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Sample records for admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent

  1. Pharmacogenomics in admixed populations.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme

    2005-04-01

    Personalized drug therapy proffered by pharmacogenomics must be based on the recognition of inherent genetic individuality, rather than relying on inter-ethnic differences in the frequency of polymorphisms that affect the pharmacokinetics and targets of drugs. This is particularly significant in admixed populations, in which the substructure created by inter-ethnic crosses further increases the fluidity of racial and/or ethnic labels. Inter-ethnic admixture is either common or increasing quickly in many, if not most, populations, and so extrapolation on a global scale of pharmacogenomic data from well-defined ethnic groups is plagued with uncertainty. To impact positively on global health, pharmacogenomics must broaden its scope of investigation with respect to both target and population diversity, and avoid the risk of contributing to the creation of a genomics divide between regions and nations. In this review, I examine the challenges and advantages of studying pharmacogenomics in admixed populations, drawing examples mainly from the trihybrid populations of the Americas. PMID:15808344

  2. MaCH-Admix: Genotype Imputation for Admixed Populations

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Eric Yi; Li, Mingyao; Wang, Wei; Li, Yun

    2012-01-01

    Imputation in admixed populations is an important problem but challenging due to the complex linkage disequilibrium (LD) pattern. The emergence of large reference panels such as that from the 1,000 Genomes Project enables more accurate imputation in general, and in particular for admixed populations and for uncommon variants. To efficiently benefit from these large reference panels, one key issue to consider in modern genotype imputation framework is the selection of effective reference panels. In this work, we consider a number of methods for effective reference panel construction inside a hidden Markov model and specific to each target individual. These methods fall into two categories: identity-by-state (IBS) based and ancestry-weighted approach. We evaluated the performance on individuals from recently admixed populations. Our target samples include 8,421 African Americans and 3,587 Hispanic Americans from the Women’s Health Initiative, which allow assessment of imputation quality for uncommon variants. Our experiments include both large and small reference panels; large, medium, and small target samples; and in genome regions of varying levels of LD. We also include BEAGLE and IMPUTE2 for comparison. Experiment results with large reference panel suggest that our novel piecewise IBS method yields consistently higher imputation quality than other methods/software. The advantage is particularly noteworthy among uncommon variants where we observe up to 5.1% information gain with the difference being highly significant (Wilcoxon signed rank test P-value < 0.0001). Our work is the first that considers various sensible approaches for imputation in admixed populations and presents a comprehensive comparison. PMID:23074066

  3. Genomic selection in admixed and crossbred populations.

    PubMed

    Toosi, A; Fernando, R L; Dekkers, J C M

    2010-01-01

    In livestock, genomic selection (GS) has primarily been investigated by simulation of purebred populations. Traits of interest are, however, often measured in crossbred or mixed populations with uncertain breed composition. If such data are used as the training data for GS without accounting for breed composition, estimates of marker effects may be biased due to population stratification and admixture. To investigate this, a genome of 100 cM was simulated with varying marker densities (5 to 40 segregating markers per cM). After 1,000 generations of random mating in a population of effective size 500, 4 lines with effective size 100 were isolated and mated for another 50 generations to create 4 pure breeds. These breeds were used to generate combined, F(1), F(2), 3- and 4-way crosses, and admixed training data sets of 1,000 individuals with phenotypes for an additive trait controlled by 100 segregating QTL and heritability of 0.30. The validation data set was a sample of 1,000 genotyped individuals from one pure breed. Method Bayes-B was used to simultaneously estimate the effects of all markers for breeding value estimation. With 5 (40) markers per cM, the correlation of true with estimated breeding value of selection candidates (accuracy) was greatest, 0.79 (0.85), when data from the same pure breed were used for training. When the training data set consisted of crossbreds, the accuracy ranged from 0.66 (0.79) to 0.74 (0.83) for the 2 marker densities, respectively. The admixed training data set resulted in nearly the same accuracies as when training was in the breed to which selection candidates belonged. However, accuracy was greatly reduced when genes from the target pure breed were not included in the admixed or crossbred population. This implies that, with high-density markers, admixed and crossbred populations can be used to develop GS prediction equations for all pure breeds that contributed to the population, without a substantial loss of accuracy compared

  4. Match probabilities in racially admixed populations.

    PubMed

    Lange, K

    1993-02-01

    The calculation of match probabilities is the most contentious issue dividing prosecution and defense experts in the forensic applications of DNA fingerprinting. In particular, defense experts question the applicability of the population genetic laws of Hardy-Weinberg and linkage equilibrium to racially admixed American populations. Linkage equilibrium justifies the product rule for computing match probabilities across loci. The present paper suggests a method of bounding match probabilities that depends on modeling gene descent from ancestral populations to contemporary populations under the assumptions of Hardy-Weinberg and linkage equilibrium only in the ancestral populations. Although these bounds are conservative from the defendant's perspective, they should be small enough in practice to satisfy prosecutors.

  5. Ancestral Components of Admixed Genomes in a Mexican Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Nicholas A.; Coram, Marc A.; Shriver, Mark D.; Romieu, Isabelle; Barsh, Gregory S.; London, Stephanie J.; Tang, Hua

    2011-01-01

    For most of the world, human genome structure at a population level is shaped by interplay between ancient geographic isolation and more recent demographic shifts, factors that are captured by the concepts of biogeographic ancestry and admixture, respectively. The ancestry of non-admixed individuals can often be traced to a specific population in a precise region, but current approaches for studying admixed individuals generally yield coarse information in which genome ancestry proportions are identified according to continent of origin. Here we introduce a new analytic strategy for this problem that allows fine-grained characterization of admixed individuals with respect to both geographic and genomic coordinates. Ancestry segments from different continents, identified with a probabilistic model, are used to construct and study “virtual genomes” of admixed individuals. We apply this approach to a cohort of 492 parent–offspring trios from Mexico City. The relative contributions from the three continental-level ancestral populations—Africa, Europe, and America—vary substantially between individuals, and the distribution of haplotype block length suggests an admixing time of 10–15 generations. The European and Indigenous American virtual genomes of each Mexican individual can be traced to precise regions within each continent, and they reveal a gradient of Amerindian ancestry between indigenous people of southwestern Mexico and Mayans of the Yucatan Peninsula. This contrasts sharply with the African roots of African Americans, which have been characterized by a uniform mixing of multiple West African populations. We also use the virtual European and Indigenous American genomes to search for the signatures of selection in the ancestral populations, and we identify previously known targets of selection in other populations, as well as new candidate loci. The ability to infer precise ancestral components of admixed genomes will facilitate studies of disease

  6. Ancestral components of admixed genomes in a Mexican cohort.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Nicholas A; Coram, Marc A; Shriver, Mark D; Romieu, Isabelle; Barsh, Gregory S; London, Stephanie J; Tang, Hua

    2011-12-01

    For most of the world, human genome structure at a population level is shaped by interplay between ancient geographic isolation and more recent demographic shifts, factors that are captured by the concepts of biogeographic ancestry and admixture, respectively. The ancestry of non-admixed individuals can often be traced to a specific population in a precise region, but current approaches for studying admixed individuals generally yield coarse information in which genome ancestry proportions are identified according to continent of origin. Here we introduce a new analytic strategy for this problem that allows fine-grained characterization of admixed individuals with respect to both geographic and genomic coordinates. Ancestry segments from different continents, identified with a probabilistic model, are used to construct and study "virtual genomes" of admixed individuals. We apply this approach to a cohort of 492 parent-offspring trios from Mexico City. The relative contributions from the three continental-level ancestral populations-Africa, Europe, and America-vary substantially between individuals, and the distribution of haplotype block length suggests an admixing time of 10-15 generations. The European and Indigenous American virtual genomes of each Mexican individual can be traced to precise regions within each continent, and they reveal a gradient of Amerindian ancestry between indigenous people of southwestern Mexico and Mayans of the Yucatan Peninsula. This contrasts sharply with the African roots of African Americans, which have been characterized by a uniform mixing of multiple West African populations. We also use the virtual European and Indigenous American genomes to search for the signatures of selection in the ancestral populations, and we identify previously known targets of selection in other populations, as well as new candidate loci. The ability to infer precise ancestral components of admixed genomes will facilitate studies of disease

  7. Spatial Localization of Recent Ancestors for Admixed Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wen-Yun; Platt, Alexander; Chiang, Charleston Wen-Kai; Eskin, Eleazar; Novembre, John; Pasaniuc, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    Ancestry analysis from genetic data plays a critical role in studies of human disease and evolution. Recent work has introduced explicit models for the geographic distribution of genetic variation and has shown that such explicit models yield superior accuracy in ancestry inference over nonmodel-based methods. Here we extend such work to introduce a method that models admixture between ancestors from multiple sources across a geographic continuum. We devise efficient algorithms based on hidden Markov models to localize on a map the recent ancestors (e.g., grandparents) of admixed individuals, joint with assigning ancestry at each locus in the genome. We validate our methods by using empirical data from individuals with mixed European ancestry from the Population Reference Sample study and show that our approach is able to localize their recent ancestors within an average of 470 km of the reported locations of their grandparents. Furthermore, simulations from real Population Reference Sample genotype data show that our method attains high accuracy in localizing recent ancestors of admixed individuals in Europe (an average of 550 km from their true location for localization of two ancestries in Europe, four generations ago). We explore the limits of ancestry localization under our approach and find that performance decreases as the number of distinct ancestries and generations since admixture increases. Finally, we build a map of expected localization accuracy across admixed individuals according to the location of origin within Europe of their ancestors. PMID:25371484

  8. Mapping asthma-associated variants in admixed populations

    PubMed Central

    Mersha, Tesfaye B.

    2015-01-01

    Admixed populations arise when two or more previously isolated populations interbreed. Mapping asthma susceptibility loci in an admixed population using admixture mapping (AM) involves screening the genome of individuals of mixed ancestry for chromosomal regions that have a higher frequency of alleles from a parental population with higher asthma risk as compared with parental population with lower asthma risk. AM takes advantage of the admixture created in populations of mixed ancestry to identify genomic regions where an association exists between genetic ancestry and asthma (in contrast to between the genotype of the marker and asthma). The theory behind AM is that chromosomal segments of affected individuals contain a significantly higher-than-average proportion of alleles from the high-risk parental population and thus are more likely to harbor disease–associated loci. Criteria to evaluate the applicability of AM as a gene mapping approach include: (1) the prevalence of the disease differences in ancestral populations from which the admixed population was formed; (2) a measurable difference in disease-causing alleles between the parental populations; (3) reduced linkage disequilibrium (LD) between unlinked loci across chromosomes and strong LD between neighboring loci; (4) a set of markers with noticeable allele-frequency differences between parental populations that contributes to the admixed population (single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the markers of choice because they are abundant, stable, relatively cheap to genotype, and informative with regard to the LD structure of chromosomal segments); and (5) there is an understanding of the extent of segmental chromosomal admixtures and their interactions with environmental factors. Although genome-wide association studies have contributed greatly to our understanding of the genetic components of asthma, the large and increasing degree of admixture in populations across the world create many challenges

  9. Interethnic diversity of NAT2 polymorphisms in Brazilian admixed populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background N-acetyltransferase type 2 (Nat2) is a phase II drug- metabolizing enzyme that plays a key role in the bioactivation of aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Its relevance in drug metabolism and disease susceptibility remains a central theme for pharmacogenetic research, mainly because of its genetic variability among human populations. In fact, the evolutionary and ethnic-specific SNPs on the NAT2 gene remain a focus for the potential discoveries in personalized drug therapy and genetic markers of diseases. Despite the wide characterization of NAT2 SNPs frequency in established ethnic groups, little data are available for highly admixed populations. In this context, five common NAT2 SNPs (G191A, C481T, G590A, A803G and G857A) were investigated in a highly admixed population comprised of Afro-Brazilians, Whites, and Amerindians in northeastern Brazil. Thus, we sought to determine whether the distribution of NAT2 polymorphism is different among these three ethnic groups. Results Overall, there were no statistically significant differences in the distribution of NAT2 polymorphism when Afro-Brazilian and White groups were compared. Even the allele frequency of 191A, relatively common in African descendents, was not different between the Afro-Brazilian and White groups. However, allele and genotype frequencies of G590A were significantly higher in the Amerindian group than either in the Afro-Brazilian or White groups. Interestingly, a haplotype block between G590A and A803G was verified exclusively among Amerindians. Conclusions Our results indicate that ethnic admixture might contribute to a particular pattern of genetic diversity in the NAT2 gene and also offer new insights for the investigation of possible new NAT2 gene-environment effects in admixed populations. PMID:20923563

  10. Unravelling the hidden ancestry of American admixed populations.

    PubMed

    Montinaro, Francesco; Busby, George B J; Pascali, Vincenzo L; Myers, Simon; Hellenthal, Garrett; Capelli, Cristian

    2015-03-24

    The movement of people into the Americas has brought different populations into contact, and contemporary American genomes are the product of a range of complex admixture events. Here we apply a haplotype-based ancestry identification approach to a large set of genome-wide SNP data from a variety of American, European and African populations to determine the contributions of different ancestral populations to the Americas. Our results provide a fine-scale characterization of the source populations, identify a series of novel, previously unreported contributions from Africa and Europe and highlight geohistorical structure in the ancestry of American admixed populations.

  11. Accurate Inference of Local Phased Ancestry of Modern Admixed Populations

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yamin; Zhao, Jian; Wong, Jian-Syuan; Ma, Li; Li, Wenzhi; Fu, Guoxing; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Kui; Kittles, Rick A.; Li, Yun; Song, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Population stratification is a growing concern in genetic-association studies. Averaged ancestry at the genome level (global ancestry) is insufficient for detecting the population substructures and correcting population stratifications in association studies. Local and phase stratification are needed for human genetic studies, but current technologies cannot be applied on the entire genome data due to various technical caveats. Here we developed a novel approach (aMAP, ancestry of Modern Admixed Populations) for inferring local phased ancestry. It took about 3 seconds on a desktop computer to finish a local ancestry analysis for each human genome with 1.4-million SNPs. This method also exhibits the scalability to larger datasets with respect to the number of SNPs, the number of samples, and the size of reference panels. It can detect the lack of the proxy of reference panels. The accuracy was 99.4%. The aMAP software has a capacity for analyzing 6-way admixed individuals. As the biomedical community continues to expand its efforts to increase the representation of diverse populations, and as the number of large whole-genome sequence datasets continues to grow rapidly, there is an increasing demand on rapid and accurate local ancestry analysis in genetics, pharmacogenomics, population genetics, and clinical diagnosis. PMID:25052506

  12. Accurate inference of local phased ancestry of modern admixed populations.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yamin; Zhao, Jian; Wong, Jian-Syuan; Ma, Li; Li, Wenzhi; Fu, Guoxing; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Kui; Kittles, Rick A; Li, Yun; Song, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Population stratification is a growing concern in genetic-association studies. Averaged ancestry at the genome level (global ancestry) is insufficient for detecting the population substructures and correcting population stratifications in association studies. Local and phase stratification are needed for human genetic studies, but current technologies cannot be applied on the entire genome data due to various technical caveats. Here we developed a novel approach (aMAP, ancestry of Modern Admixed Populations) for inferring local phased ancestry. It took about 3 seconds on a desktop computer to finish a local ancestry analysis for each human genome with 1.4-million SNPs. This method also exhibits the scalability to larger datasets with respect to the number of SNPs, the number of samples, and the size of reference panels. It can detect the lack of the proxy of reference panels. The accuracy was 99.4%. The aMAP software has a capacity for analyzing 6-way admixed individuals. As the biomedical community continues to expand its efforts to increase the representation of diverse populations, and as the number of large whole-genome sequence datasets continues to grow rapidly, there is an increasing demand on rapid and accurate local ancestry analysis in genetics, pharmacogenomics, population genetics, and clinical diagnosis. PMID:25052506

  13. Mapping Genes that Predict Treatment Outcome in Admixed Populations

    PubMed Central

    Baye, Tesfaye M.; Wilke, Russell A.

    2010-01-01

    There is great interest in characterizing the genetic architecture underlying drug response. For many drugs, gene-based dosing models explain a considerable amount of the overall variation in treatment outcome. As such, prescription drug labels are increasingly being modified to contain pharmacogenetic information. Genetic data must, however, be interpreted within the context of relevant clinical covariates. Even the most predictive models improve with the addition of data related to biogeographical ancestry. The current review explores analytical strategies that leverage population structure to more fully characterize genetic determinants of outcome in large clinical practice-based cohorts. The success of this approach will depend upon several key factors: (1) the availability of outcome data from groups of admixed individuals (i.e., populations recombined over multiple generations), (2) a measurable difference in treatment outcome (i.e., efficacy and toxicity endpoints), and (3) a measurable difference in allele frequency between the ancestral populations. PMID:20921971

  14. Facial asymmetry and genetic ancestry in Latin American admixed populations.

    PubMed

    Quinto-Sánchez, Mirsha; Adhikari, Kaustubh; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Cintas, Celia; Silva de Cerqueira, Caio Cesar; Ramallo, Virginia; Castillo, Lucia; Farrera, Arodi; Jaramillo, Claudia; Arias, Williams; Fuentes, Macarena; Everardo, Paola; de Avila, Francisco; Gomez-Valdés, Jorge; Hünemeier, Tábita; Gibbon, Shara; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Rosique, Javier; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Bedoya, Gabriel; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; González-José, Rolando

    2015-05-01

    Fluctuating and directional asymmetry are aspects of morphological variation widely used to infer environmental and genetic factors affecting facial phenotypes. However, the genetic basis and environmental determinants of both asymmetry types is far from being completely known. The analysis of facial asymmetries in admixed individuals can be of help to characterize the impact of a genome's heterozygosity on the developmental basis of both fluctuating and directional asymmetries. Here we characterize the association between genetic ancestry and individual asymmetry on a sample of Latin-American admixed populations. To do so, three-dimensional (3D) facial shape attributes were explored on a sample of 4,104 volunteers aged between 18 and 85 years. Individual ancestry and heterozygosity was estimated using more than 730,000 genome-wide markers. Multivariate techniques applied to geometric morphometric data were used to evaluate the magnitude and significance of directional and fluctuating asymmetry (FA), as well as correlations and multiple regressions aimed to estimate the relationship between facial FA scores and heterozygosity and a set of covariates. Results indicate that directional and FA are both significant, the former being the strongest expression of asymmetry in this sample. In addition, our analyses suggest that there are some specific patterns of facial asymmetries characterizing the different ancestry groups. Finally, we find that more heterozygous individuals exhibit lower levels of asymmetry. Our results highlight the importance of including ancestry-admixture estimators, especially when the analyses are aimed to compare levels of asymmetries on groups differing on socioeconomic levels, as a proxy to estimate developmental noise. PMID:25582401

  15. Adjustment for local ancestry in genetic association analysis of admixed populations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuexia; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Qin, Huaizhen; Cooper, Richard S.; Ewens, Warren J.; Li, Chun; Li, Mingyao

    2011-01-01

    Motivation: Admixed populations offer a unique opportunity for mapping diseases that have large disease allele frequency differences between ancestral populations. However, association analysis in such populations is challenging because population stratification may lead to association with loci unlinked to the disease locus. Methods and results: We show that local ancestry at a test single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) may confound with the association signal and ignoring it can lead to spurious association. We demonstrate theoretically that adjustment for local ancestry at the test SNP is sufficient to remove the spurious association regardless of the mechanism of population stratification, whether due to local or global ancestry differences among study subjects; however, global ancestry adjustment procedures may not be effective. We further develop two novel association tests that adjust for local ancestry. Our first test is based on a conditional likelihood framework which models the distribution of the test SNP given disease status and flanking marker genotypes. A key advantage of this test lies in its ability to incorporate different directions of association in the ancestral populations. Our second test, which is computationally simpler, is based on logistic regression, with adjustment for local ancestry proportion. We conducted extensive simulations and found that the Type I error rates of our tests are under control; however, the global adjustment procedures yielded inflated Type I error rates when stratification is due to local ancestry difference. Contact: mingyao@upenn.edu; chun.li@vanderbilt.edu. Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:21169375

  16. Confounding and heterogeneity in genetic association studies with admixed populations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinghua; Lewinger, Juan Pablo; Gilliland, Frank D; Gauderman, W James; Conti, David V

    2013-02-15

    Association studies among admixed populations pose many challenges including confounding of genetic effects due to population substructure and heterogeneity due to different patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD). We use simulations to investigate controlling for confounding by indicators of global ancestry and the impact of including a covariate for local ancestry. In addition, we investigate the use of an interaction term between a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and local ancestry to capture heterogeneity in SNP effects. Although adjustment for global ancestry can control for confounding, additional adjustment for local ancestry may increase power when the induced admixture LD is in the opposite direction as the LD in the ancestral population. However, if the induced LD is in the same direction, there is the potential for reduced power because of overadjustment. Furthermore, the inclusion of a SNP by local ancestry interaction term can increase power when there is substantial differential LD between ancestry populations. We examine these approaches in genome-wide data using the University of Southern California's Children's Health Study investigating asthma risk. The analysis highlights rs10519951 (P = 8.5 × 10(-7)), a SNP lacking any evidence of association from a conventional analysis (P = 0.5).

  17. Necessary, but also Sufficient?

    PubMed

    Martens, Sascha

    2016-07-01

    Cell biologists are equipped with a plethora of techniques and approaches to unravel the fascinating inner working of the cell. Among these, biochemistry has the ability to define the machinery that is both necessary and sufficient for a given process and, therefore, to define its core mechanism. PMID:27142894

  18. Self-Sufficiency Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    These instructional materials were developed as a supplement to the "Alaska State Model Curriculum in Renewable Natural Resources/Agriculture." The topics covered focus on competencies from the curriculum for which materials were not readily available to Alaskan teachers and provide information that may not be sufficiently covered by existing…

  19. Negatively charged liposomes show potent adjuvant activity when simply admixed with protein antigens

    PubMed Central

    Yanasarn, Nijaporn; Sloat, Brian R.; Cui, Zhengrong

    2011-01-01

    Liposomes have been investigated extensively as a vaccine delivery system. Herein the adjuvant activities of liposomes with different net surface charges (neutral, positive, or negative) were evaluated when admixed with protein antigens, ovalbumin (OVA, pI = 4.7), Bacillus anthracis protective antigen protein (PA, pI = 5.6), or cationized OVA (cOVA). Mice immunized subcutaneously with OVA admixed with different liposomes generated different antibody responses. Interestingly, OVA admixed with net negatively charged liposomes prepared with DOPA was as immunogenic as OVA admixed with positively charged liposomes prepared with DOTAP. Immunization of mice with the anthrax PA protein admixed with the net negatively charged DOPA liposomes also induced a strong and functional anti-PA antibody response. When the cationized OVA was used as a model antigen, liposomes with net neutral, negative, or positive charges showed comparable adjuvant activities. Immunization of mice with the OVA admixed with DOPA liposomes also induced OVA-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses and significantly delayed the growth of OVA-expressing B16-OVA tumors in mice. However, not all net negatively charged liposomes showed a strong adjuvant activity. The adjuvant activity of the negatively charged liposomes may be related to the liposome’s ability (i) to up-regulate the expression of molecules related to the activation and maturation of antigen-presenting cells and (ii) to slightly facilitate the uptake of the antigens by antigen-presenting cells. Simply admixing certain negatively charged liposomes with certain protein antigens of interest may represent a novel platform for vaccine development. PMID:21615153

  20. Exploring iris colour prediction and ancestry inference in admixed populations of South America.

    PubMed

    Freire-Aradas, A; Ruiz, Y; Phillips, C; Maroñas, O; Söchtig, J; Tato, A Gómez; Dios, J Álvarez; de Cal, M Casares; Silbiger, V N; Luchessi, A D; Luchessi, A D; Chiurillo, M A; Carracedo, Á; Lareu, M V

    2014-11-01

    New DNA-based predictive tests for physical characteristics and inference of ancestry are highly informative tools that are being increasingly used in forensic genetic analysis. Two eye colour prediction models: a Bayesian classifier - Snipper and a multinomial logistic regression (MLR) system for the Irisplex assay, have been described for the analysis of unadmixed European populations. Since multiple SNPs in combination contribute in varying degrees to eye colour predictability in Europeans, it is likely that these predictive tests will perform in different ways amongst admixed populations that have European co-ancestry, compared to unadmixed Europeans. In this study we examined 99 individuals from two admixed South American populations comparing eye colour versus ancestry in order to reveal a direct correlation of light eye colour phenotypes with European co-ancestry in admixed individuals. Additionally, eye colour prediction following six prediction models, using varying numbers of SNPs and based on Snipper and MLR, were applied to the study populations. Furthermore, patterns of eye colour prediction have been inferred for a set of publicly available admixed and globally distributed populations from the HGDP-CEPH panel and 1000 Genomes databases with a special emphasis on admixed American populations similar to those of the study samples. PMID:25051225

  1. Sufficient Statistics: an Example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quirein, J.

    1973-01-01

    The feature selection problem is considered resulting from the transformation x = Bz where B is a k by n matrix of rank k and k is or = to n. Such a transformation can be considered to reduce the dimension of each observation vector z, and in general, such a transformation results in a loss of information. In terms of the divergence, this information loss is expressed by the fact that the average divergence D sub B computed using variable x is less than or equal to the average divergence D computed using variable z. If D sub B = D, then B is said to be a sufficient statistic for the average divergence D. If B is a sufficient statistic for the average divergence, then it can be shown that the probability of misclassification computed using variable x (of dimension k is or = to n) is equal to the probability of misclassification computed using variable z. Also included is what is believed to be a new proof of the well known fact that D is or = to D sub B. Using the techniques necessary to prove the above fact, it is shown that the Brattacharyya distance as measured by variable x is less than or equal to the Brattacharyya distance as measured by variable z.

  2. The Role of Local Ancestry Adjustment in Association Studies Using Admixed Populations

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianqi; Stram, Daniel O.

    2016-01-01

    Association analysis using admixed populations imposes challenges and opportunities for disease mapping. By developing some explicit results for the variance of an allele of interest conditional on either local or global ancestry and by simulation of recently admixed genomes we evaluate power and false-positive rates under a variety of scenarios concerning linkage disequilibrium (LD) and the presence of unmeasured variants. Pairwise LD patterns were compared between admixed and nonadmixed populations using the HapMap phase 3 data. Based on the above, we showed that as follows: For causal variants with similar effect size in all populations, power is generally higher in a study using admixed population than using nonadmixed population, especially for highly differentiated SNPs. This gain of power is achieved with adjustment of global ancestry, which completely removes any cross-chromosome inflation of type I error rates, and addresses much of the intrachromosome inflation.If reliably estimated, adjusting for local ancestry precisely recovers the localization that could have been achieved in a stratified analysis of source populations. Improved localization is most evident for highly differentiated SNPs; however, the advantage of higher power is lost on exactly the same differentiated SNPs.In the real admixed populations such as African Americans and Latinos, the expansion of LD is not as dramatic as in our simulation.While adjustment for global ancestry is required prior to announcing a novel association seen in an admixed population, local ancestry adjustment may best be regarded as a localization tool not strictly required for discovery purposes. PMID:25043967

  3. THE BEHAVIOR OF ADMIXED POPULATIONS IN NEIGHBOR-JOINING INFERENCE OF POPULATION TREES

    PubMed Central

    KOPELMAN, NAAMA M.; STONE, LEWI; GASCUEL, OLIVIER; ROSENBERG, NOAH A.

    2013-01-01

    Neighbor-joining is one of the most widely used methods for constructing evolutionary trees. This approach from phylogenetics is often employed in population genetics, where distance matrices obtained from allele frequencies are used to produce a representation of population relationships in the form of a tree. In phylogenetics, the utility of neighbor-joining derives partly from a result that for a class of distance matrices including those that are additive or tree-like—generated by summing weights over the edges connecting pairs of taxa in a tree to obtain pairwise distances—application of neighbor-joining recovers exactly the underlying tree. For populations within a species, however, migration and admixture can produce distance matrices that reflect more complex processes than those obtained from the bifurcating trees typical in the multispecies context. Admixed populations—populations descended from recent mixture of groups that have long been separated—have been observed to be located centrally in inferred neighbor-joining trees, with short external branches incident to the path connecting their source populations. Here, using a simple model, we explore mathematically the behavior of an admixed population under neighbor-joining. We show that with an additive distance matrix, a population admixed among two source populations necessarily lies on the path between the sources. Relaxing the additivity requirement, we examine the smallest nontrivial case—four populations, one of which is admixed between two of the other three—showing that the two source populations never merge with each other before one of them merges with the admixed population. Furthermore, the distance on the constructed tree between the admixed population and either source population is always smaller than the distance between the source populations, and the external branch for the admixed population is always incident to the path connecting the sources. We define three properties

  4. Characterizations of linear sufficient statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, B. C., Jr.; Redner, R.; Decell, H. P., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A necessary and sufficient condition is developed such that there exists a continous linear sufficient statistic T for a dominated collection of totally finite measures defined on the Borel field generated by the open sets of a Banach space X. In particular, corollary necessary and sufficient conditions are given so that there exists a rank K linear sufficient statistic T for any finite collection of probability measures having n-variate normal densities. In this case a simple calculation, involving only the population means and covariances, determines the smallest integer K for which there exists a rank K linear sufficient statistic T (as well as an associated statistic T itself).

