Social factors influenced the decision to admit in 77% of homeless children and 43% of controls. More of the homeless children were only mildly ill (33/70) than those from permanent housing (21/70), although three of the homeless children died of overwhelming infections compared with none of the controls. Among homeless families many were recent immigrants (44%). There was a marked increase in socioeconomic deprivation, in major life events in the previous year (median score 3 v 1), and in maternal depression (27% v 8%). Referral to the hospital was made by a general practitioner in only 5/50 (10%) of homeless compared with 18/50 (36%) of controls. Social factors were an important influence on the decision to admit in over three quarters of the homeless children and resulted in admission when less severely ill even when compared with admissions from an inner city population. Even though there was marked social deprivation among the homeless families, the decision to admit was based on vague criteria that need to be further refined. PMID:8259871

  13. Near-Optimal Controller for Nonlinear Continuous-Time Systems With Unknown Dynamics Using Policy Iteration.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Samrat; Patchaikani, Prem Kumar; Behera, Laxmidhar

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a single-network adaptive critic-based controller for continuous-time systems with unknown dynamics in a policy iteration (PI) framework. It is assumed that the unknown dynamics can be estimated using the Takagi-Sugeno-Kang fuzzy model with arbitrary precision. The successful implementation of a PI scheme depends on the effective learning of critic network parameters. Network parameters must stabilize the system in each iteration in addition to approximating the critic and the cost. It is found that the critic updates according to the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman formulation sometimes lead to the instability of the closed-loop systems. In the proposed work, a novel critic network parameter update scheme is adopted, which not only approximates the critic at current iteration but also provides feasible solutions that keep the policy stable in the next step of training by combining a Lyapunov-based linear matrix inequalities approach with PI. The critic modeling technique presented here is the first of its kind to address this issue. Though multiple literature exists discussing the convergence of PI, however, to the best of our knowledge, there exists no literature, which focuses on the effect of critic network parameters on the convergence. Computational complexity in the proposed algorithm is reduced to the order of (Fz)(n-1) , where n is the fuzzy state dimensionality and Fz is the number of fuzzy zones in the states space. A genetic algorithm toolbox of MATLAB is used for searching stable parameters while minimizing the training error. The proposed algorithm also provides a way to solve for the initial stable control policy in the PI scheme. The algorithm is validated through real-time experiment on a commercial robotic manipulator. Results show that the algorithm successfully finds stable critic network parameters in real time for a highly nonlinear system.

  14. Successes and failures in the control of infectious diseases in Brazil: social and environmental context, policies, interventions, and research needs.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Mauricio L; Teixeira, M Gloria; Bastos, Francisco I; Ximenes, Ricardo A A; Barata, Rita B; Rodrigues, Laura C

    2011-05-28

    Despite pronounced reductions in the number of deaths due to infectious diseases over the past six decades, infectious diseases are still a public health problem in Brazil. In this report, we discuss the major successes and failures in the control of infectious diseases in Brazil, and identify research needs and policies to further improve control or interrupt transmission. Control of diseases such as cholera, Chagas disease, and those preventable by vaccination has been successful through efficient public policies and concerted efforts from different levels of government and civil society. For these diseases, policies dealt with key determinants (eg, the quality of water and basic sanitation, vector control), provided access to preventive resources (such as vaccines), and successfully integrated health policies with broader social policies. Diseases for which control has failed (such as dengue fever and visceral leishmaniasis) are vector-borne diseases with changing epidemiological profiles and major difficulties in treatment (in the case of dengue fever, no treatment is available). Diseases for which control has been partly successful have complex transmission patterns related to adverse environmental, social, economic, or unknown determinants; are sometimes transmitted by insect vectors that are difficult to control; and are mostly chronic diseases with long infectious periods that require lengthy periods of treatment.

  15. Local Nordic tobacco interests collaborated with multinational companies to maintain a united front and undermine tobacco control policies

    PubMed Central

    Hiilamo, Heikki; Glantz, Stanton A

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyse how local tobacco companies in the Nordic countries, individually and through National Manufacturers’ Associations, cooperated with British American Tobacco and Philip Morris in denying the health hazards of smoking and undermining tobacco control. Methods Analysis of tobacco control policies in the Nordic countries and tobacco industry documents. Results Nordic countries were early adopters of tobacco control policies. The multinational tobacco companies recognised this fact and mobilised to oppose these policies, in part because of fear that they would set unfavourable precedents. Since at least 1972, the Nordic tobacco companies were well informed about and willing to participate in the multinational companies activities to obscure the health dangers of smoking and secondhand smoke and to oppose tobacco control policies. Cooperation between multinational companies, Nordic national manufacturer associations and local companies ensured a united front on smoking and health issues in the Nordic area that was consistent with the positions that the multinational companies were taking. This cooperation delayed smoke-free laws and undermined other tobacco control measures. Conclusions Local tobacco companies worked with multinational companies to undermine tobacco control in distant and small Nordic markets because of concern that pioneering policies initiated in Nordic countries would spread to bigger market areas. Claims by the local Nordic companies that they were not actively involved with the multinationals are not supported by the facts. These results also demonstrate that the industry appreciates the global importance of both positive and negative public health precedents in tobacco control. PMID:22199013

  16. Implementation of Policies and Strategies for Control of Noncommunicable Diseases in Malawi: Challenges and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Lupafya, Phindile Chitsulo; Mwagomba, Beatrice L Matanje; Hosig, Kathy; Maseko, Lucy M; Chimbali, Henry

    2016-04-01

    Malawi is a Sub-Saharan African country experiencing the epidemiological transition from predominantly infectious to noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) with dramatically increasing prevalence of lifestyle-related diseases such as obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. Malawi's 2011-2016 Health Sector Strategic Plan included NCDs, and an NCD Control Program was established with subsequent development of a National Action Plan for prevention and management of NCDs launched in 2013. The current study was designed to identify gaps in implementation of NCD control program policies and action plan strategies by describing current efforts toward prevention and management of NCDs in Malawi with emphasis on challenges and opportunities. Semistructured questionnaires were used to collect quantitative and qualitative data from Malawi Ministry of Health personnel (senior officers, service providers, health education officers, and nutritionists) in 10 health districts and 3 central hospitals. Frequencies were generated for quantitative data. Qualitative data were used to generate themes and most common responses. Results showed that current services focus on facility-based NCD screening and clinical services rather than active screening, prevention, and community awareness and outreach, although respondents emphasized the importance of prevention, lifestyle education, and community outreach. Respondents indicated inadequate resources for NCD services including financial capital, human resources, equipment and supplies, and transportation. While Malawi has begun to address NCDs, policy and practice implications include (a) better integration of services within the existing infrastructure with emphasis on capacity building; (b) greater implementation of planned NCD activities; (c) a stronger, more comprehensive data management system; and (d) innovative funding solutions.

  17. Investigation into the reasons for preventable drug related admissions to a medical admissions unit: observational study

    PubMed Central

    Howard, R; Avery, A; Howard, P; Partridge, M

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To describe the drugs and types of medicine management problems most frequently associated with preventable drug related admissions to an acute medical admissions unit. Design: Observation study. Setting: Medical admissions unit in a teaching hospital in Nottingham, UK. Participants: 4093 patients seen by pharmacists on the medical admissions unit between 1 January and 30 June 2001. Main outcome measures: Proportion of admissions that were drug related and preventable, classification of the underlying causes of preventable drug related admissions, and identification of drugs most commonly associated with preventable drug related admissions. Results: Of the admissions seen by pharmacists, 265 (6.5%) were judged to be drug related and 178 (67%) of these were judged to be preventable. Preventable admissions were mainly due to problems with prescribing (63 cases (35%)), monitoring (46 cases (26%)), and adherence to medication (53 cases (30%)). The drugs most commonly implicated were NSAIDs, antiplatelets, antiepileptics, hypoglycaemics, diuretics, inhaled corticosteroids, cardiac glycosides, and beta-blockers. Conclusions: Potentially preventable drug related morbidity was associated with 4.3% of admissions to a medical admissions unit. In 91% of cases these admissions were related to problems with either prescribing, monitoring, or adherence. PMID:12897361

  18. Reducing hospital admissions from nursing homes: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The geriatric nursing home population is vulnerable to acute and deteriorating illness due to advanced age, multiple chronic illnesses and high levels of dependency. Although the detriments of hospitalising the frail and old are widely recognised, hospital admissions from nursing homes remain common. Little is known about what alternatives exist to prevent and reduce hospital admissions from this setting. The objective of this study, therefore, is to summarise the effects of interventions to reduce acute hospitalisations from nursing homes. Methods A systematic literature search was performed in Cochrane Library, PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and ISI Web of Science in April 2013. Studies were eligible if they had a geriatric nursing home study population and were evaluating any type of intervention aiming at reducing acute hospital admission. Systematic reviews, randomised controlled trials, quasi randomised controlled trials, controlled before-after studies and interrupted time series were eligible study designs. The process of selecting studies, assessing them, extracting data and grading the total evidence was done by two researchers individually, with any disagreement solved by a third. We made use of meta-analyses from included systematic reviews, the remaining synthesis is descriptive. Based on the type of intervention, the included studies were categorised in: 1) Interventions to structure and standardise clinical practice, 2) Geriatric specialist services and 3) Influenza vaccination. Results Five systematic reviews and five primary studies were included, evaluating a total of 11 different interventions. Fewer hospital admissions were found in four out of seven evaluations of structuring and standardising clinical practice; in both evaluations of geriatric specialist services, and in influenza vaccination of residents. The quality of the evidence for all comparisons was of low or very low quality, using the GRADE approach. Conclusions Overall, eleven

  19. 28 CFR 54.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 54.300 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the basis of sex, be...

  20. 14 CFR 1253.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex... basis of sex, be denied admission, or be subjected to discrimination in admission, by any recipient...

  1. Lexical Profiles of Thailand University Admission Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherngchawano, Wirun; Jaturapitakkul, Natjiree

    2014-01-01

    University Admission Tests in Thailand are important documents which reflect Thailand's education system. To study at a higher education level, all students generally need to take the University Admission Tests designed by the National Institute of Educational Testing Service (NIETS). For the English test, vocabulary and reading comprehension is…

  2. 7 CFR 15a.21 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Admission. 15a.21 Section 15a.21 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited §...

  3. 7 CFR 15a.21 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Admission. 15a.21 Section 15a.21 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited §...

  4. 45 CFR 618.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on... shall, on the basis of sex, be denied admission, or be subjected to discrimination in admission, by...

  5. 45 CFR 618.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on... shall, on the basis of sex, be denied admission, or be subjected to discrimination in admission, by...

  6. 45 CFR 618.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on... shall, on the basis of sex, be denied admission, or be subjected to discrimination in admission, by...

  7. 7 CFR 503.2 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Admission. 503.2 Section 503.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.2 Admission. No person will be admitted to PIADC,...

  8. 7 CFR 503.2 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Admission. 503.2 Section 503.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.2 Admission. No person will be admitted to PIADC,...

  9. 7 CFR 503.2 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Admission. 503.2 Section 503.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.2 Admission. No person will be admitted to PIADC,...

  10. 7 CFR 503.2 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Admission. 503.2 Section 503.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.2 Admission. No person will be admitted to PIADC,...

  11. Unethical Admissions: Academic Integrity in Question.

    PubMed

    Ansah, Richard Hannis; Aikhuele, Daniel O; Yao, Liu

    2016-11-28

    The increasing unethical practices of graduates' admissions have heightened concerns about the integrity of the academy. This article informs this important subject that affects the students, admission systems, and the entire scientific community, thus, representing an approach against scholarly black market activities including falsified documents and unethical practices by consultants and students' recruitment agencies.

  12. 7 CFR 503.2 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Admission. 503.2 Section 503.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.2 Admission. No person will be admitted to PIADC,...

  13. Grade Inflation and Law School Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wongsurawat, Winai

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the evidence on whether grade inflation has led to an increasing emphasis on standardized test scores as a criterion for law school admissions. Design/methodology/approach: Fit probabilistic models to admissions data for American law schools during the mid to late 1990s, a period during which…

  14. Strategies and Trends in Admissions Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincher, Cameron

    1975-01-01

    Noting that the technical service rendered by the national testing agencies may be an undesirable tradeoff for the active involvement of admissions workers in admissions research, the author suggests that the use of decision theory, quasi-actuarial assessment, quasi-experimental design, and program evaluation strategies would place admissions…

  15. Alphabetical Order Effects in School Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurajda, Štepán; Münich, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    If school admission committees use alphabetically sorted lists of applicants in their evaluations, one's position in the alphabet according to last name initial may be important in determining access to selective schools. Jurajda and Münich (2010) "Admission to Selective Schools, Alphabetically". "Economics of Education…

  16. Why Do We Stay in Admissions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piersol, Marion Kandel; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Admission counselors (n=200) completed surveys about employment, title, on-the-job training, travel, and availability and satisfaction with certain responsibilities. Most satisfying admission responsibilities were program organization and implementation, applicant review and decision, and formal presentations. Least satisfying were telemarketing,…

  17. An Admissions Race that's Already Won

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Mitchell L.

