Sireci, Stephen G.; Talento-Miller, Eileen
Admissions data and first-year grade point average (GPA) data from 11 graduate management schools were analyzed to evaluate the predictive validity of Graduate Management Admission Test[R] (GMAT[R]) scores and the extent to which predictive validity held across sex and race/ethnicity. The results indicated GMAT verbal and quantitative scores had…
To fairly and accurately interpret candidates’ Pharmacy College Admission Test (PCAT) scores as listed on their official transcripts, it is important to understand how these scores reflect candidates’ performances on cognitive tasks involving the identification, interpretation, analysis, and evaluation of information assumed to have been covered in pre-pharmacy science, math, and general education coursework. This paper attempts to facilitate this understanding by explaining how candidates’ responses to PCAT test items relate to their scaled scores and percentile ranks and how their writing scores reflect their performance. This paper also suggests how differences between candidates’ PCAT subtest scores may reflect different personal experiences, educational backgrounds, and cognitive abilities. PMID:28289307
Correlational evidence suggests that high school GPA is better than admission test scores in predicting first-year college GPA, although test scores have incremental predictive validity. The usefulness of a selection variable in making admission decisions depends in part on its predictive validity, but also on institutions' selectivity and…
Leary, Linda F.; Wightman, Lawrence E.
This study sought to examine the relationship between five methods of test preparation and test performance as measured by Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) Verbal, Quantitative and Total scores. Data on method of test preparation were obtained through voluntary examinee response to five questions which appeared on the answer sheets. One…
Carroll, Alexander M; Schuster, Gregory M
The aim of this study was to investigate whether there was a statistically significant positive correlation between dental students' Dental Admission Test (DAT) scores, particularly on the Perceptual Ability Test (PAT), and their performance on a dental school's competency exam. Scores from the written and clinical competency exam administered in the fall quarter of the fourth year of the curriculum at Midwestern University College of Dental Medicine-Arizona were compared to DAT scores of all 216 members of the graduating classes of 2012 and 2013. It was hypothesized that students who performed highly on one or more sections of the DAT would perform highly on the competency exam. Backward stepwise regression analyses were used to analyze the data. The results showed that the PAT scores were most strongly correlated with the competency exam scores and were a positive predictor for all three clinical sections of the exam (operative dentistry, periodontics, and endodontics). Positive predictors for the written portion of the exam were total DAT score for patient assessment and treatment planning and the DAT reading comprehension score for prosthodontics; there were no predictors for periodontics. The total variance explained by the results ranged from 4% to 15%. While statistically significant relationships were found between the students' PAT scores and clinical performance, DAT scores explained relatively little variance in the competency exam scores. According to these findings, neither the PAT nor any of the DAT components contributed to predicting these students' clinical performance.
Cullen, Thomas J.; And Others
The predictive validity of the new Medical College Admission Test as it relates to end-of-quarter examinations in anatomy, histology, physiology, biochemistry, and "ages of man" is presented. Results indicate that the Science Knowledge assessment areas of chemistry and physics and the Science Problems subtest were most useful in…
Wonderlic, Charles F.; And Others
This report provides a method for determining minimum score by vocational program based on the use of the Wonderlic Scholastic Level Exam (SLE). The SLE has been demonstrated to be a highly accurate and reliable measure of adult cognitive ability. It is currently in use as an admissions test at many career colleges and trade schools. The SLE test…
Bridgeman, Brent; Cooper, Peter
Essays for the Graduate Management Admissions Test must be written with a word processor (except in some foreign countries). The test sponsors, the Graduate Management Admissions Council, believed that this is fair because some word processing skill is a prerequisite for advanced management education. Furthermore, it might also be unfair to…
Talento-Miller, Eileen; Rudner, Lawrence M.
The validity of Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) scores is examined by summarizing 273 studies conducted between 1997 and 2004. Each of the studies was conducted through the Validity Study Service of the test sponsor and contained identical variables and statistical methods. Validity coefficients from each of the studies were corrected…
In "Beyond Test Scores: Leading Indicators for Education," Foley and colleagues (2008) define leading indicators as those that "provide early signals of progress toward academic achievement" (p. 1) and stress that educators "need leading indicators to help them see the direction their efforts are going in and to take…
Hall, Frances R.; And Others
A study found that the admission interview scores for 62 Dartmouth Medical School (New Hampshire) applicants correlated positively with dean's letter ratings given 4 years later and that interview scores were better predictors of ratings than were total Medical College Admission Test scores or science grade point averages. (Author/MSE)
The added value of reporting subscores on a college admission test (SweSAT) was examined in this study. Using a CTT-derived objective method for determining the value of reporting subscores, it was concluded that there is added value in reporting section scores (Verbal/Quantitative) as well as subtest scores. These results differ from a study of…
Hedlund, Jennifer; Wilt, Jeanne M.; Nebel, Kristina L.; Ashford, Susan J.; Sternberg, Robert J.
The Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) is the most widely used measure of managerial potential in MBA admissions. GMAT scores, although predictive of grades in business school, leave much of the variance in graduate school performance unexplained. The GMAT also produces disparities in test scores between groups, generating the potential for…
Predictive value of grade point average (GPA), Medical College Admission Test (MCAT), internal examinations (Block) and National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) scores on Medical Council of Canada qualifying examination part I (MCCQE-1) scores
Roy, Banibrata; Ripstein, Ira; Perry, Kyle; Cohen, Barry
Background To determine whether the pre-medical Grade Point Average (GPA), Medical College Admission Test (MCAT), Internal examinations (Block) and National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) scores are correlated with and predict the Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Examination Part I (MCCQE-1) scores. Methods Data from 392 admitted students in the graduating classes of 2010–2013 at University of Manitoba (UofM), College of Medicine was considered. Pearson’s correlation to assess the strength of the relationship, multiple linear regression to estimate MCCQE-1 score and stepwise linear regression to investigate the amount of variance were employed. Results Complete data from 367 (94%) students were studied. The MCCQE-1 had a moderate-to-large positive correlation with NBME scores and Block scores but a low correlation with GPA and MCAT scores. The multiple linear regression model gives a good estimate of the MCCQE-1 (R2 =0.604). Stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that 59.2% of the variation in the MCCQE-1 was accounted for by the NBME, but only 1.9% by the Block exams, and negligible variation came from the GPA and the MCAT. Conclusions Amongst all the examinations used at UofM, the NBME is most closely correlated with MCCQE-1. PMID:27103953
I will present data showing that significant performance disparities on the GRE general test exist based on the test taker's race and gender . Because of the belief that high GRE scores qualify one for graduate studies, the diversity issues faced by STEM fields may originate, at least in part, in misuse of the GRE scores by graduate admissions committees. I will quantitatively demonstrate this by showing that the combination of a hard cut-off and the different score distributions leads to the systematic underrepresentation of certain groups. I will present data from USF’s PhD program that shows a lack of correlation between GRE scores and research ability; similar null results are emerging from numerous other programs. I will then discuss how assessing non-cognitive competencies in the selection process may lead to a more enlightened search for the next generation of scientists.  C. W. Miller, "Admissions Criteria and Diversity in Graduate School", APS News Vol 22, Issue 2, The Back Page (2013) http://www.aps.org/publications/apsnews/201302/backpage.cfm
Aguinis, Herman; Culpepper, Steven A.; Pierce, Charles A.
We introduce the concept of "differential prediction generalization" in the context of college admissions testing. Specifically, we assess the extent to which predicted first-year college grade point average (GPA) based on high-school grade point average (HSGPA) and SAT scores depends on a student's ethnicity and gender and whether this…
Clarke, Marguerite; Shore, Arnold
In order to understand the roles of test scores and diversity characteristics (including race and ethnicity) in the admission process, National Board researchers interviewed admissions directors who worked at selective public and private institutions are well as admissions consultants in the summer and fall of 1999. This report presents an…
Mohammed, Mohammed A.; Rudge, Gavin; Watson, Duncan; Wood, Gordon; Smith, Gary B.; Prytherch, David R.; Girling, Alan; Stevens, Andrew
Background We explored the use of routine blood tests and national early warning scores (NEWS) reported within ±24 hours of admission to predict in-hospital mortality in emergency admissions, using empirical decision Tree models because they are intuitive and may ultimately be used to support clinical decision making. Methodology A retrospective analysis of adult emergency admissions to a large acute hospital during April 2009 to March 2010 in the West Midlands, England, with a full set of index blood tests results (albumin, creatinine, haemoglobin, potassium, sodium, urea, white cell count and an index NEWS undertaken within ±24 hours of admission). We developed a Tree model by randomly splitting the admissions into a training (50%) and validation dataset (50%) and assessed its accuracy using the concordance (c-) statistic. Emergency admissions (about 30%) did not have a full set of index blood tests and/or NEWS and so were not included in our analysis. Results There were 23248 emergency admissions with a full set of blood tests and NEWS with an in-hospital mortality of 5.69%. The Tree model identified age, NEWS, albumin, sodium, white cell count and urea as significant (p<0.001) predictors of death, which described 17 homogeneous subgroups of admissions with mortality ranging from 0.2% to 60%. The c-statistic for the training model was 0.864 (95%CI 0.852 to 0.87) and when applied to the testing data set this was 0.853 (95%CI 0.840 to 0.866). Conclusions An easy to interpret validated risk adjustment Tree model using blood test and NEWS taken within ±24 hours of admission provides good discrimination and offers a novel approach to risk adjustment which may potentially support clinical decision making. Given the nature of the clinical data, the results are likely to be generalisable but further research is required to investigate this promising approach. PMID:23734195
Kelley, Katherine A.; Secnik, Kristina; Boye, Mark E.
Investigated the capacity of the Pharmacy College Admissions Test (PCAT) to predict success in pharmacy school. Found demographic differences in PCAT scores, and that the PCAT used in combination with pre-pharmacy grade point average is meaningful in assessing applicants to pharmacy school; applicants with PCAT composite percentile scores below 40…
Reese, Lynda M.
This study represented a first attempt to evaluate the impact of local item dependence (LID) for Item Response Theory (IRT) scoring in computerized adaptive testing (CAT). The most basic CAT design and a simplified design for simulating CAT item pools with varying degrees of LID were applied. A data generation method that allows the LID among…
Cherngchawano, Wirun; Jaturapitakkul, Natjiree
University Admission Tests in Thailand are important documents which reflect Thailand's education system. To study at a higher education level, all students generally need to take the University Admission Tests designed by the National Institute of Educational Testing Service (NIETS). For the English test, vocabulary and reading comprehension is…
Greuel, Dirk; Deeken, Jan; Suslov, Dmitry; Schäfer, Klaus; Schlechtriem, Stefan
The LOX/LH2 Staged Combustion Rocket Engine Demonstrator (SCORE-D) is part of ESA's Future Launcher Preparatory Program (FLPP). SCORE-D serves as a technology demonstrator in perspective of the development of the High Thrust Engine (HTE), which is designated as a candidate for the main stage engine of the Next Generation Launcher (NGL). To develop and test the SCORE-D engine, ESA investigates configurations of the test benches P3.2 and P5 at DLR test site in Lampoldshausen. For the SCORE-D Hot Combustion Devices (HCD) development, i.e. Pre-burner (PB) and thrust chamber assembly (TCA), the P3.2 test facility has to be modified for further usage. Recently, the first steps in this endeavor have been made with the evaluation of the necessary modifications to the facility. To accommodate the SCORE-D engine, it is foreseen to modify the P5 test facility in the coming years. In the last year, DLR has started the design phase for these modifications. In preparatory test programs at the P8 test facility, Astrium has conducted sub-scale hot combustion devices tests. While Astrium designed and manufactured the sub-scale assembly of the pre-burner and the main combustion chamber (MCC) for SCORE-D, DLR operated the P8 test facility.
Kawahara, Nancy E.; Ethington, Corinna
Median polishing, an exploratory data statistical analysis technique, was used to study achievement patterns for men and women on the Pharmacy College Admission Test over a six-year period. In general, a declining trend in scores was found, and males performed better than females, with the largest differences found in chemistry and biology.…
This article describes the National Center Test for University Admissions, a unified national test in Japan, which is taken by 500,000 students every year. It states that implementation of the Center Test began in 1990, with the English component consisting only of the written section until 2005, when the listening section was first implemented…
Wright, Robert E.; Bachrach, Daniel G.
Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) scores and grade point average in graduate core courses were compared for 190 male and 144 female business administration students. No significant differences in course performance were found, but males had been admitted with significantly higher GMAT scores, suggesting a bias against women. (Contains 27…
Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline; Turner, Carolyn E.
Familiarizes test users with issues to consider when employing assessments for screening and admission purposes. Examines the purpose, content, and scoring methods of three English-as-a-Second-Language admissions tests--the Cambridge certificate exams, International English Language Teaching System, and Test of English as a Foreign…
Kramer, Gene A.; Johnston, JoElle
A study examined the relationship between Optometry Admission Test scores and pre-optometry or undergraduate grade point average (GPA) with first and second year performance in optometry schools. The test's predictive validity was limited but significant, and comparable to those reported for other admission tests. In addition, the scores…
Warnapala, Yajni; Silva, Karishma
In the year 2001, the University Grants Commission of Sri Lanka successfully appealed to change the method of determining the cut-off scores for university admissions from raw scores to standardized z-scores. This standardization allegedly eliminated the discrepancy caused due to the assumption of equal difficulty levels across all subjects. This…
Eliminating the Scholastic Aptitude Test for college admissions might seem a form of covert affirmative action. Although it is possible to design a workable admissions policy that excludes standardized tests (as 15 percent of colleges have done), banishing admissions tests to further a social-policy goal indirectly is unsound policy. (Contains 25…
Thibodeau, Janice J.
A diagnostic-prescriptive scheme is illustrated using subtests of the Slingerland Screening Tests for Identifying Children with Specific Language Disability and the Detroit Tests of Learning Aptitude. The scheme is intended to focus on the child's learning style by examining the task and the strategies employed. (CL)
Marini, Jessica P.; Shaw, Emily J.; Young, Linda
During the transition period between the use of exclusively old SAT® scores and the use of exclusively new SAT scores, college admission offices will be receiving both types of scores from students. Making an admission decision based on new SAT scores can be challenging at first because institutions have methods, procedures, and models based on…
Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2002
Nearly as many black students now take the American College Testing Program (ACT) college admission test as sign up for the competing Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT). In common with the SAT, the scoring gap between blacks and whites is widening. Almost no Blacks score at the very highest level of ACT performance, which is generally necessary to…
Brown, T. A.
Admissible probability testing is a way of administering multiple choice tests in which a student states his subjective probability that each alternative answer is correct. His response is then scored by an admissible scoring system designed so that the student will perceive that is is in his interest to report his true subjective probability.…
Wold, Donald C.
In the 20 years since the federal report on education "A Nation at Risk" appeared, much has been written on test scores of students in the United States versus their counterparts elsewhere. One of the issues is whether their scores are in fact inferior, or merely a statistical difference due to their universal schooling philosophy. Since…
van der Linden, Wim J.; Luecht, Richard M.
Derives a set of linear conditions of item-response functions that guarantees identical observed-score distributions on two test forms. The conditions can be added as constraints to a linear programming model for test assembly. An example illustrates the use of the model for an item pool from the Law School Admissions Test (LSAT). (SLD)
As more colleges move to "test optional" admissions policies, the debate over the utility and interpretation of standardized-test scores continues. In this article, the author interviews Daniel Koretz, a professor of education at Harvard University and author of "Measuring Up: What Educational Testing Really Tells Us". Koretz…
Rizzo, Monica Ellen
Most American colleges and universities require standardized entrance exams when making admissions decisions. Scores on these exams help determine if, when and where students will be allowed to pursue higher education. These scores are also used to determine eligibility for merit based financial aid. This testing persists even though half of the…
Setoguchi, Yoko; Mitani, Kazue; Abe, Yoshiro; Hashimoto, Ichiro; Moriguchi, Hiroki
Background Pressure ulcers (PUs) are considered a serious problem in nursing care and require preventive measures. Many risk assessment methods are currently being used, but most require the collection of data not available on admission. Although nurses assess the Nursing Needs Score (NNS) on a daily basis in Japanese acute care hospitals, these data are primarily used to standardize the cost of nursing care in the public insurance system for appropriate nurse staffing, and have never been used for PU risk assessment. Objective The objective of this study was to predict the risk of PU development using only data available on admission, including the on-admission NNS score. Methods Logistic regression was used to generate a prediction model for the risk of developing PUs after admission. A random undersampling procedure was used to overcome the problem of imbalanced data. Results A combination of gender, age, surgical duration, and on-admission total NNS score (NNS group B; NNS-B) was the best predictor with an average sensitivity, specificity, and area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 69.2% (6920/100), 82.8% (8280/100), and 84.0% (8400/100), respectively. The model with the median AUC achieved 80% (4/5) sensitivity, 81.3% (669/823) specificity, and 84.3% AUC. Conclusions We developed a model for predicting PU development using gender, age, surgical duration, and on-admission total NNS-B score. These results can be used to improve the efficiency of nurses and reduce the number of PU cases by identifying patients who require further examination. PMID:25673118
Edwards, Janine C.; Maldonado, Filomeno G. Jr.; Calvin, James A.
Analysis of admission records for 439 applicants to Texas A&M University's medical school compared applicants actually admitted under a formula that equally weighted academic and interview scores, with applicants who would have been admitted under two different weighting formulas. Results indicate that readjusting criteria weights may help…
Ezeala, Christian C.; Swami, Niraj S.; Lal, Nilesh; Hussain, Shagufta
Secondary education in Fiji ends with the Form 7 examination. Predictive validity for academic success of Form 7 scores which form the basis for admission into the Bachelor of Medicine Bachelor of Surgery programme of the Fiji School of Medicine was examined via a cohort of 129 students. Success rates for year 1 in 2008, 2009, and 2010 were 90.7…
Brown, Dianne C.
The decline in standardized test scores during the 1960s and 1970s is well documented and is seen in both aptitude and achievement test scores. This paper describes and analyzes the test score trends over the 1960s, 1970s and early 1980s for five aptitude tests: (1) the Scholastic Aptitude Test; (2) the American College Test; (3) the Preliminary…
Busch, Angela; Bidonde, Julia
Purpose: To describe participants' attitudes, beliefs, and experiences with the use of two methods of scoring the Multiple Mini-Interview (MMI) for admission to a Master of Physical Therapy program: a rank-based scoring system (RBS; used from 2007 to 2013) and a criterion-based scoring system (CBS; tested in 2014). The MMI uses short independent assessments to obtain an aggregate score of candidates' professionalism and interpersonal skills, based on behavioural questions within scenarios that assess one attribute at a time. Method: This qualitative descriptive inquiry sought to capture the experiences of 18 MMI interviewers primarily through semi-structured interviews. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, and the data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The results were validated by theoretical and investigator triangulation and member checking. Results: One major theme, scoring systems, and two sub-themes, CBS and RBS, emerged across all data. Participants unanimously agreed that CBS is a more fair and objective way to score candidates' interviews. Conclusions: CBS was well accepted by participants, and the majority preferred it over RBS. Participants felt that CBS presented a more accurate depiction of candidates. PMID:27909365
Soares, Joseph A., Ed.
What can a college admissions officer safely predict about the future of a 17-year-old? Are the best and the brightest students the ones who can check off the most correct boxes on a multiple-choice exam? Or are there better ways of measuring ability and promise? In this penetrating and revealing look at high-stakes standardized admissions tests,…
Bardes, Charles L; Best, Peggy Carey; Kremer, Sara J; Dienstag, Jules L
Medical schools use a variety of criteria in selecting applicants for admission, attempting to assess both the academic preparation and the personal characteristics suitable for a career in medicine. While assessing academic preparation is fairly straightforward, assessing applicants' personal characteristics is difficult and controversial. The possibility of implementing standardized testing of personal characteristics, so-called "noncognitive testing," has been proposed as part of the admissions process. Such a proposal, however, raises numerous questions about the validity, fairness, and cost of such testing and the impact of commercial test-preparation services on test performance and reliability. Therefore, before noncognitive testing is adopted for screening applicants to medical school, open discussion among all stakeholders in the admissions process is critically important.
Appelrouth, Jed I.; Zabrucky, Karen M.; Moore, DeWayne
Attaining successful outcomes on the SAT can have profound educational and financial consequences for college-bound students. Using archival data from a private tutoring centre, we investigated variables we hypothesised to contribute to SAT score increases. Our analyses revealed significant effects of time on task and rate of SAT homework…
Mpimbaza, Arthur; Sears, David; Sserwanga, Asadu; Kigozi, Ruth; Rubahika, Denis; Nadler, Adam; Yeka, Adoke; Dorsey, Grant
Mortality rates among hospitalized children in many government hospitals in sub-Saharan Africa are high. Pediatric emergency services in these hospitals are often sub-optimal. Timely recognition of critically ill children on arrival is key to improving service delivery. We present a simple risk score to predict inpatient mortality among hospitalized children. Between April 2010 and June 2011, the Uganda Malaria Surveillance Project (UMSP), in collaboration with the National Malaria Control Program (NMCP), set up an enhanced sentinel site malaria surveillance program for children hospitalized at four public hospitals in different districts: Tororo, Apac, Jinja and Mubende. Clinical data collected through March 2013, representing 50249 admissions were used to develop a mortality risk score (derivation data set). One year of data collected subsequently from the same hospitals, representing 20406 admissions, were used to prospectively validate the performance of the risk score (validation data set). Using a backward selection approach, 13 out of 25 clinical parameters recognizable on initial presentation, were selected for inclusion in a final logistic regression prediction model. The presence of individual parameters was awarded a score of either 1 or 2 based on regression coefficients. For each individual patient, a composite risk score was generated. The risk score was further categorized into three categories; low, medium, and high. Patient characteristics were comparable in both data sets. Measures of performance for the risk score included the receiver operating characteristics curves and the area under the curve (AUC), both demonstrating good and comparable ability to predict deathusing both the derivation (AUC =0.76) and validation dataset (AUC =0.74). Using the derivation and validation datasets, the mortality rates in each risk category were as follows: low risk (0.8% vs. 0.7%), moderate risk (3.5% vs. 3.2%), and high risk (16.5% vs. 12.6%), respectively. Our
Levin, Henry M.
Around the world we hear considerable talk about creating world-class schools. Usually the term refers to schools whose students get very high scores on the international comparisons of student achievement such as PISA or TIMSS. The practice of restricting the meaning of exemplary schools to the narrow criterion of achievement scores is usually…
de Wolf, Virginia A.
The development of the University of Washington freshman Admission Index (AI) is reviewed. The AI is a weighted linear combination of a student's overall high school grade point average and test scores from a standard college entrance examination of the verbal-quantitative type. The existing equation for computation of the AI using the Washington…
Sternberg, Robert J.
This article describes two projects based on Robert J. Sternberg's theory of successful intelligence and designed to provide theory-based testing for university admissions. The first, Rainbow Project, provided a supplementary test of analytical, practical, and creative skills to augment the SAT in predicting college performance. The Rainbow…
ACT, Inc., 2008
Postsecondary institutions often consider students' high school grades and ACT scores when making admission decisions. This issue brief summarizes ACT research on the relative weights of ACT scores and high school grades for predicting college persistence as well as selected indicators of academic success in college. (Contains 1 table and 3…
De Ball, Suzanne; Sullivan, Kathleen; Horine, Julie; Duncan, William K.; Replogle, William
Comapred University of Mississippi dental student scores on the Dental Admission Test (DAT) and Part I of the National Board Dental Examinations (NBDE) and found that DAT reading comprehension was a statistically significant predictor of all four subtests of the NBDE. Also found that DAT biology and organic chemistry scores were predictors of NBDE…
The purpose of this study was to validate the use of a test to assess dental school applicants' critical thinking abilities. The intent was to include this test on the Dental Admission Test (DAT) if it was shown to enhance the DAT's validity. Correlation and regression analyses of undergraduate and dental school performance with scores on each of the tests on the DAT battery and the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) were performed. Data were collected from 439 third- and fourth-year dental students who consented to participate and were enrolled at one of the ten accredited dental schools included in the study. These ten dental schools were from most regions of the United States. This study concluded that including the CCTST on the DAT did not significantly enhance the DAT's validity.
Chia, P; Seet, E; Macachor, J D; Iyer, U S; Wu, D
The STOP-BANG questionnaire screens for obstructive sleep apnoea. We retrospectively analysed the independent association of pre-operative variables with postoperative critical care admission using multivariable logistic regression for patients undergoing elective surgery from January to December 2011. Of 5432 patients, 338 (6.2%) were admitted postoperatively to the critical care unit. In multivariate analysis, the odds ratios (95% CI) for critical care admission were: 2.2 (1.1-4.6), p = 0.037; 3.2 (1.2-8.1), p = 0.017; and 5.1 (1.8-14.9), p = 0.002, for STOP-BANG scores of 4, 5 and ≥ 6, respectively. The odds ratio was also independently increased for: each year of age, 1.015 (1.004-1.026), p = 0.019; asthma, 1.6 (1.1-2.4), p = 0.016; obstructive sleep apnoea, 3.2 (1.9-5.6), p < 0.001; and for ASA physical status 2, 3 and ≥ 4, 2.1 (1.4-3.3), 6.5 (3.9-11.0), 6.3 (2.9-13.8), respectively, p < 0.001 for all.
Cascallar, Alicia S.; Dorans, Neil J.
This study compares two methods commonly used (concordance and prediction) to establish linkages between scores from tests of similar content given in different languages. Score linkages between the Verbal and Math sections of the SAT I and the corresponding sections of the Spanish-language admissions test, the Prueba de Aptitud Academica (PAA),…
Cascallar, Alicia S.; Dorans, Neil J.
This study compares two methods commonly used (concordance and prediction) to establish linkages between scores from tests of similar content given in different languages. Score linkages between the Verbal and Math sections of the SAT I and the corresponding sections of the Spanish-language admissions test, the Prueba de Aptitud Academica (PAA),…
Stricker, Lawrence J.; Wilder, Gita Z.; Bridgeman, Brent
The aim of this study was to assess test takers' attitudes and beliefs about an admissions test used extensively in graduate schools of business in the United States, the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT), and the relationships of these attitudes and beliefs to test performance. A set of attitude and belief items was administered by…
Nicewander, W Alan
The most widely used, general index of measurement precision for psychological and educational test scores is the reliability coefficient-a ratio of true variance for a test score to the true-plus-error variance of the score. In item response theory (IRT) models for test scores, the information function is the central, conditional index of measurement precision. In this inquiry, conditional reliability coefficients for a variety of score types are derived as simple transformations of information functions. It is shown, for example, that the conditional reliability coefficient for an ordinary, number-correct score, X, is equal to, ρ(X,X'|θ)=I(X,θ)/[I(X,θ)+1] Where: θ is a latent variable measured by an observed test score, X; p(X, X'|θ) is the conditional reliability of X at a fixed value of θ; and I(X, θ) is the score information function. This is a surprisingly simple relationship between the 2, basic indices of measurement precision from IRT and classical test theory (CTT). This relationship holds for item scores as well as test scores based on sums of item scores-and it holds for dichotomous as well as polytomous items, or a mix of both item types. Also, conditional reliabilities are derived for computerized adaptive test scores, and for θ-estimates used as alternatives to number correct scores. These conditional reliabilities are all related to information in a manner similar-or-identical to the 1 given above for the number-correct (NC) score. (PsycINFO Database Record
Graduate Management Admission Council, 2012
The 2011-2012 testing year held a number of significant milestones for the Graduate Management Admission Test exam. A total of 286,529 GMAT exams were administered, with 831,337 score reports sent to more than 5,200 graduate-level management programs around the world--all record numbers. This record volume reflects the increase in graduate-level…
Traditionally, the test score represented by the number of items answered correctly was taken as an indicator of the examinee's ability level. Researchers still tend to think that the number-correct score is a way of ordering individuals with respect to the latent trait. The objective of this study is to depict the benefits of using ability…
Clausing, Gerhard; Senko, Donna
Cloze testing and language performance is discussed as are two techniques for awarding partial credit: the quick performance measurement and feedback technique and the three-stage scoring hierarchy for partial credit. A figure and tables are included. (EJS)
Watkins, J. Foster; Stanford, Ronnie L.
The impact of admission criteria to teacher education programs in Alabama and the impact of a recently established exit examination required for certification were examined. Current admission criteria included: (1) completion of 60 semester hours of the approved general studies program with a grade point average (GPA) of at least 1.2 on a 3.0…
Hilborn, Robert C.
Physics has played an important role in the preparation of future physicians and other health professionals for more than 100 years. Almost all pre-health students take a year of college-level physics as part of their preparation for medical, dental, and pharmacy school. In particular, the widely-used Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) contains a significant number of questions that require physics knowledge and skills. This paper describes the changes in the MCAT to be implemented in 2015, the role of physics in the revised MCAT, and implications for introductory physics courses for the life sciences.
Al-Hattami, Abdulghani Ali Dawod
High school grade point average and college entrance test scores are two admission criteria that are currently used by most colleges in Yemen to select their prospective students. Given their widespread use, it is important to investigate their predictive validity to ensure the accuracy of the admission decisions in these institutions. This study…
Weinstein, Lawrence; Laverghetta, Antonio; Alexander, Ralph; Stewart, Megan
The current study is an extension of a previous investigation dealing with teacher greetings to students. The present investigation used teacher greetings with college students and academic performance (test scores). We report data using university students and in-class test performance. Students in introductory psychology who received teachers'…
Bills, James L; VanHouten, Jacob; Grundy, Michelle M; Chalkley, Roger; Dermody, Terence S
The Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) is a quantitative metric used by MD and MD-PhD programs to evaluate applicants for admission. This study assessed the validity of the MCAT in predicting training performance measures and career outcomes for MD-PhD students at a single institution. The study population consisted of 153 graduates of the Vanderbilt Medical Scientist Training Program (combined MD-PhD program) who matriculated between 1963 and 2003 and completed dual-degree training. This population was divided into three cohorts corresponding to the version of the MCAT taken at the time of application. Multivariable regression (logistic for binary outcomes and linear for continuous outcomes) was used to analyze factors associated with outcome measures. The MCAT score and undergraduate GPA (uGPA) were treated as independent variables; medical and graduate school grades, time-to-PhD defense, USMLE scores, publication number, and career outcome were dependent variables. For cohort 1 (1963-1977), MCAT score was not associated with any assessed outcome, although uGPA was associated with medical school preclinical GPA and graduate school GPA (gsGPA). For cohort 2 (1978-1991), MCAT score was associated with USMLE Step II score and inversely correlated with publication number, and uGPA was associated with preclinical GPA (mspGPA) and clinical GPA (mscGPA). For cohort 3 (1992-2003), the MCAT score was associated with mscGPA, and uGPA was associated with gsGPA. Overall, MCAT score and uGPA were inconsistent or weak predictors of training metrics and career outcomes for this population of MD-PhD students.
Grace, Catherine O'Neill
Psychologist Robert J. Sternberg's conviction that American standardized testing does not accurately reflect a child's intelligence or potential is far from theoretical. As an elementary school student in the 1950s, he scored poorly on the ubiquitous IQ test of the time, freezing up when the school psychologist entered the room. Thankfully for…
McIntosh, James; Munk, Martin D.
Latent class Poisson count models are used to analyse a sample of Danish test score results from a cohort of individuals born in 1954-1955, tested in 1968, and followed until 2011. The procedure takes account of unobservable effects as well as excessive zeros in the data. We show that the test scores measure manifest or measured ability as it has…
Jencks, Christopher, Ed.; Phillips, Meredith, Ed.
The 15 chapters of this book address issues related to the continuing test score gap between black and white students. The editors argue against traditional explanations which emphasize differences in economic resources and demographic factors, and they urge that more emphasis be put on psychological and cultural factors. The book suggests studies…
Miller, Steven C.
The Wyoming Department of Education (WDE) has invested time and money developing standardized achievement test score reports designed to give teachers data about each of their students' levels of mastery of particular concepts in order to differentiate their instruction. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which eighth-grade…
Current thinking on validity suggests that educational institutions and individuals should evaluate their uses of test scores in the context of their fundamental goals. Regression coefficients and other traditional criterion-related validity statistics provide relevant information, but often do not, by themselves, address the fundamental reasons…
Smith, Vernon G.; Szymanski, Antonia
This article is for practicing or aspiring school administrators. The demand for excellence in public education has lead to an emphasis on standardized test scores. This article explores the development of a professional enhancement program designed to prepare teachers to teach higher order thinking skills. Higher order thinking is the primary…
Singapore students have scored exceedingly well on international tests in mathematics. In response, there has been a desire in the United States--both at the policy level and at the school level--to emulate Singapore. Because what can be identified most easily about Singapore's school mathematics can be gleaned from curriculum documents from the…
Keiser, Heidi N; Sackett, Paul R; Kuncel, Nathan R; Brothen, Thomas
Women typically obtain higher subsequent college GPAs than men with the same admissions test score. A common reaction is to attribute this to a flaw in the admissions test. We explore the possibility that this underprediction of women's performance reflects gender differences in conscientiousness and college course-taking patterns. In Study 1, we focus on using the ACT to predict performance in a single, large course where performance is decomposed into cognitive (exam and quiz scores) and less cognitive, discretionary components (discussion and extra credit points). The ACT does not underpredict female's cognitive performance, but it does underpredict female performance on the less cognitive, discretionary components of academic performance, because it fails to measure and account for the personality trait of conscientiousness. In Study 2, we create 2 course-difficulty indices (Course Challenge and Mean Aptitude in Course) and add them to an HLM regression model to see if they reduce the degree to which SAT scores underpredict female performance. Including Course Challenge does result in a modest reduction of the gender coefficient; however, including Mean Aptitude in Course does not. Thus, differences in course-taking patterns is a partial (albeit small) explanation for the common finding of differential prediction by gender.