  5. Nucleotide variability of HV-I in admixed population of the Brazilian Amazon Region.

    PubMed

    Feio-Dos-Santos, Ana Cecília; Carvalho, Bruno Maia; Batista dos Santos, Sidney Emanuel; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Andrea Kely Campos

    2006-12-20

    The analysis of genetic variation in the nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA has been used as a tool in the study of history of different human populations, as Amerindians, Afro-descendents populations and furthermore admixed populations. In this study, the mitochondrial DNA was analyzed in 158 unrelated individuals in an admixed population of the Amazonian Region: Santarém-PA-Brazil. The polymorphisms were detected using both levels, analysis of restriction enzyme and direct sequencing. We observed a total of 49 different haplotypes were found determined by 46 variable nucleotides. The more frequent haplotypes (Hap03) was shared by five samples and 43 sequences were unique. The genetic diversity was estimated to 0.989+/-0.0067 and the probability of two random individuals showed identical mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes were 2.8%.

  6. Admixture Aberration Analysis: Application to Mapping in Admixed Population Using Pooled DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bercovici, Sivan; Geiger, Dan

    Admixture mapping is a gene mapping approach used for the identification of genomic regions harboring disease susceptibility genes in the case of recently admixed populations such as African Americans. We present a novel method for admixture mapping, called admixture aberration analysis (AAA), that uses a DNA pool of affected admixed individuals. We demonstrate through simulations that AAA is a powerful and economical mapping method under a range of scenarios, capturing complex human diseases such as hypertension and end stage kidney disease. The method has a low false-positive rate and is robust to deviation from model assumptions. Finally, we apply AAA on 600 prostate cancer-affected African Americans, replicating a known risk locus. Simulation results indicate that the method can yield over 96% reduction in genotyping. Our method is implemented as a Java program called AAAmap and is freely available.

  7. Is the creation of admixed embryos "an offense against human dignity"?

    PubMed

    Jones, David Albert

    2010-01-01

    The controversy over the creation of admixed human-nonhuman embryos, and specifically of what have been termed "cybrids," involves a range of ethical and political issues. It is not reducible to a single question. This paper focuses on one question raised by that controversy, whether creating admixed human-nonhuman entities is "an offense against human dignity. "In the last decade there has been sustained criticism of the use of the concept of human dignity within bioethics. The concept has been criticized as "vague" and "useless." Nevertheless, the concept continues to be invoked in bioethical discussion and in international instruments. This paper defends a concept of human dignity that is coherent but that is wider than contemporary post-Kantian approaches. "Human dignity" is best regarded as having a set of analogically related meanings, more than one of which is relevant to the field of bioethics. A more subtle understanding of the concept of human dignity can help identify what is ethically problematic in human-nonhuman combinations and so shed light on one aspect of the admixed embryo debate. PMID:21644432

  8. Is the creation of admixed embryos "an offense against human dignity"?

    PubMed

    Jones, David Albert

    2010-01-01

    The controversy over the creation of admixed human-nonhuman embryos, and specifically of what have been termed "cybrids," involves a range of ethical and political issues. It is not reducible to a single question. This paper focuses on one question raised by that controversy, whether creating admixed human-nonhuman entities is "an offense against human dignity. "In the last decade there has been sustained criticism of the use of the concept of human dignity within bioethics. The concept has been criticized as "vague" and "useless." Nevertheless, the concept continues to be invoked in bioethical discussion and in international instruments. This paper defends a concept of human dignity that is coherent but that is wider than contemporary post-Kantian approaches. "Human dignity" is best regarded as having a set of analogically related meanings, more than one of which is relevant to the field of bioethics. A more subtle understanding of the concept of human dignity can help identify what is ethically problematic in human-nonhuman combinations and so shed light on one aspect of the admixed embryo debate.

  9. A Continuous Correlated Beta Process Model for Genetic Ancestry in Admixed Populations

    PubMed Central

    Gompert, Zachariah

    2016-01-01

    Admixture and recombination create populations and genomes with genetic ancestry from multiple source populations. Analyses of genetic ancestry in admixed populations are relevant for trait and disease mapping, studies of speciation, and conservation efforts. Consequently, many methods have been developed to infer genome-average ancestry and to deconvolute ancestry into continuous local ancestry blocks or tracts within individuals. Current methods for local ancestry inference perform well when admixture occurred recently or hybridization is ongoing, or when admixture occurred in the distant past such that local ancestry blocks have fixed in the admixed population. However, methods to infer local ancestry frequencies in isolated admixed populations still segregating for ancestry do not exist. In the current paper, I develop and test a continuous correlated beta process model to fill this analytical gap. The method explicitly models autocorrelations in ancestry frequencies at the population-level and uses discriminant analysis of SNP windows to take advantage of ancestry blocks within individuals. Analyses of simulated data sets show that the method is generally accurate such that ancestry frequency estimates exhibited low root-mean-square error and were highly correlated with the true values, particularly when large (±10 or ±20) SNP windows were used. Along these lines, the proposed method outperformed post hoc inference of ancestry frequencies from a traditional hidden Markov model (i.e., the linkage model in structure), particularly when admixture occurred more distantly in the past with little on-going gene flow or was followed by natural selection. The reliability and utility of the method was further assessed by analyzing genetic ancestry in an admixed human population (Uyghur) and three populations from a hybrid zone between Mus domesticus and M. musculus. Considerable variation in ancestry frequencies was detected within and among chromosomes in the Uyghur

  10. Characterizations of linear sufficient statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, B. C., Jr.; Reoner, R.; Decell, H. P., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A surjective bounded linear operator T from a Banach space X to a Banach space Y must be a sufficient statistic for a dominated family of probability measures defined on the Borel sets of X. These results were applied, so that they characterize linear sufficient statistics for families of the exponential type, including as special cases the Wishart and multivariate normal distributions. The latter result was used to establish precisely which procedures for sampling from a normal population had the property that the sample mean was a sufficient statistic.

  11. Becoming pure: identifying generational classes of admixed individuals within lesser and greater scaup populations.

    PubMed

    Lavretsky, Philip; Peters, Jeffrey L; Winker, Kevin; Bahn, Volker; Kulikova, Irina; Zhuravlev, Yuri N; Wilson, Robert E; Barger, Chris; Gurney, Kirsty; McCracken, Kevin G

    2016-02-01

    Estimating the frequency of hybridization is important to understand its evolutionary consequences and its effects on conservation efforts. In this study, we examined the extent of hybridization in two sister species of ducks that hybridize. We used mitochondrial control region sequences and 3589 double-digest restriction-associated DNA sequences (ddRADseq) to identify admixture between wild lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) and greater scaup (A. marila). Among 111 individuals, we found one introgressed mitochondrial DNA haplotype in lesser scaup and four in greater scaup. Likewise, based on the site-frequency spectrum from autosomal DNA, gene flow was asymmetrical, with higher rates from lesser into greater scaup. However, using ddRADseq nuclear DNA, all individuals were assigned to their respective species with >0.95 posterior assignment probability. To examine the power for detecting admixture, we simulated a breeding experiment in which empirical data were used to create F1 hybrids and nine generations (F2-F10) of backcrossing. F1 hybrids and F2, F3 and most F4 backcrosses were clearly distinguishable from pure individuals, but evidence of admixed histories was effectively lost after the fourth generation. Thus, we conclude that low interspecific assignment probabilities (0.011-0.043) for two lesser and nineteen greater scaup were consistent with admixed histories beyond the F3 generation. These results indicate that the propensity of these species to hybridize in the wild is low and largely asymmetric. When applied to species-specific cases, our approach offers powerful utility for examining concerns of hybridization in conservation efforts, especially for determining the generational time until admixed histories are effectively lost through backcrossing. PMID:26833858

  12. A melting pot of multicontinental mtDNA lineages in admixed Venezuelans.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Ignacio-Veiga, Ana; Alvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Pastoriza-Mourelle, Ana; Ruíz, Yarimar; Pineda, Lennie; Carracedo, Angel; Salas, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The arrival of Europeans in Colonial and post-Colonial times coupled with the forced introduction of sub-Saharan Africans have dramatically changed the genetic background of Venezuela. The main aim of the present study was to evaluate, through the study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation, the extent of admixture and the characterization of the most likely continental ancestral sources of present-day urban Venezuelans. We analyzed two admixed populations that have experienced different demographic histories, namely, Caracas (n = 131) and Pueblo Llano (n = 219). The native American component of admixed Venezuelans accounted for 80% (46% haplogroup [hg] A2, 7% hg B2, 21% hg C1, and 6% hg D1) of all mtDNAs; while the sub-Saharan and European contributions made up ∼10% each, indicating that Trans-Atlantic immigrants have only partially erased the native American nature of Venezuelans. A Bayesian-based model allowed the different contributions of European countries to admixed Venezuelans to be disentangled (Spain: ∼38.4%, Portugal: ∼35.5%, Italy: ∼27.0%), in good agreement with the documented history. Seventeen entire mtDNA genomes were sequenced, which allowed five new native American branches to be discovered. B2j and B2k, are supported by two different haplotypes and control region data, and their coalescence ages are 3.9 k.y. (95% C.I. 0-7.8) and 2.6 k.y. (95% C.I. 0.1-5.2), respectively. The other clades were exclusively observed in Pueblo Llano and they show the fingerprint of strong recent genetic drift coupled with severe historical consanguinity episodes that might explain the high prevalence of certain Mendelian and complex multi-factorial diseases in this region. PMID:22120584

  13. Becoming pure: identifying generational classes of admixed individuals within lesser and greater scaup populations.

    PubMed

    Lavretsky, Philip; Peters, Jeffrey L; Winker, Kevin; Bahn, Volker; Kulikova, Irina; Zhuravlev, Yuri N; Wilson, Robert E; Barger, Chris; Gurney, Kirsty; McCracken, Kevin G

    2016-02-01

    Estimating the frequency of hybridization is important to understand its evolutionary consequences and its effects on conservation efforts. In this study, we examined the extent of hybridization in two sister species of ducks that hybridize. We used mitochondrial control region sequences and 3589 double-digest restriction-associated DNA sequences (ddRADseq) to identify admixture between wild lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) and greater scaup (A. marila). Among 111 individuals, we found one introgressed mitochondrial DNA haplotype in lesser scaup and four in greater scaup. Likewise, based on the site-frequency spectrum from autosomal DNA, gene flow was asymmetrical, with higher rates from lesser into greater scaup. However, using ddRADseq nuclear DNA, all individuals were assigned to their respective species with >0.95 posterior assignment probability. To examine the power for detecting admixture, we simulated a breeding experiment in which empirical data were used to create F1 hybrids and nine generations (F2-F10) of backcrossing. F1 hybrids and F2, F3 and most F4 backcrosses were clearly distinguishable from pure individuals, but evidence of admixed histories was effectively lost after the fourth generation. Thus, we conclude that low interspecific assignment probabilities (0.011-0.043) for two lesser and nineteen greater scaup were consistent with admixed histories beyond the F3 generation. These results indicate that the propensity of these species to hybridize in the wild is low and largely asymmetric. When applied to species-specific cases, our approach offers powerful utility for examining concerns of hybridization in conservation efforts, especially for determining the generational time until admixed histories are effectively lost through backcrossing.

  14. Detecting Heterogeneity in Population Structure Across the Genome in Admixed Populations.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Caitlin; Brown, Lisa; Thornton, Timothy A

    2016-09-01

    The genetic structure of human populations is often characterized by aggregating measures of ancestry across the autosomal chromosomes. While it may be reasonable to assume that population structure patterns are similar genome-wide in relatively homogeneous populations, this assumption may not be appropriate for admixed populations, such as Hispanics and African-Americans, with recent ancestry from two or more continents. Recent studies have suggested that systematic ancestry differences can arise at genomic locations in admixed populations as a result of selection and nonrandom mating. Here, we propose a method, which we refer to as the chromosomal ancestry differences (CAnD) test, for detecting heterogeneity in population structure across the genome. CAnD can incorporate either local or chromosome-wide ancestry inferred from SNP genotype data to identify chromosomes harboring genomic regions with ancestry contributions that are significantly different than expected. In simulation studies with real genotype data from phase III of the HapMap Project, we demonstrate the validity and power of CAnD. We apply CAnD to the HapMap Mexican-American (MXL) and African-American (ASW) population samples; in this analysis the software RFMix is used to infer local ancestry at genomic regions, assuming admixing from Europeans, West Africans, and Native Americans. The CAnD test provides strong evidence of heterogeneity in population structure across the genome in the MXL sample ([Formula: see text]), which is largely driven by elevated Native American ancestry and deficit of European ancestry on the X chromosomes. Among the ASW, all chromosomes are largely African derived and no heterogeneity in population structure is detected in this sample. PMID:27440868

  15. Autosomal Admixture Levels Are Informative About Sex Bias in Admixed Populations

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Amy; Verdu, Paul; Rosenberg, Noah A.

    2014-01-01

    Sex-biased admixture has been observed in a wide variety of admixed populations. Genetic variation in sex chromosomes and functions of quantities computed from sex chromosomes and autosomes have often been examined to infer patterns of sex-biased admixture, typically using statistical approaches that do not mechanistically model the complexity of a sex-specific history of admixture. Here, expanding on a model of Verdu and Rosenberg (2011) that did not include sex specificity, we develop a model that mechanistically examines sex-specific admixture histories. Under the model, multiple source populations contribute to an admixed population, potentially with their male and female contributions varying over time. In an admixed population descended from two source groups, we derive the moments of the distribution of the autosomal admixture fraction from a specific source population as a function of sex-specific introgression parameters and time. Considering admixture processes that are constant in time, we demonstrate that surprisingly, although the mean autosomal admixture fraction from a specific source population does not reveal a sex bias in the admixture history, the variance of autosomal admixture is informative about sex bias. Specifically, the long-term variance decreases as the sex bias from a contributing source population increases. This result can be viewed as analogous to the reduction in effective population size for populations with an unequal number of breeding males and females. Our approach suggests that it may be possible to use the effect of sex-biased admixture on autosomal DNA to assist with methods for inference of the history of complex sex-biased admixture processes. PMID:25194159

  16. Physical stability of asphalt emulsion admix seal radon barrier for uranium mill tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, T.E.

    1983-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory, is investigating the use of an asphalt emulsion admix seal to reduce the release of radon from uranium mill tailings. A key requirement of any cover system is its long-term stability; the cover must withstand failure over very long periods of time. An important determinant of overall cover system stability is the integrity of the 6.35-cm (2.5-in.) thick asphalt admix seal. Therefore, the physical stability of this seal was examined. The investigation considered the mechanical interaction between the tailings pile and cover. The potential effect of differential settlement of the tailings pile on the integrity of the seal system was also examined. Results indicate that the minimum span length the seal could withstand without failing is 0.34 m (1.1 ft). This assumes a differential settlement of 4.92 cm (1.94 in.) at the center resulting from the application of a 0.76-m (2.5-ft) cover. At spans greater than 0.60 m (1.97 ft), no tensile strain would develop.

  17. Admixed origin of the Kayah (Red Karen) in Northern Thailand revealed by biparental and paternal markers.

    PubMed

    Kutanan, Wibhu; Srikummool, Metawee; Pittayaporn, Pittayawat; Seielstad, Mark; Kangwanpong, Daoroong; Kumar, Vikrant; Prombanchachai, Thanawut; Chantawannakul, Panuwan

    2015-03-01

    This study analyzes the autosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) variation and the presence of Y chromosomal haplogroups from 44 individuals of the Kayah or Red Karen (KA) in Northern Thailand. The results based on autosomal STRs indicated that the KA exhibited closer genetic relatedness to populations from adjacent regions in Southeast Asia (SEA) than populations from Northeast Asia (NEA) and Tibet. Moreover, an admixed origin of the KA forming three population groups was observed: NEA, Southern China, and Northern Thailand. The NEA populations made a minor genetic contribution to the KA, while the rest came from populations speaking Sino-Tibetan (ST) languages from Southern China and Tai-Kadai (TK) speaking groups from Northern Thailand. The presence of six paternal haplogroups, composed of dual haplogroups prevalent in NEA (NO, N, and D1) and SEA (O2 and O3) as well as the intermediate genetic position of the KA between the SEA and NEA also indicated an admixed origin of male KA lineages. Our genetic results thus agree with findings in linguistics that Karenic languages are ST languages that became heavily influenced by TK during their southward spread. A result of the Mongol invasions during the 13th century A.D. is one possible explanation for genetic contribution of NEA to the KA.

  18. Concurrent release of admixed antimicrobials and salicylic acid from salicylate-based poly(anhydride-esters).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Michelle L; Uhrich, Kathryn E

    2009-12-01

    A polymer blend consisting of antimicrobials (chlorhexidine, clindamycin, and minocycline) physically admixed at 10% by weight into a salicylic acid-based poly (anhydride-ester) (SA-based PAE) was developed as an adjunct treatment for periodontal disease. The SA-based PAE/antimicrobial blends were characterized by multiple methods, including contact angle measurements and differential scanning calorimetry. Static contact angle measurements showed no significant differences in hydrophobicity between the polymer and antimicrobial matrix surfaces. Notable decreases in the polymer glass transition temperature (T(g)) and the antimicrobials' melting points (T(m)) were observed indicating that the antimicrobials act as plasticizers within the polymer matrix. In vitro drug release of salicylic acid from the polymer matrix and for each physically admixed antimicrobial was concurrently monitored by high pressure liquid chromatography during the course of polymer degradation and erosion. Although the polymer/antimicrobial blends were immiscible, the initial 24 h of drug release correlated to the erosion profiles. The SA-based PAE/antimicrobial blends are being investigated as an improvement on current localized drug therapies used to treat periodontal disease.

  19. Gravel admix, vegetation, and soil water interactions in protective barriers: Experimental design, construction, and initial conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Waugh, W.J.

    1989-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to measure the interactive effects of gravel admix and greater precipitation on soil water storage and plant abundance. The study is one of many tasks in the Protective Barrier Development Program for the disposal of Hanford defense waste. A factorial field-plot experiment was set up at the site selected as the borrow area for barrier topsoil. Gravel admix, vegetation, and enhanced precipitation treatments were randomly assigned to the plots using a split-split plot design structure. Changes in soil water storage and plant cover were monitored using neutron probe and point intercept methods, respectively. The first-year results suggest that water extraction by plants will offset gravel-caused increases in soil water storage. Near-surface soil water contents were much lower in graveled plots with plants than in nongraveled plots without plants. Large inherent variability in deep soil water storage masked any effects gravel may have had on water content below the root zone. In the future, this source of variation will be removed by differencing monthly data series and testing for changes in soil water storage. Tests of the effects of greater precipitation on soil water storage were inconclusive. A telling test will be possible in the spring of 1988, following the first wet season during which normal precipitation is doubled. 26 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs.

  20. Genetic Variants of TSLP and Asthma in an Admixed Urban Population

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mengling; Rogers, Linda; Cheng, Qinyi; Shao, Yongzhao; Fernandez-Beros, Maria Elena; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Lyon, Helen N.; Gajdos, Zofia K. Z.; Vedantam, Sailaja; Gregersen, Peter; Seldin, Michael F.; Bleck, Bertram; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kuokkanen, Mikko; Laitinen, Tarja; Eriksson, Johan; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli T.; Reibman, Joan

    2011-01-01

    Background Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), an IL7-like cytokine produced by bronchial epithelial cells is upregulated in asthma and induces dendritic cell maturation supporting a Th2 response. Environmental pollutants, including tobacco smoke and diesel exhaust particles upregulate TSLP suggesting that TSLP may be an interface between environmental pollution and immune responses in asthma. Since asthma is prevalent in urban communities, variants in the TSLP gene may be important in asthma susceptibility in these populations. Objectives To determine whether genetic variants in TSLP are associated with asthma in an urban admixed population. Methodology and Main Results Ten tag-SNPs in the TSLP gene were analyzed for association with asthma using 387 clinically diagnosed asthmatic cases and 212 healthy controls from an urban admixed population. One SNP (rs1898671) showed nominally significant association with asthma (odds ratio (OR) = 1.50; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.09–2.05, p = 0.01) after adjusting for age, BMI, income, education and population stratification. Association results were consistent using two different approaches to adjust for population stratification. When stratified by smoking status, the same SNP showed a significantly increased risk associated with asthma in ex-smokers (OR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.04–3.83, p = 0.04) but not significant in never-smokers (OR = 1.34; 95% CI: 0.93–1.94, p = 0.11). Haplotype-specific score test indicated that an elevated risk for asthma was associated with a specific haplotype of TSLP involving SNP rs1898671 (OR = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.10–2.27, p = 0.01). Association of this SNP with asthma was confirmed in an independent large population-based cohort consortium study (OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.07–1.23, p = 0.0003) and the results stratified by smoking status were also validated (ex-smokers: OR = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.08–1.34, p = 0.003; never-smokers: OR = 1.06, 95

  1. Effects of the admixed state on the photoionization in the 6p subshell of Pb

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, M.O.; Gerard, P.; Fahlman, A.

    1986-11-01

    Photoelectrons that leave the residual Pb ion in the 6s/sup 2/6p( /sup 2/P/sub 1/2/) and 6s/sup 2/6p( /sup 2/P/sub 3/2/) states were observed from the ionization threshold (7.42 eV) to 12 eV. Partial and total cross sections were obtained, the latter also from ion measurements. The 6p/sub 1/2/ cross section was found to be unexpectedly small near threshold (/sup 2/P/sub 1/2/), but strongly enhanced near the /sup 2/P/sub 3/2/ threshold associated with the admixed 6p/sub 3/2/ configuration. The 6p/sub 3/2/ cross section is unusually large at threshold.

  2. Indigenous American ancestry is associated with arsenic methylation efficiency in an admixed population of northwest Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Rubio, Paulina; Klimentidis, Yann C; Cantu-Soto, Ernesto; Meza-Montenegro, Maria M; Billheimer, Dean; Lu, Zhenqiang; Chen, Zhao; Klimecki, Walter T

    2012-01-01

    Many studies provide evidence relating lower human arsenic (As) methylation efficiency, represented by high percent urinary monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)), with several As-induced diseases, possibly due to the fact that MMA(V) serves as a proxy for MMA(III), the most toxic As metabolite. Some epidemiological studies suggested that indigenous Americans (AME) methylate As more efficiently; however, data supporting this have been equivocal. The aim of this study was to characterize the association between AME ancestry and As methylation efficiency using a panel of ancestry informative genetic markers to determine individual ancestry proportions in an admixed population (composed of two or more isolated ancestral populations) of 746 individuals environmentally exposed to As in northwest Mexico. Total urinary As (TAs) mean and range were 170.4 and 2.3-1053.5 μg/L, while percent AME (%AME) mean and range were 72.4 and 23-100. Adjusted (gender, age, AS3MT 7388/M287T haplotypes, body mass index [BMI], and TAs) multiple regression model showed that higher AME ancestry is significantly associated with lower percentage of urinary As excreted as MMA(V) (%uMMA) in this population (p < .01). Data also demonstrated a significant interaction between BMI and gender, indicating negative association between BMI and %uMMA, stronger in women than men (p < .01). Moreover, age and the AS3MT variants 7388 (intronic) and M287T (nonsynonymous) were also significantly associated with As methylation efficiency (p < .01). This study highlights the importance of BMI and indigenous American ancestry in some of the observed variability in As methylation efficiency, underscoring the need to be considered in epidemiology studies, particularly those carried out in admixed populations.

  3. Genomic prediction in an admixed population of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    PubMed Central

    Ødegård, Jørgen; Moen, Thomas; Santi, Nina; Korsvoll, Sven A.; Kjøglum, Sissel; Meuwissen, Theo H. E.

    2014-01-01

    Reliability of genomic selection (GS) models was tested in an admixed population of Atlantic salmon, originating from crossing of several wild subpopulations. The models included ordinary genomic BLUP models (GBLUP), using genome-wide SNP markers of varying densities (1–220 k), a genomic identity-by-descent model (IBD-GS), using linkage analysis of sparse genome-wide markers, as well as a classical pedigree-based model. Reliabilities of the models were compared through 5-fold cross-validation. The traits studied were salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) resistance (LR), measured as (log) density on the skin and fillet color (FC), with respective estimated heritabilities of 0.14 and 0.43. All genomic models outperformed the classical pedigree-based model, for both traits and at all marker densities. However, the relative improvement differed considerably between traits, models and marker densities. For the highly heritable FC, the IBD-GS had similar reliability as GBLUP at high marker densities (>22 k). In contrast, for the lowly heritable LR, IBD-GS was clearly inferior to GBLUP, irrespective of marker density. Hence, GBLUP was robust to marker density for the lowly heritable LR, but sensitive to marker density for the highly heritable FC. We hypothesize that this phenomenon may be explained by historical admixture of different founder populations, expected to reduce short-range lice density (LD) and induce long-range LD. The relative importance of LD/relationship information is expected to decrease/increase with increasing heritability of the trait. Still, using the ordinary GBLUP, the typical long-range LD of an admixed population may be effectively captured by sparse markers, while efficient utilization of relationship information may require denser markers (e.g., 22 k or more). PMID:25484890

  4. Genomic prediction in an admixed population of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Odegård, Jørgen; Moen, Thomas; Santi, Nina; Korsvoll, Sven A; Kjøglum, Sissel; Meuwissen, Theo H E

    2014-01-01

    Reliability of genomic selection (GS) models was tested in an admixed population of Atlantic salmon, originating from crossing of several wild subpopulations. The models included ordinary genomic BLUP models (GBLUP), using genome-wide SNP markers of varying densities (1-220 k), a genomic identity-by-descent model (IBD-GS), using linkage analysis of sparse genome-wide markers, as well as a classical pedigree-based model. Reliabilities of the models were compared through 5-fold cross-validation. The traits studied were salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) resistance (LR), measured as (log) density on the skin and fillet color (FC), with respective estimated heritabilities of 0.14 and 0.43. All genomic models outperformed the classical pedigree-based model, for both traits and at all marker densities. However, the relative improvement differed considerably between traits, models and marker densities. For the highly heritable FC, the IBD-GS had similar reliability as GBLUP at high marker densities (>22 k). In contrast, for the lowly heritable LR, IBD-GS was clearly inferior to GBLUP, irrespective of marker density. Hence, GBLUP was robust to marker density for the lowly heritable LR, but sensitive to marker density for the highly heritable FC. We hypothesize that this phenomenon may be explained by historical admixture of different founder populations, expected to reduce short-range lice density (LD) and induce long-range LD. The relative importance of LD/relationship information is expected to decrease/increase with increasing heritability of the trait. Still, using the ordinary GBLUP, the typical long-range LD of an admixed population may be effectively captured by sparse markers, while efficient utilization of relationship information may require denser markers (e.g., 22 k or more).

  5. Genetic structure of a unique admixed population: implications for medical research.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Nick; Petersen, Desiree C; van der Ross, Richard E; Sudoyo, Herawati; Glashoff, Richard H; Marzuki, Sangkot; Reich, David; Hayes, Vanessa M

    2010-02-01

    STATEMENT: In naming population groups, we think a chief aim is to use terms that the group members use themselves, or find familiar and comfortable. The terms used in this manuscript to describe populations are as historically correct as possible and are chosen so as not to offend any population group. Two of the authors (DCP and REvdR) belong to the Coloured population, with one of the authors (REvdR) having contributed extensively to current literature on the history of the Coloured people of South Africa and served as Vice-President of the South African Institute of Race Relations. According to the 2001 South African census (http://www.statssa.gov.za/census01/HTML/CInBrief/CIB2001.pdf), "Statistics South Africa continues to classify people by population group, in order to monitor progress in moving away from the apartheid-based discrimination of the past. However, membership of a population group is now based on self-perception and self-classification, not on a legal definition. Five options were provided on the questionnaire, Black African, Coloured, Indian or Asian, White and Other. Responses in the category 'Other' were very few and were therefore imputed". We have elected to use the term Bushmen rather than San to refer to the hunter-gatherer people of Southern Africa. Although they have no collective name for themselves, this decision was based on the term Bushmen (or Bossiesman) being the more familiar to the communities themselves, while the term San is the more accepted academic classification. Understanding human genetic structure has fundamental implications for understanding the evolution and impact of human diseases. In this study, we describe the complex genetic substructure of a unique and recently admixed population arising approximately 350 years ago as a direct result of European settlement in South Africa. Analysis was performed using over 900 000 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms in 20 unrelated ancestry-informative marker selected

  6. Energy Strategic Planning & Sufficiency Project

    SciTech Connect

    Retziaff, Greg

    2005-03-30

    This report provides information regarding options available, their advantages and disadvantages, and the costs for pursuing activities to advance Smith River Rancheria toward an energy program that reduces their energy costs, allows greater self-sufficiency and stimulates economic development and employment opportunities within and around the reservation. The primary subjects addressed in this report are as follows: (1) Baseline Assessment of Current Energy Costs--An evaluation of the historical energy costs for Smith River was conducted to identify the costs for each component of their energy supply to better assess changes that can be considered for energy cost reductions. (2) Research Viable Energy Options--This includes a general description of many power generation technologies and identification of their relative costs, advantages and disadvantages. Through this research the generation technology options that are most suited for this application were identified. (3) Project Development Considerations--The basic steps and associated challenges of developing a generation project utilizing the selected technologies are identified and discussed. This included items like selling to third parties, wheeling, electrical interconnections, fuel supply, permitting, standby power, and transmission studies. (4) Energy Conservation--The myriad of federal, state and utility programs offered for low-income weatherization and utility bill payment assistance are identified, their qualification requirements discussed, and the subsequent benefits outlined. (5) Establishing an Energy Organization--The report includes a high level discussion of formation of a utility to serve the Tribal membership. The value or advantages of such action is discussed along with some of the challenges. (6) Training--Training opportunities available to the Tribal membership are identified.