    2008-01-01

    The author recently spent a year and a half in the admissions office of a highly selective Eastern college as an ethnographer, seeking to understand just how admissions officers make their decisions. He accompanied them on recruitment trips to high schools and college fairs, helped manage their offices' relentless current of visitors and mail, and…

  18. College Admission Professionals: Who Are We Now?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapelye, Janet Lavin

    1999-01-01

    Reflects on roles that admission professionals hold within the academic community. Explains that admission professionals are educators and business managers; bring in revenue; and serve as advisors to the president, as spokespeople to alumni/ae, and if fortunate, as counselors to students. Suggests that counselors focus on students because they…

  19. 49 CFR 25.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Office of the Secretary of Transportation NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 25.300 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the basis of sex, be...

  20. 40 CFR 5.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex... of sex, be denied admission, or be subjected to discrimination in admission, by any recipient...

  1. 45 CFR 86.21 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex... of sex, be denied admission, or be subjected to discrimination in admission, by any recipient...

  2. 22 CFR 146.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 146.300 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the basis of sex, be...

  3. 28 CFR 54.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 54.300 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the basis of sex, be...

  4. 43 CFR 41.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex... basis of sex, be denied admission, or be subjected to discrimination in admission, by any recipient...

  5. 45 CFR 86.21 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex... of sex, be denied admission, or be subjected to discrimination in admission, by any recipient...

  6. Admission to Law School: New Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shultz, Marjorie M.; Zedeck, Sheldon

    2012-01-01

    Standardized tests have been increasingly controversial over recent years in high-stakes admission decisions. Their role in operationalizing definitions of merit and qualification is especially contested, but in law schools this challenge has become particularly intense. Law schools have relied on the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) and an INDEX…

  7. Association of Intensive Care Unit Admission With Mortality Among Older Patients With Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Valley, Thomas S.; Sjoding, Michael W.; Ryan, Andrew M.; Iwashyna, Theodore J.; Cooke, Colin R.

    2016-01-01

    costs for the hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Among Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized with pneumonia, ICU admission of patients for whom the decision appeared to be discretionary was associated with improved survival and no significant difference in costs. A randomized trial may be warranted to assess whether more liberal ICU admission policies improve mortality for patients with pneumonia. PMID:26393850

  8. Optimal Output-Feedback Control of Unknown Continuous-Time Linear Systems Using Off-policy Reinforcement Learning.

    PubMed

    Modares, Hamidreza; Lewis, Frank L; Jiang, Zhong-Ping

    2016-09-22

    A model-free off-policy reinforcement learning algorithm is developed to learn the optimal output-feedback (OPFB) solution for linear continuous-time systems. The proposed algorithm has the important feature of being applicable to the design of optimal OPFB controllers for both regulation and tracking problems. To provide a unified framework for both optimal regulation and tracking, a discounted performance function is employed and a discounted algebraic Riccati equation (ARE) is derived which gives the solution to the problem. Conditions on the existence of a solution to the discounted ARE are provided and an upper bound for the discount factor is found to assure the stability of the optimal control solution. To develop an optimal OPFB controller, it is first shown that the system state can be constructed using some limited observations on the system output over a period of the history of the system. A Bellman equation is then developed to evaluate a control policy and find an improved policy simultaneously using only some limited observations on the system output. Then, using this Bellman equation, a model-free Off-policy RL-based OPFB controller is developed without requiring the knowledge of the system state or the system dynamics. It is shown that the proposed OPFB method is more powerful than the static OPFB as it is equivalent to a state-feedback control policy. The proposed method is successfully used to solve a regulation and a tracking problem.

  9. Sahel, Savana, Riverine and Urban Malaria in West Africa: Similar Control Policies with Different Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Ceesay, Serign J.; Bojang, Kalifa A.; Nwakanma, Davis; Conway, David J.; Koita, Ousmane A.; Doumbia, Seydou O.; Ndiaye, Daouda; Coulibaly, Tinzana F.; Diakité, Mahamadou; Traoré, Sekou F.; Coulibaly, Mamadou; Ndiaye, Jean-Louis; Sarr, Ousmane; Gaye, Oumar; Konaté, Lassana; Sy, Ngayo; Faye, Babacar; Faye, Ousmane; Sogoba, Nafomon; Jawara, Musa; Dao, Adama; Poudiougou, Belco; Diawara, Sory; Okebe, Joseph; Sangaré, Lansana; Abubakar, Ismaela; Sissako, Aliou; Diarra, Ayouba; Kéita, Moussa; Kandeh, Balla; Long, Carole A.; Fairhurst, Rick M.; Duraisingh, Manoj; Perry, Robert; Muskavitch, Marc A.T.; Valim, Clarissa; Volkman, Sarah K.; Wirth, Dyann F.; Krogstad, Donald J.

    2011-01-01

    The study sites for the West African ICEMR are in three countries (The Gambia, Senegal, Mali) and are located within 750 km of each other. In addition, the National Malaria Control Programmes of these countries have virtually identical policies: 1] Artemisinin Combination Therapies (ACTs) for the treatment of symptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infection, 2] Long-Lasting Insecticide-treated bed Nets (LLINs) to reduce the Entomololgic Inoculation Rate (EIR) and 3] Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine for the Intermittent Preventive Treatment of malaria during pregnancy (IPTp). However, the prevalence of P. falciparum malaria and the status of malaria control vary markedly across the four sites with differences in the duration of the transmission season (from 4–5 to 10–11 months), the intensity of transmission (with EIRs from unmeasurably low to 4–5 per person per month), multiplicity of infection (from a mean of 1.0 to means of 2–5) and the status of malaria control (from areas which have virtually no control to areas that are at the threshold of malaria elimination). The most important priority is the need to obtain comparable data on the population-based prevalence, incidence and transmission of malaria before new candidate interventions or combinations of interventions are introduced for malaria control. PMID:22119584

  10. Qualitative critical incident study of patients’ experiences leading to emergency hospital admission with advanced respiratory illness

    PubMed Central

    Karasouli, Eleni; Munday, Daniel; Bailey, Cara; Staniszewska, Sophie; Hewison, Alistair; Griffiths, Frances

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The high volume of emergency admissions to hospital is a challenge for health systems internationally. Patients with lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are frequently admitted to hospital as emergency cases. While the frequency of emergency admission has been investigated, few studies report patient experiences, particularly in relation to the decision-making process prior to emergency admission. We sought to explore patient and carer experiences and those of their healthcare professionals in the period leading up to emergency admission to hospital. Setting 3 UK hospitals located in different urban and rural settings. Design Qualitative critical incident study. Participants 24 patients with advanced lung cancer and 15 with advanced COPD admitted to hospital as emergencies, 20 of their carers and 50 of the health professionals involved in the patients’ care. Results The analysis of patient, carer and professionals’ interviews revealed a detailed picture of the complex processes involved leading to emergency admission to hospital. 3 phases were apparent in this period: self-management of deteriorating symptoms, negotiated decision-making and letting go. These were dynamic processes, characterised by an often rapidly changing clinical condition, uncertainty and anxiety. Patients considered their options drawing on experience, current and earlier advice. Patients tried to avoid admission, reluctantly accepting it, albeit often with a sense of relief, as anxiety increased with worsening symptoms. Conclusions Patients with advanced respiratory illness, and their carers, try to avoid emergency admission, and use logical and complex decision-making before reluctantly accepting it. Clinicians and policy-makers need to understand this complex process when considering how to reduce emergency hospital admissions rather than focusing on identifying and labelling admissions as ‘inappropriate’. PMID:26916687

  11. Disseminating Policy and Environmental Change Interventions: Insights from Obesity Prevention and Tobacco Control

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Jennifer; Myers, Allison E.; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Ammerman, Alice S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Evidence-based interventions are increasingly called for as a way to improve health behaviors such as tobacco use, physical inactivity, and poor diet. Numerous organizations are disseminating interventions that target individual-level behavioral change. Fewer are disseminating interventions that target the policy and environmental changes required to support healthier behaviors. This paper aims to describe the distinct features of policy and environmental change and the lessons learned by two Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-funded dissemination projects, the Center for Training and Research Translation (Center TRT) and Counter Tobacco. Methods Both Center TRT and Counter Tobacco have conducted formative research with their target audiences to customize dissemination to address practitioner-reported needs and preferences. The Centers’ have developed the following approach to disseminating policy and environmental change interventions: (1) Identify the best available evidence rather than waiting for the best possible evidence, (2) disseminate menus of broad intervention strategies, (3) provide implementation guidance, (4) incorporate stories from the field, (5) build practitioners’ capacity, and, (6) integrate dissemination into practitioners’ existing professional and social networks. In 2012, over 26,000 unique visitors accessed the Center TRT website and downloaded over 12,400 documents. The Counter Tobacco website has had 10,907 unique visitors since its launch in August 2011, and the number of visitors is increasing rapidly. Conclusions Both Centers have had success reaching their intended audiences. Research is now needed to assess the extent of practitioners’ use of disseminated recommendations, guidance, and tools in practice and the impact of the resulting interventions. PMID:25037977

  12. Estimating the Impacts of Local Policy Innovation: The Synthetic Control Method Applied to Tropical Deforestation.

    PubMed

    Sills, Erin O; Herrera, Diego; Kirkpatrick, A Justin; Brandão, Amintas; Dickson, Rebecca; Hall, Simon; Pattanayak, Subhrendu; Shoch, David; Vedoveto, Mariana; Young, Luisa; Pfaff, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Quasi-experimental methods increasingly are used to evaluate the impacts of conservation interventions by generating credible estimates of counterfactual baselines. These methods generally require large samples for statistical comparisons, presenting a challenge for evaluating innovative policies implemented within a few pioneering jurisdictions. Single jurisdictions often are studied using comparative methods, which rely on analysts' selection of best case comparisons. The synthetic control method (SCM) offers one systematic and transparent way to select cases for comparison, from a sizeable pool, by focusing upon similarity in outcomes before the intervention. We explain SCM, then apply it to one local initiative to limit deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. The municipality of Paragominas launched a multi-pronged local initiative in 2008 to maintain low deforestation while restoring economic production. This was a response to having been placed, due to high deforestation, on a federal "blacklist" that increased enforcement of forest regulations and restricted access to credit and output markets. The local initiative included mapping and monitoring of rural land plus promotion of economic alternatives compatible with low deforestation. The key motivation for the program may have been to reduce the costs of blacklisting. However its stated purpose was to limit deforestation, and thus we apply SCM to estimate what deforestation would have been in a (counterfactual) scenario of no local initiative. We obtain a plausible estimate, in that deforestation patterns before the intervention were similar in Paragominas and the synthetic control, which suggests that after several years, the initiative did lower deforestation (significantly below the synthetic control in 2012). This demonstrates that SCM can yield helpful land-use counterfactuals for single units, with opportunities to integrate local and expert knowledge and to test innovations and permutations on policies

  13. Estimating the Impacts of Local Policy Innovation: The Synthetic Control Method Applied to Tropical Deforestation

    PubMed Central

    Sills, Erin O.; Herrera, Diego; Kirkpatrick, A. Justin; Brandão, Amintas; Dickson, Rebecca; Hall, Simon; Pattanayak, Subhrendu; Shoch, David; Vedoveto, Mariana; Young, Luisa; Pfaff, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Quasi-experimental methods increasingly are used to evaluate the impacts of conservation interventions by generating credible estimates of counterfactual baselines. These methods generally require large samples for statistical comparisons, presenting a challenge for evaluating innovative policies implemented within a few pioneering jurisdictions. Single jurisdictions often are studied using comparative methods, which rely on analysts’ selection of best case comparisons. The synthetic control method (SCM) offers one systematic and transparent way to select cases for comparison, from a sizeable pool, by focusing upon similarity in outcomes before the intervention. We explain SCM, then apply it to one local initiative to limit deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. The municipality of Paragominas launched a multi-pronged local initiative in 2008 to maintain low deforestation while restoring economic production. This was a response to having been placed, due to high deforestation, on a federal “blacklist” that increased enforcement of forest regulations and restricted access to credit and output markets. The local initiative included mapping and monitoring of rural land plus promotion of economic alternatives compatible with low deforestation. The key motivation for the program may have been to reduce the costs of blacklisting. However its stated purpose was to limit deforestation, and thus we apply SCM to estimate what deforestation would have been in a (counterfactual) scenario of no local initiative. We obtain a plausible estimate, in that deforestation patterns before the intervention were similar in Paragominas and the synthetic control, which suggests that after several years, the initiative did lower deforestation (significantly below the synthetic control in 2012). This demonstrates that SCM can yield helpful land-use counterfactuals for single units, with opportunities to integrate local and expert knowledge and to test innovations and permutations on

