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Sample records for admission serum creatinine

  1. Classifying AKI by Urine Output versus Serum Creatinine Level.

    PubMed

    Kellum, John A; Sileanu, Florentina E; Murugan, Raghavan; Lucko, Nicole; Shaw, Andrew D; Clermont, Gilles

    2015-09-01

    Severity of AKI is determined by the magnitude of increase in serum creatinine level or decrease in urine output. However, patients manifesting both oliguria and azotemia and those in which these impairments are persistent are more likely to have worse disease. Thus, we investigated the relationship of AKI severity and duration across creatinine and urine output domains with the risk for RRT and likelihood of renal recovery and survival using a large, academic medical center database of critically ill patients. We analyzed electronic records from 32,045 patients treated between 2000 and 2008, of which 23,866 (74.5%) developed AKI. We classified patients by levels of serum creatinine and/or urine output according to Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes staging criteria for AKI. In-hospital mortality and RRT rates increased from 4.3% and 0%, respectively, for no AKI to 51.1% and 55.3%, respectively, when serum creatinine level and urine output both indicated stage 3 AKI. Both short- and long-term outcomes were worse when patients had any stage of AKI defined by both criteria. Duration of AKI was also a significant predictor of long-term outcomes irrespective of severity. We conclude that short- and long-term risk of death or RRT is greatest when patients meet both the serum creatinine level and urine output criteria for AKI and when these abnormalities persist.

  2. A patient with serum creatinine of 61 mg/dl

    PubMed Central

    Sriram, S.; Srinivas, S.; Naveen, P. S. R.

    2017-01-01

    Spurious elevation of serum creatinine by Jaffe assay is known to occur due to a variety of substances. This results in subjecting the patient to invasive and complicated procedures such as dialysis. We report a rare case of false elevation of this renal parameter following exposure to an organic solvent. PMID:28182048

  3. Critical Serum Creatinine Values in Very Preterm Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Bruel, Alexandra; Rozé, Jean-Christophe; Flamant, Cyril; Simeoni, Umberto; Roussey-Kesler, Gwenaëlle; Allain-Launay, Emma

    2013-01-01

    Background Renal failure in neonates is associated with an increased risk of mortality and morbidity. But critical values are not known. Objective To define critical values for serum creatinine levels by gestational age in preterm infants, as a predictive factor for mortality and morbidity. Study Design This was a retrospective study of all preterm infants born before 33 weeks of gestational age, hospitalized in Nantes University Hospital NICU between 2003 and 2009, with serum creatinine levels measured between postnatal days 3 to 30. Children were retrospectively randomized into either training or validation set. Critical creatinine values were defined within the training set as the 90th percentile values of highest serum creatinine (HSCr) in infants with optimal neurodevelopmental at two years of age. The relationship between these critical creatinine values and neonatal mortality, and non-optimal neural development at two years, was then assessed in the validation set. Results and Conclusion The analysis involved a total of 1,461 infants (gestational ages of 24-27 weeks (n=322), 28-29 weeks (n=336), and 30-32 weeks (803)), and 14,721 creatinine assessments. The critical values determined in the training set (n=485) were 1.6, 1.1 and 1.0 mg/dL for each gestational age group, respectively. In the validation set (n=976), a serum creatinine level above the critical value was significantly associated with neonatal mortality (Odds ratio: 8.55 (95% confidence interval: 4.23-17.28); p<0.01) after adjusting for known renal failure risk factors, and with non-optimal neurodevelopmental outcome at two years (odds ratio: 2.06 (95% confidence interval: 1.26-3.36); p=0.004) before adjustment. Creatinine values greater than 1.6, 1.1 and 1.0 mg/dL respectively at 24-27, 28-29, 30-32 weeks of gestation were associated with mortality before and after adjustment for risk factors, and with non-optimal neurodevelopmental outcome, before adjustment. PMID:24386431

  4. Urinary creatinine to serum creatinine ratio and renal failure index in dogs infected with Babesia canis.

    PubMed

    Zygner, Wojciech; Gójska-Zygner, Olga; Wesołowska, Agnieszka; Wędrychowicz, Halina

    2013-09-01

    Urinary creatinine to serum creatinine (UCr/SCr) ratio and renal failure index (RFI) are useful indices of renal damage. Both UCr/SCr ratio and RFI are used in differentiation between prerenal azotaemia and acute tubular necrosis. In this work the authors calculated the UCr/SCr ratio and RFI in dogs infected with Babesia canis and the values of these indices in azotaemic dogs infected with the parasite. The results of this study showed significantly lower UCr/SCr ratio in dogs infected with B. canis than in healthy dogs. Moreover, in azotaemic dogs infected with B. canis the UCr/SCr ratio was significantly lower and the RFI was significantly higher than in non-azotaemic dogs infected with B. canis. The calculated correlation between RFI and duration of the disease before diagnosis and treatment was high, positive and statistically significant (r = 0.89, p < 0.001). The results of this study showed that during the course of canine babesiosis caused by B. canis in Poland acute tubular necrosis may develop.

  5. Effect of Diet on Serum Creatinine in Healthy Subjects During a Phase I Study.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Eduardo; Jensen, Markus; Jung, David; Schaumann, Frank; Boxnick, Stefanie; Truebel, Hubert

    2016-11-01

    Creatinine is widely used as an indirect marker of renal function. However, interfering factors such as diet, exercise and problems with the assay can generate false results and misinterpretation of real kidney function. In this article, we report the dietary effects on serum creatinine during a phase I single dose escalation study and discuss the reasons why serum creatinine should be measured under fasting conditions.

  6. Effect of Diet on Serum Creatinine in Healthy Subjects During a Phase I Study

    PubMed Central

    Pimenta, Eduardo; Jensen, Markus; Jung, David; Schaumann, Frank; Boxnick, Stefanie; Truebel, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    Creatinine is widely used as an indirect marker of renal function. However, interfering factors such as diet, exercise and problems with the assay can generate false results and misinterpretation of real kidney function. In this article, we report the dietary effects on serum creatinine during a phase I single dose escalation study and discuss the reasons why serum creatinine should be measured under fasting conditions. PMID:27738487

  7. Reference intervals for serum cystatin C and serum creatinine in adults.

    PubMed

    Erlandsen, E J; Randers, E; Kristensen, J H

    1998-06-01

    The aim of this study was to establish reference intervals for cerum cystatin C and serum creatinine in adults. Blood samples were collected from 270 healthy blood donors (135 men and 135 women between 20 and 65 years old with 15 men and 15 women in each five-year-interval). Serum cystatin C was analyzed using an automated particle-enhanced immunoassay (DAKO Cystatin C PET kit) on the Cobas Mira S analyzer. Serum creatinine was analyzed using the Vitros Creatinine Slide, an enzymatic method on the Vitros 950 chemistry analyzer. The calculated reference intervals for serum cystatin C were 0.62-1.15 mg/l in women (median 0.84 mg/l, range 0.56-1.29 mg/l) and 0.51-1.25 mg/l in men (median 0.87 mg/l, range 0.42-1.39 mg/l). The Mann-Whithey U-test revealed no gender-related difference for cystatin C (p = 0.48). A common reference interval in women and men was calculated to be 0.54-1.21 mg/l (median 0.85 mg/l, range 0.42-1.39 mg/l). The non-parametric reference interval for serum creatinine was 57-95 mumol/l in women (median 72 mumol/l, range 44-105 mumol/l) and 69-111 mumol/l in men (median 89 mumol/l, range 58-123 mumol/l).

  8. Serum Creatinine Versus Plasma Methotrexate Levels to Predict Toxicities in Children Receiving High-dose Methotrexate.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Priya; Thomas, M K; Pathania, Subha; Dhawan, Deepa; Gupta, Y K; Vishnubhatla, Sreenivas; Bakhshi, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    Facilities for measuring methotrexate (MTX) levels are not available everywhere, potentially limiting administration of high-dose methotrexate (HDMTX). We hypothesized that serum creatinine alteration after HDMTX administration predicts MTX clearance. Overall, 122 cycles in 50 patients of non-Hodgkin lymphoma or acute lymphoblastic leukemia aged ≤18 years receiving HDMTX were enrolled prospectively. Plasma MTX levels were measured at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 hours; serum creatinine was measured at baseline, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Correlation of plasma MTX levels with creatinine levels and changes in creatinine from baseline (Δ creatinine) were evaluated. Plasma MTX levels at 72 hours showed positive correlation with serum creatinine at 48 hours (P = .011) and 72 hours (P = .013) as also Δ creatinine at 48 hours (P = .042) and 72 hours (P = .045). However, cut-off value of either creatinine or Δ creatinine could not be established to reliably predict delayed MTX clearance. Greater than 50% Δ creatinine at 48 and 72 hours significantly predicted grade 3/4 leucopenia (P = .036 and P = .001, respectively) and thrombocytopenia (P = .012 and P = .009, respectively) but not mucositis (P = .827 and P = .910, respectively). Delayed MTX elimination did not predict any grade 3/4 toxicity. In spite of demonstration of significant correlation between serum creatinine and Δ creatinine with plasma MTX levels at 72 hours, cut-off value of either variable to predict MTX delay could not be established. Thus, either of these cannot be used as a surrogate for plasma MTX estimation. Interestingly, Δ creatinine effectively predicted hematological toxicities, which were not predicted by delayed MTX clearance.

  9. Utility of serum creatinine/cystatin C ratio in diagnosis of postrenal acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    İnal, Salih; Altuntaş, Atila; Kidir, Veysel; Özorak, Alper; İlgin, Yusuf; Sezer, Mehmet Tugrul

    2014-01-01

    Background: In obstructive uropathy, despite a severe increase in the serum creatinine (Cr) levels, only a mild cystatin C (CysC) increase was previously reported. Therefore, we aimed to determine the availability of serum Cr/CysC ratio in predicting postrenal acute kidney injury (AKI). Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 61-adult patients with heterogeneous AKI cases. Patients with bilateral pelvicalyceal dilatation in renal sonography were considered as postrenal AKI group (n = 15) and others were intrinsic AKI group (n = 46). Venous blood sampling for blood urea nitrogen, Cr and CysC measurements were performed on admission. Results: The mean age of study population was 66.3 ± 15.5 years; 38 (62%) of which were male. Two groups were similar regarding age, gender, and comorbidities. Cr/CysC ratio was significantly higher in postrenal AKI group (6.9 ± 3.1 vs. 4.4 ± 2.1, P = 0.007). Conclusion: We suggest that serum Cr/CysC ratio seems to be a useful diagnostic tool for detection of postrenal AKI cases, especially for the cases without definite hydronephrosis. PMID:25657756

  10. Early and small changes in serum creatinine concentrations are associated with mortality in mechanically ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Nin, Nicolás; Lombardi, Raúl; Frutos-Vivar, Fernando; Esteban, Andrés; Lorente, José A; Ferguson, Niall D; Hurtado, Javier; Apezteguia, Carlos; Brochard, Laurent; Schortgen, Fréderique; Raymondos, Konstantinos; Tomicic, Vinko; Soto, Luis; González, Marco; Nightingale, Peter; Abroug, Fekri; Pelosi, Paolo; Arabi, Yaseen; Moreno, Rui; Anzueto, Antonio

    2010-08-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that minor changes in serum creatinine concentrations are associated with increased hospital mortality rates. However, whether serum creatinine concentration (SCr) on admission and its change are associated with an increased mortality rate in mechanically ventilated patients is not known. We have conducted an international, prospective, observational cohort study enrolling adult intensive care unit patients under mechanical ventilation (MV). Recursive partitioning was used to determine the values of SCr at the start of MV (SCr0) and the change in SCr ([DeltaSCr] defined as the maximal difference between the value at start of MV [day 0] and the value on MV day 2 at 8:00 am) that best discriminate mortality. In-hospital mortality, adjusted by a proportional hazards model, was the primary outcome variable. A total of 2,807 patients were included; median age was 59 years and median Simplified Acute Physiology Score II was 44. All-cause in-hospital mortality was 44%. The variable that best discriminated outcome was a SCr0 greater than 1.40 mg/dL (mortality, 57% vs. 36% for patients with SCr0

  11. Differences in urine cadmium associations with kidney outcomes based on serum creatinine and cystatin C

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Virginia M.; Kim, Nam-Soo; Lee, Byung-Kook; Parsons, Patrick J.; Spector, June; Fadrowski, Jeffrey; Jaar, Bernard G.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; Todd, Andrew C.; and others

    2011-11-15

    Cadmium is a well-known nephrotoxicant; chronic exposure increases risk for chronic kidney disease. Recently, however, associations between urine cadmium and higher creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) have been reported. Analyses utilizing alternate biomarkers of kidney function allow evaluation of potential mechanisms for these observations. We compared associations of urine cadmium with kidney function measures based on serum cystatin C to those with serum creatinine in 712 lead workers. Mean (standard deviation) molybdenum-corrected urine cadmium, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) eGFR and multi-variable cystatin C eGFR were 1.02 (0.65) {mu}g/g creatinine, and 97.4 (19.2) and 112.0 (17.7) mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}, respectively. The eGFR measures were moderately correlated (r{sub s}=0.5; p<0.001). After adjustment, ln (urine cadmium) was not associated with serum cystatin-C-based measures. However, higher ln (urine cadmium) was associated with higher creatinine-based eGFRs including the MDRD and an equation incorporating serum cystatin C and creatinine (beta-coefficient=4.1 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}; 95% confidence interval=1.6, 6.6). Urine creatinine was associated with serum creatinine-based but not cystatin-C-based eGFRs. These results support a biomarker-specific, rather than a kidney function, effect underlying the associations observed between higher urine cadmium and creatinine-based kidney function measures. Given the routine use of serum and urine creatinine in kidney and biomarker research, additional research to elucidate the mechanism(s) for these associations is essential.

  12. Comparison of serum iohexol clearance and plasma creatinine clearance in clinically normal horses.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Katherine E; Wilcke, Jeff R; Crisman, Mark V; Ward, Daniel L; McKenzie, Harold C; Scarratt, W Kent

    2009-12-01

    Objective-To determine whether a limited sampling time method based on serum iohexol clearance (Cl(iohexol)) would yield estimates of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in clinically normal horses similar to those for plasma creatinine clearance (Cl(creatinine)). Animals-10 clinically normal adult horses. Procedures-A bolus of iohexol (150 mg/kg) was administered IV, and serum samples were obtained 5, 20, 40, 60, 120, 240, and 360 minutes after injection. Urinary clearance of exogenous creatinine was measured during three 20-minute periods. The GFR determined by use of serum Cl(iohexol) and plasma Cl(creatinine) was compared with limits of agreement plots. Results-Values obtained for plasma Cl(creatinine) ranged from 1.68 to 2.69 mL/min/kg (mean, 2.11 mL/min/kg). Mean serum Cl(iohexol) was 2.38 mL/min/kg (range, 1.95 to 3.33 mL/min/kg). Limits of agreement plots indicated good agreement between the methods. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Use of serum Cl(iohexol) yielded estimates of GFR in clinically normal adult horses similar to those for plasma Cl(creatinine). This study was the first step in the evaluation of the use of serum Cl(iohexol) for estimating GFR in adult horses.

  13. Certified reference materials (GBW09170 and 09171) of creatinine in human serum.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xinhua; Fang, Xiang; Shao, Mingwu; Li, Ming; Huang, Zejian; Li, Hongmei; Jiang, You; Song, Dewei; He, Yajuan

    2011-02-15

    Creatinine is the most widely used clinical marker for assessing renal function. Concentrations of creatinine in human serum need to be carefully checked in order to ensure accurate diagnosis of renal function. Therefore, development of certified reference materials (CRMs) of creatinine in serum is of increasing importance. In this study, two new CRMs (Nos. GBW09170 and 09171) for creatinine in human serum have been developed. They were prepared with mixtures of several dozens of healthy people's and kidney disease patient's serum, respectively. The certified values of 8.10, 34.1 mg/kg for these two CRMs have been assigned by liquid chromatography-isotope dilution mass spectrometry (LC-IDMS) method which was validated by using standard reference material (SRM) of SRM909b (a reference material obtained from National Institute of Standards and Technology, NIST). The expanded uncertainties of certified values for low and high concentrations were estimated to be 1.2 and 1.1%, respectively. The certified values were further confirmed by an international intercomparison for the determination of creatinine in human serum (Consultative Committee for Amount of Substance, CCQM) of K80 (CCQM-K80). These new CRMs of creatinine in human serum pool are totally native without additional creatinine spiked for enrichment. These new CRMs are capable of validating routine clinical methods for ensuring accuracy, reliability and comparability of analytical results from different clinical laboratories. They can also be used for instrument validation, development of secondary reference materials, and evaluating the accuracy of high order clinical methods for the determination of creatinine in human serum.

  14. Preliminary Findings of Serum Creatinine and Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) in Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Lan-Ping; Hsieh, Molly; Lin, Pei-Ying

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to describe the kidney function profile--serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and to examine the relationships of predisposing factors to abnormal serum creatinine in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). Data were collected by a cross-sectional study of 827 aged 15-18 years adolescents…

  15. Serum concentrations of symmetric dimethylarginine and creatinine in cats with kidney stones.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jean A; Yerramilli, Maha; Obare, Edward; Li, Jun; Yerramilli, Murthy; Jewell, Dennis E

    2017-01-01

    Serum concentrations of symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) correlate with renal function in cats and SDMA has been shown to be a more reliable and earlier marker for chronic kidney disease (CKD) compared with serum creatinine (Cr). Calcium oxalate uroliths tend to develop in mid-to-older aged cats and kidney stones may cause a reduction in renal function with increased SDMA, but normal serum Cr. The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine if cats with kidney stones had increased serum SDMA concentrations, and whether SDMA increased earlier than serum creatinine concentrations. Cats in the colony with kidney stones diagnosed between August 2010 and December 2015 (n = 43) were compared with healthy geriatric cats (n = 21) without kidney stones. Serum SDMA concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and serum Cr concentrations were determined by enzymatic colorimetry. Cats with kidney stones were diagnosed antemortem by radiographic imaging (n = 12) or by postmortem necropsy (n = 31). Retrospectively, serum SDMA was found to be increased above the upper reference limit in 39 of 43 cats with kidney stones. Serum Cr was increased above the upper reference limit in 18 of 43 cats; 6 of these 18 cats had terminal azotemia only. The mean time that serum SDMA was increased before serum Cr was increased was 26.9 months (range 0 to 60 months). Kidney stones were composed of calcium oxalate in 30 of 34 cats. The lifespan for cats with kidney stones (mean, 12.5 years; range, 6.1 to 18.1 years) was shorter (P < 0.001) than for control cats (mean, 15.2 years; range, 13.0 to 17.2 years), suggesting that non-obstructive kidney stones have an effect on mortality rate or rate of CKD progression. In conclusion, if SDMA concentrations are elevated in mid-to-older aged cats, further imaging studies are warranted to check for the presence of kidney stones.

  16. KEY COMPARISON: CCQM-K12: The determination of creatinine in serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Michael J.; Phinney, Curtis P.; Parris, Reenie M.; May, Willie E.; Heo, Gwi Suk; Henrion, Andre; O'Conner, Gavin; Schimmel, Heinz

    2003-01-01

    A Key Comparison on the determination of creatinine in human serum organized by the Consultative Committee on Amount of Substance (CCQM) was carried out in 2001. To address the measurement traceability needs of the clinical chemistry community, the CCQM is undertaking Key Comparisons to document the capabilities of national metrology institutes (NMIs) that provide measurement services in this area. This Key Comparison, along with two others recently completed, CCQM-K6 and CCQM-K11, determination of total cholesterol and glucose, respectively, in serum, will provide a basis for evaluating the capabilities of NMIs for the determination of well-defined, organic substances of similar molecular weights and concentrations in human serum. Participants in CCQM-K12 included: National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) [USA], Coordinating Laboratory; Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) [EU]; Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS) [S Korea]; Laboratory of the Government Chemist, (LGC) [UK]; and Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) [Germany]. Two frozen human serum materials were analyzed by each of the participants using either ID-GC/MS-based methods (three laboratories) or ID-LC/MS-based methods (two laboratories). Agreement of results among the participants was excellent, in accordance with the agreement found in a pilot study (CCQM-P9) for creatinine in serum. The resulting Key Comparison Reference Values had expanded uncertainties of less than 1% for both materials. In conclusion, five NMIs have demonstrated their ability to make reference measurements of creatinine in serum using isotope dilution-based methods that, when executed properly, provide measurements that are precise, accurate and SI traceable. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer

  17. Identification of a Proteinaceous Component in the Leaf of Moringa Oleifera lam. with Effects on High Serum Creatinine

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, S.; Raghavendra, K. M.; Biswas, S.

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. has been an important plant in the history of mankind, both for its nutritional and medicinal uses. Apart from bactericidal effects, the parts of this plant have been effectively used in the treatment of circulatory, respiratory, endocrine, digestive as well as neural disorders. Till date, though, there has been no reported activity of the involvement of any proteinaceous extract from M. oleifera on high levels of serum creatinine. To address this issue, blood samples with high levels of serum creatinine (2 mg/dl and above) were treated with leaf extract from M. oleifera. The crude extract was partially purified initially and eventually purified to completion as well. All these proteinaceous fractions were used to treat samples with high levels of serum creatinine as mentioned above. While the treatment of serum sample having high creatinine with crude extract and partially purified protein fractions showed a decrease of approximately 20% in the levels of serum creatinine over a period of 24 h, the samples treated with purified protein fraction reduced the serum creatinine level by 50%. In light of the fact that increased level of serum creatinine levels have adverse downstream effects on the heart, lungs and other organs, this communication assumes significance because it suggests a way of reducing the level of serum creatinine as an emergency measure. Further, the identification and characterisation of this proteinaceous component and possible in vivo experiments would provide a major tool for the treatment of downstream complications associated with increased serum creatinine via a new sources, albeit a natural one. PMID:24799742

  18. Elevated serum creatinine and low albumin are associated with poor outcomes in patients with liposarcoma.

    PubMed

    Panotopoulos, Joannis; Posch, Florian; Funovics, Philipp T; Willegger, Madeleine; Scharrer, Anke; Lamm, Wolfgang; Brodowicz, Thomas; Windhager, Reinhard; Ay, Cihan

    2016-03-01

    Low serum albumin levels and impaired kidney function have been associated with decreased survival in patients with a variety of cancer types. In a retrospective cohort study, we analyzed 84 patients with liposarcoma treated at from May 1994 to October 2011. Uni- and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models and competing risk analyses were performed to evaluate the association between putative biomarkers with disease-specific and overall survival. The median age of the study population was 51.7 (range 19.6-83.8) years. In multivariable analysis adjusted for AJCC tumor stage, serum creatinine was highly associated with disease-specific survival (Subdistribution Hazard ratio (SHR) per 1 mg/dl increase = 2.94; 95%CI 1.39-6.23; p = 0.005). High albumin was associated with improved overall and disease-specific survival (Hazard Ratio (HR) per 10 units increase = 0.50; 95%CI 0.26-0.95; p = 0.033 and SHR = 0.64; 95%CI 0.42-1.00; p = 0.049). The serum albumin-creatinine-ratio emerged to be associated with both overall and disease-specific survival after adjusting for AJCC tumor stage (HR = 0.95; 95%CI 0.92-0.99; p = 0.011 and SHR = 0.96; 95%CI 0.93-0.99; p = 0.08). Our study provides evidence for a tumor-stage-independent association between higher creatinine and lower albumin with worse disease-specific survival. Low albumin and a high albumin-creatinine-ratio independently predict poor overall survival. Our work identified novel prognostic biomarkers for prognosis of patients with liposarcoma.

  19. The role of the uncertainty of measurement of serum creatinine concentrations in the diagnosis of acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Kin Tekce, Buket; Tekce, Hikmet; Aktas, Gulali; Uyeturk, Ugur

    2016-01-01

    Uncertainty of measurement is the numeric expression of the errors associated with all measurements taken in clinical laboratories. Serum creatinine concentration is the most common diagnostic marker for acute kidney injury. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of the uncertainty of measurement of serum creatinine concentrations on the diagnosis of acute kidney injury. We calculated the uncertainty of measurement of serum creatinine according to the Nordtest Guide. Retrospectively, we identified 289 patients who were evaluated for acute kidney injury. Of the total patient pool, 233 were diagnosed with acute kidney injury using the AKIN classification scheme and then were compared using statistical analysis. We determined nine probabilities of the uncertainty of measurement of serum creatinine concentrations. There was a statistically significant difference in the number of patients diagnosed with acute kidney injury when uncertainty of measurement was taken into consideration (first probability compared to the fifth p = 0.023 and first probability compared to the ninth p = 0.012). We found that the uncertainty of measurement for serum creatinine concentrations was an important factor for correctly diagnosing acute kidney injury. In addition, based on the AKIN classification scheme, minimizing the total allowable error levels for serum creatinine concentrations is necessary for the accurate diagnosis of acute kidney injury by clinicians.

  20. Estimation of Glomerular Filtration Rate Based on Serum Cystatin C versus Creatinine in a Uruguayan Population

    PubMed Central

    Lujambio, Inés; Sottolano, Mariana; Robaina, Sebastián; Carusso, Florencia; da Rosa, Alicia; Ríos, Ana Carina; Olascoaga, Alicia; Gadola, Liliana; Noboa, Oscar; Staessen, Jan A.; Boggia, José

    2014-01-01

    Background. Estimation of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from biomarkers has evolved and multiple equations are available to estimate renal function at bedside. Methods. In a random sample of 119 Uruguayans (54.5% women; 56.2 years (mean)), we used Bland and Altman's method and Cohen's kappa statistic to assess concordance on a continuous or categorical (eGFR < 60 versus ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2) scale between eGFRcys (reference) and eGFR derived from serum creatinine according to the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (eGFRmdrd) or the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equations (eGFRepi) or from both serum cystatin C and creatinine (eGFRmix). Results. In all participants, eGFRmdrd, eGFRepi, and eGFRmix were, respectively, 9.7, 11.5, and 5.6 mL/min/1.73 m2 higher (P < 0.0001) than eGFRcys. The prevalence of eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 was the highest for eGFRcys (21.8%), intermediate for eGFRmix (11.8%), and the lowest for eGFRmdrd (5.9%) and eGFRepi (3.4%). Using eGFRcys as reference, we found only fair agreement with the equations based on creatinine (Cohen's kappa statistic 0.15 to 0.23). Conclusion. Using different equations we reached clinically significant differences in the estimation of renal function. eGFRcys provides lower estimates, resulting in higher prevalence of eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. PMID:25215234

  1. Assessment of biochemical markers in the early post-burn period for predicting acute kidney injury and mortality in patients with major burn injury: comparison of serum creatinine, serum cystatin-C, plasma and urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The reported mortality rates range from 28% to 100% in burn patients who develop acute kidney injury (AKI) and from 50% to 100% among such patients treated with renal replacement therapy. Recently, the serum cystatin C and plasma and urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) levels have been introduced as early biomarkers for AKI; the levels of these biomarkers are known to increase 24 to 48 hours before the serum creatinine levels increase. In this study, we aimed to estimate the diagnostic utility of the cystatin C and plasma and urine NGAL levels in the early post-burn period as biomarkers for predicting AKI and mortality in patients with major burn injuries. Methods From May 2011 to July 2012, 90 consecutive patients with a burn wound area comprising ≥ 20% of the total body surface area (TBSA) were enrolled in this study. Whole blood and urine samples were obtained for measuring the serum creatinine, serum cystatin C, and urine and plasma NGAL levels at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours after admission. Receiver operating characteristic curve, area under the curve, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the predictive values of these biomarkers for AKI and mortality. Results In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, all variables, including age, percentage TBSA burned, sex, inhalation injury, and serum creatinine levels, serum cystatin C levels, and plasma and urine NGAL levels were independently associated with AKI development. Moreover, age, sex, percentage TBSA burned, and plasma and urine NGAL levels were independently associated with mortality. However, inhalation injury and the serum creatinine and cystatin C levels were not independently associated with mortality. Conclusions Massively burned patients who maintained high plasma and urine NGAL levels until 12 hours after admission were at the risk of developing early AKI and early mortality with burn shock. However, the plasma and urine

  2. Comparison of serum creatinine levels in different color/race categories in a Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Barcellos, Roberto Carlos de Brito; Matos, Jorge Paulo Strogoff de; Kang, Hye Chung; Rosa, Maria Luiza Garcia; Lugon, Jocemir Ronaldo

    2015-07-01

    Serum creatinine (sCr) is usually higher among black people in the United States due to increased muscle mass, justifying the addition of race adjustment in creatinine-based formulas to estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). We aimed to assess if sCr levels are different in low-income communities in Brazil according to their race. A total of 1,303 participants were enrolled (58% females, 50±14 years-old, 33% self-defined as white, 41% as mixed race, and 26% as black). No significant differences in sCr were found between racial groups and no influence of race on sCr was seen in the linear regression analysis. The eGFR, calculated using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) formula with no race adjustment, was no different between whites, mixed race and blacks. However, using such adjustment, eGFR for mixed race and black individuals was significantly higher than for whites (p < 0.001). In conclusion, no significant differences in sCr levels were found between racial groups, raising doubts as to whether race adjustment in eGFR formula should be used in that population.

  3. The Effect of Hibiscus Sabdariffa on Lipid Profile, Creatinine, and Serum Electrolytes: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mohagheghi, Abbas; Maghsoud, Shirin; Khashayar, Patricia; Ghazi-Khansari, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Background. Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. (HS), a member of malvaceae family, is a medicinal plant with a worldwide fame. Its effect on reducing serum lipids is mentioned in several studies. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of this plant in reducing the serum's lipids in hypertensive patients. Materials and Methods. Ninety hypertensive patients were randomly assigned to receive Hibiscus Sabdariffa (HS) tea or black tea for 15 days. The patients were asked to drink the tea within 20 minutes following its preparation. This process had to be repeated two times, daily. Patient's FBS and lipid profile were collected at the first visit day (day 0) and on the day 30. Results. There was no significant differences between pre and post experiment values within the two groups. An upward trend in total cholesterol, HDL, and LDL cholesterol was evident in both groups. The increase in total and HDL cholesterol in both groups relative to their initial values were significant. Conclusion. Hibiscus Sabdariffa is probably a safe medicinal plant. No significant harmful changes in cholesterol, triglyceride, BUN, serum creatinine, Na and K levels were observed within 15 days after the discontinuation of the medication. PMID:21991538

  4. Clearance of vancomycin during continuous infusion in Intensive Care Unit patients: correlation with measured and estimated creatinine clearance and serum cystatin C.

    PubMed

    Kees, Martin G; Hilpert, Justus W; Gnewuch, Carsten; Kees, Frieder; Voegeler, Stephan

    2010-12-01

    Vancomycin (VAN) dosing requires adjustment to renal function, which is often estimated using the Cockcroft-Gault formula; however, its precision is poor in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients. VAN clearance (CL(Van)) during continuous infusion was prospectively determined in 25 ICU patients [14 male, 11 female; age range 31-82 years; body mass index (BMI) 16.5-41.5 kg/m²; Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score at admission 8-36; creatinine clearance 25-195 mL/min] and its correlation with measured creatinine clearance (CL(Crea)), estimated creatinine clearance using the Cockcroft-Gault formula (CL(CG)) and estimated glomerular filtration rate according to Hoek's formula based on serum cystatin C (GFR(Hoek)) was investigated. The correlation between CL(Van) and CL(Crea) was very good (r²=0.88), but it was rather poor with CL(CG) (r² = 0.37) and was acceptable with GFR(Hoek) (r² = 0.70). For VAN dose adjustments in ICU patients, determination of cystatin C may be an interesting and practical alternative to measured CL(Crea), whereas the Cockcroft-Gault formula should be used with caution.

  5. LC-MS/MS Method for Serum Creatinine: Comparison with Enzymatic Method and Jaffe Method

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuijun; Liu, Gangyi; Jia, Jingying; Zhang, Menqi; Zhang, Haichen; Yu, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Accurate quantification of creatinine (Cre) is important to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Differences among various methods of Cre quantification were previously noted. This study aims to develop a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for serum Cre and compare this method with clinical routine methods. LC-MS/MS analysis was performed on API 4000 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer coupled with an Agilent 1200 liquid chromatography system. After adding isotope-labeled Cre-d3 as internal standard, serum samples were prepared via a one-step protein precipitation with methanol. The LC-MS/MS method was compared with frequently used enzymatic method and Jaffe method. This developed method, with a total run time of 3 min, had a lower limit of quantification of 4.4 μmol/L, a total imprecision of 1.15%–3.84%, and an average bias of 1.06%. No significant matrix effect, carryover, and interference were observed for the LC-MS/MS method. The reference intervals of serum Cre measured by LC-MS/MS assay were 41–79 μmol/L for adult women, and 46–101 μmol/L for adult men. Using LC-MS/MS as a reference, the enzymatic method showed an average bias of -2.1% and the Jaffe method showed a substantial average bias of 11.7%. Compared with the LC-MS/MS method, significant negative bias was observed for the enzymatic and Jaffe methods in hemolytic and lipimic samples. We developed a simple, specific, and accurate LC-MS/MS method to analyze serum Cre. Discordance existed among different methods. PMID:26207996

  6. Prognosis and serum creatinine levels in acute renal failure at the time of nephrology consultation: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Valdivieso, Jose Ramon; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Monedero, Pablo; de Irala, Jokin; Lavilla, Francisco Javier

    2007-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between acute serum creatinine changes in acute renal failure (ARF), before specialized treatment begins, and in-hospital mortality, recovery of renal function, and overall mortality at 6 months, on an equal degree of ARF severity, using the RIFLE criteria, and comorbid illnesses. Methods Prospective cohort study of 1008 consecutive patients who had been diagnosed as having ARF, and had been admitted in an university-affiliated hospital over 10 years. Demographic, clinical information and outcomes were measured. After that, 646 patients who had presented enough increment in serum creatinine to qualify for the RIFLE criteria were included for subsequent analysis. The population was divided into two groups using the median serum creatinine change (101%) as the cut-off value. Multivariate non-conditional logistic and linear regression models were used. Results A ≥ 101% increment of creatinine respect to its baseline before nephrology consultation was associated with significant increase of in-hospital mortality (35.6% vs. 22.6%, p < 0.001), with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.81 (95% CI: 1.08–3.03). Patients who required continuous renal replacement therapy in the ≥ 101% increment group presented a higher increase of in-hospital mortality (62.7% vs 46.4%, p = 0.048), with an adjusted odds ratio of 2.66 (95% CI: 1.00–7.21). Patients in the ≥ 101% increment group had a higher mean serum creatinine level with respect to their baseline level (114.72% vs. 37.96%) at hospital discharge. This was an adjusted 48.92% (95% CI: 13.05–84.79) more serum creatinine than in the < 101% increment group. Conclusion In this cohort, patients who had presented an increment in serum level of creatinine of ≥ 101% with respect to basal values, at the time of nephrology consultation, had increased mortality rates and were discharged from hospital with a more deteriorated renal function than those with similar Liano

  7. Serum creatinine and albumin decline predict the contraction of nosocomial aspiration pneumonia in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Minakuchi, Hitoshi; Wakino, Shu; Hayashi, Koichi; Inamoto, Hajime; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2014-08-01

    Aspiration pneumonia (AP) is prevalent in older adults and the hemodialysis (HD) population has been getting older. Therefore, it is speculated that increasing number of HD patients would suffer from AP. However, the clinical aspects of AP in HD patients have not been elucidated. Consecutive HD patients with nosocomial AP hospitalized in our university hospital from April 2007 to December 2008 were recruited. Their clinical characteristics, risk factors for contraction, and the fatality of AP and treatment options were described. Nineteen out of 356 hospitalized HD patients had AP and 8 out of 19 AP patients died, indicating the incidence rate and fatality rate were 5.34% and 42.1%, respectively. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the risk factors for contracting AP included age, body mass index, serum creatinine levels (Cre) and the monthly decline rate of Cre. It also revealed that serum albumin (Alb) and basal total cholesterol levels, the decline rate of Alb and Cre levels, and the duration of AP were independent risk factors for fatality. Survivors were most often treated with tube feeding. Both contraction rate and fatality of nosocomial AP were high among HD patients. Both the malnutrition as well as the decline rate for nutrition and muscle volume indicated by falls in Alb and Cre, respectively, had clinical relevance in AP. Maintaining nutritional state by tube feeding and muscle volume seems to be the mainstay for the prevention and the treatment of AP in HD patients.

  8. Assessment and Correlation of Urea and Creatinine Levels in Saliva and Serum of Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease, Diabetes and Hypertension– A Research Study

    PubMed Central

    Nagrajappa, Anil Kumar; Ravi, K.S

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Serum urea and creatinine are most widely accepted parameters to assess Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)status as well as to assess renal status in susceptible diabetic and hypertensive subjects. Aim To assess and correlate the serum and salivary urea and creatinine levels of CKD, diabetes mellitus and hypertensive subjects. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was done on 120 subjects involving 30 CKD, 30 diabetic, 30 hypertensive subjects and 30 healthy controls. After collection of saliva and blood samples, urea was analyzed by enzymatic calorimetric method and creatinine by Jaffe’s method. Kruskal Wallis test and Mann Whitney U test were used for comparison between different groups and correlations between serum and salivary parameters were evaluated by applying Spearman’s correlation test. The p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The median serum and salivary urea and creatinine levels were highest in CKD group followed by diabetic, hypertensive groups and controls. The correlation coefficient for serum urea and salivary urea was 0.977 and for serum creatinine and salivary creatinine was 0.976, with p-value <0.001. Conclusion This study showed that there is a significant positive relationship between salivary and serum urea and creatinine. Thus, salivary urea and creatinine levels can be used non-invasively to detect serum urea and creatinine levels respectively in renal disease and diabetic and hypertensive nephropathic cases. PMID:27891460

  9. Estimating the concentration of urea and creatinine in the human serum of normal and dialysis patients through Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Maurício Liberal; Saatkamp, Cassiano Junior; Fernandes, Adriana Barrinha; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz Barbosa; Silveira, Landulfo

    2016-09-01

    Urea and creatinine are commonly used as biomarkers of renal function. Abnormal concentrations of these biomarkers are indicative of pathological processes such as renal failure. This study aimed to develop a model based on Raman spectroscopy to estimate the concentration values of urea and creatinine in human serum. Blood sera from 55 clinically normal subjects and 47 patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing dialysis were collected, and concentrations of urea and creatinine were determined by spectrophotometric methods. A Raman spectrum was obtained with a high-resolution dispersive Raman spectrometer (830 nm). A spectral model was developed based on partial least squares (PLS), where the concentrations of urea and creatinine were correlated with the Raman features. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to discriminate dialysis patients from normal subjects. The PLS model showed r = 0.97 and r = 0.93 for urea and creatinine, respectively. The root mean square errors of cross-validation (RMSECV) for the model were 17.6 and 1.94 mg/dL, respectively. PCA showed high discrimination between dialysis and normality (95 % accuracy). The Raman technique was able to determine the concentrations with low error and to discriminate dialysis from normal subjects, consistent with a rapid and low-cost test.

  10. An international assessment of the metrological equivalence of higher-order measurement services for creatinine in serum.

    PubMed

    Camara, Johanna E; Lippa, Katrice A; Duewer, David L; Gasca-Aragon, Hugo; Toman, Blaza

    2012-04-01

    The Consultative committee for amount of substance-metrology in chemistry (CCQM)-K80 Key Comparison directly assessed the equivalence of many of the world's higher-order value-assigned materials (HOVAMs) for creatinine in human serum. This 2009 international study compared the certified values and uncertainties of the materials using measurements made under repeatability conditions. The study evaluated 17 materials submitted by 6 national metrology institutes (NMIs). The creatinine quantity in these materials ranged from 3 mg/kg to 57 mg/kg (about 0.3 mg/dL to 6 mg/dL or 30 nmol/L to 500 nmol/L). All materials were stored and prepared according the specifications provided by the participating NMIs. Samples were processed and analyzed under repeatability conditions by one analyst using isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in two measurement campaigns. The certified values and repeatability measurements were compared using uncertainty-weighted generalized distance regression. The instrumental repeatability relative standard deviation was 1.2%. The measurement design required assessment of within-unit and between-campaign variability in addition to measurement repeatability. At a 95% level of confidence, the certified values for all 17 materials agreed to within their assigned uncertainties. CCQM-K80 demonstrated the metrological equivalence of the currently available HOVAMs for creatinine in human serum and of the creatinine measurement services provided by the participating NMIs.

  11. Acute Kidney Injury Classified by Serum Creatinine and Urine Output in Critically Ill Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Córdova-Sánchez, Bertha M; Herrera-Gómez, Ángel; Ñamendys-Silva, Silvio A

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in critically ill patients and is associated with higher mortality. Cancer patients are at an increased risk of AKI. Our objective was to determine the incidence of AKI in our critically ill cancer patients, using the criteria of serum creatinine (SCr) and urine output (UO) proposed by the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO). Methods. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of a prospectively collected database at the intensive care unit (ICU) of the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología from January 2013 to March 2015. Results. We classified AKI according to the KDIGO definition. We included 389 patients; using the SCr criterion, 192 (49.4%) had AKI; using the UO criterion, 219 (56.3%) had AKI. Using both criteria, we diagnosed AKI in 69.4% of patients. All stages were independently associated with six-month mortality; stage 1 HR was 2.04 (95% CI 1.14-3.68, p = 0.017), stage 2 HR was 2.73 (95% CI 1.53-4.88, p = 0.001), and stage 3 HR was 4.5 (95% CI 2.25-8.02, p < 0.001). Patients who fulfilled both criteria had a higher mortality compared with patients who fulfilled just one criterion (HR 3.56, 95% CI 2.03-6.24, p < 0.001). Conclusion. We diagnosed AKI in 69.4% of patients. All AKI stages were associated with higher risk of death at six months, even for patients who fulfilled just one AKI criterion.

  12. Falsely elevated serum creatinine levels secondary to the presence of 5-fluorocytosine.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, R T; Marshall, L H; Lefkowitz, L B; Stratton, C W

    1985-08-01

    The Kodak Ektachem (Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, NY) is a new clinical chemistry analyzer that uses an enzymatic method to measure creatinine. The authors report the case of a patient with falsely elevated creatinine levels that were caused by the presence of 5-fluorocytosine. A review of the literature confirmed that this can occur, but well documented reports are not found. In order to determine the magnitude of this interference, the authors plotted creatinine levels versus 5-FC concentration. Significant interference is seen with therapeutic levels of 5-FC. Both clinicians and pathologists should be aware of this phenomenon.

  13. Multidimensional high-performance liquid chromatography on Pinkerton ISRP and RP18 columns: direct serum injection to quantify creatinine.

    PubMed

    Puhlmann, A; Dülffer, T; Kobold, U

    1992-10-02

    A two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of creatinine with direct serum injection without sample pretreatment has been developed. The column-switching technique allowed a switch from columns packed with internal surface reversed-phase (ISRP) material to columns of almost any other material, even if the eluents necessary in a particular case do not appear to be directly compatible. A Pinkerton ISRP column, which stands out because of its very good stability when loaded with undiluted serum samples, was used as precolumn. The creatinine-containing fraction was switched to a reversed-phase Shandon RP18 column and was focused there by alteration of the eluent from pH 6.5 to phosphoric acid-ion-pair reagent. The separation occurs via a pH gradient, with ultraviolet detection at 234 nm. This method stands out particularly for its good long-term stability, simple sample handling without pretreatment, high selectivity, a broad linearity (0.3-30 mg/dl creatinine), good reproducibility (inter-assay coefficient of variation less than 3%) and high recovery (97-100%) relative to values obtained with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  14. Comparison of serum creatinine-based estimating equations with gates protocol for predicting glomerular filtration rate in indian population

    PubMed Central

    Mulay, A. V.; Gokhale, S. M.

    2017-01-01

    In clinical practice, serum creatinine-based predicting equations and Gates protocol based on gamma camera imaging of kidneys after injection of Tc99m-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) are commonly used to assess glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Comparison of these methods, especially the chronic kidney disease-epidemiology collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation with gold standard method of assessment of GFR by plasma clearance of Tc-99mDTPA is not well-studied in Indian population. We conducted this study to compare GFR estimation by gamma camera-based Gates protocol and serum creatinine-based predicting equations with GFR measured by plasma clearance of Tc-99mDTPA. One hundred and five patients (65 male and 40 female) underwent Tc-99m DTPA renal scan followed by withdrawal of venous blood samples at 2, 3, and 4 h as per predefined protocol. Gates method GFR (GFRs) was assessed using standard protocol. GFR by plasma sampling (GFRp) was calculated by slope-intercept method with provision for corrections. Estimated GFR was calculated by Cockroft-Gault formula, four variable modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) equation, and CKD-EPI equation (GFRCG, GFRMDRD, GFRCKD-EPI, respectively). GFR measured by gold standard method (GFRp) was compared with that estimated by other methods by calculating correlation coefficient, bias, precision, and accuracy. GFR estimated by all three estimating equations correlated better than GFRs with GFRp. For estimating GFRp, GFRCKD-EPI had highest correlation with GFRp with least bias and highest precision. Gamma camera-based Gates protocol was the least precise and least accurate method for estimating GFRp. To conclude, all three estimating equations based on serum creatinine are superior to Tc-99m DTPA scintigraphy for estimating GFR; CKD-EPI equation being the most accurate and precise. PMID:28356664

  15. Final report on CCQM-K80: Comparison of value-assigned CRMs and PT materials: Creatinine in human serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camara, Johanna E.; Duewer, David L.; Gasca Aragon, Hugo; Lippa, Katrice A.; Toman, Blaza

    2013-01-01

    The 2009 CCQM-K80 'Comparison of value-assigned CRMs and PT materials: creatinine in human serum' is the first in a series of key comparisons directly testing the chemical measurement services provided to customers by National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) and Designated Institutes. CCQM-K80 compared the assigned serum creatinine values of certified reference materials (CRMs) using measurements made on these materials under repeatability conditions. Six NMIs submitted 17 CRM materials for evaluation, all intended for sale to customers. These materials represent nearly all of the higher-order CRMs then available for this clinically important measurand. The certified creatinine mass fraction in the materials ranged from 3 mg/kg to 57 mg/kg. All materials were stored and prepared according the specifications provided by each NMI. Samples were processed and analyzed under repeatability conditions by one analyst using isotope dilution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The instrumental repeatability imprecision, expressed as a percent relative standard deviation, was 1.2%. Given the number of materials and the time required for each analysis, the measurements were made in two measurement campaigns ('runs'). In both campaigns, replicate analyses (two injections of one preparation separated in time) were made on each of two or three independently prepared aliquots from one randomly selected unit of each of the 17 materials. The mean value, between-campaign, between-aliquot and between-replicate variance components, standard uncertainty of the mean value, and the number of degrees of freedom associated with the standard uncertainty were estimated using a linear mixed model. Since several of the uncertainties estimated using this traditional frequentist approach were associated with a single degree of freedom, Markov Chain Monte Carlo Bayesian analysis was used to estimate 95% level-of-confidence coverage intervals, U95. Uncertainty-weighted generalized distance

  16. Accurate quantification of creatinine in serum by coupling a measurement standard to extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Keke; Li, Ming; Li, Hongmei; Li, Mengwan; Jiang, You; Fang, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Ambient ionization (AI) techniques have been widely used in chemistry, medicine, material science, environmental science, forensic science. AI takes advantage of direct desorption/ionization of chemicals in raw samples under ambient environmental conditions with minimal or no sample preparation. However, its quantitative accuracy is restricted by matrix effects during the ionization process. To improve the quantitative accuracy of AI, a matrix reference material, which is a particular form of measurement standard, was coupled to an AI technique in this study. Consequently the analyte concentration in a complex matrix can be easily quantified with high accuracy. As a demonstration, this novel method was applied for the accurate quantification of creatinine in serum by using extractive electrospray ionization (EESI) mass spectrometry. Over the concentration range investigated (0.166 ~ 1.617 μg/mL), a calibration curve was obtained with a satisfactory linearity (R2 = 0.994), and acceptable relative standard deviations (RSD) of 4.6 ~ 8.0% (n = 6). Finally, the creatinine concentration value of a serum sample was determined to be 36.18 ± 1.08 μg/mL, which is in excellent agreement with the certified value of 35.16 ± 0.39 μg/mL.

  17. Predicting glomerular filtration rate in heart transplant recipients using serum creatinine-based equations with cimetidine.

    PubMed

    Tangri, Navdeep; Alam, Ahsan; Giannetti, Nadia; Deedwardes, Michael B; Cantarovich, Marcelo

    2008-08-01

    In this study we evaluated the use of cimetidine on the performance of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimating equations and 24-hour creatinine clearance (24-hour CrCl) against radionuclide GFR in 43 heart transplant recipients with stable renal function. Pearson correlation coefficients for the 24-hour CrCl, Cockcroft-Gault, Nankivell and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study (MDRD) equations without cimetidine were 0.76, 0.70, 0.81 and 0.76, and cimetidine-aided coefficients were 0.82, 0.80, 0.80 and 0.72, respectively. All the tested equations without cimetidine use predicted GFR with moderate accuracy in this population. The addition of cimetidine improved the predictive ability of the 24-hour CrCl and Cockcroft-Gault formulas, but not the Nankivell and MDRD GFR estimating equations, in heart transplant recipients.

  18. Positive Impact of Nutritional Interventions on Serum Symmetric Dimethylarginine and Creatinine Concentrations in Client-Owned Geriatric Cats.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jean A; MacLeay, Jennifer; Yerramilli, Maha; Obare, Edward; Yerramilli, Murthy; Schiefelbein, Heidi; Paetau-Robinson, Inke; Jewell, Dennis E

    2016-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted in client-owned geriatric cats to evaluate the short- term effects of a test food on serum symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) and creatinine (Cr) concentrations. Test food contained functional lipids (fish oil), antioxidants (vitamins C and E), L-carnitine, botanicals (vegetables), highly bioavailable protein, and amino acid supplements. Cats (n = 80) were fed either test food or owner's-choice foods (non-nutritionally controlled cohort). Cats were included based on age (≥ 9 years), indoor only, neutered, and free of chronic disease. At baseline, all cats had serum Cr concentrations within the reference interval. Renal function biomarkers and urinalysis results at baseline and after consuming test food or owner's-choice foods for 3 and 6 months were evaluated. Cats consuming test food showed significant decreases in serum Cr and BUN concentrations across time. Overall, cats consuming owner's-choice foods showed significant increases in serum SDMA concentrations at 3 and 6 months compared with baseline (P ≤ 0.05), whereas in cats consuming test food serum SDMA concentrations did not change. At baseline or during the 6-month feeding trial, 23 (28.8%) cats had increased serum SDMA, but normal serum Cr consistent with IRIS Stage 1 chronic kidney disease. This included 6 cats fed test food and 17 cats fed owner's-choice foods. In the 6 cats fed test food, serum SDMA decreased in 3 cats and remained stable in 1 cat, whereas in the 17 cats fed owner's-choice foods, serum SDMA increased in 13 cats and decreased or remained stable in 4 cats. The increase in serum SDMA concentration was significant (P = 0.02) only for cats fed owner's-choice foods. These results suggest that nonazotemic cats with elevated serum SDMA (early renal insufficiency) when fed a food designed to promote healthy aging are more likely to demonstrate stable renal function compared with cats fed owner's-choice foods. Cats fed owner's-choice foods were more likely to

  19. Positive Impact of Nutritional Interventions on Serum Symmetric Dimethylarginine and Creatinine Concentrations in Client-Owned Geriatric Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jean A.; MacLeay, Jennifer; Yerramilli, Maha; Obare, Edward; Yerramilli, Murthy; Schiefelbein, Heidi; Paetau-Robinson, Inke; Jewell, Dennis E.