Mitchell, Karen; Lewis, Richard S; Satterfield, Jason; Hong, Barry A
This year's applicants to medical school took a newly revised version of the Medical College Admission Test. Unlike applicants in the past, they were asked to demonstrate their knowledge and use of concepts commonly taught in introductory psychology courses. The new Psychological, Social, and Biological Foundations of Behavior Test asked applicants to demonstrate the ways in which psychological, social, and biological factors influence perceptions and reactions to the world; behavior and behavior change; what people think about themselves and others; the cultural and social differences that influence well-being; and the relationships among social stratification, access to resources, and well-being. Building from the classic biopsychosocial model, this article provides the rationale for testing psychology concepts in application to medical school. It describes the concepts and skills that the new exam tests and shows how they lay the foundation for learning in medical school about the behavioral and sociocultural determinants of health. This article discusses the implications of these changes for undergraduate psychology faculty and psychology curricula as well as their importance to the profession of psychology at large.
Cizek, Gregory J.
Advances in validity theory and alacrity in validation practice have suffered because the term "validity" has been used to refer to two incompatible concerns: (1) the degree of support for specified interpretations of test scores (i.e. intended score meaning) and (2) the degree of support for specified applications (i.e. intended test…
The Quality Control (QC) Guidelines are intended to increase the efficiency, precision, and accuracy of the scoring, analysis, and reporting process of testing. The QC Guidelines focus on large-scale testing operations where multiple forms of tests are created for use on set dates. However, they may also be used for a wide variety of other testing…
Ferreira, Juan Pablo; Hamui, Magali; Paganini, Agustina; Torres, Fernando A; Ossorio, María Fabiana; Eiguchi, Kumiko; Ferrero, Fernando
In the city of Buenos Aires (CABA), pediatric residents enter the residency program after taking a unified admission test. After completion of the program and passing a final test, the Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA) provides a professional certification. The objective of this study is to determine if the results obtained in the residency admission test (RAT) and those of the professional certification test (PCT) correlated. This is a cross-sectional study, that included all subjects who passed the pediatrics RAT in CABA in 2004-2009, and that attended the pediatric PCT of the UBA. The score for each subject in both tests was obtained and the corresponding correlation was calculated. Results were divided in quintiles, and the proportion of subjects who improved their position in the PCT with respect to the RAT was calculated. Data from 303 subjects was obtained. The RAT showed a median of 45.0 (over 60 maximum) (IC-range: 43.0-48.7), and the PCT showed a median of 6 points (over 10 max.)(IC-range: 6-8). A significative correlation between results in RAT and PCT was observed (r = 0.37, p < 0.001). Based on their position in the RAT, 43.8% of subjects improved their position in the PCT, without differences between residents attending pediatric and general hospitals (45.6 vs. 31.5%; p = 0.1). In the case of pediatric residents, results of the residency admission test correlate with those obtained in the professional certification test.
Niu, Sunny X; Tienda, Marta
Using administrative data for five Texas universities that differ in selectivity, this study evaluates the relative influence of two key indicators for college success-high school class rank and standardized tests. Empirical results show that class rank is the superior predictor of college performance and that test score advantages do not insulate lower ranked students from academic underperformance. Using the UT-Austin campus as a test case, we conduct a simulation to evaluate the consequences of capping students admitted automatically using both achievement metrics. We find that using class rank to cap the number of students eligible for automatic admission would have roughly uniform impacts across high schools, but imposing a minimum test score threshold on all students would have highly unequal consequences by greatly reduce the admission eligibility of the highest performing students who attend poor high schools while not jeopardizing admissibility of students who attend affluent high schools. We discuss the implications of the Texas admissions experiment for higher education in Europe.
Niu, Sunny X.; Tienda, Marta
Using administrative data for five Texas universities that differ in selectivity, this study evaluates the relative influence of two key indicators for college success—high school class rank and standardized tests. Empirical results show that class rank is the superior predictor of college performance and that test score advantages do not insulate lower ranked students from academic underperformance. Using the UT-Austin campus as a test case, we conduct a simulation to evaluate the consequences of capping students admitted automatically using both achievement metrics. We find that using class rank to cap the number of students eligible for automatic admission would have roughly uniform impacts across high schools, but imposing a minimum test score threshold on all students would have highly unequal consequences by greatly reduce the admission eligibility of the highest performing students who attend poor high schools while not jeopardizing admissibility of students who attend affluent high schools. We discuss the implications of the Texas admissions experiment for higher education in Europe. PMID:23788828
Thomas, Michael C.; Draugalis, JoLaine R.
Examined significance of PCAT scores, prepharmacy GPA, math and science GPA, and attainment of a previous college degree in predicting first-year pharmacy GPA. Asserts that the best predictive model incorporated all variables, while the most parsimonious model included math and science GPA and the PCAT chemistry subscore. The PCAT was a…
Lown, Mark T; Munyombwe, Theresa; Harrison, Wendy; West, Robert M; Hall, Christiana A; Morrell, Christine; Jackson, Beryl M; Sapsford, Robert J; Kilcullen, Niamh; Pepper, Christopher B; Batin, Phil D; Hall, Alistair S; Gale, Chris P
Risk assessment is central to the management of acute coronary syndromes. Often, however, assessment is not complete until the troponin concentration is available. Using 2 multicenter prospective observational studies (Evaluation of Methods and Management of Acute Coronary Events [EMMACE] 2, test cohort, 1,843 patients; and EMMACE-1, validation cohort, 550 patients) of unselected patients with acute coronary syndromes, a point-of-admission risk stratification tool using frontal QRS-T angle derived from automated measurements and age for the prediction of 30-day and 2-year mortality was evaluated. Two-year mortality was lowest in patients with frontal QRS-T angles <38° and highest in patients with frontal QRS-T angles >104° (44.7% vs 14.8%, p <0.001). Increasing frontal QRS-T angle-age risk (FAAR) scores were associated with increasing 30-day and 2-year mortality (for 2-year mortality, score 0 = 3.7%, score 4 = 57%; p <0.001). The FAAR score was a good discriminator of mortality (C statistics 0.74 [95% confidence interval 0.71 to 0.78] at 30 days and 0.77 [95% confidence interval 0.75 to 0.79] at 2 years), maintained its performance in the EMMACE-1 cohort at 30 days (C statistics 0.76 (95% confidence interval 0.71 to 0.8] at 30 days and 0.79 (95% confidence interval 0.75 to 0.83] at 2 years), in men and women, in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, and compared favorably with the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) score. The integrated discrimination improvement (age to FAAR score at 30 days and at 2 years in EMMACE-1 and EMMACE-2) was p <0.001. In conclusion, the FAAR score is a point-of-admission risk tool that predicts 30-day and 2-year mortality from 2 variables across a spectrum of patients with acute coronary syndromes. It does not require the results of biomarker assays or rely on the subjective interpretation of electrocardiograms.
Paul, Gina; Verhulst, Steve
Problem: Minority students often score lower than majority students on the Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) Verbal Reasoning section. Method: To determine what role schema plays in reading comprehension in 64 adult minority students, the Treatment group viewed a slide presentation regarding a topic that both groups would be tested on in a…
Bills, James L.; VanHouten, Jacob; Grundy, Michelle M.; Chalkley, Roger; Dermody, Terence S.
The Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) is a quantitative metric used by MD and MD-PhD programs to evaluate applicants for admission. This study assessed the validity of the MCAT in predicting training performance measures and career outcomes for MD-PhD students at a single institution. The study population consisted of 153 graduates of the…
Background Internationally, tests of general mental ability are used in the selection of medical students. Examples include the Medical College Admission Test, Undergraduate Medicine and Health Sciences Admission Test and the UK Clinical Aptitude Test. The most widely used measure of their efficacy is predictive validity. A new tool, the Health Professions Admission Test- Ireland (HPAT-Ireland), was introduced in 2009. Traditionally, selection to Irish undergraduate medical schools relied on academic achievement. Since 2009, Irish and EU applicants are selected on a combination of their secondary school academic record (measured predominately by the Leaving Certificate Examination) and HPAT-Ireland score. This is the first study to report on the predictive validity of the HPAT-Ireland for early undergraduate assessments of communication and clinical skills. Method Students enrolled at two Irish medical schools in 2009 were followed up for two years. Data collected were gender, HPAT-Ireland total and subsection scores; Leaving Certificate Examination plus HPAT-Ireland combined score, Year 1 Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) scores (Total score, communication and clinical subtest scores), Year 1 Multiple Choice Questions and Year 2 OSCE and subset scores. We report descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficients and Multiple linear regression models. Results Data were available for 312 students. In Year 1 none of the selection criteria were significantly related to student OSCE performance. The Leaving Certificate Examination and Leaving Certificate plus HPAT-Ireland combined scores correlated with MCQ marks. In Year 2 a series of significant correlations emerged between the HPAT-Ireland and subsections thereof with OSCE Communication Z-scores; OSCE Clinical Z-scores; and Total OSCE Z-scores. However on multiple regression only the relationship between Total OSCE Score and the Total HPAT-Ireland score remained significant; albeit the
Beier, Ulrike Stephanie; Kapferer, Ines; Ostermann, Herwig; Staudinger, Roland; Dumfahrt, Herbert
Since the year 2000, prospective dental students at Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria, have undergone both theoretical and practical preadmission exams, called the Dental Admission Test (DAT). The aim of this investigation was to assess the suitability and outcome of this selection practice. Five classes from 2001 to 2005 (N=97; forty-three female, fifty-four male) were retrospectively reviewed. DAT results were compared with student performance, gender, ability to graduate on time, and dropout rates. Furthermore, the influence of a previous medical degree was evaluated. The t-test was used to analyze correlations between the results of the DAT and the following: gender, students who graduated on time, and students who had previously completed a medical degree. Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) was applied to analyze correlations among test scores, age, and students' performance during the first clinical year. Students graduating on time were noted to have significantly better DAT results; students with a previous medical degree showed significantly better grades during their first clinical year. The difference between the performance of male and female applicants on the DAT was not significant. Correlation was found between DAT results and dental school performance (r=-0.462). We conclude that the DAT may reduce dropout rates by excluding applicants unlikely to be successful in practical courses and that DAT scores are a reliable tool to predict student performance during the first clinical year of dental school in Innsbruck.
Papanastasiou, Elena C.; Reckase, Mark D.
Because of the increased popularity of computerized adaptive testing (CAT), many admissions tests, as well as certification and licensure examinations, have been transformed from their paper-and-pencil versions to computerized adaptive versions. A major difference between paper-and-pencil tests and CAT from an examinee's point of view is that in…
Sachar, Jane; Suppes, Patrick
The present study compared six methods, two of which utilize the content structure of items, to estimate total-test scores using 450 students and 60 items of the 110-item Stanford Mental Arithmetic Test. Three methods yielded fairly good estimates of the total-test score. (Author/RL)
Investigation of the degree of organisational influence on patient experience scores in acute medical admission units in all acute hospitals in England using multilevel hierarchical regression modelling
Objectives Previous studies found that hospital and specialty have limited influence on patient experience scores, and patient level factors are more important. This could be due to heterogeneity of experience delivery across subunits within organisations. We aimed to determine whether organisation level factors have greater impact if scores for the same subspecialty microsystem are analysed in each hospital. Setting Acute medical admission units in all NHS Acute Trusts in England. Participants We analysed patient experience data from the English Adult Inpatient Survey which is administered to 850 patients annually in each acute NHS Trusts in England. We selected all 8753 patients who returned the survey and who were emergency medical admissions and stayed in their admission unit for 1–2 nights, so as to isolate the experience delivered during the acute admission process. Primary and secondary outcome measures We used multilevel logistic regression to determine the apportioned influence of host organisation and of organisation level factors (size and teaching status), and patient level factors (demographics, presence of long-term conditions and disabilities). We selected ‘being treated with respect and dignity’ and ‘pain control’ as primary outcome parameters. Other Picker Domain question scores were analysed as secondary parameters. Results The proportion of overall variance attributable at organisational level was small; 0.5% (NS) for respect and dignity, 0.4% (NS) for pain control. Long-standing conditions and consequent disabilities were associated with low scores. Other item scores also showed that most influence was from patient level factors. Conclusions When a single microsystem, the acute medical admission process, is isolated, variance in experience scores is mainly explainable by patient level factors with limited organisational level influence. This has implications for the use of generic patient experience surveys for comparison between
Koljatic, Mladen; Silva, Monica
The article describes a test-blind admission initiative in a Chilean research university aimed at expanding the inclusion of talented, albeit educationally and socially disadvantaged, students. The outcomes of the test-blind admission cohort were compared with those of students admitted via the regular admission procedure to the same academic…
Kuentzel, Jeffrey G.; Hetterscheidt, Lesley A.; Barnett, Douglas
The rigors of standardized testing make for numerous opportunities for examiner error, including simple computational mistakes in scoring. Although experts recommend that test scoring be double-checked, the extent to which independent double-checking would reduce scoring errors is not known. A double-checking procedure was established at a…
This article reports an empirical study that examined the pattern of test preparation for College English Test Band 4 (CET4) and the differential effects of test preparation practices on its scores, thereby drawing implications for CET4 score validity. Data collection involved 1,003 test takers of CET4. A pretest was administered at the beginning…
Hodgson, L E; Dimitrov, B D; Roderick, P J; Venn, R; Forni, L G
Objectives Hospital-acquired acute kidney injury (HA-AKI) is associated with a high risk of mortality. Prediction models or rules may identify those most at risk of HA-AKI. This study externally validated one of the few clinical prediction rules (CPRs) derived in a general medicine cohort using clinical information and data from an acute hospitals electronic system on admission: the acute kidney injury prediction score (APS). Design, setting and participants External validation in a single UK non-specialist acute hospital (2013–2015, 12 554 episodes); four cohorts: adult medical and general surgical populations, with and without a known preadmission baseline serum creatinine (SCr). Methods Performance assessed by discrimination using area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCROC) and calibration. Results HA-AKI incidence within 7 days (kidney disease: improving global outcomes (KDIGO) change in SCr) was 8.1% (n=409) of medical patients with known baseline SCr, 6.6% (n=141) in those without a baseline, 4.9% (n=204) in surgical patients with baseline and 4% (n=49) in those without. Across the four cohorts AUCROC were: medical with known baseline 0.65 (95% CIs 0.62 to 0.67) and no baseline 0.71 (0.67 to 0.75), surgical with baseline 0.66 (0.62 to 0.70) and no baseline 0.68 (0.58 to 0.75). For calibration, in medicine and surgical cohorts with baseline SCr, Hosmer-Lemeshow p values were non-significant, suggesting acceptable calibration. In the medical cohort, at a cut-off of five points on the APS to predict HA-AKI, positive predictive value was 16% (13–18%) and negative predictive value 94% (93–94%). Of medical patients with HA-AKI, those with an APS ≥5 had a significantly increased risk of death (28% vs 18%, OR 1.8 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.9), p=0.015). Conclusions On external validation the APS on admission shows moderate discrimination and acceptable calibration to predict HA-AKI and may be useful as a severity marker when HA-AKI occurs
McCurry, Doug; Chiavaroli, Neville
The modifications to the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) to be introduced in 2015 represent a significant change to a test which has hitherto seemed to successfully help medical school admissions committees identify students with the requisite ability to succeed in medical school. This commentary takes the decision to remove the MCAT Writing Sample as a stimulus to reconsider the value which a writing test can bring to admissions testing, and to examine some of the validity evidence and key considerations for using a writing task for such purposes. The authors argue that a writing task provides important information about applicants' cognitive abilities that cannot be obtained using traditional selected-response items, and that this outweighs the conventional concern of testing to strive for maximum reliability at all costs.
Koys, Daniel J.
In this study, the author examined the validity of the Graduate Management Admissions Test (GMAT) for non-U.S. students (N = 75) through a predictive validation procedure in which applicants were given the predictor test but the test results were not used to admit students. The author's business school admitted students to three overseas MBA…
Chevalier, Shirley A.
In conventional practice, most educators and educational researchers score cognitive tests using a dichotomous right-wrong scoring system. Although simple and straightforward, this method does not take into consideration other factors, such as partial knowledge or guessing tendencies and abilities. This paper discusses alternative scoring models:…
40. Champagne, D., & Roberts, E., An Exercise in Freedom: A Place Where Test Scores Appear to Be Rising. = 3. Acland , H., If Reading Scores Are...of the nation’s young teachers. Scientific, Engineering, Tech- nical Manpower Comments, November 1979. 3. Acland , Henry, If reading scores are
Wise, Vicki L.; Wise, Steven L.; Bhola, Dennison S.
Accountability for educational quality is a priority at all levels of education. Low-stakes testing is one way to measure the quality of education that students receive and make inferences about what students know and can do. Aggregate test scores from low-stakes testing programs are suspect, however, to the degree that these scores are influenced…
Sachar, Jane; Suppes, Patrick
It is sometimes desirable to obtain an estimated total-test score for an individual who was administered only a subset of the items in a total test. The present study compared six methods, two of which utilize the content structure of items, to estimate total-test scores using 450 students in grades 3-5 and 60 items of the ll0-item Stanford Mental…
Schafer, William D.; Hou, Xiaodong
This study discusses and presents an example of a use of spline functions to establish and report test scores using a moderated system of any number of cut scores. Our main goals include studying the need for and establishing moderated standards and creating a reporting scale that is referenced to all the standards. Our secondary goals are to make…
Feldt, Leonard S.
In some settings, the validity of a battery composite or a test score is enhanced by weighting some parts or items more heavily than others in the total score. This article describes methods of estimating the total score reliability coefficient when differential weights are used with items or parts.
Wilson, Kenneth M.; Powers, Donald E.
This study was undertaken to clarify the internal structure of the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) and shed light on the ability or abilities measured by the three item types that make up the test (logical reasoning, analytical reasoning, and reading comprehension). The study used data for two forms of the LSAT for general samples of LSAT…
Hudis, Paula M.; Stolzenberg, Ross M.
Statistical trends in the characteristics of registrants for the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) are presented. Areas of focus are: registrations (registration volumes have increased dramatically over time); worldwide age distribution (the percentage of older test registrants has increased); world distribution (there has been a…
... COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Importation of Nonconforming Nonroad Engines § 89.609 Final admission of... all emission tests; (4) The applicable deterioration factor assigned by EPA, if any; (5) The emission test results adjusted by the applicable deterioration factor; (6) All information required under §...
... COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Importation of Nonconforming Nonroad Engines § 89.609 Final admission of... all emission tests; (4) The applicable deterioration factor assigned by EPA, if any; (5) The emission test results adjusted by the applicable deterioration factor; (6) All information required under §...
McCabe, Deborah; Hilmo, Joellen
The Goodenough-Harris Draw-a-Person Test, if given at regular intervals during periods of remediation, may show clear evidence of improvement in behavior and attitude of learning disabled students. (CL)
Blowers, E. A.
The efficiency of several visual and auditory predictors of the Metropolitan Readiness Test was examined utilizing 106 grade 1 subjects considered by their teachers to show learning difficulties. (Author/JC)
Baird, Leonard L.
Following their first year of advanced study, two samples of students were polled. Study one analyzed the attitudes of 4,248 studnets toward the admission test they had taken: Graduate Record Examinations (GRE), Law School Admission Test (LSAT), Medical College Admission Test (MCAT), Admission Test for Graduate Study in Business, or the Miller…
As a public school English teacher, the author observes standardized testing season each year with a sort of grim fascination. "So this is it," she thinks as she paces around her silent classroom, peering over kids' shoulders at articles about parasailing. Line graphs tracking the rainfall in Tulsa. Parts of speech. Functions of "x." "These are…
Turnipseed, Stephan; Darling-Hammond, Linda
The number one quality business leaders look for in employees is creativity and yet the U.S. education system undermines the development of the higher-order skills that promote creativity by its dogged focus on multiple-choice tests. Stephan Turnipseed and Linda DarlingHammond discuss the kind of rich accountability system that will help students…
This article presents three strategies for teaching students who are taking the IELTS speaking test. The first strategy is aimed at improving confidence and uses a variety of self-help materials from the field of popular psychology. The second encourages students to think critically and invokes a range of academic perspectives. The third strategy…
Roush, James K; Rush, Bonnie R; White, Brad J; Wilkerson, Melinda J
Data consisting of preadmission criteria scores, annual and final cumulative grade point averages (GPAs), grades from individual professional courses, American Veterinary Medical Association Council on Education (AVMA-COE) Competency scores, annual class rank, and North American Veterinary Licensing Exam (NAVLE) scores were collected on all graduating DVM students at Kansas State University in 2009 and 2010. Associations among the collected data were compared by Pearson correlation. Pre-veterinary admissions criteria infrequently correlated with annual GPAs of Years 1-3, rarely correlated with the AVMA-COE Competencies, and never correlated with the annual GPA of Year 4. Low positive correlations occurred between the NAVLE and the Verbal Graduate Record Examination (GRE) (r=.214), Total GRE (r=.171), and the mean GPA of pre-professional science courses (SGPA) (r=.236). Annual GPAs strongly correlated with didactic course scores. Annual GPAs and final class rank strongly correlated (mean r=-.849), and both strongly correlated with the NAVLE score (NAVLE: GPAs mean r=.628, NAVLE: final class rank r=-.714). Annual GPAs at the end of Years 1-4 weakly correlated or did not correlate with the AVMA-COE Competencies. The AVMA-COE Competencies weakly correlated with scores earned in didactic courses of Years 1-3. AVMA-COE Competencies were internally consistent (mean r=.796) but only moderately correlated with performance on the NAVLE (mean r=.319). Low correlations between admissions criteria and outcomes indicate a need to reevaluate admission criteria as predictors of school success. If the NAVLE remains the primary discriminator for veterinary licensure (and the gateway to professional activity), then the AVMA-COE Competencies should be refined to better improve and reflect the NAVLE, or the NAVLE examination should change to reflect AVMA-COE Competencies.
Walpole, MaryBeth; McDonough, Patricia M.; Bauer, Constance J.; Gibson, Carolyn; Kanyi, Kamau T.; Toliver, Rita
This qualitative study focused on African American and Latino high school students perceptions of standardized admission tests, including the Scholastic Assessment Tests (I and II) and the ACT Assessment. Students enrolled in college preparatory classes were interviewed about these tests individually and in focus groups in fall 1998 in their…
McManus, I C; Ferguson, Eamonn; Wakeford, Richard; Powis, David; James, David
There has been an increase in the use of pre-admission selection tests for medicine. Such tests need to show good psychometric properties. Here, we use a paper by Emery and Bell [2009. The predictive validity of the Biomedical Admissions Test for pre-clinical examination performance. Med Educ 43:557-564] as a case study to evaluate and comment on the reporting of psychometric data in the field of medical student selection (and the comments apply to many papers in the field). We highlight pitfalls when reliability data are not presented, how simple zero-order associations can lead to inaccurate conclusions about the predictive validity of a test, and how biases need to be explored and reported. We show with BMAT that it is the knowledge part of the test which does all the predictive work. We show that without evidence of incremental validity it is difficult to assess the value of any selection tests for medicine.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the evidence on whether grade inflation has led to an increasing emphasis on standardized test scores as a criterion for law school admissions. Design/methodology/approach: Fit probabilistic models to admissions data for American law schools during the mid to late 1990s, a period during which…
... working day hold period, the nonroad engine is stored at a location where the Administrator has reasonable... nonroad engines and test nonroad engines. 89.609 Section 89.609 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Importation of Nonconforming Nonroad Engines § 89.609 Final admission...
Of 120 female and 149 male master of business administration (MBA) students, women performed significantly less well on the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT). There were no differences in overall MBA grade point average, indicating no strong correlation between the GMAT and MBA performance. (SK)
Wamala, Robert; Buyinza, Mukadasi
Although the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) is considered by leading business institutions worldwide as a predictor of success in graduate programs, an issue of contention is whether the introduction of the examination enhances the quality of education outcomes. This study sought to obtain an understanding of this issue, focusing on…
Fischer, Franziska T.; Schult, Johannes; Hell, Benedikt
This is the first meta-analysis that investigates the differential prediction of undergraduate and graduate college admission tests for women and men. Findings on 130 independent samples representing 493,048 students are summarized. The underprediction of women's academic performance (d = 0.14) and the overprediction of men's academic performance…
Perez Mejias, Paulina
In Chile, reports and research papers have shown that there is an achievement gap in college admissions tests mostly associated to students' gender, socioeconomic status and type of school attended. This gap represents a barrier for low-income and female students to access higher education, as well as for graduates of public schools. Prior studies…
Caroline, Jan D.; And Others
The results of a predictive validity study of the new Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) using criteria from the clinical years of undergraduate medical education are discussed. The criteria included course grades and faculty ratings of clerks in internal medicine, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, pediatrics, and psychiatry. (Author/MLW)
Meara, Kevin; Sireci, Stephen G.
To provide a better understanding of the structure of the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) and to determine if there are structural differences across selected groups of MCAT examinees, several dimensionality analyses were conducted on data from recent administrations of the MCAT. The first set of analyses focused on the global structure of…
Frary, Robert B.
Multiple-choice response and scoring methods that attempt to determine an examinee's degree of knowledge about each item in order to produce a total test score are reviewed. There is apparently little advantage to such schemes; however, they may have secondary benefits such as providing feedback to enhance learning. (SLD)
Kurz, Terri Barber
Multiple-choice tests are generally scored using a conventional number right scoring method. While this method is easy to use, it has several weaknesses. These weaknesses include decreased validity due to guessing and failure to credit partial knowledge. In an attempt to address these weaknesses, psychometricians have developed various scoring…
Lyman, Howard B.
The first edition of this book was written to give information about testing to people whose work gave them access to test results, but whose training included little or nothing about the use and interpretation of tests. Later editions have been intended for a broader audience as the need for understanding what test scores really mean has…
The responsible and innovative utilization of media, not only in test score reporting but also in other guidance functions, may assist the counselor in permitting him more time to function with clients in counseling relationships. (Author)
Haberman, Shelby J; Yao, Lili; Sinharay, Sandip
In many educational tests which involve constructed responses, a traditional test score is obtained by adding together item scores obtained through holistic scoring by trained human raters. For example, this practice was used until 2008 in the case of GRE(®) General Analytical Writing and until 2009 in the case of TOEFL(®) iBT Writing. With use of natural language processing, it is possible to obtain additional information concerning item responses from computer programs such as e-rater(®). In addition, available information relevant to examinee performance may include scores on related tests. We suggest application of standard results from classical test theory to the available data to obtain best linear predictors of true traditional test scores. In performing such analysis, we require estimation of variances and covariances of measurement errors, a task which can be quite difficult in the case of tests with limited numbers of items and with multiple measurements per item. As a consequence, a new estimation method is suggested based on samples of examinees who have taken an assessment more than once. Such samples are typically not random samples of the general population of examinees, so that we apply statistical adjustment methods to obtain the needed estimated variances and covariances of measurement errors. To examine practical implications of the suggested methods of analysis, applications are made to GRE General Analytical Writing and TOEFL iBT Writing. Results obtained indicate that substantial improvements are possible both in terms of reliability of scoring and in terms of assessment reliability.
It is challenging for parents and the general public to make sense of the reports on test scores that appear in the mass media. This article offers some things for readers to consider as they bring a critical eye to what is read in the papers. Usually reports on test scores in the media are quite short and focus on one or two aspects of test…
Bedard, Kelly; Ferrall, Christopher
Compares the distribution of test scores at age 13 in 1964 and 1982 and wages later in life across 11 countries. Finds that wage dispersion later in life is never greater than test-score dispersion. For three countries (U.S., UK, and Japan), finds evidence of skill-biased changes in wage dispersion between the early 1970s and the late 1980s.…
In this essay, Rebecca Zwick confronts the controversy surrounding the use of standardized tests in college admissions. She examines the degree to which the SAT and its lesser known cousin, the ACT, limit access to college, particularly for racial and ethnic minorities, and considers two alternative admissions policies that do not involve tests:…
Willingham, Warren W.; Pollack, Judith M.; Lewis, Charles
Proposed a framework of possible differences between grades and test scores and tested the framework with data on 8,454 high school seniors from the National Education Longitudinal Study. Identified differences and correlations among achievement factors. Differences between grades and tests give these measures complementary strengths in…
Leuba, Richard J.
Explains how multiple choice test items can be devised to measure higher-order learning, including engineering problem solving. Discusses the value and information provided in item analysis procedures with machine-scored tests. Suggests elements to consider in test design. (ML)
Kopriva, Rebecca J.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Perie, Marianne; Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Clark, Amy
This article argues that test takers are as integral to determining validity of test scores as defining target content and conditioning inferences on test use. A principled sustained attention to how students interact with assessment opportunities is essential, as is a principled sustained evaluation of evidence confirming the validity or calling…
Dearborn Public Schools, MI.
The purpose of the fifth annual Dearborn Achievement Test Score report is to summarize and to help interpret the test results so that Dearborn citizens and educators will have a better understanding of the educational achievements of Dearborn students. The District-wide Testing Program assesses reading readiness, scholastic aptitude, academic…
Santelices, Maria Veronica; Wilson, Mark
This paper investigates the predictive validity of the Revised SAT (R-SAT) score, proposed by Freedle (2003) as an alternative to compensate minority students for the potential harm caused by the relationship between item difficulty and ethnic DIF observed in the SAT. The R-SAT score is the score minority students would have received if only the…
Shievitz, A. L.; Tudiver, F.; Araujo, A.; Sanghe, P.; Boyle, E.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores of elderly family medicine patients are different when the test is administered at home rather than at the clinic. DESIGN: Cross-sectional comparison study. SETTING: University family practice unit in an urban area. PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of family practice clinic patients 70 years or older were referred to the study in the sequence seen at the clinic. Of 171 patients approached in person or by telephone, 77 agreed to participate. METHOD: The MMSE was administered at home and at the clinic on the same day for all subjects. Testing site order was randomized across patients. MAIN FINDINGS: Of the 77 patients who agreed to be subjects, only 13 (16.9%) had low MMSE scores (< or = 24). Five (41.7%) of these had normal scores (> 24) at home, but low scores in the clinic. Subjects had significantly higher scores on MMSEs administered at home (P < .01) on the same day. CONCLUSIONS: Previous research has shown patients achieve higher MMSE scores at home; this study demonstrated it in a representative family medicine population. Primary care physicians should be cautious about classifying elderly patients as possibly cognitively impaired based on clinic testing alone. Testing at home could avoid many unnecessary referrals to specialist services for further assessment and diagnostic tests that use up precious health care resources. PMID:9721421
The uses and misuses of standardized test results used for program evaluation as seen by a staff member of an Elementary Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Title I Technical Assistance Center are described. In ESEA Title I, test scores are used to select students for the program. Although federal requirements do not require using standardized test…
Wise, Steven L.
Whenever the purpose of measurement is to inform an inference about a student's achievement level, it is important that we be able to trust that the student's test score accurately reflects what that student knows and can do. Such trust requires the assumption that a student's test event is not unduly influenced by construct-irrelevant factors…
A widely held view is that good schools are essential to a nation's international economic success and that high test scores on international tests of academic skills and knowledge indicate how good a nation's schools are. The widespread belief that good schools are an important contributor to a nation's economic success in the world is supported…
The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity increased dramatically in the United States during the past three decades. This increase has adverse public health implications, but its implication for children's academic outcomes is less clear. This paper uses data from five waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten to examine how children's weight is related to their scores on standardized tests and to their teachers' assessments of their academic ability. The results indicate that children's weight is more negatively related to teacher assessments of their academic performance than to test scores.
Rangvid, Beatrice Schindler
We combine data from three studies for Denmark in the PISA 2000 framework to investigate differences in the native-immigrant test score gap by country of origin. In addition to the controls available from PISA data sources, we use student-level data on home background and individual migration histories linked from administrative registers. We find…
Teaching Music, 2007
A recent study found that students in high-quality school music education programs score higher on standardized tests compared to students in schools with deficient music education programs. The study, which was published in the Winter 2006 issue of MENC's Journal for Research in Music Education, is the first to examine the quality of school music…
van der Ark, L. Andries; van der Palm, Daniel W.; Sijtsma, Klaas
This study presents a general framework for single-administration reliability methods, such as Cronbach's alpha, Guttman's lambda-2, and method MS. This general framework was used to derive a new approach to estimating test-score reliability by means of the unrestricted latent class model. This new approach is the latent class reliability…
Petrilli, Michael J.; Wright, Brandon L.