  7. Suppression of insolation heating using paint admixed with silica spheres - An approach from infrared band electromagnetic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkawa, Eri; Mikada, Hitoshi; Goto, Tada-nori; Onishi, Kyosuke; Takekawa, Junichi; Taniguchi, Kiyoshi; Ashida, Yuzuru

    The temperature of materials would be raised when the materials are exposed to the sunlight. Recently, it has been experimentally confirmed that such temperature rise may be restrained when coating the materials with paint admixed with fine silica spheres. Experimental consideration of this type of paint has been conducted, but how the paint controls the temperature rise has merely been clarified theoretically. The best diameter of the silica spheres to be admixed is not well understood, either. In this study, we hypothesized that the scattering of light would be attributed to restrain the temperature rise and tried to estimate the optimum size of the silica spheres. We confirmed that our hypothesis would be justified. In the calculation of the scattering intensity, the diameter of spheres in conjunction with the wavelength of incident lights would be the predominant parameter to the scattering effects. Our results might explain that our experimentally observed phenomenon is caused by the scattering of light, i.e., electromagnetic waves.

  8. Genetic architecture of skin and eye color in an African-European admixed population.

    PubMed

    Beleza, Sandra; Johnson, Nicholas A; Candille, Sophie I; Absher, Devin M; Coram, Marc A; Lopes, Jailson; Campos, Joana; Araújo, Isabel Inês; Anderson, Tovi M; Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni J; Nordborg, Magnus; Correia E Silva, António; Shriver, Mark D; Rocha, Jorge; Barsh, Gregory S; Tang, Hua

    2013-03-01

    Variation in human skin and eye color is substantial and especially apparent in admixed populations, yet the underlying genetic architecture is poorly understood because most genome-wide studies are based on individuals of European ancestry. We study pigmentary variation in 699 individuals from Cape Verde, where extensive West African/European admixture has given rise to a broad range in trait values and genomic ancestry proportions. We develop and apply a new approach for measuring eye color, and identify two major loci (HERC2[OCA2] P = 2.3 × 10(-62), SLC24A5 P = 9.6 × 10(-9)) that account for both blue versus brown eye color and varying intensities of brown eye color. We identify four major loci (SLC24A5 P = 5.4 × 10(-27), TYR P = 1.1 × 10(-9), APBA2[OCA2] P = 1.5 × 10(-8), SLC45A2 P = 6 × 10(-9)) for skin color that together account for 35% of the total variance, but the genetic component with the largest effect (~44%) is average genomic ancestry. Our results suggest that adjacent cis-acting regulatory loci for OCA2 explain the relationship between skin and eye color, and point to an underlying genetic architecture in which several genes of moderate effect act together with many genes of small effect to explain ~70% of the estimated heritability.

  9. Natural selection for the Duffy-null allele in the recently admixed people of Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Jason A; Pickrell, Joseph K; Pearson, Laurel N; Quillen, Ellen E; Prista, António; Rocha, Jorge; Soodyall, Himla; Shriver, Mark D; Perry, George H

    2014-08-22

    While gene flow between distantly related populations is increasingly recognized as a potentially important source of adaptive genetic variation for humans, fully characterized examples are rare. In addition, the role that natural selection for resistance to vivax malaria may have played in the extreme distribution of the protective Duffy-null allele, which is nearly completely fixed in mainland sub-Saharan Africa and absent elsewhere, is controversial. We address both these issues by investigating the evolution of the Duffy-null allele in the Malagasy, a recently admixed population with major ancestry components from both East Asia and mainland sub-Saharan Africa. We used genome-wide genetic data and extensive computer simulations to show that the high frequency of the Duffy-null allele in Madagascar can only be explained in the absence of positive natural selection under extreme demographic scenarios involving high genetic drift. However, the observed genomic single nucleotide polymorphism diversity in the Malagasy is incompatible with such extreme demographic scenarios, indicating that positive selection for the Duffy-null allele best explains the high frequency of the allele in Madagascar. We estimate the selection coefficient to be 0.066. Because vivax malaria is endemic to Madagascar, this result supports the hypothesis that malaria resistance drove fixation of the Duffy-null allele in mainland sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24990677

  10. Properties of thermal air plasma with admixing of copper and carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fesenko, S.; Veklich, A.; Boretskij, V.; Cressault, Y.; Gleizes, A.; Teulet, Ph

    2014-11-01

    This paper deals with investigations of air plasma with admixing of copper and carbon. Model plasma source unit with real breaking arc was used for the simulation of real discharges, which can be occurred during sliding of Cu-C composite electrodes on copper wire at electromotive vehicles. The complex technique of plasma property studies is developed. From one hand, the radial profiles of temperature and electron density in plasma of electric arc discharge in air between Cu-C composite and copper electrodes in air flow were measured by optical spectroscopy techniques. From another hand, the radial profiles of electric conductivity of plasma mixture were calculated by solution of energy balance equation. It was assumed that the thermal conductivity of air plasma is not depending on copper or carbon vapor admixtures. The electron density is obtained from electric conductivity profiles by calculation in assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium in plasma. Computed in such way radial profiles of electron density in plasma of electric arc discharge in air between copper electrodes were compared with experimentally measured profiles. It is concluded that developed techniques of plasma diagnostics can be reasonably used in investigations of thermal plasma with copper and carbon vapors.

  11. Natural selection for the Duffy-null allele in the recently admixed people of Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Jason A; Pickrell, Joseph K; Pearson, Laurel N; Quillen, Ellen E; Prista, António; Rocha, Jorge; Soodyall, Himla; Shriver, Mark D; Perry, George H

    2014-08-22

    While gene flow between distantly related populations is increasingly recognized as a potentially important source of adaptive genetic variation for humans, fully characterized examples are rare. In addition, the role that natural selection for resistance to vivax malaria may have played in the extreme distribution of the protective Duffy-null allele, which is nearly completely fixed in mainland sub-Saharan Africa and absent elsewhere, is controversial. We address both these issues by investigating the evolution of the Duffy-null allele in the Malagasy, a recently admixed population with major ancestry components from both East Asia and mainland sub-Saharan Africa. We used genome-wide genetic data and extensive computer simulations to show that the high frequency of the Duffy-null allele in Madagascar can only be explained in the absence of positive natural selection under extreme demographic scenarios involving high genetic drift. However, the observed genomic single nucleotide polymorphism diversity in the Malagasy is incompatible with such extreme demographic scenarios, indicating that positive selection for the Duffy-null allele best explains the high frequency of the allele in Madagascar. We estimate the selection coefficient to be 0.066. Because vivax malaria is endemic to Madagascar, this result supports the hypothesis that malaria resistance drove fixation of the Duffy-null allele in mainland sub-Saharan Africa.

  12. Extensive Copy Number Variations in Admixed Indian Population of African Ancestry: Potential Involvement in Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Debasis; Mukerji, Mitali

    2014-01-01

    Admixture mapping has been enormously resourceful in identifying genetic variations linked to phenotypes, adaptation, and diseases. In this study through analysis of copy number variable regions (CNVRs), we report extensive restructuring in the genomes of the recently admixed African-Indian population (OG-W-IP) that inhabits a highly saline environment in Western India. The study included subjects from OG-W-IP (OG), five different Indian and three HapMap populations that were genotyped using Affymetrix version 6.0 arrays. Copy number variations (CNVs) detected using Birdsuite were used to define CNVRs. Population structure with respect to CNVRs was delineated using random forest approach. OG genomes have a surprising excess of CNVs in comparison to other studied populations. Individual ancestry proportions computed using STRUCTURE also reveals a unique genetic component in OGs. Population structure analysis with CNV genotypes indicates OG to be distant from both the African and Indian ancestral populations. Interestingly, it shows genetic proximity with respect to CNVs to only one Indian population IE-W-LP4, which also happens to reside in the same geographical region. We also observe a significant enrichment of molecular processes related to ion binding and receptor activity in genes encompassing OG-specific CNVRs. Our results suggest that retention of CNVRs from ancestral natives and de novo acquisition of CNVRs could accelerate the process of adaptation especially in an extreme environment. Additionally, this population would be enormously useful for dissecting genes and delineating the involvement of CNVs in salt adaptation. PMID:25398783

  13. mStruct: Inference of Population Structure in Light of Both Genetic Admixing and Allele Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Shringarpure, Suyash; Xing, Eric P.

    2009-01-01

    Traditional methods for analyzing population structure, such as the Structure program, ignore the influence of the effect of allele mutations between the ancestral and current alleles of genetic markers, which can dramatically influence the accuracy of the structural estimation of current populations. Studying these effects can also reveal additional information about population evolution such as the divergence time and migration history of admixed populations. We propose mStruct, an admixture of population-specific mixtures of inheritance models that addresses the task of structure inference and mutation estimation jointly through a hierarchical Bayesian framework, and a variational algorithm for inference. We validated our method on synthetic data and used it to analyze the Human Genome Diversity Project–Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain (HGDP–CEPH) cell line panel of microsatellites and HGDP single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data. A comparison of the structural maps of world populations estimated by mStruct and Structure is presented, and we also report potentially interesting mutation patterns in world populations estimated by mStruct. PMID:19363128

  14. Enhanced Statistical Tests for GWAS in Admixed Populations: Assessment using African Americans from CARe and a Breast Cancer Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Zaitlen, Noah; Lettre, Guillaume; Chen, Gary K.; Tandon, Arti; Kao, W. H. Linda; Ruczinski, Ingo; Fornage, Myriam; Siscovick, David S.; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Larkin, Emma; Lange, Leslie A.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Yang, Qiong; Akylbekova, Ermeg L.; Musani, Solomon K.; Divers, Jasmin; Mychaleckyj, Joe; Li, Mingyao; Papanicolaou, George J.; Millikan, Robert C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; John, Esther M.; Bernstein, Leslie; Zheng, Wei; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Nyante, Sarah J.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Ingles, Sue A.; Press, Michael F.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Deming, Sandra L.; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; Palmer, Cameron D.; Buxbaum, Sarah; Ekunwe, Lynette; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Henderson, Brian E.; Myers, Simon; Haiman, Christopher A.; Reich, David; Patterson, Nick; Wilson, James G.; Price, Alkes L.

    2011-01-01

    While genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have primarily examined populations of European ancestry, more recent studies often involve additional populations, including admixed populations such as African Americans and Latinos. In admixed populations, linkage disequilibrium (LD) exists both at a fine scale in ancestral populations and at a coarse scale (admixture-LD) due to chromosomal segments of distinct ancestry. Disease association statistics in admixed populations have previously considered SNP association (LD mapping) or admixture association (mapping by admixture-LD), but not both. Here, we introduce a new statistical framework for combining SNP and admixture association in case-control studies, as well as methods for local ancestry-aware imputation. We illustrate the gain in statistical power achieved by these methods by analyzing data of 6,209 unrelated African Americans from the CARe project genotyped on the Affymetrix 6.0 chip, in conjunction with both simulated and real phenotypes, as well as by analyzing the FGFR2 locus using breast cancer GWAS data from 5,761 African-American women. We show that, at typed SNPs, our method yields an 8% increase in statistical power for finding disease risk loci compared to the power achieved by standard methods in case-control studies. At imputed SNPs, we observe an 11% increase in statistical power for mapping disease loci when our local ancestry-aware imputation framework and the new scoring statistic are jointly employed. Finally, we show that our method increases statistical power in regions harboring the causal SNP in the case when the causal SNP is untyped and cannot be imputed. Our methods and our publicly available software are broadly applicable to GWAS in admixed populations. PMID:21541012

  15. High specific activity silicon-32

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Dennis R.; Brzezinski, Mark A.

    1996-01-01

    A process for preparation of silicon-32 is provided and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution to from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidization state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

  16. Production of high specific activity silicon-32

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Dennis R.; Brzezinski, Mark A.

    1994-01-01

    A process for preparation of silicon-32 is provide and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution to from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidization state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

  17. High specific activity silicon-32

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, D.R.; Brzezinski, M.A.

    1996-06-11

    A process for preparation of silicon-32 is provided and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidation state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

  18. Effects of Ethnicity and Socioeconomic Status on Body Composition in an Admixed, Multiethnic Population in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Daniel E.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Dubanoski, Joan P.; Murai, Amy Stone; Hillier, Teresa A.

    2009-01-01

    This study determined ethnic differences in anthropometric measures of a sample of adults in Hawaii, examining the effects of differing degrees of ethnic admixing and socioeconomic status (SES) on the measures. Adults who had attended elementary school in Hawaii underwent anthropometric measurements and answered questionnaires about their educational attainment, income, age, cultural identity, ethnic ancestry, and health. Individuals reporting Asian American cultural identity had significantly lower mean body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) than others, while those with Hawaiian/Pacific Islander cultural identity had significantly higher BMI and WC. Educational attainment, but not reported family income and age, was significantly related to BMI and WC, and differences in educational attainment accounted for the increased mean BMI and WC in Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders, but did not account for the lower mean BMI and WC among Asian Americans. Higher percentage of Asian ancestry was significantly correlated with lower BMI and WC, whereas higher percentage of Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ancestry was significantly correlated with increased BMI and WC. Differences in education accounted for the significantly increased BMI in participants with a higher percentage of Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ancestry, but did not entirely account for the lower BMI in individuals with a higher percentage of Asian American ancestry. These results suggest that the high rate of obesity and its sequelae seen in Pacific Islanders may be more a result of socioeconomic status and lifestyle than of genetic propensity, while the lower rates of obesity observed in Asian American populations are less directly influenced by socioeconomic factors. PMID:19213005

  19. Estimating ancestral proportions in a multi-ethnic US sample: implications for studies of admixed populations.

    PubMed

    Levran, Orna; Awolesi, Olaoluwakitan; Shen, Pei-Hong; Adelson, Miriam; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2012-07-05

    This study was designed to determine the ancestral composition of a multi-ethnic sample collected for studies of drug addictions in New York City and Las Vegas, and to examine the reliability of self-identified ethnicity and three-generation family history data. Ancestry biographical scores for seven clusters corresponding to world major geographical regions were obtained using STRUCTURE, based on genotypes of 168 ancestry informative markers (AIMs), for a sample of 1,291 African Americans (AA), European Americans (EA), and Hispanic Americans (HA) along with data from 1,051 HGDP-CEPH 'diversity panel' as a reference. Self-identified ethnicity and family history data, obtained in an interview, were accurate in identifying the individual major ancestry in the AA and the EA samples (approximately 99% and 95%, respectively) but were not useful for the HA sample and could not predict the extent of admixture in any group. The mean proportions of the combined clusters corresponding to European and Middle Eastern populations in the AA sample, revealed by AIMs analysis, were 0.13. The HA subjects, predominantly Puerto Ricans, showed a highly variable hybrid contribution pattern of clusters corresponding to Europe (0.27), Middle East (0.27), Africa (0.20), and Central Asia (0.14). The effect of admixture on allele frequencies is demonstrated for two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (118A > G, 17 C > T) of the mu opioid receptor gene (OPRM1). This study reiterates the importance of AIMs in defining ancestry, especially in admixed populations.

  20. The role of ancestry in TB susceptibility of an admixed South African population.

    PubMed

    Daya, Michelle; van der Merwe, Lize; van Helden, Paul D; Möller, Marlo; Hoal, Eileen G

    2014-07-01

    Genetic susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB) has been well established and this, taken together with variation in susceptibility observed between different geographic and ethnic populations, implies that susceptibility to TB may in part be affected by ethnicity. In a previous genome-wide TB case-control study (642 cases and 91 controls) of the admixed South African Coloured (SAC) population, we found a positive correlation between African San ancestry and TB susceptibility, and negative correlations with European and Asian ancestries. Since genome-wide data was available for only a small number of controls in the previous study, we endeavored to validate this finding by genotyping a panel of ancestry informative markers (AIMs) in additional individuals, yielding a data set of 918 cases and 507 controls. Ancestry proportions were estimated using the AIMs for each of the source populations of the SAC (African San, African non-San, European, South Asian and East Asian). Using logistic regression models to test for association between TB and ancestry, we confirmed the substantial effect of ancestry on TB susceptibility. We also investigated the effect of adjusting for ancestry in candidate gene TB association studies of the SAC. We report a polymorphism that is no longer significantly associated with TB after adjustment for ancestry, a polymorphism that is significantly associated with TB only after adjustment for ancestry, and a polymorphism where the association significance remains unchanged. By comparing the allele frequencies of these polymorphisms in the source populations of the SAC, we demonstrate that association results are likely to be affected by adjustment for ancestry if allele frequencies differ markedly in the source populations of the SAC.

  1. A rapid screening of ancestry for genetic association studies in an admixed population from Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Coelho, A V C; Moura, R R; Cavalcanti, C A J; Guimarães, R L; Sandrin-Garcia, P; Crovella, S; Brandão, L A C

    2015-03-31

    Genetic association studies determine how genes influence traits. However, non-detected population substructure may bias the analysis, resulting in spurious results. One method to detect substructure is to genotype ancestry informative markers (AIMs) besides the candidate variants, quantifying how much ancestral populations contribute to the samples' genetic background. The present study aimed to use a minimum quantity of markers, while retaining full potential to estimate ancestries. We tested the feasibility of a subset of the 12 most informative markers from a previously established study to estimate influence from three ancestral populations: European, African and Amerindian. The results showed that in a sample with a diverse ethnicity (N = 822) derived from 1000 Genomes database, the 12 AIMs had the same capacity to estimate ancestries when compared to the original set of 128 AIMs, since estimates from the two panels were closely correlated. Thus, these 12 SNPs were used to estimate ancestry in a new sample (N = 192) from an admixed population in Recife, Northeast Brazil. The ancestry estimates from Recife subjects were in accordance with previous studies, showing that Northeastern Brazilian populations show great influence from European ancestry (59.7%), followed by African (23.0%) and Amerindian (17.3%) ancestries. Ethnicity self-classification according to skin-color was confirmed to be a poor indicator of population substructure in Brazilians, since ancestry estimates overlapped between classifications. Thus, our streamlined panel of 12 markers may substitute panels with more markers, while retaining the capacity to control for population substructure and admixture, thereby reducing sample processing time.

  2. Prospective randomized study of two different doses of clindamycin admixed with gentamicin in the management of perforated appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Yellin, A E; Berne, T V; Heseltine, P N; Appleman, M D; Gill, M; Chin, A; Baker, F J

    1993-04-01

    Septic complications after surgery for enterogenous peritonitis are minimized by adjuvant antibiotics effective against aerobes and anaerobes. Historically, "gold standard" therapy included an aminoglycoside plus clindamycin, the latter given at 600 mg intravenous piggyback (IVPB), every 6 hours. Clindamycin pharmacokinetics suggests that it can be given q8h and admixed with gentamicin, thereby markedly reducing the cost of administration. Although this is now common practice, there is no prospective study comparing the efficacy of the two dose schedules in peritonitis. This study was designed to test the hypothesis regarding the clinical efficacy of the two regimens. One hundred twenty-six patients with gangrenous (n = 34) or perforated appendicitis (n = 91) were randomized (2:1) to receive gentamicin admixed with clindamycin 900 mg IVPB every 8 hours (Group I n = 80) or gentamicin IVPB q8h plus clindamycin 600 mg IVPB every 6 hours (Group II n = 46). Appendectomy was performed, and aerobic and anaerobic cultures were obtained. Twenty-one patients had simultaneous determinations of clindamycin levels in plasma, peritoneal fluid, and appendix. Outcome analysis revealed no significant differences in postoperative days of fever, days non per os, antibiotic therapy, or hospitalization. There were 6 failures (4 abscesses and 2 wound infections) in Group I and 4 failures (1 abscess and 3 wound infections) in Group II. Both antibiotic regimens provided clinically equivalent results in mixed infections due to aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. The admixed clindamycin, administered every 8 hours, results in at least 20% reduction in costs. This is an important consideration.

  3. Evaluating Whole Chemical Mixtures and Sufficient Similarity

    EPA Science Inventory

    This powerpoint presentation supports apresentation describing dose-response assessment for complex chemical mixtures including deriving reference doses for mixtures evaluating sufficient similarity among chemical mixtures.

  4. Forensic performance of Investigator DIPplex indels genotyping kit in native, immigrant, and admixed populations in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Hefke, Gwynneth; Davison, Sean; D'Amato, Maria Eugenia

    2015-12-01

    The utilization of binary markers in human individual identification is gaining ground in forensic genetics. We analyzed the polymorphisms from the first commercial indel kit Investigator DIPplex (Qiagen) in 512 individuals from Afrikaner, Indian, admixed Cape Colored, and the native Bantu Xhosa and Zulu origin in South Africa and evaluated forensic and population genetics parameters for their forensic application in South Africa. The levels of genetic diversity in population and forensic parameters in South Africa are similar to other published data, with lower diversity values for the native Bantu. Departures from Hardy-Weinberg expectations were observed in HLD97 in Indians, Admixed and Bantus, along with 6.83% null homozygotes in the Bantu populations. Sequencing of the flanking regions showed a previously reported transition G>A in rs17245568. Strong population structure was detected with Fst, AMOVA, and the Bayesian unsupervised clustering method in STRUCTURE. Therefore we evaluated the efficiency of individual assignments to population groups using the ancestral membership proportions from STRUCTURE and the Bayesian classification algorithm in Snipper App Suite. Both methods showed low cross-assignment error (0-4%) between Bantus and either Afrikaners or Indians. The differentiation between populations seems to be driven by four loci under positive selection pressure. Based on these results, we draw recommendations for the application of this kit in SA.

  5. Exome sequencing in an admixed isolated population indicates NFXL1 variants confer a risk for specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Pía; Nudel, Ron; Hoischen, Alexander; Fernández, María Angélica; Simpson, Nuala H; Gilissen, Christian; Reader, Rose H; Jara, Lillian; Echeverry, María Magdalena; Echeverry, Maria Magdalena; Francks, Clyde; Baird, Gillian; Conti-Ramsden, Gina; O'Hare, Anne; Bolton, Patrick F; Hennessy, Elizabeth R; Palomino, Hernán; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis; Veltman, Joris A; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; De Barbieri, Zulema; Fisher, Simon E; Newbury, Dianne F

    2015-03-01

    Children affected by Specific Language Impairment (SLI) fail to acquire age appropriate language skills despite adequate intelligence and opportunity. SLI is highly heritable, but the understanding of underlying genetic mechanisms has proved challenging. In this study, we use molecular genetic techniques to investigate an admixed isolated founder population from the Robinson Crusoe Island (Chile), who are affected by a high incidence of SLI, increasing the power to discover contributory genetic factors. We utilize exome sequencing in selected individuals from this population to identify eight coding variants that are of putative significance. We then apply association analyses across the wider population to highlight a single rare coding variant (rs144169475, Minor Allele Frequency of 4.1% in admixed South American populations) in the NFXL1 gene that confers a nonsynonymous change (N150K) and is significantly associated with language impairment in the Robinson Crusoe population (p = 2.04 × 10-4, 8 variants tested). Subsequent sequencing of NFXL1 in 117 UK SLI cases identified four individuals with heterozygous variants predicted to be of functional consequence. We conclude that coding variants within NFXL1 confer an increased risk of SLI within a complex genetic model.

  6. Evidence that a West-East admixed population lived in the Tarim Basin as early as the early Bronze Age

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Tarim Basin, located on the ancient Silk Road, played a very important role in the history of human migration and cultural communications between the West and the East. However, both the exact period at which the relevant events occurred and the origins of the people in the area remain very obscure. In this paper, we present data from the analyses of both Y chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) derived from human remains excavated from the Xiaohe cemetery, the oldest archeological site with human remains discovered in the Tarim Basin thus far. Results Mitochondrial DNA analysis showed that the Xiaohe people carried both the East Eurasian haplogroup (C) and the West Eurasian haplogroups (H and K), whereas Y chromosomal DNA analysis revealed only the West Eurasian haplogroup R1a1a in the male individuals. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that the Xiaohe people were an admixture from populations originating from both the West and the East, implying that the Tarim Basin had been occupied by an admixed population since the early Bronze Age. To our knowledge, this is the earliest genetic evidence of an admixed population settled in the Tarim Basin. PMID:20163704

  7. Exome Sequencing in an Admixed Isolated Population Indicates NFXL1 Variants Confer a Risk for Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva, Pía; Nudel, Ron; Hoischen, Alexander; Fernández, María Angélica; Simpson, Nuala H.; Gilissen, Christian; Reader, Rose H.; Jara, Lillian; Echeverry, Maria Magdalena; Francks, Clyde; Baird, Gillian; Conti-Ramsden, Gina; O’Hare, Anne; Bolton, Patrick F.; Hennessy, Elizabeth R.; Palomino, Hernán; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis; Veltman, Joris A.; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; De Barbieri, Zulema

    2015-01-01

    Children affected by Specific Language Impairment (SLI) fail to acquire age appropriate language skills despite adequate intelligence and opportunity. SLI is highly heritable, but the understanding of underlying genetic mechanisms has proved challenging. In this study, we use molecular genetic techniques to investigate an admixed isolated founder population from the Robinson Crusoe Island (Chile), who are affected by a high incidence of SLI, increasing the power to discover contributory genetic factors. We utilize exome sequencing in selected individuals from this population to identify eight coding variants that are of putative significance. We then apply association analyses across the wider population to highlight a single rare coding variant (rs144169475, Minor Allele Frequency of 4.1% in admixed South American populations) in the NFXL1 gene that confers a nonsynonymous change (N150K) and is significantly associated with language impairment in the Robinson Crusoe population (p = 2.04 × 10–4, 8 variants tested). Subsequent sequencing of NFXL1 in 117 UK SLI cases identified four individuals with heterozygous variants predicted to be of functional consequence. We conclude that coding variants within NFXL1 confer an increased risk of SLI within a complex genetic model. PMID:25781923

  8. Some existence and sufficient conditions of optimality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Assefi, T.

    1976-01-01

    The role of the existence and sufficiency conditions in the field of optimal control was briefly described. The existence theorems are discussed for general nonlinear systems. However, the sufficiency conditions pertain to "nearly" linear systems with integral convex costs. Moreover, a brief discussion of linear systems with multiple-cost functions is presented.

  9. Redundant causation from a sufficient cause perspective.

    PubMed

    Gatto, Nicolle M; Campbell, Ulka B

    2010-08-02

    Sufficient causes of disease are redundant when an individual acquires the components of two or more sufficient causes. In this circumstance, the individual still would have become diseased even if one of the sufficient causes had not been acquired. In the context of a study, when any individuals acquire components of more than one sufficient cause over the observation period, the etiologic effect of the exposure (defined as the absolute or relative difference between the proportion of the exposed who develop the disease by the end of the study period and the proportion of those individuals who would have developed the disease at the moment they did even in the absence of the exposure) may be underestimated. Even in the absence of confounding and bias, the observed effect estimate represents only a subset of the etiologic effect. This underestimation occurs regardless of the measure of effect used.To some extent, redundancy of sufficient causes is always present, and under some circumstances, it may make a true cause of disease appear to be not causal. This problem is particularly relevant when the researcher's goal is to characterize the universe of sufficient causes of the disease, identify risk factors for targeted interventions, or construct causal diagrams. In this paper, we use the sufficient component cause model and the disease response type framework to show how redundant causation arises and the factors that determine the extent of its impact on epidemiologic effect measures.

