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Sample records for admission glasgow coma

  1. Revisiting the eye opening response of the Glasgow Coma Scale.

    PubMed

    Rabiu, Taopheeq Bamidele

    2011-01-01

    The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), introduced by Teasdale and Jenneth in 1974, has received tremendous acclaim from clinicians and has been extensively used in clinical practice for the evaluation of the level of consciousness. The author notes that some traumatic brain injury patients close eyes in response to painful stimuli as opposed to the eye opening response to pain of the GCS. A revision of the eye opening response subsection of the GCS is suggested. PMID:21633551

  2. Evidence-based improvement of the National Trauma Triage Protocol: The Glasgow Coma Scale versus Glasgow Coma Scale motor subscale

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Joshua B.; Forsythe, Raquel M.; Stassen, Nicole A.; Peitzman, Andrew B.; Billiar, Timothy R.; Sperry, Jason L.; Gestring, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Ideal triage uses simple criteria to identify severely injured patients. Glasgow Coma Scale motor (GCSm) may be easier for field use and was considered for the National Trauma Triage Protocol (NTTP). This study evaluated performance of the NTTP if GCSm is substituted for the current GCS score ≤ 13 criterion. METHODS Subjects in the National Trauma Data Bank undergoing scene transport were included. Presence of NTTP physiologic (Step 1) and anatomic (Step 2) criteria was determined. GCSm score ≤ 5 was defined as a positive criterion. Trauma center need (TCN) was defined as Injury Severity Score (ISS) > 15, intensive care unit admission, urgent operation, or emergency department death. Test characteristics were calculated to predict TCN. Area under the curve was compared between GCSm and GCS scores, individually and within the NTTP. Logistic regression was used to determine the association of GCSm score ≤ 5 and GCS score ≤ 13 with TCN after adjusting for other triage criteria. Predicted versus actual TCN was compared. RESULTS There were 811,143 subjects. Sensitivity was lower (26.7% vs. 30.3%), specificity was higher (95.1% vs. 93.1%), and accuracy was similar (66.1% vs. 66.3%) for GCSm score ≤ 5 compared with GCS score ≤ 13. Incorporated into the NTTP Steps 1 + 2, GCSm score ≤ 5 traded sensitivity (60.4% vs. 62.1%) for specificity (67.1% vs. 65.7%) with similar accuracy (64.2% vs. 64.2%) to GCS score ≤ 13. There was no difference in the area under the curve between GCSm score ≤ 5 and GCS score ≤ 13 when incorporated into the NTTP Steps 1 + 2 (p = 0.10). GCSm score ≤ 5 had a stronger association with TCN (odds ratio, 3.37; 95% confidence interval, 3.27–3.48; p < 0.01) than GCS score ≤ 13 (odds ratio, 3.03; 95% confidence interval, 2.94–3.13; p < 0.01). GCSm had a better fit of predicted versus actual TCN than GCS at the lower end of the scales. CONCLUSION GCSm score ≤ 5 increases specificity at the expense of sensitivity

  3. Aspects of neurosurgical assessment using the Glasgow Coma Scale.

    PubMed

    Ellis, A; Cavanagh, S J

    1992-06-01

    The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) has become a cornerstone of the neurological/surgical assessment of patients used by both nursing and medical staff. Since its development in the 1970s it has been used in a variety of clinical situations to monitor changes in a number of key neurological functions, including level of consciousness, pupil reaction and limb movement. During this time, however, there have been suggestions that there are problems with some of the measurement principles underlying its use, which in part has stimulated the development of other neuro-assessment tools. Irrespective of measurement device, there is always the possibility of error or incorrect assessment. In the field of neurosurgery, as with other high dependency environments, a patient's condition can change rapidly. Additionally, there is the association of certain assessment responses with nursing and medical interventions. Thus, accuracy in all aspects of assessment and recording is paramount. Despite the growing body of literature surrounding the GCS, little is known about the pattern of errors made by nursing staff using the GCS to assess neurosurgical patients. This study compared the assessment findings of Registered General Nurses (RGNs), Enrolled Nurses and Student Nurses after viewing videotaped neuro-assessments of patients in a high dependency unit. The criterion for judging the accuracy of subject's assessments was established by a panel of experts. As expected, RGNs had the highest proportion of correct assessments and students the least. Subjects were identified as having difficulty in determining the relative amounts of weakness that a patient exhibited, and in correctly distinguishing between flexion and extension. PMID:1611292

  4. Predicting Outcome in Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning with a Poison Severity Score or the Glasgow Coma Scale

    PubMed Central

    Davies, James O. J.; Eddleston, Michael; Buckley, Nick A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Organophosphorus pesticide poisoning kills around 200,000 people each year, principally due to self poisoning in the Asia-Pacific region. Aim: We wished to assess whether patients at high risk of death could be identified accurately using clinical parameters soon after hospital admission. Design: We evaluated the usefulness of the International Program on Chemical Safety Poison Severity Score (IPCS PSS) and the Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) prospectively for predicting death in patients poisoned by organophosphorus pesticides. Methods: Data were collected as part of a multicentre cohort study in Sri Lanka. Study doctors saw all patients on admission, collecting data on pulse, blood pressure, pupil size, need for intubation, and GCS. Results: 1365 patients with a history of acute organophosphorus poisoning were included. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated for the IPCS PSS and GCS on admission. The IPCS PSS and GCS had similar ROC area under the curves (AUC) and best cut points as determined by Youden's index (AUC/sensitivity/specificity 0.81/0.78/0.79 for IPCS PSS ≥ grade 2 and 0.84/0.79/0.79 for GCS ≤13). The predictive value varied with the pesticide ingested, being more accurate for dimethoate poisoning and less accurate for fenthion poisoning (GCS AUC 0.91 compared to 0.69). Conclusions: GCS and the IPCS PSS were similarly effective at predicting outcome. Patients presenting with a GCS ≤ 13 need intensive monitoring and treatment. However, the identity of the organophosphate must be taken into account since the half of all patients who died from fenthion poisoning only had mild symptoms at presentation. PMID:18319295

  5. Gait and Glasgow Coma Scale scores can predict functional recovery in patients with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, Sevil; Guclu-Gunduz, Arzu; Oruckaptan, Hakan; Kose, Nezire; Celik, Bülent

    2012-09-01

    Fifty-one patients with mild (n = 14), moderate (n = 10) and severe traumatic brain injury (n = 27) received early rehabilitation. Level of consciousness was evaluated using the Glasgow Coma Score. Functional level was determined using the Glasgow Outcome Score, whilst mobility was evaluated using the Mobility Scale for Acute Stroke. Activities of daily living were assessed using the Barthel Index. Following Bobath neurodevelopmental therapy, the level of consciousness was significantly improved in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury, but was not greatly influenced in patients with mild traumatic brain injury. Mobility and functional level were significantly improved in patients with mild, moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Gait recovery was more obvious in patients with mild traumatic brain injury than in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Activities of daily living showed an improvement but this was insignificant except for patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Nevertheless, complete recovery was not acquired at discharge. Multiple regression analysis showed that gait and Glasgow Coma Scale scores can be considered predictors of functional outcomes following traumatic brain injury. PMID:25624828

  6. Representing the Glasgow Coma Scale in IT: Proper Specification is Required for Assessment Scales.

    PubMed

    Goossen, William; Oemig, Frank

    2014-01-01

    In healthcare a huge amount of assessment scales and score systems are in use to abbreviate and summarize the results of clinical observations to interpret a patient's condition in a valid and reliable manner. It is challenging to convey the information in a semantic interoperable form to other systems. A bad approach would be to invent individual models for each of them. Within this paper we would like to demonstrate that a generic model is sufficient by demonstrating the realization with the Glasgow Coma Scale. PMID:24851961

  7. Which score should be used in intubated patients’ Glasgow coma scale or full outline of unresponsiveness?

    PubMed Central

    Gorji, Mohammad Ali Heidari; Gorji, Ali Morad Heidari; Hosseini, Seyed Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Today Glasgow coma scale (GCS) is the most well-known and common score for evaluation of the level of consciousness and outcome predict after traumatic brain injuries in the world. Regarding to some advantages of the full outline of unresponsiveness (FOUR) score over GCS in intubated patients, we’re going to compare the precision of these two scores in predicting the outcome predict in intubated patients. Methods: This research was a diagnostic-based study, which was conducted prospectively on 80 patients with Traumatic brain injury who were intubated and admitted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of Educational Hospitals of Mazandaran University of Medical Science during February 2013 to August 2013. The scores of FOUR and GCS were measured by the researcher in the first 24 h of admission in ICU. The information's recorded in the check list including the mortality rate of early and late inside of the hospital interred to excel. The findings were analyzed using SPSS software, through descriptive statistics and regression logistic. Results: The results showed of 80 patients 21 patients (20%) were female and 59 patients (80%) were male. The age average of the samples was 33.80 ± 12.60 ranging from 16 to 60 years old. 21 patients (26.2%) died during treatment. Of 21 patients, 15 patients died during first 14 days (18.7%) and 6 patients died after 14 years (7.5%). The area under curve (AUC) of FOUR score in early mortality was 0.90 (C1 = 0.95, 0.88–0.90). The amount AUC for GCS was 0.80 (C1 = 0.95, 0.78–0.84), which in delayed mortality it was ordered as 0.86 (C1 = 0.95, 0.84–0.90) and 0.89 (C1 = 0.95, 0.78–0.88). Conclusion: The research results indicated that FOUR score is more exact and more practical in intubated patients regarding lack of verbal response factor in early mortality prediction in GCS. Hence, it is recommended for health professionals to use the FOUR score to predict the early outcome of intubated patients with traumatic

  8. Assessment of nurse’s knowledge about Glasgow coma scale at a university hospital

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Wesley Cajaíba; Vancini-Campanharo, Cássia Regina; Lopes, Maria Carolina Barbosa Teixeira; Okuno, Meiry Fernanda Pinto; Batista, Ruth Ester Assayag

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To assess knowledge of nurses of emergency services and intensive care units about Glasgow Coma Scale. Methods This cross-sectional analytical study included 127 nurses of critical units of an university hospital. We used structured interview with 12 questions to evaluate their knowledge about the scale. Association of Knowledge with professionals’ sociodemographic variables were verified by the Fisher-test, χ2 and likelihood ratio. Results Most of participants were women mean aged 31.1 years, they had graduated more than 5 years previously, and had 1 to 3 years of work experience. In the assessment of best score possible for Glasgow scale (question 3) nurses who had graduate more than 5 years ago presented a lower percentage success rate (p=0.0476). However, in the question 7, which evaluated what interval of the scale indicated moderate severity of brain trauma injury, those with more years of experience had higher percentage of correct answers (p=0.0251). In addition, nurses from emergency service had more correct answers than nurses from intensive care unit (p=0.0143) in the same question. Nurses graduated for more than 5 years ago had a lower percentage of correct answers in question 7 (p=0.0161). Nurses with more work experience had a better score (p=0.0119) to identify how assessment of motor response should be started. Conclusion Number of year since graduation, experience, and work at critical care units interfered in nurses’ knowledge about the scale, which indicates the need of training. PMID:27462896

  9. A review of the predictive ability of Glasgow Coma Scale scores in head-injured patients.

    PubMed

    McNett, Molly

    2007-04-01

    According to 1999 data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, traumatic brain injuries (TBI) caused by motor vehicle accidents, firearms, and falls are recorded as a leading cause of death and lifelong disability for young adults in the United States. Researchers have investigated if correlations exist between variables in the acute stage of injury and outcome measures in TBI patients. The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score is one variable that was extensively studied for its ability to predict outcome in TBI patients. However, the use of different designs and methodologies in these studies makes the interpretation of the cumulative findings difficult. Therefore the purpose of this review was to provide a summary of the research findings on the ability of the GCS scores to predict outcome in TBI patients. A search was done on MEDLINE and CINAHL to identify studies that investigated the predictive ability of the GCS score. Studies that used the GCS as a variable in predicting outcome with adult patients who had sustained some type of head injury were included. GCS scores are most accurate at predicting outcome in head-injured patients when they are combined with patient age and pupillary response and when broad outcome categories are used. The motor component of the GCS yields similar prediction rates as the summed GCS score, and better prediction occurs with very high or very low GCS scores. Information about the cumulative research findings on the predictive ability of GCS scores aids nurses in providing support and education to family members during the acute stage of injury, and in coordinating the services of members of the healthcare team, which could result in improved outcomes for both patient and family. PMID:17477220

  10. Glasgow Coma Scale and Outcomes after Structural Traumatic Head Injury in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Heather, Natasha L.; Derraik, José G. B.; Beca, John; Hofman, Paul L.; Dansey, Rangi; Hamill, James; Cutfield, Wayne S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the association of the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) with radiological evidence of head injury (the Abbreviated Injury Scale for the head region, AIS-HR) in young children hospitalized with traumatic head injury (THI), and the predictive value of GCS and AIS-HR scores for long-term impairment. Methods Our study involved a 10-year retrospective review of a database encompassing all patients admitted to Starship Children’s Hospital (Auckland, New Zealand, 2000–2010) with THI. Results We studied 619 children aged <5 years at the time of THI, with long-term outcome data available for 161 subjects. Both GCS and AIS-HR scores were predictive of length of intensive care unit and hospital stay (all p<0.001). GCS was correlated with AIS-HR (ρ=-0.46; p<0.001), although mild GCS scores (13–15) commonly under-estimated the severity of radiological injury: 42% of children with mild GCS scores had serious–critical THI (AIS-HR 3–5). Increasingly severe GCS or AIS-HR scores were both associated with a greater likelihood of long-term impairment (neurological disability, residual problems, and educational support). However, long-term impairment was also relatively common in children with mild GCS scores paired with structural THI more severe than a simple linear skull fracture. Conclusion Severe GCS scores will identify most cases of severe radiological injury in early childhood, and are good predictors of poor long-term outcome. However, young children admitted to hospital with structural THI and mild GCS scores have an appreciable risk of long-term disability, and also warrant long-term follow-up. PMID:24312648

  11. Revised trauma scoring system to predict in-hospital mortality in the emergency department: Glasgow Coma Scale, Age, and Systolic Blood Pressure score

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Our aim in this study was to assess whether the new Glasgow Coma Scale, Age, and Systolic Blood Pressure (GAP) scoring system, which is a modification of the Mechanism, Glasgow Coma Scale, Age, and Arterial Pressure (MGAP) scoring system, better predicts in-hospital mortality and can be applied more easily than previous trauma scores among trauma patients in the emergency department (ED). Methods This multicenter, prospective, observational study was conducted to analyze readily available variables in the ED, which are associated with mortality rates among trauma patients. The data used in this study were derived from the Japan Trauma Data Bank (JTDB), which consists of 114 major emergency hospitals in Japan. A total of 35,732 trauma patients in the JTDB from 2004 to 2009 who were 15 years of age or older were eligible for inclusion in the study. Of these patients, 27,154 (76%) with complete sets of important data (patient age, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, systolic blood pressure (SBP), respiratory rate and Injury Severity Score (ISS)) were included in our analysis. We calculated weight for the predictors of the GAP scores on the basis of the records of 13,463 trauma patients in a derivation data set determined by using logistic regression. Scores derived from four existing scoring systems (Revised Trauma Score, Triage Revised Trauma Score, Trauma and Injury Severity Score and MGAP score) were calibrated using logistic regression models that fit in the derivation set. The GAP scoring system was compared to the calibrated scoring systems with data from a total of 13,691 patients in a validation data set using c-statistics and reclassification tables with three defined risk groups based on a previous publication: low risk (mortality < 5%), intermediate risk, and high risk (mortality > 50%). Results Calculated GAP scores involved GCS score (from three to fifteen points), patient age < 60 years (three points) and SBP (> 120 mmHg, six points; 60 to 120

  12. Comparison of outcome predictions by the Glasgow coma scale and the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score in the neurological and neurosurgical patients in the Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Khanal, Kishor; Bhandari, Sanjeeb Sudarshan; Shrestha, Ninadini; Acharya, Subhash Prasad; Marhatta, Moda Nath

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of level of consciousness is very important in predicting patient's outcome from neurological illness. Glasgow coma scale (GCS) is the most commonly used scale, and Full Outline of UnResponsiveness (FOUR) score is also recently validated as an alternative to GCS in the evaluation of the level of consciousness. We carried out a prospective study in 97 patients aged above 16 years. We measured GCS and FOUR score within 24 h of Intensive Care Unit admission. The mean GCS and the FOUR scores were lower among nonsurvivors than among the survivors and were statistically significant (P < 0.001). Discrimination for GCS and FOUR score was fair with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.79 and 0.82, respectively. The cutoff point with best Youden index for GCS and FOUR score was 6.5 each. Below the cutoff point, mortality was higher in both models (P < 0.001). The Hosmer-Lemeshow Chi-square coefficient test showed better calibration with FOUR score than GCS. A positive correlation was seen between the models with Spearman's correlation coefficient of 0.91 (P < 0.001).

  13. Coma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Funding Information Research Programs Training & Career Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Coma Information Page ... News From NINDS | Find People | Training | Research | Enhancing Diversity Careers@NINDS | FOIA | Accessibility Policy | Contact Us | Privacy ...

  14. Prehospital heart rate and blood pressure increase the positive predictive value of the Glasgow Coma Scale for high-mortality traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Reisner, Andrew; Chen, Xiaoxiao; Kumar, Kamal; Reifman, Jaques

    2014-05-15

    We hypothesized that vital signs could be used to improve the association between a trauma patient's prehospital Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score and his or her clinical condition. Previously, abnormally low and high blood pressures have both been associated with higher mortality for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). We undertook a retrospective analysis of 1384 adult prehospital trauma patients. Vital-sign data were electronically archived and analyzed. We examined the relative risk of severe head Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 5-6 as a function of the GCS, systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR), and respiratory rate (RR). We created multi-variate logistic regression models and, using DeLong's test, compared their area under receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC AUCs) for three outcomes: head AIS 5-6, all-cause mortality, and either head AIS 5-6 or neurosurgical procedure. We found significant bimodal relationships between head AIS 5-6 versus SBP and HR, but not RR. When the GCS was <15, ROC AUCs were significantly higher for a multi-variate regression model (GCS, SBP, and HR) versus GCS alone. In particular, patients with abnormalities in all parameters (GCS, SBP, and HR) were significantly more likely to have high-mortality TBI versus those with abnormalities in GCS alone. This could be useful for mobilizing resources (e.g., neurosurgeons and operating rooms at the receiving hospital) and might enable new prehospital management protocols where therapies are selected based on TBI mortality risk. PMID:24372334

  15. Predictive power of UKCAT and other pre-admission measures for performance in a medical school in Glasgow: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The UK Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT) and its four subtests are currently used by 24 Medical and Dental Schools in the UK for admissions. This longitudinal study examines the predictive validity of UKCAT for final performance in the undergraduate medical degree programme at one Medical School and compares this with the predictive validity of the selection measures available pre-UKCAT. Methods This was a retrospective observational study of one cohort of students, admitted to Glasgow Medical School in 2007. We examined the associations which UKCAT scores, school science grades and pre-admissions interview scores had with performance indicators, particularly final composite scores that determine students’ postgraduate training opportunities and overall ranking (Educational Performance Measure - EPM, and Honours and Commendation – H&C). Analyses were conducted both with and without adjustment for potential socio-demographic confounders (gender, age, ethnicity and area deprivation). Results Despite its predictive value declining as students progress through the course, UKCAT was associated with the final composite scores. In mutually adjusted analyses (also adjusted for socio-demographic confounders), only UKCAT total showed independent relationships with both EPM (p = 0.005) and H&C (p = 0.004), school science achievements predicted EPM (p = 0.009), and pre-admissions interview score predicted neither. UKCAT showed less socio-demographic variation than did TSS. Conclusion UKCAT has a modest predictive power for overall course performance at the University of Glasgow Medical School over and above that of school science achievements or pre-admission interview score and we conclude that UKCAT is the most useful predictor of final ranking. PMID:24919950

  16. The use of an In House Scoring System Scale versus Glasgow Coma Scale in non-traumatic altered states of consciousness patients: can it be used for triaging patients in Southeast Asian developing countries?

    PubMed

    Maheswaran, M; Adnan, W A W; Ahmad, R; Ab Rahman, N H N; Naing, N N; Abdullah, J

    2007-11-01

    Non-traumatic Altered States of Consciousness (ASC) are a non-specific consequence of various etiologies, and are normally monitored by Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). The GCS gives varriable results among untrained emergency medicine personel in developing countries where English is not the first language. An In House Scoring System (IHSS) scale was made by the first author for the purpose of triaging so as to quickly asses patients when seen by medical personel. This IHSS scale was compared to the GCS to determine it's specificity and sensitivity in the accident and emergency department (ED) of Hospital University Sains Malaysia (HUSM). All patients with non-traumatic ASC were selected by purposive sampling according to pre-determined criteria. Patients were evaluated by the two systems, IHSS and GCS, by emergency physicians who were on call. Patient demographics, clinical features, investigations, treatment given and outcomes were collected and followed for a period of 14 days. A total of 221 patients with non-traumatic ASC were studied, 54.3% were males. The mean age of the patients was 56 years old. The mean overall GCS score on presentation to the ED was 10.3. The mean duration of ASC was 11.6 hours. One hundred thirty patients (58.8%) experienced ASC secondary to general or focal cerebral disorders. The mortality rate was 40.3% 2 weeks after the ED visit. Fifty-four point three percent of the patients were awake and considered to have good outcomes while 45.7% of the patients had poor outcomes (comatose or dead) 2 weeks after the ED visit. The mean overall GCS score, verbal and motor subscores as well as the IHSS had significantly decreased (worsened) after treatment in the ED. A poor IHSS scale, hypertension, current smoking, abnormal pupillary reflexes and acidosis were associated with a worse 2-week outcome. The mean age and WBC count was lower and the mean overall GCS score and eye, verbal and motor subscores were higher as well as those having a lower IHSS

  17. What Is the Glasgow Coma Scale?

    MedlinePlus

    ... 3:22pm Well done you. Look after yourself Mar 24th, 2016 6:48am Thank you for sharing!!! Mar 2nd, 2016 2:09am I am an RN ... surgery and that since he was already on life support that the likely ability of our son ...

  18. Silica research in Glasgow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, B. W.; Cagnoli, G.; Casey, M. M.; Clubley, D.; Crooks, D. R. M.; Danzmann, K.; Elliffe, E. J.; Goßler, S.; Grant, A.; Grote, H.; Heptonstall, A.; Hough, J.; Jennrich, O.; Lück, H.; McIntosh, S. A.; Newton, G. P.; Palmer, D. A.; Plissi, M. V.; Robertson, D. I.; Robertson, N. A.; Rowan, S.; Skeldon, K. D.; Sneddon, P.; Strain, K. A.; Torrie, C. I.; Ward, H.; Willems, P. A.; Willke, B.; Winkler, W.

    2002-04-01

    The Glasgow group is involved in the construction of the GEO600 interferometer as well as in R&D activity on technology for advanced gravitational wave detectors. GEO600 will be the first GW detector using quasi-monolithic silica suspensions in order to decrease thermal noise significantly with respect to steel wire suspensions. The results concerning GEO600 suspension mounting and performance will be shown in the first section. Section 2 is devoted to the present results from the direct measurement of thermal noise in mirrors mounted in the 10 m interferometer in Glasgow which has a sensitivity limit of 4 × 10-19 m Hz-1/2 above 1 kHz. Section 3 presents results on the measurements of coating losses. R&D activity has been carried out to understand better how thermal noise in the suspensions affects the detector sensitivity, and in section 4 a discussion on the non-linear thermoelastic effect is presented.

  19. Myxedema coma.

    PubMed

    Kwaku, Maxwell P; Burman, Kenneth D

    2007-01-01

    Untreated or unrecognized hypothyroidism may progress to severe decompensated hypothyroidism or myxedema coma. Relatively few cases are reported in the literature since the first case was apparently reported from the St. Thomas Hospital in London in 1879. The paucity of cases may be due to either underreporting or improvement in the diagnosis and treatment of uncomplicated hypothyroidism. However, despite the ready availability of sensitive thyrotropin assays, the recognition and treatment of myxedema coma remains a challenge. Although thyroid hormone treatment is highly effective when combined with ventilatory and hemodynamic support in the intensive care unit setting, controversies abound on the optimal and most effective choice of thyroid hormone preparation: thyroxine and triiodothyronine and in what amount. Accumulated evidence now shows that proper use of either thyroxine alone or in combination with triiodothyronine may be effective therapy. PMID:17712058

  20. Coma-compensation telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacFarlane, Malcolm J. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A telescope for eliminating on axis coma due to tilt of the secondary mirror in infrared astronomy. The secondary mirror of a reflecting telescope is formed to cause field coma to always be equal and opposite at the optical axis of the telescope to tilt coma regardless of the angle through the secondary mirror is tilted with respect to the optical axis.

  1. Efficacy of Nasya (nasal medication) in coma: A case study.

    PubMed

    Ramteke, Rajkala S; Patil, Panchakshari D; Thakar, Anup B

    2016-01-01

    For emergency conditions, Ayurveda has never been given importance in recent times. However, there are certain emergency conditions where biomedicine has limitations but, Ayurveda can provide solution. Classics have many references regarding management of acute conditions like syncope, coma, episodic conditions of bronchial asthma, epilepsy, etc., In the present study, a 61 year female patient had a two year history of hypertension and was suffering with coma. She was treated with an Ayurvedic treatment modality. Nasya (nasal medication) of Trikaṭu cūrṇa (powder) for seven days, followed by dhūmapāna (~fumigation) with saṅkhyāsthāpana (consciousness restorative) drugs for seven days was administered. The outcome of this management was appreciable, as it resulted in positive changes in Glasgow Coma Scale (GSCS) from 3 to 11. PMID:27621522

  2. Efficacy of Nasya (nasal medication) in coma: A case study

    PubMed Central

    Ramteke, Rajkala S.; Patil, Panchakshari D.; Thakar, Anup B.

    2016-01-01

    For emergency conditions, Ayurveda has never been given importance in recent times. However, there are certain emergency conditions where biomedicine has limitations but, Ayurveda can provide solution. Classics have many references regarding management of acute conditions like syncope, coma, episodic conditions of bronchial asthma, epilepsy, etc., In the present study, a 61 year female patient had a two year history of hypertension and was suffering with coma. She was treated with an Ayurvedic treatment modality. Nasya (nasal medication) of Trikaṭu cūrṇa (powder) for seven days, followed by dhūmapāna (~fumigation) with saṅkhyāsthāpana (consciousness restorative) drugs for seven days was administered. The outcome of this management was appreciable, as it resulted in positive changes in Glasgow Coma Scale (GSCS) from 3 to 11. PMID:27621522

  3. Intermittent negative pressure ventilation in the treatment of hypoxic hypercapnic coma in chronic respiratory insufficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Corrado, A; De Paola, E; Gorini, M; Messori, A; Bruscoli, G; Nutini, S; Tozzi, D; Ginanni, R

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In recent years non-invasive ventilatory techniques have been used successfully in the treatment of acute on chronic respiratory failure (ACRF), but careful selection of patients is essential and a comatose state may represent an exclusion criterion. The aim of this retrospective and uncontrolled study was to evaluate whether a non-invasive ventilatory technique such as the iron lung could also be used successfully in patients with hypoxic hypercapnic coma, thus widening the range for application of non-invasive ventilatory techniques. METHODS: A series of 150 consecutive patients with ACRF and hypoxic hypercapnic coma admitted to our respiratory intensive care unit were evaluated retrospectively. The most common underlying condition was chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (79%). On admission a severe hypoxaemia (Pao2 5.81 (3.01) kPa) and hypercapnia (Paco2 14.88 (2.78) kPa) associated with a decompensated acidosis (pH 7.13 (0.13)) were present, the Glasgow coma score ranged from 3 to 8, and the mean APACHE II score was 31.6 (5.3). All patients underwent intermittent negative pressure ventilation with the iron lung. The study end point was based on a dichotomous classification of treatment failure (defined as death or need for endotracheal intubation) versus therapeutic success. RESULTS: There were 45 treatment failures (30%) and 36 deaths (24%). Nine patients (6%) required intubation because of lack of airway control. The median total duration of ventilation was 27 hours per patient (range 2-274). The 105 successfully treated cases recovered consciousness after a median of four hours (range 1-90) of continuous ventilatory treatment and were discharged after 12.1 (9.0) days. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that, in patients with acute on chronic respiratory failure and hypoxic hypercapnic coma, the iron lung resulted in a high rate of success. As this study has the typical limitations of all retrospective and uncontrolled studies, the results need to

  4. Predictors of outcome in myxoedema coma: a study from a tertiary care centre

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Pinaki; Bhansali, Anil; Masoodi, Shriq Rashid; Bhadada, Sanjay; Sharma, Navneet; Rajput, Rajesh

    2008-01-01

    Background With the easy availability of thyroid hormone assays, thyroid disorders are now recognised even in a subclinical state. However, patients are still seen with advanced manifestations of the disease, particularly in developing countries. This observational study analysed the predictors of outcome in patients with myxoedema coma and tested the validity of different modules to define morbidity and mortality in these patients. Methods Twenty-three consecutive patients with myxoedema coma who presented from January 1999 to August 2006 were studied. The thyroid function test and random serum cortisol were measured in all patients at the time of admission. Patients were given oral or intravenous (IV) thyroxine with intention to treat with the latter according to availability. Various modules that predict outcome, including Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, were analysed. SOFA score was repeated every 2 days until the time of discharge or demise. Results Twenty-three patients (20 women; 87%) of 59.5 ± 14.4 years of age (range, 30 to 89 years) were seen during the study period. Nine (39%) patients were diagnosed with hypothyroidism for the first time at the time of presentation of myxoedema coma, whereas 14 (70%) were diagnosed with hypothyroidism previously. However, the treatment defaulters presented early to the hospital and had more severe manifestations than de novo subjects. Nineteen (82%) had thyroprivic (primary) and 4 (17%) had trophoprivic (secondary) hypothyroidism. Fifteen (65%) patients presented in the winter and in 17 (74%) sepsis was the major accompanying comorbidity. Twelve (52%) had a history of diuretic use, thereby delaying the initial diagnosis. Patients who received oral L-thyroxine had no difference in outcome from those receiving IV thyroxine. Twelve (52%) subjects died and sepsis was the predominant cause of death. Various

  5. The Association of Surgeons in Training Conference: #ASiT2015 Glasgow.

    PubMed

    Gokani, V J; Beamish, A J; Sinclair, P; Robson, A; Harries, R L

    2015-11-01

    The Association of Surgeons in Training (ASiT) is a professional body and registered charity working to promote excellence in surgical training for the benefit of junior doctors and patients alike. ASiT is in-dependent of the National Health Service (NHS), Surgical Royal Colleges, and specialty associations and represents trainees in all ten surgical specialties. ASiT was delighted to welcome a number of distinguished guests and speakers to Glasgow for #ASiT2015. The theme of 'The Future of Surgery' delved into challenges surgical training faces, exciting developments into using technology to help patients, a glance at the past with the development of the Glasgow Coma Score and whether mortality truly is the future of measured outcomes. More than £3500 of prizes was awarded by the incoming President, Miss. Rhiannon Harries to the highest scoring papers presented selected from over 1000 abstracts submitted. PMID:26525269

  6. Anions in Cometary Comae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, Steven B.

    2011-01-01

    The presence of negative ions (anions) in cometary comae is known from Giotto mass spectrometry of IP/Halley. The anions 0-, OH-, C-, CH- and CN- have been detected, as well as unidentified anions with masses 22-65 and 85-110 amu (Chaizy et al. 1991). Organic molecular anions are known to have a significant impact on the charge balance of interstellar clouds and circumstellar envelopes and have been shown to act as catalysts for the gas-phase synthesis of larger hydrocarbon molecules in the ISM, but their importance in cometary comae has not yet been explored. We present details of the first attempt to model the chemistry of anions in cometary comae. Based on the combined chemical and hydro dynamical model of Rodgers & Charnley (2002), we investigate the role of large carbon-chain anions in cometary coma chemistry. We calculate the effects of these anions on coma thermodynamics, charge balance and examine their impact on molecule formation.

  7. The child in coma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewinn, E. B.

    1978-01-01

    Children in coma continue to pose medical, social, economic, ethical, moral, and legal problems. Modern life-support technology has aggravated these problems. Coma is viewed as a pathological state of unconsciousness from which the patient has not achieved arousal, and which calls for vigorous action to help him regain consciousness. There are two variables that have an especially important bearing on the ability to achieve arousal. These are: the character of the brain injury that caused the coma, and environmental factors that affect the patient after the injury.

  8. 78 FR 67024 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Glasgow, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... airspace at the Glasgow VOR/DME navigation aid, Glasgow, MT (78 FR 59807, September 30, 2013). The FAA... Federal Register of September 30, 2013 (78 FR 59807), Airspace Docket No. 13- ANM-17, FR Doc. 2013-23669... airspace at the Glasgow VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range/Distance Measuring Equipment (VOR/DME)...

  9. What Is a Coma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Back-to-School Butterflies? ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes What Is a Coma? KidsHealth > For Kids > What Is ...

  10. [Intracranial hypertension in severe diabetic ketoacidosis with coma. Two cases].

    PubMed

    Blanc, P L; Bedock, B; Jay, S; Martin, A; Marc, J M

    1994-11-19

    We observed two cases of severe diabetic ketoacidosis with coma and shock. In one case, coma was present at admission and in the second occurred within 15 hours. In both cases, intracranial hypertension was confirmed with an extradural captor. These findings are in agreement with observations of brain oedema in diabetic ketoacidosis with coma. Clinical data suggest that brain oedema may occur after a latency period but that clinical expression is much more rare, perhaps favoured by treatment (excessive rehydratation, alkalinization, too sharp drop in blood glucose level). In our cases, despite major fluid infusion, shock persisted requiring norepinephrine. This shock could have been the expression of the severe ketoacidosis or have resulted from an underlying infection. In case of sudden onset coma, a regularly encountered manifestation of brain oedema, respiratory assistance and mannitol infusion must be instituted rapidly. With this type of management, it should be possible to improve the severe prognosis of brain oedema in diabetic ketoacidosis. PMID:7899292

  11. Trauma admissions to the Intensive care unit at a reference hospital in Northwestern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Major trauma has been reported to be a major cause of hospitalization and intensive care utilization worldwide and consumes a significant amount of the health care budget. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics and treatment outcome of major trauma patients admitted into our ICU and to identify predictors of outcome. Methods Between January 2008 and December 2010, a descriptive prospective study of all trauma admissions to a multidisciplinary intensive care unit (ICU) of Bugando Medical Centre in Northwestern Tanzania was conducted. Results A total of 312 cases of major trauma were admitted in the ICU, representing 37.1% of the total ICU admissions. Males outnumbered females by a ratio of 5.5:1. Their median age was 27 years. Trauma admissions were almost exclusively emergencies (95.2%) and came mainly from the Accident and Emergency (60.6%) and Operating room (23.4%). Road traffic crash (RTC) was the most common cause of injuries affecting 70.8% of patients. Two hundred fourteen patients (68.6%) required surgical intervention. The overall ICU length of stay (LOS) for all trauma patients ranged from 1 to 59 days (median = 8 days). The median ICU length of hospital stay (LOS) for survivors and non-survivors were 8 and 5 days respectively. (P = 0.002). Mortality rate was 32.7%. Mortality rate of trauma patients was significantly higher than that of all ICU admissions (32.7% vs. 18.8%, P = 0.0012). According to multivariate logistic regression analysis, multiple injuries, severe head injuries and burns were responsible for a longer mean ICU stay (P < 0.001) whereas admission Glasgow Coma Score < 9, systolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg, injury severity core >16, prolonged duration of loss of consciousness, delayed ICU admission (0.028), the need for ventilatory support and finding of space occupying lesion on computed tomography scan significantly influenced mortality (P < 0.001). Conclusion Trauma resulting from road traffic crashes is a

  12. Effect of auditory stimulation on traumatic coma duration in intensive care unit of Medical Sciences University of Mazandarn, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Gorji, Mohammad Ali Heidari; Araghiyansc, Fereshteh; Jafari, Hadayat; Gorgi, Ali Morad Heidari; Yazdani, Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sensory deprivation is one of the common complications of coma patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a familiar voice to consciousness level in coma patients. Methods: A total of 13 patients with traumatic coma (8 ≥ Glasgow's coma scale [GCS]) admitted in ICU ward were randomly assigned to control and experimental groups. The experimental group was treated twice a daily each time 15 min with a familiar recorded MP3 sound for 2 weeks. The control group received only natural voices of environment. GCS applied to evaluate patients’ level of consciousness. Finding: Findings showed that duration to reach GCS = 15 was significantly shorter in the experimental group (χ2 = 12/96, P < 0/001). Conclusion: These findings imply that providing familiar auditory stimulation programs for coma patients in the ICU could be effective. PMID:24665243

  13. Mortality and functional disability after spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage: the predictive impact of overall admission factors.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Behnam; Heidari, Kamran; Asadollahi, Shadi; Nazari, Maryam; Assarzadegan, Farhad; Amini, Afshin

    2013-11-01

    To determine the effects of different prognostic factors, including previous antiplatelet therapy, admission data, and radiographic findings on discharge and 3-month neurological condition using modified Rankin scale (mRS) and mortality at 30 days and 3-month follow-up in patients presenting to the emergency department with spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage (sICH). Between January and July 2012, 120 consecutive patients (males 62%, females 38%), who were admitted within 48 h of symptoms onset, were included. We recorded the following data on admission: demographics; functional scores of ICH, Glasgow Coma Scale, and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale; vital signs; smoking status; use of illicit drug; preadmission antiplatelet treatment; results of laboratory tests (platelet count, serum glucose, sodium and creatinine levels, and prothrombin time); and primary neuroimaging findings [intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), midline shift, and hydrocephalus]. In multivariate analysis using adjusted model for demographics and prior antiplatelet therapy; functional scores, laboratory results, and diabetes history correlated with mortality during 30 days after the event. Moreover, the parameters on the initial computed tomography scan significantly increased 30-day fatality rate and was correlated with increase in the discharge mRS score of survivors. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of early mortality associated with IVH presentation was 2.34 (CI 1.76-3.02, p = 0.003). The corresponding ORs in those with midline shift displacement and hydrocephalus were 2.18 (95% CI 2.08-3.80, p = 0.01) and 1.62 (95% CI 1.01-2.63, p = 0.02), respectively. In patients with ICH, prognostic factors, include various clinical parameters and paraclinical findings of admission time. PMID:23543380

  14. Shocking Admission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Eric; Millman, Sierra

    2007-01-01

    Marilee Jones's career had been a remarkable success. She joined Massachusetts Institute of Technology's (MIT's) admissions office in 1979, landing a job in Cambridge at a time when boys ruled the sandbox of the admissions profession. Her job was to help MIT recruit more women, who then made up less than one-fifth of the institute's students. She…

  15. Capturing the Coma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This image shows comet Tempel 1, as seen by the Deep Impact spacecraft on June 21, 2005. It was taken using the clear filter of the spacecraft's medium resolution imager camera. The spacecraft was 11,564,081.7 kilometers (7,185,920 miles) away from the comet. Twelve images were combined together, and a logarithmic stretch was applied to enhance the coma of the comet.

  16. Photochemistry of Cometary Comae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boice, D. C.; Lu, Y.

    2003-12-01

    Relevant physico-chemical processes must be identified and understood to provide the framework within which observations of comets can be understood and inferences about their composition can be made. Analyses of observations of comets (e.g., Halley, Borrelly, LINEAR WM1, Hale-Bopp, Hyakutake) have provided valuable insights into the intrinsic properties of their nuclei (e.g., composition, active surface fraction, surface properties, temperature) and the important physical and chemical processes that occur in their comae. The latest results detailing these processes will be discussed, including the thermodynamics (e.g., temperature and velocity structure), photo- and gas-phase chemistry (e.g., composition, gas and electron energetics), and interactions between gaseous species and dust (composition in distributed sources, gas-grain reactions, mass-loading and energy balance of both gas phase and dust particles), concentrating on the collision-dominated inner coma. Special consideration is given to the determination of parent species from the plethora of molecules and atoms seen in cometary comae, concentrating on observations of S2, Na, CS, C2, C3, NS, and HCN/HNC in recent comets.

  17. Coma cluster of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Atlas Image mosaic, covering 34' x 34' on the sky, of the Coma cluster, aka Abell 1656. This is a particularly rich cluster of individual galaxies (over 1000 members), most prominently the two giant ellipticals, NGC 4874 (right) and NGC 4889 (left). The remaining members are mostly smaller ellipticals, but spiral galaxies are also evident in the 2MASS image. The cluster is seen toward the constellation Coma Berenices, but is actually at a distance of about 100 Mpc (330 million light years, or a redshift of 0.023) from us. At this distance, the cluster is in what is known as the 'Hubble flow,' or the overall expansion of the Universe. As such, astronomers can measure the Hubble Constant, or the universal expansion rate, based on the distance to this cluster. Large, rich clusters, such as Coma, allow astronomers to measure the 'missing mass,' i.e., the matter in the cluster that we cannot see, since it gravitationally influences the motions of the member galaxies within the cluster. The near-infrared maps the overall luminous mass content of the member galaxies, since the light at these wavelengths is dominated by the more numerous older stellar populations. Galaxies, as seen by 2MASS, look fairly smooth and homogeneous, as can be seen from the Hubble 'tuning fork' diagram of near-infrared galaxy morphology. Image mosaic by S. Van Dyk (IPAC).

  18. Dwarfs in Coma Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger poster version

    This false-color mosaic of the central region of the Coma cluster combines infrared and visible-light images to reveal thousands of faint objects (green). Follow-up observations showed that many of these objects, which appear here as faint green smudges, are dwarf galaxies belonging to the cluster. Two large elliptical galaxies, NGC 4889 and NGC 4874, dominate the cluster's center. The mosaic combines visible-light data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (color coded blue) with long- and short-wavelength infrared views (red and green, respectively) from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope.

  19. Chemistry in cometary comae.

    PubMed

    Irvine, W M; Dickens, J E; Lovell, A J; Schloerb, F P; Senay, M; Bergin, E A; Jewitt, D; Matthews, H E

    1998-01-01

    Significant gas-phase chemistry occurs in the comae of bright comets, as is demonstrated here for the case of Comet Hale-Bopp. The abundance ratio of the two isomers, hydrogen cyanide and hydrogen isocyanide, is shown to vary with heliocentric distance in a way that is consistent with production of HNC by ion-molecule chemistry initiated by the photoionization of water. Likewise, the first maps of emission from HCO+ show an abundance and an extended distribution that are consistent with the same chemical model. PMID:9809016

  20. Chemistry in cometary comae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvine, W. M.; Dickens, J. E.; Lovell, A. J.; Schloerb, F. P.; Senay, M.; Bergin, E. A.; Jewitt, D.; Matthews, H. E.

    1998-01-01

    Significant gas-phase chemistry occurs in the comae of bright comets, as is demonstrated here for the case of Comet Hale-Bopp. The abundance ratio of the two isomers, hydrogen cyanide and hydrogen isocyanide, is shown to vary with heliocentric distance in a way that is consistent with production of HNC by ion-molecule chemistry initiated by the photoionization of water. Likewise, the first maps of emission from HCO+ show an abundance and an extended distribution that are consistent with the same chemical model.

  1. The formation and design of the 'Acute Admission Database'- a database including a prospective, observational cohort of 6279 patients triaged in the emergency department in a larger Danish hospital

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Management and care of the acutely ill patient has improved over the last years due to introduction of systematic assessment and accelerated treatment protocols. We have, however, sparse knowledge of the association between patient status at admission to hospital and patient outcome. A likely explanation is the difficulty in retrieving all relevant information from one database. The objective of this article was 1) to describe the formation and design of the 'Acute Admission Database', and 2) to characterize the cohort included. Methods All adult patients triaged at the Emergency Department at Hillerød Hospital and admitted either to the observationary unit or to a general ward in-hospital were prospectively included during a period of 22 weeks. The triage system used was a Danish adaptation of the Swedish triage system, ADAPT. Data from 3 different data sources was merged using a unique identifier, the Central Personal Registry number; 1) Data from patient admission; time and date, vital signs, presenting complaint and triage category, 2) Blood sample results taken at admission, including a venous acid-base status, and 3) Outcome measures, e.g. length of stay, admission to Intensive Care Unit, and mortality within 7 and 28 days after admission. Results In primary triage, patients were categorized as red (4.4%), orange (25.2%), yellow (38.7%) and green (31.7%). Abnormal vital signs were present at admission in 25% of the patients, most often temperature (10.5%), saturation of peripheral oxygen (9.2%), Glasgow Coma Score (6.6%) and respiratory rate (4.8%). A venous acid-base status was obtained in 43% of all patients. The majority (78%) had a pH within the normal range (7.35-7.45), 15% had acidosis (pH < 7.35) and 7% had alkalosis (pH > 7.45). Median length of stay was 2 days (range 1-123). The proportion of patients admitted to Intensive Care Unit was 1.6% (95% CI 1.2-2.0), 1.8% (95% CI 1.5-2.2) died within 7 days, and 4.2% (95% CI 3.7-4.7) died within

  2. Individual Organ Failure and Concomitant Risk of Mortality Differs According to the Type of Admission to ICU – A Retrospective Study of SOFA Score of 23,795 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bingold, Tobias M.; Lefering, Rolf; Zacharowski, Kai; Meybohm, Patrick; Waydhas, Christian; Rosenberger, Peter; Scheller, Bertram

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Organ dysfunction or failure after the first days of ICU treatment and subsequent mortality with respect to the type of intensive care unit (ICU) admission is poorly elucidated. Therefore we analyzed the association of ICU mortality and admission for medical (M), scheduled surgery (ScS) or unscheduled surgery (US) patients mirrored by the occurrence of organ dysfunction/failure (OD/OF) after the first 72h of ICU stay. Methods For this retrospective cohort study (23,795 patients; DIVI registry; German Interdisciplinary Association for Intensive Care Medicine (DIVI)) organ dysfunction or failure were derived from the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (excluding the Glasgow Coma Scale). SOFA scores were collected on admission to ICU and 72h later. For patients with a length of stay of at least five days, a multivariate analysis was performed for individual OD/OF on day three. Results M patients had the lowest prevalence of cardiovascular failure (M 31%; ScS 35%; US 38%), and the highest prevalence of respiratory (M 24%; ScS 13%; US 17%) and renal failure (M 10%; ScS 6%; US 7%). Risk of death was highest for M- and ScS-patients in those with respiratory failure (OR; M 2.4; ScS 2.4; US 1.4) and for surgical patients with renal failure (OR; M 1.7; ScS 2.7; US 2.4). Conclusion The dynamic evolution of OD/OF within 72h after ICU admission and mortality differed between patients depending on their types of admission. This has to be considered to exclude a systematic bias during multi-center trials. PMID:26241475

  3. Serum Total Cholinesterase Activity on Admission Is Associated with Disease Severity and Outcome in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qing-Hong; Li, An-Min; He, Sai-Lin; Yao, Xu-Dong; Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Zhi-Wen; Sheng, Zhi-Yong; Yao, Yong-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of neurological disability. In this retrospective study, serum total cholinesterase (ChE) activities were analyzed in 188 patients for diagnostic as well as predictive values for mortality. Methods and Findings Within 72 hours after injury, serum ChE activities including both acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase were measured. Disease severity was evaluated with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, Glasgow Coma Score, length of coma, post-traumatic amnesia and injury feature. Neurocognitive and functional scores were assessed using clinical records. Of 188 patients, 146 (77.7%) survived and 42 (22.3%) died within 90 days. Lower ChE activities were noted in the non-survivors vs. survivors (5.94±2.19 vs. 7.04±2.16 kU/L, p=0.023), in septic vs. non-infected patients (5.93±1.89 vs. 7.31±2.45 kU/L, p=0.0005) and in patients with extremely severe injury vs. mild injury (6.3±1.98 vs. 7.57±2.48 kU/L, p=0.049). The trajectories of serum ChE levels were also different between non-survivors and survivors, septic and non-infected patients, mild and severely injured patients, respectively. Admission ChE activities were closely correlated with blood cell counts, neurocognitive and functional scores both on admission and at discharge. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the area under the curve for ChE was inferior to that for either APACHE II or white blood cell (WBC) count. However, at the optimal cutoff value of 5 kU/L, the sensitivity of ChE for correct prediction of 90-day mortality was 65.5% and the specificity was 86.4%. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that lower ChE activity (<5 kU/L) was more closely correlated with poor survival than higher ChE activity (>5 kU/L) (p=0.04). After adjusting for other variables, ChE was identified as a borderline independent predictor for mortality as analyzed by Binary logistic regression (P=0.078). Conclusions

  4. Road to refractory epilepsy: the Glasgow story.

    PubMed

    Brodie, Martin J

    2013-05-01

    This short article reviews 30 years of prospective observations on outcomes relevant to an expanding cohort of adolescent and adult patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy, who received their first antiepileptic drug (AED) and subsequent long-term follow-up at the Epilepsy Unit at the Western Infirmary in Glasgow, United Kingdom. Despite the fact that the overall prognosis has slowly improved over this time, >30% of the patients remain uncontrolled despite the introduction of a range of new AEDs, some with unique mechanisms of action, over the last 20 years. Most patients followed a constant course (59% controlled, 25% refractory), which could usually be predicted early. The remaining 16% fluctuated between periods of remission and relapse. The likelihood of seizure freedom declined with successive drug regimens, most markedly from the first to the third. A number of factors predicting poorer outcomes have been identified, particularly high pretreatment seizure density and concomitant psychiatric comorbidities. Novel approaches to identifying and treating the processes underpinning the generation and propagation of seizures are required if the current rather disappointing scenario is to be substantially improved. PMID:23646962

  5. Neuroimaging after coma.

    PubMed

    Tshibanda, Luaba; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Boly, Mélanie; Soddu, Andrea; Bruno, Marie-Aurelie; Moonen, Gustave; Laureys, Steven; Noirhomme, Quentin

    2010-01-01

    Following coma, some patients will recover wakefulness without signs of consciousness (only showing reflex movements, i.e., the vegetative state) or may show non-reflex movements but remain without functional communication (i.e., the minimally conscious state). Currently, there remains a high rate of misdiagnosis of the vegetative state (Schnakers et. al. BMC Neurol, 9:35, 8) and the clinical and electrophysiological markers of outcome from the vegetative and minimally conscious states remain unsatisfactory. This should incite clinicians to use multimodal assessment to detect objective signs of consciousness and validate para-clinical prognostic markers in these challenging patients. This review will focus on advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging, and functional MRI (fMRI studies in both "activation" and "resting state" conditions) that were recently introduced in the assessment of patients with chronic disorders of consciousness. PMID:19862509

  6. Development of an objective tool for the diagnosis of myxedema coma.

    PubMed

    Chiong, Yien V; Bammerlin, Elaine; Mariash, Cary N

    2015-09-01

    Myxedema coma, a rare entity, with a reported 25%-65% mortality had no objective criteria for making the diagnosis when we began our study. We developed an objective screening tool for myxedema coma to more easily identify patients and examine the best treatment method in future prospective studies to reduce the mortality of this entity. We conducted a retrospective chart review to find all patients aged ≥18 years admitted with myxedema coma from January 1, 2005 through June 13, 2010 at Indiana University Health Methodist Hospital. On the basis of both our retrospective chart review and on literature accounts, we identified 6 criteria to diagnose myxedema coma. We identified 10 patients initially diagnosed with myxedema coma and established a control group consisting of 13 patients identified with altered mental status and increased thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. The 6 variables we created for the screening tool were heart rate, temperature, Glasgow coma scale, TSH, free thyroxine, and precipitating factors. The screening tool has a sensitivity and specificity of about 80%. We ran a logistic regression model using the 10 study patients and 13 controls with the 6 variables. No variables alone significantly contributed to the model. However, the overall model was highly significant (P = 0.012), providing strong support for a scoring system that uses these variables simultaneously. This screening tool enables physicians to rapidly diagnose myxedema coma to expedite treatment. A more refined diagnostic tool may be used in future clinical studies designed to determine the optimal treatment. PMID:25647622

  7. A Clinical Decision Rule to Predict Adult Patients with Traumatic Intracranial Hemorrhage Who Do Not Require Intensive Care Unit Admission

    PubMed Central

    Nishijima, Daniel K.; Shahlaie, Kiarash; Echeverri, Angela; Holmes, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To derive a clinical decision rule to identify adult emergency department (ED) patients with traumatic intracranial hemorrhage (tICH) who are at low risk for requiring critical care resources during hospitalization. Methods This is a retrospective cohort study of patients (≥18 years) with tICH presenting to the ED. The need for intensive care unit (ICU) admission was defined as the presence of a critical care intervention including: intubation, neurosurgical intervention, blood product transfusion, vasopressor or inotrope administration, invasive monitoring for hemodynamic instability, emergent treatment for arrhythmia, therapeutic angiography, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The decision rule was derived using binary recursive partitioning. Results A total of 432 patients were identified (median age 48 years) of which 174 patients (40%) had a critical care intervention. We performed binary recursive partitioning with Classification and Regression Trees (CART) software to develop the clinical decision rule. Patients with a normal mental status (Glasgow Coma Score=15), isolated head injury, and age < 65 were considered low risk for a critical care intervention. The derived rule had a sensitivity of 98% (95% confidence interval [CI] 94–99), a specificity of 50% (95% CI 44–56), a positive predictive value of 57% (95% CI 51–62), and a negative predictive value of 97% (95% CI 93–99). The area under the curve for the decision rule was 0.74 (95% CI 0.70–0.77). Conclusions This clinical decision rule identifies low risk adult ED patients with tICH who do not need ICU admission. Further validation and refinement of these findings would allow for more appropriate ICU resource utilization. PMID:21839444

  8. The impact of physical therapy in patients with severe traumatic brain injury during acute and post-acute rehabilitation according to coma duration

    PubMed Central

    Lendraitienė, Eglė; Petruševičienė, Daiva; Savickas, Raimondas; Žemaitienė, Ieva; Mingaila, Sigitas

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of study was to evaluate the impact of physical therapy on the recovery of motor and mental status in patients who sustained a severe traumatic brain injury, according to coma duration in acute and post-acute rehabilitation. [Subjects and Methods] The study population comprised patients with levels of consciousness ranging from 3 to 8 according to Glasgow Coma Scale score. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on coma duration as follows: group 1, those who were in a coma up to 1 week, and group 2, those who were in a coma for more than 2 weeks. The recovery of the patients’ motor function was evaluated according to the Motor Assessment Scale and the recovery of mental status according to the Mini-Mental State Examination. [Results] The evaluation of motor and mental status recovery revealed that the patients who were in a coma up to 1 week recovered significantly better after physical therapy during the acute rehabilitation than those who were in a coma for longer than 2 weeks. [Conclusion] The recovery of motor and mental status of the patients in acute rehabilitation was significantly better for those in a coma for a shorter period. PMID:27512262

  9. The impact of physical therapy in patients with severe traumatic brain injury during acute and post-acute rehabilitation according to coma duration.