  14. Atmospheric pollutants and hospital admissions due to pneumonia in children

    PubMed Central

    Negrisoli, Juliana; Nascimento, Luiz Fernando C.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between exposure to air pollutants and hospitalizations due to pneumonia in children of Sorocaba, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Time series ecological study, from 2007 to 2008. Daily data were obtained from the State Environmental Agency for Pollution Control for particulate matter, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, besides air temperature and relative humidity. The data concerning pneumonia admissions were collected in the public health system of Sorocaba. Correlations between the variables of interest using Pearson cofficient were calculated. Models with lags from zero to five days after exposure to pollutants were performed to analyze the association between the exposure to environmental pollutants and hospital admissions. The analysis used the generalized linear model of Poisson regression, being significant p<0.05. RESULTS: There were 1,825 admissions for pneumonia, with a daily mean of 2.5±2.1. There was a strong correlation between pollutants and hospital admissions, except for ozone. Regarding the Poisson regression analysis with the multi-pollutant model, only nitrogen dioxide was statistically significant in the same day (relative risk - RR=1.016), as well as particulate matter with a lag of four days (RR=1.009) after exposure to pollutants. CONCLUSIONS: There was an acute effect of exposure to nitrogen dioxide and a later effect of exposure to particulate matter on children hospitalizations for pneumonia in Sorocaba. PMID:24473956

  15. The Utility of Case-Control Methods for Health Policy and Planning Analysis: An Illustration from Kinshasa, Zaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mock, Nancy B.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The use of case-control methodology as an applied policy/planning research tool in assessing the potential effectiveness of behavioral interventions is studied in connection with diarrhea control in Zaire. Results with 107 matched pairs of children demonstrate the importance of hygiene-related knowledge and the utility of the research approach.…

  16. Parsing pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: forensic chemistry, receptor models, and source control policy.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Kirk T; Pietari, Jaana; Boehm, Paul D

    2014-04-01

    A realistic understanding of contaminant sources is required to set appropriate control policy. Forensic chemical methods can be powerful tools in source characterization and identification, but they require a multiple-lines-of-evidence approach. Atmospheric receptor models, such as the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)'s chemical mass balance (CMB), are increasingly being used to evaluate sources of pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments. This paper describes the assumptions underlying receptor models and discusses challenges in complying with these assumptions in practice. Given the variability within, and the similarity among, pyrogenic PAH source types, model outputs are sensitive to specific inputs, and parsing among some source types may not be possible. Although still useful for identifying potential sources, the technical specialist applying these methods must describe both the results and their inherent uncertainties in a way that is understandable to nontechnical policy makers. The authors present an example case study concerning an investigation of a class of parking-lot sealers as a significant source of PAHs in urban sediment. Principal component analysis is used to evaluate published CMB model inputs and outputs. Targeted analyses of 2 areas where bans have been implemented are included. The results do not support the claim that parking-lot sealers are a significant source of PAHs in urban sediments.

  17. [Fiscal policy and tobacco control: a unique opportunity to benefit public health and the public treasury].

    PubMed

    Armendares, Pedro Enrique; Reynales Shigematsu, Luz Miriam

    2006-01-01

    Various studies and analyses show that an increase in tobacco prices through taxation is one of the most efficient tools in the application of integral policies in the fight against tobacco. Increases in taxes contribute to cessation, to reductions in consumption and in the number of deaths among addicts and to decrease the number of people who start to smoke. However, many governments hesitate to apply high taxes to tobacco for fear of possible negative economic results including loss of jobs and a decrease in fiscal revenue as a consequence of smuggling. Both literature and empirical experience indicate that these negative consequences do not occur or have been overestimated, often due to arguments promoted by the tobacco industry itself. Increases in tobacco taxes result in greater fiscal income, even in the presence of smuggling, which can be confronted without eroding tobacco control policies. Numerous countries, including Mexico, still have a wide margin for increasing tobacco taxes, and thereby to take advantage of an exceptional opportunity that benefits both the population's health and the public treasury. To do so, governments must stand up to the powerful tobacco industry, which is aware of the efficiency of taxes to combat tobacco use and therefore resorts to intense ad campaigns, political lobbying and negotiation of voluntary agreements for "self-regulation" in order to avoid stricter legislative or fiscal measures.

  18. Atmospheric heavy metals and Arsenic in China: Situation, sources and control policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Jingchun; Tan, Jihua

    2013-08-01

    In recent years, heavy metal pollution accidents were reported frequently in China. The atmospheric heavy metal pollution is drawing all aspects of attention. This paper summarizes the recent research results from our studies and previous studies in recent years in China. The level, temporal variation, seasonal variation and size distribution of the heavy metals of atmospheric Lead(Pb), Vanadium(V), Manganese(Mn), Nickel(Ni), Chromium(Cr), Cadmium(Cd), Copper(Cu), Zinc(Zn) and Arsenic(As) were characterized in China. The emission characteristics and sources of atmospheric heavy metals and As in China were reviewed. Coal burning, iron and steel industry and vehicle emission are important sources in China. Control policies and effects in China were reviewed including emission standards, ambient air quality standards, phase out of leaded gasoline and so on, and further works for atmospheric heavy metals control were suggested. The comprehensive heavy metals pollution control measures and suggestions were put forward based on the summarization of the development and experience of the atmospheric heavy metal pollution control abroad.

  19. Open Admissions and Remediation: A Case Study of Policymaking by the City University of New York Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duitch, Suri

    2010-01-01

    An open admissions policy for the City University of New York was approved by the University's Board of Higher Education in 1969, ushering in a new era of greater access to college for the city's poor and working class Blacks, Latinos, and white youth. This policy change was made in response to demands from students, civil rights organizations,…

  20. The Origins of Race-Conscious Affirmative Action in Undergraduate Admissions: A Comparative Analysis of Institutional Change in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stulberg, Lisa M.; Chen, Anthony S.

    2014-01-01

    What explains the rise of race-conscious affirmative action policies in undergraduate admissions? The dominant theory posits that adoption of such policies was precipitated by urban and campus unrest in the North during the late 1960s. Based on primary research in a sample of 17 selective schools, we find limited support for the dominant theory.…

  1. The Bakke Case and Special Admissions Programs: A Case for Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Bill

    The Bakke case raised profound and critical issues for America, and the results of the Supreme Court decision will extend far beyond flaws in medical admissions policies. The Bakke decision is an economic one, with which affirmative action programs are incompatible; affirmative action programs involve a degree of economic engineering that the…

  2. 42 CFR 416.52 - Conditions for coverage-Patient admission, assessment and discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... must ensure each patient has the appropriate pre-surgical and post-surgical assessments completed and..., standards of practice, and ASC policy. (2) Upon admission, each patient must have a pre-surgical assessment... patient's medical record prior to the surgical procedure. (b) Standard: Post-surgical assessment. (1)...

  3. From the National Academies: Medical School Admissions Requirements and Undergraduate Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labov, Jay B.

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on a series of issues that may be of interest to college and university science faculty who educate undergraduates: requirements and policies for admission to medical school and their possible influences on undergraduate science education. The Center for Education of the National Research Council (NRC) and the Institute of…

  4. The New Student-Aid Landscape and College Admissions: A Report from the Trenches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Given all the changes that colleges have made in their financial-aid policies in recent months, the 2008 admissions season promised to be the most unpredictable ever. Harvard University's announcement in December that families with annual incomes as high as $180,000 would have to pay only 10 percent of their incomes toward tuition, and that it was…

  5. Admissions: Who Goes Where? Messages from the Statistics. LGA Research Report 4/06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, Tamsin; Rutt, Simon; Fletcher-Campbell, Felicity

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which school populations reflect the profile of the local communities in which they are located, to support the development of policy and debate around school admissions and parental choice. The investigation also aimed to examine the effect that one school's intake has on another local…

  6. Tobacco control policies in hospitals before and after the implementation of a national smoking ban in Catalonia, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Cristina; Fu, Marcela; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Ballbè, Montse; Puig, Montse; García, Montse; Carabasa, Esther; Saltó, Esteve; Fernández, Esteve

    2009-01-01

    Background Diverse projects and guidelines to assist hospitals towards the attainment of comprehensive smoke-free policies have been developed. In 2006, Spain government passed a new smoking ban that reinforce tobacco control policies and banned completely smoking in hospitals. This study assesses the progression of tobacco control policies in the Catalan Network of Smoke-free Hospitals before and after a comprehensive national smoking ban. Methods We used the Self-Audit Questionnaire of the European Network for Smoke-free Hospitals to score the compliance of 9 policy standards (global score = 102). We used two cross-sectional surveys to evaluate tobacco control policies before (2005) and after the implementation of a national smoking ban (2007) in 32 hospitals of Catalonia, Spain. We compared the means of the overall score in 2005 and 2007 according to the type of hospital, the number of beds, the prevalence of tobacco consumption, and the number of years as a smoke-free hospital. Results The mean of the implementation score of tobacco control policies was 52.4 (95% CI: 45.4–59.5) in 2005 and 71.6 (95% CI: 67.0–76.2) in 2007 with an increase of 36.7% (p < 0.01). The hospitals with greater improvement were general hospitals (48% increase; p < 0.01), hospitals with > 300 beds (41.1% increase; p < 0.01), hospitals with employees' tobacco consumption prevalence 35–39% (72.2% increase; p < 0.05) and hospitals that had recently implemented smoke-free policies (74.2% increase; p < 0.01). Conclusion The national smoking ban appears to increase tobacco control activities in hospitals combined with other non-bylaw initiatives such as the Smoke-free Hospital Network. PMID:19473549

  7. 32 CFR 728.4 - Policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policies. 728.4 Section 728.4 National Defense... PERSONS AT NAVY MEDICAL DEPARTMENT FACILITIES General § 728.4 Policies. (a) Admissions to closed... clinical record by the physician admitting the patient to the ward. These same policies apply equally...

  8. Designing an international policy and legal framework for the control of emerging infectious diseases: first steps.

    PubMed Central

    Plotkin, B. J.; Kimball, A. M.

    1997-01-01

    As the pace of emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases quickens, the International Health Regulations, which have served as the legal and policy framework of epidemic control for 45 years, are being revised by the World Health Organization (WHO). In this article, we review the recent history, legal construction, and application of these regulations and related international treaty-based sanitary measures, especially the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures, and the history of applying the regulations in the maritime and aviation industries. This review indicates that revision efforts should address 1) the limited scope of disease syndromes (and reporters of these syndromes) now in the regulations and 2) the mismatch between multisectoral factors causing disease emergence and the single agency (WHO) administering the regulations. The revised regulations should expand the scope of reporting and simultaneously broaden international agency coordination. PMID:9126439

  9. Wolfgang K.H. Panofsky: Physics, Science Policy, and Arms Control

    SciTech Connect

    Luth, Vera

    2010-10-13

    Wolfgang K. H. Panofsky, professor at Stanford University and founding director of the Stanford Linear Accelerator, was a legendary figure in physics in the second half of the 20th century. He is respected for his contribution in three important areas: as a scientist who advanced particle physics and accelerator development, as the founder of SLAC, a research laboratory of international rank, and a long-time advisor to the US government on science policy, on national security, and on arms control. Over many years he was the outstanding leader of the US National Academy of Sciences efforts to advise the US government on the need for international agreements on nuclear non-proliferation and arms reduction. This presentation will high light the accomplishment of the gentleman who became a legendary and beloved figure to all who had a chance to meet and interact with him, and who called him simply Pief.

  10. Comparison of policies for controlling groundwater nitrate pollution from agriculture in the Eastern Mancha aquifer (Spain).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña-Haro, S.; Llopis-Albert, C.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Stalder, A.; Garcia-Prats, A.; Henriquez-Dole, L.

    2012-04-01

    Groundwater nitrate pollution from agriculture has given rise to different legal frameworks. The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) is the most recent one. This work aims to help in the definition of the most cost-efficient policy to control non-point groundwater to attain the objectives established in the WFD. In this study we performed a cost-effectiveness analysis of different policies for controlling groundwater nitrate pollution from agriculture. The policies considered were taxes on nitrogen fertilizers, water price, taxes on emissions and fertilizer standards. We used a hydro-economic model, where we maximized the farmer's benefits. The benefits were calculated as sum of crop revenue minus variable and fixed cost per hectare minus the damage costs from nitrogen leaching. In the cost-effectiveness analysis we considered the costs as the reduction on benefits due to the application of a policy and the effectiveness the reduction on nitrate leaching. The methodology was applied to Eastern Mancha aquifer in Spain. The aquifer is part of the Júcar River Basin, which was declared as EU Pilot Basin in 2002 for the implementation of the WFD. Over the past 30 years the area has undertaken a significant socioeconomic development, mainly due to the intensive groundwater use for irrigated crops, which has provoked a steady decline of groundwater levels and a reduction of groundwater discharged into the Júcar River, as well as nitrate concentrations higher than those allowed by the WFD at certain locations (above 100 mg/l.). Crop revenue was calculated using production functions and the amount of nitrate leached was estimated by calibrated leaching functions. These functions were obtained by using an agronomic model (a GIS version of EPIC, GEPIC), and they depend on the water and the fertilizer use. The Eastern Mancha System was divided into zones of homogeneous crop production and nitrate leaching properties. Given the different soil types and climatic

  11. Behaviour, Classroom Management and Student "Control": Enacting Policy in the English Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Meg; Ball, Stephen; Braun, Annette

    2010-01-01

    This paper draws on an ESRC-funded study of policy enactments in English secondary schools (RES-062-23-1484) based on case-study work in four similar "ordinary" schools. The study has two main objectives; to develop a theory of policy enactment and to explore empirically the differences in the enactment of policy in similar contexts.…

  12. Rethinking Admission Policy: Is Affirmative Action Compatible with Fairness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Chong Ho