  10. Redundant causation from a sufficient cause perspective.

    PubMed

    Gatto, Nicolle M; Campbell, Ulka B

    2010-01-01

    Sufficient causes of disease are redundant when an individual acquires the components of two or more sufficient causes. In this circumstance, the individual still would have become diseased even if one of the sufficient causes had not been acquired. In the context of a study, when any individuals acquire components of more than one sufficient cause over the observation period, the etiologic effect of the exposure (defined as the absolute or relative difference between the proportion of the exposed who develop the disease by the end of the study period and the proportion of those individuals who would have developed the disease at the moment they did even in the absence of the exposure) may be underestimated. Even in the absence of confounding and bias, the observed effect estimate represents only a subset of the etiologic effect. This underestimation occurs regardless of the measure of effect used.To some extent, redundancy of sufficient causes is always present, and under some circumstances, it may make a true cause of disease appear to be not causal. This problem is particularly relevant when the researcher's goal is to characterize the universe of sufficient causes of the disease, identify risk factors for targeted interventions, or construct causal diagrams. In this paper, we use the sufficient component cause model and the disease response type framework to show how redundant causation arises and the factors that determine the extent of its impact on epidemiologic effect measures. PMID:20678223

  11. Hypoplastic model for simulation of compressibility characteristics of cement-admixed Bangkok soft clay at high water content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattonjai, Piyachat

    2016-06-01

    The developed hypoplastic model for simulation of compressibility characteristics of cement-admixed Bangkok soft clay at high water content was proposed in this paper. By using unique equation, the model is able to predict the relationship between void ratio and vertical effective stress of different water and cement content of soil cement. For practically convenient utilization and understanding, the parameters of Q1 which represented to initial cement bonding of soil (the initial value of structure tensor at time = 0) and C2 which effected to the model stiffness on isotropic consolidation direction, at 45° for loading and 225° for unloading of stress response envelope, were proposed as the function of cement and water content by comparing with dry weight of soil. By numerical integration that satisfied one-dimensional settlement, the simulation results were directly compared with fifteen experimental results to verify the accuracy of the proposed model.

  12. Several different lactase persistence associated alleles and high diversity of the lactase gene in the admixed Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Deise C; Santos, Sidney E B; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Ândrea K C; Hutz, Mara H

    2012-01-01

    Adult-type hypolactasia is a common phenotype caused by the lactase enzyme deficiency. The -13910 C>T polymorphism, located 14 Kb upstream of the lactase gene (LCT) in the MCM6 gene was associated with lactase persistence (LP) in Europeans. This polymorphism is rare in Africa but several other variants associated with lactase persistence were observed in Africans. The aims of this study were to identify polymorphisms in the MCM6 region associated with the lactase persistence phenotype and to determine the distribution of LCT gene haplotypes in 981 individuals from North, Northeast and South Brazil. These polymorphisms were genotyped by PCR based methods and sequencing. The -13779*C,-13910*T, -13937*A, -14010*C, -14011*T LP alleles previously described in the MCM6 gene region that acts as an enhancer for the LCT gene were identified in Brazilians. The most common LP allele was -13910*T. Its frequency was highly correlated with European ancestry in the Brazilian populations investigated. The -13910*T was higher (0.295) in southern Brazilians of European ancestry and lower (0.175) in the Northern admixed population. LCT haplotypes were derived from the 10 LCT SNPs genotyped. Overall twenty six haplotypes previously described were identified in the four Brazilian populations studied. The Multidimensional Scaling analysis showed that Belém, in the north, was closer to Amerindians. Northeastern and southern Afro-descendants were more related with Bantu-speaking South Africans whereas the Southern population with European ancestry grouped with Southern and Northern Europeans. This study shows a high variability considering the number of LCT haplotypes observed. Due to the highly admixed nature of the Brazilian populations, the diagnosis of hypolactasia in Brazil, based only in the investigation of the -13910*T allele is an oversimplification. PMID:23029545

  13. Several different lactase persistence associated alleles and high diversity of the lactase gene in the admixed Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Deise C; Santos, Sidney E B; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Ândrea K C; Hutz, Mara H

    2012-01-01

    Adult-type hypolactasia is a common phenotype caused by the lactase enzyme deficiency. The -13910 C>T polymorphism, located 14 Kb upstream of the lactase gene (LCT) in the MCM6 gene was associated with lactase persistence (LP) in Europeans. This polymorphism is rare in Africa but several other variants associated with lactase persistence were observed in Africans. The aims of this study were to identify polymorphisms in the MCM6 region associated with the lactase persistence phenotype and to determine the distribution of LCT gene haplotypes in 981 individuals from North, Northeast and South Brazil. These polymorphisms were genotyped by PCR based methods and sequencing. The -13779*C,-13910*T, -13937*A, -14010*C, -14011*T LP alleles previously described in the MCM6 gene region that acts as an enhancer for the LCT gene were identified in Brazilians. The most common LP allele was -13910*T. Its frequency was highly correlated with European ancestry in the Brazilian populations investigated. The -13910*T was higher (0.295) in southern Brazilians of European ancestry and lower (0.175) in the Northern admixed population. LCT haplotypes were derived from the 10 LCT SNPs genotyped. Overall twenty six haplotypes previously described were identified in the four Brazilian populations studied. The Multidimensional Scaling analysis showed that Belém, in the north, was closer to Amerindians. Northeastern and southern Afro-descendants were more related with Bantu-speaking South Africans whereas the Southern population with European ancestry grouped with Southern and Northern Europeans. This study shows a high variability considering the number of LCT haplotypes observed. Due to the highly admixed nature of the Brazilian populations, the diagnosis of hypolactasia in Brazil, based only in the investigation of the -13910*T allele is an oversimplification.

  14. Genomic Ancestry, Self-Reported “Color” and Quantitative Measures of Skin Pigmentation in Brazilian Admixed Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Tailce K. M.; Fonseca, Rômulo M. C.; de França, Nanci M.; Parra, Esteban J.; Pereira, Rinaldo W.

    2011-01-01

    A current concern in genetic epidemiology studies in admixed populations is that population stratification can lead to spurious results. The Brazilian census classifies individuals according to self-reported “color”, but several studies have demonstrated that stratifying according to “color” is not a useful strategy to control for population structure, due to the dissociation between self-reported “color” and genomic ancestry. We report the results of a study in a group of Brazilian siblings in which we measured skin pigmentation using a reflectometer, and estimated genomic ancestry using 21 Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs). Self-reported “color”, according to the Brazilian census, was also available for each participant. This made it possible to evaluate the relationship between self-reported “color” and skin pigmentation, self-reported “color” and genomic ancestry, and skin pigmentation and genomic ancestry. We observed that, although there were significant differences between the three “color” groups in genomic ancestry and skin pigmentation, there was considerable dispersion within each group and substantial overlap between groups. We also saw that there was no good agreement between the “color” categories reported by each member of the sibling pair: 30 out of 86 sibling pairs reported different “color”, and in some cases, the sibling reporting the darker “color” category had lighter skin pigmentation. Socioeconomic status was significantly associated with self-reported “color” and genomic ancestry in this sample. This and other studies show that subjective classifications based on self-reported “color”, such as the one that is used in the Brazilian census, are inadequate to describe the population structure present in recently admixed populations. Finally, we observed that one of the AIMs included in the panel (rs1426654), which is located in the known pigmentation gene SLC24A5, was strongly associated with

  15. Necessary and sufficient factors in classical conditioning.

    PubMed

    Damianopoulos, E N

    1982-01-01

    The issue of necessary and sufficient factors (pairing-contiguity vs. contingency-correlation) in classical (Pavlovian) excitatory conditioning is examined: first, in terms of definitional (logical) and manipulational requirements of "necessary" and "sufficient"; second, in terms of Boolean logic test models indicating experimental and control manipulations in tests of pairing and contingency as necessary and sufficient factors; and, third, by a selective review of reference experiments showing appropriate experimental and control manipulations of pairing and contingency indicated in the Boolean logic test models. Results of examination show pairing-contiguity as the sole necessary and sufficient factor for excitatory conditioning, while contingency-correlation is conceptualized as a modulating factor controlling minimal-maximal effects of pairing-contiguity. Reservations and diagnostic experiments are indicated to assess effects of uncontrolled conditioned stimulus--unconditioned stimulus (--CS--US) probability characteristics (e.g., p (CS--US)/p (--CS--US) in truly random (TR) schedule manipulations). Similar analysis of conditioned inhibition reveals insufficient evidence to support a choice among current alternatives.

  16. Towards an English Language "Sufficiency" Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yule, George

    1980-01-01

    While proficiency tests make a positive statement about the language ability of those who pass, it says nothing about those who don't. Since the proficiency test's questions are too general, a "sufficiency" test was developed to determine if students had "enough" English to meet the needs that motivated their study. (PJM)

  17. Sufficiency, Intimacy and the Good Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Donald L.

    Our capacity to provide food and shelter is freeing us from the constant burden of keeping the wolf away from the door. We are increasingly able to give our attention to other values. This type of sufficiency provides time and circumstances for developing intimate relationships. Intimate relationships are characterized by revelation of one's…

  18. Self-sufficiency, free trade and safety.

    PubMed

    Rautonen, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between free trade, self-sufficiency and safety of blood and blood components has been a perennial discussion topic in the blood service community. Traditionally, national self-sufficiency has been perceived as the ultimate goal that would also maximize safety. However, very few countries are, or can be, truly self-sufficient when self-sufficiency is understood correctly to encompass the whole value chain from the blood donor to the finished product. This is most striking when plasma derived medicines are considered. Free trade of blood products, or competition, as such can have a negative or positive effect on blood safety. Further, free trade of equipment and reagents and several plasma medicines is actually necessary to meet the domestic demand for blood and blood derivatives in most countries. Opposing free trade due to dogmatic reasons is not in the best interest of any country and will be especially harmful for the developing world. Competition between blood services in the USA has been present for decades. The more than threefold differences in blood product prices between European blood services indicate that competition is long overdue in Europe, too. This competition should be welcomed but carefully and proactively regulated to avoid putting safe and secure blood supply at risk.

  19. Sufficient separability criteria and linear maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewenstein, Maciej; Augusiak, Remigiusz; Chruściński, Dariusz; Rana, Swapan; Samsonowicz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    We study families of positive and completely positive maps acting on a bipartite system CM⊗CN (with M ≤N ). The maps have a property that, when applied to any state (of a given entanglement class), result in a separable state or, more generally, a state of another certain entanglement class (e.g., Schmidt number ≤k ). This allows us to derive useful families of sufficient separability criteria. Explicit examples of such criteria have been constructed for arbitrary M ,N , with a special emphasis on M =2 . Our results can be viewed as generalizations of the known facts that in the sufficiently close vicinity of the completely depolarized state (the normalized identity matrix), all states are separable (belong to "weakly" entangled classes). Alternatively, some of our results can be viewed as an entanglement classification for a certain family of states, corresponding to mixtures of the completely polarized state with pure states, partial transposes, and/or local transformations thereof.

  20. ["The prize goes to self-sufficiency"].

    PubMed

    Trias, M

    1993-12-01

    The Colombian family planning organization Profamilia was recognized at the 1993 annual meeting of the Western Hemisphere Region of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) for its efforts to achieve financial self-sufficiency. Because of the announced termination of annual assistance from the US Agency for International Development (USAID), one of Profamilia's most significant external donors, the pressure to achieve self-sufficiency has intensified. Funds will be made available to Profamilia before the termination of assistance to improve infrastructure, equipment, and training. A large quantity of contraceptives will also be provided, and a new endowment will be created by USAID from which Profamilia may use the earnings. Profamilia's strategy for achieving self-sufficiency consists of five specific tactics. Recuperation refers to a cautious but sustained increase in family planning fees. Diversification refers to the medical and surgical activities apart from family planning that Profamilia will carry out for profit. The social marketing program will be expanded and improved. The fourth tactic involves a series of unrelated mechanisms to generate income, and the fifth refers to reduction of all nonessential expenditures. The measures will be made without hurting the quality of Profamilia's services or improving the average socioeconomic profile of users, who will continue to belong primarily to the less favored classes. The continued assistance of the IPPF is especially important to Profamilia as it prepares for the change. PMID:12287890

  1. ["The prize goes to self-sufficiency"].

    PubMed

    Trias, M

    1993-12-01

    The Colombian family planning organization Profamilia was recognized at the 1993 annual meeting of the Western Hemisphere Region of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) for its efforts to achieve financial self-sufficiency. Because of the announced termination of annual assistance from the US Agency for International Development (USAID), one of Profamilia's most significant external donors, the pressure to achieve self-sufficiency has intensified. Funds will be made available to Profamilia before the termination of assistance to improve infrastructure, equipment, and training. A large quantity of contraceptives will also be provided, and a new endowment will be created by USAID from which Profamilia may use the earnings. Profamilia's strategy for achieving self-sufficiency consists of five specific tactics. Recuperation refers to a cautious but sustained increase in family planning fees. Diversification refers to the medical and surgical activities apart from family planning that Profamilia will carry out for profit. The social marketing program will be expanded and improved. The fourth tactic involves a series of unrelated mechanisms to generate income, and the fifth refers to reduction of all nonessential expenditures. The measures will be made without hurting the quality of Profamilia's services or improving the average socioeconomic profile of users, who will continue to belong primarily to the less favored classes. The continued assistance of the IPPF is especially important to Profamilia as it prepares for the change.

  2. [Vitamin sufficiency of young basketball players].

    PubMed

    Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Pereverzeva, O G; Beketova, N A; Isaeva, V A; Kharitonchik, L A; Kodentsova, V M; Martinchik, A N; Baturin, A K

    2004-01-01

    The investigation of vitamin sufficiency of young basket-ball players 14-16 years old (17 girls and 14 boys) has been carried out 59-77 per cent of the children had the deficiency of B group vitamins, 24-54 per cent--vitamin E insufficiency, most of them (82-100 per cent)--deficit of carotenoids while they were sufficiently vitamins C and A supplied. The girls were supplied with vitamins better than boys. There was no one adequately supplied with all vitamins among boys while 12 per cent of girls had adequately sufficiency. The girls had deficit of 1-2 vitamins more often whereas the combined insufficiency of 3-4 vitamins took place in 1.8-2.3 fold more frequently among boys. Daily intake of multivitamin containing 10 vitamins in daily recommended doses, lipoic acid, methionin and 9 minerals by boys lead to their blood plasma vitamin C, E, B-2 and beta-carotene level increase. Vitamin C insufficiency disappeared. Deficit of beta-carotene and vitamin B-6 became 1.5 fold rarely, vitamin B-2--2 fold, vitamin E--6 fold. Thus daily intake of recommended doses of vitamins eliminates biochemical signs of vitamin deficiency.

  3. Exploring the applicability of analysing X chromosome STRs in Brazilian admixed population.

    PubMed

    Auler-Bittencourt, Eloisa; Iwamura, Edna Sadayo Miazato; Lima, Maria Jenny Mitraud; da Silva, Ismael Dale Cotrim Guerreiro; dos Santos, Sidney Emannuel Batista

    2015-09-01

    Kinship and parentage analyses always involve one sample being compared to another sample or a few samples with a specific relationship question in mind. In most cases, the analysis of autosomal STR markers is sufficient to determine the genetic kinship. However, when genetic profiles are reconstructed from supposed relatives, for whom the family configuration available for analysis is deficient, the examination may be inconclusive. This study reports practical examples of actual cases analysing the efficiency of the chromosome X STR (STR-ChrX) markers. Three cases with different degrees of efficiency and impact were selected as follows: the identification of two charred bodies in a traffic accident, in which the family setting available was not complete, and one filiation analysis resulting from rape. This is the first paper reporting the use of the multiplex STR 12 ChrX in actual cases using the software Familias 1.8 and Brazilian regional frequency data. Our study clarifies the complex analysis using this powerful tool for professionals in the forensic science community, for both civil and criminal justice. We also discuss state-of-the-art ChrX STR markers and its implications and applications for legal procedures. The data presented here should be used in other studies of complex cases to improve the progress of the current justice system.

  4. Exploring the applicability of analysing X chromosome STRs in Brazilian admixed population.

    PubMed

    Auler-Bittencourt, Eloisa; Iwamura, Edna Sadayo Miazato; Lima, Maria Jenny Mitraud; da Silva, Ismael Dale Cotrim Guerreiro; dos Santos, Sidney Emannuel Batista

    2015-09-01

    Kinship and parentage analyses always involve one sample being compared to another sample or a few samples with a specific relationship question in mind. In most cases, the analysis of autosomal STR markers is sufficient to determine the genetic kinship. However, when genetic profiles are reconstructed from supposed relatives, for whom the family configuration available for analysis is deficient, the examination may be inconclusive. This study reports practical examples of actual cases analysing the efficiency of the chromosome X STR (STR-ChrX) markers. Three cases with different degrees of efficiency and impact were selected as follows: the identification of two charred bodies in a traffic accident, in which the family setting available was not complete, and one filiation analysis resulting from rape. This is the first paper reporting the use of the multiplex STR 12 ChrX in actual cases using the software Familias 1.8 and Brazilian regional frequency data. Our study clarifies the complex analysis using this powerful tool for professionals in the forensic science community, for both civil and criminal justice. We also discuss state-of-the-art ChrX STR markers and its implications and applications for legal procedures. The data presented here should be used in other studies of complex cases to improve the progress of the current justice system. PMID:26385714

  5. Tat peptide-admixed elastic liposomal formulation of hirsutenone for the treatment of atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Myung Joo; Eum, Jae Yoon; Jeong, Mi Sook; Park, Sang Han; Moon, Ki Young; Kang, Mean Hyung; Kim, Min Soo; Choi, Sun Eun; Lee, Min Won; Lee, Do Ik; Bang, Hyoweon; Lee, Chung Soo; Joo, Seong Soo; Li, Kapsok; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Seo, Seong Jun; Choi, Young Wook

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to enhance a topical delivery of hirsutenone (HST), a naturally occuring immunomodulator, employing Tat peptide-admixed elastic liposomes (EL/T). Methods HST-loaded EL, consisting of phosphatidylcholine and Tween 80 (85:15 w/w%), were prepared using thin film hydration method. By adding Tat peptide to EL (0.16 w/w%), EL/T were formulated. The in vitro skin permeation of HST was examined using a Franz diffusion cell mounted with depilated mouse skin. Lesions for atopic dermatitis (AD) were induced by a topical application of diphenylcyclopropenone to NC/Nga mice. Therapeutic improvements of AD were evaluated by clinical skin severity scores. Immunological analyses on inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 levels in the skin and interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, immunoglobulin E, and eosinophil levels in the blood were also performed. Results EL systems were superior to conventional cream, revealing greater flux values in a permeation study. The addition of Tat peptide further increased the skin permeation of HST. In an efficacy study with AD-induced NC/Nga mice, an HST-containing EL/T formulation brought a significant improvement in both skin severity score and immune-related responses for the levels of nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, IL-4, IL-13, immunoglobulin E, and eosinophils. Conclusion A novel EL/T formulation was successfully developed for topical delivery of HST to treat AD. PMID:22072881

  6. Influence of admixed citric acid and physiological variables on the vinpocetine release from sodium alginate compressed matrix tablets.

    PubMed

    Nie, Shufang; Wu, Jie; Liu, Hui; Pan, Weisan; Liu, Yanli

    2011-08-01

    In this study, the controlled release matrix tablets of vinpocetine were prepared by direct compression using sodium alginate (SAL) as hydrophilic polymer and different amounts of citric acid as hydrosoluble acidic excipient to set up a system bringing about zero-order release of this drug in distilled water containing 0.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate. At the critical content of admixed citric acid (60 mg/tab.), the lowest drug-release rate was observed. In order to explain the effect of this critical content on drug-release rate from SAL matrices, investigation of the possibility of interaction of citric acid with SAL was performed using differential scanning calorimetric analysis and infrared analysis, which confirmed the existence of direct citric acid-SAL interaction when these two excipients came in contact with water. A zero-order drug-release system could be obtained by regulating the ratio of citric acid-to-SAL and the capacity of this system in controlling drug-release rate depended on the extent of interaction between citric acid and SAL. It is worth noticing that pH and the ionic strength of the dissolution medium were found to exert an influence on the drug-release performance of SAL tablets.

  7. A Panel of Ancestry Informative Markers for the Complex Five-Way Admixed South African Coloured Population

    PubMed Central

    Daya, Michelle; van der Merwe, Lize; Galal, Ushma; Möller, Marlo; Salie, Muneeb; Chimusa, Emile R.; Galanter, Joshua M.; van Helden, Paul D.; Henn, Brenna M.; Gignoux, Chris R.; Hoal, Eileen

    2013-01-01

    Admixture is a well known confounder in genetic association studies. If genome-wide data is not available, as would be the case for candidate gene studies, ancestry informative markers (AIMs) are required in order to adjust for admixture. The predominant population group in the Western Cape, South Africa, is the admixed group known as the South African Coloured (SAC). A small set of AIMs that is optimized to distinguish between the five source populations of this population (African San, African non-San, European, South Asian, and East Asian) will enable researchers to cost-effectively reduce false-positive findings resulting from ignoring admixture in genetic association studies of the population. Using genome-wide data to find SNPs with large allele frequency differences between the source populations of the SAC, as quantified by Rosenberg et. al's -statistic, we developed a panel of AIMs by experimenting with various selection strategies. Subsets of different sizes were evaluated by measuring the correlation between ancestry proportions estimated by each AIM subset with ancestry proportions estimated using genome-wide data. We show that a panel of 96 AIMs can be used to assess ancestry proportions and to adjust for the confounding effect of the complex five-way admixture that occurred in the South African Coloured population. PMID:24376522

  8. Sufficient dimension reduction for longitudinally measured predictors.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Forzani, Liliana; Bura, Efstathia

    2012-09-28

    We propose a method to combine several predictors (markers) that are measured repeatedly over time into a composite marker score without assuming a model and only requiring a mild condition on the predictor distribution. Assuming that the first and second moments of the predictors can be decomposed into a time and a marker component via a Kronecker product structure that accommodates the longitudinal nature of the predictors, we develop first-moment sufficient dimension reduction techniques to replace the original markers with linear transformations that contain sufficient information for the regression of the predictors on the outcome. These linear combinations can then be combined into a score that has better predictive performance than a score built under a general model that ignores the longitudinal structure of the data. Our methods can be applied to either continuous or categorical outcome measures. In simulations, we focus on binary outcomes and show that our method outperforms existing alternatives by using the AUC, the area under the receiver-operator characteristics (ROC) curve, as a summary measure of the discriminatory ability of a single continuous diagnostic marker for binary disease outcomes.

  9. HLA Class I and Class II Conserved Extended Haplotypes and Their Fragments or Blocks in Mexicans: Implications for the Study of Genetic Diversity in Admixed Populations

    PubMed Central

    Ohashi, Marina; Lebedeva, Tatiana; Acuña-Alonzo, Víctor; Yunis, María; Granados-Montiel, Julio; Cruz-Lagunas, Alfredo; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Rodríguez-Reyna, Tatiana S.; Fernandez-Viña, Marcelo; Granados, Julio; Yunis, Edmond J.

    2013-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are highly polymorphic and informative in disease association, transplantation, and population genetics studies with particular importance in the understanding of human population diversity and evolution. The aim of this study was to describe the HLA diversity in Mexican admixed individuals. We studied the polymorphism of MHC class I (HLA-A, -B, -C), and class II (HLA-DRB1, -DQB1) genes using high-resolution sequence based typing (SBT) method and we structured the blocks and conserved extended haplotypes (CEHs) in 234 non-related admixed Mexican individuals (468 haplotypes) by a maximum likelihood method. We found that HLA blocks and CEHs are primarily from Amerindian and Caucasian origin, with smaller participation of African and recent Asian ancestry, demonstrating a great diversity of HLA blocks and CEHs in Mexicans from the central area of Mexico. We also analyzed the degree of admixture in this group using short tandem repeats (STRs) and HLA-B that correlated with the frequency of most probable ancestral HLA-C/−B and -DRB1/−DQB1 blocks and CEHs. Our results contribute to the analysis of the diversity and ancestral contribution of HLA class I and HLA class II alleles and haplotypes of Mexican admixed individuals from Mexico City. This work will help as a reference to improve future studies in Mexicans regarding allotransplantation, immune responses and disease associations. PMID:24086347

  10. Trial of a self-sufficient cottage

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Iwane )

    1991-01-01

    Environmental disturbances, including air pollution, are increasing all over the world. In order to investigate the possibility of reducing these disturbances, a fully self-sufficient prototype cottage was built in the countryside. The cottage is not equipped with an external electric power supply nor tap water from the main. The cottage possesses a solar cell array system linked to lead-acid batteries to supply electricity and a well with a domestic pump operated by the electricity generated. A rainwater tank provides water for nonpotable uses. Additional equipment and ideas have been implemented in the cottage to promote energy saving; these are also described in detail in this paper. Experimental results on the effect of heat storage panels used for space heating are also given.

  11. Policy Capacity Is Necessary but Not Sufficient

    PubMed Central

    Gen, Sheldon; Wright, Amy Conley

    2015-01-01

    Policy capacity focuses on the managerial and organizational abilities to inform policy decisions with sound research and analysis, and facilitate policy implementation with operational efficiency. It stems from a view of the policy process that is rational and positivistic, in which optimal policy choices can be identified, selected, and implemented with objectivity. By itself, however, policy capacity neglects the political aspects of policy-making that can dominate the process, even in health policies. These technical capabilities are certainly needed to advance reforms in health policies, but they are not sufficient. Instead, they must be complemented with public engagement and policy advocacy to ensure support from the public that policies are meant to serve. PMID:26673469

  12. HLA-DRB1*14 is a protective allele for multiple sclerosis in an admixed Colombian population

    PubMed Central

    Cuellar-Giraldo, David; Díaz-Cruz, Camilo; Burbano, Lisseth-Estefania; Guío, Claudia-Marcela; Reyes, Saúl; Cortes, Fabián; Cárdenas-Robledo, Simón; Narváez, Diana M.; Cárdenas, Wilmer; Porras, Alexandra; Lattig, María-Claudia; Groot de Restrepo, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine ancestry informative markers, mitochondrial DNA haplogroups, and the association between HLA-DRB1 alleles and multiple sclerosis (MS) in a group of patients from Bogotá, Colombia. Methods: In this case-control study, genomic DNA was isolated and purified from blood samples. HLA-DRB1 allele genotyping was done using PCR. Mitochondrial hypervariable region 1 was amplified and haplogroups were determined using HaploGrep software. Genomic ancestry was estimated by genotyping a panel of ancestry informative markers. To test the association of HLA polymorphisms and MS, we ran separate multivariate logistic regression models. Bonferroni correction was used to account for multiple regression tests. Results: A total of 100 patients with MS (mean age 40.4 ± 12 years; 70% females) and 200 healthy controls (mean age 37.6 ± 11 years; 83.5% females) were included in the analysis. Ancestry proportions and haplogroup frequencies did not differ between patients and controls. HLA-DRB1*15 was present in 31% of cases and 13.5% of controls, whereas HLA-DRB1*14 was present in 5% of cases and 15.5% of controls. In the multivariate model, HLA-DRB1*15 was significantly associated with MS (odds ratio [OR] = 3.05, p < 0.001), whereas HLA-DRB1*14 was confirmed as a protective factor in our population (OR = 0.16, p = 0.001). Conclusions: This study provides evidence indicating that HLA-DRB1*15 allele confers susceptibility to MS and HLA-DRB1*14 allele exerts resistance to MS in a highly admixed population. This latter finding could partially explain the low prevalence of MS in Bogotá, Colombia. PMID:26740965

  13. Modeling of microwave discharges of H{sub 2} admixed with CH{sub 4} for diamond deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, G.; Hassouni, K.; Stancu, G.-D.; Mechold, L.; Roepcke, J.; Gicquel, A.

    2005-09-01

    Microwave discharges of H{sub 2} admixed with CH{sub 4} in a moderate-pressure quartz bell jar reactor used for diamond deposition are studied numerically. Special attention was devoted to high-power densities which provide the most effective way for producing high-quality diamond films. First, a one-dimensional radial model describing the coupled phenomena of chemistry, energy transfer, as well as species and energy transport along the reactor's radial coordinate was developed. Species densities predicted with the model were compared with measurements with infrared tunable diode laser spectroscopy, resulting in validation of the model. Second, a one-dimensional axial model was used to describe the plasma flow along the reactor axis in a region between the reactor end wall and the substrate surface. This model was particularly useful for studying the plasma behavior in the vicinity of the substrate surface, where thermal and composition gradients are large. Both the radial and axial transport models are based on the same discharge model in which the plasma is described as a thermochemically nonequilibrium flow with different energy distributions for heavy species and electrons. The chemistry was described with a model containing 28 species and 131 reactions. The electron temperature, the gas temperature, and the species concentration were determined by solving a coupled set of equations. A wide range of experimental conditions used for diamond deposition was simulated, from low microwave power density (9 W cm{sup -3}, i.e., 600 W, 2500 Pa, and T{sub g}{approx}2200 K) to high-power density (30 W cm{sup -3}, i.e., 2 kW, 12 000 Pa, and T{sub g}{approx}3200 K). The main chemical paths were identified, and the major species, transport effects, and reaction pathways that govern diamond deposition plasmas are discussed.