    2016-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted in client-owned geriatric dogs to evaluate the short-term effects of a test food on serum symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) and creatinine (Cr) concentrations. Test food contained functional lipids (fish oil), antioxidants (lipoic acid, vitamins C and E), L-carnitine, botanicals (fruits and vegetables), controlled sodium concentration, and high quality protein sources (high bioavailability and an ideal amino acid composition). Dogs (n = 210) were fed either test food or owner’s-choice foods (non-nutritionally controlled cohort). Dogs were included based on age and body weight: small (6.8 to 11.4 kg) and medium dogs (11.5 to 22.7 kg) were ≥ 9 years, whereas dogs >22.7 kg were ≥ 7 years at baseline. At baseline, all dogs had to have serum Cr concentrations within the reference interval and be free of chronic disease. Renal function biomarkers and urinalysis results at baseline, and after consuming test food or owner’s-choice foods for 3 and 6 months, were evaluated. Only dogs consuming test food showed significant decreases in serum SDMA and Cr concentrations (both P ≤ 0.05) across time. At baseline or during the 6-month feeding trial, 18 dogs (8.6%) had increased serum SDMA, but normal serum Cr, consistent with IRIS Stage 1 chronic kidney disease. This included 9 dogs fed test food and 9 dogs fed owner’s-choice foods. Compared with baseline, after feeding 9 dogs test food for 6 months, serum SDMA decreased in 8 dogs and increased in 1 dog. After feeding 9 dogs owner’s-choice foods for 6 months, serum SDMA decreased in 4 dogs and increased in 4 dogs (remained stable in 1 dog). The decreases in serum SDMA and Cr concentrations were significant (both P = 0.03) only for dogs fed test food. These results suggest that nonazotemic dogs with elevated serum SDMA (early renal insufficiency) when fed a test food designed to promote healthy aging are more likely to demonstrate improved renal function compared with dogs fed owner

  20. Development of a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the high-accuracy determination of creatinine in serum.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Peter; O'Connor, Gavin

    2003-08-25

    An LC-MS method for the high-accuracy determination of creatinine in serum has been developed and used to provide results for an international measurement evaluation programme (IMEP) and the Comité Consultatif pour la Quantité de Matière (CCQM) international inter-laboratory studies. An assessment of different sample preparation methods, including ion-exchange chromatography, solid-phase extraction, plasma ultrafiltration and ethanol protein precipitation, revealed that no bias or reduced precision was associated with the quicker less extensive clean-up methods, when using liquid chromatography-isotope dilution mass spectrometry (LC-IDMS) for quantitation. A number of different calibration regimes were also investigated. External calibration was shown to provide adequate calibration for most routine analysis with a relative associated expanded uncertainty (k=2) of 6% at the 95% confidence level. The use of a non-isotopically labelled internal standard was shown to improve the relative expanded uncertainty (k=2) to 4%. However, the difference in retention time between the internal standard and the creatinine was such that a matrix interferent produced an observed bias of over 16%. The use of an isotopically labelled internal standard was shown to reduce any bias to less than 0.2% with an expanded uncertainty (k=2) of less than 0.3%. The developed method was then used, in a blind trial organised jointly by IMEP and CCQM, to determine the amount of creatinine in human serum. The method performed well against the established reference method of ion-exchange chromatography followed by derivatisation gas chromatography (GC)-IDMS. The observed difference between the values determined by LC-IDMS and the key comparison reference value (average of all the submitted results) was less than 0.3%. The biggest advantage of the described method is in the speed of analysis. With a chromatographic run time of less than 10 min and sample preparation consisting of a simple protein

  1. Admission serum albumin is predicitve of outcome in critically ill trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jin; Bochicchio, Grant V; Joshi, Manjari; Bochicchio, Kelly; Costas, Ainhoa; Tracy, Kate; Scalea, Thomas M

    2004-12-01

    There is a paucity of data evaluating serum albumin on admission as a predictor of outcome in adult trauma patients. Our objectives were to evaluate whether or not hypoalbuminemia on admission is a predictor of adverse outcome in trauma patients. Prospective data was collected daily on 1023 patients over a 2-year period. Patients were stratified by serum albumin level on admission, age, gender, injury severity, and comorbid conditions. Outcome was measured by ICU and hospital length of stay, ventilator days, incidence of infection, and mortality. Student t test, chi2, and multilinear regression analysis were used to determine level of significance. Blunt injuries accounted for the majority (78%) of the admissions. The mean age of the study population was 43+/-21 years with a mean Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 21.4+/-12. The majority of patients were male (74.5%). The mean albumin level on admission was 2.9+/-1.8. Five hundred ninety-three (58%) patients were admitted with a serum albumin level of > or =2.6 as compared to 430 patients (42%) with an admission albumin level of <2.6. Patients with a lower serum albumin level were found to have a significantly greater ICU (17.1 vs 14.2 days) and hospital length of stay (17.3 vs 20.1 days, P'< 0.05), ventilator days (11.1 vs 13.5 days, P < 0.05), and mortality (P = 0.008) when matched for age and injury severity. The relative risk of infection and mortality increased greater than 2.5-fold in patients with increased age and low serum albumin when analyzed by multilinear regression analysis, P < 0.001. An admission serum albumin level of <2.6 g/dL is a significant independent predictor of morbidity and mortality in trauma patients. The combination of increased age and low albumin level was most predictive of infection and mortality. Early nutrition should be considered in these high-risk patients.

  2. Simultaneous determination of creatinine and creatine in human serum by double-spike isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

    PubMed

    Fernández-Fernández, Mario; Rodríguez-González, Pablo; Añón Álvarez, M Elena; Rodríguez, Felix; Menéndez, Francisco V Álvarez; García Alonso, J Ignacio

    2015-04-07

    This work describes the first multiple spiking isotope dilution procedure for organic compounds using (13)C labeling. A double-spiking isotope dilution method capable of correcting and quantifying the creatine-creatinine interconversion occurring during the analytical determination of both compounds in human serum is presented. The determination of serum creatinine may be affected by the interconversion between creatine and creatinine during sample preparation or by inefficient chemical separation of those compounds by solid phase extraction (SPE). The methodology is based on the use differently labeled (13)C analogues ((13)C1-creatinine and (13)C2-creatine), the measurement of the isotopic distribution of creatine and creatinine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and the application of multiple linear regression. Five different lyophilized serum-based controls and two certified human serum reference materials (ERM-DA252a and ERM-DA253a) were analyzed to evaluate the accuracy and precision of the proposed double-spike LC-MS/MS method. The methodology was applied to study the creatine-creatinine interconversion during LC-MS/MS and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses and the separation efficiency of the SPE step required in the traditional gas chromatography-isotope dilution mass spectrometry (GC-IDMS) reference methods employed for the determination of serum creatinine. The analysis of real serum samples by GC-MS showed that creatine-creatinine separation by SPE can be a nonquantitative step that may induce creatinine overestimations up to 28% in samples containing high amounts of creatine. Also, a detectable conversion of creatine into creatinine was observed during sample preparation for LC-MS/MS. The developed double-spike LC-MS/MS improves the current state of the art for the determination of creatinine in human serum by isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS), because corrections are made for all the possible errors

  3. Solid-state sensor incorporated in microfluidic chip and magnetic-bead enzyme immobilization approach for creatinine and glucose detection in serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yen-Heng; Chiang, Chien-Hung; Wu, Min-Hsien; Pan, Tung-Ming; Luo, Ji-Dung; Chiou, Chiuan-Chian

    2011-12-01

    Solid-state sensors are stable and inexpensive electric transducers for biomedical measurement. This study proposes a microfluidic chip incorporated with a solid-state sensor for measuring glucose and creatinine in blood serum. Magnetic beads are employed to immobilize enzymes and deliver them in a micro-channel. Glucose and creatinine can be measured at 2-8 mM and 10-2 to 10 mM, respectively, which is a meaningful range in human blood. The immobilization approach also addresses the issue of the long-term preservation of enzymes in microfluidic devices. The proposed device is suitable for multi-target measurement in a point-of-care system.

  4. Antegrade cerebral perfusion at 25 °C for arch reconstruction in newborns and children preserves perioperative cerebral oxygenation and serum creatinine

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Bhawna; Dodge-Khatami, Ali; Tucker, Juan; Taylor, Mary B.; Maposa, Douglas; Urencio, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Background Antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) typically is used with deep hypothermia for cerebral protection during aortic arch reconstructions. The impact of ACP on cerebral oxygenation and serum creatinine at a more tepid 25 °C was studied in newborns and children. Methods Between 2010 and 2014, 61 newborns and children (<5 years old) underwent aortic arch reconstruction using moderate hypothermia (25.0±0.9 °C) with ACP and a pH-stat blood gas management strategy. These included 44% Norwood-type operations, 30% isolated arch reconstructions, and 26% arch reconstructions with other major procedures. Median patient age at surgery was 9 days (range, 3 days–4.7 years). Cerebral oxygenation (NIRS) was monitored continuously perioperatively for 120 hours. Serum creatinine was monitored daily. Results Median cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and cross clamp times were 181 minutes (range, 82–652 minutes) and 72 minutes (range, 10–364 minutes), respectively. ACP was performed at a mean flow rate of 46±6 mL/min/kg for a median of 48 minutes (range, 10–123 minutes). Cerebral and somatic NIRS were preserved intraoperatively and remained at baseline postoperatively during the first 120 hours. Peak postoperative serum creatinine levels averaged 0.7±0.3 mg/dL for all patients. There were 4 (6.6%) discharge mortalities. Six patients (9.8%) required ECMO support. Median postoperative length of hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) stay were 16 days(range, 4–104 days) and 9 days (range, 1–104 days), respectively. Two patients (3.3%) received short-term peritoneal dialysis for fluid removal, and none required hemodialysis. Three patients (4.9%) had an isolated seizure which resolved with medical therapy, and none had a neurologic deficit or stroke. Conclusions ACP at 25 °C preserved perioperative cerebral oxygenation and serum creatinine for newborns and children undergoing arch reconstruction. Early outcomes are encouraging, and additional study is warranted to

  5. Association of serum osteoprotegerin with ankle-brachial index and urine albumin: creatinine ratio in African-Americans and non-Hispanic whites.

    PubMed

    Ali, Zeenat; Ellington, Allison A; Mosley, Thomas H; Kullo, Iftikhar J

    2009-10-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG), a member of tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, has been implicated in vascular disease. We investigated the association of serum OPG with the ankle-brachial index (ABI) and urine albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR), in a bi-ethnic cohort of 1324 African-Americans (mean age 64 years, 71% women) and 1237 non-Hispanic whites (mean age 59 years, 57% women) belonging to hypertensive sibships. Serum levels of OPG were measured by solid phase sandwich immunoassay. ABI was measured using a standard protocol and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) defined as ABI<0.90. UACR was expressed as mg albumin/gm creatinine. Multivariable regression analysis using generalized estimating equations (GEE) were performed to assess whether serum OPG levels were associated with ABI and UACR. After adjustment for conventional risk factors (age, sex, diabetes, waist circumference, history of smoking, total and HDL cholesterol, hypertension), prior history of myocardial infarction or stroke, and medication (renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors, statins, aspirin, estrogen) use, higher OPG levels were significantly associated with lower ABI and higher UACR in African-Americans (P=0.001 and P<0.0001, respectively) and non-Hispanic whites (P=0.017 and P=0.002, respectively); the association remained significant after further adjustment for plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) in both ethnic groups. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, higher OPG levels were associated with PAD in African-Americans, independent of the covariates listed above (P=0.026); the association remained significant after additional adjustment for plasma CRP (P=0.047). In non-Hispanic whites, the association of higher OPG levels with PAD was of borderline significance after adjustment for the relevant covariates (P=0.106). We conclude that higher OPG levels are associated with lower ABI and higher UACR, independent of conventional risk factors and plasma CRP.

  6. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials on the effects of potassium supplements on serum potassium and creatinine

    PubMed Central

    Cappuccio, Francesco P; Buchanan, Laura A; Ji, Chen; Siani, Alfonso; Miller, Michelle A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives High potassium intake could prevent stroke, but supplementation is considered hazardous. We assessed the effect of oral potassium supplementation on serum or plasma potassium levels and renal function. Setting We updated a systematic review of the effects of potassium supplementation in randomised clinical trials carried out worldwide, published in 2013, extending it to July 2015. We followed the PRISMA guidelines. Participants Any individual taking part in a potassium supplementation randomised clinical trial. Studies included met the following criteria: randomised clinical trials, potassium supplement given and circulating potassium levels reported. Intervention Oral potassium supplementation. Primary outcome measures Serum or plasma potassium and serum or plasma creatinine. Results A total of 20 trials (21 independent groups) were included (1216 participants from 12 different countries). All but 2 were controlled (placebo n=16, control n=2). Of these trials, 15 were crossover, 4 had a parallel group and 1 was sequential. The duration of supplementation varied from 2 to 24 weeks and the amount of potassium given from 22 to 140 mmol/day. In the pooled analysis, potassium supplementation caused a small but significant increase in circulating potassium levels (weighted mean difference (WMD) 0.14 mmol/L, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.19, p<1×10−5), not associated with dose or duration of treatment. The average increase in urinary potassium excretion was 45.75 mmol/24 hours, 95% CI 38.81 to 53.69, p<1×10−5. Potassium supplementation did not cause any change in circulating creatinine levels (WMD 0.30 µmol/L, 95% CI −1.19 to 1.78, p=0.70). Conclusions In short-term studies of relatively healthy persons, a moderate oral potassium supplement resulted in a small increase in circulating potassium levels and no change in renal function. PMID:27566636

  7. Cystatin C is Better than Serum Creatinine for Estimating Glomerular Filtration Rate to Detect Osteopenia in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Young Eun; Lee, Mi Jung; Park, Kyoung Sook; Han, Seung Hyeok; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Oh, Kook-Hwan; Lee, Joongyub; Lee, Kyu Beck; Chung, Wookyung; Kim, Yeong-Hoon; Ahn, Curie

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Recent studies have reported that loss of bone mass is associated with renal function decline and increased fracture risks in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the best estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) equation to detect osteopenia in CKD patients. Materials and Methods This was a cross-sectional study, and 780 patients aged 50 years or above were classified into normal bone mass or osteopenia groups according to the -1.0 of T-scores at total hip and femur neck. Comparisons of area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (AUC) were performed to investigate significant differences among three eGFR formulas: Modification of Diet in Renal Disease, CKD-Epidemiology Collaboration (EPI) creatinine, and CKD-EPI cystatin C (CKD-EPI-Cys). Results The mean age was 61 years old and the proportion of females was 37.3%. The total hip osteopenia group showed lower CKD-EPI-Cys eGFR levels (osteopenia group, 33.3±19.0 mL/min/1.73 m2; normal group, 48.1±26.2 mL/min/1.73 m2, p<0.001). In multiple logistic regression analysis, CKD-EPI-Cys eGFR was independently associated with osteopenia at the total hip (per 1 mL/min/1.73 m2 increase, odds ratio 0.98, 95% confidence interval 0.97–0.99, p=0.004) after adjusting for confounding variables. ROC curve analyses indicated that CKD-EPI-Cys shows the largest AUC for osteopenia at the total hip (AUC=0.678, all p<0.01) and the femur neck (AUC=0.665, all p<0.05). Conclusion Decreased renal function assessed by CKD-EPI-Cys equation correlates with osteopenia better than creatinine-based methods in CKD patients, and the CKD-EPI-Cys formula might be a useful tool to assess skeletal-related event risks. PMID:28120569

  8. [Creatinine clearance and contrast nephropathy in patients with normal creatinine levels].

    PubMed

    de Agustín, José A; Carda, Rocío; Manzano, María del C; Ruiz-Mateos, Borja; García-Rubira, Juan C; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Vilacosta, Isidre; Macaya, Carlos

    2007-07-01

    The main risk factor for contrast nephropathy is the presence of poor renal function. Plasma creatinine level is not a reliable measure of renal function as its value could lie within the normal range despite the presence of significant nephropathy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the creatinine clearance rate as a predictor of contrast nephropathy in patients with a normal plasma creatinine level. The study included 273 consecutive patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTEACS) and a normal plasma creatinine level at admission who underwent coronary angiography. Patients who developed contrast nephropathy had a lower creatinine clearance rate at admission (66.3 mL/min vs. 83.4 mL/min; P<.001). A creatinine clearance rate < 80 mL/min had a sensitivity of 81% for predicting contrast nephropathy. Creatinine clearance should be measured routinely in patients with NSTEACS who are scheduled for coronary angiography.

  9. Final report on EURAMET.QM-K12: EURAMET key comparison on the determination of the mass fraction of creatinine in serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, David; Hopley, Chris; Ellison, Stephen L. R.; O'Connor, Gavin

    2013-01-01

    Creatinine is a well-known marker for the evaluation of kidney function. Its routine measurement is undertaken by many clinical laboratories and comparable results over distance and time are required for effective diagnosis. To address this need many National Measurement Institutes (or designated institutes) provide services in this area via the provision of higher order standards or reference measurements. The organic analysis working group of the consultative committee for amount of substance have conducted two previous key comparisons to assess the equivalence of institutes who provide such services. The purpose of this study was to enable institutes who missed the previous studies to demonstrate their capability for characterizing serum materials containing 1 µg/g to 100 µg/g of creatinine. The study material consisted of two lyophilized serum samples which were used in an external quality control proficiency testing scheme. No target values were available for these materials and all participants reported results within the one month timeframe given for analysis. Five institutes participated in the key study and a single institute submitted results for the parallel pilot study. All participants in the key study used isotope dilution with either gas or liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The pilot study laboratory used a novel isotope dilution surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy method. The comparison reference value for each material was set as the mean of all results submitted by those participating in the key study. The choice of the reference value estimator was constrained as it was deemed more appropriate to treat the data in a similar manner to CCQM-K12 if the relative degrees of equivalence were to be compared. This resulted in reference values of (54.27 ± 0.72) µg/g and (38.01 ± 0.42) µg/g for the two separate materials. The relative degrees of equivalence were calculated and these were compared with the relative degrees of

  10. Is Admission Serum Sodium Concentration a Clinical Predictor for the Outcome of Therapy in Critically Ill Poisoned Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Eizadi-Mood, Nastaran; Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Hosseini, Hossein; Soltaninejad, Forough; Massoumi, Gholamreza; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Yaraghi, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Disorders of serum sodium concentration are some of the most electrolyte abnormalities in the intensive care unit (ICU) patients. These disorders adversely affect the function of vital organs and are associated with increased hospital mortality. Purpose: In the present study we aimed to evaluate the effects of serum sodium concentration abnormalities at the time of hospital admission on the clinical outcome of therapy in a cohort of critically ill poisoned patients. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 184 critically ill poisoned patients aged >18 years and in the first 8 hours of their poisoning, hospitalized in the ICU of a tertiary care university hospital (Isfahan, Iran) between 2010-2012, were evaluated at the admission time and 24 hours later for serum sodium concentration abnormalities and its relationship with age, gender, consciousness status, ingested drugs and clinical outcome of therapy. The clinical outcome was considered as recovery and mortality. Logistic Regression analysis was performed for predictive variables including serum sodium concentration abnormalities in patients’ clinical outcome. Findings: On admission, 152 patients (82.6%) were eunatremic, 21 patients (11.4%) were hyponatremic and 11 patients (6%) were hypernatremic. In the second day eunatremia, hyponatremia and hypernatremia was observed in 84.4%, 13% and 2.2% respectively. Age (OR=1.92; CI=1.18-3.12) and severity of toxicity (OR=1.32; CI=1.12-2.41) were predicting factors of mortality in ICU poisoning patients. Conclusions: Serum sodium concentration abnormalities are prevalent in critically ill poisoned patient but do not seem to have a predictive value for the clinical outcome of therapy. PMID:26543310

  11. Cisplatin Induced Renal Insufficiency Measured by Glomerular Filtration Rate with 99mTc-DTPA and by using Serum Creatinine based Formulae: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Deswal, Satyawati; Prakash, Chandra; Singh, Dhananjay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cisplatin also known as Cis-Diammine-Dichloroplatinum (CDDP) is a chemotherapeutic alkylating nephrotoxic agent. Thus, it is necessary to know if renal function is normal before starting chemotherapy. Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) can be assessed directly by using a radiopharmaceutical (dGFR). Estimated GFR (eGFR) method use, Serum Creatinine (SCR) levels in mathematical formulae such as Cockroft-Gault (CG) and abbreviated. Modified Diet in Renal Disease (aMDRD). The serum creatinine level is a function of GFR but is relatively insensitive for detecting early renal insufficiency. Aim We aimed to correlate the incidence of Renal Insufficiency (RI) before and one month after completion of chemotherapy treatment by various methods. Materials and Methods In this prospective study, we examined 64 patients with locally advanced head neck and uterine cervix cancers, before and one month after chemotherapy treatment with CDDP. Single agent CDDP was used with dose range between 35mg/m2 as concurrent weekly chemotherapy. Results Baseline RI was seen in 9.3% of patients by SCR levels, in 21.8% by the dGFR method, in 43.75% by the GFR-CG method and in 25% by the GFR-aMDRD formula. We considered GFR of <60 ml/min and SCR >1.5mg% as RI. After completion of treatment, the median RI was seen in 12.5% by SCR levels, 34.38% by dGFR method, 53.13% by GFR-CG method and 40.63% by GFR-aMDRD formula. None of the methods of GFR estimation showed statistically significant increase in RI one month after CDDP infusion. Only a weak correlation was seen between dGFR and eGFR based on SCR value (p=0.006). Conclusion Baseline RI was detected in 12% more cases when measured by dGFR as compared with SCR level. However, mathematical formulae overestimated baseline RI as compared to dGFR. One month after completion of treatment with CDDP chemotherapy, RI increased in 10%-15% cases as detected by all the four evaluated methods. There is weak correlation between SCR and dGFR thus

  12. A comparative study of nutrients utilization, alkaline phosphatase activity and creatinine concentration in the serum of sheep and goats fed diets based on olive leaves.

    PubMed

    Yáñez-Ruiz, D R; Molina-Alcaide, E

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare, in goats and wethers, the nutritive utilization of diets including olive leaves (OL) and the possible detrimental effect of that by-product. Three different diets were studied: OL, OL plus polyethylene glycol (PEG) (OLP) and OL supplemented with barley [164 g/kg dry matter (DM)] and faba beans (59 g/kg DM) (OLSUP). Apparent digestibility of nutrients and energy and nitrogen balances were determined along with creatinine concentrations and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in the serum. The apparent digestibility of OL was low and similar in goats and wethers (54.4% and 53.5%, 22.2% and 21.6% and, 47.7% and 46.6% for DM, crude protein and neutral detergent fibre in goats and wethers, respectively). The addition of PEG did not improve (p > 0.05) digestibility of OL, although a slightly beneficial effect on the digestion of structural carbohydrates was observed (up to 8.4% and 7.10% in goats and wethers, respectively). The supplementation of OL with barley and faba beans increased (p < 0.001) the apparent digestibility of nutrients and the energy value. The consumption of the OL led to high ALP activity in the serum. Despite the higher sensitivity of wethers to Cu levels, our results show a similar digestive use of OL by wethers and goats and suggest the need of further comparative investigations focusing on the effect of the presence of high Cu levels in the by-product on the animal health.

  13. [Factors contributing to increases in serum creatinine following treatment with a sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim combination product: retrospective analysis of Japanese patients with normal renal function].

    PubMed

    So, Muramori; Suzuki, Toyofumi; Takano, Kenji; Shimada, Kohei; Inoue, Mayumi; Kawai, Tatsumi; Fukami, Toshiro; Tomono, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

      Japanese patients with normal renal function were retrospectively analyzed to characterize increases in serum creatinine (SCr) observed following the use of a sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX-TMP) combination product and identify factors affecting these increases. In the patients studied (n=49), an individual comparison was conducted for the three factors of age group [≤74 years (n=21) vs. ≥75 years (n=28)], sex [male (n=24) vs. female (n=25)], and total dose throughout the treatment period [≤7 g (n=24) vs. ≥8 g (n=25)] to determine the extent of SCr increase following SMX-TMP combination product use. SCr increased significantly following SMX-TMP combination product use in patients ≤74 years of age and ≥75 years of age, in both males and females, and in patients with a total dose of ≥8 g (8 to 96 g) (p<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the independence of these factors. Total dose was identified as an independent factor and had an odds ratio of 6.571 [95% confidence interval=1.735-24.882, p=0.006]. Post-treatment percent increases in SCr were compared using pre-treatment levels as the baseline. The group with a total dose of ≥8 g (mean 29.8 g) had a significant SCr increase of 18.4% (p=0.002), while the increase in the ≤7 g (mean 5.3 g) group was only 4.5%. The data showed that SCr increased by about 20% when the total dose taken over the treatment period was around 30 g (about 2.4 g as TMP) and indicated that total dose contributes more than age and sex to the post-treatment increase in SCr.

  14. Detection of renal dysfunction based on serum creatinine levels in a Brazilian community: the Bambuí Health and Ageing Study.

    PubMed

    Passos, V M A; Barreto, S M; Lima-Costa, M F F

    2003-03-01

    There are few population-based studies of renal dysfunction and none conducted in developing countries. In the present study the prevalence and predictors of elevated serum creatinine levels (SCr > or = 1.3 mg/dl for men and 1.1 mg/dl for women) were determined among Brazilian adults (18-59 years) and older adults (>60 years). Participants included all older adults (N = 1742) and a probabilistic sample of adults (N = 818) from Bambu town, MG, Southeast Brazil. Predictors were investigated using multiple logistic regression. Mean SCr levels were 0.77 +/- 0.15 mg/dl for adults, 1.02 +/- 0.39 mg/dl for older men, and 0.81 +/- 0.17 mg/dl for older women. Because there were only 4 cases (0.48%) with elevated SCr levels among adults, the analysis of elevated SCr levels was restricted to older adults. The overall prevalence of elevated SCr levels among the elderly was 5.09% (76/1494). The prevalence of hypercreatinemia increased significantly with age (chi = 26.17, P = 0.000), being higher for older men (8.19%) than for older women (5.29%, chi = 5.00, P = 0.02). Elevated SCr levels were associated with age 70-79 years (odds ratio [OR] = 2.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15-4.42), hypertension (OR = 3.04, 95% CI: 1.34-6.92), use of antihypertensive drugs (OR = 2.46, 95% CI: 1.26-4.82), chest pain (OR = 3.37, 95% CI: 1.31-8.74), and claudication (OR = 3.43, 95% CI: 1.30-9.09) among men, and with age >80 years (OR = 4.88, 95% CI: 2.24-10.65), use of antihypertensive drugs (OR = 4.06, 95% CI: 1.67-9.86), physical inactivity (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.11-4.02) and myocardial infarction (OR = 3.89, 95% CI: 1.58-9.62) among women. The prevalence of renal dysfunction observed was much lower than that reported in other population-based studies, but predictors were similar. New investigations are needed to confirm the variability in prevalence and associated factors of renal dysfunction among populations.

  15. Serum Total Cholinesterase Activity on Admission Is Associated with Disease Severity and Outcome in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qing-Hong; Li, An-Min; He, Sai-Lin; Yao, Xu-Dong; Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Zhi-Wen; Sheng, Zhi-Yong; Yao, Yong-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of neurological disability. In this retrospective study, serum total cholinesterase (ChE) activities were analyzed in 188 patients for diagnostic as well as predictive values for mortality. Methods and Findings Within 72 hours after injury, serum ChE activities including both acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase were measured. Disease severity was evaluated with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, Glasgow Coma Score, length of coma, post-traumatic amnesia and injury feature. Neurocognitive and functional scores were assessed using clinical records. Of 188 patients, 146 (77.7%) survived and 42 (22.3%) died within 90 days. Lower ChE activities were noted in the non-survivors vs. survivors (5.94±2.19 vs. 7.04±2.16 kU/L, p=0.023), in septic vs. non-infected patients (5.93±1.89 vs. 7.31±2.45 kU/L, p=0.0005) and in patients with extremely severe injury vs. mild injury (6.3±1.98 vs. 7.57±2.48 kU/L, p=0.049). The trajectories of serum ChE levels were also different between non-survivors and survivors, septic and non-infected patients, mild and severely injured patients, respectively. Admission ChE activities were closely correlated with blood cell counts, neurocognitive and functional scores both on admission and at discharge. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the area under the curve for ChE was inferior to that for either APACHE II or white blood cell (WBC) count. However, at the optimal cutoff value of 5 kU/L, the sensitivity of ChE for correct prediction of 90-day mortality was 65.5% and the specificity was 86.4%. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that lower ChE activity (<5 kU/L) was more closely correlated with poor survival than higher ChE activity (>5 kU/L) (p=0.04). After adjusting for other variables, ChE was identified as a borderline independent predictor for mortality as analyzed by Binary logistic regression (P=0.078). Conclusions

  16. Accuracy of point-of-care serum creatinine devices for detecting patients at risk of contrast-induced nephropathy: a critical overview.

    PubMed

    Martínez Lomakin, Felipe; Tobar, Catalina

    2014-12-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a common event in hospitals, with reported incidences ranging from 1 to 30%. Patients with underlying kidney disease have an increased risk of developing CIN. Point-of-care (POC) creatinine devices are handheld devices capable of providing quantitative data on a patient's kidney function that could be useful in stratifying preventive measures. This overview aims to synthesize the current evidence on diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of POC creatinine devices in detecting patients at risk of CIN. Five databases were searched for diagnostic accuracy studies or clinical trials that evaluated the usefulness of POC devices in detecting patients at risk of CIN. Selected articles were critically appraised to assess their individual risk of bias by the use of standard criteria; 13 studies were found that addressed the diagnostic accuracy or clinical utility of POC creatinine devices. Most studies incurred a moderate to high risk of bias. Overall concordance between POC devices and reference standards (clinical laboratory procedures) was found to be moderate, with 95% limits of agreement often lying between -35.4 and +35.4 µmol/L (-0.4 and +0.4 mg/dL). Concordance was shown to decrease with worsening kidney function. Data on the clinical utility of these devices were limited, but a significant reduction in time to diagnosis was reported in two studies. Overall, POC creatinine devices showed a moderate concordance with standard clinical laboratory creatinine measurements. Several biases could have induced optimism in these estimations. Results obtained from these devices may be unreliable in cases of severe kidney failure. Randomized trials are needed to address the clinical utility of these devices.

  17. Deceiving proteins! A case of lymphoma and high creatinine

    PubMed Central

    Metraiah, El Hakem Abdelkarim; Regan, Helen; Louw, Johanna; Kidder, Dana

    2017-01-01

    Estimation of kidney function by measuring serum creatinine is one the commonest laboratory tests conducted in clinical practice. Enzymatic methods are often used to measure serum creatinine. Clinicians should be aware of the limitations of these methods, such as test interference with paraproteins.We present a case of falsely elevated serum creatinine in a patient referred for renal biopsy. The combination of fluctuating creatinine and normal blood urea level was unusual. Serum protein electrophoresis revealed the presence of an IgM paraprotein. Further investigations confirmed an underlying diagnosis of lymphoplasmacytoid lymphoma. This case highlights how IgM paraprotein can interfere with creatinine estimation by enzymatic assay and the utility of alternative methods of estimating serum creatinine. PMID:28115403

  18. Creatinine blood test

    MedlinePlus

    Creatinine is a chemical waste product of creatine. Creatine is a chemical made by the body and is used to supply energy mainly to muscles. This test is done to see how well your kidneys work. Creatinine is removed from the body ...

  19. Creatinine clearance test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 28. Read More Acute kidney failure Acute nephritic syndrome Acute tubular necrosis Creatinine blood test End-stage kidney disease Heart failure - overview Shock Urine 24-hour volume Wilms tumor Review Date 8/29/2015 Updated by: Laura J. ...

  20. Comparison of serum concentrations of symmetric dimethylarginine and creatinine as kidney function biomarkers in healthy geriatric cats fed reduced protein foods enriched with fish oil, L-carnitine, and medium-chain triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Hall, J A; Yerramilli, M; Obare, E; Yerramilli, M; Yu, S; Jewell, D E

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether feeding cats reduced protein and phosphorus foods with added fish oil, L-carnitine, and medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) altered serum biomarkers of renal function. Thirty-two healthy cats, mean age 14.0 (8.3-19.6) years, were fed control food or one of two experimental foods for 6 months. All foods had similar concentrations of moisture, protein, and fat (approximately 8.0%, 26.5%, and 20.0%, respectively). Both experimental foods contained added fish oil (1.5%) and L-carnitine (500 mg/kg). Experimental-food 2 also contained increased MCT (10.5% from coconut oil), 1.5% added corn oil, and reduced animal fat. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), serum biochemistries, renal function biomarkers including serum creatinine (sCr) and symmetrical dimethylarginine (SDMA), and plasma metabolomic profiles were measured at baseline, and at 1.5, 3, and 6 months. Body composition was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Although both experimental foods altered plasma fatty acids, carnitine and related metabolites, and lysophospholipid concentrations, there were no changes in renal function biomarkers. There was, however, a benefit in using SDMA versus sCr to assess renal function in older cats with less total lean mass. Compared with cats <12 years, those >15 years had lower total lean mass (P < 0.01), lower GFR (P = 0.04), and lower sCr concentrations (P < 0.01). However, SDMA concentrations (P < 0.01) were higher in older cats. This study shows that in cats, serum SDMA concentration is more highly correlated with GFR than sCr concentration, and, unlike sCr, which declines with age because of muscle wasting, SDMA increases as GFR declines with age.

  1. Creatinine: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kidney Diseases Resources Creatinine (American Association for Clinical Chemistry) Creatinine - blood (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Creatinine - ... and Albumin/ Creatinine Ratio (American Association for Clinical Chemistry) Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio ( ...

  2. Quantification of creatinine in biological samples based on the pseudoenzyme activity of copper-creatinine complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaraja, Padmarajaiah; Avinash, Krishnegowda; Shivakumar, Anantharaman; Krishna, Honnur

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), the marker of chronic kidney disease can be analyzed by the concentration of cystatin C or creatinine and its clearance in human urine and serum samples. The determination of cystatin C alone as an indicator of GFR does not provide high accuracy, and is more expensive, thus measurement of creatinine has an important role in estimating GFR. We have made an attempt to quantify creatinine based on its pseudoenzyme activity of creatinine in the presence of copper. Creatinine in the presence of copper oxidizes paraphenylenediamine dihydrochloride (PPDD) which couples with dimethylamino benzoicacid (DMAB) giving green colored chromogenic product with maximum absorbance at 710 nm. Kinetic parameters relating this reaction were evaluated. Analytical curves of creatinine by fixed time and rate methods were linear at 8.8-530 μmol L-1 and 0.221-2.65 mmol L-1, respectively. Recovery of creatinine varied from 97.8 to 107.8%. Limit of detection and limit of quantification were 2.55 and 8.52 μmol L-1 respectively whereas Sandell's sensitivity and molar absorption coefficient values were 0.0407 μg cm-2 and 0.1427 × 104 L mol-1 cm-1 respectively. Precision studies showed that within day imprecision was 0.745-1.26% and day-to-day imprecision was 1.55-3.65%. The proposed method was applied to human urine and serum samples and results were validated in accordance with modified Jaffe's procedure. Wide linearity ranges with good recovery, less tolerance from excipients and application of the method to serum and urine samples are the claims which ascertain much advantage to this method.

  3. Elevated plasma creatinine due to creatine ethyl ester use.

    PubMed

    Velema, M S; de Ronde, W

    2011-02-01

    Creatine is a nutritional supplement widely used in sport, physical fitness training and bodybuilding. It is claimed to enhance performance. We describe a case in which serum creatinine is elevated due to the use of creatine ethyl esther. One week after withdrawal, the plasma creatinine had normalised. There are two types of creatine products available: creatine ethyl esther (CEE) and creatine monohydrate (CM). Plasma creatinine is not elevated in all creatine-using subjects. CEE , but not CM, is converted into creatinine in the gastrointestinal tract. As a result the use of CEE may be associated with elevated plasma creatinine levels. Since plasma creatinine is a widely used marker for renal function, the use of CEE may lead to a false assumption of renal failure.

  4. A review on creatinine measurement techniques.

    PubMed

    Mohabbati-Kalejahi, Elham; Azimirad, Vahid; Bahrami, Manouchehr; Ganbari, Ahmad

    2012-08-15

    This paper reviews the entire recent global tendency for creatinine measurement. Creatinine biosensors involve complex relationships between biology and micro-mechatronics to which the blood is subjected. Comparison between new and old methods shows that new techniques (e.g. Molecular Imprinted Polymers based algorithms) are better than old methods (e.g. Elisa) in terms of stability and linear range. All methods and their details for serum, plasma, urine and blood samples are surveyed. They are categorized into five main algorithms: optical, electrochemical, impedometrical, Ion Selective Field-Effect Transistor (ISFET) based technique and chromatography. Response time, detection limit, linear range and selectivity of reported sensors are discussed. Potentiometric measurement technique has the lowest response time of 4-10 s and the lowest detection limit of 0.28 nmol L(-1) belongs to chromatographic technique. Comparison between various techniques of measurements indicates that the best selectivity belongs to MIP based and chromatographic techniques.

  5. Stamping SERS for creatinine sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Du, Yong; Zhao, Fusheng; Zeng, Jianbo; Santos, Greggy M.; Mohan, Chandra; Shih, Wei-Chuan

    2015-03-01

    Urine can be obtained easily, readily and non-invasively. The analysis of urine can provide metabolic information of the body and the condition of renal function. Creatinine is one of the major components of human urine associated with muscle metabolism. Since the content of creatinine excreted into urine is relatively constant, it is used as an internal standard to normalize water variations. Moreover, the detection of creatinine concentration in urine is important for the renal clearance test, which can monitor the filtration function of kidney and health status. In more details, kidney failure can be imminent when the creatinine concentration in urine is high. A simple device and protocol for creatinine sensing in urine samples can be valuable for point-of-care applications. We reported quantitative analysis of creatinine in urine samples by using stamping surface enhanced Raman scattering (S-SERS) technique with nanoporous gold disk (NPGD) based SERS substrate. S-SERS technique enables label-free and multiplexed molecular sensing under dry condition, while NPGD provides a robust, controllable, and high-sensitivity SERS substrate. The performance of S-SERS with NGPDs is evaluated by the detection and quantification of pure creatinine and creatinine in artificial urine within physiologically relevant concentration ranges.

  6. Shocking Admission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Eric; Millman, Sierra

    2007-01-01

    Marilee Jones's career had been a remarkable success. She joined Massachusetts Institute of Technology's (MIT's) admissions office in 1979, landing a job in Cambridge at a time when boys ruled the sandbox of the admissions profession. Her job was to help MIT recruit more women, who then made up less than one-fifth of the institute's students. She…

  7. [Effect of angiotensin II receptor antagonist (losartan) on renal function, serum potassium and blood pressure in patients with advanced renal failure: differences between patients with a serum creatinine (SCr) level higher than 3 mg/dl and those with a lower SCr level].

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Masaaki; Tanno, Yudo; Otsuka, Yasushi; Takahashi, Hajime; Ikeda, Masato; Katoh, Naohiko; Yokoyama, Keitaro; Yamamoto, Hiroyasu; Tokutome, Goro; Hosoya, Tatsuo

    2002-10-01

    The administration of angiotensin II receptor antagonist(AIIA) to patients with advanced chronic renal failure(CRF) is not actively recommended. This study was performed to verify the appropriateness of this situation and to determine if there are any substantial differences between patients with a serum creatinine(SCr) level higher than 3 mg/dl and those with a lower SCr level in terms of the clinical effects such as renal function, serum potassium level and systemic blood pressure(BP) after the administration of AIIA. Sixteen patients with advanced CRF who were admitted to the out-patient clinic in Jikei University Hospital(1998/1-1999/12) were enrolled(average age: 65 years, underlying renal disease: diabetic nephropathy 6, CGN 5, and other 1). They had never been administered AIIA before. The patients were classified into two groups in accordance with their level of SCr: group A(SCr lower than 3.0 mg/dl; n = 11), and Group B(SCr higher than 3.0 mg/dl; n = 5). Losartan(50 mg/day) administration was started in order to examine parameters such as the SCr, potassium, BP at the out-patient clinic, and urinary protein excretion at the 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 month time points. Although the 1/SCr values provided negative slopes with time in both groups, no significant difference was found between the two slopes. There were no changes in the serum potassium levels or urinary protein excretion during the study period in either group, and no statistical difference was found between the two groups. Although the serum potassium level exceeded 5.5 mEq/l in two patients each in both groups, the level was controlled by diet therapy with restricted potassium. BP was reduced significantly in both groups during the study period, and no statistical difference in BP reduction was observed between the two groups. In conclusion, the results indicate there were no differences in the effect on renal function, serum potassium levels or systemic BP between the patients with a SCr level

  8. Creatinine

    MedlinePlus

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  9. Renal function in the fetus and neonate - the creatinine enigma.

    PubMed

    Kastl, Justin T

    2017-04-01

    The use of serum creatinine levels to estimate glomerular function in infants is admittedly fraught with inherent inaccuracies which are both physiological and methodological in nature. This characteristic can understandably reduce the neonatal clinician's confidence in the ability of serum creatinine levels to provide useful information relevant to their patients' medical care. The aim of this review is to provide further insight into the peculiarities of serum creatinine trends in both premature and term infants with special focus on the maturational and developmental changes occurring in the kidney during this crucial time-period. Though newer markers of glomerular function are gaining increasing traction in the clinical realm, the most prominent of which is currently cystatin C, creatinine nonetheless remains an important player in the scientific evolution of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimation. Not only do its limitations provide a level of distinction for newer markers of GFR, but its advantages persist in refining the precision of newer GFR formulae which incorporate multiple patient characteristics.

  10. Utility of serum concentration of protein S100 at admission to the medical intensive care unit in prediction of permanent neurological injury

    PubMed Central

    Knapik, Małgorzata; Partyka, Robert; Broll, Iwona; Cieśla, Daniel; Wawrzyńczyk, Maciej; Kokocińska, Danuta; Jałowiecki, Przemysław

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) may be preceded by dramatic events leading to permanent neurological injury. Plasma S100 protein levels are proved to be clinically useful in predicting neurological outcome following cardiac arrest. It is unclear, however, whether this may be extrapolated to a broader population of ICU patients. Aim To assess the utility of plasma S100 protein in predicting death, permanent neurological damage, or unfavourable outcome at admission to the intensive care unit. Material and methods The concentration of plasma S100 protein was established in 102 patients on admission to the ICU, regardless of their neurological status and the reason for admission. The majority of patients were admitted with various cardiac diseases, excluding trauma patients. The patients were classified into three groups with the following binary outcomes: permanent neurological deficit or restoration of consciousness; unfavourable outcome (death or survival with permanent neurological deficit) or favourable outcome; and death or survival. Results Plasma S100 protein levels at admission facilitated the identification of patients who later developed a permanent neurological deficit or regained consciousness (p < 0.0001). All patients with plasma S100 protein over 0.532 μg/l at ICU admission either developed a permanent neurological deficit or had an unfavourable outcome (death or survival with permanent neurological deficit). However, sensitivity for this cut-off value was only 48% and 40%, respectively. Conclusions Plasma S100 protein levels over 0.532 μg/l are specific but not sensitive for both permanent neurological deficit and unfavourable outcome when assessed in a heterogeneous population at admission to the ICU. PMID:28096833

  11. Plasma Creatinine Clearance in the Dog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Loy W.

    1977-01-01

    Lists materials and methods for an experiment that demonstrates the concept of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using anesthesized dogs. In the dog, GFR is equivalent to the renal plasma clearance of exogenous creatinine. (CS)

  12. A New Equation to Estimate Muscle Mass from Creatinine and Cystatin C

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Cheol-Ho; Kim, Kwang-il; Chin, Ho Jun; Lee, Hajeong

    2016-01-01

    Background With evaluation for physical performance, measuring muscle mass is an important step in detecting sarcopenia. However, there are no methods to estimate muscle mass from blood sampling. Methods To develop a new equation to estimate total-body muscle mass with serum creatinine and cystatin C level, we designed a cross-sectional study with separate derivation and validation cohorts. Total body muscle mass and fat mass were measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 214 adults aged 25 to 84 years who underwent physical checkups from 2010 to 2013 in a single tertiary hospital. Serum creatinine and cystatin C levels were also examined. Results Serum creatinine was correlated with muscle mass (P < .001), and serum cystatin C was correlated with body fat mass (P < .001) after adjusting glomerular filtration rate (GFR). After eliminating GFR, an equation to estimate total-body muscle mass was generated and coefficients were calculated in the derivation cohort. There was an agreement between muscle mass calculated by the novel equation and measured by DXA in both the derivation and validation cohort (P < .001, adjusted R2 = 0.829, β = 0.95, P < .001, adjusted R2 = 0.856, β = 1.03, respectively). Conclusion The new equation based on serum creatinine and cystatin C levels can be used to estimate total-body muscle mass. PMID:26849842

  13. Investigating the effective factors in creatinine changes among hemodialysis patients using the linear random effects model

    PubMed Central

    Shabankhani, B; Kazemnezhad, A; Zaeri, F

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives:Out of 10 apparently healthy humans, one was somewhat suffering from one of the types of renal disease. Hemodialysis is known as the most applicable method of taking care of this group of patients. In addition, serum creatinine is an important mark in the performance of kidneys. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effective factors in creatinine and its effect on the performance of kidneys. Materials and methods: The present study is a longitudinal experiment in which 500 participants were randomly selected from the hemodialysis patients in Mazandaran Province. Creatinine variable was considered as the longitudinal responding variable, which was measured 3 times per year over a period of 6 years. The random effects model was also considered the most appropriate model for the collected data. Results:The total mean value of creatinine was 1.62 ± 0.49, among men 1.69 ± 0.46 and among women 35.1 ± 0.49. Variables of weight (p<0.001), age of disease diagnosis (p<0.001), time (p<0.001), gender (p<0.005), and cardiovascular diseases were significant and had effects on the trend of creatinine changes among the hemodialysis patients. Creatinine mean value had an increasing trend. Conclusion:Blood creatinine had a significant effect on the performance of kidneys, and the identification of variables that affected the creatinine level was highly helpful in controlling the performance of the kidneys. The results of most studies conducted on hemodialysis patients indicated that by measuring and controlling variables like weight, tobacco consumption, and control of related diseases like blood pressure could predict and control creatinine changes precisely. PMID:28255403

  14. [Creatinine and calcium in urine and blood after brief exposure to magnetic fields].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, F; Mannsåker, T; Løvlie, R

    1999-02-10

    In this experimental study, 35 males were exposed to artificial magnetic fields. The fields were produced by a set of Helmholz coils internally isolated by a Faraday cage which effectively eliminated electrical fields. Each participant stayed inside the coils for 40 minutes on two occasions with an interval of seven days, but was actually only once exposed to a static magnetic field (9.6 mT) and oscillating magnetic fields of variable frequency and strength. Urine and blood samples were taken before and after exposure, and before and after non-exposure. Analysis detected significant changes in serum creatinine level after exposure (p < 0.0001). The changes in serum creatinine level in the nonexposed situation were significantly smaller than the changes found in the exposed situation (p < 0.0001). The changes i urine creatinine after 40 minutes of exposure was also found to be significant (p < 0.01). Exposure to magnetic fields may induce biological reactions.

  15. Seeking the Admission Hybrid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucido, Jerome A.

    2012-01-01

    When one thinks of seminal publications in college admission, the first piece that comes to mind is B. Alden Thresher's "College Admissions in the Public Interest" (1966). Thresher's work, relevant to this day, is credited with being the foundational document of the admission profession. McDonough and Robertson's 1995 study, commissioned by NACAC,…

  16. The Course of Skin and Serum Biomarkers of Advanced Glycation Endproducts and Its Association with Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, Disease Severity, and Mortality during ICU Admission in Critically Ill Patients: Results from a Prospective Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Meertens, John H.; Nienhuis, Hans L.; Lefrandt, Joop D.; Schalkwijk, Casper G.; Nyyssönen, Kristiina; Ligtenberg, Jack J. M.; Smit, Andries J.; Zijlstra, Jan G.; Mulder, D. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have been implicated in multiple organ failure, predominantly via their cellular receptor (RAGE) in preclinical studies. Little is known about the time course and prognostic relevance of AGEs in critically ill human patients, including those with severe sepsis. Objective 1) To explore the reliability of Skin Autofluorescence (AF) as an index of tissue AGEs in ICU patients, 2) to compare its levels to healthy controls, 3) to describe the time course of AGEs and influencing factors during ICU admission, and 4) to explore their association with disease severity, outcome, and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. Methods Skin AF, serum N"-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL), N"-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), and soluble RAGE (sRAGE) were serially measured for a maximum of 7 days in critically ill ICU patients with multiple organ failure and compared to age-matched healthy controls. Correlations with (changes in) clinical parameters of disease severity, LDL dienes, and CRP were studied and survival analysis for in-hospital mortality was performed. Results Forty-five ICU patients (age: 59±15 years; 60% male), and 37 healthy controls (59±14; 68%) were included. Skin AF measurements in ICU patients were reproducible (CV right-left arm: 13%, day-to-day: 10%), with confounding effects of skin reflectance and plasma bilirubin levels. Skin AF was higher in ICU patients vs healthy controls (2.7±0.7 vs 1.8±0.3 au; p<0.001). Serum CEL (23±10 vs, 16±3 nmol/gr protein; p<0.001), LDL dienes (19 (15–23) vs. 9 (8–11) μmol/mmol cholesterol; <0.001), and sRAGE (1547 (998–2496) vs. 1042 (824–1388) pg/ml; p = 0.003) were significantly higher in ICU patients compared to healthy controls, while CML was not different (27 (20–39) vs 29 (25–33) nmol/gr protein). While CRP and LDL dienes decreased significantly, Skin AF and serum AGEs and sRAGE did not change significantly during the first 7 days of ICU admission. CML and CEL

  17. Correlation of cystatin C and creatinine based estimates of renal function in children with hydronephrosis

    PubMed Central

    Momtaz, Hossein-Emad; Dehghan, Arash; Karimian, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The use of a simple and accurate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimating method aiming minute assessment of renal function can be of great clinical importance. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the association of a GFR estimating by equation that includes only cystatin C (Gentian equation) to equation that include only creatinine (Schwartz equation) among children. Patients and Methods: A total of 31 children aged from 1 day to 5 years with the final diagnosis of unilateral or bilateral hydronephrosis referred to Besat hospital in Hamadan, between March 2010 and February 2011 were consecutively enrolled. Schwartz and Gentian equations were employed to determine GFR based on plasma creatinine and cystatin C levels, respectively. Results: The proportion of GFR based on Schwartz equation was 70.19± 24.86 ml/min/1.73 m2, while the level of this parameter based on Gentian method and using cystatin C was 86.97 ± 21.57 ml/min/1.73 m2. The Pearson correlation coefficient analysis showed a strong direct association between the two levels of GFR measured by Schwartz equation based on serum creatinine level and Gentian method and using cystatin C (r = 0.594, P < 0.001). The linear association between GFR values measured with the two methods included cystatin C based GFR = 50.8+ 0.515 × Schwartz GFR. The correlation between GFR values measured by using serum creatinine and serum cystatin C measurements remained meaningful even after adjustment for patients’ gender and age (r = 0.724, P < 0.001). Conclusion: The equation developed based on cystatin C level is comparable with another equation, based on serum creatinine (Schwartz formula) to estimate GFR in children. PMID:27069964

  18. Creatinine Diffusion Modeling in Capacitive Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohabbati-Kalejahi, Elham; Azimirad, Vahid; Bahrami, Manouchehr

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, creatinine diffusion in capacitive sensors is discussed. The factors influencing the response time of creatinine biosensors are mathematically formulated and then three novel approaches for decreasing the response time are presented. At first, a piezoelectric actuator is used to vibrate the microtube that contains the blood sample, in order to reduce the viscosity of blood, and thus to increase the coefficient of diffusion. Then, the blood sample is assumed to be pushed through a porous medium, and the relevant conditions are investigated. Finally, the effect of the dentate shape of dielectric on response time is studied. The algorithms and the mathematical models are presented and discussed, and the results of simulations are illustrated. The response times for the first, second and third method are 60, 0.036 and about 31 s, respectively. It is also found that pumping results in very fast responses.