    PubMed

    Lendraitienė, Eglė; Petruševičienė, Daiva; Savickas, Raimondas; Žemaitienė, Ieva; Mingaila, Sigitas

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] The aim of study was to evaluate the impact of physical therapy on the recovery of motor and mental status in patients who sustained a severe traumatic brain injury, according to coma duration in acute and post-acute rehabilitation. [Subjects and Methods] The study population comprised patients with levels of consciousness ranging from 3 to 8 according to Glasgow Coma Scale score. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on coma duration as follows: group 1, those who were in a coma up to 1 week, and group 2, those who were in a coma for more than 2 weeks. The recovery of the patients' motor function was evaluated according to the Motor Assessment Scale and the recovery of mental status according to the Mini-Mental State Examination. [Results] The evaluation of motor and mental status recovery revealed that the patients who were in a coma up to 1 week recovered significantly better after physical therapy during the acute rehabilitation than those who were in a coma for longer than 2 weeks. [Conclusion] The recovery of motor and mental status of the patients in acute rehabilitation was significantly better for those in a coma for a shorter period. PMID:27512262

  10. Right Median Nerve Electrical Stimulation for Acute Traumatic Coma Patients.

    PubMed

    Lei, Jin; Wang, Lei; Gao, Guoyi; Cooper, Edwin; Jiang, Jiyao

    2015-10-15

    The right median nerve as a peripheral portal to the central nervous system can be electrically stimulated to help coma arousal after traumatic brain injury (TBI). The present study set out to examine the efficacy and safety of right median nerve electrical stimulation (RMNS) in a cohort of 437 comatose patients after severe TBI from August 2005 to December 2011. The patients were enrolled 2 weeks after their injury and assigned to the RMNS group (n=221) receiving electrical stimulation for 2 weeks or the control group (n = 216) treated by standard management according to the date of birth in the month. The baseline data were similar. After the 2-week treatment, the RMNS-treated patients demonstrated a more rapid increase of the mean Glasgow Coma Score, although statistical significance was not reached (8.43 ± 4.98 vs. 7.47 ± 5.37, p = 0.0532). The follow-up data at 6-month post-injury showed a significantly higher proportion of patients who regained consciousness (59.8% vs. 46.2%, p = 0.0073). There was a lower proportion of vegetative persons in the RMNS group than in the control group (17.6% vs. 22.0%, p = 0.0012). For persons regaining consciousness, the functional independence measurement (FIM) score was higher among the RMNS group patients (91.45 ± 8.65 vs. 76.23 ± 11.02, p < 0.001). There were no unique complications associated with the RMNS treatment. The current study, although with some limitations, showed that RMNS may serve as an easy, effective, and noninvasive technique to promote the recovery of traumatic coma in the early phase. PMID:25664378

  11. Female streetworking prostitution and HIV infection in Glasgow.

    PubMed Central

    McKeganey, N.; Barnard, M.; Leyland, A.; Coote, I.; Follet, E.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To identify the extent of HIV infection and injecting drug use among female streetworking prostitutes in Glasgow; to estimate the size of the female streetworking prostitute population in the city; and to estimate the number of HIV positive women working as prostitutes on the streets in Glasgow. DESIGN--Observation and interviewing of female prostitutes over seven months in red light district; analysis of saliva samples for presence of antibodies to HIV; capture-recapture approach to estimating the size of the female streetworking prostitute population. SETTING--Glasgow. SUBJECTS--206 female streetworking prostitutes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Number of women with antibodies to HIV, self reported use of injecting drugs, history of contact with 206 women. RESULTS--Saliva samples were requested from 197 women; 159 (81%) provided samples. Four (2.5%, 95% confidence interval 0.7%-6.3%) of the samples were positive for HIV, all of which had been provided by women who injected drugs. Of the 206 streetworking women contacted 147 (71%) were injecting drug users. About 1150 women are estimated to work on the streets in Glasgow over a 12 month period. CONCLUSIONS--HIV is not as widespread among female prostitutes as many reports in the tabloid press suggest. A greater proportion of female streetworking prostitutes in Glasgow are injecting drugs than has been reported for other British cities. PMID:1422360

  12. Implementation of a Trauma Service Activation and Admission Policy for Very Elderly Trauma Patients: Impact on Hospital Efficiency and Patient Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kalina, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Very elderly trauma patients (VETs) were routinely admitted to nonsurgical services at our institution; therefore, a trauma service activation and admission policy was implemented. Our goal was to determine policy success and impact on efficiency and outcomes. VETs, defined as trauma patients aged >89 years, admitted before and after policy implementation were reviewed. Demographics included age, gender, Injury Severity Score, Glasgow Coma Score, admission diagnosis, mechanism of injury, admission service, and comorbidities. Efficiency included intensive care unit length of stay (ICU-LOS) and hospital length of stay (H-LOS). Outcomes included complications, discharge disposition, and mortality. Statistical analysis included Chi square, Fisher's exact test, and regression analyses, significance denoted by P < 0.05. 375 VETs were investigated. Demographic analysis revealed differences in Injury Severity Score (9.4 + 5.4 vs 7.2 + 4.0, P < 0.001), coronary artery disease (2.1% vs 38.2%, P < 0.001), neurologic disease (7.4% vs 28.24%, P < 0.001), and intracranial hemorrhage (15.6% vs 6.1%, P = 0.01). The most common mechanism of injury and admission diagnosis was fall and femur fracture. VETs admitted to the trauma service increased from 28.3 per cent to 40.5 per cent, P = 0.02. Efficiency analysis revealed differences in ICU-LOS (4.0 + 4.2 days vs 0.7 + 1.3 days, P < 0.001) and H-LOS (7.3 + 4.9 days vs 6.3 + 5.5 days, P = 0.005). Outcomes analysis revealed differences in pneumonia (0.8% vs 5.3%, P = 0.01), acute respiratory distress syndrome (0% vs 2.3%, P = 0.04), discharge to skilled nursing facility (75.8% vs 57.3%, P < 0.001), but no difference in mortality. Regression analyses revealed that trauma service admission was associated with decreased ICU-LOS and H-LOS. The trauma service activation and admission policy for VETs led to improved hospital efficiency. PMID:27305879

  13. Deliberate drug poisoning with slight symptoms on admission: are there predictive factors for intensive care unit referral? A three-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Maignan, Maxime; Pommier, Philippe; Clot, Sandrine; Saviuc, Philippe; Debaty, Guillaume; Briot, Raphaël; Carpentier, Françoise; Danel, Vincent

    2014-03-01

    Deliberate drug poisoning leads to 1% of emergency department (ED) admissions. Even if most patients do not exhibit any significant complication, 5% need to be referred to an intensive care unit (ICU). Emergency physicians should distinguish between low- and high-acuity poisoned patients at an early stage to avoid excess morbidity. Our aim was to identify ICU transfer factors in deliberately self-poisoned patients without life-threatening symptoms on admission. We performed a 3-year retrospective observational study in a university hospital. Patients over 18 years of age with a diagnosis of deliberate drug poisoning were included. Clinical and toxicological data were analysed with univariate tests between groups (ED stay versus ICU transfer). Factors associated with ICU admission were then included in a logistic regression analysis. Two thousand five hundred and sixty-five patients were included. 63.2% were women, and median age was 40 (28-49). 142 patients (5.5%) were transferred to ICU. Cardiac drugs [adjusted OR (aOR) = 19.81; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 7.93-49.50], neuroleptics (aOR = 2.78; 95% CI: 1.55-4.97) and meprobamate (aOR = 2.71; 95% CI: 1.27-5.81) ingestions were significantly linked to ICU admission. A presumed toxic dose ingestion (aOR = 2.27; 95% CI: 1.28-4.02), number of ingested tablets (aOR = 1.01; 95% CI: 1.01-1.02 for each tablet) and delay between ingestion and ED arrival <2 hr (aOR = 2.85; 95%CI: 1.62-5.03) were also factors for ICU referral. The Glasgow Coma Scale was the only clinical feature associated with ICU admission (aOR = 1.57; 95% CI: 1.44-1.70 for each point loss). These results suggest that emergency physicians should pay particular attention to toxicological data on ED admission to distinguish between low- and high-acuity self-poisoned patients. PMID:23998644

  14. The Physical Tourist Physics in Glasgow: A Heritage Tour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Sean F.

    2006-12-01

    I trace the history of the physical and applied sciences, and particularly physics, in Glasgow. Among the notable individuals I discuss are Joseph Black (1728 1799), James Watt (1736 1819), William John Macquorn Rankine (1820 1872), William Thomson, Lord Kelvin (1824 1907), John Kerr (1824 1907), Frederick Soddy (1877 1956), John Logie Baird (1888 1946), and Ian Donald (1910 1987), as well as physics-related businesses.The locations, centering on the city center and University of Glasgow, include sites both recognizable today and transformed from past usage, as well as museums and archives related to the history and interpretation of physics.

  15. Territorialities in Scotland: Perceptions of Young People in Glasgow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holligan, Christopher Peter; Deuchar, Ross

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an exploratory, small-scale qualitative research enquiry into the perceptions and experiences of young people in communities afflicted by deprivation in Glasgow, Scotland's largest city. The context within which we address this focus contains a culture reputed to involve sectarianism, territoriality and gangs.…

  16. Pure Dead Brilliant?: Evaluating the Glasgow Story Digitisation Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Ian G.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present an evaluation of The Glasgow Story (TGS) digitisation project, funded by the UK's National Lottery's New Opportunities Fund digitisation (NOF-Digi) programme, and a critique of the evaluation process itself. The paper emphasises the need for user impact evaluation and for results to be brought into…

  17. Emotional and Behavioural Development in Glasgow Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchett, Rachel; Nowek, Gail; Neill, Cróna; Minnis, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Studies examining the well-being of British children find that about 5-10% are at risk of developing problems. This study aimed to examine the emotional and behavioural development of six to eight year olds in an area of socio-economic deprivation in Glasgow (Scotland) and compare this with UK norms. Furthermore, it aimed to look at overlap…

  18. 78 FR 59807 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Glasgow, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish controlled airspace at Glasgow, MT (78 FR 41337). Interested...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR...

  19. 76 FR 45179 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Glasgow, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... accommodate aircraft using Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) standard instrument approach... proposed rulemaking to amend Class E controlled airspace at Glasgow, MT (76 FR 30300). Interested parties...) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February...

  20. Kinematic models of cometary comae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tacconi-Garman, Lowell Evan

    As a first step towards understanding the kinematics of cometary comae, an analysis was undertaken of the 18-cm OH lines in comets. This work builds on past OH excitation and kinematic studies to meld them into a complete and self-consistent model for a cometary coma. The kinematics were modeled via the vectorial formalism and the powerful Monte Carlo technique was used in an effort to reproduce the high sensitivity, high spectral resolution 18-cm OH line profiles of Comets Halley, Giacobini-Zinner, Hartley-Good, Thiele, and Wilson which were obtained at the 43 meter telescope of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory at Green Bank, West Virginia. For the first time a zeroth order A-doublet quenching correction was applied to the 18-cm data and the long standing UV/radio gas production rate disparity was accounted for. Gas expansion velocities and coma anisotropies were derived from observations covering a wide range of heliocentric distances and gas production rates. The inferred ratio of dayside gas emission to nightside gas emission for all comets in this study, except P/Giacobini-Zinner, is approx. two. This value is consistent with that derived from in situ observations of the neutral gas in the coma of Comet Halley and is independent of both gas productivity and heliocentric distance. For P/Giacobini-Zinner, anomalously high gas outflow anisotropies were inferred for which there is no clear explanation.

  1. Can Computers Simplify Admissions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruker, Robert M.

    1978-01-01

    Based on experience with a simplified admissions concept, Southern Illinois University is satisfied that the admissions process has been made easier for prospective students, high school counselors, and admissions staff. The computer does not make decisions regarding admission of a student, but reduced work loads for everyone concerned. (Author)

  2. Coma in the elderly: Etiological factors, management, and prognosis in the department of anesthesia and intensive care

    PubMed Central

    Diango, D.; Moghomaye, M.; Maiga, Y.; Beye, S. A.; Dembele, A. S.; Coulibaly, Y.; Diallo, A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the etiologies, therapeutic and prognosis factors of coma in the elderly in the Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care of Gabriel TOURE Teaching Hospital, Mali. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective descriptive study of all cases of coma in the elderly, registered from February 1, 2008 to January 31, 2009 at the Department of Anesthesiology CHU Gabriel Touré, Bamako. Results: During the study period, 564 patients were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) in which 174 (30.85%) were older people. We collected 100 subjects with impaired consciousness, the object of our study, which represented 17.73% of all admissions in the Department of Anesthesiology during the study period and 57.47% of all admissions of older people; 66% of our subjects were male. Hypertensive patients accounted for 60% of cases. In 46% of cases, it was a coma from cardiovascular causes and in 28% of cases; it was a coma of metabolic origin. The diagnoses made in the wake of the care of the elderly in ICU were predominantly stroke (46%) and electrolyte disturbances (13%). The coma was sudden onset in 58% of cases, including 28 cases of stroke whether 48.27%. The prognosis was marked by a fatality with 51% of deaths in our sample. Conclusion: The prognosis improvement of the elderly in coma through to the introduction of proxy measures. PMID:25885379

  3. The medical collections at the University of Glasgow.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Maggie; McDonald, Stuart W

    2009-01-01

    The medical and other collections in the University of Glasgow have at their core the generous bequest of Dr William Hunter (1718 - 1783), a local man who rose to become an internationally renowned anatomist and obstetrician. The University does not have a Medical Museum as such but an Anatomy Museum, a Zoology Museum, a Pathology Collection, medical displays in the main halls of the Hunterian Museum in the Gilbert Scott Building and a rich collection of antiquarian medical books and archives as well as contemporary libraries. The Hunterian Collection, since its inauguration at the University of Glasgow in 1807, has engendered a spirit of diversity and scholarship that embraces many disciplines across the campus. The Hunterian Museum was the first public museum in Scotland and service to the local, national and international communities and response to their academic needs is very much at heart of its function today. PMID:20481359

  4. Unhealthy Glasgow: a case for ecological public health?

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Phil

    2015-10-01

    Ecological public health has been proposed as an approach appropriate for addressing the multiple transitions that currently affect human health and sustainability. The paper draws on the author's experience in public health in Glasgow to analyse the health challenges faced by this postindustrial Scottish city. Like other such cities, it not only faces multiple health challenges but also demonstrates a currently unexplained excess mortality that has been dubbed the 'Glasgow Effect'. To explore this troubled mixture, the paper outlines four historical waves of public health challenge and response in Glasgow over the last century, and proposes that a fifth is emerging. The challenge now is how to negotiate environmental sustainability with social, political and economic sustainability to enhance health for all. The paper suggests that gains made by past approaches still need to be protected and can be included within ecological public health, but they lack the wider vision, coherence and capacity required if cities are to address the scale and range of contemporary conditions. A number of lessons are offered for the ecological public health perspective. PMID:26376607

  5. Comet coma sample return instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albee, A. L.; Brownlee, Don E.; Burnett, Donald S.; Tsou, Peter; Uesugi, K. T.

    1994-01-01

    The sample collection technology and instrument concept for the Sample of Comet Coma Earth Return Mission (SOCCER) are described. The scientific goals of this Flyby Sample Return are to return to coma dust and volatile samples from a known comet source, which will permit accurate elemental and isotopic measurements for thousands of individual solid particles and volatiles, detailed analysis of the dust structure, morphology, and mineralogy of the intact samples, and identification of the biogenic elements or compounds in the solid and volatile samples. Having these intact samples, morphologic, petrographic, and phase structural features can be determined. Information on dust particle size, shape, and density can be ascertained by analyzing penetration holes and tracks in the capture medium. Time and spatial data of dust capture will provide understanding of the flux dynamics of the coma and the jets. Additional information will include the identification of cosmic ray tracks in the cometary grains, which can provide a particle's process history and perhaps even the age of the comet. The measurements will be made with the same equipment used for studying micrometeorites for decades past; hence, the results can be directly compared without extrapolation or modification. The data will provide a powerful and direct technique for comparing the cometary samples with all known types of meteorites and interplanetary dust. This sample collection system will provide the first sample return from a specifically identified primitive body and will allow, for the first time, a direct method of matching meteoritic materials captured on Earth with known parent bodies.

  6. Derivation of a Clinical Decision Instrument to Identify Adult Patients with Mild Traumatic Intracranial Hemorrhage at Low Risk for Requiring ICU Admission

    PubMed Central

    Nishijima, Daniel K.; Sena, Matthew J.; Galante, Joseph M.; Shahlaie, Kiarash; London, Jason A.; Melnikow, Joy; Holmes, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objective The objective of this study was to derive a clinical decision instrument with a sensitivity of at least 95% (with upper and lower bounds of the 95% CIs within a 5% range) to identify adult emergency department patients with mild traumatic intracranial hemorrhage (tICH) who are at low risk for requiring critical care resources during hospitalization and thus may not need admission to the ICU. Methods This was a prospective, observational study of adult patients with mild tICH (initial Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] score 13 to 15 with tICH) presenting to a Level 1 trauma center from July 2009 to February 2013. The need for ICU admission was defined as the presence of an acute critical care intervention (intubation, neurosurgical intervention, blood product transfusion, vasopressor or inotrope administration, invasive monitoring for hemodynamic instability, emergent treatment for arrhythmia or cardiopulmonary resuscitation, therapeutic angiography). We derived the clinical decision instrument using binary recursive partitioning (with a misclassification cost of 20 to 1). The accuracy of the decision instrument was compared to the treating physician’s (emergency medicine faculty) clinical impression. Results A total of 600 patients with mild tICH were enrolled; 116 patients (19%) had a critical care intervention. The derived instrument consisted of four predictor variables: admission GCS score less than 15, non-isolated head injury, age 65 years or older, and evidence of swelling or shift on initial cranial computed tomography scan. The decision instrument identified 114 of 116 patients requiring an acute critical care intervention (sensitivity 98.3%; 95% CI 93.9–99.5%) if at least one variable was present, and 192 of 484 patients that did not have an acute critical care intervention (specificity 39.7%; 95% CI 35.4–44.1%) if no variables were present. Physician clinical impression was slightly less sensitive (90.1%; 95% CI 83.1–94.4%) but overall

  7. Seeking the Admission Hybrid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucido, Jerome A.

    2012-01-01

    When one thinks of seminal publications in college admission, the first piece that comes to mind is B. Alden Thresher's "College Admissions in the Public Interest" (1966). Thresher's work, relevant to this day, is credited with being the foundational document of the admission profession. McDonough and Robertson's 1995 study, commissioned by NACAC,…

  8. Disruption of posteromedial large-scale neural communication predicts recovery from coma

    PubMed Central

    de Pasquale, Francesco; Vuillaume, Corine; Riu, Beatrice; Loubinoux, Isabelle; Geeraerts, Thomas; Seguin, Thierry; Bounes, Vincent; Fourcade, Olivier; Demonet, Jean-Francois; Péran, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We hypothesize that the major consciousness deficit observed in coma is due to the breakdown of long-range neuronal communication supported by precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and that prognosis depends on a specific connectivity pattern in these networks. Methods: We compared 27 prospectively recruited comatose patients who had severe brain injury (Glasgow Coma Scale score <8; 14 traumatic and 13 anoxic cases) with 14 age-matched healthy participants. Standardized clinical assessment and fMRI were performed on average 4 ± 2 days after withdrawal of sedation. Analysis of resting-state fMRI connectivity involved a hypothesis-driven, region of interest–based strategy. We assessed patient outcome after 3 months using the Coma Recovery Scale–Revised (CRS-R). Results: Patients who were comatose showed a significant disruption of functional connectivity of brain areas spontaneously synchronized with PCC, globally notwithstanding etiology. The functional connectivity strength between PCC and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) was significantly different between comatose patients who went on to recover and those who eventually scored an unfavorable outcome 3 months after brain injury (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.001; linear regression between CRS-R and PCC-mPFC activity coupling at rest, Spearman ρ = 0.93, p < 0.003). Conclusion: In both etiology groups (traumatic and anoxic), changes in the connectivity of PCC-centered, spontaneously synchronized, large-scale networks account for the loss of external and internal self-centered awareness observed during coma. Sparing of functional connectivity between PCC and mPFC may predict patient outcome, and further studies are needed to substantiate this potential prognosis biomarker. PMID:26561296

  9. Amiodarone-induced myxoedema coma.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Syed; Ayoub, Walaa; Hassan, Mona; Wisgerhof, Max

    2014-01-01

    A 62-year-old man was found to have bradycardia, hypothermia and respiratory failure 3 weeks after initiation of amiodarone therapy for atrial fibrillation. Thyroid-stimulating hormone was found to be 168 μIU/mL (nl. 0.3-5 μIU/mL) and free thyroxine (FT4) was <0.2 ng/dL (nl. 0.8-1.8 ng/dL). He received intravenous fluids, vasopressor therapy and stress dose steroids; he was intubated and admitted to the intensive care unit. He received 500 μg of intravenous levothyroxine in the first 18 h of therapy, and 150 µg intravenous daily thereafter. Haemodynamic improvement, along with complete recovery of mental status, occurred after 48 h. Twelve hours after the initiation of therapy, FT4 was 0.96 ng/dL. The patient was maintained on levothyroxine 175 (g POorally daily. A thyroid ultrasound showed diffuse heterogeneity. The 24 hour excretion of iodine was 3657 (mcg (25-756 ( mcg). The only two cases of amiodarone-induced myxoedema coma in the literature report patient death despite supportive therapy and thyroid hormone replacement. This case represents the most thoroughly investigated case of amiodarone-induced myxoedema coma with a history significant for subclinical thyroid disease. PMID:24729111

  10. Amiodarone-induced myxoedema coma

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Syed; Ayoub, Walaa; Hassan, Mona; Wisgerhof, Max

    2014-01-01

    A 62-year-old man was found to have bradycardia, hypothermia and respiratory failure 3 weeks after initiation of amiodarone therapy for atrial fibrillation. Thyroid-stimulating hormone was found to be 168 μIU/mL (nl. 0.3–5 μIU/mL) and free thyroxine (FT4) was <0.2 ng/dL (nl. 0.8–1.8 ng/dL). He received intravenous fluids, vasopressor therapy and stress dose steroids; he was intubated and admitted to the intensive care unit. He received 500 μg of intravenous levothyroxine in the first 18 h of therapy, and 150 µg intravenous daily thereafter. Haemodynamic improvement, along with complete recovery of mental status, occurred after 48 h. Twelve hours after the initiation of therapy, FT4 was 0.96 ng/dL. The patient was maintained on levothyroxine 175 (g POorally daily. A thyroid ultrasound showed diffuse heterogeneity. The 24 hour excretion of iodine was 3657 (mcg (25–756 ( mcg). The only two cases of amiodarone-induced myxoedema coma in the literature report patient death despite supportive therapy and thyroid hormone replacement. This case represents the most thoroughly investigated case of amiodarone-induced myxoedema coma with a history significant for subclinical thyroid disease. PMID:24729111

  11. Learning from history: The Glasgow Airport terrorist attack.

    PubMed

    Crichton, Gillies

    Glasgow Airport was the target of a terrorist attack on 30th June, 2007. Many people within Scotland had come to believe that Scotland was immune from terrorism. This perception was in large part informed by Scotland's experience during the protracted Troubles in Northern Ireland, during which the Provisional Irish Republican Army's mainland bombing campaign focused on targets in England, sparing both Scotland and Wales. While Glasgow Airport did not expect such an attack to take place, meticulous planning, organising and testing of plans had taken place to mitigate the unlikely event of such an attack. The attack stands up as a shining example of robust business continuity management, where the airport reopened for business as usual in less than 24 hours from the time of the attack. Little is known about how the airport handled the situation in conjunction with other responding agencies as people tend to want to focus on high-profile disasters only. Yet countless such incidents are happening worldwide on a daily basis, in which there are excellent learning opportunities, and, taken in the spirit of converting hindsight into foresight, the likelihood of similar incidents could potentially be reduced in the future. PMID:25416378

  12. The Glasgow Outcome Scale - 40 years of application and refinement.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Tom; Wilson, Lindsay; Ponsford, Jennie; Levin, Harvey; Teasdale, Graham; Bond, Michael

    2016-08-01

    The Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) was first published in 1975 by Bryan Jennett and Michael Bond. With over 4,000 citations to the original paper, it is the most highly cited outcome measure in studies of brain injury and the second most-cited paper in clinical neurosurgery. The original GOS and the subsequently developed extended GOS (GOSE) are recommended by several national bodies as the outcome measure for major trauma and for head injury. The enduring appeal of the GOS is linked to its simplicity, short administration time, reliability and validity, stability, flexibility of administration (face-to-face, over the telephone and by post), cost-free availability and ease of access. These benefits apply to other derivatives of the scale, including the Glasgow Outcome at Discharge Scale (GODS) and the GOS paediatric revision. The GOS was devised to provide an overview of outcome and to focus on social recovery. Since the initial development of the GOS, there has been an increasing focus on the multidimensional nature of outcome after head injury. This Review charts the development of the GOS, its refinement and usage over the past 40 years, and considers its current and future roles in developing an understanding of brain injury. PMID:27418377

  13. [Circulatory survival of irreversible comas].

    PubMed

    Cartier, F; Chevet, D; Garré, M; Launois, B; Thomas, R; Le Pollès, R

    1975-01-18

    On the basis of a series of 53 cases of irreversible coma maintained in circulatory survival with the aim of removing the kidneys, the authors discuss the mode of treatment, with particular reference to the intravenous fluids used and the use of medications influencing the circulation. Fluid and electrolytes given must be adjusted hourly to ensure the exact replacement of urinary losses. Isoprotenerol is the only medication usually necessary. In the event of circulatory insufficiency, which is difficult to foresee and hence prevent, immediate volume expansion in a short a time as possible and isoprotenerol most frequently correct the situation (14 out of 17 cases). Thus effective circulation may be maintained until the kidneys are removed (48 out of 53 cases). 92 p.cent of the grafted kidneys functioned from the first day onwards. PMID:1093120

  14. Trigger Happy: The Troubling Trend of Primary School Closures in Glasgow City Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Joshua F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the continuing trend of school closures in Glasgow, Scotland. Particular attention will be paid to Stonedyke Primary School, which Glasgow City Council was proposing to close at the time of this research. Current statistical data and research is used to better examine the current crisis Stonedyke Primary faces. Furthermore,…

  15. Technology in International Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    In a relatively short time, technology applications have become an essential feature of the admissions business. They make the jobs of international admissions professionals easier in many ways, allowing for more robust communication with applicants and counselors, a streamlined application process, and quicker access to information about…

  16. An Admissions Officer's Credentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Marilee Jones has resigned as a dean of admissions at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology after admitting that she had misrepresented her academic degrees when first applying to work at the university in 1979. As one of the nation's most prominent admissions officers--and a leader in the movement to make the application process less…

  17. What Admissions Officials Think

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Over the past two decades, college admissions has become a prime-time preoccupation. Most people know at least something about the process, especially if they have a teenager in high school and a college guide on their coffee table. Nonetheless, widespread public misconceptions persist about admissions requirements, the selection process, and the…

  18. Reversible coma and Duret hemorrhage after intracranial hypotension from remote lumbar spine surgery: case report.

    PubMed

    Bonow, Robert H; Bales, James W; Morton, Ryan P; Levitt, Michael R; Zhang, Fangyi

    2016-03-01

    Intracranial hypotension is a rare condition caused by spontaneous or iatrogenic CSF leaks that alter normal CSF dynamics. Symptoms range from mild headaches to transtentorial herniation, coma, and death. Duret hemorrhages have been reported to occur in some patients with this condition and are traditionally believed to be associated with a poor neurological outcome. A 73-year-old man with a remote history of spinal fusion presented with syncope and was found to have small subdural hematomas on head CT studies. He was managed nonoperatively and discharged with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15, only to return 3 days later with obtundation, fixed downward gaze, anisocoria, and absent cranial nerve reflexes. A CT scan showed Duret hemorrhages and subtle enlargement of the subdural hematomas, though the hematomas remained too small to account for his poor clinical condition. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed a large lumbar pseudomeningocele in the area of prior fusion. His condition dramatically improved when he was placed in the Trendelenburg position and underwent repair of the pseudomeningocele. He was kept flat for 7 days and was ultimately discharged in good condition. On long-term follow-up, his only identifiable deficit was diplopia due to an internuclear ophthalmoplegia. Intracranial hypotension is a rare condition that can cause profound morbidity, including tonsillar herniation and brainstem hemorrhage. With proper identification and treatment of the CSF leak, patients can make functional recoveries. PMID:26588496

  19. Models for Cometary Comae Containing Negative Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordiner, M. A.; Charnley, S. B.

    2012-01-01

    The presence of negative ions (anions) in cometary comae is known from Giotto mass spectrometry of IP/Halley. The anions O(-), OH(-), C(-), CH(-) and CN(-) have been detected, as well as unidentified anions with masses 22-65 and 85-110 amu [I]. Organic molecular anions such as C4H(-) and C6H(-) are known to have a significant impact on the charge balance of interstellar clouds and circumstellar envelopes and have been shown to act as catalysts for the gas phase synthesis of larger hydrocarbon molecules in the ISM, but their importance in cometary comae has not yet been fully explored. We present details of our new models for the chemistry of cometary comae that include atomic and molecular anions. We calculate the impact of these anions on the charge balance and examine their importance for cometary coma chemistry.

  20. Chemical and Hydrodynamical Models of Cometary Comae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Multi-fluid modelling of the outflowing gases which sublimate from cometary nuclei as they approach the Sun is necessary for understanding the important physical and chemical processes occurring in this complex plasma. Coma chemistry models can be employed to interpret observational data and to ultimately determine chemical composition and structure of the nuclear ices and dust. We describe a combined chemical and hydrodynamical model [1] in which differential equations for the chemical abundances and the energy balance are solved as a function of distance from the cometary nucleus. The presence of negative ions (anions) in cometary comae is known from Giotto mass spectrometry of 1P/Halley. The anions O(-), OH(-), C(-), CH(-) and CN(-) have been detected, as well as unidentified anions with masses 22-65 and 85-110 amu [2]. Organic molecular anions such as C4H(-) and C6H(-) are known to have a significant impact on the charge balance of interstellar clouds and circumstellar envelopes and have been shown to act as catalysts for the gas-phase synthesis of larger hydrocarbon molecules in the ISM, but their importance in cometary comae has not yet been fully explored. We present details of new models for the chemistry of cometary comae that include atomic and molecular anions and calculate the impact of these anions on the coma physics and chemistry af the coma.

  1. Modeling the coma of 2060 Chiron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boice, D. C.; Konno, I.; Stern, S. Alan; Huebner, W. F.

    1991-01-01

    Observations of comet-like activity and a resolved coma have established that 2060 Chiron is a comet. Determinations of its radius range from 65 to 200 km. This unusually large size for a comet suggests that the atmosphere of Chiron is intermediate to the tightly bound, thin atmospheres typical of planets and satellite and the greatly extended atmospheres in free expansion typical of cometary comae. Under certain conditions it may gravitationally bind an atmosphere that is thick compared to its size, while a significant amount of gas escapes to an extensive exosphere. These attributes coupled with reports of sporadic outbursts at large heliocentric distances and the identification of CN in the coma make Chiron a challenging object to model. Simple models of gas production and the dusty coma were recently presented but a general concensus on many basic features has not emerged. Development was begun on a more complete coma model of Chiron. The objectives are to report progress on this model and give the preliminary results for understanding Chiron.

  2. Coma Chemistry of Sun-grazing Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charnley, Steven B.; Cordiner, Martin A.; Milam, Stefanie N.; Gicquel, Adeline

    2014-11-01

    The recent apparition of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON), and its disruption during perihelion passage, has motivated numerous observations of the associated variations in the gas and dust composition. More generally, comet ISON has regenerated interest in the physics and chemistry of Sun-grazing comets. Chemical models of cometary comae have typically always been developed to model comets at about 1 AU and beyond [1]. Apart from one early coma chemistry model [2], which calculated the coma chemistry of a comet at 0.125 AU with assumed single-fluid physics, there have been no detailed studies of coma chemistry at the small heliocentric distances experienced by comet ISON and other Sun-grazing comets.In this contribution we will discuss the various physical and chemical processes that have to be considered when modeling the comae of Sun-grazing comets. We will present comet models in which the physical and chemical structures of the multi-fluid flow are calculated self-consistently [3] as a function of decreasing heliocentric distance.[1] Rodgers, S.D., Charnley S.B., Boice, D.C. & Huebner, W.F. (2004) In COMETS II, Eds. Festou, M., Keller, H.U. & Weaver, H.A., University of Arizona Press, 505-522 [2] Swift, M.B. & Mitchell, G.F. (1978) Icarus, 47, 412 [3] Rodgers, S.D. & Charnley, S.B. (2002) MNRAS, 330, 660This work was supported by NASA's Planetary Atmospheres and Planetary Astronomy Programs.

  3. Some new insights into the history of the Glasgow time ball and time guns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, David; Kinns, Roger

    2012-03-01

    The 1857 time ball machinery at the Glasgow Sailors' Home was supplied by Alexander McKenzie, mechanist, using a design that had much in common with the 1853 Edinburgh apparatus. It was operated using electrical connections to a mean time clock in the Home. This clock required adjustment by hand each day to compensate for its losing rate. Such manual intervention and lack of independent verification of accuracy under-mined the authority of the signal. The relative prestige of the Glasgow and Edinburgh Observatories was an important issue. There was no telegraphic link between Glasgow Observatory and the City until the end of 1863, but it had been demonstrated as early as October 1855 that a time ball could be dropped by telegraph from Edinburgh. Another Edinburgh initiative in September 1863 using time guns fired from Edinburgh caused offence in Glasgow and the trials were terminated in February 1864. Professor Grant, Director of Glasgow Observatory, argued successfully that a system of slave clocks controlled from Glasgow Observatory would be far superior to either a time ball or time guns which only provided a signal once per day. He won the debate in March 1864.

  4. An Exploration of Smoking Behavior of African Male Immigrants Living in Glasgow

    PubMed Central

    Ezika, Ejiofor Augustine

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The aim of this research study was to explore the smoking behavior of adult African male immigrant smokers living in Glasgow to inform and contribute to primary health promotion frameworks. METHODS 25 adult African male immigrant smokers living in Glasgow were recruited via consecutive sampling by soliciting for participation through the use of flyers, posters and word of mouth. Data collection occurred via semi-structured face-to-face interviews. The interviews were audio taped, after which verbatim transcription was carried out and the data analyzed thematically. RESULTS The participants’ smoking habits were influenced by cold weather environment as well as societal norms that appear to make the smoking habit more acceptable in Glasgow than Africa. It appears the more educated the participants were, the fewer cigarettes they smoked. However, there was only a slight difference in the number of cigarettes smoked between participants with a degree and those with a postgraduate degree. CONCLUSION The participants’ smoking habits in Glasgow appear to have increased because of environmental variables associated with living in Glasgow, specifically the cold weather environment and high acceptability of smoking habits in Glasgow. PMID:25741179

  5. FK Comae, King of Spin: the Movie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    FK Comae is an ultra-fast rotating, single yellow giant, product of a recent W UMa merger. Extraordinary levels of FUV and X-ray emission rate FK Comae a coronal powerhouse on par with the most extreme short-period RS CVn binaries. As a single star, FK Comae has clear advantages as a laboratory for exploring high-energy activity. We will bring to bear Hubble's powerful Cosmic Origins Spectrograph, together with Chandra HETGS and groundbased Zeeman Doppler Imaging, to trace -- over two stellar rotations -- spatial relationships between bright FUV patches, extended X-ray emission zones, and the photospheric dark spots, to inform ideas of coronal structure and heating at the outer limits of magnetospheric activity among the coronal cool stars.

  6. Comet coma sample return via Giotto II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsou, P.; Brownlee, D. E.; Albee, A. L.

    1985-01-01

    A comet coma sample return is possible with a low-cost flyby mission. Collecting coma materials and returning them to earth can be accomplished in a free-return trajectory. Intact capture of coma dust, preserving the cometary dust mineralogy, is possible at low encounter speeds. Samples from a known cometary source can then be compared with the wealth of information on meteorites and interplanetary dust. Sample return via Giotto II is a unique, low-cost NASA/ESA cooperative opportunity. With ESA providing the Giotto spacecraft and payload and NASA the sample return capability, first-class science can be accomplished at a very low cost for both NASA and ESA. This paper focuses on the sample return aspects, including sample return objectives, sample collection techniques, experimental work to verify collection concepts, and some of the characteristics of the cometary targets for sample return.

  7. FK Comae: King of Spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, T. R.; Korhonen, H.; Harper, G. M.; Brown, A.; Redfield, S.

    2004-12-01

    Fast-rotating early-G giants often display ultraviolet profiles of ``hot lines,'' like O VI (3×105 K), up to twice as broad as anticipated from the photospheric υsin {i}. This peculiar behavior has been attributed to highly extended coronal outer atmospheres. FUSE recently has contributed fundamentally to the exploration of these ``super-rotational'' effects by observing the fascinating object FK Comae Berenices (G5 III). It is prototype of a class of rapidly rotating single giants which display spectacular emission activity from X-rays to radio. FK Com has a spin period of only 2.4 d, and a remarkable υsin {i} of 160 km s-1. The origins of such ultra-fast--rotating stars are controversial. They might result from a coalesced contact binary, cannibalism of a ``hot Jupiter,'' or simply represent the top of the natural spin distribution of moderate-mass Hertzsprung gap giants. In February 2004, FUSE obtained a 13 ks exposure of FK Com in the 920--1180 Å range, the first UV observation of this unusual object since the IUE era a decade ago, and by far the best quality spectrum to date. The FUV emissions of O VI λ 1031 and C III λ 977 are enormously broad, asymmetric, but nearly identical in shape, aside from a blue-shifted absorption component in the latter. The FHWM's are a remarkable 600 km s-1, about twice the broadest FUV profile of any late-type star observed up to that point. The blueshifted C III feature might represent a wind at ˜ 3×104 K, or alternatively a scattering structure in the highly extended coronal envelope, something like the ``prominences'' seen already in Hα . The asymmetric O VI profile might indicate an outflow at higher ˜ 3× 105 K temperatures; or simply reflects a skewed distribution of high-altitude activity in the equatorial zones of FK Com. The relationship between the hot lines and photospheric active regions---deduced from contemporaneous optical Doppler mapping---also will be discussed. This work was supported by FUSE Guest

  8. The Three Sources of Gas in the Comae of Comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, W. F.

    1995-01-01

    Surface water ice on a comet nucleus is the major source of coma gas. Dust, entrained by coma gas, fragments and vaporizes, forming a second, distributed source of coma gas constituents. Ice species more volatile than water ice below the surface of the nucleus are a third source of coma gas. Vapors from these ices, produced by heat penetrating into the nucleus, diffuse through pores outward into the coma. The second and third sources provide minor, but sometimes easily detectible, gaseous species in the coma. We present mixing ratios of observed minor coma constituents relative to water vapor as a function of heliocentric and cometocentric distances and compare these ratios with model predictions, assuming the sources of the minor species are either coma dust or volatile ices in the nucleus.

  9. Space Radar Image of Missouri River, Glasgow, Missouri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a false-color L-band image of an area near Glasgow, Missouri, centered at about 39.2 degrees north latitude and 92.8 degrees west longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 50th orbit on October 3, 1994. The false-color composite was made by displaying the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received) return in red; the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) return in green; and the sum of the two channels in blue. The area shown is approximately 37 kilometers by 25 kilometers (23 miles by 16 miles). The radar data, coupled with pre-flood aerial photography and satellite data and post-flood topographic and field data, are being used to evaluate changes associated with levee breaks in landforms, where deposits formed during the widespread flooding in 1993 along the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers. The distinct radar scattering properties of farmland, sand fields and scoured areas will be used to inventory floodplains along the Missouri River and determine the processes by which these areas return to preflood conditions. The image shows one such levee break near Glasgow, Missouri. In the upper center of the radar image is a region covered by several meters of sand, shown as blue regions below the bend in the river. West (left) of this dark area, a blue gap in the levee tree canopy can be seen, showing the area where the levee failed. Radar data such as these can help scientists more accurately assess the potential for future flooding in this region and how that might impact surrounding communities. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar(SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm

  10. Better Glasgow outcome score, cerebral perfusion pressure and focal brain oxygenation in severely traumatized brain following direct regional brain hypothermia therapy: A prospective randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Idris, Zamzuri; Zenian, Mohd Sofan; Muzaimi, Mustapha; Hamid, Wan Zuraida Wan Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Background: Induced hypothermia for treatment of traumatic brain injury is controversial. Since many pathways involved in the pathophysiology of secondary brain injury are temperature dependent, regional brain hypothermia is thought capable to mitigate those processes. The objectives of this study are to assess the therapeutic effects and complications of regional brain cooling in severe head injury with Glasgow coma scale (GCS) 6-7. Materials and Methods: A prospective randomized controlled pilot study involving patients with severe traumatic brain injury with GCS 6 and 7 who required decompressive craniectomy. Patients were randomized into two groups: Cooling and no cooling. For the cooling group, analysis was made by dividing the group into mild and deep cooling. Brain was cooled by irrigating the brain continuously with cold Hartmann solution for 24-48 h. Main outcome assessments were a dichotomized Glasgow outcome score (GOS) at 6 months posttrauma. Results: A total of 32 patients were recruited. The cooling-treated patients did better than no cooling. There were 63.2% of patients in cooling group attained good GOS at 6 months compared to only 15.4% in noncooling group (P = 0.007). Interestingly, the analysis at 6 months post-trauma disclosed mild-cooling-treated patients did better than no cooling (70% vs. 15.4% attained good GOS, P = 0.013) and apparently, the deep-cooling-treated patients failed to be better than either no cooling (P = 0.074) or mild cooling group (P = 0.650). Conclusion: Data from this pilot study imply direct regional brain hypothermia appears safe, feasible and maybe beneficial in treating severely head-injured patients. PMID:25685201

  11. A simple tool to predict admission at the time of triage

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Allan; Rodgers, Kenneth; Ireland, Alastair; Jamdar, Ravi; McKay, Gerard A

    2015-01-01

    Aim To create and validate a simple clinical score to estimate the probability of admission at the time of triage. Methods This was a multicentre, retrospective, cross-sectional study of triage records for all unscheduled adult attendances in North Glasgow over 2 years. Clinical variables that had significant associations with admission on logistic regression were entered into a mixed-effects multiple logistic model. This provided weightings for the score, which was then simplified and tested on a separate validation group by receiving operator characteristic (ROC) analysis and goodness-of-fit tests. Results 215 231 presentations were used for model derivation and 107 615 for validation. Variables in the final model showing clinically and statistically significant associations with admission were: triage category, age, National Early Warning Score (NEWS), arrival by ambulance, referral source and admission within the last year. The resulting 6-variable score showed excellent admission/discharge discrimination (area under ROC curve 0.8774, 95% CI 0.8752 to 0.8796). Higher scores also predicted early returns for those who were discharged: the odds of subsequent admission within 28 days doubled for every 7-point increase (log odds=+0.0933 per point, p<0.0001). Conclusions This simple, 6-variable score accurately estimates the probability of admission purely from triage information. Most patients could accurately be assigned to ‘admission likely’, ‘admission unlikely’, ‘admission very unlikely’ etc., by setting appropriate cut-offs. This could have uses in patient streaming, bed management and decision support. It also has the potential to control for demographics when comparing performance over time or between departments. PMID:24421344

  12. Adopting seven-day working in practice: a report by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow.

    PubMed

    Scott, H R; Isles, C J; Fisher, B M; Long, J; Dunn, F G

    2014-11-01

    Following the UK Academy of Medical Royal Colleges Report on seven day consultant present care, the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow held a symposium to explore clinicians' views on the ways in which clinical care should best be enhanced outside 'normal' working hours. In addition, a survey of members and fellows was undertaken to identify the tests which would make the greatest impact on care out of hours. Key messages were: (a) that seven-day consultant delivered care would not achieve the desired benefit to patient care if introduced in isolation from other inter-relating factors. These include alternatives to hospital admission, enhanced nursing support, increased junior medical, pharmacy, social care and ambulance availability and greater access to selected diagnostic services; (b) that the care of hospital inpatients is a service which is one part of the totality of secondary care provision. Any significant change in the deployment of staff for inpatient care must be carefully managed so as not to result in a reduced quality of care provided by the rest of the system. PMID:25351425

  13. Prediction of Recovery from Coma After CPR

    MedlinePlus

    AAN Summary of Evidence-based Guideline for PATIENTS AND THEIR FAMILIES PREDICTION OF RECOVERY FROM COMA AFTER CPR This summary will provide you ... of certainty. CLINICAL EXAM FINDINGS There is strong evidence* that the following findings from the clinical exam ...