  14. Socioeconomic and Nutritional Factors Account for the Association of Gastric Cancer with Amerindian Ancestry in a Latin American Admixed Population

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Latife; Zamudio, Roxana; Soares-Souza, Giordano; Herrera, Phabiola; Cabrera, Lilia; Hooper, Catherine C.; Cok, Jaime; Combe, Juan M.; Vargas, Gloria; Prado, William A.; Schneider, Silvana; Kehdy, Fernanda; Rodrigues, Maira R.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Berg, Douglas E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most lethal types of cancer and its incidence varies worldwide, with the Andean region of South America showing high incidence rates. We evaluated the genetic structure of the population from Lima (Peru) and performed a case-control genetic association study to test the contribution of African, European, or Native American ancestry to risk for gastric cancer, controlling for the effect of non-genetic factors. A wide set of socioeconomic, dietary, and clinic information was collected for each participant in the study and ancestry was estimated based on 103 ancestry informative markers. Although the urban population from Lima is usually considered as mestizo (i.e., admixed from Africans, Europeans, and Native Americans), we observed a high fraction of Native American ancestry (78.4% for the cases and 74.6% for the controls) and a very low African ancestry (<5%). We determined that higher Native American individual ancestry is associated with gastric cancer, but socioeconomic factors associated both with gastric cancer and Native American ethnicity account for this association. Therefore, the high incidence of gastric cancer in Peru does not seem to be related to susceptibility alleles common in this population. Instead, our result suggests a predominant role for ethnic-associated socioeconomic factors and disparities in access to health services. Since Native Americans are a neglected group in genomic studies, we suggest that the population from Lima and other large cities from Western South America with high Native American ancestry background may be convenient targets for epidemiological studies focused on this ethnic group. PMID:22870209

  15. The self-sufficient solar house Freiburg

    SciTech Connect

    Goetzberger, A.; Stahl, W.; Bopp, G.; Heinzel, A.; Voss, K.

    1994-12-31

    The Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems has built a Self-Sufficient Solar House (SSSH) in Freiburg, Germany. The aim of the project is to provide the entire energy demand for heating, domestic hot water, electricity and cooking by the sun. The combination of highly efficient solar systems with conventional means to save energy is the key to the successful operation of the house. With transparent insulation of building walls utilizing winter insulation the heating demand of the building is almost zero. Small size seasonal high energy storage is accomplished by electrolysis of water and pressurized storage of hydrogen and oxygen. The energy for electricity and hydrogen generation is supplied by solar cells. Hydrogen can be reconverted to electricity with a fuel cell or used for cooking. It also serves as a back-up for low temperature heat. There are provisions for short-term storage of electricity and optimal routing of energy. The SSSH is occupied by a family. An intensive measurement program is being carried out. The data are used for the validation of the dynamic simulation calculations, which formed the basis for planning the SSSH. 28 refs., 42 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. Sufficient trial size to inform clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Manski, Charles F; Tetenov, Aleksey

    2016-09-20

    Medical research has evolved conventions for choosing sample size in randomized clinical trials that rest on the theory of hypothesis testing. Bayesian statisticians have argued that trials should be designed to maximize subjective expected utility in settings of clinical interest. This perspective is compelling given a credible prior distribution on treatment response, but there is rarely consensus on what the subjective prior beliefs should be. We use Wald's frequentist statistical decision theory to study design of trials under ambiguity. We show that ε-optimal rules exist when trials have large enough sample size. An ε-optimal rule has expected welfare within ε of the welfare of the best treatment in every state of nature. Equivalently, it has maximum regret no larger than ε We consider trials that draw predetermined numbers of subjects at random within groups stratified by covariates and treatments. We report exact results for the special case of two treatments and binary outcomes. We give simple sufficient conditions on sample sizes that ensure existence of ε-optimal treatment rules when there are multiple treatments and outcomes are bounded. These conditions are obtained by application of Hoeffding large deviations inequalities to evaluate the performance of empirical success rules. PMID:27601679

  17. Sufficient condition for Gaussian departure in turbulence.

    PubMed

    Tordella, Daniela; Iovieno, Michele; Bailey, Peter Roger

    2008-01-01

    The interaction of two isotropic turbulent fields of equal integral scale but different kinetic energy generates the simplest kind of inhomogeneous turbulent field. In this paper we present a numerical experiment where two time decaying isotropic fields of kinetic energies E1 and E2 initially match over a narrow region. Within this region the kinetic energy varies as a hyperbolic tangent. The following temporal evolution produces a shearless mixing. The anisotropy and intermittency of velocity and velocity derivative statistics is observed. In particular the asymptotic behavior in time and as a function of the energy ratio E_{1}E_{2}-->infinity is discussed. This limit corresponds to the maximum observable turbulent energy gradient for a given E1 and is obtained through the limit E_{2}-->0 . A field with E_{1}E_{2}-->infinity represents a mixing which could be observed near a surface subject to a very small velocity gradient separating two turbulent fields, one of which is nearly quiescent. In this condition the turbulent penetration is maximum and reaches a value equal to 1.2 times the nominal mixing layer width. The experiment shows that the presence of a turbulent energy gradient is sufficient for the appearance of intermittency and that during the mixing process the pressure transport is not negligible with respect to the turbulent velocity transport. These findings may open the way to the hypothesis that the presence of a gradient of turbulent energy is the minimal requirement for Gaussian departure in turbulence.

  18. Energy Strategic Planning & Self-Sufficiency Project

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Retzlaff

    2005-03-30

    This report provides information regarding options available, their advantages and disadvantages, and the costs for pursuing activities to advance Smith River Rancheria toward an energy program that reduces their energy costs, allows greater self-sufficiency and stimulates economic development and employment opportunities within and around the reservation. The primary subjects addressed in this report are as follow: (1) Baseline Assessment of Current Energy Costs--An evaluation of the historical energy costs for Smith River was conducted to identify the costs for each component of their energy supply to better assess changes that can be considered for energy cost reductions. (2) Research Viable Energy Options--This includes a general description of many power generation technologies and identification of their relative costs, advantages and disadvantages. Through this research the generation technology options that are most suited for this application were identified. (3) Project Development Considerations--The basic steps and associated challenges of developing a generation project utilizing the selected technologies are identified and discussed. This included items like selling to third parties, wheeling, electrical interconnections, fuel supply, permitting, standby power, and transmission studies. (4) Energy Conservation--The myriad of federal, state and utility programs offered for low-income weatherization and utility bill payment assistance are identified, their qualification requirements discussed, and the subsequent benefits outlined. (5) Establishing an Energy Organization--The report includes a high level discussion of formation of a utility to serve the Tribal membership. The value or advantages of such action is discussed along with some of the challenges. (6) Training--Training opportunities available to the Tribal membership are identified.

  19. B7-1/CD80-transduced tumor cells elicit better systemic immunity than wild-type tumor cells admixed with Corynebacterium parvum.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; McGowan, P; Ashe, S; Johnston, J V; Hellström, I; Hellström, K E

    1994-10-15

    Tumor cells genetically modified by transduction of B7 (B7-1/CD80), a natural ligand for the T-cell costimulatory molecules CD28 and CTLA-4, can elicit potent tumor immunity, and they can be effective for treatment of established cancers in animal models. In this study, three tumor lines, the EL4 lymphoma, the P815 mastocytoma, and the MCA102 sarcoma were transduced with recombinant retrovirus containing the murine B7 gene, and their potency to induce systemic immunity protective against challenge with wild-type tumor was compared to that of the same tumor cells admixed with the commonly used adjuvant Corynebacterium parvum. While admixture of tumor cells with C. parvum resulted in complete regression of tumors in syngeneic mice, it did not induce protective immunity against a subsequent challenge of wild-type cells from any of the 3 tumors tested. In contrast, B7-transduced EL4 and P815 tumors regressed locally and induced a potent systemic immunity to wild-type tumors and a higher level of cytotoxic T-cell activity than did tumor cells admixed with C. parvum. No systemic immunity was induced by B7-transduced nonimmunogenic MCA102 sarcoma cells. Our results demonstrate that immunogenic tumor cells transduced with the B7 gene are superior to tumor cells mixed with C. parvum for the induction of systemic tumor immunity. PMID:7522958

  20. 39 CFR 491.3 - Sufficient legal form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AND THE POSTAL RATE COMMISSION § 491.3 Sufficient legal form. No document purporting to garnish employee wages shall be deemed sufficient unless it can be determined from the face of the document that it... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sufficient legal form. 491.3 Section 491.3...

  1. 39 CFR 491.3 - Sufficient legal form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AND THE POSTAL RATE COMMISSION § 491.3 Sufficient legal form. No document purporting to garnish employee wages shall be deemed sufficient unless it can be determined from the face of the document that it... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sufficient legal form. 491.3 Section 491.3...

  2. 39 CFR 491.3 - Sufficient legal form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AND THE POSTAL RATE COMMISSION § 491.3 Sufficient legal form. No document purporting to garnish employee wages shall be deemed sufficient unless it can be determined from the face of the document that it... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sufficient legal form. 491.3 Section 491.3...

  3. 39 CFR 491.3 - Sufficient legal form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AND THE POSTAL RATE COMMISSION § 491.3 Sufficient legal form. No document purporting to garnish employee wages shall be deemed sufficient unless it can be determined from the face of the document that it... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sufficient legal form. 491.3 Section 491.3...

  4. Recovery of Native Genetic Background in Admixed Populations Using Haplotypes, Phenotypes, and Pedigree Information – Using Cika Cattle as a Case Breed

    PubMed Central

    Simčič, Mojca; Smetko, Anamarija; Sölkner, Johann; Seichter, Doris; Gorjanc, Gregor; Kompan, Dragomir; Medugorac, Ivica

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain unbiased estimates of the diversity parameters, the population history, and the degree of admixture in Cika cattle which represents the local admixed breeds at risk of extinction undergoing challenging conservation programs. Genetic analyses were performed on the genome-wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Illumina Bovine SNP50 array data of 76 Cika animals and 531 animals from 14 reference populations. To obtain unbiased estimates we used short haplotypes spanning four markers instead of single SNPs to avoid an ascertainment bias of the BovineSNP50 array. Genome-wide haplotypes combined with partial pedigree and type trait classification show the potential to improve identification of purebred animals with a low degree of admixture. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated unique genetic identity of Cika animals. Genetic distance matrix presented by rooted Neighbour-Net suggested long and broad phylogenetic connection between Cika and Pinzgauer. Unsupervised clustering performed by the admixture analysis and two-dimensional presentation of the genetic distances between individuals also suggest Cika is a distinct breed despite being similar in appearance to Pinzgauer. Animals identified as the most purebred could be used as a nucleus for a recovery of the native genetic background in the current admixed population. The results show that local well-adapted strains, which have never been intensively managed and differentiated into specific breeds, exhibit large haplotype diversity. They suggest a conservation and recovery approach that does not rely exclusively on the search for the original native genetic background but rather on the identification and removal of common introgressed haplotypes would be more powerful. Successful implementation of such an approach should be based on combining phenotype, pedigree, and genome-wide haplotype data of the breed of interest and a spectrum of reference breeds which potentially have had

  5. Recovery of native genetic background in admixed populations using haplotypes, phenotypes, and pedigree information--using Cika cattle as a case breed.

    PubMed

    Simčič, Mojca; Smetko, Anamarija; Sölkner, Johann; Seichter, Doris; Gorjanc, Gregor; Kompan, Dragomir; Medugorac, Ivica

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain unbiased estimates of the diversity parameters, the population history, and the degree of admixture in Cika cattle which represents the local admixed breeds at risk of extinction undergoing challenging conservation programs. Genetic analyses were performed on the genome-wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Illumina Bovine SNP50 array data of 76 Cika animals and 531 animals from 14 reference populations. To obtain unbiased estimates we used short haplotypes spanning four markers instead of single SNPs to avoid an ascertainment bias of the BovineSNP50 array. Genome-wide haplotypes combined with partial pedigree and type trait classification show the potential to improve identification of purebred animals with a low degree of admixture. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated unique genetic identity of Cika animals. Genetic distance matrix presented by rooted Neighbour-Net suggested long and broad phylogenetic connection between Cika and Pinzgauer. Unsupervised clustering performed by the admixture analysis and two-dimensional presentation of the genetic distances between individuals also suggest Cika is a distinct breed despite being similar in appearance to Pinzgauer. Animals identified as the most purebred could be used as a nucleus for a recovery of the native genetic background in the current admixed population. The results show that local well-adapted strains, which have never been intensively managed and differentiated into specific breeds, exhibit large haplotype diversity. They suggest a conservation and recovery approach that does not rely exclusively on the search for the original native genetic background but rather on the identification and removal of common introgressed haplotypes would be more powerful. Successful implementation of such an approach should be based on combining phenotype, pedigree, and genome-wide haplotype data of the breed of interest and a spectrum of reference breeds which potentially have had

  6. Recovery of native genetic background in admixed populations using haplotypes, phenotypes, and pedigree information--using Cika cattle as a case breed.

    PubMed

    Simčič, Mojca; Smetko, Anamarija; Sölkner, Johann; Seichter, Doris; Gorjanc, Gregor; Kompan, Dragomir; Medugorac, Ivica

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain unbiased estimates of the diversity parameters, the population history, and the degree of admixture in Cika cattle which represents the local admixed breeds at risk of extinction undergoing challenging conservation programs. Genetic analyses were performed on the genome-wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Illumina Bovine SNP50 array data of 76 Cika animals and 531 animals from 14 reference populations. To obtain unbiased estimates we used short haplotypes spanning four markers instead of single SNPs to avoid an ascertainment bias of the BovineSNP50 array. Genome-wide haplotypes combined with partial pedigree and type trait classification show the potential to improve identification of purebred animals with a low degree of admixture. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated unique genetic identity of Cika animals. Genetic distance matrix presented by rooted Neighbour-Net suggested long and broad phylogenetic connection between Cika and Pinzgauer. Unsupervised clustering performed by the admixture analysis and two-dimensional presentation of the genetic distances between individuals also suggest Cika is a distinct breed despite being similar in appearance to Pinzgauer. Animals identified as the most purebred could be used as a nucleus for a recovery of the native genetic background in the current admixed population. The results show that local well-adapted strains, which have never been intensively managed and differentiated into specific breeds, exhibit large haplotype diversity. They suggest a conservation and recovery approach that does not rely exclusively on the search for the original native genetic background but rather on the identification and removal of common introgressed haplotypes would be more powerful. Successful implementation of such an approach should be based on combining phenotype, pedigree, and genome-wide haplotype data of the breed of interest and a spectrum of reference breeds which potentially have had

  7. Improving the Perception of Self-Sufficiency towards Creative Drama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekdogan, Serpil; Korkmaz, Halil Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of a Creative Drama Based Perception of Self-sufficiency Skills Training Program on 2nd grade bachelor degree students' (who are attending a preschool teacher training program) perception of self-sufficiency. This is a quasi-experimental study. Totally 50 students were equally divided into…

  8. 27 CFR 25.174 - Bond not sufficient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bond not sufficient. 25.174 Section 25.174 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Prepayment of Tax § 25.174 Bond not sufficient. When...

  9. 27 CFR 25.174 - Bond not sufficient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bond not sufficient. 25.174 Section 25.174 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Tax on Beer Prepayment of Tax § 25.174 Bond not sufficient. When...

  10. 27 CFR 25.174 - Bond not sufficient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bond not sufficient. 25.174 Section 25.174 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Prepayment of Tax § 25.174 Bond not sufficient. When...

  11. 27 CFR 25.174 - Bond not sufficient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bond not sufficient. 25.174 Section 25.174 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Tax on Beer Prepayment of Tax § 25.174 Bond not sufficient. When...

  12. 27 CFR 25.174 - Bond not sufficient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bond not sufficient. 25.174 Section 25.174 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Prepayment of Tax § 25.174 Bond not sufficient. When...

  13. 24 CFR 242.2 - Program financial self-sufficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program financial self-sufficiency... self-sufficiency and actuarial soundness; i.e., to avoid mortgage defaults and claims for insurance... AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS General Eligibility Requirements § 242.2 Program financial...

  14. Constructors, Sufficient Completeness, and Deadlock Freedom of Rewrite Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Camilo; Meseguer, José

    Sufficient completeness has been throughly studied for equational specifications, where function symbols are classified into constructors and defined symbols. But what should sufficient completeness mean for a rewrite theory R = (Σ,E,R) with equations E and non-equational rules R describing concurrent transitions in a system? This work argues that a rewrite theory naturally has two notions of constructor: the usual one for its equations E, and a different one for its rules R. The sufficient completeness of constructors for the rules R turns out to be intimately related with deadlock freedom, i.e., R has no deadlocks outside the constructors for R. The relation between these two notions is studied in the setting of unconditional order-sorted rewrite theories. Sufficient conditions are given allowing the automatic checking of sufficient completeness, deadlock freedom, and other related properties, by propositional tree automata modulo equational axioms such as associativity, commutativity, and identity. They are used to extend the Maude Sufficient Completeness Checker from the checking of equational theories to that of both equational and rewrite theories. Finally, the usefulness of the proposed notion of constructors in proving inductive theorems about the reachability rewrite relation →_R associated to a rewrite theory R (and also about the joinability relation downarrow_R) is both characterized and illustrated with an example.

  15. Warfarin pharmacogenetics: polymorphisms of the CYP2C9, CYP4F2, and VKORC1 loci in a genetically admixed Omani population.

    PubMed

    Pathare, Anil V; Al Zadjali, Shoaib; Misquith, Rhea; Alkindi, Salam S; Panjwani, Vinodh; Lapoumeroulie, Claudine; Pravin, Sahaya; Paldi, Andras; Krishnamoorthy, Rajagopal

    2012-02-01

    This is the first study to evaluate the spectrum and prevalence of dose-predictive genetic polymorphisms of the CYP2C9, CYP4F2 and VKORC1 loci together, in a geographically defined, ethnically admixed healthy adult Omani population sharing common lifestyle/environmental factors. Since the present-day Omani population is the result of an admixture of Caucasian, African and Asian ancestries, we compared the pharmacogenetic profile of these three loci in this population. Interestingly, the Omani pharmacogenetic profile, in terms of allele and genotype distribution, has values that are intermediate between Caucasians and African Americans, the African admixture further substantiated by the presence of the CYP2C9*8 allele. However, limitations and usefulness of such comparisons warrant caution, as the data from pharmacogenetic literature do not always represent bona fide population categories. Furthermore, definition of study population based on microgeographical scale would be more appropriate in pharmacogenetic research rather than the flawed racial, ethnic, or social categorizations since pharmacogenetic variation is clinal, and genetic influences will be further altered by lifestyle and environmental factors. PMID:22452429

  16. Quantification is Neither Necessary Nor Sufficient for Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mari, Luca; Maul, Andrew; Torres Irribarra, David; Wilson, Mark

    2013-09-01

    Being an infrastructural, widespread activity, measurement is laden with stereotypes. Some of these concern the role of measurement in the relation between quality and quantity. In particular, it is sometimes argued or assumed that quantification is necessary for measurement; it is also sometimes argued or assumed that quantification is sufficient for or synonymous with measurement. To assess the validity of these positions the concepts of measurement and quantitative evaluation should be independently defined and their relationship analyzed. We contend that the defining characteristic of measurement should be the structure of the process, not a feature of its results. Under this perspective, quantitative evaluation is neither sufficient nor necessary for measurement.

  17. Sufficiency, justice, and the pursuit of health extension.

    PubMed

    Farrelly, Colin

    2007-12-01

    According to one account of distributive justice, called the Sufficiency View, justice only requires that we bring everyone above some critical threshold of well-being and nothing more. This account of justice no doubt explains why some people believe it is unfair to invest scarce public funds into combating aging. In this paper I show why the sufficiency view is wrong. Furthermore, I argue that the real injustice occurs when we disparage or ignore all potential avenues of extending healthy living. We must be both ambitious and imaginative in our attitudes towards health extension.

  18. Intellectual Freedom and Economic Sufficiency as Educational Entitlements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Jane Fowler

    2001-01-01

    Using the theories of John Stuart Mill and Karl Marx, this article supports the educational entitlements of intellectual freedom and economic sufficiency. Explores these issues in reference to their implications for teaching, the teaching profession and its training. Concludes that ideas cannot be controlled by the interests of the dominant class.…

  19. The First Amendment at Its Bicentennial: Necessary but Not Sufficient?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teeter, Dwight L., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Questions whether an eighteenth-century protection for freedom of the press (the First Amendment) is sufficient for the challenges that the nation's press faces in the twentieth century. Examines prior restraints and seditious libel. Finds instances in which those abuses are alive and well and potentially threatening. (PRA)

  20. Increasing urban water self-sufficiency: new era, new challenges.

    PubMed

    Rygaard, Martin; Binning, Philip J; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    Urban water supplies are traditionally based on limited freshwater resources located outside the cities. However, a range of concepts and techniques to exploit alternative water resources has gained ground as water demands begin to exceed the freshwater available to cities. Based on 113 cases and 15 in-depth case studies, solutions used to increase water self-sufficiency in urban areas are analyzed. The main drivers for increased self-sufficiency were identified to be direct and indirect lack of water, constrained infrastructure, high quality water demands and commercial and institutional pressures. Case studies demonstrate increases in self-sufficiency ratios to as much as 80% with contributions from recycled water, seawater desalination and rainwater collection. The introduction of alternative water resources raises several challenges: energy requirements vary by more than a factor of ten amongst the alternative techniques, wastewater reclamation can lead to the appearance of trace contaminants in drinking water, and changes to the drinking water system can meet tough resistance from the public. Public water-supply managers aim to achieve a high level of reliability and stability. We conclude that despite the challenges, self-sufficiency concepts in combination with conventional water resources are already helping to reach this goal.

  1. 40 CFR 350.13 - Sufficiency of assertions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... submitter uses it, and competitors cannot easily duplicate the specific use of this chemical through their... title does not contain sufficient information to enable competitors to determine the specific chemical... competitors cannot readily discover the specific chemical identity by analysis of the submitter's products...

  2. Leadership, the Logic of Sufficiency and the Sustainability of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottery, Mike

    2012-01-01

    The notion of sufficiency has not yet entered mainstream educational thinking, and it still has to make its mark upon educational leadership. However, a number of related concepts--particularly those of sustainability and complexity theory--are beginning to be noticed. This article examines these two concepts and uses them to critique the…

  3. Exploring Necessary and Sufficient Conditions in Dynamic Geometry Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Allen; Chan, Yip-Cheung

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a possible dragging experiment in a dynamic geometry environment (DGE) that explores a necessary and sufficient condition for cyclic quadrilateral. The dragging modalities identified by Arzarello, Olivero, Paola, and Robutti (2002) and the functions of variation realized in DGE discussed by Leung (2003) will be used as tools…

  4. The Indochinese in America: Progress Towards Self Sufficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finck, John

    Despite suspicion in some quarters that refugee resettlement has been unduly expensive, evidence indicates that the Indochinese have made steady progress toward self-sufficiency. The majority of Hmong refugees in Providence, Rhode Island, for example, which has been "heavily impacted" by the large number of Indochinese who have become its newest…

  5. Genetic variants in interleukin genes are associated with breast cancer risk and survival in a genetically admixed population: the Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study.

    PubMed

    Slattery, Martha L; Herrick, Jennifer S; Torres-Mejia, Gabriella; John, Esther M; Giuliano, Anna R; Hines, Lisa M; Stern, Mariana C; Baumgartner, Kathy B; Presson, Angela P; Wolff, Roger K

    2014-08-01

    Interleukins (ILs) are key regulators of immune response. Genetic variation in IL genes may influence breast cancer risk and mortality given their role in cell growth, angiogenesis and regulation of inflammatory process. We examined 16 IL genes with breast cancer risk and mortality in an admixed population of Hispanic/Native American (NA) (2111 cases and 2597 controls) and non-Hispanic white (NHW) (1481 cases and 1585 controls) women. Adaptive Rank Truncated Product (ARTP) analysis was conducted to determine gene significance and lasso (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator) was used to identify potential gene by gene and gene by lifestyle interactions. The pathway was statistically significant for breast cancer risk overall (P ARTP = 0.0006), for women with low NA ancestry (P(ARTP) = 0.01), for premenopausal women (P(ARTP) = 0.02), for estrogen receptor (ER)+/progesterone receptor (PR)+ tumors (P(ARTP) = 0.03) and ER-/PR- tumors (P(ARTP) = 0.02). Eight of the 16 genes evaluated were associated with breast cancer risk (IL1A, IL1B, IL1RN, IL2, IL2RA, IL4, IL6 and IL10); four genes were associated with breast cancer risk among women with low NA ancestry (IL1B, IL6, IL6R and IL10), two were associated with breast cancer risk among women with high NA ancestry (IL2 and IL2RA) and four genes were associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk (IL1A, IL1B, IL2 and IL3). IL4, IL6R, IL8 and IL17A were associated with breast cancer-specific mortality. We confirmed associations with several functional polymorphisms previously associated with breast cancer risk and provide support that their combined effect influences the carcinogenic process. PMID:24670917

  6. Kicking Triturus arntzeni when it's down: large-scale nuclear genetic data confirm that newts from the type locality are genetically admixed.

    PubMed

    Wielstra, B; Arntzen, J W

    2014-05-27

    We collected nuclear DNA data (52 markers) with next-generation sequencing for nine Triturus newt specimens, including the holotype and two of the paratypes of T. arntzeni, from the type locality at Vrtovać in eastern Serbia. We compare these data to a reference set composed of the four crested newt species distributed in eastern Serbia namely T. cristatus, T. dobrogicus, T. ivanbureschi and T. macedonicus to determine to which of these species the newts from the type locality of T. arntzeni should be attributed. The majority of alleles in individuals from Vrtovać is derived from T. macedonicus, but a considerable number of T. ivanbureschi alleles is also present; alleles typical for T. cristatus and T. dobrogicus are found at low frequency. Accordingly, we interpret Vrtovać as a T. macedonicus - T. ivanbureschi hybrid population, albeit not composed of F1 hybrids but of genetically admixed individuals derived through multiple generations of backcrossing. The data support the notion that the name T. arntzeni should not be applied to a species newly distinguished in T. karelinii sensu lato (to which the name T. ivanbureschi has been given). We conclude that because of the hybrid nature of the individuals from Vrtovać, the name T. arntzeni should be placed not only in the synonymy of T. macedonicus but also in the synonymy of T. ivanbureschi. In this study we demonstrate that next-generation sequencing can provide high quality data for type material with degraded DNA and therefore can play an important role in taxonomy.

  7. Kicking Triturus arntzeni when it's down: large-scale nuclear genetic data confirm that newts from the type locality are genetically admixed.

    PubMed

    Wielstra, B; Arntzen, J W

    2014-01-01

    We collected nuclear DNA data (52 markers) with next-generation sequencing for nine Triturus newt specimens, including the holotype and two of the paratypes of T. arntzeni, from the type locality at Vrtovać in eastern Serbia. We compare these data to a reference set composed of the four crested newt species distributed in eastern Serbia namely T. cristatus, T. dobrogicus, T. ivanbureschi and T. macedonicus to determine to which of these species the newts from the type locality of T. arntzeni should be attributed. The majority of alleles in individuals from Vrtovać is derived from T. macedonicus, but a considerable number of T. ivanbureschi alleles is also present; alleles typical for T. cristatus and T. dobrogicus are found at low frequency. Accordingly, we interpret Vrtovać as a T. macedonicus - T. ivanbureschi hybrid population, albeit not composed of F1 hybrids but of genetically admixed individuals derived through multiple generations of backcrossing. The data support the notion that the name T. arntzeni should not be applied to a species newly distinguished in T. karelinii sensu lato (to which the name T. ivanbureschi has been given). We conclude that because of the hybrid nature of the individuals from Vrtovać, the name T. arntzeni should be placed not only in the synonymy of T. macedonicus but also in the synonymy of T. ivanbureschi. In this study we demonstrate that next-generation sequencing can provide high quality data for type material with degraded DNA and therefore can play an important role in taxonomy. PMID:24871018

  8. Efficiency, sufficiency, and recent change in Newfoundland subsistence horticulture

    SciTech Connect

    Omohundro, J.T.

    1986-09-01

    Traditional Newfoundland horticulture has been a subordinate and compensatory element of the subsistence sphere in a plural economy centered on fishing. Criticized as inefficient and ruinous to the land, this tuber-rootbrassica gardening has in fact been a valuable contribution to diet, is relatively efficient, and compensates for the inadequacies of land and weather. Field data from the Great Northern Peninsula, where some traditional practices persist, demonstrate that the practices conserve time and labor, and substitute massive applications of materials to assure a yield sufficient for household needs. The inefficiency in the tradition may be understood as a response to the constraints upon household labor and follows a kind of Leibig's law of the minimum. Recent changes in gardening practices reveal the dynamics of horticulture in the household's mixed economic strategy. As cash and land have become more common, they have been used to further reduce time while maintaining sufficiency.