    2005-01-01

    This article is a critique of the Dworkinian theory of fairness in the context of Affirmative Action. Although Dworkin committed tremendous endeavors in an attempt to give a fairness argument backed by an empirical study, the question of whether affirmative action is fair remains inconclusive. The sample used in the study is unrepresentative, and…

  13. Polemic: five proposals for a medical school admission policy

    PubMed Central

    Cowley, C

    2006-01-01

    Five proposals for admitting better applicants into medical school are discussed in this article: (1) An A level in a humanity or social science would be required, to supplement—not replace—the stringent science requirement. This would ensure that successful candidates would be better “primed” for the medical curriculum. (2) Extra points in the applicant's initial screening would be awarded for an A level in English literature. (3) There would be a minimum age of 23 for applicants, although a prior degree would not be required. This is to ensure that the applicants are mature enough to know themselves and the world better, to make a more informed and motivated choice of career, and to get more out of the humanities components of the curriculum. (4) A year's full‐time experience in a healthcare or charity environment would be desirable. (5) Applicants would be given two lists of interview discussion topics to prepare: works of literature and topics in healthcare politics. PMID:16877632

  14. Evaluating the role of point source discharges informs statewide nutrient control policy in Utah.

    PubMed

    Daigger, Glen T; Datta, Tania; Stensel, H David; Whitlock, Drury D; Mackey, John K

    2014-06-01

    An evaluation of costs, rate, and environmental impacts of upgrading publically owned treatment works (POTWs) in the State of Utah to four levels of nutrient control allowed a variety of nutrient control policies to be assessed. Upgrade costs and rate impacts indicated that costs would be within a defined range for many POTWs, especially with design capacities greater than 40,000 m3/day (-10 mgd). However, costs were significantly higher for some POTWs with lower design capacities, and nutrient upgrades to the most stringent levels would not be affordable for these communities, representing about 15 percent of the service population. The resulting equity issues can be addressed through hardship grants program and/or regulations based on a trading scheme. Analysis demonstrated that trading offers advantages, including cost efficiency and flexibility to accommodate further nutrient reductions and population growth, and greater ability to interface with urban and rural nonpoint nutrient control. Currently, the State of Utah is establishing technology-based nutrient limits that can be affordably implemented at all POTWs in phases. Additionally, a multi-faceted approach is being evaluated that will consider prioritized watershed-scale strategies, point and nonpoint sources of pollution, ecological and socioeconomic implications, and stakeholder participation in nutrient reduction programs.

  15. Impact of Tobacco Control Policies and Mass Media Campaigns on Monthly Adult Smoking Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, Melanie A.; Durkin, Sarah; Spittal, Matthew J.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Scollo, Michelle; Simpson, Julie A.; Chapman, Simon; White, Victoria; Hill, David

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to assess the impact of several tobacco control policies and televised antismoking advertising on adult smoking prevalence. Methods. We used a population survey in which smoking prevalence was measured each month from 1995 through 2006. Time-series analysis assessed the effect on smoking prevalence of televised antismoking advertising (with gross audience rating points [GRPs] per month), cigarette costliness, monthly sales of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and bupropion, and smoke-free restaurant laws. Results. Increases in cigarette costliness and exposure to tobacco control media campaigns significantly reduced smoking prevalence. We found a 0.3-percentage-point reduction in smoking prevalence by either exposing the population to televised antismoking ads an average of almost 4 times per month (390 GRPs) or by increasing the costliness of a pack of cigarettes by 0.03% of gross average weekly earnings. Monthly sales of NRT and bupropion, exposure to NRT advertising, and smoke-free restaurant laws had no detectable impact on smoking prevalence. Conclusions. Increases in the real price of cigarettes and tobacco control mass media campaigns broadcast at sufficient exposure levels and at regular intervals are critical for reducing population smoking prevalence. PMID:18556601

  16. Weather, season, and daily stroke admissions in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goggins, William B.; Woo, Jean; Ho, Suzanne; Chan, Emily Y. Y.; Chau, P. H.

    2012-09-01

    Previous studies examining daily temperature and stroke incidence have given conflicting results. We undertook this retrospective study of all stroke admissions in those aged 35 years old and above to Hong Kong public hospitals from 1999 through 2006 in order to better understand the effects of meteorological conditions on stroke risk in a subtropical setting. We used Poisson Generalized Additive Models with daily hemorrhagic (HS) and ischemic stroke (IS) counts separately as outcomes, and daily mean temperature, humidity, solar radiation, rainfall, air pressure, pollutants, flu consultation rates, day of week, holidays, time trend and seasonality as predictors. Lagged effects of temperature, humidity and pollutants were also considered. A total of 23,457 HS and 107,505 IS admissions were analyzed. Mean daily temperature had a strong, consistent, negative linear association with HS admissions over the range (8.2-31.8°C) observed. A 1°C lower average temperature over the same day and previous 4 days (lags 0-4) being associated with a 2.7% (95% CI: 2.0-3.4%, P < .0.0001) higher admission rate after controlling for other variables. This association was stronger among older subjects and females. Higher lag 0-4 average change in air pressure from previous day was modestly associated with higher HS risk. The association between IS and temperature was weaker and apparent only below 22°C, with a 1°C lower average temperature (lags 0-13) below this threshold being associated with a 1.6% (95% CI:1.0-2.2%, P < 0.0001) higher IS admission rate. Pollutant levels were not associated with HS or IS. Future studies should examine HS and IS risk separately.

  17. Lunar phases and psychiatric hospital admissions.

    PubMed

    Gorvin, J J; Roberts, M S

    1994-12-01

    To assess the lunar hypothesis as predictive of mental health emergencies and antisocial behavior, the relation of the lunar hypothesis and the occurrence of psychiatric hospital admissions of developmentally disabled adults was examined. The full moon phase of the lunar cycle did not explain a higher rate of hospital admission and accounted for only .007% of the variance. A critique of the methodology in prior research led to the suggestion that more immediate stressors and environmental factors are more plausible contributing factors to hospital admission.

  18. Drug related hospital admissions in subspecialities of internal medicine.

    PubMed

    Hallas, J

    1996-04-01

    probably had a specific effect on avoidable DRHs. Admissions caused by adverse ractions to over-the-counter remedies, usually salicylates, were characterised by a particularly inappropriate use of drugs, suggesting that the public may also be a suitable target for interventions. In 1990 the author established the Odense PharmacoEpidemiologic Database (OPED), a research registry with person-identifiable data on computerised refund claims from Funen County. The registry was validated by a cohort study on the association of non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID) and admission for severe upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGB). All 31,503 recorded NSAID users in Odense during a 19 month period and a control cohort were studied. For both cohorts we obtained data on admissions caused by UGB and other diagnosis- and prescription-data that would be relevant for confounder control. The standardised incidence ratio was 5.5, controlled for age, sex and previous peptic ulcer episodes. A multivariate analyse revealed a number of other risk factors, but no other important confounders. The standardised incidence of UGB was particularly high during the first month of NSAID therapy. The size of the data set permitted an estimate of excess risk within various patient categories. NSAID users over 75 years of age or with a previous peptic ulcer episode had particularly high excess risks. The utilization pattern of NSAIDs was surprisingly sporadic and appeared to favour a high UGB rate for a given sales volume. It is pointed out that individualised dispensing data may be an important tool in future endeavors to control DRH incidences. The data may be used for generating or confirming hypotheses on unknown and suspected ADRs, for studies on risk factors of ADRs, for characterising the population's drug utilization, for identifying objects for interventions and for monitoring the effect of interventions.

  19. Exploring social media and admissions decision-making – friends or foes?

    PubMed Central

    Law, Marcus; Mylopoulos, Maria; Veinot, Paula; Miller, Daniel; Hanson, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the ever-increasing use of social media (e.g., Facebook, Twitter) little is known about its use in medical school admissions. This qualitative study explores whether and how social media (SM) is used in undergraduate admissions in Canada, and the attitudes of admissions personnel towards such use. Methods Phone interviews were conducted with admissions deans and nominated admissions personnel. A qualitative descriptive analysis was performed using iterative coding and comparing, and grouping data into themes. Results Personnel from 15 of 17 Canadian medical schools participated. A sizeable proportion had, at some point, examined social media (SM) profiles to acquire information on applicants. Participants did not report using it explicitly to screen all applicants (primary use); however, several did admit to looking at SM to follow up on preliminary indications of misbehaviour (secondary use). Participants articulated concerns, such as validity and equity, about using SM in admissions. Despite no schools having existing policy, participants expressed openness to future use. Conclusions While some of the 15 schools had used SM to acquire information on applicants, criteria for formulating judgments were obscure, and participants expressed significant apprehension, based on concerns for fairness and validity. Findings suggest participant ambivalence and ongoing risks associated with “hidden” selection practices. PMID:28344689

  20. Incidence of admission to the Physical Training and Rehabilitation Programs in Initial Entry Training during fiscal year 2011.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Jevettra D; Knapik, Joseph J; Solomon, Zack; Hauret, Keith G; Morris, Krystal; Carter, Robert; McGill, Ryan; Paoli, Latondra

    2014-05-01

    The Physical Training and Rehabilitation Program (PTRP) is a recovery and reintegration program for recruits in Initial Entry Training (IET) who are unable to continue training because of serious injury. This investigation examined PTRP admission incidence among recruits in IET at Forts Jackson, Leonard Wood, Benning, and Sill during Fiscal Year 2011 (FY11). PTRP admission data were collected from a spreadsheet completed monthly by PTRP commanders. Total number of recruits was obtained from each post's Directorate of Programs, Training, and Management. In FY11, 368 men and 268 women were admitted into PTRPs at all installations. For Forts Jackson, Leonard Wood, Benning, and Sill, male admission incidences (cases/1,000 recruits) were 2.6, 3.0, 6.2, and 5.4, respectively; female admission incidences for Forts Jackson, Leonard Wood, and Sill, were 11.1, 10.1, and 22.6, respectively. Most injuries sent to PTRP were bone stress injuries (65%) or fractures (21%). 76% of recruits were returned to duty. Differences in admission incidence between posts appear primarily related to different local policies regarding convalescent leave and admission criteria. PTRP admission rates are lower than in the past, presumably related to policy changes and injury-reduction efforts. A cost-benefit analysis would assist in determining the value of the PTRP.

  1. 43 CFR 4.1141 - Admissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... directed serves on the requesting party— (1) A sworn statement denying specifically the relevant matters of which an admission is requested; (2) A sworn statement setting forth in detail the reasons why he...

  2. 43 CFR 4.1141 - Admissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... directed serves on the requesting party— (1) A sworn statement denying specifically the relevant matters of which an admission is requested; (2) A sworn statement setting forth in detail the reasons why he...

  3. 43 CFR 4.1141 - Admissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... directed serves on the requesting party— (1) A sworn statement denying specifically the relevant matters of which an admission is requested; (2) A sworn statement setting forth in detail the reasons why he...

  4. Marketing in Admissions: The Information System Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wofford, O. Douglas; Timmerman, Ed

    1982-01-01

    A marketing information system approach for college admissions is outlined that includes objectives, information needs and sources, a data collection format, and information evaluation. Coordination with other institutional information systems is recommended. (MSE)

  5. The Parent Role in College Admission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krugman, Mary K.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses techniques secondary school counselors can use to help parents understand and negotiate the college admissions process, including encouraging parental self-assessment; assisting parents to assess student; giving parents special tips; and maintaining open and ethical communication. (ABL)

  6. 28 CFR 549.42 - Involuntary admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SERVICES Administrative Safeguards for Psychiatric Treatment and Medication § 549.42 Involuntary admission. A court determination is necessary for involuntary hospitalization for psychiatric treatment. A sentenced inmate, not currently committed for psychiatric treatment, who is not able or willing...

  7. Regional differences in Chinese SO2 emission control efficiency and policy implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q. Q.; Wang, Y.; Ma, Q.; Xie, Y.; He, K.