  14. Functional MRI and Outcome in Traumatic Coma

    PubMed Central

    Giacino, Joseph T.; Wu, Ona

    2013-01-01

    Advances in task-based functional MRI (fMRI), resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI), and arterial-spin labeled (ASL) perfusion MRI have occurred at a rapid pace in recent years. These techniques for measuring brain function have great potential to improve the accuracy of prognostication for civilian and military patients with traumatic coma. In addition, fMRI, rs-fMRI, and ASL have provided novel insights into the pathophysiology of traumatic disorders of consciousness, as well as mechanisms of recovery from coma. However, functional neuroimaging techniques have yet to achieve widespread clinical use as prognostic tests for patients with traumatic coma. Rather, a broad spectrum of methodological hurdles currently limits the feasibility of clinical implementation. In this review, we discuss the basic principles of fMRI, rs-fMRI and ASL and their potential applications as prognostic tools for patients with traumatic coma. We also discuss future strategies for overcoming the current barriers to clinical implementation. PMID:23881623

  15. New red jewels in Coma Berenices

    SciTech Connect

    Terrien, Ryan C.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Deshpande, Rohit; Bender, Chad F.; Hearty, Frederick R.; Schneider, Donald P.; Cargile, Phillip A.; Pepper, Joshua; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Siverd, Robert J.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Cottaar, Michiel; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Jackson, Kelly M.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Majewski, Steven R.; Nidever, David L.; Weaver, Benjamin A.; and others

    2014-02-20

    We have used Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III (SDSS-III) Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) radial velocity observations in the near-infrared H-band to explore the membership of the nearby (86.7 ± 0.9 pc) open cluster Coma Berenices (Melotte 111), concentrating on the poorly populated low-mass end of the main sequence. Using SDSS-III APOGEE radial velocity measurements, we confirm the membership of eight K/M dwarf members, providing the first confirmed low-mass members of the Coma Berenices cluster. Using R ∼ 2000 spectra from IRTF-SpeX, we confirm the independently luminosity classes of these targets, and find their metallicities to be consistent with the known solar mean metallicity of Coma Berenices and of M dwarfs in the solar neighborhood. In addition, the APOGEE spectra have enabled measurement of vsin i for each target and detection for the first time of the low-mass secondary components of the known binary systems Melotte 111 102 and Melotte 111 120, as well as identification of the previously unknown binary system 2MASS J12214070+2707510. Finally, we use Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope photometry to measure photometric variability and rotation periods for a subset of the Coma Berenices members.

  16. Coma Patient Monitoring System Using Image Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankalp, Meenu

    2011-12-01

    COMA PATIENT MONITORING SYSTEM provides high quality healthcare services in the near future. To provide more convenient and comprehensive medical monitoring in big hospitals since it is tough job for medical personnel to monitor each patient for 24 hours.. The latest development in patient monitoring system can be used in Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Critical Care Unit (CCU), and Emergency Rooms of hospital. During treatment, the patient monitor is continuously monitoring the coma patient to transmit the important information. Also in the emergency cases, doctor are able to monitor patient condition efficiently to reduce time consumption, thus it provides more effective healthcare system. So due to importance of patient monitoring system, the continuous monitoring of the coma patient can be simplified. This paper investigates about the effects seen in the patient using "Coma Patient Monitoring System" which is a very advanced product related to physical changes in body movement of the patient and gives Warning in form of alarm and display on the LCD in less than one second time. It also passes a sms to a person sitting at the distant place if there exists any movement in any body part of the patient. The model for the system uses Keil software for the software implementation of the developed system.

  17. On the enigma of FK Comae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, F.; Basri, G.

    1981-01-01

    Stellar chromospheric and coronal activity appears ubiquitous among late type stars to the left of the TR-wind boundary line (Linksy and Haisch 1979). The level of activity as measured by the X-ray surface flux is linearly proportional to the stellar angular velocity, with the exception of slowly rotating dwarfs (Walter 1981, 1982; Walter and Bowyer 1981). The peculiar rapidly rotating G giant FK Comae (Merrill 1948) appears to fit into this pattern. Line widths indicate V sin i = 120 + or - 20 km s(-1) (Bopp and Stencel 1981). FK Comae has strong Ca II H and K and H alpha emission, strong transition region UV lines (Bopp and Stencel 1981), and an X-ray surface flux in good agreement with its rapid rotation (Walter 1981). Yet, FK Comae is an enigmatic star. It is a rapid rotator, but it is not clear why it is a rapid rotator. There is no direct evidence for duplicity; indeed, the upper limit of 20 km s(-1) on the K velocity puts tight constraints on any binary configuration, especially if sin i approx 1, as indicated by the large V sin i. Bopp and Stencel (1981) have suggested that FK Comae is an example of a coalesced W UMa system (Webbink 1976), wherein the orbital angular momentum has become rotational angular momentum of the coalesced star.

  18. The Admissions Equity Struggle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Eric

    2012-01-01

    It has been a long, litigious road from Heman Sweatt, an African-American mail carrier who wanted to attend the prestigious, all-White law school at the University of Texas at Austin in 1946, to Abigail Fisher, a White high school student who failed to win undergraduate admission to the same university a half-century later. Depending on what the…

  19. Chemical Recycling of HCN in Cometary Comae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boice, Daniel C.; Kawakita, Hideyo; Shinnaka, Yoshiharu; Mumma, Michael J.; Kobayashi, Hitomi; Ogawa, Sayuri

    2014-11-01

    Modeling is essential to understand the important physical and chemical processes that occur in cometary comae, especially the relationship between putative parent and daughter molecules, such as, HCN and CN. Photochemistry is a major source of ions and electrons that further initiate key gas-phase reactions, contributing to the plethora of molecules and atoms observed in comets. The effects of photoelectrons that interact via impacts are important to the overall excitation and dissociation processes in the inner coma. We consider the relevant processes in the collision-dominated, inner coma of a comet within a global modeling framework to understand observations of HCN and CN. The CN source(s) must be able to produce highly collimated jets, be consistent with the observed CN parent scale length, and have a production rate consistent with the observed CN production. HCN fulfills these conditions in some comets (e.g., 1P/Halley, Hale-Bopp) while it does not in others (e.g., 8P/Tuttle, 6P/d’Arrest, 73P/S-W3, 2P/Encke, 9P/Temple 1 and C/2007 W1).We investigate the chemistry of HCN with our chemical kinetics coma model including a network with other possible CN parents, as well as a dust component that may be a potential source of CN. It is seen that the major destruction pathways of HCN are via photo dissociation (into H and CN) and protonation with water group ions - primarily H3O+. We point out the intriguing “recycling” of HCN via protonation reactions with H3O+, H2O+, OH+, and subsequent dissociative recombination. It seems that HCN molecules observed in the coma can consist of those initially released from the nucleus and those that are freshly formed at different locations in the coma via these protonation/dissociation reactions. We will investigate implications for reconciling discrepancies between observations of HCN and CN in cometary comae.Acknowledgements: We appreciate support from the NSF Planetary Astronomy Program. This program is partially

  20. Seizure and coma following Kratom (Mitragynina speciosa Korth) exposure.

    PubMed

    Nelsen, Jamie L; Lapoint, Jeff; Hodgman, Michael J; Aldous, Kenneth M

    2010-12-01

    Reports of toxicity secondary to Kratom are rare and lack of diagnostic testing in human specimens has prevented confirmatory explanation of observed clinical effects. We present a novel case of serious human toxicity following Kratom use confirmed via quantitative analysis of urine by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. A 64 year-old male was witnessed to have a seizure at home following kratom consumption. Upon arrival to the emergency department (ED), the patient was unresponsive. While in the ED, the patient sustained a second seizure. He was intubated to protect his airway. The remainder of his hospital course was uneventful. A urine specimen was collected shortly after admission and sent for analysis. The mitragynine concentration in the urine was 167 ± 15 ng/ml. We report a rare case of Kratom toxicity characterized by a seizure and coma confirmed by urinary analysis of mitragynine by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. The proposed mechanism for this reaction is unclear but suggested mechanisms include adenosine binding or stimulation of adrenergic and/or serotonergic receptors similar to tramadol. PMID:20411370

  1. Effectiveness of direct and non-direct auditory stimulation on coma arousal after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Park, Soohyun; Davis, Alice E

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of direct and non-direct auditory stimulation on arousal in coma patients with severe traumatic brain injury and to compare the effects of direct vs. non-direct auditory stimulation. A crossover intervention study design was used. Nine participants who were comatose after a severe traumatic brain injury underwent direct and non-direct auditory stimulation. Direct auditory stimulation requires a higher level of interpersonal interaction between the patient and stimuli such as voices of family members, orientation by a nurse or family member and familiar music. In contrast, non-direct auditory stimuli were characterized as more general, less familiar, less interactive, indirect and not lively such as general music and TV sounds. Participants received both direct and non-direct auditory stimulation in randomized order for 15 minutes. Recovery of consciousness was measured with the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and Sensory Stimulation Assessment Measure (SSAM). The Friedman test with post hoc analysis by Wilcoxon's signed-rank test comparisons was used for data analysis. Patients who received both direct and non-direct auditory stimulation exhibited significantly increased GCS (p = 0.008) and SSAM scores (p = 0.008) over baseline. The improvement in SSAM scores after direct auditory stimulation was significantly greater than that after non-direct auditory stimulation (p = 0.021), but there was no statistically significant difference in GCS scores (p = 0.139). Auditory stimulation, in particular direct auditory stimulation, might be useful for improving the recovery of consciousness and increasing the arousal of comatose patients. The SSAM is more useful for detecting subtle changes from stimulation intervention than the GCS. PMID:27241789

  2. The mass of the Coma cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The, Lih-Sin

    The dynamical mass determination of galaxies and systems of galaxies shows a large excess of mass above what is directly observed. This excess of mass indicates the presence of dark matter. The nature of this dark matter is still unknown and dark matter in the outer regions of large stellar structures such as clusters of galaxies might provide enough matter to close the universe. The mass distribution of the Coma cluster is investigated. It is shown that optical data alone are unable to distinguish between a wide range of possible mass distribution for the Coma cluster. Low-mass models must have larger density than high-mass models and require that the galaxies move on near-circular orbits, whereas high-mass models require the galaxy orbits to be predominantly radial. The optical data constrain the amount of dark matter very poorly. The x ray data can also be used for a mass determination of the Coma cluster. These data may require the mass of the cluster to be more concentrated to the core than a light-traces-mass model if the central temperature of the gas is high. The above analysis, and most other approaches, assume the existence of dark matter. An alternative approach was proposed by Milgrom (1983a,b,c): the Newtonian law of motion breaks down in a weak field, and must be modified. The present analysis shows that this model is also consistent with optical and x ray data on the Coma cluster, although a good fit required values for Milgrom's universal parameter ao to be 2h1.5 (Ho) = 50 h km/s/Mpc) higher than those inferred from the rotation curves of spiral galaxies. Finally, whether the model of an expanding cluster dominated by a massive binary galaxy is consistent with optical data on the surface density and velocity dispersion of the Coma cluster is investigated. The evolution of the model is simulated for a wide variety of initial conditions. This model is not a viable representation of the Coma cluster.

  3. A tale of two cities: a review of homicide in Melbourne and Glasgow in 2005.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Matthew; Black, Marjorie

    2008-01-01

    The Departments of Forensic Medicine and Science at the University of Glasgow and the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine in Melbourne are academic university-based forensic medicine units providing a medico-legal death investigation service to the Strathclyde region of Scotland and the State of Victoria, Australia, respectively. We reviewed and compared homicides in the two jurisdictions for the year 2005. Whilst gross numbers were comparable, the homicide rate per capita was significantly higher in Glasgow. Death due to stabbing comprised a greater proportion of homicides in Glasgow, reflective of a well recognised social epidemic of knife-related trauma amongst young males. Blunt force trauma was the most prevalent cause of homicidal injury in the Australian cases. The cities shared a low incidence of firearm- related homicide, reflective of strict legislative initiatives. PMID:18341154

  4. Another collision for the Coma cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vikhlinin, A.; Forman, W.; Jones, C.

    1996-01-01

    The wavelet transform analysis of the Rosat position sensitive proportional counter (PSPC) images of the Coma cluster are presented. The analysis shows, on small scales, a substructure dominated by two extended sources surrounding the two bright clusters NGC 4874 and NGC 4889. On scales of about 2 arcmin to 3 arcmin, the analysis reveals a tail of X-ray emission originating near the cluster center, curving to the south and east for approximately 25 arcmin and ending near the galaxy NGC 4911. The results are interpreted in terms of a merger of a group, having a core mass of approximately 10(exp 13) solar mass, with the main body of the Coma cluster.

  5. Coma due to malplaced external ventricular drain.

    PubMed

    Chai, Feng Yih; Farizal, Fadzil; Jegan, Thanabalan

    2013-01-01

    Ventriculostomy or external ventricular drain (EVD) placement by free-hand technique has a high malplacement rate. It is a blind procedure that often requires multiple attempts and revisions. To date, no neurological complication due to EVD malplacement has been reported in the literature. In this report, we present the first case of coma induced by a malplaced EVD and the patient regained consciousness after the drain was adjusted. Our discussion focused on various techniques that can improve the accuracy of EVD insertion. EVD insertion under image guidance provides better accuracy with limited disadvantages. We hypothesized that the patient's coma was due to the mass effect and irritation of the malplaced EVD exerted onto the ventral periaqueductal grey matter and the ascending neurons from upper brainstem. PMID:24101284

  6. Thiopentone induced coma after severe birth asphyxia.

    PubMed Central

    Eyre, J A; Wilkinson, A R

    1986-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of inducing a prolonged coma in severely asphyxiated newborn babies by the infusion of high dose thiopentone. In six severely asphyxiated babies the electroencephalograph (EEG) and blood pressure were monitored continuously. Thiopentone was infused at a rate sufficient to suppress completely the EEG providing the mean blood pressure remained above 35 mm Hg; it was continued until there was no evidence of cerebral oedema for 24 hours. In two the infusion was stopped prematurely because of hypotension that was unresponsive to treatment. In the other four a deep coma was maintained for a median duration of 127 hours. All developed pharmacodynamic tolerance to the thiopentone and showed non-linear elimination kinetics. Three babies died; the three survivors have moderate to severe handicap. It was concluded that with full intensive care it is possible to induce a deep coma; the outcome does not seem to be improved, however, and the incidence of complications was high. PMID:3789788

  7. Chemical Recycling of Molecules in Cometary Comae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boice, Daniel C.; Kawakita, Hideyo; Shinnaka, Yoshiharu; Kobayashi, Hitomi

    2015-08-01

    Modeling is essential to understand the important physical and chemical processes that occur in cometary comae, especially the relationship between native and sibling molecules, such as, HCN and CN. Photochemistry is a major source of ions and electrons that further initiate key gas-phase reactions, leading to the plethora of molecules and atoms observed in comets. The effects of photoelectrons that react via impacts are important to the overall ionization in the inner coma. We have found that many molecules undergo protonation reactions with primarily water, followed by electron recombination resulting in the original molecules in a vibrationally excited state. These excited molecules spontaneously emit photons back to the ground state. We identify this series of reactions as chemical “recycling.” We discuss the importance of this mechanism for HCN, NH3, and water in comets. We also identify other relevant processes in the collision-dominated, inner coma of a comet within a global modeling framework to better understand observations and in situ measurements of cometary species, especially relationships between native and sibling molecules for the Rosetta Mission to Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko.Acknowledgements: We appreciate support from the NSF Planetary Astronomy Program under Grant No. 0908529. This program is partially supported by the MEXT Supported Program for the Strategic Research Foundation at Private Universities, 2014-2018.

  8. FK Comae, King of Spin: the Movie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    FK Comae is an ultra-fast rotating, single yellow giant, product of a recent W UMa merger. Extraordinary levels of FUV and X-ray emission rate FK Comae a coronal powerhouse on par with the most extreme of the better known activity heavyweights: short-period RS CVn binaries. As a single star, FK Comae has clear advantages as a laboratory for exploring the outer limits of magnetospheric activity among the coronal cool stars. FK Comae has a long history of attention at optical and X-ray wavelengths, thanks to its generously spotted surface, and proclivity to flare regularly at high energies. FUSE discovered ultra-broad, redshifted profiles of O VI and C III, but unfortunately the singular observation could not be repeated, thanks to the satellite's flaky attitude system. The remarkable FUV spectrum was taken just a few months before STIS failed in 2004, so there was no opportunity to turn the more powerful gaze of Hubble to the task. Now, finally, the amazing sensitivity of Cosmic Origins Spectrograph can be brought to bear: a single orbit can capture an FUV spectrum of FK Comae with S/N at instrumental limits for bright lines, and digging down to faint Fe XXI 1354 {bridge to the coordinated Chandra HETGS pointing we also are proposing}.We will trace how the bright FUV regions relate spatially to the photospheric dark spots, to inform ideas of coronal structure and heating in these advanced objects. We will probe whether a global magnetosphere exists, and whether the field lines are loaded with hot coronal gas {>10 MK}, as well as the cooler 0.3 MK material already suggested by highly broadened FUSE O VI. Further, we will test whether the striking 100 km/s redshifts of the FUV lines, and similar shifts seen in Ne X by Chandra HETGS, are caused by a massive coronal outflow {perhaps implicated in magnetic braking}. Our method is to exploit, on the one hand, emission-line "Doppler imaging," whereby bright surface regions are mapped onto specific locations in the global

  9. A CO2-rich coma model applied to the neutral coma of Comet West

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, G. F.; Swift, M. B.; Huntress, W. T.

    1982-01-01

    Models of the cometary coma in which the dominant volatile is CO2 have been constructed for a range of heliocentric distances. Model coma abundances of C2, C3, and CN are compared with the abundances observed in Comet West and are found to be in good agreement. Furthermore, the variation with heliocentric distance of C2, C3, and CN model abundances agree well with the observed variation in Comet West. The present work lends detailed support to a previous suggestion that a substance more volatile than water, such as CO2, controls the evaporation of the nucleus of Comet West. The implications for cometary formation are briefly discussed.

  10. Perspectives on differing health outcomes by city: accounting for Glasgow's excess mortality.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Simon Ds; George, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Several health outcomes (including mortality) and health-related behaviors are known to be worse in Scotland than in comparable areas of Europe and the United Kingdom. Within Scotland, Greater Glasgow (in West Central Scotland) experiences disproportionately poorer outcomes independent of measurable variation in socioeconomic status and other important determinants. Many reasons for this have been proposed, particularly related to deprivation, inequalities, and variation in health behaviors. The use of models (such as the application of Bradford Hill's viewpoints on causality to the different hypotheses) has provided useful insights on potentially causal mechanisms, with health behaviors and inequalities likely to represent the strongest individual candidates. This review describes the evolution of our understanding of Glasgow's excess mortality, summarizes some of the key work in this area, and provides some suggestions for future areas of exploration. In the context of demographic change, the experience in Glasgow is an important example of the complexity that frequently lies behind observed variations in health outcomes within and between populations. A comprehensive explanation of Glasgow's excess mortality may continue to remain elusive, but is likely to lie in a complex and difficult-to-measure interplay of health determinants acting at different levels in society throughout the life course. Lessons learned from the detailed examination of different potentially causative determinants in Scotland may provide useful methodological insights that may be applied in other settings. Ongoing efforts to unravel the causal mechanisms are needed to inform public health efforts to reduce health inequalities and improve outcomes in Scotland. PMID:26124684

  11. Drug Issues Affecting Chinese, Indian and Pakistani People Living in Greater Glasgow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, A. J.; Heim, D.; Bakshi, N.; Davies, J. B.; Flatley, K. J.; Hunter, S. C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes research on drug issues affecting Chinese, Indian and Pakistani people living in Greater Glasgow. There were two strands: (i) a questionnaire-based survey of young people and focus groups; (ii) interviews with young people and adults. The primary aims were to gather prevalence data and to investigate perceptions about current…

  12. The Use of Electronic Information Services and Information Literacy: A Glasgow Caledonian University Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, John

    2006-01-01

    The study was undertaken as part of the LIRG/SCONUL Value and Impact study and sought to establish direct evidence of the impact of electronic information services (EIS) on Glasgow Caledonian University students, both past and present. Evidence of the spread of information literacy among students and alumni was also sought. An electronic…

  13. Contested Urban Spaces: Exploring the Analytics of Young Persons' Experiences of Living in Glasgow's Deprived Zones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holligan, Chris; Deuchar, Ross

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports findings from an exploratory study of mainly young people's verbally articulated perceptions of urban life in Glasgow, Scotland. The focus is upon areas of deprivation where territory and social capital is contested and whose meanings are possibly only partially grasped by our informants. Their personal knowledge of violence and…

  14. 78 FR 67218 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Trackage Rights Exemption-Glasgow Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board CSX Transportation, Inc.--Trackage Rights Exemption--Glasgow Railway Company..., referring to Docket No. FD 35778, must be filed with the Surface Transportation Board, 395 E Street...

  15. Nonpolytropic model for the Coma Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusco-Femiano, R.; Hughes, John P.

    1994-01-01

    In this article we demonstrate, for the first time, how a physically motivated static model for both the gas and galaxies in the Coma Cluster of galaxies can jointly fit all available X-ray and optical imaging and spectroscopic data. The principal assumption of this nonpolytropic model (Cavaliere & Fusco-Femiano 1981, hereafter CFF), is that the intracluster gas temperature is proportional to the square of the galaxy velocity dispersion everywhere throughout the cluster; no other assumption about the gas temperature distribution is required. After demonstrating that the CFF nonpolytropic model is an adequate representation of the gas and galaxy distributions, the radial velocity dispersion profile, and the gas temperature distribution, we derive the following information about the Coma Cluster: 1. The central temperature is about 9 keV and the central density is 2.8 x 10(exp -3)/cm(exp 3) for the X-ray emitting plasma; 2. The binding mass of the cluster is approximately 2 x 10(exp 15) solar mass within 5 Mpc for (H(sub 0) = 50 km/sec/Mpc), with a mass-to-light ratio of approximately 160 solar mass/solar luminosity; 3. The contribution of the gas to the total virial mass increases with distance from the cluster center, and we estimate that this ratio is no greater than approximately 50% within 5 Mpc. The ability of the CFF nonpolytropic model to describe the current X-ray and optical data for the Coma Cluster suggests that a significant fraction of the thermal energy contained in the hot gas in this as well as other rich galaxy clusters may have come from the interaction between the galaxies and the ambient cluster medium. interaction between the galaxies and the ambient cluster medium.

  16. Thermodynamics of the Coma Cluster Outskirts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simionescu, A.; Werner, N.; Urban, O.; Allen, S. W.; Fabian, A. C.; Mantz, A.; Matsushita, K.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Sanders, J. S.; Sasaki, T.; Sato, T.; Takei, Y.; Walker, S. A.

    2013-09-01

    We present results from a large mosaic of Suzaku observations of the Coma Cluster, the nearest and X-ray brightest hot (~8 keV), dynamically active, non-cool core system, focusing on the thermodynamic properties of the intracluster medium on large scales. For azimuths not aligned with an infalling subcluster toward the southwest, our measured temperature and X-ray brightness profiles exhibit broadly consistent radial trends, with the temperature decreasing from about 8.5 keV at the cluster center to about 2 keV at a radius of 2 Mpc, which is the edge of our detection limit. The southwest merger significantly boosts the surface brightness, allowing us to detect X-ray emission out to ~2.2 Mpc along this direction. Apart from the southwestern infalling subcluster, the surface brightness profiles show multiple edges around radii of 30-40 arcmin. The azimuthally averaged temperature profile, as well as the deprojected density and pressure profiles, all show a sharp drop consistent with an outwardly-propagating shock front located at 40 arcmin, corresponding to the outermost edge of the giant radio halo observed at 352 MHz with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope. The shock front may be powering this radio emission. A clear entropy excess inside of r 500 reflects the violent merging events linked with these morphological features. Beyond r 500, the entropy profiles of the Coma Cluster along the relatively relaxed directions are consistent with the power-law behavior expected from simple models of gravitational large-scale structure formation. The pressure is also in agreement at these radii with the expected values measured from Sunyaev-Zel'dovich data from the Planck satellite. However, due to the large uncertainties associated with the Coma Cluster measurements, we cannot yet exclude an entropy flattening in this system consistent with that seen in more relaxed cool core clusters.

  17. THERMODYNAMICS OF THE COMA CLUSTER OUTSKIRTS

    SciTech Connect

    Simionescu, A.; Werner, N.; Urban, O.; Allen, S. W.; Fabian, A. C.; Sanders, J. S.; Walker, S. A.; Mantz, A.; Matsushita, K.; Sasaki, T.; Sato, T.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Takei, Y.

    2013-09-20

    We present results from a large mosaic of Suzaku observations of the Coma Cluster, the nearest and X-ray brightest hot ({approx}8 keV), dynamically active, non-cool core system, focusing on the thermodynamic properties of the intracluster medium on large scales. For azimuths not aligned with an infalling subcluster toward the southwest, our measured temperature and X-ray brightness profiles exhibit broadly consistent radial trends, with the temperature decreasing from about 8.5 keV at the cluster center to about 2 keV at a radius of 2 Mpc, which is the edge of our detection limit. The southwest merger significantly boosts the surface brightness, allowing us to detect X-ray emission out to {approx}2.2 Mpc along this direction. Apart from the southwestern infalling subcluster, the surface brightness profiles show multiple edges around radii of 30-40 arcmin. The azimuthally averaged temperature profile, as well as the deprojected density and pressure profiles, all show a sharp drop consistent with an outwardly-propagating shock front located at 40 arcmin, corresponding to the outermost edge of the giant radio halo observed at 352 MHz with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope. The shock front may be powering this radio emission. A clear entropy excess inside of r{sub 500} reflects the violent merging events linked with these morphological features. Beyond r{sub 500}, the entropy profiles of the Coma Cluster along the relatively relaxed directions are consistent with the power-law behavior expected from simple models of gravitational large-scale structure formation. The pressure is also in agreement at these radii with the expected values measured from Sunyaev-Zel'dovich data from the Planck satellite. However, due to the large uncertainties associated with the Coma Cluster measurements, we cannot yet exclude an entropy flattening in this system consistent with that seen in more relaxed cool core clusters.

  18. [Blood propionic acid with hyperammonemic coma].

    PubMed

    Stöckler, S; Kastner, U; Pokits, B; Müller, W; Roscher, A

    1987-01-01

    We report on a mature male newborn who presented clinically on the 2nd day of live with poor feeding and acidotic breathing. Laboratory findings like severe metabolic acidosis, hyperammonemia, hyperglycinemia, ketonuria and elevated urinary excretion of lactate and propionate suggested the presence of organoacidopathia. Propionic acidemia, however could be diagnosed definitively only when the characteristic urinary and blood metabolites were found during the state of a hyperammonemic coma provoked by a fully oral protein regimen. The diagnosis was affirmed by reduced propionate fixation and by reduced propionyl-CoA-carboxylase shown in the patient's skin fibroblasts. PMID:3682709

  19. Comparison of Ranson, Glasgow, MOSS, SIRS, BISAP, APACHE-II, CTSI Scores, IL-6, CRP, and Procalcitonin in Predicting Severity, Organ Failure, Pancreatic Necrosis, and Mortality in Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Ajay K.; Meher, Susanta; Prakash, Shashi; Tiwary, Satyendra Kumar; Singh, Usha; Srivastava, Arvind; Dixit, V. K.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Multifactorial scorings, radiological scores, and biochemical markers may help in early prediction of severity, pancreatic necrosis, and mortality in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP). Methods. BISAP, APACHE-II, MOSS, and SIRS scores were calculated using data within 24 hrs of admission, whereas Ranson and Glasgow scores after 48 hrs of admission; CTSI was calculated on day 4 whereas IL-6 and CRP values at end of study. Predictive accuracy of scoring systems, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of various markers in prediction of severe acute pancreatitis, organ failure, pancreatic necrosis, admission to intensive care units and mortality were calculated. Results. Of 72 patients, 31 patients had organ failure and local complication classified as severe acute pancreatitis, 17 had pancreatic necrosis, and 9 died (12.5%). Area under curves for Ranson, Glasgow, MOSS, SIRS, APACHE-II, BISAP, CTSI, IL-6, and CRP in predicting SAP were 0.85, 0.75, 0.73, 0.73, 0.88, 0.80, 0.90, and 0.91, respectively, for pancreatic necrosis 0.70, 0.64, 0.61, 0.61, 0.68, 0.61, 0.75, 0.86, and 0.90, respectively, and for mortality 0.84, 0.83, 0.77, 0.76, 0.86, 0.83, 0.57, 0.80, and 0.75, respectively. Conclusion. CRP and IL-6 have shown a promising result in early detection of severity and pancreatic necrosis whereas APACHE-II and Ranson score in predicting AP related mortality in this study. PMID:24204087

  20. [The coma awakening unit, between intensive care and rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Mimouni, Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    After intensive care and before classic neurological rehabilitation is possible, patients in an altered state of consciousness are cared for at early stages in so-called coma awakening units. The care involves, on the one hand, the complex support of the patient's awakening from coma as a neurological and existential process, and on the other, support for their families. PMID:26365640

  1. Coma full-field display for freeform imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Aaron; Thompson, Kevin P.; Rolland, Jannick P.

    2015-10-01

    With the recent advances in optical fabrication technology, the manufacturing of freeform optical surfaces is no longer prohibitive. To spur the development of freeform systems, however, optical designers must be given the necessary tools to efficiently design, analyze, and tolerance these systems. The process for designing freeform imaging systems is enhanced by the knowledge of the individual aberration contributions across the full field-of-view. As shown in the recent aberration theory for freeform surfaces, identifying the field dependence of the dominant aberrations is critical for a controlled freeform optimization. Coma, an often system-limiting aberration and an aberration that has recently been directly addressed with freeform surfaces, is of specific interest. Currently, a coma full-field display (FFD) of a system can be generated in commercial ray-tracing software by fitting the wavefront at the exit pupil with Zernike polynomials, but this process can involve tracing thousands of rays. Moreover, the circular coma FFDs are inherently separate from the elliptical coma FFDs. In this research, we use nodal aberration theory to develop a method to generate a coma FFD that requires only a few (less than 10) rays per field point to be traced through the optical system. Both the magnitude and orientation of the coma aberrations at the image plane are shown in our FFDs, including the effects of elliptical coma. These coma FFDs save computation time during the design and offer valuable insight to the designer. Examples of the plots will be shown for multiple freeform optical systems.

  2. Issues in College Admissions Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Julie P.; Camara, Wayne J.

    College admissions tests provide a standardized and objective measure of student achievement and generalized skills. Unlike high school grades or rank, admission tests are a common measure for comparing students who have attended different high schools, completed different courses, received different grades in courses taught by different teachers,…

  3. The Changing College Admissions Scene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjogren, Cliff

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the status of college admissions and some of the forces that influenced college admissions policies during each of four three-year periods: the Sputnik Era (1957-60), the Postwar Baby Boom Era (1964-67), the "New Groups" Era (1971-74), and the Stable Enrollment Era (1978-81). (PGD)

  4. Toward More Effective Admissions Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maly, Nancy J.

    1983-01-01

    Suggests ways to improve college admissions interviews. Discusses the purpose, format, technique, and content, of the interview as well as selling the college, concluding the interview, and writing the final interview report. Emphasizes the benefits of good interviewing skills to admissions officers. (WAS)

  5. X ray archeology in the Coma cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Simon D. M.; Briel, Ulrich G.; Henry, J. Patrick

    1993-01-01

    Images of X-ray emission from hot gas within the Coma cluster of galaxies are presented. These maps, made with the Rosat satellite, have high signal to noise ratio and allow cluster structure to be analyzed in unprecedented detail. They show greater structural irregularity than could be anticipated from earlier observations of Coma. Emission is detected from a number of bright cluster galaxies in addition to the two known previously. In four cases there is evidence that these galaxies lie at the center of an extended subconcentration within the cluster, possibly the remnant of their associated groups. For at least two galaxies the images show direct evidence for ongoing disruption of their gaseous atmosphere. The luminosity associated with these galaxies is comparable to that detected around similar ellipticals in much poorer environments. Emission is easily detected and appears to become more regular at large radii. The data show that this archetype of a rich and regular galaxy cluster was formed by the merging of several distinct subunits which are not yet fully destroyed.

  6. The Spinning Corona of FK Comae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashyap, Vinay

    2010-09-01

    FK Comae is an ultra-fast rotating, single yellow giant, product of a recent W UMa merger. Extraordinary levels of FUV and X-ray emission rate FK Comae a coronal powerhouse on par with the most extreme of the better known activity heavyweights: short-period RS CVn binaries. As a single star, FK Comae has clear advantages as a laboratory for exploring the outer limits of magnetospheric activity among the coronal cool stars. FK Comae has a long history of attention at optical and X-ray wavelengths, thanks to its generously spotted surface, and proclivity to flare regularly at high energies. FUSE discovered ultra-broad, redshifted profiles of OVI and CIII, but unfortunately the singular observation could not be repeated, thanks to the satellite's flaky attitude system. The remarkable FUV spectrum was taken just a few months before STIS failed in 2004, so there was no opportunity to turn the more powerful gaze of Hubble to the task. Now, finally, the amazing sensitivity of Cosmic Origins Spectrograph can be brought to bear: a single orbit can capture an FUV spectrum of FK Comae with S/N at instrumental limits for bright lines, and digging down to faint FeXXI 1354 {bridge to the coordinated Chandra HETGS pointing we are carrying out}.We will trace how the bright FUV regions relate spatially to the photospheric dark spots, to inform ideas of coronal structure and heating in these advanced objects. We will probe whether a global magnetosphere exists, and whether the field lines are loaded with hot coronal gas {>10 MK}, as well as the cooler 0.3 MK material already suggested by highly broadened FUSE OVI. Further, we will test whether the striking 100 km/s redshifts of the FUV lines, and similar shifts seen in NeX by Chandra HETGS, are caused by persistent coronal flows {outflows, perhaps implicated in magnetic braking; or inflows, like "coronal rain" on the Sun}. Our method is to exploit, on the one hand, emission-line "Doppler imaging," whereby bright surface regions are

  7. ROSAT observations of Coma Cluster galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dow, K. L.; White, S. D. M.

    1995-01-01

    The approximately 86 ks ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) image of the Coma Cluster is deeper than any previous X-ray observation of a galaxy cluster. We search for X-ray emission from 35 individual galaxies in a magnitude-limited sample, all of which lie within 20 arcmins of the optical axis in at least one of the four Coma pointings. We detect seven galaxies in the 0.4-2.4 keV band at a significance level exceeding 3 sigma, and a further four at above 2 sigma. Although we can set only upper limits on the individual flux from each of the other galaxies, we are able to measure their mean flux by stacking the observations. The X-ray luminosities of the seven detections range from 6.2 x 10(exp 40) to 1.5 x 10(exp 42) ergs/s (0.4-2.4 keV for H(sub 0) = 50 km/s/Mpc). For galaxies with a blue absolute magnitude of about -21 we find a mean X-ray luminosity of 1.3 x 10(exp 40) ergs/s. The ratio of X-ray to optical luminosity is substantially smaller for such subjects than for the brightest galaxies in the cluster. The X-ray luminosities of the four brightest galaxies are ill-defined, however, because of ambiguity in distinguishing galaxy emission from cluster emission. Each object appears to be related to significant structure in the diffuse intracluster medium. We also investigate emission in the softer 0.2-0.4 keV band where detections are less significant because of the higher background, and we discuss the properties of a number of interesting individual sources. The X-ray luminosities of the Coma galaxies are similar to those of galaxies in the Virgo Cluster and in other regions with relatively low galaxy density. We conclude that large-scale environmental effects do not significantly enhance or suppress the average X-ray emission from galaxies, but that individual objects vary in luminosity substantially in a way which may depend on the detailed history of their environment.

  8. Kinderheilkunde and continental connections in child health: the "Glasgow school revisited"--again.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Lawrence T

    2013-10-01

    The last two hundred years or so have seen the transformation of medical practice from a clinical art to the application of science to the diagnosis and treatment of disease. There has been a historical debate about how the use of technology and discoveries of the laboratory have become integrated within medical practice. In trying to understand the evolution of "scientific medicine," this has generally focused on the tensions between the differing cultures, persons, and professions of the "laboratory" and "clinic" and sought to explain how they were resolved within specific institutions. This paper looks again at the "Glasgow School" (the subject of a number of seminal papers on this subject) and the forces that shaped it, by exploring the career of Leonard Findlay, whose training in Glasgow, and in Berlin (where he worked in a department in which science and medicine were integrated), defined a style of clinical medicine that formed the model for a new sort of university department of medicine in which clinicians and scientists worked side by side, albeit under the leadership of the former. As a clinician exposed in Berlin to the emerging new sciences of nutrition, microbiology, and immunology, which were particularly relevant to the care of sick children, Findlay created in Glasgow a department of medical pediatrics, which owed less to local factors, figures, and forces and more to his experience in Germany. PMID:22492737

  9. Good in parts: the Gay Men's Task Force in Glasgow--a response to Kelly.

    PubMed

    Hart, G J; Williamson, L M; Flowers, P

    2004-02-01

    We know that peer education, or the use of popular opinion leaders (POLs), works in terms of reducing reported risk behaviour for HIV infection amongst gay men. The work of Jeffrey Kelly and his colleagues provides some of the best scientific evidence in support of this approach. Influenced by this work, we undertook a peer education intervention amongst gay men in bars in Glasgow--the Gay Men's Task Force (GMTF)--but failed to demonstrate any reduction in sexual risk behaviour for HIV infection. In this paper we describe why we were unable to repeat in Scotland the success in small cities in the USA of the POL model. Our explanations include: failure to replicate the 'core elements' of POL; spatial and temporal differences between the original POL settings and the bars of Glasgow; and the currency of ideas such as 'peer education' beyond the protocols designed for their implementation. However, we also describe some of the successful features of the GMTF in Glasgow, and the continued value of peer education in contributing to reductions in sexual risk behaviour for HIV infection. PMID:14676022

  10. Flumazenil, naloxone and the 'coma cocktail'.

    PubMed

    Sivilotti, Marco L A

    2016-03-01

    Flumazenil and naloxone are considered to be pharmacologically ideal antidotes. By competitive binding at the molecular target receptors, they are highly specific antagonists of two important drug classes, the benzodiazepines and opioids, respectively. Both antidotes enjoy rapid onset and short duration after parenteral administration, are easily titrated and are essentially devoid of agonist effects. Yet only naloxone is widely used as a component of the 'coma cocktail', a sequence of empirical treatments to correct altered mental status, while experts discourage the use of flumazenil for such patients. This review contrasts the history, indications, published evidence and novel applications for each antidote in order to explain this disparity in the clinical use of these 'ideal' antidotes. PMID:26469689

  11. SOCCER: Comet Coma Sample Return Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albee, A. L.; Uesugi, K. T.; Tsou, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Comets, being considered the most primitive bodies in the solar system, command the highest priority among solar system objects for studying solar nebula evolution and the evolution of life through biogenic elements and compounds. Sample Of Comet Coma Earth Return (SOCCER), a joint effort between NASA and the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) in Japan, has two primary science objectives: (1) the imaging of the comet nucleus and (2) the return to Earth of samples of volatile species and intact dust. This effort makes use of the unique strengths and capabilities of both countries in realizing this important quest for the return of samples from a comet. This paper presents an overview of SOCCER's science payloads, engineering flight system, and its mission operations.

  12. Galaxy orbits in the Coma cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millington, S. J. C.; Peach, J. V.

    1986-07-01

    The authors have repeated calculations by Fuchs & Materne (1982) of the variation of the velocity dispersion with radius in the Coma cluster using the new data of Godwin, Metcalfe & Peach on the galaxy surfacedensity. The authors find that the data are best represented by a model of constant velocity anisotropy (possibly by isotropy). This is contrary to Fuchs & Materne's result but agrees with the self-consistent model calculations of Kent & Gunn. The total cluster mass is 3.5×1015M_sun; and the blue mass-to-light ratio of material within 2.7 Mpc of the cluster centre is 240 (H0 = 50 km s-1Mpc-1), with a major uncertainty in M/L lying in uncertainties as to the contributions to the luminosity from galaxies fainter than b = 20.5 and from intergalactic light.

  13. Probing turbulence in the Coma galaxy cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuecker, P.; Finoguenov, A.; Miniati, F.; Böhringer, H.; Briel, U. G.

    2004-11-01

    Spatially-resolved gas pressure maps of the Coma galaxy cluster are obtained from a mosaic of XMM-Newton observations in the scale range between a resolution of 20 kpc and an extent of 2.8 Mpc. A Fourier analysis of the data reveals the presence of a scale-invariant pressure fluctuation spectrum in the range between 40 and 90 kpc and is found to be well described by a projected Kolmogorov/Oboukhov-type turbulence spectrum. Deprojection and integration of the spectrum yields the lower limit of ˜ 10 percent of the total intracluster medium pressure in turbulent form. The results also provide observational constraints on the viscosity of the gas. Based on observations with XMM-Newton, an ESA Science Mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and the USA (NASA).

  14. Endozepine-4 levels are increased in hepatic coma

    PubMed Central

    Malaguarnera, Giulia; Vacante, Marco; Drago, Filippo; Bertino, Gaetano; Motta, Massimo; Giordano, Maria; Malaguarnera, Michele

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the serum levels of endozepine-4, their relation with ammonia serum levels, the grading of coma and the severity of cirrhosis, in patients with hepatic coma. METHODS: In this study we included 20 subjects with Hepatic coma, 20 subjects with minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) and 20 subjects control. All subjects underwent blood analysis, Child Pugh and Model for End - stage liver disease (MELD) assessment, endozepine-4 analysis. RESULTS: Subjects with hepatic coma showed significant difference in endozepine-4 (P < 0.001) and NH3 levels (P < 0.001) compared both to MHE and controls patients. Between NH3 and endozepine-4 we observed a significant correlation (P = 0.009; Pearson correlation 0.570). There was a significant correlation between endozepine-4 and MELD (P = 0.017; Pearson correlation = 0.529). In our study blood ammonia concentration was noted to be raised in patients with hepatic coma, with the highest ammonia levels being found in those who were comatose. We also found a high correlation between endozepine-4 and ammonia (P < 0.001). In patients with grade IV hepatic coma, endozepine levels were significantly higher compared to other groups. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that an increased level of endozepine in subjects with higher levels of MELD was observed. In conclusion, data concerning involvement of the GABA-ergic system in HE coma could be explained by stage-specific alterations. PMID:26290636

  15. Brain Connectivity in Pathological and Pharmacological Coma

    PubMed Central

    Noirhomme, Quentin; Soddu, Andrea; Lehembre, Rémy; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Boveroux, Pierre; Boly, Mélanie; Laureys, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) tend to support the view that awareness is not related to activity in a single brain region but to thalamo-cortical connectivity in the frontoparietal network. Functional neuroimaging studies have shown preserved albeit disconnected low-level cortical activation in response to external stimulation in patients in a “vegetative state” or unresponsive wakefulness syndrome. While activation of these “primary” sensory cortices does not necessarily reflect conscious awareness, activation in higher-order associative cortices in minimally conscious state patients seems to herald some residual perceptual awareness. PET studies have identified a metabolic dysfunction in a widespread frontoparietal “global neuronal workspace” in DOC patients including the midline default mode network (“intrinsic” system) and the lateral frontoparietal cortices or “extrinsic system.” Recent studies have investigated the relation of awareness to the functional connectivity within intrinsic and extrinsic networks, and with the thalami in both pathological and pharmacological coma. In brain damaged patients, connectivity in all default network areas was found to be non-linearly correlated with the degree of clinical consciousness impairment, ranging from healthy controls and locked-in syndrome to minimally conscious, vegetative, coma, and brain dead patients. Anesthesia-induced loss of consciousness was also shown to correlate with a global decrease in cortico-cortical and thalamo-cortical connectivity in both intrinsic and extrinsic networks, but not in auditory, or visual networks. In anesthesia, unconsciousness was also associated with a loss of cross-modal interactions between networks. These results suggest that conscious awareness critically depends on the functional integrity of thalamo-cortical and cortico-cortical frontoparietal connectivity within and between “intrinsic” and “extrinsic” brain

  16. Brain connectivity in pathological and pharmacological coma.

    PubMed

    Noirhomme, Quentin; Soddu, Andrea; Lehembre, Rémy; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Boveroux, Pierre; Boly, Mélanie; Laureys, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) tend to support the view that awareness is not related to activity in a single brain region but to thalamo-cortical connectivity in the frontoparietal network. Functional neuroimaging studies have shown preserved albeit disconnected low-level cortical activation in response to external stimulation in patients in a "vegetative state" or unresponsive wakefulness syndrome. While activation of these "primary" sensory cortices does not necessarily reflect conscious awareness, activation in higher-order associative cortices in minimally conscious state patients seems to herald some residual perceptual awareness. PET studies have identified a metabolic dysfunction in a widespread frontoparietal "global neuronal workspace" in DOC patients including the midline default mode network ("intrinsic" system) and the lateral frontoparietal cortices or "extrinsic system." Recent studies have investigated the relation of awareness to the functional connectivity within intrinsic and extrinsic networks, and with the thalami in both pathological and pharmacological coma. In brain damaged patients, connectivity in all default network areas was found to be non-linearly correlated with the degree of clinical consciousness impairment, ranging from healthy controls and locked-in syndrome to minimally conscious, vegetative, coma, and brain dead patients. Anesthesia-induced loss of consciousness was also shown to correlate with a global decrease in cortico-cortical and thalamo-cortical connectivity in both intrinsic and extrinsic networks, but not in auditory, or visual networks. In anesthesia, unconsciousness was also associated with a loss of cross-modal interactions between networks. These results suggest that conscious awareness critically depends on the functional integrity of thalamo-cortical and cortico-cortical frontoparietal connectivity within and between "intrinsic" and "extrinsic" brain networks. PMID:21191476

  17. Which EEG patterns in coma are nonconvulsive status epilepticus?

    PubMed

    Trinka, Eugen; Leitinger, Markus

    2015-08-01

    Nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) is common in patients with coma with a prevalence between 5% and 48%. Patients in deep coma may exhibit epileptiform EEG patterns, such as generalized periodic spikes, and there is an ongoing debate about the relationship of these patterns and NCSE. The purposes of this review are (i) to discuss the various EEG patterns found in coma, its fluctuations, and transitions and (ii) to propose modified criteria for NCSE in coma. Classical coma patterns such as diffuse polymorphic delta activity, spindle coma, alpha/theta coma, low output voltage, or burst suppression do not reflect NCSE. Any ictal patterns with a typical spatiotemporal evolution or epileptiform discharges faster than 2.5 Hz in a comatose patient reflect nonconvulsive seizures or NCSE and should be treated. Generalized periodic diacharges or lateralized periodic discharges (GPDs/LPDs) with a frequency of less than 2.5 Hz or rhythmic discharges (RDs) faster than 0.5 Hz are the borderland of NCSE in coma. In these cases, at least one of the additional criteria is needed to diagnose NCSE (a) subtle clinical ictal phenomena, (b) typical spatiotemporal evolution, or (c) response to antiepileptic drug treatment. There is currently no consensus about how long these patterns must be present to qualify for NCSE, and the distinction from nonconvulsive seizures in patients with critical illness or in comatose patients seems arbitrary. The Salzburg Consensus Criteria for NCSE [1] have been modified according to the Standardized Terminology of the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society [2] and validated in three different cohorts, with a sensitivity of 97.2%, a specificity of 95.9%, and a diagnostic accuracy of 96.3% in patients with clinical signs of NCSE. Their diagnostic utility in different cohorts with patients in deep coma has to be studied in the future. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Status Epilepticus". PMID:26148985

  18. Differential Freshman Admission by Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suddick, David E.; McBee, M. Louise

    1974-01-01

    The authors report on a study whose purpose was to determine if, after adjusting for initial differences in high school averages and SAT scores via separate regression equations, differential admissions criterion by sex is justifiable. No justification is found. (RP)

  19. The atomic carbon distribution in the coma of Comet Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, T. N.; Feldman, P. D.; Dymond, K. F.

    1986-01-01

    The radial distribution of CO, OI, Ci, and CII emissions in the coma of comet Halley were measured by a long-slit far ultraviolet spectrograph aboard a sounding rocket on 26 Feb. and 13 Mar. 1986. While the CO profiles strongly suggest that CO is vaporized directly from the nucleus, the observed carbon distribution is not consistent with a radial outflow model of CO, suggesting an additional source of atomic carbon in the inner coma. Based on the in situ plasma measurements from the Vega and Giotto spacecraft, it is possible that this additional source of carbon could be the recombination of ionized CO in the inner coma.

  20. The Unseen Founders Of Quaternary Science - The Men Of Glasgow, Scotland (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, J.