  19. Interference with the Jaffé Method for Creatinine Following 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Administration

    PubMed Central

    Quon, Harry; Grossman, Craig E.; King, Rebecca L.; Putt, Mary; Donaldson, Keri; Kricka, Larry; Finlay, Jarod; Malloy, Kelly; Cengel, Keith A.; Busch, Theresa M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The photosensitizer pro-drug 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) has been administered systemically for photodynamic therapy. Although several toxicities have been reported, nephrotoxicity has never been observed. Materials and Methods Patients with head and neck mucosal dysplasia have been treated on a phase 1 study of escalating light doses in combination with 60 mg/kg of oral 5-ALA. Serum creatinine was measured with the modified Jaffe method or an enzymatic method in the first 24 hours after 5-ALA. Interference by 5-ALA, as well as by its photosensitizing product protoporphyrin IX, was assessed. Results Among 11 subjects enrolled to date, 9 of 11 had blood chemistries collected within the first 5 hours with 7 demonstrating significant grade 3 creatinine elevations (p=0.030). There was no additional evidence of compromised renal function or increased PDT-induced mucositis. Creatinine levels measured by the Jaffe assay increased linearly as a function of the ex-vivo addition of ALA (p<.0001). The exogenous addition of PpIX did not alter creatinine levels. ALA did not interfere with creatinine levels as measured by an enzymatic assay. A total of 4 of the 11 subjects had creatinine levels prospectively measured by both the Jaffe and the enzymatic assays. Only the Jaffe method demonstrated significant elevations as a function of time after ALA administration. Conclusions The transient increase in creatinine after systematic ALA can be attributed, in part, if not entirely, to interference of ALA in the Jaffe reaction. Alternative assays should be employed in situations calling for monitoring of kidney function after systemic ALA. PMID:21112550

  20. What Admissions Officials Think

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Over the past two decades, college admissions has become a prime-time preoccupation. Most people know at least something about the process, especially if they have a teenager in high school and a college guide on their coffee table. Nonetheless, widespread public misconceptions persist about admissions requirements, the selection process, and the…

  1. The Administration of Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Clifford C.

    1978-01-01

    Among all the tasks of the admissions officer in developing a successful marketing program, the hardest may be that of convincing other college administrators of the importance of admissions to the institution's survival. Discussed are long-range planning, budgeting, staff selection and training, and implementing a plan. (Author/LBH)

  2. Technology in International Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    In a relatively short time, technology applications have become an essential feature of the admissions business. They make the jobs of international admissions professionals easier in many ways, allowing for more robust communication with applicants and counselors, a streamlined application process, and quicker access to information about…

  3. Creatinine and urea biosensors based on a novel ammonium ion-selective copper-polyaniline nano-composite.

    PubMed

    Zhybak, M; Beni, V; Vagin, M Y; Dempsey, E; Turner, A P F; Korpan, Y

    2016-03-15

    The use of a novel ammonium ion-specific copper-polyaniline nano-composite as transducer for hydrolase-based biosensors is proposed. In this work, a combination of creatinine deaminase and urease has been chosen as a model system to demonstrate the construction of urea and creatinine biosensors to illustrate the principle. Immobilisation of enzymes was shown to be a crucial step in the development of the biosensors; the use of glycerol and lactitol as stabilisers resulted in a significant improvement, especially in the case of the creatinine, of the operational stability of the biosensors (from few hours to at least 3 days). The developed biosensors exhibited high selectivity towards creatinine and urea. The sensitivity was found to be 85 ± 3.4 mAM(-1)cm(-2) for the creatinine biosensor and 112 ± 3.36 mAM(-1)cm(-2) for the urea biosensor, with apparent Michaelis-Menten constants (KM,app), obtained from the creatinine and urea calibration curves, of 0.163 mM for creatinine deaminase and 0.139 mM for urease, respectively. The biosensors responded linearly over the concentration range 1-125 µM, with a limit of detection of 0.5 µM and a response time of 15s. The performance of the biosensors in a real sample matrix, serum, was evaluated and a good correlation with standard spectrophotometric clinical laboratory techniques was found.

  4. Major contribution of tubular secretion to creatinine clearance in mice

    PubMed Central

    Eisner, Christoph; Faulhaber-Walter, Robert; Wang, Yaohui; Leelahavanichkul, Asada; Yuen, Peter S.T.; Mizel, Diane; Star, Robert A.; Briggs, Josephine P.; Levine, Mark; Schnermann, Jurgen

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to quantify the fraction of excreted creatinine not attributable to creatinine filtration for accurately determining the glomerular filtration rate in mice. To measure this we compared creatinine filtration with the simultaneous measurement of inulin clearance using both single-bolus fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-inulin elimination kinetics and standard FITC-inulin infusion. During anesthesia, creatinine filtration was found to be systematically higher than inulin clearance in both male and female C57BL/6J mice. The secretion fraction was significantly less in female mice. Administration of either cimetidine or para-aminohippuric acid, competitors of organic cation and anion transport respectively, significantly reduced the secretion fraction in male and female mice and both significantly increased the plasma creatinine level. Creatinine secretion in both genders was not mediated by the organic cation transporters OCT1 or OCT 2 since secretion fraction levels were identical in FVB wild-type and OCT1/2 knockout mice. Thus, secretion accounts for about 50 and 35% of excreted creatinine in male and female mice, respectively. Increasing plasma creatinine threefold by infusion further increased the secretion fraction. Renal organic anion transporter 1 mRNA expression was higher in male than in female mice, reflecting the gender difference in creatinine secretion. Hence we show that there is a major secretory contribution to creatinine excretion mediated through the organic anion transport system. This feature adds to problems associated with measuring endogenous creatinine filtration in mice. PMID:20032962

  5. Student Admission and Attendance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majestic, Ann L.

    1988-01-01

    Considers the North Carolina statutes that define the process for admitting students to public schools and ensuring their attendance. Examines cases relating to issues of school admission and compulsory attendance. (MLF)

  6. Hospice Admission Assessment.

    PubMed

    Moon, Paul J

    2017-04-01

    Hospice admission assessment is a pivotal encounter for patient/family and hospice representative. For patient/family, the admission is the threshold by which a particular level of care can commence and, symbolically, a certain marker in health status trajectory is reached. For hospice representative, the admission episode is an occasion to inaugurate an ambience that can serve to frame future hospice care experiences for the patient/family. Through a narrative lens, hospice admission assessment can be seen as experiential time and space, where patient's and family's stories are mindfully and deliberately witnessed and explored. Through the practice of narrative mining, the hospice representative can better understand others' offered stories of reality, which will better inform the plan of palliation and hospice care.

  7. Blood Leukocyte Count on Admission Predicts Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Acute Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Dharma, Surya; Hapsari, Rosmarini; Siswanto, Bambang B; van der Laarse, Arnoud; Jukema, J Wouter

    2015-06-01

    We aim to test the hypothesis that blood leukocyte count adds prognostic information in patients with acute non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (non-STEMI). A total of 585 patients with acute non-STEMI (thrombolysis in myocardial infarction risk score ≥ 3) were enrolled in this cohort retrospective study. Blood leukocyte count was measured immediately after admission in the emergency department. The composite of death, reinfarction, urgent revascularization, and stroke during hospitalization were defined as the primary end point of the study. The mean age of the patients was 61 ± 9.6 years and most of them were male (79%). Using multivariate Cox regression analysis involving seven variables (history of smoking, hypertension, heart rate > 100 beats/minute, serum creatinine level > 1.5 mg/dL, blood leukocyte count > 11,000/µL, use of β-blocker, and use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor), leukocyte count > 11,000/µL demonstrated to be a strong predictor of the primary end point (hazard ratio = 3.028; 95% confidence interval = 1.69-5.40, p < 0.001). The high blood leukocyte count on admission is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events in patients with acute non-STEMI.

  8. Amylase/creatinine clearance ratio in diabetic ketoacidosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Boybeyi, Ozlem; Ergür, Ayça Törel; Dursun, Zarife Esra; Gülerman, Fulya

    2014-11-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) accompanies any other intra-abdominal pathology. Serum amylase/lipase levels are commonly used in order to rule out acute pancreatitis in patients having abdominal pain in DKA. A more specific and noninvasive diagnostic tool - amylase/creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) - can be used to rule out pancreatitis in patients with DKA. A 14-year-old girl was admitted with abdominal pain and nausea. She had been followed up for type 1 diabetes mellitus for the last 5 years. The serum amylase levels were increased up to 687 U/L (normal: 28-120 U/L) on the third day of hospitalization. Simultaneous serum and urinary amylase concentrations were measured, and ACCR was calculated (1.2%). The diagnosis of pancreatitis was ruled out. The serum amylase levels decreased in the following days, and she was discharged. ACCR determination is a simple and specific test to diagnose pancreatitis, especially in patients with DKA.

  9. Specific gravity and creatinine as corrections for variation in urine concentration in humans, gorillas, and woolly monkeys.

    PubMed

    White, Brent C; Jamison, Keri M; Grieb, Cassie; Lally, Drew; Luckett, Cloe; Kramer, Katie S; Phillips, Justin

    2010-12-01

    Hormones excreted in the urine are widely used to assess the physiological and psychological condition of unrestrained animals. In order to control for variation in the water concentration of urine samples, the hormone concentration is often indexed to the concentration of creatinine. Because there are several problems with using creatinine, we have investigated the efficacy of specific gravity as an alternative basis for adjusting the hormone concentration in humans, gorillas, and woolly monkeys. In an experimental manipulation of human urine hydration, ten volunteers drank a water load proportional to body weight, and provided complete urine collection and saliva samples for four consecutive 20 min intervals. From the urine, we measured cortisol (radioimmunoassay), creatinine (colorimetric assay), and specific gravity (refractometer). Only cortisol was assayed from saliva. During 80 min following water ingestion, cortisol, creatinine, and specific gravity declined as urine became diluted; however, total cortisol excretion remained constant. Only cortisol concentration indexed to specific gravity accurately reflected the consistent cortisol excretion. Specific gravity and creatinine-corrected cortisol values were highly correlated but were significantly different. Salivary cortisol provided evidence for the relative stability of serum cortisol. To determine the utility of these corrections in other primates, we compared specific gravity- and creatinine-corrected cortisol in urine samples from captive gorillas (N=16) and woolly monkeys (N=8). As with the human study, the two corrections were strongly correlated in each species, but the means were different. Specific gravity correction was superior in revealing the circadian variation in cortisol.

  10. The Admissions Equity Struggle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Eric

    2012-01-01

    It has been a long, litigious road from Heman Sweatt, an African-American mail carrier who wanted to attend the prestigious, all-White law school at the University of Texas at Austin in 1946, to Abigail Fisher, a White high school student who failed to win undergraduate admission to the same university a half-century later. Depending on what the…

  11. Distribution of creatinine following intravenous and oral administration to rats.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, J; Hirate, J; Iwamoto, K; Ozeki, S

    1981-05-01

    To evaluate the distribution of creatinine in rats, urinary, fecal and expiratory excretion, plasma levels and whole-body autoradiography following intravenous or oral administration of [carbonyl-14C]creatinine was investigated. More than 90% of the exogeneous creatinine was excreted in the urine in 24 hr following intravenous administration, and both fecal and expiratory excretion were only about 1%. In case of oral administration, however, it was found that expiratory excretion could not be neglected, ranging from about 1 to 30%. Plasma creatinine concentration-time curves following the intravenous administration (70.4 micrograms/kg or 400 mg/kg as creatinine) were analyzed according to a two-compartment open model. There were significant but very small differences in the pharmacokinetic parameters for these two doses. When these parameters were compared with those of urea, k12 and k21, which are transfer rate constants between compartment 1 and 2, for creatinine were significantly smaller than those of urea. On the other hand, k10 was larger in creatinine. Furthermore, (V'd)extrap for creatinine was about three times that of urea. Whole-body autoradiograms at 5 minutes following intravenous administration showed that exogeneous creatinine distributes with higher concentrations in liver, lung and kidney than in muscle and fat. This results was remarkably different from that of urea which distributes almost uniformly throughout the body at the same time. This difference observed in the autoradiograms would be the consequence of the fact that urea has larger k12 and k21 than creatinine.

  12. Admissions Criteria in Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwanke, Dean

    1981-01-01

    A review of the literature on the topic of admissions criteria in teacher education is presented. Bibliographic annotations review surveys, studies, models, and guidelines on various aspects of admissions criteria, as well as attracting and retaining quality students. (JN)

  13. Serum beta2-microglobulin in cadmium exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Piscator, M

    1978-09-01

    In cadmium exposed workers with renal tubular dysfunction the determination of beta2m in urine is an important diagnostic test. Cadmium exposure's influence on serum beta2m levels and its relationship to urinary excretion of beta2m were studied in 24 cadmium exposed workers with normal serum creatinine levels (less than 10 mg/l)) and no obvious tubular dysfunction. With increasing blood levels of cadmium beta2m was found to increase in serum. There was no concomitant increase in the urinary excretion of beta2m. Serum beta2m was not dependent on serum creatinine within the range studied. The results suggest that for evaluating renal glomerular function in cadmium exposed workers, it might be better to use the serum creatinine level, creatinine clearance or inulin clearance since beta2m might give some false positive results.

  14. Binding studies of creatinine and urea on iron-nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Banerji, Biswadip; Pramanik, Sumit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Kidney diseases are complicated and can be fatal. Dialysis and transplantation are the only survival solutions to the patients suffering from kidney failures. Both hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis are risky, due to the possibility of infection and these are expensive and time consuming. The development of simple and reliable technique for the clearance of creatinine and urea from the body is an important part of biotechnology. We have synthesized an iron nanoparticle (INP) and studied its binding with creatinine and urea. The DLS, TEM, AFM, FT-IR and Powder-XRD studies demonstrate strong binding of creatinine and urea to the nanoparticles. This finding may be helpful if it is used in the dialysis technologies. The proposed method may substantially decrease dialysis time and improve its quality in terms of urea and creatinine clearances.

  15. Automated measurement of urinary creatinine by multichannel kinetic spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Kirk, Andrea B; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2009-01-15

    Urinary creatinine analysis is required for clinical diagnosis, especially for evaluation of renal function. Creatinine adjustment is also widely used to estimate 24-h excretion from spot samples. Few convenient validated approaches are available for in-house creatinine measurement for small- to medium-scale studies. Here we apply the Jáffe reaction to creatinine determination with zone fluidic multichannel kinetic spectrophotometry. Diluted urine sample and reagent, alkaline picric acid, were mixed by a computer-programmed dispenser and rapidly delivered to a four-channel detection cell. The absorbance change was monitored by a flow-through light-emitting diode-photodiode-based detector. Validation results against high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV)/mass spectrometry (MS) are presented. Responses for 10-fold diluted samples were linear within clinically relevant ranges (0-250 mg/L after dilution). The system can analyze 70 samples per hour with a limit of detection of 0.76 mg/L. The relative standard deviation was 1.29% at 100 mg/L creatinine (n=225). Correlation with the HPLC (UV quantitation/MS confirmation) system was excellent (linear, r2=0.9906). The developed system allows rapid, simple, cost-effective, and robust creatinine analysis and is suitable for the analysis of large numbers of urine samples.

  16. Calibrationless determination of creatinine and ammonia by coulometric flow titration.

    PubMed

    He, Z K; Fuhrmann, B; Spohn, U

    2000-08-01

    A precise and sensitive working microflow titration procedure was developed to determine creatinine and ammonia in urine samples. This procedure is based on enzymatic conversion of creatinine, gas diffusional membrane separation of the released ammonia into an acid acceptor stream, and coulometric titration of ammonia with hypobromite. The hypobromite is formed after the electrogeneration of bromine in an electrolyte containing 1.0 M NaBr and 0.1 M sodium borate adjusted to pH 8.5. The electrolysis current follows a triangle-programmed current-time course. An amperometric flow detector records the resulting mirror symmetrical titration curves, which show two equivalence points. The analyte concentration is calculated from the time difference between the equivalence points. For quantitative conversion of creatinine and quantitative separation of present and released ammonia no calibration is necessary to get accurate results. Both ammonia/ammonium and creatinine were determined in the range between 2 microM and 2 mM with relative standard deviations between 3.0 and 1.0% (n = 5). High recoveries were obtained for the analysis of diluted urine samples for both creatinine and ammonia.

  17. Chemiluminescence of creatinine/H2O2/Co(2+) and its application for selective creatinine detection.

    PubMed

    Hanif, Saima; John, Peter; Gao, Wenyue; Saqib, Muhammad; Qi, Liming; Xu, Guobao

    2016-01-15

    Creatinine is an important biomarker in clinical diagnosis and biomonitoring programs as well as urinary metabolomic/metabonomics research. Current methods are either nonselective, time consuming or require heavy and expensive instruments. In this study, chemiluminescence of creatinine with hydrogen peroxide has been reported for the first time, and its chemiluminescence is remarkably enhanced in the presence of cobalt ions. By utilizing these phenomena, we have developed a sensitive and selective chemiluminescence method for creatinine determination by coupling with flow injection analysis. The calibration curve is linear in the range of 1×10(-7)-3×10(-5)mol/L with a limit of detection (S/N=3) of 7.2×10(-8)mol/L, which is adequate for detecting creatinine in the clinically accepted range. The relative standard deviation for seven measurements of 3×10(-5)mol/L creatinine is 1.2%. The chemiluminescence method was then utilized to detect creatinine in human urine samples after simple dilution with water. It takes less than 1min each measurement and the recoveries for spiked urine samples were 100-103%. The interference study demonstrates that some common species in urine, such as amino acids, ascorbic acid and creatine, have negligible effects on creatinine detection. The present method does not use expensive instruments, enzymes and separation technique. This method has the advantages of sensitivity, selectivity, simplicity, rapidity, and low cost. It holds great promise for basic or comprehensive metabolic panel, drug screening, anti-dopping, and urinary metabolomic/metabonomics research.

  18. The Changing College Admissions Scene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjogren, Cliff

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the status of college admissions and some of the forces that influenced college admissions policies during each of four three-year periods: the Sputnik Era (1957-60), the Postwar Baby Boom Era (1964-67), the "New Groups" Era (1971-74), and the Stable Enrollment Era (1978-81). (PGD)

  19. Optimal Admission to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albaek, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses admission decisions when students from different high school tracks apply for admission to university programmes. I derive a criterion that is optimal in the sense that it maximizes the graduation rates of the university programmes. The paper contains an empirical analysis that documents the relevance of theory and illustrates…

  20. [Plasma urea along with every plasma creatinine test?].

    PubMed

    van Zwam, Marloes; Wetzels, Jack F M; Willems, Hans L

    2013-01-01

    The concentration of plasma creatinine and the estimated glomerular filtration rate, calculated from plasma creatinine, age, weight, and gender, are used to assess kidney function. In routine clinical practice the concentration of plasma urea is often determined at the same time as the creatinine concentration. Urea is a waste product of the breakdown of amino acids and is excreted by the kidneys. Thus reduced kidney function results in a rise of blood urea. In addition, the urea concentration is determined by protein supply and catabolism. The sensitivity and specificity of urea in the diagnosis of kidney dysfunction are therefore low. In only a limited number of cases might measuring urea be helpful in determining the cause of reduced kidney function.

  1. Urine Test: Microalbumin-to-Creatinine Ratio (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... involves measuring the amount of a protein called albumin in the urine (pee). The amount of urine albumin is compared with the quantity of a waste ... steady rate, so comparing the ratio of urine albumin with creatinine in the same urine specimen helps ...

  2. Evaluating an alternative method for rapid urinary creatinine determination

    EPA Science Inventory

    Creatinine (CR) is an endogenously-produced chemical routinely assayed in urine specimens to assess kidney function, sample dilution. The industry-standard method for CR determination, known as the kinetic Jaffe (KJ) method, relies on an exponential rate of a colorimetric change,...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1225 - Creatinine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Creatinine test system. 862.1225 Section 862.1225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1225 - Creatinine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Creatinine test system. 862.1225 Section 862.1225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  5. 21 CFR 862.1225 - Creatinine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Creatinine test system. 862.1225 Section 862.1225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1225 - Creatinine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Creatinine test system. 862.1225 Section 862.1225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1225 - Creatinine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Creatinine test system. 862.1225 Section 862.1225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  8. 28 CFR 549.42 - Involuntary admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SERVICES Administrative Safeguards for Psychiatric Treatment and Medication § 549.42 Involuntary admission... voluntarily consent either to psychiatric admission or to medication, is subject to judicial...

  9. 32 CFR 242.5 - Admission procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... HEALTH SCIENCES § 242.5 Admission procedures. (a) Application—(1) Civilians. Civilians seeking admission to the School of Medicine shall make direct application following instructions published in...

  10. Urinary BDNF-to-creatinine ratio is associated with aerobic fitness.

    PubMed

    Collins, Larisa R; Koven, Nancy S

    2014-01-24

    Circulating levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are known to be affected by aerobic exercise. As the previous research focus in humans has been to examine peripheral BDNF levels through blood, serum, and platelet assay, the present study investigated the association between basal urinary BDNF concentration and indices of aerobic fitness in a sample of young adults (n=52). Aerobic fitness was evaluated with self-report of exercise habits and heart rate (HR) assessment during a sub-maximal Step Test. BDNF concentration was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and adjusted for creatinine. Results indicated that the basal BDNFlog/creatinine ratio was positively associated with greater frequency of exercise and, during aerobic challenge, a quicker rise in HR upon exercise, lower peak HR during exercise, and lower HR during the recovery period, each indicative of enhanced fitness. These results highlight the utility of urine capture as a non-invasive technique to assess for exercise-mediated changes in peripheral BDNF.

  11. Simultaneous GC-ECNICI-MS measurement of nitrite, nitrate and creatinine in human urine and plasma in clinical settings.

    PubMed

    Hanff, Erik; Lützow, Moritz; Kayacelebi, Arslan Arinc; Finkel, Armin; Maassen, Mirja; Yanchev, Georgi Radoslavov; Haghikia, Arash; Bavendiek, Udo; Buck, Anna; Lücke, Thomas; Maassen, Norbert; Tsikas, Dimitrios

    2017-03-15

    . Compared to NaCl (n=8), NaNO3 (n=9) supplementation increased UNOxR (1709±355 vs. 369±77, P<0.05). Creatinine excretion did not differ between the groups (6.67±1.34mM vs. 5.72±1.27mM, P=0.57). The method is also applicable to human plasma. In 78 adults patients newly diagnosed for cerebrovascular disease (CVD), there was a close correlation (r=0.9833) between the creatinine concentrations measured in plasma by GC-ECNICI-MS and those measured in serum by an enzymatic assay. Creatinine-corrected plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations (P=0.035 and P=0.004, respectively) but not their concentrations (P=0.68 and P=0.40, respectively) differ between male (n=54) and female (n=24) CVD patients. No such differences were found between preterm newborn boys (n=25) and girls (n=22). Like in urine, circulating creatinine may be useful to correct for gender-specific differences in plasma nitrite and nitrate in adults. Chronic NaNO3 supplementation to healthy young men does not affect renal CA-dependent nitrite excretion or creatinine synthesis and excretion.

  12. 22 CFR 229.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Admission. 229.300 Section 229.300 Foreign... and Recruitment Prohibited § 229.300 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the basis of sex, be denied admission, or be subjected to discrimination in admission, by any recipient to which §§...

  13. 22 CFR 229.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Admission. 229.300 Section 229.300 Foreign... and Recruitment Prohibited § 229.300 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the basis of sex, be denied admission, or be subjected to discrimination in admission, by any recipient to which §§...

  14. 22 CFR 146.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Admission. 146.300 Section 146.300 Foreign... Recruitment Prohibited § 146.300 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the basis of sex, be denied admission, or be subjected to discrimination in admission, by any recipient to which §§ 146.300...

  15. 10 CFR 1042.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Admission. 1042.300 Section 1042.300 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Prohibited § 1042.300 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the basis of sex, be denied admission, or be subjected to discrimination in admission, by any recipient to which §§ 1042.300 through...

  16. 44 CFR 68.9 - Admissible evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Admissible evidence. 68.9 Section 68.9 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... admissible. (b) Documentary and oral evidence shall be admissible. (c) Admissibility of non-expert...

  17. College Admissions Policies for the 1970's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Entrance Examination Board, New York, NY.

    The papers included in this collection are (1) "Problems and Issues Confronting the Admissions Community" by Clyde Vroman; (2) "Frozen Assumptions in Admissions" by B. Alden Thresher; (3) "The Effect of Federal Programs on Admissions Policies" by John F. Morse; (4) "State Plans for Higher Education and Their Influence on Admissions" by Charles W.…

  18. 45 CFR 618.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 618.300 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the basis of sex, be denied admission, or be subjected to discrimination in admission, by...

  19. UV-induced effects on chlorination of creatinine.

    PubMed

    Weng, Shih Chi; Li, Jing; Wood, Karl V; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I; Williams, Peggy E; Amundson, Lucas M; Blatchley, Ernest R

    2013-09-15

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is commonly employed for water treatment in swimming pools to complement conventional chlorination, and to reduce the concentration of inorganic chloramine compounds. The approach of combining UV irradiation and chlorination has the potential to improve water quality, as defined by microbial composition. However, relatively little is known about the effects of this process on water chemistry. To address this issue, experiments were conducted to examine the effects of sequential UV254 irradiation/chlorination, as will occur in recirculating system of swimming pools, on disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation. Creatinine, which is present in human sweat and urine, was selected as the target precursor for these experiments. Enhanced formation of dichloromethylamine (CH3NCl2) and inorganic chloramines was observed to result from post-chlorination of UV-irradiated samples. Chlorocreatinine was found to be more sensitive to UV254 irradiation than creatinine; UV254 irradiation of chlorocreatinine resulted in opening of the ring structure, thereby yielding a series of intermediates that were more susceptible to free chlorine attack than their parent compound. The quantum yields for photodegradation of creatinine and chlorocreatinine at 254 nm were estimated at 0.011 ± 0.002 mol/E and 0.144 ± 0.011 mol/E, respectively. The N-Cl bond was found to be common to UV-sensitive chlorinated compounds (e.g., inorganic chloramines, CH3NCl2, and chlorocreatinine); compounds that were less susceptible to UV-based attack generally lacked the N-Cl bond. This suggested that the N-Cl bond is susceptible to UV254 irradiation, and cleavage of the N-Cl bond appears to open or promote reaction pathways that involve free chlorine, thereby enhancing formation of some DBPs and promoting loss of free chlorine. Proposed reaction mechanisms to describe this behavior based on creatinine as a precursor are presented.

  20. FRET-Aptamer Assays for Bone Marker Assessment, C-Telopeptide, Creatinine, and Vitamin D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruno, John G.

    2013-01-01

    Astronauts lose 1.0 to 1.5% of their bone mass per month on long-duration spaceflights. NASA wishes to monitor the bone loss onboard spacecraft to develop nutritional and exercise countermeasures, and make adjustments during long space missions. On Earth, the same technology could be used to monitor osteoporosis and its therapy. Aptamers bind to targets against which they are developed, much like antibodies. However, aptamers do not require animal hosts or cell culture and are therefore easier, faster, and less expensive to produce. In addition, aptamers sometimes exhibit greater affinity and specificity vs. comparable antibodies. In this work, fluorescent dyes and quenchers were added to the aptamers to enable pushbutton, one-step, bind-and-detect fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assays or tests that can be freeze-dried, rehydrated with body fluids, and used to quantitate bone loss of vitamin D levels with a handheld fluorometer in the spacecraft environment. This work generated specific, rapid, one-step FRET assays for the bone loss marker C-telopeptide (CTx) when extracted from urine, creatinine from urine, and vitamin D congeners in diluted serum. The assays were quantified in nanograms/mL using a handheld fluorometer connected to a laptop computer to convert the raw fluorescence values into concentrations of each analyte according to linear standard curves. DNA aptamers were selected and amplified for several rounds against a 26- amino acid form of CTx, creatinine, and vitamin D. The commonalities between loop structures were studied, and several common loop structures were converted into aptamer beacons with a fluorophore and quencher on each end. In theory, when the aptamer beacon binds its cognate target (CTx bone peptide, creatinine, or vitamin D), it is forced open and no longer quenched, so it gives off fluorescent light (when excited) in proportion to the amount of target present in a sample. This proportional increase in fluorescence is

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of salivary creatinine, urea, and potassium levels to assess dialysis need in renal failure patients

    PubMed Central

    Bagalad, Bhavana S.; Mohankumar, K. P.; Madhushankari, G. S.; Donoghue, Mandana; Kuberappa, Puneeth Horatti

    2017-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of chronic renal failure is increasing because of increase in chronic debilitating diseases and progressing age of population. These patients experience accumulation of metabolic byproducts and electrolyte imbalance, which has harmful effects on their health. Timely hemodialysis at regular intervals is a life-saving procedure for these patients. Salivary diagnostics is increasingly used as an alternative to the traditional methods. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the diagnostic efficacy of saliva in chronic renal failure patients. Materials and Methods: This case–control study included 82 individuals, of which 41 were chronic renal failure patients and 41 were age- and sex-matched controls. Blood and saliva were collected and centrifuged. Serum and supernatant saliva were used for biochemical analysis. Serum and salivary urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium, calcium, and phosphorus were evaluated and correlated in chronic renal failure patients using unpaired t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, diagnostic validity tests, and receiver operative curve. Results: When compared to serum; salivary urea, creatinine, sodium, and potassium showed diagnostic accuracy of 93%, 91%, 73%, and 89%, respectively, based on the findings of study. Conclusion: It can be concluded that salivary investigation is a dependable, noninvasive, noninfectious, simple, and quick method for screening the mineral and metabolite values of high-risk patients and monitoring the renal failure patients.

  2. Direct determination of creatinine based on poly(ethyleneimine)/phosphotungstic acid multilayer modified electrode.

    PubMed

    Han, Ping; Xu, Shimei; Feng, Shun; Hao, Yanjun; Wang, Jide

    2016-05-01

    In this work, the direct determination of creatinine was achieved using a poly(ethyleneimine)/phosphotungstic acid multilayer modified electrode with the assistance of Copper(II) ions by cyclic voltammetry. The quantity of creatinine were determined by measuring the redox peak current of Cu(II)-creatinine complex/Cu(I)-creatinine complex. Factors affecting the response current of creatinine at the modified electrode were optimized. A linear relationship between the response current and the concentration of creatinine ranging from 0.125 to 62.5μM was obtained with a detection limit of 0.06μM. The proposed method was applied to determine creatinine in human urine, and satisfied results were gotten which was validated in accordance with high performance liquid chromatography. The proposed electrode provided a promising alternative in routine sensing for creatinine without enzymatic assistance.

  3. [Validation of plasma creatinine measurement on UniCel DxC 600 according to LAB GTA 04 recommendation].

    PubMed

    Chianea, Denis; Renard, Christophe; Garcia, Carine; Mbongo, Elvire; Monpeurt, Corine; Vest, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    The accreditation process, according to NF EN ISO 15189, implies a prior evaluation of the new reagent on-site for the implementation of each new assay technique. Thus, our new standardized method for determination of creatinine (non compensated method) in plasma or serum on UniCel DxC 600 (Beckman Coulter) has been tested according to LAB GTA 04 protocol. The reagent meets the quality criteria recommended by Valtec protocol, except fidelity with the low concentration standard (50 micromol/L). Besides there is no problem of results transferability with the two other techniques used in the laboratory (Jaffe compensated and enzymatic methods performed on Cobas Integra 800).

  4. Renal scintigraphy predicts global cardiovascular risk in hypertensive subjects with normal serum creatinine levels.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Alberto; Rampin, Lucia; Montemurro, Domenico; Schiavon, Laura; Zuin, Marco; Grassetto, Gaia; Chondrogiannis, Sotirios; Al-Nahhas, Adil; Ramazzina, Emilio; Rubello, Domenico

    2011-12-01

    BACKGROUND. This cross-sectional study investigates the role of renal scintigraphy on cardiovascular (CV) risk stratification in normoalbuminuric, non-diabetic hypertensive subjects (HTs) free from CV disease and renal dysfunction. METHODS. In 200 HTs aged 55-75 years, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured by technetium-99m-diethylene triamine pentacetic acid clearance during renal scintigraphy. Stage III chronic kidney disease (CKD) was defined as GFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2). For comparing the impact of different methods for CKD diagnosis on CV risk stratification, CKD was also considered as GFR estimated by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation and Cockcroft-Gault's formula. Target organ damage (TOD) was assessed by echocardiography and carotid ultrasonography. Gender-specific odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals for CKD were derived from a multiple stepwise logistic regression analysis. Global CV risk was stratified according to routine examinations, TOD and CKD. RESULTS. In 38% of cases, an unknown stage III CKD was found. Independent of age, CKD was predicted by history of hypertension (OR = 1.69, p = 0.0001), albuminuria (OR = 1.25, p = 0.0001), smoking (OR = 1.85, p = 0.028) and pulse pressure (OR = 1.21, p = 0.019) in men only. Men had an increased risk of CKD (OR = 2.62, p = 0.002) in comparison with women. Prevalence of TOD was significantly higher only in HTs having CKD diagnosed by renal scintigraphy; TOD and CKD assessment added to classic risk factors modified the CV risk stratification from low-moderate to high and very high. CONCLUSIONS. Renal scintigraphy is an important aid in risk stratification and should be performed in HTs aged >55 years. Pulse pressure was the main blood pressure component that predicted the risk of stage III CKD.

  5. Validation of creatinine assays utilizing HPLC and IDMS traceable standards in sera of children.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, George J; Kwong, Tai; Erway, Brian; Warady, Bradley; Sokoll, Lori; Hellerstein, Stanley; Dharnidharka, Vikas; Furth, Susan; Muñoz, Alvaro

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate serum creatinine (SCr) concentrations assayed in the Central Biochemistry Laboratory of the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) study utilizing an enzymatic assay (Siemens Advia 2400) against a method traceable to reference isotope dilution mass spectroscopy (IDMS) developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) measured SCr after external validation utilizing IDMS-based standard reference materials. Sera from the first 201 subjects enrolled in CKiD were analyzed and compared for creatinine concentration by enzymatic and HPLC methods. Fifty "normal" pediatric sera were subsequently analyzed. Finally, a "pediatric" reference standard was prepared and examined for accuracy and precision. Enzymatic SCr concentrations (median 1.4 mg/dl) of CKiD subjects were well correlated with HPLC (r = 0.984) but were slightly higher (+7%; p < 0.001). Agreement was poorer at lower SCr (median 0.4 mg/dl) when using samples from normal children and the "pediatric" reference standard. However, the Roche enzymatic assay was comparable with HPLC in accuracy and precision. Referring physicians should be aware of the accuracy and reproducibility of their laboratory's SCr assay. Our enzymatic assay agreed well with HPLC in CKiD subjects with elevated SCr. We suggest that NIST develop a pediatric SCr standard reference material for use by assay manufacturers to improve accuracy and precision of assays at the low SCr levels observed in most pediatric patients.

  6. 32 CFR 242.5 - Admission procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... HEALTH SCIENCES § 242.5 Admission procedures. (a) Application—(1) Civilians. Civilians seeking admission... conditionally select candidates to fill available class spaces. Those conditionally selected shall be the...

  7. Detection of urinary creatinine using gold nanoparticles after solid phase extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sittiwong, Jarinya; Unob, Fuangfa

    2015-03-01

    Label-free gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were utilized in the detection of creatinine in human urine after a sample preparation by extraction of creatinine on sulfonic acid functionalized silica gel. With the proposed sample preparation method, the interfering effects of the urine matrix on creatinine detection by AuNPs were eliminated. Parameters affecting creatinine extraction were investigated. The aggregation of AuNPs induced by creatinine resulted in a change in the surface plasmon resonance signal with a concomitant color change that could be observed by the naked eye and quantified spectrometrically. The effect of AuNP concentration and reaction time on AuNP aggregation was investigated. The method described herein provides a determination of creatinine in a range of 15-40 mg L-1 with a detection limit of 13.7 mg L-1 and it was successfully used in the detection of creatinine in human urine samples.

  8. 18 CFR 1317.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Admission. 1317.300 Section 1317.300 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION ON... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 1317.300 Admission. (a) General....

  9. 18 CFR 1317.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Admission. 1317.300 Section 1317.300 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION ON... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 1317.300 Admission. (a) General....

  10. 38 CFR 23.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Admission. 23.300 Section 23.300 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 23.300 Admission. (a) General....

  11. 18 CFR 1317.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Admission. 1317.300 Section 1317.300 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION ON... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 1317.300 Admission. (a) General....

  12. 36 CFR 1211.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Admission. 1211.300 Section 1211.300 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL RULES... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 1211.300 Admission. (a) General....

  13. An Economic Model for Selective Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haglund, Alma

    1978-01-01

    The author presents an economic model for selective admissions to postsecondary nursing programs. Primary determinants of the admissions model are employment needs, availability of educational resources, and personal resources (ability and learning potential). As there are more applicants than resources, selective admission practices are…

  14. 17 CFR 12.33 - Admissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... REPARATIONS Discovery § 12.33 Admissions. (a) Request for admissions. Any party may, within the time permitted... truth of any matters set forth in the request that relate to statements or opinions of fact or of the...) Reply. Each matter of which an admission is requested shall be separately set forth. The matter...

  15. Admission to Medical Education in Ten Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burn, Barbara B., Ed.

    As part of a study of access and admission to higher education in Germany and the United States, a group of papers on medical admissions in various countries was commissioned. The papers presented in this book reveal wide differences in admissions policies and procedures. Barbara Burn examines some of the major issues in a foreword: representation…

  16. The Journal of College Admission Ethics Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveland, Elaina C., Ed.; Raynor, Joyce, Ed.

    This book is the first significant body of literature on ethics in college admission published by the National Association for College Admission Counseling. The series is a select compilation of articles on ethics published in the Journal of College Admission in 1998 and 1999. The book is a source of information for the beginning and experienced…

  17. Reducing admissions for people with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Allan, Belinda

    Reversing the rise in emergency hospital admissions is an NHS priority. These admissions impact on elective capacity and waiting times and are unsustainable. The risk of hospitalisation for people with diabetes is almost twice that for others. Commissioners need to address admissions associated with diabetes and new guidance offers best-practice solutions.

  18. The Role of Noncognitive Assessment in Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoerle, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Confident that understanding and employing new approaches to assessment is a top priority for admissions professionals, the Secondary School Admission Test Board (SSATB) recently launched a Think Tank on the Future of Admission Assessment, with a two-year timeline and a charge to educate its membership and inspire greater innovation in admissions…

  19. Merit and Competition in Selective College Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killgore, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    Using interview data from 34 admissions officers at 17 elite colleges, this paper compares two perspectives shaping admissions policy. Admissions officers apply a "merit" perspective that relies on indicators of student academic and nonacademic achievement. They also employ a "competition" perspective that evaluates student characteristics…

  20. Toward a Sociology of Law School Admissions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erlanger, Howard S.

    1984-01-01

    The law school admission process plays a major role in determining the social class origins and ethnic composition of the bar, and perhaps also the nonlegal skills lawyers will have. Research is incomplete; consideration of admission criteria, the composition and processes of admissions committees, and applicant self-selection is advisable. (MSE)

  1. 29 CFR 36.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 36.300 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the basis of sex, be denied admission, or...

  2. 10 CFR 1042.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 1042.300 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the basis of sex, be denied admission,...

  3. 10 CFR 1042.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 1042.300 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the basis of sex, be denied admission,...

  4. 29 CFR 36.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 36.300 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the basis of sex, be denied admission, or...

  5. 29 CFR 36.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 36.300 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the basis of sex, be denied admission, or...

  6. 7 CFR 501.2 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Admission. 501.2 Section 501.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER, NEBRASKA § 501.2 Admission. Admission to...

  7. 7 CFR 501.2 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Admission. 501.2 Section 501.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER, NEBRASKA § 501.2 Admission. Admission to...

  8. 7 CFR 501.2 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Admission. 501.2 Section 501.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER, NEBRASKA § 501.2 Admission. Admission to...

  9. 7 CFR 501.2 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Admission. 501.2 Section 501.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER, NEBRASKA § 501.2 Admission. Admission to...

  10. 7 CFR 501.2 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Admission. 501.2 Section 501.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER, NEBRASKA § 501.2 Admission. Admission to...

  11. The Evolution of College Admission Requirements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, Andrew V.

    2012-01-01

    The development of college admissions requirements during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was basically the story of the admission policies and practices at Harvard College. Candidates for admission were examined on their ability to read and translate Latin and Greek, and a careful check was made of their character and background. With…

  12. Equivalences between nonuniform exponential dichotomy and admissibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Linfeng; Lu, Kening; Zhang, Weinian

    2017-01-01

    Relationship between exponential dichotomies and admissibility of function classes is a significant problem for hyperbolic dynamical systems. It was proved that a nonuniform exponential dichotomy implies several admissible pairs of function classes and conversely some admissible pairs were found to imply a nonuniform exponential dichotomy. In this paper we find an appropriate admissible pair of classes of Lyapunov bounded functions which is equivalent to the existence of nonuniform exponential dichotomy on half-lines R± separately, on both half-lines R± simultaneously, and on the whole line R. Additionally, the maximal admissibility is proved in the case on both half-lines R± simultaneously.

  13. Creatinine biomaterial thin films grown by laser techniques.

    PubMed

    György, E; Axente, E; Mihailescu, I N; Predoi, D; Ciuca, S; Neamtu, J

    2008-03-01

    Creatinine thin films were synthesised by matrix assisted pulsed laser deposition (PLD) techniques for enzyme-based biosensor applications. An UV KrF* (lambda=248 nm, tau approximately 10 ns) excimer laser source was used for the irradiation of the targets at incident fluence values in the 0.3-0.5 J/cm2 range. For the matrix assisted PLD the targets consisted on a frozen composite obtained by dissolving the biomaterials in distilled water. The surface morphology, chemical composition and structure of the obtained biomaterial thin films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy as a function of the target preparation procedure and incident laser fluence.

  14. Serum Cystatin C for the Diagnosis of Acute Kidney Injury in Patients Admitted in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Bongiovanni, Cristina; Magrini, Laura; Salerno, Gerardo; Gori, Chiara Serena; Cardelli, Patrizia; Hur, Mina; Buggi, Marco; Di Somma, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Background. Early diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI) at emergency department (ED) is a challenging issue. Current diagnostic criteria for AKI poorly recognize early renal dysfunction and may cause delayed diagnosis. We evaluated the use of serum cystatin C (CysC) for the early and accurate diagnosis of AKI in patients hospitalized from the ED. Methods. In a total of 198 patients (105 males and 93 females), serum CysC, serum creatinine (sCr), and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were calculated at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after presentation to the ED. We compared two groups according to the presence or absence of AKI. Results. Serial assessment of CysC, sCr, and eGFR was not a strong, reliable tool to distinguish AKI from non-AKI. CysC > 1.44 mg/L at admission, both alone (Odds Ratio = 5.04; 95%CI 2.20–11.52; P < 0.0002) and in combination with sCr and eGFR (Odds Ratio = 5.71; 95%CI 1.86–17.55; P < 0.002), was a strong predictor for the risk of AKI. Conclusions. Serial assessment of CysC is not superior to sCr and eGFR in distinguishing AKI from non-AKI. Admission CysC, both alone and in combination with sCr and eGFR, could be considered a powerful tool for the prediction of AKI in ED patients. PMID:26170529

  15. Urine Protein/Creatinine Ratios during Labor: A Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Tanamai, Vaya W.; Seagle, Brandon-Luke L.; Yeh, Judy Y.; Brady, Bethany; Miller, Corrie B.; Sena, Salvador; Dodge, Jessica; Shahabi, Shohreh; Samuelson, Robert; Norwitz, Errol R.; Luo, Guoyang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the utility of urine protein/creatinine ratio (uPCR) measurements among healthy parturients at term we performed a prospective cohort study at a community teaching hospital. Methods Serial urine samples were collected. Ninety-three women contributed 284 urine samples. uPCRs were determined. Multiple imputation and paired sampled analysis was performed when appropriate. Results Two-thirds (63/93) of women had at least one measured uPCR ≥ 0.3. One-third (31/93) had a uPCR ≥ 0.3 at admission, including 39.1% (9/23) of women not in labor. Median (IQR) uPCRs increased during labor and after delivery: latent phase/no labor, 0.15 (0.06–0.32); active phase, 0.29 (0.10–0.58); early postpartum, 0.45 (0.18–1.36) (all p < 0.04). Median uPCRs were significantly < 0.3 in the latent phase and significantly > 0.3 in the immediate postpartum period (p < 0.01). Women who labored before cesarean delivery had the highest early postpartum uPCRs: median (IQR) 1.16 (0.39–1.80). A negative urine dipstick protein result did not exclude uPCR ≥ 0.3. uPCRs were similar when compared by method of urine collection. Conclusion uPCR ≥ 0.3 is common among healthy women with uncomplicated pregnancies at term. uPCR increases during labor and is not a reliable measure of pathologic proteinuria at term or during the peripartum period. PMID:27479123

  16. Impact of decreased serum albumin levels on acute kidney injury in patients with acute decompensated heart failure: a potential association of atrial natriuretic peptide.

    PubMed

    Takaya, Yoichi; Yoshihara, Fumiki; Yokoyama, Hiroyuki; Kanzaki, Hideaki; Kitakaze, Masafumi; Goto, Yoichi; Anzai, Toshihisa; Yasuda, Satoshi; Ogawa, Hisao; Kawano, Yuhei; Kangawa, Kenji

    2017-02-07

    Although hypoalbuminemia at admission is a risk for acute kidney injury (AKI) and mortality in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF), the clinical significance of decreased serum albumin levels (DAL) during ADHF therapy has not been elucidated. This study aimed to evaluate whether DAL was associated with AKI, and whether intravenous atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) administration, which provides an effective treatment for ADHF but promotes albumin extravasation, was associated with DAL and AKI. A total of 231 consecutive patients with ADHF were enrolled. AKI was defined as ≥0.3 mg/dl absolute or 1.5-fold increase in serum creatinine levels within 48 h. AKI occurred in 73 (32%) of the 231 patients during ADHF therapy. The median value of decreases in serum albumin levels was 0.3 g/dl at 7 days after admission. When DAL was defined as ≥0.3 g/dl decrease in serum albumin levels, DAL occurred in 113 patients, and was independently associated with AKI. Of the 231 patients, 73 (32%) were treated with intravenous ANP. DAL occurred more frequently in patients receiving ANP than in those not receiving ANP (77 vs. 36%, p < 0.001), and ANP was independently associated with DAL. The incidence of AKI was higher in patients receiving ANP than in those not receiving ANP (48 vs. 24%, p < 0.001). ANP was independently associated with AKI. In conclusion, DAL is associated with AKI. Intravenous ANP administration may be one of the promoting factors of DAL, which leads to AKI, indicating a possible novel mechanism of AKI.

  17. Infrared spectra of Pt(II) creatinine complexes. Normal coordinate analysis of creatinine and Pt(creat) 2(NO 2) 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trendafilova, N.; Kurbakova, A. P.; Efimenko, I. A.; Mitewa, M.; Bontchev, P. R.

    Infrared spectra of creatinine (H 3CNC(NH)NHCOCH 2) (creat), cis-Pt(creat) 2(NO 2) 2 and Pt(creat) 4(CIO 4) 2 have been recorded in the range 50-4000 cm -1. The fundamental vibrations for the creatinine molecule were assigned by normal coordinate analysis in the generalized valence force field approximation. The spectrum of cis-Pt(creat) 2(NO 2) 2 was interpreted by comparison with the creatinine vibrational modes. Additionally the Pt(creat) 4(ClO 4) 2 infrared spectrum has been involved to help the assignment.

  18. Adherence to guidelines for creatinine and potassium monitoring and discontinuation following renin–angiotensin system blockade: a UK general practice-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Morten; Bhaskaran, Krishnan; Nitsch, Dorothea; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Smeeth, Liam; Tomlinson, Laurie A

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To examine adherence to serum creatinine and potassium monitoring and discontinuation guidelines following initiation of treatment with ACE inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs); and whether high-risk patients are monitored. Design A general practice-based cohort study using electronic health records from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink and Hospital Episode Statistics. Setting UK primary care, 2004–2014. Subjects 223 814 new ACEI/ARB users. Main outcome measures Proportion of patients with renal function monitoring before and after ACEI/ARB initiation; creatinine increase ≥30% or potassium levels >6 mmol/L at first follow-up monitoring; and treatment discontinuation after such changes. Using logistic regression models, we also examined patient characteristics associated with these biochemical changes, and with follow-up monitoring within the guideline recommendation of 2 weeks after treatment initiation. Results 10% of patients had neither baseline nor follow-up monitoring of creatinine within 12 months before and 2 months after initiation of an ACEI/ARB, 28% had monitoring only at baseline, 15% only at follow-up, and 47% both at baseline and follow-up. The median period between the most recent baseline monitoring and drug initiation was 40 days (IQR 12–125 days). 34% of patients had baseline creatinine monitoring within 1 month before initiating therapy, but <10% also had the guideline-recommended follow-up test recorded within 2 weeks. Among patients experiencing a creatinine increase ≥30% (n=567, 1.2%) or potassium level >6 mmol/L (n=191, 0.4%), 80% continued treatment. Although patients with prior myocardial infarction, hypertension or baseline potassium >5 mmol/L were at high risk of ≥30% increase in creatinine after ACEI/ARB initiation, there was no evidence that they were more frequently monitored. Conclusions Only one-tenth of patients initiating ACEI/ARB therapy receive the guideline

  19. REFERENCE RANGE FOR SERUM PARATHYROID HORMONE

    PubMed Central

    Aloia, John F.; Feuerman, Martin; Yeh, James K.