    2015-02-01

    SO2 emission control has been one of the most important air pollution policies in China since 2000. In this study, we assess regional differences in SO2 emission control efficiencies in China through the modeling analysis of four scenarios of SO2 emissions, all of which aim at reducing the national total SO2 emissions by 8% or 2.3 Tg below the 2010 emissions level, the target set by the current 12th FYP (2011-2015), but differ in the spatial implementation. The GEOS-Chem chemical transport model is used to evaluate the efficiency of each scenario on the basis of three impact metrics: surface sulfate concentration, population-weighted sulfate concentration (PWC), and sulfur export flux from China to the Western Pacific. The efficiency of SO2 control (β) is defined as the relative change of each impact metric to a 1% reduction of SO2 emissions from the 2010 baseline. The S1 scenario, which adopts a spatially uniform reduction of SO2 emissions in China, gives a β of 0.71, 0.83, and 0.67 for sulfate concentration, PWC, and export flux, respectively. By comparison, the S2 scenario, which implements all the SO2 emissions reduction over North China (NC), is found most effective in reducing national-mean surface sulfate concentrations and sulfur export fluxes, with β being 0.76 and 0.95 respectively. The S3 scenario of implementing all the SO2 emission reduction over South China (SC) has the highest β in reducing PWC (β = 0.98) because SC has the highest correlation between population density and sulfate concentration. Reducing SO2 emissions over Southwest China (SWC) is found to be least efficient on the national scale, albeit within-region benefit. The difference in β by scenario is attributable to regional differences in SO2 oxidation pathways and source-receptor relationships. Among the three regions examined here, NC shows the largest proportion of sulfate formation from gas phase oxidation, which is more sensitive to SO2 emission change than aqueous oxidation

  8. Re-examination of sea lamprey control policies for the St. Marys River: Completion of an adaptive management cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Michael L.; Brenden, Travis O.; Irwin, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    The St. Marys River (SMR) historically has been a major producer of sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) in the Laurentian Great Lakes. In the early 2000s, a decision analysis (DA) project was conducted to evaluate sea lamprey control policies for the SMR; this project suggested that an integrated policy of trapping, sterile male releases, and Bayluscide treatment was the most cost-effective policy. Further, it concluded that formal assessment of larval sea lamprey abundance and distribution in the SMR would be valuable for future evaluation of control strategies. We updated this earlier analysis, adding information from annual larval assessments conducted since 1999 and evaluating additional control policies. Bayluscide treatments continued to be critical for sea lamprey control, but high recruitment compensation minimized the effectiveness of trapping and sterile male release under current feasible ranges. Because Bayluscide control is costly, development of strategies to enhance trapping success remains a priority. This study illustrates benefits of an adaptive management cycle, wherein models inform decisions, are updated based on learning achieved from those decisions, and ultimately inform future decisions.

  9. The SAFE strategy for trachoma control: Using operational research for policy, planning and implementation.

    PubMed

    Emerson, Paul M; Burton, Matthew; Solomon, Anthony W; Bailey, Robin; Mabey, David

    2006-08-01

    Trachoma is a neglected disease and also the world's leading infectious cause of blindness. It causes misery, dependency and is a barrier to development. Trachoma is controlled by a WHO-endorsed integrated strategy of surgery for trichiasis, antibiotic therapy, facial cleanliness and environmental improvement, which is known by the acronym SAFE. The strategy is based on evidence from field trials and is continually being refined by operational research that informs national policy and planning; the strategy has affected both programme delivery and implementation. As a result of the findings of operational research, surgery is now frequently conducted by paramedics in communities rather than by ophthalmologists in hospitals; yearly mass distribution of a single oral dose of azithromycin has replaced the use of topical tetracycline; and the promotion of better hygiene, face-washing and the use of latrines are used to reduce transmission. Those who implement programmes have been equal partners in conducting operational research thus reducing the "know-do" gap and minimizing the lag that often exists between the completion of trials and putting their results into practice. Operational research has become a part of practice. Although there are still many questions without answers, national programme coordinators have a reasonable expectation that trachoma control programmes based on SAFE will work.

  10. VOCs and OVOCs distribution and control policy implications in Pearl River Delta region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louie, Peter K. K.; Ho, Josephine W. K.; Tsang, Roy C. W.; Blake, Donald R.; Lau, Alexis K. H.; Yu, Jian Zhen; Yuan, Zibing; Wang, Xinming; Shao, Min; Zhong, Liuju

    2013-09-01

    Ambient air measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) were conducted and characterised during a two-year grid study in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of southern China. The present grid study pioneered the systematic investigation of the nature and characteristics of complex VOC and OVOC sources at a regional scale. The largest contributing VOCs, accounting over 80% of the total VOCs mixing ratio, were toluene, ethane, ethyne, propane, ethene, butane, benzene, pentane, ethylbenzene, and xylenes. Sub-regional VOC spatial characteristics were identified, namely: i) relatively fresh pollutants, consistent with elevated vehicular and industrial activities, around the PRD estuary; and ii) a concentration gradient with higher mixing ratios of VOCs in the west as compared with the eastern part of PRD. Based on alkyl nitrate aging determination, a high hydroxyl radical (OH) concentration favoured fast hydrocarbon reactions and formation of locally produced ozone. The photochemical reactivity analysis showed aromatic hydrocarbons and alkenes together consisted of around 80% of the ozone formation potential (OFP) among the key VOCs. We also found that the OFP from OVOCs should not be neglected since their OFP contribution was more than one-third of that from VOCs alone. These findings support the choice of current air pollution control policy which focuses on vehicular sources but warrants further controls. Industrial emissions and VOCs emitted by solvents should be the next targets for ground-level ozone abatement.

  11. The SAFE strategy for trachoma control: Using operational research for policy, planning and implementation.

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, Paul M.; Burton, Matthew; Solomon, Anthony W.; Bailey, Robin; Mabey, David

    2006-01-01

    Trachoma is a neglected disease and also the world's leading infectious cause of blindness. It causes misery, dependency and is a barrier to development. Trachoma is controlled by a WHO-endorsed integrated strategy of surgery for trichiasis, antibiotic therapy, facial cleanliness and environmental improvement, which is known by the acronym SAFE. The strategy is based on evidence from field trials and is continually being refined by operational research that informs national policy and planning; the strategy has affected both programme delivery and implementation. As a result of the findings of operational research, surgery is now frequently conducted by paramedics in communities rather than by ophthalmologists in hospitals; yearly mass distribution of a single oral dose of azithromycin has replaced the use of topical tetracycline; and the promotion of better hygiene, face-washing and the use of latrines are used to reduce transmission. Those who implement programmes have been equal partners in conducting operational research thus reducing the "know-do" gap and minimizing the lag that often exists between the completion of trials and putting their results into practice. Operational research has become a part of practice. Although there are still many questions without answers, national programme coordinators have a reasonable expectation that trachoma control programmes based on SAFE will work. PMID:16917648

  12. Immigration, moving house and psychiatric admissions.

    PubMed

    Johansson, L M; Sundquist, J; Johansson, S E; Bergman, B

    1998-08-01

    This study was designed to elucidate psychiatric admission rates for native Swedes and foreign-born individuals during the period 1991-1994, when Sweden had a great influx of refugees. During the same period, and even earlier, psychiatric in-patient care had been reduced. Tests of differences between Swedes and foreign-born individuals in first psychiatric admission rates were performed using Poisson regressions, and the risk of a readmission was assessed using a proportional hazard model. Foreign-born individuals and native Swedes, both males and females, showed a similar admission pattern with regard to the number of admissions. Foreign-born males under 55 years of age and foreign-born females under 35 years of age had significantly higher admission rates than native Swedes. In total, native Swedes, both males and females, were hospitalized for a significantly longer period than the foreign-born subjects. About 43% of the patients were readmitted. The risk of a readmission was significantly increased among those with a high rate of internal migration. The high admission rates for young foreign-born individuals might be explained by a high incidence of mental illness owing to the trauma of being violently forced to migrate, acculturation difficulties, or unsatisfactory social circumstances such as high unemployment. The shorter hospitalization time could be due to undertreatment or less serious mental illness.

  13. Instance-based Policy Learning by Real-coded Genetic Algorithms and Its Application to Control of Nonholonomic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamae, Atsushi; Sakuma, Jun; Ono, Isao; Kobayashi, Shigenobu

    The stabilization control of nonholonomic systems have been extensively studied because it is essential for nonholonomic robot control problems. The difficulty in this problem is that the theoretical derivation of control policy is not necessarily guaranteed achievable. In this paper, we present a reinforcement learning (RL) method with instance-based policy (IBP) representation, in which control policies for this class are optimized with respect to user-defined cost functions. Direct policy search (DPS) is an approach for RL; the policy is represented by parametric models and the model parameters are directly searched by optimization techniques including genetic algorithms (GAs). In IBP representation an instance consists of a state and an action pair; a policy consists of a set of instances. Several DPSs with IBP have been previously proposed. In these methods, sometimes fail to obtain optimal control policies when state-action variables are continuous. In this paper, we present a real-coded GA for DPSs with IBP. Our method is specifically designed for continuous domains. Optimization of IBP has three difficulties; high-dimensionality, epistasis, and multi-modality. Our solution is designed for overcoming these difficulties. The policy search with IBP representation appears to be high-dimensional optimization; however, instances which can improve the fitness are often limited to active instances (instances used for the evaluation). In fact, the number of active instances is small. Therefore, we treat the search problem as a low dimensional problem by restricting search variables only to active instances. It has been commonly known that functions with epistasis can be efficiently optimized with crossovers which satisfy the inheritance of statistics. For efficient search of IBP, we propose extended crossover-like mutation (extended XLM) which generates a new instance around an instance with satisfying the inheritance of statistics. For overcoming multi-modality, we

  14. A Cost-Effectiveness Tool for Informing Policies on Zika Virus Control

    PubMed Central

    Tamagnan, Jules A.; Medlock, Jan; Ndeffo-Mbah, Martial L.; Fish, Durland; Ávila-Agüero, María L.; Marín, Rodrigo; Ko, Albert I.; Galvani, Alison P.

    2016-01-01

    Background As Zika virus continues to spread, decisions regarding resource allocations to control the outbreak underscore the need for a tool to weigh policies according to their cost and the health burden they could avert. For example, to combat the current Zika outbreak the US President requested the allocation of $1.8 billion from Congress in February 2016. Methodology/Principal Findings Illustrated through an interactive tool, we evaluated how the number of Zika cases averted, the period during pregnancy in which Zika infection poses a risk of microcephaly, and probabilities of microcephaly and Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) impact the cost at which an intervention is cost-effective. From Northeast Brazilian microcephaly incidence data, we estimated the probability of microcephaly in infants born to Zika-infected women (0.49% to 2.10%). We also estimated the probability of GBS arising from Zika infections in Brazil (0.02% to 0.06%) and Colombia (0.08%). We calculated that each microcephaly and GBS case incurs the loss of 29.95 DALYs and 1.25 DALYs per case, as well as direct medical costs for Latin America and the Caribbean of $91,102 and $28,818, respectively. We demonstrated the utility of our cost-effectiveness tool with examples evaluating funding commitments by Costa Rica and Brazil, the US presidential proposal, and the novel approach of genetically modified mosquitoes. Our analyses indicate that the commitments and the proposal are likely to be cost-effective, whereas the cost-effectiveness of genetically modified mosquitoes depends on the country of implementation. Conclusions/Significance Current estimates from our tool suggest that the health burden from microcephaly and GBS warrants substantial expenditures focused on Zika virus control. Our results justify the funding committed in Costa Rica and Brazil and many aspects of the budget outlined in the US president’s proposal. As data continue to be collected, new parameter estimates can be customized

  15. Addressing policy needs for prevention and control of type 2 diabetes in India.

    PubMed

    Atre, Sachin

    2015-09-01

    India carries nearly one-fifth of the global burden of diabetes cases, the majority of which are of type 2 diabetes. Recognising the need for controlling diabetes, the Government of India has initiated a national level programme for prevention and control of diabetes along with other non-communicable diseases in 2008. Despite being piloted and implemented, there is hardly any published literature about the national level situation of diabetes and its control efforts. The present article is written with the aim to fill this gap to some extent and to provide a situational analysis of the diabetes problem in India in a holistic way, addressing policy needs for the national programme. It focuses on three main areas, namely, awareness of diabetes, costs of drugs for its treatment and healthcare-system related issues. It argues that poor coverage and weak implementation of the national level programme are major forces that push patients to seek help in the weakly regulated private sector. Approaching the private sector is likely to increase the cost of care, which in turn can lead to an increased financial burden for patients and their families due to factors such as patients' lack of awareness about diabetes, poor drug price regulation and prescriptions including combinations and/or patented products of medicines used for treating diabetes by the private sector. This article addresses several needs such as strengthening the national programme and increasing its reach to unreached districts, exerting drug price regulation and implementing community-based participatory programmes for prevention and management of type 2 diabetes. It also underscores a need for piloting and implementing a robust national level electronic reporting system for diabetes programmes.

  16. Developing a Policy for Controlled Substance Testing of Juveniles. Juvenile Accountability Incentive Block Grants (JAIBG) Program Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, Ann H.; Sydney, Linda

    This bulletin provides an overview of substance testing, describes major indicators of the need for such testing, and summarizes the research for recent trends in substance abuse. It examines the practices of implementing a policy of controlled substance testing for appropriate categories of juveniles within the juvenile justice system. A summary…

  17. "Every Child Counts": Testing Policy Effectiveness Using a Randomised Controlled Trial, Designed, Conducted and Reported to CONSORT Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torgerson, Carole; Wiggins, Andy; Torgerson, David; Ainsworth, Hannah; Hewitt, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    We report a randomised controlled trial evaluation of an intensive one-to-one numeracy programme--"Numbers Count"--which formed part of the previous government's numeracy policy intervention--"Every Child Counts." We rigorously designed and conducted the trial to CONSORT guidelines. We used a pragmatic waiting list design to…

  18. Privatisation Policies and Postprivatisation Control Devices in India's Higher Education: Evidence from a Regional Study and Implications for Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narayana, M. R.

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on economic analysis of privatisation policies and postprivatisation control devices in India's higher education. As a case study, the experiences of Karnataka State in collegiate education under general higher education are emphasised. A change in public financing, rather than a shift of public ownership and management to…

  19. Enhancing Medicare's Hospital-Acquired Conditions Policy to Encompass Readmissions

    PubMed Central

    McNair, Peter D.; Luft, Harold S.