    2010-12-01

    Louis Agassiz (1807-1873) and Charles Lyell (1797-1875) are widely regarded as the founders of Quaternary Science, and there is no doubt that they played their part: Agassiz in 1840 presented and promoted his case for the wide-scale fluctuations of glaciers, and Lyell, through his books and contacts, did much to introduce the subject which we now know as climate change. However there are a number of individuals who contributed to the founding of Quaternary Science who are not so readily recognised and a remarkable fact is that a significant proportion were men without academic training or background who come from, or worked in Glasgow or the adjacent region of central Scotland. First amongst the Glaswegians was James Smith (1782-1867) who, in 1836 presented a paper to the Geological Society of London (where it was duly ignored) in which he suggested, on the basis of fossils dredged from the bed of the Clyde and experience of sailing around Iceland, that the climate of Scotland had been as cold as that of Iceland in the recent past. In 1841, Charles Maclaren (1782-1866) a journalist from Edinburgh, but using information based on raised shorelines near Glasgow proposed what we now know as the glacio-eustatic theory in which the variations in glacier extent control the level of the sea. Perhaps the most important of all was James Croll (1821- 1890) who worked on the theory of ice ages, based on orbital forcing, while janitor at the Andersonian Institute and Museum in Glasgow between 1859-1867. This work was the true precursor to the Milankovitch theory which provides the explanation for the major predictable elements of climate change. Robert Jack (1845-1921) from Irvine, southwest of Glasgow, while doing fieldwork for the British Geological Survey near Loch Lomond close to Glasgow, described in 1874 evidence for non-glacial conditions between tills and clearly recognised that climate could change from glacial to temperate and then glacial climate, before returning to

  1. ED navigators prevent unnecessary admissions.

    PubMed

    2012-02-01

    RN Navigators in the emergency department at Montefiore Medical Center work with social workers to prevent unnecessary admissions. Program targets the homeless and patients with tenuous living situations. CMs work with the emergency department staff to identify patients who don't meet admission criteria but can't be safely discharged. The hospital collaborates with a local housing assistance agency which sends a van to transport appropriate patients to a shelter. PMID:22299178

  2. Astronomical Coma Image Restoration Through the Use of Localized Deconvolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gifford, Steve

    2008-05-01

    This paper discusses an image restoration technique to effectively post-process astronomical images to remove coma artifacts. Coma is a common problem for imprecise optical systems that manifest its self as distortions that worsen near the edge of the image. Conventional full-image deconvolution techniques will not remove this artifact because the coma exhibits a positionally variant distortion of the image, i.e., the optical point spread function (PSF) varies as a function of position at the focal plane. Coma repair is accomplished by partitioning the image into small blocks, estimating the PSF of the block, applying the Richardson-Lucy deconvolution algorithm to each block and then reassembly of the blocks into the final image.

  3. Between My Body and My "Dead Body": Narratives of Coma.

    PubMed

    Meoded Danon, Limor

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on narrative research that focuses on corporeal experience during coma and during the rehabilitation process. Seventeen participants from different areas of Israel who had been in various kinds of coma states reveal what the corporeal experience of coma is. The participants are divided into three types of narrative protagonists--"dead-alive," "rational," and "emissaries." Each of the participants redefined the boundaries of the body, especially in cases when they spoke of experiences they did not understand as corporeal, for example, out-of-body experiences, near-death experiences, or experiences of being between the earthly and unearthly. Their struggle to find suitable words to tell their coma stories emphasizes these boundaries between experiencing and telling, which crossed the normative discursive border of the medical establishment and illustrates the ambiguous nature of human existence. PMID:25810464

  4. 44 CFR 68.9 - Admissible evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Admissible evidence. 68.9 Section 68.9 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... admissible. (b) Documentary and oral evidence shall be admissible. (c) Admissibility of non-expert...

  5. 45 CFR 618.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 618.300 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the basis of sex, be denied admission, or be subjected to discrimination in admission, by...

  6. Sublimating grains model of cometary coma.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faggi, S.; Tozzi, G. P.; Brucato, J. R.

    Billion years of space weathering produces a crust of organic matter (see e.g. Kanuchova et al. 2012) that will be released when a comet enter for the first time in the inner Solar System. New comets, coming form the Oort Colud at their first passage close to the Sun, are particularly important because they are not differentiated by the Solar radiation and they are supposed to have a large quantity of ice organic matter close to the surface. When a comet approach to the Sun, its activity is driven by the sublimation of these nucleus ices: if the heliocentric distances, R_H , is greater than 3 AU the sublimation of CO and CO_2 ices is the main source of comet activity, otherwise at shorter distances, the sublimation of water become the most important mechanism of activity. These gases, escaping from the nucleus, drag in the coma grains that can be refractory dust (silicates, carbon), water ice and/or organic ices. Oort comets at their first passage in the inner Solar System, should produce an halo of organic or water icy particles. Our group has been monitoring new, inbound, bright Oort comets (C/2011 F1, C/2012 S1, C/2012 K1, C/2013 V5, C/2012 F3, C/2013 US10, C/2013 X1) to search for these icy grains. The method consists in detecting the cloud of sublimating grains in the inner coma by using the Sigma Af function (Tozzi et al. 2007) directly from images. However this over-population of grains, beside the sublimation, can be also due to short time activity (outburst) or too big grains expanding at very slow velocity, as it has been found in comet 67P/C-G (Tozzi eta al, 2011, A&A, 531, 54). To disentangle between the phenomena it is necessary to monitor the comet both at short timescale, for the outbursts (by repeating the observations after few nights), and at long term (weeks-months). If the cloud does not expand with the decreasing of the heliocentric distance there is high probability that we are in presence of organic and/or water ice grains. We can disentangle

  7. Cometary Coma Chemical Composition (C4) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carle, Glenn C.; Clark, Benton C.; Knocke, Philip C.; OHara, Bonnie J.; Adams, Larry; Niemann, Hasso B.; Alexander, Merle; Veverka, Joseph; Goldstein, Raymond; Huebner, Walter; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Cometary exploration remains of great importance to virtually all of space science. Because comets are presumed to be remnants of the early solar nebula, they are expected to provide fundamental knowledge as to the origin and development of the solar system as well as to be key to understanding of the source of volatiles and even life itself in the inner solar system. Clearly the time for a detailed study of the composition of these apparent messages from the past has come. A comet rendezvous mission, the Cometary Coma Chemical Composition (C4) Mission, is now being studied as a candidate for the new Discovery program. This mission is a highly-focussed and usefully-limited subset of the Cometary Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) Mission. The C4 mission will concentrate on measurements that will produce an understanding of the composition and physical makeup of a cometary nucleus. The core science goals of the C4 mission are 1) to determine the chemical, elemental, and isotopic composition of a cometary nucleus and 2) to characterize the chemical and isotopic nature of its atmosphere. A related goal is to obtain temporal information about the development of the cometary coma as a function of time and orbital position. The four short-period comets -- Tempel 1, Tempel 2, Churyumov-Gerasimenko, and Wirtanen -which all appear to have acceptable dust production rates, were identified as candidate targets. Mission opportunities have been identified beginning as early as 1998. Tempel I with a launch in 1999, however, remains the baseline comet for studies of and planning the C4 mission. The C4 mission incorporates two science instruments and two engineering instruments in the payload to obtain the desired measurements. The science instruments include an advanced version of the Cometary Ice and Dust Experiment (CIDEX), a mini-CIDEX with a sample collection system, an X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer and a Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatograph, and a simplified version of the Neutral

  8. Admission, Heal Thyself: A Prescription for Reclaiming College Admission as a Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jump, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Is college admission a business or a profession? This question is timeless because no issue (with possible exception of the perennial debate about whether admission(s) is singular or plural) sparks as much passion among admission practitioners, and it is timely because many of the controversial issues found in college admission today beg the…

  9. The food retail environment and area deprivation in Glasgow City, UK

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald, Laura; Ellaway, Anne; Macintyre, Sally

    2009-01-01

    It has previously been suggested that deprived neighbourhoods within modern cities have poor access to general amenities, for example, fewer food retail outlets. Here we examine the distribution of food retailers by deprivation in the City of Glasgow, UK. We obtained a list of 934 food retailers in Glasgow, UK, in 2007, and mapped these at address level. We categorised small areas (data zones) into quintiles of area deprivation using the 2006 Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation Income sub-domain score. We computed mean number of retailers per 1000 residents per data zone, and mean network distance to nearest outlet from data zone centroid, for all retailers combined and for each of seven categories of retailer separately (i.e. bakers, butchers, fruit and vegetable sellers, fishmongers, convenience stores, supermarkets and delicatessens). The most deprived quintile (of areas) had the greatest mean number of total food retailers per 1000 residents while quintile 1 (least deprived) had the least, and this difference was statistically significant (Chi-square p < 0.01). The closest mean distance to the nearest food retailer was within quintile 3 while the furthest distance was within quintile 1, and this was also statistically significant (Chi-square p < 0.01). There was variation in the distribution of the seven different types of food retailers, and access to amenities depended upon the type of food retailer studied and whether proximity or density was measured. Overall the findings suggested that deprived neighbourhoods within the City of Glasgow did not necessarily have fewer food retail outlets. PMID:19660114

  10. Prevalence and determinants of hepatitis C virus infection among female drug injecting sex workers in Glasgow

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Avril; Hutchinson, Sharon J; Gilchrist, Gail; Cameron, Sheila; Carr, Susan; Goldberg, David J

    2008-01-01

    Background Few studies of the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have focussed on women who work as street sex workers to finance their drug use. Methods The investigators report the survey findings of such a population in Glasgow. All women attending the health and social care drop-in centre, situated in Glasgow's "Red Light Area", during a four-week period in 1999 were invited to participate in a survey involving the provision of a saliva sample for anonymous HCV testing and the self-completion of a questionnaire seeking demographic, sexual and injecting practice data. Results Of the 223 women who attended, 51% agreed to participate. Of the 98 women who provided a sufficient saliva sample, 64% (95% CI: 54%–74%) tested HCV antibody positive; 98% of those who tested positive had ever injected drugs. Adjusting for the 85% sensitivity of the saliva test, the HCV antibody prevalence among IDU sex workers sampled was 81%; a rate which is considerably higher than those recorded, contemporaneously, among Glasgow IDUs generally. Two factors were independently associated with HCV antibody positivity in saliva: ever shared needles and syringes (adjusted OR 5.7, 95% CI 2–16) and number of times imprisoned (adjusted OR 7.3, 95% CI 1.4–39, for more than five times compared to zero times). Conclusion Women who engage in street sex work to finance their drug habit are a particularly desperate, chaotic and vulnerable population. This study demonstrates that their HCV infection risk may be greater than that for other IDUs. Those responsible for designing interventions to prevent HCV infection among IDUs should consider the special needs of this group. PMID:18355407

  11. Cometary Matter Analyser (COMA/CRAF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buechler, K.; Igenbergs, E.; Klein, J. W.; Krueger, F. R.; Kuczera, H.; Morfill, G.; Palme, H.; Roessler, K.; Weishaupt, U.; Zerrull, R.; Schmidt, R.; Strazulla, G.; Brownlee, D.; Clark, B.; Hanner, M.; Johnson, R.; Utterback, N.; Zinner, E.

    1994-01-01

    This project was part of an international program under which the chemical composition of cometary dust particles was to be measured 'in situ' during a rendezvous and flyby mission of a Mariner Mark 2 space probe and a comet (depending on the time of launch). Two necessary tasks, preliminary hardware development and interface definition, have been completed within the projects submitted for approval. As a result a model close to the flight configuration has been created, which was to be made available to the flight hardware contractor and his purposes. The Comet Rendezvous and Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) mission was abandoned after joint resolution adopted by NASA and the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology in 1992. Since an instrument like CoMA is an important contribution both to future cometary rendezvous missions, such as ROSETTA, as well as for accompanying laboratory activities, this project was terminated in a 'qualified conclusion'. In the process, components suitable for the laboratory developed from the preliminary units were produced and put into operation.

  12. Tracking the recovery of consciousness from coma

    PubMed Central

    Laureys, Steven; Boly, Mélanie; Maquet, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Predicting the chances of recovery of consciousness and communication in patients who survive their coma but transit in a vegetative state or minimally conscious state (MCS) remains a major challenge for their medical caregivers. Very few studies have examined the slow neuronal changes underlying functional recovery of consciousness from severe chronic brain damage. A case study in this issue of the JCI reports an extraordinary recovery of functional verbal communication and motor function in a patient who remained in MCS for 19 years (see the related article beginning on page 2005). Diffusion tensor MRI showed increased fractional anisotropy (assumed to reflect myelinated fiber density) in posteromedial cortices, encompassing cuneus and precuneus. These same areas showed increased glucose metabolism as studied by PET scanning, likely reflecting the neuronal regrowth paralleling the patient’s clinical recovery. This case shows that old dogmas need to be oppugned, as recovery with meaningful reduction in disability continued in this case for nearly 2 decades after extremely severe traumatic brain injury. PMID:16823480

  13. The Cores of Elliptical Galaxies in Coma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucey, John

    1995-07-01

    The cores of galaxies are astrophysically unique. They canhost high energy nuclei, star formation and perhaps even blackholes. HST observations have established that the cores ofellipticals are related to their global properties, and so canbe used as diagnostics of the physical processes occurring atthe time of formation. HST images of galaxy cores havedistinguished two different types of core luminosity profiles:`soft' and `hard' types. It is suggested that luminous, slowlyrotating galaxies have `soft' cores and the less luminousdisky galaxies have `hard' cores. This can be interpreted interms of a formation scenario based on a merger hierarchy inwhich the low luminosity systems experience highly dissipativemergers, but as the luminous systems are assembled the mergersbecome increasingly stellar. In this picture, the type of corea galaxy generates is intimately related to its evolutionaryhistory, i.e. the degree of interaction/merging experiencedand the availability of cold gas. In turn, this should notonly depend on luminosity but also on the galaxy's localenvironment. Here we propose to test the gaseous/stellarmerger picture by imaging a set of Coma cluster ellipticalsfrom a wide range of cluster radii. In the gas poorenvironment of the cluster core there may be insufficent coldgas for the low luminosity galaxies to form `hard' cores.Similarly, at the cluster turnround radius even luminousgalaxies may have experienced a dissipative core formation andpossess

  14. Rickets and Osteomalacia in the Glasgow Pakistani Community, 1961-71

    PubMed Central

    Ford, J. A.; Colhoun, E. M.; McIntosh, W. B.; Dunnigan, M. G.

    1972-01-01

    The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was reassessed in April and May 1971, 10 years after the discovery of widespread late rickets and osteomalacia in the Glasgow Pakistani community. Evidence of vitamin D deficiency was found in 28 out of 115 adults and children examined (24%). Children at the age of puberty were most severely affected by rickets, whereas most infants and younger children in the survey were protected by vitamin D supplements. Mild biochemical osteomalacia was common in Pakistani women. A total of 21 Pakistani and Indian children with rickets were admitted to Glasgow hospitals during 1968-70. These comprised 10 children with infantile rickets and 11 with late rickets. Four of the latter group required osteotomy for severe rachitic deformity. Late rickets and osteomalacia in Pakistani and Indian immigrants are not primarily due to nutritional deficiency of vitamin D, though the high phytate content of their diet may be of aetiological importance. A combination of environmental, social, and endogenous factors, the relative importance of which is not at present clear, may also be involved. Advice on the prophylaxis of vitamin D deficiency should be given to all Pakistani and Indian communities in the United Kingdom. PMID:5031709

  15. The importance of empathy in the enablement of patients attending the Glasgow Homoeopathic Hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Stewart W; Reilly, David; Watt, Graham C M

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patient enablement in general practice is known to be limited by consultation length. However, the processes within the consultation that lead to enablement are not well understood. AIMS: To investigate patient enablement in a setting where time is less of a constraint than in primary care, in order to determine the importance of other factors in enablement. DESIGN OF STUDY: Exploratory questionnaire-based study. SETTING: Two hundred consecutive outpatients attending four doctors at the Glasgow Homoeopathic Hospital, an NHS-funded integrated complementary and orthodox medicine unit. METHOD: Information was collected on enablement and a range of other factors, including the patients expectations, their perception of the doctors empathy, and the doctors own confidence in the doctor-patient relationship. RESULTS: Although there were many factors that correlated with enablement, multi-regression analysis showed patients expectation, doctor's empathy (as perceived by the patient), and doctor's own confidence in the therapeutic relationship to be the three key factors. Together they accounted for 41% of the variation in enablement, with empathy being the single most important factor (66% of the explained variation in enablement). CONCLUSION: Patient enablement at the Glasgow Homoeopathic Hospital is mainly related to the patients perception of the doctor's empathy. PMID:12434958

  16. Dr. Auzoux's botanical teaching models and medical education at the universities of Glasgow and Aberdeen.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Margaret Maria

    2011-09-01

    In the 1860s, Dr. Louis Thomas Jérôme Auzoux introduced a set of papier-mâché teaching models intended for use in the botanical classroom. These botanical models quickly made their way into the educational curricula of institutions around the world. Within these institutions, Auzoux's models were principally used to fulfil educational goals, but their incorporation into diverse curricula also suggests they were used to implement agendas beyond botanical instruction. This essay examines the various uses and meanings of Dr. Auzoux's botanical teaching models at the universities of Glasgow and Aberdeen in the nineteenth century. The two main conclusions of this analysis are: (1) investing in prestigious scientific collections was a way for these universities to attract fee-paying students so that better medical accommodation could be provided and (2) models were used to transmit different kinds of botanical knowledge at both universities. The style of botany at the University of Glasgow was offensive and the department there actively embraced and incorporated ideas of the emerging new botany. At Aberdeen, the style of botany was defensive and there was some hesitancy when confronting new botanical ideas. PMID:21802633

  17. Assessment of daytime outdoor comfort levels in and outside the urban area of Glasgow, UK.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Eduardo; Drach, Patricia; Emmanuel, Rohinton; Corbella, Oscar

    2013-07-01

    To understand thermal preferences and to define a preliminary outdoor comfort range for the local population of Glasgow, UK, an extensive series of measurements and surveys was carried out during 19 monitoring campaigns from winter through summer 2011 at six different monitoring points in pedestrian areas of downtown Glasgow. For data collection, a Davis Vantage Pro2 weather station equipped with temperature and humidity sensors, cup anemometer with wind vane, silicon pyranometer and globe thermometer was employed. Predictions of the outdoor thermal index PET (physiologically equivalent temperature) correlated closely to the actual thermal votes of respondents. Using concurrent measurements from a second Davis Vantage Pro2 weather station placed in a rural setting approximately 15 km from the urban area, comparisons were drawn with regard to daytime thermal comfort levels and urban-rural temperature differences (∆T(u-r)) for the various sites. The urban sites exhibited a consistent lower level of thermal discomfort during daytime. No discernible effect of urban form attributes in terms of the sky-view factor were observed on ∆Tu-r or on the relative difference of the adjusted predicted percentage of dissatisfied (PPD*). PMID:22886367

  18. Female streetworker--prostitutes in Glasgow: a descriptive study of their lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Green, S T; Goldberg, D J; Christie, P R; Frischer, M; Thomson, A; Carr, S V; Taylor, A

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the lifestyle of a group of female prostitutes. The collection of information was achieved by: (i) using a self administered questionnaire; and (ii) conducting conversational type interviews. Of 85 women attending a health care drop-in centre for female street prostitutes in Glasgow, 63 completed the questionnaire and 72 participated in conversational interviews. For 63 women the mean age of commencement of prostitution was 21 years. Fifty-one (81%) were injecting drug users, their most commonly used drugs being heroin and temazepam. They worked a mean of 5.5 evenings per week and provided sexual services to a mean of 6.4 clients per working day. Less than half of these services were estimated to be vaginal intercourse. While 59/60 women indicated that they always used condoms during vaginal intercourse, this only applied to commercial sex; only 8/47 (17%) always used condoms with their regular sexual partners. Unconventional sexual services, e.g. voyeurism and physical abuse, were commonly provided and clients were often violent. A typical female streetworking-prostitute in Glasgow was aged 25, unemployed, an injecting drug user and had commenced prostitution 4 years before. Her knowledge of HIV/AIDS was good and for vaginal intercourse she almost always used condoms with clients, though probably not with her regular partner. Her main concern was likely to be violence from clients. PMID:8218467

  19. Testing chameleon gravity with the Coma cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terukina, Ayumu; Lombriser, Lucas; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Bacon, David; Koyama, Kazuya; Nichol, Robert C.

    2014-04-01

    We propose a novel method to test the gravitational interactions in the outskirts of galaxy clusters. When gravity is modified, this is typically accompanied by the introduction of an additional scalar degree of freedom, which mediates an attractive fifth force. The presence of an extra gravitational coupling, however, is tightly constrained by local measurements. In chameleon modifications of gravity, local tests can be evaded by employing a screening mechanism that suppresses the fifth force in dense environments. While the chameleon field may be screened in the interior of the cluster, its outer region can still be affected by the extra force, introducing a deviation between the hydrostatic and lensing mass of the cluster. Thus, the chameleon modification can be tested by combining the gas and lensing measurements of the cluster. We demonstrate the operability of our method with the Coma cluster, for which both a lensing measurement and gas observations from the X-ray surface brightness, the X-ray temperature, and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect are available. Using the joint observational data set, we perform a Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis of the parameter space describing the different profiles in both the Newtonian and chameleon scenarios. We report competitive constraints on the chameleon field amplitude and its coupling strength to matter. In the case of f(R) gravity, corresponding to a specific choice of the coupling, we find an upper bound on the background field amplitude of |fR0| < 6 × 10-5, which is currently the tightest constraint on cosmological scales.

  20. Testing chameleon gravity with the Coma cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Terukina, Ayumu; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Lombriser, Lucas; Bacon, David; Koyama, Kazuya; Nichol, Robert C. E-mail: lucas.lombriser@port.ac.uk E-mail: david.bacon@port.ac.uk E-mail: bob.nichol@port.ac.uk

    2014-04-01

    We propose a novel method to test the gravitational interactions in the outskirts of galaxy clusters. When gravity is modified, this is typically accompanied by the introduction of an additional scalar degree of freedom, which mediates an attractive fifth force. The presence of an extra gravitational coupling, however, is tightly constrained by local measurements. In chameleon modifications of gravity, local tests can be evaded by employing a screening mechanism that suppresses the fifth force in dense environments. While the chameleon field may be screened in the interior of the cluster, its outer region can still be affected by the extra force, introducing a deviation between the hydrostatic and lensing mass of the cluster. Thus, the chameleon modification can be tested by combining the gas and lensing measurements of the cluster. We demonstrate the operability of our method with the Coma cluster, for which both a lensing measurement and gas observations from the X-ray surface brightness, the X-ray temperature, and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect are available. Using the joint observational data set, we perform a Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis of the parameter space describing the different profiles in both the Newtonian and chameleon scenarios. We report competitive constraints on the chameleon field amplitude and its coupling strength to matter. In the case of f(R) gravity, corresponding to a specific choice of the coupling, we find an upper bound on the background field amplitude of |f{sub R0}| < 6 × 10{sup −5}, which is currently the tightest constraint on cosmological scales.

  1. Using Multimedia for Admission Recruitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudema, Louis

    1995-01-01

    Multimedia can grab the attention of prospective students in an engaging, appealing way, while giving admission officers the opportunity to deliver information about every facet of campus life. Describes multimedia, its potential, and the production process as well as five current distribution methods. Discusses appropriateness of multimedia for…

  2. Personal Qualities and College Admissions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willingham, Warren W.; Breland, Hunter M.

    The extent to which personal and academic factors are important in college admission decisions was studied in 1978, based on data on 25,000 applicants to 9 colleges (Colgate University, Williams College, Ohio Wesleyan University, Kenyon College, Kalamazoo College, Occidental College, Hartwick College, University of Richmond, and Bucknell…

  3. College Admissions: Beyond Conventional Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Standardized admissions tests such as the SAT (originally stood for "Scholastic Aptitude Test") and the ACT measure only a narrow segment of the skills needed to become an active citizen and possibly a leader who makes a positive, meaningful, and enduring difference to the world. The problem with these tests is that they promised, under what have…

  4. Admission Conditions and Graduates' Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexandre, Fernando; Portela, Miguel; Sa, Carla

    2009-01-01

    In a context of increasing competition for students, admission conditions have been used as an instrument in a strategy of differentiation. Such a strategy is guided by short-run concerns, that is, the immediate need to attract more students. This article takes a longer term view, by examining graduates' employability. The authors find that…

  5. Admissions Plan Goes beyond Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Northeastern University's Torch Scholars Program is designed to seek out first-generation students who would not qualify under the university's regular admissions process. The scholarships go to motivated students who have shown determination in overcoming personal challenges. Northeastern believes the experiment will enhance the socioeconomic…

  6. Admission to Selective Schools, Alphabetically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurajda, Stepan; Munich, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    One's position in an alphabetically sorted list may be important in determining access to over-subscribed public services. Motivated by anecdotal evidence, we investigate the importance of the position in the alphabet of Czech students for their admission chances into over-subscribed schools. Empirical evidence based on the population of students…

  7. High Resolution Spectroscopy of Two FK Comae Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.

    The FK Comae stars are a class of extremely rapidly rotating G-K giants that exhibit among the brightest UV and X-ray emission seen in late type stars. Previous IUE and optical observations have indicated that the activity (the extreme surface fluxes) in FK Comae may be qualitatively different from that in "normal" late type stars, and that the other four members of the class are far less bizarre than FK Comae itself. A definitive method for determining the structure of the outer atmospheres of these stars, and deciding whether the heating mechanism is normal chromospheric heating or accretion heating is by analysis of high resolution SWP spectra. We propose, in collaboration with S. Rucinski, to obtain 16-20 hour collaborative NASA-ESA SWP-HI spectra of FK Comae, which exhibits Hot and MgII line widths of ˜500 kms^-1, and HD 36705, which appears to be a far less bizarre member of this class. These observations would be the first high dispersion SWP spectra ever obtained of FK Comae stars.

  8. Advising and Admission: Partners in Enrollment Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Joseph E.

    1987-01-01

    Focuses on marketing strategies for college admission and examines the essential interaction between admission and academic units as a means of enhancing retention and producing informed, satisfied consumers/students. (KS)

  9. 49 CFR 1114.1 - Admissibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Admissibility. Any evidence which is sufficiently reliable and probative to support a decision under the provisions of the Administrative Procedure Act, or which would be admissible under the general statutes...

  10. 10 CFR 2.708 - Admissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... admission of the genuineness and authenticity of any relevant document described in or attached to the... document for which an admission of genuineness and authenticity is requested must be delivered with...

  11. An analysis of the coma of comet Bennett 1970 II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oppenheimer, M.

    1978-01-01

    Brightness profiles for emission features of H2O(+) in comet Bennett 1970 II are analyzed, taking into account the role of chemical reactions in the coma. By comparing the rates of transport processes derived from the brightness profile with known chemical rate constants, upper limits on the abundances and production rates of H2O, CH4, NH3, and other possible coma constituents are found. The derived upper limit on the H2O production rate inside 10 to the 4th power km is less than the observed OH production rate averaged over the coma of this comet. It is concluded that the brightness profiles of H2O(+) and OH in comet Bennett 1970 II which are presently available are inconsistent with production of OH primarily by photodissociation of H2O molecules sublimating from the nucleus. The existence of an extended source of H2O is not ruled out.

  12. EXTINCTION IN THE COMA OF COMET 17P/HOLMES

    SciTech Connect

    Lacerda, Pedro; Jewitt, David

    2012-11-20

    On 2007 October 29, the outbursting comet 17P/Holmes passed within 0.''79 of a background star. We recorded the event using optical, narrowband photometry and detect a 3%-4% dip in stellar brightness bracketing the time of closest approach to the comet nucleus. The detected dimming implies an optical depth {tau} Almost-Equal-To 0.04 at 1.''5 from the nucleus and an optical depth toward the nucleus center {tau}{sub n} < 13.3. At the time of our observations, the coma was optically thick only within {rho} {approx}< 0.''01 from the nucleus. By combining the measured extinction and the scattered light from the coma, we estimate a dust red albedo p{sub d} = 0.006 {+-} 0.002 at {alpha} = 16 Degree-Sign phase angle. Our measurements place the most stringent constraints on the extinction optical depth of any cometary coma.

  13. Flip-flops of FK Comae Berenices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackman, T.; Pelt, J.; Mantere, M. J.; Jetsu, L.; Korhonen, H.; Granzer, T.; Kajatkari, P.; Lehtinen, J.; Strassmeier, K. G.

    2013-05-01

    Context.FK Comae Berenices is a rapidly rotating magnetically active star, the light curve of which is modulated by cool spots on its surface. It was the first star where the "flip-flop" phenomenon was discovered. Since then, flip-flops in the spot activity have been reported in many other stars. Follow-up studies with increasing length have shown, however, that the phenomenon is more complex than was thought right after its discovery. Aims: Therefore, it is of interest to perform a more thorough study of the evolution of the spot activity in FK Com. In this study, we analyse 15 years of photometric observations with two different time series analysis methods, with a special emphasis on detecting flip-flop type events from the data. Methods: We apply the continuous period search and carrier fit methods on long-term standard Johnson-Cousins V-observations from the years 1995-2010. The observations were carried out with two automated photometric telescopes, Phoenix-10 and Amadeus T7 located in Arizona. Results: We identify complex phase behaviour in 6 of the 15 analysed data segments. We identify five flip-flop events and two cases of phase jumps, where the phase shift is Δφ < 0.4. In addition we see two mergers of spot regions and two cases where the apparent phase shifts are caused by spot regions drifting with respect to each other. Furthermore we detect variations in the rotation period corresponding to a differential rotation coefficient of |k| > 0.031. Conclusions: The flip-flop cannot be interpreted as a single phenomenon, where the main activity jumps from one active longitude to another. In some of our cases the phase shifts can be explained by differential rotation: two spot regions move with different angular velocity and even pass each other. Comparison between the methods show that the carrier fit utility is better in retrieving slow evolution especially from a low amplitude light curve, while the continuous period search is more sensitive in case of

  14. The Role of Noncognitive Assessment in Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoerle, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Confident that understanding and employing new approaches to assessment is a top priority for admissions professionals, the Secondary School Admission Test Board (SSATB) recently launched a Think Tank on the Future of Admission Assessment, with a two-year timeline and a charge to educate its membership and inspire greater innovation in admissions…

  15. Admission to Medical Education in Ten Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burn, Barbara B., Ed.

    As part of a study of access and admission to higher education in Germany and the United States, a group of papers on medical admissions in various countries was commissioned. The papers presented in this book reveal wide differences in admissions policies and procedures. Barbara Burn examines some of the major issues in a foreword: representation…

  16. Merit and Competition in Selective College Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killgore, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    Using interview data from 34 admissions officers at 17 elite colleges, this paper compares two perspectives shaping admissions policy. Admissions officers apply a "merit" perspective that relies on indicators of student academic and nonacademic achievement. They also employ a "competition" perspective that evaluates student characteristics…

  17. 7 CFR 501.2 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Admission. 501.2 Section 501.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER, NEBRASKA § 501.2 Admission. Admission to...

  18. 7 CFR 501.2 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Admission. 501.2 Section 501.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER, NEBRASKA § 501.2 Admission. Admission to...

  19. 7 CFR 501.2 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Admission. 501.2 Section 501.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER, NEBRASKA § 501.2 Admission. Admission to...

  20. 7 CFR 501.2 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Admission. 501.2 Section 501.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER, NEBRASKA § 501.2 Admission. Admission to...

  1. 7 CFR 501.2 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Admission. 501.2 Section 501.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER, NEBRASKA § 501.2 Admission. Admission to...

  2. 34 CFR 106.21 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 106.21 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the basis of sex, be denied admission, or be subjected to discrimination in...

  3. 29 CFR 36.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 36.300 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the basis of sex, be denied admission, or...

  4. 13 CFR 113.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Receiving Federal Financial Assistance Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 113.300 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the basis of sex, be denied admission, or be subjected to discrimination in...

  5. 10 CFR 1042.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 1042.300 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the basis of sex, be denied admission,...

  6. 10 CFR 5.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 5.300 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the basis of sex, be denied admission, or be subjected...

  7. 36 CFR 1211.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 1211.300 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the basis of sex, be denied admission, or be subjected to discrimination in...

  8. The Journal of College Admission Ethics Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveland, Elaina C., Ed.; Raynor, Joyce, Ed.

    This book is the first significant body of literature on ethics in college admission published by the National Association for College Admission Counseling. The series is a select compilation of articles on ethics published in the Journal of College Admission in 1998 and 1999. The book is a source of information for the beginning and experienced…

  9. 32 CFR 242.5 - Admission procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Admission procedures. 242.5 Section 242.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS ADMISSION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR THE SCHOOL OF MEDICINE, UNIFORMED SERVICES UNIVERSITY OF THE HEALTH SCIENCES § 242.5 Admission...

  10. 29 CFR 36.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 36.300 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the basis of sex, be denied admission, or...

  11. 18 CFR 1317.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Admission. 1317.300... THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 1317.300 Admission. (a) General....

  12. 7 CFR 15a.21 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 15a.21 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the basis of sex, be denied admission, or be subjected to... 15a.18. (b) Specific prohibitions. (1) In determining whether a person satisfies any policy...

  13. 18 CFR 1317.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Admission. 1317.300... THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 1317.300 Admission. (a) General....

  14. 18 CFR 1317.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Admission. 1317.300... THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 1317.300 Admission. (a) General....

  15. 7 CFR 15a.21 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 15a.21 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the basis of sex, be denied admission, or be subjected to... 15a.18. (b) Specific prohibitions. (1) In determining whether a person satisfies any policy...

  16. 7 CFR 15a.21 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 15a.21 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the basis of sex, be denied admission, or be subjected to... 15a.18. (b) Specific prohibitions. (1) In determining whether a person satisfies any policy...

  17. 18 CFR 1317.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Admission. 1317.300... THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 1317.300 Admission. (a) General....

  18. 18 CFR 1317.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Admission. 1317.300... THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 1317.300 Admission. (a) General....

  19. An Economic Model for Selective Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haglund, Alma

    1978-01-01

    The author presents an economic model for selective admissions to postsecondary nursing programs. Primary determinants of the admissions model are employment needs, availability of educational resources, and personal resources (ability and learning potential). As there are more applicants than resources, selective admission practices are…

  20. Policies Governing Admission to Jordanian Public Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massadeh, Nassar

    2012-01-01

    This paper intends to discuss the policy of admission to Jordanian public universities. This admission rules are variable and open to almost 100% of the graduates from secondary schools. This might refer to the historical events and economic conditions that the country has gone through since its establishment. Furthermore, the admission policy is…

  1. Playing the Private College Admissions Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moll, Richard

    Truths and myths involved with student admission to Ivy League colleges are revealed by a director of admissions whose experience includes admission work at Vassar, Bowdoin, Harvard and Yale. Several basic concepts are offered as fact: most private colleges in America today are not highly selective; many colleges pose as being more selective than…

  2. 10 CFR 1042.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 1042.300 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the basis of sex, be denied admission,...

  3. 29 CFR 36.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 36.300 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the basis of sex, be denied admission, or...

  4. 29 CFR 36.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 36.300 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the basis of sex, be denied admission, or...

  5. 10 CFR 1042.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 1042.300 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the basis of sex, be denied admission,...

  6. Complete recovery after severe myxoedema coma complicated by status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Fjølner, Jesper; Søndergaard, Esben; Kampmann, Ulla; Nielsen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of life-threatening myxoedema presenting with hypothermia, hypotension, bradycardia, pericardial effusion and deep coma. The condition was complicated by prolonged status epilepticus. The optimal treatment strategy has been debated over the years and the literature is briefly reviewed. Treatment with l-thyroxine (LT4) monotherapy without initial loading dose and with no l-triiodothyronine (LT3) treatment was successful with full recovery after hospitalisation for more than a month. Myxoedema coma is a rare, reversible condition with a high mortality and should be considered as a differential diagnosis in medical emergencies. PMID:25809434

  7. Spectroscopic Investigations of Fragment Species in the Coma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Paul D.; Cochran, Anita L.; Combi, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    The content of the gaseous coma of a comet is dominated by fragment species produced by photolysis of the parent molecules issuing directly from the icy nucleus of the comet. Spectroscopy of these species provides complementary information on the physical state of the coma to that obtained from observations of the parent species. Extraction of physical parameters requires detailed molecular and atomic data together with reliable high-resolution spectra and absolute fluxes of the primary source of excitation, the Sun. The large database of observations, dating back more than a century, provides a means to assess the chemical and evolutionary diversity of comets.

  8. Hco+ in the Coma of Comet Hale-Bopp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovell, A. J.; Schloerb, F. P.; Bergin, E. A.; Dickens, J. E.; De Vries, C. H.; Senay, M. C.; Irvine, W. M.

    1997-05-01

    Maps of comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) in the millimeter-wave emission of the ion HCO^+ revealed a local minimum near the nucleus position, with a maximum about 100,000 km in the antisolar direction. These observed features of the HCO^+ emission require a low abundance of HCO^+ due to enhanced destruction in the inner coma of the comet, within a region of low electron temperature (T_e). To set constraints on the formation of HCO^+ in the coma, as well as the location and magnitude of the transition to higher T_e, the data are compared with the results of ion-molecule chemistry models.

  9. HCO+ in the coma of comet Hale-Bopp.

    PubMed

    Lovell, A J; Schloerb, F P; Bergin, E A; Dickens, J E; Devries, C H; Senay, M C; Irvine, W M

    Maps of comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) in the millimeter-wave emission of the ion HCO+ revealed a local minimum near the nucleus position, with a maximum about 100,000 km in the antisolar direction. These observed features of the HCO+ emission require a low abundance of HCO+ due to enhanced destruction in the inner coma of the comet, within a region of low electron temperature (Te). To set constraints on the formation of HCO+ in the coma, as well as the location and magnitude of the transition to higher Te, the data are compared with the results of ion-molecule chemistry models. PMID:11543348

  10. HCO+ in the coma of comet Hale-Bopp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovell, A. J.; Schloerb, F. P.; Bergin, E. A.; Dickens, J. E.; Devries, C. H.; Senay, M. C.; Irvine, W. M.; Ferris, J. P. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Maps of comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) in the millimeter-wave emission of the ion HCO+ revealed a local minimum near the nucleus position, with a maximum about 100,000 km in the antisolar direction. These observed features of the HCO+ emission require a low abundance of HCO+ due to enhanced destruction in the inner coma of the comet, within a region of low electron temperature (Te). To set constraints on the formation of HCO+ in the coma, as well as the location and magnitude of the transition to higher Te, the data are compared with the results of ion-molecule chemistry models.

  11. Electrodynamics of submicron dust in the cometary coma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallis, M. K.; Hassan, M. H. A.

    1983-05-01

    Electromagnetic forces derived from the solar wind fields act strongly on submicron dust grains in the cometary coma. The grain charge and thus the forces are sensitive to composition and cometary plasma conditions, as well as to grain size. For dielectric grains of 0.1 μm and conducting grains of 0.3 μm or less, the electromagnetic forces dominate over radiation pressure. The stronger accelerations may produce fan-like structures as sometimes observed. They would also cause grains to circumvent the shields designed to protect the Giotto and Vega spacecrafts speeding through comet Halley's dust coma.

  12. The 20 item prosopagnosia index (PI20): relationship with the Glasgow face-matching test

    PubMed Central

    Sowden, Sophie; Gaule, Anne; Bird, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    The 20 item prosopagnosia index (PI20) was recently developed to identify individuals with developmental prosopagnosia. While the PI20’s principal purpose is to aid researchers and clinicians, it was suggested that it may serve as a useful screening tool to identify people with face recognition difficulties in applied settings where face matching is a critical part of their occupation. Although the PI20 has been validated using behavioural measures of face recognition, it has yet to be validated against a measure of face-matching ability that is more representative of applied settings. In this study, the PI20 was therefore administered with the Glasgow face-matching test (GFMT). A strong correlation was observed between PI20 and GFMT scores, providing further validation for the PI20, indicating that it is likely to be of value in applied settings. PMID:26715995

  13. Audit of the Forensic Psychiatry Liaison Service to Glasgow Sheriff Court 1994 to 1998.

    PubMed

    White, T; Ramsay, L; Morrison, R

    2002-01-01

    This study seeks to describe the demographic, offence, and diagnostic details of subjects referred by the Procurator Fiscal at Glasgow Sheriff Court to the Forensic Psychiatry Liaison between 1994 and 1997. The initial outcome of the assessment and an assessment of medical time involved is presented. This study is a retrospective review of audit forms completed between 1993 and 1994 and once more in 1997. The referral criteria, age structure and offence pattern was broadly similar to that reported in court diversion schemes in England. A primary diagnosis of alcohol and/or drug dependence was seen in one third of referrals during both years of the audit. A marked increase (250%) in referrals between 1994 and 1997 resulted in a marked reduction of those admitted to hospital, and an increase in the percentage who had 'no psychiatric diagnosis'. The need for ongoing liaison between the Procurators Fiscal and the Forensic Psychiatrists involved would appear important in modifying referral criteria. PMID:11848141

  14. Highlights from the Ninth European Breast Cancer Conference, Glasgow, 19–21 March 2014

    PubMed Central

    Munzone, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    The Ninth European Breast Cancer Conference (EBCC-9), one of the largest breast cancer conferences in the world, was held in Glasgow in March 2014, and brought together the voices of doctors, researchers, nurses, and patients. All the major breast cancer advocacy groups and institutions were united in one forum (Europa Donna, the EORTC Breast Cancer group, and EUSOMA). The Scientific Programme for EBCC-9 highlighted a holistic picture of breast cancer, including research, prevention, treatment, advocacy, and care. Participants were able to discover the most up-to-date developments and findings within the field for implementation into daily practice. Improvements in treatment, as well as enhanced access to care, underlie the sustained decreases in breast cancer mortality seen in 30 European countries from 1989 to 2010. PMID:24834121

  15. Do obesity-promoting food environments cluster around socially disadvantaged schools in Glasgow, Scotland?

    PubMed Central

    Ellaway, Anne; Macdonald, Laura; Lamb, Karen; Thornton, Lukar; Day, Peter; Pearce, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Increase in the consumption of food and drinks outside the home by adolescents and young people and associations with rising levels of obesity is a significant concern worldwide and it has been suggested that the food environment around schools may be a contributory factor. As few studies have explored this issue in a UK setting, we examined whether different types of food outlets are clustered around public secondary schools in Glasgow, and whether this pattern differed by social disadvantage. We found evidence of clustering of food outlets around schools but a more complex picture in relation to deprivation was observed. Across all schools there were numerous opportunities for pupils to purchase energy dense foods locally and the implications for policy are discussed. PMID:22819370

  16. Alternative manifestations of actor responses to urban flooding: case studies from Bradford and Glasgow.

    PubMed

    Cashman, A C

    2009-01-01

    Flooding processes are complex and can occur throughout urban areas sometimes with devastating consequences. Traditionally flood risks have been managed through a combination of structural defence measures, warnings and emergency measures. More recently they have included development controls and land zoning policies. When such measures fail, individuals, authorities and the economy have to cope with the consequences. There is a growing realization that the resilience of individuals and institutions to floods and the risks from flooding need to be addressed. In the past few years there has been what some have referred to as a paradigm shift in the way responses to flooding are being conceptualized and the way this affects actors and actions. Based on fieldwork including interviews this paper presents two examples of actor and institutional responses to flooding events from the cities of Bradford and Glasgow in the United Kingdom. PMID:19587405

  17. Diets for disease? Intraurban variation in reported food consumption in Glasgow.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, A; Macintyre, S; Anderson, A

    1994-06-01

    A recent official report on the Scottish Diet reviews evidence for poor health and poor diets among the Scots, and makes extensive and specific recommendations about dietary change. This paper examines the extent to which reported consumption of fifteen of the food groups discussed in that report vary among four neighbourhoods in Glasgow City. Some foods appear to be typical of a wider Glaswegian (or Scottish) diet and show little variation among neighbourhoods (e.g. semi-skimmed milk, white fish, confectionery, cakes and pastries, savoury snacks). Other foods however show marked differences between neighbourhoods after controlling for sex, age and social class; these include fruit, vegetables, meat (particularly processed meat products), bread, spreading fats, sugar, natural fruit juice and alcohol. This suggests that such intraurban variations in food consumption cannot be explained simply by socio-demographic or socio-economic factors in individuals and that cultural and supply factors also need to be taken into account. PMID:7979343

  18. Hegel in Glasgow: Idealists and the Emergence of Adult Education in the West of Scotland, 1866-1927

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Robert; Turner, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers how Hegel's philosophical idealism influenced the thinking and practical activities of four successive holders of the Chair of Moral Philosophy in the University of Glasgow between 1866 and 1927. It argues that their activities were shaped by Hegelian concepts of citizenship, which engendered a commitment to encouraging the…

  19. Case Study: A Distance Education Contribution to a Social Strategy To Combat Poverty: Open University Community Education Courses in Glasgow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farnes, N. C.

    This project located in Glasgow, Scotland, is concerned with the use of distance teaching for a non-formal community education program that is a component of a social change strategy to combat poverty. The study shows that the use of distance learning courses in non-formal community education is successful in attracting, at a reasonable cost per…

  20. Out-of-home food outlets and area deprivation: case study in Glasgow, UK

    PubMed Central

    Macintyre, Sally; McKay, Laura; Cummins, Steven; Burns, Cate

    2005-01-01

    Background There is a popular belief that out-of-home eating outlets, which typically serve energy dense food, may be more commonly found in more deprived areas and that this may contribute to higher rates of obesity and related diseases in such areas. Methods We obtained a list of all 1301 out-of-home eating outlets in Glasgow, UK, in 2003 and mapped these at unit postcode level. We categorised them into quintiles of area deprivation using the 2004 Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation and computed mean density of types of outlet (restaurants, fast food restaurants, cafes and takeaways), and all types combined, per 1000 population. We also estimated odds ratios for the presence of any outlets in small areas within the quintiles. Results The density of outlets, and the likelihood of having any outlets, was highest in the second most affluent quintile (Q2) and lowest in the second most deprived quintile (Q4). Mean outlets per 1,000 were 4.02 in Q2, 1.20 in Q4 and 2.03 in Q5. With Q2 as the reference, Odds Ratios for having any outlets were 0.52 (CI 0.32–0.84) in Q1, 0.50 (CI 0.31 – 0.80) in Q4 and 0.61 (CI 0.38 – 0.98) in Q5. Outlets were located in the City Centre, West End, and along arterial roads. Conclusion In Glasgow those living in poorer areas are not more likely to be exposed to out-of-home eating outlets in their neighbourhoods. Health improvement policies need to be based on empirical evidence about the location of fast food outlets in specific national and local contexts, rather than on popular 'factoids'. PMID:16248898

  1. Asbestos and lung cancer in Glasgow and the west of Scotland.

    PubMed Central

    De Vos Irvine, H; Lamont, D W; Hole, D J; Gillis, C R

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To quantify the relation between lung cancer and exposure to asbestos in men in west Scotland and to estimate the proportion of lung cancer which may be attributed to exposure to asbestos. DESIGN--An ecological correlation study of the incidence of lung cancer in men and past asbestos exposure. The unit of analysis was the postcode sector. Correction was made for past cigarette smoking, air pollution, and deprivation. SETTING--The region covered by the west of Scotland cancer registry, containing 2.72 million people and including Glasgow and the lower reaches of the River Clyde, where shipbuilding was once a major industry. SUBJECTS--All men diagnosed with lung cancer between 1975 and 1984 whose residence at the time of registration was within the west of Scotland. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--The population attributable risk for asbestos related lung cancer. RESULTS--An estimated 5.7% (95% confidence interval 2.3 to 9.1%) of all lung cancers in men registered in the west of Scotland during the period 1975-84 were asbestos related, amounting to 1081 cases. CONCLUSIONS--A considerable proportion of cases of lung cancer in men in Glasgow and the west of Scotland from 1975 to 1984 were asbestos related. Most of these may not have been considered for compensation by the Department of Social Security. Given the very small annual number of recorded cases of asbestosis this condition is probably not a prerequisite for the development of asbestos related lung cancer. A heightened awareness of the increasing incidence of asbestos related neoplasms and their more thorough investigation are recommended. PMID:8518676

  2. [Value of early acoustic and somatosensory evoked potentials in monitoring and prognostic assessment of coma in barbiturate therapy--comparison with clinical aspects and EEG].

    PubMed

    Reisecker, F; Witzmann, A; Löffler, W; Leblhuber, F; Deisenhammer, E; Valencak, E

    1987-03-01

    25 comatose patients suffering from severe cerebral lesions of different etiology were examined during barbiturate-therapy by Glasgow-Pittsburg-Coma-Scoring-System (GPCS), EEG, somatosensory and brainstem acoustic evoked potentials. The findings were correlated in view of prognostic prediction and importance for monitoring. A modified form of the Glasgow-Outcome-Score (GOS; independent-survival, dependent-survival, dead) was used for evaluating the outcome. In case of an initial GPCS less than 10 points none of the patients survived, in case of GPCS greater than 10 points 11 out of 19 patients survived. The latter relation of survival was also found in patients with improving or impairing scores during the observation period. In case of initial burst-suppression pattern in the EEG 7 out of 11 patients survived, in case of diffuse abnormalities with or with-out additional focal signs - 4 out of 10 patients survived, but in the latter there was none with an outcome of independent survival. All patients with an isoelectric EEG died. In case of bilateral recording of scalp- SEP 7 out of 11 patients survived, in case of unilateral loss of scalp-EP 4 out of 8 patients survived, but in the latter cases none with an outcome of independence. All patients with initial bilateral failure of scalp-SSEP or loss during the observation period died. In case of bilateral registrable BAEP (wave I to V) 11 out of 17 patients survived. All patients with initial uni- or bilateral failure of those potentials or loss during the observation period died.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3106004

  3. Map-based trigonometric parallaxes of open clusters: Coma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatewood, George

    1995-01-01

    This is the fourth study in a series to determine the direct trigonometric parallaxes of four of the nearest open star clusters, the Hyades, the Pleiades, the Praesepe, and the nearby cluster in Coma (Gatewood et al. 1990; Gatewood et al. 1992); Gatewood & Kiewiet de Jonge 1994). The results for the open star cluster in Coma are compared with those of the other three clusters, and the members are found to be significantly subluminous. The trigonometric parallax of the cluster is estimated from that of three members studied with the Multichannel Astrometric Photometer (MAP) at the Thaw Refractor of the University of Pittsburgh's Allegheny Observatory. The weighted mean parallax of the cluster is +13.53 +/- 0.54 mass (0.00054 min), corresponding to a distance modulus of 4.34 +/- 0.09 mag. The U-B excess of the Coma cluster members may be used to adjust the observed absolute magnitudes and the B-V measurements as suggested by Sandage & Eggen (1959). The agreement obtained in this manner suggests that, like subdwarf stars, the stars of the Coma cluster appear subluminous because of line blanketing. One of the three members observed in this study was recognized as a member by its parallax and is the faintest known member of the cluster.