    2006-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the reference range for parathyroid hormone (PTH) should be lowered (from 65 pg/mL to a proposed value of 46 pg/mL) with use of the Allegro radioimmunometric assay. Methods We examined the reference range for PTH, adjusted for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), in 503 healthy African American and white women, who were 20 to 80 years old. We also analyzed other factors that are thought to influence PTH levels. Results Univariate predictors of PTH were identified, and a multivariate model was developed with use of the variables and PTH. Serum PTH was significantly higher in black study subjects than in white study subjects (P<0.02). Increasing PTH was also significantly correlated with increasing body mass index, age, and serum creatinine and with decreasing dietary calcium intake and serum 25-OHD levels. A stepwise multiple linear regression analysis yielded the following predictors of PTH: body mass index (R2 = 9.4%), age (R2 = 1.0%), and serum 25-OHD (R2 = 0.8%). In our study population, many PTH values were above the proposed new upper limit of 46 pg/mL. Conclusion The upper limit of the reference range for serum PTH should not be changed. Factors to be considered in analysis of serum PTH values in the upper reference range in patients with normocalcemia include obesity, race, 25-OHD levels, advanced age, serum creatinine, and dietary calcium intake. PMID:16690460

  20. Predicting AKI in emergency admissions: an external validation study of the acute kidney injury prediction score (APS)

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, L E; Dimitrov, B D; Roderick, P J; Venn, R; Forni, L G

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Hospital-acquired acute kidney injury (HA-AKI) is associated with a high risk of mortality. Prediction models or rules may identify those most at risk of HA-AKI. This study externally validated one of the few clinical prediction rules (CPRs) derived in a general medicine cohort using clinical information and data from an acute hospitals electronic system on admission: the acute kidney injury prediction score (APS). Design, setting and participants External validation in a single UK non-specialist acute hospital (2013–2015, 12 554 episodes); four cohorts: adult medical and general surgical populations, with and without a known preadmission baseline serum creatinine (SCr). Methods Performance assessed by discrimination using area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCROC) and calibration. Results HA-AKI incidence within 7 days (kidney disease: improving global outcomes (KDIGO) change in SCr) was 8.1% (n=409) of medical patients with known baseline SCr, 6.6% (n=141) in those without a baseline, 4.9% (n=204) in surgical patients with baseline and 4% (n=49) in those without. Across the four cohorts AUCROC were: medical with known baseline 0.65 (95% CIs 0.62 to 0.67) and no baseline 0.71 (0.67 to 0.75), surgical with baseline 0.66 (0.62 to 0.70) and no baseline 0.68 (0.58 to 0.75). For calibration, in medicine and surgical cohorts with baseline SCr, Hosmer-Lemeshow p values were non-significant, suggesting acceptable calibration. In the medical cohort, at a cut-off of five points on the APS to predict HA-AKI, positive predictive value was 16% (13–18%) and negative predictive value 94% (93–94%). Of medical patients with HA-AKI, those with an APS ≥5 had a significantly increased risk of death (28% vs 18%, OR 1.8 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.9), p=0.015). Conclusions On external validation the APS on admission shows moderate discrimination and acceptable calibration to predict HA-AKI and may be useful as a severity marker when HA-AKI occurs

  1. 24h Urinary Protein Levels and Urine Protein/Creatinine Ratios Could Probably Forecast the Pathological Classification of HSPN

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Qing; Shang, Shi-qiang; Liu, Ai-min; Zhang, Ting; Shen, Hong-qiang; Chen, Xue-jun; Mao, Jian-hua

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the relevance of laboratory tests in Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN) classification, and determine accurate classification factors. This prospective study included 694 HSPN patients who underwent ultrasound-guided percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB). Renal specimens were scored according to International Study of Kidney Disease in Children (ISKDC) classification. Meanwhile, blood samples were immediately collected for laboratory examination. The associations between laboratory parameters and HSPN classification were assessed. Significant differences in levels of serum Th1/Th2 cytokines, immunoglobulins, T-lymphocyte subsets, complement, and coagulation markers were obtained between HSPN patients and healthy children. Interestingly, 24h urinary protein (24h-UPRO) levels and urine protein/urine creatinine ratios could determine HPSN grade IIb, IIIa, and IIIb incidences, with areas under ROC curve of 0.767 and 0.731, respectively. At 24h-UPRO >580.35mg/L, prediction sensitivity and specificity were 75.2% and 70.0%, respectively. These values became 53.0% and 82.3%, respectively, with 24h-UPRO exceeding 1006.25mg/L. At urine protein/urine creatinine > 0.97, prediction sensitivity and specificity were 65.5% and 67.2%, respectively, values that became 57.4% and 80.0%, respectively, at ratios exceeding 1.2. Cell and humoral immunity, coagulation and fibrinolytic systems are all involved in the pathogenesis of HSPN, and type I hypersensitivity may be the disease trigger of HSPN. 24h-UPRO levels and urine protein/creatinine ratios could probably forecast the pathological classification of HSPN. PMID:25996387

  2. 45 CFR 2555.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Admission. 2555.300 Section 2555.300 Public... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 2555.300 Admission. (a) General. No..., by any recipient to which §§ 2555.300 through 2555.310 apply, except as provided in §§ 2555.225...

  3. 6 CFR 17.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Admission. 17.300 Section 17.300 Domestic... in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 17.300 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the... which §§ 17.300 through 17.310 apply, except as provided in §§ 17.225 and 17.230. (b)...

  4. 40 CFR 5.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Admission. 5.300 Section 5.300... in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 5.300 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the basis... which §§ 5.300 through §§ 5.310 apply, except as provided in §§ 5.225 and 5.230. (b)...

  5. 15 CFR 8a.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Admission. 8a.300 Section 8a.300... in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 8a.300 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the... which §§ 8a.300 through §§ 8a.310 apply, except as provided in §§ 8a.225 and §§ 8a.230. (b)...

  6. 45 CFR 2555.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Admission. 2555.300 Section 2555.300 Public... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 2555.300 Admission. (a) General. No..., by any recipient to which §§ 2555.300 through 2555.310 apply, except as provided in §§ 2555.225...

  7. 14 CFR 1253.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Admission. 1253.300 Section 1253.300... in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 1253.300 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the... which §§ 1253.300 through §§ 1253.310 apply, except as provided in §§ 1253.225 and §§ 1253.230....

  8. Effect of creatinine and specific gravity normalization on urinary biomarker 1,6-hexamethylene diamine.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Linda G T; Fent, Kenneth W; Flack, Sheila L; Thomasen, Jennifer M; Ball, Louise M; Zhou, Haibo; Whittaker, Stephen G; Nylander-French, Leena A

    2010-03-01

    Urine amine levels used as biomarkers of diisocyanate exposure have usually been normalized with creatinine concentration. The suitability of using creatinine concentration or specific gravity for these biomarkers in exposure assessment has not been established. We investigated the effect of creatinine concentration and specific gravity on urine 1,6-hexamethylene diamine (HDA) levels in multiple mixed linear regression models using quantitative dermal and inhalation exposure data derived from a survey of automotive spray painters occupationally exposed to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI). Painters' dermal and breathing-zone HDI exposure were monitored for an entire workday for up to three workdays spaced approximately one month apart. One urine sample was collected before the start of work with HDI-containing paints, and multiple samples were collected throughout the workday. Both creatinine concentration and specific gravity were highly significant predictors (p < 0.0001) of urine HDA levels. When these two were used together in the same model, creatinine remained highly significant (p < 0.0001), but specific gravity decreased in significance (p-values 0.10-0.17). We used different individual factors to determine which affected creatinine and specific gravity. Urine collection time was a highly significant predictor of specific gravity (p = 0.003) and creatinine concentration (p = 0.001). Smoker status was significant (p = 0.026) in the creatinine model. The findings indicate that creatinine concentration is more appropriate to account for urine water content than specific gravity and that creatinine is best used as an independent variable in HDI exposure assessment models instead of traditional urine normalization with creatinine concentration.

  9. Impact of creatinine production on the agreement between glomerular filtration rate estimates using cystatin C-derived, and 4- and 6-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD), and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations

    PubMed Central

    Hermida-Cadahia, Esperanza F.; Lampon, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    Background. It has recently been reported that patient selection has a strong impact on the agreement between glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimates from serum cystatin C and creatinine. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of creatinine production rate (CPR) on this subject. Material and methods. GFR was estimated from serum cystatin C and from creatinine using the 4- and 6-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD), and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations in 50 healthy subjects, 43 patients with renal failure, 794 kidney and 104 liver transplant recipients, 61 patients with heart failure, 59 patients with biliary obstruction, and 113 critically ill patients. Results. In the 295 patients with impaired CPR (< 900 mg/24 h/1.73 m2), discordances of more than 40% between GFRMDRD4 and GFRcystatinC were observed in 38% of cases, between GFRMDRD6 and GFRcystatinC in 22%, and between GFRCKD-EPI and GFRcystatinC in 27% (in all cases due to GFR overestimation from creatinine). In the 929 patients with maintained CPR (> 900 mg/24 h/1.73 m2), greater discordances than 40% between GFRMDRD4 and GFRcystatinC were observed in 8% of cases, between GFRMDRD6 and GFRcystatinC in 9%, and between GFRCKD-EPI and GFRcystatinC in 7% (in the major part of cases due to GFR overestimation from cystatin C). Conclusion. The main source of differences of more than 40% between GFR estimates from serum creatinine and cystatin C is a GFR overestimation in patients with low CPR and GFR underestimation in patients with high CPR by the creatinine-derived equations. PMID:22746300

  10. Temporal variation in major trauma admissions

    PubMed Central

    Kieffer, WKM; Michalik, DV; Gallagher, K; McFadyen, I; Bernard, J; Rogers, BA

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Trauma is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the UK. Since the inception of the trauma networks, little is known of the temporal pattern of trauma admissions. Methods Trauma Audit and Research Network data for 1 April 2011 to 31 March 2013 were collated from two large major trauma centres (MTCs) in the South East of England: Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust (BSUH) and St George's University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (SGU). The number of admissions and the injury severity score by time of admission, by weekdays versus weekend and by month/season were analysed. Results There were 1,223 admissions at BSUH and 1,241 at SGU. There was significant variation by time of admission; there were more admissions in the afternoons (BSUH p<0.001) and evenings (SGU p<0.001). There were proportionally more admissions at the weekends than on weekdays (BSUH p<0.001, SGU p=0.028). There was significant seasonal variation in admissions at BSUH (p<0.001) with more admissions in summer and autumn. No significant seasonal variation was observed at SGU (p=0.543). Conclusions The temporal patterns observed were different for each MTC with important implications for resource planning of trauma care. This study identified differing needs for different MTCs and resource planning should be individualised to the network. PMID:26741676

  11. Automated urinalysis technique determines concentration of creatine and creatinine by colorimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rho, J. H.

    1967-01-01

    Continuous urinalysis technique is useful in the study of muscle wastage in primates. Creatinine concentration in urine is determined in an aliquot mixture by a color reaction. Creatine is determined in a second aliquot by converting it to creatinine and measuring the difference in color intensity between the two aliquots.

  12. Relationship between blood urea, protein, creatinine, triglycerides and macro-mineral concentrations with the quality and quantity of milk in dairy Holstein cows

    PubMed Central

    Nozad, Shahram; Ramin, Ali-Gholi; Moghadam, Gholamali; Asri-Rezaei, Siamak; Babapour, Azadeh; Ramin, Sina

    2012-01-01

    Seventy six high and low producer cows were selected to determine the composition of the blood and milk parameters, and their interrelationships to determine the indices which could be useful to improve the milk yield. The highest mean blood concentrations were found in high producer cows. Mean values for blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum protein (SPtn), creatinine, triglycerides (TGs), cholesterol, and beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHB) were 25.10 mg dL-1, 10.15 g dL-1, 0.81, 62.30, 177.10 and 0.16 mmol L-1, and for macro-minerals including SCa, SMg, serum in-organic phosphorus (SIP), SNa and SK were 3.85, 2.66, 4.63, 108.00 and 4.34 mmol L-1, respectively. The highest concentrations for milk parameters, were observed in the high producers, and were significant only for MCa, MIP and MMg. Mean values for milk urea nitrogen (MUN), milk protein (MPtn) and lactose were 19.90 mg dL-1, 0.39 g dL-1, and 4.12% and for macro-minerals, 13.24, 3.88, 11.03, 73.30 and 16.90 mmol L-1, respectively. There were significant positive correlations between the blood and milk parameters except for creatinine/BHB, TGs/cholesterol and MNa/MK which were not significant. The correlations between the blood parameters were greater than in the milk parameters. Creatinine and SPtn, MUN and MPtn were the main parameters in that the relationships between MPtn with BUN, SPtn and creatinine were more noticeable than others. The regression analysis showed that BUN with the SIP and creatinine, MPtn with the BUN and creatinine and MUN with the SIP and SMg were the appropriate parameters in improvement studies related to the milk yield. In conclusion, BUN, SPtn, MUN and MPtn concentrations are the most effective indices for predicting the preferred milk yield. PMID:25653747

  13. Investigation into the reasons for preventable drug related admissions to a medical admissions unit: observational study

    PubMed Central

    Howard, R; Avery, A; Howard, P; Partridge, M

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To describe the drugs and types of medicine management problems most frequently associated with preventable drug related admissions to an acute medical admissions unit. Design: Observation study. Setting: Medical admissions unit in a teaching hospital in Nottingham, UK. Participants: 4093 patients seen by pharmacists on the medical admissions unit between 1 January and 30 June 2001. Main outcome measures: Proportion of admissions that were drug related and preventable, classification of the underlying causes of preventable drug related admissions, and identification of drugs most commonly associated with preventable drug related admissions. Results: Of the admissions seen by pharmacists, 265 (6.5%) were judged to be drug related and 178 (67%) of these were judged to be preventable. Preventable admissions were mainly due to problems with prescribing (63 cases (35%)), monitoring (46 cases (26%)), and adherence to medication (53 cases (30%)). The drugs most commonly implicated were NSAIDs, antiplatelets, antiepileptics, hypoglycaemics, diuretics, inhaled corticosteroids, cardiac glycosides, and beta-blockers. Conclusions: Potentially preventable drug related morbidity was associated with 4.3% of admissions to a medical admissions unit. In 91% of cases these admissions were related to problems with either prescribing, monitoring, or adherence. PMID:12897361

  14. 28 CFR 54.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 54.300 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the basis of sex, be...

  15. 14 CFR 1253.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex... basis of sex, be denied admission, or be subjected to discrimination in admission, by any recipient...

  16. Lexical Profiles of Thailand University Admission Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherngchawano, Wirun; Jaturapitakkul, Natjiree

    2014-01-01

    University Admission Tests in Thailand are important documents which reflect Thailand's education system. To study at a higher education level, all students generally need to take the University Admission Tests designed by the National Institute of Educational Testing Service (NIETS). For the English test, vocabulary and reading comprehension is…

  17. 7 CFR 15a.21 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Admission. 15a.21 Section 15a.21 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited §...

  18. 7 CFR 15a.21 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Admission. 15a.21 Section 15a.21 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited §...

  19. 45 CFR 618.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on... shall, on the basis of sex, be denied admission, or be subjected to discrimination in admission, by...

  20. 45 CFR 618.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on... shall, on the basis of sex, be denied admission, or be subjected to discrimination in admission, by...

  1. 45 CFR 618.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on... shall, on the basis of sex, be denied admission, or be subjected to discrimination in admission, by...

  2. 7 CFR 503.2 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Admission. 503.2 Section 503.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.2 Admission. No person will be admitted to PIADC,...

  3. 7 CFR 503.2 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Admission. 503.2 Section 503.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.2 Admission. No person will be admitted to PIADC,...

  4. 7 CFR 503.2 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Admission. 503.2 Section 503.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.2 Admission. No person will be admitted to PIADC,...

  5. 7 CFR 503.2 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Admission. 503.2 Section 503.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.2 Admission. No person will be admitted to PIADC,...

  6. Unethical Admissions: Academic Integrity in Question.

    PubMed

    Ansah, Richard Hannis; Aikhuele, Daniel O; Yao, Liu

    2016-11-28

    The increasing unethical practices of graduates' admissions have heightened concerns about the integrity of the academy. This article informs this important subject that affects the students, admission systems, and the entire scientific community, thus, representing an approach against scholarly black market activities including falsified documents and unethical practices by consultants and students' recruitment agencies.

  7. 7 CFR 503.2 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Admission. 503.2 Section 503.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.2 Admission. No person will be admitted to PIADC,...

  8. Profile in Action: Linking Admission and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes, Carla M.

    2013-01-01

    A profile-oriented retention strategy embraces the admission process as a powerful lever in improving retention and completion rates and recognizes that the student profile can be shaped by changes in admission policies or priorities--even within the current market position of the institution. In addition, the student body can be oriented toward…

  9. Grade Inflation and Law School Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wongsurawat, Winai

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the evidence on whether grade inflation has led to an increasing emphasis on standardized test scores as a criterion for law school admissions. Design/methodology/approach: Fit probabilistic models to admissions data for American law schools during the mid to late 1990s, a period during which…

  10. Strategies and Trends in Admissions Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincher, Cameron

    1975-01-01

    Noting that the technical service rendered by the national testing agencies may be an undesirable tradeoff for the active involvement of admissions workers in admissions research, the author suggests that the use of decision theory, quasi-actuarial assessment, quasi-experimental design, and program evaluation strategies would place admissions…

  11. Alphabetical Order Effects in School Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurajda, Štepán; Münich, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    If school admission committees use alphabetically sorted lists of applicants in their evaluations, one's position in the alphabet according to last name initial may be important in determining access to selective schools. Jurajda and Münich (2010) "Admission to Selective Schools, Alphabetically". "Economics of Education…

  12. Why Do We Stay in Admissions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piersol, Marion Kandel; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Admission counselors (n=200) completed surveys about employment, title, on-the-job training, travel, and availability and satisfaction with certain responsibilities. Most satisfying admission responsibilities were program organization and implementation, applicant review and decision, and formal presentations. Least satisfying were telemarketing,…

  13. An Admissions Race that's Already Won

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Mitchell L.

    2008-01-01

    The author recently spent a year and a half in the admissions office of a highly selective Eastern college as an ethnographer, seeking to understand just how admissions officers make their decisions. He accompanied them on recruitment trips to high schools and college fairs, helped manage their offices' relentless current of visitors and mail, and…

  14. College Admission Professionals: Who Are We Now?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapelye, Janet Lavin

    1999-01-01

    Reflects on roles that admission professionals hold within the academic community. Explains that admission professionals are educators and business managers; bring in revenue; and serve as advisors to the president, as spokespeople to alumni/ae, and if fortunate, as counselors to students. Suggests that counselors focus on students because they…

  15. 49 CFR 25.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Office of the Secretary of Transportation NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 25.300 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the basis of sex, be...

  16. 40 CFR 5.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex... of sex, be denied admission, or be subjected to discrimination in admission, by any recipient...

  17. 45 CFR 86.21 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex... of sex, be denied admission, or be subjected to discrimination in admission, by any recipient...

  18. 22 CFR 146.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 146.300 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the basis of sex, be...

  19. 28 CFR 54.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 54.300 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the basis of sex, be...

  20. 43 CFR 41.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex... basis of sex, be denied admission, or be subjected to discrimination in admission, by any recipient...

  1. 45 CFR 86.21 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex... of sex, be denied admission, or be subjected to discrimination in admission, by any recipient...

  2. Admission to Law School: New Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shultz, Marjorie M.; Zedeck, Sheldon

    2012-01-01

    Standardized tests have been increasingly controversial over recent years in high-stakes admission decisions. Their role in operationalizing definitions of merit and qualification is especially contested, but in law schools this challenge has become particularly intense. Law schools have relied on the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) and an INDEX…

  3. End-Stage Renal Disease Outcomes among the Kaiser Permanente Southern California Creatinine Safety Program (Creatinine SureNet): Opportunities to Reflect and Improve

    PubMed Central

    Sim, John J; Batech, Michael; Danforth, Kim N; Rutkowski, Mark P; Jacobsen, Steven J; Kanter, Michael H

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC) creatinine safety program (Creatinine SureNet) identifies and outreaches to thousands of people annually who may have had a missed diagnosis for chronic kidney disease (CKD). We sought to determine the value of this outpatient program and evaluate opportunities for improvement. Methods: Longitudinal cohort study (February 2010 through December 2015) of KPSC members captured into the creatinine safety program who were characterized using demographics, laboratory results, and different estimations of glomerular filtration rate. Age- and sex-adjusted rates of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) were compared with those in the overall KPSC population. Results: Among 12,394 individuals, 83 (0.7%) reached ESRD. The age- and sex-adjusted relative risk of ESRD was 2.7 times higher compared with the KPSC general population during the same period (94.7 vs 35.4 per 100,000 person-years; p < 0.001). Screening with the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (vs Modification Diet in Renal Diseases) equation would capture 44% fewer individuals and have a higher predictive value for CKD. Of those who had repeated creatinine measurements, only 13% had a urine study performed (32% among patients with confirmed CKD). Conclusion: Our study found a higher incidence of ESRD among individuals captured into the KPSC creatinine safety program. If the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation were used, fewer people would have been captured while improving the accuracy for diagnosing CKD. Urine testing was low even among patients with confirmed CKD. Our findings demonstrate the importance of a creatinine safety net program in an integrated health system but also suggest opportunities to improve CKD care and screening. PMID:28241912

  4. Retrospective study on prognostic importance of serum procalcitonin and amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels as compared to Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IV Score on Intensive Care Unit admission, in a mixed Intensive Care Unit population

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Chitra; Dara, Babita; Mehta, Yatin; Tariq, Ali M.; Joby, George V.; Singh, Manish K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Timely decision making in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is very essential to improve the outcome of critically sick patients. Conventional scores like Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE IV) are quite cumbersome with calculations and take minimum 24 hours. Procalcitonin has shown to have prognostic value in ICU/Emergency department (ED) in disease states like pneumonia, sepsis etc. NTproBNP has demonstrated excellent diagnostic and prognostic importance in cardiac diseases. It has also been found elevated in non-cardiac diseases. We chose to study the prognostic utility of these markers on ICU admission. Settings and Design: Retrospective observational study. Materials and Methods: A Retrospective analysis of 100 eligible patients was done who had undergone PCT and NTproBNP measurements on ICU admission. Their correlations with all cause mortality, length of hospital stay, need for ventilator support, need for vasopressors were performed. Results: Among 100 randomly selected ICU patients, 28 were non-survivors. NTproBNP values on admission significantly correlated with all cause mortality (P = 0.036, AUC = 0.643) and morbidity (P = 0.000, AUC = 0.763), comparable to that of APACHE-IV score. PCT values on admission did not show significant association with mortality, but correlated well with morbidity and prolonged hospital length of stay (AUC = 0.616, P = 0.045). Conclusion: The current study demonstrated a good predictive value of NTproBNP, in terms of mortality and morbidity comparable to that of APACHE-IV score. Procalcitonin, however, was found to have doubtful prognostic importance. These findings need to be confirmed in a prospective larger study. PMID:27052066

  5. Lunar phases and psychiatric hospital admissions.

    PubMed

    Gorvin, J J; Roberts, M S

    1994-12-01

    To assess the lunar hypothesis as predictive of mental health emergencies and antisocial behavior, the relation of the lunar hypothesis and the occurrence of psychiatric hospital admissions of developmentally disabled adults was examined. The full moon phase of the lunar cycle did not explain a higher rate of hospital admission and accounted for only .007% of the variance. A critique of the methodology in prior research led to the suggestion that more immediate stressors and environmental factors are more plausible contributing factors to hospital admission.

  6. Low Serum Neutrophil Gelatinase-associated Lipocalin Level as a Marker of Malnutrition in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Imamaki, Hirotaka; Ishii, Akira; Yokoi, Hideki; Kasahara, Masato; Kuwabara, Takashige; Mori, Keita P.; Kato, Yukiko; Kuwahara, Takashi; Satoh, Masugi; Nakatani, Kimihiko; Saito, Yoshihiko; Tomosugi, Naohisa; Sugawara, Akira; Nakao, Kazuwa; Mukoyama, Masashi; Yanagita, Motoko; Mori, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL or LCN2) is an iron-transporting factor which possesses various activities such as amelioration of kidney injury and host defense against pathogens. Its circulating concentrations are elevated in acute and chronic kidney diseases and show a positive correlation with poor renal outcome and mortality, but its clinical significance in maintenance hemodialysis (HD) patients remains elusive. Methods Serum NGAL levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in out-patient, Japanese HD subjects. Their correlation to laboratory findings and morbidity (as development of severe infection or serum albumin reduction) was investigated using linear regression analysis and χ2 test. Results Pre-dialysis serum NGAL levels in HD patients were elevated by 13-fold compared to healthy subjects (n=8, P<0.001). In a cross-sectional study of 139 cases, serum NGAL concentrations were determined independently by % creatinine generation rate (an indicator of muscle mass, standardized coefficient β=0.40, P<0.001), peripheral blood neutrophil count (β=0.38, P<0.001) and anion gap (which likely reflects dietary protein intake, β=0.16, P<0.05). Iron administration to anemic HD patients caused marked elevation of peripheral blood hemoglobin, serum ferritin and iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin-25 levels, but NGAL levels were not affected. In a prospective study of 87 cases, increase in serum albumin levels a year later was positively associated to baseline NGAL levels by univariate analysis (r=0.36, P<0.01). Furthermore, within a year, patients with the lowest NGAL tertile showed significantly increased risk for marked decline in serum albumin levels (≥0.4 g/dl; odds ratio 5.5, 95% confidence interval 1.5–20.3, P<0.05) and tendency of increased occurrence of severe infection requiring admission (odds ratio 3.1, not significant) compared to the middle and highest tertiles. Conclusion Low serum NGAL levels appear to be

  7. EVALUATION OF DISPOSABLE DIAPERS FOR QUANTATIVE MEASUREMENTS OF PESTICIDE METABOLITES AND CREATININE IN URINE SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project consisted of a laboratory study to evaluate an extraction and analysis method for quantifying biomarkers of pesticide exposure and creatinine in urine samples collected with commercially-available disposable diapers. For large exposure studies, such as the National ...

  8. Kidney injury biomarkers and urinary creatinine variability in nominally healthy adults

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental exposure diagnostics use creatinine concentrations in urine aliquots as the internal standard for dilution normalization of all other excreted metabolites when urinary excretion rate data are not available. This is a reasonable approach for healthy adults as creati...

  9. The relationship of nitric oxide synthesis capacity, oxidative stress, and albumin-to-creatinine ratio in black and white men: the SABPA study.

    PubMed

    Mels, Catharina M C; Huisman, Hugo W; Smith, Wayne; Schutte, Rudolph; Schwedhelm, Edzard; Atzler, Dorothee; Böger, Rainer H; Ware, Lisa J; Schutte, Aletta E

    2016-02-01

    Inadequate substrate availability and increased nitric oxide synthase inhibitor levels attenuate nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, whereas increased vascular oxidative stress may lead to inactivation of NO. We compared markers of NO synthesis capacity and oxidative stress in a bi-ethnic male population. Inter-relationships of ambulatory blood pressure and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio with NO synthesis capacity and oxidative stress markers were investigated. NO synthesis capacity markers (L-arginine, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA)) and oxidative stress markers (serum peroxides, total glutathione, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase) were measured. Black men displayed higher blood pressure and albumin-to-creatinine ratio (all p < 0.001), while NO synthesis capacity was more favorable (higher L-arginine and lower ADMA (p ≤ 0.003)). Antioxidant enzyme activities were similar except for the redox status markers (GR activity and GR/GPx ratio), which were upregulated in black men (p < 0.001). In black men, ADMA was inversely related to GPx activity (R (2) = 0.15; β = -0.20; p = 0.050) and GPx/SOD ratio (R (2) = 0.24; β = -0.37; p < 0.001), but none of these markers related to blood pressure or albumin-to-creatinine ratio. In white men, albumin-to-creatinine ratio was positively associated with ADMA (R (2) = 0.18; β = 0.39; p < 0.001) while ADMA was inversely related to GR activity (R (2) = 0.26; β = -0.29; p = 0.002) and GR/GPx ratio (R (2) = 0.25; β = -0.28; p = 0.003). Black men with elevated blood pressure and albumin-to-creatinine ratio displayed a favorable NO synthesis capacity. This may be counteracted by increased inactivation of NO, although it was not linked to vascular or renal phenotypes. In white men, reduced NO synthesis capacity may lower NO bio-availability, thereby influencing the albumin-to-creatinine

  10. 43 CFR 4.1141 - Admissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... directed serves on the requesting party— (1) A sworn statement denying specifically the relevant matters of which an admission is requested; (2) A sworn statement setting forth in detail the reasons why he...

  11. 43 CFR 4.1141 - Admissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... directed serves on the requesting party— (1) A sworn statement denying specifically the relevant matters of which an admission is requested; (2) A sworn statement setting forth in detail the reasons why he...

  12. 43 CFR 4.1141 - Admissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... directed serves on the requesting party— (1) A sworn statement denying specifically the relevant matters of which an admission is requested; (2) A sworn statement setting forth in detail the reasons why he...

  13. Marketing in Admissions: The Information System Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wofford, O. Douglas; Timmerman, Ed

    1982-01-01

    A marketing information system approach for college admissions is outlined that includes objectives, information needs and sources, a data collection format, and information evaluation. Coordination with other institutional information systems is recommended. (MSE)

  14. The Parent Role in College Admission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krugman, Mary K.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses techniques secondary school counselors can use to help parents understand and negotiate the college admissions process, including encouraging parental self-assessment; assisting parents to assess student; giving parents special tips; and maintaining open and ethical communication. (ABL)

  15. 28 CFR 549.42 - Involuntary admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SERVICES Administrative Safeguards for Psychiatric Treatment and Medication § 549.42 Involuntary admission. A court determination is necessary for involuntary hospitalization for psychiatric treatment. A sentenced inmate, not currently committed for psychiatric treatment, who is not able or willing...

  16. A facile low-cost enzymatic paper-based assay for the determination of urine creatinine.

    PubMed

    Talalak, Kwanrutai; Noiphung, Julaluk; Songjaroen, Temsiri; Chailapakul, Orawon; Laiwattanapaisal, Wanida

    2015-11-01

    Creatinine is one of many markers used to investigate kidney function. This paper describes a low-cost enzymatic paper-based analytical device (enz-PAD) for determining urine creatinine. The disposable dead volumes of creatinine enzyme reagents from an automatic analyser cassette were utilised. Whatman No. 3 paper was cut into long rectangular shapes (4×40 mm(2)) on which the enzyme reagents, R1 and R2, were adsorbed in two consecutive regions. The assay was performed by immersing test strips into urine samples contained in microwells to allow creatinine in the sample to react with immobilised active ingredients and, then, traverse via capillary action to the detection area where chromogen products accumulated. The method is based on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) formation via creatinine conversion using creatininase, creatinase, and sarcosine oxidase. The liberated H2O2 reacts with 4-aminophenazone and 2,4,6-triiodo-3-hydroxybenzoic acid to form quinoneimine with a pink-red colour at the detection zone. The linear range of the creatinine assay was 2.5-25 mg dL(-1) (r(2)=0.983), and the detection limit was 2.0 mg dL(-1). The colorimetric enz-PAD for the creatinine assay was highly correlated with a conventional alkaline picrate method when real urine samples were evaluated (r(2)=0.977; n=40). This simple and nearly zero-cost paper-based device provides a novel alternative method for screening urinary creatinine and will be highly beneficial for developing countries.

  17. Hemodiafiltration Decreases Serum Levels of Inflammatory Mediators in Severe Leptospirosis: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Cleto, Sérgio Aparecido; Rodrigues, Camila Eleutério; Malaque, Ceila Maria; Sztajnbok, Jaques; Seguro, Antônio Carlos; Andrade, Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is a health problem worldwide. Its most severe form is a classic model of sepsis, provoking acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and acute kidney injury (AKI), with associated mortality that remains unacceptably high. We previously demonstrated that early initiation of sustained low-efficiency dialysis (SLED) followed by daily SLED significantly decreases mortality. However, the mode of clearance can also affect dialysis patient outcomes. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the effects of SLED with traditional (diffusive) clearance, via hemodialysis, and SLED with convective clearance, via hemodiafiltration (SLEDf), in patients with severe leptospirosis. Methods In this prospective study, conducted in the intensive care unit (ICU) from 2009 through 2012, we compared two groups—SLED (n = 19) and SLEDf (n = 20)—evaluating demographic, clinical, and biochemical parameters, as well as serum levels of interleukins, up to the third day after admission. All patients received dialysis early and daily thereafter. Results During the study period, 138 patients were admitted to our ICU with a diagnosis of leptospirosis; 39 (36 males/3 females) met the criteria for ARDS and AKI. All patients were on mechanical ventilation and were comparable in terms of respiratory parameters. Mortality did not differ between the SLEDf and SLED groups. However, post-admission decreases in the serum levels of interleukin (IL)-17, IL-7, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were significantly greater in the SLEDf group. Direct bilirubin and the arterial oxygen tension/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio were significantly higher in the SLED group. We identified the following risk factors (sensitivities/specificities) for mortality in severe leptospirosis: age ≥ 55 years (67%/91%); serum urea ≥ 204 mg/dl (100%/70%); creatinine ≥ 5.2 mg/dl (100%/58%); Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score ≥ 39.5 (67%/88%); Sequential

  18. Quantifying creatinine and urea in human urine through Raman spectroscopy aiming at diagnosis of kidney disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saatkamp, Cassiano Junior; de Almeida, Maurício Liberal; Bispo, Jeyse Aliana Martins; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz Barbosa; Fernandes, Adriana Barrinha; Silveira, Landulfo, Jr.

    2016-03-01

    Due to their importance in the regulation of metabolites, the kidneys need continuous monitoring to check for correct functioning, mainly by urea and creatinine urinalysis. This study aimed to develop a model to estimate the concentrations of urea and creatinine in urine by means of Raman spectroscopy (RS) that could be used to diagnose kidney disease. Midstream urine samples were obtained from 54 volunteers with no kidney complaints. Samples were subjected to a standard colorimetric assay of urea and creatinine and submitted to spectroscopic analysis by means of a dispersive Raman spectrometer (830 nm, 350 mW, 30 s). The Raman spectra of urine showed peaks related mainly to urea and creatinine. Partial least squares models were developed using selected Raman bands related to urea and creatinine and the biochemical concentrations in urine measured by the colorimetric method, resulting in r=0.90 and 0.91 for urea and creatinine, respectively, with root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSEcv) of 312 and 25.2 mg/dL, respectively. RS may become a technique for rapid urinalysis, with concentration errors suitable for population screening aimed at the prevention of renal diseases.

  19. Disposition of plasma creatinine in non-azotaemic and moderately azotaemic cats.

    PubMed

    Le Garreres, Alain; Laroute, Valérie; De La Farge, France; Boudet, Karine G; Lefebvre, Hervé P

    2007-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare assay methods for plasma creatinine (Pl-creat) in cats and to describe the disposition of creatinine and iohexol in 12 healthy and moderately azotaemic cats. Exogenous creatinine and iohexol were injected simultaneously by intravenous bolus, and repeated blood samples were taken to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of each marker. Pl-creat was assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Jaffé and enzymatic methods. The enzymatic method was shown to be more reliable than the Jaffé method. Two stereoisomers, exo- and endo-iohexol were identified. The plasma clearance of creatinine (2.3+/-0.66 ml/min/kg) was significantly higher (P<0.001) than that of exo-iohexol (1.7+/-0.40 ml/min/kg). The volume of distribution (447+/-97 ml/kg) and elimination half-life (181+/-77 min) of creatinine were also higher (P<0.001) than those of exo- and endo-iohexol. The estimated daily endogenous production of creatinine was 65+/-23 mg/kg. None of the pharmacokinetic parameters was changed by the azotaemic status of the animals.

  20. Quantifying creatinine and urea in human urine through Raman spectroscopy aiming at diagnosis of kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Saatkamp, Cassiano Junior; de Almeida, Maurício Liberal; Bispo, Jeyse Aliana Martins; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz Barbosa; Fernandes, Adriana Barrinha; Silveira, Landulfo

    2016-03-01

    Due to their importance in the regulation of metabolites, the kidneys need continuous monitoring to check for correct functioning, mainly by urea and creatinine urinalysis. This study aimed to develop a model to estimate the concentrations of urea and creatinine in urine by means of Raman spectroscopy (RS) that could be used to diagnose kidney disease. Midstream urine samples were obtained from 54 volunteers with no kidney complaints. Samples were subjected to a standard colorimetric assay of urea and creatinine and submitted to spectroscopic analysis by means of a dispersive Raman spectrometer (830 nm, 350 mW, 30 s). The Raman spectra of urine showed peaks related mainly to urea and creatinine. Partial least squares models were developed using selected Raman bands related to urea and creatinine and the biochemical concentrations in urine measured by the colorimetric method, resulting in r = 0.90 and 0.91 for urea and creatinine, respectively, with root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSEcv) of 312 and 25.2 mg/dL, respectively. RS may become a technique for rapid urinalysis, with concentration errors suitable for population screening aimed at the prevention of renal diseases.

  1. Successive determination of urinary bilirubin and creatinine employing simultaneous injection effective mixing flow analysis.

    PubMed

    Ponhong, Kraingkrai; Teshima, Norio; Grudpan, Kate; Vichapong, Jitlada; Motomizu, Shoji; Sakai, Tadao

    2015-02-01

    A novel four-channel simultaneous injection effective mixing flow analysis (SIEMA) system has been assembled for successive determination of bilirubin and creatinine in urinary samples. The chemical variables and physical parameters in the flow system were optimized for the enhancement of successive analytical performances. The interferences from urine matrices on the determination of bilirubin and creatinine were eliminated to dilute urine samples. The calibration graphs with the optimum conditions were achieved to be in 0.024-5.0 mg L(-1) for bilirubin and 2-100 mg L(-1) for creatinine. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) at 3 mg L(-1) of bilirubin and at 50 mg L(-1) of creatinine for 11 runs were 1.5 and 1.0%, respectively. The limits of detections (3σ of blank) for bilirubin and creatinine were 7 µg L(-1) and 0.6 mg L(-1), respectively. The sample throughput for stepwise detection was 22 h(-1). The proposed method was applied to the successive determination of bilirubin and creatinine in urine samples.

  2. Immigration, moving house and psychiatric admissions.

    PubMed

    Johansson, L M; Sundquist, J; Johansson, S E; Bergman, B

    1998-08-01

    This study was designed to elucidate psychiatric admission rates for native Swedes and foreign-born individuals during the period 1991-1994, when Sweden had a great influx of refugees. During the same period, and even earlier, psychiatric in-patient care had been reduced. Tests of differences between Swedes and foreign-born individuals in first psychiatric admission rates were performed using Poisson regressions, and the risk of a readmission was assessed using a proportional hazard model. Foreign-born individuals and native Swedes, both males and females, showed a similar admission pattern with regard to the number of admissions. Foreign-born males under 55 years of age and foreign-born females under 35 years of age had significantly higher admission rates than native Swedes. In total, native Swedes, both males and females, were hospitalized for a significantly longer period than the foreign-born subjects. About 43% of the patients were readmitted. The risk of a readmission was significantly increased among those with a high rate of internal migration. The high admission rates for young foreign-born individuals might be explained by a high incidence of mental illness owing to the trauma of being violently forced to migrate, acculturation difficulties, or unsatisfactory social circumstances such as high unemployment. The shorter hospitalization time could be due to undertreatment or less serious mental illness.

  3. Urinary C peptide creatinine ratio in pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance and type 1 diabetes: evidence for insulin secretion

    PubMed Central

    Markoska, Ankica; Valaiyapathi, Rajalakshmi; Thorn, Chloe; Dornhorst, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Hypothesis In pregnancy, urinary C peptide creatinine ratio (UCPCR) reflects endogenous insulin secretion in women with normal glucose tolerance and type 1 diabetes. Research design and methods UCPCR and serum C peptide were measured in 90 glucose-tolerant women at 0 and 120 min during a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 28 weeks of gestation. UCPCR was measured in 2 samples obtained over 10 weeks apart in 7 pregnant women with longstanding type 1 diabetes. Results UCPCROGTT and serum C peptideOGTT of glucose-tolerant women were significantly correlated at 0 and 120 min (rs0.675, 0.541 respectively, p<0.0001). All 7 pregnant women with type 1 diabetes had detectable first sample UCPCR (median (range) 49 (6–1038) pmol/mmol) that rose in 6 women by 477 (29–1491) pmol/mmol. Conclusions Detectable UCPCR in pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance and type 1 diabetes is likely to reflect endogenous insulin secretion and hence β-cell activity. PMID:28090333

  4. The "Admissions" Side of BCCAT: An Update. Special Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2008

    2008-01-01

    To spearhead increased emphasis on admissions, the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) formed an Admissions Committee in Fall 2003. The committee recognized the importance of institutional autonomy in determining admissions policies and processes at each institution. Following initiation of the Student Transitions Project…

  5. The Stockholm CREAtinine Measurements (SCREAM) project: protocol overview and regional representativeness

    PubMed Central

    Runesson, Björn; Gasparini, Alessandro; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Norin, Olof; Evans, Marie; Barany, Peter; Wettermark, Björn; Elinder, Carl Gustaf; Carrero, Juan Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Background We here describe the construction of the Stockholm CREAtinine Measurement (SCREAM) cohort and assess its coverage/representativeness of the Stockholm county in Sweden. SCREAM has the principal aims to estimate the burden and consequences of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and to identify inappropriate drug use (prescription of nephrotoxic, contraindicated or ill-dosed drugs). Methods SCREAM is a repository of laboratory data of individuals, residing or accessing healthcare in the region of Stockholm, who underwent creatinine assessments between 2006–11. Laboratory tests were linked to administrative databases with complete information on socioeconomic status, demographic data, healthcare utilization, diagnoses, vital status and dispensed prescription medicines. Results SCREAM identified 1 118 507 adult Stockholm citizens with available creatinine tests between 2006–11. This corresponded to 66% of the complete population in the region. Geographical coverage was uniform, ranging between 62 and 72% throughout its 26 municipalities. Population coverage was higher across older age strata (50% coverage for age range 18–44 years, >75% for 45–64 years and >90% coverage for ≥65 years). Of note, 97 and 98% of all individuals with a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular disease, respectively, were captured by SCREAM. Further, 89% of all deaths registered in the period occurred in individuals with a creatinine test undertaken. Conclusion SCREAM represents the largest cohort to estimate the burden and healthcare implications of CKD in Sweden. The coverage and representativeness of the region of Stockholm was high and in accordance to both the commonness of creatinine assessment, and the medical indications for creatinine testing. The inclusion of individuals who sought medical care and had a creatinine test undertaken resulted in a slight over-representation of elderly and comorbid patients. PMID:26798472

  6. Label free sensing of creatinine using a 6 GHz CMOS near-field dielectric immunosensor.

    PubMed

    Guha, S; Warsinke, A; Tientcheu, Ch M; Schmalz, K; Meliani, C; Wenger, Ch

    2015-05-07

    In this work we present a CMOS high frequency direct immunosensor operating at 6 GHz (C-band) for label free determination of creatinine. The sensor is fabricated in standard 0.13 μm SiGe:C BiCMOS process. The report also demonstrates the ability to immobilize creatinine molecules on a Si3N4 passivation layer of the standard BiCMOS/CMOS process, therefore, evading any further need of cumbersome post processing of the fabricated sensor chip. The sensor is based on capacitive detection of the amount of non-creatinine bound antibodies binding to an immobilized creatinine layer on the passivated sensor. The chip bound antibody amount in turn corresponds indirectly to the creatinine concentration used in the incubation phase. The determination of creatinine in the concentration range of 0.88-880 μM is successfully demonstrated in this work. A sensitivity of 35 MHz/10 fold increase in creatinine concentration (during incubation) at the centre frequency of 6 GHz is gained by the immunosensor. The results are compared with a standard optical measurement technique and the dynamic range and sensitivity is of the order of the established optical indication technique. The C-band immunosensor chip comprising an area of 0.3 mm(2) reduces the sensing area considerably, therefore, requiring a sample volume as low as 2 μl. The small analyte sample volume and label free approach also reduce the experimental costs in addition to the low fabrication costs offered by the batch fabrication technique of CMOS/BiCMOS process.

  7. Assessing Practical Intelligence in Business School Admissions: A Supplement to the Graduate Management Admissions Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedlund, Jennifer; Wilt, Jeanne M.; Nebel, Kristina L.; Ashford, Susan J.; Sternberg, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    The Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) is the most widely used measure of managerial potential in MBA admissions. GMAT scores, although predictive of grades in business school, leave much of the variance in graduate school performance unexplained. The GMAT also produces disparities in test scores between groups, generating the potential for…

  8. Major Research Efforts of the Law School Admission Council. Law School Admission Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Frederick M.; Evans, Franklin R.

    Research conducted by the Law School Admission Council since the development of the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) in 1948 is described. An overview of the research topics is provided, and relevant published reports are cited in 61 footnotes. The following topics of study are discussed: (1) use and validity of traditional predictors of law…

  9. Multiple hospital admissions in a calendar year.

    PubMed

    Newton, J; Goldacre, M

    1993-09-01

    Hospital in-patient workload is routinely measured as episodes of care. We report on the extent to which counts of episodes of care differ from counts of patients treated in different specialties and in different age groups. Linked records of hospital care in a population of 1.9 million people, collected over an 11-year period (1976-1986), were analysed. The all-ages multiple admission ratio (the number of admissions per 100 people admitted in the same specialty and year) varied between specialties from 102 to 171. Medical specialties tended to have higher ratios than surgical ones. The influence of age on multiple admission ratios varied between specialties, although in general the ratios increased with increasing age. There were progressive but small increases in multiple admission ratios over the period studied in a number of specialties but, by and large, stability over time was more striking than any change. The information presented could be used to estimate person-based admission rates from available episode-based data where the former are not available. This should be helpful both in managing hospital resources and in purchasing care on behalf of resident populations. Purchasers in particular should be aware of numbers of people being treated as well as the numbers of episodes of care provided.

  10. Serum ferritin.

    PubMed

    Worwood, M

    1979-01-01

    (1) Brief introduction to iron metabolism and the biochemistry of ferritin. (2) Early studies of circulating ferritin. (3) Methods for measuring serum ferritin concentrations -- immunoradiometric, radioimmuno- and enzyme-linked immuno assays based on liver or spleen ferritin -- an evaluation of these techniques. (4) Serum ferritin concentrations in normal subjects -- definition of normality -- relationship between storage iron and serum ferritin concentrations -- changes during development from birth to old age -- iron deficiency -- variability of serum ferritin concentration -- evaluation of use of ferritin assay for assessment of storage iron levels. (5) Serum ferritin concentrations in disease -- hemochromatosis -- secondary iron overload -- liver damage -- infection and chronic disease -- cancer. (6) Assay of serum ferritin with antibodies to ferritins other than liver or spleen -- ferritinemia and cancer. (7) Properties of serum ferritin -- molecular weight -- iron content -- isoelectric focusing patterns -- carbohydrate content -- immunological properties. (8) Physiology of circulating ferritin -- release of ferritin from tissues -- origin of circulating ferritin -- clearance from the plasma -- iron and protein turnover. (9) Summary -- factors influencing serum ferritin concentrations and clinical use of ferritin estimations.

  11. Development of paper-based sensor coupled with smartphone detector for simple creatinine determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tambaru, David; Rupilu, Reski Helena; Nitti, Fidelis; Gauru, Imanuel; Suwari

    2017-03-01

    Creatinine level in urine is one of the most important indicators for kidney diseases. A routine assay for this compound is vital especially for those who suffer from kidney malfunction. However, the existing methods are mostly expensive, impractical and time consuming. Here in, we report a research on the development of sensor for creatinine analysis by using cheap materials such as paper and coupled with a smartphone as the detector leading to an inexpensive and free-instrument method. This research was done based on the Jaffe reaction in which the creatinine was reacted with picric acid in basic solution to form an orange-red creatinine-picric complex. The red-green-blue intensity of the complex, captured with a smartphone, was measured and then digitized with free-download Microsoft Visual c# 2010I Express applications, as the analytical response. This proposed method was evaluated based on its precision, accuracy, percent of recovery and limit of detection. It was found that the precision, accuracy, percent of recovery and limit of detection of this method were 5.55%, 0.74 %, 96.73 ± 6.12 % and 8.02 ppm, respectively. It can be concluded that the paper based sensors with digital imaging approach using Microsoft Visual c# 2010I Express,with its simplicity and affordabilitycan be applied for on-site determination of creatinine level.

  12. Occurrence and production of chloramines in the chlorination of creatinine in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Tachikawa, Mariko; Aburada, Takashi; Tezuka, Masakatsu; Sawamura, Ryoji

    2005-01-01

    Occurrence and production of stable chloramines in the chlorination of creatinine, a constituent of perspiration and urine, in aqueous media were studied. Creatinine (5 x 10(-5)M) was treated with free chlorine in aqueous solutions at molar ratios of 0.5-8 (chlorine/creatinine) at pH 7.0 at room temperature for several days. At lower ratios of chlorine, two stable N-chlorocreatinine derivatives, which were determined as dichloramine fractions by the DPD method, were isolated by HPLC and identified by EI-MS and (1)H-NMR. One was 2-chloroamino-1-methylimidazolin-4-one (creatinine chloramine) and the other was 2-chloroamino-5-hydroxy-1-methylimidazolin-4-one (hydroxycreatinine chloramine). In addition, the formation of methylamine was identified by GC-MS analyses of its imine derivative formed with pentafluorobenzaldehyde. Methylamine forms stable chloramines, which might be determined as mono- and/or di-chloramine fractions together with free chlorine by the DPD method in the reaction mixtures at higher molar ratios of chlorine. In practice, small amounts of methylamine (ca. 19 microg/L) were detected in water samples collected from several swimming pools. Hence, methylamine may be an origin of elusive organic chloramine formed in the chlorination of swimming pools. A probable mechanism of the occurrence and processing of chlorination products of creatinine is suggested.