At a time when the national conversation is focused on lagging upward mobility, it is no surprise that many educators point to poverty as the explanation for mediocre test scores among U.S. students compared to those of students in other countries. If American teachers in struggling U.S. schools taught in Finland, says Finnish educator Pasi…
Kposowa, Augustine J.; Valdez, Amanda D.
Objectives: The primary objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between ubiquitous laptop use and academic achievement. It was hypothesized that students with ubiquitous laptops would score on average higher on standardized tests than those without such computers. Methods: Data were obtained from two sources. First, demographic…
Homeschooling, one of the fastest growing educational alternatives, is enjoying increasing respect from educators and parents alike. This is partly because homeschooling children score as well and often better on standardized tests than their publicly schooled counterparts. However, the vast majority of homeschooled students come from the…
Fahle, Erin; Reardon, Sean
Describing the variation in test scores between and within school districts is critical for: (1) for policy-related and descriptive work that investigates the sorting of students among districts and the differential effectiveness of those districts; and (2) for methodological work planning future experiments or interventions. Intraclass…
Dougherty, Jack; Harelson, Jeffrey; Maloney, Laura; Murphy, Drew; Smith, Russell; Snow, Michael; Zannoni, Diane
Home buyers exercise school choice when shopping for a private residence due to its location in a public school district or attendance area. In this quantitative study of one Connecticut suburban district, we measure the effect of elementary school test scores and racial composition on home buyers' willingness to purchase single-family homes over…
To achieve perpetually better test results each year as mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), teachers in successful schools such as Leroy Anderson Elementary in San Jose, California, will "try anything" to raise scores, as the school's principal stated in an interview with "The San Jose Mercury News." In schools…
Negron, Maggie; Breindel, Matthew
This assessment of placement test scores in reading, math, and sentence skills from incoming students at College of the Desert (California) shows that students are overwhelmingly underprepared for study at the college. Only 15% of students were prepared in sentence skills, 27% in reading skills, 7% in math skills; only 3% were prepared in all 3…
Brennan, Robert L.
Kane's paper "Validating the Interpretations and Uses of Test Scores" is the most complete and clearest discussion yet available of the argument-based approach to validation. At its most basic level, validation as formulated by Kane is fundamentally a simply-stated two-step enterprise: (1) specify the claims inherent in a particular interpretation…
Minor, Elizabeth Covay
Research on achievement gaps has found that achievement gaps are larger for students who take advanced mathematics courses compared to students who do not. Focusing on the advanced mathematics student achievement gap, this study found that African American advanced mathematics students have significantly lower test scores and are less likely to be…
Marder, M.; Bansal, D.
We apply visualization and modeling methods for convective and diffusive flows to public school mathematics test scores from Texas. We obtain plots that show the most likely future and past scores of students, the effects of random processes such as guessing, and the rate at which students appear in and disappear from schools. We show that student outcomes depend strongly upon economic class, and identify the grade levels where flows of different groups diverge most strongly. Changing the effectiveness of instruction in one grade naturally leads to strongly nonlinear effects on student outcomes in subsequent grades.
Dimitrov, Dimiter M.
This article describes an approach to test scoring, referred to as "delta scoring" (D-scoring), for tests with dichotomously scored items. The D-scoring uses information from item response theory (IRT) calibration to facilitate computations and interpretations in the context of large-scale assessments. The D-score is computed from the…
Jones, Sarah B; Knapik, Joseph J; Sharp, Marilyn A; Darakjy, Salima; Jones, Bruce H
Epidemiological studies often have to rely on a participant's self-reporting of information. The validity of the self-report instrument is an important consideration in any study. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the validity of self-reported Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) scores. The APFT is administered to all soldiers in the U.S. Army twice a year and consists of the maximum number of push-ups completed in 2 minutes, the maximum number of sit-ups completed in 2 minutes, and a 2-mile run for time. Army mechanics responded to a questionnaire in March and June 2004 asking them to report the exact scores of each event on their most recent APFT. Actual APFT scores were obtained from the soldier's military unit. The mean +/- standard deviation (SD) of actual and self-reported numbers of push-ups was 61 +/- 14 and 65 +/- 13, respectively. The mean +/- SD of actual and self-reported numbers of sit-ups were 66 +/- 10 and 68 +/- 10, respectively. The mean +/- SD of actual and self-reported run times (minutes) were 14.8 +/- 1.4 and 14.6 +/- 1.4, respectively. Correlations between actual and self-reported push-ups, sit-ups, and run were 0.83, 0.71, and 0.85, respectively. On average, soldiers tended to slightly over-report performance on all APFT events and individual self-reported scores could vary widely from actual scores based on Bland-Altman plots. Despite this, the close correlations between the actual and self-reported scores suggest that self-reported values are adequate for most epidemiological military studies involving larger sample sizes.
Mazumdar, Soumya; Learnihan, Vincent; Cochrane, Thomas; Phung, Hai; O'Connor, Bridget; Davey, Rachel
Objectives To explore patterns of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT).To ascertain the effect of the neighbourhood built environmental features and especially walkability on health outcomes, specifically for hospital admissions from NCDs. Design A cross-sectional analysis of public hospital episode data (2007–2013). Setting Hospitalisations from the ACT, Australia at very small geographic areas. Participants Secondary data on 75 290 unique hospital episodes representing 39 851 patients who were admitted to ACT hospitals from 2007 to 2013. No restrictions on age, sex or ethnicity. Main exposure measures Geographic Information System derived or compatible measures of general practitioner access, neighbourhood socioeconomic status, alcohol access, exposure to traffic and Walk Score walkability. Main outcome measures Hospitalisations of circulatory diseases, specific endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases, respiratory diseases and specific cancers. Results Geographic clusters with significant high and low risks of NCDs were found that displayed an overall geographic pattern of high risk in the outlying suburbs of the territory. Significant relationships between neighbourhood walkability as measured by Walk Score and the likelihood of hospitalisation with a primary diagnosis of myocardial infarction (heart attack) were found. A possible relationship was also found with the likelihood of being hospitalised with 4 major lifestyle-related cancers. Conclusions Our research augments the growing literature underscoring the relationships between the built environment and health outcomes. In addition, it supports the importance of walkable neighbourhoods, as measured by Walk Score, for improved health. PMID:27932340
Validating Standardized Testing: The Role of the SAT and ACT in Undergraduate Admissions. [Hearing before the California Legislature, Senate Select Committee on Higher Education Admissions and Outreach, Sacramento, California, February 5, 1998].
California State Legislature, Sacramento. Senate Select Committee on Higher Education Admissions and Outreach.
This report contains testimony and materials presented at the California Senate Select Committee on Higher Education Admissions and Outreach hearing, February 1998, held to examine the role of the Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) and the American College Test (ACT) in undergraduate admissions to the public universities of California. In her…
Warne, Russell T.; Larsen, Ross; Anderson, Braydon; Odasso, Alyce J.
The Advanced Placement (AP) program is an educational program that permits high school students to take introductory college-level courses and receive college credit by passing a standardized end-of-course exam. Data were obtained from a statewide database of 2 high school graduating cohorts (N = 90,044). We used a series of propensity score…
This study examined test-optional admission policies and their effect on the composition of the student body at King's College. According to the College Board (2009), students from underrepresented populations do not perform as well as White students on standardized tests. Therefore, higher education institutions have established test-optional…
Martin, John D.; And Others
The degree of relationship between scores on the Barron Ego Strength Scale and the scores on the Bender-Gestalt Test was investigated on a sample of college students. Correlations were moderate to low. Racial differences were observed on the Bender-Gestalt Test. (Author/JKS)
Jiménez-Candil, Javier; González Matas, José Manuel; Cruz González, Ignacio; Hernández Hernández, Jesús; Martín, Ana; Pabón, Pedro; Martín, Francisco; Martín-Luengo, Cándido
Several electrocardiographic variables are of prognostic value in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTEACS). From observations in 427 patients, we developed a new risk score (the ECG-RS) based on admission ECG findings that can be used to determine the likelihood of death or recurrent ischemia during hospitalization, which occurred in 36% of patients. Logistic regression analysis, which considered seven electrocardiographic variables and variables from the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk score, identified the following significant predictors: corrected QT interval (QTc) > or =450 ms (odds ratio 4.2, P< .001), ST-segment depression >0.5 mm (odds ratio 2.7, P< .001), and left atrial enlargement (odds ratio 1.8, P =.005). After taking the odds ratios into consideration, we awarded 3 points for a QTc > or =450 ms, 2 points for ST-segment depression >0.5 mm, and 1 point for left atrial enlargement. When patients were divided into three groups on the basis of their ECG-RSs (i.e. < or =1, 2-3 and > or =4), the risk of death or recurrent ischemia was significantly different between the groups, at 11%, 27% and 58%, respectively (P< .001). In conclusion, the new ECG-RS provides a simple, rapid and accurate means of determining prognosis in patients with NSTEACS.
Spafford, Marlee M.
A five-year evaluation of the admissions decision process at the University of Waterloo (Ontario) School of Optometry found that when primary tools (i.e., university grades, Optometry Admission Test scores) did not differentiate candidates, there was an increased emphasis on secondary tools (i.e., interview, autobiographic sketch, prerequisite…
A new option that allows students to choose which of their test scores to send to colleges has generated renewed criticism of the College Board. College Board officials tout the option, called Score Choice, as a way to ease test taker anxiety. Some prominent admissions officials have publicly described Score Choice as a sales tactic that will…
This study sought to determine whether the use of standardized test scores contributes any useful information regarding First Time in College (FTIC) students' probable success at USF, using more detailed analysis of underrepresented minorities and women, who Micceri (2009) shows, experience substantial negative bias relative to males and whites on…
Takano, Keisuke; Gutenbrunner, Charlotte; Martens, Kris; Salmon, Karen; Raes, Filip
Reduced specificity of autobiographical memories is a hallmark of depressive cognition. Autobiographical memory (AM) specificity is typically measured by the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT), in which respondents are asked to describe personal memories in response to emotional cue words. Due to this free descriptive responding format, the AMT relies on experts' hand scoring for subsequent statistical analyses. This manual coding potentially impedes research activities in big data analytics such as large epidemiological studies. Here, we propose computerized algorithms to automatically score AM specificity for the Dutch (adult participants) and English (youth participants) versions of the AMT by using natural language processing and machine learning techniques. The algorithms showed reliable performances in discriminating specific and nonspecific (e.g., overgeneralized) autobiographical memories in independent testing data sets (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve > .90). Furthermore, outcome values of the algorithms (i.e., decision values of support vector machines) showed a gradient across similar (e.g., specific and extended memories) and different (e.g., specific memory and semantic associates) categories of AMT responses, suggesting that, for both adults and youth, the algorithms well capture the extent to which a memory has features of specific memories. (PsycINFO Database Record
Gaddis, S Michael; Lauen, Douglas Lee
Since at least the 1960s, researchers have closely examined the respective roles of families, neighborhoods, and schools in producing the black-white achievement gap. Although many researchers minimize the ability of schools to eliminate achievement gaps, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) increased pressure on schools to do so by 2014. In this study, we examine the effects of NCLB's subgroup-specific accountability pressure on changes in black-white math and reading test score gaps using a school-level panel dataset on all North Carolina public elementary and middle schools between 2001 and 2009. Using difference-in-difference models with school fixed effects, we find that accountability pressure reduces black-white achievement gaps by raising mean black achievement without harming mean white achievement. We find no differential effects of accountability pressure based on the racial composition of schools, but schools with more affluent populations are the most successful at reducing the black-white math achievement gap. Thus, our findings suggest that school-based interventions have the potential to close test score gaps, but differences in school composition and resources play a significant role in the ability of schools to reduce racial inequality.
Hsu, Wen-Chuin; Chu, Yi-Chuan; Fung, Hon-Chung; Wai, Yau-Yau; Wang, Jiun-Jie; Lee, Jiann-Der; Chen, Yi-Chun
Abstract Mounting evidence shows that hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cognitive decline. This study enrolled subjects with normal serum levels of B12 and folate and performed thorough neuropsychological assessments to illuminate the independent role of homocysteine on cognitive functions. Participants between ages 50 and 85 were enrolled with Modified Hachinski ischemic score of <4, adequate visual and auditory acuity to allow neuropsychological testing, and good general health. Subjects with cognitive impairment resulting from secondary causes were excluded. Each of the participants completed evaluations of general intellectual function, including the Mini-Mental State Examination, Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument, Clinical Dementia Rating, and a battery of neuropsychological assessments. This study enrolled 225 subjects (90 subjects younger than 65 years and 135 subjects aged 65 years or older). The sex proportion was similar between the 2 age groups. Years of education were significantly fewer in the elderly (7.49 ± 5.40 years) than in the young (9.76 ± 4.39 years, P = 0.001). There was no significant difference in body mass index or levels of vitamin B12 and folate between the 2 age groups. Homocysteine levels were significantly higher in the elderly group compared to the younger group (10.8 ± 2.7 vs. 9.5 ± 2.5 μmol/L, respectively, P = 0.0006). After adjusting for age, sex, and education, only the Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS) score was significantly lower in subjects with hyperhomocysteinemia (homocysteine >12 μmol/L) than those with homocysteine ≤12 μmol/L in the elderly group (DSS score: 7.1 ± 2.7 and 9.0 ± 3.0, respectively, beta = −1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = −2.8∼−0.5, P = 0.001) and borderline significance was noted in the combined age group (beta = −1.1, 95% CI = −2.1∼−0.1, P = 0.04). We did not find an association between
One hundred and sixty persons aged from 10 to 69 years (106 women, 54 men) with healthy eyes were studied with the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue (FM100) test. The mean of the results in the total scores and in the individual box scores in the right and left eye were calculated. The total score was also separately calculated in women and men. The test was administered under the illumination of Macbeth Easel lamp, 1000 lux, and the right eye was tested first. The results were calculated in six different age groups, 10-19 years, 20-29 years, etc. The mean of the total scores in the right eye varied from 7.44+/-2.46 (SD) to 10.07+/-2.03 in different age groups and in the left eye from 7.56+/-2.36 to 10.16+/-2.68. The scores changed significantly with the age: the correlation between the age and the test scores by linear regression gave significant results, in the right eye (R = 0.308, P = 0.0001), and in the left eye (R = 0.246, P = 0.0021). The present study with the normal error scores in the FM100 test and its individual boxes in persons aged 10-69 years gives clinicians working with colour vision defects a possibility to estimate the normality or abnormality of the results in their patients.
Walter, Richard Barry
This study investigated the relationship between instructional level scores as determined by a cloze test and instructional level scores as determined by an informal reading inventory (IRI). Fifty male and 50 female subjects were randomly selected from the total fifth grade population of five schools chosen from a total of 22 midwestern elementary…
Vedi, Neeraj; Gandotra, Achleshwar
Introduction Health field per se requires mental, physical and psychological steadiness and wellbeing. In modern times decline in psychological and physical health has been observed in student after admission in health education program. Factors like perfectionism, self-esteem, personal and professional consequence have affected their academic score directly or indirectly. Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) instrument measures optimism in relation to self-esteem of individual. A better score will show more confidence level of the student. Aim To find an association of LOT-R with the academic score of health professional students and assess gender variation. Materials and Methods A total of 350 students enrolled for academic year 2015-16 in health professional program of medicine, dental and physiotherapy institutes of Sumandeep Vidyapeeth University were considered. Non-randomized and purposive study was done by providing LOT-R questionnaire to students. Average academic score of Anatomy and Physiology course was used for analysis excluding the biochemistry due to non-availability of tangible data at the time of study. Data was collected, analysed statistically using independent t-test, ANOVA with post-hoc and correlation analysis. Result Statistical significant for one-way ANOVA was assessed for academic score between the group of health professional students. While no statistical correlation of significance was observed for LOT-R score with that of academic score. As per gender distribution there was no statistical significant observation for LOT-R score within the groups. Conclusion The present study highlighted the need of student’s counseling for their approach towards health education; as their career. Psychological self-reliance and optimism improves the academic score. A study needs to be compared with the socio-economic status of the student to have a better understanding of the LOT-R. PMID:27891334
Nelson, Paul A.; Monson, Terry D.
The average score of economics majors on the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) exceeds those of nearly all humanities and arts, social sciences, and business undergraduate majors but not those of most science, engineering, and mathematics majors. (Contains 1 table.)
Craven, B J
This paper describes a method for scoring the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue test, based on maximum-likelihood estimation, which in theory reduces test-to-test variability in scores and which is therefore better able to discriminate between different levels of overall colour discrimination than is the original Farnsworth scoring system. Error scores produced by the method are directly comparable to error scores produced by the traditional scoring system. It is hoped that this work will provoke further consideration of the efficiency of the scoring system as far as test-to-test variability is concerned, including the efficient detection of polarity in the subject's hue discrimination function.
Smith, Teresa C.; Smith, Billy L.
Examined Visual Aural Digit Span Test (VADS) and Bender-Gestalt (BG) scores as predictors of Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised (WRAT-R) scores among 115 elementary school students referred for low academic achievement. Divided children into three age groups. Results suggest BG and VADS Test can be effective screening devices for young children…
te Nijenhuis, Jan; van Vianen, Annelies E. M.; van der Flier, Henk
IQ scores provide the best general predictor of success in education, job training, and work. However, there are many ways in which IQ scores can be increased, for instance by means of retesting or participation in learning potential training programs. What is the nature of these score gains? Jensen [Jensen, A. R. (1998a). "The g factor: The…
Lin, Miao-Hsiang; Hsiung, Chao A.
Two simple empirical approximate Bayes estimators are introduced for estimating domain scores under binomial and hypergeometric distributions respectively. Criteria are established regarding use of these functions over maximum likelihood estimation counterparts. (SLD)
Andrich, David; Styles, Irene; Mercer, Annette; Puddey, Ian B
The possibility that the validity of assessment is compromised by repeated sittings of highly competitive and high profile selection tests has been documented and is of concern to stake-holders. An illustrative example is the Undergraduate Medicine and Health Sciences Admission Test (UMAT) used by some medical and dental courses in Australia and New Zealand. The proficiencies of all applicants who sat the UMAT from one to four sittings between 2006 and 2012 were estimated on the same metric using the probabilistic Rasch model. A fit index characterising each profile's degree of conformity to the model was also calculated. Confirming expectations, mean proficiencies increased with repeated sittings on all three UMAT scales with the greatest difference (which was nevertheless relatively small) between the first two sittings. The fit index showed that the increases in proficiency estimates arose from additional easier items being answered correctly on repeated sittings rather than additional more difficult ones, suggesting that improvements are not on the substantive construct of the variable of assessment but in skills in answering the questions. Although strategies for dealing with the increase in proficiency estimates on repeated sittings could be canvassed, these results suggest that the validity of results on repeated sittings was not compromised. Accordingly, it might be concluded that although particular individuals might improve substantially between sittings, any validity is not likely to be compromised with the possibility that for some applicants, the second sitting might be the most valid.
Sinharay, Sandip; Puhan, Gautam; Haberman, Shelby J.
Diagnostic scores are of increasing interest in educational testing due to their potential remedial and instructional benefit. Naturally, the number of educational tests that report diagnostic scores is on the rise, as are the number of research publications on such scores. This article provides a critical evaluation of diagnostic score reporting…
Friedman, A F; Wakefield, J A; Sasek, J; Schroeder, D
A new scoring procedure to be used with Spraings' technique for administering the Bender-Gestalt test in a multiple choice format is presented. Scoring weights are used instead of simply scoring each item right or wrong. The evidence presented suggests that this method of scoring would increase the value of Spraings' test in the diagnosis of perceptual deficits.
Livingston, Samuel A.; Lewis, Charles
This paper presents a method for estimating the accuracy and consistency of classifications based on test scores. The scores can be produced by any scoring method, including the formation of a weighted composite. The estimates use data from a single form. The reliability of the score is used to estimate its effective test length in terms of…
Kane, Thomas J.; Staiger, Douglas O.
By the spring of 2000, forty states had begun using student test scores to rate school performance. Twenty states have gone a step further and are attaching explicit monetary rewards or sanctions to a school's test performance. In this paper, the authors focus on accountability programs in which states measure the effectiveness of individual…
Rich, John D., Jr.; Fullard, William; Overton, Willis
One Hundred and Twelve Latino students from Philadelphia participated in this study, which examined the development of deductive reasoning across adolescence, and the relation of reasoning to test anxiety and standardized test scores. As predicted, 11th and ninth graders demonstrated significantly more advanced reasoning than seventh graders.…
Zimmerman, Donald W.
Results of this study indicate that the correlation between half-test scores over repeated splits, over persons, and over repeated testings resulting in different sets of observed scores, is given by Kuder-Richardson Formula 21. (RF)
Cascallar, Alicia S.; Dorans, Neil J.
Score linkages between the Verbal and Math sections of the SAT® I: Reasoning Test and the corresponding sections of the new version of a Spanish-language admissions test, the Prueba de Aptitud Academica® (PAA™) were investigated. A bilingual group design was employed. A language proficiency measure (ESLAT) was used to define the bilingual group…
Hageman, Barbara H.; Sigman, Clayton B.; Koslosky, John T.
A Test/Score/Report capability is currently being developed for the Transportable Payload Operations Control Center (TPOCC) Advanced Spacecraft Simulator (TASS) system which will automate testing of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) and Mission Operations Center (MOC) software in three areas: telemetry decommutation, spacecraft command processing, and spacecraft memory load and dump processing. Automated computer control of the acceptance test process is one of the primary goals of a test team. With the proper simulation tools and user interface, the task of acceptance testing, regression testing, and repeatability of specific test procedures of a ground data system can be a simpler task. Ideally, the goal for complete automation would be to plug the operational deliverable into the simulator, press the start button, execute the test procedure, accumulate and analyze the data, score the results, and report the results to the test team along with a go/no recommendation to the test team. In practice, this may not be possible because of inadequate test tools, pressures of schedules, limited resources, etc. Most tests are accomplished using a certain degree of automation and test procedures that are labor intensive. This paper discusses some simulation techniques that can improve the automation of the test process. The TASS system tests the POCC/MOC software and provides a score based on the test results. The TASS system displays statistics on the success of the POCC/MOC system processing in each of the three areas as well as event messages pertaining to the Test/Score/Report processing. The TASS system also provides formatted reports documenting each step performed during the tests and the results of each step. A prototype of the Test/Score/Report capability is available and currently being used to test some POCC/MOC software deliveries. When this capability is fully operational it should greatly reduce the time necessary
Dorans, Neil J.
Score equity assessment (SEA) is introduced, and placed within a fair assessment context that includes differential prediction or fair selection and differential item functioning. The notion of subpopulation invariance of linking functions is central to the assessment of score equity, just as it has been for differential item functioning and…
Hansen, Karsten; Heckman, James J.; Mullen, Kathleen J.
This study developed two methods for estimating the effect of schooling on achievement test scores that control for the endogeneity of schooling by postulating that both schooling and test scores are generated by a common unobserved latent ability. The methods were applied to data on schooling and test scores. Estimates from the two methods are in…
Severo, Milton; Gaio, A. Rita; Povo, Ana; Silva-Pereira, Fernanda; Ferreira, Maria Amélia
In theory the formula scoring methods increase the reliability of multiple-choice tests in comparison with number-right scoring. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the formula scoring method in clinical anatomy multiple-choice examinations, and to compare it with that from the number-right scoring method, hoping to achieve an…
Handeland, Katina; Kjellevold, Marian; Wik Markhus, Maria; Eide Graff, Ingvild; Frøyland, Livar; Lie, Øyvind; Skotheim, Siv; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Dahl, Lisbeth; Øyen, Jannike
Assessment of adolescents’ dietary habits is challenging. Reliable instruments to monitor dietary trends are required to promote healthier behaviours in this group. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess adolescents’ adherence to Norwegian dietary recommendations with a diet score and to report results from, and test-retest reliability of, the score. The diet score involved seven food groups and one physical activity indicator, and was applied to answers from a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) administered twice. Reproducibility of the score was assessed with Cohen’s Kappa (κ statistics) at an interval of three months. The setting was eight lower-secondary schools in Hordaland County, Norway, and subjects were adolescents (n = 472) aged 14–15 years and their caregivers. Results showed that the proportion of adolescents consistently classified by the diet score was 87.6% (κ = 0.465). For food groups, proportions ranged from 74.0% to 91.6% (κ = 0.249 to κ = 0.573). Less than 40% of the participants were found to adhere to recommendations for frequencies of eating fruits, vegetables, added sugar, and fish. Highest compliance to recommendations was seen for choosing water as beverage and limit the intake of red meat. The score was associated with parental socioeconomic status. The diet score was found to be reproducible at an acceptable level. Health promoting work targeting adolescents should emphasize to increase the intake of recommended foods to approach nutritional guidelines. PMID:27483312
In order to meet the goals of No Child Left Behind, standardized testing is preeminent as the sole indicator determining whether states all across America demonstrate adequate yearly progress regarding the improvement of student achievement in literacy education. This book will help teachers and parents raise children's scores on standardized…
Hafner, Anne L.
Using a quasi-experimental analysis of variance (ANOVA) design, this project examined the effects of the use of accommodations with students of limited English proficiency (LEP) and non-LEP students and whether the use of accommodations affected the validity of test score interpretations. Major accommodations examined were extra time, and extra…
Blue-Terry, Misty; Letowski, Tomasz
The Callsign Acquisition Test (CAT) is a speech intelligibility test developed by the US Army Research Laboratory. The test has been used to evaluate speech transmission through various communication systems but has not been yet sufficiently standardised and validated. The aim of this study was to compare CAT and Modified Rhyme Test (MRT) performance in the presence of white noise across a range of signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). A group of 16 normal-hearing listeners participated in the study. The speech items were presented at 65 dB(A) in the background of white noise at SNRs of -18, -15, -12, -9 and -6 dB. The results showed a strong positive association (75.14%) between the two tests, but significant differences between the CAT and MRT absolute scores in the range of investigated SNRs. Based on the data, a function to predict CAT scores based on existing MRT scores and vice versa was formulated. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This work compares performance data of a common speech intelligibility test (MRT) with a new test (CAT) in the presence of white noise. The results here can be used as a part of the standardisation procedures and provide insights to the predictive capabilities of the CAT to quantify speech intelligibility communication in high-noise military environments.
Matton, Nadine; Vautier, Stephane; Raufaste, Eric
Mean gain scores for cognitive ability tests between two sessions in a selection setting are now a robust finding, yet not fully understood. Many authors do not attribute such gain scores to an increase in the target abilities. Our approach consists of testing a longitudinal SEM model suitable to this view. We propose to model the scores' changes…
Reardon, Sean F.; Shear, Benjamin R.; Castellano, Katherine E.; Ho, Andrew D.
Test score distributions of schools or demographic groups are often summarized by frequencies of students scoring in a small number of ordered proficiency categories. We show that heteroskedastic ordered probit (HETOP) models can be used to estimate means and standard deviations of multiple groups' test score distributions from such data. Because…
Omirin, M. S.
The study investigated the comparison of the difficulty and discrimination incides of three multiple choice tests using the confidence scoring procedure (CSP). The study was also set to determine whether or not the difficulty and discrimination indices would be improved, if the tests were scored by the confidence scoring procedure. Two null…
Azad, Aftab Mohammad; Al Juma, Saad; Bhatti, Junaid Ahmad; Delaney, J Scott
Background Balance testing is an important part of the initial concussion assessment. There is no research on the differences in Modified Balance Error Scoring System (M-BESS) scores when tested in real world as compared to control conditions. Objective To assess the difference in M-BESS scores in athletes wearing their protective equipment and cleats on different surfaces as compared to control conditions. Methods This cross-sectional study examined university North American football and soccer athletes. Three observers independently rated athletes performing the M-BESS test in three different conditions: (1) wearing shorts and T-shirt in bare feet on firm surface (control); (2) wearing athletic equipment with cleats on FieldTurf; and (3) wearing athletic equipment with cleats on firm surface. Mean M-BESS scores were compared between conditions. Results 60 participants were recruited: 39 from football (all males) and 21 from soccer (11 males and 10 females). Average age was 21.1 years (SD=1.8). Mean M-BESS scores were significantly lower (p<0.001) for cleats on FieldTurf (mean=26.3; SD=2.0) and for cleats on firm surface (mean=26.6; SD=2.1) as compared to the control condition (mean=28.4; SD=1.5). Females had lower scores than males for cleats on FieldTurf condition (24.9 (SD=1.9) vs 27.3 (SD=1.6), p=0.005). Players who had taping or bracing on their ankles/feet had lower scores when tested with cleats on firm surface condition (24.6 (SD=1.7) vs 26.9 (SD=2.0), p=0.002). Conclusions Total M-BESS scores for athletes wearing protective equipment and cleats standing on FieldTurf or a firm surface are around two points lower than M-BESS scores performed on the same athletes under control conditions. PMID:27900181
Stickley, Christopher D; Hetzler, Ronald K; Wages, Jennifer J; Freemyer, Bret G; Kimura, Iris F
This study examined the appropriate magnitude of allometric scaling of the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) power data for body mass (BM) and established normative data for the WAnT for adult men. Eighty-three men completed a standard WAnT using 0.1 kg·kg(-1) BM resistance. Allometric exponents and percentile ranks for 1-second peak power (PP), 5-second PP, and mean power (MP) were established. The Predicted Residual Sum of Squares (PRESS) procedure was used to assess external validity while avoiding data splitting. The mean 1-second PP, 5-second PP, and MP were 1,049.1 ± 168.8 W, 1,013.4 ± 158.6 W, and 777.9 ± 105.0 W, respectively. Allometric exponents for 1-second PP, 5-second PP, and MP scaled for BM were b = 0.89, 0.88, and 0.86, respectively. Correlations between allometrically scaled 1-second PP, 5-second PP, and MP, and BM were r = -0.03, -0.03, and -0.02, respectively, suggesting that the allometric exponents derived were effective in partialling out the effect of BM on WAnT values. The PRESS procedure values resulted in small decreases in R² (0.03, 0.04, and 0.02 for 1-second PP, 5-second PP, and MP, respectively) suggesting acceptable levels of external validity when applied to independent samples. The allometric exponents and normative values provide a useful tool for comparing WAnT scores in college-aged females without the confounding effect of BM. It is suggested that exponents of b = 0.89 (1-second PP), b = 0.88 (5-second PP), and b = 0.86 (MP) be used for allometrically scaling WAnT power values in healthy adult men and that the confidence limits for these allometric exponents be considered as 0.66-1.0 for PP and 0.69-1.0 for MP. The use of these exponents in allometric scaling of male WAnT power values provide coaches and practitioners with valid means for comparing power production between individuals without the confounding influence of BM.
Gándara, Fernanda; Silva, Monica
This study seeks to develop a better understanding of the underrepresentation of women in science and engineering by analyzing the gender gaps (a) in the interest in pursuing a science degree and (b) on science achievement. We use national-level college admissions data to examine gender differences and to explore the association between these…
Zapata-Rivera, Diego, Ed.; Zwick, Rebecca, Ed.
This volume includes 3 papers based on presentations at a workshop on communicating assessment information to particular audiences, held at Educational Testing Service (ETS) on November 4th, 2010, to explore some issues that influence score reports and new advances that contribute to the effectiveness of these reports. Jessica Hullman, Rebecca…
Bingold, Tobias M.; Lefering, Rolf; Zacharowski, Kai; Meybohm, Patrick; Waydhas, Christian; Rosenberger, Peter; Scheller, Bertram
Introduction Organ dysfunction or failure after the first days of ICU treatment and subsequent mortality with respect to the type of intensive care unit (ICU) admission is poorly elucidated. Therefore we analyzed the association of ICU mortality and admission for medical (M), scheduled surgery (ScS) or unscheduled surgery (US) patients mirrored by the occurrence of organ dysfunction/failure (OD/OF) after the first 72h of ICU stay. Methods For this retrospective cohort study (23,795 patients; DIVI registry; German Interdisciplinary Association for Intensive Care Medicine (DIVI)) organ dysfunction or failure were derived from the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (excluding the Glasgow Coma Scale). SOFA scores were collected on admission to ICU and 72h later. For patients with a length of stay of at least five days, a multivariate analysis was performed for individual OD/OF on day three. Results M patients had the lowest prevalence of cardiovascular failure (M 31%; ScS 35%; US 38%), and the highest prevalence of respiratory (M 24%; ScS 13%; US 17%) and renal failure (M 10%; ScS 6%; US 7%). Risk of death was highest for M- and ScS-patients in those with respiratory failure (OR; M 2.4; ScS 2.4; US 1.4) and for surgical patients with renal failure (OR; M 1.7; ScS 2.7; US 2.4). Conclusion The dynamic evolution of OD/OF within 72h after ICU admission and mortality differed between patients depending on their types of admission. This has to be considered to exclude a systematic bias during multi-center trials. PMID:26241475
Gentry, Ruben; Stokes, Dorothy
Many African Americans were imbued with the cliché that they must work twice as hard as others to be a success in life. Entering college, students with this belief put extensive effort into earning top grades to ensure quality preparation for their chosen career; yet, some fail to earn top scores. Why? This is the million dollar question, but the…
Carraway, Cassandra T.