  4. Sulfur and nitrogen reactions for cometary comae ion chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, A. D.; Anicich, V. G.

    1992-01-01

    The low pressure reactions of sulfur dioxide, carbon disulfide, and hydrazine with H2O+ and H3O+ were studied by the ion cyclotron resonance technique. These reactions are potentially important for sulphur chemistry in cometary comae. Rate coefficients and branching ratios of product channels are presented.

  5. PCA/HEXTE Observations of Coma and A2319

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rephaeli, Yoel

    1998-01-01

    The Coma cluster was observed in 1996 for 90 ks by the PCA and HEXTE instruments aboard the RXTE satellite, the first simultaneous, pointing measurement of Coma in the broad, 2-250 keV, energy band. The high sensitivity achieved during this long observation allows precise determination of the spectrum. Our analysis of the measurements clearly indicates that in addition to the main thermal emission from hot intracluster gas at kT=7.5 keV, a second spectral component is required to best-fit the data. If thermal, it can be described with a temperature of 4.7 keV contributing about 20% of the total flux. The additional spectral component can also be described by a power-law, possibly due to Compton scattering of relativistic electrons by the CMB. This interpretation is based on the diffuse radio synchrotron emission, which has a spectral index of 2.34, within the range allowed by fits to the RXTE spectral data. A Compton origin of the measured nonthermal component would imply that the volume-averaged magnetic field in the central region of Coma is B =0.2 micro-Gauss, a value deduced directly from the radio and X-ray measurements (and thus free of the usual assumption of energy equipartition). Barring the presence of unknown systematic errors in the RXTE source or background measurements, our spectral analysis yields considerable evidence for Compton X-ray emission in the Coma cluster.

  6. A preliminary model of the coma of 2060 Chiron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boice, Daniel C.; Konno, I.; Stern, S. Alan; Huebner, Walter F.

    1992-01-01

    We have included gravity in our fluid dynamic model with chemical kinetics of dusty comet comae and applied it with two dust sizes to 2060 Chiron. A progress report on the model and preliminary results concerning gas/dust dynamics and chemistry is given.

  7. Coma chemical composition at the Abydos landing site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, A.; Sheridan, S.; Morgan, G.; Andrews, D.; Barber, S.; Wright, I.

    2015-10-01

    The Ptolemy instrument, onboard the Rosetta Philae Lander, made measurements of the chemical composition of the coma mid-bounce, just after the non-nominal landing on the surface, and subsequently at the Abydos landing site. This presentation will discuss Ptolemy's operations throughout this 45 hour period and the results obtained.

  8. Modeling Coma Gas Jets in Comet Hale-Bopp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lederer, S. M.; Campins, H.

    2001-01-01

    We present an analysis of OH, CN, and C2 jets observed in Comet Hale-Bopp. The relative contributions from and composition of the coma gas sources, and the parameters describing the active areas responsible for the gas jets will be discussed. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  9. Delineation of Criteria for Admission to Step Down in the Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Patient.

    PubMed

    Bardes, James M; Turner, Jason; Bonasso, Patrick; Hobbs, Gerald; Wilson, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Patients that suffer a mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) with intracranial hemorrhage are commonly admitted to an intensive care unit with repeat imaging in 12 to 24 hours. This is costly to the health-care system. This study aimed to evaluate this practice and to identify criteria to triage patients to lower levels of monitored care. A retrospective review was performed at a university-based Level I trauma center. Patients with mild TBI were included. Data were collected on demographics, neurological status at 6, 12, and 24 hours, CT scan results, and medical or surgical interventions were required. A total of 389 patients were evaluated, 53 had a documented neurological decline while being admitted. Factors found to be associated with a neurological decline included Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) < 15 (P = 0.002), age greater than 55 (P < 0.001), and warfarin use (P = 0.039). Aspirin and Plavix were not associated with neurological decline. No patient age <55 with a GCS of 15 had a documented decline. Several risk factors were found to be associated with neurological decline after mild TBI. These include age, GCS < 15, and warfarin use. Patients aged <55 with GCS 15, posed minimal risk for deterioration. Patients aged <55 and with a GCS of 15 can be admitted to a monitored step-down bed with less frequent neurological checks. PMID:26802855

  10. Patient Admission Preferences and Perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Clayton; Melnikow, Joy; Dinh, Tu; Holmes, James F.; Gaona, Samuel D.; Bottyan, Thomas; Paterniti, Debora; Nishijima, Daniel K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Understanding patient perceptions and preferences of hospital care is important to improve patients’ hospitalization experiences and satisfaction. The objective of this study was to investigate patient preferences and perceptions of hospital care, specifically differences between intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital floor admissions. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of emergency department (ED) patients who were presented with a hypothetical scenario of a patient with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). We surveyed their preferences and perceptions of hospital care related to this scenario. A closed-ended questionnaire provided quantitative data on patient preferences and perceptions of hospital care and an open-ended questionnaire evaluated factors that may not have been captured with the closed-ended questionnaire. Results Out of 302 study patients, the ability for family and friends to visit (83%), nurse availability (80%), and physician availability (79%) were the factors most commonly rated “very important,” while the cost of hospitalization (62%) and length of hospitalization (59%) were the factors least commonly rated “very important.” When asked to choose between the ICU and the floor if they were the patient in the scenario, 33 patients (10.9%) choose the ICU, 133 chose the floor (44.0%), and 136 (45.0%) had no preference. Conclusion Based on a hypothetical scenario of mild TBI, the majority of patients preferred admission to the floor or had no preference compared to admission to the ICU. Humanistic factors such as the availability of doctors and nurses and the ability to interact with family appear to have a greater priority than systematic factors of hospitalization, such as length and cost of hospitalization or length of time in the ED waiting for an in-patient bed. PMID:26587095

  11. Estimating the variability in the risk of infection for hepatitis C in the Glasgow injecting drug user population.

    PubMed

    Sutton, A J; McDonald, S A; Palmateer, N; Taylor, A; Hutchinson, S J

    2012-12-01

    Glasgow (Scotland's largest city) has a high prevalence of injecting drug use and has one of the highest prevalences of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in injecting drug users (IDUs) in Western Europe. HCV prevalence data from surveys of Glasgow's IDUs from 1990 to 2007 were utilized and a model was applied that described the prevalence of HCV as a function of the rate (force) of infection. Force-of-infection estimates for HCV that may vary over time and injecting career length over a range of variables were investigated. New initiates to injecting were found to be at increased risk of HCV infection, with being recruited from a street location and reporting injecting in prison leading to a significant increase in the risk of infection in new initiates. These results indicate areas of importance for the planning of public health measures that target the IDU population. PMID:22459739

  12. Item-Level Psychometrics of the Glasgow Outcome Scale: Extended Structured Interviews.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ickpyo; Li, Chih-Ying; Velozo, Craig A

    2016-04-01

    The Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE) structured interview captures critical components of activities and participation, including home, shopping, work, leisure, and family/friend relationships. Eighty-nine community dwelling adults with mild-moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) were recruited (average = 2.7 year post injury). Nine items of the 19 items were used for the psychometrics analysis purpose. Factor analysis and item-level psychometrics were investigated using the Rasch partial-credit model. Although the principal components analysis of residuals suggests that a single measurement factor dominates the measure, the instrument did not meet the factor analysis criteria. Five items met the rating scale criteria. Eight items fit the Rasch model. The instrument demonstrated low person reliability (0.63), low person strata (2.07), and a slight ceiling effect. The GOSE demonstrated limitations in precisely measuring activities/participation for individuals after TBI. Future studies should examine the impact of the low precision of the GOSE on effect size. PMID:27504879

  13. Clinical Significance of the Glasgow Prognostic Score for Survival after Colorectal Cancer Surgery.

    PubMed

    Eren, Tunc; Burcu, Busra; Tombalak, Ercument; Ozdemir, Tugrul; Leblebici, Metin; Ozemir, Ibrahim Ali; Ziyade, Sedat; Alimoglu, Orhan

    2016-06-01

    Glasgow prognostic score (GPS) has been found to be a useful tool in various cancer types. Our aim was to evaluate the significance of GPS in patients operated on for colorectal cancer (CRC). Patients with CRC who underwent radical resections between April 2010 and January 2015 were retrospectively evaluated. GPS was estimated based on the preoperative measurement of C-reactive protein and serum albumin levels. Data including demographics, laboratory and pathological parameters, surgical outcomes, and late-term follow-up results were analyzed. The study group of 115 patients consisted of 51 (44 %) women and 64 (56 %) men with a median age of 66 (range 32-91) years. The mean follow-up period was 20 (range 7-41) months. Tumor size and wound infection rates were significantly increased in patients with higher GPS (p = 0.019 and p = 0.003, respectively). According to multivariate analyses, CEA and GPS were found to be independent risk factors significantly effecting mortality (p = 0.001 and p = 0.009, respectively). At the end of the late-term follow-up period, it was detected that cancer-specific survival significantly decreased as the GPS increased (p = 0.016). The GPS is a significant prognostic factor in CRC and should be included in the routine preoperative assessment of all surgically treated CRC patients. PMID:26925798

  14. [Assessment of Cachexia in Head and Neck Cancer Patients Based on a Modified Glasgow Prognostic Score].

    PubMed

    Matsuzuka, Takashi; Suzuki, Masahiro; Saijoh, Satoshi; Ikeda, Masakazu; Imaizumi, Mitsumasa; Nomoto, Yukio; Matsui, Takamichi; Tada, Yasuhiro; Omori, Koichi

    2016-02-01

    We retrospectively analyzed 54 patients who died of head and neck squamous cell caricinoma regarding the process and duration of cachexia using the modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS). The patients were classified as having cachexia when the serum albumin level was less than 3.5 mg/dL and the C-reactive protein (CRP) level was more than 0.5 mg/dL. The number of patients with cachexia was eight (8%) at the first visit and 50 (93%) at the time of death. In the 50 patients, the median and average time of having cachexia was 59 and 95 days, respectively. Thirty-two of the 50 patients (64%) died within three months after the presence of cachexia was confirmed. In this study, the time of having cachexia was so short, then the policy of care should be converted from aggressive into supportive in patients classified as having cachexia. mGPS would be an accurate assessment tool for cachexia and ascertain the end stage of head and neck cancer patients. PMID:27149710

  15. A health impact assessment of the 2014 Commonwealth Games in Glasgow

    PubMed Central

    McCartney, G.; Palmer, S.; Winterbottom, J.; Jones, R.; Kendall, R.; Booker, D.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Objective To influence the planning of the 2014 Commonwealth Games such that the positive impacts are maximized and the negative impacts are mitigated. Study design Participatory health impact assessment (HIA). Methods A participatory HIA was performed using standard World Health Organization methods. A scoping event was held to involve decision makers in the process and to identify the key areas for consideration. A large community engagement exercise and a systematic review were conducted as part of the evidence-gathering phase. The results of the HIA were reported to the key decision makers involved in the Glasgow City Council legacy strategy. Results The likely net health impact of hosting the Commonwealth Games was uncertain. It was suggested that the main mechanisms through which impacts were likely to be felt were: the economy; civic pride; engagement in decision making; the provision of new infrastructure; and participation in cultural events. A series of recommendations was produced in order to maximize positive health benefits and mitigate negative impacts. Conclusions HIA is a useful tool for engaging communities and decision makers in the public health agenda. HIAs of major multi-sport events are limited by a lack of quality evidence and the inability to predict impacts reliably. PMID:20630546

  16. Meteorological conditions and incidence of Legionnaires' disease in Glasgow, Scotland: application of statistical modelling.

    PubMed

    Dunn, C E; Rowlingson, B; Bhopal, R S; Diggle, P

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the relationships between Legionnaires' disease (LD) incidence and weather in Glasgow, UK, by using advanced statistical methods. Using daily meteorological data and 78 LD cases with known exact date of onset, we fitted a series of Poisson log-linear regression models with explanatory variables for air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and year, and sine-cosine terms for within-year seasonal variation. Our initial model showed an association between LD incidence and 2-day lagged humidity (positive, P = 0·0236) and wind speed (negative, P = 0·033). However, after adjusting for year-by-year and seasonal variation in cases there were no significant associations with weather. We also used normal linear models to assess the importance of short-term, unseasonable weather values. The most significant association was between LD incidence and air temperature residual lagged by 1 day prior to onset (P = 0·0014). The contextual role of unseasonably high air temperatures is worthy of further investigation. Our methods and results have further advanced understanding of the role which weather plays in risk of LD infection. PMID:22687530

  17. Myxoedema coma in the setting of hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state.

    PubMed

    Spyridoulias, Alexander; Riaz, Muhammad Shakeel

    2016-01-01

    Decompensated hypothyroidism is a rare endocrine emergency but a differential that should be considered in patients presenting critically unwell with systemic illness. We report a case of myxoedema coma in a woman presenting with respiratory failure, hypotension, hypothermia and a reduced level of consciousness, all of which are poor prognostic features in decompensated hypothyroidism. The patient was admitted to critical care for mechanical ventilation and cardiovascular support and treated with a combination of insulin, liothyronine and levothyroxine, making a good recovery. We wanted to highlight this case of myxoedema coma occurring in the context of a hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state (HHS), as the former condition is normally associated with hypoglycaemia, hyponatraemia and hypo-osmolality. Decompensated hypothyroidism should be considered in presentations of HHS as well as with other metabolic derangements, as delays in thyroid hormone replacement are associated with poorer outcomes. It has multisystem effects challenging its recognition and we discuss potential complications and their management. PMID:26759401

  18. [Cerebral fat embolism after closed leg injury].

    PubMed

    Wiel, E; Fleyfel, M; Onimus, J; Godefroy, O; Leclerc, X; Adnet, P

    1997-01-01

    A 21-year-old man sustained a closed fracture of the leg from an industrial accident, without associated head trauma. The orthopaedic treatment consisted of immediate immobilization by setting leg in plaster. Two hours after admission, the Glasgow coma scale score was 10. Four hours after admission he developed a coma (Glasgow coma scale score = 7) with repetitive seizures. No lesion was visible on cerebral CT scan. Chest X-ray was unremarkable. Petechiae on the anterior chest wall and abdomen with bilateral mydriasis occurred. Thrombocytopenia with prothrombine time increase were observed. Magnetic resonance imaging, 27 hours after admission, showed high-intensity areas on T2 weighted views due to fat embolism. Retinal haemorrhages were observed. The bronchoalveolar lavage showing fat staining of tracheal aspirates confirmed the diagnosis of fat embolism. This case report emphasizes the possibility of predominant neurologic manifestations of a fat embolism and the diagnostic help of cerebral magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:9750647

  19. School Admissions: Fairness versus Diverse Types of Schools, Choice and Own Admission Authorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the minefield that now surrounds admissions starting with a comparison of the relatively easy system of the 1950s and early 1960s and the complexity of multiple admission authorities of today. Taking evidence from a range of agencies, including government official bodies, and admission issues, the article aims to show that a…

  20. Recent Trends in Advance Directives at Nursing Home Admission and One Year after Admission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAuley, William J.; Buchanan, Robert J.; Travis, Shirley S.; Wang, Suojin; Kim, MyungSuk

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Advance directives are important planning and decision-making tools for individuals in nursing homes. Design and Methods: By using the nursing facility Minimum Data Set, we examined the prevalence of advance directives at admission and 12 months post-admission. Results: The prevalence of having any advance directive at admission declined…

  1. Disconnection of the Ascending Arousal System in Traumatic Coma

    PubMed Central

    Edlow, Brian L.; Haynes, Robin L.; Takahashi, Emi; Klein, Joshua P.; Cummings, Peter; Benner, Thomas; Greer, David M.; Greenberg, Steven M.; Wu, Ona; Kinney, Hannah C.; Folkerth, Rebecca D.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic coma is associated with disruption of axonal pathways throughout the brain but the specific pathways involved in humans are incompletely understood. In this study, we used high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) to map the connectivity of axonal pathways that mediate the 2 critical components of consciousness – arousal and awareness – in the postmortem brain of a 62-year-old woman with acute traumatic coma and in 2 control brains. HARDI tractography guided tissue sampling in the neuropathological analysis. HARDI tractography demonstrated complete disruption of white matter pathways connecting brainstem arousal nuclei to the basal forebrain and thalamic intralaminar and reticular nuclei. In contrast, hemispheric arousal pathways connecting the thalamus and basal forebrain to the cerebral cortex were only partially disrupted, as were the cortical “awareness pathways.” Neuropathologic examination, which utilized β-amyloid precursor protein and fractin immunomarkers, revealed axonal injury in the white matter of the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres that corresponded to sites of HARDI tract disruption. Axonal injury was also present within the grey matter of the hypothalamus, thalamus, basal forebrain, and cerebral cortex. We propose that traumatic coma may be a subcortical disconnection syndrome related to the disconnection of specific brainstem arousal nuclei from the thalamus and basal forebrain. PMID:23656993

  2. Radical formation in the coma from photodissociation of ice grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, William M.; Gerth, Christopher

    1990-01-01

    Long ago visual observations of comets suggested that there are jets in comets but it has only been recently that A'Hearn et al. have proven that some of these jets are due to emission from the CN radical. Recent studies in the lab have shown that CN radicals can be ejected directly into the gas phase from the photolysis of frozen vapors if the parent molecular has been excited to repulsive excited state. This later observation suggests that the jets that have been observed may be due to photodissociation of icy grains in the coma. A theory of radical formation from icy grains is presented. It is shown that direct formation of free radicals in the coma is an effective way to produce radicals from icy grains in the coma. The model predicts that icy grains could produce from 6 to 800,000 OH radicals/s per grain depending upon whether the radius of the grain is 0.3 to 100 micron.

  3. Cometary coma chemical composition (C4) mission. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carle, G. C.; Clark, B. C.; Niemann, H. B.; Alexander, M.; Knocke, P. C.; O'Hara, B. J.

    1994-01-01

    Cometary missions are of enormous fundamental importance for many different space science disciplines, including exobiology. Comets are presumed relics of the earliest, most primitive material in the solar nebula and are related to the planetesimals. They undoubtedly provided a general enrichment of volatiles to the inner solar system (contributing to atmospheres and oceans) and may have been key to the origin of life. A Discovery class, comet rendezvous mission, the Cometary Coma Chemical Composition (C4) Mission, was selected for further study by NASA earlier this year. The C4 Mission is a highly focused and usefully-limited subset of the Cometary Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) Mission, concentrating exclusively on measurements which will lead to an understanding of the chemical composition and make-up of the cometary nucleus. The scientific goals of the Cometary Coma Chemical Composition (C4) Mission are to rendezvous with a short-period comet and (1) to determine the elemental, chemical, and isotopic composition of the nucleus and (2) to characterize the chemical and isotopic nature of its atmosphere. Further, it is a goal to obtain preliminary data on the development of the coma (dust and gas composition) as a function of time and orbital position.

  4. THE HST/ACS COMA CLUSTER SURVEY. VIII. BARRED DISK GALAXIES IN THE CORE OF THE COMA CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Marinova, Irina; Jogee, Shardha; Weinzirl, Tim; Erwin, Peter; Trentham, Neil; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Hammer, Derek; Den Brok, Mark; Peletier, Reynier F.; Kleijn, Gijs V.; Graham, Alister W.; Carter, David; Mouhcine, Mustapha; Balcells, Marc; Guzman, Rafael; Hoyos, Carlos; Mobasher, Bahram; Peng, Eric W. E-mail: sj@astro.as.utexas.edu

    2012-02-20

    We use high-resolution ({approx}0.''1) F814W Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) images from the Hubble Space Telescope ACS Treasury survey of the Coma cluster at z {approx} 0.02 to study bars in massive disk galaxies (S0s), as well as low-mass dwarf galaxies in the core of the Coma cluster, the densest environment in the nearby universe. Our study helps to constrain the evolution of bars and disks in dense environments and provides a comparison point for studies in lower density environments and at higher redshifts. Our results are: (1) we characterize the fraction and properties of bars in a sample of 32 bright (M{sub V} {approx}< -18, M{sub *} > 10{sup 9.5} M{sub Sun }) S0 galaxies, which dominate the population of massive disk galaxies in the Coma core. We find that the measurement of a bar fraction among S0 galaxies must be handled with special care due to the difficulty in separating unbarred S0s from ellipticals, and the potential dilution of the bar signature by light from a relatively large, bright bulge. The results depend sensitively on the method used: the bar fraction for bright S0s in the Coma core is 50% {+-} 11%, 65% {+-} 11%, and 60% {+-} 11% based on three methods of bar detection, namely, strict ellipse fit criteria, relaxed ellipse fit criteria, and visual classification. (2) We compare the S0 bar fraction across different environments (the Coma core, A901/902, and Virgo) adopting the critical step of using matched samples and matched methods in order to ensure robust comparisons. We find that the bar fraction among bright S0 galaxies does not show a statistically significant variation (within the error bars of {+-}11%) across environments which span two orders of magnitude in galaxy number density (n {approx} 300-10,000 galaxies Mpc{sup -3}) and include rich and poor clusters, such as the core of Coma, the A901/902 cluster, and Virgo. We speculate that the bar fraction among S0s is not significantly enhanced in rich clusters compared to low

  5. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey. VIII. Barred Disk Galaxies in the Core of the Coma Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinova, Irina; Jogee, Shardha; Weinzirl, Tim; Erwin, Peter; Trentham, Neil; Ferguson, Henry C.; Hammer, Derek; den Brok, Mark; Graham, Alister W.; Carter, David; Balcells, Marc; Goudfrooij, Paul; Guzmán, Rafael; Hoyos, Carlos; Mobasher, Bahram; Mouhcine, Mustapha; Peletier, Reynier F.; Peng, Eric W.; Verdoes Kleijn, Gijs

    2012-02-01

    We use high-resolution (~0farcs1) F814W Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) images from the Hubble Space Telescope ACS Treasury survey of the Coma cluster at z ~ 0.02 to study bars in massive disk galaxies (S0s), as well as low-mass dwarf galaxies in the core of the Coma cluster, the densest environment in the nearby universe. Our study helps to constrain the evolution of bars and disks in dense environments and provides a comparison point for studies in lower density environments and at higher redshifts. Our results are: (1) we characterize the fraction and properties of bars in a sample of 32 bright (M V <~ -18, M * > 109.5 M ⊙) S0 galaxies, which dominate the population of massive disk galaxies in the Coma core. We find that the measurement of a bar fraction among S0 galaxies must be handled with special care due to the difficulty in separating unbarred S0s from ellipticals, and the potential dilution of the bar signature by light from a relatively large, bright bulge. The results depend sensitively on the method used: the bar fraction for bright S0s in the Coma core is 50% ± 11%, 65% ± 11%, and 60% ± 11% based on three methods of bar detection, namely, strict ellipse fit criteria, relaxed ellipse fit criteria, and visual classification. (2) We compare the S0 bar fraction across different environments (the Coma core, A901/902, and Virgo) adopting the critical step of using matched samples and matched methods in order to ensure robust comparisons. We find that the bar fraction among bright S0 galaxies does not show a statistically significant variation (within the error bars of ±11%) across environments which span two orders of magnitude in galaxy number density (n ~ 300-10,000 galaxies Mpc-3) and include rich and poor clusters, such as the core of Coma, the A901/902 cluster, and Virgo. We speculate that the bar fraction among S0s is not significantly enhanced in rich clusters compared to low-density environments for two reasons. First, S0s in rich clusters

  6. 10 CFR 2.708 - Admissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Admissions. 2.708 Section 2.708 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Rules for Formal Adjudications § 2.708 Admissions. (a... request or such further time as may be allowed on motion, the party to whom the request is directed...

  7. 10 CFR 2.708 - Admissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Admissions. 2.708 Section 2.708 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Rules for Formal Adjudications § 2.708 Admissions. (a... request or such further time as may be allowed on motion, the party to whom the request is directed...

  8. Admissions Deans Dish on Their Jobs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Elizabeth F.; Hoover, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Over the last decade, admissions has become a front-page fixation, and the industry's professionals have higher profiles than ever, on campuses and off. In turn, today's admissions jobs come with heavy doses of prestige and pressure. In this article, the authors discuss the results of a new survey of college officers which suggest that, despite…

  9. Admissions and Preferences: Sequel to Defunis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, James B.

    1973-01-01

    Three unresolved affirmative action admissions problems are examined: the role of students in admissions decisions, the validity of racial quotas, and to what extent applicants are entitled to due process protection of the fourteenth ammendment. Included is a synopsis of DeFunis v. Odegaard, which upheld a reverse discrimination claim. (JT)

  10. 49 CFR 25.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Office of the Secretary of Transportation NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 25.300 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the basis of sex, be...

  11. 28 CFR 54.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 54.300 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the basis of sex, be...

  12. 6 CFR 17.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex... basis of sex, be denied admission, or be subjected to discrimination in admission, by any recipient...

  13. 14 CFR 1253.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex... basis of sex, be denied admission, or be subjected to discrimination in admission, by any recipient...

  14. Why Do We Stay in Admissions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piersol, Marion Kandel; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Admission counselors (n=200) completed surveys about employment, title, on-the-job training, travel, and availability and satisfaction with certain responsibilities. Most satisfying admission responsibilities were program organization and implementation, applicant review and decision, and formal presentations. Least satisfying were telemarketing,…

  15. Understanding the Bologna Process for Admissions Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxton, Mary; Johnson, Johnny Kent; Nathanson, Gloria; Paver, William; Watkins, Robert

    2009-01-01

    In Spring 2008, senior members of the international admission and credential evaluation community met to deliberate over the admission and placement of Bologna Compliant degree holders into U.S. graduate programs. This group comprised several individuals holding top leadership positions in NAFSA, AACRAO, and closely allied groups involved in…

  16. The Terms and Tasks of "Open Admissions"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Robert A.

    1976-01-01

    Noting the need to define the terms used for policies which are changing the role of admissions offices, the author defines "open admissions" as "universal opportunity for post-secondary schooling" and points out changes in the core tasks of recruiting, selecting, counseling, and management of student records and data. (JT)

  17. Grade Inflation and Law School Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wongsurawat, Winai

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the evidence on whether grade inflation has led to an increasing emphasis on standardized test scores as a criterion for law school admissions. Design/methodology/approach: Fit probabilistic models to admissions data for American law schools during the mid to late 1990s, a period during which…

  18. Rank in Class and College Admission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally class rankings have been used by high schools to determine valedictorians and salutatorians. These rankings have also been used by colleges to make admission decisions and for awarding scholarships. While there is no direct link between college rank and college admission, there is evidence that not using class rank can reduce stress…

  19. 22 CFR 146.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 146.300 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the basis of sex, be...

  20. Alphabetical Order Effects in School Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurajda, Štepán; Münich, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    If school admission committees use alphabetically sorted lists of applicants in their evaluations, one's position in the alphabet according to last name initial may be important in determining access to selective schools. Jurajda and Münich (2010) "Admission to Selective Schools, Alphabetically". "Economics of Education…

  1. Lexical Profiles of Thailand University Admission Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherngchawano, Wirun; Jaturapitakkul, Natjiree

    2014-01-01

    University Admission Tests in Thailand are important documents which reflect Thailand's education system. To study at a higher education level, all students generally need to take the University Admission Tests designed by the National Institute of Educational Testing Service (NIETS). For the English test, vocabulary and reading comprehension is…

  2. 38 CFR 17.365 - Admission priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Admission priorities. 17.365 Section 17.365 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Grants to the Republic of the Philippines § 17.365 Admission priorities. Appropriate provisions of §...

  3. Admission to Law School: New Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shultz, Marjorie M.; Zedeck, Sheldon

    2012-01-01

    Standardized tests have been increasingly controversial over recent years in high-stakes admission decisions. Their role in operationalizing definitions of merit and qualification is especially contested, but in law schools this challenge has become particularly intense. Law schools have relied on the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) and an INDEX…

  4. Profile in Action: Linking Admission and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes, Carla M.

    2013-01-01

    A profile-oriented retention strategy embraces the admission process as a powerful lever in improving retention and completion rates and recognizes that the student profile can be shaped by changes in admission policies or priorities--even within the current market position of the institution. In addition, the student body can be oriented toward…

  5. Simulated Admissions Exercise in Health Services Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quatrano, Louis A.; And Others

    This workbook is intended for use in a Simulated Admissions Exercise (SAE). Done in group settings, the SAE establishes mock admissions committees which work through simulated student applications to choose a certain number to be "admitted" to a hypothetical class of students. The applicants are seeking positions in a health services…

  6. 43 CFR 41.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex... basis of sex, be denied admission, or be subjected to discrimination in admission, by any recipient...

  7. 45 CFR 86.21 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex... of sex, be denied admission, or be subjected to discrimination in admission, by any recipient...

  8. 49 CFR 25.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Office of the Secretary of Transportation NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 25.300 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the basis of sex, be...

  9. 40 CFR 5.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex... of sex, be denied admission, or be subjected to discrimination in admission, by any recipient...

  10. 28 CFR 54.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 54.300 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the basis of sex, be...

  11. 45 CFR 86.21 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex... of sex, be denied admission, or be subjected to discrimination in admission, by any recipient...

  12. 45 CFR 86.21 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex... of sex, be denied admission, or be subjected to discrimination in admission, by any recipient...

  13. 43 CFR 41.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex... basis of sex, be denied admission, or be subjected to discrimination in admission, by any recipient...

  14. An Economic Analysis of College Admission Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costrell, Robert M.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of relaxed college admission standards vary across students. A relaxed standard may raise the number of graduates but reduces nongraduates' productivity. The effect on the graduation rate is ambiguous, since "marginal" college attendees are less likely to graduate. A lower admission standard reduces performance among students exceeding…

  15. 7 CFR 503.2 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Admission. 503.2 Section 503.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.2 Admission. No person will be admitted to PIADC,...

  16. 7 CFR 503.2 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Admission. 503.2 Section 503.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.2 Admission. No person will be admitted to PIADC,...

  17. 7 CFR 503.2 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Admission. 503.2 Section 503.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.2 Admission. No person will be admitted to PIADC,...

  18. 7 CFR 503.2 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Admission. 503.2 Section 503.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.2 Admission. No person will be admitted to PIADC,...

  19. 7 CFR 503.2 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Admission. 503.2 Section 503.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.2 Admission. No person will be admitted to PIADC,...

  20. Student System, On-Line Admissions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Stephen R.

    This report provides technical information on an on-line admissions system developed by Montgomery College. Part I, Systems Development, describes the background, objectives and responsibilities, system design, and reports generated by the system. Part II, Operating Instructions, describes input forms and controls, admission system functions, file…

  1. 38 CFR 17.365 - Admission priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Admission priorities. 17.365 Section 17.365 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Grants to the Republic of the Philippines § 17.365 Admission priorities. Appropriate provisions of §...

  2. 38 CFR 17.365 - Admission priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Admission priorities. 17.365 Section 17.365 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Grants to the Republic of the Philippines § 17.365 Admission priorities. Appropriate provisions of §...

  3. 38 CFR 17.365 - Admission priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Admission priorities. 17.365 Section 17.365 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Grants to the Republic of the Philippines § 17.365 Admission priorities. Appropriate provisions of §...

  4. 38 CFR 17.365 - Admission priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Admission priorities. 17.365 Section 17.365 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Grants to the Republic of the Philippines § 17.365 Admission priorities. Appropriate provisions of §...

  5. An Admissions Race that's Already Won

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Mitchell L.

    2008-01-01

    The author recently spent a year and a half in the admissions office of a highly selective Eastern college as an ethnographer, seeking to understand just how admissions officers make their decisions. He accompanied them on recruitment trips to high schools and college fairs, helped manage their offices' relentless current of visitors and mail, and…

  6. Special Report on the Transfer Admission Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for College Admission Counseling, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Each Spring, much media attention is focused on the college admission process for first-year students, with particular emphasis on acceptance rates and factors that colleges consider when choosing among applicants. However, less attention is focused on the transfer admission process, which affects approximately one-third of students beginning at…

  7. The coma cluster after lunch: Has a galaxcy group passed through the cluster core?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Jack O.; Roettiger, Kurt; Ledlow, Michael; Klypin, Anatoly

    1994-01-01

    We propose that the Coma cluster has recently undergone a collision with the NGC 4839 galaxy group. The ROSAT X-ray morphology, the Coma radio halo, the presence of poststarburst galaxies in the bridge between Coma and NGC 4839, the usually high velocity dispersion for the NGC 4839 group, and the position of a large-scale galaxy filament to the NE of Coma are all used to argue that the NGC 4839 group passed through the core of Coma approximately 2 Gyr ago. We present a new Hydro/N-body simulation of the merger between a galaxy group and a rich cluster that reproduces many of the observed X-ray and optical properties of Coma/NGC 4839.

  8. A Rare Case of Myxedema Coma with Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS).

    PubMed

    Dixit, Siddharth; Dutta, Manoj Kumar; Namdeo, Mayank

    2015-05-01

    Myxedema coma or hypothyroid crisis is an endocrine emergency and needs ICU management. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is another medical emergency which needs high degree of clinical suspicion else mortality can be high. There is a paradox in co existence of myxedema coma and NMS. While one is hypometabolic state another is hypermetabolic state and both can be precipitated by antipsychotics use. Hypothermia and flaccidity commonly expected in myxedema coma may mask fever and rigidity of classical NMS contributing to diagnostic problem and treatment delay. Scientific literature on coexistance of myxedema coma and NMS is sparse. We hereby report first case with coexisting myxedema coma and NMS in a patient of schizophrenia treated with antipsychotic, where classical symptoms of NMS were masked by myxedema coma. Prompt diagnosis and effective management by a team resulted in favourable outcome in our patient. This case is reported to alert intensive care physicians to atypical manifestations of NMS in presence of hypothyroidism. PMID:26155541

  9. A Rare Case of Myxedema Coma with Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS)

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Manoj Kumar; Namdeo, Mayank

    2015-01-01

    Myxedema coma or hypothyroid crisis is an endocrine emergency and needs ICU management. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is another medical emergency which needs high degree of clinical suspicion else mortality can be high. There is a paradox in co existence of myxedema coma and NMS. While one is hypometabolic state another is hypermetabolic state and both can be precipitated by antipsychotics use. Hypothermia and flaccidity commonly expected in myxedema coma may mask fever and rigidity of classical NMS contributing to diagnostic problem and treatment delay. Scientific literature on coexistance of myxedema coma and NMS is sparse. We hereby report first case with coexisting myxedema coma and NMS in a patient of schizophrenia treated with antipsychotic, where classical symptoms of NMS were masked by myxedema coma. Prompt diagnosis and effective management by a team resulted in favourable outcome in our patient. This case is reported to alert intensive care physicians to atypical manifestations of NMS in presence of hypothyroidism. PMID:26155541

  10. Effects of Urban Morphology on Intra-Urban Temperature Differences: Two Squares in Glasgow City Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drach, P. R. C.; Emmanuel, R.

    2014-12-01

    The perspective of climate change increases the necessity of tackling the urban over heating effects, by developing strategies to mitigate/adapt to changes. Analysing the influence of urban form on intra-urban temperature dynamics could be a helpful way of reducing its negative consequences. Also, it would help untangle the urban effect from the effect caused by atmospheric conditions. The present paper presents the effect of atmospheric conditions as exemplified by atmospheric stability (modified Pasquill-Gifford-Turner classification system) and urban morphology as measured by the Sky View Factor (SVF) on intra-urban variations in air temperature in a cold climate city, in and around the mature urban area of Glasgow, UK (55° 51' 57.294"N, 4° 15' 0.2628"W). The aim is to highlight their combined importance and to make preliminary investigations on the local warming effect of urban morphology under specific atmospheric stability classes. The present work indicates that the maximum intra-urban temperature differences (i.e. temperature difference between the coolest and the warmest spots in a given urban region) is strongly correlated with atmospheric stability. The spatial patterns in local temperature variations consistently show that water bodies and urban parks have lower temperature variations. Thus, greenery and urban materials could play an important role in influencing the local climate in cold cities. The knowledge of urban morphology's influence on local temperature variations could be an important tool for devising appropriate planning/design strategies to face urban overheating in the coming years as the background climate continues to warm.

  11. Reducing admissions with patient group directions.

    PubMed

    Wat, Dennis; Glossage, Elaine; Hampson, Onnor; Sibley, Sarah

    In times of financial restrictions and reform impediments, health services need to invest in resources that provide value for money and reduce hospital admissions. Improving disease management in the community is a primary target for those trying to reduce costs. The second most common cause of emergency admissions to hospital is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and it has been suggested that more effective treatments and better management of the condition would likely result in an estimated 5% fewer admissions to hospital, saving around pound 15.5m each year. This article discusses how savings could be made by improving care provided in the community. PMID:24834601

  12. Formation of C3 and C2 in Cometary Comae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hölscher, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    Comets are remnants from the Solar System formation. They reside at large distances from the Sun and are believed to store deep freeze imprints of the chemical and physical conditions at the time the Solar System formed. The main ice component of a comet is H2O followed by CO and CO2 with additional small amounts of molecules with varying complexity. Comets also contain large amounts of dust. If a comet approaches the Sun the ices begin to sublimate giving rise to the cometary coma. The molecules producing the coma can be observed in the infrared, the radio wavelength range and at optical wavelengths. To constrain the formation of the Solar System, models require knowledge of the composition for a statistically significant number of comets. This favors optical observations of e.g. C3 (tricarbon) and C2 (dicarbon) since these species allow observations even of relatively faint comets and do not require space missions (infrared observations). However, one has to link these observed photodissociation product species (daughter species) to the molecules that originally sublimated from the comet nucleus surface, i.e. the so-called parent molecules, as e.g. C2H2 (acetylene) for C2. However, for C3 no parent molecules have been identified so far. This thesis investigates the formation of C3 and C2 radicals in cometary comae due to photodissociation of observed and in the literature proposed hydrocarbon parent molecules. For this purpose a one-dimensional multi-fluid coma chemistry model has been improved and applied. This work added new photo reactions to the model, updated the hydrocarbon photo rate coefficients and quantified their uncertainty. A sensitivity analysis has been carried out to determine the reactions whose uncertainty most affect the model output uncertainty. Special attention should be paid to these so-called key reactions in future laboratory experiments and quantum chemical computations to reduce the model output uncertainty more effectively. This will

  13. Properties of dust in the coma of Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal; Hadamcik, Edith; Sen, Asole Kumar; Lasue, Jeremie; Fulle, Marco; Gupta, R.

    The last apparition of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko before the Rosetta spacecraft ren-dezvous in 2014 has taken place in 2008-2009. Observations have therefore been carried out to optimize the mission. In this context, observations of solar light scattered by dust, with em-phasis on polarimetric data, provide comparisons between the dust properties within different regions of the coma and with other comets. Efforts carried out both in India (December 2008 and April-May 2009) and in France (March 2009) have allowed us, with polarimetric imaging techniques, to follow the variations of the intensity and polarization of the scattered light from about 2 months before perihelion to 2 months after perihelion [1,2]. The interpretation of the observational results i) favors the presence of relatively large absorbing particles in the coma before perihelion, ii) reveals an increase in intensity and polarization a couple of weeks after per-ihelion, tentatively related to a significant ejection of small micron-or submicron-sized grains (possibly in the form of fluffy aggregates), and iii) suggests that these different types of particles originate from different parts of the nucleus that suffers noticeable seasonal effects. Although it needs to be kept in mind that remote observations do not allow the detection of local changes in the innermost coma, the implication of these results will be discussed in the context of the Rosetta mission strategy. E.g. during close-up approach, large absorbing particles could be harmful to the spacecraft, especially the optics; also, it would be of major interest to study the increase in activity after perihelion. [1] Levasseur-Regourd A.C., Hadamcik E., Sen A.K., Gupta R., Lasue J. In: Icy bodies in the solar system, IAU 263, Cambridge University Press, in press 2010. [2] Hadamcik E., Sen A.K., Levasseur-Regourd, A.C., Gupta R., Lasue J., AA, submitted, 2010

  14. The kinetics and dynamics of the coma of Halley's comet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Combi, Michael R.

    1994-01-01

    This grant to the University of Michigan supported the efforts of Michael R. Combi to serve as a co-investigator in collaboration with a larger effort by the principal investigator, William Smyth of Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. The overall objective of this project was to analyze in a self-consistent manner unique optical O((sup 1)D) and NH2 ultra-high resolution line profile data of excellent quality and other supporting lower-resolution spectral data for the coma of comet P/Halley by using highly developed and physically-based cometary coma models in order to determine and explain in terms of physical processes the actual dynamics and photochemical kinetics that occur in the coma. The justification for this work is that it provides a valuable and underlying physical base from which to interpret significantly different types of coma observations in a self-consistent manner and hence bring into agreement (or avoid) apparent inconsistencies that arise from non-physically based interpretations. The level of effort for the Michigan component amounted to less than three person-months over a planned period of three years. The period had been extended at no extra cost to four years because the Michigan grant and the AER contract did not have coincident time periods. An effort of somewhat larger scope was undertaken by the PI. The importance of the O((sup 1)D) profiles is that they provide a direct trace of the water distribution in comets. The line profile shape is produced by the convolution of the outflow velocity and thermal dispersion of the parent water molecules with the photokinetic ejection of the oxygen atoms upon photodissociation of the parent water molecules. Our understanding of the NH2 and its precursor ammonia are important for comet-to-comet composition variations as they relate to the cosmo-chemistry of the early solar nebula. Modeling of the distribution of NH2 is necessary in order to infer the ammonia production rates from NH2

  15. Gamma hydroxybutyrate--a coma inducing recreational drug.

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, J M; Stell, I

    1997-01-01

    The effects of gamma hydroxybutyrate, a coma inducing recreational drug, are described and illustrated by case reports of five patients presenting to accident and emergency (A&E). All had depressed levels of consciousness. There was strong circumstantial evidence of gamma hydroxybutyrate ingestion in all cases, and laboratory evidence in two. All recovered and supportive treatment. gamma Hydroxybutyrate has become a fashionable recreational drug. The majority of people who have ingested it will recover spontaneously without long term sequelae but its toxic effects may be dramatic while they last, particularly when it is taken with other drugs or alcohol. Images Figure 3 Figure 1 PMID:9248920

  16. Evolution of near UV Halley's spectrum in the inner coma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousselot, Phillippe; Clairemidi, Jacques; Vernotte, F.; Moreels, Guy

    1992-01-01

    A direct way to observe the photodissociation of water vapor in a cometary coma is to detect the OH prompt emission. This emission is shifted of delta lambda = 4 nm with respect to the OH 309 nm fluorescence band. The extended data set obtained with the three-channel spectrometer on-board Vega 2 reveals at short distance of the nucleus (i.e., less than 600 km) an excess of emission on the right wing of the OH band which may be interpreted as being mainly due to prompt emission.

  17. Coma dust scattering concepts applied to the Rosetta mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, Uwe; Rinaldi, Giovanna

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes basic concepts, as well as providing a framework, for the interpretation of the light scattered by the dust in a cometary coma as observed by instruments on a spacecraft such as Rosetta. It is shown that the expected optical depths are small enough that single scattering can be applied. Each of the quantities that contribute to the scattered intensity is discussed in detail. Using optical constants of the likely coma dust constituents, olivine, pyroxene and carbon, the scattering properties of the dust are calculated. For the resulting observable scattering intensities several particle size distributions are considered, a simple power law, power laws with a small particle cut off and a log-normal distributions with various parameters. Within the context of a simple outflow model, the standard definition of Afρ for a circular observing aperture is expanded to an equivalent Afρ for an annulus and specific line-of-sight observation. The resulting equivalence between the observed intensity and Afρ is used to predict observable intensities for 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko at the spacecraft encounter near 3.3 AU and near perihelion at 1.3 AU. This is done by normalizing particle production rates of various size distributions to agree with observed ground based Afρ values. Various geometries for the column densities in a cometary coma are considered. The calculations for a simple outflow model are compared with more elaborate Direct Simulation Monte Carlo Calculation (DSMC) models to define the limits of applicability of the simpler analytical approach. Thus our analytical approach can be applied to the majority of the Rosetta coma observations, particularly beyond several nuclear radii where the dust is no longer in a collisional environment, without recourse to computer intensive DSMC calculations for specific cases. In addition to a spherically symmetric 1-dimensional approach we investigate column densities for the 2-dimensional DSMC model on the

  18. Automated surface photometry for the Coma Cluster galaxies: The catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doi, M.; Fukugita, M.; Okamura, S.; Tarusawa, K.

    1995-01-01

    A homogeneous photometry catalog is presented for 450 galaxies with B(sub 25.5) less than or equal to 16 mag located in the 9.8 deg x 9.8 deg region centered on the Coma Cluster. The catalog is based on photographic photometry using an automated surface photometry software for data reduction applied to B-band Schmidt plates. The catalog provides accurate positions, isophotal and total magnitudes, major and minor axes, and a few other photometric parameters including rudimentary morphology (early of late type).

  19. Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies in the Coma Cluster Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Secker, Jeff

    1995-12-01

    I have analyzed deep R- and B-band CCD images of the central ~ 700 arcmin(2) of the Coma cluster (Abell 1656, v = 7000 km/s, richness-class 2), using a statistically rigorous and automated method for the detection, photometry and classification of faint objects on digital images. The dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxies are confined to a well-defined sequence in the color range given by 0.7 <= (B-R) <= 1.9 mag; within this interval and complete to R = 22.5 mag, there are 2535 dE candidates in the cluster core, and 694 objects on the associated control field (2.57x less area). I detected a significant metallicity gradient in the radial distribution of dE galaxies, which goes as Z ~ R(-0.32) outwards from the cluster center at NGC 4874. As well, there is a strong color-luminosity correlation, in the sense that more luminous dE galaxies are redder in the mean. These observations are consistent with a model in which the intracluster gas exerted a confinement pressure (greatest near the cluster core), impeding the outflow of supernovae-driven metal-rich gas from the young dE galaxies. The spatial distribution of faint dEs is well fit by a standard King model with a core radius R_c = 18.7 arcmin ( =~ 0.44 Mpc), significantly larger than found for the brightest dEs and giant cluster galaxies, and consistent with tidal disruption of faint dEs in the dense cluster core. The composite luminosity function for Coma galaxies was modeled as the sum of a log-normal distribution for the giant galaxies and a Schechter function for the dE galaxies. Decomposing the galaxy luminosity function in this manner, I found that the early-type dwarf-to-giant ratio (EDGR) for the Coma cluster core is identical with that of the Virgo cluster. I proposed that the presence of substructure is an important factor in determining the cluster's EDGR, since during the merger of two or more richness-class 1 galaxy clusters, the total number of dwarf and giant galaxies will be conserved. Thus, this low EDGR

  20. Analysis of CCD images of the coma of comet P/Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Combi, Michael R.

    1992-01-01

    The modeling analysis objective of this project is to make use of the skill acquired in the development of Monte Carlo particle trajectory models for the distributions of gas species in cometary comae as a basis for a new dust coma model. This model will include a self-consistent picture of the time-dependent dusty-gas dynamics of the inner coma and the three-dimensional time-dependent trajectories of the dust particles under the influence of solar gravity and solar radiation pressure in the outer coma. Our purpose is to use this model as a tool to analyze selected images from two sets of data of the comet P/Halley with the hope that we can help to understand the effects of a number of important processes on the spatial morphology of the observed dust coma. The study will proceed much in the same way as our study of the spatially extended hydrogen coma where we were able to understand the spatial morphology of the Lyman-alpha coma in terms of the partial thermalization of the hot H atoms produced by the photodissociation of cometary H2O and OH. The processes of importance to the observed dust coma include: (1) the dust particle size distribution function; (2) the terminal velocities of various sized dust particles in the inner coma; (3) the radiation scattering properties of dust particles, which are important both in terms of the observed scattered radiation and the radiation pressure acceleration on dust particles; (4) the fragmentation and/or vaporization of dust particles; (5) the relative importance of CHON and silicate dust particles as they contribute both to the dusty-gas dynamics in the inner coma (that produce the dust particle terminal velocities) and to the observed spatial morphology of the outer dust coma; and (6) the time and direction dependence of the source of dust.

  1. The Impact of Bakke on Admissions Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Ron; Macklin, Dave

    1980-01-01

    The Bakke decision will cause institutions to strengthen academic support programs, improve admissions procedures, and develop stronger evaluation programs. Institutions will see more "reverse discrimination" cases in the future. (Author)

  2. 40 CFR 5.220 - Admissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 5.220 Admissions. (a... education, professional education, graduate higher education, and public institutions of...