  13. Ratio of 11-desoxy 17-oxosteroids to creatinine in a population screened for breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Poortman, J.; van der Smissen, J.; Collette, H. J.; de Waard, F.

    1979-01-01

    During a population-based screening project for breast cancer, almost 15,000 women aged 50 years and over have provided a 12 h (overnight) sample of urine for research purposes. In 3,789 women the excretion of 11-desoxy-17-oxosteroids (DOOS) and creatinine was measured. Results were analysed in terms of urinary concentrations and of a ratio between DOOS and creatinine. Age had an effect on DOOS, creatinine and their ratio. Body weight and body surface area had an effect on creatinine excretion and therefore on the ratio. The following variables did not have an appreciable effect on the above-mentioned ratio: a family history of breast cancer, parity and age at first pregnancy, menopause and oestrogenic drugs, and parenchymal pattern of the breast as observed on the xeromammogram. Breast cancer was found at first screening in 106 out of 14,697 women. In 100 of these cases DOOS and creatinine were measured. Excretion values expressed as the ratio between the two, allowing for body surface area, did not differ materially from those of 100 age-matched controls. These results lead the authors to the conclusion that the determination of androgen metabolite excretion in women over 50 years of age is of no help in selecting a group at high risk of breast cancer. PMID:444408

  14. Correction of glucose concentration interference on Jaffé kinetic creatinine assay in peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Da Rin, G; Amici, G; Virga, G; Bardin, C; Calzavara, P; Bocci, C

    1995-01-01

    Overestimation of creatinine measurement using the Jaffé kinetic method in peritoneal dialysis solutions, due to glucose interference, has been quantified and corrected through the elaboration of linear formulas obtained from 110 recovery and 301 biological tests. The added pure powdered creatinine and enzymatic method were considered as references after proven accuracy. Considering creatinine as well as glucose concentration interference, we obtained correction formulas from multiple regression application. All the computed formulas gave satisfactory corrections but different accuracy levels. The best model in biological samples was: Corrected CR = K1JafféCr + K2Glucose (all values in mg/dl) where K1 = 0.973 and K2 = -0.00035 (Rsq = 0.987, F ratio = 10,945, p = 0.00001). Applying formulas to biological samples there was a drop in accuracy, possibly explained by the presence of numerous unidentified substances in peritoneal dialysis biological samples that can amplify scatter. Every laboratory can reduce the error of the Jaffé kinetic assay by calculating their own correction formula in relation to the method and instrument used, because Jaffé kinetic assay gives different results with different kinetic windows. So, especially when applied to peritoneal dialysis fluid measurements, if a creatinine assay reference method is not available, the correction formula can be applied directly as given. Otherwise the method we have described can be followed with a well-structured creatinine recovery fest to identify and quantify assay interferences.

  15. [Medical examination prior to trade school admission].

    PubMed

    Hursidić-Radulović, Azra; Decković-Vukres, Vlasta

    2005-01-01

    Regulation on medical examination prior to apprenticeship is built in the Act on Trades and Crafts. Medical examinations of the students before admission to secondary craft schools have been done regularly since 1993. Between 11,000 and 14,000 students are admitted to secondary craft schools in the Republic of Croatia annually. According to statistics, about 10% of students have obvious health problems, about 5% of students have healt problems which vitally limit their capacity in particular crafts. This statistic refers to about 3% of the examined students. Medical examinations of students prior to admission to craft schools represent a particular sort of health capacity examinations. The paper includes applications for the most freqent trades and crafts, and findings of the craft school admission examinations.

  16. [Involuntary admission of addict during early pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Hondius, Adger J K; Stikker, Tineke E; Wennink, J M B Hanneke; Honig, Adriaan

    2012-01-01

    A 30-year-old cocaine-dependent woman was 16 weeks pregnant. Because of possible endangerment of the fetus, an involuntary provisional admission was authorized. Of particular interest is the application of the Dutch Act on Formal Admissions to Psychiatric Hospitals for the primary diagnosis 'addiction' and the fact that the fetus was regarded as a legal 'other'. In severe cases of addiction combined with pregnancy an earlier intervention is needed and arrangement of accelerated legal custody of the newborn before birth should be considered. For the protection of the unborn, we advocate a stricter application of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. Information for addicted women with preconception counselling can help prevent a compulsory admission.

  17. Urinary amylase / urinary creatinine ratio (uAm/uCr) - a less-invasive parameter for management of hyperamylasemia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The serum level of amylase (sAm) is commonly used as a biochemical marker for diagnosis and management of pancreatic disorders. However, the use of the urine level of amylase (uAm) is limited in practice, because the diagnostic ability of uAm is inferior to that of sAm. In the present study, the possible concordance of uAm-rerated parameters with sAm was investigated, and evaluate the usefulness of uAm for management of hyperamylasemia. Methods From June 1995 to October 2009, 804 samples of both urine and blood were collected from 128 patients in order to measure the serum level of amylase (sAm) and the urine level of amylase (uAm) and creatinine (uCr). Concordance of parameters using uAm compared to sAm was assessed. Parameters used were uAm, amylase creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR), and the ratio of uAm to uCr (uAm/uCr). Results uAm/uCr had the best correlation with sAm (r = 0.779, p < 0.001) compared to uAm (r = 0.620, p < 0.001) and to ACCR (r = 0.374, p < 0.001), when sAm was over the standard level. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of uAm/uCr (0.884) was significantly higher than that of uAm (0.766) and of ACCR (0.666) (p < 0.001 for each). The cutoff value of uAm/uCr was 569.8, with a sensitivity of 81.0% and a specificity of 83.1%. Conclusions The uAm/uCr ratio correlated with sAm, and may be an alternative to sAm for prediction of hyperamylasemia. Use of urine samples results in a decreased need for blood sampling, which is especially beneficial in pediatric patients. PMID:24330759

  18. Application of the Age, Creatinine, and Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Score for Patients on Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tsung-Yu; Tsai, Feng-Chun; Fan, Pei-Chun; Chang, Chih-Hsiang; Lin, Chan-Yu; Chang, Wei-Wen; Lee, Shen-Yang; Hsu, Hsiang-Hao; Tian, Ya-Chung; Fang, Ji-Tseng; Yang, Chih-Wei; Chen, Yung-Chang

    2017-02-01

    Patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) usually have high mortality rate and poor outcome. Age, Creatinine, and Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction (ACEF) score is an easy-calculating score and provides good performance on mortality prediction in patients undergoing cardiac operations or percutaneous coronary intervention, but it has not been applied to patients on ECMO before. In this study, we aimed to use ACEF score obtained within 1 week of ECMO support for in-hospital mortality prediction in patients on ECMO due to severe myocardial failure. This study reviewed the medical records of 306 patients on ECMO at a specialized intensive care unit (CVSICU) in a tertiary-care university hospital between March 2002 and December 2011, and 105 patients on veno-arterial ECMO due to severe myocardial failure were enrolled. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory variables were retrospectively collected as survival predictors. The overall mortality rate was 47.6%. The most frequent condition requiring ICU admission was postcardiotomy cardiogenic shock. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that post-ECMO ACEF score, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, and troponin I on day 1 of ECMO support were independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality. Using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC), the post-ECMO ACEF score indicated a good discriminative power (AUROC 0.801 ± 0.042). Finally, cumulative survival rates at 6-month follow-up differed significantly (P < 0.001) for an ACEF score ≤ 2.22 versus those with an ACEF score > 2.22. After ECMO treatment due to severe myocardial failure, post-ECMO ACEF score provides an easy-calculating method with a reproducible evaluation tool with excellent prognostic abilities in these patients.

  19. Association of Serum Adropin Concentrations with Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Adropin is a newly identified regulatory protein encoded by the Enho gene and is critically involved in energy homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. This study aims to determine the correlation of serum adropin concentrations with diabetic nephropathy (DN). Methods. This study consisted of 245 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and 81 healthy subjects. Then T2DM patients were divided into normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria, and macroalbuminuria subgroups based on urine albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR). Results. T2DM patients showed significantly lower serum adropin concentrations than those in the controls. T2DM patients with macroalbuminuria had significantly decreased serum adropin concentrations compared with the other three groups. In addition, T2DM patients with microalbuminuria showed lower serum adropin concentrations than those in patients with normoalbuminuria. Logistic regression analysis showed that serum adropin was correlated with decreased risk of developing T2DM and DN. Pearson correlation analysis indicated that serum adropin was negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI), blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and ACR and positively correlated with glomerular filtration rate. Furthermore, multiple linear regression analysis showed that BMI and ACR were negatively correlated with serum adropin levels. Conclusion. Serum adropin concentrations are negatively associated with renal function. Adropin may be implicated in the pathogenesis of DN development. PMID:27546995

  20. Plasma exogenous creatinine clearance in clinically healthy cats: comparison with urinary exogenous creatinine clearance, tentative reference intervals and indexation to bodyweight.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, B S; Massal, M R; Nguyen, P; Grégoire, L L; Périgaud, A E; Concordet, D; Biourge, V; Lefebvre, H P

    2014-10-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is considered to be the best indicator of overall kidney function. The major objectives of this study were to compare plasma exogenous creatinine clearance (PECC) with a reference method, to establish reference intervals (RIs) for PECC and to assess the effects of indexation of GFR to bodyweight (BW) in cats. PECC was compared with urinary clearance of exogenous creatinine (UECC) in six clinically healthy domestic shorthair cats (experiment 1). Tentative RIs were determined according to current guidelines and the effects of indexation to BW and of covariables on GFR were assessed in 43 clinically healthy cats of various breeds (experiment 2). PECC was 15% higher than UECC (P <0.01), but the two estimates were strongly correlated (r(2)=0.97, P = 0.001). RIs for PECC were 6.4-21.3 mL/min or 1.2-4.9 mL/min/kg. The absolute (i.e. non-indexed) GFR value was not dependent on BW. Thus, indexation of GFR to BW in cats would not standardize the GFR value, but could introduce bias in clinical interpretation. Significant effects of breed, plasma protein concentration and plasma albumin concentration on GFR were demonstrated. Plasma concentrations of urea and creatinine, when assessed separately, were also weakly correlated with GFR in healthy cats. These combined findings contribute to a better understanding of renal function assessment in cats.

  1. Creatinine, urea, uric acid, water and electrolytes renal handling in the healthy oldest old

    PubMed Central

    Musso, Carlos Guido; Álvarez Gregori, Joaquín; Jauregui, José Ricardo; Macías Núñez, Juan Florencio

    2012-01-01

    Renal physiology in the healthy oldest old has the following characteristics, in comparison with the renal physiology in the young: a reduced creatinine clearance, tubular pattern of creatinine back-filtration, preserved proximal tubule sodium reabsorption and uric acid secretion, reduced sodium reabsorption in the thick ascending loop of Henle, reduced free water clearance, increased urea excretion, presence of medulla hypotonicity, reduced urinary dilution and concentration capabilities, and finally a reduced collecting tubules response to furosemide which expresses a reduced potassium excretion in this segment due to a sort of aldosterone resistance. All physiological changes of the aged kidney are the same in both genders. PMID:24175249

  2. Raman spectroscopic approach to monitor the in vitro cyclization of creatine → creatinine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, Debraj; Sharma, Poornima; Singh, Sachin Kumar; Singh, Pushkar; Tarcea, Nicolae; Deckert, Volker; Popp, Jürgen; Singh, Ranjan K.

    2015-01-01

    The creatine → creatinine cyclization, an important metabolic phenomenon has been initiated in vitro at acidic pH and studied through Raman spectroscopic and DFT approach. The equilibrium composition of neutral, zwitterionic and protonated microspecies of creatine has been monitored with time as the reaction proceeds. Time series Raman spectra show clear signature of creatinine formation at pH 3 after ∼240 min at room temperature and reaction is faster at higher temperature. The spectra at pH 1 and pH 5 do not show such signature up to 270 min implying faster reaction rate at pH 3.

  3. Decrease in Urinary Creatinine Excretion in Early Stage Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tynkevich, Elena; Flamant, Martin; Haymann, Jean-Philippe; Metzger, Marie; Thervet, Eric; Boffa, Jean-Jacques; Vrtovsnik, François; Houillier, Pascal; Froissart, Marc; Stengel, Bénédicte

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about muscle mass loss in early stage chronic kidney disease (CKD). We used 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion rate to assess determinants of muscle mass and its evolution with kidney function decline. We also described the range of urinary creatinine concentration in this population. Methods We included 1072 men and 537 women with non-dialysis CKD stages 1 to 5, all of them with repeated measurements of glomerular filtration rate (mGFR) by 51Cr-EDTA renal clearance and several nutritional markers. In those with stage 1 to 4 at baseline, we used a mixed model to study factors associated with urinary creatinine excretion rate and its change over time. Results Baseline mean urinary creatinine excretion decreased from 15.3±3.1 to 12.1±3.3 mmol/24 h (0.20±0.03 to 0.15±0.04 mmol/kg/24 h) in men, with mGFR falling from ≥60 to <15 mL/min/1.73 m2, and from 9.6±1.9 to 7.6±2.5 (0.16±0.03 to 0.12±0.03) in women. In addition to mGFR, an older age, diabetes, and lower levels of body mass index, proteinuria, and protein intake assessed by urinary urea were associated with lower mean urinary creatinine excretion at baseline. Mean annual decline in mGFR was 1.53±0.12 mL/min/1.73 m2 per year and that of urinary creatinine excretion rate, 0.28±0.02 mmol/24 h per year. Patients with fast annual decline in mGFR of 5 mL/min/1.73 m2 had a decrease in urinary creatinine excretion more than twice as big as in those with stable mGFR, independent of changes in urinary urea as well as of other determinants of low muscle mass. Conclusions Decrease in 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion rate may appear early in CKD patients, and is greater the more mGFR declines independent of lowering protein intake assessed by 24-hour urinary urea. Normalizing urine analytes for creatininuria may overestimate their concentration in patients with reduced kidney function and low muscle mass. PMID:25401694

  4. Kidney injury biomarkers and urinary creatinine variability in nominally healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Stiegel, M A; Pleil, J D; Sobus, J R; Angrish, M M; Morgan, M K

    2015-01-01

    Environmental exposure diagnostics use creatinine concentrations in urine aliquots as the internal standard for dilution normalization of all other excreted metabolites when urinary excretion rate data are not available. This is a reasonable approach for healthy adults as creatinine is a human metabolite that is continually produced in skeletal muscles and presumably excreted in the urine at a stable rate. However, creatinine also serves as a biomarker for glomerular filtration rate (efficiency) of the kidneys, so undiagnosed kidney function impairment could affect this commonly applied dilution calculation. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) has recently conducted a study that collected approximately 2600 urine samples from 50 healthy adults, aged 19-50 years old, in North Carolina in 2009-2011. Urinary ancillary data (creatinine concentration, total void volume, elapsed time between voids), and participant demographic data (race, gender, height, and body weight) were collected. A representative subset of 280 urine samples from 29 participants was assayed using a new kidney injury panel (KIP). In this article, we investigated the relationships of KIP biomarkers within and between subjects and also calculated their interactions with measured creatinine levels. The aims of this work were to document the analytical methods (procedures, sensitivity, stability, etc.), provide summary statistics for the KIP biomarkers in "healthy" adults without diagnosed disease (distribution, fold range, central tendency, variance), and to develop an understanding as to how urinary creatinine level varies with respect to the individual KIP proteins. Results show that new instrumentation and data reduction methods have sufficient sensitivity to measure KIP levels in nominally healthy urine samples, that linear regression between creatinine concentration and urinary excretion explains only about 68% of variability, that KIP markers are poorly correlated with

  5. 40 CFR 89.604 - Conditional admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., the importer must store the nonroad engine at a location where the Administrator has reasonable access...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Importation of Nonconforming Nonroad Engines § 89.604 Conditional admission. (a) A nonroad engine offered for importation under §...

  6. The National Center Test for University Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watanabe, Yoshinori

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the National Center Test for University Admissions, a unified national test in Japan, which is taken by 500,000 students every year. It states that implementation of the Center Test began in 1990, with the English component consisting only of the written section until 2005, when the listening section was first implemented…

  7. 34 CFR 106.15 - Admissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... higher education, and public institutions of undergraduate higher education. (e) Public institutions of undergraduate higher education. Subpart C does not apply to any public institution of undergraduate higher... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Admissions. 106.15 Section 106.15 Education...

  8. 34 CFR 106.15 - Admissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... higher education, and public institutions of undergraduate higher education. (e) Public institutions of undergraduate higher education. Subpart C does not apply to any public institution of undergraduate higher... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Admissions. 106.15 Section 106.15 Education...

  9. 34 CFR 106.15 - Admissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... higher education, and public institutions of undergraduate higher education. (e) Public institutions of undergraduate higher education. Subpart C does not apply to any public institution of undergraduate higher... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Admissions. 106.15 Section 106.15 Education...

  10. 34 CFR 106.15 - Admissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... higher education, and public institutions of undergraduate higher education. (e) Public institutions of undergraduate higher education. Subpart C does not apply to any public institution of undergraduate higher... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Admissions. 106.15 Section 106.15 Education...

  11. 34 CFR 106.15 - Admissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... higher education, and public institutions of undergraduate higher education. (e) Public institutions of undergraduate higher education. Subpart C does not apply to any public institution of undergraduate higher... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Admissions. 106.15 Section 106.15 Education...

  12. PREP: Outreach to Online Learners through Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupton, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Librarians have collaborated with academic departments within their institutions for decades now, working with professors and administrators to bring information literacy skills to students. The librarians at National American University decided to extend this collaboration to a non-academic unit, the admissions department of the university. The…

  13. 18 CFR 1317.220 - Admissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Admissions. 1317.220 Section 1317.220 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE...

  14. 18 CFR 1317.220 - Admissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Admissions. 1317.220 Section 1317.220 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE...

  15. 18 CFR 1317.220 - Admissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Admissions. 1317.220 Section 1317.220 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE...

  16. Open Admissions: The Pros and Cons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barzun, Jacques; And Others

    The Council for Basic Education sponsored an all-day symposium on open admissions in 1971. This booklet contains the full text of the addresses given on that occasion, as well as the major part of the discussion among the panelists and answers to questions from the audience. The aim of the symposium was not only to provide information about…

  17. Foreign Language, the Classics, and College Admissions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFleur, Richard A.

    1993-01-01

    This article reports the results of a survey, funded by the American Classical League (ACL) and conducted during 1990-91, that assessed attitudes toward high school foreign-language study, in particular the study of Latin and Greek, in the college admissions process. (21 references) (VWL)

  18. Beyond Admission: The Challenge for Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roger, Angela; Sutherland, Margaret

    1992-01-01

    The Scottish Wider Access Programme (SWAP) aims to increase adults' access to higher education. Interviews with SWAP students and educators revealed that SWAP had been invaluable in preparing nontraditional students for admission to higher education. Issues include improving teaching methods geared toward mature students, providing support…

  19. The Admissions Criteria of Secondary Free Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an analysis of the admissions criteria used by the first two waves of secondary Free Schools in England. The type of criteria and their ranked order is explored and their potential impact on the school composition is considered. The findings demonstrate the diversity of criteria being used by this new type of…

  20. 15 CFR 8a.220 - Admissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Admissions. 8a.220 Section 8a.220 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN... institution. (c) Application of §§ 8a.300 through .310. Except as provided in paragraphs (d) and (e) of...

  1. Reporting Subscores from College Admission Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyren, Per-Erik

    2009-01-01

    The added value of reporting subscores on a college admission test (SweSAT) was examined in this study. Using a CTT-derived objective method for determining the value of reporting subscores, it was concluded that there is added value in reporting section scores (Verbal/Quantitative) as well as subtest scores. These results differ from a study of…

  2. 40 CFR 5.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Admission. 5.300 Section 5.300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of...

  3. 40 CFR 5.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Admission. 5.300 Section 5.300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of...

  4. "Stealth Applicants" Are Changing the Admissions Equation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Jeff Rickey is a numbers guy. But three years ago, a colleague asked him about something he'd never counted: applicants who came out of nowhere. The question intrigued Mr. Rickey, dean of admissions and financial aid at Earlham College in Indiana. He found that 17 percent of the college's applicants that year had not called, taken a tour, or…

  5. 10 CFR 2.708 - Admissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Admissions. 2.708 Section 2.708 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS Rules for Formal... the request is directed serves on the requesting party either: (i) A sworn statement...

  6. EARLY SCHOOL ADMISSIONS PROJECT, PROMISING PRACTICES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltimore City Public Schools, MD.

    THE EXPERIMENTAL PROJECT ATTEMPTS TO DETERMINE WHETHER EARLY ADMISSION TO SCHOOL CAN OVERCOME BARRIERS TO LEARNING WHICH ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS SEEM TO IMPOSE. A DEPRIVED CHILD OFTEN DOES NOT RECEIVE ATTENTION, AFFECTION, OR GUIDANCE WITHIN HIS HOME. THE YOUNG CHILD SHOULD BE HELPED TO DEVELOP A WHOLESOME SELF-CONCEPT, TO ACQUIRE THE DRIVE TO…

  7. Predicting Academic Success Using Admission Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidovitch, Nitza; Soen, Dan

    2015-01-01

    This study, conducted at a tertiary education institution in Israel, following two previous studies, was designed to deal again with a question that is a topic of debate in Israel and worldwide: Is there justification for the approach that considers restrictive university admission policies an efficient tool for predicting students' success at the…

  8. Hospital admissions before and after shipyard closure.

    PubMed Central

    Iversen, L.; Sabroe, S.; Damsgaard, M. T.

    1989-01-01

    To determine the effect of job loss on health an investigation was made of admissions to hospitals in 887 men five years before and three years after the closure of a Danish shipyard. The control group comprised 441 men from another shipyard. The information on hospital admissions was obtained from the Danish national register of patients. The relative risk of admission in the control group dropped significantly in terms of the number of men admitted from the study group from 1.29 four to five years before closure to 0.74 in the three years after closure. This was especially true of admissions due to accidents (1.33 to 0.46) and diseases of the digestive system (4.53 to 1.03). For diseases of the circulatory system, particularly cardiovascular diseases, the relative risk increased from 0.8 to 1.60, and from 1.0 to 2.6 respectively. These changes in risk of illness after redundancy are probably a consequence of a change from the effects of a high risk work environment to the effects of psychosocial stresses such as job insecurity and unemployment. PMID:2511968

  9. University Admissions. Policy Note. Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    University admissions, like many other aspects of the higher education sector, are going through a time of significant change. From 2012, universities will receive full funding under the Commonwealth Grants Scheme (CGS) for as many places as they offer. Previously, the Government limited the number of funded places, with a tolerance band for…

  10. Differential Prediction Generalization in College Admissions Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguinis, Herman; Culpepper, Steven A.; Pierce, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the concept of "differential prediction generalization" in the context of college admissions testing. Specifically, we assess the extent to which predicted first-year college grade point average (GPA) based on high-school grade point average (HSGPA) and SAT scores depends on a student's ethnicity and gender and whether this…

  11. The Probabilistic Admissible Region with Additional Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roscoe, C.; Hussein, I.; Wilkins, M.; Schumacher, P.

    The admissible region, in the space surveillance field, is defined as the set of physically acceptable orbits (e.g., orbits with negative energies) consistent with one or more observations of a space object. Given additional constraints on orbital semimajor axis, eccentricity, etc., the admissible region can be constrained, resulting in the constrained admissible region (CAR). Based on known statistics of the measurement process, one can replace hard constraints with a probabilistic representation of the admissible region. This results in the probabilistic admissible region (PAR), which can be used for orbit initiation in Bayesian tracking and prioritization of tracks in a multiple hypothesis tracking framework. The PAR concept was introduced by the authors at the 2014 AMOS conference. In that paper, a Monte Carlo approach was used to show how to construct the PAR in the range/range-rate space based on known statistics of the measurement, semimajor axis, and eccentricity. An expectation-maximization algorithm was proposed to convert the particle cloud into a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) representation of the PAR. This GMM can be used to initialize a Bayesian filter. The PAR was found to be significantly non-uniform, invalidating an assumption frequently made in CAR-based filtering approaches. Using the GMM or particle cloud representations of the PAR, orbits can be prioritized for propagation in a multiple hypothesis tracking (MHT) framework. In this paper, the authors focus on expanding the PAR methodology to allow additional constraints, such as a constraint on perigee altitude, to be modeled in the PAR. This requires re-expressing the joint probability density function for the attributable vector as well as the (constrained) orbital parameters and range and range-rate. The final PAR is derived by accounting for any interdependencies between the parameters. Noting that the concepts presented are general and can be applied to any measurement scenario, the idea

  12. Spectroscopic and structural study of the newly synthesized heteroligand complex of copper with creatinine and urea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, Debraj; Singh, Sachin Kumar; Sharma, Poornima; Mishra, Hirdyesh; Unnikrishnan, V. K.; Singh, Bachcha; Singh, Ranjan K.

    2016-02-01

    Study of copper complex of creatinine and urea is very important in life science and medicine. In this paper, spectroscopic and structural study of a newly synthesized heteroligand complex of copper with creatinine and urea has been discussed. Structural studies have been carried out using DFT calculations and spectroscopic analyses were carried out by FT-IR, Raman, UV-vis absorption and fluorescence techniques. The copper complex of creatinine and the heteroligand complex were found to have much increased water solubility as compared to pure creatinine. The analysis of FT-IR and Raman spectra helps to understand the coordination properties of the two ligands and to determine the probable structure of the heteroligand complex. The LIBS spectra of the heteroligand complex reveal that the complex is free from other metal impurities. UV-visible absorption spectra and the fluorescence emission spectra of the aqueous solution of Cu-Crn-urea heteroligand complex at different solute concentrations have been analyzed and the complex is found to be rigid and stable in its monomeric form at very low concentrations.

  13. Mode of action of creatinine on colour of cuprous oxide precipitate in Benedict's qualitative sugar test.

    PubMed

    Sur, B K; Shukla, R K; Agashe, V S

    1972-10-01

    Creatinine appears to alter the colour and bulky nature of the cuprous oxide precipitate not by altering the chemical composition of the precipitate but by the physical process of retardation of the growth of newly formed yellow cuprous oxide crystals to large red crystals by adhering to their surface and blocking some sites for further crystal growth.

  14. Renal failure in a patient with postpolio syndrome and a normal creatinine level.

    PubMed

    Leming, Melissa K; Breyer, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Patients with renal failure who are taking trimethoprim have an increased risk of developing hyperkalemia, which can cause muscle weakness. In patients with postpolio syndrome, a normal creatinine level could be abnormally high, renal failure is possible because of lack of creatinine production, and the muscle weakness from resultant hyperkalemia could be more severe because of their underlying condition. This abnormally high creatinine level has been termed from this point relative renal failure. The objective of the study was to review a case in which relative renal failure and hyperkalemia caused muscle weakness that manifested as shortness of breath and confusion with electrocardiographic changes. A dehydrated patient with relative renal failure and postpolio syndrome had taken trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole that caused symptomatic hyperkalemia. The patient presented with muscle weakness, shortness of breath, and confusion, with her postpolio syndrome compounding the situation and likely making the muscle weakness more severe. A patient on trimethoprim with renal failure is at an increased risk of developing hyperkalemia. Patients with postpolio syndrome could have severe muscle weakness from the hyperkalemia and could have renal failure even with a normal creatinine level. This case report will remind treating physicians to evaluate such patients for hyperkalemia if they present with muscle weakness, especially if the patient has renal failure and is on trimethoprim.

  15. Urine albumin to creatinine ratio: A marker of early endothelial dysfunction in youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) is a useful predictor of cardiovascular (CV) events in adults. Its relationship to vascular function in children is not clear. We investigated whether UACR was related to insulin resistance and endothelial function, a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis...

  16. Spectroscopic and structural study of the newly synthesized heteroligand complex of copper with creatinine and urea.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, Debraj; Singh, Sachin Kumar; Sharma, Poornima; Mishra, Hirdyesh; Unnikrishnan, V K; Singh, Bachcha; Singh, Ranjan K

    2016-02-05

    Study of copper complex of creatinine and urea is very important in life science and medicine. In this paper, spectroscopic and structural study of a newly synthesized heteroligand complex of copper with creatinine and urea has been discussed. Structural studies have been carried out using DFT calculations and spectroscopic analyses were carried out by FT-IR, Raman, UV-vis absorption and fluorescence techniques. The copper complex of creatinine and the heteroligand complex were found to have much increased water solubility as compared to pure creatinine. The analysis of FT-IR and Raman spectra helps to understand the coordination properties of the two ligands and to determine the probable structure of the heteroligand complex. The LIBS spectra of the heteroligand complex reveal that the complex is free from other metal impurities. UV-visible absorption spectra and the fluorescence emission spectra of the aqueous solution of Cu-Crn-urea heteroligand complex at different solute concentrations have been analyzed and the complex is found to be rigid and stable in its monomeric form at very low concentrations.

  17. "Bite-and-Switch" approach using computationally designed molecularly imprinted polymers for sensing of creatinine.

    PubMed

    Subrahmanyam, S; Piletsky, S A; Piletska, E V; Chen, B; Karim, K; Turner, A P

    2001-12-01

    A method for the selective detection of creatinine is reported, which is based on the reaction between polymerised hemithioacetal, formed by allyl mercaptan, o-phthalic aldehyde, and primary amine leading to the formation of fluorescent isoindole complex. This method has been demonstrated previously for the detection of creatine using creatine-imprinted molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) Since MIPs created using traditional methods were unable to differentiate between creatine and creatinine, a new approach to the rational design of a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) selective for creatinine was developed using computer simulation. A virtual library of functional monomers was assigned and screened against the target molecule, creatinine, using molecular modelling software. The monomers giving the highest binding score were further tested using simulated annealing in order to mimic the complexation of the functional monomers with template in the monomer mixture. The result of this simulation gave an optimised MIP composition. The computationally designed polymer demonstrated superior selectivity in comparison to the polymer prepared using traditional approach, a detection limit of 25 microM and good stability. The "Bite-and-Switch" approach combined with molecular imprinting can be used for the design of assays and sensors, selective for amino containing substances.

  18. Genome Sequence of Creatinine-Fermenting Tissierella creatinophila Strain KRE 4T (DSM 6911)

    PubMed Central

    Nacke, Heiko; Daniel, Rolf

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tissierella creatinophila strain KRE 4T (DSM 6911) is a strictly anaerobic, creatinine-fermenting, and creatine-fermenting organism, which has been isolated from sewage sludge. The draft genome consists of one circular chromosome (2.5 Mb) and harbors 2,533 predicted protein-encoding genes. PMID:28336595

  19. Association between Serum Magnesium Levels and Depression in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yingying; Zhao, Kai; Luan, Xiaoqian; Liu, Zhihua; Cai, Yan; Wang, Qiongzhang; Zhu, Beilei; He, Jincai

    2016-01-01

    Post-stroke depression (PSD) is a common psychiatric complication of stroke that is associated with a poor outcome in stroke patients. Our aim was to assess the association between the serum magnesium levels and the presence of PSD in Chinese patients. Two hundred nine stroke patients were included in the study. Depressive symptoms were measured by the 17-Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression at 3 months after stroke. Based on the depressive symptoms, diagnoses of depression were made in line with the DSM-IV criteria for PSD. Serum magnesium levels were evaluated using the dimethyl aniline blue colorimetric method at admission. Multivariate analyses were conducted using logistic regression models. Further, 120 normal subjects were recruited, and their serum magnesium levels were also measured as control. At 3 months, fifty-nine patients (28.2%) were diagnosed as PSD. The serum magnesium levels were significantly lower in both PSD patients and non-PSD patients than in normal subjects (p < 0.001). Indeed, patients with PSD showed lower serum magnesium levels (p < 0.001) than did non-PSD patients at admission. In the multivariate analyses, after adjusting for potential variables, we found that an increased risk of PSD was associated with serum magnesium levels ≤ 0.84mmol/L (OR 2.614, 95% CI 1.178-5.798, p=0.018). Low serum magnesium levels at admission were found to be associated with the presence of PSD at 3 months after stroke. PMID:28053818

  20. Guideposts of an Effective Admissions Program for the Private School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Raymond E.

    1980-01-01

    Describes fundamental guideposts for an effective private school admissions program. Included are a clear statement of purpose, informative literature, clearly stated admission requirements, standardized testing, a cooperative faculty, image positioning and a recruiting plan. (RC)

  1. Comparison between Cystatin C- and Creatinine-Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate in Cardiology Patients

    PubMed Central

    Åkerblom, Axel; Helmersson-Karlqvist, Johanna; Flodin, Mats; Larsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Objective Estimation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is essential for identification, evaluation and risk prediction in patients with kidney disease. Estimated GFR (eGFR) is also needed for the correct dosing of drugs eliminated by the kidneys and to identify high-risk individuals in whom coronary angiography or other procedures may lead to kidney failure. Both cystatin C and creatinine are used for the determination of GFR, and we aimed to investigate if eGFR by the two methods differ in cardiology patients. Methods We compared cystatin C and creatinine (CKD-EPI) eGFR calculated from the same request from a cardiology outpatient unit (n = 2,716), a cardiology ward (n = 980), a coronary care unit (n = 1,464), and an advanced coronary care unit (n = 518) in an observational, cross-sectional study. Results The median creatinine eGFR results are approximately 10 ml/min/1.73 m2 higher than the median cystatin C eGFR that is up to 90 ml/min/1.73 m2, irrespective of the level of care. Creatinine eGFR resulted in a less advanced eGFR category in the majority of patients with a cystatin C eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Conclusions Our study demonstrates a difference between creatinine and cystatin C eGFR in cardiology patients. It is important to be aware of which marker is used for the reported eGFR to minimize erroneous interpretations of the test results, as this could lead to under- or overmedication. Further studies are needed to determine the best method of estimating the GFR in cardiology units. PMID:26648945

  2. Predicting urinary creatinine excretion and its usefulness to identify incomplete 24 h urine collections.

    PubMed

    De Keyzer, Willem; Huybrechts, Inge; Dekkers, Arnold L M; Geelen, Anouk; Crispim, Sandra; Hulshof, Paul J M; Andersen, Lene F; Řehůřková, Irena; Ruprich, Jiří; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Van Maele, Georges; Slimani, Nadia; van't Veer, Pieter; de Boer, Evelien; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2012-09-28

    Studies using 24 h urine collections need to incorporate ways to validate the completeness of the urine samples. Models to predict urinary creatinine excretion (UCE) have been developed for this purpose; however, information on their usefulness to identify incomplete urine collections is limited. We aimed to develop a model for predicting UCE and to assess the performance of a creatinine index using para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) as a reference. Data were taken from the European Food Consumption Validation study comprising two non-consecutive 24 h urine collections from 600 subjects in five European countries. Data from one collection were used to build a multiple linear regression model to predict UCE, and data from the other collection were used for performance testing of a creatinine index-based strategy to identify incomplete collections. Multiple linear regression (n 458) of UCE showed a significant positive association for body weight (β = 0·07), the interaction term sex × weight (β = 0·09, reference women) and protein intake (β = 0·02). A significant negative association was found for age (β = -0·09) and sex (β = -3·14, reference women). An index of observed-to-predicted creatinine resulted in a sensitivity to identify incomplete collections of 0·06 (95 % CI 0·01, 0·20) and 0·11 (95 % CI 0·03, 0·22) in men and women, respectively. Specificity was 0·97 (95 % CI 0·97, 0·98) in men and 0·98 (95 % CI 0·98, 0·99) in women. The present study shows that UCE can be predicted from weight, age and sex. However, the results revealed that a creatinine index based on these predictions is not sufficiently sensitive to exclude incomplete 24 h urine collections.

  3. Creatinine - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Results depend on your age and amount of lean body mass. Another way of expressing the normal ... eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap ...

  4. Legionella pneumophila DNA in serum samples during Legionnaires' disease in relation to C-reactive protein levels.

    PubMed

    van de Veerdonk, F L; de Jager, C P C; Schellekens, J J A; Huijsmans, C J J; Beaumont, F; Hermans, M H A; Wever, P C

    2009-04-01

    Legionella pneumophila DNA can be detected in serum from patients with Legionnaires' disease (LD). We explored this observation studying the kinetics of L. pneumophila DNA in serum samples in relation to C-reactive protein (CRP). Eleven hospitalized patients with LD were studied. Diagnosis was made by Legionella urinary antigen test in 8 patients and seroconversion in 3 patients. A macrophage infectivity potentiator (MIP) real-time PCR was performed on 31 serum samples, including 20 follow-up serum samples. Serum samples obtained on the day of admission were MIP PCR-positive in 7 (64%) and MIP PCR-negative in 4 (36%) patients. Three (75%) of the 4 patients with a MIP PCR-negative serum sample on the day of admission became positive during follow-up. Overall, L. pneumophila DNA was detected in serum samples from 10 of the 11 patients (91%). CRP levels in the 7 patients with a positive MIP PCR serum sample on day of admission (499 +/- 144 mg/l; median +/- SD) were significantly higher than those in the 4 patients with a negative MIP PCR serum sample on the day of admission (244 +/- 97 mg/l). No difference in the severity of the disease on the day of admission was found between these patients. The presence of L. pneumophila DNA in serum is a common phenomenon in hospitalized patients with LD, although in some cases it is not yet present on the day of admission. L. pneumophila DNA in serum on the day of admission correlates with high CRP levels, but not with the severity of the disease.

  5. Reclaiming the Educational Role of Chief Admission Officers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Patricia; Robertson, Larry

    1995-01-01

    Describes changes that have occurred in high schools, colleges, and the entrepreneurial admission sector. Relates the evolution of the admission officer's job since the early 1960s and the profession's rapid growth. Details the hybrid role of marketer and educator for chief admissions officers, and issues a call for professional standards. (RJM)

  6. Female and Male Admission to Graduate School: An Illustrative Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Scott E.; Jones, Lyle V.

    1976-01-01

    Female and male admission rates to four graduate programs at a university were compared over a two year time period to assess possible sex bias in admission procedures. The overall results showed that sex played only a modest role in admission decisions. (Author/DEP)

  7. Behind the Scenes, Admissions Offices Conquer Mounds of Mail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Elizabeth F.

    2008-01-01

    If coming back to work after winter break seems daunting, consider the plight of college-admissions officials. While most high-school students are breathing a sigh of relief after finally submitting their applications, those on the receiving end are rolling up their sleeves. January is crunch time for many admissions offices. Admissions officers…

  8. 45 CFR 618.305 - Preference in admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Preference in admission. 618.305 Section 618.305 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 618.305 Preference in admission....

  9. 45 CFR 618.305 - Preference in admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preference in admission. 618.305 Section 618.305 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 618.305 Preference in admission....

  10. 45 CFR 618.305 - Preference in admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Preference in admission. 618.305 Section 618.305 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 618.305 Preference in admission....

  11. 45 CFR 618.305 - Preference in admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Preference in admission. 618.305 Section 618.305 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 618.305 Preference in admission....

  12. The Roles of Testing and Diversity in College Admissions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Marguerite; Shore, Arnold

    In order to understand the roles of test scores and diversity characteristics (including race and ethnicity) in the admission process, National Board researchers interviewed admissions directors who worked at selective public and private institutions are well as admissions consultants in the summer and fall of 1999. This report presents an…

  13. Equity of Access. New Approaches to Minority Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, Rebecca Saady

    1978-01-01

    One new approach to the admission of minorities to medical schools is that of the Simulated Minority Admission Exercises (SMAE). It sensitizes admission committee members to the different backgrounds of minority applicants and teaches them to evaluate them more effectively. (Author/AM)

  14. 49 CFR 511.34 - Requests for admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... for the admission, for the purposes of the pending proceeding only, of the truth of any matters within... served upon any party after filing of the answer. Each matter as to which an admission is requested shall be separately set forth. (b) Procedure for response. The matter as to which an admission is...

  15. 6 CFR 17.305 - Preference in admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preference in admission. 17.305 Section 17.305... OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 17.305 Preference in admission. A...

  16. 18 CFR 1317.305 - Preference in admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preference in admission... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 1317.305 Preference in admission....

  17. 49 CFR 1114.3 - Admissibility of business records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Admissibility of business records. 1114.3 Section... § 1114.3 Admissibility of business records. Any writing or record, whether in the form of an entry in a... be admissible as evidence thereof if it appears that it was made in the regular course of...

  18. 49 CFR 1114.3 - Admissibility of business records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Admissibility of business records. 1114.3 Section... § 1114.3 Admissibility of business records. Any writing or record, whether in the form of an entry in a... be admissible as evidence thereof if it appears that it was made in the regular course of...

  19. 49 CFR 1114.3 - Admissibility of business records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Admissibility of business records. 1114.3 Section... § 1114.3 Admissibility of business records. Any writing or record, whether in the form of an entry in a... be admissible as evidence thereof if it appears that it was made in the regular course of...

  20. 42 CFR 456.122 - Evaluation criteria for admission review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evaluation criteria for admission review. 456.122...: Review of Need for Admission 1 § 456.122 Evaluation criteria for admission review. The UR plan must provide that— (a) The committee develops written medical care criteria to assess the need for...

  1. Eliminating Standardized Tests in College Admissions: The New Affirmative Action?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwick, Rebecca

    1999-01-01

    Eliminating the Scholastic Aptitude Test for college admissions might seem a form of covert affirmative action. Although it is possible to design a workable admissions policy that excludes standardized tests (as 15 percent of colleges have done), banishing admissions tests to further a social-policy goal indirectly is unsound policy. (Contains 25…

  2. Assisted living nursing practice: admission assessment.

    PubMed

    Mitty, Ethel; Flores, Sandi

    2007-01-01

    Admission assessment, generally conducted by a registered nurse, is autonomous, without opportunity for dialogue with colleagues and other health care professionals and bounded by the nurse's knowledge and skills, state regulations, facility practices, and marketing. The fact that some states permit admission and retention of nursing home level-of-care residents and provision of end-of-life care means that the assessment has to be able to predict the resident's likely trajectory of well-being as well as chronic illness exacerbation. The nurse must have a clear perspective on staff competencies and judge whether additional education or training will be necessary. This article reviews assessment standards of practice as put forth by the American Assisted Living Nurses Association as part of its application for recognition of assisted living nursing as specialty nursing practice by the American Nurses Association. The role of the Licensed Practical Nurse/Licensed Vocational Nurse in resident assessment is also discussed.

  3. Lasers, the Price of Admission in 2045

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    altitude. Water vapor, pollutants , and other particles in the air , which are more prevalent at lower altitudes, cause absorption and scattering. These...AU/ACSC/DAYTON, J/AY15 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY LASERS, THE PRICE OF ADMISSION IN 2045 by John G. Dayton, Maj, USAF...the Degree of MASTER OF OPERATIONAL ARTS AND SCIENCE Advisors: Lt Col Paul P. Clemans, Maj Thomas E. Kiesling Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama

  4. Characteristics of delayed admission to stroke unit.

    PubMed

    Silvestrelli, Giorgio; Parnetti, Lucilla; Tambasco, Nicola; Corea, Francesco; Capocchi, Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    Early admission to stroke unit (SU) and factors that may cause admission delay represent relevant issues to obtain an optimal management of acute stroke. This study was aimed at recording timing from clinical onset to admission to our SU and to identify the reasons for delay. We prospectively examined acute stroke patients consecutively admitted to the Perugia SU. Baseline characteristics of stroke patients, stroke type and etiology, time from symptom onset to arrival in the SU were obtained from the Hospital-Based Perugia Stroke Registry. 60.8% of 2,213 consecutive stroke patients admitted to the SU arrived within 6 hrs and 39.2% after 6 hrs. Underestimation of symptoms was the cause of delay in 48.7% of cases. Younger age, especially for females, ischemic stroke, mild and/or unspecific symptoms and the underestimation of symptoms seem to be the main reasons for delayed arrival in the SU. To increase the proportion of stroke patients arriving in the SU within 3 hr of symptom onset, it is necessary to improve public and general practitioner awareness of stroke through educational programs.

  5. Serum Biochemical Phenotypes in the Domestic Dog.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Mei; Hadox, Erin; Szladovits, Balazs; Garden, Oliver A

    2016-01-01

    The serum or plasma biochemical profile is essential in the diagnosis and monitoring of systemic disease in veterinary medicine, but current reference intervals typically take no account of breed-specific differences. Breed-specific hematological phenotypes have been documented in the domestic dog, but little has been published on serum biochemical phenotypes in this species. Serum biochemical profiles of dogs in which all measurements fell within the existing reference intervals were retrieved from a large veterinary database. Serum biochemical profiles from 3045 dogs were retrieved, of which 1495 had an accompanying normal glucose concentration. Sixty pure breeds plus a mixed breed control group were represented by at least 10 individuals. All analytes, except for sodium, chloride and glucose, showed variation with age. Total protein, globulin, potassium, chloride, creatinine, cholesterol, total bilirubin, ALT, CK, amylase, and lipase varied between sexes. Neutering status significantly impacted all analytes except albumin, sodium, calcium, urea, and glucose. Principal component analysis of serum biochemical data revealed 36 pure breeds with distinctive phenotypes. Furthermore, comparative analysis identified 23 breeds with significant differences from the mixed breed group in all biochemical analytes except urea and glucose. Eighteen breeds were identified by both principal component and comparative analysis. Tentative reference intervals were generated for breeds with a distinctive phenotype identified by comparative analysis and represented by at least 120 individuals. This is the first large-scale analysis of breed-specific serum biochemical phenotypes in the domestic dog and highlights potential genetic components of biochemical traits in this species.

  6. Serum Biochemical Phenotypes in the Domestic Dog

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yu-Mei; Hadox, Erin; Szladovits, Balazs; Garden, Oliver A.

    2016-01-01

    The serum or plasma biochemical profile is essential in the diagnosis and monitoring of systemic disease in veterinary medicine, but current reference intervals typically take no account of breed-specific differences. Breed-specific hematological phenotypes have been documented in the domestic dog, but little has been published on serum biochemical phenotypes in this species. Serum biochemical profiles of dogs in which all measurements fell within the existing reference intervals were retrieved from a large veterinary database. Serum biochemical profiles from 3045 dogs were retrieved, of which 1495 had an accompanying normal glucose concentration. Sixty pure breeds plus a mixed breed control group were represented by at least 10 individuals. All analytes, except for sodium, chloride and glucose, showed variation with age. Total protein, globulin, potassium, chloride, creatinine, cholesterol, total bilirubin, ALT, CK, amylase, and lipase varied between sexes. Neutering status significantly impacted all analytes except albumin, sodium, calcium, urea, and glucose. Principal component analysis of serum biochemical data revealed 36 pure breeds with distinctive phenotypes. Furthermore, comparative analysis identified 23 breeds with significant differences from the mixed breed group in all biochemical analytes except urea and glucose. Eighteen breeds were identified by both principal component and comparative analysis. Tentative reference intervals were generated for breeds with a distinctive phenotype identified by comparative analysis and represented by at least 120 individuals. This is the first large-scale analysis of breed-specific serum biochemical phenotypes in the domestic dog and highlights potential genetic components of biochemical traits in this species. PMID:26919479

  7. Complexity in College Admission: Fact or Urban Myth. Research Findings of Parent and Student Perceptions of Complexity in College Admission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Board Advocacy & Policy Center, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In September 2007, the College Board formed the Task Force on Admissions in the 21st Century in response to a request from the Guidance and Admission Assembly Council (GAA Council) to more closely examine the high-school-to-college transition process. Each spring, at the conclusion of the college admission cycle, there is much discussion in the…

  8. A Role for Marketing in College Admissions. Papers Presented at the Colloquium on College Admissions, May 16-l8, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Entrance Examination Board, New York, NY.

    This collection stresses the need for informed and more sophisticated marketing techniques for college admissions officers to help them cope with the decreasing number of prospective college students. The importance of the college admissions office is increasing as admissions becomes a more crucial element to the colleges' financial well-being.…

  9. Effects of the Economy on the Admission Process: 2008-09. National Association for College Admission Counseling, September 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for College Admission Counseling, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The 2008-09 college admission cycle took place during a period of heightened economic uncertainty. When added to the annual uncertainty of the admission process--for both students seeking college admission offers and colleges seeking to predict their annual enrollment yield--the economic environment caused great concern among colleges and students…

  10. Correlation of Serum Cystatin C with Glomerular Filtration Rate in Patients Receiving Platinum-Based Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Ernesta; Barchiesi, Vittoria; Cerasuolo, Dionigio; Di Paola, Flaviano; Cantile, Monica; Cecere, Sabrina Chiara; Pignata, Sandro; Morabito, Alessandro; Costanzo, Raffaele; Di Maio, Massimo; Perrone, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Serum cystatin C seems to be an accurate marker of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) compared to serum creatinine. The aim of this work was to explore the possibility of using serum cystatin C instead of serum creatinine to early predict renal failure in cancer patients who received platinum based chemotherapy. Design and Methods. Serum creatinine, serum cystatin C concentrations, and GFR were determined simultaneously in 52 cancer patients received carboplatin-based or cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Serum creatinine was assayed on Cobas C6000-Roche, serum cystatin C assay was performed on AIA 360-Tosoh, and GFR was determined in all patients, before the first cycle of chemotherapy and before the subsequent administrations. Results. In the overall series, for the prediction of a fall of GFR < 80 mL/min/1.73 m(2), the AUC of the ROC curve for cystatin C was 0,667 and the best threshold was 1.135 mg/L (sensitivity 90.5%, specificity 61.1%). For a GFR fall < 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2), the AUC of ROC curve for cystatin C was 74.3% and the best threshold was 1.415 mg/L (sensitivity 66.7%, specificity 73.2%). Conclusions. Baseline cystatin C values were not able to predict renal failure during subsequent treatment. In conclusion, serum cystatin C is not a reliable early marker to efficiently predict renal failure in patients receiving chemotherapy.