    2012-01-01

    Background The current Medicare policy of non-payment to hospitals for Hospital-Acquired Conditions (HAC) seeks to avoid payment for preventable complications identified within a single admission. The financial impact ($1 million–$50 million/yr) underestimates the true financial impact of HACs when readmissions are taken into account. Objective Define and quantify acute inpatient readmissions arising directly from, or completing the definition of, the current HACs. Research Design Observational study Subjects All non-federal inpatient admissions to California hospitals, July 2006 to June 2007 with a recorded Social Security number. Measures Readmission to acute care within 1 day for acute complications of poor glycemic control; 7 days for iatrogenic air emboli, incompatible blood transfusions, catheter-associated urinary tract infections and vascular catheter-associated infections; 30 days for deep vein thromboses or pulmonary emboli following hip or knee replacement surgery; and 183 days for foreign objects retained after surgery, mediastinitis following coronary artery bypass grafts, injuries sustained during inpatient care, infections following specific joint or bariatric surgery procedures, and pressure ulcers stages III & IV. Results An additional estimated $103 million in payments would be withheld if Medicare expands the policy to include non-payment for HAC related readmissions. The majority (90%) of this impact involves mediastinitis, post-orthopedic surgery infection, or fall related injury. Conclusions Limiting the current HAC policy focus to complications identified during the index admission omits consideration of many complications only identified in a subsequent admission. Non-payment for HAC-related readmissions would enhance incentives for prevention by increasing the frequency with which hospitals are held accountable for HACs. PMID:24800141

  20. Application of innovative policies for controlling radionuclide releases: The {open_quotes}open-market trading rule{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, D.W.

    1997-08-01

    In the past, most efforts for reducing airborne radio nuclide releases and controlling radioactive wastes have been directed to the development of new and improved technologies. Little attention has been paid to the possible application to these problems of new, innovative policies. Yet, experience in other fields shows that such applications could be beneficial. A prime example is the {open_quotes}open-market trading rule,{close_quotes} now being widely used in the U.S. for the control of a range of environmental problems. Through this rule, nuclear facility operators would be permitted to control airborne emissions in a more cost-effective manner, and those responsible for decommissioning and decontaminating nuclear facilities no longer in operation could do so at far lower costs while generating significantly smaller volumes of radioactive wastes. Application of such a policy would also significantly reduce the demands on existing, and the need for research to develop new, improved, control technologies. 16 refs.

  1. Crossing institutional boundaries: mapping the policy process for improved control of endemic and neglected zoonoses in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Okello, Anna; Welburn, Susan; Smith, James

    2015-07-01

    The recent adoption of the World Health Assembly Resolution 66.12 for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in May 2013 is an important turning point for advocacy regarding a number of endemic zoonotic infections, defined by the World Health Organization as the neglected zoonotic diseases (NZDs). In addition to NTD-listed zoonoses such as rabies, echinococcosis (hydatid disease), leishmaniasis, Human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) and Taenia solium cysticercosis, the NZDs also include important bacterial zoonoses such as anthrax, bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis. To date, analysis of the processes that prioritize, develop and deliver zoonoses control programmes in many low- and middle-income countries is lacking, despite its potential to highlight significant evidence gaps and institutional constraints to the intersectoral approach required for their control. Policy process analysis was conducted via a series of semi-structured interviews with key policy actors within various ministries and institutes in Uganda and Nigeria. The study concluded that despite the rhetoric around 'linear' models of health policy development promoting consultation with a wide range of national stakeholders, the decision-making process for zoonotic disease control appears instead overtly influenced by the external political economy of trending pandemic threats, often overlooking national and regional zoonoses priorities. The inclusion of political systems remains a key factor in the zoonoses analysis matrix, enhancing our understanding of the intersectoral and transdisciplinary approaches required for their control. The authors consider policy process analysis to be a fundamental first step of any attempt to holistically strengthen human and animal health systems in a development context, particularly regarding the promotion of integrated control policies for regionally important zoonoses under the growing One Health movement.

  2. Mexico's "ley de narcomenudeo" drug policy reform and the international drug control regime.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Tim K; Werb, Daniel; Beletsky, Leo; Rangel, Gudelia; Arredondo, Jaime; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2014-11-14

    It has been over half a century since the landmark Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs was adopted, for the first time unifying international drug policy under a single treaty aimed at limiting use, manufacture, trade, possession, and trafficking of opiates, cannabis, and other narcotics. Since then, other international drug policy measures have been adopted, largely emphasizing enforcement-based approaches to reducing drug supply and use. Recently, in response to concerns that the historic focus on criminalization and enforcement has had limited effectiveness, international drug policies have begun to undergo a paradigm shift as countries seek to enact their own reforms to partially depenalize or deregulate personal drug use and possession. This includes Mexico, which in 2009 enacted national drug policy reform partially decriminalizing possession of small quantities of narcotics for personal consumption while also requiring drug treatment for repeat offenders. As countries move forward with their own reform models, critical assessment of their legal compatibility and effectiveness is necessary. In this commentary we conduct a critical assessment of the compatibility of Mexico's reform policy to the international drug policy regime and describe its role in the current evolving drug policy environment. We argue that Mexico's reform is consistent with flexibilities allowed under international drug treaty instruments and related commentaries. We also advocate that drug policy reforms and future governance efforts should be based on empirical evidence, emphasize harm reduction practices, and integrate evidence-based evaluation and implementation of drug reform measures.

  3. Implementing Internationalization Policy in Higher Education Explained by Regulatory Control in Neoliberal Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Dian-Fu

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the internationalization policy and involved evaluating the effects of policy-driven reform on universities in the context of neoliberal theory. In this study, 293 professors from various universities were invited to express their opinions on the selected indicators reflected the implementation of internationalization in…

  4. Translating research into policy: lessons learned from eclampsia treatment and malaria control in three southern African countries

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Little is known about the process of knowledge translation in low- and middle-income countries. We studied policymaking processes in Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe to understand the factors affecting the use of research evidence in national policy development, with a particular focus on the findings from randomized control trials (RCTs). We examined two cases: the use of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) in the treatment of eclampsia in pregnancy (a clinical case); and the use of insecticide treated bed nets and indoor residual household spraying for malaria vector control (a public health case). Methods We used a qualitative case-study methodology to explore the policy making process. We carried out key informants interviews with a range of research and policy stakeholders in each country, reviewed documents and developed timelines of key events. Using an iterative approach, we undertook a thematic analysis of the data. Findings Prior experience of particular interventions, local champions, stakeholders and international networks, and the involvement of researchers in policy development were important in knowledge translation for both case studies. Key differences across the two case studies included the nature of the evidence, with clear evidence of efficacy for MgSO4 and ongoing debate regarding the efficacy of bed nets compared with spraying; local researcher involvement in international evidence production, which was stronger for MgSO4 than for malaria vector control; and a long-standing culture of evidence-based health care within obstetrics. Other differences were the importance of bureaucratic processes for clinical regulatory approval of MgSO4, and regional networks and political interests for malaria control. In contrast to treatment policies for eclampsia, a diverse group of stakeholders with varied interests, differing in their use and interpretation of evidence, was involved in malaria policy decisions in the three countries. Conclusion

  5. New malaria control policies and child mortality in Senegal: reaching Millennium Development Goal 4

    PubMed Central

    Trape, Jean-François; Sauvage, Claire; Ndiaye, Ousmane; Douillot, Laëtitia; Marra, Adama; Diallo, Aldiouma; Cisse, Badara; Greenwood, Brian; Milligan, Paul; Sokhna, Cheikh; Molez, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    Background The Demographic Surveillance System established in 1962 in Niakhar, Senegal, is the oldest in Africa. Here we analyze trends in overall child mortality, malaria and other causes of death in Niakhar from the beginning of data collection up to 2010. Methods Following an initial census, demographic data have been updated yearly from 1963 to 2010. From 1984, causes of death were determined by the verbal autopsy technique. Results During the period 1963-2010, infant and under-5 mortality rates declined from 223‰ to 18‰ and from 485‰ to 41‰, respectively. The decrease was progressive during the whole observation period except during the years 1990 to 2000 when a plateau and then an increase was observed. Malaria attributable mortality in under-5 children dropped from 13.5‰ during the 1992-1999 period to 2.2‰ in 2010. During this period, all-cause mortality in under-5 children declined by 80%. Interpretation Inadequate treatment for chloroquine-resistant malaria and an epidemic of meningitis in the 1990s were the two factors that interrupted a continuous decrease in child mortality. Direct and indirect effects of new malaria control policies, introduced in 2003 and completed in 2006/2008, are likely to have been key cause of the recent dramatic decrease in childhood mortality. PMID:22238469

  6. Strategies to control hepatitis B: Public policy, epidemiology, vaccine and drugs.

    PubMed

    Locarnini, Stephen; Hatzakis, Angelos; Chen, Ding-Shinn; Lok, Anna

    2015-04-01

    The last 50 years of hepatitis B research has resulted in the development of effective screening assays for surveillance, vaccines for prevention and antiviral drugs that significantly improve patient clinical outcomes. Not surprisingly then, the global epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is set to change dramatically over the next decade. For example, the success and the high coverage of universal HBV vaccination and the ageing cohorts of patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) will result in reductions of incidence and prevalence of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and probably hepatocellular carcinoma. This will be further accelerated by the impressive progress in the treatment outcomes for patients with CHB. In spite of this success, challenges remain, such as planning for the impact of migration from countries with high prevalence rates to those countries with low rates of HBV infection. The recent establishment of the World Health Organisation Global Hepatitis Program with the provision of a framework for global action has become the cornerstone for all countries to now frame their own particular national responses to control hepatitis B. An effective policy framework can prevent new infections, ensure people can access clinical care, and in doing so reduce the burden of infection at an individual, country and regional level. These developments present a real opportunity to reduce the significant, social and economic burden of global hepatitis B, ultimately the critical next steps to render the world hepatitis B free.

  7. Ship Compliance in Emission Control Areas: Technology Costs and Policy Instruments.

    PubMed

    Carr, Edward W; Corbett, James J

    2015-08-18

    This paper explores whether a Panama Canal Authority pollution tax could be an effective economic instrument to achieve Emission Control Area (ECA)-like reductions in emissions from ships transiting the Panama Canal. This tariff-based policy action, whereby vessels in compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) ECA standards pay a lower transit tariff than noncompliant vessels, could be a feasible alternative to petitioning for a Panamanian ECA through the IMO. A $4.06/container fuel tax could incentivize ECA-compliant emissions reductions for nearly two-thirds of Panama Canal container vessels, mainly through fuel switching; if the vessel(s) also operate in IMO-defined ECAs, exhaust-gas treatment technologies may be cost-effective. The RATES model presented here compares current abatement technologies based on hours of operation within an ECA, computing costs for a container vessel to comply with ECA standards in addition to computing the Canal tax that would reduce emissions in Panama. Retrofitted open-loop scrubbers are cost-effective only for vessels operating within an ECA for more than 4500 h annually. Fuel switching is the least-cost option to industry for vessels that operate mostly outside of ECA regions, whereas vessels operating entirely within an ECA region could reduce compliance cost with exhaust-gas treatment technology (scrubbers).

  8. Antibiotic prescribing and admissions with major suppurative complications of respiratory tract infections: a data linkage study.