  3. 16 CFR 3.32 - Admissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Discovery; Compulsory Process § 3.32 Admissions. (a) At any time after thirty (30... unless the party states that it has made reasonable inquiry and that the information known to or...

  4. 43 CFR 4.1141 - Admissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... directed serves on the requesting party— (1) A sworn statement denying specifically the relevant matters of which an admission is requested; (2) A sworn statement setting forth in detail the reasons why he...

  5. 43 CFR 4.1141 - Admissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... directed serves on the requesting party— (1) A sworn statement denying specifically the relevant matters of which an admission is requested; (2) A sworn statement setting forth in detail the reasons why he...

  6. 43 CFR 4.1141 - Admissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... directed serves on the requesting party— (1) A sworn statement denying specifically the relevant matters of which an admission is requested; (2) A sworn statement setting forth in detail the reasons why he...

  7. Proceedings of a symposium on the neurobiology of the basal ganglia. Glasgow, United Kingdom, July 1999.

    PubMed

    2000-05-01

    Glasgow University in July 1999 as part of the Summer Meeting of the Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. The invited speakers were chosen to be wide ranging and contributions encompassed evolution, circuitry and receptors of the basal ganglia, striatal remodelling after dopamine loss, striatal functioning in humans with Huntington's disease and in primate models after midbrain fetal transplants, and the genetics of basal ganglia disorders. Short presentations and posters of current results supplemented the main presentations and some are also included amongst these reviews. PMID:10960285

  8. A lead isotopic study of the human bioaccessibility of lead in urban soils from Glasgow, Scotland.

    PubMed

    Farmer, John G; Broadway, Andrew; Cave, Mark R; Wragg, Joanna; Fordyce, Fiona M; Graham, Margaret C; Ngwenya, Bryne T; Bewley, Richard J F

    2011-11-01

    The human bioaccessibility of lead (Pb) in Pb-contaminated soils from the Glasgow area was determined by the Unified Bioaccessibility Research Group of Europe (BARGE) Method (UBM), an in vitro physiologically based extraction scheme that mimics the chemical environment of the human gastrointestinal system and contains both stomach and intestine compartments. For 27 soils ranging in total Pb concentration from 126 to 2160 mg kg(-1) (median 539 mg kg(-1)), bioaccessibility as determined by the 'stomach' simulation (pH ~1.5) was 46-1580 mg kg(-1), equivalent to 23-77% (mean 52%) of soil total Pb concentration. The corresponding bioaccessibility data for the 'stomach+intestine' simulation (pH ~6.3) were 6-623 mg kg(-1) and 2-42% (mean 22%) of soil Pb concentration. The soil (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios ranged from 1.057 to 1.175. Three-isotope plots of (208)Pb/(206)Pb against (206)Pb/(207)Pb demonstrated that (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios were intermediate between values for source end-member extremes of imported Australian Pb ore (1.04)--used in the manufacture of alkyl Pb compounds (1.06-1.10) formerly added to petrol--and indigenous Pb ores/coal (1.17-1.19). The (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios of the UBM 'stomach' extracts were similar (<0.01 difference) to those of the soil for 26 of the 27 samples (r=0.993, p<0.001) and lower in 24 of them. A slight preference for lower (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio was discernible in the UBM. However, the source of Pb appeared to be less important in determining the extent of UBM-bioaccessible Pb than the overall soil total Pb concentration and the soil phases with which the Pb was associated. The significant phases identified in a subset of samples were carbonates, manganese oxides, iron-aluminium oxyhydroxides and clays. PMID:21930292

  9. Preoperative Glasgow prognostic score as a predictor of primary bladder cancer recurrence

    PubMed Central

    YUKSEL, OZGUR HAKI; AKAN, SERKAN; URKMEZ, AHMET; YILDIRIM, CAGLAR; SAHIN, AYTAC; VERIT, AYHAN

    2016-01-01

    The correlation between systemic inflammatory markers and malignancies has been assessed by a number of recent studies. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess preoperative inflammation markers and Glasgow prognostic scores (GPS) in patients who underwent surgery for primary bladder cancer (BC), and evaluate the predictive value of GPS for disease recurrence and progression. A total of 38 patients (mean age, 60.16±9.71 years; range, 33–76 years) who were treated in our department between May, 2014 and August, 2015 were enrolled in the present study. Preoperatively, patient information regarding gender, body mass index, serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and albumin levels, GPS and comorbidities, were collected and recorded. Transurethral resection of the bladder was performed, followed by histopathological evaluation of the resected material. The tumor size, stage and grade and the presence of necrosis were determined. According to the international TNM classification, the results of the histopathological analysis were as follows: Ta low- (n=24) and high-grade (n=4); and T1 low- (n=2) and high-grade (n=8). The median follow-up period was 10.1 months (range, 6–12 months). During this period, recurrence was observed in 10 cases and disease progression was detected in 1 patient. Hypoalbuminemia was encountered in 40% of the cases with recurrence, which was significantly higher compared with that in patients without recurrence (7.1%; P=0.031). In patients who had recurrence, a GPS of 1–2 points and tumor necrosis were more frequently detected compared with those without recurrence (60 vs. 7.1%, P=0.002; and 80 vs. 7.1%, P=0.001, respectively). Excluding a cystectomized case with a diagnosis of muscle-invasive BC, disease progression was not detected in any of the cases with recurrence during follow-up. Therefore, we consider that GPS and serum markers of systemic inflammatory response may be used as predictors of recurrence in patients with transitional

  10. Neighbourhood demolition, relocation and health. A qualitative longitudinal study of housing-led urban regeneration in Glasgow, UK

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Matt; Lawson, Louise; Kearns, Ade; Conway, Ellie; Neary, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a qualitative longitudinal study to explore how adult residents of disadvantaged urban neighbourhoods (Glasgow, UK) experienced neighbourhood demolition and relocation. Data from 23 households was collected in 2011 and 2012. Some participants described moves to new or improved homes in different neighbourhoods as beneficial to their and their families’ wellbeing. Others suggested that longstanding illnesses and problems with the new home and/or neighbourhood led to more negative experiences. Individual-level contextual differences, home and neighbourhood-level factors and variations in intervention implementation influence the experiences of residents involved in relocation programmes. PMID:25814338

  11. Neighbourhood demolition, relocation and health. A qualitative longitudinal study of housing-led urban regeneration in Glasgow, UK.

    PubMed

    Egan, Matt; Lawson, Louise; Kearns, Ade; Conway, Ellie; Neary, Joanne

    2015-05-01

    We conducted a qualitative longitudinal study to explore how adult residents of disadvantaged urban neighbourhoods (Glasgow, UK) experienced neighbourhood demolition and relocation. Data from 23 households was collected in 2011 and 2012. Some participants described moves to new or improved homes in different neighbourhoods as beneficial to their and their families' wellbeing. Others suggested that longstanding illnesses and problems with the new home and/or neighbourhood led to more negative experiences. Individual-level contextual differences, home and neighbourhood-level factors and variations in intervention implementation influence the experiences of residents involved in relocation programmes. PMID:25814338

  12. Immigration, moving house and psychiatric admissions.

    PubMed

    Johansson, L M; Sundquist, J; Johansson, S E; Bergman, B

    1998-08-01

    This study was designed to elucidate psychiatric admission rates for native Swedes and foreign-born individuals during the period 1991-1994, when Sweden had a great influx of refugees. During the same period, and even earlier, psychiatric in-patient care had been reduced. Tests of differences between Swedes and foreign-born individuals in first psychiatric admission rates were performed using Poisson regressions, and the risk of a readmission was assessed using a proportional hazard model. Foreign-born individuals and native Swedes, both males and females, showed a similar admission pattern with regard to the number of admissions. Foreign-born males under 55 years of age and foreign-born females under 35 years of age had significantly higher admission rates than native Swedes. In total, native Swedes, both males and females, were hospitalized for a significantly longer period than the foreign-born subjects. About 43% of the patients were readmitted. The risk of a readmission was significantly increased among those with a high rate of internal migration. The high admission rates for young foreign-born individuals might be explained by a high incidence of mental illness owing to the trauma of being violently forced to migrate, acculturation difficulties, or unsatisfactory social circumstances such as high unemployment. The shorter hospitalization time could be due to undertreatment or less serious mental illness. PMID:9718235

  13. Negative ions in the coma of Comet Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaizy, P.; Reme, H.; Sauvaud, J. A.; D'Uston, C.; Lin, R. P.

    1991-01-01

    The detection of negatively charged cometary ions in the inner coma of Comet Halley is reported. These ions are observed in three broad mass peaks at 7-19, 22-65, and 85-110 AMU, with densities reaching greater than about 1/cu cm, about 0.05/cu cm, and about 0.04/cu cm, respectively, at a distance of about 2300 km from the nucleus. The ion species thought to be present include O(-), OH(-), C(-), CH(-), CN(-) and heavier complex CHO molecular ions. As negative ions are easily destroyed by solar radiation at about 1 AU, an efficient production mechanism, so far unidentified, is required to account for the observed densities. The detection of negative ions in the coma near 1 AU implies that negative ions should also be present in similar neutral gas and dust environment farther away from the sun. If the negative-ion densities are large enough, they could play an important part in physical processes such as radiative transfer or charge exchange.

  14. Substructure in the Coma Cluster: Giants versus Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Scott A.; Colless, Matthew; Bridges, Terry J.; Carter, Dave; Mobasher, Bahram; Poggianti, Bianca M.

    2002-03-01

    The processes that form and shape galaxy clusters, such as infall, mergers, and dynamical relaxation, tend to generate distinguishable differences between the distributions of a cluster's giant and dwarf galaxies. Thus, the dynamics of dwarf galaxies in a cluster can provide valuable insights into its dynamical history. With this in mind, we look for differences between the spatial and velocity distributions of giant (b<18) and dwarf (b>18) galaxies in the Coma cluster. Our redshift sample contains new measurements from the 2dF and WYFFOS spectrographs, making it more complete at faint magnitudes than any previously studied sample of Coma galaxies. It includes 745 cluster members-452 giants and 293 dwarfs. We find that the line-of-sight velocity distribution of the giants is significantly non-Gaussian, but not that for the dwarfs. A battery of statistical tests of both the spatial and localized velocity distributions of the galaxies in our sample finds no strong evidence for differences between the giant and dwarf populations. These results rule out the cluster as a whole having moved significantly toward equipartition, and they are consistent with the cluster having formed via mergers between dynamically relaxed subclusters.

  15. X-ray archaeology in the Coma cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Simon D. M.; Briel, Ulrich G.; Henry, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    We present images of X-ray emission from hot gas within the Coma cluster of galaxies. These maps, made with the ROSAT satellite, have much higher SNR than any previous X-ray image of a galaxy cluster, and allow cluster structure to be analyzed in unprecedented detail. They show greater structural irregularity than might have been anticipated from earlier observations of Coma. Emission is detected from a number of bright cluster galaxies in addition to the two known previously. In four cases, there is evidence that these galaxies lie at the center of an extended subconcentration within the cluster, possibly the remnant of their associated groups. For at least two galaxies, the images show direct evidence for ongoing disruption of their gaseous atmosphere. The luminosity associated with these galaxies is comparable to that detected around similar ellipticals in much poorer environments. Emission is easily detected to the limit of our field, about 1 deg from the cluster center, and appears to become more regular at large radii. The data show clearly that this archetype of a rich and regular galaxy cluster was, in fact, formed by the merging of several distinct subunits which are not yet fully destroyed.

  16. Gas Dynamics and Kinetics in the Cometary Coma: Theory and Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Combi, Michael R.; Harris, Walter M.; Smyth, William H.

    2005-01-01

    Our ability to describe the physical state of the expanding coma affects fundamental areas of cometary study both directly and indirectly. In order to convert measured abundances of gas species in the coma to gas production rates, models for the distribution and kinematics of gas species in the coma are required. Conversely, many different types of observations, together with laboratory data and theory, are still required to determine coma model attributes and parameters. Accurate relative and absolute gas production rates and their variations with time and from comet to comet are crucial to our basic understanding of the composition and structure of cometary nuclei and their place in the solar system. We review the gas dynamics and kinetics of cometary comae from both theoretical and observational perspectives, which are important for understanding the wide variety of physical conditions that are encountered.

  17. Do Tiers Affect Student Transfer? Examining the Student Admission Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moodie, Gavin

    2007-01-01

    This study considers whether formally segmenting 4-year institutions by admissions selectivity affects the admission of transfer students. It develops a new measure, the student admission ratio, to compare the admission of transfer students in formally and highly segmented systems, informally and less segmented systems, and in formally unified…

  18. Unravelling the Glasgow effect: The relationship between accumulative bio- psychosocial stress, stress reactivity and Scotland's health problems.

    PubMed

    Cowley, Joe; Kiely, John; Collins, Dave

    2016-12-01

    To date, multiple hypotheses have been proposed for the Scottish effect and, more specifically, Glasgow's high mortality rate and the associated Glasgow effect. Previous authors have highlighted the improbability of a single factor as responsible for this effect with seventeen possible hypotheses presented. These have ranged from socio-economic factors, lifestyle and cultural factors such as sectarianism, and political and economic factors. Although these may all be contributory factors to this paradox, the underpinning reasons for the observed effect remain relatively unexplained. In this paper, we suggest that the compounding effect of a unique blend of accumulating life stressors may predispose Scots, and particularly socially-disadvantaged Glaswegians, to a wide-range of health disorders. In short, a confluence of social, environmental, attitudinal and cultural stressors perhaps combine to negatively influence biological health. Future directions should consider the stress remediating role of physical activity, and the problems presented by barriers to participation in physical activity and exercise during key transitional stages of life. PMID:27512652

  19. Assessing Practical Intelligence in Business School Admissions: A Supplement to the Graduate Management Admissions Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedlund, Jennifer; Wilt, Jeanne M.; Nebel, Kristina L.; Ashford, Susan J.; Sternberg, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    The Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) is the most widely used measure of managerial potential in MBA admissions. GMAT scores, although predictive of grades in business school, leave much of the variance in graduate school performance unexplained. The GMAT also produces disparities in test scores between groups, generating the potential for…

  20. Major Research Efforts of the Law School Admission Council. Law School Admission Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Frederick M.; Evans, Franklin R.

    Research conducted by the Law School Admission Council since the development of the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) in 1948 is described. An overview of the research topics is provided, and relevant published reports are cited in 61 footnotes. The following topics of study are discussed: (1) use and validity of traditional predictors of law…

  1. The relationship between asthma admission rates, routes of admission, and socioeconomic deprivation.

    PubMed

    Watson, J P; Cowen, P; Lewis, R A

    1996-10-01

    This study aimed to explore the relationship between hospital admissions for asthma and socioeconomic deprivation. A retrospective study examined one year of hospital admissions for asthma in the West Midlands region of England (n = 10,044), and in one of the region's wealthier districts, Worcester (n = 251). Age standardized admission ratios (SARs) for asthma, and the routes of hospital admission, were compared with the Towns- end Deprivation Index for the place of residence. Asthma SAR was strongly associated with deprivation as measured by the Towns end Index for the district of residence (Spearman rank correlation coefficient rho = 0.65; p = 0.004). Asthma admission rates for all age groups, except those aged over 65 yrs, were higher in poorer districts. A significantly greater proportion of emergency admissions in poorer districts came via Accident and Emergency departments, rather than general practitioner referrals (rho = 0.76; p < 0.001). Within Worcester District, SAR was associated with Townsend Index for the ward of residence (rho = 0.39; p < 0.001). This remained significant after excluding repeat admissions (rho = 0.45; p < 0.001). We conclude that asthma admissions are strongly associated with deprivation in the community. Differences in the health care received during acute exacerbations by asthma patients from different economic backgrounds is likely to be an important factor in this relationship. PMID:8902471

  2. A spectroscopic and photometric study of FK Comae in 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huenemoerder, David P.; Ramsey, Lawrence W.; Buzasi, Derek L.; Nations, Harold L.

    1993-01-01

    Results of an observational campaign, coordinated between visual photometry, optical spectroscopy, and UV spectroscopy, to elucidate the characteristics of FK Comae are presented. The photometry showed complicated but systematic behavior. Photospheric absorption lines were distorted by a Doppler-shifted bump caused by dark starspots resulting in small apparent radial velocity variations. No radial velocity variations characteristic of orbital motion were seen to a level of 3 km/s. Broad emission in H-alpha was modulated at the photospheric rotational amplitude, implying an origin no farther from the rotational axis than 1 stellar radius. The strengths of Ca II lines are modulated in phase with H-alpha but do not have velocity-modulated wings like H-alpha.

  3. Thermal instability in the inner coma of a comet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milikh, G. M.; Sharma, A. S.

    1995-01-01

    The spacecraft and ground based observations of comet Halley inner coma showed a localized ion density depletion region whose origin is not well understood. Although it has been linked to a thermal instability associated with negative ions, the photodetachment lifetime of negative ions (approximately 1 sec) is too short compared to the electron attachment time scale (approximately 100 sec) for this process to have a significant effect. A mechanism for the ion density depletion based on the thermal instability of the cometary plasma due to the excitation of rotational and vibrational levels of water molecules is proposed. The electron energy losses due to these processes peak near 4000 K (0.36 eV) and at temperatures higher than this value a localized cooling leads to further cooling (thermal instability) due to the increased radiation loss. The resulting increase in recombination leads to an ion density depletion and the estimates for this depletion at comet Halley agree with the observations.

  4. Electron energetics in the inner coma of Comet Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gan, LU; Cravens, T. E.

    1990-01-01

    A quasi-two-dimensional model of the spatial and energy distribution of electrons in the inner coma of Comet Halley has been constructed from a spherically symmetric ion density profile based on Giotto measurements, using the two-stream electron transport method and the time-dependent electron energy equation. A sharp jump in the electron temperature was found to be present at a cometocentric distance of about 15,000 km. This thermal boundary separates an inner region where cooling processes are dominant from an outer region where heat transport is more important. Both thermal and suprathermal electron populations exist inside the thermal boundary with comparable kinetic pressures. Outside the thermal boundary, a cloud electron population does not exist, and the electrons are almost isothermal along the magnetic field lines.

  5. Electron energetics in the inner coma of Comet Halley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, L.; Cravens, T. E.

    1990-05-01

    A quasi-two-dimensional model of the spatial and energy distribution of electrons in the inner coma of Comet Halley has been constructed from a spherically symmetric ion density profile based on Giotto measurements, using the two-stream electron transport method and the time-dependent electron energy equation. A sharp jump in the electron temperature was found to be present at a cometocentric distance of about 15,000 km. This thermal boundary separates an inner region where cooling processes are dominant from an outer region where heat transport is more important. Both thermal and suprathermal electron populations exist inside the thermal boundary with comparable kinetic pressures. Outside the thermal boundary, a cloud electron population does not exist, and the electrons are almost isothermal along the magnetic field lines.

  6. Molecular parentage of radical species in the comae of comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Benjamin K.

    Understanding the chemical composition of comets is of great interest to the scientific community. In this work, an integral field unit (IFU) spectrograph is used to detect emissions of C2, C3, CH, CN, and NH2. The azimuthal average profile (line integral of the column density as a function of radial distance from the center of the nucleus) is simulated by the Haser model. The Haser model simulates the outgassing and photo-dissociate of molecular species in the coma. In this work, the lifetime of the parent molecule in the photo-dissociation chain is set as a free parameter. The best fit parent lifetimes for observations of comets 4P/Faye, 10P/Tempel 2, and C/2009 P1 Garradd are obtained. The results are compared to parent lifetimes cited in other studies. HCN as a likely dominant parent for CN is eliminated. Constraints on likely parent molecules for C3 and NH 2 are discussed.

  7. [Involuntary admission of addict during early pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Hondius, Adger J K; Stikker, Tineke E; Wennink, J M B Hanneke; Honig, Adriaan

    2012-01-01

    A 30-year-old cocaine-dependent woman was 16 weeks pregnant. Because of possible endangerment of the fetus, an involuntary provisional admission was authorized. Of particular interest is the application of the Dutch Act on Formal Admissions to Psychiatric Hospitals for the primary diagnosis 'addiction' and the fact that the fetus was regarded as a legal 'other'. In severe cases of addiction combined with pregnancy an earlier intervention is needed and arrangement of accelerated legal custody of the newborn before birth should be considered. For the protection of the unborn, we advocate a stricter application of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. Information for addicted women with preconception counselling can help prevent a compulsory admission. PMID:22258443

  8. Affirmative action policy in medical school admissions.

    PubMed

    Frazer, Ricardo A

    2005-02-01

    Legal challenges to affirmative action are growing, a trend suggesting that a proactive stance is needed to maintain a policy that still has viability, legitimacy, and utility. Medical schools admissions offices in the United States emphasize the Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT), even though many studies have found that grade point averages are better single predictors of future academic achievement, regardless of the student's socioeconomic or racial category. The current essay suggests there is an overreliance on the MCAT in medical school admissions. Medical colleges should encourage the development of additional applicant selection criteria, while continuing to use affirmative action programs, in part to address the need for increased community-oriented health care. PMID:15741705

  9. Analysis of dust in the coma of comet 67P using VIRTIS-M observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinaldi, G.; Tozzi, G. P.; Fink, U.; Doose, L.; Capaccioni, F.; Filacchione, G.; Bockelée-Morvan, D.; Leyrat, C.; Piccioni, G.; Blecka, M.; Ciarniello, M.; Irwin, P.; Combi, M.; Palomba, E.; Migliorini, A.; Capria, M. T.; Faggi, S.; Tosi, F.

    2015-10-01

    We present a preliminary overview of the analysis on the dust spectrophotometry in the inner coma of comet 67/P that was obtained during the escort phase (started on December 2014) with the imaging spectrometer VIRTIS-M onboard the Rosetta mission [1]. The morphology and behavior of the dust coma has been monitored by VIRTIS-M from the arrival at the comet (~August 2014) throughout the early escort phase. The data reveal intricate details and numerous radial jets coming from different regions on the surface. On March 15, 2015, VIRTIS-M performed a set of 22 coma observations, each about 23 minutes in duration and offset from the nucleus by about 1 km. The 22 observations lasted about 12 hours and thus covered a complete rotation of the comet. The maps of the dust distribution in the coma reveal three major structures: a roughly uniform background dusty coma, several enhanced radiance jet features and a region that shows a thermal radiation component between 3.5 and 5.0 μm. (Figure 1 and Figure 2) The jets features can be traced back to several region of the comet, neck,body and head. We shall analyse the three major structures to provide the basis to understand coma composition and properties and the relation between gas and dust. We will discuss the morphology of the background coma, the jet and the enhanced thermal radiation. We will also examine correlations between the water vapor column density and the coma/ jet /thermal radiation intensity. For the thermal radiation component there are several explanations, viz: stray instrumental scattered light or instrumental ghosts from heated part of the nucleus, or thermal rad iation emanating from the nucleus and scattered by the dust in closest proximity or a region of small particles in the coma heated by solar radiation.

  10. The dust coma of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko as seen by OSIRIS onboard Rosetta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tubiana, C.; Bertini, I.; Bodewits, D.; Davidsson, B.; Güttler, C.; Lara, L. M.; Moreno, F.; Cremonese, G.; La Forgia, F.; Oklay, N.; Pajola, M.; Sierks, H.

    2015-10-01

    The dust coma of 67P was detected and monitored by OSIRIS, the scientific camera onboard Rosetta, since the beginning of the post-hibernation operations in March 2014. A complete description of the coma during the approach phase to the comet was presented in [5], including the detection of a sudden cometary outburst at the end of April 2014. OSIRIS images acquired at the end of the approach (July 2014) and during the escort phase were used to characterize dust particles present in the comet's inner coma ([4], [3], [2], [1]).

  11. The Landscape of Graduate Admissions: Surveying Physics Programs about Doctoral Admissions Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potvin, Geoff

    2014-03-01

    Sustaining or improving the best graduate programs as well as increasing the diversity of the physics community requires us to better understand the critical gatekeeping role played by graduate admissions. Admissions processes determine not only who is allowed to begin graduate study but can also influence who chooses to even consider applying. Recently, in concert with some of the activities of the APS Bridge Program, a survey was conducted of directors of graduate admissions and associated faculty in doctoral-granting departments about their admissions practices. Receiving responses from over 75% of departments that award PhDs in physics, respondents were probed about their admissions decisions with special attention on the criteria used in admissions and their relative importance, and how student representation considerations are dealt with in the admissions process (if at all). Results indicate a number of important issues for future students, faculty, and administrators to consider including the importance placed on GRE scores. Results also indicate a sizable number of departments express a latent demand for greater numbers of students from traditionally-underrepresented backgrounds (including women) but simultaneously report a dearth of such students who even apply to their doctoral programs. Implications of these and other findings will be discussed.

  12. Deploying a culture change programme management approach in support of information and communication technology developments in Greater Glasgow NHS Board.

    PubMed

    Frame, Joanne; Watson, Janice; Thomson, Katie

    2008-06-01

    This article reports on the project management and Culture Change Programme adopted by the NHS Greater Glasgow Health Board to deliver an electronic patient record (EPR) to support cardiology and stroke clinical services. To achieve its vision for the EPR (;to "really make a difference" to patient care by providing to the right person, the right information, under the right safeguards') the Board recognized that attending to social and organizational issues is at least of equal importance to addressing strictly technical concerns. Consequently, an ICT Culture Change Programme (ICT CCP) was devised and implemented to assist in the management of change, and in particular to facilitate a visionary clinical and cultural environment operating in conjunction with the evolving technical environment. In this article we describe the key components of this approach, outline the benefits we believe have accrued, and describe the steps being taken to build upon lessons learned. PMID:18477599

  13. Women's work in offices and the preservation of men's "breadwinning" jobs in early twentieth-century Glasgow.

    PubMed

    Wilson, R G

    2001-01-01

    As Britain's industrial economy matured and the volume of administrative work increased, different kinds of clerical jobs and clerical careers became possible. Using examples from a variety of small- to medium-sized enterprises in Glasgow, this article will describe how the main functions of administrative work - financial, secretarial and managerial - were divided both horizontally and vertically in order to preserve secure, well-paid, "breadwinning" jobs for men, leaving routine secretarial work for women. The isolation of women in all-women enclaves carrying out shorthand and typing work and the subsequent devaluation of these as kinds of work were of primary importance in the creation of office work that was explicitly women's work. PMID:19678416

  14. WHEN CONSCIENCE ISN'T CLEAR: GREATER GLASGOW HEALTH BOARD v DOOGAN AND ANOTHER [2014] UKSC 68.

    PubMed

    Neal, Mary

    2015-01-01

    The Supreme Court's judgment in Doogan is a judicial review of a decision by Greater Glasgow Health Board regarding the scope of the conscience-based exemption in section 4(1) of the Abortion Act 1967. The case progressed through the Outer and Inner Houses of the Court of Session in Edinburgh before final judgment was delivered in the Supreme Court by Baroness Hale on December 17 2014. The Supreme Court eschewed consideration of the human rights dimension of the case (which had featured in the Outer House decision) and approached its judgment as 'a pure question of statutory construction'. This commentary engages with the judgment on its own terms, assessing it as an exercise in statutory interpretation, and leaves it to others who may wish to do so to comment on the human rights aspects of the case. PMID:26324460

  15. 40 CFR 85.1504 - Conditional admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conditional admission. 85.1504 Section 85.1504 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Importation of Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Engines §...

  16. 42 CFR 412.3 - Admissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES General Provisions § 412.3 Admissions. (a) For... patient history and comorbidities, the severity of signs and symptoms, current medical needs, and the...

  17. 42 CFR 412.3 - Admissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES General Provisions § 412.3 Admissions. (a) For... patient history and comorbidities, the severity of signs and symptoms, current medical needs, and the...

  18. "Stealth Applicants" Are Changing the Admissions Equation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Jeff Rickey is a numbers guy. But three years ago, a colleague asked him about something he'd never counted: applicants who came out of nowhere. The question intrigued Mr. Rickey, dean of admissions and financial aid at Earlham College in Indiana. He found that 17 percent of the college's applicants that year had not called, taken a tour, or…

  19. 16 CFR 3.32 - Admissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Admissions. 3.32 Section 3.32 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE FOR... the truth of any matters relevant to the pending proceeding set forth in the request that relate...

  20. 17 CFR 12.33 - Admissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Admissions. 12.33 Section 12.33 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES RELATING TO... truth of any matters set forth in the request that relate to statements or opinions of fact or of...

  1. 17 CFR 12.33 - Admissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Admissions. 12.33 Section 12.33 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES RELATING TO... truth of any matters set forth in the request that relate to statements or opinions of fact or of...

  2. 10 CFR 2.708 - Admissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS Rules for Formal... request, or for the admission of the truth of any specified relevant matter of fact. A copy of the... unless, within a time designated by the presiding officer or the Commission, and not less than ten...

  3. 45 CFR 618.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Admission. 618.300 Section 618.300 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS... manner and under the same policies as any other temporary disability or physical condition; and (4)...

  4. 45 CFR 618.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Admission. 618.300 Section 618.300 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS... manner and under the same policies as any other temporary disability or physical condition; and (4)...

  5. 45 CFR 618.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Admission. 618.300 Section 618.300 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS... manner and under the same policies as any other temporary disability or physical condition; and (4)...

  6. 45 CFR 618.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Admission. 618.300 Section 618.300 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS... manner and under the same policies as any other temporary disability or physical condition; and (4)...

  7. 32 CFR 242.5 - Admission procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS ADMISSION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR THE SCHOOL OF MEDICINE, UNIFORMED SERVICES UNIVERSITY OF THE... to the School of Medicine shall make direct application following instructions published in the... concerned or his designee prior to submitting formal application to the School of Medicine for...

  8. 32 CFR 242.5 - Admission procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS ADMISSION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR THE SCHOOL OF MEDICINE, UNIFORMED SERVICES UNIVERSITY OF THE... to the School of Medicine shall make direct application following instructions published in the... concerned or his designee prior to submitting formal application to the School of Medicine for...

  9. 32 CFR 242.5 - Admission procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS ADMISSION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR THE SCHOOL OF MEDICINE, UNIFORMED SERVICES UNIVERSITY OF THE... to the School of Medicine shall make direct application following instructions published in the... concerned or his designee prior to submitting formal application to the School of Medicine for...

  10. 32 CFR 242.5 - Admission procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS ADMISSION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR THE SCHOOL OF MEDICINE, UNIFORMED SERVICES UNIVERSITY OF THE... to the School of Medicine shall make direct application following instructions published in the... concerned or his designee prior to submitting formal application to the School of Medicine for...

  11. Screening for Pervasive Intolerance in Admissions Candidates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Phyllis; Self, Eileen Fernandez; Jones, Mary Ann

    This paper describes the Pre-Admission Workshop, which is designed as a screening procedure to achieve optimal selection outcomes for graduate study in counseling. The workshop not only assesses the academic potential of the applicants, but also allows for observation of multicultural competencies developed by Sue, Arredondo, and McDavis (1992).…

  12. University Admissions. Policy Note. Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    University admissions, like many other aspects of the higher education sector, are going through a time of significant change. From 2012, universities will receive full funding under the Commonwealth Grants Scheme (CGS) for as many places as they offer. Previously, the Government limited the number of funded places, with a tolerance band for…

  13. 18 CFR 1317.220 - Admissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Admissions. 1317.220... THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage... recipient to which §§ 1317.300 through 1317.310 apply shall not discriminate on the basis of sex...

  14. 18 CFR 1317.220 - Admissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Admissions. 1317.220... THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage... recipient to which §§ 1317.300 through 1317.310 apply shall not discriminate on the basis of sex...

  15. 18 CFR 1317.220 - Admissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Admissions. 1317.220... THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage... recipient to which §§ 1317.300 through 1317.310 apply shall not discriminate on the basis of sex...

  16. 18 CFR 1317.220 - Admissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Admissions. 1317.220... THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage... recipient to which §§ 1317.300 through 1317.310 apply shall not discriminate on the basis of sex...

  17. 18 CFR 1317.220 - Admissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Admissions. 1317.220... THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage... recipient to which §§ 1317.300 through 1317.310 apply shall not discriminate on the basis of sex...

  18. Predicting Academic Success Using Admission Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidovitch, Nitza; Soen, Dan

    2015-01-01

    This study, conducted at a tertiary education institution in Israel, following two previous studies, was designed to deal again with a question that is a topic of debate in Israel and worldwide: Is there justification for the approach that considers restrictive university admission policies an efficient tool for predicting students' success at the…

  19. Foreign Language, the Classics, and College Admissions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFleur, Richard A.

    1993-01-01

    This article reports the results of a survey, funded by the American Classical League (ACL) and conducted during 1990-91, that assessed attitudes toward high school foreign-language study, in particular the study of Latin and Greek, in the college admissions process. (21 references) (VWL)

  20. The Progression of the College Admissions Professional

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    In his sixteen years in college admissions, the author has evolved in his work, role, and mission. He began as an eager recruiter, excited to help high school students get into college; now he is a seasoned director committed to college access. As he reflects on his career, a five-stage progression merges: "learn," "execute," "lead," "contribute,"…

  1. The New Imperative for Admissions Transparency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Noue, George R.

    2003-01-01

    Given the overwhelming popular appeal of merit-based college admissions, George La Noue advocates a new transparency in how colleges and universities select their students. He has some suggestions about how colleges might comply with court-mandated requirements for case-by-case evaluations. He also provides hints from which NAS members might…

  2. 15 CFR 8a.220 - Admissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Admissions. 8a.220 Section 8a.220 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN... institution. (c) Application of §§ 8a.300 through .310. Except as provided in paragraphs (d) and (e) of...

  3. The National Center Test for University Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watanabe, Yoshinori

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the National Center Test for University Admissions, a unified national test in Japan, which is taken by 500,000 students every year. It states that implementation of the Center Test began in 1990, with the English component consisting only of the written section until 2005, when the listening section was first implemented…

  4. 40 CFR 85.1504 - Conditional admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Conditional admission. 85.1504 Section 85.1504 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Importation of Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Engines §...

  5. Selecting Tests for an Open Admissions Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tittle, Carol; Kay, Patricia

    The establishment of an open admissions policy necessitated an evaluative procedure to identify groups requiring remedial instruction and to assist in estimating budgeting and staffing needs. This study was undertaken, therefore, to select tests in reading and mathematics which would: (1) discriminate adequately between non-college and college…

  6. 4 CFR 28.66 - Admissibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Admissibility. 28.66 Section 28.66 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL APPEALS BOARD; PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO CLAIMS CONCERNING EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES AT THE GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE...

  7. What Should University Admissions Tests Predict?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stemler, Steven E.

    2012-01-01

    University admissions tests should predict an applicant's ability to succeed in college, but how should this success be defined and measured? The status quo has been to use 1st-year grade point average (FYGPA) as the key indicator of college success, but a review of documents such as university mission statements reveals that universities expect…

  8. Colleges Making SAT Optional as Admissions Requirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilroy, Marilyn

    2007-01-01

    This article reports that more colleges are dropping the SAT as a requirement for admission and, in many cases, these institutions are attracting a larger and more diverse pool of applicants. According to the National Center for Fair & Open Testing (FairTest), 740 schools have made the SATs optional. The list includes some of the nation's most…

  9. Predictive Validity of the Dental Admission Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Gene A.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship of Dental Admission Test (DAT) scales and predental grade point averages with freshman and sophomore dental school performance measures and National Board Dental Examination (NBDE) Part I averages were examined. The results indicated that the DAT scales had limited predictive validity. (Author/MLW)

  10. The Admissions Criteria of Secondary Free Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an analysis of the admissions criteria used by the first two waves of secondary Free Schools in England. The type of criteria and their ranked order is explored and their potential impact on the school composition is considered. The findings demonstrate the diversity of criteria being used by this new type of…

  11. Seeking to Institutionally Embed Lessons from a Funded Project: Experiences from the Digital Libraries in the Classroom Spoken Word Project at Glasgow Caledonian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donald, David; Wallace, Iain

    2007-01-01

    The Joint Information Systems Committee and the National Science Foundation programme, Digital Libraries in the Classroom (DLiC), addresses implications for the learning of the revolution in scholarly communication. What are the obstacles to undergraduates "'writing' on and for the Internet"? Glasgow Caledonian University (GCU) is a partner in one…

  12. Libraries for Life: Democracy, Diversity, Delivery. IFLA Council and General Conference: Conference Programme and Proceedings (68th, Glasgow, Scotland, August 18-24, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, The Hague (Netherlands).

    This document presents the program and proceedings from the 68th International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) Conference held in Glasgow, Scotland, August 18-24, 2002. Topics of presentations include: library services for parliaments; needs assessment; the effects of September 11th on information provision and privacy;…

  13. Reliability and Validity of the Dutch Version of the Glasgow Anxiety Scale for People with an Intellectual Disability (GAS-ID)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermans, H.; Wieland, J.; Jelluma, N.; Van der Pas, F.; Evenhuis, H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In the Netherlands, no self-report screening questionnaire for anxiety in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) was available yet. Therefore, we have translated the Glasgow Anxiety Scale for people with an Intellectual Disability (GAS-ID) into Dutch and studied its reliability and validity in adults with borderline, mild or…

  14. SPEECH PATHOLOGY, DIAGNOSIS--THEORY AND PRACTICE, REPORT OF THE NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE COLLEGE OF SPEECH THERAPISTS (GLASGOW, JULY 25-29, 1966).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1967

    TWENTY ARTICLES AND ABSTRACTS ON THE THEORY AND PRACTICE OF DIAGNOSIS ARE INCLUDED IN THIS REPORT OF THE NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE COLLEGE OF SPEECH THERAPISTS IN GLASGOW IN 1966. FOUR PAPERS ON STAMMERING CONSIDER TONGUE THRUSTING, THE NEUROSES INVOLVED, PROGNOSIS, AND DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS IN DISORDERS OF FLUENCY. OTHER ARTICLES DISCUSS AREAS…

  15. Drug related admissions to medical wards

    PubMed Central

    Hallas, Jesper; Gram, Lars F.; Grodum, Ellen; Damsbo, Niels; Brøsen, Kim; Haghfelt, Torben; Harvald, Bent; Beck-Nielsen, Jørgen; Worm, Jørgen; Birger Jensen, Kurt; Davidsen, Otto; Frandsen, Niels E.; Hagen, Claus; Andersen, Morten; Frølund, Flemming; Kromann-Andersen, Hans; Schou, Jens

    1992-01-01

    1 In total 1999 consecutive admissions to six medical wards were subjected to a prospective high-intensity drug event monitoring scheme to assess the extent and pattern of admissions caused by adverse drug reactions (ADRs) or dose related therapeutic failures (TF), in a population-based design. The wards were sub-specialised in general medicine, geriatrics, endocrinology, cardiology, respiratory medicine and gastroenterology. 2 Considering definite, probable and possible drug events, the prevalence of drug related hospital admissions was 11.4% of which 8.4% were caused by ADRs and 3.0% by TFs. There were large inter-department differences. 3 The six classes of drugs most frequently involved in admissions caused by ADRs were anti-rheumatics and analgesics (27%), cardiovascular drugs (23%), psychotropic drugs (14%), anti-diabetics (12%), antibiotics (7%), and corticosteroids (5%). Non-compliance accounted for 66% of the TFs with diuretics and anti-asthmatics most frequently involved. 4 The pattern of drugs involved in ADRs was compared with the regional drug sales statistics. Drugs with a particularly high rate of ADR related admissions per unit dispensed were nitrofurantoin and insulin (617 and 182 admissions per 1,000,000 defined daily doses), while low rates were seen for diuretics and benzodiazepines (10 and 7 admissions per 1,000,000 defined daily doses). Confidence intervals were wide. 5 Patients who had their therapy prescribed by a hospital doctor had a slightly higher prevalence of drug events than those who were treated by a general practitioner (12.6% vs 11.8%). The reverse applied for drug events assessed as avoidable (3.3% vs 4.6%). Although these differences were not statistically significant, it may suggest general practitioners as the appropriate target for interventive measures. 6 Only one ADR was reported to The Danish Committee on Adverse Drug Reactions, indicating a severe under-reporting and a potential for gross selectivity. The data collection

  16. The Probabilistic Admissible Region with Additional Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roscoe, C.; Hussein, I.; Wilkins, M.; Schumacher, P.

    The admissible region, in the space surveillance field, is defined as the set of physically acceptable orbits (e.g., orbits with negative energies) consistent with one or more observations of a space object. Given additional constraints on orbital semimajor axis, eccentricity, etc., the admissible region can be constrained, resulting in the constrained admissible region (CAR). Based on known statistics of the measurement process, one can replace hard constraints with a probabilistic representation of the admissible region. This results in the probabilistic admissible region (PAR), which can be used for orbit initiation in Bayesian tracking and prioritization of tracks in a multiple hypothesis tracking framework. The PAR concept was introduced by the authors at the 2014 AMOS conference. In that paper, a Monte Carlo approach was used to show how to construct the PAR in the range/range-rate space based on known statistics of the measurement, semimajor axis, and eccentricity. An expectation-maximization algorithm was proposed to convert the particle cloud into a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) representation of the PAR. This GMM can be used to initialize a Bayesian filter. The PAR was found to be significantly non-uniform, invalidating an assumption frequently made in CAR-based filtering approaches. Using the GMM or particle cloud representations of the PAR, orbits can be prioritized for propagation in a multiple hypothesis tracking (MHT) framework. In this paper, the authors focus on expanding the PAR methodology to allow additional constraints, such as a constraint on perigee altitude, to be modeled in the PAR. This requires re-expressing the joint probability density function for the attributable vector as well as the (constrained) orbital parameters and range and range-rate. The final PAR is derived by accounting for any interdependencies between the parameters. Noting that the concepts presented are general and can be applied to any measurement scenario, the idea

  17. Streaming Clumps Ejection Model and the Heterogeneous Inner Coma of Comet Wild 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B. C.; Economou, T. E.; Green, S. F.; Sandford, S. A.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2004-01-01

    The conventional concept of cometary comae is that they are dominated by fine particulates released individually by sublimation of surface volatiles and subsequent entrainment in the near-surface gas. It has long been recognized that such particulates could be relatively large, with early estimates that objects perhaps up to one meter in size may be levitated from the surface of the typical cometary nucleus. However, the general uniformity and small average particulate size of observed comae and the relatively smooth, monotonic increases and decreases in particle density during the Giotto flythrough of comet Halley s coma in 1986 reinforced the view that the bulk of the particles are released at the surface, are fine-sized and inert. Jets have been interpreted as geometrically constrained release of these particulates. With major heterogeneities observed during the recent flythrough of the inner coma of comet Wild 2, these views deserve reconsideration.

  18. Cometary science. Time variability and heterogeneity in the coma of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko.

    PubMed

    Hässig, M; Altwegg, K; Balsiger, H; Bar-Nun, A; Berthelier, J J; Bieler, A; Bochsler, P; Briois, C; Calmonte, U; Combi, M; De Keyser, J; Eberhardt, P; Fiethe, B; Fuselier, S A; Galand, M; Gasc, S; Gombosi, T I; Hansen, K C; Jäckel, A; Keller, H U; Kopp, E; Korth, A; Kührt, E; Le Roy, L; Mall, U; Marty, B; Mousis, O; Neefs, E; Owen, T; Rème, H; Rubin, M; Sémon, T; Tornow, C; Tzou, C-Y; Waite, J H; Wurz, P

    2015-01-23

    Comets contain the best-preserved material from the beginning of our planetary system. Their nuclei and comae composition reveal clues about physical and chemical conditions during the early solar system when comets formed. ROSINA (Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis) onboard the Rosetta spacecraft has measured the coma composition of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko with well-sampled time resolution per rotation. Measurements were made over many comet rotation periods and a wide range of latitudes. These measurements show large fluctuations in composition in a heterogeneous coma that has diurnal and possibly seasonal variations in the major outgassing species: water, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. These results indicate a complex coma-nucleus relationship where seasonal variations may be driven by temperature differences just below the comet surface. PMID:25613892

  19. The origin of low mass particles within and beyond the dust coma envelopes of Comet Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, J. A.; Rabinowitz, D.; Tuzzolino, A. J.; Ksanfomality, L. V.; Sagdeev, R. Z.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements from the Dust Counter and Mass Analyzer (DUCMA) instruments on VEGA-1 and -2 revealed unexpected fluxes of low mass (up to 10 to the minus 13th power g) dust particles at very great distances from the nucleus (300,000 to 600,000 km). These particles are detected in clusters (10 sec duration), preceded and followed by relatively long time intervals during which no dust is detected. This cluster phenomenon also occurs inside the envelope boundaries. Clusters of low mass particles are intermixed with the overall dust distribution throughout the coma. The clusters account for many of the short-term small-scale intensity enhancements previously ascribed to microjets in the coma. The origin of these clusters appears to be emission from the nucleus of large conglomerates which disintegrate in the coma to yield clusters of discrete, small particles continuing outward to the distant coma.

  20. Sequestration and Microvascular Congestion Are Associated With Coma in Human Cerebral Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Ponsford, Mark J.; Medana, Isabelle M.; Prapansilp, Panote; Hien, Tran Tinh; Lee, Sue J.; Dondorp, Arjen M.; Esiri, Margaret M.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; White, Nicholas J.

    2012-01-01

    The pathogenesis of coma in severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains poorly understood. Obstruction of the brain microvasculature because of sequestration of parasitized red blood cells (pRBCs) represents one mechanism that could contribute to coma in cerebral malaria. Quantitative postmortem microscopy of brain sections from Vietnamese adults dying of malaria confirmed that sequestration in the cerebral microvasculature was significantly higher in patients with cerebral malaria (CM; n = 21) than in patients with non-CM (n = 23). Sequestration of pRBCs and CM was also significantly associated with increased microvascular congestion by infected and uninfected erythrocytes. Clinicopathological correlation showed that sequestration and congestion were significantly associated with deeper levels of premortem coma and shorter time to death. Microvascular congestion and sequestration were highly correlated as microscopic findings but were independent predictors of a clinical diagnosis of CM. Increased microvascular congestion accompanies coma in CM, associated with parasite sequestration in the cerebral microvasculature. PMID:22207648

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: HI observations of Coma Supercluster (Gavazzi+, 2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavazzi, G.; O'Neil, K.; Boselli, A.; van Driel, W.

    2006-11-01

    Using the refurbished 305-m Arecibo Gregorian radio telescope, we observed 35 galaxies in the Coma Supercluster, (plus 13 in the Virgo cluster) (see Sect. 2) in February 2004 and January-March 2005. (2 data files).

  2. Post-perihelion coma monitoring of comet Hale-Bopp at ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehnhardt, H.; Bonfils, X.; Petit, Y.; Hainaut, O.; Delahodde, C.; Jorda, L.; Rauer, H.; Colas, F.; Manfroid, J.; Marchis, F.; Schulz, R.; Tanabe, R.; Tozzi, G. P.

    2002-11-01

    The post-perihelion coma activity of Comet C/1995 O1 Hale-Bopp is monitored at ESO telescopes in La Silla and Paranal since Sept. 1997. Imaging through broadband filters in the visible and near-IR wavelength ranges allows to investigate the evolution of the dust coma, namely the appearance of jets, fans, shells and clouds. Long-term evolution: the comet had a porcupine-like embedded fan coma in autumn 1997 that evolved into a northern fan plus shell pattern in 1998 and remains like this since. Thus, the evolution of the coma structure post-perihelion was similar to that pre-perihelion at about the same heliocentric distances, but is occurred in reversed order. This long-term evolution can be characterized by quasi-continuous dust emission from a few (minimum 4) active regions (producing the fan structures) on the nucleus that is modulated by occasional, repetitive and short-term activity increases (generating shell features in the coma). Outbursts: a number of outbursts and unusual activity patterns occurred in the coma of the comet post-perihelion that are documented through the appearance of complex "palm-tree-like" structures of temporary nature in association with outbursts in the visual lightcurve of the comet and a series of 3 dust clouds resembling "mini-comets" and passing through the northern coma at projected velocities of 30-50m/s. The similarity of coma patterns and cometary viewing geometry from Earth before and after perihelion suggests that some nuclear regions had enhanced long-term activity, possibly driven by super-volatile ices at larger (>10AU) heliocentric distances and that the orientation of the rotation axis of the nucleus did not change much over the past 7 years.

  3. [Coma following chemotherapy: is 5FU implicated? Discussion about on case-report].

    PubMed

    Heluwaert, Frédéric; Santre, Charles; Martin, Claude; Hilleret, Marie-Noëlle; Martin, Denis

    2006-02-01

    5FU is one of the most frequently used antioncogenic and cytostatic drug in digestive oncology. It may cause severe adverse events, such as encephalopathy, possibly based on hyperammoniemia, and may lead to coma. We report here the case of a coma with a favorable outcome following 5FU chemotherapy. As any other etiologic findings came to light, hyperammoniemia was discussed as a credible cause. PMID:16565673

  4. Robust control of burst suppression for medical coma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westover, M. Brandon; Kim, Seong-Eun; Ching, ShiNung; Purdon, Patrick L.; Brown, Emery N.