  9. Retinal flow is sufficient for steering during observer rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Li; Warren, William H Jr

    2002-01-01

    How do people control locomotion while their eyes are simultaneously rotating? A previous study found that during simulated rotation, they can perceive a straight path of self-motion from the retinal flow pattern, despite conflicting extraretinal information, on the basis of dense motion parallax and reference objects. Here we report that the same information is sufficient for active control ofjoystick steering. Participants steered toward a target in displays that simulated a pursuit eye movement. Steering was highly inaccurate with a textured ground plane (motion parallax alone), but quite accurate when an array of posts was added (motion parallax plus reference objects). This result is consistent with the theory that instantaneous heading is determined from motion parallax, and the path of self-motion is determined by updating heading relative to environmental objects. Retinal flow is thus sufficient for both perceiving self-motion and controlling self-motion with a joystick; extraretinal and positional information can also contribute, but are not necessary.

  10. Entrepreneurship by any other name: self-sufficiency versus innovation.

    PubMed

    Parker Harris, Sarah; Caldwell, Kate; Renko, Maija

    2014-01-01

    Entrepreneurship has been promoted as an innovative strategy to address the employment of people with disabilities. Research has predominantly focused on the self-sufficiency aspect without fully integrating entrepreneurship literature in the areas of theory, systems change, and demonstration projects. Subsequently there are gaps in services, policies, and research in this field that, in turn, have limited our understanding of the support needs and barriers or facilitators of entrepreneurs with disabilities. A thorough analysis of the literature in these areas led to the development of two core concepts that need to be addressed in integrating entrepreneurship into disability employment research and policy: clarity in operational definitions and better disability statistics and outcome measures. This article interrogates existing research and policy efforts in this regard to argue for a necessary shift in the field from focusing on entrepreneurship as self-sufficiency to understanding entrepreneurship as innovation. PMID:25225770

  11. Entrepreneurship by any other name: self-sufficiency versus innovation.

    PubMed

    Parker Harris, Sarah; Caldwell, Kate; Renko, Maija

    2014-01-01

    Entrepreneurship has been promoted as an innovative strategy to address the employment of people with disabilities. Research has predominantly focused on the self-sufficiency aspect without fully integrating entrepreneurship literature in the areas of theory, systems change, and demonstration projects. Subsequently there are gaps in services, policies, and research in this field that, in turn, have limited our understanding of the support needs and barriers or facilitators of entrepreneurs with disabilities. A thorough analysis of the literature in these areas led to the development of two core concepts that need to be addressed in integrating entrepreneurship into disability employment research and policy: clarity in operational definitions and better disability statistics and outcome measures. This article interrogates existing research and policy efforts in this regard to argue for a necessary shift in the field from focusing on entrepreneurship as self-sufficiency to understanding entrepreneurship as innovation.

  12. CSM and the myth of self-sufficiency.

    PubMed

    Harvey, P D

    1984-01-01

    The author of this letter asserts that self-sufficiency should not be regarded as a goal for contraceptive social marketing programs. Rather, the emphasis should be on increasing the number and effectiveness of social marketing programs. There will be a need for subsidized family planning programs as long as there is poverty. The only way a social marketing program can achieve financial self-sufficiency is to price contraceptives beyond the reach of the intended beneficiaries of the program. At present, condom buyers in Bangladesh spend about US$1/year for contraceptives purchased through the social marketing program; this amount is equivalent to 1 day's wage. Although contraceptive social marketing programs may seem expensive, their tremendous success in reaching ever growing numbers of rural and urban constantly reduces the cost for each couple supplied with contraception. Moreover, unlike most other family planning programs, contraceptive social marketing projects do recover at least a small part of their costs through sales. PMID:12313291

  13. Reassessing Rogers' necessary and sufficient conditions of change.

    PubMed

    Watson, Jeanne C

    2007-09-01

    This article reviews the impact of Carl Rogers' postulate about the necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic change on the field of psychotherapy. It is proposed that his article (see record 2007-14630-002) made an impact in two ways; first, by acting as a spur to researchers to identify the active ingredients of therapeutic change; and, second, by providing guidelines for therapeutic practice. The role of the necessary and sufficient conditions in process-experiential therapy, an emotion-focused therapy for individuals, and their limitations in terms of research and practice are discussed. It is proposed that although the conditions are necessary and important in promoting clients' affect regulation, they do not take sufficient account of other moderating variables that affect clients' response to treatment and may need to be balanced with more structured interventions. Notwithstanding, Rogers highlighted a way of interacting with clients that is generally acknowledged as essential to effective psychotherapy practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. China's campaign for petroleum self-sufficiency well under way

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-09

    China's petrochemical expansion boom is in full swing. With what some measure as the world's fastest growing economy, China's consumer products demand is growing at a voracious pace, spurring sky rocketing demand for basic and intermediate petrochemicals. So Beijing has embarked on a massive expansion of the nation's petrochemical industry to accommodate that growth. For the next 3 years at least, China will have to rely on imports for about half of its petrochemical supplies. China's rate of self-sufficiency by 1995 is expected to be 50--60% for ethylene, 60--70% for plastics, 70--80% for synthetic fibers, and 50--60% for synthetic rubber. For many key petrochemicals, China envisions accomplishing no less than self-sufficiency by the turn of the century. But to get to that point, Beijing must import foreign technology and capital needed for a wholesale upgrading and expansion of its petrochemical sector. In getting there, it must overcome conflicts involving projects pursued independently by certain local or provincial governments as well as by various state owned companies and agencies. And it must contend with an international petrochemical market still struggling to recover from a downturn that might not be able to absorb the loss of a major market as China moves toward self-sufficiency. The paper discusses capacity and expansion plans, especially for ethylene.

  15. Predictive sufficiency and the use of stored internal state

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musliner, David J.; Durfee, Edmund H.; Shin, Kang G.

    1994-01-01

    In all embedded computing systems, some delay exists between sensing and acting. By choosing an action based on sensed data, a system is essentially predicting that there will be no significant changes in the world during this delay. However, the dynamic and uncertain nature of the real world can make these predictions incorrect, and thus, a system may execute inappropriate actions. Making systems more reactive by decreasing the gap between sensing and action leaves less time for predictions to err, but still provides no principled assurance that they will be correct. Using the concept of predictive sufficiency described in this paper, a system can prove that its predictions are valid, and that it will never execute inappropriate actions. In the context of our CIRCA system, we also show how predictive sufficiency allows a system to guarantee worst-case response times to changes in its environment. Using predictive sufficiency, CIRCA is able to build real-time reactive control plans which provide a sound basis for performance guarantees that are unavailable with other reactive systems.

  16. Reassessing Rogers' necessary and sufficient conditions of change.

    PubMed

    Watson, Jeanne C

    2007-09-01

    This article reviews the impact of Carl Rogers' postulate about the necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic change on the field of psychotherapy. It is proposed that his article (see record 2007-14630-002) made an impact in two ways; first, by acting as a spur to researchers to identify the active ingredients of therapeutic change; and, second, by providing guidelines for therapeutic practice. The role of the necessary and sufficient conditions in process-experiential therapy, an emotion-focused therapy for individuals, and their limitations in terms of research and practice are discussed. It is proposed that although the conditions are necessary and important in promoting clients' affect regulation, they do not take sufficient account of other moderating variables that affect clients' response to treatment and may need to be balanced with more structured interventions. Notwithstanding, Rogers highlighted a way of interacting with clients that is generally acknowledged as essential to effective psychotherapy practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:22122251

  17. Geometric derivations of minimal sets of sufficient multiview constraints

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Orrin H.; Oshel, Edward R.

    2012-01-01

    Geometric interpretations of four of the most common determinant formulations of multiview constraints are given, showing that they all enforce the same geometry and that all of the forms commonly in use in the machine vision community are a subset of a more general form. Generalising the work of Yi Ma yields a new general 2 x 2 determinant trilinear and 3 x 3 determinant quadlinear. Geometric descriptions of degenerate multiview constraints are given, showing that it is necessary, but insufficient, that the determinant equals zero. Understanding the degeneracies leads naturally into proofs for minimum sufficient sets of bilinear, trilinear and quadlinear constraints for arbitrary numbers of conjugate observations.

  18. Technology for human self-sufficiency in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, John L.

    1988-01-01

    A proposed Pathfinder program would determine the critical human and technology requirements for human self-sufficiency and productivity on manned and long-duration missions to the moon and Mars. Human health would require countermeasures against weightlessness, protection from space radiation and habitats conducive to psychological well-being. Life support systems would need regeneration of expendable resources, power systems for plant life support and processing; and microbial contaminant control. Operational performance requirements include extravehicular activities suit, interactive systems for shared control between humans and computers, and human-centered semi-autonomous systems.

  19. Sufficient conditions for a memory-kernel master equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chruściński, Dariusz; Kossakowski, Andrzej

    2016-08-01

    We derive sufficient conditions for the memory-kernel governing nonlocal master equation which guarantee a legitimate (completely positive and trace-preserving) dynamical map. It turns out that these conditions provide natural parametrizations of the dynamical map being a generalization of the Markovian semigroup. This parametrization is defined by the so-called legitimate pair—monotonic quantum operation and completely positive map—and it is shown that such a class of maps covers almost all known examples from the Markovian semigroup, the semi-Markov evolution, up to collision models and their generalization.

  20. Is recurrent processing necessary and/or sufficient for consciousness?

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Naotsugu; van Boxtel, Jeroen J A

    2010-09-01

    Abstract Abstract While we agree with Lamme's general framework, we are not so convinced by his mapping between psychological concepts with their underlying neuronal mechanisms. Specifically, we doubt if recurrent processing is either necessary or sufficient for consciousness. A gist of a scene may be consciously perceived by purely feedforward, without recurrent, processing. Neurophysiological studies of perceptual suppression show recurrent processing in visual cortex for consciously invisible objects. While the neuronal correlates of attention and consciousness remain to be clarified, we agree with Lamme that these two processes are independent, evinced by our recent demonstration of opposing effects of attention and consciousness. PMID:24168345

  1. Sequences Sufficient for Programming Imprinted Germline DNA Methylation Defined

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yoon Jung; Herman, Herry; Gao, Ying; Lindroth, Anders M.; Hu, Benjamin Y.; Murphy, Patrick J.; Putnam, James R.; Soloway, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    Epigenetic marks are fundamental to normal development, but little is known about signals that dictate their placement. Insights have been provided by studies of imprinted loci in mammals, where monoallelic expression is epigenetically controlled. Imprinted expression is regulated by DNA methylation programmed during gametogenesis in a sex-specific manner and maintained after fertilization. At Rasgrf1 in mouse, paternal-specific DNA methylation on a differential methylation domain (DMD) requires downstream tandem repeats. The DMD and repeats constitute a binary switch regulating paternal-specific expression. Here, we define sequences sufficient for imprinted methylation using two transgenic mouse lines: One carries the entire Rasgrf1 cluster (RC); the second carries only the DMD and repeats (DR) from Rasgrf1. The RC transgene recapitulated all aspects of imprinting seen at the endogenous locus. DR underwent proper DNA methylation establishment in sperm and erasure in oocytes, indicating the DMD and repeats are sufficient to program imprinted DNA methylation in germlines. Both transgenes produce a DMD-spanning pit-RNA, previously shown to be necessary for imprinted DNA methylation at the endogenous locus. We show that when pit-RNA expression is controlled by the repeats, it regulates DNA methylation in cis only and not in trans. Interestingly, pedigree history dictated whether established DR methylation patterns were maintained after fertilization. When DR was paternally transmitted followed by maternal transmission, the unmethylated state that was properly established in the female germlines could not be maintained. This provides a model for transgenerational epigenetic inheritance in mice. PMID:22403732

  2. Photon underproduction crisis: Are QSOs sufficient to resolve it?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaire, Vikram; Srianand, Raghunathan

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the recent claim of `photon underproduction crisis' by Kollmeier et al. which suggests that the known sources of ultraviolet (UV) radiation may not be sufficient to generate the inferred H I photoionization rate (Γ _{H I}) in the low-redshift intergalactic medium. Using the updated QSO emissivities from the recent studies and our cosmological radiative transfer code developed to estimate the UV background, we show that the QSO contributions to Γ _{H I} is higher by a factor ˜2 as compared to the previous estimates. Using self-consistently computed combinations of star formation rate density and dust attenuation, we show that a typical UV escape fraction of 4 per cent from star-forming galaxies should be sufficient to explain the inferred Γ _{H I} by Kollmeier et al. Interestingly, we find that the contribution from QSOs alone can explain the recently inferred Γ _{H I} by Shull et al. which used the same observational data but different simulation. Therefore, we conclude that the crisis is not as severe as it was perceived before and there seems no need to look for alternate explanations such as low luminosity hidden QSOs or decaying dark matter particles.

  3. Perinatal tolerance to proinsulin is sufficient to prevent autoimmune diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Jhala, Gaurang; Chee, Jonathan; Trivedi, Prerak M.; Selck, Claudia; Gurzov, Esteban N.; Graham, Kate L.; Thomas, Helen E.; Kay, Thomas W.H.; Krishnamurthy, Balasubramanian

    2016-01-01

    High-affinity self-reactive thymocytes are purged in the thymus, and residual self-reactive T cells, which are detectable in healthy subjects, are controlled by peripheral tolerance mechanisms. Breakdown in these mechanisms results in autoimmune disease, but antigen-specific therapy to augment natural mechanisms can prevent this. We aimed to determine when antigen-specific therapy is most effective. Islet autoantigens, proinsulin (PI), and islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein (IGRP) were expressed in the antigen-presenting cells (APCs) of autoimmune diabetes-prone nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice in a temporally controlled manner. PI expression from gestation until weaning was sufficient to completely protect NOD mice from diabetes, insulitis, and development of insulin autoantibodies. Insulin-specific T cells were significantly diminished, were naive, and did not express IFN-γ when challenged. This long-lasting effect from a brief period of treatment suggests that autoreactive T cells are not produced subsequently. We tracked IGRP206–214-specific CD8+ T cells in NOD mice expressing IGRP in APCs. When IGRP was expressed only until weaning, IGRP206–214-specific CD8+ T cells were not detected later in life. Thus, anti-islet autoimmunity is determined during early life, and autoreactive T cells are not generated in later life. Bolstering tolerance to islet antigens in the perinatal period is sufficient to impart lasting protection from diabetes.

  4. Perinatal tolerance to proinsulin is sufficient to prevent autoimmune diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Jhala, Gaurang; Chee, Jonathan; Trivedi, Prerak M.; Selck, Claudia; Gurzov, Esteban N.; Graham, Kate L.; Thomas, Helen E.; Kay, Thomas W.H.; Krishnamurthy, Balasubramanian

    2016-01-01

    High-affinity self-reactive thymocytes are purged in the thymus, and residual self-reactive T cells, which are detectable in healthy subjects, are controlled by peripheral tolerance mechanisms. Breakdown in these mechanisms results in autoimmune disease, but antigen-specific therapy to augment natural mechanisms can prevent this. We aimed to determine when antigen-specific therapy is most effective. Islet autoantigens, proinsulin (PI), and islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein (IGRP) were expressed in the antigen-presenting cells (APCs) of autoimmune diabetes-prone nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice in a temporally controlled manner. PI expression from gestation until weaning was sufficient to completely protect NOD mice from diabetes, insulitis, and development of insulin autoantibodies. Insulin-specific T cells were significantly diminished, were naive, and did not express IFN-γ when challenged. This long-lasting effect from a brief period of treatment suggests that autoreactive T cells are not produced subsequently. We tracked IGRP206–214-specific CD8+ T cells in NOD mice expressing IGRP in APCs. When IGRP was expressed only until weaning, IGRP206–214-specific CD8+ T cells were not detected later in life. Thus, anti-islet autoimmunity is determined during early life, and autoreactive T cells are not generated in later life. Bolstering tolerance to islet antigens in the perinatal period is sufficient to impart lasting protection from diabetes. PMID:27699217

  5. Mapping SLCO1B1 Genetic Variation for Global Precision Medicine in Understudied Regions in Africa: A Focus on Zulu and Cape Admixed Populations.

    PubMed

    Hoosain, Nisreen; Pearce, Brendon; Jacobs, Clifford; Benjeddou, Mongi

    2016-09-01

    The U.S. President Barack Obama has announced, in his State of the Union address on January 20, 2015, the Precision Medicine Initiative, a US$215-million program. For global precision medicine to become a reality, however, biological and environmental "variome" in previously understudied populations ought to be mapped and catalogued. Chief among the molecular targets that warrant global mapping is the organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1), encoded by solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1 (SLCO1B1), a hepatic uptake transporter predominantly expressed in the basolateral side of hepatocytes. Human OATP1B1 plays a crucial role in the transport of a wide variety of substrates. This includes endogenous compounds such as bile salts as well as medicines, including benzylpenicillin, methotrexate, pravastatin, and rifampicin, and natural toxins microcystin and phalloidin. Genetic variations observed in the SLCO1B1 gene have been associated with altered in vitro and in vivo OATP1B1 transport activity, and consequently influencing patients' response to medicines, toxins, and susceptibility to common complex diseases. Well-characterized haplotypes, *5 (RS4149056C) and *15 (RS4149056T), have been associated with a strikingly reduced uptake of multiple OATP1B1 substrates, including estrone-3-sulfate, estradiol-17β-d-glucuronide, atorvastatin, cerivastatin, pravastatin, and rifampicin. In particular, RS4149056C is observed in 60% of the Cape admixed (CA) population and is associated with increased plasma concentrations of many statins as well as fexofenadine and repaglinide. We designed and optimized a SNaPshot minisequencing panel to characterize the variants of relevance for precision medicine in the clinic. We report here the first study on allele and genotype frequencies for 10 nonsynonymous, 4 synonymous, and 6 intronic single-nucleotide polymorphisms of SLCO1B1 in the Zulu and CA populations of South Africa. These variants are further

  6. Sufficient conditions for thermal rectification in general graded materials.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Emmanuel

    2011-03-01

    We address a fundamental problem for the advance of phononics: the search of a feasible thermal diode. We establish sufficient conditions for the existence of thermal rectification in general graded materials. By starting from simple assumptions satisfied by the usual anharmonic models that describe heat conduction in solids, we derive an expression for the rectification. The analytical formula shows how to increase the rectification, and the conditions to avoid its decay with the system size, a problem present in the recurrent model of diodes given by the sequential coupling of two or three different parts. Moreover, for these graded systems, we show that the regimes of nondecaying rectification and of normal conductivity do not overlap. Our results indicate the graded systems as optimal materials for a thermal diode, the basic component of several devices of phononics.

  7. Do safety issues of plasma products constrain self-sufficiency?

    PubMed

    Savidge, G F

    1994-12-01

    The ultimate responsibility for selecting and administering plasma products to patients rests with the prescribing physician, and it is for him/her to choose the safest product available. However, liability for a product with a full licence rests exclusively with the licence holder. After the problems of HIV and hepatitis C the safety of plasma-derived products has become of paramount importance. Particularly in the public sector, financial, strategic and political obstacles may adversely influence the quantity, quality and safety of plasma collection. The safety of blood products can be substantially enhanced by the harmonization of technical standards across both public and private sectors, thus supporting EC Directive 89/381. Additionally, the goal of European rather than national self-sufficiency should be encouraged.

  8. Variational necessary and sufficient stability conditions for inviscid shear flow

    PubMed Central

    Hirota, M.; Morrison, P. J.; Hattori, Y.

    2014-01-01

    A necessary and sufficient condition for linear stability of inviscid parallel shear flow is formulated by developing a novel variational principle, where the velocity profile is assumed to be monotonic and analytic. It is shown that unstable eigenvalues of Rayleigh's equation (which is a non-self-adjoint eigenvalue problem) can be associated with positive eigenvalues of a certain self-adjoint operator. The stability is therefore determined by maximizing a quadratic form, which is theoretically and numerically more tractable than directly solving Rayleigh's equation. This variational stability criterion is based on the understanding of Kreĭn signature for continuous spectra and is applicable to other stability problems of infinite-dimensional Hamiltonian systems. PMID:25484600

  9. Commentary: is the paradigm for humiliation sufficiently complex?

    PubMed

    Altshul, Victor A

    2010-01-01

    The authors Torres and Bergner present a simple, elegant paradigm for understanding the phenomenon of humiliation. They suggest it may have universal applicability and may be of heuristic value for clinicians and policy-makers involved in forensic and social arenas. They offer case examples to illustrate its utility. It is open to question, however, whether the paradigm is sufficiently complex to encompass all the variables in actual situations. In real life, the evolution of humiliation is a highly complicated, often messy process that takes place over time and often results in intense feelings of humiliation in more than one person, often affecting several persons. The authors' examples are reexamined from alternate assumptions about what may have happened in each case. An additional case example illustrates a high degree of interpersonal complexity, suggesting that actual situations may be too unwieldy to allow for simple analysis by the paradigm. PMID:20542940

  10. Geothermal resource requirements for an energy self-sufficient spaceport

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, P.; Fioravanti, M.; Duchane, D.; Vaughan, A.

    1997-01-01

    Geothermal resources in the southwestern United States provide an opportunity for development of isolated spaceports with local energy self-sufficiency. Geothermal resources can provide both thermal energy and electrical energy for the spaceport facility infrastructure and production of hydrogen fuel for the space vehicles. In contrast to hydrothermal resources by which electric power is generated for sale to utilities, hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resources are more wide-spread and can be more readily developed at desired spaceport locations. This paper reviews a dynamic model used to quantify the HDR resources requirements for a generic spaceport and estimate the necessary reservoir size and heat extraction rate. The paper reviews the distribution of HDR resources in southern California and southern New Mexico, two regions where a first developmental spaceport is likely to be located. Finally, the paper discusses the design of a HDR facility for the generic spaceport and estimates the cost of the locally produced power.

  11. Nonpetroleum mobility fuels and military-energy self-sufficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Freiwald, D.A.; Barattino, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    Nonpetroleum hydrocarbon fuels will likely serve as transition fuels for a few decades after petroleum sources become scarce. But nonpetroleum hydrocarbon fuels are ultimately either nonrenewable (e.g., coal and oil shale synfuels) or are inefficient to produce. Nuclear sources (supplemented by solar, geothermal, etc., as available) for electric power generation and hydrogen production provide a combination that can be used for military energy needs including mobility fuels, namely liquid hydrogen. This approach can give the military energy self-sufficiency for stationary needs as well as ground vehicles, ships, and aircraft. System integration concepts are discussed, and concepts for a methodology to evaluate source-to-use pathways for different classes of military bases are outlined.

  12. Are coarse scales sufficient for fast detection of visual threat?

    PubMed

    Mermillod, Martial; Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Devaux, Damien; Schaefer, Alexandre; Vermeulen, Nicolas

    2010-10-01

    It has recently been suggested that low-spatial-frequency information would provide rapid visual cues to the amygdala for basic but ultrarapid behavioral responses to dangerous stimuli. The present behavioral study investigated the role of different spatial-frequency channels in visually detecting dangerous stimuli belonging to living or nonliving categories. Subjects were engaged in a visual detection task involving dangerous stimuli, and subjects' behavioral responses were assessed in association with their fear expectations (induced by an aversive 90-dB white noise). Our results showed that, despite its crudeness, low-spatial-frequency information could constitute a sufficient signal for fast recognition of visual danger in a context of fear expectation. In addition, we found that this effect tended to be specific for living entities. These results were obtained despite a strong perceptual bias toward faster recognition of high-spatial-frequency stimuli under supraliminal perception durations.

  13. Meeting local energy needs: resources for self-sufficiency. [Monograph

    SciTech Connect

    Freedburg, M.

    1981-01-01

    The private sector, state and local governments, agencies, and the community itself will be the arenas for energy fund raising in the 1980s. This report surveys and describes these arenas, with references and key contacts accompanying each section. It explores two basic types of funding: (1) grants for community energy ventures of all kinds and (2) financing for consumers, both renters and homeowners, to purchase conservation measures. Grants are not going to be available in sufficient amounts to meet the need, but conservation loans are cost-effective in most parts of the country because they can be paid back through savings. Access to loans for low-income groups can be made available by grassroots funding, pension funds, bond financing, community-development funds, and other mechanisms. 59 references.

  14. [Vitamin-antioxidant sufficiency of winter sports athletes].

    PubMed

    Beketova, N A; Kosheleva, O V; Pereverzeva, O G; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Solntseva, T N; Khanfer'ian, R A

    2013-01-01

    The sufficiency of 169 athletes (six disciplines: bullet shooting, biathlon, bobsleigh, skeleton, freestyle skiing, snowboarding) with vitamins A, E, C, B2, and beta-carotene has been investigated in April-September 2013. All athletes (102 juniors, mean age--18.5 +/- 0.3 years, and 67 adult high-performance athletes, mean age--26.8 +/- 0.7 years) were sufficiently supplied with vitamin A (70.7 +/- 1.7 mcg/dl). Mean blood serum retinol level was 15% higher the upper limit of the norm (80 mcg/dl) in biathletes while median reached 90.9 mcg/dl. Blood serum level of tocopherols (1.22 +/- 0.03 mg/dl), ascorbic acid (1.06 +/- 0.03 mg/dl), riboflavin (7.1 +/- 0.4 ng/ml), and beta-carotene (25.1 +/- 1.7 mcg/dl) was in within normal range, but the incidence of insufficiency of vitamins E, C, B2, and carotenoid among athletes varied in the range of 0-25, 0-17, 15-67 and 42-75%, respectively. 95% of adults and 80% of younger athletes were sufficiently provided with vitamin E. Vitamin E level in blood serum of juniors involved in skeleton and biathlon was lower by 51 and 72% (p < 0.05), than this parameter in adult athletes. Vitamin A, C and B2, and beta-carotene blood serum level did not significantly differ in junior and adult athletes. Women were better supplied with vitamins C, B2, and beta-carotene: a reduced blood serum level of these micronutrients in women was detected 2-3 fold rare (p < 0.10) than among men. Blood serum concentration of vitamin C (1.20 +/- 0.05 mg/dl) and beta-carotene (32.0 +/- 3.9 mcg/dl) in women was greater by 15 and 54% (p < 0.05) than in men. In general, the biathletes were better provided with vitamins compared with other athletes. The vast majority (80%) were optimally provided by all three antioxidants (beta-carotene and vitamins E and C). In other sports, the relative quantity of athletes sufficiently supplied with these essential nutrients did not exceed 56%. The quota of supplied with all antioxidants among bullet shooters (31.1%) and

  15. Are coarse scales sufficient for fast detection of visual threat?

    PubMed

    Mermillod, Martial; Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Devaux, Damien; Schaefer, Alexandre; Vermeulen, Nicolas

    2010-10-01

    It has recently been suggested that low-spatial-frequency information would provide rapid visual cues to the amygdala for basic but ultrarapid behavioral responses to dangerous stimuli. The present behavioral study investigated the role of different spatial-frequency channels in visually detecting dangerous stimuli belonging to living or nonliving categories. Subjects were engaged in a visual detection task involving dangerous stimuli, and subjects' behavioral responses were assessed in association with their fear expectations (induced by an aversive 90-dB white noise). Our results showed that, despite its crudeness, low-spatial-frequency information could constitute a sufficient signal for fast recognition of visual danger in a context of fear expectation. In addition, we found that this effect tended to be specific for living entities. These results were obtained despite a strong perceptual bias toward faster recognition of high-spatial-frequency stimuli under supraliminal perception durations. PMID:20817781

  16. India's baseline plan for nuclear energy self-sufficiency.

    SciTech Connect

    Bucher, R .G.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-01-01

    India's nuclear energy strategy has traditionally strived for energy self-sufficiency, driven largely by necessity following trade restrictions imposed by the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) following India's 'peaceful nuclear explosion' of 1974. On September 6, 2008, the NSG agreed to create an exception opening nuclear trade with India, which may create opportunities for India to modify its baseline strategy. The purpose of this document is to describe India's 'baseline plan,' which was developed under constrained trade conditions, as a basis for understanding changes in India's path as a result of the opening of nuclear commerce. Note that this treatise is based upon publicly available information. No attempt is made to judge whether India can meet specified goals either in scope or schedule. In fact, the reader is warned a priori that India's delivery of stated goals has often fallen short or taken a significantly longer period to accomplish. It has been evident since the early days of nuclear power that India's natural resources would determine the direction of its civil nuclear power program. It's modest uranium but vast thorium reserves dictated that the country's primary objective would be thorium utilization. Estimates of India's natural deposits vary appreciably, but its uranium reserves are known to be extremely limited, totaling approximately 80,000 tons, on the order of 1% of the world's deposits; and nominally one-third of this ore is of very low uranium concentration. However, India's roughly 300,000 tons of thorium reserves account for approximately 30% of the world's total. Confronted with this reality, the future of India's nuclear power industry is strongly dependent on the development of a thorium-based nuclear fuel cycle as the only way to insure a stable, sustainable, and autonomous program. The path to India's nuclear energy self-sufficiency was first outlined in a seminal paper by Drs. H. J. Bhabha and N. B. Prasad presented at the Second

  17. On necessity and sufficiency in counseling and psychotherapy (revisited).

    PubMed

    Lazarus, Arnold A

    2007-09-01

    It seems to me that Carl Rogers (see record 2007-14639-002) was far too ambitious in trying to specify general conditions of necessity and sufficiency that would be relevant to the entire spectrum of problems and the diverse expectancies and personalities of the people who seek our help. Rogers' position and orientation almost totally overlook the array of problems under the rubric of "response deficits" that stem from misinformation and missing information and call for active correction, training, and retraining. Rogers also paid scant attention to problems with significant biological determinants. Nevertheless, as exemplified by his seminal 1957 article and many other articles and books, Rogers made major contributions within the domain of the therapeutic alliance. Today, the scientific emphasis looks at accountability, the need to establish various treatments of choice, and the need to understand their presumed mechanisms. Treatment efficacy and generalizability across different methodologies are now considered key issues. The efficacy narrowing and clinically self-limiting consequences of adhering to one particular school of thought are now self-evident to most. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Arterial Stiffening Provides Sufficient Explanation for Primary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Pettersen, Klas H.; Bugenhagen, Scott M.; Nauman, Javaid; Beard, Daniel A.; Omholt, Stig W.