    PubMed Central

    Little, Paul; Watson, Louise; Morgan, Stephen; Williamson, Ian

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews of antibiotic treatment of common acute respiratory tract infections (RTIs) suggest modest symptomatic benefit, but provide limited evidence that prescribing prevents complications. AIM: To assess the relationship between penicillin prescribing (the most commonly used group of antibiotics for RTIs) and hospital admission with complications. DESIGN OF STUDY: Data linkage study. SETTING: Ninety-six health authorities of England for the year 1997-1998. METHOD: Hospital admissions related to RTIs were linked with prescribing analysis and cost (PACT) data. RESULTS: There was close correlation between items of penicillin use and total antibiotic use (r = 0.96). After controlling for SMR, age, sex, and Townsend score, a one-unit increase in penicillin use (items dispensed per capita) was associated with a reduction in annual incidence per 10,000 of admissions for quinsy (-3.55 admissions, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -6.85 to -0.26), and mastoiditis (square root of incidence of admissions = -1.05, 95% CI = -1.82 to -0.27). This does not represent lower referral thresholds among higher prescribers as higher prescribing was associated with more admissions for tonsillectomy and overall admissions. Increasing prescribing by 2000 items of penicillin for a practice of 10,000 patients could possibly prevent one admission for either mastoiditis or quinsy. CONCLUSION: Higher antibiotic prescribing is associated with significantly fewer admissions with major complications. However, the overall size of the effect is modest and it is difficult to advocate an overall increase in prescribing to prevent complications. Future research should concentrate on finding better methods of targeting antibiotics to individuals at risk of poor outcome. PMID:12030660

  9. A call for policy guidance on psychometric testing in doping control in sport.

    PubMed

    Petróczi, Andrea; Backhouse, Susan H; Barkoukis, Vassilis; Brand, Ralf; Elbe, Anne-Marie; Lazuras, Lambros; Lucidi, Fabio

    2015-11-01

    One of the fundamental challenges in anti-doping is identifying athletes who use, or are at risk of using, prohibited performance enhancing substances. The growing trend to employ a forensic approach to doping control aims to integrate information from social sciences (e.g., psychology of doping) into organised intelligence to protect clean sport. Beyond the foreseeable consequences of a positive identification as a doping user, this task is further complicated by the discrepancy between what constitutes a doping offence in the World Anti-Doping Code and operationalized in doping research. Whilst psychology plays an important role in developing our understanding of doping behaviour in order to inform intervention and prevention, its contribution to the array of doping diagnostic tools is still in its infancy. In both research and forensic settings, we must acknowledge that (1) socially desirable responding confounds self-reported psychometric test results and (2) that the cognitive complexity surrounding test performance means that the response-time based measures and the lie detector tests for revealing concealed life-events (e.g., doping use) are prone to produce false or non-interpretable outcomes in field settings. Differences in social-cognitive characteristics of doping behaviour that are tested at group level (doping users vs. non-users) cannot be extrapolated to individuals; nor these psychometric measures used for individual diagnostics. In this paper, we present a position statement calling for policy guidance on appropriate use of psychometric assessments in the pursuit of clean sport. We argue that, to date, both self-reported and response-time based psychometric tests for doping have been designed, tested and validated to explore how athletes feel and think about doping in order to develop a better understanding of doping behaviour, not to establish evidence for doping. A false 'positive' psychological profile for doping affects not only the individual

  10. Assessing Practical Intelligence in Business School Admissions: A Supplement to the Graduate Management Admissions Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedlund, Jennifer; Wilt, Jeanne M.; Nebel, Kristina L.; Ashford, Susan J.; Sternberg, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    The Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) is the most widely used measure of managerial potential in MBA admissions. GMAT scores, although predictive of grades in business school, leave much of the variance in graduate school performance unexplained. The GMAT also produces disparities in test scores between groups, generating the potential for…

  11. Major Research Efforts of the Law School Admission Council. Law School Admission Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Frederick M.; Evans, Franklin R.

    Research conducted by the Law School Admission Council since the development of the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) in 1948 is described. An overview of the research topics is provided, and relevant published reports are cited in 61 footnotes. The following topics of study are discussed: (1) use and validity of traditional predictors of law…

  12. Multiple hospital admissions in a calendar year.

    PubMed

    Newton, J; Goldacre, M

    1993-09-01

    Hospital in-patient workload is routinely measured as episodes of care. We report on the extent to which counts of episodes of care differ from counts of patients treated in different specialties and in different age groups. Linked records of hospital care in a population of 1.9 million people, collected over an 11-year period (1976-1986), were analysed. The all-ages multiple admission ratio (the number of admissions per 100 people admitted in the same specialty and year) varied between specialties from 102 to 171. Medical specialties tended to have higher ratios than surgical ones. The influence of age on multiple admission ratios varied between specialties, although in general the ratios increased with increasing age. There were progressive but small increases in multiple admission ratios over the period studied in a number of specialties but, by and large, stability over time was more striking than any change. The information presented could be used to estimate person-based admission rates from available episode-based data where the former are not available. This should be helpful both in managing hospital resources and in purchasing care on behalf of resident populations. Purchasers in particular should be aware of numbers of people being treated as well as the numbers of episodes of care provided.

  13. Regional differences in Chinese SO2 emission control efficiency and policy implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q. Q.; Wang, Y.; Ma, Q.; Yao, Y.; Xie, Y.; He, K.

    2015-06-01

    SO2 emission control has been one of the most important air pollution policies in China since 2000. In this study, we assess regional differences in SO2 emission control efficiencies in China through the modeling analysis of four scenarios of SO2 emissions, all of which aim to reduce the national total SO2 emissions by 8% or 2.3 Tg below the 2010 emissions level, the target set by the current twelfth Five-Year Plan (FYP; 2011-2015), but differ in spatial implementation. The GEOS-Chem chemical transport model is used to evaluate the efficiency of each scenario on the basis of four impact metrics: surface SO2 and sulfate concentrations, population-weighted sulfate concentration (PWC), and sulfur export flux from China to the western Pacific. The efficiency of SO2 control (β) is defined as the relative change of each impact metric to a 1% reduction in SO2 emissions from the 2010 baseline. The S1 scenario, which adopts a spatially uniform reduction in SO2 emissions in China, gives a β of 0.99, 0.71, 0.83, and 0.67 for SO2 and sulfate concentrations, PWC, and export flux, respectively. By comparison, the S2 scenario, which implements all the SO2 emissions reduction over North China (NC), is found most effective in reducing national mean surface SO2 and sulfate concentrations and sulfur export fluxes, with β being 1.0, 0.76, and 0.95 respectively. The S3 scenario of implementing all the SO2 emission reduction over South China (SC) has the highest β in reducing PWC (β = 0.98) because SC has the highest correlation between population density and sulfate concentration. Reducing SO2 emissions over Southwest China (SWC) is found to be least efficient on the national scale, albeit with large benefits within the region. The difference in β by scenario is attributable to the regional difference in SO2 oxidation pathways and the source-receptor relationship. Among the three regions examined here, NC shows the largest proportion of sulfate formation through gas

  14. Multiple effects and uncertainties of emission control policies in China: Implications for public health, soil acidification, and global temperature.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu; McElroy, Michael B; Xing, Jia; Duan, Lei; Nielsen, Chris P; Lei, Yu; Hao, Jiming

    2011-11-15

    Policies to control emissions of criteria pollutants in China may have conflicting impacts on public health, soil acidification, and climate. Two scenarios for 2020, a base case without anticipated control measures and a more realistic case including such controls, are evaluated to quantify the effects of the policies on emissions and resulting environmental outcomes. Large benefits to public health can be expected from the controls, attributed mainly to reduced emissions of primary PM and gaseous PM precursors, and thus lower ambient concentrations of PM2.5. Approximately 4% of all-cause mortality in the country can be avoided (95% confidence interval: 1-7%), particularly in eastern and north-central China, regions with large population densities and high levels of PM2.5. Surface ozone levels, however, are estimated to increase in parts of those regions, despite NOX reductions. This implies VOC-limited conditions. Even with significant reduction of SO2 and NOX emissions, the controls will not significantly mitigate risks of soil acidification, judged by the exceedance levels of critical load (CL). This is due to the decrease in primary PM emissions, with the consequent reduction in deposition of alkaline base cations. Compared to 2005, even larger CL exceedances are found for both scenarios in 2020, implying that PM control may negate any recovery from soil acidification due to SO2 reductions. Noting large uncertainties, current polices to control emissions of criteria pollutants in China will not reduce climate warming, since controlling SO2 emissions also reduces reflective secondary aerosols. Black carbon emission is an important source of uncertainty concerning the effects of Chinese control policies on global temperature change. Given these conflicts, greater consideration should be paid to reconciling varied environmental objectives, and emission control strategies should target not only criteria pollutants but also species such as VOCs and CO2.

  15. Revisiting sub-Saharan African countries' drug problems: health, social, economic costs, and drug control policy.

    PubMed

    Affinnih, Yahya H

    2002-02-01

    This article takes an international perspective on the drug problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This analysis borrows ideas from physical and economic geography as a heuristic device to conceptualize the global narcoscapes in which drug trafficking occurs. Both the legitimate and the illegal drug trade operate within the same global capitalist system and draw on the same technological innovations and business processes. Central to the paper's argument is evidence that sub-Saharan African countries are now integrated into the political economy of drug consumption due to the spill-over effect. These countries are now minor markets for "hard drugs" as the result of the activities of organizations and individual traffickers that use Africa as a staging point in their trade with Europe and the United States. As a result, sub-Saharan African countries have drug consumption problems that were essentially absent prior to 1980, along with associated health, social, and economic costs. The emerging drug problem has forced African countries to develop their own drug control policy. The sub-Saharan African countries mentioned below vary to some extent in the level of drug use and misuse problems: Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Reunion, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Congo (Zaire), Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo. As part of this effort, African countries are assessing the health, social, and economic costs of drug-use-related problems to pinpoint methods which are both effective and inexpensive, since their budgets for social programs are severely constrained. Many have progressed to the point of adopting anti

  16. [Medical examination prior to trade school admission].

    PubMed

    Hursidić-Radulović, Azra; Decković-Vukres, Vlasta

    2005-01-01

    Regulation on medical examination prior to apprenticeship is built in the Act on Trades and Crafts. Medical examinations of the students before admission to secondary craft schools have been done regularly since 1993. Between 11,000 and 14,000 students are admitted to secondary craft schools in the Republic of Croatia annually. According to statistics, about 10% of students have obvious health problems, about 5% of students have healt problems which vitally limit their capacity in particular crafts. This statistic refers to about 3% of the examined students. Medical examinations of students prior to admission to craft schools represent a particular sort of health capacity examinations. The paper includes applications for the most freqent trades and crafts, and findings of the craft school admission examinations.

  17. [Involuntary admission of addict during early pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Hondius, Adger J K; Stikker, Tineke E; Wennink, J M B Hanneke; Honig, Adriaan

    2012-01-01

    A 30-year-old cocaine-dependent woman was 16 weeks pregnant. Because of possible endangerment of the fetus, an involuntary provisional admission was authorized. Of particular interest is the application of the Dutch Act on Formal Admissions to Psychiatric Hospitals for the primary diagnosis 'addiction' and the fact that the fetus was regarded as a legal 'other'. In severe cases of addiction combined with pregnancy an earlier intervention is needed and arrangement of accelerated legal custody of the newborn before birth should be considered. For the protection of the unborn, we advocate a stricter application of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. Information for addicted women with preconception counselling can help prevent a compulsory admission.

  18. Gauging the Effect of U.S. Tobacco Control Policies From 1965 Through 2014 Using SimSmoke

    PubMed Central

    Levy, David T.; Meza, Rafael; Zhang, Yian; Holford, Theodore R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The year 2014 marked the 50th Anniversary of the first Surgeon General’s Report. This paper estimates the effect of tobacco control policies in the U.S. after the 1964 Report using the SimSmoke tobacco control simulation model. Methods SimSmoke uses National Health Interview Survey data from 1965 through 2012 on smoking prevalence, initiation, and -cessation rates, and incorporates policies implemented since 1965. The model projects smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths (SADs) from 1965 through 2065 and is validated against National Health Interview Survey data. Counterfactual scenarios with policies constant since 1965 and with individual policies are estimated. Analysis was conducted in February 2014. Results SimSmoke generally validated well over the time period 1965 through 2012. As a result of all policies, smoking prevalence is estimated to have fallen by almost 55% by 2014 with a total of 2 million SADs s averted from 1965 through 2014, increasing to 20.1 million SADs by 2065. The Fairness Doctrine is estimated to have reduced adult smoking prevalence by about 24% by 2014 and averted 10.4 million SADs by 2065, while price increases reduced smoking prevalence by 24% by 2014 and averted 7.3 million SADs by 2065. Smoke-free air laws, cessation treatment, and tobacco control spending individually reduced smoking rates by 3%–5.5% by 2014. Conclusions By 2014, SimSmoke predicts a 53% reduction in smoking rates and almost 2 million SADs averted due to polices implemented since the 1964 Surgeon General’s Report, with most of the health benefit still to occur in future years. PMID:26673484

  19. Survey of Infection Control Policies within Dental/Educational Patient Treatment Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickey, Keith Winfield

    1986-01-01

    The article describes a survey of 36 dental education programs to identify educators' reactive policies and procedures in their patient treatment centers to minimize dental contamination and cross-contamination. (Author/CT)

  20. Do health checks for adults with intellectual disability reduce emergency hospital admissions? Evaluation of a natural experiment

    PubMed Central

    Hosking, Fay J; Harris, Tess; DeWilde, Stephen; Beighton, Carole; Shah, Sunil M; Cook, Derek G

    2017-01-01

    Background Annual health checks for adults with intellectual disability (ID) have been incentivised by National Health Service (NHS) England since 2009, but it is unclear what impact they have had on important health outcomes such as emergency hospitalisation. Methods An evaluation of a ‘natural experiment’, incorporating practice and individual-level designs, to assess the effectiveness of health checks for adults with ID in reducing emergency hospital admissions using a large English primary care database. For practices, changes in admission rates for adults with ID between 2009–2010 and 2011–2012 were compared in 126 fully participating versus 68 non-participating practices. For individuals, changes in admission rates before and after the first health check for 7487 adults with ID were compared with 46 408 age-sex-practice matched controls. Incident rate ratios (IRRs) comparing changes in admission rates are presented for: all emergency, preventable emergency (for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs)) and elective emergency. Results Practices with high health check participation showed no change in emergency admission rate among patients with ID over time compared with non-participating practices (IRR=0.97, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.19), but emergency admissions for ACSCs did fall (IRR=0.74, 0.58 to 0.95). Among individuals with ID, health checks had no effect on overall emergency admissions compared with controls (IRR=0.96, 0.87 to 1.07), although there was a relative reduction in emergency admissions for ACSCs (IRR=0.82, 0.69 to 0.99). Elective admissions showed no change with health checks in either analysis. Conclusions Annual health checks in primary care for adults with ID did not alter overall emergency admissions, but they appeared influential in reducing preventable emergency admissions. PMID:27312249

  1. Composable Distributed Access Control and Integrity Policies for Query-Based Wireless Sensor Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    multiple WSN policies. The construction, hybridization, and composition of well–known models is demonstrated to preserve security, sustaining...confidentiality in Bell–LaPadula’s model , integrity in Biba’s strict integrity model , and conflict of interest avoidance in the Chinese Wall. Using WASL, a multi...as defined by the security model . It is also be more flexible in that a policy file update is all that is required to modify the accesses permitted

  2. Does a home treatment acute relapse prevention strategy reduce admissions for people with mania in bipolar affective disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Murton, Claudia; Cooper, Michael; Dinniss, Stephen; Roberts, Shon; Booth, Nicola; Newell, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Aims and method To assess whether a home treatment team acute relapse prevention (ARP) strategy reduces admissions to hospital with mania. A retrospective design was used to analyse records for manic admissions since 2002. The number and length of admissions and detentions pre- and post-ARP were determined and rates of admissions and detentions calculated from this. Results We found reductions in admission and detention rates following the introduction of the ARP: 0.3 fewer admissions per person per year (95% bootstrap CI 0.09–0.62) and 0.25 fewer detentions per person per year (95% bootstrap CI 0.0–0.48). Wilcoxon signed-rank tests gave P<0.0001. Clinical implications A person-centred care plan such as the ARP which enables quick action in response to relapse-warning signs of mania appears to reduce rates of admission to hospital. The ARP could be used anywhere in the UK and fits with current mental health policy. PMID:25505627

  3. Diagnostic Assessment of the Difficulty Using Direct Policy Search in Many-Objective Reservoir Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zatarain-Salazar, J.; Reed, P. M.; Herman, J. D.; Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.