    2015-08-01

    Objective. Medical coma is an anesthetic-induced state of brain inactivation, manifest in the electroencephalogram by burst suppression. Feedback control can be used to regulate burst suppression, however, previous designs have not been robust. Robust control design is critical under real-world operating conditions, subject to substantial pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameter uncertainty and unpredictable external disturbances. We sought to develop a robust closed-loop anesthesia delivery (CLAD) system to control medical coma. Approach. We developed a robust CLAD system to control the burst suppression probability (BSP). We developed a novel BSP tracking algorithm based on realistic models of propofol pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. We also developed a practical method for estimating patient-specific pharmacodynamics parameters. Finally, we synthesized a robust proportional integral controller. Using a factorial design spanning patient age, mass, height, and gender, we tested whether the system performed within clinically acceptable limits. Throughout all experiments we subjected the system to disturbances, simulating treatment of refractory status epilepticus in a real-world intensive care unit environment. Main results. In 5400 simulations, CLAD behavior remained within specifications. Transient behavior after a step in target BSP from 0.2 to 0.8 exhibited a rise time (the median (min, max)) of 1.4 [1.1, 1.9] min; settling time, 7.8 [4.2, 9.0] min; and percent overshoot of 9.6 [2.3, 10.8]%. Under steady state conditions the CLAD system exhibited a median error of 0.1 [-0.5, 0.9]%; inaccuracy of 1.8 [0.9, 3.4]%; oscillation index of 1.8 [0.9, 3.4]%; and maximum instantaneous propofol dose of 4.3 [2.1, 10.5] mg kg-1. The maximum hourly propofol dose was 4.3 [2.1, 10.3] mg kg-1 h-1. Performance fell within clinically acceptable limits for all measures. Significance. A CLAD system designed using robust control theory achieves clinically acceptable

  5. Robust control of burst suppression for medical coma

    PubMed Central

    Westover, M Brandon; Kim, Seong-Eun; Ching, ShiNung; Purdon, Patrick L; Brown, Emery N

    2015-01-01

    Objective Medical coma is an anesthetic-induced state of brain inactivation, manifest in the electroencephalogram by burst suppression. Feedback control can be used to regulate burst suppression, however, previous designs have not been robust. Robust control design is critical under real-world operating conditions, subject to substantial pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameter uncertainty and unpredictable external disturbances. We sought to develop a robust closed-loop anesthesia delivery (CLAD) system to control medical coma. Approach We developed a robust CLAD system to control the burst suppression probability (BSP). We developed a novel BSP tracking algorithm based on realistic models of propofol pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. We also developed a practical method for estimating patient-specific pharmacodynamics parameters. Finally, we synthesized a robust proportional integral controller. Using a factorial design spanning patient age, mass, height, and gender, we tested whether the system performed within clinically acceptable limits. Throughout all experiments we subjected the system to disturbances, simulating treatment of refractory status epilepticus in a real-world intensive care unit environment. Main results In 5400 simulations, CLAD behavior remained within specifications. Transient behavior after a step in target BSP from 0.2 to 0.8 exhibited a rise time (the median (min, max)) of 1.4 [1.1, 1.9] min; settling time, 7.8 [4.2, 9.0] min; and percent overshoot of 9.6 [2.3, 10.8]%. Under steady state conditions the CLAD system exhibited a median error of 0.1 [−0.5, 0.9]%; inaccuracy of 1.8 [0.9, 3.4]%; oscillation index of 1.8 [0.9, 3.4]%; and maximum instantaneous propofol dose of 4.3 [2.1, 10.5] mg kg−1. The maximum hourly propofol dose was 4.3 [2.1, 10.3] mg kg−1 h−1. Performance fell within clinically acceptable limits for all measures. Significance A CLAD system designed using robust control theory achieves clinically acceptable

  6. 'Is she alive? Is she dead?' Representations of chronic disorders of consciousness in Douglas Coupland's Girlfriend in a Coma.

    PubMed

    Colbeck, Matthew

    2016-09-01

    Depictions of coma have come to dominate literary and filmic texts over the last half century, a phenomenon coinciding with advancements in medical technology that have led to remarkable increases in the survival rates of patients with chronic disorders of consciousness. Authors of coma fiction are preoccupied with the imagined subjective experience of coma, often creating complex, dream-like worlds from which the protagonist must escape if survival is to be achieved. However, such representations appear to conflict with medical case studies and patient narratives that reveal that most often survivors of coma have no recollection of the coma itself. Providing a close reading of Douglas Coupland's Girlfriend in a Coma (1998) against the context of medical literature and diagnoses, this article examines how the coma patient is represented, often depicting the realities of a prolonged vegetative state, in contrast with other popular representations of coma. It explores how the author develops a work of 'fantastic' fiction (a genre defined by the structuralist critic Tzvetan Todorov), using the condition of coma as a metaphor for a postmodern existential crisis, while simultaneously employing mimetic techniques that raise important medical, ethical and philosophical questions surrounding the ontological status of the comatose patient. It is argued that coma fiction, even in its misrepresentation of the condition, can help us to engage with and interrogate how we think about chronic disorders of consciousness, thereby providing a valuable insight into our attitudes towards illness and mortality. PMID:26988694

  7. MMN and novelty P3 in coma and other altered states of consciousness: a review.

    PubMed

    Morlet, Dominique; Fischer, Catherine

    2014-07-01

    In recent decades, there has been a growing interest in the assessment of patients in altered states of consciousness. There is a need for accurate and early prediction of awakening and recovery from coma. Neurophysiological assessment of coma was once restricted to brainstem auditory and primary cortex somatosensory evoked potentials elicited in the 30 ms range, which have both shown good predictive value for poor coma outcome only. In this paper, we review how passive auditory oddball paradigms including deviant and novel sounds have proved their efficiency in assessing brain function at a higher level, without requiring the patient's active involvement, thus providing an enhanced tool for the prediction of coma outcome. The presence of an MMN in response to deviant stimuli highlights preserved automatic sensory memory processes. Recorded during coma, MMN has shown high specificity as a predictor of recovery of consciousness. The presence of a novelty P3 in response to the subject's own first name presented as a novel (rare) stimulus has shown a good correlation with coma awakening. There is now a growing interest in the search for markers of consciousness, if there are any, in unresponsive patients (chronic vegetative or minimally conscious states). We discuss the different ERP patterns observed in these patients. The presence of novelty P3, including parietal components and possibly followed by a late parietal positivity, raises the possibility that some awareness processes are at work in these unresponsive patients. PMID:24281786

  8. Guideposts of an Effective Admissions Program for the Private School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Raymond E.

    1980-01-01

    Describes fundamental guideposts for an effective private school admissions program. Included are a clear statement of purpose, informative literature, clearly stated admission requirements, standardized testing, a cooperative faculty, image positioning and a recruiting plan. (RC)

  9. 33 CFR 20.1311 - Admissions by respondent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Supplementary Evidentiary Rules for Suspension and Revocation Hearings § 20.1311 Admissions by respondent. No person may testify regarding admissions made by the respondent during an investigation under 46 CFR...

  10. Appropriateness of hospital admissions in general hospitals in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Al-Tehewy, M; Shehad, E; Al Gaafary, M; Al-Houssiny, M; Nabih, D; Salem, B

    2009-01-01

    We measured the rate of inappropriate admissions, and associated factors, in 3 general hospitals in Egypt. A total of 1191 admissions were reviewed using the Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol for adult patients and the Pediatric Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol for paediatric patients. Inappropriate admissions were 66.3% and 78.9% of admissions in the surgery departments of 2 hospitals compared with 1.9% in the 3rd hospital that followed a specific admission protocol for elective surgery. The paediatrics department had the lowest rates of inappropriate admissions in all hospitals (0%, 1.0% and 1.9%). On logistic regression analysis, the route of admission was the only factor significantly associated with inappropriate admissions in the departments of surgery, obstetrics/gynaecology and internal medicine. PMID:20214126

  11. A Massive Warm Baryonic Halo in the Coma Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonamente, Massimiliano; Joy, Marshall K.; Lieu, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Several deep PSPC observations of the Coma Cluster reveal a very large scale halo of soft X-ray emission, substantially in excess of the well-known radiation from the hot intracluster medium. The excess emission, previously reported in the central region of the cluster using lower sensitivity Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) and ROSAT data, is now evident out to a radius of 2.6 Mpc, demonstrating that the soft excess radiation from clusters is a phenomenon of cosmological significance. The X-ray spectrum at these large radii cannot be modeled nonthermally but is consistent with the original scenario of thermal emission from warm gas at approx. 10(exp 6) K. The mass of the warm gas is on par with that of the hot X-ray-emitting plasma and significantly more massive if the warm gas resides in low-density filamentary structures. Thus, the data lend vital support to current theories of cosmic evolution, which predict that at low redshift approx. 30%-40% of the baryons reside in warm filaments converging at clusters of galaxies.

  12. A Giant Warm Baryonic Halo for the Coma Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonamente, Max; Lieu, Richard; Joy, Marshall K.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Several deep PSPC observations of the Coma cluster unveil a very large-scale halo of soft X-ray emission, substantially in excess of the well know radiation from the hot intra-cluster medium. The excess emission, previously reported in the central cluster regions through lower-sensitivity EUVE and ROSAT data, is now evident out to a radius of 2.5 Mpc, demonstrating that the soft excess radiation from clusters is a phenomenon of cosmological significance. The spectrum at these large radii cannot be modeled non-thermally, but is consistent with the original scenario of thermal emission at warm temperatures. The mass of this plasma is at least on par with that of the hot X-ray emitting plasma, and significantly more massive if the plasma resides in low-density filamentary structures. Thus the data lend vital support to current theories of cosmic evolution, which predict greater than 50 percent by mass of today's baryons reside in warm-hot filaments converging at clusters of galaxies.

  13. Evidence for two types of sources creating Halley's coma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousselot, P.; Vernotte, F.; Clairemidi, J.; Moreels, G.

    1992-07-01

    Monochromatic composite images of Halley's coma in a 50 deg angular sector of radial extent 40,000 km are constructed in taking advantage of the spatial scanning capability of the Vega 2 three channel spectrometer. These images show the existence of two well contrasted jets which are identified in the solar dust scattered continuum as well as in the molecular emissions. The spatial distribution of dust scattered intensity in the UV at 377 nm and the visible at 482 nm are compared in computing an image of the I377/I482 intensity ratio. The image shows that the ratio is slightly bluer in a region located between 10,000 and 25,000 km which appears as a result of jet spreading. The existence of a region connected with the jets where the color of dust is bluer is interpreted as the result of fragmentation of dust grains transported inside jets from the nucleus to distances of 10,000 to 25,000 km. The fragmentation processes would produce a local source of tiny submicronic particles of radius a less than 0.4 micrometers and would also be followed by a release of gas. The results presented provide a strong argument for the existence of an extended source connected with the jets. It is coherent with the detection of a CO source at 10,000 km by the Giotto NMS spectrometer 5 days later.

  14. Myxedema Coma: A New Look into an Old Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Vivek; Misgar, Raiz Ahmad; Ghosh, Sujoy; Mukhopadhyay, Pradip; Roychowdhury, Pradip; Pandit, Kaushik; Mukhopadhyay, Satinath; Chowdhury, Subhankar

    2011-01-01

    Myxedema crisis is a severe life threatening form of decompensated hypothyroidism which is associated with a high mortality rate. Infections and discontinuation of thyroid supplements are the major precipitating factors while hypothermia may not play a major role in tropical countries. Low intracellular T3 leads to cardiogenic shock, respiratory depression, hypothermia and coma. Patients are identified on the basis of a low index of suspicion with a careful history and examination focused on features of hypothyroidism and precipitating factors. Arrythmias and coagulation disorders are increasingly being identified in myxedema crisis. Thyroid replacement should be initiated as early as possible with careful attention to hypotension, fluid replacement and steroid replacement in an intensive care facility. Studies have shown that replacement of thyroid hormone through ryles tube with a loading dose and maintenance therapy is as efficacious as intravenous therapy. In many countries T3 is not available and oral therapy with T4 can be used effectively without major significant difference in outcomes. Hypotension, bradycardia at presentation, need for mechanical ventilation, hypothermia unresponsive to treatment, sepsis, intake of sedative drugs, lower GCS and high APACHE II scores and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores more than 6 are significant predictors of mortality in myxedema crisis. Early intervention in hypothyroid patients developing sepsis and other precipitating factors and ensuring continued intake of thyroid supplements may prevent mortality and morbidity associated with myxedema crisis. PMID:21941682

  15. 42 CFR 456.123 - Admission review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Admission review process. 456.123 Section 456.123... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Utilization Control: Hospitals Ur Plan: Review of Need for Admission 1 § 456.123 Admission review process. The UR plan must provide that— (a)...

  16. 18 CFR 1317.305 - Preference in admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Preference in admission... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 1317.305 Preference in admission....

  17. 18 CFR 1317.305 - Preference in admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Preference in admission... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 1317.305 Preference in admission....

  18. 18 CFR 1317.305 - Preference in admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Preference in admission... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 1317.305 Preference in admission....

  19. 18 CFR 1317.305 - Preference in admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Preference in admission... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 1317.305 Preference in admission....

  20. Pursuing Equity in and through Teacher Education Program Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childs, Ruth A.; Broad, Kathryn; Gallagher-Mackay, Kelly; Sher, Yael; Escayg, Kerry-Ann; McGrath, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This case study investigated equity in teacher education admissions. Through document analysis and structured interviews with ten past or current members of the admissions committee in a large initial teacher education program in Ontario, we developed an understanding of equity in teacher education admissions as encompassing two foci: equity in…

  1. Reclaiming the Educational Role of Chief Admission Officers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Patricia; Robertson, Larry

    1995-01-01

    Describes changes that have occurred in high schools, colleges, and the entrepreneurial admission sector. Relates the evolution of the admission officer's job since the early 1960s and the profession's rapid growth. Details the hybrid role of marketer and educator for chief admissions officers, and issues a call for professional standards. (RJM)

  2. 49 CFR 1114.3 - Admissibility of business records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Admissibility of business records. 1114.3 Section... § 1114.3 Admissibility of business records. Any writing or record, whether in the form of an entry in a... be admissible as evidence thereof if it appears that it was made in the regular course of...

  3. 49 CFR 1114.3 - Admissibility of business records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Admissibility of business records. 1114.3 Section... § 1114.3 Admissibility of business records. Any writing or record, whether in the form of an entry in a... be admissible as evidence thereof if it appears that it was made in the regular course of...

  4. Criteria Use and Importance in Independent Secondary School Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuster, Shannan Boyle

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was threefold: first, to determine the use of specified admission criteria in the independent school admission process; second, to determine admission directors' perceptions of the importance of selected criteria; and third, to determine the nature of the relationship between selected independent measures and the use of…

  5. 8 CFR 221.1 - Admission under bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Admission under bond. 221.1 Section 221.1... STUDENTS § 221.1 Admission under bond. The district director having jurisdiction over the intended place of... admission of an alien under section 221(g) of the Act shall be executed on Form I-352. For...

  6. 8 CFR 221.1 - Admission under bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Admission under bond. 221.1 Section 221.1... STUDENTS § 221.1 Admission under bond. The district director having jurisdiction over the intended place of... admission of an alien under section 221(g) of the Act shall be executed on Form I-352. For...

  7. Historical Perspective on Undergraduate Pharmacy Student Admissions: The PCAT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunny, Kelley A.; Perri, Matthew

    1990-01-01

    The history of the process of admission to pharmacy colleges in the United States since the early 1900s is chronicled. The origins, development, and use of the Pharmacy College Admissions Test are also outlined, and directions for the future of pharmacy college admissions are examined briefly. (MSE)

  8. 49 CFR 1114.3 - Admissibility of business records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Admissibility of business records. 1114.3 Section... § 1114.3 Admissibility of business records. Any writing or record, whether in the form of an entry in a... be admissible as evidence thereof if it appears that it was made in the regular course of...

  9. The Roles of Testing and Diversity in College Admissions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Marguerite; Shore, Arnold

    In order to understand the roles of test scores and diversity characteristics (including race and ethnicity) in the admission process, National Board researchers interviewed admissions directors who worked at selective public and private institutions are well as admissions consultants in the summer and fall of 1999. This report presents an…

  10. Behind the Scenes, Admissions Offices Conquer Mounds of Mail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Elizabeth F.

    2008-01-01

    If coming back to work after winter break seems daunting, consider the plight of college-admissions officials. While most high-school students are breathing a sigh of relief after finally submitting their applications, those on the receiving end are rolling up their sleeves. January is crunch time for many admissions offices. Admissions officers…

  11. 32 CFR 776.66 - Bar admission and disciplinary matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bar admission and disciplinary matters. 776.66... ADVOCATE GENERAL Rules of Professional Conduct § 776.66 Bar admission and disciplinary matters. (a) Bar admission and disciplinary matters. A covered attorney, in connection with any application for bar...

  12. 32 CFR 776.66 - Bar admission and disciplinary matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bar admission and disciplinary matters. 776.66... ADVOCATE GENERAL Rules of Professional Conduct § 776.66 Bar admission and disciplinary matters. (a) Bar admission and disciplinary matters. A covered attorney, in connection with any application for bar...

  13. 32 CFR 776.66 - Bar admission and disciplinary matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bar admission and disciplinary matters. 776.66... ADVOCATE GENERAL Rules of Professional Conduct § 776.66 Bar admission and disciplinary matters. (a) Bar admission and disciplinary matters. A covered attorney, in connection with any application for bar...

  14. 32 CFR 776.66 - Bar admission and disciplinary matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bar admission and disciplinary matters. 776.66... ADVOCATE GENERAL Rules of Professional Conduct § 776.66 Bar admission and disciplinary matters. (a) Bar admission and disciplinary matters. A covered attorney, in connection with any application for bar...

  15. 32 CFR 776.66 - Bar admission and disciplinary matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bar admission and disciplinary matters. 776.66... ADVOCATE GENERAL Rules of Professional Conduct § 776.66 Bar admission and disciplinary matters. (a) Bar admission and disciplinary matters. A covered attorney, in connection with any application for bar...

  16. 8 CFR 1235.11 - Admission of conditional permanent residents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Admission of conditional permanent residents. 1235.11 Section 1235.11 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 1235.11 Admission of conditional permanent residents. (a)...

  17. 8 CFR 235.11 - Admission of conditional permanent residents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Admission of conditional permanent residents. 235.11 Section 235.11 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.11 Admission of conditional permanent residents. (a) General—(1) Conditional residence based...

  18. 42 CFR 456.123 - Admission review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Admission review process. 456.123 Section 456.123 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Need for Admission 1 § 456.123 Admission review process. The UR plan must provide that— (a)...

  19. 42 CFR 456.123 - Admission review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Admission review process. 456.123 Section 456.123 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Need for Admission 1 § 456.123 Admission review process. The UR plan must provide that— (a)...

  20. Complexity in College Admission: Fact or Urban Myth. Research Findings of Parent and Student Perceptions of Complexity in College Admission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Board Advocacy & Policy Center, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In September 2007, the College Board formed the Task Force on Admissions in the 21st Century in response to a request from the Guidance and Admission Assembly Council (GAA Council) to more closely examine the high-school-to-college transition process. Each spring, at the conclusion of the college admission cycle, there is much discussion in the…

  1. A Role for Marketing in College Admissions. Papers Presented at the Colloquium on College Admissions, May 16-l8, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Entrance Examination Board, New York, NY.

    This collection stresses the need for informed and more sophisticated marketing techniques for college admissions officers to help them cope with the decreasing number of prospective college students. The importance of the college admissions office is increasing as admissions becomes a more crucial element to the colleges' financial well-being.…

  2. Compressed spectral arrays of patients with fulminant hepatic failure in hepatic coma undergoing liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Takeichi, Takayuki; Asonuma, Katsuhiro; Kim, Ildeok; Inomata, Yukihiro; Kasahara, Mureo; Ohwada, Susumu; Morishita, Yasuo; Tanaka, Koichi

    2002-08-01

    Assessing the coma status of patients with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) is important for determining the reversibility of brain damage and for properly timing liver transplantation. The compressed spectral array (CSA) method is a frequency analysis technique that processes electroencephalogram signals by computer to facilitate on-line interpretation. This method has been used to monitor the consciousness levels of neurointensive care unit patients. In this study, we determined whether CSA could be used to assess the coma status of patients with FHF, and whether CSA provided information that was useful in deciding when to proceed with liver transplantation. CSA recording was carried out in 17 FHF patients with encephalopathy (coma grade III-IV) who underwent living-related liver transplantation between August 1997 and May 1999. Recording was performed with a Neuromonitor OEE-72044 (NIHON KOHDEN, Osaka, Japan) every 24 h before and after transplantation, until the patients regained consciousness. The CSAs of healthy controls were distributed almost equally between 0 and 16 Hz. The CSAs of FHF patients in hepatic coma were classified into three patterns. Eight of the 17 patients showed very prominent slow waves of about 2 Hz (group A), and seven patients showed strongly suppressed rapid waves between 8 and 16 Hz (group B). The remaining two patients showed CSA patterns that were similar to those of healthy controls, even though these patients were comatose (group C). Abnormal CSA patterns were observed in 15 of the 17 patients (88%). Group B patients seemed to have higher coma grades than did group A patients. Sixteen patients underwent liver transplantation, completely recovered from hepatic encephalopathy, and subsequently showed CSA patterns similar to those of healthy controls. One patient died without regaining consciousness. These results suggest that CSA is useful in assessing the coma status of FHF patients and in evaluating electrophysiological recovery

  3. Modelling shallow urban geology using reservoir modelling techniques: voxel-based lithology and physical properties of the greater Glasgow area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingdon, Andrew; Williams, John D. O.; Williamson, J. Paul; Lark, R. Murray; Dobbs, Marcus R.; Kearsey, Timothy; Finlayson, Andrew; Campbell, S. Diarmad G.

    2013-04-01

    Conventional 3D geological models of lithostratigraphy undertaken by BGS have facilitated a significant step forward in understanding of the 3D sedimentological and structural controls in the subsurface of the UK. However, when lithostratigraphic units are mapped or modelled in 3D, intra-unit variability is often not recognized and may be substantial, particularly in sedimentologically heterogeneous successions. Because of this BGS has been testing voxel grid-based approaches in urban areas with high borehole density. A city-scale lithology model of shallow, unconsolidated sediments in Glasgow, Scotland has been developed as a test of the applicability of these techniques to aid geological understanding and possible future applications. This is of particular significance in this location due to the complex fluvial and glacial history of the superficial geology which alternates between inter-fingering sedimentary packages and short-scale variability of subsurface materials. The model has been created by developing a stochastic model of clastic geology on a voxel support, based on upscaling of observed borehole lithology, independent of lithostratigraphy. Multiple realisations of lithology were generated, each honouring the borehole observations. Lithology information has therefore been used to both develop a model of the distribution of lithology throughout the grid, but also to develop an understanding of the associated uncertainty by providing estimates of the probability with which a particular lithology occurs at a given node. This lithological model compares well with 'traditional' deterministic lithostratigraphic 3D models created in the same area, and with field-based geological maps. This lithological voxel model has been used as a matrix through which physical property data can be attributed within the grid by stochastic modelling and simulation of the variability of properties within the lithological units. Several different property datasets have been

  4. Reinforced Concrete Condition Assessment in Architectural Heritage. The Lion Chambers (Glasgow, UK) and the Theatre E. Duni (Matera, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guida, A.; Dimitrijevic, B.; Pagliuca, A.

    2012-04-01

    The research objective is to provide new qualitative information on the strength of reinforced concrete structures of two prominent examples of modern architecture by using innovative, non-invasive testing techniques. The first one is Lion Chambers in Glasgow (Scotland, United Kingdom) designed by the architects Salmon, Son and Gillespie and completed in 1907. It was the second example of the use of François Hennebique's reinforced concrete system in a building in Glasgow and one of the earliest in Britain. The second example is Duni Theatre in Matera (Southern Italy), designed by the architect Ettore Stella and completed in 1949. The tests on the internal reinforced concrete columns were undertaken by using "SonReb" (SONic + REBound) method that enables assessing the concrete resistance by combining the speed of ultrasound waves and the index of surface bounce through a scleorometric test. In fact, the sclerometer index only gives information regarding the surface layer of the building's structure. In fact, due to the effects of the natural ageing, catalysed by the presence of humidity, surface layers of concrete are affected over time by carbonatation, which increases surface rigidity, providing as a result a greatly "altered" rebound index (much greater than one would have under normal conditions). On the other hand, the ultrasound speed, on the contrary to resistance, is inversely proportional to the age of the concrete (this seems to be due to the cracks that occur and reduce the speed). The hardening process continues over time with a consequent increase in resistance, which diminishes with the passage of time. The paper provides the results of the tests run on the structure of the Lion Chambers and the Duni Theatre. The tests carried out are the basis of a diagnostic project that is possible to implement and monitor to guarantee a deeper knowledge, with the goal of attaining a level of thorough understanding aimed at the preservation of "Modern Architecture

  5. Emergency department Modified Early Warning Score association with admission, admission disposition, mortality, and length of stay

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Hurtado, Juan J.; Berger, Andrea; Bansal, Amit B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Geisinger Health System implemented the Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS) in 2011 and is fully integrated to the Electronic Medical Record (EMR). Our objective was to assess whether the emergency department (ED) MEWS (auto-calculated by EMR) is associated with admission to the hospital, admission disposition, inpatient mortality, and length of stay (LOS) 4 years after its implementation. Methods A random sample of 3,000 patients’ first encounter in the ED was extracted in the study period (between January 1, 2014 and May 31, 2015). Logistic regression was done to analyze whether mean, maximum, and median ED MEWS is associated with admission disposition, mortality, and LOS. Results Mean, maximum, and median ED MEWS is associated with admission to the hospital, admission disposition, and mortality. It correlates weakly with LOS. Conclusion MEWS can be integrated to the EMR, and the score automatically generated still helps predict catastrophic events. MEWS can be used as a triage tool when deciding whether and where patients should be admitted. PMID:27124174

  6. Superhumps in Cataclysmic Binaries. IX. AL Comae Berenices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Joseph; Augusteijn, Thomas; Harvey, David A.; Skillman, David R.; Abbott, Timothy M. C.; Thorstensen, John

    1996-09-01

    We report photometry of the 1995 superoutburst of the dwarf nova AL Comae Berenices. The overall eruption light curve was striking, suggestive of two superoutbursts in rapid succession. During the first week of eruption, the light curve sported a period of 81.63 +/- 0.07 m. This signal declined quickly in amplitude, and was replaced by a stronger signal at 82.55 +/- 0.03 m. The latter bears all the earmarks of a "common superhump," a feature usually seen in SU UMa-type dwarf novae in superoutburst. This superhump endured at least 40 d, with no secular period change. We re-examined the quiescent light curves to search for a stable photometric signal which might signify the true binary period. We found a stable double-humped waveform with a fundamental period of 81.6025 +/- 0.0001 m -- the shortest period yet seen among dwarf novae, and probably very nearly the shortest period attainable by any binary star with a hydrogen-rich secondary. In orbital period and quiescent light curve, as well as in the eruption light curve, the star is a virtual twin of WZ Sge. There are also large-amplitude waves with a period in the range of 83-90 m; these "quiescent superhumps" are rarely found in cataclysmic variables, and require an origin somewhat different from that of the common superhumps characteristic of SU UMa stars in eruption. We speculate that they arise from instability at the 2:1 orbital resonance in the accretion disk, and that the secondary has ben whittled down to <0.04 solar mass. (SECTION: Stars)

  7. Very deep spectroscopy of the Coma cluster line of sight: exploring new territories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adami, C.; Le Brun, V.; Biviano, A.; Durret, F.; Lamareille, F.; Pelló, R.; Ilbert, O.; Mazure, A.; Trilling, R.; Ulmer, M. P.

    2009-12-01

    Context: Environmental effects are known to have an important influence on cluster galaxies, but studies at very faint magnitudes (R>21) are almost exclusively based on imaging. We present here a very deep spectroscopic survey of galaxies on the line of sight to the Coma cluster. Aims: After a series of papers based on deep multi-band imaging of the Coma cluster, we explore spectroscopically part of the central regions of Coma, in order to confirm and generalize previous results, concerning in particular the galaxy luminosity function, red sequence, stellar populations and the most likely formation scenario for the Coma cluster. Methods: We have obtained reliable VIMOS redshifts for 715 galaxies in the direction of the Coma cluster centre in the unprecedented magnitude range 21 ≤ R ≤ 23, corresponding to the absolute magnitude range -14 ≤ MR ≤ -12. Results: We confirm the substructures previously identified in Coma, and identify three new substructures. We detect a large number of groups behind Coma, in particular a large structure at z 0.5, the SDSS Great Wall, and a large and very young previously unknown structure at z 0.054, which we named the background massive group (BMG). These structures account for the mass maps derived from a recent weak lensing analysis. The orbits of dwarf galaxies are probably anisotropic and radial, and could originate from field galaxies radially falling into the cluster along the numerous cosmological filaments surrounding Coma. Spectral characteristics of Coma dwarf galaxies show that red or absorption line galaxies have larger stellar masses and are older than blue or emission line galaxies. R ≤ 22 galaxies show less prominent absorption lines than R ≥ 22 galaxies. This trend is less clear for field galaxies, which are similar to R ≥ 22 Coma galaxies. This suggests that part of the faint Coma galaxies could have been recently injected from the field following the NGC 4911 group infall. We present a list of five ultra

  8. Abundant molecular oxygen in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieler, A.; Altwegg, K.; Balsiger, H.; Bar-Nun, A.; Berthelier, J.-J.; Bochsler, P.; Briois, C.; Calmonte, U.; Combi, M.; de Keyser, J.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Fiethe, B.; Fuselier, S. A.; Gasc, S.; Gombosi, T. I.; Hansen, K. C.; Hässig, M.; Jäckel, A.; Kopp, E.; Korth, A.; Le Roy, L.; Mall, U.; Maggiolo, R.; Marty, B.; Mousis, O.; Owen, T.; Rème, H.; Rubin, M.; Sémon, T.; Tzou, C.-Y.; Waite, J. H.; Walsh, C.; Wurz, P.

    2015-10-01

    The composition of the neutral gas comas of most comets is dominated by H2O, CO and CO2, typically comprising as much as 95 per cent of the total gas density. In addition, cometary comas have been found to contain a rich array of other molecules, including sulfuric compounds and complex hydrocarbons. Molecular oxygen (O2), however, despite its detection on other icy bodies such as the moons of Jupiter and Saturn, has remained undetected in cometary comas. Here we report in situ measurement of O2 in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, with local abundances ranging from one per cent to ten per cent relative to H2O and with a mean value of 3.80 +/- 0.85 per cent. Our observations indicate that the O2/H2O ratio is isotropic in the coma and does not change systematically with heliocentric distance. This suggests that primordial O2 was incorporated into the nucleus during the comet's formation, which is unexpected given the low upper limits from remote sensing observations. Current Solar System formation models do not predict conditions that would allow this to occur.

  9. Dark energy and the structure of the Coma cluster of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernin, A. D.; Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G. S.; Teerikorpi, P.; Valtonen, M. J.; Byrd, G. G.; Merafina, M.

    2013-05-01

    Context. We consider the Coma cluster of galaxies as a gravitationally bound physical system embedded in the perfectly uniform static dark energy background as implied by ΛCDM cosmology. Aims: We ask if the density of dark energy is high enough to affect the structure of a large and rich cluster of galaxies. Methods: We base our work on recent observational data on the Coma cluster, and apply our theory of local dynamical effects of dark energy, including the zero-gravity radius RZG of the local force field as the key parameter. Results: 1) Three masses are defined that characterize the structure of a regular cluster: the matter mass MM, the dark-energy effective mass MDE (<0), and the gravitating mass MG (=MM + MDE). 2) A new matter-density profile is suggested that reproduces the observational data well for the Coma cluster in the radius range from 1.4 Mpc to 14 Mpc and takes the dark energy background into account. 3) Using this profile, we calculate upper limits for the total size of the Coma cluster, R ≤ RZG ≈ 20 Mpc, and its total matter mass, MM ≲ MM(RZG) = 6.2 × 1015 M⊙. Conclusions: The dark energy antigravity affects the structure of the Coma cluster strongly at large radii R ≳ 14 Mpc and should be considered when its total mass is derived.

  10. THE DIFFUSE SOFT EXCESS EMISSION IN THE COMA CLUSTER FROM THE ROSAT ALL-SKY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Bonamente, M.; Lieu, R.; Bulbul, E.

    2009-05-10

    ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS) data near the North Galactic Pole was analyzed in order to study the large-scale distribution of soft X-ray emission from the Coma cluster. These ROSAT data constitute the only available X-ray observations of Coma that feature an in situ-temporally and spatially contiguous-background, with unlimited and continuous radial coverage. These unique characteristics of the RASS data are used to deliver a final assessment on whether the soft excess previously detected in the Coma cluster is due to background subtraction errors, or not. This paper confirms the presence of soft X-ray excess associated with Coma, and reports the detection of 1/4 keV band excess out to 5 Mpc from the cluster center, the largest soft excess halo discovered to date. We propose that the emission is related to filaments that converge toward Coma, and generated either by nonthermal radiation caused by accretion shocks, or by thermal emission from the filaments themselves.

  11. Abundant molecular oxygen in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko.

    PubMed

    Bieler, A; Altwegg, K; Balsiger, H; Bar-Nun, A; Berthelier, J-J; Bochsler, P; Briois, C; Calmonte, U; Combi, M; De Keyser, J; van Dishoeck, E F; Fiethe, B; Fuselier, S A; Gasc, S; Gombosi, T I; Hansen, K C; Hässig, M; Jäckel, A; Kopp, E; Korth, A; Le Roy, L; Mall, U; Maggiolo, R; Marty, B; Mousis, O; Owen, T; Rème, H; Rubin, M; Sémon, T; Tzou, C-Y; Waite, J H; Walsh, C; Wurz, P

    2015-10-29

    The composition of the neutral gas comas of most comets is dominated by H2O, CO and CO2, typically comprising as much as 95 per cent of the total gas density. In addition, cometary comas have been found to contain a rich array of other molecules, including sulfuric compounds and complex hydrocarbons. Molecular oxygen (O2), however, despite its detection on other icy bodies such as the moons of Jupiter and Saturn, has remained undetected in cometary comas. Here we report in situ measurement of O2 in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, with local abundances ranging from one per cent to ten per cent relative to H2O and with a mean value of 3.80 ± 0.85 per cent. Our observations indicate that the O2/H2O ratio is isotropic in the coma and does not change systematically with heliocentric distance. This suggests that primordial O2 was incorporated into the nucleus during the comet's formation, which is unexpected given the low upper limits from remote sensing observations. Current Solar System formation models do not predict conditions that would allow this to occur. PMID:26511578

  12. Jet Morphology and Coma Analysis of 103P/Hartley 2: Temporal Evolution and Interspecies Comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, Charles M.; Pierce, Donna M.; Cochran, Anita L.

    2014-11-01

    We present our results on an expanded study of the jet and coma behavior of comet 103P/Hartley 2 (a continuation of original results presented in Vaughan et al. 2012). We observed Hartley 2 pre- and post-perihelion in 2010 using the George and Cynthia Mitchell Spectrograph on the 2.7 m telescope at McDonald Observatory. Data for CN, C2, C3, CH, and NH2 were collected over six nights from 15 July to 10 November. The spectral data were used to create coma maps for each of the observed species, and the maps were processed using radial and azimuthal division techniques to create enhanced images of the coma to examine coma morphological features. To compliment the ongoing investigation of Hartley 2 as studied by the EPOXI flyby mission, we use findings from other researchers (Belton et al. 2012; Syal et al. 2012; Thomas et al. 2012) to identify dust jet locations on the nucleus and compare the computed jet directions to the radical densities in the coma at our observation times. We also calculate production rates and mixing ratios with water for suspected parent species. This work was funded by the National Science Foundation Graduate K-12 (GK-12) STEM Fellows program (Award No. DGE-0947419) and NASA’s Planetary Atmospheres program (Award No. NNX14AH18G).

  13. Serum levels of short-chain fatty acids in cirrhosis and hepatic coma.

    PubMed

    Clausen, M R; Mortensen, P B; Bendtsen, F

    1991-12-01

    Short-chain fatty acids cause reversible coma in animals and may contribute to the pathogenesis of the hepatic coma in humans. The concentrations of short-chain fatty acids in peripheral venous blood were significantly elevated in 15 patients with hepatic encephalopathy caused by cirrhosis (362 +/- 83 mumol/L; mean +/- S.E.M.) compared with 17 cirrhotic patients without encephalopathy (178 +/- 57 mumol/L) and 11 normal individuals (60 +/- 8 mumol/L). However, no correlation between the depth of coma and the level of short-chain fatty acids was found after repetitive measurements in the coma group. Compared with normal individuals, all short-chain fatty acids, except valerate, were elevated in patients with hepatic encephalopathy, whereas only the concentrations of isobutyrate and isovalerate were significantly elevated in cirrhotic patients without encephalopathy. The concentrations of short-chain fatty acids in 21 nonencephalopathic cirrhotic patients who underwent catheterization were equally distributed in the aorta (187 +/- 56 mumol/L), the hepatic vein (212 +/- 75 mumol/L), the azygos vein (140 +/- 37 mumol/L) and the renal vein (135 +/- 43 mumol/L) compared with peripheral venous blood (178 +/- 57 mumol/L). This study does not support the idea that short-chain fatty acids are of major importance in the pathogenesis of hepatic coma in patients with cirrhosis. PMID:1959851

  14. Prognostically important EEG coma patterns in diffuse anoxic and traumatic encephalopathies in adults.

    PubMed

    Synek, V M

    1988-04-01

    Because of the paucity in the English literature of a detailed and universally accepted EEG grading scale relating to survival after diffuse traumatic and anoxic brain insults, prognostically oriented EEG patterns including recently described abnormalities are presented and discussed. The significance of these patterns may also apply in cases of coma of other etiologies, which can present morphologically similar features. EEG patterns have been classified into five major grades based on an internationally accepted scale. Individual patterns have been more clearly defined on the basis of the morphology of dominant activities, their distribution, persistence, and reactivity to external stimulation. Favorable outcome with survival seems to occur with both grade 1 and the "reactive type" of grade 2 abnormalities, with preservation of normal sleep features, and with frontal monorhythmic delta activity. Prognostically uncertain patterns are "nonreactive" grade 2 abnormalities, diffuse delta activity with grade 3 abnormality, and the "reactive type of alpha pattern coma." The following patterns are suggested to be prognostically malignant if persistent: grade 3 abnormality with small amplitude, diffuse, irregular delta activity; grade 4 ("burst suppression pattern"), in particular when epileptiform discharges are present and with "low-output EEG"; and grade 5 ("isoelectric EEG"). Fatal outcome is also common with the "nonreactive type of alpha pattern coma" and the recently reported "theta pattern coma." These patterns are presented in the illustrations. It is intended that this more detailed subdivision will promote understanding between electroencephalographers using visual EEG assessment in cases of coma. PMID:3074973

  15. The distribution of early- and late-type galaxies in the Coma cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doi, M.; Fukugita, M.; Okamura, S.; Turner, E. L.

    1995-01-01

    The spatial distribution and the morohology-density relation of Coma cluster galaxies are studied using a new homogeneous photmetric sample of 450 galaxies down to B = 16.0 mag with quantitative morphology classification. The sample covers a wide area (10 deg X 10 deg), extending well beyond the Coma cluster. Morphological classifications into early- (E+SO) and late-(S) type galaxies are made by an automated algorithm using simple photometric parameters, with which the misclassification rate is expected to be approximately 10% with respect to early and late types given in the Third Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies. The flattened distribution of Coma cluster galaxies, as noted in previous studies, is most conspicuously seen if the early-type galaxies are selected. Early-type galaxies are distributed in a thick filament extended from the NE to the WSW direction that delineates a part of large-scale structure. Spiral galaxies show a distribution with a modest density gradient toward the cluster center; at least bright spiral galaxies are present close to the center of the Coma cluster. We also examine the morphology-density relation for the Coma cluster including its surrounding regions.

  16. THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF OH AND CN RADICALS IN THE COMA OF COMET ENCKE

    SciTech Connect

    Ihalawela, Chandrasiri A.; Pierce, Donna M.; Dorman, Garrett R.; Cochran, Anita L. E-mail: ci856509@ohio.edu E-mail: grd33@msstate.edu

    2011-11-10

    Multiple potential parent species have been proposed to explain CN abundances in comet comae, but the parent has not been definitively identified for all comets. This study examines the spatial distribution of CN radicals in the coma of comet Encke and determines the likelihood that CN is a photodissociative daughter of HCN in the coma. Comet Encke is the shortest orbital period (3.3 years) comet known and also has a low dust-to-gas ratio based on optical observations. Observations of CN were obtained from 2003 October 22 to 24, using the 2.7 m telescope at McDonald Observatory. To determine the parent of CN, the classical vectorial model was modified by using a cone shape in order to reproduce Encke's highly aspherical and asymmetric coma. To test the robustness of the modified model, the spatial distribution of OH was also modeled. This also allowed us to obtain CN/OH ratios in the coma. Overall, we find the CN/OH ratio to be 0.009 {+-} 0.004. The results are consistent with HCN being the photodissociative parent of CN, but we cannot completely rule out other possible parents such as CH{sub 3}CN and HC{sub 3}N. We also found that the fan-like feature spans {approx}90 Degree-Sign , consistent with the results of Woodney et al..

  17. Case notes, case histories, and the patient's experience of insanity at Gartnavel Royal Asylum, Glasgow, in the nineteenth century.

    PubMed

    Andrews, J

    1998-08-01

    This article is concerned primarily with questions as to how and why case notes were produced and utilized, and how they may (or may not) be used by historians. More specifically, it discusses how the Glasgow Royal Asylum's case notes may be deployed to access patients' experiences of madness and confinement. The deficiencies and biases of the case record are also explored. So too is the relationship of case notes with other asylum based records, including reception order questionnaires, with a separate section on patient writings as part of the case history corpus. This leads into an analysis of how the Asylum's case notes became case histories and for what purposes. These subjects are related to changes and continuities in medical ideologies about insanity, social attitudes to the insane and the nature of medical practice in asylums. Some fundamental shifts in emphasis in the use of the case note and case history occurred in this period. These shifts were associated with an increased emphasis on organic interpretations of mental disease and on clinical approaches to insanity; with the medicalization of asylum records and the wider discourse on insanity, and with declining deference to the public at large in the presentation of cases. The survey concludes by analysing the changing place of patient testimony within the case record. PMID:11620430

  18. Constructing Patient Stories: 'Dynamic' Case Notes and Clinical Encounters at Glasgow's Gartnavel Mental Hospital, 1921-32.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Hazel

    2016-01-01

    This article contextualises the production of patient records at Glasgow's Gartnavel Mental Hospital between 1921 and 1932. Following his appointment as asylum superintendent in 1921, psychiatrist David Kennedy Henderson sought to introduce a so-called dynamic approach to mental health care. He did so, primarily, by encouraging patients to reveal their inner lives through their own language and own understanding of their illness. To this effect, Henderson implemented several techniques devised to gather as much information as possible about patients. He notably established routine 'staff meetings' in which a psychiatrist directed questions towards a patient while a stenographer recorded word-for-word the conversation that passed between the two parties. As a result, the records compiled at Gartnavel under Henderson's guidance offer a unique window into the various strategies deployed by patients, but also allow physicians and hospital staff to negotiate their place amidst these clinical encounters. In this paper, I analyse the production of patient narratives in these materials. The article begins with Henderson's articulation of his 'dynamic' psychotherapeutic method, before proceeding to an in-depth hermeneutic investigation into samples of Gartnavel's case notes and staff meeting transcripts. In the process, patient-psychiatrist relationships are revealed to be mutually dependent and interrelated subjects of historical enquiry rather than as distinct entities. This study highlights the multi-vocal nature of the construction of stories 'from below' and interrogates their subsequent appropriation by historians. PMID:26651189

  19. Possibilities for Implementing Fracture Liaison Service in Poland in the Light of a Visit to Glasgow Western Infirmary.

    PubMed

    Amarowicz, Jarosław; Czerwiński, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis remains one of the top challenges for health services all over the world. Osteoporotic changes in bone structure along with the aging of society result in rapid growth of osteoporotic fractures. Statistics show that approximately 25% of women and 20% of men will suffer a subsequent fracture within 5 years of an initial one. In order to deal with the problem, a novel program in secondary fracture prevention was developed in Scotland in the late 1990's. The system was based on a coordinator and focused on identifying, diagnosing and treating patients with osteoporotic fractures. After just a few years, the system, known as Fracture Liaison Services (FLS), proved to be a cost-effective success. For the last several years, FLS has been implemented in countries all over the world. The Glasgow Western Infirmary, where the program started, continues to be one of the top exemplary facilities in the United Kingdom. Each year the Bone Metabolism Unit proves its effectiveness by providing 4000 DXA scans and taking care of 2500 fractures a year. In 2015, the European Foundation of Osteoporosis and Musculoskeletal Diseases successfully implemented a coordinator-based Fracture Liaison Service in Poland. PMID:26468179

  20. Emergency re-admissions to hospital due to adverse drug reactions within 1 year of the index admission

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Emma C; Green, Christopher F; Mottram, David R; Rowe, Philip H; Pirmohamed, Munir

    2010-01-01

    AIM The proportion of re-admissions to hospital caused by ADRs is poorly documented in the UK. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of ADRs on re-admission to hospital after a period as an inpatient. METHODS One thousand patients consecutively admitted to 12 wards were included. All subsequent admissions for this cohort within 1 year of discharge from the index admission were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS Of the 1000 patients included, 403 (40.3%, 95% CI 39.1, 45.4%) were re-admitted within 1 year. Complete data were available for 290 (70.2%) re-admitted patients, with an ADR contributing to admission in 60 (20.8%, 95% CI 16.4, 25.6%) patients. Presence of an ADR in the index admission did not predict for an ADR-related re-admission (10.5% vs. 7.2%, P = 0.25), or re-admission overall (47.2% vs. 41.2%, P = 0.15). The implicated drug was commenced in the index admission in 33/148 (22.3%) instances, with 37/148 (25%) commenced elsewhere since the index admission. Increasing age and an index admission in a medical ward were associated with a higher incidence of re-admission ADR. The most frequent causative drugs were anti-platelets and loop diuretics, with bleeding and renal impairment the most frequent ADRs. Over half (52/91, 57.1%) of the ADRs were judged to be definitely or possibly avoidable. CONCLUSIONS One fifth of patients re-admitted to hospital within 1 year of discharge from their index admission are re-admitted due to an ADR. Our data highlight drug and patient groups where interventions are needed to reduce the incidence of ADRs leading to re-admission. PMID:21039769

  1. Wavelet frames and admissibility in higher dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehr, H.

    1996-12-01

    This paper is concerned with the relations between discrete and continuous wavelet transforms on {ital k}-dimensional Euclidean space. We start with the construction of continuous wavelet transforms with the help of square-integrable representations of certain semidirect products, thereby generalizing results of Bernier and Taylor. We then turn to frames of L{sup 2}({bold R}{sup {ital k}}) and to the question, when the functions occurring in a given frame are admissible for a given continuous wavelet transform. For certain frames we give a characterization which generalizes a result of Daubechies to higher dimensions. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Understanding and managing coma stimulation: are we doing everything we can?

    PubMed

    Gerber, Carolyn S

    2005-01-01

    The incidence of people surviving with traumatic brain injury is rising at a remarkable pace. Unfortunately, patients also experience some form of coma and significant deficits (ie, cognitive, functional, etc). The focus is shifting from saving these patients to trying to figure out what else can be done for them? In the past, patients were medically maintained, stabilized, and then sent to rehabilitation centers for coma stimulation, in the hope of waking up their reticular activating system. Today, healthcare professionals are being encouraged to research and explore the possibility of implementing structured coma stimulation programs as early as 72 hours postinjury in the intensive care unit. Starting early is of paramount importance to a patient's survival, quality of life, and overall long-term prognosis. The goal of this article is to educate healthcare professionals (in the hospital setting) about managing and implementing structured sensory stimulation sessions. PMID:15875441

  3. Using an integral-field unit spectrograph to study radical species in cometary coma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Benjamin; Pierce, Donna M.; Vaughan, Charles M.; Cochran, Anita

    2015-01-01

    We have observed several comets using an integral-field unit spectrograph (the George and Cynthia Mitchell Spectrograph) on the 2.7m Harlan J. Smith telescope at McDonald Observatory. Full-coma spectroscopic images were obtained for various radical species (C2, C3, CN, NH2). Various coma enhancements were used to identify and characterize coma morphological features. The azimuthal average profiles and the Haser model were used to determine production rates and possible parent molecules. Here, we present the work completed to date, and we compare our results to other comet taxonomic surveys. This work was funded by the National Science Foundation Graduate K-12 (GK-12) STEM Fellows program (Award No. DGE-0947419), NASA's Planetary Atmospheres program (Award No. NNX14AH18G), and the Fund for Astrophysical Research, Inc.

  4. Using an integral-field unit spectrograph to study radical species in cometary coma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Benjamin; Pierce, Donna; Cochran, Anita; Vaughan, Charles

    2014-11-01

    We have observed several comets using an integral-field unit spectrograph (the George and Cynthia Mitchell Spectrograph) on the 2.7m Harlan J. Smith telescope at McDonald Observatory. Full-coma spectroscopic images were obtained for various radical species (C2, C3, CN, NH2). Various coma enhancements were used to identify and characterize coma morphological features. The azimuthal average profiles and the Haser model were used to determine production rates and possible parent molecules. Here, we present the work completed to date, and we compare our results to other comet taxonomic surveys. This work was funded by the National Science Foundation Graduate K-12 (GK-12) STEM Fellows program (Award No. DGE-0947419), NASA’s Planetary Atmospheres program (Award No. NNX14AH18G), and the Fund for Astrophysical Research, Inc.