A study was conducted to determine whether participation in a test-taking strategy seminar significantly decreased test anxiety in first-year nursing students. The study also sought to compare nursing test scores of first-year nursing students who participated in the seminar with those who did not. The sample consisted of 30 first-year nursing…
Viliūnas, V; Lukauskiene, R; Svegzda, A; Zukauskas, A
The scoring artefact in the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue test, arising from the grouping of the caps into four boxes, was investigated. The traditional method of scoring performed with the numbers of the anchor caps disregarded and the alternative scoring performed with the numbers of the anchor caps employed, were compared. For the traditional method of scoring, we revealed an increase of the error score of the outside (end-box) caps when the total error score was above 240. On the contrary for scoring performed with the numbers of the anchor caps employed, the difference between the error score of the outside caps and the average error per cap is not significant. To mitigate the end-box artefact and to improve the reliability of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue test, corrections to the traditional method of scoring are proposed.
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system... immunological Test Systems § 866.6050 Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system. (a) Identification. An ovarian/adnexal mass assessment test system is a device that measures one or more proteins in serum...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system... immunological Test Systems § 866.6050 Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system. (a) Identification. An ovarian/adnexal mass assessment test system is a device that measures one or more proteins in serum...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system... immunological Test Systems § 866.6050 Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system. (a) Identification. An ovarian/adnexal mass assessment test system is a device that measures one or more proteins in serum...
Blackburn, McKinley L.
Previous research has suggested that skills reflected in test-score performance on tests such as the Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) can account for some of the racial differences in average wages. I use a more complete set of test scores available with the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Cohort to reconsider this evidence, and…
Lunneborg, Clifford E.
A new technique has been developed for admitting new freshman students at the University of Washington. Previously, an Admissions Index (AI) was used, in which the high school grade point average (HSGPA) was assigned twice the weight of the composite verbal and quantitative scores from the Washington Pre-College Test Battery (WPC). To offset the…
Rudner, Lawrence M.
GMAT (Graduate Management Admission Test) scaled scores convey the same level of ability over time, and GMAT percentiles convey the competitiveness of scores relative to today's GMAT test takers. In an earlier column, the author discussed the role of the GMAT scaled scores and percentiles. Here, he gets more technical and discusses how GMAT scaled…
Rosselli, M; Ardila, A; Bateman, J R; Guzmán, M
Limited information is currently available about performance of Spanish-speaking children on different neuropsychological tests. This study was designed to (a) analyze the effects of age and sex on different neuropsychological test scores of a randomly selected sample of Spanish-speaking children, (b) analyze the value of neuropsychological test scores for predicting school performance, and (c) describe the neuropsychological profile of Spanish-speaking children with learning disabilities (LD). Two hundred ninety (141 boys, 149 girls) 6- to 11-year-old children were selected from a school in Bogotá, Colombia. Three age groups were distinguished: 6- to 7-, 8- to 9-, and 10- to 11-year-olds. Performance was measured utilizing the following neuropsychological tests: Seashore Rhythm Test, Finger Tapping Test (FTT), Grooved Pegboard Test, Children's Category Test (CCT), California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C), Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT), and Bateria Woodcock Psicoeducativa en Español (Woodcock, 1982). Normative scores were calculated. Age effect was significant for most of the test scores. A significant sex effect was observed for 3 test scores. Intercorrelations were performed between neuropsychological test scores and academic areas (science, mathematics, Spanish, social studies, and music). In a post hoc analysis, children presenting very low scores on the reading, writing, and arithmetic achievement scales of the Woodcock battery were identified in the sample, and their neuropsychological test scores were compared with a matched normal group. Finally, a comparison was made between Colombian and American norms.
Troll, Lillian E.; And Others
After seven years, a group (N=32) of originally nonemployed poverty-level older people (over 60) now employed as foster grandparents were retested with the WAIS. Three subtest scores showed stability and Digit Span showed a statistically significant drop. Neither age nor initial level of health or WAIS scores was related to test-score changes over…
Zwick, Rebecca; Zapata-Rivera, Diego; Hegarty, Mary
Research has shown that many educators do not understand the terminology or displays used in test score reports and that measurement error is a particularly challenging concept. We investigated graphical and verbal methods of representing measurement error associated with individual student scores. We created four alternative score reports, each…
Over the past five years, both DC Public Schools (DCPS) and public charter schools (PCS) have seen significant growth in secondary reading and math scores on the state test known as the District of Columbia Comprehensive Assessment System (DC CAS). However, scores have not improved as much at the elementary level. Reading and math scores for DCPS…
Brannigan, Gary G.; And Others
Compares the Qualitative Scoring System and the Developmental Scoring Systems, both Bender-Gestalt tests, in predicting achievement on the Metropolitan Achievement Test (MAT). In this study, first through fourth graders (n=409) from regular elementary schools were subjected to both tests; both systems correlated significantly with school…
Das, Jishnu; Dercon, Stefan; Habyarimana, James; Krishnan, Pramila; Muralidharan, Karthik; Sundararaman, Venkatesh
Empirical studies of the relationship between school inputs and test scores typically do not account for the fact that households will respond to changes in school inputs. We present a dynamic household optimization model relating test scores to school and household inputs, and test its predictions in two very different low-income country…
Klesch, Heather S.
The reporting of scores on educational tests is at times misunderstood, misinterpreted, and potentially confusing to examinees and other stakeholders who may need to interpret test scores. In reporting test results to examinees, there is a need for clarity in the message communicated. As pressure rises for students to demonstrate performance at a…
Carroll, John B.
The problem of determining relative weights for quantity and quality in scoring foreign language speaking and writing fluency tests is studied. French speaking and writing fluency tests were administered to students of French in several schools in England. Data from these tests was analyzed to support the suggestion that scoring formulas should…
The relationship between the National League for Nursing (NLN) achievement test scores and performance on the State Board Test Pool Examination (SBTPE) was studied with 166 graduates of a diploma degree school of nursing between 1976 and 1978. It was found that NLN achievement test scores had a highly significant correlation with SBTPE results.…
Cornwell, Christopher; Mustard, David B.; Van Parys, Jessica
Using data from the 1998-99 ECLS-K cohort, we show that the grades awarded by teachers are not aligned with test scores. Girls in every racial category outperform boys on reading tests, while boys score at least as well on math and science tests as girls. However, boys in all racial categories across all subject areas are not represented in…
An earlier Digest described the shortcomings of three methods commonly used to summarize changes in test scores. This Digest describes two less commonly used approaches for examining changes in test scores, those of Standardized Growth Estimates and Effect Sizes. Aspects of these two approaches are combined and applied to the Iowa Test of Basic…
Ven, A. H. G. S. van der
A more generalized error model for time-limit tests is developed. Model estimates are derived for right-attempted and wrong-attempted correlations both within the same test and between different tests. A comparison is made between observed correlations and their model counterparts and a fair agreement is found between observed and expected…
Gavett, Brandon E
The base rates of abnormal test scores in cognitively normal samples have been a focus of recent research. The goal of the current study is to illustrate how Bayes' theorem uses these base rates--along with the same base rates in cognitively impaired samples and prevalence rates of cognitive impairment--to yield probability values that are more useful for making judgments about the absence or presence of cognitive impairment. Correlation matrices, means, and standard deviations were obtained from the Wechsler Memory Scale--4th Edition (WMS-IV) Technical and Interpretive Manual and used in Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the base rates of abnormal test scores in the standardization and special groups (mixed clinical) samples. Bayes' theorem was applied to these estimates to identify probabilities of normal cognition based on the number of abnormal test scores observed. Abnormal scores were common in the standardization sample (65.4% scoring below a scaled score of 7 on at least one subtest) and more common in the mixed clinical sample (85.6% scoring below a scaled score of 7 on at least one subtest). Probabilities varied according to the number of abnormal test scores, base rates of normal cognition, and cutoff scores. The results suggest that interpretation of base rates obtained from cognitively healthy samples must also account for data from cognitively impaired samples. Bayes' theorem can help neuropsychologists answer questions about the probability that an individual examinee is cognitively healthy based on the number of abnormal test scores observed.
Williams, Thomas O; Eaves, Ronald C; Woods-Groves, Suzanne; Mariano, Gina
The test-retest stability of the Slosson Full-Range Intelligence Test by Algozzine, Eaves, Mann, and Vance was investigated with test scores from a sample of 103 students. With a mean interval of 13.7 mo. and different examiners for each of the two test administrations, the test-retest reliability coefficients for the Full-Range IQ, Verbal Reasoning, Abstract Reasoning, Quantitative Reasoning, and Memory were .93, .85, .80, .80, and .83, respectively. Mean differences from the test-retest scores were not statistically significantly different for any of the scales. Results suggest that Slosson scores are stable over time even when different examiners administer the test.
Ahn, Shin; Lee, Hyeji; Choi, Wookjin; Ahn, Ryeok; Hong, Jung-Suk; Sohn, Chang Hwan; Seo, Dong Woo; Lee, Yoon-Seon; Lim, Kyung Soo; Kim, Won Young
Objective We tried to evaluate the accuracy of the heel drop test in patients with suspected appendicitis and tried to develop a new clinical score, which incorporates the heel drop test and other parameters, for the diagnosis of this condition. Methods We performed a prospective observational study on adult patients with suspected appendicitis at two academic urban emergency departments between January and August 2015. The predictive characteristics of each parameter, along with heel drop test results were calculated. A composite score was generated by logistic regression analysis. The performance of the generated score was compared to that of the Alvarado score. Results Of the 292 enrolled patients, 165 (56.5%) had acute appendicitis. The heel drop test had a higher predictive value than rebound tenderness. Variables and their points included in the new (MESH) score were pain migration (2), elevated white blood cell (WBC) >10,000/μL (3), shift to left (2), and positive heel drop test (3). The MESH score had a higher AUC than the Alvarado score (0.805 vs. 0.701). Scores of 5 and 11 were chosen as cut-off values; a MESH score ≥5 compared to an Alvarado score ≥5, and a MESH score ≥8 compared to an Alvarado score ≥7 showed better performance in diagnosing appendicitis. Conclusion MESH (migration, elevated WBC, shift to left, and heel drop test) is a simple clinical scoring system for assessing patients with suspected appendicitis and is more accurate than the Alvarado score. Further validation studies are needed. PMID:27723842
Buckless, Frank; Krawczyk, Kathy
This paper examines whether the use of student engagement (SE) information as part of the admissions process can help us to predict student academic success in Master of Accounting (MAC) programs. The association of SE, undergraduate grade point average (UGPA), and Graduate Management Admissions Test (GMAT) score to academic performance was tested…
Lerner, Robert; Nagai, Althea K.
The admissions policies of 47 colleges and universities were studied to consider the issue of racial and ethnic discrimination in undergraduate admissions. The Center for Equal Opportunity asked schools for data about students' application status, racial and ethnic group membership, verbal and mathematics Scholastic Assessment Test scores, and…
Jancarík, Antonín; Kostelecká, Yvona
Electronic testing has become a regular part of online courses. Most learning management systems offer a wide range of tools that can be used in electronic tests. With respect to time demands, the most efficient tools are those that allow automatic assessment. The presented paper focuses on one of these tools: matching questions in which one…
Simner, Marvin L.
The Printing Performance School Readiness Test is an empirically derived instrument designed to aid in the early identification of preschool children who are at risk for school failure. The test is based on the outcome of a research program dealing with various aspects of children's printing that involved over 400 normal, non-repeating, native…
Zou, Xiao-Ling; Chen, Yan-Min
The effects of computer and paper test media on EFL test-takers with different computer familiarity in writing scores and in the cognitive writing process have been comprehensively explored from the learners' aspect as well as on the basis of related theories and practice. The results indicate significant differences in test scores among the…
Marron, Joseph E.
Studies conducted by the United States Military Academy and Air Force Academy showed that many cadets who had attended preparatory schools which prepared high school graduates for college admission performed below what had been predicted by their scores on college entrance examinations. Based on these findings, about 1,200 students from 10…
Hinderer, Katherine A; DiBartolo, Mary C; Walsh, Catherine M
In an effort to meet the demand for well-educated, high-quality nurses, schools of nursing seek to admit those candidates most likely to have both timely progression and first-time success on the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN). Finding the right combination of academic indicators, which are most predictive of success, continues to be an ongoing challenge for entry-level baccalaureate nursing programs across the United States. This pilot study explored the relationship of a standardized admission examination, the Health Education Systems, Inc. (HESI) Admission Assessment (A(2)) Examination to preadmission grade point average (GPA), science GPA, and nursing GPA using a retrospective descriptive design. In addition, the predictive ability of the A(2) Examination, preadmission GPA, and science GPA related to timely progression and NCLEX-RN success were explored. In a sample of 89 students, no relationship was found between the A(2) Examination and preadmission GPA or science GPA. The A(2) Examination was correlated with nursing GPA and NCLEX-RN success but not with timely progression. Further studies are needed to explore the utility and predictive ability of standardized examinations such as the A(2) Examination and the contribution of such examinations to evidence-based admission decision making.
Hoover, Eric; Millman, Sierra
Marilee Jones's career had been a remarkable success. She joined Massachusetts Institute of Technology's (MIT's) admissions office in 1979, landing a job in Cambridge at a time when boys ruled the sandbox of the admissions profession. Her job was to help MIT recruit more women, who then made up less than one-fifth of the institute's students. She…
King, Molly Elizabeth
The purpose of this quantitative, causal-comparative study was to compare the effect elementary music and visual arts lessons had on third through sixth grade standardized mathematics test scores. Inferential statistics were used to compare the differences between test scores of students who took in-school, elementary, music instruction during the…
Ebuoh, Casmir N.; Ezeudu, S. A.
The study investigated the effects of scoring by section, use of independent scorers and conventional patterns on scorer reliability in Biology essay tests. It was revealed from literature review that conventional pattern of scoring all items at a time in essay tests had been criticized for not being reliable. The study was true experimental study…
Schachter, Steven; And Others
Examined relative utility of two scoring systems for Modified Version of Bender-Gestalt Test in predicting performance on Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration. Findings from 53 kindergarten and 47 first grade students indicated that Qualitative Scoring System was significantly better predictor of visual-motor integration skills than…
A substantial body of evidence has shown large academic test score gaps between black and white students in early childhood. These gaps remain, and probably grow, as students progress through school. Many researchers have sought to explain these persistent test score gaps, and particularly, to understand the role of students' socio-economic status…
We apply a quantile version of the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition to estimate the counterfactual distribution of the test scores of Black students. In the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K), we find that the gap initially appears only at the top of the distribution of test scores. As children age, however,…
This paper assesses the magnitude of the non-indigenous/indigenous test-score gap for third-year and fourth-year primary school pupils in Peru, in relation to the main family, school and peer inputs contributing to the test-score gap using the estimation method of feasible generalized least squares. The article then decomposes the gap into its…
May, Deborah C.; Welch, Edward L.
Examined the relationship between early school retention as a result of preschool and kindergarten developmental testing and children's later academic achievement (N=223). Results showed children who scored as immature on the Gesell Screening Test and who were retained a year had the lowest scores on all measures. (JAC)
Jones, Maryann Clementi
A study determined the relationship between life stress and reading comprehension test scores on the IOWA Tests of Basic Skills. Subjects, 41 middle-school students attending Lincoln School in Garwood, New Jersey, were surveyed as to the amount of life stress prevalent in their lives. In addition, the Iowa scores for reading comprehension were…
Xi, Xiaoming; Mollaun, Pam
We investigated the scoring of the Speaking section of the Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] Internet-based (TOEFL iBT[R]) test by speakers of English and one or more Indian languages. We explored the extent to which raters from India, after being trained and certified, were able to score the TOEFL examinees with mixed first languages…
Silles, Mary A.
This article, using longitudinal data from the National Child Development Study, presents new evidence on the effects of family size and birth order on test scores and behavioral development at age 7, 11 and 16. Sibling size is shown to have an adverse causal effect on test scores and behavioral development. For any given family size, first-borns…
Pellicer-Sanchez, Ana; Schmitt, Norbert
Despite a number of research studies investigating the Yes-No vocabulary test format, one main question remains unanswered: What is the best scoring procedure to adjust for testee overestimation of vocabulary knowledge? Different scoring methodologies have been proposed based on the inclusion and selection of nonwords in the test. However, there…
Berends, Mark; Penaloza, Roberto V.
Background/Context: Although there has been progress in closing the test score gaps among student groups over past decades, that progress has stalled. Many researchers have speculated why the test score gaps closed between the early 1970s and the early 1990s, but only a few have been able to empirically study how changes in school factors and…
Mertler, Craig A.
This book is designed to help K-12 teachers and administrators understand the nature of standardized tests and, in particular, the scores that result from them. This useful manual helps teachers develop the skills necessary to incorporate these test scores into various types of instructional decision making--a process known as "data-driven…
Increasing standardized test scores in reading and math is of high importance to the California Department of Education to meet requirements mandated by the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) act of 2001. More research is needed to understand the best ways to improve tests scores to meet concerns of the NCLB act. The purpose of the study was to evaluate…
Lockwood, J. R.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.
A common strategy for estimating treatment effects in observational studies using individual student-level data is analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) or hierarchical variants of it, in which outcomes (often standardized test scores) are regressed on pretreatment test scores, other student characteristics, and treatment group indicators. Measurement…
Müller, Thomas; Meisel, Margareta; Russ, Herrmann; Przuntek, Horst
Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue test (FMT) error scores and peg insertion abilities significantly differ between Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and controls. Both tasks ask for performance of voluntary movements. The objective of this study was to demonstrate a relation between FMT error scores and peg insertion outcomes. We successively performed both tasks in 28 previously untreated PD patients. The FMT error score was significantly (p=0.016) lower in patients with better peg insertion outcome. A significant (Spearman R=0.47, p=0.012) correlation between peg insertion results and the FMT error scores appeared. Motor impairment influences FMT error scores in PD patients.
Lambert, Nadine M.
This investigation attempted to demonstrate the utility of standard item analysis procedures for selecting the most reliable and valid items for scoring Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test test records. (Author)
Dwyer, Andrew C.
This study examines the effectiveness of three approaches for maintaining equivalent performance standards across test forms with small samples: (1) common-item equating, (2) resetting the standard, and (3) rescaling the standard. Rescaling the standard (i.e., applying common-item equating methodology to standard setting ratings to account for…
Watson, Charles G.; Klett, William G.
In a search for an adequate but efficient substitute, the authors have instituted three evaluations of the relationships between potential WAIS-substitutes and the WAIS itself. The present report describes the first of these researches-- a study of the relationships between the four group ability tests and the WAIS in a mental hospital setting.…
Toenjes, Lawrence A.; Dworkin, A. Gary
Used the same methodology and data used by W. Haney in his study of achievement gains on the Texas high school exit examination to demonstrate that his conclusion about the increased pass rate was not correct. None of the 20% improvement in the exit test pass rate was explained by combined increases in dropout rates or special education…
Hetzler, Ronald K.; Stickley, Christopher D.; Kimura, Iris F.
In this study, we developed allometric exponents for scaling Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) power data that are reflective in controlling for body mass (BM) and lean body mass (LBM) and established a normative WAnT data set for college-age women. One hundred women completed a standard WAnT. Allometric exponents and percentile ranks for peak (PP)…
Basco, William T., Jr.; Lancaster, Carol J.; Gilbert, Gregory E.; Carey, Maura E.; Blue, Amy V.
Background and purpose: Data supporting the predictive validity of the medical school admission interview are mixed. This study tested the hypothesis that the admission interview is predictive of interpersonal interactions between medical students and standardized patients. Method: We determined correlations between admission interview scores and…
Whitney, Kriscinda A; Davis, Jeremy J
The ability of both the non-credible score of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT NC) and the recognition score of the RAVLT (RAVLT Recog) to predict credible versus non-credible neuropsychological test performance was examined. Credible versus non-credible group membership was determined according to diagnostic criteria with consideration of performance on two stand-alone performance validity tests. Findings from this retrospective data analysis of outpatients seen for neuropsychological testing within a Veterans Affairs Medical Center (N = 175) showed that RAVLT Recog demonstrated better classification accuracy than RAVLT NC in predicting credible versus non-credible neuropsychological test performance. Specifically, an RAVLT Recog cutoff of ≤9 resulted in reasonable sensitivity (48%) and acceptable specificity (91%) in predicting non-credible neuropsychological test performance. Implications for clinical practice are discussed. Note: The views contained here within are those of the authors and not representative of the institutions with which they are associated.
Livingston, Samuel A.; Chen, Haiwen H.
Quantitative information about test score reliability can be presented in terms of the distribution of equated scores on an alternate form of the test for test takers with a given score on the form taken. In this paper, we describe a procedure for estimating that distribution, for any specified score on the test form taken, by estimating the joint…
Hagmann-von Arx, Priska; Lemola, Sakari; Grob, Alexander
Numerous intelligence tests are available to psychological diagnosticians to assess children's intelligence, but whether they yield comparable test results has been little studied. We examined test scores of 206 typically developing children aged 6 to 11 years on five German intelligence tests (Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales; Snijders Oomen Nonverbal Intelligence Test; Intelligence and Development Scales; Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition; Culture Fair Intelligence Test Scale 2), which were individually administered. On a sample level, the test scores showed strong correlation and little or no mean difference. These results indicate that the tests measure a similar underlying construct, which is interpreted as general intelligence. On an individual level, however, test scores significantly differed across tests for 12% to 38% of the children. Differences did not depend on which test was used but rather on unexplained error. Implications for the application of intelligence assessment in psychological practice are discussed.
Lowe, Patricia A.; Papanastasiou, Elena C.; DeRuyck, Kimberly A.; Reynolds, Cecil R.
In this study, the authors investigated the temporal stability and construct validity of the Adult Manifest Anxiety Scale-College Version (AMAS-C; C. R. Reynolds, B. O. Richmond, & P. A. Lowe, 2003b) scores. Results indicated that the AMAS-C scores had adequate to excellent test score stability, and evidence supported the construct validity of the…
Abati, Paulo Afonso Martins; Segurado, Aluisio Cotrim
OBJECTIVE To analyze the clinical and laboratory characteristics of HIV-infected individuals upon admission to a reference health care center. METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted between 1999 and 2010 on 527 individuals with confirmed serological diagnosis of HIV infection who were enrolled in an outpatient health care service in Santarém, PA, Northern Brazil. Data were collected from medical records and included the reason for HIV testing, clinical status, and count of peripheral CD4+ T lymphocytes upon enrollment. The data were divided into three groups, according to the patient’s year of admission – P1 (1999-2002), P2 (2003-2006), and P3 (2007-2010) – for comparative analysis of the variables of interest. RESULTS In the study group, 62.0% of the patients were assigned to the P3 group. The reason for undergoing HIV testing differed between genders. In the male population, most tests were conducted because of the presence of symptoms suggesting infection. Among women, tests were the result of knowledge of the partner’s seropositive status in groups P1 and P2. Higher proportion of women undergoing testing because of symptoms of HIV/AIDS infection abolished the difference between genders in the most recent period. A higher percentage of patients enrolling at a more advanced stage of the disease was observed in P3. CONCLUSIONS Despite the increased awareness of the number of HIV/AIDS cases, these patients have identified their serological status late and were admitted to health care units with active disease. The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Pará presents specificities in its progression that indicate the complex characteristics of the epidemic in the Northern region of Brazil and across the country. PMID:25741647
This study investigated the effect of targeted test preparation, or coaching, on oral English as a second language test scores. The tests in question were the Basic English Skills Test Plus (BEST Plus), a scripted oral interview published by the Center for Applied Linguistics, and the Versant English Test (VET), a computer-administered and…
Lugo, M; Tiedeman, J S
The Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test is a sensitive and accurate test of color discrimination. A major disadvantage of the test is the laborious and time-consuming calculation needed to score the results and plot them on a chart for interpretation. We present a computer program, written in Microsoft's BASIC language, that performs the calculation and reports both the individual color cap error scores (from which the graph is plotted) and the total error score. If used with an IBM personal computer (or compatible) capable of graphics, the program plots a graph in a modified polar coordinate format that can be printed on a dot-matrix printer.
Filipiak, Katarzyna; Klein, Daniel; Roy, Anuradha
The problem of testing the separability of a covariance matrix against an unstructured variance-covariance matrix is studied in the context of multivariate repeated measures data using Rao's score test (RST). The RST statistic is developed with the first component of the separable structure as a first-order autoregressive (AR(1)) correlation matrix or an unstructured (UN) covariance matrix under the assumption of multivariate normality. It is shown that the distribution of the RST statistic under the null hypothesis of any separability does not depend on the true values of the mean or the unstructured components of the separable structure. A significant advantage of the RST is that it can be performed for small samples, even smaller than the dimension of the data, where the likelihood ratio test (LRT) cannot be used, and it outperforms the standard LRT in a number of contexts. Monte Carlo simulations are then used to study the comparative behavior of the null distribution of the RST statistic, as well as that of the LRT statistic, in terms of sample size considerations, and for the estimation of the empirical percentiles. Our findings are compared with existing results where the first component of the separable structure is a compound symmetry (CS) correlation matrix. It is also shown by simulations that the empirical null distribution of the RST statistic converges faster than the empirical null distribution of the LRT statistic to the limiting χ(2) distribution. The tests are implemented on a real dataset from medical studies.
Rudner, Lawrence M.
To comply with the new U.S. Department of Education Ability-To-Benefit policy, schools need to select tests on the Secretary's approved list. The pertinent aspects of 22 approved tests are individually summarized. The test reviews are based on examinations of the test publishers' technical documentation and the tests. Information provided in the…
Describes a study examining the relationship between scores on a Sentence Skills component of an English placement test and final course grades in a community college marketing course. Finds a significant positive correlation between scores and final grades, but one not strong enough to be used for predictive purposes. (13 citations) (BCY)
Blecher-Sass, Hope Sara; Moffitt, Maryellen
Improve students' writing skills and boost their assessment scores while adding arts education, creativity, and fun to your writing curriculum. With this vibrant resource, improving writing skills goes hand-in-hand with improving test scores. Students learn how to use acting and visualization as prewriting activities to help them connect writing…
Kolen, Michael J.; Lee, Won-Chan
This paper illustrates that the psychometric properties of scores and scales that are used with mixed-format educational tests can impact the use and interpretation of the scores that are reported to examinees. Psychometric properties that include reliability and conditional standard errors of measurement are considered in this paper. The focus is…
Zytowski, Donald G.
The present highly developed status of psychological and educational testing in the United States is in part the result of many efforts over the past 100 years to develop economical and reliable methods of scoring. The present article traces a number of methods, ranging from hand scoring to present-day computer applications, stimulated by the need…
Baggerly, Jennifer; Ferretti, Larissa K.
What is the impact of natural disasters on students' statewide assessment scores? To answer this question, Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) scores of 55,881 students in grades 4 through 10 were analyzed to determine if there were significant decreases after the 2004 hurricanes. Results reveal that there was statistical but no practical…
Johnston, Cris W.; Lanak, Brenda
The Bender Gestalt Test was administered to 25 children (7-10 years old) referred for neuropsychological assessment and scored using the Koppitz system and the Watkins system. Although the scores obtained using the two different sets of criteria were highly correlated, the Watkins rules produced generally better performance. (Author/CL)
Bridgeman, Brent; Powers, Donald; Stone, Elizabeth; Mollaun, Pamela
Scores assigned by trained raters and by an automated scoring system (SpeechRater[TM]) on the speaking section of the TOEFL iBT[TM] were validated against a communicative competence criterion. Specifically, a sample of 555 undergraduate students listened to speech samples from 184 examinees who took the Test of English as a Foreign Language…
Huang, Sheau-Ling; Hsieh, Ching-Lin; Lin, Jau-Hong; Chen, Hui-Mei
The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal scoring methods for measuring strength of the more-affected hand in patients with stroke by examining the effect of reducing measurement errors. Three hand-strength tests of grip, palmar pinch, and lateral pinch were administered at two sessions in 56 patients with stroke. Five scoring methods…
Buzick, Heather M.; Jones, Nathan D.
The increased emphasis on using student growth measures in teacher evaluation has raised questions about how to treat test scores from students with disabilities. This study explores the consequences of three common approaches for treating scores from students with disabilities in statistical approaches to estimating teacher effectiveness: (1)…
Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Li, Min
We investigated language variation and score variation in the testing of English language learners, native Spanish speakers. We gave students the same set of National Assessment of Educational Progress mathematics items in both their first language and their second language. We examined the amount of score variation due to the main and interaction…
Harris, Robert V.; King, Stephanie B.
The purpose of this study was to see if a relationship existed between American College Testing (ACT) scores (i.e., English, reading, mathematics, science reasoning, and composite) and student success in a computer applications course at a Mississippi community college. The study showed that while the ACT scores were excellent predictors of…
This research studies the effects of mobility on the high-stakes test scores of a Title I South Central Texas school district. The study involved 10, 5th-grade elementary feeder school populations graduating to the 6th grade in 3 middle schools. The researcher compared the 1st administration scores of the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills…
Dynarski, Mark; Gleason, Philip
The Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) is often used to measure educational performance at national, state, and local levels. Because participation rates differ considerably, such comparisons are invalid. This article proposes a regression model framework for adjusting SAT scores. Results are validated by comparing adjusted SAT scores with state…
Ho, Andrew D.; Reardon, Sean F.
Test scores are commonly reported in a small number of ordered categories. Examples of such reporting include state accountability testing, Advanced Placement tests, and English proficiency tests. This paper introduces and evaluates methods for estimating achievement gaps on a familiar standard-deviation-unit metric using data from these ordered…
Ho, Andrew D.; Reardon, Sean F.
Test scores are commonly reported in a small number of ordered categories. Examples of such reporting include state accountability testing, Advanced Placement tests, and English proficiency tests. This article introduces and evaluates methods for estimating achievement gaps on a familiar standard-deviation-unit metric using data from these ordered…
Laufer, Batia; McLean, Stuart
The article investigated how the inclusion of loanwords in vocabulary size tests affected the test scores of two L1 groups of EFL learners: Hebrew and Japanese. New BNC- and COCA-based vocabulary size tests were constructed in three modalities: word form recall, word form recognition, and word meaning recall. Depending on the test modality, the…
Kosinski, Andrzej S
Positive and negative predictive values are important measures of a medical diagnostic test performance. We consider testing equality of two positive or two negative predictive values within a paired design in which all patients receive two diagnostic tests. The existing statistical tests for testing equality of predictive values are either Wald tests based on the multinomial distribution or the empirical Wald and generalized score tests within the generalized estimating equations (GEE) framework. As presented in the literature, these test statistics have considerably complex formulas without clear intuitive insight. We propose their re-formulations that are mathematically equivalent but algebraically simple and intuitive. As is clearly seen with a new re-formulation we presented, the generalized score statistic does not always reduce to the commonly used score statistic in the independent samples case. To alleviate this, we introduce a weighted generalized score (WGS) test statistic that incorporates empirical covariance matrix with newly proposed weights. This statistic is simple to compute, always reduces to the score statistic in the independent samples situation, and preserves type I error better than the other statistics as demonstrated by simulations. Thus, we believe that the proposed WGS statistic is the preferred statistic for testing equality of two predictive values and for corresponding sample size computations. The new formulas of the Wald statistics may be useful for easy computation of confidence intervals for difference of predictive values. The introduced concepts have potential to lead to development of the WGS test statistic in a general GEE setting.
Beketayev, Kenes; Runco, Mark A.
Divergent thinking (DT) tests are useful for the assessment of creative potentials. This article reports the semantics-based algorithmic (SBA) method for assessing DT. This algorithm is fully automated: Examinees receive DT questions on a computer or mobile device and their ideas are immediately compared with norms and semantic networks. This investigation compared the scores generated by the SBA method with the traditional methods of scoring DT (i.e., fluency, originality, and flexibility). Data were collected from 250 examinees using the “Many Uses Test” of DT. The most important finding involved the flexibility scores from both scoring methods. This was critical because semantic networks are based on conceptual structures, and thus a high SBA score should be highly correlated with the traditional flexibility score from DT tests. Results confirmed this correlation (r = .74). This supports the use of algorithmic scoring of DT. The nearly-immediate computation time required by SBA method may make it the method of choice, especially when it comes to moderate- and large-scale DT assessment investigations. Correlations between SBA scores and GPA were insignificant, providing evidence of the discriminant and construct validity of SBA scores. Limitations of the present study and directions for future research are offered. PMID:27298632
Ginn, Sheryl R; Pickens, Stefanie J
Previous results suggested that female college students' scores on the Mental Rotations Test might be related to their prior experience with spatial tasks. For example, women who played video games scored better on the test than their non-game-playing peers, whereas playing video games was not related to men's scores. The present study examined whether participation in different types of spatial activities would be related to women's performance on the Mental Rotations Test. 31 men and 59 women enrolled at a small, private church-affiliated university and majoring in art or music as well as students who participated in intercollegiate athletics completed the Mental Rotations Test. Women's scores on the Mental Rotations Test benefitted from experience with spatial activities; the more types of experience the women had, the better their scores. Thus women who were athletes, musicians, or artists scored better than those women who had no experience with these activities. The opposite results were found for the men. Efforts are currently underway to assess how length of experience and which types of experience are related to scores.