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension is one of the most common age-related chronic disorders, and by predisposing individuals for heart failure, stroke, and kidney disease, it is a major source of morbidity and mortality. Its etiology remains enigmatic despite intense research efforts over many decades. By use of empirically well-constrained computer models describing the coupled function of the baroreceptor reflex and mechanics of the circulatory system, we demonstrate quantitatively that arterial stiffening seems sufficient to explain age-related emergence of hypertension. Specifically, the empirically observed chronic changes in pulse pressure with age and the impaired capacity of hypertensive individuals to regulate short-term changes in blood pressure arise as emergent properties of the integrated system. The results are consistent with available experimental data from chemical and surgical manipulation of the cardio-vascular system. In contrast to widely held opinions, the results suggest that primary hypertension can be attributed to a mechanogenic etiology without challenging current conceptions of renal and sympathetic nervous system function. PMID:24853828

  19. Abundant Inverse Regression using Sufficient Reduction and its Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunwoo J.; Smith, Brandon M.; Adluru, Nagesh; Dyer, Charles R.; Johnson, Sterling C.; Singh, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Statistical models such as linear regression drive numerous applications in computer vision and machine learning. The landscape of practical deployments of these formulations is dominated by forward regression models that estimate the parameters of a function mapping a set of p covariates, x, to a response variable, y. The less known alternative, Inverse Regression, offers various benefits that are much less explored in vision problems. The goal of this paper is to show how Inverse Regression in the “abundant” feature setting (i.e., many subsets of features are associated with the target label or response, as is the case for images), together with a statistical construction called Sufficient Reduction, yields highly flexible models that are a natural fit for model estimation tasks in vision. Specifically, we obtain formulations that provide relevance of individual covariates used in prediction, at the level of specific examples/samples — in a sense, explaining why a particular prediction was made. With no compromise in performance relative to other methods, an ability to interpret why a learning algorithm is behaving in a specific way for each prediction, adds significant value in numerous applications. We illustrate these properties and the benefits of Abundant Inverse Regression (AIR) on three distinct applications. PMID:27796010

  20. Sufficient conditions of endemic threshold on metapopulation networks.

    PubMed

    Takaguchi, Taro; Lambiotte, Renaud

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we focus on susceptible-infected-susceptible dynamics on metapopulation networks, where nodes represent subpopulations, and where agents diffuse and interact. Recent studies suggest that heterogeneous network structure between elements plays an important role in determining the threshold of infection rate at the onset of epidemics, a fundamental quantity governing the epidemic dynamics. We consider the general case in which the infection rate at each node depends on its population size, as shown in recent empirical observations. We first prove that a sufficient condition for the endemic threshold (i.e., its upper bound), previously derived based on a mean-field approximation of network structure, also holds true for arbitrary networks. We also derive an improved condition showing that networks with the rich-club property (i.e., high connectivity between nodes with a large number of links) are more prone to disease spreading. The dependency of infection rate on population size introduces a considerable difference between this upper bound and estimates based on mean-field approximations, even when degree-degree correlations are considered. We verify the theoretical results with numerical simulations.

  1. On necessity and sufficiency in counseling and psychotherapy (revisited).

    PubMed

    Lazarus, Arnold A

    2007-09-01

    It seems to me that Carl Rogers (see record 2007-14639-002) was far too ambitious in trying to specify general conditions of necessity and sufficiency that would be relevant to the entire spectrum of problems and the diverse expectancies and personalities of the people who seek our help. Rogers' position and orientation almost totally overlook the array of problems under the rubric of "response deficits" that stem from misinformation and missing information and call for active correction, training, and retraining. Rogers also paid scant attention to problems with significant biological determinants. Nevertheless, as exemplified by his seminal 1957 article and many other articles and books, Rogers made major contributions within the domain of the therapeutic alliance. Today, the scientific emphasis looks at accountability, the need to establish various treatments of choice, and the need to understand their presumed mechanisms. Treatment efficacy and generalizability across different methodologies are now considered key issues. The efficacy narrowing and clinically self-limiting consequences of adhering to one particular school of thought are now self-evident to most. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:22122247

  2. Sufficient Conditions for Efficient Classical Simulation of Quantum Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi-Keshari, Saleh; Ralph, Timothy C.; Caves, Carlton M.

    2016-04-01

    We provide general sufficient conditions for the efficient classical simulation of quantum-optics experiments that involve inputting states to a quantum process and making measurements at the output. The first condition is based on the negativity of phase-space quasiprobability distributions (PQDs) of the output state of the process and the output measurements; the second one is based on the negativity of PQDs of the input states, the output measurements, and the transition function associated with the process. We show that these conditions provide useful practical tools for investigating the effects of imperfections in implementations of boson sampling. In particular, we apply our formalism to boson-sampling experiments that use single-photon or spontaneous-parametric-down-conversion sources and on-off photodetectors. Considering simple models for loss and noise, we show that above some threshold for the probability of random counts in the photodetectors, these boson-sampling experiments are classically simulatable. We identify mode mismatching as the major source of error contributing to random counts and suggest that this is the chief challenge for implementations of boson sampling of interesting size.

  3. Sufficiently Important Difference for Common Cold: Severity Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Bruce; Harahan, Brian; Brown, David; Zhang, Zhengjun; Brown, Roger

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE We undertook a study to estimate the sufficiently important difference (SID) for the common cold. The SID is the smallest benefit that an intervention would require to justify costs and risks. METHODS Benefit-harm tradeoff interviews (in-person and telephone) assessed SID in terms of overall severity reduction using evidence-based simple-language scenarios for 4 common cold treatments: vitamin C, the herbal medicine echinacea, zinc lozenges, and the unlicensed antiviral pleconaril. RESULTS Response patterns to the 4 scenarios in the telephone and in-person samples were not statistically distinguishable and were merged for most analyses. The scenario based on vitamin C led to a mean SID of 25% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23–0.27). For the echinacea-based scenario, mean SID was 32% (95% CI, 0.30–0.34). For the zinc-based scenario, mean SID was 47% (95% CI, 0.43–0.51). The scenario based on preliminary antiviral trials provided a mean SID of 57% (95% CI, 0.53–0.61). Multivariate analyses suggested that (1) between-scenario differences were substantive and reproducible in the 2 samples, (2) presence or severity of illness did not predict SID, and (3) SID was not influenced by age, sex, tobacco use, ethnicity, income, or education. Despite consistencies supporting the model and methods, response patterns were diverse, with wide spreads of individual SID values within and among treatment scenarios. CONCLUSIONS Depending on treatment specifics, people want an on-average 25% to 57% reduction in overall illness severity to justify costs and risks of popular cold treatments. Randomized trial evidence does not support benefits this large. This model and these methods should be further developed for use in other disease entities. PMID:17548849

  4. Low but Sufficient Anidulafungin Exposure in Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    van Wanrooy, Marjolijn J. P.; Rodgers, Michael G. G.; Uges, Donald R. A.; Arends, Jan P.; Zijlstra, Jan G.; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Kosterink, Jos G. W.

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of anidulafungin is driven by the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)/MIC ratio. Patients in intensive care may be at risk for underexposure. In critically ill patients with an invasive Candida infection, the anidulafungin exposure and a possible correlation with disease severity or plasma protein levels were explored. Concentration-time curves were therefore obtained at steady state. Anidulafungin concentrations were measured with a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. The MIC values of the Candida species were determined with the Etest. The target AUC/MIC ratio was based on European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) data. Twenty patients were included. The patients received a maintenance dose of 100 mg once daily after a loading dose of 200 mg on the first day. The mean (±standard deviation) AUC, maximum concentration of drug in plasma (Cmax), and minimum concentration of drug in plasma (Cmin) were 69.8 ± 24.1 mg · h/liter, 4.7 ± 1.4 mg/liter, and 2.2 ± 0.8 mg/liter, respectively. The MIC values of all cultured Candida species were below the EUCAST MIC breakpoints. The exposure to anidulafungin in relation to the MIC that was determined appeared sufficient in all patients. The anidulafungin exposure was low in our critically ill patients. However, combined with the low MICs of the isolated Candida strains, the lower exposure observed in comparison to the exposure in the general patient population resulted in favorable AUC/MIC ratios, based on EUCAST data. No correlation was observed between anidulafungin exposure and disease severity or plasma protein concentrations. In patients with less-susceptible Candida albicans or glabrata strains, we recommend considering determining the anidulafungin exposure to ensure adequate exposure. (This trial has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01047267.) PMID:24165173

  5. [Effect of vitamin sufficiency on adaptation syndrome in growing rats].

    PubMed

    Sidorova, Iu S; Beketova, N A; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Kosheleva, O V; Zorin, S N; Selifanov, A V; Mazo, V K

    2014-01-01

    The influence of vitamin supply of growing male -Wistar rats (n=21) with an initial body weight 53,5±0,9 g on their resistance to a single distress induced by the electric shock has been investigated. Control rats within 21 days received a complete semisynthetic diet,providingadequate amounts of vitamins. Combined vitamin deficiency in experimental rats was caused by 5-fold decrease of vitamin mixture amount in the feed and the total vitamin E exclusion from the mixture. On the 21st day, one day before the end of the experiment, both groups of rats were subjected to stress impact (electrocutaneous irritation on paws, 0,4 mA for 8 sec) and then animals were placed in metabolic cages to collect urine. By the end of the experiment, the animals with the combined vitamin deficiency lag behind in growth. Vitamin B2, A, B1 and E liver content decreased in experimental rats by 1,6, 2,3, 4,4 and 15 fold accordingly. Retinol plasma concentration was significantly reduced by 18%, α-tocopherol level - by 5 fold, urinary excretionof riboflavin and 4-pyridoxic acid (vitamin B6 metabolite) was significantly reduced by 6,5 and 2,46 times accordingly. MDA blood plasma concentration and the urinary ratio of oxidized and not oxidized form of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxy-guanosine did not differ in both groups of rats. Urinary excretion of stress biomarker corticosterone in rats with combined vitamin deficit was 2,5-fold higher than in control rats. Thus, reducing of vitamins supply resulted in an increase of urine corticosterone in stressed rats, that characterized the intensity of general adaptation syndrome. This fact shows the importance of optimal sufficiency with vitamins in nonspecific (general) resistance to stress.

  6. 76 FR 39115 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Transformation Initiative Family Self-Sufficiency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... Family Self-Sufficiency Demonstration Small Grants. Description of the need for information and proposed... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Transformation Initiative Family Self-Sufficiency Demonstration Small Grants AGENCY: Office of Policy Development and Research, HUD. ACTION:...

  7. Sufficiency of Longitudinal Moment of Inertia for Haptic Cylinder Length Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabe, Patrick A.

    2010-01-01

    Many studies invoke moment of inertia (I[subscript ii]) as necessary and sufficient information to perceive cylinder length via wielding, yet some assert that I[subscript ii] is neither necessary (weight, "m", or static moment, M, are sufficient) nor sufficient for length judgments ("m" or M is necessary). Mathematical expressions for I[subscript…

  8. Minimal sufficient positive-operator valued measure on a separable Hilbert space

    SciTech Connect

    Kuramochi, Yui

    2015-10-15

    We introduce a concept of a minimal sufficient positive-operator valued measure (POVM), which is the least redundant POVM among the POVMs that have the equivalent information about the measured quantum system. Assuming the system Hilbert space to be separable, we show that for a given POVM, a sufficient statistic called a Lehmann-Scheffé-Bahadur statistic induces a minimal sufficient POVM. We also show that every POVM has an equivalent minimal sufficient POVM and that such a minimal sufficient POVM is unique up to relabeling neglecting null sets. We apply these results to discrete POVMs and information conservation conditions proposed by the author.

  9. EFFICIENCY OF PREPARED BAITS OF LONE OR/AND ADMIXED FOUR BOTANICAL OILS ON THE VIABILITY OF SUCCESSIVE RAISED GENERATIONS OF AGROTIS IPSILON (HUFNAGEL) (INSECTA: LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE) AFTER TREATING THE PARENT ONES.

    PubMed

    Mesbah, H A; El-Sayed, Nagda A; El-Kady, Magda B; Tayeb, E H; Mourad, A K; Kordy, A M; Henaidy, Zeinab M

    2014-01-01

    The present study is initiated to determine the toxic and delayed effects of four botanical oils on the greasy cutworm A. ipsilon, aiming to attain an alternative environmentally safe and effective phytochemicals against the insect-pest. Four botanical oils (camphor, red basil, menthol and rose oil) were added at rates of 0.5 and 1.0% (v/w). The tested oils were added alone, and/or admixed at proportional rate of 1:1 in the prepared baits against the exposed 4th instar till the 6th instar larvae of the insect. The study was run under the laboratory higrothermic conditions of 25±2°C and 65±5% R.H. The results showed that the tested baits of camphor, red basil and menthol oils at concentration rates of 0.5 and 1.0% (v/w) adversely affected the inspected parameters of fitness components of the treated individuals of parent (p) generation. They gave more or less fewer numbers of weak unviable adult-moths, which were either sterile or they laid few numbers of infertile eggs and died before the induction of (F1) progeny. That failure could be elucidated by the rapid occurrence of drastic effects on the biological performance of both the influenced sexes of adult-moths along the period of parent's development. Finally it ended by the inhibited induction of (F1) progeny. A delayed effect of the prepared baits of rose oil at 0.5 and 1.0% (v/w), was assessed on the following raised F1, F2, F3 and F4 generations after parent's treatment. The delayed effect was detected as less efficient latent effect on each of these consequently raised generations; characterized by the gradual decrease of the number of alive immatures and adult-moths. The effect was recorded as gradual increase of dead and malformed individuals and adult-moths. In addition to the gradual decrease of deposited and/or hatched eggs up to the 4th generation, which ended by the complete failure of the development. That failure could be also attributed to the cumulated effects of the induced recessive lethal

  10. Dorsal Hippocampal CREB Is Both Necessary and Sufficient for Spatial Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekeres, Melanie J.; Neve, Rachael L.; Frankland, Paul W.; Josselyn, Sheena A.

    2010-01-01

    Although the transcription factor CREB has been widely implicated in memory, whether it is sufficient to produce spatial memory under conditions that do not normally support memory formation in mammals is unknown. We found that locally and acutely increasing CREB levels in the dorsal hippocampus using viral vectors is sufficient to induce robust…

  11. 33 CFR 115.30 - Sufficiency of State authority for bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for bridges. 115.30 Section 115.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.30 Sufficiency of State authority for bridges. An opinion of the attorney general of the State as to the sufficiency of...

  12. 33 CFR 115.30 - Sufficiency of State authority for bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for bridges. 115.30 Section 115.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.30 Sufficiency of State authority for bridges. An opinion of the attorney general of the State as to the sufficiency of...

  13. 33 CFR 115.30 - Sufficiency of State authority for bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for bridges. 115.30 Section 115.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.30 Sufficiency of State authority for bridges. An opinion of the attorney general of the State as to the sufficiency of...

  14. 33 CFR 115.30 - Sufficiency of State authority for bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for bridges. 115.30 Section 115.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.30 Sufficiency of State authority for bridges. An opinion of the attorney general of the State as to the sufficiency of...

  15. 33 CFR 115.30 - Sufficiency of State authority for bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for bridges. 115.30 Section 115.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.30 Sufficiency of State authority for bridges. An opinion of the attorney general of the State as to the sufficiency of...

  16. 29 CFR 780.513 - What employment in growing and harvesting is sufficient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... qualifying for this exemption even if in some past season he was employed in growing and harvesting such... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What employment in growing and harvesting is sufficient....513 What employment in growing and harvesting is sufficient. To qualify for exemption the...

  17. 29 CFR 780.513 - What employment in growing and harvesting is sufficient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... qualifying for this exemption even if in some past season he was employed in growing and harvesting such... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What employment in growing and harvesting is sufficient....513 What employment in growing and harvesting is sufficient. To qualify for exemption the...

  18. 29 CFR 780.513 - What employment in growing and harvesting is sufficient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... qualifying for this exemption even if in some past season he was employed in growing and harvesting such... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What employment in growing and harvesting is sufficient....513 What employment in growing and harvesting is sufficient. To qualify for exemption the...

  19. 29 CFR 780.513 - What employment in growing and harvesting is sufficient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... qualifying for this exemption even if in some past season he was employed in growing and harvesting such... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What employment in growing and harvesting is sufficient....513 What employment in growing and harvesting is sufficient. To qualify for exemption the...

  20. 29 CFR 780.513 - What employment in growing and harvesting is sufficient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... qualifying for this exemption even if in some past season he was employed in growing and harvesting such... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What employment in growing and harvesting is sufficient....513 What employment in growing and harvesting is sufficient. To qualify for exemption the...

  1. 25 CFR 26.23 - What is an Individual Self-Sufficiency Plan (ISP)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is an Individual Self-Sufficiency Plan (ISP)? 26.23 Section 26.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES JOB PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM General Applicability § 26.23 What is an Individual Self-Sufficiency Plan...

  2. IS A GRANDMAL SEIZURE NECESSARY AND SUFFICIENT FOR THE EFFICACY OF ELECTRO CONVULSIVE THERAPY?

    PubMed Central

    Verghese, Abraham

    2000-01-01

    This paper highlights the recent research findings which suggest that the old teaching that a grandma! seizure is both necessary and sufficient for the efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is not correct. It is necessary; but not sufficient. The stimulus intensity should be adjusted so that it is far above the seizure threshold in order to get maximum efficacy of ECT. PMID:21407909

  3. Genomic Ancestry, Self-Rated Health and Its Association with Mortality in an Admixed Population: 10 Year Follow-Up of the Bambui-Epigen (Brazil) Cohort Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Costa, M. Fernanda; Macinko, James; Mambrini, Juliana Vaz de Melo; Cesar, Cibele C.; Peixoto, Sérgio V.; Magalhães, Wagner C. S.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Barreto, Mauricio; Castro-Costa, Erico; Firmo, Josélia O. A.; Proietti, Fernando A.; Leal, Thiago Peixoto; Rodrigues, Maira R.; Pereira, Alexandre; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Background Self-rated health (SRH) has strong predictive value for mortality in different contexts and cultures, but there is inconsistent evidence on ethnoracial disparities in SRH in Latin America, possibly due to the complexity surrounding ethnoracial self-classification. Materials/Methods We used 370,539 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) to examine the association between individual genomic proportions of African, European and Native American ancestry, and ethnoracial self-classification, with baseline and 10-year SRH trajectories in 1,311 community dwelling older Brazilians. We also examined whether genomic ancestry and ethnoracial self-classification affect the predictive value of SRH for subsequent mortality. Results European ancestry predominated among participants, followed by African and Native American (median = 84.0%, 9.6% and 5.3%, respectively); the prevalence of Non-White (Mixed and Black) was 39.8%. Persons at higher levels of African and Native American genomic ancestry, and those self-identified as Non-White, were more likely to report poor health than other groups, even after controlling for socioeconomic conditions and an array of self-reported and objective physical health measures. Increased risks for mortality associated with worse SRH trajectories were strong and remarkably similar (hazard ratio ~3) across all genomic ancestry and ethno-racial groups. Conclusions Our results demonstrated for the first time that higher levels of African and Native American genomic ancestry—and the inverse for European ancestry—were strongly correlated with worse SRH in a Latin American admixed population. Both genomic ancestry and ethnoracial self-classification did not modify the strong association between baseline SRH or SRH trajectory, and subsequent mortality. PMID:26680774

  4. Chimeric self-sufficient P450cam-RhFRed biocatalysts with broad substrate scope

    PubMed Central

    Robin, Aélig; Köhler, Valentin; Jones, Alison; Ali, Afruja; Kelly, Paul P; O'Reilly, Elaine; Turner, Nicholas J

    2011-01-01

    Summary A high-throughput screening protocol for evaluating chimeric, self-sufficient P450 biocatalysts and their mutants against a panel of substrates was developed, leading to the identification of a number of novel biooxidation activities. PMID:22238522

  5. Assessing sufficiency of thermal riverscapes for resilient salmon and steelhead populations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resilient salmon populations require river networks that provide water temperature regimes sufficient to support a diversity of salmonid life histories across space and time. Efforts to protect, enhance and restore watershed thermal regimes for salmon may target specific location...

  6. Correlation, necessity, and sufficiency: Common errors in the scientific reasoning of undergraduate students for interpreting experiments.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Aaron B; Lam, Diane P; Soowal, Lara N

    2015-01-01

    Gaining an understanding of how science works is central to an undergraduate education in biology and biochemistry. The reasoning required to design or interpret experiments that ask specific questions does not come naturally, and is an essential part of the science process skills that must be learned for an understanding of how scientists conduct research. Gaps in these reasoning skills make it difficult for students to become proficient in reading primary scientific literature. In this study, we assessed the ability of students in an upper-division biochemistry laboratory class to use the concepts of correlation, necessity, and sufficiency in interpreting experiments presented in a format and context that is similar to what they would encounter when reading a journal article. The students were assessed before and after completion of a laboratory module where necessary vs. sufficient reasoning was used to design and interpret experiments. The assessment identified two types of errors that were commonly committed by students when interpreting experimental data. When presented with an experiment that only establishes a correlation between a potential intermediate and a known effect, students frequently interpreted the intermediate as being sufficient (causative) for the effect. Also, when presented with an experiment that tests only necessity for an intermediate, they frequently made unsupported conclusions about sufficiency, and vice versa. Completion of the laboratory module and instruction in necessary vs. sufficient reasoning showed some promise for addressing these common errors.

  7. A New Laparoscopic Surgical Procedure to Achieve Sufficient Mesorectal Excision in Upper Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ohigashi, Seiji; Taketa, Takashi; Sudo, Kazuki; Shiozaki, Hironori; Onodera, Hisashi

    2011-01-01

    Objective. Mesorectal excision corresponding to the location of a tumor, termed tumor-specific mesorectal excision (TSME), is commonly performed for resection of upper rectal cancer. We devised a new laparoscopic procedure for sufficient TSME with rectal transection followed by mesorectal excision. Operative Technique. After mobilization of the sigmoid colon and ligation of inferior mesenteric vessels, we dissected the mesorectum along the layer of the planned total mesorectal excision. The rectal wall was carefully separated from the mesorectum at the appropriate anal side from the tumor. After the rectum was isolated and transected using an endoscopic linear stapler, the rectal stump drew immediately toward the anal side, enabling the mesorectum to be identified clearly. In this way, sufficient TSME can be performed easily and accurately. This technique has been successfully conducted on 19 patients. Conclusion. This laparoscopic technique is a feasible and reliable procedure for achieving sufficient TSME. PMID:22312519

  8. A necessary and sufficient condition for deadlock-free adaptive routing in wormhole networks

    SciTech Connect

    Duato, J.

    1994-12-31

    Deadlock avoidance is a key issue in wormhole networks. A first approach consists of removing the cyclic dependencies between channels. Although this is a necessary and sufficient condition for deadlock-free deterministic routing, it is only a sufficient condition for deadlock-free adaptive routing. A more powerful approach only requires the absence of cyclic dependencies on a connected channel subset. The remaining channels can be used in almost any way. In this paper, we propose a necessary and sufficient condition for deadlock-free adaptive routing. This condition is the key for the design of maximally adaptive routing algorithms with minimum restrictions. Some examples are given, showing the application of the new theory. In particular, we propose a partially adaptive routing algorithm for k-ary n-cubes which doubles the throughput without increasing the hardware complexity significantly.

  9. Predictability of the appearance of anomalous waves at sufficiently small Benjamin-Feir indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruban, V. P.

    2016-05-01

    The numerical simulation of the nonlinear dynamics of random sea waves at sufficiently small Benjamin-Feir indices and its comparison with the linear dynamics (at the coincidence of spatial Fourier harmonics near a spectral peak at a certain time t p) indicate that the appearance of a rogue wave can be predicted in advance. If the linear approximation shows the presence of a sufficiently extensive and/or high group of waves in the near future after t p, an anomalous wave is almost necessarily formed in the nonlinear model. The interval of reliable forecasting covers several hundred wave periods, which can be quite sufficient in practice for, e.g., avoiding the meeting of a ship with a giant wave.

  10. Dark-matter admixed white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, S.-C.; Chu, M.-C.; Lin, L.-M.; Wong, K.-W.

    2013-06-01

    We study the equilibrium structures of white dwarfs with dark matter cores formed by non-self-annihilating dark matter (DM) particles with masses ranging from 1 GeV to 100 GeV, which are assumed to form an ideal degenerate Fermi gas inside the stars. For DM particles of mass 10 GeV and 100 GeV, we find that stable stellar models exist only if the mass of the DM core inside the star is less than O(10-3)M⊙ and O(10-6)M⊙, respectively. The global properties of these stars, and in particular the corresponding Chandrasekhar mass limits, are essentially the same as those of traditional white dwarf models without DM. Nevertheless, in the 10 GeV case, the gravitational attraction of the DM core is strong enough to squeeze the normal matter in the core region to densities above neutron drip, far above those in traditional white dwarfs. For DM with a particle mass of 1 GeV, the DM core inside the star can be as massive as ˜0.1M⊙ and affects the global structure of the star significantly. In this case, the radius of a stellar model with DM can be about two times smaller than that of a traditional white dwarf. Furthermore, the Chandrasekhar mass limit can also be decreased by as much as 40%. Our results may have implications on the extent to which type Ia supernovae can be regarded as standard candles—a key assumption in the discovery of dark energy.

  11. Dark matter admixed Type Ia supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Shing Chi; Chu, Ming Chung; Lin, Lap Ming

    2015-04-01

    We perform two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations for the thermonuclear explosion of Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarfs with dark matter (DM) cores in Newtonian gravity. We include a detailed nuclear reaction network and make use of the pure turbulent deflagration model as the explosion mechanism in our simulations. Our numerical results show that the general properties of the explosion depend quite sensitively on the mass of the DM core MDM. A larger MDM generally leads to a weaker explosion and a lower mass of synthesized iron-peaked elements. In particular, the total mass of 56 Ni produced can drop from about 0.3 to 0.03 Msun as MDM increases from 0.01 to 0.03 Msun. We have also constructed the bolometric light curves obtained from our simulations and found that our results match well with the observational data of sub-luminous type Ia supernovae. This work is partially supported by a grant from the Research Grant Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China (Project No. 400910).

  12. Dark Matter Admixed Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, S.-C.; Chu, M.-C.; Lin, L.-M.

    2015-10-01

    We perform two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations for the thermonuclear explosion of Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarfs with dark matter (DM) cores in Newtonian gravity. We include a 19-isotope nuclear reaction network and make use of the pure turbulent deflagration model as the explosion mechanism in our simulations. Our numerical results show that the general properties of the explosion depend quite sensitively on the mass of the DM core M DM: a larger M DM generally leads to a weaker explosion and a lower mass of synthesized iron-peaked elements. In particular, the total mass of produced can drop from about 0.3 to 0.03 M ⊙ as M DM increases from 0.01 to 0.03 M ⊙. We have also constructed the bolometric light curves obtained from our simulations and found that our results match well with the observational data of sub-luminous Type Ia supernovae.