  5. Successful steroid treatment of coma induced by severe spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Shunsaku; Ohshima, Tomotaka; Yamamoto, Taiki; Shimato, Shinji; Nishizawa, Toshihisa; Kato, Kyozo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is a syndrome characterized by low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure and postural headaches. It is a rare condition which may sometimes present with severe symptoms such as stupor or coma. The standard treatment protocol includes conservative measures such as bed rest, hydration, and steroids. However, severe cases may require invasive measures such as epidural blood patch (EBP), continuous epidural saline infusion, epidural fibrin glue, or surgical repair of the dural defect. In this report, we describe a case of severe SIH resulting in coma that exhibited dramatic improvement on intravenous administration of steroids. This is the first report of severe SIH causing coma that was treated non-invasively by steroids only. PMID:27303109

  6. ALP conversion and the soft X-ray excess in the outskirts of the Coma cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Kraljic, David; Rummel, Markus; Conlon, Joseph P. E-mail: Markus.Rummel@physics.ox.ac.uk

    2015-01-01

    It was recently found that the soft X-ray excess in the center of the Coma cluster can be fitted by conversion of axion-like-particles (ALPs) of a cosmic axion background (CAB) to photons. We extend this analysis to the outskirts of Coma, including regions up to 5 Mpc from the center of the cluster. We extract the excess soft X-ray flux from ROSAT All-Sky Survey data and compare it to the expected flux from ALP to photon conversion of a CAB. The soft X-ray excess both in the center and the outskirts of Coma can be simultaneously fitted by ALP to photon conversion of a CAB. Given the uncertainties of the cluster magnetic field in the outskirts we constrain the parameter space of the CAB. In particular, an upper limit on the CAB mean energy and a range of allowed ALP-photon couplings are derived.

  7. Successful steroid treatment of coma induced by severe spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

    PubMed

    Goto, Shunsaku; Ohshima, Tomotaka; Yamamoto, Taiki; Shimato, Shinji; Nishizawa, Toshihisa; Kato, Kyozo

    2016-05-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is a syndrome characterized by low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure and postural headaches. It is a rare condition which may sometimes present with severe symptoms such as stupor or coma. The standard treatment protocol includes conservative measures such as bed rest, hydration, and steroids. However, severe cases may require invasive measures such as epidural blood patch (EBP), continuous epidural saline infusion, epidural fibrin glue, or surgical repair of the dural defect. In this report, we describe a case of severe SIH resulting in coma that exhibited dramatic improvement on intravenous administration of steroids. This is the first report of severe SIH causing coma that was treated non-invasively by steroids only. PMID:27303109

  8. Dwarf galaxies in the coma cluster: Star formation properties and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Derek M.

    The infall regions of galaxy clusters are unique laboratories for studying the impact of environment on galaxy evolution. This intermediate region links the low-density field environment and the dense core of the cluster, and is thought to host recently accreted galaxies whose star formation is being quenched by external processes associated with the cluster. In this dissertation, we measure the star formation properties of galaxies at the infall region of the nearby rich cluster of galaxies, Coma. We rely primarily on Ultraviolet (UV) data owing to its sensitivity to recent star formation and we place more emphasis on the properties of dwarf galaxies. Dwarf galaxies are good tracers of external processes in clusters but their evolution is poorly constrained as they are intrinsically faint and hence more challenging to detect. We make use of deep GALEX far-UV and near-UV observations at the infall region of the Coma cluster. This area of the cluster has supporting photometric coverage at optical and IR wavelengths in addition to optical spectroscopic data that includes deep redshift coverage of dwarf galaxies in Coma. Our GALEX observations were the deepest exposures taken for a local galaxy cluster. The depth of these images required alternative data analysis techniques to overcome systematic effects that limit the default GALEX pipeline analysis. Specifically, we used a deblending method that improved detection efficiency by a factor of ˜2 and allowed reliable photometry a few magnitudes deeper than the pipeline catalog. We performed deep measurements of the total UV galaxy counts in our field that were used to measure the source confusion limit for crowded GALEX fields. The star formation properties of Coma members were studied for galaxies that span from starbursts to passive galaxies. Star-forming galaxies in Coma tend to have lower specific star formation rates, on average, as compared to field galaxies. We show that the majority of these galaxies are likely

  9. Peritoneal dialysis in an infant with type 1 diabetes and hyperosmolar coma.

    PubMed

    Multari, G; Werner, B; Cervoni, M; Lubrano, R; Costantino, F; Demiraj, V; Pozzilli, P

    2001-02-01

    Hyperosmolar coma which is characterized by severe hyperglycemia in absence of chetosis is very rare in pediatric age with only 11 cases reported in the literature. The outcome of the condition is usually poor with mental retardation being the most common event. Here a case of hyperosmolar coma is described in a female of three months of age who was treated with peritoneal dialysis 11 hours after admittance to hospital. This female patient has been receiving insulin from three months of age and today at the age of 10 years she leads a normal life despite being on insulin therapy. A very low level of C-peptide (<0.3 ng/ml) clearly confirms she is affected by Type 1 diabetes. To our knowledge this is the first case report of hyperosmolar coma in a neonate with Type 1 diabetes who survived this condition without late neurological consequences. PMID:11263466

  10. Low encounter speed comet COMA sample return missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsou, P.; Yen, C. W.; Albee, A. L.

    1994-01-01

    Comets, being considered the most primitive bodies in the solar system, command the highest priority among solar-system objects for studying solar nebula evolution and the evolution of life through biogenic elements and compounds. The study of comets, and more especially, of material from them, provides an understanding of the physical, chemical, and mineralogical processes operative in the formation and earliest development of the solar systems. These return samples will provide valuable information on comets and serve as a rosetta stone for the analytical studies conducted on interplanetary dust particles over the past two decades, and will provide much needed extraterrestrial samples for the planetary materials community since the Apollo program. Lander sample return missions require rather complex spacecraft, intricate operations, and costly propulsion systems. By contrast, it is possible to take a highly simplified approach for sample capture and return in the case of a comet. In the past, we have considered Earth free-return trajectory to the comet, in which passive collectors intercept dust and volatiles from the cometary coma. However, standard short period cometary free-return trajectories results in the comet to the spacecraft encounter speeds in the range of 10 km/s. At these speeds the kinetic energy of the capture process can render significant modification of dust structure, change of solid phase as well as the lost of volatiles components. This paper presents a class of new missions with trajectories with significant reduction of encounter speeds by incorporating gravity assists and deep space maneuvering. Low encounter speed cometary flyby sample return will enable a marked increase in the value of the return science. Acquiring thousands of samples from a known comet and thousands of images of a comet nucleus would be space firsts. Applying new approach in flight mechanics to generate a new class of low encounter speed cometary sample return

  11. Challenges in College Admissions. A Report of a Survey of Undergraduate Admissions Policies, Practices, and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breland, Hunter M.; And Others

    The report summarizes undergraduate admissions policies, practices, and procedures at two- and four-year colleges and universities as of 1992. Information was drawn from a national survey, the third of a series conducted since 1979. A total of 2,024 institutions responded to the survey. An introductory chapter describes the surveys, their…

  12. Students Selection for University Course Admission at the Joint Admissions Board (Kenya) Using Trained Neural Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wabwoba, Franklin; Mwakondo, Fullgence M.

    2011-01-01

    Every year, the Joint Admission Board (JAB) is tasked to determine those students who are expected to join various Kenyan public universities under the government sponsorship scheme. This exercise is usually extensive because of the large number of qualified students compared to the very limited number of slots at various institutions and the…

  13. An Evaluation of the Pharmacy College Admissions Test as a Tool for Pharmacy College Admissions Committees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Katherine A.; Secnik, Kristina; Boye, Mark E.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the capacity of the Pharmacy College Admissions Test (PCAT) to predict success in pharmacy school. Found demographic differences in PCAT scores, and that the PCAT used in combination with pre-pharmacy grade point average is meaningful in assessing applicants to pharmacy school; applicants with PCAT composite percentile scores below 40…

  14. Bar Admission--Default on Student Loan Warrants Denial of Admission to Minnesota Bar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    William Mitchell Law Review, 1980

    1980-01-01

    The Minnesota Supreme Court upheld a decision that student loan default, and subsequent dismissal through bankruptcy, is sufficient reason to deny a law student's bar admission. The bar's requirement of good moral character was interpreted as financial integrity in the Gahan case. (MSE)

  15. Results from the worldwide coma morphology campaign for comet ISON (C/2012 S1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samarasinha, Nalin H.; Mueller, Beatrice E. A.; Knight, Matthew M.; Farnham, Tony L.; Briol, John; Brosch, Noah; Caruso, John; Gao, Xing; Gomez, Edward; Lister, Tim; Hergenrother, Carl; Hoban, Susan; Prouty, Roy; Holloway, Mike; Howes, Nick; Guido, Ernesto; Hui, Man-To; Jones, Joseph H.; Penland, Tyler B.; Thomas, Samuel R.; Wyrosdick, Jim; Kiselev, Nikolai; Ivanova, Aleksandra V.; Kaye, Thomas G.; Eluo, Jean-Baptist Kikwaya; Lau, Betty P. S.; Lin, Zhong-Yi; Martin, José Luis; Moskvitin, Alexander S.; Nicolini, Martino; Ottum, Brian D.; Pruzenski, Chris; Vogel, David C.; Kellett, Leo; Rapson, Valerie; Schmid, Joel; Doyle, Brandon; Dimino, Frank; Carlino, Stephanie; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant; Sutaria, Firoza; Schleicher, David G.; Snodgrass, Colin; Tezcan, Cihan T.; Yorukoglu, Onur; Trowbridge, David; Whitmer, Dennis; Ye, Quan-Zhi

    2015-12-01

    We present the results of a global coma morphology campaign for comet C/2012 S1 (ISON), which was organized to involve both professional and amateur observers. In response to the campaign, many hundreds of images, from nearly two dozen groups were collected. Images were taken primarily in the continuum, which help to characterize the behavior of dust in the coma of comet ISON. The campaign received images from January 12 through November 22, 2013 (an interval over which the heliocentric distance decreased from 5.1 AU to 0.35 AU), allowing monitoring of the long-term evolution of coma morphology during comet ISON's pre-perihelion leg. Data were contributed by observers spread around the world, resulting in particularly good temporal coverage during November when comet ISON was brightest but its visibility was limited from any one location due to the small solar elongation. We analyze the northwestern sunward continuum coma feature observed in comet ISON during the first half of 2013, finding that it was likely present from at least February through May and did not show variations on diurnal time scales. From these images we constrain the grain velocities to ~10 m s-1, and we find that the grains spent 2-4 weeks in the sunward side prior to merging with the dust tail. We present a rationale for the lack of continuum coma features from September until mid-November 2013, determining that if the feature from the first half of 2013 was present, it was likely too small to be clearly detected. We also analyze the continuum coma morphology observed subsequent to the November 12 outburst, and constrain the first appearance of new features in the continuum to later than November 13.99 UT.

  16. Deep UV Luminosity Functions at the Infall Region of the Coma Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, D. M.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Salim, S.; Smith, R.; Jenkins, L.; Mobasher, B.; Miller, N.; Ferguson, H.

    2011-01-01

    We have used deep GALEX observations at the infall region of the Coma cluster to measure the faintest UV luminosity functions (LFs) presented for a rich galaxy cluster thus far. The Coma UV LFs are measured to M(sub uv) = -10.5 in the GALEX FUV and NUV bands, or 3.5 mag fainter than previous studies, and reach the dwarf early-type galaxy population in Coma for the first time. The Schechter faint-end slopes (alpha approximately equal to -1.39 in both GALEX bands) are shallower than reported in previous Coma UV LF studies owing to a flatter LF at faint magnitudes. A Gaussian-plus-Schechter model provides a slightly better parametrization of the UV LFs resulting in a faint-end slope of alpha approximately equal to -1.15 in both GALEX bands. The two-component model gives faint-end slopes shallower than alpha = -1 (a turnover) for the LFs constructed separately for passive and star forming galaxies. The UV LFs for star forming galaxies show a turnover at M(sub UV) approximately equal to -14 owing to a deficit of dwarf star forming galaxies in Coma with stellar masses below M(sub *) = 10(sup 8) solar mass. A similar turnover is identified in recent UV LFs measured for the Virgo cluster suggesting this may be a common feature of local galaxy clusters, whereas the field UV LFs continue to rise at faint magnitudes. We did not identify an excess of passive galaxies as would be expected if the missing dwarf star forming galaxies were quenched inside the cluster. In fact, the LFs for both dwarf passive and star forming galaxies show the same turnover at faint magnitudes. We discuss the possible origin of the missing dwarf star forming galaxies in Coma and their expected properties based on comparisons to local field galaxies.

  17. Chill-coma recovery time, age and sex determine lipid profiles in Ceratitis capitata tissues.

    PubMed

    Pujol-Lereis, Luciana Mercedes; Fagali, Natalia Soledad; Rabossi, Alejandro; Catalá, Ángel; Quesada-Allué, Luis Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The remodeling of membrane composition by changes in phospholipid head groups and fatty acids (FA) degree of unsaturation has been associated with the maintenance of membrane homeostasis under stress conditions. Overall lipid levels and the composition of cuticle lipids also influence insect stress resistance and tissue protection. In a previous study, we demonstrated differences in survival, behavior and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene expression between subgroups of Ceratitis capitata flies that had a reversible recovery from chill-coma and those that developed chilling-injury. Here, we analyzed lipid profiles from comparable subgroups of 15 and 30-day-old flies separated according to their recovery time after a chill-coma treatment. Neutral and polar lipid classes of chill-coma subgroups were separated by thin layer chromatography and quantified by densitometry. FA composition of polar lipids of chill-coma subgroups and non-stressed flies was evaluated using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Higher amounts of neutral lipids such as triglycerides, diacylglycerol, wax esters, sterol esters and free esters were found in male flies that recovered faster from chill-coma compared to slower flies. A multivariate analysis revealed changes in patterns of storage and cuticle lipids among subgroups both in males and females. FA unsaturation increased after cold exposure, and was higher in thorax of slower subgroups compared to faster subgroups. The changes in neutral lipid patterns and FA composition depended on recovery time, sex, age and body-part, and were not specifically associated with the development of chilling-injury. An analysis of phospholipid classes showed that the phosphatidylcholine to lysophosphatidylcholine ratio (PC/LPC) was significantly higher, or showed a tendency, in subgroups that may have developed chilling-injury compared to those with a reversible recovery from coma. PMID:26868723

  18. Re-admission after gastro-intestinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Gauduchon, L; Sabbagh, C; Regimbeau, J M

    2015-12-01

    Re-admission is a new concept in France, born with the advent of day-case surgery, and defined as any re-admission occurring within 30 days after surgery. The re-admission rate has increasingly come to be considered a criterion of the quality of medical care, by both the medical profession and by insurance companies. This report outlines the generalities and definitions related to re-admission after gastro-intestinal surgery, describes the current situation, rationalizes the value of re-admission rates as a measure of quality of care, details the risk factors for re-admission according to the type of intervention, exposes the possible means of prevention and what to do when a patient comes to the emergency room within 30 days after an operation. PMID:26527260

  19. Full and Partial Admission Performance of the Simplex Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorney, D. J.; Griffin, L. W.; Sondak, D. L.; Turner, James (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The turbines used in rocket-engine applications are often partial-admission turbines, meaning that the flow enters the rotor over only a portion of the annulus. These turbines have been traditionally analyzed, however, assuming full-admission characteristics. This assumption enables the simulation of only a portion of the 360-degree annulus, with periodic boundary conditions applied in the circumferential direction. While this traditional approach to the simulating the flow in partial-admission turbines significantly reduces the computational requirements, the accuracy of the solutions has rarely been evaluated. In the current investigation, both full- and partial-admission three dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes simulations were performed for a partial-admission turbine designed and tested at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The results indicate that the partial-admission nature of the turbine must be included in simulations to properly predict the performance and flow unsteadiness of the turbine.

  20. Repeatability of the Dust and Gas Morphological Structures in the Coma of Comet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lejoly, Cassandra; Samarasinha, N. H.; Ojha, L.; Schleicher, D. G.

    2013-10-01

    Comet 1P/Halley is the most famous comet in history and has been observed for over two millennia, making it one of the most extensively studied comets. The morphology in the coma of comet 1P/Halley originates due to the activity at the nucleus and could be used as a probe of the nuclear rotation and the activity. We will present the results from a study summarizing the evolution of coma morphology of comet 1P/Halley observed from ground between October 1985 and June 1986. The results to be presented include analysis of dust features as well as gas (CN) features in the coma and comparisons will be made between their spatial and temporal evolution. About 80 CN images and 300 continuum images from the Small Bodies Node of the NASA Planetary Data System were analyzed using image enhancement techniques that were not available n the 1980s. This enables us to see coma structure never observed before in comet 1P/Halley. Because of the comet's proximity to Earth, most of our best signal-to-noise images were taken in the March-April interval of 1986. Despite the limited coverage of preceding and following months, there is a sufficient number of images to monitor morphological evolution over many months. The initial synodic periods as a function of time used to phase the images together were extrapolated from the lightcurves of the active coma (Schleicher et al. 1990, AJ, 100, 896-912). We will present the periods of repeatability of individual coma features measured using the position angle at different spatial distances from the nucleus in adjacent cycles. Separate features appear to have slightly different periods of repeatability, perhaps depending on the corresponding source regions on the nucleus and/or projection effects. The periods of repeatability of coma morphologies will be presented as a function of time from the perihelion. These results will ultimately be used in detailed modeling of the coma morphologies of comet 1P/Halley over the 1985-1986 apparition in

  1. Inner coma imaging of Comet Levy (1990c) with the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, H. A.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Feldman, P. D.; Arpigny, C.; Baum, W. A.; Brandt, J. C.; Light, R. M.; Westphal, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    HST observations of Comet Levy at geocentric and heliocentric distances of about 1 AU show a highly asymmetrical coma in which the sunward-facing hemisphere is brighter than the tailward one by a factor of 2; this is in keeping with dayside volatile sublimation. Radial brightness profiles perpendicular to the sun-comet line are found to be highly symmetric about the nucleus. Detailed image analysis reveals indications of a hemispherical dust arc which propagates through the coma at an average projected velocity of about 0.16 km/sec. It is suggested that periodic occurrences of such dust arcs could account for the temporal variability in IUE continuum photometry.

  2. Analysis of hydrogen H-alpha observations of the coma of Comet P/Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, William H.; Marconi, M. L.; Scherb, Frank; Roesler, Fred L.

    1993-01-01

    The Monte Carlo Particle Trajectory Model of Combi and Smyth (1988) is used here to analyze observations of the H-alpha coma of Comet Halley. The solar excitation mechanism for the H-alpha emissions line is described. The H2O production rates derived for the H-alpha brightness measurements are shown to be very consistent with the H2O production rates determined from other Comet Halley observations of the H, O, and OH comae. Revised H2O production rates determined from 6300 A brightness measurements are presented.

  3. The Hertzsprung-gap giant 31 Comae in 2013: Magnetic field and activity indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, Ana P.; Konstantinova-Antova, Renada; Aurière, Michel; Petit, Pascal; Charbonnel, Corinne

    2014-08-01

    We have observed the giant star 31 Comae in April and May 2013 with the spectropolarimeter Narval at Pic du Midi Observatory, France. 31 Comae is a single, rapidly rotating giant with rotational period ~6.8 d and vsini ~ 67 km/s. We present measurements and discuss variability of the longitudinal magnetic field (Bl), spectral activity indicators Hα, CaII H&K, Ca II IR triplet and evolutionary status. Our future aim is to perform a Zeeman-Doppler imaging study for the star.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey. X. (den Brok+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den Brok, M.; Peletier, R. F.; Seth, A.; Balcells, M.; Dominguez, L.; Graham, A. W.; Carter, D.; Erwin, P.; Ferguson, H. C.; Goudfrooij, P.; Guzman, R.; Hoyos, C.; Jogee, S.; Lucey, J.; Phillipps, S.; Puzia, T.; Valentijn, E.; Kleijn, G. V.; Weinzirl, T.

    2015-05-01

    The Coma ACS Survey (Carter et al., 2008ApJS..176..424C) provides data in two passbands for 25 fields pointed at the core of the Coma cluster and at the outskirts. The exposure times in the two passbands, F814W and F475W (which are roughly equivalent to the IC and g band) were ~1400 and ~2600s. The original envisaged coverage of the cluster was much larger than 25 fields, but due to the ACS failure in 2008 January the survey was not completed. (2 data files).

  5. Near infrared observations of galaxies in the Coma supercluster and in the Cancer cluster. II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavazzi, G.; Trinchieri, G.; Boselli, A.

    1990-11-01

    New near infrared observations of 110 galaxies in the Coma/A1367 supercluster region, and 40 galaxies in the Cancer cluster are presented. These observations are part of an ongoing investigation of the properties of normal galaxies and of their near-IR emission, which aims at obtaining homogeneous, multifrequency data for a large sample of galaxies in different density environments. The addition of these observations to the sample presented in Gavazzi and Trinchieri (1989) raises the number of Coma/A1367 galaxies with near-IR data to 275. The measurements, together with data published by Bothun et al. (1985), give a sample of 45 spirals in the Cancer cluster.

  6. Therapeutic options to enhance coma arousal after traumatic brain injury: state of the art of current treatments to improve coma recovery.

    PubMed

    Cossu, Giulia

    2014-04-01

    Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of death and disability. Optimizing the recovery from coma is a priority in seeking to improve patients' functional outcomes. Standards of care have not been established: pharmacological interventions, right median nerve and sensory stimulation, dorsal column stimulation (DCS), deep brain stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation, hyperbaric oxygen therapy and cell transplantation have all been utilized with contrasting results. The aim of this review is to clarify the indications for the various techniques and to guide the clinical practice towards an earlier coma arousal. A systematic bibliographic search was undertaken using the principal search engines (Pubmed, Embase, Ovid and Cochrane databases) to locate the most pertinent studies. Traumatic injury is a highly individualized process, and subsequent impairments are dependent on multiple factors: this heterogeneity influences and determines therapeutic responses to the various interventions. PMID:24090192

  7. The Coma Recovery Scale Modified Score: a new scoring system for the Coma Recovery Scale-revised for assessment of patients with disorders of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Sattin, Davide; Minati, Ludovico; Rossi, Davide; Covelli, Venusia; Giovannetti, Ambra M; Rosazza, Cristina; Bersano, Anna; Nigri, Anna; Leonardi, Matilde

    2015-12-01

    The differential diagnosis between vegetative state and minimally conscious state is still complex and the development of an evaluation systems is one of the challenging tasks for researchers and professionals. The Coma Recovery Scale-revised is considered the gold standard for clinical/behavioral assessment and for the differential diagnosis of patients with disorder of consciousness. However, the scale presents some limitations in that (i) scores may partially overlap between different diagnoses and (ii) there is an underlying assumption that if a patient is able to show higher-level behaviors, he/she is also able to show lower-level responses. In the present study, a procedure to calculate a modified Coma Recovery Scale-revised score is presented that attempts to avoid these problems. To exemplify this new scoring approach, 60 patients with disorder of consciousness were studied and the results showed the usefulness of the Modified Score. PMID:26465775

  8. Coma imaging of comet P/Brorsen-Metcalf at Calar Alto in late July to mid August 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehnhardt, Hermann; Vanysek, Vladimir; Birkle, K.; Hopp, U.

    1992-01-01

    Comet P/Brorsen-Metcalf was observed on 1989/07/28+30 and on 1989/08/04+12(+14) with the 3.5 m telescope and the 0.8 m Schmidt camera at Calar Alto/Spain. The images exhibit a narrow plasma tail pointing into anti-solar direction. On 1989/07/30 a triple tail was found which can be interpreted as tail ray event. The coma isophotes show prominent asymmetries with the nucleus located on the tailward side of the isophote foci and with a slightly higher brightness in the Northern Hemisphere of the coma. A strong curved jet feature was detected in the coma on 1989/07/30. The jet extended at least 30,000 km into the sunward coma hemisphere. The rotation period of about 1.3 days, estimated from the curvature of the coma jet, needs verification by other observations.

  9. Prognostic value of the Glasgow Prognostic Score in metastatic colorectal cancer in the era of anti-EGFR therapies.

    PubMed

    Dréanic, Johann; Maillet, Marianne; Dhooge, Marion; Mir, Olivier; Brezault, Catherine; Goldwasser, François; Chaussade, Stanislas; Coriat, Romain

    2013-01-01

    The Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS), combination of C-reactive protein and albumin, has proven its prognostic value in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients receiving conventional cytotoxic therapy. More recently, anti-EGFR therapies have been validated in mCRC and roll forward the patients' overall survival (OS). We aimed to evaluate the prognostic accuracy of the GPS in patients receiving anti-EGFR therapy in addition to conventional chemotherapy. From January 2007 to February 2012, consecutive mCRC patients who received 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy plus cetuximab were included in the present analysis. Patients were eligible for the study if they met the following criteria: advanced pathologically proven MCRC, age >18 years, adequate renal function (creatinine clearance >40 ml/min), C-reactive protein and albumin and performance status evaluation before treatment initiation. A total of 49 patients received cetuximab plus 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy (colon, n = 34; rectum, n = 15) and were treated with a median follow-up of 35 months (16.5-74.7). Median age was 48 years old. In addition to cetuximab, patients received oxaliplatin- (n = 34, 60%) or irinotecan (n = 15, 30%)-based chemotherapy. At time of diagnosis, 55, 29 and 16% of patients had a GPS of 0 (n = 27), 1 (n = 14) and 2 (n = 8), respectively. Fifty-five, 29 and 14 % of patients add one, two or ≥3 metastatic sites, respectively. Considering two groups (GPS = 0 and GPS ≥1), median progression-free survivals were significantly different (p = 0.0084). Median OS in the GPS 0, 1 and 2 groups were 38.2, 14 and 12.1 months, respectively (p = 0.0093). The results of the present study confirm that the GPS is still a simple and effective prognostic factor in the era of cetuximab therapy in mCRC patients. PMID:23839775

  10. The predictive and prognostic value of the Glasgow Prognostic Score in metastatic colorectal carcinoma patients receiving bevacizumab.

    PubMed

    Maillet, Marianne; Dréanic, Johann; Dhooge, Marion; Mir, Olivier; Brezault, Catherine; Goldwasser, François; Chaussade, Stanislas; Coriat, Romain

    2014-11-01

    The Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS), based on C-reactive protein and albumin levels, has shown its prognostic value in metastatic colorectal carcinoma (mCRC) patients receiving conventional cytotoxic therapy. Bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody to vascular epidermal growth factor, improves the overall survival in mCRC. The aim of the present study was to assess the prognostic value of GPS in mCRC patients receiving antivascular epidermal growth factor therapy. From August 2005 to August 2012, consecutive patients with mCRC who received chemotherapy plus bevacizumab were eligible for the present analysis. The clinical stage, C-reactive protein, albumin and the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status were recorded at the time of initiation of bevacizumab. Patients received 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy plus bevacizumab in accordance with the digestive oncology multidisciplinary staff proposal and in line with the French recommendations for the treatment of mCRC. Eighty patients were eligible (colon n = 59, rectum n = 21), with a median follow-up of 14 months (range 1-58 months). Chemotherapy given with bevacizumab and 5-fluorouracil was oxaliplatin (n = 41, 51%) or irinotecan (n = 27, 34%). At baseline, 56, 31 and 13% of patients had a GPS of 0 (n = 45), 1 (n = 25) and 2 (n = 10), respectively. The median progression-free survival in these groups was 10.1, 6.5 and 5.6 months (P = 0.16), respectively. The median overall survival was 20.1, 11.4 and 6.5 months, respectively (P = 0.004). Our study confirmed the prognostic value of GPS in mCRC patients receiving chemotherapy plus bevacizumab. Given the poor survival observed in patients with an GPS of 2, studies dedicated to these patients could identify optimal treatment modalities. PMID:24858536

  11. Prognostic significance of modified Glasgow Prognostic Score in patients with non-metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cho, Dae Sung; Kim, Sun Il; Choo, Seol Ho; Jang, Seok Heun; Ahn, Hyun Soo; Kim, Se Joong

    2016-06-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS) as a prognostic factor in patients with non-metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Materials and methods Between June 1994 and July 2012, 469 patients with RCC underwent radical or partial nephrectomy at two hospitals. Among these patients, 65 with non-clear cell type histology and 16 with lymph-node or distant metastasis were excluded. The medical records of the remaining 388 patients were retrospectively reviewed. The mGPS was calculated using a selective combination of C-reactive protein (CRP) and albumin as previously described. The prognostic significance of various clinicopathological variables including mGPS was analyzed using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results Of the total 388 patients, 40 patients (10.3%) developed local recurrence or distant metastasis and 18 patients (4.6%) died of disease during the follow-up period. The univariate analysis identified CRP, mGPS, thrombocytosis, T stage, Fuhrman's nuclear grade and lymphovascular invasion as significant prognostic factors for recurrence-free survival (RFS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS). The multivariate analysis indicated that mGPS (p < 0.001), T stage (p = 0.024) and lymphovascular invasion (p = 0.046) were independent prognostic factors for RFS, whereas mGPS (p = 0.001) was the only independent prognostic factor for CSS. Conclusions The mGPS is an independent prognostic factor for RFS and CSS in patients with non-metastatic clear cell RCC treated with radical or partial nephrectomy. These findings suggest that mGPS should be used for predicting recurrence or survival in patients undergoing nephrectomy for non-metastatic clear cell RCC. PMID:26878156

  12. An Observational Study of Blood Glucose Levels during Admission and 24 Hours Post-Operation in a Sample of Patients with Traumatic Injury in a Hospital in Kuala Lumpur

    PubMed Central

    Harun @ Haron, Rahmat; Imran, Musa Kamarul; Haspani, Mohammed Saffari Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been associated with an acute stress response mediated by the sympathoadrenomedullary axis, which can be assessed by measuring blood glucose level. Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted for a year in 2007 among 294 patients who had been treated for TBI in Hospital Kuala Lumpur. Patients fulfilling the set criteria were recruited into the study and data, including blood glucose level and Glasgow Outcome Score at 3-month follow-up, were collected. Results: 294 patients were included in the study: 50 females (17.0%) and 244 males (83.0%). The majority of cases were young adult patients (mean age of 34.2 years, SD 13.0). The mean blood glucose level during admission and post-surgery were 6.26 mmol/L (SD 1.30, n = 294) and 6.66 mmol/L (SD 1.44, n = 261), respectively. Specifically, the mean admission glucose level associated with mild TBI was 5.04 mmol/L (SD 0.71); moderate TBI, 5.78 mmol/L (SD 1.02); and severe TBI, 7.04 mmol/L (SD 1.18). The mean admission glucose level associated with a poor outcome in patients with isolated TBI was 6.98 mmol/L (SD 1.21). Patients with admission glucose of 5.56 mmol/L (SD 1.21) were more likely to have a favourable outcome. Conclusion: Mild, moderate, and severe TBI were associated with an increase in blood glucose levels during admission, and the mean increase in glucose levels is based on the severity of the isolated TBI. Surgical intervention did not cause further significant changes in blood glucose levels. Patients with isolated TBI and minimal increases in blood glucose levels were more likely to have a favourable outcome. PMID:22589675

  13. Suicidal admissions in the United States military.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Elspeth Cameron; Keppler, William C; Rothberg, Joseph M

    2003-03-01

    Suicide is currently the second leading cause of death in the U.S. military. Little recent research has been done on a well-defined cohort at high risk for death by suicide, which consist of military patients who attempt suicide or are admitted for suicidal ideation. As a pilot investigation based on a literature review of suicidal behavior in the U.S. military, 100 consecutive charts of suicidal patients at a tertiary military treatment facility were reviewed. The findings included the following: 94% were admitted with a depressed mood; 67% had a history of previous attempts or gestures; 49% had been treated with psychiatric medication prior to admission and 88% were treated with psychiatric medications while on the ward; 47% returned to a full duty status; 29% were recommended for administrative separation; and 18% were recommended for a medical board. Suggestions for future research are presented to help improve our suicide prevention programs. PMID:12685680

  14. The admissibility of research in emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Wnukiewicz-Kozłowska, Agata

    2007-09-01

    The main goal in this paper is to present the legal rules connected with medical experiment on human beings in emergency medicine and to explain the scope, significance, and meaning of these rules, especially with regard to their interpretation. As the provisions about medical experiments truly make sense only if they can be observed by the whole "civilised" international community, they are presented in the context of international law with reference to Polish law. By considering the appropriate regulations of research contained in legal documents, it is possible to formulate a catalogue of doctors' duties and patients' rights. This general catalogue refers to all kinds of medical research involving human beings. In the field of emergency medicine, general provisions are sometimes involved, and they are sometimes limited. The main and most important conclusion is that a medical experiment in emergency medicine is admissible only if previously indicated conditions based on general rules of conducting research are fulfilled. PMID:18210226

  15. H-ATLAS: the far-infrared properties of galaxies in and around the Coma cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, C.; Davies, J. I.; Smith, M. W. L.; Valiante, E.; Eales, S.; Bourne, N.; Dunne, L.; Dye, S.; Furlanetto, C.; Ibar, E.; Ivison, R.; Maddox, S.; Sansom, A.; Michałowski, M. J.; Davis, T.

    2016-05-01

    We describe a far-infrared survey of the Coma cluster and the galaxy filament it resides within. Our survey covers an area of ˜150 deg2 observed by Herschel H-ATLAS (Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey) in five bands at 100, 160, 250, 350 and 500 μm. The SDSS spectroscopic survey (mr ≤ 17.8) is used to define an area (within the virial radius) and redshift selected (4268 < v < 9700 km s-1) sample of 744 Coma cluster galaxies - the Coma Cluster Catalogue. For comparison, we also define a sample of 951 galaxies in the connecting filament - the Coma Filament Catalogue. The optical positions and parameters are used to define appropriate apertures to measure each galaxy's far-infrared emission. We have detected 99 of 744 (13 per cent) and 422 of 951 (44 per cent) of the cluster and filament galaxies in the SPIRE 250 μm band. We consider the relative detection rates of galaxies of different morphological types finding that it is only the S0/Sa population that shows clear differences between the cluster and filament. We find no differences between the dust masses and temperatures of cluster and filament galaxies with the exception of early-type galaxy dust temperatures, which are significantly hotter in the cluster than in the filament (X-ray heating?). From a chemical evolution model, we find no evidence for different evolutionary processes (gas loss or infall) between galaxies in the cluster and filament.

  16. Spatial and temporal variations in the column density distribution of comet Halley's CN coma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulz, Rita; Schlosser, W.; Meisser, W.; Koczet, P.; Celnik, W. E.

    1992-01-01

    Mean radial column density profiles of comet P/Halley's CN coma were derived by combining photographic and photoelectric observations. The shape of the profiles as well as their temporal variations were analyzed in detail and compared with the results of other CN observations of the comet.

  17. Modeling Cometary Coma with a Three Dimensional, Anisotropic Multiple Scattering Distributed Processing Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luchini, Chris B.

    1997-01-01

    Development of camera and instrument simulations for space exploration requires the development of scientifically accurate models of the objects to be studied. Several planned cometary missions have prompted the development of a three dimensional, multi-spectral, anisotropic multiple scattering model of cometary coma.

  18. Communication Opportunities via Special Messaging Technology for Two Post-Coma Persons with Multiple Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Colonna, Fabio; Navarro, Jorge; Lanzilotti, Crocifissa; de Pace, Claudia; Megna, Marisa; Oliva, Doretta

    2011-01-01

    This study extended the assessment of a special messaging technology with two additional post-coma adults who had emerged from a minimally conscious state, but showed multiple disabilities including profound motor and communication impairments. For each participant, the study involved an ABAB design, in which the A represented baseline phases and…

  19. Prospective Cohort Study Evaluating the Prognostic Value of Simple EEG Parameters in Postanoxic Coma.

    PubMed

    Azabou, Eric; Fischer, Catherine; Mauguiere, François; Vaugier, Isabelle; Annane, Djillali; Sharshar, Tarek; Lofaso, Fréderic

    2016-01-01

    We prospectively studied early bedside standard EEG characteristics in 61 acute postanoxic coma patients. Five simple EEG features, namely, isoelectric, discontinuous, nonreactive to intense auditory and nociceptive stimuli, dominant delta frequency, and occurrence of paroxysms were classified yes or no. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of each of these variables for predicting an unfavorable outcome, defined as death, persistent vegetative state, minimally conscious state, or severe neurological disability, as assessed 1 year after coma onset were computed as well as Synek's score. The outcome was unfavorable in 56 (91.8%) patients. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and AUC of nonreactive EEG for predicting an unfavorable outcome were 84%, 80%, 98%, 31%, and 0.82, respectively; and were all very close to the ones of Synek score>3, which were 82%, 80%, 98%, 29%, and 0.81, respectively. Specificities for predicting an unfavorable outcome were 100% for isoelectric, discontinuous, or dominant delta activity EEG. These 3 last features were constantly associated to unfavorable outcome. Absent EEG reactivity strongly predicted an unfavorable outcome in postanoxic coma, and performed as accurate as a Synek score>3. Analyzing characteristics of some simple EEG features may easily help nonneurophysiologist physicians to investigate prognostic issue of postanoxic coma patient. In this study (a) discontinuous, isoelectric, or delta-dominant EEG were constantly associated with unfavorable outcome and (b) nonreactive EEG performed prognostic as accurate as a Synek score>3. PMID:26545818

  20. Relationship between inner coma water emissions and ice deposits in comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliorini, Alessandra; Filacchione, Gianrico; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Bockelée-Morvan, Dominique; Erard, Stephane; Leyrat, Cedric; Ciarniello, Mauro; Combi, Michael; Fougere, Nicolas; Taylor, Fred

    2016-04-01

    Data acquired in April 2015 with the VIRTIS spectrometer on board the Rosetta mission provided information on the possible correlation between the H2O emission in the inner coma and the exposed water deposits detected in the Hapi region on the 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko surface (Migliorini et al. submitted). Further bright spots attributed to exposed water ice have been identified in other regions by OSIRIS at visible wavelengths (Pommerol, et al., 2015) and confirmed in the infrared by VIRTIS-M in the Imothep region (Filacchione et al., 2016). Furthermore, new water ice deposits have been identified in regions located both at the equator and at southern latitudes. These regions might be localised sources of water emissions in the inner coma of 67P/C-G. The present investigation seeks to identify the spatial and temporal correlations between the H2O emissions in the inner coma and the water ice rich deposits on the surface in order to identify the mechanisms operating at the surface-coma interface. It extends the study already carried out for a limited region located in the comet's neck, and identifies how the observed emissions and deposits evolve with the heliocentric distance, as observed by VIRTIS during the Rosetta escort phase mission.

  1. [Coma and resolution in wide spectral region Czerny-Turner spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Chen, Tan-Xuan; Yang, Huai-Dong; Chen, Ke-Xin; Tan, Qiao-Feng; Jin, Guo-Fan

    2010-06-01

    The Czerny-Turner layout, which is most frequently used in miniature spectrometers, should follow Shafer's coma-free condition and Fastie's flat-field principal to eliminate the central wave's primary coma and maximize its resolution. However, the design process does not take the comas and resolutions at non-central waves into consideration. Based on the theory of primary coma in reflection optical system, the present paper points out that in the crossed beam design, the resolutions at wide 'spectral region present a "V" shape, while in the M design, the resolutions change little over the whole region, and present an approximately straight line shape, so the latter kind of spectrometer maintains a far more consistent resolution than the former one. Accordingly, this paper designs two kinds of spectrometers with spectrum regions from 400 to 600 nm, and carries out theoretical simulation and contrast experiment. The result demonstrates that for the two designs the resolutions at the fringe wavelength are 3.8 times and 1.5 times respectively that at the central wavelength, which accords with the conclusion of the theoretical simulation. PMID:20707178

  2. The Coma of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko Pre- and Post- Equinox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fougere, Nicolas; Altwegg, Kathrin; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques; Bieler, Andre; Bockelee-Morvan, Dominique; Calmonte, Ursina; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Combi, Mike; Dekeyser, Johan; Debout, Vincent; Erard, Stephane; Fiethe, Bjorn; Fillacchione, Gianrico; Fink, Uwe; Fuselier, Stephen; Gombosi, Tamas; Hansen, Kenneth; Hassig, Myrtha; Huang, Zhenguang; Leroy, Lena; Leyrat, Cedric; Migliorini, Alessandra; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Giovanna; Rubin, Martin; Tenishev, Valeriy; Toth, Gabor; Tzou, Chia-Yu; Shou, Yinsi

    2016-04-01

    As the Rosetta spacecraft escorts comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) during its journey in the Solar System, it monitors the evolution of the neutrals' distribution in the coma of 67P. Indeed, while the comet orbits around the Sun, the energy input received by the different regions of the nucleus varies, directly impacting 67P's outgassing pattern. We model the H2O, CO2, and CO coma of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) pre- and post- equinox using a 3D Direct Monte-Carlo Simulation approach. The use of a kinetic method enables us to model the coma from the nucleus' surface to a few hundreds of kilometers even in the regions where collisions cannot maintain a fluid regime. The activity at the surface of the nucleus is described using a spherical harmonic expansion with 25 terms constrained by ROSINA (Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis) observations. The model outputs contain information about numerous macroscopic parameters such as number densities, velocities, and temperatures of each species. Then, the results from the simulations are integrated along the line of sight to be compared with the remote sensing observations from the VIRTIS (Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer) instrument. The model shows a good agreement with the data, giving a clear evidence of our understanding of the physics of the coma of comet 67P.

  3. Dust in Cometary Comae: Present Understanding of the Structure and Composition of Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.; Zolensky, M.; Lasue, J.

    2007-01-01

    In situ probing of a very few cometary comae has shown that dust particles present a low albedo and a low density, and that they consist of both rocky material and refractory organics. Remote observations of solar light scattered by cometary dust provide information on the properties of dust particles in the coma of a larger set of comets. The observations of the linear polarization in the coma indicate that the dust particles are irregular, with a size greater (on the average) than about one micron. Besides, they suggest, through numerical and experimental simulations, that both compact grains and fluffy aggregates (with a power law of the size distribution in the -2.6 to -3 range), and both rather transparent silicates and absorbing organics are present in the coma. Recent analysis of the cometary dust samples collected by the Stardust mission provide a unique ground truth and confirm, for comet 81P/Wild 2, the results from remote sensing observations. Future space missions to comets should, in the next decade, lead to a more precise characterization of the structure and composition of cometary dust particles.

  4. Three-dimensional kinetic modeling of the near coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenishev, Valeriy; Fougere, Nicolas; Bieler, Andre; Combi, Michael R.; Gombosi, Tamas; Hansen, Kenneth; Altwegg, Kathrin; Rubin, Martin

    2014-11-01

    Rosetta is the first mission that escorts a comet along its way through the Solar system for an extended amount of time. As a result, the target of the mission, comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, becomes an object of the increased scientific interest. Interpretation of the already obtained observations as well as planning of the new measurements requires detailed modeling of the coma constrained by physical quantities measured by the instruments onboard the spacecraft.The primary difficulties of such modeling are the kinetic nature of the dusty gas flow in the coma as well as the complexity of the nucleus shape as shown by the recent Rosetta images. Here we present the first results of the fully three-dimensional simulation of the near coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko performed with our Adaptive Mesh Particle Simulator (AMPS) code. The simulation is performed using a realistic nucleus shape model based on Rosetta observations for modeling the coma and calculation of the synthetic images.

  5. Morfología de la Coma del Cometa Hale - Bopp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil-Hutton, R.; Caballero, M.; Coldwell, G.; Cañada, M.; Godoy, G.; Trozzo, C.; Gómez, G.

    Para lograr comprender plenamente los procesos físicos que se desarrollan en los núcleos cometarios y obtener un modelo que explique, no sólo su actividad, sino también sus efectos sobre la coma, es necesario obtener información detallada para el mayor número de cometas posible, siendo las características más interesantes para estudiar la ubicación de las regiones activas, la presencia de jets, las tasas de producción de gas y polvo y la interacción de la coma con el viento solar. En la actualidad, con técnicas de procesamiento de imágenes y tecnología CCD se pueden obtener este tipo de datos para cometas que ingresan al sistema solar interior y estudiar, de esta manera, la morfología de sus comas, tratando de correlacionar la actividad detectada con algún modelo teórico. En este trabajo se presenta un estudio parcial de la actividad desarrollada por el cometa Hale-Bopp, y sus efectos sobre la morfología de su coma, desde agosto de 1995 hasta la fecha en base a imágenes adquiridas con el telescopio de 0.76 m. de la Estación Astronómica Dr. Carlos Ulrrico Cesco.

  6. These are two images of the inner coma of Comet Hyakutake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These are two images of the inner coma of Comet Hyakutake made on April 3 and 4, 1996, using the NASA Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2). The first one, shown in red, was taken through a narrow-band red filter that shows only sunlight scattered by dust particles in the inner coma of the comet. The second one, shown in blue was taken with an ultraviolet 'Woods' filter image that shows the distribution of scattered ultraviolet radiation from hydrogen atoms in the inner coma. The coma is the head or dusty-gas atmosphere of a comet. The square field of view is 14,000 km on a side and the sun is toward the upper right corner of the image. Hydrogen atoms represent the most abundant gas in the whole coma of the comet. They are produced when solar ultraviolet light breaks up molecules of water, the major constitutent of the nucleus of the comet. These images were taken as part of an observing program to study water photochemistry in comets. Measurements of hydrogen (H) and hydroxyl (OH) in the coma (or atmosphere) of Comet Hyakutake were also made using the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) and the Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS). A self-consistent analysis of all the data shows that the water production rate of the comet was between 7 and 8 tons per second on the April 3 and 4. A theoretical model was used in the analysis which accounts for the detailed physics and chemistry of the photochemical destruction of the water, the production of the H and OH, and their expansion in the coma (or atmosphere) of the comet. The model matched the velocity measurements of hydrogen atoms made using the high spectral resolution capabilities of the GHRS instrument. The importance of such a detailed model is that is permits the accurate calculation of the production rate of water from observations of H and OH. The inner yellow region near the center of the red dust image is dominated by the contribution from the dust which shows sunward directed spiral

  7. 28 CFR 551.103 - Procedure for admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Procedure for admission. 551.103 Section 551.103 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Pretrial Inmates § 551.103 Procedure for admission. Staff in administrative institutions or institutions with administrative...

  8. 28 CFR 551.103 - Procedure for admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Procedure for admission. 551.103 Section 551.103 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Pretrial Inmates § 551.103 Procedure for admission. Staff in administrative institutions or institutions with administrative...

  9. 28 CFR 551.103 - Procedure for admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Procedure for admission. 551.103 Section 551.103 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Pretrial Inmates § 551.103 Procedure for admission. Staff in administrative institutions or institutions with administrative...

  10. 28 CFR 551.103 - Procedure for admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Procedure for admission. 551.103 Section 551.103 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Pretrial Inmates § 551.103 Procedure for admission. Staff in administrative institutions or institutions with administrative...

  11. 4 CFR 25.3 - Admission to the GAO building.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Admission to the GAO building. 25.3 Section 25.3 Accounts... AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.3 Admission to the GAO building. A person may be admitted to the GAO Building after presentation of personal identification to conduct lawful business with GAO, its employees,...

  12. 4 CFR 25.3 - Admission to the GAO building.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Admission to the GAO building. 25.3 Section 25.3 Accounts... AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.3 Admission to the GAO building. A person may be admitted to the GAO Building after presentation of personal identification to conduct lawful business with GAO, its employees,...

  13. The Legal Implications of Using Standardized Tests in Admissions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantrell, Catherine E.

    The admissions decisions of a university are one of its four "essential freedoms," and the courts, as a general rule, defer to universities' judgments regarding academic decisions. In many cases, the courts have said that admissions standards cannot be high-handed, arbitrary, or formulated in bad faith, and they must fall within constitutionally…

  14. Pawns or Professionals: The 21st Century Admission Counselor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Jean M.

    2005-01-01

    The National Association for College Admission Counseling (NACAC), originally established to serve as an advocate of ethical practices in the recruitment of students and awarding of scholarship dollars, now recognizes the ethical dilemmas admission counselors face in the current competitive marketplace. This article presents the details of a…

  15. 42 CFR 422.1082 - Evidence admissible on review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evidence admissible on review. 422.1082 Section 422.1082 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1082 Evidence admissible on review. (a) The Departmental Appeals Board may admit evidence into...

  16. 42 CFR 498.86 - Evidence admissible on review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evidence admissible on review. 498.86 Section 498.86 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... IN THE MEDICAID PROGRAM Departmental Appeals Board Review § 498.86 Evidence admissible on review....

  17. 42 CFR 423.1082 - Evidence admissible on review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evidence admissible on review. 423.1082 Section 423.1082 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Penalties § 423.1082 Evidence admissible on review. (a) The Departmental Appeals Board may admit...

  18. 28 CFR 541.47 - Admission to control unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Admission to control unit. 541.47 Section 541.47 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT INMATE DISCIPLINE AND SPECIAL HOUSING UNITS Control Unit Programs § 541.47 Admission to control...

  19. Using Social Media "Smartly" in the Admissions Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrot, Teresa Valerio; Tipton, Stacia

    2010-01-01

    Admissions officers around the country are hearing consistent calls to enhance their social media presence. Whether the pressure is from administrators, influential alumni, or peers across institutions, social media are touted as the next big thing in admissions marketing. But are social media strategies truly "strategic," or are they merely…

  20. Communications Is from Mars, Admissions Is from Venus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scully, Maura King

    2010-01-01

    Marketing communications and admissions often have very different needs, priorities, and ways of conducting business, but the two units work toward the same end goal. Brad Ward of BlueFuego, a marketing company that specializes in social Web tools for educational institutions, explains that admissions doesn't necessarily need to [talk] to…