Hung, Man; Hon, Shirley D.; Cheng, Christine; Franklin, Jeremy D.; Aoki, Stephen K.; Anderson, Mike B.; Kapron, Ashley L.; Peters, Christopher L.; Pelt, Christopher E.
Background: The applicability and validity of many patient-reported outcome measures in the high-functioning population are not well understood. Purpose: To compare the psychometric properties of the modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), the Hip Outcome Score activities of daily living subscale (HOS-ADL) and sports (HOS-sports), and the Lower Extremity Computerized Adaptive Test (LE CAT). The hypotheses was that all instruments would perform well but that the LE CAT would show superiority psychometrically because a combination of CAT and a large item bank allows for a high degree of measurement precision. Study Design: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Data were collected from 472 advanced-age, active participants from the Huntsman World Senior Games in 2012. Validity evidences were examined through item fit, dimensionality, monotonicity, local independence, differential item functioning, person raw score to measure correlation, and instrument coverage (ie, ceiling and floor effects), and reliability evidences were examined through Cronbach alpha and person separation index. Results: All instruments demonstrated good item fit, unidimensionality, monotonicity, local independence, and person raw score to measure correlations. The HOS-ADL had high ceiling effects of 36.02%, and the mHHS had ceiling effects of 27.54%. The LE CAT had ceiling effects of 8.47%, and the HOS-sports had no ceiling effects. None of the instruments had any floor effects. The mHHS had a very low Cronbach alpha of 0.41 and an extremely low person separation index of 0.08. Reliabilities for the LE CAT were excellent and for the HOS-ADL and HOS-sports were good. Conclusion: The LE CAT showed better psychometric properties overall than the HOS-ADL, HOS-sports, and mHHS for the senior population. The mHHS demonstrated pronounced ceiling effects and poor reliabilities that should be of concern. The high ceiling effects for the HOS-ADL were also of concern. The LE CAT was superior
Dutta, D; Norman, J E
The following review includes a number of studies on the effect of fetal fibronectin (fFN) testing and non-testing, as well as the positive and negative test results, some combining with transvaginal ultrasonographic measurement of cervical length primarily to reduce hospital admissions and length of hospital stay (with associated reduction in health service costs), in women presenting to hospital with symptoms of pre-term labour. English language medical literature was analysed using the search parameters: fetal fibronectin, cervical length, preterm labour, hospital admissions and length of stay. A total of 19 studies were included. Ten of these discussed the role of fFN in decreasing hospital admissions, transfers, length of stay and interventions like corticosteroids and tocolytics. Seven studies demonstrated a correlation of fFN testing with an actual estimate of cost savings of health resources. Five studies explored the combined predictability of fetal fibronectin and cervical length with regards to pre-term labour.
Blackmur, James P.; Lone, Nazir I.; Stone, Oliver D.; Webb, David J.; Dhaun, Neeraj
Abstract The 2-hour long United Kingdom Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT) is used by many universities in the United Kingdom as part of their selection process for undergraduate medical and dentistry degrees. We aimed to compare the performance of senior doctors in primary and secondary care and across a range of specialties, in a modified version of the medical school entrance examination—the mUKCAT. Lay people were also included in the study. Despite its widespread use, this is the first study that examines the performance of senior clinicians in the UKCAT. The study used a prospective cross-sectional design. It used mock questions from the UKCAT website to generate an mUKCAT that was anticipated to take 15 minutes to complete. In all, 167 doctors at consultant, general practitioner (GP), or specialty trainee grade and 26 lay people took part. The overall mean mUKCAT score of all participants was 2486 (69.1%). Of the total cohort, 126 (65.3%) scored above our designated threshold of 2368 and were deemed to have passed the mUKCAT. Excluding lay people, 113 (67.7%) of the 167 doctors scored above that threshold. Medical specialty was associated with overall score (P = 0.003), with anesthetists/intensive care physicians scoring highest (n = 20, mean score 2660) and GPs scoring lowest (n = 38, mean score 2302). Academics outperformed nonacademics (mean score of academics, n = 44 vs nonacademics, n = 123: 2750 vs 2406; P < 0.001). Those clinicians in senior management positions scored lower than those in “standard” roles (mean score of senior management, n = 31 vs standard roles, n = 136: 2332 vs 2534, mean difference 202, 95% confidence interval 67–337, P = 0.004). In the situational judgement section, there was no evidence that specialty was associated with score (P = 0.15). Academics exhibited greater situational judgement than their nonacademic colleagues (academics vs nonacademics: 69.8 vs 63.6%; P = 0.01). The
Sussman, Joshua; Beaujean, A. Alexander; Worrell, Frank C.; Watson, Stevie
Item response models (IRMs) were used to analyze Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) scores. Rasch analysis scores were compared with classical test theory (CTT) scores. The partial credit model demonstrated a high goodness of fit and correlations between Rasch and CTT scores ranged from 0.91 to 0.99. CRIS scores are supported by both methods.…
Clawar, Harry J.; Hopkins, Thomas F.
The present paper emphasizes the importance of making interpretations regarding differences among an individual's scores on a test battery based on this same concern for the appropriateness of the reference group. (Author)
A total of 53 U.S. Marines took the Physical Fitness Test (less push-ups and sit-ups) in both Marine Corps issue boots and tennis shoes. Scores were significantly better when tennis shoes were worn. (Author)
Kamens, David H.
This article considers the growth of the international testing regime. It discusses sources of growth and empirically examines two related sets of issues: (1) the stability of countries' achievement scores, and (2) the influence of those national scores on subsequent economic development over different time lags. The article suggests that…
Hustak, T L; Dinning, W D; Andert, J N
This study investigated the test-retest reliability of the Koppitz scoring system with Bender Gestalt protocols of adult retardates. Results of a sample of 74 adult retardates yielded a correlation of .80 over an interval of 8 to 146 months. A directional measure of change between error scores on the first and second administrations was not significant, which suggests that the test-retest reliability coefficient is an accurate estimate of the Koppitz scoring system for adult retardates. Scorer reliability for three independent scorers ranged from .92 to .95, which suggests comparability to other investigations with different populations.
With known item response theory (IRT) item parameters, Lord and Wingersky provided a recursive algorithm for computing the conditional frequency distribution of number-correct test scores, given proficiency. This article presents a generalized algorithm for computing the conditional distribution of summed test scores involving real-number item…
Kim, Sooyeon; Moses, Tim
The major purpose of this study is to assess the conditions under which single scoring for constructed-response (CR) items is as effective as double scoring in the licensure testing context. We used both empirical datasets of five mixed-format licensure tests collected in actual operational settings and simulated datasets that allowed for the…
Lowe, Patricia A.; Peyton, Vicki; Reynolds, Cecil R.
A sample of 79 individuals participated in the present study to evaluate the test score stability (8-week test-retest interval) and construct validity of the scores of the Adult Manifest Anxiety Scale-College Version, a new measure used to assess anxiety in college students, for application to graduate-level students. Results of the study…
Sireci, Stephen G.; Han, Kyung T.; Wells, Craig S.
In the United States, when English language learners (ELLs) are tested, they are usually tested in English and their limited English proficiency is a potential cause of construct-irrelevant variance. When such irrelevancies affect test scores, inaccurate interpretations of ELLs' knowledge, skills, and abilities may occur. In this article, we…
East, Pam C.
Many teachers look at standardized tests as something to be dreaded. This author and teacher looks at standardized-test scores and sees a tool to bring students learning to new heights. This is a way for teachers to target instruction exactly where it's needed. A way to get students looking forward to end-of-the-year tests (really!) as a way to…
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the scores students earned on multiple choice tests and the number of minutes students required to complete the tests. The 5 tests were made up of 20 randomly drawn questions from a large pool of questions about research methods. Students were allowed an unlimited amount of time…
This dissertation investigated the feasibility of self-adapted testing (SAT) as a formative assessment tool with the focus on learning. Under two different orientation goals--to excel on a test (performance goal) or to learn from the test (learning goal)--I examined the effect of different scoring rules provided as interactive feedback, on test…
Miller, Robert E.
The report summarizes a large body of data relevant to the proper interpretation and use of aptitude scores on the Air Force Officer Qualifying Test (AFOQT). Included are descriptions of the AFOQT testing program and the test itself. Technical data include an extensive sampling of validation studies covering predictors of success in pilot…
Barnett, Jerrold E.; Hixon, Jon E.
Interviews with elementary students before and after tests in three subjects investigated how grade level and subject affected students' ability to predict test scores. Results found a significant grade-subject area interaction for predictions prior to testing. Posttest predictions differed only slightly from pretest. Prediction accuracy was…
Westbrook, Bert W.; And Others
Attempted to replicate study determining relationship between appropriateness of career choices and career maturity test scores in rural ninth grade students (N=112) using Goal Selection scale of Career Maturity Inventory Competence Test and American College Testing Program Career Planning Program. Found two career maturity measures correlated…
Dirir, Mohamed A.; Sinclair, Norma
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of test dimensionality on the stability of examinee ability estimates and item response theory (IRT) based score reports. A simulation procedure based on W. F. Stout's Essential Unidimensionality was used to generate test data with one dominant trait for the whole test and three minor traits…
La Marca, Paul M.
Although it is assumed that student cognition contributes to student performance on achievement tests, it may be that current testing models lack the degree of specification necessary to warrant such inferences. With test score interpretations as the referent, the authors in this special issue address the role of student cognition in learning and…
The handyman has a tool for everything, but the admissions dean is not so lucky: He must make do with just a few. Every year, presidents and professors expect freshmen who are curious, determined, and hungry for challenges. The traditional metrics of merit, however, can't reveal such qualities. Standardized-test scores may or may not predict a…
Recruiting and admissions trends at Trinity University during 1981-1984 are discussed, with attention to freshman applicants, tuition and room deposits, and Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores. Fluctuations in the rate of receipt of applications within a year seemed to be influenced most by deadlines. The rates at which applications were…
Creighton, Susan Dabney
There is no consensus regarding the most reliable and valid scoring methods for the assessment of higher order thinking skills. Most of the research on alternative formats has focused on the scoring of writing ability. This study examined the value of different types of performance assessment scoring guides on state mandated science and social studies tests. A proportional stratified sample of raters were randomly assigned to one of four scoring groups: checklist, analytic rubric, holistic rubric, and generic rubrics. A fifth method, the weighted analytic rubric, was included by applying an algorithmic formula to the scores assigned by raters using the analytic rubric. A comparison of the mean scores for the five scoring groups suggests that there may be a difference in the way raters applied the rubric for each group. Although the literature suggests that it is possible to achieve high levels of inter-rater reliability, across forms of scoring, phi coefficients of moderate strength were obtained for three of the four constructed-response items. Results for each scoring group were compared indicating that item complexity may impact the level of inter-rate, reliability and the selection of the most reliable rubric for each discipline. Analytic rubrics appear to achieve more reliable results with less complex items. A multitrait-multimethod approach was utilized to investigate the external validity of the social studies and science tasks. As expected, there tended to be a stronger association between the PACT science constructed-response scores with scores based on science multiple-choice scores than between the science constructed-response scores and the writing ability subtest scores. A similar pattern was seen with social studies items. These results provide some evidence for the validity of the performance assessments. A post study survey completed by raters provided qualitative information regarding their thought processes and their primary focus during the
In this article, the author describes the growth and acceptance of achievement tests, such as the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT), over the past century, advocating that many SAT claims of equity, uniformity, technical reliability, and prediction, over traditional measures of academic achievement have been found to be illusory. Summarizing a series…
Tejada, Frederick R.; Lang, Lynn A.; Purnell, Miriam; Acedera, Lisa; Ngonga, Ferdinand
Objective. To determine if there is a correlation between TOEFL and other admissions criteria that assess communications skills (ie, PCAT variables: verbal, reading, essay, and composite), interview, and observational scores and to evaluate TOEFL and these admissions criteria as predictors of academic performance. Methods. Statistical analyses included two sample t tests, multiple regression and Pearson’s correlations for parametric variables, and Mann-Whitney U for nonparametric variables, which were conducted on the retrospective data of 162 students, 57 of whom were foreign-born. Results. The multiple regression model of the other admissions criteria on TOEFL was significant. There was no significant correlation between TOEFL scores and academic performance. However, significant correlations were found between the other admissions criteria and academic performance. Conclusion. Since TOEFL is not a significant predictor of either communication skills or academic success of foreign-born PharmD students in the program, it may be eliminated as an admissions criterion. PMID:26430273
Eldred-Skemp, Nicolia; Quinn, James W.; Chang, Hsin-wen; Rauh, Virginia A.; Rundle, Andrew; Orjuela, Manuela A.; Perera, Frederica P.
Childhood cognitive and test-taking abilities have long-term implications for educational achievement and health, and may be influenced by household environmental exposures and neighborhood contexts. This study evaluates whether age 5 scores on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R, administered in English) are associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure and neighborhood context variables including poverty, low educational attainment, low English language proficiency, and inadequate plumbing. The Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health enrolled African-American and Dominican-American New York City women during pregnancy, and conducted follow-up for subsequent childhood health outcomes including cognitive test scores. Individual outcomes were linked to data characterizing 1-km network buffers around prenatal addresses, home observations, interviews, and prenatal PAH exposure data from personal air monitors. Prenatal PAH exposure above the median predicted 3.5 point lower total WPPSI-R scores and 3.9 point lower verbal scores; the association was similar in magnitude across models with adjustments for neighborhood characteristics. Neighborhood-level low English proficiency was independently associated with 2.3 point lower mean total WPPSI-R score, 1.2 point lower verbal score, and 2.7 point lower performance score per standard deviation. Low neighborhood-level educational attainment was also associated with 2.0 point lower performance scores. In models examining effect modification, neighborhood associations were similar or diminished among the high PAH exposure group, as compared with the low PAH exposure group. Early life exposure to personal PAH exposure or selected neighborhood-level social contexts may predict lower cognitive test scores. However, these results may reflect limited geographic exposure variation and limited generalizability. PMID:24994947
Wilson, J F; Mercer, J C
Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) scores of forty female college students were compared to their electrodermal activity (EDA) responses when offered a plate of chocolate chip cookies. A significant positive correlation was detected between the EAT scores and the skin conductivity measures associated with the presentation of food. Women with the highest EAT scores also exhibited the greatest sympathetic nervous system responses to a plate of cookies. This finding supports the conclusion that the EAT is capable of identifying individuals who are preoccupied with food or anxious about eating.
Tsopanoglou, Antonios; Ypsilandis, George S.; Mouti, Anna
Multiple-choice (MC) tests are frequently used to measure language competence because they are quick, economical and straightforward to score. While degrees of correctness have been investigated for partially correct responses in combined-response MC tests, degrees of incorrectness in distractors and the role they play in determining the…
Loewen, David Allen
This exploratory correlational study seeks to answer the question of whether a relationship exists between student average test score gains on state exams and teachers' rating of values on the Schwartz Values Survey. Eighty-seven randomly selected Kansas teachers of math and/or reading, grades four through eight, participated. Student test score…
LeMay, Jeffrey W.
This quasi-experimental post-test only control group designed quantitative study examined whether or not members of an experimental group of participants who utilized two metacognitive strategy training regimens experienced a significant increase in their ACT mathematics sub-test scores compared to a group of students who did not utilize either of…
Walstad, William B.; Wagner, Jamie
This study disaggregates posttest, pretest, and value-added or difference scores in economics into four types of economic learning: positive, retained, negative, and zero. The types are derived from patterns of student responses to individual items on a multiple-choice test. The micro and macro data from the "Test of Understanding in College…
Needham, Martha Elaine
This research compares differences between standardized test scores in problem-based learning (PBL) classrooms and a traditional classroom for 6th grade students using a mixed-method, quasi-experimental and qualitative design. The research shows that problem-based learning is as effective as traditional teaching methods on standardized tests. The…
This teaching tip describes an intervention used in a third-grade classroom implemented to help students pass an end-of-grade reading comprehension test. Low scores on a practice end-of-grade comprehension test prompted a re-examination of classroom reading instruction and a plan for intervention. This teaching tip describes the phases implemented…
Porecki, Daniel; Vandergoot, David
The Hand Test was administered to 107 maximum-security prison inmates. The Acting Out Score (AOS) was computed, and one year later, actual acting out for the same inmates was recorded. Determined that the Hand Test AOS is useful in identifying inmates who have potential for acting out. (Author)
Lee, Guemin; Lee, Won-Chan
The main purposes of this study were to develop bi-factor multidimensional item response theory (BF-MIRT) observed-score equating procedures for mixed-format tests and to investigate relative appropriateness of the proposed procedures. Using data from a large-scale testing program, three types of pseudo data sets were formulated: matched samples,…
Livingston, Samuel A.
In this study, I investigated 2 procedures intended to create test-taker groups of equal ability by poststratifying on a composite variable created from demographic information. In one procedure, the stratifying variable was the composite variable that best predicted the test score. In the other procedure, the stratifying variable was the…
Sijtsma, Klaas; van der Ark, L. Andries
This article first discusses a statistical test for investigating whether or not the pattern of missing scores in a respondent-by-item data matrix is random. Since this is an asymptotic test, we investigate whether it is useful in small but realistic sample sizes. Then, we discuss two known simple imputation methods, person mean (PM) and two-way…
Moore, William E.
The previous theoretical development of the Poisson process as a strong model for the true-score theory of mental tests is discussed, and additional theoretical properties of the model from the standpoint of individual examinees are developed. The paper introduces the Erlang process as a family of test theory models and shows in the context of…
Rahimy, Ramin; Shams, Kiana
This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of vocabulary learning strategies on Iranian EFL learners' vocabulary test score. To achieve this aim, fifty Intermediate level students from Kish English Institute were randomly selected from among fifteen classes after administering the Oxford Placement Test (OPT). Then, an intermediate level…
McKenzie, Kathryn Bell
In this era of accountability and high stakes testing, district and school administrators are vigilant in their attention to student test scores and the ramifications these have for district and school performance labels. In other words, no school or district wants to be labeled "low performing." This case, based on a real situation, demonstrates…
As a property of test scores, reliability/dependability constitutes an important psychometric consideration, and it underpins the validity of measurement results. A review of interpreter certification performance tests (ICPTs) reveals that (a) although reliability/dependability checking has been recognized as an important concern, its theoretical…
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of local item dependence (LID) in passage-based testlets on the test score reliability of an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) reading comprehension test from the perspective of generalizability (G) theory. Definitions and causes of LID in passage-based testlets are reviewed within the…
Lalande, John F.; Schweckendiek, Jurgen
Investigates what correlations might exist between an individual's score on the Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache and on the Oral Proficiency Interview. The tests themselves are briefly described. Results indicate that the two tests appear to correlate well in their evaluation of speaking skills. (SED)
... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION... applicable deterioration factor assigned by EPA, if any; (5) The emission test results adjusted by the applicable deterioration factor; (6) All information required under § 89.610 related to...
... or engine has been modified and/emission tested in accordance with the FTP at a laboratory within the United States; (3) The results of any FTP; (4) The deterioration factor assigned by EPA; (5) The FTP... granted if a vehicle's final FTP results, adjusted by the deterioration factor, if applicable, do...
... or engine has been modified and/emission tested in accordance with the FTP at a laboratory within the United States; (3) The results of any FTP; (4) The deterioration factor assigned by EPA; (5) The FTP... granted if a vehicle's final FTP results, adjusted by the deterioration factor, if applicable, do...
... or engine has been modified and/emission tested in accordance with the FTP at a laboratory within the United States; (3) The results of any FTP; (4) The deterioration factor assigned by EPA; (5) The FTP... granted if a vehicle's final FTP results, adjusted by the deterioration factor, if applicable, do...
Verriest, G; Van Laethem, J; Uvijls, A
We gave the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue color vision test to 232 normal subjects between 10 and 80 years of age. One half the subjects underwent binocular testing followed by monocular testing. In the other half monocular testing preceded binocular testing. Performance was better with both eyes than with either eye alone. The worst performance occurred on monocular tests in subjects without previous experience with the task (that is, those for whom this was the first test). The well-known age trend was apparent (children and elderly have the worst color vision). New data are provided for judging the point at which the total error score may be considered pathologic.
Nimmer, Donald N.; Shakiba-Nejad, Hadi
The study was conducted to provide formulae by which College-Level Examination Program (CLEP) General Examination scores may be predicted from scores earned on the American College Test (ACT) Assessment. Five basic areas of liberal arts achievement are measured by the CLEP General Examinations: English Composition, Humanities, Mathematics, Natural…
Carver, M. Robert, Jr.; King, Thomas E.
An off-campus MBA program involved 467 nontraditional students in individual assignments and 2 intensive weekend classes. Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) scores, undergraduate grade point average, and work experience were the best predictors of success in the program. For those admitted as exceptions, GMAT score and undergraduate…
de Gobbi Porto, Fábio Henrique; Spíndola, Lívia; de Oliveira, Maira Okada; Figuerêdo do Vale, Patrícia Helena; Orsini, Marco; Nitrini, Ricardo; Dozzi Brucki, Sonia Maria
It is not easy to differentiate patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from subjective memory complainers (SMC). Assessments with screening cognitive tools are essential, particularly in primary care where most patients are seen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of screening cognitive tests and to propose a score derived from screening tests. Elderly subjects with memory complaints were evaluated using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Brief Cognitive Battery (BCB). We added two delayed recalls in the MMSE (a delayed recall and a late-delayed recall, LDR), and also a phonemic fluency test of letter P fluency (LPF). A score was created based on these tests. The diagnoses were made on the basis of clinical consensus and neuropsychological testing. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to determine area under the curve (AUC), the sensitivity and specificity for each test separately and for the final proposed score. MMSE, LDR, LPF and delayed recall of BCB scores reach statistically significant differences between groups (P=0.000, 0.03, 0.001 and 0.01, respectively). Sensitivity, specificity and AUC were MMSE: 64%, 79% and 0.75 (cut off <29); LDR: 56%, 62% and 0.62 (cut off <3); LPF: 71%, 71% and 0.71 (cut off <14); delayed recall of BCB: 56%, 82% and 0.68 (cut off <9). The proposed score reached a sensitivity of 88% and 76% and specificity of 62% and 75% for cut off over 1 and over 2, respectively. AUC were 0.81. In conclusion, a score created from screening tests is capable of discriminating MCI from SMC with moderate to good accurancy. PMID:24147213
van der Linden, Wim J.; Reese, Lynda M.
A model for constrained computerized adaptive testing is proposed in which the information on the test at the ability estimate is maximized subject to a large variety of possible constraints on the contents of the test. At each item-selection step, a full test is first assembled to have maximum information at the current ability estimate fixing…
Hayes, Taylor R; Petrov, Alexander A; Sederberg, Per B
Recent reports of training-induced gains on fluid intelligence tests have fueled an explosion of interest in cognitive training-now a billion-dollar industry. The interpretation of these results is questionable because score gains can be dominated by factors that play marginal roles in the scores themselves, and because intelligence gain is not the only possible explanation for the observed control-adjusted far transfer across tasks. Here we present novel evidence that the test score gains used to measure the efficacy of cognitive training may reflect strategy refinement instead of intelligence gains. A novel scanpath analysis of eye movement data from 35 participants solving Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices on two separate sessions indicated that one-third of the variance of score gains could be attributed to test-taking strategy alone, as revealed by characteristic changes in eye-fixation patterns. When the strategic contaminant was partialled out, the residual score gains were no longer significant. These results are compatible with established theories of skill acquisition suggesting that procedural knowledge tacitly acquired during training can later be utilized at posttest. Our novel method and result both underline a reason to be wary of purported intelligence gains, but also provide a way forward for testing for them in the future.
Wescott, Jack W.
A study of 107 graduates of industrial arts teacher education programs found statistically significant relationships between Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores and grade point average (GPA); between SAT scores and major GPA; especially between combined math and verbal scores and major GPA. It was concluded that SAT scores are important factors…
Meadows, Sara; Herrick, David; Feiler, Anthony
The aim of the UK National Literacy Strategy is to raise standards in literacy. Strong evidence for its success has, however, been lacking: most of the available data comes from performance on tests administered in schools or from Office for Standards in Education reports and is vulnerable to suggestions of bias. An opportunistic analysis of data from a population cohort study extending over three school years compares school-based scores at school entry and at age 7-8 with independently administered scores on similar tests. The results show a small but statistically significant rise between 1998 and 1999 and between 1998 and 2000 in scores on both Key Stage 1 Reading Standard Assessment Tasks taken in schools and the reading component of the WORD test taken independently. This is clear evidence for a real rise in reading attainment over this period, which may be attributable to the children's experience of the National Literacy Strategy.
Wamala, Robert; Kizito, Saint Omala; Kakumba, Umar
This study investigates whether the outcomes of the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) can predict the academic achievement of enrollees in masters programs. The study is based on administrative data of 516 Masters of Business Administration (MBA) enrollees at the College of Business and Management Science, Makerere University in the 2011…
Plumer, Gilbert E.
In the context of examining the feasibility and advisability of computerizing the Law School Admission Test (LSAT), a review of current literature was conducted with the following goals: (1) determining the skills that are most important in good legal reasoning according to the literature; (2) determining the extent to which existing LSAT item…
Matejko, Anna A; Price, Gavin R; Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Ansari, Daniel
Mathematical skills are of critical importance, both academically and in everyday life. Neuroimaging research has primarily focused on the relationship between mathematical skills and functional brain activity. Comparatively few studies have examined which white matter regions support mathematical abilities. The current study uses diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to test whether individual differences in white matter predict performance on the math subtest of the Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test (PSAT). Grades 10 and 11 PSAT scores were obtained from 30 young adults (ages 17-18) with wide-ranging math achievement levels. Tract based spatial statistics was used to examine the correlation between PSAT math scores, fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD) and axial diffusivity (AD). FA in left parietal white matter was positively correlated with math PSAT scores (specifically in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus, left superior corona radiata, and left corticospinal tract) after controlling for chronological age and same grade PSAT critical reading scores. Furthermore, RD, but not AD, was correlated with PSAT math scores in these white matter microstructures. The negative correlation with RD further suggests that participants with higher PSAT math scores have greater white matter integrity in this region. Individual differences in FA and RD may reflect variability in experience dependent plasticity over the course of learning and development. These results are the first to demonstrate that individual differences in white matter are associated with mathematical abilities on a nationally administered scholastic aptitude measure.
Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 03-2-827 Test Procedures for Video Target Scoring Using...NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Survivability/Lethality Division (TEDT-AT-SLB) U.S. Army Aberdeen Test Center 400...ADDRESS(ES) Range Infrastructure Division (CSTE-TM) U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command 2202 Aberdeen Boulevard Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005
Homard, Catherine M
The purpose of this ex post facto correlational study was to compare exit examination scores and NCLEX-RN(®) pass rates of baccalaureate nursing students who differed in level of participation in a standardized test package. Three cohort groups emerged as a standardized test package was introduced: (a) students who did not participate in a standardized test package; (b) students with two semesters of a standardized test package; and (c) students with four semesters of a standardized test package. Benner's novice-to-expert theory framed the study in the belief that students best acquire knowledge and skills through practice and reflection. Students participating in four semesters of a standardized test package demonstrated higher exit examination scores and NCLEX-RN pass rates compared with students who did not participate in this package. This study's results could inform nurse educators about strategies to facilitate nursing student success on exit examinations and the NCLEX-RN.
It is becoming clear that the methods employed by many graduate admissions committees need updating. Regarding outcomes, we cannot select students that will actually graduate much better than would a coin toss. Further, the GRE is often misused. For example, the most recent GRE general test data (2006-2007) shows that for US citizens in the physical sciences, a cut-off score of ~64th percentile (700/155 on old/new test) would eliminate from eligibility: 63% of women vs 42% of men; 76% of all under-represented minorities vs 38% of Asian and 47% of White applicants. Fortunately, Organizational Psychologists have identified and validated several ``non-cognitive constructs'' for admissions: aspects of personality (conscientiousness); and self-management factors. Some intriguing facts about these parameters: they are measurable with the help of social scientists; they do not show race/ethnicity/gender performance differences; they are orthogonal to cognitive metrics measured by GPA and tests scores. These are proven to enhance both validity and diversity in admissions. My goals for this talk are to overview the non-cognitive constructs with the most potential for being used in physics graduate admissions, and to suggest example admissions protocols. Supported by the National Science Foundation.
Berryhill, Katie J.
As astronomy education researchers become more interested in experimentally testing innovative teaching strategies to enhance learning in introductory astronomy survey courses ("ASTRO 101"), scholars are placing increased attention toward better understanding factors impacting student gain scores on the widely used Test Of Astronomy STandards (TOAST). Usually used in a pre-test and post-test research design, one might naturally assume that the pre-course differences observed between high- and low-scoring college students might be due in large part to their pre-existing motivation, interest, experience in science, and attitudes about astronomy. To explore this notion, 11 non-science majoring undergraduates taking ASTRO 101 at west coast community colleges were interviewed in the first few weeks of the course to better understand students' pre-existing affect toward learning astronomy with an eye toward predicting student success. In answering this question, we hope to contribute to our understanding of the incoming knowledge of students taking undergraduate introductory astronomy classes, but also gain insight into how faculty can best meet those students' needs and assist them in achieving success. Perhaps surprisingly, there was only weak correlation between students' motivation toward learning astronomy and their pre-test scores. Instead, the most fruitful predictor of TOAST pre-test scores was the quantity of pre-existing, informal, self-directed astronomy learning experiences.
In case-control studies, the Cochran-Armitage (CA) trend test is powerful for detection of an association between a risk allele and a marker. To apply this test, a score should be assigned to the genotypes based on the genetic model. When the underlying genetic model is unknown, the trend test statistic is a function of the score. In this paper, simple procedures are given to obtain two scores (max and min), which respectively maximize and minimize the CA trend test statistics for genetic associations. These two scores can be used to examine the effect of the choice of scores on the test of no association. When the CA trend test statistic with the max (or min) score is less (or greater) than a prespecified value, the conclusion is clear: we will accept (or reject) the null hypothesis of no association for any scores used. When this value is less than the CA trend test statistic with the max score but greater than the one with the min score, the decision of whether or not to reject the null hypothesis depends on the choice of scores. In this situation, the CA trend test with a prespecified score cannot be used without careful scientific justification of the choice of scores. The use of max and min scoring schemes is applied to a real data set.
Kawase, Yoshiaki; Saito, Naritatsu; Watanabe, Shin; Bao, Bingyuan; Yamamoto, Erika; Watanabe, Hiroki; Higami, Hirooki; Matsuo, Hitoshi; Ueno, Katsumi; Kimura, Takeshi
We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a scoring balloon catheter in expanding a circumferentially calcified lesion compared to a conventional balloon catheter using an in vitro experiment setting and elucidate the underlying mechanisms of this ability using a finite element analysis. True efficacy of the scoring device and the underlying mechanisms for heavily calcified coronary lesions are unclear. We employed a Scoreflex scoring balloon catheter (OrbusNeich, Hong Kong, China). The ability of Scoreflex to dilate a calcified lesion was compared with a conventional balloon catheter using 3 different sized calcium tubes. The thickness of the calcium tubes were 2.0, 2.25, and 2.5 mm. The primary endpoints were the successful induction of cracks in the calcium tubes and the inflation pressures required for inducing cracks. The inflation pressure required for cracking the calcium tubes were consistently lower with Scoreflex (p < 0.05, Student t test). The finite element analysis revealed that the first principal stress applied to the calcified plaque was higher by at least threefold when applying the balloon catheter with scoring elements. A scoring balloon catheter can expand a calcified lesion with lower pressure than that of a conventional balloon. The finite element analysis revealed that the concentration of the stress observed in the outside of the calcified plaque just opposite to the scoring element is the underlying mechanism of the increased ability of Scoreflex to dilate the calcified lesion.