  11. Correlation of Serum Cystatin C with Glomerular Filtration Rate in Patients Receiving Platinum-Based Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Barchiesi, Vittoria; Cerasuolo, Dionigio; Di Paola, Flaviano; Cantile, Monica; Cecere, Sabrina Chiara; Pignata, Sandro; Morabito, Alessandro; Costanzo, Raffaele; Di Maio, Massimo; Perrone, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Serum cystatin C seems to be an accurate marker of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) compared to serum creatinine. The aim of this work was to explore the possibility of using serum cystatin C instead of serum creatinine to early predict renal failure in cancer patients who received platinum based chemotherapy. Design and Methods. Serum creatinine, serum cystatin C concentrations, and GFR were determined simultaneously in 52 cancer patients received carboplatin-based or cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Serum creatinine was assayed on Cobas C6000-Roche, serum cystatin C assay was performed on AIA 360-Tosoh, and GFR was determined in all patients, before the first cycle of chemotherapy and before the subsequent administrations. Results. In the overall series, for the prediction of a fall of GFR < 80 mL/min/1.73 m2, the AUC of the ROC curve for cystatin C was 0,667 and the best threshold was 1.135 mg/L (sensitivity 90.5%, specificity 61.1%). For a GFR fall < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, the AUC of ROC curve for cystatin C was 74.3% and the best threshold was 1.415 mg/L (sensitivity 66.7%, specificity 73.2%). Conclusions. Baseline cystatin C values were not able to predict renal failure during subsequent treatment. In conclusion, serum cystatin C is not a reliable early marker to efficiently predict renal failure in patients receiving chemotherapy. PMID:28078200

  12. Changes in Serum Biochemical Factors Associated with Opium Addiction after Addiction Desertion

    PubMed Central

    Afarinesh, Mohammad Reza; Haghpanah, Tahereh; Divsalar, Kouros; Dehyadegary, Elham; Shaikh-Aleslami, Azar; Mahmoodi, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Background The long time use of opium has some effects on serums biochemical factors, the determination of this variation is a new approach in understanding off addiction and relive of drug abuser health. Hence in this study, these indicators in person who were withdrawing of opium have been studied. Methods In this cross-sectional study bloods biochemical factors such as fasting blood sugar (FBS), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), uric acid (UA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, cholesterol, total protein, and fibrinogen in three groups serum were studied: (1) Who had been permanent opium users more than 2 years (case). (2) Dependent person who has taken one month addiction withdrawal course (control). (3) A healthy group that had been demographically similar to the other groups. Findings According to these study findings, FBS serum level in the case group is lower than control group. Serum level of Na, creatinine, and blood triglyceride (TG) in case study are higher than group control. Concentration of potassium, Ca, UA, BUN, cholesterol, total serum protein, fibrinogen, and thrombin time in case study and group control showed no significant difference. Also, in withdrawing case serum level of Na, Ca, UA, BUN, creatinine, and TG significantly increase and thrombin time decrease. Conclusion According to this study not only the longtime use of opium but also opium with drawerin opium dependent people can change their serum biochemical factors. So recognition, treatment, and prevention of this change could be a new step in improving of health and condition of patients. PMID:25984281

  13. Weights, hematology and serum chemistry of free-ranging brown boobies (Sula leucogaster) in Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.

    1999-01-01

    Hematologic and serum chemistry values are reported for 105 brown boobies (Sula leucogaster) from Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific. Hematocrit, estimated total plasma solids, total and differential white cell counts, serum glucose, calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, total protein, albumin, globulin, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatinine phosphokinase were analyzed. Hematologic and serum chemistry values varied with age and sex. Values were compared with those of red-footed boobies and other tropical and temperate marine pelecaniforms.

  14. Variation in rates of hospital admission for appendicitis in Wales.

    PubMed Central

    West, R R; Carey, M J

    1978-01-01

    In a study designed to investigate the variations in rates of admission to hospital for appendicitis in Wales Hospital Activity Analysis listings were analysed according to the sex and age of the patients and the month and day of the week of admission. The incidence of hospitalisation was greatest among boys aged 10-14 and girls aged 15-19. The number of admissions was higher on weekdays than at weekends, but there were no seasonal variations. Durations of stay differed between the 17 health districts. We conclude that admission rates vary mainly because of differing hospital admission policies. Admission is not wholly governed by the sudden onset of abdominal pain; other factors include the threshold of consultation of each patient, the referral habits of general practitioners, the availability of hospital beds, and the degree to which doctors and patients expect admission. PMID:656866

  15. Impact of water-induced diuresis on excretion profiles of ethanol, urinary creatinine, and urinary osmolality.

    PubMed

    Bendtsen, P; Jones, A W

    1999-01-01

    This article reports the impact of diuresis on urinary excretion of ethanol in seven healthy volunteers who drank 1000 mL of export beer (44 g ethanol) in 30 min and, 120 min later, ingested 500 or 1000 mL of water within 5 min. Urine was voided before drinking started and every 30-60 min for 360 min after the start of drinking. The concentration of ethanol in urine (UAC) was determined by headspace gas chromatography, the creatinine content was determined by Jaffe's method, and osmolality was measured by freezing point depression. Maximum diuresis coincided with the peak UAC and was reached 60-90 min after the end of drinking. The urinary creatinine and osmolality dropped appreciably after drinking beer, and the lowest values coincided with peak diuresis. Creatinine was < 0.2 g/L in 22% of urine specimens, and osmolality was < 200 mOsm/kg in 31% of specimens. Production of urine decreased as UAC entered the postabsorptive phase but increased again after the subjects drank water 120 min after alcohol consumption. The amount of ethanol recovered in urine was 681 mg (standard deviation [SD] 203 mg) corresponding to 1.5% (SD 0.46%) of the dose administered. The concentrations of ethanol in successive voids during the postabsorptive phase were not influenced after subjects drank 500 or 1000 mL of water although diuresis increased and urinary creatinine and osmolality decreased. Measuring UAC provides a reliable way to monitor recent drinking, and unlike the analysis of illicit drugs in urine, the concentrations of ethanol are not influenced by diuresis.

  16. Association between urinary sodium, creatinine, albumin, and long-term survival in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    McQuarrie, Emily P; Traynor, Jamie P; Taylor, Alison H; Freel, E Marie; Fox, Jonathan G; Jardine, Alan G; Mark, Patrick B

    2014-07-01

    Dietary sodium intake is associated with hypertension and cardiovascular risk in the general population. In patients with chronic kidney disease, sodium intake has been associated with progressive renal disease, but not independently of proteinuria. We studied the relationship between urinary sodium (UNa) excretion and UNa to creatinine ratio and mortality or requirement for renal replacement therapy in chronic kidney disease. Adult patients attending a renal clinic who had ≥1 24-hour UNa measurement were identified. Twenty-four-hour UNa measures were collected and UNa to creatinine ratio calculated. Time to renal replacement therapy or death was recorded. Four hundred twenty-three patients were identified with mean estimated glomerular filtration rate of 48 mL/min per 1.73 m(2). Ninety patients required renal replacement therapy and 102 patients died. Mean slope decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate was -2.8 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) per year. Median follow-up was 8.5 years. Patients who died or required renal replacement therapy had significantly higher UNa excretion and UNa to creatinine ratio, but the association with these parameters and poor outcome was not independent of renal function, age, and albuminuria. When stratified by albuminuria, UNa to creatinine ratio was a significant cumulative additional risk for mortality, even in patients with low-level albuminuria. There was no association between low UNa and risk, as observed in some studies. This study demonstrates an association between UNa excretion and mortality in chronic kidney disease, with a cumulative relationship between sodium excretion, albuminuria, and reduced survival. These data support reducing dietary sodium intake in chronic kidney disease, but additional study is required to determine the target sodium intake.

  17. Fluorescence-based assay for reactive oxygen species: A protective role for creatinine

    SciTech Connect

    Glazer, A.N. )

    1988-06-01

    Attack by reactive oxygen species leads to a decay in phycoerythrin fluorescence emission. This phenomenon provides a versatile new assay for small molecules and macromolecules that can function as protective compounds. With 1-2 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} M phycoerythrin, under conditions where peroxyl radical generation is rate-limiting, the fluorescence decay follows apparent zero-order kinetics. On reaction with HO{center dot}, generated with the ascorbate-Cu{sup 2+} system, the fluorescence decays with apparent first-order kinetics. Examination of the major components of human urine in this assay confirms that at physiological concentrations, urate protects against both types of oxygen radicals. A novel finding is that creatinine protects efficiently by a chelation mechanism against radical damage in the ascorbate-Cu{sup 2+} system at creatinine, ascorbate, and Cu{sup 2+} concentrations comparable to those in normal urine. Urate and creatinine provide complementary modes of protection against reactive oxygen species in the urinary tract.

  18. Human urine certified reference material CZ 6009: creatinine, styrene metabolites (mandelic acid and phenylglyoxylic acid).

    PubMed

    Sperlingová, I; Dabrowská, L; Stránský, V; Kucera, J; Tichý, M

    2004-03-01

    The reference material was prepared by freeze-drying pooled urine samples obtained from healthy persons occupationally exposed to styrene. The concentrations of mandelic acid (MA), phenylglyoxylic acid (PGA), and hippuric acid (HA) in urine were determined by three modes of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). For isochronous stability testing the urinary mandelic acid and phenylglyoxylic acid concentrations were followed over a 24-month period for a preliminary batch by use of HPLC. No changes of the concentration values were found. The creatinine concentration was stable for more than five years. Standard Reference Material NIST 914a Creatinine was used for traceability purposes for creatinine. Pure chemicals MA and PGA were used for traceability purposes. Control material ClinChek-Urine Control (Recipe) was analyzed simultaneously. The mean values of MA and PGA compare well with the means and fall within the control range of control samples. Results from homogeneity, stability, and traceability testing were evaluated using the statistical program ANOVA. The certified values and their uncertainties were evaluated from the results of interlaboratory comparisons, and homogeneity and stability tests. The values are unweighed arithmetical averages of accepted results and their uncertainties are combined uncertainties (coverage factor=1).

  19. Blood pressure and creatinine clearance in lead-exposed children: the effect of treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Friedlander, M.A.; Brooks, C.T.; Sheehe, P.R.

    1981-01-01

    The authors speculated that normal growth might cause the release of stored lead in children, providing an endogenous source of exposure for years after the acute toxic episode had resolved. The purpose of this study was to answer the following two questions: (1) is a chelation-responsive lead burden present 2 to 5 yr after therapy for acute poisoning; and (2) does blood pressure or creatinine clearance correlate with body lead burden, as demonstrated by chelation. Thirty-eight children who had undergone ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid mobilization testing at least one time during the course of treatment in a lead clinic returned for follow-up care within 2-5 yr. All were asymptomatic. To determine the current level of body lead burden, a single-dose oral chelation with penicillamine was performed. Blood pressure and creatinine clearences were measured. From the data obtained for each child, we generated a geometric ''area'' representing the magnitude of lead burden integrated over the length of carriage of this burden. Multiple regression analysis indicated that after adjustment for the background variables of age, sex, height, and weight, none of the three parameters-mobilization ratio ''area,'' blood lead level, or FEP level-was a significant contributor to the variation observed in the blood pressures or creatinine clearances of the 38 lead-exposed children (P>.05).

  20. Detection of urinary estrogen conjugates and creatinine using near infrared spectroscopy in Bornean orangutans (Pongo Pygmaeus).

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Kodzue; Kuze, Noko; Kobayashi, Toshio; Miyakawa, Etsuko; Narita, Hiromitsu; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Idani, Gen'ichi; Tsenkova, Roumiana

    2016-01-01

    For promoting in situ conservation, it is important to estimate the density distribution of fertile individuals, and there is a need for developing an easy monitoring method to discriminate between physiological states. To date, physiological state has generally been determined by measuring hormone concentration using radioimmunoassay or enzyme immunoassay (EIA) methods. However, these methods have rarely been applied in situ because of the requirements for a large amount of reagent, instruments, and a radioactive isotope. In addition, the proper storage of the sample (including urine and feces) on site until analysis is difficult. On the other hand, near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy requires no reagent and enables rapid measurement. In the present study, we attempted urinary NIR spectroscopy to determine the estrogen levels of orangutans in Japanese zoos and in the Danum Valley Conservation Area, Sabah, Malaysia. Reflectance NIR spectra were obtained from urine stored using a filter paper. Filter paper is easy to use to store dried urine, even in the wild. Urinary estrogen and creatinine concentrations measured by EIA were used as the reference data of partial least square (PLS) regression of urinary NIR spectra. High accuracies (R(2) > 0.68) were obtained in both estrogen and creatinine regression models. In addition, the PLS regressions in both standards showed higher accuracies (R(2) > 0.70). Therefore, the present study demonstrates that urinary NIR spectra have the potential to estimate the estrogen and creatinine concentrations.

  1. Exposure assessment approach through mycotoxin/creatinine ratio evaluation in urine by GC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Carrasco, Yelko; Moltó, Juan Carlos; Mañes, Jordi; Berrada, Houda

    2014-10-01

    In this pilot survey human urine samples were analyzed for presence of 15 mycotoxins and some of their metabolites using a novel urinary multi-mycotoxin GC-MS/MS method following salting-out liquid-liquid extraction. Fifty-four urine samples from children and adults residents in Valencia were analyzed for presence of urinary mycotoxin and expressed in gram of creatinine. Three out of 15 mycotoxins were detected namely, HT-2 toxin, nivalenol and deoxynivalenol (DON). 37 samples showed quantifiable values of mycotoxins. Co-occurrence of these contaminants was also observed in 20.4% of assayed samples. DON was the most frequently detected mycotoxin (68.5%) with mean levels of 23.3 μg/g creatinine (range: 2.8-69.1 μg/g creatinine). The levels of urinary DON were used to carry out an exposure assessment approach. 8.1% of total subjects were estimated to exceed the DON provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) (1 μg/kg b.w.). Two out of 9 exposed children exceeded the DON PMTDI thus, making them the most exposed based on the urinary results.

  2. Verification of serum reference intervals for free light chains in a local South African population.

    PubMed

    Zemlin, Annalise E; Rensburg, Megan A; Ipp, Hayley; Germishuys, Jurie J; Erasmus, Rajiv T

    2013-11-01

    Monoclonal serum free light chain measurements are used to follow up and manage patients with monoclonal gammopathies, and abnormal serum free light chain ratios are associated with risk of progression in certain diseases. We aimed to validate the reference intervals in our population. Reference intervals for κ and λ free light chains were established on 120 healthy adults. Creatinine levels were measured to exclude renal dysfunction and serum protein electrophoresis was performed. All creatinine values were within normal limits. After exclusion of subjects with abnormal serum protein electrophoreses, 113 subjects were available for analysis. The 95% reference interval was 6.3-20.6 mg/L for κ free light chains, 8.7-25.9 mg/L for λ free light chains and 0.46-1.23 for free light chain ratio. Most of the values fell within the manufacturer's recommended limits and therefore could be used for our population.

  3. Index Blood Tests and National Early Warning Scores within 24 Hours of Emergency Admission Can Predict the Risk of In-Hospital Mortality: A Model Development and Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Mohammed A.; Rudge, Gavin; Watson, Duncan; Wood, Gordon; Smith, Gary B.; Prytherch, David R.; Girling, Alan; Stevens, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Background We explored the use of routine blood tests and national early warning scores (NEWS) reported within ±24 hours of admission to predict in-hospital mortality in emergency admissions, using empirical decision Tree models because they are intuitive and may ultimately be used to support clinical decision making. Methodology A retrospective analysis of adult emergency admissions to a large acute hospital during April 2009 to March 2010 in the West Midlands, England, with a full set of index blood tests results (albumin, creatinine, haemoglobin, potassium, sodium, urea, white cell count and an index NEWS undertaken within ±24 hours of admission). We developed a Tree model by randomly splitting the admissions into a training (50%) and validation dataset (50%) and assessed its accuracy using the concordance (c-) statistic. Emergency admissions (about 30%) did not have a full set of index blood tests and/or NEWS and so were not included in our analysis. Results There were 23248 emergency admissions with a full set of blood tests and NEWS with an in-hospital mortality of 5.69%. The Tree model identified age, NEWS, albumin, sodium, white cell count and urea as significant (p<0.001) predictors of death, which described 17 homogeneous subgroups of admissions with mortality ranging from 0.2% to 60%. The c-statistic for the training model was 0.864 (95%CI 0.852 to 0.87) and when applied to the testing data set this was 0.853 (95%CI 0.840 to 0.866). Conclusions An easy to interpret validated risk adjustment Tree model using blood test and NEWS taken within ±24 hours of admission provides good discrimination and offers a novel approach to risk adjustment which may potentially support clinical decision making. Given the nature of the clinical data, the results are likely to be generalisable but further research is required to investigate this promising approach. PMID:23734195

  4. Evaluation of serum NGAL and hepcidin levels in chronic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Avci Çiçek, Esin; Rota, Simin; Dursun, Belda; Kavalci, Emine

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of death in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. The main underlying reason is inflammation. In CKD, interleukin-6 and hypersensitive C-reactive protein are known to be used for the evaluation of inflammation and serum levels increase with decreased creatinine clearance. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and hepcidin are also considered to be effective in the assessment of inflammatory conditions. The possible interactions of NGAL and hepcidin with inflammatory markers in CKD patients including the kidney transplants, which have not been thoroughly explained up to date wereevaluated in this study. Serum creatinine, iron, unsaturated iron binding capacity, interleukin-6, hypersensitive C-reactive protein, NGAL, hepcidin and pro-hepcidin levels were measured in a cohort of 163 CKD patients including transplant patients and 82 healthy volunteers. Clinical evaluation and classification of the patients were done according to the NFK/KDOQI guideline. Serum hepcidin, Prohepcidin, NGAL, hypersensitive C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 levels were higher in patient groups compared to the control group. In patient groups, while hepcidin, NGAL, interleukin-6, hypersensitive C-reactive protein levels were correlated with creatinine and glomerular filtration rate, iron metabolism parameters were not correlated with the inflammation biomarkers. Inflammation related hepcidin and NGAL weakly correlated with creatinine clearance. Our results demonstrated that serum NGAL and hepcidin levels might be valuable for the evaluation of inflammation in CKD, and these new inflammation parameters are not related through iron metabolism.

  5. Reagent- and separation-free measurements of urine creatinine concentration using stamping surface enhanced Raman scattering (S-SERS)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Du, Yong; Zhao, Fusheng; Zeng, Jianbo; Mohan, Chandra; Shih, Wei-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    We report a novel reagent- and separation-free method for urine creatinine concentration measurement using stamping surface enhanced Raman scattering (S-SERS) technique with nanoporous gold disk (NPGD) plasmonic substrates, a label-free, multiplexed molecular sensing and imaging technique recently developed by us. The performance of this new technology is evaluated by the detection and quantification of creatinine spiked in three different liquids: creatinine in water, mixture of creatinine and urea in water, and creatinine in artificial urine within physiologically relevant concentration ranges. Moreover, the potential application of our method is demonstrated by creatinine concentration measurements in urine samples collected from a mouse model of nephritis. The limit of detection of creatinine was 13.2 nM (0.15 µg/dl) and 0.68 mg/dl in water and urine, respectively. Our method would provide an alternative tool for rapid, cost-effective, and reliable urine analysis for non-invasive diagnosis and monitoring of renal function. PMID:25798309

  6. Wavelet frames and admissibility in higher dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Führ, Hartmut

    1996-12-01

    This paper is concerned with the relations between discrete and continuous wavelet transforms on k-dimensional Euclidean space. We start with the construction of continuous wavelet transforms with the help of square-integrable representations of certain semidirect products, thereby generalizing results of Bernier and Taylor. We then turn to frames of L2(Rk) and to the question, when the functions occurring in a given frame are admissible for a given continuous wavelet transform. For certain frames we give a characterization which generalizes a result of Daubechies to higher dimensions.

  7. Relationship of serum total calcium to serum albumin in dogs, cats, horses and cattle

    PubMed Central

    Bienzle, Dorothee; Jacobs, Robert M.; Lumsden, John H.

    1993-01-01

    A retrospective study was performed in order to assess the relationship between serum calcium and serum albumin concentrations in domestic animals. Results of 9041 canine, 1564 feline, 2917 equine, and 613 bovine serum samples from hospitalized patients were examined by regression analysis. Subpopulations of cases with concurrent elevations in creatinine or that were less than six months of age were evaluated separately. Statistically significant linear relationships between calcium and albumin concentrations were established for each species (p <0.05). The coefficients of determination (r2) were 0.169 for dogs, 0.294 for cats, 0.222 for horses, and 0.032 for cattle. The correlation coefficients (r) computed were: dogs = 0.411, cats = 0.543, horses = 0.471, cattle = 0.182. Neither increases in creatinine concentration nor juvenile age appreciably influenced the relationship between calcium and albumin concentrations. Interspecies variation was marked, and a strong correlation between calcium and albumin concentrations was not established in any species. PMID:17424241

  8. Underestimation of urinary biomarker-to-creatinine ratio resulting from age-related gain in muscle mass in rats.

    PubMed

    Tonomura, Yutaka; Morikawa, Yuji; Takagi, Shingo; Torii, Mikinori; Matsubara, Mitsunobu

    2013-01-07

    Recent efforts have been made to identify useful urinary biomarkers of nephrotoxicity. Furthermore, the application of urine to the other toxicities as new biomarker source has been recently expanded. Meanwhile, correction of urinary biomarker concentrations according to fluctuations in urine flow rate is required for adequate interpretation of the alteration. The urinary biomarker-to-creatinine ratio (UBCR) is widely used because of the convenience, while the urinary biomarker-excretion rate is regarded as the gold standard corrective method. Because creatinine is a catabolite in energy production in muscles, we hypothesized that altered muscle mass could affect creatinine kinetics, ultimately affecting UBCR. However, no study has examined this hypothesis. In this study, we examined the influence of muscle mass gain on UBCR, using male Sprague-Dawley rats during the growth phase, 6-12-week old. Both plasma creatinine and excretion of urinary creatinine (Ucr excretion) showed increases with muscle mass gain in rats, in which the alterations of UBCR were lowered. The renal mRNA level of the organic cation transporter-2 (Oct2), a creatinine transporter, showed an age-related increase, whereas the mRNA level of multidrug and toxin extrusions-1 (Mate1) remained constant. Multiple regression analysis showed that the increase in creatinine clearance highly contributed to the age-related increase in Ucr excretion compared to the mRNA levels of Oct2 and Mate1. This suggested that the age-related increase in Ucr excretion may be attributable to the increased transglomerular passage of creatinine. In conclusion, the results suggest that muscle mass gain can affect creatinine kinetics, leading to underestimation of UBCR. Therefore, it is important to understand the characteristics of the corrective method when using urinary biomarker, the failure of which can result in an incorrect diagnosis.

  9. The Expression of miR-192 and Its Significance in Diabetic Nephropathy Patients with Different Urine Albumin Creatinine Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaoyu; Lu, Canlu; Lv, Chuan; Wu, Can; Wang, Qiuyue

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the expression of miR-192 and its significance in diabetic nephropathy (DN) patients. Methods. 464 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were divided into normal albuminuria group (NA, n = 157), microalbuminuria group (MA, n = 159), and large amount of albuminuria group (LA, n = 148). 127 healthy persons were selected as the control group (NC, n = 127). The serum miR-192 levels were detected by Real-Time PCR and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and fibronectin (FN) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The relationships among these parameters were analyzed by Pearson correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis. Results. The miR-192 in the LA group was significantly lower than other groups, which was lower in the MA group than in the NA group (P < 0.01). The TGF-β1 and FN in the LA group were significantly higher than other groups, which were higher in the MA group than in the NA group (P < 0.01). The expression of miR-192 was negatively correlated with TGF-β1, FN, and Ln (UACR) and miR-192, TGF-β1, and FN were independent relevant factors affecting Ln (UACR) in T2DM (P < 0.01). Conclusions. These findings indicate that the levels of miR-192 were lower accompanied by the decrease of urine albumin creatinine ratio (UACR) and the association between miR-192 and nephritic fibrosis in DN. PMID:26881255

  10. Serum Chemerin Levels Are Associated with Abdominal Visceral Fat in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chei Won

    2016-01-01

    Chemerin is a recently identified adipokine suggested to play a role in obesity and its metabolic complications. The relationship between visceral obesity and serum chemerin levels in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is unknown and may differ from that of subjects without diabetes. Therefore, we evaluated whether serum chemerin was associated with visceral abdominal obesity in patients with T2DM. A total of 218 Korean patients with T2DM were enrolled and metabolic parameters, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat areas, and serum chemerin levels were measured. Serum chemerin level showed positive correlation with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, serum triglyceride, serum creatinine, urine albumin/creatinine ratio, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fibrinogen, abdominal visceral fat area, visceral to subcutaneous fat area ratio, and negatively correlation with high density lipoprotein cholesterol and creatinine clearance (CCr) after adjusting for age, gender and body mass index. Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis showed that abdominal visceral fat area (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), serum triglyceride (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), CCr (β = -0.003, P = 0.001), hsCRP (β = 0.157, P = 0.001), fibrinogen (β = 0.001, P < 0.001) and BMI (β = 0.02, P = 0.008) independently affected log transformed serum chemerin levels. Higher serum chemerin level was associated with higher level of abdominal visceral fat area, serum triglyceride, hsCRP and fibrinogen and lower level of CCr in patients with T2DM. Serum chemerin may be used as a biomarker of visceral adiposity and chemerin may play a role in inflammation, decreased renal function, and increased cardiovascular risk in T2DM. PMID:27247502

  11. Development of a Maximum Admissions Index for Freshman Admissions to the University of Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunneborg, Clifford E.

    A new technique has been developed for admitting new freshman students at the University of Washington. Previously, an Admissions Index (AI) was used, in which the high school grade point average (HSGPA) was assigned twice the weight of the composite verbal and quantitative scores from the Washington Pre-College Test Battery (WPC). To offset the…

  12. An Evaluation of the Pharmacy College Admissions Test as a Tool for Pharmacy College Admissions Committees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Katherine A.; Secnik, Kristina; Boye, Mark E.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the capacity of the Pharmacy College Admissions Test (PCAT) to predict success in pharmacy school. Found demographic differences in PCAT scores, and that the PCAT used in combination with pre-pharmacy grade point average is meaningful in assessing applicants to pharmacy school; applicants with PCAT composite percentile scores below 40…

  13. Challenges in College Admissions. A Report of a Survey of Undergraduate Admissions Policies, Practices, and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breland, Hunter M.; And Others

    The report summarizes undergraduate admissions policies, practices, and procedures at two- and four-year colleges and universities as of 1992. Information was drawn from a national survey, the third of a series conducted since 1979. A total of 2,024 institutions responded to the survey. An introductory chapter describes the surveys, their…

  14. Students Selection for University Course Admission at the Joint Admissions Board (Kenya) Using Trained Neural Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wabwoba, Franklin; Mwakondo, Fullgence M.

    2011-01-01

    Every year, the Joint Admission Board (JAB) is tasked to determine those students who are expected to join various Kenyan public universities under the government sponsorship scheme. This exercise is usually extensive because of the large number of qualified students compared to the very limited number of slots at various institutions and the…

  15. Psychological implications of admission to critical care.

    PubMed

    Pattison, Natalie

    Admission to critical care can have far-reaching psychological effects because of the distinct environment. Critical care services are being re-shaped to address long-term sequelae, including post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression. The long-term consequences of critical illness not only cost the individual, but also have implications for society, such as diminished areas of health-related quality-of-life in sleep, reduced ability to return to work and enjoy recreational activities (Audit Commission, 1999; Hayes et al, 2000). The debate around the phenomenon of intensive care unit (ICU) syndrome is discussed with reference to current thinking. After critical care, patients may experience amnesia, continued hallucinations or flashbacks, anxiety, depression, and dreams and nightmares. Nursing care for patients while in the critical care environment can have a positive effect on psychological well-being. Facilitating communication, explaining care and rationalizing interventions, ensuring patients are oriented as to time and place, reassuring patients about transfer, providing patients,where possible, with information about critical care before admission and considering anxiolytic use, are all practices that have a beneficial effect on patient care. Follow-up services can help patients come to terms with their experiences of critical illness and provide the opportunity for them to access further intervention if desired. Working towards providing optimal psychological care will have a positive effect on patients' psychological recovery and may also help physical recuperation after critical care.

  16. Loneliness and nursing home admission among rural older adults.

    PubMed

    Russell, D W; Cutrona, C E; de la Mora, A; Wallace, R B

    1997-12-01

    In this study, the authors tested the relation between loneliness and subsequent admission to a nursing home over a 4-year time period in a sample of approximately 3,000 rural older Iowans. Higher levels of loneliness were found to increase the likelihood of nursing home admission and to decrease the time until nursing home admission. The influence of extremely high loneliness on nursing home admission remained statistically significant after controlling for other variables, such as age, education, income, mental status, physical health, morale, and social contact, that were also predictive of nursing home admission. Several mechanisms are proposed to explain the link between extreme loneliness and nursing home admission. These include loneliness as a precipitant of declines in mental and physical health and nursing home placement as a strategy to gain social contact with others. Implications for preventative interventions are discussed.

  17. Underrepresented Minorities in Medical School Admissions: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Hadinger, Margaret A

    2017-01-01

    Phenomenon: This study explored Black/African American and Hispanic/Latino medical students' perceptions of the medical school admissions process. Previous research has explored other elements of the medical education continuum. However, little is known regarding minorities' perceptions of navigating the medical school admissions process. To address this gap in the literature, this exploratory study suggests a conceptual model describing why minorities apply to medical school and the influences affecting their admissions experience.

  18. Serum hepcidin concentrations correlate with serum iron level and outcome in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiao-Yi; Chen, Jing; Zhu, Wen-Yao; Zhao, Ting; Zhong, Qi; Zhou, Kai; Meng, Zhao-You; Wang, Yan-Chun; Wang, Peng-Fei; Fang, Huang; Yang, Qing-Wu

    2015-10-01

    Iron plays a detrimental role in the intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced brain damage, while hepcidin is the most important iron-regulated hormone. Here, we investigate the association between serum hepcidin and serum iron, outcome in patients with ICH. Serum samples of 81 cases with ICH were obtained on consecutive days to detect the levels of hepcidin, iron, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (NIHSS) was measured at admission and on days 7 and 30, and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score was evaluated at 3 months after ICH. Additionally, the correlations of serum hepcidin with serum iron and the mRS score were analyzed by a generalized linear model. Higher serum hepcidin levels were detected in patients with poor outcomes (P < 0.001), and the mRS score increased by a mean of 1.135 points (95% CI 1.021-1.247, P < 0.001) for every serum hepcidin quartile after adjusting for other prognostic variables. Pearson correlation analysis showed that serum hepcidin was negatively correlated with serum iron (r = -0.5301, P < 0.001), and a significantly lower concentration of serum iron was found in patients with poor outcomes (P = 0.007). Additionally, serum hepcidin was independently correlated with mRS scores of ICH patients (OR 1.115, 95% CI 0.995-1.249, P = 0.021). Our results suggest that serum hepcidin is closely related to the outcome of patients with ICH and may be a biological marker for outcome prediction.

  19. Accuracy of caregivers’ recall of hospital admissions: implications for research

    PubMed Central

    Burakevych, Nataliia; McKinlay, Christopher Joel Dorman; Alsweiler, Jane Marie; Harding, Jane Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Aim To determine the accuracy of caregivers’ recall of hospital admissions in early childhood. Methods Prospective cohort study of babies born at risk of neonatal hypoglycaemia at Waikato Hospital, New Zealand, a regional public hospital and sole provider of acute inpatient care to over 100,000 children. Caregivers’ recall of children’s hospital admissions up to 4.5 years were compared with medical records. Accuracy of recall was related to neonatal and socio-demographic characteristics. Results Out of 267 children, 179 (67%) visited hospital and 106 (40%) were admitted at least once. The most frequent reasons for admission were for respiratory (29%) and gastrointestinal (18%) problems. Of 106 children admitted to hospital, 27 (25%) caregivers did not recall the admission and only 37 (35%) accurately recalled the number of admissions. The accuracy of recall was lower for gastrointestinal (38%) and surgical (40%) problems, while recall of respiratory (64%) and ear, nose and throat (60%) admissions was more accurate. Low socio-economic status and multiple admissions were associated with less accurate recall of number of admissions. Conclusion Caregivers do not accurately report hospital admissions. Questionnaire data about use of hospital facilities should be interpreted cautiously, and may not be sufficiently accurate for use in research studies. PMID:26355393

  20. Renal Drug Dosage Adjustment According to Estimated Creatinine Clearance in Hospitalized Patients With Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Altunbas, Gokhan; Yazc, Mehmet; Solak, Yalcin; Gul, Enes E; Kayrak, Mehmet; Kaya, Zeynettin; Akilli, Hakan; Aribas, Alpay; Gaipov, Abduzhappar; Yazc, Raziye; Ozdemir, Kurtulus

    2016-01-01

    It is of clinical importance to determine creatinine clearance and adjust doses of prescribed drugs accordingly in patients with heart failure to prevent untoward effects. There is a scarcity of studies in the literature investigating this issue particularly in patients with heart failure, in whom many have impaired kidney function. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of awareness of medication prescription as to creatinine clearance in patients hospitalized with heart failure. Patients hospitalized with a diagnosis of heart failure were retrospectively evaluated. Among screened charts, patients with left ventricular ejection fraction <40% and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of ≤50 mL/min were included in the analysis. The medications and respective doses prescribed at discharge were recorded. Medications requiring renal dose adjustment were determined and evaluated for appropriate dosing according to eGFR. A total of 388 patients with concomitant heart failure and renal dysfunction were included in the study. The total number of prescribed medications was 2808 and 48.3% (1357 medications) required renal dose adjustment. Of the 1357 medications, 12.6% (171 medications) were found to be inappropriately prescribed according to eGFR. The most common inappropriately prescribed medications were famotidine, metformin, perindopril, and ramipril. A significant portion of medications used in heart failure requires dose adjustment. Our results showed that in a typical cohort of patients with heart failure, many drugs are prescribed at inappropriately high doses according to creatinine clearance. Awareness should be increased among physicians caring for patients with heart failure to prevent adverse events related to medications.

  1. Minor Postoperative Increases of Creatinine Are Associated with Higher Mortality and Longer Hospital Length of Stay in Surgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kork, Felix; Balzer, Felix; Spies, Claudia D.; Wernecke, Klaus-Dieter; Ginde, Adit A.; Jankowski, Joachim; Eltzschig, Holger K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Surgical patients frequently experience postoperative increases in creatinine levels. The authors hypothesized that even small increases in postoperative creatinine levels are associated with adverse outcomes. Methods The authors examined the association of postoperative changes from preoperative baseline creatinine with all-cause in-hospital mortality and hospital length of stay (HLOS) in a retrospective analysis of surgical patients at a single tertiary care center between January 2006 and June 2012. Results The data of 39,369 surgical patients (noncardiac surgery n = 37,345; cardiac surgery n = 2,024) were analyzed. Acute kidney injury (AKI)—by definition of the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcome group—was associated with a five-fold higher mortality (odds ratio [OR], 4.8; 95% CI, 4.1 to 5.7; P < 0.001) and a longer HLOS of 5 days (P < 0.001) after adjusting for age, sex, comorbidities, congestive heart failure, preoperative hemoglobin, preoperative creatinine, exposure to radiocontrast agent, type of surgery, and surgical AKI risk factors. Importantly, even minor creatinine increases (Δcreatinine 25 to 49% above baseline but < 0.3 mg/dl) not meeting AKI criteria were associated with a two-fold increased risk of death (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.3 to 2.4; P < 0.001) and 2 days longer HLOS (P < 0.001). This was more pronounced in noncardiac surgery patients. Patients with minor creatinine increases had a five-fold risk of death (OR, 5.4; 95% CI, 1.5 to 20.3; P < 0.05) and a 3-day longer HLOS (P < 0.01) when undergoing noncardiac surgery. Conclusions Even minor postoperative increases in creatinine levels are associated with adverse outcomes. These results emphasize the importance to find effective therapeutic approaches to prevent or treat even mild forms of postoperative kidney dysfunction to improve surgical outcomes. PMID:26492475

  2. Differentiation of Cryptococcus neoformans serotypes A and D using creatinine dextrose bromothymol blue thymine medium.

    PubMed

    Irokanulo, E A; Akueshi, C O; Makinde, A A

    1994-06-01

    A serotype differentiation of the encapsulated yeast Cryptococcus neoformans is described using creatinine dextrose bromothymol blue thymine (CDBT) medium. On CDBT medium C. neoformans serotype D grew as bright red colonies, turning the medium a bright orange after five days incubation at 28 degrees C. C. neoformans serotype A grew as pale colonies with no apparent colour effect on the medium. Serotypes B and C caused a slight greening of the medium. The reaction of the four serotypes of C. neoformans on CDBT medium is considered useful in the differentiation of the closely related serotype A and D.

  3. Specific gravity as an alternative to creatinine for estimating urine concentration in captive and wild chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) Samples.

    PubMed

    Anestis, Stephanie F; Breakey, Alicia A; Beuerlein, Melanie M; Bribiescas, Richard G

    2009-02-01

    The measurement of hormones in urine has become a widely used technique in primatology. Because urine concentration varies according to fluid intake, concentration must be measured in each sample collected, and hormone values are always expressed per unit of concentration. Traditionally, creatinine has been used as a concentration index, but some studies in humans have shown that creatinine varies among populations and even within and between individuals within a population, and that it begins to degrade after just one freeze-thaw cycle. In addition, creatinine measurement is relatively time-consuming and expensive and creates hazardous waste. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that specific gravity, or the ratio of the density of a sample to that of water, is highly correlated with creatinine measurement in urine samples collected from captive chimpanzees at the New Iberia Research Center in Louisiana and wild chimpanzees at the Ngogo study site in the Kibale National Park, Uganda. We found that specific gravity and creatinine were highly correlated in both captive (N=124) and wild (N=13) chimpanzee samples, and that specific gravity measurement was robust to actual and simulated transport conditions and repeated freeze-thaw cycles. We recommend that researchers consider specific gravity measurement as a preferable alternative to creatinine measurement in their studies of primate endocrinology.

  4. Apolipoprotein C-I Levels Are Associated with the Urinary Protein/Urinary Creatinine Ratio in Pediatric Idiopathic Steroid-Sensitive Nephrotic Syndrome: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Kanai, Takahiro; Ito, Takane; Saito, Takashi; Aoyagi, Jun; Betsui, Hiroyuki; Yamagata, Takanori

    2017-01-01

    Humoral factors may cause idiopathic steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (ISSNS). In the present study, we analyzed serum proteins using mass spectrometry (MS) to identify proteins associated with the pathophysiology of pediatric ISSNS. We collected serial serum samples from 33 children during each ISSNS phase; Phase A1 is the acute phase prior to steroid treatment (STx), Phase A2 represents the remission period with STx, and Phase A3 represents the remission period after completion of STx. Children with normal urinalyses (Group B) and children with a nephrotic syndrome other than ISSNS (Group C) served as controls. No significant differences in urinary protein/urinary creatinine (UP/UCr) ratios were observed between the children with phase A1 ISSNS and Group C. We used surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time of flight MS for sample analysis. Four ion peaks with a mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) of 6,444, 6,626, 8,695, and 8,915 were significantly elevated during ISSNS Phase A1 compared to Phase A2, Phase A3, and Group C. The intensity of an m/z of 6,626 significantly correlated with the UP/UCr ratio and an m/z of 6,626 was identified as apolipoprotein C-I (Apo C-I). Apo C-I levels correlate with the UP/UCr ratio in pediatric ISSNS. Our findings provide new insights into the pathophysiology of ISSNS. PMID:28250989

  5. Hospital admissions among male drivers in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Hannerz, H; Tuchsen, F

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To facilitate decisions about interventions and to establish baseline values for future evaluation of preventive efforts, the aim of the present study was to elucidate the disease pattern among male professional drivers in Denmark. The study differentiated between drivers of goods vehicles and drivers of passenger transport.
METHODS—Cohorts of all 20-59 year old Danish male professional drivers in the years 1981, 1986, 1991, and 1994 were formed, to calculate age standardised hospital admission ratios (SHRs) and time trends (1981-97) for many diagnostic aggregations.
RESULTS—SHRs for diseases in practically all systems and organs of the body were higher among professional drivers than they were in the male working population at large. Also drivers of passenger transport, compared with drivers of goods vehicles, had significantly high SHRs due to infectious and parasitic diseases, diseases of the circulatory system, and diseases of the respiratory system, and significantly lower rates of injury. For both driver groups, the SHRs for acute myocardial infarction increased with time whereas the SHR for acute gastritis decreased, and for drivers of passenger transport an increasing SHR for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, was found over time.
CONCLUSION—Drivers of passenger transport and drivers of goods vehicles differ in their disease patterns. The results support the hypothesis that preventive efforts are needed in both groups, but underline that different strategies are required for different categories of drivers.


Keywords: professional drivers; hospital admissions; surveillance system PMID:11245742

  6. Serum adipokine profiles in Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Kemmotsu, Yasushi; Saji, Tsutomu; Kusunoki, Natsuko; Tanaka, Nahoko; Nishimura, Chiaki; Ishiguro, Akira; Kawai, Shinichi

    2012-02-01

    Adipokines are cytokines derived from adipose tissue. Recently it has been established that adipokines are closely linked to the pathophysiology of not only metabolic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, and atherosclerosis, but also to inflammation and immune diseases. In this study we measured serum levels of adipokines in patients with acute Kawasaki disease to investigate the role of adipokines in the pathophysiology of Kawasaki disease. Serum resistin, high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin, leptin, and visfatin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in a total of 117 subjects: 56 patients with acute Kawasaki disease, 30 healthy children, and 31 patients with acute infectious diseases. Serum resistin levels in patients with Kawasaki disease were significantly higher than those of healthy children and patients with acute infectious diseases. In contrast, mean serum HMW adiponectin, leptin, and visfatin levels in patients with Kawasaki disease exhibited no statistically significant differences compared with those in healthy children and patients with infectious diseases. Serum resistin levels decreased significantly after administration of intravenous immune globulin. Serum resistin levels on admission were significantly higher in nonresponders compared with responders to intravenous immune globulin therapy. A multivariate model revealed that C-reactive protein was a factor that was significantly related to elevated serum resistin level in patients with Kawasaki disease. In patients with Kawasaki disease, serum resistin levels were elevated, but decreased to nearly normal after intravenous administration of immune globulin. In contrast, serum HMW adiponectin, leptin, and visfatin levels showed no statistically significant changes. These findings suggest that resistin plays an important role, while other adipokines do not play a major role, in the pathogenesis of Kawasaki disease.

  7. Estimating 24-hour urine sodium level with spot urine sodium and creatinine.

    PubMed

    Koo, Ho Seok; Kim, Yong Chul; Ahn, Shin Young; Oh, Se Won; Kim, Suhnggwon; Chin, Ho Jun; Park, Jung Hwan

    2014-09-01

    The 24-hr urine sodium excretion level was estimated based on the spot urine sodium, and the efficacy of the formula was validated to determine the status of low salt intake <100 mEq Na/day. The 24-hr urine samples were collected from 400 patients. The 24-hr urine creatinine level was estimated with the use of three formulas: a newly derived Korean equation (E24UCR_K), and Tanaka (E24UCR_T) and Cockcroft-Gault (E24UCR_CG) equations. The correlation coefficients between the estimated and measured 24-hr urine creatinine for these three equations were 0.863, 0.846, and 0.896, respectively (All P<0.001). After estimating the 24-hr urine sodium levels, the correlation coefficients between the estimated and measured 24-hr urine sodium levels were 0.466, 0.490, and 0.516, respectively (All P<0.001). The sensitivity of three formulas to estimate the measured 24-hr urine sodium≥100 mEq/day using the estimated amount≥100 mEq/day was 84.3%, 87.6%, and 84.8%, respectively. In conclusion, the three equations used to estimate the 24-hr urine sodium content were useful to determine the status of low salt intake.

  8. Adsorption performance of creatinine on dialdehyde nanofibrillated cellulose derived from potato residues.

    PubMed

    Cui, Dongli; Liu, Zehua; Yang, Yaxing; Huang, Rijin; Cheng, Xiaojuan; Fatehi, Pedram; Sun, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Potato residue is vastly produced in the food industry but it is landfilled. This article describes the treatment of purified cellulose derived from potato residues by a high pressure homogenizer to produce nano-fibrillated cellulose (NFC), which was then oxidized by sodium periodate to prepare dialdehyde nano-fibrillated cellulose (DANFC). The produced NFC and DANFC were characterized by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The orthogonal experiment was induced to obtain the maximum degree of oxidation (DO) on DANFC. The results indicated that the optimal conditions were 40°C and pH 3. Alternatively, the isotherm and kinetic studies for the adsorption of creatinine on DANFC with different DOs (70.5 and 88.8%) were investigated, and the experimental results fitted well into Freundlich isotherm model and pseudo second-order kinetic model. The maximum adsorption capacities of DANFCs with the DO of 70.55 and 88.85% were 6.7 and 17.2 mg g(-1) , respectively, which were achieved under the conditions of 37°C and initial creatinine concentration of 100 mg L(-1).

  9. 28 CFR 54.305 - Preference in admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 54.305 Preference in admission. A recipient to... or predominantly members of one sex, if the giving of such preference has the effect...

  10. 14 CFR 1253.305 - Preference in admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 1253.305 Preference in admission. A... students only or predominantly members of one sex, if the giving of such preference has the effect...

  11. The Confidence Game in Honors Admissions and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzy, Annmarie

    2013-01-01

    Annmarie Guzy, an expert with almost three decades of experience in post-secondary honors education, responds to Jerry Herron's essay, "Notes toward an Excellent Marxist-Elitist Honors Admissions Policy," which argues that "a well-conceived admissions policy tells us much more than whom to recruit; it becomes the basis for a…

  12. Evaluating the Predictive Validity of Graduate Management Admission Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sireci, Stephen G.; Talento-Miller, Eileen

    2006-01-01

    Admissions data and first-year grade point average (GPA) data from 11 graduate management schools were analyzed to evaluate the predictive validity of Graduate Management Admission Test[R] (GMAT[R]) scores and the extent to which predictive validity held across sex and race/ethnicity. The results indicated GMAT verbal and quantitative scores had…

  13. 6 CFR 17.305 - Preference in admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 17.305 Preference in admission. A recipient... only or predominantly members of one sex, if the giving of such preference has the effect...

  14. 14 CFR 1253.305 - Preference in admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 1253.305 Preference in admission. A... students only or predominantly members of one sex, if the giving of such preference has the effect...

  15. University Exceptional Admission during the Republic of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tao, Li

    2014-01-01

    The stories of many universities' exceptive admission during the republic period of China were widely circulated. The typical example of these universities' exceptional admission was the very product of special historical condition, which had its own characteristics, but also conforms to the general rule, so it can be cited. To select special…

  16. Failure as a Criterion for Medical School Admission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, David S.; Aronson, Stanley M.

    1980-01-01

    Admissions committees, it is suggested, should regard a failure experience as an opportunity to examine characteristics of candidates which may otherwise be inapparent. Current admissions criteria do not adequately address the social responsibilities and humanitarian goals of medical education. (Author/MLW)

  17. 14 CFR 125.315 - Admission to flight deck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 125.315 Admission to flight deck. (a) No person may admit any person to the flight deck of an airplane unless the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Admission to flight deck. 125.315...

  18. 14 CFR 125.315 - Admission to flight deck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 125.315 Admission to flight deck. (a) No person may admit any person to the flight deck of an airplane unless the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Admission to flight deck. 125.315...

  19. 14 CFR 125.315 - Admission to flight deck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 125.315 Admission to flight deck. (a) No person may admit any person to the flight deck of an airplane unless the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Admission to flight deck. 125.315...

  20. 14 CFR 125.315 - Admission to flight deck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 125.315 Admission to flight deck. (a) No person may admit any person to the flight deck of an airplane unless the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Admission to flight deck. 125.315...

  1. 14 CFR 125.315 - Admission to flight deck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 125.315 Admission to flight deck. (a) No person may admit any person to the flight deck of an airplane unless the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Admission to flight deck. 125.315...

  2. 28 CFR 541.47 - Admission to control unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Admission to control unit. 541.47 Section... INMATE DISCIPLINE AND SPECIAL HOUSING UNITS Control Unit Programs § 541.47 Admission to control unit. Staff shall provide an inmate admitted to a control unit with: (a) Notice of the projected duration...

  3. WICS: A Model for College and University Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.; Bonney, Christina R.; Gabora, Liane; Merrifield, Maegan

    2012-01-01

    This article outlines shortcomings of currently used university admissions tests and discusses ways in which they could potentially be improved, summarizing two projects designed to enhance college and university admissions. The projects were inspired by the augmented theory of successful intelligence, according to which successful intelligence…

  4. The Admission and Induction of Refugee Children into School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spafford, Tim; Bolloten, Bill

    1995-01-01

    Examines induction and admission practice for refugee school children into Britain's public schools, highlights the educational issues and concerns of newly-arrived refugee families, and discusses what schools can do to make their entry into the school system less problematic. The author explains how good admission and induction practices can…

  5. Environmental Scan of BC Post-Secondary Admissions: 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Nick

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) commissioned an environmental scan on the possible need for system-wide work on institutional admissions processes and practices. This scan is intended to seek system input and to provide guidance on the choice of research projects and other related work in the coming year. This…

  6. Evaluating Admission Criteria Effects for Under-Represented Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childs, Ruth A.; Ferguson, Amanda K.; Herbert, Monique B.; Broad, Kathryn; Zhang, Jingshun

    2016-01-01

    The effects that admission criteria may have for under-represented groups are an important concern for programs seeking to improve access to post-secondary education. Using data from a large preservice teacher education program in the Canadian province of Ontario, we demonstrate two approaches to evaluating the effects of admission criteria. The…

  7. Strategic Enrollment Management's Ambassadors: The Changing Role of Admissions Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathis, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Road runner. File jockey. Advisor. Public speaker. Recruiter. At any given time, an admissions counselor fits one, some, or all of these descriptors. While all of these descriptors indicate an important function within a college or university, none reflects the increasingly complex nature of the role of an admissions counselor in strategic…

  8. Disciplinary Logics in Doctoral Admissions: Understanding Patterns of Faculty Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posselt, Julie R.

    2015-01-01

    Ph.D. attainment rates by race and gender vary widely across the disciplines, and previous research has found disciplinary variation in graduate admissions criteria and practices. To better understand how disciplines shape admissions preferences and practices, which in turn may shape student access to graduate education, this article uncovers…

  9. 7 CFR 15a.22 - Preference in admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Preference in admission. 15a.22 Section 15a.22 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and...

  10. 7 CFR 15a.22 - Preference in admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Preference in admission. 15a.22 Section 15a.22 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and...

  11. 28 CFR 541.47 - Admission to control unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Admission to control unit. 541.47 Section 541.47 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT INMATE DISCIPLINE AND SPECIAL HOUSING UNITS Control Unit Programs § 541.47 Admission to control...

  12. 42 CFR 93.519 - Admissibility of evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions Hearing Process § 93.519 Admissibility of evidence. (a) The ALJ decides the admissibility of... of Witness). (i) Evidence about offers of compromise or settlement made in this action...

  13. 42 CFR 93.519 - Admissibility of evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions Hearing Process § 93.519 Admissibility of evidence. (a) The ALJ decides the admissibility of... of Witness). (i) Evidence about offers of compromise or settlement made in this action...

  14. Assessing Academic Potential for University Admission: The Biographical Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enslin, P. A.; Button, A.; Chakane, M.; de Groot, M.; Dison, L.

    2006-01-01

    A Biographical Questionnaire (BQ) has been used in the Faculty of Humanities at the University of the Witwatersrand since the mid-80s, to identify potential to succeed at university among applicants who have not met the requirements for automatic admission. As the key instrument in a special admissions process, the BQ's history and assumptions are…

  15. 20 CFR 410.696 - Evidence admissible on review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence admissible on review. 410.696 Section 410.696 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT..., Administrative Review, Finality of Decisions, and Representation of Parties § 410.696 Evidence admissible...