    2014-12-01

    Globally reservoir operations provide fundamental services to water supply, energy generation, recreation, and ecosystems. The pressures of expanding populations, climate change, and increased energy demands are motivating a significant investment in re-operationalizing existing reservoirs or defining operations for new reservoirs. Recent work has highlighted the potential benefits of exploiting recent advances in many-objective optimization and direct policy search (DPS) to aid in addressing these systems' multi-sector demand tradeoffs. This study contributes to a comprehensive diagnostic assessment of multi-objective evolutionary optimization algorithms (MOEAs) efficiency, effectiveness, reliability, and controllability when supporting DPS for the Conowingo dam in the Lower Susquehanna River Basin. The Lower Susquehanna River is an interstate water body that has been subject to intensive water management efforts due to the system's competing demands from urban water supply, atomic power plant cooling, hydropower production, and federally regulated environmental flows. Seven benchmark and state-of-the-art MOEAs are tested on deterministic and stochastic instances of the Susquehanna test case. In the deterministic formulation, the operating objectives are evaluated over the historical realization of the hydroclimatic variables (i.e., inflows and evaporation rates). In the stochastic formulation, the same objectives are instead evaluated over an ensemble of stochastic inflows and evaporation rates realizations. The algorithms are evaluated in their ability to support DPS in discovering reservoir operations that compose the tradeoffs for six multi-sector performance objectives with thirty-two decision variables. Our diagnostic results highlight that many-objective DPS is very challenging for modern MOEAs and that epsilon dominance is critical for attaining high levels of performance. Epsilon dominance algorithms epsilon-MOEA, epsilon-NSGAII and the auto adaptive Borg

  4. Effect of Tobacco Control Policies on Information Seeking for Smoking Cessation in the Netherlands: A Google Trends Study

    PubMed Central

    Troelstra, Sigrid A.; Bosdriesz, Jizzo R.; de Boer, Michiel R.; Kunst, Anton E.

    2016-01-01

    Background The impact of tobacco control policies on measures of smoking cessation behaviour has often been studied, yet there is little information on their precise magnitude and duration. This study aims to measure the magnitude and timing of the impact of Dutch tobacco control policies on the rate of searching for information on smoking cessation, using Google Trends search query data. Methods An interrupted time series analysis was used to examine the effect of two types of policies (smoke-free legislation and reimbursement of smoking cessation support (SCS)) on Google searches for ‘quit smoking’. Google Trends data were seasonally adjusted and analysed using autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) modelling. Multiple effect periods were modelled as dummy variables and analysed simultaneously to examine the magnitude and duration of the effect of each intervention. The same analysis was repeated with Belgian search query data as a control group, since Belgium is the country most comparable to the Netherlands in terms of geography, language, history and culture. Results A significant increase in relative search volume (RSV) was found from one to four weeks (21–41%) after the introduction of the smoking ban in restaurants and bars in the Netherlands in 2008. The introduction of SCS reimbursement in 2011 was associated with a significant increase of RSV (16–22%) in the Netherlands after 3 to 52 weeks. The reintroduction of SCS in 2013 was associated with a significant increase of RSV (9–21%) in the Netherlands from 3 to 32 weeks after the intervention. No effects were found in the Belgian control group for the smoking ban and the reintroduction of SCS in 2013, but there was a significant increase in RSV shortly before and after the introduction of SCS in 2011. Conclusions These findings suggest that these tobacco control policies have short-term or medium-term effects on the rate of searching for information on smoking cessation, and therefore

  5. Escape and evade control policies for ensuring the physical security of nonholonomic, ground-based, unattended mobile sensor nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascarenas, David; Stull, Christopher; Farrar, Charles

    2011-06-01

    In order to realize the wide-scale deployment of high-endurance, unattended mobile sensing technologies, it is vital to ensure the self-preservation of the sensing assets. Deployed mobile sensor nodes face a variety of physical security threats including theft, vandalism and physical damage. Unattended mobile sensor nodes must be able to respond to these threats with control policies that facilitate escape and evasion to a low-risk state. In this work the Precision Immobilization Technique (PIT) problem has been considered. The PIT maneuver is a technique that a pursuing, car-like vehicle can use to force a fleeing vehicle to abruptly turn ninety degrees to the direction of travel. The abrupt change in direction generally causes the fleeing driver to lose control and stop. The PIT maneuver was originally developed by law enforcement to end vehicular pursuits in a manner that minimizes damage to the persons and property involved. It is easy to imagine that unattended autonomous convoys could be targets of this type of action by adversarial agents. This effort focused on developing control policies unattended mobile sensor nodes could employ to escape, evade and recover from PIT-maneuver-like attacks. The development of these control policies involved both simulation as well as small-scale experimental testing. The goal of this work is to be a step toward ensuring the physical security of unattended sensor node assets.

  6. State preemption of local tobacco control policies restricting smoking, advertising, and youth access--United States, 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    2011-08-26

    Preemptive state tobacco control legislation prohibits localities from enacting tobacco control laws that are more stringent than state law. State preemption provisions can preclude any type of local tobacco control policy. The three broad types of state preemption tracked by CDC include preemption of local policies that restrict 1) smoking in workplaces and public places, 2) tobacco advertising, and 3) youth access to tobacco products. A Healthy People 2020 objective (TU-16) calls for eliminating state laws that preempt any type of local tobacco control law. A previous study reported that the number of states that preempt local smoking restrictions in one or more of three settings (government worksites, private-sector worksites, and restaurants) has decreased substantially in recent years. To measure progress toward achieving Healthy People 2020 objectives, this study expands on the previous analysis to track changes in state laws that preempt local advertising and youth access restrictions and to examine policy changes from December 31, 2000, to December 31, 2010. This new analysis found that, in contrast with the substantial progress achieved during the past decade in reducing the number of states that preempt local smoking restrictions, no progress has been made in reducing the number of states that preempt local advertising restrictions and youth access restrictions. Increased progress in removing state preemption provisions will be needed to achieve the relevant Healthy People 2020 objective.

  7. Guidelines for Communicable Disease Control Policies in Montana Schools: A Guide and Model Policy for Communicable Diseases Including HIV Infected Students and Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Dept. of Public Instruction, Helena.

    This guide was developed to help local school districts review existing policies or establish new policies to address communicable diseases. Based on current scientific and medical information about the safety in allowing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected students and staff to remain at school, it contains a suggested policy for local…

  8. Controlling equine influenza: policy networks and decision-making during the 2007 Australian equine influenza outbreak.

    PubMed

    Schemann, K; Gillespie, J A; Toribio, J-A L M L; Ward, M P; Dhand, N K

    2014-10-01

    Rapid, evidence-based decision-making is critical during a disease outbreak response; however, compliance by stakeholders is necessary to ensure that such decisions are effective - especially if the response depends on voluntary action. This mixed method study evaluated technical policy decision-making processes during the 2007 outbreak of equine influenza in Australia by identifying and analysing the stakeholder network involved and the factors driving policy decision-making. The study started with a review of the outbreak literature and published policy documents. This identified six policy issues regarding policy modifications or differing interpretations by different state agencies. Data on factors influencing the decision-making process for these six issues and on stakeholder interaction were collected using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 24 individuals representing 12 industry and government organizations. Quantitative data were analysed using social network analysis. Qualitative data were coded and patterns matched to test a pre-determined general theory using a method called theory-oriented process-tracing. Results revealed that technical policy decisions were framed by social, political, financial, strategic and operational considerations. Industry stakeholders had influence through formal pre-existing channels, yet specific gaps in stakeholder interaction were overcome by reactive alliances formed during the outbreak response but outside the established system. Overall, the crisis management system and response were seen as positive, and 75-100% of individuals interviewed were supportive of, had interest in and considered the outcome as good for the majority of policy decisions, yet only 46-75% of those interviewed considered that they had influence on these decisions. Training to increase awareness and knowledge of emergency animal diseases (EADs) and response systems will improve stakeholder

  9. A content analysis of tobacco control policy in the U.S. Department of Defense.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Kevin M; Poston, Walker S C; Jitnarin, Nattinee; Jahnke, Sara A; Hughey, Joseph; Lando, Harry A; Williams, Larry N; Haddock, Keith

    2011-08-01

    We conducted a content analysis of the US military tobacco policies at the Department of Defense, each respective military service (Army, Air Force, Navy, and Marine Corps), and their Major Commands (MAJCOM). Ninety-seven policies were evaluated using the Military Tobacco Policy Rating Form (MTPRF). More than three quarters addressed the following domains: (1) deleterious health effects of tobacco use; (2) environmental tobacco smoke; (3) designation of smoking areas; (4) tobacco prevention/cessation programs; and (5) smokeless tobacco. Few policies (2.1 per cent) mentioned relevant Department of Defense and respective service tobacco use prevalence statistics. Smoking as non-normative or incompatible with military service, the impact of tobacco use on military readiness, and the tobacco industry were addressed infrequently (6.2 per cent, 33.0 per cent, and 8.2 per cent, respectively). Future military tobacco policies should address important omissions of critical information such as the current service tobacco use prevalence, effects on readiness, and smoking as non-normative.

  10. The National Center Test for University Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watanabe, Yoshinori

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the National Center Test for University Admissions, a unified national test in Japan, which is taken by 500,000 students every year. It states that implementation of the Center Test began in 1990, with the English component consisting only of the written section until 2005, when the listening section was first implemented…

  11. 34 CFR 106.15 - Admissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... higher education, and public institutions of undergraduate higher education. (e) Public institutions of undergraduate higher education. Subpart C does not apply to any public institution of undergraduate higher... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Admissions. 106.15 Section 106.15 Education...

  12. 34 CFR 106.15 - Admissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... higher education, and public institutions of undergraduate higher education. (e) Public institutions of undergraduate higher education. Subpart C does not apply to any public institution of undergraduate higher... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Admissions. 106.15 Section 106.15 Education...

  13. 34 CFR 106.15 - Admissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... higher education, and public institutions of undergraduate higher education. (e) Public institutions of undergraduate higher education. Subpart C does not apply to any public institution of undergraduate higher... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Admissions. 106.15 Section 106.15 Education...

  14. 34 CFR 106.15 - Admissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... higher education, and public institutions of undergraduate higher education. (e) Public institutions of undergraduate higher education. Subpart C does not apply to any public institution of undergraduate higher... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Admissions. 106.15 Section 106.15 Education...

  15. 34 CFR 106.15 - Admissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... higher education, and public institutions of undergraduate higher education. (e) Public institutions of undergraduate higher education. Subpart C does not apply to any public institution of undergraduate higher... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Admissions. 106.15 Section 106.15 Education...

  16. PREP: Outreach to Online Learners through Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupton, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Librarians have collaborated with academic departments within their institutions for decades now, working with professors and administrators to bring information literacy skills to students. The librarians at National American University decided to extend this collaboration to a non-academic unit, the admissions department of the university. The…

  17. 18 CFR 1317.220 - Admissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Admissions. 1317.220 Section 1317.220 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE...

  18. 18 CFR 1317.220 - Admissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Admissions. 1317.220 Section 1317.220 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE...

  19. 18 CFR 1317.220 - Admissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Admissions. 1317.220 Section 1317.220 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE...

  20. Open Admissions: The Pros and Cons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barzun, Jacques; And Others

    The Council for Basic Education sponsored an all-day symposium on open admissions in 1971. This booklet contains the full text of the addresses given on that occasion, as well as the major part of the discussion among the panelists and answers to questions from the audience. The aim of the symposium was not only to provide information about…