Carvajal, Howard; And Others
Forty-five gifted children, ages 11-17, were tested with the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale and the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement. Results indicated 18 of 20 correlations between the area and composite scores were significant. The Stanford-Binet Short-Term Memory standard age score mean was lower than other scores' means. (Author/JDD)
Commenges, D; Jacqmin, H; Letenneur, L; Van Duijn, C M
When studying familial aggregation of a disease, the following two-stage design is often used: first select index subjects (cases and controls); then record data on their relatives. The likelihood corresponding to this design is derived and a score test of homogeneity is proposed for testing the hypothesis of no-aggregation. This test takes into account the selection procedure and allows adjustment to be made for explanatory variables. It appears as the sum of three terms: a pure test of homogeneity, a test of comparison of observed minus expected cases in the two groups, and a term which adjusts for the possible unequal probabilities of disease of the index subjects. Asymptotic efficiency and a simulation study show that the proposed test is superior to either the pure homogeneity test or tests based on the comparison of numbers of affected in the two groups. The test statistic, which has an asymptotically standard normal distribution, is applied to a study of familial aggregation of early-onset Alzheimer's disease for which a highly significant value (9.46) is obtained: this is the highest value among the three tests compared, in agreement with the simulation study. A logistic normal model is fitted to the data, taking account of the selection procedure: it allows to estimate the regression parameters and the variance of the random effect; the likelihood ratio test for familial aggregation seems less powerful than the score test.
Zwick, Rebecca; Brown, Terran; Sklar, Jeffrey C.
As part of the University of California's recent reconsideration of the role of the SAT in admissions, the UC Office of the President published an extensive report, "UC and the SAT" (2001), which examined the value of SAT I Reasoning Test scores, SAT II Subject Test scores, and high school grades in predicting the grade-point averages of…
Moradi, Elaheh; Hallikainen, Ilona; Hänninen, Tuomo; Tohka, Jussi
Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is a powerful neuropsychological tool for testing episodic memory, which is widely used for the cognitive assessment in dementia and pre-dementia conditions. Several studies have shown that an impairment in RAVLT scores reflect well the underlying pathology caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD), thus making RAVLT an effective early marker to detect AD in persons with memory complaints. We investigated the association between RAVLT scores (RAVLT Immediate and RAVLT Percent Forgetting) and the structural brain atrophy caused by AD. The aim was to comprehensively study to what extent the RAVLT scores are predictable based on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data using machine learning approaches as well as to find the most important brain regions for the estimation of RAVLT scores. For this, we built a predictive model to estimate RAVLT scores from gray matter density via elastic net penalized linear regression model. The proposed approach provided highly significant cross-validated correlation between the estimated and observed RAVLT Immediate (R = 0.50) and RAVLT Percent Forgetting (R = 0.43) in a dataset consisting of 806 AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or healthy subjects. In addition, the selected machine learning method provided more accurate estimates of RAVLT scores than the relevance vector regression used earlier for the estimation of RAVLT based on MRI data. The top predictors were medial temporal lobe structures and amygdala for the estimation of RAVLT Immediate and angular gyrus, hippocampus and amygdala for the estimation of RAVLT Percent Forgetting. Further, the conversion of MCI subjects to AD in 3-years could be predicted based on either observed or estimated RAVLT scores with an accuracy comparable to MRI-based biomarkers.
Koch, William R.; Dodd, Barbara G.
Various aspects of the computerized adaptive testing (CAT) procedure for partial credit scoring were manipulated, focusing on the effects of the manipulations on operational characteristics of the CAT. The effects of item-pool size, item-pool information, and stepsizes used along the trait continuum were assessed. (TJH)
Bjerkedal, Tor; Kristensen, Petter; Skjeret, Geir A.; Brevik, John I.
The present paper reports the results of a within and between family analysis of the relation between birth order and intelligence. The material comprises more than a quarter of a million test scores for intellectual performance of Norwegian male conscripts recorded during 1984-2004. Conscripts, mostly 18-19 years of age, were born to women for…
Paul Newton (2010), with his characteristic concern about theory, has set out two different ways of thinking about the basis upon which equivalences of one sort or another are established between test score scales. His reason for doing this is a desire to establish "the defensibility of linkages lower on the continuum than concordance."…
Cryder, Rebecca E.
This quantitative correlational study involved the analysis, by gender, of the effect of four intervention programs at an Arizona middle school as seen on Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS) test scores. These four intervention programs included: Advancement Via Individual Determination (AVID), a planner stamping system, a World…
Han, D P; Thompson, H S
Although the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test is a sensitive means of evaluating congenital and acquired color vision deficiencies, using the data it provides involves complex calculations. We have developed two nomograms that permit the clinician to determine quickly and easily whether a given score is normal for the patient's age and whether the difference between fellow eyes is within the normal range.
In 2004, the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) concluded that "literature reading is fading as a meaningful activity, especially among younger people." How can educators continue to teach students about the power of literary response when the priority is for them to achieve proficiency on standardized tests, whose scores can only be narrowly…
Almond, Russell G.
Assessments consisting of only a few extended constructed response items (essays) are not typically equated using anchor test designs as there are typically too few essay prompts in each form to allow for meaningful equating. This article explores the idea that output from an automated scoring program designed to measure writing fluency (a common…
Kay, Rachel E.
Over the past few decades, and especially in the past ten years, computer use in schools has increased dramatically; however there has been little research examining the effects of technology use on student achievement, specifically defined by standardized test scores. There is also concern as to how technology use differs by gender and if that…
Thomas, P. Ann
The focus of the investigation is on a sixth grade population not performing reading on grade level and not achieving high-stakes test score proficiency causing the school to fail adequate yearly progress (AYP). The lack of reading skills causes the students to repeat grades in middle school and high school. Reading technology instruction is the…
Linn, Robert L.; And Others
Norm-referenced test results reported by states and school districts and factors related to those scores were studied through mail and telephone surveys of 35 states and a nationally representative sample of 153 school districts to determine the degree to which "above average" results were being reported. Part of the stimulus for this…
Plag, John A.; And Others
This report presents findings from a study evaluating differences in the adaptation of "average" and mentally marginal sailors during four years of military service. Sailors with Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) scores of 50 are significantly superior to Category 4 enlistees on military performance measures which stress cognitive…
Among the 50 states, Florida's gains on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) between 1992 and 2011 ranked second only to Maryland's. Florida's progress has been particularly impressive in the early grades. In 1998, Florida scored about one grade level below the national average on the 4th-grade NAEP reading test, but it was…
Zehr, Mary Ann
Educators who specialize in teaching English-language learners agree that the 4-year-old No Child Left Behind Act has brought unprecedented attention to those students by requiring schools to isolate test-score data for them. They disagree, though, on whether changes in instruction spurred by the law have been positive or negative overall. Such…
Maturation and education improve Air Force Officer Qualifying Test (AFOQT) scores. Since the AFOQT is given at different educational levels for the several commissioning programs, differences, largely spurious, exist between the programs. To assess differences produced by maturation and education, the AFOQT was given to 415 Air Force Reserve…
Rothstein, Jesse; Wozny, Nathan
Analysts often examine the black-white test score gap conditional on family income. Typically only a current income measure is available. We argue that the gap conditional on permanent income is of greater interest, and we describe a method for identifying this gap using an auxiliary data set to estimate the relationship between current and…
Liu, Yang; Thissen, David
Local dependence (LD) refers to the violation of the local independence assumption of most item response models. Statistics that indicate LD between a pair of items on a test or questionnaire that is being fitted with an item response model can play a useful diagnostic role in applications of item response theory. In this article, a new score test…
Ricketts, Christine R.
This study examined the extent to which end-of-course grades are predictive of Virginia Standards of Learning test scores in nine high school content areas. It also analyzed the impact of the variables school cluster attended, gender, ethnicity, disability status, Limited English Proficiency status, and socioeconomic status on the relationship…
Biddle, Richard E.
Suggests a process for setting a cutoff score on knowledge tests for promotion, certification, and licensing: a modified Angoff method, in which a competency estimate is determined by subject matter experts, is combined with analysis of potential impact on any groups protected by the Civil Rights Act. (SK)
Kinney, Daryl W.
Nontransient 6th- and 8th-grade urban middle school students' achievement test scores were examined before (4th grade) and during (6th or 8th grade) enrollment in a performing ensemble. Ensemble participation (band, choir, none) and subject variables of socioeconomic status (SES) and home environment were considered. Fourth- and 6th-grade…
Scott, Patrick B.
Reports a preliminary study of possible differences in the performance in mathematics between American Indian Pueblo and Anglos. Sample evaluated consisted of 65 Pueblos and 59 Anglos that excluded highest and lowest scores on Form B of the College Qualification Tests from Fall 1977 to Spring 1981 at the University of New Mexico. (ERB)
Tatsuoka, Kikumi; Tatsuoka, Maurice
The differences in types of information-processing skills developed by different instructional backgrounds affect, negatively or positively, the learning of further advanced instructional materials. If prior and subsequent instructional methods are different, a proactive inhibition effect produces low achievement scores on a post test. This poses…
Klein, Stephen P.; Hamilton, Laura S.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Stecher, Brian M.
The authors reviewed the article "What Do Klein et al. Tell Us About Test Scores in Texas?" by Toenjes. A summary of their responses is presented. First, Toenjes incorrectly describes the focus of the authors' study. Second, Toenjes appears to have misunderstood the purpose of their 20-schools analysis. Third, Toenjes misunderstands the…
McEnroe, James D.
The study examined the effects of the federally funded Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) program on student performance on mandated standardized tests. The study focused on the mathematics and reading scores of Illinois public elementary and middle and junior high school students. The federal CSR program provided Illinois schools with an annual…
Diamond, Sandra M.
The Problem: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not there were any statistically significant differences in the Mathematics California Standard Test scores and attendance rates for African American and Latina high school girls who participated in an afterschool program. Method: A quasi-experimental design was conducted with…
Springer, Matthew G.; Pepper, Matthew J.; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie
This study examines the effect of supplemental education services (SES) on student test score gains and whether particular subgroups of students benefit more from NCLB tutoring services. Our sample includes information on students enrolled in third through eighth grades nested in 121 elementary and middle schools over a five-year period comprising…
Goldstein, Donna; Alibrandi, Marsha
This case study conducted with 1,425 middle school students in Palm Beach County, Florida, included a treatment group receiving GIS instruction (256) and a control group without GIS instruction (1,169). Quantitative analyses on standardized test scores indicated that inclusion of GIS in middle school curriculum had a significant effect on student…
Ferrando, Pere J.; Chico, Eliseo
Examined whether a procedure based on item response theory (IRT) for assessing the scalability of response patterns could detect deliberate dissimulation (faking good) on scores from three tests of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised. Results for 489 and 140 undergraduates show that IRT measures were not powerful enough to detect…
Hollingsworth, Mary Ann
This study examined the relationship between dimensions of wellness and academic performance for 634 third through fifth grade students in Title One schools in rural Mississippi, using composites of the Five Factor Wellness Inventory for Elementary Children and Reading, Language, and Math Scores of the Mississippi Curriculum Test (a state level…
Ferrando, Pere J.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano
Describes how the nonlinear factor analytic approach of R. McDonald to the normal ogive curve can be used to factor analyze test scores. Discusses the conditions in which this model is more appropriate than the linear model and illustrates the applicability of both models using an empirical example based on data from 1,769 adolescents who took the…
Curriculum Review, 2006
With his 10th book, Improving Test Scores: A Practical Approach for Teachers and Administrators, Scott Mandel outlines steps educators can take to boost achievement on standardized exams while maintaining the integrity of their day-to-day teaching. Mandel, who holds a Ph.D. in curriculum and instruction from USC, teaches history and English at…
Springer, Matthew G.; Ballou, Dale; Peng, Art
This article presents findings from the first independent, third-party appraisal of the impact of the Teacher Advancement Program (TAP) on student test score gains in mathematics. TAP is a comprehensive school reform model designed to attract highly effective teachers, improve instructional effectiveness, and elevate student achievement. We use a…
Haverinen-Shaughnessy, Ulla; Shaughnessy, Richard J
Using a multilevel approach, we estimated the effects of classroom ventilation rate and temperature on academic achievement. The analysis is based on measurement data from a 70 elementary school district (140 fifth grade classrooms) from Southwestern United States, and student level data (N = 3109) on socioeconomic variables and standardized test scores. There was a statistically significant association between ventilation rates and mathematics scores, and it was stronger when the six classrooms with high ventilation rates that were indicated as outliers were filtered (> 7.1 l/s per person). The association remained significant when prior year test scores were included in the model, resulting in less unexplained variability. Students' mean mathematics scores (average 2286 points) were increased by up to eleven points (0.5%) per each liter per second per person increase in ventilation rate within the range of 0.9-7.1 l/s per person (estimated effect size 74 points). There was an additional increase of 12-13 points per each 1°C decrease in temperature within the observed range of 20-25°C (estimated effect size 67 points). Effects of similar magnitude but higher variability were observed for reading and science scores. In conclusion, maintaining adequate ventilation and thermal comfort in classrooms could significantly improve academic achievement of students.
Using a multilevel approach, we estimated the effects of classroom ventilation rate and temperature on academic achievement. The analysis is based on measurement data from a 70 elementary school district (140 fifth grade classrooms) from Southwestern United States, and student level data (N = 3109) on socioeconomic variables and standardized test scores. There was a statistically significant association between ventilation rates and mathematics scores, and it was stronger when the six classrooms with high ventilation rates that were indicated as outliers were filtered (> 7.1 l/s per person). The association remained significant when prior year test scores were included in the model, resulting in less unexplained variability. Students’ mean mathematics scores (average 2286 points) were increased by up to eleven points (0.5%) per each liter per second per person increase in ventilation rate within the range of 0.9–7.1 l/s per person (estimated effect size 74 points). There was an additional increase of 12–13 points per each 1°C decrease in temperature within the observed range of 20–25°C (estimated effect size 67 points). Effects of similar magnitude but higher variability were observed for reading and science scores. In conclusion, maintaining adequate ventilation and thermal comfort in classrooms could significantly improve academic achievement of students. PMID:26317643
Dain, S J
In the past, suggested transformations of Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test (FM 100-Hue) test scores distributions have been limited to a square root transformation. In this study, the choice of transformations of total error scores (TES) are considered by identifying a possible source of skewness. Several distributions of FM100-Hue Test TES were assessed for skewness (third moment). The error score (ES) distributions for the 85 individual caps in each of the populations were also analysed for skewness (Figs. 3 and 4). There is no single transformation which will normalise all TES distributions. The single cap ES distributions with low mean ES (such as those achieved normals and, for some regions of the test, by anomalous trichromats and dichromats) are symmetrical because most subjects can organise the cap perfectly (and could do even better given smaller colour differences). The distributions of ESs where the mean ES is in the moderate range (such as those achieved by diabetics) are skewed because some ESs at the lower end of the range represent performance which could also be better than the test allows. ES distributions with a high mean (such as random distributions and some regions of the test by congenital dichromats) are symmetrical being unaffected by the limitations of the test. TES distributions of diabetics are asymmetrical and comprise skewed cap ES distributions. A suggestion for a transformation is made.
Simner, Marvin L.
An abbreviated scoring system for the Goodenough-Harris Draw-A-Man Test found that three items had the same overall potential for correctly identifying at-risk kindergarteners as more time-consuming scoring methods. (CL)
There is significant potential for error in long production processes that consist of sequential stages, each of which is heavily dependent on the previous stage, such as the SER (Scoring, Equating, and Reporting) process. Quality control procedures are required in order to monitor this process and to reduce the number of mistakes to a minimum. In…
Seshadri, Jayasree; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan; Christensen, Jerry
We have compared two different methods of plotting the Farnsworth Munsell FM-100 test, namely the Farnsworth and the Kinnear techniques. Data from 30 individuals having a red-green deficiency were plotted using both techniques. The cap score distributions were analysed using both the Knobaluch Sine wave (Fourier) and the the Red-Green and Blue-Yellow partial scoring methods. We found that the Farnsworth and Kinnear plots give different results for the measures obtained by the Knoblauch method of analysis. On the other hand, the ‘difference score’ obtained from the King-Smith et al. method were not significantly different for the two plotting methods.
Jacob, Brian A.
Contrary to popular belief, modern cognitive assessments--including the new Common Core tests--produce test scores based on sophisticated statistical models rather than the simple percent of items a student answers correctly. While there are good reasons for this, it means that reported test scores depend on many decisions made by test designers,…
Lee, Seon-Young; Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula
This study examined differences between students who qualified for talent search testing via scores on standardized tests and via parent nomination in their performances on the SAT or ACT and some demographic characteristics. Overall, the standardized testing group earned higher scores on the off-level tests than the parent nominated group. Asian…
Magalang, Ulysses J.; Arnardottir, Erna S.; Chen, Ning-Hung; Cistulli, Peter A.; Gíslason, Thorarinn; Lim, Diane; Penzel, Thomas; Schwab, Richard; Tufik, Sergio; Pack, Allan I.
Study Objectives: Home sleep testing (HST) is used worldwide to confirm the presence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We sought to determine the agreement of HST scoring among international sleep centers. Methods: Fifteen HSTs, previously recorded using a type 3 monitor, were deidentified and saved in European Data Format. The studies were scored by nine technologists from the sleep centers of the Sleep Apnea Global Interdisciplinary Consortium (SAGIC) using the locally available software. Each study was scored separately using one of three different airflow signals: nasal pressure (NP), transformed (square root) nasal pressure signal (transformed NP), and uncalibrated respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP) flow. Only one of the three airflow signals was visible to the scorer at each scoring session. The scoring procedure was repeated to determine the intrarater reliability. Results: The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) using the NP were: apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) = 0.96 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.93–0.99); apnea index = 0.91 (0.83–0.96); and hypopnea index = 0.75 (0.59–0.89). The ICCs using the transformed NP were: AHI = 0.98 (0.96–0.99); apnea index = 0.95 (0.90–0.98); and hypopnea index = 0.90 (0.82–0.96). The ICCs using the RIP flow were: AH I = 0.98 (0.96–0.99); apnea index = 0.66 (0.48–0.84); and hypopnea index = 0.78 (0.63–0.90). The mean difference of first and second scoring sessions of the same respiratory variables ranged from −1.02 to 0.75/h. Conclusion: There is a strong agreement in the scoring of the respiratory events for HST among international sleep centers. Our results suggest that centralized scoring of HSTs may not be necessary in future research collaboration among international sites. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 7. Citation: Magalang UJ, Arnardottir ES, Chen NH, Cistulli PA, Gíslason T, Lim D, Penzel T, Schwab R, Tufik S, Pack AI, SAGIC Investigators
Waldfogel, Jane; Zhai, Fuhua
This study examines the effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4th graders, holding constant child, family, and school characteristics, other relevant social expenditures, and country and year effects, in seven Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries -- Australia, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, U.K., and U.S -- using data from the 1995 and 2003 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). Our results indicate that there are small but significant positive effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4th graders and preschool expenditures reduce the risk of children scoring at the low level of proficiency. We also find some evidence that children from low-resource homes and homes where the test language is not always spoken may tend to gain more from increased public preschool expenditures than other children,. PMID:21442008
Waldfogel, Jane; Zhai, Fuhua
This study examines the effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4(th) graders, holding constant child, family, and school characteristics, other relevant social expenditures, and country and year effects, in seven Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries -- Australia, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, U.K., and U.S -- using data from the 1995 and 2003 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). Our results indicate that there are small but significant positive effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4(th) graders and preschool expenditures reduce the risk of children scoring at the low level of proficiency. We also find some evidence that children from low-resource homes and homes where the test language is not always spoken may tend to gain more from increased public preschool expenditures than other children,.
Brooks-Gunn, J; Klebanov, P K; Duncan, G J
We examine differences in intelligence test scores of black and white 5-year-olds. The Infant Health and Development Program data set includes 483 low birthweight premature children who were assessed with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence. These children had been followed from birth, with data on neighborhood and family poverty, family structure, family resources, maternal characteristics, and home environment collected over the first 5 years of life. Black children's IQ scores were 1 SD lower than those of white children. Adjustments for ethnic differences in poverty reduced the ethnic differential by 52%. Adjustments for maternal education and whether the head of household was female did not reduce the ethnic difference further. However, differences in home environment reduced the ethnic differential by an additional 28%. Adjustments for economic and social differences in the lives of black and white children all but eliminate differences in the IQ scores between these two groups.
Huynh, Huynh; Saunders, Joseph C., III
The Bayesian approach to setting passing scores, as proposed by Swaminathan, Hambleton, and Algina, is compared with the empirical Bayes approach to the same problem that is derived from Huynh's decision-theoretic framework. Comparisons are based on simulated data which follow an approximate beta-binomial distribution and on real test results from…
Zimmerman, Donald W.
In order to circumvent the influence of correlation in paired-samples and repeated measures experimental designs, researchers typically perform a one-sample Student "t" test on difference scores. That procedure entails some loss of power, because it employs N - 1 degrees of freedom instead of the 2N - 2 degrees of freedom of the…
Kang, Hyung Koo; Kim, Kang; Lee, Hyun; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Koh, Won-Jung; Park, Hye Yun
Background An eight-item questionnaire of the COPD assessment test (CAT) is widely used to quantify the impact of COPD on the patient’s health status. C-reactive protein (CRP) is associated with disease severity and adverse health outcomes of patients with COPD. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between CAT score and serum CRP levels in stable COPD patients. Methods We evaluated the medical records of 226 patients with CAT and serum CRP measured within a week at Samsung Medical Center between October 2013 and October 2015. Results Serum CRP levels had a significantly positive relationship with CAT score (Spearman’s r=0.20, P=0.003). Patients with elevated serum CRP levels (>0.3 mg/dL) were significantly more likely to have CAT scores of ≥14. The adjusted odds ratio for elevated serum CRP levels in total CAT score was 1.06 (95% confidence interval, 1.02–1.09). Among CAT components, cough (adjusted P=0.005), phlegm (adjusted P=0.001), breathlessness going up hills/stairs (adjusted P=0.005), low confidence leaving home (adjusted P=0.002), and feeling low in energy (adjusted P=0.019) were independently associated with elevated serum CRP levels. Conclusion In stable COPD patients, serum CRP levels were independently associated with total CAT score and CAT components related to respiratory symptoms, confidence leaving home, and energy. PMID:27994452
Liebeschuetz, John W.; Cole, Jason C.; Korb, Oliver
The performance of all four GOLD scoring functions has been evaluated for pose prediction and virtual screening under the standardized conditions of the comparative docking and scoring experiment reported in this Edition. Excellent pose prediction and good virtual screening performance was demonstrated using unmodified protein models and default parameter settings. The best performing scoring function for both pose prediction and virtual screening was demonstrated to be the recently introduced scoring function ChemPLP. We conclude that existing docking programs already perform close to optimally in the cognate pose prediction experiments currently carried out and that more stringent pose prediction tests should be used in the future. These should employ cross-docking sets. Evaluation of virtual screening performance remains problematic and much remains to be done to improve the usefulness of publically available active and decoy sets for virtual screening. Finally we suggest that, for certain target/scoring function combinations, good enrichment may sometimes be a consequence of 2D property recognition rather than a modelling of the correct 3D interactions.
Lawford, Bruce R; Barnes, Mark; Connor, Jason P; Heslop, Karen; Nyst, Phillip; Young, Ross McD
Hyperprolactinaemia in antipsychotic treated patients with schizophrenia is a consequence of D2 receptor (DRD2) blockade. Alcohol use disorder is commonly comorbid with schizophrenia and low availability of striatal DRD2 may predispose individuals to alcohol use. In this pilot study we investigated whether hyperprolactinaemia secondary to pharmacological DRD2 blockade was associated with alcohol use disorder in 219 (178 males and 41 females) patients with schizophrenia. Serum prolactin determinations were made in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and maintained on antipsychotic agents. Clinical assessment included demographics, family history and administration of the AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test). Higher AUDIT scores were associated with prolactin-raising antipsychotic medication (n=106) compared with prolactin-sparing medication (n=113). Risperidone (n=63) treated patients had higher AUDIT scores and prolactin levels than those on other atypical antipsychotics (n = 113). Across the entire sample, patients with a prolactin greater than 800 mIU/L had higher AUDIT scores and were more likely to exceed the cut-off score for harmful and hazardous alcohol use. These differences were not explained by potential confounds related to clinical features and demographics, comorbidity or medication side-effects. These data suggest that by lowering dosage, or switching to another antipsychotic agent, the risk for alcohol use disorder in those with schizophrenia may be reduced. This hypothesis requires testing using a prospective methodology.
Tuli, Sanjeev Y.; Thompson, Lindsay A.; Saliba, Heidi; Black, Erik W.; Ryan, Kathleen A.; Kelly, Maria N.; Novak, Maureen; Mellott, Jane; Tuli, Sonal S.
Background Board certification is an important professional qualification and a prerequisite for credentialing, and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) assesses board certification rates as a component of residency program effectiveness. To date, research has shown that preresidency measures, including National Board of Medical Examiners scores, Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society membership, or medical school grades poorly predict postresidency board examination scores. However, learning styles and temperament have been identified as factors that 5 affect test-taking performance. The purpose of this study is to characterize the learning styles and temperaments of pediatric residents and to evaluate their relationships to yearly in-service and postresidency board examination scores. Methods This cross-sectional study analyzed the learning styles and temperaments of current and past pediatric residents by administration of 3 validated tools: the Kolb Learning Style Inventory, the Keirsey Temperament Sorter, and the Felder-Silverman Learning Style test. These results were compared with known, normative, general and medical population data and evaluated for correlation to in-service examination and postresidency board examination scores. Results The predominant learning style for pediatric residents was converging 44% (33 of 75 residents) and the predominant temperament was guardian 61% (34 of 56 residents). The learning style and temperament distribution of the residents was significantly different from published population data (P = .002 and .04, respectively). Learning styles, with one exception, were found to be unrelated to standardized test scores. Conclusions The predominant learning style and temperament of pediatric residents is significantly different than that of the populations of general and medical trainees. However, learning styles and temperament do not predict outcomes on standardized in-service and board
Guzeller, Cem Oktay
In this research, the relationship between written exam scores of science and technology class of 6th, 7th, and 8th grades, project, participation in class activities and performance work, year-end academic success point averages and sub-test raw scores of LDT science of 6th, 7th and 8th grades. Academic success point averages were used as…
Rezaabadi, Omid Talebi
This study investigated the relationships between the social anxiety, social class and listening-test anxiety of students learning English as a foreign language. The aims of the study were to examine the relationship between listening-test anxiety and listening-test performance. The data were collected using an adapted Foreign Language Listening…
Webster, Jeffrey S; Lopez, Michael N
The Category Test is a well-known neuropsychological instrument used to assess concept formation and higher executive abilities. The present study investigated the utility of additional scores for the Category Test. We used principles developed in cognitive psychology to create several new measures for subtests 5 and 6 of this test. These scores were primarily designed to be sensitive to interference effects of learning decision rules from subtest 2, subtest 3, and subtest 4. The new scores as well as the total error scores from subtests 5 and 6 were used to discriminate subjects with documented brain injury from subjects who were neurologically normal based on neuroimaging and neurologic evaluation. The Category Test was given following Reitan's (1979) instructions, with the exception that no additional prompting was given to participants who struggled early with the test in order to reduce the "executive" guidance of the examiner. Because any "interference" from earlier subtests on performance of subtest 5 and subtest 6 should be related to mastery of these earlier subtests, the normal group was matched to the brain-impaired group on which subtest(s) they learned. This resulted in four learning groups: (a) learned subtests 3 and 4; (b) learned subtest 4 but not 3; (c) learned subtest 3 but not 4; and (d) failed to learn either subtest. ANOVA analyses revealed that the three measures of interference were significantly greater in the brain-damaged group than in the normal controls. Also, specific interference measures were related to specific prior subtest mastery, thus providing support for a proactive interference effect. In addition, we have evidence that our new measures may be selectively sensitive to frontal system dysfunction.
Jain, Reena; Kohli, Sangeeta; Batra, Swaraj
Introduction Various pregnancy complications like hypertension, preeclampsia have been strongly correlated with maternal stress. One of the connecting links between pregnancy complications and maternal stress is mind-body intervention which can be part of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). Biologic measures of stress during pregnancy may get reduced by such interventions. Aim To evaluate the effect of Mindfulness meditation on perceived stress scores and autonomic function tests of pregnant Indian women. Materials and Methods Pregnant Indian women of 12 weeks gestation were randomised to two treatment groups: Test group with Mindfulness meditation and control group with their usual obstetric care. The effect of Mindfulness meditation on perceived stress scores and cardiac sympathetic functions and parasympathetic functions (Heart rate variation with respiration, lying to standing ratio, standing to lying ratio and respiratory rate) were evaluated on pregnant Indian women. Results There was a significant decrease in perceived stress scores, a significant decrease of blood pressure response to cold pressor test and a significant increase in heart rate variability in the test group (p< 0.05, significant) which indicates that mindfulness meditation is a powerful modulator of the sympathetic nervous system and can thereby reduce the day-to-day perceived stress in pregnant women. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that mindfulness meditation improves parasympathetic functions in pregnant women and is a powerful modulator of the sympathetic nervous system during pregnancy. PMID:27190795
Lepkin, Sheila Ratsch; Pryzwansky, Walter B.
Investigated the interrater reliability of teachers' and school psychology externs' scoring of protocols for the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI), using a revised scoring system. Results showed high reliability coefficients for all raters, regardless of the scoring system employed. The influence of rater training is discussed.…
George-Ezzelle, Carol E.; Skaggs, Gary
Current testing standards call for test developers to provide evidence that testing procedures and test scores, and the inferences made based on the test scores, show evidence of validity and are comparable across subpopulations (American Educational Research Association [AERA], American Psychological Association [APA], & National Council on…
McKoon, Gail; Ratcliff, Roger
Millions of adults in the United States lack the necessary literacy skills for most living wage jobs. For students from adult learning classes, we used a lexical decision task to measure their knowledge of words and we used a decision-making model (Ratcliff's, 1978, diffusion model) to abstract the mechanisms underlying their performance from their RTs and accuracy. We also collected scores for each participant on standardized IQ tests and standardized reading tests used commonly in the education literature. We found significant correlations between the model's estimates of the strengths with which words are represented in memory and scores for some of the standardized tests but not others. The findings point to the feasibility and utility of combining a test of word knowledge, lexical decision, that is well-established in psycholinguistic research, a decision-making model that supplies information about underlying mechanisms, and standardized tests. The goal for future research is to use this combination of approaches to understand better how basic processes relate to standardized tests with the eventual aim of understanding what these tests are measuring and what the specific difficulties are for individual, low-literacy adults.
McKoon, Gail; Ratcliff, Roger
Millions of adults in the United States lack the necessary literacy skills for most living wage jobs. For students from adult learning classes, we used a lexical decision task to measure their knowledge of words and we used a decision-making model (Ratcliff’s, 1978, diffusion model) to abstract the mechanisms underlying their performance from their RTs and accuracy. We also collected scores for each participant on standardized IQ tests and standardized reading tests used commonly in the education literature. We found significant correlations between the model’s estimates of the strengths with which words are represented in memory and scores for some of the standardized tests but not others. The findings point to the feasibility and utility of combining a test of word knowledge, lexical decision, that is well-established in psycholinguistic research, a decision-making model that supplies information about underlying mechanisms, and standardized tests. The goal for future research is to use this combination of approaches to understand better how basic processes relate to standardized tests with the eventual aim of understanding what these tests are measuring and what the specific difficulties are for individual, low-literacy adults. PMID:26550803
Ferrando, Mercedes; Ferrándiz, Carmen; Bermejo, María R; Sánchez, Cristina; Parra, Joaquín; Prieto, María D
The present work sets out to study the internal structure of the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT) and to establish standardised scores that will enable the test to be used in both a diagnostic and educational context. 649 students (319 girls and 330 boys), aged 5 to 12 years from various schools in Murcia and Alicante (SE Spain), took part in the study. The findings suggest that the psychometric characteristics of TTCT are satisfactory, and its internal structure can be attributed to three factors that are responsible for a high percentage of the variance (73.8%). The standardised score tables, which are provided for first time in this context, will be useful in the evaluation of creativity and the identification of students with high intellectual abilities.
Brannick, Michael T; Wahi, Monika M; Goldin, Steven B
A sample of 183 medical students completed the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT V2.0). Scores on the test were examined for evidence of reliability and factorial validity. Although Cronbach's alpha for the total scores was adequate (.79), many of the scales had low internal consistency (scale alphas ranged from .34 to .77; median = .48). Previous factor analyses of the MSCEIT are critiqued and the rationale for the current analysis is presented. Both confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses of the MSCEIT item parcels are reported. Pictures and faces items formed separate factors rather than loading on a Perception factor. Emotional Management appeared as a factor, but items from Blends and Facilitation failed to load consistently on any factor, rendering factors for Emotional Understanding and Emotional Facilitation problematic.