  16. 42 CFR 418.25 - Admission to hospice care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Admission to hospice care. 418.25 Section 418.25... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPICE CARE Eligibility, Election and Duration of Benefits § 418.25 Admission to hospice care. (a) The hospice admits a patient only on the recommendation of the medical...

  17. Virginia Western Community College's Health Technology Admissions Evaluation System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Charles A.; Sellers, Harry

    Due to factors such as high enrollment demands, limited institutional space, and high program costs, certain admissions requirements in the guidance/selection of students for health technology programs at Virginia Western Community College (VWCC) have become necessary. A Health Technology Admissions Evaluation System was created to develop and…

  18. Communications Is from Mars, Admissions Is from Venus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scully, Maura King

    2010-01-01

    Marketing communications and admissions often have very different needs, priorities, and ways of conducting business, but the two units work toward the same end goal. Brad Ward of BlueFuego, a marketing company that specializes in social Web tools for educational institutions, explains that admissions doesn't necessarily need to [talk] to…

  19. Using Social Media "Smartly" in the Admissions Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrot, Teresa Valerio; Tipton, Stacia

    2010-01-01

    Admissions officers around the country are hearing consistent calls to enhance their social media presence. Whether the pressure is from administrators, influential alumni, or peers across institutions, social media are touted as the next big thing in admissions marketing. But are social media strategies truly "strategic," or are they merely…

  20. 45 CFR 3.41 - Admission to facilities or grounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Admission to facilities or grounds. 3.41 Section 3... AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Facilities and Grounds § 3.41 Admission to facilities or grounds. The enclave is officially open to the public during normal working...

  1. Pawns or Professionals: The 21st Century Admission Counselor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Jean M.

    2005-01-01

    The National Association for College Admission Counseling (NACAC), originally established to serve as an advocate of ethical practices in the recruitment of students and awarding of scholarship dollars, now recognizes the ethical dilemmas admission counselors face in the current competitive marketplace. This article presents the details of a…

  2. A Revised Admissions Standard for One Community College Nursing Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lown, Maris A.

    2010-01-01

    Predicting success on the NCLEX-RN is of paramount importance to nursing programs as they are held accountable for this outcome by accrediting agencies and by boards of nursing. This action research study examined the relationship between the NET admission test, anatomy and physiology grades, grade point average (GPA) on admission to the program…

  3. Grading Standards, Student Ability and Errors in College Admission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moen, Jarle; Tjelta, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Grades are important for admission of students in most higher education programs. Analyzing admission and student performance data at a major Norwegian business school, we find that the grading practice of teachers at regional colleges sending students to the school is affected by the average performance of the students being graded. Teachers at…

  4. 24 CFR 1720.425 - Presentation and admission of evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Presentation and admission of evidence. 1720.425 Section 1720.425 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... PRACTICE Adjudicatory Proceedings Discovery and Evidence § 1720.425 Presentation and admission of...

  5. 34 CFR 106.22 - Preference in admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preference in admission. 106.22 Section 106.22... EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited §...

  6. 10 CFR 5.305 - Preference in admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preference in admission. 5.305 Section 5.305 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and...

  7. 8 CFR 1235.4 - Withdrawal of application for admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... 1235.4 Section 1235.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 1235.4 Withdrawal of... construed as to give an alien the right to withdraw his or her application for admission. Permission...

  8. 8 CFR 1235.4 - Withdrawal of application for admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... 1235.4 Section 1235.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 1235.4 Withdrawal of... construed as to give an alien the right to withdraw his or her application for admission. Permission...

  9. 8 CFR 235.4 - Withdrawal of application for admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Withdrawal of application for admission. 235.4 Section 235.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS... right to withdraw his or her application for admission. Permission to withdraw an application...

  10. 8 CFR 1235.4 - Withdrawal of application for admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... 1235.4 Section 1235.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 1235.4 Withdrawal of... construed as to give an alien the right to withdraw his or her application for admission. Permission...

  11. 33 CFR 5.15 - Admission to membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Admission to membership. 5.15... GUARD AUXILIARY § 5.15 Admission to membership. An applicant who is accepted for membership shall be enrolled in the Auxiliary and shall be issued a membership certificate and identification card....

  12. 33 CFR 5.15 - Admission to membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Admission to membership. 5.15... GUARD AUXILIARY § 5.15 Admission to membership. An applicant who is accepted for membership shall be enrolled in the Auxiliary and shall be issued a membership certificate and identification card....

  13. 33 CFR 5.15 - Admission to membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Admission to membership. 5.15... GUARD AUXILIARY § 5.15 Admission to membership. An applicant who is accepted for membership shall be enrolled in the Auxiliary and shall be issued a membership certificate and identification card....

  14. 33 CFR 5.15 - Admission to membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Admission to membership. 5.15... GUARD AUXILIARY § 5.15 Admission to membership. An applicant who is accepted for membership shall be enrolled in the Auxiliary and shall be issued a membership certificate and identification card....

  15. Admissions Decisions, the Law, and Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutnak, Michael J.; Janosik, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the legal implications for U.S. higher education administrators who make admissions decisions regarding students with disabilities. A review of federal legislation, case law, and government agency rulings pertaining to higher education admissions and students with disabilities informs administrators of current law.…

  16. 10 CFR 590.308 - Admissions of facts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Admissions of facts. 590.308 Section 590.308 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Procedures § 590.308 Admissions of facts. (a)...

  17. 45 CFR 86.22 - Preference in admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 86.22 Preference in admission. A... predominantly members of one sex, if the giving of such preference has the effect of discriminating on the...

  18. 45 CFR 86.22 - Preference in admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 86.22 Preference in admission. A... predominantly members of one sex, if the giving of such preference has the effect of discriminating on the...

  19. 28 CFR 54.305 - Preference in admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 54.305 Preference in admission. A recipient to... or predominantly members of one sex, if the giving of such preference has the effect...

  20. 45 CFR 618.305 - Preference in admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 618.305 Preference in admission. A... students only or predominantly members of one sex, if the giving of such preference has the effect...

  1. 43 CFR 41.305 - Preference in admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 41.305 Preference in admission. A recipient to... or predominantly members of one sex, if the giving of such preference has the effect...

  2. 40 CFR 5.305 - Preference in admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 5.305 Preference in admission. A... students only or predominantly members of one sex, if the giving of such preference has the effect...

  3. Psychiatric Inpatient Admissions of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Predictive Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowley, Amy; Newton, Jonathan; Sturmey, Peter; Bouras, Nick; Holt, Geraldine

    2005-01-01

    Information on admission to psychiatric inpatient units is lacking from the literature on contemporary services for people with intellectual disability and mental health needs. Here we report on predictors of admission for a cohort of 752 adults from this population living in community settings; 83 were admitted. We also report on two subsamples…

  4. 3 CFR - Refugee Admissions for Fiscal Year 2014

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Refugee Admissions for Fiscal Year 2014 Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Presidential Determination No. 2014-1 of October 2, 2013 Refugee... admission of up to 70,000 refugees to the United States during fiscal year (FY) 2014 is justified...

  5. The Use of Criminal History Information in College Admissions Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Matthew W.; Runyan, Carol W.; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I.

    2014-01-01

    To understand the potential public health and social justice implications of criminal background screening on college admissions, we examined postsecondary institutions' reasons for collecting or not collecting applicants' criminal justice information. We invited heads of admissions from 300 randomly sampled postsecondary institutions to complete…

  6. 4 CFR 25.3 - Admission to the GAO building.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Admission to the GAO building. 25.3 Section 25.3 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES CONDUCT IN THE GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE BUILDING AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.3 Admission to the GAO building. A person may be admitted to the GAO...

  7. 4 CFR 25.3 - Admission to the GAO building.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Admission to the GAO building. 25.3 Section 25.3 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES CONDUCT IN THE GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE BUILDING AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.3 Admission to the GAO building. A person may be admitted to the GAO...

  8. 42 CFR 418.25 - Admission to hospice care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Admission to hospice care. 418.25 Section 418.25... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPICE CARE Eligibility, Election and Duration of Benefits § 418.25 Admission to hospice care. (a) The hospice admits a patient only on the recommendation of the medical...

  9. 42 CFR 418.25 - Admission to hospice care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Admission to hospice care. 418.25 Section 418.25... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HOSPICE CARE Eligibility, Election and Duration of Benefits § 418.25 Admission to hospice care. (a) The hospice admits a patient only on the recommendation of the...

  10. 42 CFR 418.25 - Admission to hospice care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Admission to hospice care. 418.25 Section 418.25... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HOSPICE CARE Eligibility, Election and Duration of Benefits § 418.25 Admission to hospice care. (a) The hospice admits a patient only on the recommendation of the...

  11. 42 CFR 418.25 - Admission to hospice care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Admission to hospice care. 418.25 Section 418.25... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HOSPICE CARE Eligibility, Election and Duration of Benefits § 418.25 Admission to hospice care. (a) The hospice admits a patient only on the recommendation of the...

  12. Modeling Preferential Admissions at Elite Liberal Arts Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cockburn, Sally; Hewitt, Gordon; Kelly, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a model that simulates the effects of varying preferential admissions policies on the academic profile of a set of 35 small liberal arts colleges. An underlying assumption is that all schools in the set use the same ratio of preferential to non-preferential admissions. The model predicts that even drastic changes…

  13. 29 CFR 458.71 - Procedure upon admission of facts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Procedure upon admission of facts. 458.71 Section 458.71... facts. The admission of all the material allegations of fact in the complaint shall constitute a waiver... his recommended decision and order in which he shall adopt as his proposed findings of fact...

  14. 29 CFR 102.40 - Stipulations of fact admissible.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stipulations of fact admissible. 102.40 Section 102.40 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS, SERIES 8... § 102.40 Stipulations of fact admissible. In any such proceeding stipulations of fact may be...

  15. 29 CFR 102.40 - Stipulations of fact admissible.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Stipulations of fact admissible. 102.40 Section 102.40 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS, SERIES 8... § 102.40 Stipulations of fact admissible. In any such proceeding stipulations of fact may be...

  16. 29 CFR 458.71 - Procedure upon admission of facts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedure upon admission of facts. 458.71 Section 458.71... facts. The admission of all the material allegations of fact in the complaint shall constitute a waiver... his recommended decision and order in which he shall adopt as his proposed findings of fact...

  17. Student Incentives and Preferential Treatment in College Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pastine, Ivan; Pastine, Tuvana

    2012-01-01

    We consider a framework in which the optimal admissions policy of a purely academic-quality oriented college implements preferential treatment in favor of the student from the deprived socioeconomic background which maximizes the competition between candidates. We find that the exact form of the preferential treatment admissions policy matters for…

  18. 40 CFR 5.305 - Preference in admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 5.305 Preference in admission. A... students only or predominantly members of one sex, if the giving of such preference has the effect...

  19. Primary and Secondary Selection Tools in an Optometry Admission Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spafford, Marlee M.

    2000-01-01

    A five-year evaluation of the admissions decision process at the University of Waterloo (Ontario) School of Optometry found that when primary tools (i.e., university grades, Optometry Admission Test scores) did not differentiate candidates, there was an increased emphasis on secondary tools (i.e., interview, autobiographic sketch, prerequisite…

  20. Millennials Invading: Building Training for Today's Admissions Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnds, W. Kent

    2009-01-01

    As chief admissions officer at two small colleges, the author has been responsible, in part, for ensuring that entry-level admissions counselors are trained properly. He learned through trial and error, and has adapted his methods to be increasingly sensitive to the learning curve of new employees. His thoughts about training new admissions…

  1. Serum & cerebrospinal fluid ferritin levels in children with acute leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, A; Rusia, U; Anand, N K; Sood, S K

    1989-06-01

    Serum and CSF ferritin were estimated in 35 consecutive patients of acute leukaemia at the time of admission and on induction of remission. Serum ferritin levels were significantly raised in 94 per cent patients of acute leukaemia. The mean (+/- SD) serum ferritin (314.36 +/- 158.4 micrograms/1) was significantly higher when compared with control values (P less than 0.001). Remission induction resulted in significant fall in serum ferritin values to a mean of 149 (+/- 98.7) micrograms/l (P less than 0.05). Serum ferritin is thus of value in assessing the state of remission and is a sensitive indicator of the leukaemic cell mass and the state of activity of the disease. CSF ferritin levels in acute leukaemia were comparable to normal control values. CSF ferritin did not reflect CNS involvement in acute leukaemia and therefore its value as a tumour marker of CNS infiltration is doubtful.

  2. To Bind or to Let Loose: Effectiveness of Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate in Decreasing Serum Potassium

    PubMed Central

    Sandal, Shaifali; Karachiwala, Hatim; Noviasky, John; Wang, Dongliang; Elliott, William C.; Lehmann, David F.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The use of sodium polystyrene sulfonate in decreasing serum potassium has recently been questioned due to the lack of documented effectiveness. Methods. A retrospective cohort analysis of all hospitalized patients who received sodium polystyrene sulfonate over four months was performed. The change in serum potassium was noted over a period of 24 hours. Patients who received any other form of potassium-altering drug or treatment were excluded. Results. The administration of sodium polystyrene sulfonate reduced serum potassium by 16.7% (P < 0.001) as compared to the baseline serum potassium over a period of 24 hours. During this same time, no change in serum creatinine was identified (P = 0.73). In addition, there was no correlation between potassium and creatinine change (r2 = 0.0004 and P = 0.99). Patients with higher initial serum potassium (≥5.6 mEq/L) reduced their potassium concentration 4% more than those with initial serum potassium of <5.6 mEq/L; however, this reduction did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.32). There was no significant difference in the effectiveness of 15 gm and 30 gm resin preparation (P = 0.54). Thirteen deaths were noted in our cohort, of which one death was due to ischemic colitis. Conclusion. We conclude that sodium polystyrene sulfonate is effective in lowering serum potassium. PMID:23476770

  3. Banding and Ballots: Secondary School Admissions in England: Admissions in 2012/13 and the Impact of Growth of Academies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noden, Philip; West, Anne; Hind, Audrey

    2014-01-01

    This report provides key findings from a two part research project funded by the Sutton Trust and the London School of Economics & Political Science, (LSE) focusing on secondary school admissions in England. The research analyses secondary schools' admissions criteria and practices in England in 2012/13 and illustrative examples of how some…

  4. Determination of TNT explosive based on its selectively interaction with creatinine-capped CdSe/ZnS quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Carrión, Carolina; Simonet, Bartolomé M; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2013-08-20

    Here, a creatinine-modified CdSe/ZnS quantum dots fluorescent probe has been prepared and used for sensing 2,4,6,-trinitrotoluene explosive (TNT). The proposed method is based on the selective interaction between creatinine and nitroaromatic compounds according to the well-known Jaffé reaction. The procedure for the synthesis of creatinine-CdSe/ZnS reagent is very simple and reproducible and its fluorescent characteristics are reported. We found that the presence of TNT quenches the original fluorescence of creatinine-QD according to the Stern-Volmer model. Under the working conditions, the calibration plot of Io/I versus concentration of TNT was linear in the range 10-300μg L(-1) (R(2)=0.996). The mechanism interaction is discussed. The selectivity of fluorescence quenching of creatinine-QD for TNT has been evaluated. Finally, the potential application of the proposed methodology for the determination of TNT in spiked soils is demonstrated. For the analysis of soil samples a solid-liquid extraction is carried out and a four-point standard addition protocol is used to correct the matrix effect. The method, which is simple and rapid, allows the detection of 0.057μg g(-1) of TNT in soil samples. This sensor could be a useful tool for environmental studies, a crucial topic for nanotechnology nowadays.

  5. Fast vaporization solid phase microextraction and ion mobility spectrometry: A new approach for determination of creatinine in biological fluids.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Mostafa; Ebrahimzadeh, Homeira; Banitaba, Mohamma Hossein

    2015-11-01

    In this work a rapid and simple method for creatinine determination in urine and plasma samples based on aqueous derivatization of creatinine and complete vaporization of sample (as low as 10 µL), followed by ion mobility spectrometry analysis has been proposed. The effect of four important parameters (extraction temperature, total volume of solution, desorption temperature and extraction time) on ion mobility signal has been studied. Under the optimized conditions, the quantitative response of ion mobility spectrometry for creatinine was linear in the range of 0-500 mg L(-1) with a detection limit of 0.6 mg L(-1) in urine and 0-250 mg L(-1) with a detection limit of 2.6 mg L(-1) in plasma sample. The limit of quantitation of creatinine was 2.1 mg L(-1) and 8.7 mg L(-1) in urine and plasma samples, respectively. The relative standard deviation of the method was found to be 13%. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of creatinine in biological samples, showing recoveries from 92% to 104% in urine and 101-110% in plasma samples.

  6. Body pushing, prescription drugs and hospital admission.

    PubMed

    Byard, Roger W; Kenneally, Michaela

    2017-03-15

    A 39-year-old man died of multi-organ failure complicating mixed drug toxicity that included methadone, oxazepam, oxycodone and nitrazepam. His past medical history involved alcohol and poly-substance abuse with chronic self-harm and suicidal ideation. There had been multiple hospital admissions for drug overdoses. At autopsy the most unusual finding was of two packages of 10 tablets each, wrapped in thin plastic film within the rectum. The insertion of drugs into body orifices and cavities has been termed body pushing to distinguish it from body packing where illicit drugs are wrapped and swallowed for transport and smuggling, and body stuffing where small amounts of loosely wrapped or unwrapped drugs are swallowed to conceal evidence from police. This case demonstrates that body pushing may not always involve illicit drugs or attempted concealment from police or customs officials. It appears that the drugs had been hidden to ensure an additional supply during the time of residence in hospital. The extent to which body pushing is currently being used by patients to smuggle drugs into secure medical facilities is yet to be determined.

  7. APACHE score, Severity Index of Paraquat Poisoning, and serum lactic acid concentration in the prognosis of paraquat poisoning of Chinese Patients.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuyun; Hu, Hai; Jiang, Zhen; Tang, Shiyuan; Zhou, Yuangao; Sheng, Jie; Chen, Jinggang; Cao, Yu

    2015-02-01

    Many prognostic indictors have been studied to evaluate the prognosis of paraquat poisoning. However, the optimal indicator remains unclear. To determine the value of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score, the Severity Index of Paraquat Poisoning (SIPP), and serum lactate levels in the prognosis of paraquat poisoning, we performed a prospective study that enrolled 143 paraquat patients. Data were collected from patients (161) at West China Hospital in Chengdu, China, including details about the patients' general conditions, laboratory examinations, and treatment. Receiver operating characteristic curves for predicting inpatient mortality based on APACHE II score, SIPP, and lactate levels were generated. To analyze the best cutoff values for lactate levels, APACHE II scores, and SIPP in predicting the prognosis of paraquat poisoning, the initial parameters on admission and 7-day survival curves of patients with lactate levels greater than or equal to 2.95 mmol/L, APACHE II score greater than or equal to 15.22, and SIPP greater than or equal to 5.50 h · mg/L at the time of arrival at West China Hospital were compared using the 1-way analysis of variance and the log-rank test. The APACHE II score (5.45 [3.67] vs 11.29 [4.31]), SIPP (2.78 [1.89] vs 7.63 [2.46] h · mg/L), and lactate level (2.78 [1.89] vs 7.63 [2.46] mmol/L) were significantly lower in survivors (77) after oral ingestion of paraquat, compared with nonsurvivors (66). The APACHE II score, SIPP, and lactate level had different areas under the curve (0.847, 0.789, and 0.916, respectively) and accuracy (0.64, 0.84, and 0.89, respectively). Respiratory rate, serum creatinine level, Paco2, and mortality rate at 7 days after admission in patients with lactate levels greater than or equal to 2.95 mmol/L were markedly different compared with those of other patients (P < 0.05). The predictive value of lactic acid was superior to that of APACHE II score and SIPP for acute oral

  8. Impact of psychiatrists' qualifications on the rate of compulsory admissions.

    PubMed

    Eytan, Ariel; Chatton, Anne; Safran, Edith; Khazaal, Yasser

    2013-03-01

    Despite efforts to reduce coercion in psychiatry, involuntary hospitalizations remain frequent, representing more than half of all admissions in some European regions. Since October 2006, only certified psychiatrists are authorized to require a compulsory admission to our facility, while before all physicians were, including residents. The aim of the present study is to assess the impact of this change of procedure on the proportion compulsory admissions. All medical records of patients admitted respectively 4 months before and 4 month after the implementation of the procedure were retrospectively analyzed. This search retrieved a total of 2,227 hospitalizations for 1,584 patients. The overall proportions of compulsory and voluntary admissions were 63.9 % and 36.1 % respectively. The average length of stay was 32 days (SD ± 64.4). During the study period, 25 % of patients experienced two hospitalizations or more. The most frequent patients' diagnoses were affective disorders (30 %), psychotic disorders (18.4 %) and substance abuse disorders (15.7 %). Compared with the period before October 2006, patients hospitalized from October 2006 up were less likely to be hospitalized on a compulsory basis (OR = 0.745, 95 % CI: 0.596-0.930). Factors associated with involuntary admission were young age (20 years or less), female gender, a diagnosis of psychotic disorder and being hospitalized for the first time. Our results strongly suggest that limiting the right to require compulsory admissions to fully certified psychiatrists can reduce the rate of compulsory versus voluntary admissions.

  9. Daily weather variables and affective disorder admissions to psychiatric hospitals.

    PubMed

    McWilliams, Stephen; Kinsella, Anthony; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have reported that admission rates in patients with affective disorders are subject to seasonal variation. Notwithstanding, there has been limited evaluation of the degree to which changeable daily meteorological patterns influence affective disorder admission rates. A handful of small studies have alluded to a potential link between psychiatric admission rates and meteorological variables such as environmental temperature (heat waves in particular), wind direction and sunshine. We used the Kruskal-Wallis test, ARIMA and time-series regression analyses to examine whether daily meteorological variables--namely wind speed and direction, barometric pressure, rainfall, hours of sunshine, sunlight radiation and temperature--influence admission rates for mania and depression across 12 regions in Ireland over a 31-year period. Although we found some very weak but interesting trends for barometric pressure in relation to mania admissions, daily meteorological patterns did not appear to affect hospital admissions overall for mania or depression. Our results do not support the small number of papers to date that suggest a link between daily meteorological variables and affective disorder admissions. Further study is needed.

  10. Daily weather variables and affective disorder admissions to psychiatric hospitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McWilliams, Stephen; Kinsella, Anthony; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have reported that admission rates in patients with affective disorders are subject to seasonal variation. Notwithstanding, there has been limited evaluation of the degree to which changeable daily meteorological patterns influence affective disorder admission rates. A handful of small studies have alluded to a potential link between psychiatric admission rates and meteorological variables such as environmental temperature (heat waves in particular), wind direction and sunshine. We used the Kruskal-Wallis test, ARIMA and time-series regression analyses to examine whether daily meteorological variables—namely wind speed and direction, barometric pressure, rainfall, hours of sunshine, sunlight radiation and temperature—influence admission rates for mania and depression across 12 regions in Ireland over a 31-year period. Although we found some very weak but interesting trends for barometric pressure in relation to mania admissions, daily meteorological patterns did not appear to affect hospital admissions overall for mania or depression. Our results do not support the small number of papers to date that suggest a link between daily meteorological variables and affective disorder admissions. Further study is needed.

  11. Comparing GFR Estimating Equations Using Cystatin C and Creatinine in Elderly Individuals.

    PubMed

    Fan, Li; Levey, Andrew S; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Andresdottir, Margret B; Gudmundsdottir, Hrefna; Indridason, Olafur S; Palsson, Runolfur; Mitchell, Gary; Inker, Lesley A

    2015-08-01

    Current guidelines recommend reporting eGFR using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations unless other equations are more accurate, and recommend the combination of creatinine and cystatin C (eGFRcr-cys) as more accurate than either eGFRcr or eGFRcys alone. However, preferred equations and filtration markers in elderly individuals are debated. In 805 adults enrolled in the community-based Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik Study, we measured GFR (mGFR) using plasma clearance of iohexol, standardized creatinine and cystatin C, and eGFR using the CKD-EPI, Japanese, Berlin Initiative Study (BIS), and Caucasian and Asian pediatric and adult subjects (CAPA) equations. We evaluated equation performance using bias, precision, and two measures of accuracy. We first compared the Japanese, BIS, and CAPA equations with the CKD-EPI equations to determine the preferred equations, and then compared eGFRcr and eGFRcys with eGFRcr-cys using the preferred equations. Mean (SD) age was 80.3 (4.0) years. Median (25th, 75th) mGFR was 64 (52, 73) ml/min per 1.73 m(2), and the prevalence of decreased GFR was 39% (95% confidence interval, 35.8 to 42.5). Among 24 comparisons with the other equations, CKD-EPI equations performed better in 9, similar in 13, and worse in 2. Using the CKD-EPI equations, eGFRcr-cys performed better than eGFRcr in four metrics, better than eGFRcys in two metrics, and similar to eGFRcys in two metrics. In conclusion, neither the Japanese, BIS, nor CAPA equations were superior to the CKD-EPI equations in this cohort of community-dwelling elderly individuals. Using the CKD-EPI equations, eGFRcr-cys performed better than eGFRcr or eGFRcys.

  12. Reproducibility of the measurements of creatinine clearance in patients with a stable renal function.

    PubMed

    Wieczorowska-Tobis, Katarzyna; Guzik, Przemyslaw; Niemir, Zofia; Breborowicz, Andrzej; Oreopoulos, Dimitrios G

    2004-01-01

    In everyday practice the measurement of creatinine clearance (CCr) is used for the evaluation of the renal function. Since large body of evidence points to the inaccuracy of this test, we decided to check whether a repeated measurement of CCr might improve the assessment of the glomerular filtration rate. The study comprised 233 subjects, 105 females and 128 males, aged 22-80 years (mean age: 50.8 +/- 12.8 years) with the history of renal stones and a stable renal function, e.g. without changes in plasma creatinine. In every patient CCr was measured twice. Thereafter, all studied subjects were sorted by the increasing absolute values of the difference between two measurements of CCr e.g. as the difference between two measurements of CCr with omitted sign (absDCCr). Then, they were divided into 3 groups corresponding to the tertiles of absDCCr (tertile = 1/3). When the two values of CCr were compared among all patients, the mean difference between them (DCCr) was only 1.51 +/- 26.86 ml/min. The values of the individual DCCr varied, however, from -122.2. ml/min to 69.3 ml/min. As far as sex, age and height were concerned, there were no differences between the groups. However, weight was lower in group A (first tertile) vs. group B (second tertile) (p < 0.05). Also, BMI was lower in the group A vs. both group B and C (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01; respectively). In conclusion, our study points out to a poor reproducibility of the measurements of CCr in non-hospitalized subjects, especially in those with the high BMI.

  13. Quantitative TLC-Image Analysis of Urinary Creatinine Using Iodine Staining and RGB Values

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Emily; West, Caroline; Kradtap Hartwell, Supaporn

    2016-01-01

    Digital image analysis of the separation results of colorless analytes on thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plates usually involves using specially tailored software to analyze the images generated from either a UV scanner or UV lamp station with a digital camera or a densitometer. Here, a low-cost alternative setup for quantitative TLC-digital image analysis is demonstrated using a universal staining reagent (iodine vapor), an office scanner and a commonly available software (Microsoft Paint) for analysis of red, green and blue colors (RGB values). Urinary creatinine is used as a model analyte to represent a sample in complicated biological matrices. Separation was carried out on a silica gel plate using a butanol–NH4OH–H2O (40 : 10 : 50, v/v) mobile phase with a 6-cm solvent front. It is important that the TLC plate be stained evenly and with sufficient staining time. Staining the TLC plate in a 23.4 × 18.8 × 6.8 cm chamber containing about 70 g iodine crystals yielded comparable results for the staining times of 30–60 min. The Green value offered the best results in the linear working range (0.0810–0.9260 mg/mL) and precision (2.03% RSD, n = 10). The detection limit was found to be 0.24 µg per 3 µL spot. Urinary creatinine concentrations determined by TLC-digital image analysis using the green value calibration graph agree well with results obtained from high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). PMID:26657734

  14. Quantitative TLC-Image Analysis of Urinary Creatinine Using Iodine Staining and RGB Values.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Emily; West, Caroline; Kradtap Hartwell, Supaporn

    2016-04-01

    Digital image analysis of the separation results of colorless analytes on thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plates usually involves using specially tailored software to analyze the images generated from either a UV scanner or UV lamp station with a digital camera or a densitometer. Here, a low-cost alternative setup for quantitative TLC-digital image analysis is demonstrated using a universal staining reagent (iodine vapor), an office scanner and a commonly available software (Microsoft Paint) for analysis of red, green and blue colors (RGB values). Urinary creatinine is used as a model analyte to represent a sample in complicated biological matrices. Separation was carried out on a silica gel plate using a butanol-NH4OH-H2O (40 : 10 : 50, v/v) mobile phase with a 6-cm solvent front. It is important that the TLC plate be stained evenly and with sufficient staining time. Staining the TLC plate in a 23.4 × 18.8 × 6.8 cm chamber containing about 70 g iodine crystals yielded comparable results for the staining times of 30-60 min. The Green value offered the best results in the linear working range (0.0810-0.9260 mg/mL) and precision (2.03% RSD, n = 10). The detection limit was found to be 0.24 µg per 3 µL spot. Urinary creatinine concentrations determined by TLC-digital image analysis using the green value calibration graph agree well with results obtained from high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC).

  15. Protein electrophoresis - serum

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hemolysis Hyperimmunization Immunoelectrophoresis - blood Immunofixation blood test Liver disease Malignancy Malnutrition Nephrotic syndrome Rheumatoid arthritis Serum globulin electrophoresis Serum iron test Systemic lupus erythematosus ...

  16. Serum Endocan as a Predictive Marker for Decreased Urine Volume in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Oka, Satoru; Obata, Yoko; Sato, Shuntaro; Torigoe, Kenta; Sawa, Miki; Abe, Shinichi; Muta, Kumiko; Ota, Yuki; Kitamura, Mineaki; Kawasaki, Satoko; Hirose, Misaki; Uramatsu, Tadashi; Mukae, Hiroshi; Nishino, Tomoya

    2017-01-01

    Background Endocan is expressed in vascular endothelial cells, and its expression is enhanced following endothelial injury via inflammatory cytokines. Subsequently, endocan is secreted into the circulation. Thus, serum endocan levels are considered a marker of endothelial injury. However, to the best of our knowledge, no data on the serum endocan levels in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients are available. Material/Methods This study included 21 PD patients who underwent peritoneal equilibration test (PET) more than once between 2011 and 2015. Serum samples were collected from each patient, and the 24-h urine volume was measured at the time of PET. Serum endocan levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at the time of the first PET, and their relationship with clinical data or the extent of urine volume decline (mL/year) was analyzed retrospectively. Results Serum endocan levels were positively correlated with proteinuria level, serum creatinine level, serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α level, β2-microglobulin level, and PD drainage volume, but not with urine volume at baseline. The extent of decline in urine volume was significantly associated with serum endocan level, proteinuria level, serum creatinine level, and serum TNF-α level at baseline in a simple linear regression analysis. Moreover, multiple linear regression analysis showed that the serum endocan level and proteinuria level at baseline were independent predictors for the extent of decline in urine volume. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that serum endocan level and proteinuria level may be useful predictive markers for decreased urine volume in PD patients. PMID:28343234

  17. Low Serum Levels of Prealbumin, Retinol Binding Protein, and Retinol Are Frequent in Adult Type 1 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bolado, Federico; Goñi, María José; Tamayo, Ibai; Ibáñez, Berta; Prieto, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To determine the serum prealbumin (PA), retinol binding protein (RBP), and retinol levels in adult patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and to analyze some factors related to those levels. Methods. A total of 93 patients (47 women) were studied. Age, gender, BMI, duration of diabetes, chronic complications, HbA1c, lipid profile, creatinine, albumin, PA, RBP, and retinol were recorded. High and low parameter groups were compared by Mann–Whitney U and χ2 tests. Correlation between parameters was analyzed by Spearman's test. Odds of low levels were analyzed by univariate logistic regression and included in the multivariate analysis when significant. Results. 49.5%, 48.4%, and 30.1% of patients displayed serum PA, RBP, and retinol levels below normal values, respectively. A high correlation (Rho > 0.8) between PA, RBP, and retinol serum levels was found. Patients presenting low levels of any of them were predominantly women, normal-weighted, and with lower levels of triglycerides and serum creatinine. No differences in age, macrovascular complications, duration of diabetes, or HbA1c values were observed when comparing low and normal parameter groups. Conclusion. Low serum levels of PA, RBP, and retinol are frequent in T1D adult patients. This alteration is influenced by female sex and serum creatinine and triglyceride levels. PMID:28018921

  18. Serum thiols as a biomarker of disease activity in lupus nephritis.

    PubMed

    Lalwani, Pritesh; de Souza, Giselle Katiane Bonfim Bacelar; de Lima, Domingos Savio Nunes; Passos, Luiz Fernando Souza; Boechat, Antonio Luiz; Lima, Emerson Silva

    2015-01-01

    Lupus Nephritis (LN) develops in more than half of the Systemic Lupus Erythematous (SLE) patients. However, lack of reliable, specific biomarkers for LN hampers clinical management of patients and impedes development of new therapeutics. The goal of this study was to investigate whether oxidative stress biomarkers in patients with SLE is predictive of renal pathology. Serum biochemical and oxidative stress markers were measured in patients with inactive lupus, active lupus with and without nephritis and compared to healthy control group. To assess the predictive performance of biomarkers, Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed and cut-offs were used to identify SLE patients with nephritis. We observed an increased oxidative stress response in all SLE patients compared to healthy controls. Among the several biomarkers tested, serum thiols had a significant inverse association with SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI). Interestingly, thiols were able too aptly differentiate between SLE patients with and without renal pathology, and serum thiol levels were not affected by immunosuppressive drug therapy. The decreased thiols in SLE correlated significantly with serum creatinine and serum C3 levels. Further retrospective evaluation using serum creatinine or C3 levels in combination with thiol's cutoff values from ROC analysis, we could positively predict chronicity of renal pathology in SLE patients. In summary, serum thiols emerge as an inexpensive and reliable indicator of LN, which may not only help in early identification of renal pathology but also aid in the therapeutic management of the disease, in developing countries with resource poor settings.

  19. Beta 2-microglobulin levels in serum and urine of cadmium exposed rabbits.

    PubMed

    Piscator, M; Björck, L; Nordberg, M

    1981-07-01

    Male rabbits were exposed to cadmium during 16 weeks by subcutaneous injections of either 0.25 mg or 0.5 md Cd as cadmium chloride per kg body weight 3 times per week. beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-m) and creatinine in serum, cadmium in blood, as well as total protein, creatinine, beta 2-m and cadmium in urine were determined before exposure and after 3 and 7 weeks of exposure. Measurements were also made at 19 weeks, 3 weeks after the last exposure. During exposure, there was a slight increase in the serum beta 2-m/creatinine ratio among rabbits with the highest exposure, while no effect of the cadmium burden could be observed once exposure had ceased. Urinary excretion of beta 2-m was related to urinary pH, which appeared to be the case also for excretion of total protein. In the high exposure group, a significant increase in urinary beta 2-m excretion, indicative of renal tubular dysfunction was seen after 7 weeks of exposure. This was, however, not related to serum beta 2-m levels. It was concluded that before renal damage has occurred even heavy cadmium exposure has very little influence on serum beta 2-m levels.

  20. Comparison between the effects of indapamide and hydrochlorothiazide on creatinine clearance in patients with impaired renal function and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Madkour, H; Gadallah, M; Riveline, B; Plante, G E; Massry, S G

    1995-01-01

    The long-term effects of indapamide or hydrochlorothiazide on blood pressure and renal function were examined in patients with impaired renal function and moderate hypertension. Both drugs controlled hypertension and blood pressure remained normal during the 2 years of the study. Despite this comparable control of hypertension, indapamide therapy was associated with a 28.5 +/- 4.4% increase in creatinine clearance while treatment with hydrochlorothiazide was associated with a 17.4 +/- 3.0% decrease in creatinine clearance. The results of the study indicate that indapamide is superior to hydrochlorothiazide in the treatment of patients with impaired renal function and moderate hypertension.

  1. Student Admission Criteria as Predictors of Research Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotton, Gary L.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A study at one university found that traditional admission criteria for a graduate microbiology program, undergraduate grade point average, and Graduate Record Examination scores, were not good predictors of student potential as a researcher, as measured by faculty ratings. (MSE)

  2. Exploring Ethnic Inequalities in Admission to Russell Group Universities

    PubMed Central

    Boliver, Vikki

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses national university applications and admissions data to explore why ethnic minority applicants to Russell Group universities are less likely to receive offers of admission than comparably qualified white applicants. Contrary to received opinion, the greater tendency of ethnic minorities to choose highly numerically competitive degree subjects only partially accounts for their lower offer rates from Russell Group universities relative to white applicants with the same grades and ‘facilitating subjects’ at A-level. Moreover, ethnic inequalities in the chances of receiving an admissions offer from a Russell Group university are found to be greater in relation to courses where ethnic minorities make up a larger percentage of applicants. This latter finding raises the possibility that some admissions selectors at some Russell Group universities may be unfairly rejecting a proportion of their ethnic minority applicants in an attempt to achieve a more ethnically representative student body. PMID:27904229

  3. 8 CFR 289.2 - Lawful admission for permanent residence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AMERICAN INDIANS BORN IN CANADA § 289.2 Lawful admission for permanent residence. Any American Indian born in Canada who at the time of entry was entitled to the exemption provided for such person by the...

  4. Exploring Ethnic Inequalities in Admission to Russell Group Universities.

    PubMed

    Boliver, Vikki

    2016-04-01

    This article analyses national university applications and admissions data to explore why ethnic minority applicants to Russell Group universities are less likely to receive offers of admission than comparably qualified white applicants. Contrary to received opinion, the greater tendency of ethnic minorities to choose highly numerically competitive degree subjects only partially accounts for their lower offer rates from Russell Group universities relative to white applicants with the same grades and 'facilitating subjects' at A-level. Moreover, ethnic inequalities in the chances of receiving an admissions offer from a Russell Group university are found to be greater in relation to courses where ethnic minorities make up a larger percentage of applicants. This latter finding raises the possibility that some admissions selectors at some Russell Group universities may be unfairly rejecting a proportion of their ethnic minority applicants in an attempt to achieve a more ethnically representative student body.

  5. 8 CFR 289.2 - Lawful admission for permanent residence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AMERICAN INDIANS BORN IN CANADA § 289.2 Lawful admission for permanent residence. Any American Indian born.... A person who does not possess 50 per centum of the blood of the American Indian race, but...

  6. 32. 48' MILL STEAM ENGINE ADMISSION BOX (?), STEAM VALVE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. 48' MILL STEAM ENGINE ADMISSION BOX (?), STEAM VALVE, AND REVERSING MECHANISM LIFTING CYLINDER. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, 48" Plate Mill, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  7. Peritraumatic reactions and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms after psychiatric admission.

    PubMed

    Ladois-Do Pilar Rei, Agnès; Bui, Eric; Bousquet, Benjamin; Simon, Naomi M; Rieu, Julie; Schmitt, Laurent; Billard, Julien; Rodgers, Rachel; Birmes, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore exposure to stressful events during a psychiatric admission and the predictive power of peritraumatic distress and dissociation in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms after exposure to such events. Psychiatric inpatients (N = 239) were asked to report exposure to stressful events during their admission within 48 hours of being admitted. Individuals reporting at least one stressful event during admission (n = 70, 29%) were assessed for peritraumatic dissociation and distress in relation to this event and, 5 weeks later, were reassessed for PTSD symptoms. Eight participants (12.3%) scored above the cutoff for probable PTSD. Multiple regression analyses revealed that peritraumatic distress was a significant predictor of 5-week PTSD symptoms. Our findings suggest that individuals experiencing increased peritraumatic distress in relation to a stressful event experienced during a psychiatric admission might be at risk of PTSD symptoms and might benefit from increased attention.

  8. From Both Sides of the Fence: Admissions Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEvoy, Constance T.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the role of secondary school counselors and college admissions officers in counseling college bound students. Stresses the importance of diplomacy and cooperation in working for the best interests of the student while addressing parent and institutional concerns. (JAC)

  9. Decrease in serum potassium concentration during epidural anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Hahn, R G

    1987-11-01

    A mean decrease in the arterial serum potassium concentration (S-K) of 0.40 mmol/l (range 0-1.0) was found in 45 elderly men who were studied before and after induction of epidural anaesthesia (using mepivacaine 2% with adrenaline). The decrease was similar in patients who received acetated Ringer solution or dextran 40 in normal saline as intravenous fluid supplementation. No difference in S-K change was found between patients with a normal (less than 115 mumol/l) or elevated serum creatinine concentration. The decrease in S-K prevailed at the end of surgery except in patients with an elevated serum creatinine. Corrections of S-K for changes in arterial blood pH and rectal temperature during induction of anaesthesia did not explain the decrease in S-K. Correlations of clinical parameters such as the extension of anaesthesia, amount of intravenous fluid given and blood pressure changes gave conflicting results. A smaller decrease or no change in S-K was usually seen in arterial (n = 7) and venous (n = 7) samples when no intravenous fluid was given, as well as in venous samples when acetated Ringer solution was given (n = 6).

  10. Serum selenium assay following serum ferritin assay

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, R.G.; Morris, J.S.; Hann, H.L.; Pulsipher, B.; Stahlhut, M.W.

    1986-08-01

    Stored serum samples can be an important research resource into the etiology of cancer. These sera cannot be replaced and should therefore be used to best advantage. In previous epidemiologic studies, only single serum constituents have been assayed in individual serum samples. For example, serum ferritin has been examined in samples stored for as long as 10 years at -20C for a possible relation with general mortality (1) and cancer death (2). Ferritin is the tissue iron-storage protein and is therefore subject to denaturation. Serum selenium has also been examined in relation to cancer risk in a prospective manner by using stored frozen serum samples (3, 4). The interactions of a variety of serum factors in relation to cancer risk would be a desirable research goal, except that the amounts of serum typically available in frozen serum banks are less than 1 ml. It was the purpose of this investigation to determine if a radioimmunoassay for ferritin affected a subsequent neutron activation assay for selenium on the same 0.1 ml serum sample.

  11. Probabilistic Tracklet Characterization and Prioritization Using Admissible Regions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    association and track initiation tasks. Well before their use in data association for asteroids and SOs, admissible regions have been used in stochastic...logic resource management.14 Milani et al.15 first proposed using ARs to assist in the optical detection and discrimination of asteroids . This work is...object in question. 3 To illustrate this last point, consider an optical observation of an asteroid . Given the measurements made, an admissible

  12. SAT Wars: The Case for Test-Optional College Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soares, Joseph A., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    What can a college admissions officer safely predict about the future of a 17-year-old? Are the best and the brightest students the ones who can check off the most correct boxes on a multiple-choice exam? Or are there better ways of measuring ability and promise? In this penetrating and revealing look at high-stakes standardized admissions tests,…

  13. Somnambulism: Emergency Department Admissions Due to Sleepwalking-Related Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Sauter, Thomas C.; Veerakatty, Sajitha; Haider, Dominik G.; Geiser, Thomas; Ricklin, Meret E.; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Somnambulism is a state of dissociated consciousness, in which the affected person is partially asleep and partially awake. There is pervasive public opinion that sleepwalkers are protected from hurting themselves. There have been few scientific reports of trauma associated with somnambulism and no published investigations on the epidemiology or trauma patterns associated with somnambulism. Methods We included all emergency department (ED) admissions to University Hospital Inselspital, Berne, Switzerland, from January 1, 2000, until August 11, 2015, when the patient had suffered a trauma associated with somnambulism. Demographic data (age, gender, nationality) and medical data (mechanism of injury, final diagnosis, hospital admission, mortality and medication on admission) were included. Results Of 620,000 screened ED admissions, 11 were associated with trauma and sleepwalking. Two patients (18.2%) had a history of known non-rapid eye movement parasomnias. The leading cause of admission was falls. Four patients required hospital admission for orthopedic injuries needing further diagnostic testing and treatment (36.4%). These included two patients with multiple injuries (18.2%). None of the admitted patients died. Conclusion Although sleepwalking seems benign in the majority of cases and most of the few injured patients did not require hospitalization, major injuries are possible. When patients present with falls of unknown origin, the possibility should be evaluated that they were caused by somnambulism. PMID:27833677

  14. Towards an understanding of graduate admissions practices in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potvin, Geoff; Chari, Deepa

    2017-01-01

    The APS bridge program works to improve the participation of students from traditionally under-represented groups in graduate physics. Related to this, we have undertaken research to improve our understanding of graduate admissions practices from the point of view of both students and faculty. Previously, we collected data on admission practices from over 75% of PhD-granting physics departments in the U.S., which highlighted the role of various criteria (including the GRE) in the admissions decisions faculty make, and identified the efforts (or lack thereof) made to recruit students from traditionally under-represented backgrounds. Currently, we are conducting a parallel study of upper division undergraduate physics majors to investigate their post-graduation career intentions, their perceptions of graduate admissions and perceived barriers to admissions, and to understand how undergraduate experiences influence students' career interests. Lastly, we are also studying, in depth, students who have been connected to physics bridge programs, to understand post-admission experiences and the enculturation process in physics departments. In this talk, we report on the collective results of these research efforts to date. NSF Award # 1143070.

  15. Cystatin C at Admission in the Intensive Care Unit Predicts Mortality among Elderly Patients.

    PubMed

    Dalboni, Maria Aparecida; Beraldo, Daniel de Oliveira; Quinto, Beata Marie Redublo; Blaya, Rosângela; Narciso, Roberto; Oliveira, Moacir; Monte, Júlio César Martins; Durão, Marcelino de Souza; Cendoroglo, Miguel; Pavão, Oscar Fernando; Batista, Marcelo Costa

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Cystatin C has been used in the critical care setting to evaluate renal function. Nevertheless, it has also been found to correlate with mortality, but it is not clear whether this association is due to acute kidney injury (AKI) or to other mechanism. Objective. To evaluate whether serum cystatin C at intensive care unit (ICU) entry predicts AKI and mortality in elderly patients. Materials and Methods. It was a prospective study of ICU elderly patients without AKI at admission. We evaluated 400 patients based on normality for serum cystatin C at ICU entry, of whom 234 (58%) were selected and 45 (19%) developed AKI. Results. We observed that higher serum levels of cystatin C did not predict AKI (1.05 ± 0.48 versus 0.94 ± 0.36 mg/L; P = 0.1). However, it was an independent predictor of mortality, H.R. = 6.16 (95% CI 1.46-26.00; P = 0.01), in contrast with AKI, which was not associated with death. In the ROC curves, cystatin C also provided a moderate and significant area (0.67; P = 0.03) compared to AKI (0.47; P = 0.6) to detect death. Conclusion. We demonstrated that higher cystatin C levels are an independent predictor of mortality in ICU elderly patients and may be used as a marker of poor prognosis.

  16. Cystatin C at Admission in the Intensive Care Unit Predicts Mortality among Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dalboni, Maria Aparecida; Beraldo, Daniel de Oliveira; Quinto, Beata Marie Redublo; Blaya, Rosângela; Narciso, Roberto; Oliveira, Moacir; Monte, Júlio César Martins; Durão, Marcelino de Souza; Cendoroglo, Miguel; Pavão, Oscar Fernando; Batista, Marcelo Costa

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Cystatin C has been used in the critical care setting to evaluate renal function. Nevertheless, it has also been found to correlate with mortality, but it is not clear whether this association is due to acute kidney injury (AKI) or to other mechanism. Objective. To evaluate whether serum cystatin C at intensive care unit (ICU) entry predicts AKI and mortality in elderly patients. Materials and Methods. It was a prospective study of ICU elderly patients without AKI at admission. We evaluated 400 patients based on normality for serum cystatin C at ICU entry, of whom 234 (58%) were selected and 45 (19%) developed AKI. Results. We observed that higher serum levels of cystatin C did not predict AKI (1.05 ± 0.48 versus 0.94 ± 0.36 mg/L; P = 0.1). However, it was an independent predictor of mortality, H.R. = 6.16 (95% CI 1.46–26.00; P = 0.01), in contrast with AKI, which was not associated with death. In the ROC curves, cystatin C also provided a moderate and significant area (0.67; P = 0.03) compared to AKI (0.47; P = 0.6) to detect death. Conclusion. We demonstrated that higher cystatin C levels are an independent predictor of mortality in ICU elderly patients and may be used as a marker of poor prognosis. PMID:24967238

  17. Urinary Uric Acid/Creatinine Ratio - A Marker For Perinatal Asphyxia

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kinjal Prahaladbhai; Makadia, Mayur Goradhanbhai; Patel, Vishwal Indravardan; Nilayangode, Haridas Neelakandan

    2017-01-01

    Background Perinatal hypoxia is one of the leading causes of perinatal mortality in developing countries. Both apgar score and arterial blood pH predict the neonatal mortality in asphyxia. Apgar score alone does not predict neurologic outcome and as it is influenced by various factors. This study was conducted to evaluate the utility and sensitivity of urinary uric acid to creatinine ratio (UA/Cr ratio) in asphyxia diagnosis, compared to invasive Arterial Blood Gas (ABG) analysis. Aim To assess the urinary uric acid/creatinine ratio as an additional marker for perinatal asphyxia compared with ABG analysis in apgar score monitoring. Materials and Methods The present case control study was conducted at a teaching hospital in Central Gujarat. Data of 40 healthy newborns and 40 asphyxiated newborns were collected. In absence of regional estimates, a sample of size 39 was required to attain a power of 80% at 5% alpha (type I error) considering a moderate effect size of 0.65. (UA/Cr) ratio was measured from the spot urine sample collected during 24-72 hours of birth. Statistical analysis was performed by Independent t-test, Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) plots. Results The mean (UA/Cr ratio) (2.75±0.18 vs 1.78±0.23) is significantly higher in asphyxiated group than in the control group (p<0.0001). Urinary UA/Cr ratio had negative correlation with blood pH (r= -0.27, p=0.18), which was not significant (p>0.05). Urinary UA/Cr ratio with criterion of >2.3 had 100% sensitivity, 100% specificity with AUC of 1 (p<0.0001) had a better predictive value. Conclusions Apgar score is usually reduced in neonates with congenital anomalies and premature neonates. Hence, it is preferable that the clinical diagnosis of asphyxia by apgar scores be supported by other investigations so that early decision can be taken about the level of care the baby needs. pH, lactates and base deficits change with establishment of respiration

  18. Second-trimester urine nephrin:creatinine ratio versus soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1:placental growth factor ratio for prediction of preeclampsia among asymptomatic women

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Tianyue; Furuta, Itsuko; Nakagawa, Kinuko; Kojima, Takashi; Umazume, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Satoshi; Yamada, Takahiro; Morikawa, Mamoru; Minakami, Hisanori

    2016-01-01

    This prospective observational study compare urine nephrin:creatinine ratio (NCR, ng/mg) with serum soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1:placental growth factor ratio (FPR, pg/pg) for preeclampsia (PE) prediction among unselected asymptomatic pregnant women in 2nd trimester. NCR and FPR were determined in 254 paired urine/blood samples collected simultaneously from 254 women at median gestational week (GW) 24 (range, 22–27) without hypertension or significant proteinuria in pregnancy (SPIP). Fifteen (5.9%) developed SPIP and hypertension at GW 34.0 (26.0–38.6) and 35.3 (27.6–38.6), respectively, and were diagnosed with PE at GW 35.7 (27.6–38.6). The 90th percentile level determined in 239 women normotensive throughout pregnancy gave NCR (139) sensitivity and positive predictive values (PPV) of 60% (9/15) and 27% (9/33), while those for serum FPR (4.85) were 40% (6/15) and 20% (6/30), respectively. Relative risks (95%CI) of later PE were 10.0 (3.82–26.4; 27% [9/33] vs. 2.7% [6/221]) and 4.98 (1.91–13.0; 20% [6/30] vs. 4.0% [9/224]) for NCR-positive and FPR-positive women, respectively. Cut-offs suggested by ROC gave NCR (86.6) sensitivity and PPV of 87% (13/15) and 17% (13/79), and FPR (8.8) values of 40% (6/15) and 40% (6/15), respectively. Thus, 2nd trimester NCR was superior to FPR for PE prediction. PMID:27874074

  19. Determination of creatinine-related molecules in saliva by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry and the evaluation of hemodialysis in chronic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Mayu; Furuhashi, Mitsuyoshi; Sesoko, Shogo; Kosuge, Kazuhiro; Maeda, Toshio; Todoroki, Kenichiro; Inoue, Koichi; Min, Jun Zhe; Toyo'oka, Toshimasa

    2016-03-10

    The serum concentrations of creatinine (Cre) and urea are used for the determination of the renal function. However, the use of blood is not always suitable due to the invasive, hygienic and infection problems during its sample collection and handling. In contrast, saliva is relatively clean and the samples can be quickly and noninvasively collected and easily stored. Therefore, the simultaneous determination of Arginine (Arg), creatine (Cr) and Cre in the saliva of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients was performed by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS together with the saliva of healthy volunteers. The evaluation of hemodialysis of CKD patients was also carried out by the determinations before and after the dialysis. An HS-F5 column was used for the simultaneous determination of Arg, Cr and Cre in the saliva. These molecules were rapidly separated within 4 min and sensitively determined by the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of the precursor ion [M+H](+) → product ions (m/z 175.1 → 70.1 for Arg; m/z 132.0 → 44.1 for Cr; m/z 114.0 → 44.1 for Cre). The concentration of Cre in the CKD patients was higher than that in the healthy persons. The concentrations of Cre in the saliva of the patients before hemodialysis were moderately correlated with the serum Cre concentrations (R(2) = 0.661). Furthermore, the concentration in the saliva obviously decreased after hemodialysis (before 0.73 mg/dL, after 0.25 mg/dL; p < 0.02). Thus, the proposed detection method using saliva by UPLC-MS/MS is useful for the evaluation of the renal function in CKD patients. The present method offers a new option for monitoring the hemodialysis of CKD patients.

  20. A post hoc analysis of subgroup outcomes and creatinine in the phase III clinical trial (EMPOWER) of dexpramipexole in ALS.

    PubMed

    Bozik, Michael E; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi; Brooks, Benjamin R; Rudnicki, Stacy A; Moore, Dan H; Zhang, Bing; Ludolph, Albert; Cudkowicz, Merit E; van den Berg, Leonard H; Mather, James; Petzinger, Thomas; Archibald, Donald

    2014-09-01

    Our objective was to compare the phase II and phase III (EMPOWER) studies of dexpramipexole in ALS and evaluate potential EMPOWER responder subgroups and biomarkers based on significant inter-study population differences. In a post hoc analysis, we compared the baseline population characteristics of both dexpramipexole studies and analyzed EMPOWER efficacy outcomes and laboratory measures in subgroups defined by significant inter-study differences. Results showed that, compared with phase II, the proportion of El Escorial criteria (EEC) definite participants decreased (p = 0.005), riluzole use increased (p = 0.002), and mean symptom duration increased (p = 0.037) significantly in EMPOWER. Baseline creatinine (p < 0.001) and on-study creatinine change (p < 0.001) correlated significantly with ALSFRS-R in EMPOWER. In the EMPOWER subgroup defined by EEC-definite ALS, riluzole use, and < median symptom duration (15.3 months), dexpramipexole-treated participants had reduced ALSFRS-R slope decline (p = 0.015), decreased mortality (p = 0.011), and reduced creatinine loss (p = 0.003). In conclusion, significant differences existed between the phase II and EMPOWER study populations in ALS clinical trials of dexpramipexole. In a post hoc analysis of EMPOWER subgroups defined by these differences, potential clinical benefits of dexpramipexole were identified in the subgroup of riluzole-treated, short-symptom duration, EEC-definite ALS participants. Creatinine loss correlated with disease progression and was reduced in dexpramipexole-treated participants, suggesting it as a candidate biomarker.

  1. Kinetic Studies with Ion Selective Electrodes: Determination of Creatinine in Urine with a Picrate Ion Selective Electrode: A Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamandis, E. P.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The kinetic of the Jaffe reaction with picrate ion selective electrode (ISE) and a kinetic method for determining creatinine in urine is presented. The experiment could be used to familarize students with the application of ISE in kinetic studies and chemical analysis. (Author/JN)

  2. A Dual Electrochemical Sensor Based on a Test-strip Assay for the Quantitative Determination of Albumin and Creatinine.

    PubMed

    Yasukawa, Tomoyuki; Kiba, Yuya; Mizutani, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    A dual-electrochemical sensor based on a test-strip assay with immunochemistry and enzyme reactions has been developed for the determination of albumin and creatinine. Each nitrocellulose membrane with an immobilization area of an anti-albumin antibody or three enzymes was prepared in the device with three working electrodes for measuring albumin, creatinine, and ascorbic acid, as well as an Ag/AgCl electrode used as a counter/pseudo-reference electrode. The reactions of three enzymes were initiated by flowing a solution containing creatinine to detect an oxidation current of hydrogen peroxide. A sandwich-type immunocomplex was formed by albumin and antibody labeled with glucose oxidase (GOx). Captured GOx catalyzed the reduction of Fe(CN)6(3-) to Fe(CN)6(4-), which was oxidized electrochemically to determine the captured albumin. The responses for creatinine and albumin increased with the concentrations in millimolar order and over the range 18.75 - 150 μg mL(-1), respectively. The present sensor would be a distinct demonstration for producing quantitative dual-assays for various biomolecules used for clinical diagnoses.

  3. Increased Serum Sodium and Serum Osmolarity Are Independent Risk Factors for Developing Chronic Kidney Disease; 5 Year Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kuwabara, Masanari; Hisatome, Ichiro; Roncal-Jimenez, Carlos A.; Niwa, Koichiro; Andres-Hernando, Ana; Jensen, Thomas; Bjornstad, Petter; Milagres, Tamara; Cicerchi, Christina; Song, Zhilin; Garcia, Gabriela; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura G.; Ohno, Minoru; Lanaspa, Miguel A.; Johnson, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Epidemics of chronic kidney disease (CKD) not due to diabetes mellitus (DM) or hypertension have been observed among individuals working in hot environments in several areas of the world. Experimental models have documented that recurrent heat stress and water restriction can lead to CKD, and the mechanism may be mediated by hyperosmolarity that activates pathways (vasopressin, aldose reductase-fructokinase) that induce renal injury. Here we tested the hypothesis that elevated serum sodium, which reflects serum osmolality, may be an independent risk factor for the development of CKD. Methods This study was a large-scale, single-center, retrospective 5-year cohort study at Center for Preventive Medicine, St. Luke’s International Hospital, Tokyo, Japan, between 2004 and 2009. We analyzed 13,201 subjects who underwent annual medical examination of which 12,041 subjects (age 35 to 85) without DM and/or CKD were enrolled. This analysis evaluated age, sex, body mass index, abdominal circumference, hypertension, dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia, fasting glucose, BUN, serum sodium, potassium, chloride and calculated serum osmolarity. Results Elevated serum sodium was an independent risk factor for development of CKD (OR: 1.03, 95% CI, 1.00–1.07) after adjusted regression analysis with an 18 percent increased risk for every 5 mmol/L change in serum sodium. Calculated serum osmolarity was also an independent risk factor for CKD (OR: 1.04; 95% CI, 1.03–1.05) as was BUN (OR: 1.08; 95% CI, 1.06–1.10) (independent of serum creatinine). Conclusions Elevated serum sodium and calculated serum osmolarity are independent risk factors for developing CKD. This finding supports the role of limiting salt intake and preventing dehydration to reduce risk of CKD. PMID:28081152

  4. Hematologic and serum biochemistry values in two species of free-ranging porcupines (Coendou prehensilis, Coendou melanurus) in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Brigitte; Vié, J Christophe; Cotellon, Philippe; De Thoisy, Ingrund; Motard, Annie; Raccurt, Christian P

    2003-06-01

    Individuals of two porcupine species (Coendou prehensilis and Coendou melanurus) were translocated during the flooding of a forest at a hydroelectric dam site in French Guiana. Blood samples were collected for 11 mo to determine hematologic and serum chemistry reference mean values and ranges and to look for blood parasites. Male C. prehensilis had significantly higher hemoglobin levels, packed cell volumes, and creatinine and potassium values than did females of the same species. Coendou prehensilis had significantly lower amylase levels but higher creatinine, calcium, lactate dehydrogenase, and gamma glutamyl transferase levels than C. melanurus.

  5. Elite US college admissions: could the quest for admission increase overuse injury risk?

    PubMed Central

    Schwebel, David C.; Yang, Jingzhen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: This commentary addresses the intriguing correspondence of two trends. First, we describe the increasing selectivity for undergraduate admission to elite colleges and universities in the United States and an apparent preference for “angular” applicants who have demonstrated tremendous accomplishment in a single non-academic pursuit such as music, athletics, or the arts. Second, we describe an apparent increase in overuse injuries among American children and adolescents, a trend that many experts attribute to specialization within a single athletic, musical or artistic pursuit among youth who in previous generations were more “generalist” in their extracurricular activities. It is premature to demonstrate causality and suggest increasing college selectivity has led to increasing rates of overuse injuries, but we speculate there may be a causal relation present and encourage scholarly research on the topic. PMID:27130516

  6. Configuration control on the shape memory stiffness of molecularly imprinted polymer for specific uptake of creatinine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ang, Qian Yee; Zolkeflay, Muhammad Helmi; Low, Siew Chun

    2016-04-01

    In this study, sol-gel processing was proposed to prepare a creatinine (Cre)-imprinted molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP). The intermolecular interaction constituted by the cross-linkers, i.e., 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane-sulfonic acid (AMPS) and aluminium ion (Al3+), was studied and compared in order to form a confined matrix that promises the effectiveness of molecular imprinting. In view of the shape recognition, the hydrogen bonded Cre-AMPS did not demonstrate good recognition of Cre, with Cre binding found only at 5.70 ± 0.15 mg g-1 of MIP. Whilst, MIP cross-linked using Al3+ was able to attain an excellent Cre adsorption capacity of 19.48 ± 0.64 mg g-1 of MIP via the stronger ionic interaction of Cre-Al3+. Based on the Scatchard analysis, a higher Cre concentration in testing solution required greater driving force to resolve the binding resistance of Cre molecules, so as to have a precise Cre binding with shape factor. The molecular recognition ability of Cre-MIP in present work was shape-specific for Cre as compared to its structural analogue, 2-pyrrolidinone (2-pyr), by an ideal selectivity coefficient of 6.57 ± 0.10. In overall, this study has come up with a practical approach on the preparation of MIP for the detection of renal dysfunction by point-of-care Cre testing.

  7. Creatinine Assay Attainment of Analytical Performance Goals Following Implementation of IDMS Standardization

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Elizabeth Sunmin; Collier, Christine P.; White, Christine A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The international initiative to standardize creatinine (Cr) assays by tracing reference materials to Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS) assigned values was implemented to reduce interlaboratory variability and improve assay accuracy. Objective: The aims of this study were to examine whether IDMS standardization has improved Cr assay accuracy (bias), interlaboratory variability (precision), total error (TE), and attainment of recommended analytical performance goals. Methods: External Quality Assessment (EQA) data (n = 66 challenge vials) from Ontario, Canada, were analyzed. The bias, precision, TE, and the number of EQA challenge vials meeting performance goals were determined by assay manufacturer before (n = 32) and after (n = 34) IDMS implementation. Results: The challenge vials with the worst bias and precision were spiked with known common interfering substances (glucose and bilirubin). IDMS standardization improved assay bias (10.4%-1.6%, P < .001), but precision remained unchanged (5.0%-4.7%, P = .5) with performance goals not consistently being met. Precision and TE goals based on biologic variation were attained by only 29% to 69% and 32% to 62% of challenge vials. Conclusions: While IDMS standardization has improved Cr assay accuracy and thus reduced TE, significant interlaboratory variability remains. Contemporary Cr assays do not currently meet the standards required to allow for accurate and consistent estimated glomerular filtration rate assessment and chronic kidney disease diagnosis across laboratories. Further improvements in Cr assay performance are needed. PMID:28321322

  8. Mapping creatinine and cystatin C related white matter brain deficits in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopalan, Priya; Refsum, Helga; Hua, Xue; Toga, Arthur W.; Jack, Clifford R.; Weiner, Michael W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Poor kidney function is associated with increased risk of cognitive decline and generalized brain atrophy. Chronic kidney disease impairs glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and this deterioration is indicated by elevated blood levels of kidney biomarkers such as creatinine (SCr) and cystatin C (CysC). Here we hypothesized that impaired renal function would be associated with brain deficits in regions vulnerable to neurodegeneration. Methods Using tensor-based morphometry, we related patterns of brain volumetric differences to SCr, CysC levels, and eGFR in a large cohort of 738 (mean age: 75.5±6·8 years; 438 men/300 women) elderly Caucasian subjects scanned as part of the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Results Elevated kidney biomarkers were associated with volume deficits in the white matter region of the brain. All the three renal parameters in our study showed significant associations consistently with a region that corresponds with the anterior limb of internal capsule, bilaterally. Conclusions This is the first study to report a marked profile of structural alterations in the brain associated with elevated kidney biomarkers; helping us explain the cognitive deficits. PMID:23182131

  9. Plasma creatinine results derived from an endpoint modification of the Jaffé method.

    PubMed

    Schurman, S J; Perlman, S A; Chamizo, W

    1998-06-01

    For values in the normal pediatric range, endpoint modifications of the Jaffé method for measuring plasma creatinine (PCr) yield higher results than other commonly used techniques. In an effort to evaluate the Olympus AU5000 endpoint method used by the large reference laboratory to which many of our patients are directed by their third-party payor, we compared results with a kinetic Jaffé technique using paired samples from the same specimens. In 46 samples, the kinetic method measured Pcr at < or =0.8 mg/dl, whereas the endpoint technique PCr was higher by 0.1 mg/dl in 6 (13%), 0.2 mg/dl in 23 (50%), and 0.3 mg/dl in 16 (35%) samples (P<0.0001). The combination of these higher values and the same reported normal range for all children ages 2-12 years (0.3-1.0 mg/dl) and 13-17 years (0.7-1.4 mg/dl) makes interpretation of Olympus AU5000 endpoint method results difficult, particularly for younger children. The results reinforce the need for each laboratory to provide comprehensive age- and sex-adjusted normal PCr ranges.

  10. Serum Biochemistry of Lumpy Skin Disease Virus-Infected Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Avci, Oğuzhan; Doğan, Müge; İnce, Ömer Barış

    2016-01-01

    Lumpy skin disease is an economically important poxvirus disease of cattle. Vaccination is the main method of control but sporadic outbreaks have been reported in Turkey. This study was carried out to determine the changes in serum biochemical values of cattle naturally infected with lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). For this study, blood samples in EDTA, serum samples, and nodular skin lesions were obtained from clinically infected animals (n = 15) whereas blood samples in EDTA and serum samples were collected from healthy animals (n = 15). A quantitative real-time PCR method was used to detect Capripoxvirus (CaPV) DNA in clinical samples. A real-time PCR high-resolution melt assay was performed to genotype CaPVs. Serum cardiac, hepatic, and renal damage markers and lipid metabolism products were measured by autoanalyzer. LSDV nucleic acid was detected in all samples which were obtained from clinically infected cattle. The results of serum biochemical analysis showed that aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total protein, and creatinine concentrations were markedly increased in serum from infected animals. However, there were no significant differences in the other biochemical parameters evaluated. The results of the current study suggest that liver and kidney failures occur during LSDV infection. These findings may help in developing effective treatment strategies in LSDV infection. PMID:27294125

  11. [Does coffee drinking influence serum uric acid concentration?].

    PubMed

    Olak-Białoń, Bogusława; Marcisz, Czesław; Jonderko, Gerard; Olak, Zygfryd; Szymszal, Jan; Orzeł, Arkadiusz

    2004-01-01

    The drinking of coffee, a commonly used beverage, was a subject of many studies, mainly regarded to coffee influence on cardiovascular system. However, only one study indicates that coffee drinking in male adults may lead to decrease in serum uric acid level. Hyperuricaemia is a risk factor of many diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of coffee drinking on serum uric acid concentration. 1955 working persons aged from 18 to 65 years were included into research. There were 571 women among them. We determined energy expenditure during professional work, blood pressure, body mass index, and measured serum levels of uric acid, glucose and creatinine. The amount of coffee and ethanol consumption was evaluated on the ground of an interview. It was showed that persons drinking coffee have lower serum uric acid concentration than non-drinkers, especially among women, who drank more coffee then men. Uricaemia was correlated negatively with number of cups of coffee consumed and positively with body mass index, ethanol consumption and diastolic blood pressure. The author conclude that: 1) among women drinking on an average 10 cups of coffee per week appeared a decrease in serum uric acid concentration and a lower risk of development of hyperuricaemia, 2) elevated serum uric acid concentration is accompanied by elevated blood pressure and increased body mass index.

  12. Biosensors Based on Nano-Gold/Zeolite-Modified Ion Selective Field-Effect Transistors for Creatinine Detection.

    PubMed

    Ozansoy Kasap, Berna; Marchenko, Svitlana V; Soldatkin, Oleksandr O; Dzyadevych, Sergei V; Akata Kurc, Burcu

    2017-12-01

    The combination of advantages of using zeolites and gold nanoparticles were aimed to be used for the first time to improve the characteristic properties of ion selective field-effect transistor (ISFET)-based creatinine biosensors. The biosensors with covalently cross-linked creatinine deiminase using glutaraldehyde (GA) were used as a control group, and the effect of different types of zeolites on biosensor responses was investigated in detail by using silicalite, zeolite beta (BEA), nano-sized zeolite beta (Nano BEA) and zeolite BEA including gold nanoparticle (BEA-Gold). The presence of gold nanoparticles was investigated by ICP, STEM-EDX and XPS analysis. The chosen zeolite types allowed investigating the effect of aluminium in the zeolite framework, particle size and the presence of gold nanoparticles in the zeolitic framework.After the synthesis of different types of zeolites in powder form, bare biosensor surfaces were modified by drop-coating of zeolites and creatinine deiminase (CD) was adsorbed on this layer. The sensitivities of the obtained biosensors to 1 mM creatinine decreased in the order of BEA-Gold > BEA > Nano BEA > Silicalite > GA. The highest sensitivity belongs to BEA-Gold, having threefold increase compared to GA, which can be attributed to the presence of gold nanoparticle causing favourable microenvironment for CD to avoid denaturation as well as increased surface area. BEA zeolites, having aluminium in their framework, regardless of particle size, gave higher responses than silicalite, which has no aluminium in its structure. These results suggest that ISFET biosensor responses to creatinine can be tailored and enhanced upon carefully controlled alteration of zeolite parameters used to modify electrode surfaces.

  13. Handbook for the College Admissions Profession. The Greenwood Educators' Reference Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swann, Claire C., Ed.; Henderson, Stanley E., Ed.

    The 19 chapters of this book on college admissions are divided into six sections on: (1) perspectives and history, (2) the admissions officer, (3) understanding enrollment management, (4) admissions tools, (5) admissions programs, and (6) perspectives on the twenty-first century. The papers are: "Perspectives on Educational Reform" (Donald…

  14. Seasonal influence over serum and urine metabolic markers in submariners during prolonged patrols

    PubMed Central

    Holy, Xavier; Bégot, Laurent; Renault, Sylvie; Butigieg, Xavier; André, Catherine; Bonneau, Dominique; Savourey, Gustave; Collombet, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Within the framework of earlier publications, we have consistently dedicated our investigations to eliciting the effects of both seasonal vitamin D deficiency and submarine-induced hypercapnia on serum parameters for acid–base balance and bone metabolism in submariners over a 2-month winter (WP) or summer (SP) patrols. The latest findings reported herein, contribute further evidence with regard to overall physiological regulations in the same submariner populations that underwent past scrutiny. Hence, urine and blood samples were collected in WP and SP submariners at control prepatrol time as well as on submarine patrol days 20, 41, and 58. Several urine and serum metabolic markers were quantified, namely, deoxypyridinoline (DPD), lactate, albumin, creatinine, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and ionized sodium (Na+) or potassium (K+), with a view to assessing bone, muscle, liver, or kidney metabolisms. We evidenced bone metabolism alteration (urine DPD, calcium, and phosphorus) previously recorded in submarine crewmembers under prolonged patrols. We also highlighted transitory modifications in liver metabolism (serum albumin) occurring within the first 20 days of submersion. We further evidenced changes in submariners’ renal physiology (serum creatinine) throughout the entire patrol time span. Measurements of ionic homeostasis (serum Na+ and K+) displayed potential seasonal impact over active ionic pumps in submariners. Finally, there is some evidence that submersion provides beneficial conditions prone to fend off seasonal lactic acidosis (serum lactate) detected in WP submariners. PMID:26265754

  15. Potential Utility of Non-Cognitive Constructs in Graduate Admissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Casey

    2015-03-01

    It is becoming clear that the methods employed by many graduate admissions committees need updating. Regarding outcomes, we cannot select students that will actually graduate much better than would a coin toss. Further, the GRE is often misused. For example, the most recent GRE general test data (2006-2007) shows that for US citizens in the physical sciences, a cut-off score of ~64th percentile (700/155 on old/new test) would eliminate from eligibility: 63% of women vs 42% of men; 76% of all under-represented minorities vs 38% of Asian and 47% of White applicants. Fortunately, Organizational Psychologists have identified and validated several ``non-cognitive constructs'' for admissions: aspects of personality (conscientiousness); and self-management factors. Some intriguing facts about these parameters: they are measurable with the help of social scientists; they do not show race/ethnicity/gender performance differences; they are orthogonal to cognitive metrics measured by GPA and tests scores. These are proven to enhance both validity and diversity in admissions. My goals for this talk are to overview the non-cognitive constructs with the most potential for being used in physics graduate admissions, and to suggest example admissions protocols. Supported by the National Science Foundation.

  16. Serum herpes simplex antibodies

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/003352.htm Serum herpes simplex antibodies To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Serum herpes simplex antibodies is a blood test that looks for antibodies ...

  17. Creatinine clearance as a substitute for the glomerular filtration rate in the assessment of glomerular hemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Okada, N; Imanishi, M; Yoshioka, K; Konishi, Y; Okumura, M; Tanaka, S; Fujii, S

    1999-11-01

    A method for the clinical assessment of glomerular hemodynamics has been published previously. We here examined whether, when using this method, renal creatinine clearance (Ccr) can be substituted for the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The study subjects comprised 57 inpatients from Osaka City General Hospital: 30 with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 27 with chronic glomerulonephritis. During the 2-wk study, patients received a high-salt diet for 1 wk and a low-salt diet for 1 wk. Urinary sodium excretion and systemic blood pressure were measured daily. The renal plasma flow, Ccr, and plasma total protein concentration were also evaluated simultaneously on the last day of the high-salt diet. The GFR was also calculated from the fractional renal accumulation of 99mTc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). Glomerular hemodynamics, represented by the glomerular capillary hydraulic pressure and the resistance of afferent and efferent arterioles, were calculated using the renal clearance, the plasma total protein concentration, and the pressure-natriuresis relationship. Values for renal hemodynamics with the Ccr-derived GFR were compared with those from the 99mTc-DTPA-derived GFR. Ccr values of 53 to 169 ml/min correlated with the 99mTc-DTPA-derived clearance of 39 to 179 ml/min (n=57, r=.71, p<.001). Values for the glomerular pressure and the resistances of afferent and efferent arterioles calculated using the Ccr-derived GFR correlated significantly with those calculated using the 99mTc-DTPA-derived GFR (r=.99, p<.001 and r=.99, p<.001, respectively). These results indicate that the Ccr is an accurate representation of the GFR for use in glomerular hemodynamic analysis of the pressure-natriuresis relationship.

  18. Perspective: Medical school admissions and noncognitive testing: some open questions.

    PubMed

    Bardes, Charles L; Best, Peggy Carey; Kremer, Sara J; Dienstag, Jules L

    2009-10-01

    Medical schools use a variety of criteria in selecting applicants for admission, attempting to assess both the academic preparation and the personal characteristics suitable for a career in medicine. While assessing academic preparation is fairly straightforward, assessing applicants' personal characteristics is difficult and controversial. The possibility of implementing standardized testing of personal characteristics, so-called "noncognitive testing," has been proposed as part of the admissions process. Such a proposal, however, raises numerous questions about the validity, fairness, and cost of such testing and the impact of commercial test-preparation services on test performance and reliability. Therefore, before noncognitive testing is adopted for screening applicants to medical school, open discussion among all stakeholders in the admissions process is critically important.

  19. Exploration of nursing doctoral admissions and performance outcomes.

    PubMed

    Megginson, Lucy

    2011-09-01

    This research aims to identify current admission criteria and academic performance outcomes in nursing PhD programs. A descriptive exploratory design was used to survey all American Association of Colleges of Nursing PhD programs (N = 110) via a Web-mediated standardized survey; the response rate was 51% (n = 56). Conclusions indicate six diverse yet complementary admission criteria: graduate grade point average (GPA), Graduate Record Examinations ® scores, writing samples, letters of recommendation, interviews, and research match with faculty. Findings also indicated that admission criteria largely lack predictive validity testing in regard to academic performance outcomes and are deficient in internal reliability. Academic performance outcomes included comprehensive examination, ongoing minimum graduate GPA of 3.0, formal dissertation, time to degree attainment, degree attainment, time to candidacy, type of employment after graduation, and publications and grants as a student and at 5 years postgraduation.

  20. Serum sickness syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lin, R Y

    1986-01-01

    Numerous agents are known to cause serum sickness reactions. Although generally a benign disorder, serum sickness must be distinguished from various rheumatic and infectious disorders. The causative agent must be identified in order to avoid subsequent reactions. With the introduction of new drugs and biotechnically produced hormones and antibodies, new causes of serum sickness reactions are likely.

  1. Seasonality of hospital admissions for mental disorders in Hanoi, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Trang, Phan Minh; Rocklöv, Joacim; Giang, Kim Bao; Nilsson, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background Some studies have shown a relationship between seasonality in weather patterns and depressive and behavioural disorders, especially in temperate climate regions. However, there is a lack of studies describing the seasonal patterns of hospital admissions for a variety of mental disorders in tropical and subtropical nations. The aim of this study has been to examine the relationship between seasons and daily hospital admissions for mental disorders in Hanoi, Vietnam. Designs A 5-year database (2008–2012) compiled by Hanoi Mental Hospital covering mental disorder admissions diagnosed by the International Classification of Diseases 10 was analysed. A negative binominal regression model was applied to estimate the associations between seasonality and daily hospital admissions for mental disorders, for all causes and for specific diagnoses. Results The summer season indicated the highest relative risk (RR=1.24, confidence interval (CI)=1.1–1.39) of hospital admission for mental disorders, with a peak in these cases in June (RR=1.46, CI=1.19–1.7). Compared to other demographic groups, males and the elderly (aged over 60 years) were more sensitive to seasonal risk changes. In the summer season, the RR of hospital visits among men increased by 26% (RR=1.26, CI=1.12–1.41) and among the elderly by 23% (RR=1.23, CI=1.03–1.48). Furthermore, when temperatures including minimum, mean, and maximum increased 1°C, the number of cases for mental disorders increased by 1.7%, 2%, and 2.1%, respectively. Conclusion The study results showed a correlation between hospital admission for mental disorders and season. PMID:27566716

  2. Heatwaves and Hospital Admissions for Mental Disorders in Northern Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Trang, Phan Minh; Rocklöv, Joacim; Giang, Kim Bao; Kullgren, Gunnar; Nilsson, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Studies in high-income countries have shown an association between heatwaves and hospital admissions for mental disorders. It is unknown whether such associations exist in subtropical nations like Vietnam. The study aim was to investigate whether hospital admissions for mental disorders may be triggered, or exacerbated, by heat exposure and heatwaves, in a low- and middle-income country, Vietnam. For this, we used data from the Hanoi Mental Hospital over five years (2008–2012) to estimate the effect of heatwaves on admissions for mental disorders. A zero-inflated negative binomial regression model accounting for seasonality, time trend, days of week, and mean humidity was used to analyse the relationship. Heatwave events were mainly studied as periods of three or seven consecutive days above the threshold of 35°C daily maximum temperature (90th percentile). The study result showed heatwaves increased the risk for admission in the whole group of mental disorders (F00-79) for more persistent heatwaves of at least 3 days when compared with non-heatwave periods. The relative risks were estimated at 1.04 (0.95–1.13), 1.15 (1.005–1.31), and 1.36 (1–1.90) for a one-, three- and seven-day heatwave, respectively. Admissions for mental disorders increased among men, residents in rural communities, and the elderly population during heatwaves. The groups of organic mental disorders, including symptomatic illnesses (F0-9) and mental retardation (F70-79), had increased admissions during heatwaves. The findings are novel in their focus on heatwave impact on mental diseases in a population habituating in a subtropical low- and middle-income country characterized by rapid epidemiological transitions and environmental changes. PMID:27195473

  3. Transformation of admission interview to documentation for nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Højskov, Ida E; Glasdam, Stinne

    2014-09-01

    The admission interview is usually the first structured meeting between patient and nurse. The interview serves as the basis for personalised nursing and care planning and is the starting point for the clinic's documentation of the patient and his course of treatment. In this way, admission interviews constitute a basis for reporting by each nurse on the patient to nursing colleagues. This study examined how, by means of the admission interview, nurses constructed written documentation of the patient and his course of treatment for use by fellow nurses. A qualitative case study inspired by Ricoeur was conducted and consisted of five taped admission interviews, along with the written patient documentation subsequently worked out by the nurse. The findings were presented in four constructed themes: Admission interviews are the nurse's room rather than the patient's; Information on a surgical object; The insignificant but necessary contact; and Abnormalities must be medicated. It is shown how the nurse's documentation was based on the admission interview, the medical record details on the patient (facts that are essential to know in relation to disease and treatment), as well as the nurse's preconception of how to live a good life, with or without disease. Often, the patient tended to become an object in the nurse's report. It is concluded that in practice, the applied documentation system, VIPS, comes to act as the framework for what is important to the nurse to document rather than a tool that enables her to document what is important to the individual patient and his special circumstances and encounter with the health system.

  4. An Admission-to-Discharge BNP Increase Is a Predictor of Six-Month All-Cause Death in ADHF Patients: Inferences from Multivariate Analysis Including Admission BNP and Various Clinical Measures of Congestion

    PubMed Central

    De Vecchis, Renato; Ariano, Carmelina; Baldi, Cesare

    2016-01-01

    Background: According to some authors, a single isolated measurement of serum B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) executed on hospital admission would not be a sufficiently accurate method to predict the outcome of patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). Aims: To verify this assumption, a retrospective study was conducted on patients hospitalized for ADHF. Our main objective was to ascertain whether there was any difference in midterm mortality among patients with increasing BNP at discharge as compared with those with decreasing BNP at discharge. Methods: Medical records were examined so as to make a partition of the ADHF patient population into two groups, the former characterized by a rise in BNP during hospitalization, and the latter exhibiting a decrease in BNP in the measurement taken at hospital discharge. Results: 177 patients were enrolled in a retrospective study. Among them, 53 patients (30%) had increased BNP at the time of discharge, whereas 124 (70%) showed decreases in serum BNP during their hospital stay. The group with patients who exhibited BNP increases at the time of discharge had a higher degree of congestion evident in the higher frequency of persistent jugular venous distention and persistent orthopnea at discharge. Moreover, patients with increased BNP at the time of discharge had a lower reduction in inferior vena cava maximum diameter (1.58 ± 2.2 mm vs. 6.32 ± 1.82 mm; p (one-way ANOVA) = 0.001). In contrast, there was no significant difference in weight loss when patients with increased BNP at discharge were compared with those with no such increase. A total of 14 patients (7.9%) died during the six-month follow-up period. Multivariable Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis revealed that a BNP increase at the time of discharge was an independent predictor of six-month all-cause mortality after adjustment for persistent jugular venous distention, persistent orthopnea, reduction in inferior vena cava maximum diameter

  5. Admissions and Readmissions Related to Adverse Events, 2007-2014

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    1.0 Pregnancy, childbirth and puerperium 1,071 2.3 107 0.5 4,172 7.5 5 0.4 816 1.9 5,525 4.3 Respiratory system 3,609 7.8 638 2.8 3,110 5.6 200 14.3...This study assessed adverse events as they relate to readmissions in the Military Health System (MHS). Among 142,579 admissions with an adverse event...The following study retrospectively assessed admissions and readmissions for adverse events in the Military Health System (MHS) by quantifying

  6. Self-organized call admission control for optical communication networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Bing; Liu, Lei; Wu, Jian; Lin, Jintong

    2008-11-01

    Call Admission Control (CAC) is widely used in optical communication networks to reduce network congestion. However, the conventional CAC scheme recommended by International Telecommunication Union -Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) has a serious deficiency under high traffic load. In this paper, the disadvantage of conventional CAC scheme is analyzed in detail, and a Self-organized Call Admission Control (SCAC) scheme is proposed to solve this disadvantage. This scheme is accord with the principle of self-organization system, so it can be easily implemented in practice. Numerical results show that the proposed scheme can improve the network performance to a great extent.

  7. Admissible consensus for heterogeneous descriptor multi-agent systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xin-Rong; Liu, Guo-Ping

    2016-09-01

    This paper focuses on the admissible consensus problem for heterogeneous descriptor multi-agent systems. Based on algebra, graph and descriptor system theory, the necessary and sufficient conditions are proposed for heterogeneous descriptor multi-agent systems achieving admissible consensus. The provided conditions depend on not only the structure properties of each agent dynamics but also the topologies within the descriptor multi-agent systems. Moreover, an algorithm is given to design the novel consensus protocol. A numerical example demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed design approach.

  8. A lexicographic approach to constrained MDP admission control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panfili, Martina; Pietrabissa, Antonio; Oddi, Guido; Suraci, Vincenzo

    2016-02-01

    This paper proposes a reinforcement learning-based lexicographic approach to the call admission control problem in communication networks. The admission control problem is modelled as a multi-constrained Markov decision process. To overcome the problems of the standard approaches to the solution of constrained Markov decision processes, based on the linear programming formulation or on a Lagrangian approach, a multi-constraint lexicographic approach is defined, and an online implementation based on reinforcement learning techniques is proposed. Simulations validate the proposed approach.

  9. Normal hematologic and serum biochemical values of cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus).

    PubMed

    Shukan, Evan T; Boe, Carla Y; Hasenfus, Aimee V; Pieper, Bridget A; Snowdon, Charles T

    2012-03-01

    We obtained whole-blood hematologic and serum biochemical values from 38 captive-bred cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus). Data were analyzed to determine the effect of sex on blood parameters. Significant differences between either the means or medians of male and female tamarins were found for creatinine, hematocrit, hemoglobin, RBC count, and PCV. These results establish baseline hematologic and serum biochemical values and provide a useful resource not previously available in the peer-reviewed literature for the clinical care of cotton-top tamarins, a critically endangered New World primate, in a captive setting.

  10. Biosensors Based on Nano-Gold/Zeolite-Modified Ion Selective Field-Effect Transistors for Creatinine Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozansoy Kasap, Berna; Marchenko, Svitlana V.; Soldatkin, Oleksandr O.; Dzyadevych, Sergei V.; Akata Kurc, Burcu

    2017-03-01

    The combination of advantages of using zeolites and gold nanoparticles were aimed to be used for the first time to improve the characteristic properties of ion selective field-effect transistor (ISFET)-based creatinine biosensors. The biosensors with covalently cross-linked creatinine deiminase using glutaraldehyde (GA) were used as a control group, and the effect of different types of zeolites on biosensor responses was investigated in detail by using silicalite, zeolite beta (BEA), nano-sized zeolite beta (Nano BEA) and zeolite BEA including gold nanoparticle (BEA-Gold). The presence of gold nanoparticles was investigated by ICP, STEM-EDX and XPS analysis. The chosen zeolite types allowed investigating the effect of aluminium in the zeolite framework, particle size and the presence of gold nanoparticles in the zeolitic framework.

  11. Rapid screening of tetrodotoxin in urine and plasma of patients with puffer fish poisoning by HPLC with creatinine correction.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chung-Him; Yu, Chun-Fai; Tam, Sidney; Yu, Peter Hoi-Fu

    2010-01-01

    A rapid and simple detection method for tetrodotoxin (TTX) in urine and plasma of patients with puffer fish poisoning was developed using commercially pre-packed solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges (C18 and weak cation exchange columns) and subsequent analyses by HPLC with UV detection. The detection limit of the standard TTX, TTX-spiked urine and plasma samples were all 10 ng/ml and the average TTX recovery in urine and plasma samples after SPE were 90.3 +/- 4.0 and 87.1 +/- 2.9%, respectively. It was noticed that the creatinine-adjusted urinary TTX levels obtained within the first 24 h of presentation apparently correlated much better with the severity of poisoning than the urinary TTX concentration without adjusting for variations in concomitant creatinine excretion.

  12. Role of calculated glomerular filtration rate using percutaneous nephrostomy creatinine clearance in the era of radionuclide scintigraphy

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Sunil Raghunath; Pawar, Prakash Wamanrao; Savalia, Abhishek Jaysukhbhai; Mundhe, Shankar Tanaji; Narwade, Sayalee Suryabhan; Tamhankar, Ashwin Sunil

    2017-01-01

    Context: Gates method tends to over-estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in borderline functioning kidneys. We study the role of calculated GFR in these cases in decision-making regarding performing kidney-sparing surgery or nephrectomy. Aims: The aim of this study is to find the correlation between GFR calculated by percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) urine creatinine clearance in obstructed kidneys and GFR by radionuclide scintigraphy. It also studies the role of this calculated GFR in borderline functioning kidneys. Settings and Design: Single tertiary care center; retrospective. Materials and Methods: A total of 46 patients in whom PCN was inserted as an emergency measure in an obstructed kidney and for whom diethylene-triamine-penta-acetic acid/ethylene-di-cysteine (DTPA/EC) scan was also done (Gates method) were analyzed retrospectively. PCN creatinine clearance was calculated for 3 consecutive days, and the mean value was used. Statistical Analysis Used: Pearson's correlational analysis; Chi-square test. Results: Overall strong correlation was found between the two GFR values (Pearson's r = 0.540692, P < 0.001). Totally 26 patients (56.52%) had comparable GFR values (P > 0.05). Among the 36 patients with borderline functioning kidneys, DTPA/EC scan significantly over-estimated GFR in one-third of the patients. The management plan was changed in 7 out of those patients (46.67%), with nephrectomy performed in all instead of kidney-sparing procedure. When the highest value of calculated GFR was compared, 28 patients had comparable GFRs (60.87%). Conclusions: GFR based on radionuclide scintigraphy may be insufficient for evaluation of residual renal function to determine the management of obstructed kidney with borderline function. For adequate decision-making, other factors including creatinine clearance via PCN should also be considered. Gates method tends to overestimate GFR as compared to calculated creatinine clearance at low GFR levels. PMID:28216932

  13. Relation between blood- and urine-amphetamine concentrations in impaired drivers as influenced by urinary pH and creatinine.

    PubMed

    Jones, A W; Karlsson, L

    2005-12-01

    Amphetamine undergoes extensive renal excretion and significant amounts are present in urine as the unchanged parent drug. This prompted us to investigate whether a quantitative relationship existed between blood and urine concentrations of amphetamine in the body fluids of drug-impaired drivers apprehended in Sweden, where this stimulant is the major drug of abuse. The relationship between blood and urine concentrations of amphetamine was determined by multivariate analysis with urinary pH and creatinine as predictor variables. Amphetamine was determined in blood and urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with deuterium-labelled internal standards. The concentration of amphetamine in urine was about 200 times greater than the concentration in blood; the mean and median urine/blood ratios were 214 and 160, respectively, with large individual variations. The Pearson correlation coefficient between urine (y) and blood (x) amphetamine was r = 0.53, n = 48, which was statistically highly significant (P < 0.001), although the residual standard deviation (SD) was large (+/- 181 mg/L). The correlation coefficient increased (r = 0.60) when the concentration of amphetamine in urine was normalized for dilution by dividing with the creatinine content. When urinary pH and creatinine were both included as predictor variables, the correlation coefficient was even higher (r = 0.69), now explaining 48% (r2 = 0.48) of the variation in urine-amphetamine concentration. However, the partial regression coefficient for creatinine (53 +/- 28.7) was not statistically significant (t = 1.85, P > 0.05), whereas the corresponding regression coefficient for pH was highly significant and had a negative sign (-102 +/- 32.6, t= -3.12, P < 0.005). Other factors could impact on the urine-blood amphetamine relationship, such as route of administration, pattern of voiding and time elapsed after use of the drug.

  14. Relationships between renal parameters and serum and urine markers of inflammation in those with and without HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Shinha, Takashi; Mi, Deming; Liu, Ziyue; Orschell, Christie M; Lederman, Michael M; Gupta, Samir K

    2015-04-01

    We sought to determine the relationships among intrarenal and systemic inflammation and renal disease in HIV. We compared paired serum and urinary levels (normalized to urine creatinine) of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), interferon-γ-induced protein-10 (IP-10), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and β2-microglobulin (B2M) between two groups of HIV-infected subjects not receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) [A: not expecting to initiate ART immediately due to having CD4 cell counts ≥350/μl, N=26; B: about to initiate ART, N=19], a group of HIV-infected subjects receiving virologically suppressive antiretroviral therapy [C, N=30], and a group of HIV-uninfected, healthy volunteers [D, N=45]. We then correlated these inflammatory biomarker levels with urine protein/creatinine ratios (uPCR), urine albumin/creatinine ratios (uACR), and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR). Urine inflammatory biomarker levels were highest in Group B. When combining all four study groups, statistically significant positive correlations included uPCR with urine IL-8, urine MCP-1, urine IP-10, and serum IP-10 and uACR with urine IL-8, urine B2M, serum IP-10, and serum B2M. eGFR was statistically significantly negatively correlated with serum MCP-1 and serum B2M. Paired serum and urine levels of IP-10 and B2M (but not IL-8, RANTES, or MCP-1) were significantly correlated with each other in the overall group. The levels of urine inflammatory markers tested differed by HIV status and use of virologically suppressive ART. These urine and serum inflammatory markers were differentially correlated with uPCR, uACR, and eGFR, suggesting that different intrarenal and systemic inflammatory pathways may contribute to different measures of nephropathy.

  15. A stable three-enzyme creatinine biosensor. 1. Impact of structure, function and environment on PEGylated and immobilized sarcosine oxidase.

    PubMed

    Berberich, Jason A; Yang, Lee Wei; Madura, Jeff; Bahar, Ivet; Russell, Alan J

    2005-03-01

    The determination of creatinine levels in biological fluids is an increasingly important clinical requirement. Amperometric biosensors have been developed based on a three-enzyme system which converts creatinine to amperometrically measurable hydrogen peroxide. The development of the amperometric creatinine biosensor has been slow due the complexity of the three-enzyme system. This paper, the first of three, discusses the chemical modification of sarcosine oxidase and the immobilization and stabilization of this enzyme using polyurethane prepolymers. Sarcosine oxidase was completely inactivated after modification using poly(ethylene glycol) activated with isocyanate. The addition of a competitive inhibitor during enzyme modification was effective in protecting the enzyme from inactivation. Computational analysis of the structure of sarcosine oxidase suggests that there is a lysine in the active site that may be hyper-reactive. The enzyme was irreversibly immobilized using polyurethane prepolymers and retained significant activity. The enzyme's half-life at 37 degrees C increased from seven days to more than 50 days after immobilization.

  16. Simultaneous determination of purine metabolites, creatinine and pseudouridine in ruminant urine by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Shingfield, K J; Offer, N W

    1999-02-19

    Determination of purine metabolites, pseudouridine and creatinine in both bovine and ovine urine using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is described. Following dilution and filtration, urine samples were analysed directly. Separation and quantification was achieved using a Spherisorb ODS II C18 column (250x4.6 mm I.D.) under isocratic conditions. The mobile phase contained 7.5 mM ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, 10 mM sodium 1-heptane sulphonic acid and 1.0 mM triethylamine at pH 3.0. Chromatography was achieved at a flow-rate of 1.0 ml/min and monitoring column effluent at 218 nm. Total analysis time was 60 min. Recovery of all compound standards added to urine was above 96%. In all cases, close spectral matches of compound standards and corresponding identified peaks in ovine and bovine urine were obtained. Lowest detectable concentrations of allantoin, uric acid, xanthine, hypoxanthine, creatinine and pseudouridine were 1.1, 1.0, 1.0, 3.0 and 0.4 micromol/l, respectively. Advantages of simultaneous determination of purine metabolites, creatinine and pseudouridine in ruminant urine collected from both sheep and cattle exist over current methods.

  17. Retrospective study of the use of hydromorphone in palliative care patients with normal and abnormal urea and creatinine.

    PubMed

    Lee, M A; Leng, M E; Tiernan, E J

    2001-01-01

    An uncontrolled retrospective study was conducted looking at the use of oral controlled-release hydromorphone in palliative care patients. Over a 2-year period 55 patients were switched to hydromorphone therapy, and the efficacy and outcomes were assessed. Urea and electrolyte measurements were also recorded at the time of opioid switch and renal impairment defined as urea > 10.5 mmol/l and/or creatinine > or = 101 mmol/l. This group of 29 patients with abnormal urea and/or creatinine (Group 1) was compared with the remaining 26 patients (Group 2) who had normal urea and creatinine. The major reasons for change to hydromorphone were side-effects (cognitive/drowsiness/nausea) on previous therapy. Following a switch to hydromorphone these side-effects improved in over 80% of patients (n = 55). Comparison between Group 1 and 2 demonstrated a significant difference in renal function but no significant differences in reasons for change, dose of opioids or response to change (over 80% improvement following opioid switch). We conclude that hydromorphone is a flexible second-line alternative to morphine that is particularly useful when intolerable side-effects are experienced with other opioids. In renal impairment (including two patients with end-stage renal failure) we found hydromorphone to be safe and effective. Further clinical and pharmacokinetic studies are required.

  18. Severe Iron Deficiency Anemia in Infants and Young Children, Requiring Hospital Admission

    PubMed Central

    Lundblad, Kristin; Rosenberg, Jonathan; Mangurten, Henry; Angst, Denise B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study evaluated patient characteristics, milk intake, and associated lab findings of children 6 months to 5 years old, admitted to a children’s hospital with severe iron-deficiency anemia (IDA). Methods. A chart review was conducted on patients admitted with microcytic anemia (hemoglobin concentration less than 7 g/dL), accompanied by a low serum ferritin and/or low serum iron level between January 2000 and December 2006. Results. A total of 18 children with severe IDA were evaluated. Many had parents with private insurance and jobs. Almost all children drank >24 ounces of milk daily. Hemoglobin on admission was 3.8 g/dL, and the mean of the patients’ mean corpuscular volume was 52.8 fL. Median iron levels were 4 µg/dL. Conclusions. Severe IDA is still prevalent in children, yet physicians may not perform necessary testing. The devastating long-term effects of severe IDA should prompt clinicians to screen for severe IDA in children regardless of absent risk factors. PMID:27335995

  19. Serum Cytokine Profile in Relation to the Severity of Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Miao; Tu, Su; Wang, Xiangming; Zhou, Chuanwei; Wang, Sen; Pang, Sisi; Qian, Jin; Ge, Yiyue; Guo, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the potential association of a set of serum cytokines with the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods. A total of 201 patients who underwent coronary angiography for chest discomfort were enrolled. The concentrations of serum IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-9, and IL-17 were determined by xMAP multiplex technology. The CAD severity was assessed by Gensini score (GS). Results. The serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-9, IL-10, and IL-17 were significantly higher in high GS group (GS ≥ 38.5) than those in low GS group (GS < 38.5). Positive correlations were also found between these cytokines and the severity of CAD. After adjustment for other associated factors, three serum cytokines (IL-6, IL-9, and IL-17) and two clinical risk factors (creatinine and LDL-C) were identified as the independent predictors of increased severity of CAD. ROC curve analysis revealed that the logistic regression risk prediction model had a good performance on predicting CAD severity. Conclusions. Combinatorial analysis of serum cytokines (IL-6, IL-9, and IL-17) with clinical risk factors (creatinine and LDL-C) may contribute to the evaluation of the severity of CAD and may help guide the risk stratification of angina patients, especially in primary health facilities and in the catheter lab resource-limited settings. PMID:28349060

  20. Childhood serum sickness: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chao, Y K; Shyur, S D; Wu, C Y; Wang, C Y

    2001-09-01

    Childhood serum sickness is a rare allergic disease that follows the administration of a foreign antigenic material, most commonly caused by injecting a protein or haptenic drug. The disease is a type III hypersensitivity reaction mediated by deposits of circulating immune complexes in small vessels, which leads to complement activation and subsequent inflammation. The clinical features are fever, cutaneous eruptions, lymphadenopathy, arthralgias, albuminuria, and nephritis. Serum sickness is an acute self-limited disease. We report a 3-year-old child who presented with fever and a rash; an invasive bacterial infection was strongly suspected. He was therefore given penicillin and gentamicin and responded well. At day 4 after admission, he developed a serum sickness reaction and showed symptoms of arthralgias, generalized edema, purpura, and gross hematuria. The white blood cell count was 12 190/mm3 with 7% eosinophils. Urinalysis revealed red blood cell above 100 per high power field, white blood cell 10 to 15 per high power field, and proteinuria. The antibiotics were discontinued and hydrocortisone (20 mg/kg/d), diphenhydramine HCl (4 mg/kg/d), aspirin (66 mg/kg/d) was administered, plus 1 dose of epinephrine (0.01 mL/kg) administered intramuscularly. On day 7, the 3rd day after withholding antibiotics, his condition dramatically improved. The clinical symptoms resolved progressively and his urinalysis returned to normal.