Titus, Jeffrey B; Retzlaff, Paul D; Dean, Raymond S
The Halstead Category Test (HCT) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) are two of the most widely used neuropsychological tests. Often assessment conclusions are dependent upon the comparison of these measures. Therefore, it is crucial for clinicians to know how they relate to one another. This study examined the relationship between the HCT and the WAIS-III with undergraduate psychology students. Correlational analyses were conducted between HCT scores and WAIS-III subtests, Verbal and Performance IQ, and Full Scale IQ scores. Additionally, the new WAIS-III scales (Letter-Number Sequencing, Matrix Reasoning, and Symbol Search) were further examined. Regression analyses were run to develop predictor equations for the HCT using VIQ, PIQ, and FSIQ. Finally, predictor tables were generated between the HCT and VIQ, PIQ, and FSIQ to provide assessment of brain dysfunction for clinical use.
Brannigan, Gary G.; Brunner, Nancy A.
Examined two scoring systems for Modified Version of the Bender-Gestalt Test. Administered Bender-Gestalt and Otis-Lennon School Ability Test to 75 first-grade and 84 second-grade students. Both systems were significantly correlated with school ability. Results of tests for differences between correlations indicated that Qualitative Scoring System…
Stevens, Charlotte Bethany Rains
Nationwide, the goal of providing a productive science and math education to our youth in today's educational institutions is centering itself around the technology being utilized in these classrooms. In this age of digital technology, educational software and calculator-based laboratories (CBL) have become significant devices in the teaching of science and math for many states across the United States. Among the technology, the Texas Instruments graphing calculator and Vernier Labpro interface, are among some of the calculator-based laboratories becoming increasingly popular among middle and high school science and math teachers in many school districts across this country. In Tennessee, however, it is reported that this type of technology is not regularly utilized at the student level in most high school science classrooms, especially in the area of Physical Science (Vernier, 2006). This research explored the effect of calculator based laboratory instruction on standardized test scores. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of traditional teaching methods versus graphing calculator teaching methods on the state mandated End-of-Course (EOC) Physical Science exam based on ability, gender, and ethnicity. The sample included 187 total tenth and eleventh grade physical science students, 101 of which belonged to a control group and 87 of which belonged to the experimental group. Physical Science End-of-Course scores obtained from the Tennessee Department of Education during the spring of 2005 and the spring of 2006 were used to examine the hypotheses. The findings of this research study suggested the type of teaching method, traditional or calculator based, did not have an effect on standardized test scores. However, the students' ability level, as demonstrated on the End-of-Course test, had a significant effect on End-of-Course test scores. This study focused on a limited population of high school physical science students in the middle Tennessee
Lee, Ha Neul; Sawnani, Hemant; Horn, Paul S; Rybalsky, Irina; Relucio, Lani; Wong, Brenda L
The Performance of the Upper Limb scale was developed as an outcome measure specifically for ambulant and non-ambulant patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and is implemented in clinical trials needing longitudinal data. The aim of this study is to determine whether this novel tool correlates with functional ability using pulmonary function test, cardiac function test and Egen Klassifikation scale scores as clinical measures. In this cross-sectional study, 43 non-ambulatory Duchenne males from ages 10 to 30 years and on long-term glucocorticoid treatment were enrolled. Cardiac and pulmonary function test results were analyzed to assess cardiopulmonary function, and Egen Klassifikation scores were analyzed to assess functional ability. The Performance of the Upper Limb scores correlated with pulmonary function measures and had inverse correlation with Egen Klassifikation scores. There was no correlation with left ventricular ejection fraction and left ventricular dysfunction. Body mass index and decreased joint range of motion affected total Performance of the Upper Limb scores and should be considered in clinical trial designs.
el Galta, R; van Duijn, C M; van Houwelingen, J C; Houwing-Duistermaat, J J
In genetic epidemiological studies informative families are often oversampled to increase the power of a study. For a proband-family design, where relatives of probands are sampled, we derive the score statistic to test for clustering of binary and quantitative traits within families due to genetic factors. The derived score statistic is robust to ascertainment scheme. We considered correlation due to unspecified genetic effects and/or due to sharing alleles identical by descent (IBD) at observed marker locations in a candidate region. A simulation study was carried out to study the distribution of the statistic under the null hypothesis in small data-sets. To illustrate the score statistic, data from 33 families with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) were analyzed. In addition to the binary outcome DM2 we also analyzed the quantitative outcome, body mass index (BMI). For both traits familial aggregation was highly significant. For DM2, also including IBD sharing at marker D3S3681 as a cause of correlation gave an even more significant result, which suggests the presence of a trait gene linked to this marker. We conclude that for the proband-family design the score statistic is a powerful and robust tool for detecting clustering of outcomes.
Confident that understanding and employing new approaches to assessment is a top priority for admissions professionals, the Secondary School Admission Test Board (SSATB) recently launched a Think Tank on the Future of Admission Assessment, with a two-year timeline and a charge to educate its membership and inspire greater innovation in admissions…
Pohl, Steffi; Südkamp, Anna; Hardt, Katinka; Carstensen, Claus H; Weinert, Sabine
Assessing competencies of students with special educational needs in learning (SEN-L) poses a challenge for large-scale assessments (LSAs). For students with SEN-L, the available competence tests may fail to yield test scores of high psychometric quality, which are-at the same time-measurement invariant to test scores of general education students. We investigated whether we can identify a subgroup of students with SEN-L, for which measurement invariant competence measures of adequate psychometric quality may be obtained with tests available in LSAs. We furthermore investigated whether differences in test-taking behavior may explain dissatisfying psychometric properties and measurement non-invariance of test scores within LSAs. We relied on person fit indices and mixture distribution models to identify students with SEN-L for whom test scores with satisfactory psychometric properties and measurement invariance may be obtained. We also captured differences in test-taking behavior related to guessing and missing responses. As a result we identified a subgroup of students with SEN-L for whom competence scores of adequate psychometric quality that are measurement invariant to those of general education students were obtained. Concerning test taking behavior, there was a small number of students who unsystematically picked response options. Removing these students from the sample slightly improved item fit. Furthermore, two different patterns of missing responses were identified that explain to some extent problems in the assessments of students with SEN-L.
Pohl, Steffi; Südkamp, Anna; Hardt, Katinka; Carstensen, Claus H.; Weinert, Sabine
Assessing competencies of students with special educational needs in learning (SEN-L) poses a challenge for large-scale assessments (LSAs). For students with SEN-L, the available competence tests may fail to yield test scores of high psychometric quality, which are—at the same time—measurement invariant to test scores of general education students. We investigated whether we can identify a subgroup of students with SEN-L, for which measurement invariant competence measures of adequate psychometric quality may be obtained with tests available in LSAs. We furthermore investigated whether differences in test-taking behavior may explain dissatisfying psychometric properties and measurement non-invariance of test scores within LSAs. We relied on person fit indices and mixture distribution models to identify students with SEN-L for whom test scores with satisfactory psychometric properties and measurement invariance may be obtained. We also captured differences in test-taking behavior related to guessing and missing responses. As a result we identified a subgroup of students with SEN-L for whom competence scores of adequate psychometric quality that are measurement invariant to those of general education students were obtained. Concerning test taking behavior, there was a small number of students who unsystematically picked response options. Removing these students from the sample slightly improved item fit. Furthermore, two different patterns of missing responses were identified that explain to some extent problems in the assessments of students with SEN-L. PMID:26941665
Espenshade, Thomas J.; Hale, Lauren E.; Chung, Chang Y.
In this article, the authors test a "frog-pond" model of elite college admission proposed by Attewell, operationalizing high school academic context as the secondary school-average SAT score and number of Advanced Placement tests per high school senior. Data on more than 45,000 applications to three elite universities show that a high…
Schwartz, Sarah M; Evans, Cathy; Agur, Anne M R
Students in health care professional programs face many stressful tests that determine successful completion of their program. Test anxiety during these high stakes examinations can affect working memory and lead to poor outcomes. Methods of decreasing test anxiety include lengthening the time available to complete examinations or evaluating students using untimed examinations. There is currently no consensus in the literature regarding whether untimed examinations provide a benefit to test performance in clinical anatomy. This study aimed to determine the impact of timed versus untimed practical tests on Master of Physical Therapy student anatomy performance and test anxiety. Test anxiety was measured using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Differences in performance, anxiety scores, and time taken were compared using paired sample Student's t-tests. Eighty-one of the 84 students completed the study and provided feedback. Students performed significantly higher on the untimed test (P = 0.005), with a significant reduction in test anxiety (P < 0.001). Students who were unsuccessful on the timed test showed the greatest improvement on the untimed test ( x¯ = 20.4 ±10%). Eighty-three percent (n = 69) of students preferred the untimed test, 8.4% (n = 7) the timed test, and 8.4% (n = 7) had no preference. Students took on average eight minutes longer on the untimed test. This study found that physical therapy students perform better on untimed tests, which may be related to a reduction in test anxiety. If the intended goal of evaluating health care professional students is to determine fundamental competencies, these factors should be considered when designing future curricula.
Lacks, P B; Newport, K
Compared the usefulness of four scoring approaches to the Bender-Gestalt Test (Hain, Hutt-Briskin, Pauker, and number of rotations) on the same sample of 50 mixed, psychiatric inpatients. Also, the accuracy of scorers of varying levels of experience was compared. Twelve different scorers were used representing three levels of expertise: "expert," "typical," and "novice." For a measure of reliability and two measures of diagnostic discrimination the Hutt-Briskin and Pauker systems were more successful than the Hain system or number of rotations. For each scoring system there were no differences in diagnostic accuracy attributable to level of past experience. It was recommended that the findings on the Pauker system be cross-validated before being used in clinical settings.
This research aims to identify current admission criteria and academic performance outcomes in nursing PhD programs. A descriptive exploratory design was used to survey all American Association of Colleges of Nursing PhD programs (N = 110) via a Web-mediated standardized survey; the response rate was 51% (n = 56). Conclusions indicate six diverse yet complementary admission criteria: graduate grade point average (GPA), Graduate Record Examinations ® scores, writing samples, letters of recommendation, interviews, and research match with faculty. Findings also indicated that admission criteria largely lack predictive validity testing in regard to academic performance outcomes and are deficient in internal reliability. Academic performance outcomes included comprehensive examination, ongoing minimum graduate GPA of 3.0, formal dissertation, time to degree attainment, degree attainment, time to candidacy, type of employment after graduation, and publications and grants as a student and at 5 years postgraduation.
An increasing concern of producers of educational assessments is fraudulent behavior during the assessment (van der Linden, 2009). Benefiting from item preknowledge (e.g., Eckerly, 2017; McLeod, Lewis, & Thissen, 2003) is one type of fraudulent behavior. This article suggests two new test statistics for detecting individuals who may have…
Papp, Klara K.; And Others
A study examined whether students beginning a cell biology course with prior knowledge of its three areas (genetics, histology, and biochemistry) would retain that advantage throughout the course and whether achievement was influenced by the order of questions in a test. (MSE)
Stone, Clement A.; Ye, Feifei; Zhu, Xiaowen; Lane, Suzanne
Although reliability of subscale scores may be suspect, subscale scores are the most common type of diagnostic information included in student score reports. This research compared methods for augmenting the reliability of subscale scores for an 8th-grade mathematics assessment. Yen's Objective Performance Index, Wainer et al.'s augmented scores,…
Lin, Peng; Dorans, Neil; Weeks, Jonathan
The nonequivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT) design is frequently used in test score equating or linking. One important assumption of the NEAT design is that the anchor test is a miniversion of the 2 tests to be equated/linked. When the content of the 2 tests is different, it is not possible for the anchor test to be adequately representative…
Reynolds, Matthew R.
The linear loadings of intelligence test composite scores on a general factor ("g") have been investigated recently in factor analytic studies. Spearman's law of diminishing returns (SLODR), however, implies that the "g" loadings of test scores likely decrease in magnitude as g increases, or they are nonlinear. The purpose of…
Yamagishi, Midori; Gillmore, Gerald M.
The relationship of Nelson-Denny Reading Test scores and an English course placement recommendation to academic success of Educational Opportunity Program students at the University of Washington was studied. The placement recommendation was based on a writing sample and test scores. The 207 freshmen students who entered in either 1976 or 1978…
Butler, Oliver T.; And Others
This study tested for cultural bias in the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test. Subjects were 72 black and white patients diagnosed as either brain damaged or psychiatric. Bender protocols were scored by Pascal-Suttell and Hain systems. No race effect appeared except for the Pascal-Suttell system for which blacks scored significantly better. (Author)
Napier, John D.
Support claims that the "Defining Issues Test" of cognitive-moral development cannot be faked higher. Finds that instruction about cognitive-moral development affected the scores of the teacher trainees who were tested. (RL)
Increased correlation coefficient between the written test score and tutors’ performance test scores after training of tutors for assessment of medical students during problem-based learning course in Malaysia
Jaiprakash, Heethal; Min, Aung Ko Ko; Ghosh, Sarmishtha
This paper is aimed at finding if there was a change of correlation between the written test score and tutors’ performance test scores in the assessment of medical students during a problem-based learning (PBL) course in Malaysia. This is a cross-sectional observational study, conducted among 264 medical students in two groups from November 2010 to November 2012. The first group’s tutors did not receive tutor training; while the second group’s tutors were trained in the PBL process. Each group was divided into high, middle and low achievers based on their end-of-semester exam scores. PBL scores were taken which included written test scores and tutors’ performance test scores. Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated between the two kinds of scores in each group. The correlation coefficient between the written scores and tutors’ scores in group 1 was 0.099 (p<0.001) and for group 2 was 0.305 (p<0.001). The higher correlation coefficient in the group where tutors received the PBL training reinforces the importance of tutor training before their participation in the PBL course. PMID:26838577
Increased correlation coefficient between the written test score and tutors' performance test scores after training of tutors for assessment of medical students during problem-based learning course in Malaysia.
Jaiprakash, Heethal; Min, Aung Ko Ko; Ghosh, Sarmishtha
This paper is aimed at finding if there was a change of correlation between the written test score and tutors' performance test scores in the assessment of medical students during a problem-based learning (PBL) course in Malaysia. This is a cross-sectional observational study, conducted among 264 medical students in two groups from November 2010 to November 2012. The first group's tutors did not receive tutor training; while the second group's tutors were trained in the PBL process. Each group was divided into high, middle and low achievers based on their end-of-semester exam scores. PBL scores were taken which included written test scores and tutors' performance test scores. Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated between the two kinds of scores in each group. The correlation coefficient between the written scores and tutors' scores in group 1 was 0.099 (p<0.001) and for group 2 was 0.305 (p<0.001). The higher correlation coefficient in the group where tutors received the PBL training reinforces the importance of tutor training before their participation in the PBL course.
Vaara, Jani P; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Niemi, Jaakko; Ohrankämmen, Olli; Häkkinen, Arja; Kocay, Sheila; Häkkinen, Keijo
The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationships between maximal strength and muscular endurance test scores additionally to previously widely studied measures of body composition and maximal aerobic capacity. 846 young men (25.5 ± 5.0 yrs) participated in the study. Maximal strength was measured using isometric bench press, leg extension and grip strength. Muscular endurance tests consisted of push-ups, sit-ups and repeated squats. An indirect graded cycle ergometer test was used to estimate maximal aerobic capacity (V(O2)max). Body composition was determined with bioelectrical impedance. Moreover, waist circumference (WC) and height were measured and body mass index (BMI) calculated. Maximal bench press was positively correlated with push-ups (r = 0.61, p < 0.001), grip strength (r = 0.34, p < 0.001) and sit-ups (r = 0.37, p < 0.001) while maximal leg extension force revealed only a weak positive correlation with repeated squats (r = 0.23, p < 0.001). However, moderate correlation between repeated squats and V(O2)max was found (r = 0.55, p < 0.001) In addition, BM and body fat correlated negatively with muscular endurance (r = -0.25 - -0.47, p < 0.001), while FFM and maximal isometric strength correlated positively (r = 0.36-0.44, p < 0.001). In conclusion, muscular endurance test scores were related to maximal aerobic capacity and body fat content, while fat free mass was associated with maximal strength test scores and thus is a major determinant for maximal strength. A contributive role of maximal strength to muscular endurance tests could be identified for the upper, but not the lower extremities. These findings suggest that push-up test is not only indicative of body fat content and maximal aerobic capacity but also maximal strength of upper body, whereas repeated squat test is mainly indicative of body fat content and maximal aerobic capacity, but not maximal strength of lower extremities.
Prato, Ermelinda; Biandolino, Francesca; Libralato, Giovanni
This study developed a tool able to evaluate the potential contamination of marine sediments detecting the presence or absence of toxicity supporting environmental decision-making processes. When the sample is toxic, it is important to classify its level of toxicity to understand its subsequent effects and management practices. Corophium insidiosum is a widespread and frequently recorded species along the Mediterranean Sea, North Sea and western Baltic Sea with records also in the Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean. This amphipod is found in high abundance in shallow brackish inshore areas and estuaries also with high turbidity. At Italian level, C. insidiosum is more frequently collectable than Corophium orientale, making routine toxicity tests easier to be performed. Moreover, according to the international scientific literature, C. insidiosum is more sensitive than C. orientale. Whole sediment toxicity data (10 days) with C. insidiosum were organised in a species-specific toxicity score on the basis of the minimum significance difference (MSD) approach. Thresholds to rank samples as non-toxic and toxic were based on sediment samples (n=84) from the Gulf of Taranto (Italy). A five-class toxicity score (absent, low, medium, high and very high toxicity) was developed, considering the distribution of the 90th percentile of the MSD normalised to the effects on the negative controls (samples from reference sites). This toxicity score could be useful for interpreting sediment potential impacts and providing quick responsive management information.
Kim, Ji Eun; Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Yoon Jun; Yoon, Jung Hwan; Kim, Se Hyung; Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn
The purpose of our study was to investigate whether acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography provides better diagnostic performance for diagnosis of chronic liver disease and correlates better with Child-Pugh scores and liver function tests, compared with an ultrasound (US) scoring system based on visual assessment of conventional B-mode US images by experienced radiologists. Five hundred and twenty-one patients with clinically proven chronic liver disease (n = 293), fatty liver (n = 95) or normal liver (n = 133) were included in this study. B-mode liver US and ARFI elastography were performed in all patients. ARFI elastography was performed at least five times, with each measurement obtained at a different area of the right hepatic lobe; mean shear wave velocity (SWV) was calculated for each patient. The mean SWV was compared with US-based scores from two radiologists (based on liver surface nodularity, parenchyma echotexture and hepatic vein contour), Child-Pugh scores and liver function tests. The mean SWV of the normal liver group was 1.08 m/s ± 0.15; of the fatty liver group, 1.02 m/s ± 0.16; and of the chronic liver disease group, 1.66 m/s ± 0.60 (p < 0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve of the mean SWV in ARFI elastography was significantly higher than that of the conventional B-mode US-based scores by two radiologists (0.89 vs. 0.74 and 0.77, p < 0.05), with a sensitivity of 75.4% and a specificity of 89.5% at the cut-off value of 1.22 m/s. The sensitivity of the mean SWV was significantly higher than the US-based scores (p < 0.001), although the specificity was not (p > 0.05). The mean SWV was better correlated with Child-Pugh scores and all liver function tests (except total protein) than the US-based scores from two radiologists. In conclusion, ARFI elastography showed better diagnostic performance than visual assessment of experienced radiologists for diagnosis of chronic liver disease, as well as for
The relationship between selected standardized test scores and performance in advanced placement math and science exams: Analyzing the differential effectiveness of scores for course identification and placement
Urbina, Josue N.
There is a national need to increase the STEM-related workforce. Among factors leading towards STEM careers include the number of advanced high school mathematics and science courses students complete. Florida's enrollment patterns in STEM-related Advanced Placement (AP) courses, however, reveal that only a small percentage of students enroll into these classes. Therefore, screening tools are needed to find more students for these courses, who are academically ready, yet have not been identified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which scores from a national standardized test, Preliminary Scholastic Assessment Test/ National Merit Qualifying Test (PSAT/NMSQT), in conjunction with and compared to a state-mandated standardized test, Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT), are related to selected AP exam performance in Seminole County Public Schools. An ex post facto correlational study was conducted using 6,189 student records from the 2010 - 2012 academic years. Multiple regression analyses using simultaneous Full Model testing showed differential moderate to strong relationships between scores in eight of the nine AP courses (i.e., Biology, Environmental Science, Chemistry, Physics B, Physics C Electrical, Physics C Mechanical, Statistics, Calculus AB and BC) examined. For example, the significant unique contribution to overall variance in AP scores was a linear combination of PSAT Math (M), Critical Reading (CR) and FCAT Reading (R) for Biology and Environmental Science. Moderate relationships for Chemistry included a linear combination of PSAT M, W (Writing) and FCAT M; a combination of FCAT M and PSAT M was most significantly associated with Calculus AB performance. These findings have implications for both research and practice. FCAT scores, in conjunction with PSAT scores, can potentially be used for specific STEM-related AP courses, as part of a systematic approach towards AP course identification and placement. For courses with
Vaca, James L., Jr.
International studies show that the United States is lagging behind other industrialized countries in science proficiency. The studies revealed how American students showed little significant gain on standardized tests in science between 1995 and 2005. Little information is available regarding how reform in American teaching strategies in science could improve student performance on standardized testing. The purpose of this quasi-experimental quantitative study using a pretest/posttest control group design was to examine how the use of a hands-on, constructivist teaching approach with low achieving eighth grade science students affected student achievement on the 2007 Ohio Eighth Grade Science Achievement Test posttest (N = 76). The research question asked how using constructivist teaching strategies in the science classroom affected student performance on standardized tests. Two independent samples of 38 students each consisting of low achieving science students as identified by seventh grade science scores and scores on the Ohio Eighth Grade Science Half-Length Practice Test pretest were used. Four comparisons were made between the control group receiving traditional classroom instruction and the experimental group receiving constructivist instruction including: (a) pretest/posttest standard comparison, (b) comparison of the number of students who passed the posttest, (c) comparison of the six standards covered on the posttest, (d) posttest's sample means comparison. A Mann-Whitney U Test revealed that there was no significant difference between the independent sample distributions for the control group and the experimental group. These findings contribute to positive social change by investigating science teaching strategies that could be used in eighth grade science classes to improve student achievement in science.
General education students consistently perform poorly on standardized science tests. Coteaching is an instructional strategy that improves the achievement of students with disabilities, but very little research exists that examines the effect of coteaching classrooms on the performance of general education students. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of coteaching classrooms on the performance of general education students. The constructivist theoretical framework provided the foundation for this research. The research question examined the effect that coteaching classrooms had on the performance of general education biology students. In this experimental design utilizing a posttest-only control group, coteaching instructional strategy was the treatment, and student performance was measured using the scores obtained from the biology end-of-course test. Data for this study was analyzed using an independent t-test. The results of this study revealed that there was not a statistically significant difference in student performance on the biology end-of-course test between treatment and control groups. More than half of the general education biology students enrolled in coteaching classrooms failed the end-of-course test. Researchers may use this study as a catalyst to examine other instructional practices that may improve student performance in science courses. The results of this study may be used to persuade coteachers of the importance of attending frequent professional development opportunities that examine a variety of coteaching instructional strategies. Improving the performance of general education students in science may improve standardized test scores, afford more students the opportunity to attend college, and ensure that students are able to compete on a global level.
Thompson, Michael; Ellison, Stephen L R; Owen, Linda; Mathieson, Kenneth; Powell, Joanne; Key, Pauline; Wood, Roger; Damant, Andrew P
The study considers data from 2 UK-based proficiency schemes and includes data from a total of 29 rounds and 43 test materials over a period of 3 years. The results from the 2 schemes are similar and reinforce each other. The amplification process used in quantitative polymerase chain reaction determinations predicts a mixture of normal, binomial, and lognormal distributions dominated by the latter 2. As predicted, the study results consistently follow a positively skewed distribution. Log-transformation prior to calculating z-scores is effective in establishing near-symmetric distributions that are sufficiently close to normal to justify interpretation on the basis of the normal distribution.
Lin, Wan-Yu; Schaid, Daniel J
Recently, a genomic distance-based regression for multilocus associations was proposed (Wessel and Schork  Am. J. Hum. Genet. 79:792-806) in which either locus or haplotype scoring can be used to measure genetic distance. Although it allows various measures of genomic similarity and simultaneous analyses of multiple phenotypes, its power relative to other methods for case-control analyses is not well known. We compare the power of traditional methods with this new distance-based approach, for both locus-scoring and haplotype-scoring strategies. We discuss the relative power of these association methods with respect to five properties: (1) the marker informativity; (2) the number of markers; (3) the causal allele frequency; (4) the preponderance of the most common high-risk haplotype; (5) the correlation between the causal single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and its flanking markers. We found that locus-based logistic regression and the global score test for haplotypes suffered from power loss when many markers were included in the analyses, due to many degrees of freedom. In contrast, the distance-based approach was not as vulnerable to more markers or more haplotypes. A genotype counting measure was more sensitive to the marker informativity and the correlation between the causal SNP and its flanking markers. After examining the impact of the five properties on power, we found that on average, the genomic distance-based regression that uses a matching measure for diplotypes was the most powerful and robust method among the seven methods we compared.
OF PSYCHOLOGY UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA - MINNEAPOLIS, MN 55455 This research was supported by funds from the Air Force Office of Scientific Research...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT, TASKAREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS • Department of Psychology P.E.:61153N Proj.:RR042-04...of .06. Test Administration The 30 multiple-choice analogy items chosen were then administered to 299 psychology and biology undergraduate students
Koppitz, Elizabeth Munsterberg
Presented is a manual for scoring the Bender Gestalt Test and the Human Figure Drawing Test for screening and diagnostic uses with emotionally disturbed, brain damaged, or perceptually handicapped 5- to 11-year-old children. Given are suggestions for administering and scoring the Bender test which examines distortion of shape, rotation,…
Lee, Guemin; Park, In-Yong
Previous assessments of the reliability of test scores for testlet-composed tests have indicated that item-based estimation methods overestimate reliability. This study was designed to address issues related to the extent to which item-based estimation methods overestimate the reliability of test scores composed of testlets and to compare several…
Lissauer, Matthew E; Diaz, Jose J; Narayan, Mayur; Shah, Paulesh K; Hanna, Nader N
Intensive care unit (ICU) readmissions are associated with increased resource use. Defining predictors may improve resource use. Surgical ICU patients requiring readmission will have different characteristics than those who do not. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of a prospectively maintained database. The Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) IV quality database identified patients admitted January 1 through December 31, 2011. Patients were divided into groups: NREA = patients admitted to the ICU, discharged, and not readmitted versus REA = patients admitted to the ICU, discharged, and readmitted. Comparisons were made at index admission, not readmission. Categorical variables were compared by Fisher's exact testing and continuous variables by t test. Multivariate logistic regression identified independent predictors of readmission. There were 765 admissions. Seventy-seven patients required readmission 94 times (12.8% rate). Sixty-two patients died on initial ICU admission. Admission severity of illness was significantly higher (APACHE III score: 69.54 ± 21.11 vs 54.88 ± 23.48) in the REA group. Discharge acute physiology scores were equal between groups (47.0 ± 39.2 vs 44.2 ± 34.0, P = nonsignificant). In multivariate analysis, REA patients were more likely admitted to emergency surgery (odds ratio, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.01 ± 3.5) more likely to have a history of immunosuppression (2.7, 1.4 ± 5.3) or higher Acute Physiology Score (1.02; 1.0 ± 1.03) than NREA. Patients who require ICU readmission have a different admission profile than those who do not "bounce back." Understanding these differences may allow for quality improvement projects such as instituting different discharge criteria for different patient populations.
Educational Testing Service, 2008
The Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM], better known as TOEFL[R], is designed to measure the English-language proficiency of people whose native language is not English. TOEFL scores are accepted by more than 6,000 colleges, universities, and licensing agencies in 130 countries. The test is also used by governments, and scholarship and…
Mocelin, Helena; Bueno, Gilberto; Irion, Klaus; Marchiori, Edson; Sarria, Edgar; Watte, Guilherme; Hochhegger, Bruno
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether air trapping (expressed as the percentage of air trapping relative to total lung volume [AT%]) correlates with clinical and functional parameters in children with obliterative bronchiolitis (OB). METHODS: CT scans of 19 children with OB were post-processed for AT% quantification with the use of a fixed threshold of −950 HU (AT%950) and of thresholds selected with the aid of density masks (AT%DM). Patients were divided into three groups by AT% severity. We examined AT% correlations with oxygen saturation (SO2) at rest, six-minute walk distance (6MWD), minimum SO2 during the six-minute walk test (6MWT_SO2), FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, and clinical parameters. RESULTS: The 6MWD was longer in the patients with larger normal lung volumes (r = 0.53). We found that AT%950 showed significant correlations (before and after the exclusion of outliers, respectively) with the clinical score (r = 0.72; 0.80), FVC (r = 0.24; 0.59), FEV1 (r = −0.58; −0.67), and FEV1/FVC (r = −0.53; r = −0.62), as did AT%DM with the clinical score (r = 0.58; r = 0.63), SO2 at rest (r = −0.40; r = −0.61), 6MWT_SO2 (r = −0.24; r = −0.55), FVC (r = −0.44; r = −0.80), FEV1 (r = −0.65; r = −0.71), and FEV1/FVC (r = −0.41; r = −0.52). CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that AT% correlates significantly with clinical scores and pulmonary function test results in children with OB. PMID:24473764
Alidjanov, J F; Abdufattaev, U A; Makhmudov, D Kh; Mirkhamidov, D Kh; Khadzhikhanov, F A; Azgamov, A V; Pilatz, A; Naber, K G; Wagenlehner, F M; Akilov, F A
The Acute Cystitis Symptom Score - ACSS was originally developed in the Uzbek language and has demonstrated high reliability and validity. The study was aimed to develop a Russian version of the ACSS questionnaire and evaluate its psychometric properties. Translation and adaptation of the ACSS questionnaire containing 18 questions, 6 of them - for the typical symptoms of acute cystitis (AC), 4 - for the differential diagnosis; 3 - for the quality of life, and 5 - for the conditions that may affect the choice of treatment, were performed according to the recommendations developed by the Mapi Research Institute. Study involved 83 Russian-speaking women (mean age, 35.6 ±13.7 years); 38 (45.8%) patients were in the main group (patients with AC), and 45 (54.2%) - in the control group (without AC). Medical examination and appropriate treatment of the respondents were conducted in accordance with approved standards. After completing the course of therapy, 19 (50%) patients of the main group came for the control examination. There was statistically significant difference in the scores obtained in the two groups. Score profiles positively correlated with the results of laboratory tests (rho = 0.26-0.48). Cronbach's alpha for the Russian version of the questionnaire was 0.86 (95% CI, 0.81-0.91), area under the curve in the ROC analysis was 0.96. The results of testing the Russian version correspond to those of the original version. The Russian version of the ACSS questionnaire has high. reliability and validity, and can be recommended for clinical research and diagnosis of primary AC, and dynamic monitoring of the effectiveness of the treatment of the Russian-speaking population of patients.
Makransky, Guido; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Glas, Cees A W
Narrowly defined personality facet scores are commonly reported and used for making decisions in clinical and organizational settings. Although these facets are typically related, scoring is usually carried out for a single facet at a time. This method can be ineffective and time consuming when personality tests contain many highly correlated facets. This article investigates the possibility of increasing the precision of the NEO PI-R facet scores by scoring items with multidimensional item response theory and by efficiently administering and scoring items with multidimensional computer adaptive testing (MCAT). The increase in the precision of personality facet scores is obtained from exploiting the correlations between the facets. Results indicate that the NEO PI-R could be substantially shorter without attenuating precision when the MCAT methodology is used. Furthermore, the study shows that the MCAT methodology is particularly appropriate for constructs that have many highly correlated facets.
Roberts, Dennis M.
This study examines a score-difference model for the detection of cheating based on the difference between two scores for an examinee: one based on the appropriate scoring key and another based on an alternative, inappropriate key. It argues that the score-difference method could falsely accuse students as cheaters. (Author/JAZ)
Neelon, Brian; Gelfand, Alan E.; Miranda, Marie Lynn
Summary Researchers in the health and social sciences often wish to examine joint spatial patterns for two or more related outcomes. Examples include infant birth weight and gestational length, psychosocial and behavioral indices, and educational test scores from different cognitive domains. We propose a multivariate spatial mixture model for the joint analysis of continuous individual-level outcomes that are referenced to areal units. The responses are modeled as a finite mixture of multivariate normals, which accommodates a wide range of marginal response distributions and allows investigators to examine covariate effects within subpopulations of interest. The model has a hierarchical structure built at the individual level (i.e., individuals are nested within areal units), and thus incorporates both individual- and areal-level predictors as well as spatial random effects for each mixture component. Conditional autoregressive (CAR) priors on the random effects provide spatial smoothing and allow the shape of the multivariate distribution to vary flexibly across geographic regions. We adopt a Bayesian modeling approach and develop an efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo model fitting algorithm that relies primarily on closed-form full conditionals. We use the model to explore geographic patterns in end-of-grade math and reading test scores among school-age children in North Carolina. PMID:26401059
Breen, M J
32 elementary-aged boys enrolled in a program for the emotionally disturbed were administered the Revised Beery and Bender-Gestalt. A significant correlation of .73 was found between Beery and Bender age-equivalent scores. A t test for correlated data indicated mean scores did not differ significantly from one another, but scores were quite varied. The implications of such variability are discussed.
Lang, Jonas W B; Lang, Jessica
Researchers disagree whether the correlation between cognitive test anxiety and test performance is causal or explainable by skill deficits, which lead to both cognitive test anxiety and lower test performance. Most causal theories of test anxiety assume that individual differences in cognitive test anxiety originate from differences in self-perceived competence. Accordingly, in the present research, we sought to temporarily heighten perceptions of competence using a priming intervention. Two studies with secondary- and vocational-school students (Ns = 219 and 232, respectively) contrasted this intervention with a no-priming control condition. Priming competence diminished the association between cognitive test anxiety and test performance by heightening the performance of cognitively test-anxious students and by lowering the performance of students with low levels of cognitive test anxiety. The findings suggest that cognitively test-anxious persons have greater abilities than they commonly show. Competency priming may offer a way to improve the situation of people with cognitive test anxiety.
DeCato, C M; Meldrum, D
The Bender-Gestalt test has been one of the most popular clinical instruments for the past four decades. Much controversy has surrounded the use of this test as a screening instrument for organicity (brain dysfunction). Marley's Differential Diagnostic Scoring System was recently developed to improve the validity of the test for detecting organicity. The original standardization of the system reported very high interrater reliability. To provide an independent assessment of interscorer reliability, three raters were trained in the system and separately rated 40 protocols. Kappa coefficients for the three raters ranged from .94 to .98. Substantial interscorer reliability was obtained, Mdn = 92.5% for specific scores with three scores attaining 100% agreement, although some values were lower. These results suggest that there is a strong empirical basis for the scoring system and encourage further refinement of the scoring system to reflect central nervous system dysfunction.
Ye, Xiang; Gao, Weihua; Yan, Yanjun; Osadciw, Lisa A.
Wind is an important renewable energy source. The energy and economic return from building wind farms justify the expensive investments in doing so. However, without an effective monitoring system, underperforming or faulty turbines will cause a huge loss in revenue. Early detection of such failures help prevent these undesired working conditions. We develop three tests on power curve, rotor speed curve, pitch angle curve of individual turbine. In each test, multiple states are defined to distinguish different working conditions, including complete shut-downs, under-performing states, abnormally frequent default states, as well as normal working states. These three tests are combined to reach a final conclusion, which is more effective than any single test. Through extensive data mining of historical data and verification from farm operators, some state combinations are discovered to be strong indicators of spindle failures, lightning strikes, anemometer faults, etc, for fault detection. In each individual test, and in the score fusion of these tests, we apply multidimensional scaling (MDS) to reduce the high dimensional feature space into a 3-dimensional visualization, from which it is easier to discover turbine working information. This approach gains a qualitative understanding of turbine performance status to detect faults, and also provides explanations on what has happened for detailed diagnostics. The state-of-the-art SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) system in industry can only answer the question whether there are abnormal working states, and our evaluation of multiple states in multiple tests is also promising for diagnostics. In the future, these tests can be readily incorporated in a Bayesian network for intelligent analysis and decision support.
Bielinski, John; Thurlow, Martha; Minnema, Jane; Scott, Jim
This report is a review and analysis of the psychometric literature on the topic of out-of-level testing. Out-of-level testing refers to the practice of using a level of the test other than the test taken by most of the students in a student's current grade level. Much of the research on out-of-level testing was conducted in the 1970s and 1980s,…
Rogers, Rex S.
Data are presented which show the degree to which specific prior exposure to a learning situation (Junior Kindergarten) is reflected in the scores of children who had this experience compared to a group of their peers who did not. Scores obtained in Senior Kindergarten on the Draw-a-Classroom Test (DAC) are used as the measurement method. The…
Bolen, Larry M.; And Others
Examined use of Bender Gestalt Visual-Motor Test with school-age adolescents over age 11. Mean error scores suggest that visual-motor development is not maturationally complete by age 11 years, 11 months. Suggests additional research focusing on extending normative sample or developing new scoring system for adolescents. (Author/NB)
Nomi, Takako; Allensworth, Elaine M.
In 2003, Chicago schools required students entering ninth grade with below-average math scores to take two periods of algebra. This led to higher test scores for students with both above- and below-average skills, yet failure rates increased for above-average students. We examine the mechanisms behind these surprising results. Sorting by incoming…
Stevenson, Rosnisha D.; Kritsonis, William Allan
This article will seek to utilize Dr. William Allan Kritsonis' book "Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning" (2007) as a framework to improve a campus's standardized test scores, more specifically, their TAKS (Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills) scores. Many campuses have an improvement plan, also known as a Campus…
Jiao, Hong; Liu, Junhui; Haynie, Kathleen; Woo, Ada; Gorham, Jerry
This study explored the impact of partial credit scoring of one type of innovative items (multiple-response items) in a computerized adaptive version of a large-scale licensure pretest and operational test settings. The impacts of partial credit scoring on the estimation of the ability parameters and classification decisions in operational test…
Weigle, Sara Cushing
Automated scoring has the potential to dramatically reduce the time and costs associated with the assessment of complex skills such as writing, but its use must be validated against a variety of criteria for it to be accepted by test users and stakeholders. This study approaches validity by comparing human and automated scores on responses to…
ZIMMERMAN, DONALD W.; BURKHEIMER, GRAHAM J., JR.
INVESTIGATION IS CONTINUED INTO VARIOUS EFFECTS OF NON-INDEPENDENT ERROR INTRODUCED INTO MULTIPLE-CHOICE TEST SCORES AS A RESULT OF CHANCE GUESSING SUCCESS. A MODEL IS DEVELOPED IN WHICH THE CONCEPT OF THEORETICAL COMPONENTS OF SCORES IS NOT INTRODUCED AND IN WHICH, THEREFORE, NO ASSUMPTIONS REGARDING ANY RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SUCH COMPONENTS NEED…
Pearson, Virginia L.
This study investigated correlations between the Qualitative score of the Porteus Maze Test and age and rates of recidivism of correctional institution inmates. In addition, the study was structured to provide answers to the following questions: (1) Is there a relationship between age and rates of recidivism and the Conformity-Variability score of…
Makransky, Guido; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Glas, Cees A. W.
Narrowly defined personality facet scores are commonly reported and used for making decisions in clinical and organizational settings. Although these facets are typically related, scoring is usually carried out for a single facet at a time. This method can be ineffective and time consuming when personality tests contain many highly correlated…
Holdzkom, David; Sumner, Brian; McMillen, Brad
In the context of standardized testing, the standard error of measurement (SEM) is a measure of the factors other than the student's actual knowledge of the tested material that may affect the student's test score. Such factors may include distractions in the testing environment, fatigue, hunger, or even luck. This means that a student's observed…
Page, Purlie M.
At the local level, G Middle School has the highest district-wide percentage of 6th grade science students who are not meeting standards. It is imperative that G middle school take corrective action to reduce the number of students failing to meet state science standards. Dewey's theory of conceptual framework, which involves knowledge constructed on a person's personal experience and mind activity through active forms of learning, guided this study. The goal of the study was to determine whether inquiry-based science modules produce greater 6th grade science achievement, as measured by an equivalent instrument of the science section of the Georgia Criterion-Referenced Competency Test, when compared to traditional instruction among eastern Georgia 6th graders. The sample consisted of 230 students in the nonintervention group and 119 students in the intervention group. All students were from intact classes. At the end of the intervention, an independent t test was conducted to analyze the scores. According to the study t test, (t = 12.33, df = 304.56, p < 0.05), the difference between the means was statistically significant. This project's potential impact on social change includes increasing student motivation towards, comprehension of, and interest in science concepts. At the local level, these inquiry lessons can be shared with science teachers across grade levels and within the district to improve county-wide science scores. An increase in student interest and comprehension of science concepts could ultimately lead to the United States producing more students in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education.
The admissions process is awash in numbers. Students accumulate grade-point averages and test scores. Colleges use statistical models to predict enrollment outcomes, and they tout their place in commercial rankings. In many ways, numbers simplify this complex enterprise. However, they have come to carry undue weight, says Martha Blevins Allman,…
Anderson, Amie K.
The purpose of this study was to determine if significant relationships exist for any of the variables, age, gender, previous GPA, test scores (ACT, Compass), number of accumulated credits, and student success in Biology. This study strived to determine what academic/admissions data can be used to determine the likelihood of student success in…
Briihl, Deborah S.; Wasieleski, David T.
This study summarizes the admission and program characteristics of American master's-level graduate programs housed in psychology departments. Individual programs (N = 253) from 163 colleges and universities provided data, including the use of grade point average, Graduate Record Exam scores, and other tests (Psychology Graduate Record Exam,…
Willingham, Warren W.
The purpose of the study was to compare college admission decisions concerning handicapped and nonhandicapped applicants with comparable Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores and high school grades (HSG). The study focused on 1,539 handicapped students who applied to 121 institutions that participated in the College Entrance Examination Board's…
Treviño, Ernesto; Scheele, Judith; Flores, Stella M.
Using both quantitative and qualitative analyses, we examine the role of a college access intervention in the enrollment and persistence outcomes of low-income students in Chile modeled partially after a Texas admissions program. We find that, although students from the program have a mean cumulative GPA significantly lower than that of their…
Roxanne Prichard, J
Each year over 50,000 college students and alumni take the Medical College Admissions Test® (MCAT) and apply for admissions to medical school. After an extensive review process, the MCAT has undergone a major revision in form and content in order to better reflect the competencies medical students will need to be successful in their training and practice. Starting in April 2015, for the first time since the test's inception, the MCAT will include social and behavioral sciences content. The new section of the MCAT exam titled "The Psychological, Social and Biological Foundations of Behavior" will test pre-health competencies that combine content knowledge with scientific inquiry and reasoning skills. Anticipating growing interest in curriculum related to the new competency based content on the exam, the AAMC (Association of American Medical Colleges) established the Pre-health Collection within MedEdPORTAL's iCollaborative, a free repository of teaching resources. This online space gives faculty members the opportunity to share access to instructional resources in order to prepare or revise courses to include pre-health competencies. As a result of the increased content related to mind-body connections, undergraduate pre-medical students will be more likely to enroll in neuroscience courses to learn these competencies, or declare neuroscience majors, as the typical neuroscience major course requirements now meet most of the suggested pre-requisite competencies for medical school.
Zain, Zakiyah; Aziz, Nazrina; Ahmad, Yuhaniz; Azwan, Zairul; Raduan, Farhana; Sagap, Ismail
Colorectal cancer is the third and the second most common cancer worldwide in men and women respectively, and the second in Malaysia for both genders. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are among the options available for treatment of patients with colorectal cancer. In clinical trials, the main purpose is often to compare efficacy between experimental and control treatments. Treatment comparisons often involve several responses or endpoints, and this situation complicates the analysis. In the case of colorectal cancer, sets of responses concerned with survival times include: times from tumor removal until the first, the second and the third tumor recurrences, and time to death. For a patient, the time to recurrence is correlated to the overall survival. In this study, global score test methodology is used in combining the univariate score statistics for comparing treatments with respect to each survival endpoint into a single statistic. The data of tumor recurrence and overall survival of colorectal cancer patients are taken from a Malaysian hospital. The results are found to be similar to those computed using the established Wei, Lin and Weissfeld method. Key factors such as ethnic, gender, age and stage at diagnose are also reported.
Zain, Zakiyah Ahmad, Yuhaniz; Azwan, Zairul E-mail: email@example.com Raduan, Farhana E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Sagap, Ismail E-mail: email@example.com; Aziz, Nazrina
Colorectal cancer is the third and the second most common cancer worldwide in men and women respectively, and the second in Malaysia for both genders. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are among the options available for treatment of patients with colorectal cancer. In clinical trials, the main purpose is often to compare efficacy between experimental and control treatments. Treatment comparisons often involve several responses or endpoints, and this situation complicates the analysis. In the case of colorectal cancer, sets of responses concerned with survival times include: times from tumor removal until the first, the second and the third tumor recurrences, and time to death. For a patient, the time to recurrence is correlated to the overall survival. In this study, global score test methodology is used in combining the univariate score statistics for comparing treatments with respect to each survival endpoint into a single statistic. The data of tumor recurrence and overall survival of colorectal cancer patients are taken from a Malaysian hospital. The results are found to be similar to those computed using the established Wei, Lin and Weissfeld method. Key factors such as ethnic, gender, age and stage at diagnose are also reported.
Alves, Lara; Simões, Mário R; Martins, Cristina; Freitas, Sandra; Santana, Isabel
Cognitive screening tests are well-established tools for detecting cognitive impairment, but concerns regarding the influence of premorbid intelligence on patient's performance and cognitive status classification remain. Risk of inaccurate assessment especially affects the elders with high or low premorbid intelligence (who are more likely to be misclassified). The present study examines the influence of premorbid intelligence assessed by the TeLPI (an irregular words reading test) on 2 cognitive screening tests, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), in healthy participants and patients with cognitive impairments (mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease). Results show that premorbid IQ influences the MMSE and the MoCA scores in both the groups, predicting variance from 8.4% to 33.2%, according to test and group analyzed. Hence, we propose that whenever the MMSE or the MoCA is used, premorbid IQ evaluation should also be considered to ensure correct interpretation and classification.
Han, Summer S.; Rosenberg, Philip S.; Ghosh, Arpita; Landi, Marisa Teresa; Caporaso, Neil E.; Chatterjee, Nilanjan
1. Summary Current methods for detecting genetic associations lack full consideration of the background effects of environmental exposures. Recently proposed methods to account for environmental exposures have focused on logistic regressions with gene-environment interactions. In this report, we developed a test for genetic association, encompassing a broad range of risk models, including linear, logistic and probit, for specifying joint effects of genetic and environmental exposures. We obtained the test statistics by maximizing over a class of score tests, each of which involves modified standard tests of genetic association through a weight function. This weight function reflects the potential heterogeneity of the genetic effects by levels of environmental exposures under a particular model. Simulation studies demonstrate the robust power of these methods for detecting genetic associations under a wide range of scenarios. Applications of these methods are further illustrated using data from genome-wide association studies of type 2 diabetes with body mass index and of lung cancer risk with smoking. PMID:26134142
Lopez, Michael N; Perez, Jose J; Smith, Whitney E; Castillo, Wendy
Criterion-referenced (Livingston r) and norm-referenced (Gilmer-Feldt r and Coefficient Alpha) techniques were used to calculate the internal consistency reliability of the Bender-Gestalt Test (BGT) Total Score using the 12-item Lacks system of scoring. Livingston's r was found to be .825 for the Lacks BGT cutoff score of 5. The Gilmer-Feldt and alpha coefficients for the Lacks Total Score was found to be .644 and .626, respectively. An item analysis showed that most of the BGT items (9 out of 12) were within established criteria for item difficulty, however, 7 items were found to be poor discriminators. The interscorer reliabilities based on three scorers, two scorers, and a single scorer was found to be .895, .852, and .740, respectively. Due to the low reliabilities and several inherent flaws that were identified with the Lacks scoring system, the authors recommend that users of the BGT consider alternative objective scoring systems.
Marsh, Herbert W; Trautwein, Ulrich; Lüdtke, Oliver; Köller, Olaf; Baumert, Jürgen
Reciprocal effects models of longitudinal data show that academic self-concept is both a cause and an effect of achievement. In this study this model was extended to juxtapose self-concept with academic interest. Based on longitudinal data from 2 nationally representative samples of German 7th-grade students (Study 1: N = 5,649, M age = 13.4; Study 2: N = 2,264, M age = 13.7 years), prior self-concept significantly affected subsequent math interest, school grades, and standardized test scores, whereas prior math interest had only a small effect on subsequent math self-concept. Despite stereotypic gender differences in means, linkages relating these constructs were invariant over gender. These results demonstrate the positive effects of academic self-concept on a variety of academic outcomes and integrate self-concept with the developmental motivation literature.
Sullivan, Jeremy R.; Winter, Suzanne M.; Sass, Daniel A.; Svenkerud, Nicole
Many tests provide users with several different types of scores to facilitate interpretation and description of students' performance. Common examples include raw scores, age- and grade-equivalent scores, and standard scores. However, when used within the context of assessing growth among young children, these scores should not be interchangeable…
van Lieshout, Remko; Reijneveld, Elja A.E.; van den Berg, Sandra M.; Haerkens, Gijs M.; Koenders, Niek H.; de Leeuw, Arina J.; van Oorsouw, Roel G.; Paap, Davy; Scheffer, Else; Weterings, Stijn
ABSTRACT Background The mSEBT is a screening tool used to evaluate dynamic balance. Most research investigating measurement properties focused on intrarater reliability and was done in small samples. To know whether the mSEBT is useful to discriminate dynamic balance between persons and to evaluate changes in dynamic balance, more research into intra- and interrater reliability and smallest detectable change (synonymous with minimal detectable change) is needed. Purpose To estimate intra- and interrater reliability and smallest detectable change of the mSEBT in adults at risk for ankle sprain. Study Design Cross-sectional, test-retest design Methods Fifty-five healthy young adults participating in sports at risk for ankle sprain participated (mean ± SD age, 24.0 ± 2.9 years). Each participant performed three test sessions within one hour and was rated by two physical therapists (session 1, rater 1; session 2, rater 2; session 3, rater 1). Participants and raters were blinded for previous measurements. Normalized composite and reach direction scores for the right and left leg were collected. Analysis of variance was used to calculate intraclass correlation coefficient values for intra- and interrater reliability. Smallest detectable change values were calculated based on the standard error of measurement. Results Intra- and interrater reliability for both legs was good to excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient ranging from 0.87 to 0.94). The intrarater smallest detectable change for the composite score of the right leg was 7.2% and for the left 6.2%. The interrater smallest detectable change for the composite score of the right leg was 6.9% and for the left 5.0%. Conclusion The mSEBT is a reliable measurement instrument to discriminate dynamic balance between persons. Most smallest detectable change values of the mSEBT appear to be large. More research is needed to investigate if the mSEBT is usable for evaluative purposes. Level of Evidence Level 2
Mergener, Michael A.
This study compares the scores optometrists obtained on a pharmacology examination with years since licensure and type of continuing education participation preceding the examination. Recent licensees scored better than those licensed before 1953. Continuing education activity also promoted better scores. (CT)
Kieffer, WKM; Michalik, DV; Gallagher, K; McFadyen, I; Bernard, J; Rogers, BA
Introduction Trauma is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the UK. Since the inception of the trauma networks, little is known of the temporal pattern of trauma admissions. Methods Trauma Audit and Research Network data for 1 April 2011 to 31 March 2013 were collated from two large major trauma centres (MTCs) in the South East of England: Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust (BSUH) and St George's University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (SGU). The number of admissions and the injury severity score by time of admission, by weekdays versus weekend and by month/season were analysed. Results There were 1,223 admissions at BSUH and 1,241 at SGU. There was significant variation by time of admission; there were more admissions in the afternoons (BSUH p<0.001) and evenings (SGU p<0.001). There were proportionally more admissions at the weekends than on weekdays (BSUH p<0.001, SGU p=0.028). There was significant seasonal variation in admissions at BSUH (p<0.001) with more admissions in summer and autumn. No significant seasonal variation was observed at SGU (p=0.543). Conclusions The temporal patterns observed were different for each MTC with important implications for resource planning of trauma care. This study identified differing needs for different MTCs and resource planning should be individualised to the network. PMID:26741676
Rudner, Lawrence M.; Garcia, Veronica; Welch, Catherine
This report provides a two-part evaluation of the IntelliMetric[SM] automated essay scoring system based on its performance scoring essays from the Analytic Writing Assessment of the Graduate Management Admission Test[TM] (GMAT[TM]). The IntelliMetric system performance is first compared to that of individual human raters, a Bayesian system…
Beer, J; Fleming, P
The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency--Short Form (8 subtests and 15 motor skill activities) was administered individually to 28 students. Multivariate analysis of variance showed no association with differences in eye color. There were two significant sex differences on univariate F tests; boys scored better at standing broad jump than girls, while girls scored better at standing on one leg and drawing a straight line than boys.
This paper describes the TSCA interagency testing committee`s (ITC) approaches to screening and scoring chemicals and chemical groups between 1977 and 1983. During this time the ITC conducted five scoring exercises to select chemicals and chemical groups for detailed review and to determine which of these chemicals and chemical groups should be added to the TSCA Section 4(e) Priority Testing List. 29 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.
Hill, Carolyn Stevens
The effect of the standardized test scores of transient students on the mean of the 9th, 10th, and 11th grade standardized test scores of a school was studied. The groups used in the study were grades 9, 10, and 11 at a new high school in Clarksburg (West Virginia). The study was conducted in the spring of 1998. Groups consisted of 204 9th…
included scores from the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) and the Graduate Management Admissions Test ( GMAT ), undergraduate cumulative and math grade point...measures of the applicant’s time in military service. Predictive models were developed using stepwise linear regression. This research found the GMAT is more...the GMAT Verbal score, UGPA, and a dichotomous indicator of prior service as a member of the military enlisted corps.
Fang, Hongyan; Zhang, Hong; Yang, Yaning
Genome-wide association study (GWAS) has achieved great success in identifying genetic variants, but the nature of GWAS has determined its inherent limitations. Under the common disease rare variants (CDRV) hypothesis, the traditional association analysis methods commonly used in GWAS for common variants do not have enough power for detecting rare variants with a limited sample size. As a solution to this problem, pooling rare variants by their functions provides an efficient way for identifying susceptible genes. Rare variant typically have low frequencies of minor alleles, and the distribution of the total number of minor alleles of the rare variants can be approximated by a Poisson distribution. Based on this fact, we propose a new test method, the Poisson Approximation-based Score Test (PAST), for association analysis of rare variants. Two testing methods, namely, ePAST and mPAST, are proposed based on different strategies of pooling rare variants. Simulation results and application to the CRESCENDO cohort data show that our methods are more powerful than the existing methods.
Arthur, Michael W.; Brown, Eric C.; Briney, John S.; Hawkins, J. David; Abbott, Robert D.; Catalano, Richard F.; Becker, Linda; Langer, Michael; Mueller, Martin T.
BACKGROUND School administrators and teachers face difficult decisions about how best to use school resources in order to meet academic achievement goals. Many are hesitant to adopt prevention curricula that are not focused directly on academic achievement. Yet, some have hypothesized that prevention curricula can remove barriers to learning and, thus, promote achievement. This study examined relationships between school levels of student substance use and risk and protective factors that predict adolescent problem behaviors and achievement test performance in Washington State. METHODS Hierarchical Generalized Linear Models were used to examine predictive associations between school-averaged levels of substance use and risk and protective factors and Washington State students’ likelihood of meeting achievement test standards on the Washington Assessment of Student Learning, statistically controlling for demographic and economic factors known to be associated with achievement. RESULTS Results indicate that levels of substance use and risk/protective factors predicted the academic test score performance of students. Many of these effects remained significant even after controlling for model covariates. CONCLUSIONS The findings suggest that implementing prevention programs that target empirically identified risk and protective factors have the potential to positively affect students’ academic achievement. PMID:26149305
Zhong, Ming; Lange, Kenneth; Papp, Jeanette C; Fan, Ruzong
One of the surest signatures of recent positive selection is a local elevation of advantageous allele frequency and linkage disequilibrium (LD). We proposed to detect such hitchhiking effects by using extended stretches of homozygosity as a surrogate indicator of recent positive selection. An extended haplotype-based homozygosity score test (EHHST) was developed to detect excess homozygosity. The EHHST conditioned on existing LD and it tested the haplotype version of the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. Compared with existing popular tests, which usually lack clear distribution, the EHHST is asymptotically normal, which makes analysis and applications easier. In particular, the EHHST facilitates the computation of an asymptotic P-value instead of an empirical P-value, using simulations. We evaluated by simulation that the EHHST led to appropriate false-positive rates, and it had higher or similar power as the existing popular methods. The method was applied to HapMap Phase II data. We were able to replicate previous findings of strong positive selection in 17 autosome genomic regions out of 20 reported candidates. On the basis of high EHHST values and population differentiations, we identified 15 new candidate regions that could undergo recent selection. PMID:20461112
Fujimoto, Shinichiro; Kondo, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Hideya; Yokoyama, Naoyuki; Tarutani, Yasuhiro; Takamura, Kazuhisa; Urabe, Yoji; Konno, Kumiko; Nishizaki, Yuji; Shinozaki, Tomohiro; Kihara, Yasuki; Daida, Hiroyuki; Isshiki, Takaaki; Takase, Shinichi
Existing methods to calculate pre-test probability of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) have been established using selected high-risk patients who were referred to conventional coronary angiography. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate our new method for pre-test probability of obstructive CAD using patients who underwent coronary CT angiography (CTA), which could be applicable to a wider range of patient population. Using consecutive 4137 patients with suspected CAD who underwent coronary CTA at our institution, a multivariate logistic regression model including clinical factors as covariates calculated the pre-test probability (K-score) of obstructive CAD determined by coronary CTA. The K-score was compared with the Duke clinical score using the area under the curve (AUC) for the receiver-operating characteristic curve. External validation was performed by an independent sample of 319 patients. The final model included eight significant predictors: age, gender, coronary risk factor (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, smoking), history of cerebral infarction, and chest symptom. The AUC of the K-score was significantly greater than that of the Duke clinical score for both derivation (0.736 vs. 0.699) and validation (0.714 vs. 0.688) data sets. Among patients who underwent coronary CTA, newly developed K-score had better pre-test prediction ability of obstructive CAD compared to Duke clinical score in Japanese population.
Moser, Rosemarie Scolaro; Schatz, Philip; Grosner, Emily; Kollias, Kelly
How often youth athletes 10-12 years of age should undergo neurocognitive baseline testing remains an unanswered question. We sought to examine the test-retest reliability of annual ImPACT data in a sample of middle school athletes. Participants were 30 youth athletes, ages 10-12 years (Mean = 11.6, SD = 0.6) selected from a larger database of 10-18 year old athletes, who completed two consecutive annual baseline evaluations using the online version of ImPACT. Athlete assent and parental consent were obtained for all participants. Assessments were conducted either individually or in small groups of 2 to 3 athletes, under the supervision of a neuropsychologist or post-doctoral fellow. Test-retest coefficients were as follows: Verbal Memory .71, Visual Memory .35, Visual Motor Speed .69, Reaction Time .34. Intra-class Correlation Coefficients (single/average) were as follows: Verbal Memory .70/.83, Visual Memory .35/.52, Visual Motor Speed .69/.82, Reaction Time .34/.50. Regression-based measures to correct for practice effects revealed that only a small percentage of cases fell outside 90 and 95% confidence intervals, reflecting stability across assessments. Findings indicate that test-retest reliability of Verbal Memory and Visual Motor Speed are generally stable in 10-12 year old athletes. Nevertheless, Visual Memory Index, Reaction Time Index, and Symptom Checklist scores appear to be less reliable over time, especially compared to published data on high school athletes, suggesting the utility of re-testing on an annual basis in this younger age group.
Retrospective study on prognostic importance of serum procalcitonin and amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels as compared to Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IV Score on Intensive Care Unit admission, in a mixed Intensive Care Unit population
Mehta, Chitra; Dara, Babita; Mehta, Yatin; Tariq, Ali M.; Joby, George V.; Singh, Manish K.
Background: Timely decision making in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is very essential to improve the outcome of critically sick patients. Conventional scores like Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE IV) are quite cumbersome with calculations and take minimum 24 hours. Procalcitonin has shown to have prognostic value in ICU/Emergency department (ED) in disease states like pneumonia, sepsis etc. NTproBNP has demonstrated excellent diagnostic and prognostic importance in cardiac diseases. It has also been found elevated in non-cardiac diseases. We chose to study the prognostic utility of these markers on ICU admission. Settings and Design: Retrospective observational study. Materials and Methods: A Retrospective analysis of 100 eligible patients was done who had undergone PCT and NTproBNP measurements on ICU admission. Their correlations with all cause mortality, length of hospital stay, need for ventilator support, need for vasopressors were performed. Results: Among 100 randomly selected ICU patients, 28 were non-survivors. NTproBNP values on admission significantly correlated with all cause mortality (P = 0.036, AUC = 0.643) and morbidity (P = 0.000, AUC = 0.763), comparable to that of APACHE-IV score. PCT values on admission did not show significant association with mortality, but correlated well with morbidity and prolonged hospital length of stay (AUC = 0.616, P = 0.045). Conclusion: The current study demonstrated a good predictive value of NTproBNP, in terms of mortality and morbidity comparable to that of APACHE-IV score. Procalcitonin, however, was found to have doubtful prognostic importance. These findings need to be confirmed in a prospective larger study. PMID:27052066
Noeth, Richard J.
Test results (1968-1977) on the English and mathematics achievement subtests of the Washington Precollege Test (WPC), administered annually to the vast majority of college bound students in the state of Washington, were examined for evidence of test score decline. The following information from 300,000 students was analyzed by both sex and total…
Kim, Kyung Hee
There is disagreement among researchers about whether IQ tests or divergent thinking (DT) tests are better predictors of creative achievement. Resolving this dispute is complicated by the fact that some research has shown a relationship between IQ and DT test scores (e.g., Runco & Albert, 1986; Wallach, 1970). The present study conducted…
Malda, Maike; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Temane, Q. Michael
In this study, cross-cultural differences in cognitive test scores are hypothesized to depend on a test's cultural complexity (Cultural Complexity Hypothesis: CCH), here conceptualized as its content familiarity, rather than on its cognitive complexity (Spearman's Hypothesis: SH). The content familiarity of tests assessing short-term memory,…
Koide, Takayoshi; Aleksic, Branko; Kikuchi, Tsutomu; Banno, Masahiro; Kohmura, Kunihiro; Adachi, Yasunori; Kawano, Naoko; Iidaka, Tetsuya; Ozaki, Norio
Aim. Cognitive impairment in schizophrenia strongly relates to social outcome and is a good candidate for endophenotypes. When we accurately measure drug efficacy or effects of genes or variants relevant to schizophrenia on cognitive impairment, clinical factors that can affect scores on cognitive tests, such as age and severity of symptoms, should be considered. To elucidate the effect of clinical factors, we conducted multiple regression analysis using scores of the Continuous Performance Test Identical Pairs Version (CPT-IP), which is often used to measure attention/vigilance in schizophrenia. Methods. We conducted the CPT-IP (4-4 digit) and examined clinical information (sex, age, education years, onset age, duration of illness, chlorpromazine-equivalent dose, and Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS) scores) in 126 schizophrenia patients in Japanese population. Multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the effect of clinical factors. Results. Age, chlorpromazine-equivalent dose, and PANSS-negative symptom score were associated with mean d' score in patients. These three clinical factors explained about 28% of the variance in mean d' score. Conclusions. As conclusion, CPT-IP score in schizophrenia patients is influenced by age, chlorpromazine-equivalent dose and PANSS negative symptom score.
Alster, E H
The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of extended time on the algebra test performance of community college students with and without learning disabilities. Forty-four students with learning disabilities and 44 students without learning disabilities attending five California community colleges participated in the study. The students each took an algebra test under timed conditions and a comparable test under extended-time conditions. The main results were that the students with learning disabilities scored significantly lower than the students without learning disabilities under timed conditions, the scores of the students with learning disabilities increased significantly with extended time, and the scores of the students with learning disabilities under extended-time conditions did not differ significantly from the timed or extended-time scores of the students without learning disabilities.
Bodenburg, Sebastian; Dopslaff, Nina
The Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX, , Behavioral assessment of the dysexecutive syndrome, 1996) is a standardized instrument to measure possible behavioral changes as a result of the dysexecutive syndrome. Although initially intended only as a qualitative instrument, the DEX has also been used increasingly to address quantitative problems. Until now there have not been more fundamental statistical analyses of the questionnaire's testing quality. The present study is based on an unselected sample of 191 patients with acquired brain injury and reports on the data relating to the quality of the items, the reliability and the factorial structure of the DEX. Item 3 displayed too great an item difficulty, whereas item 11 was not sufficiently discriminating. The DEX's reliability in self-rating is r = 0.85. In addition to presenting the statistical values of the tests, a clinical severity classification of the overall scores of the 4 found factors and of the questionnaire as a whole is carried out on the basis of quartile standards.
Shultz, Marjorie M.; Zedeck, Sheldon
Standardized tests have been increasingly controversial over recent years in high-stakes admission decisions. Their role in operationalizing definitions of merit and qualification is especially contested, but in law schools this challenge has become particularly intense. Law schools have relied on the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) and an INDEX…
Deke, John; Dragoset, Lisa; Moore, Ravaris
In randomized controlled trials (RCTs) where the outcome is a student-level, study-collected test score, a particularly valuable piece of information is a study-collected baseline score from the same or similar test (a pre-test). Pre-test scores can be used to increase the precision of impact estimates, conduct subgroup analysis, and reduce bias…