  13. DARK MATTER ADMIXED TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, S.-C.; Chu, M.-C.; Lin, L.-M. E-mail: mcchu@phy.cuhk.edu.hk

    2015-10-20

    We perform two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations for the thermonuclear explosion of Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarfs with dark matter (DM) cores in Newtonian gravity. We include a 19-isotope nuclear reaction network and make use of the pure turbulent deflagration model as the explosion mechanism in our simulations. Our numerical results show that the general properties of the explosion depend quite sensitively on the mass of the DM core M {sub DM}: a larger M {sub DM} generally leads to a weaker explosion and a lower mass of synthesized iron-peaked elements. In particular, the total mass of produced can drop from about 0.3 to 0.03 M {sub ⊙} as M {sub DM} increases from 0.01 to 0.03 M {sub ⊙}. We have also constructed the bolometric light curves obtained from our simulations and found that our results match well with the observational data of sub-luminous Type Ia supernovae.

  14. Nicotine Activation of α4* Receptors: Sufficient for Reward, Tolerance, and Sensitization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapper, Andrew R.; McKinney, Sheri L.; Nashmi, Raad; Schwarz, Johannes; Deshpande, Purnima; Labarca, Cesar; Whiteaker, Paul; Marks, Michael J.; Collins, Allan C.; Lester, Henry A.

    2004-11-01

    The identity of nicotinic receptor subtypes sufficient to elicit both the acute and chronic effects of nicotine dependence is unknown. We engineered mutant mice with α4 nicotinic subunits containing a single point mutation, Leu9' --> Ala9' in the pore-forming M2 domain, rendering α4* receptors hypersensitive to nicotine. Selective activation of α4* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with low doses of agonist recapitulates nicotine effects thought to be important in dependence, including reinforcement in response to acute nicotine administration, as well as tolerance and sensitization elicited by chronic nicotine administration. These data indicate that activation of α4* receptors is sufficient for nicotine-induced reward, tolerance, and sensitization.

  15. Sufficient and necessary conditions for Lyapunov stability of genetic networks with SUM regulatory logic.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guopeng; Huang, Jinhua; Tian, Fengxia; Liao, Xiaoxin

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a nonlinear model for genetic regulator networks (GRNs) with SUM regulatory logic is presented. Four sufficient and necessary conditions of global asymptotical stability and global exponential stability for the equilibrium point of the GRNs are proposed, respectively. Specifically, three weak sufficient conditions and corresponding corollaries are derived by using comparing theorem and Dini derivative method. Then, a famous GRN model is used as the example to illustrate the effectiveness of our theoretical results. Comparing to the results in the previous literature, some novel ideas, study methods and interesting results are explored.

  16. Food self-sufficiency across scales: how local can we go?

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Prajal; Lüdeke, Matthias K B; Reusser, Dominik E; Kropp, Juergen P

    2014-08-19

    This study explores the potential for regions to shift to a local food supply using food self-sufficiency (FSS) as an indicator. We considered a region food self-sufficient when its total calorie production is enough to meet its demand. For future scenarios, we considered population growth, dietary changes, improved feed conversion efficiency, climate change, and crop yield increments. Starting at the 5' resolution, we investigated FSS from the lowest administrative levels to continents. Globally, about 1.9 billion people are self-sufficient within their 5' grid, while about 1 billion people from Asia and Africa require cross-continental agricultural trade in 2000. By closing yield gaps, these regions can achieve FSS, which also reduces international trade and increases a self-sufficient population in a 5' grid to 2.9 billion. The number of people depending on international trade will vary between 1.5 and 6 billion by 2050. Climate change may increase the need for international agricultural trade by 4% to 16%. PMID:25062356

  17. Rhetorically self-sufficient arguments in Western Australian parliamentary debates on Lesbian and Gay Law Reform.

    PubMed

    Summers, Mark

    2007-12-01

    Western Australia's Acts Amendment (Lesbian and Gay Law Reform) Bill 2001 delivered a measure of legal equality in such areas as property transfer, superannuation, inheritance and discrimination, and more controversially, adoption, lesbian access to IVF, lowering the age of consent for sex between men from 21 to 16, and incorporating information on homosexuality into high school sex education classes. This paper examines the use of various moral principles within parliamentary speeches supporting or opposing the legislation, and the extent to which they were treated by members as beyond question, or 'rhetorically self-sufficient'. The resources of 'equality', 'human rights', 'democracy', 'the interests of the majority' and 'the interests of children' were given a kind of beyond-question, self-sufficient status, but their use was able to be undermined in a number of ways, relating to members' management of what the Bill was 'about', and the flexibility of these social constructs. It is argued that rather than pitting one set of resources against another, members on both sides of the debate faced a rhetorical pressure to adopt and mobilize all of the same self-sufficient moral resources, due to the flexible, constructed and non-hierarchical, yet often rhetorically self-sufficient nature of common-sense moral principles.

  18. Struggle for Self-Sufficiency: Impact of Welfare Reform on Families with Children in Kansas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas Action for Children, Inc., Topeka.

    Since Congress passed the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act in 1996, Kansas has dramatically reduced its welfare roles. Noting that achieving self-sufficiency is the real measure of success in combating poverty, this study examines welfare reform efforts in Kansas. To gather information, United Way member agencies and…

  19. Community Service and University Roles: An Action Research Based on the Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuangchalerm, Prasart; Chansirisira, Pacharawit

    2012-01-01

    This study employs action research to develop community service through university roles by applying the philosophy of sufficiency economy of His Majesty the King Bhumibol Adulyadej to fulfill villagers' way of life. Participatory learning, seminar, field trip and supervision were employed for strategic plan. Data were collected by participatory…

  20. Validation of the Employment Hope Scale: Measuring Psychological Self-Sufficiency among Low-Income Jobseekers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Philip Young P.; Polanin, Joshua R.; Pigott, Therese D.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The Employment Hope scale (EHS) was designed to measure the empowerment-based self-sufficiency (SS) outcome among low-income job-seeking clients. This measure captures the psychological SS dimension as opposed to the more commonly used economic SS in workforce development and employment support practice. The study validates the EHS and…

  1. Effectiveness of Short-Term Training for Self-Sufficiency. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wonacott, Michael E.

    Reauthorization of welfare reform legislation has focused attention on the effectiveness of short-term training as a means for welfare recipients to attain self-sufficiency. Its effects on employment and earnings have been one focus of recent evaluations of federal programs. Although some Job Opportunities and Basic Skills programs produced…

  2. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the entanglement sudden death under amplitude damping and phase damping

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Jiehui; Zhu Shiyao

    2007-12-15

    By using principal minor method, which is developed from the Peres-Horodecki criterion for the separability of a quantum state, we derive the necessary and sufficient conditions for the entanglement sudden death of a two-qubit state under amplitude damping and phase damping.

  3. Pathway to Self-Sufficiency: Social and Economic Development Strategies of Native American Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Human Development Services (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    In fiscal year (FY) 1984 the Administration for Native Americans awarded 227 grants for social and economic development strategies (SEDS) which would help Native American communities move toward self-sufficiency. More than half the grants were primarily for economic development; approximately one-third were for improving tribal governments, and…

  4. Public and Private Incentives for Investment in Higher Education: Are They Sufficient, Especially for Black Males?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appiah, Elizabeth N.

    2013-01-01

    The institutional costs of higher education have been rising. With diminishing public support per student, tuition and fees private costs have also been rising. But so have the real earnings of college graduates. Are there still sufficient incentives on efficiency grounds for additional public investment in higher education? And in particular,…

  5. The Family Self-Sufficiency Program: HUD's Best Kept Secret for Promoting Employment and Asset Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sard, Barbara

    This paper describes the Family Self-Sufficiency (FSS) program, an employment and savings incentive program for low-income families that have Section 8 vouchers or live in public housing. It consists of both case management services to help participants pursue employment and other goals and escrow accounts into which the public housing agency…

  6. 42 CFR 102.72 - Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations. 102.72 Section 102.72 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION PROGRAM Secretarial Determinations §...

  7. 42 CFR 102.72 - Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations. 102.72 Section 102.72 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION PROGRAM Secretarial Determinations §...

  8. 42 CFR 102.72 - Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations. 102.72 Section 102.72 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION PROGRAM Secretarial Determinations §...

  9. 42 CFR 102.72 - Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations. 102.72 Section 102.72 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION PROGRAM Secretarial Determinations §...

  10. 42 CFR 102.72 - Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations. 102.72 Section 102.72 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION PROGRAM Secretarial Determinations §...

  11. Investigation of Professional Self Sufficiency Levels of Physical Education and Sports Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saracaoglu, Asuman Seda; Ozsaker, Murat; Varol, Rana

    2012-01-01

    The present research aimed at detecting professional self sufficiency levels of physical education and sports teachers who worked in Izmir Province and at investigating them in terms of some variables. For data collection, Teacher's Sense of Efficacy Scale-developed by Moran and Woolfolk-Hoy (2001) and Turkish validity and reliability studies…

  12. Book, Film, Television: An International Comparison of National Self-Sufficiency in Three Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jokela, Mikko

    This study was conducted to compare national self-sufficiency in two media--book and film--to determine to what extent books and films in 39 countries are of domestic and foreign origin, and to find the direction of flow. Statistical findings are compared with findings from a 1973 study on the structure and origin of television programmes in 51…

  13. Sufficient conditions for oscillation of a nonlinear fractional nabla difference system.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei Nian; Sheng, Weihong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the oscillation of nonlinear fractional nabla difference equations of the form [Formula: see text]where c and α are constants, [Formula: see text] is the Riemann-Liouville fractional nabla difference operator of order [Formula: see text] is a real number, and [Formula: see text]. Some sufficient conditions for oscillation are established. PMID:27512637

  14. Designing and Managing Public Housing Self-Sufficiency Programs: The Youngs Lake Commons Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleit, Rachel Garshick

    2004-01-01

    This article evaluates an experimental public housing self-sufficiency program that encourages home ownership among low-income families. A quasi-experimental design, in combination with focus groups, records review, and key informant interviews, provides data to focus on four questions: (a) Do these programs simply accelerate move-outs for those…

  15. The Role of Workplace Support in Facilitating Self-Sufficiency among Single Mothers on Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Louise

    1994-01-01

    Explored model integrating human capital, family resource, employment, and psychosocial factors to explain variation in economic self-sufficiency among 851 single mothers on public assistance. Workplace support was most significant factor affecting degree to which mothers reduced their reliance on welfare as source of household income over…

  16. A Classroom Note on a Sufficient, but Unsatisfied, Condition for Goldbach's Conjecture to Be True

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skurnick, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    This classroom note is presented as a suggested exercise--not to have the class prove or disprove Goldbach's Conjecture, but to stimulate student discussions in the classroom regarding proof, as well as necessary, sufficient, satisfied, and unsatisfied conditions. Goldbach's Conjecture is one of the oldest unsolved problems in the field of number…

  17. 42 CFR 110.72 - Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations. 110.72 Section 110.72 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES COUNTERMEASURES INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM Secretarial...

  18. 42 CFR 110.72 - Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations. 110.72 Section 110.72 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES COUNTERMEASURES INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM Secretarial...

  19. 42 CFR 110.72 - Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations. 110.72 Section 110.72 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES COUNTERMEASURES INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM Secretarial...

  20. 42 CFR 110.72 - Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations. 110.72 Section 110.72 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES COUNTERMEASURES INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM Secretarial...

  1. ADC Mothers Reach Self-Sufficiency through Comprehensive Support and Family Development Services Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Gayle C., II; McCarthy, Karen V.

    Families whose primary or sole means of financial support is derived from the welfare system are attempting to meet immediate survival needs in the same manner as families outside of the system. Project Self-Sufficiency is a program which dedicates time to building trusting relationships based on mutual respect and the belief that, with support,…

  2. On sufficient statistics of least-squares superposition of vector sets.

    PubMed

    Konagurthu, Arun S; Kasarapu, Parthan; Allison, Lloyd; Collier, James H; Lesk, Arthur M

    2015-06-01

    The problem of superposition of two corresponding vector sets by minimizing their sum-of-squares error under orthogonal transformation is a fundamental task in many areas of science, notably structural molecular biology. This problem can be solved exactly using an algorithm whose time complexity grows linearly with the number of correspondences. This efficient solution has facilitated the widespread use of the superposition task, particularly in studies involving macromolecular structures. This article formally derives a set of sufficient statistics for the least-squares superposition problem. These statistics are additive. This permits a highly efficient (constant time) computation of superpositions (and sufficient statistics) of vector sets that are composed from its constituent vector sets under addition or deletion operation, where the sufficient statistics of the constituent sets are already known (that is, the constituent vector sets have been previously superposed). This results in a drastic improvement in the run time of the methods that commonly superpose vector sets under addition or deletion operations, where previously these operations were carried out ab initio (ignoring the sufficient statistics). We experimentally demonstrate the improvement our work offers in the context of protein structural alignment programs that assemble a reliable structural alignment from well-fitting (substructural) fragment pairs. A C++ library for this task is available online under an open-source license.

  3. Faculty Sufficiency and AACSB Accreditation Compliance within a Global University: A Mathematical Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boronico, Jess; Murdy, Jim; Kong, Xinlu

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript proposes a mathematical model to address faculty sufficiency requirements towards assuring overall high quality management education at a global university. Constraining elements include full-time faculty coverage by discipline, location, and program, across multiple campus locations subject to stated service quality standards of…

  4. Role of input self-sufficiency in the economic and environmental sustainability of specialised dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Lebacq, T; Baret, P V; Stilmant, D

    2015-03-01

    Increasing input self-sufficiency is often viewed as a target to improve sustainability of dairy farms. However, few studies have specifically analysed input self-sufficiency, by including several technical inputs and without only focussing on animal feeding, in order to explore its impact on farm sustainability. To address this gap, our work has three objectives as follows: (1) identifying the structural characteristics required by specialised dairy farms located in the grassland area to be self-sufficient; (2) analysing the relationships between input self-sufficiency, environmental and economic sustainability; and (3) studying how the farms react to a decrease in milk price according to their self-sufficiency degree. Based on farm accounting databases, we categorised 335 Walloon specialised conventional dairy farms into four classes according to their level of input self-sufficiency. To this end, we used as proxy the indicator of economic autonomy - that is, the ratio between costs of inputs related to animal production, crop production and energy use and the total gross product. Classes were then compared using multiple comparison tests and canonical discriminant analysis. A total of 30 organic farms - among which 63% had a high level of economic autonomy - were considered separately and compared with the most autonomous class. We showed that a high degree of economic autonomy is associated, in conventional farms, with a high proportion of permanent grassland in the agricultural area. The most autonomous farms used less input - especially animal feeding - for a same output level, and therefore combined good environmental and economic performances. Our results also underlined that, in a situation of decrease in milk price, the least autonomous farms had more latitude to decrease their input-related costs without decreasing milk production. Their incomes per work unit were, therefore, less impacted by falling prices, but remained lower than those of more

  5. Immunizing and curative potential of replicating and nonreplicating murine mammary adenocarcinoma cells engineered with interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and gamma-interferon gene or admixed with conventional adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Allione, A; Consalvo, M; Nanni, P; Lollini, P L; Cavallo, F; Giovarelli, M; Forni, M; Gulino, A; Colombo, M P; Dellabona, P

    1994-12-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of vaccinations with cytokine-gene-transduced tumor cells, BALB/c mice were challenged with 1 x 10(5) parental cells of a syngeneic adenocarcinoma cell line (TSA-pc). No protection was observed in mice immunized 30 days earlier with 1 x 10(5) nonreplicating mitomycin-C-treated TSA-pc alone, or with Corynebacterium parvum or Complete Freund Adjuvant (CFA). Ten to 30% of mice immunized with nonreplicating cells engineered to produce interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and gamma-interferon gene were protected. Fifty % of mice immunized with replicating TSA-pc admixed with C. parvum and 80-100% of mice immunized with replicating tumor cells transduced with IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-10, or gamma-interferon gene were protected. No cure was afforded by TSA cells admixed with C. parvum or CFA, nor by TSA cells engineered with IL-6, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and tumor necrosis factor alpha gene injected starting 1 day after TSA-pc challenge. Complete tumor regression, however, was obtained in 10-20% of mice treated with TSA cells transduced with IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, or IL-10 and in 30% of those treated with TSA cells transduced with gamma-interferon gene. PMID:7954438

  6. Portfolio of Research in Welfare and Family Self-Sufficiency: FY 2014. OPRE Report 2015-15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children & Families, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Division of Economic Independence within the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation (OPRE) has primary responsibility for welfare and family self-sufficiency research. OPRE's research in the area of welfare and family self-sufficiency is designed to expand knowledge about effective programs to promote employment, self-sufficiency, and…

  7. Is self-sufficiency financially viable and ethically justifiable?--a commercial viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Christie, R B

    1994-12-01

    Manufacturers of blood products have to maintain the highest possible standards for plasma screening and good manufacturing practices to ensure maximum purity and viral safety. The private sector companies have much experience in implementing and complying with national and international regulations. These requirements involve considerable cost in the areas of (1) plasma collection facilities, (2) research and clinical research, (3) manufacture, and (4) quality control. Total self-sufficiency would mean the loss of many existing resources. An alternative would be a collaboration between the public and private sectors to meet the needs of all patients who require plasma derived products. The current definition of self-sufficiency suggests that it is not financially viable.

  8. The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change: Reactions to Rogers' 1957 article.

    PubMed

    Samstag, Lisa Wallner

    2007-09-01

    Carl Rogers' article (see record 2007-14639-002) on the necessary and sufficient conditions for personality change has had a significant impact on the field of psychotherapy and psychotherapy research. He emphasized the client as arbiter of his or her own subjective experience and tested his hypothesized therapist-offered conditions of change using recorded sessions. This aided in demystifying the therapeutic process and led to a radical shift in the listening stance of the therapist. I briefly outline my views regarding the influence of the ideas presented in this work, describe the intellectual and cultural context of the times, and discuss a number of ways in which the therapist-offered conditions for psychological transformation are neither necessary nor sufficient. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Stable dynamics in forced systems with sufficiently high/low forcing frequency.

    PubMed

    Bartuccelli, M; Gentile, G; Wright, J A

    2016-08-01

    We consider parametrically forced Hamiltonian systems with one-and-a-half degrees of freedom and study the stability of the dynamics when the frequency of the forcing is relatively high or low. We show that, provided the frequency is sufficiently high, Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser (KAM) theorem may be applied even when the forcing amplitude is far away from the perturbation regime. A similar result is obtained for sufficiently low frequency, but in that case we need the amplitude of the forcing to be not too large; however, we are still able to consider amplitudes which are outside of the perturbation regime. In addition, we find numerically that the dynamics may be stable even when the forcing amplitude is very large, well beyond the range of validity of the analytical results, provided the frequency of the forcing is taken correspondingly low. PMID:27586604

  10. Is self-sufficiency financially viable and ethically justifiable?--a commercial viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Christie, R B

    1994-12-01

    Manufacturers of blood products have to maintain the highest possible standards for plasma screening and good manufacturing practices to ensure maximum purity and viral safety. The private sector companies have much experience in implementing and complying with national and international regulations. These requirements involve considerable cost in the areas of (1) plasma collection facilities, (2) research and clinical research, (3) manufacture, and (4) quality control. Total self-sufficiency would mean the loss of many existing resources. An alternative would be a collaboration between the public and private sectors to meet the needs of all patients who require plasma derived products. The current definition of self-sufficiency suggests that it is not financially viable. PMID:7795138

  11. Stable dynamics in forced systems with sufficiently high/low forcing frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartuccelli, M.; Gentile, G.; Wright, J. A.

    2016-08-01

    We consider parametrically forced Hamiltonian systems with one-and-a-half degrees of freedom and study the stability of the dynamics when the frequency of the forcing is relatively high or low. We show that, provided the frequency is sufficiently high, Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser (KAM) theorem may be applied even when the forcing amplitude is far away from the perturbation regime. A similar result is obtained for sufficiently low frequency, but in that case we need the amplitude of the forcing to be not too large; however, we are still able to consider amplitudes which are outside of the perturbation regime. In addition, we find numerically that the dynamics may be stable even when the forcing amplitude is very large, well beyond the range of validity of the analytical results, provided the frequency of the forcing is taken correspondingly low.

  12. Linear stable unity-feedback system - Necessary and sufficient conditions for stability under nonlinear plant perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desoer, C. A.; Kabuli, M. G.

    1989-01-01

    The authors consider a linear (not necessarily time-invariant) stable unity-feedback system, where the plant and the compensator have normalized right-coprime factorizations. They study two cases of nonlinear plant perturbations (additive and feedback), with four subcases resulting from: (1) allowing exogenous input to Delta P or not; 2) allowing the observation of the output of Delta P or not. The plant perturbation Delta P is not required to be stable. Using the factorization approach, the authors obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for all cases in terms of two pairs of nonlinear pseudostate maps. Simple physical considerations explain the form of these necessary and sufficient conditions. Finally, the authors obtain the characterization of all perturbations Delta P for which the perturbed system remains stable.

  13. Sufficiency of Mesolimbic Dopamine Neuron Stimulation for the Progression to Addiction.

    PubMed

    Pascoli, Vincent; Terrier, Jean; Hiver, Agnès; Lüscher, Christian

    2015-12-01

    The factors causing the transition from recreational drug consumption to addiction remain largely unknown. It has not been tested whether dopamine (DA) is sufficient to trigger this process. Here we use optogenetic self-stimulation of DA neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to selectively mimic the defining commonality of addictive drugs. All mice readily acquired self-stimulation. After weeks of abstinence, cue-induced relapse was observed in parallel with a potentiation of excitatory afferents onto D1 receptor-expressing neurons of the nucleus accumbens (NAc). When the mice had to endure a mild electric foot shock to obtain a stimulation, some stopped while others persevered. The resistance to punishment was associated with enhanced neural activity in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) while chemogenetic inhibition of the OFC reduced compulsivity. Together, these results show that stimulating VTA DA neurons induces behavioral and cellular hallmarks of addiction, indicating sufficiency for the induction and progression of the disease.

  14. Sufficiency of Mesolimbic Dopamine Neuron Stimulation for the Progression to Addiction.

    PubMed

    Pascoli, Vincent; Terrier, Jean; Hiver, Agnès; Lüscher, Christian

    2015-12-01

    The factors causing the transition from recreational drug consumption to addiction remain largely unknown. It has not been tested whether dopamine (DA) is sufficient to trigger this process. Here we use optogenetic self-stimulation of DA neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to selectively mimic the defining commonality of addictive drugs. All mice readily acquired self-stimulation. After weeks of abstinence, cue-induced relapse was observed in parallel with a potentiation of excitatory afferents onto D1 receptor-expressing neurons of the nucleus accumbens (NAc). When the mice had to endure a mild electric foot shock to obtain a stimulation, some stopped while others persevered. The resistance to punishment was associated with enhanced neural activity in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) while chemogenetic inhibition of the OFC reduced compulsivity. Together, these results show that stimulating VTA DA neurons induces behavioral and cellular hallmarks of addiction, indicating sufficiency for the induction and progression of the disease. PMID:26586182

  15. Featural information is sufficient to produce a left cheek bias for happiness perception.

    PubMed

    Low, Jia Y; Lindell, Annukka K

    2016-08-01

    People perceive the left cheek as more emotionally expressive than the right. Both configural and featural information enable the evaluation of emotional expressions; whether they make equivalent contributions to the left cheek bias is undetermined. As scrambling faces disrupts configural processing whilst leaving featural information intact, we investigated whether configural information is necessary, or featural information is sufficient, to induce a left cheek bias for emotion perception. Eighty-one participants (65 F, 16 M) viewed two types of left and right cheek image pairs - normal, scrambled - and indicated which image appeared happier (half mirror-reversed to control for perceptual biases). Results indicated a left cheek bias for both normal and scrambled faces, irrespective of mirror reversal. As scrambling faces disrupts configural processing, the fact that the left cheek was perceived as more expressive even when scrambled confirms that differences between the cheeks' featural information are sufficient to induce the left cheek bias. PMID:27363004

  16. The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change: Reactions to Rogers' 1957 article.

    PubMed

    Samstag, Lisa Wallner

    2007-09-01

    Carl Rogers' article (see record 2007-14639-002) on the necessary and sufficient conditions for personality change has had a significant impact on the field of psychotherapy and psychotherapy research. He emphasized the client as arbiter of his or her own subjective experience and tested his hypothesized therapist-offered conditions of change using recorded sessions. This aided in demystifying the therapeutic process and led to a radical shift in the listening stance of the therapist. I briefly outline my views regarding the influence of the ideas presented in this work, describe the intellectual and cultural context of the times, and discuss a number of ways in which the therapist-offered conditions for psychological transformation are neither necessary nor sufficient. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:22122256

  17. Sleep budgets in a globalizing world: biocultural interactions influence sleep sufficiency among Egyptian families.

    PubMed

    Worthman, Carol M; Brown, Ryan A

    2013-02-01

    Declines in self-reported sleep quotas with globalizing lifestyle changes have focused attention on their possible role in rising global health problems such as obesity or depression. Cultural factors that act across the life course and support sleep sufficiency have received scant attention, nor have the potential interactions of cultural and biological factors in age-related changes in sleep behavior been systematically investigated. This study examines the effects of cultural norms for napping and sleeping arrangements along with sleep schedules, age, and gender on sleep budgets among Egyptian households. Data were collected in 2000 from 16 households with 78 members aged 3-56 years at two sites in Egypt (Cairo and an agrarian village). Each participant provided one week of continuous activity records and details of each sleep event. Records showed that nighttime sleep onsets were late and highly variable. Napping was common and, along with wake time flexibility, played a key role in maintaining sleep sufficiency throughout the life course into later middle age. Cosleeping was prevalent and exhibited contrasting associations with reduced duration and sufficiency of both nocturnal and total sleep, and with earlier, more regular, and less disrupted sleep. Daily sleep quotas met published guidelines and showed age-related changes similar to existing reports, but differed in how they were achieved. Cultural norms organizing sleep practices by age and gender appear to tap their intrinsic biological properties as well. Moreover, flexibility in how sleep was achieved contributed to sleep sufficiency. The findings suggest how biocultural dynamics can play key roles in sleep patterns that sustain favorable sleep quotas from infancy onwards in populations pursuing globalizing contemporary lifestyles. PMID:22651897

  18. Sleep budgets in a globalizing world: biocultural interactions influence sleep sufficiency among Egyptian families.

    PubMed

    Worthman, Carol M; Brown, Ryan A

    2013-02-01

    Declines in self-reported sleep quotas with globalizing lifestyle changes have focused attention on their possible role in rising global health problems such as obesity or depression. Cultural factors that act across the life course and support sleep sufficiency have received scant attention, nor have the potential interactions of cultural and biological factors in age-related changes in sleep behavior been systematically investigated. This study examines the effects of cultural norms for napping and sleeping arrangements along with sleep schedules, age, and gender on sleep budgets among Egyptian households. Data were collected in 2000 from 16 households with 78 members aged 3-56 years at two sites in Egypt (Cairo and an agrarian village). Each participant provided one week of continuous activity records and details of each sleep event. Records showed that nighttime sleep onsets were late and highly variable. Napping was common and, along with wake time flexibility, played a key role in maintaining sleep sufficiency throughout the life course into later middle age. Cosleeping was prevalent and exhibited contrasting associations with reduced duration and sufficiency of both nocturnal and total sleep, and with earlier, more regular, and less disrupted sleep. Daily sleep quotas met published guidelines and showed age-related changes similar to existing reports, but differed in how they were achieved. Cultural norms organizing sleep practices by age and gender appear to tap their intrinsic biological properties as well. Moreover, flexibility in how sleep was achieved contributed to sleep sufficiency. The findings suggest how biocultural dynamics can play key roles in sleep patterns that sustain favorable sleep quotas from infancy onwards in populations pursuing globalizing contemporary lifestyles.

  19. Retrocausal Effects as a Consequence of Quantum Mechanics Refined to Accommodate the Principle of Sufficient Reason

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, Henry P.

    2011-05-10

    The principle of sufficient reason asserts that anything that happens does so for a reason: no definite state of affairs can come into being unless there is a sufficient reason why that particular thing should happen. This principle is usually attributed to Leibniz, although the first recorded Western philosopher to use it was Anaximander of Miletus. The demand that nature be rational, in the sense that it be compatible with the principle of sufficient reason, conflicts with a basic feature of contemporary orthodox physical theory, namely the notion that nature's response to the probing action of an observer is determined by pure chance, and hence on the basis of absolutely no reason at all. This appeal to pure chance can be deemed to have no rational fundamental place in reason-based Western science. It is argued here, on the basis of the other basic principles of quantum physics, that in a world that conforms to the principle of sufficient reason, the usual quantum statistical rules will naturally emerge at the pragmatic level, in cases where the reason behind nature's choice of response is unknown, but that the usual statistics can become biased in an empirically manifest way when the reason for the choice is empirically identifiable. It is shown here that if the statistical laws of quantum mechanics were to be biased in this way then the basically forward-in-time unfolding of empirical reality described by orthodox quantum mechanics would generate the appearances of backward-time-effects of the kind that have been reported in the scientific literature.

  20. Getting to necessary and sufficient-developing accident scenarios for risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Mahn, J.A.

    1996-05-01

    This paper presents a simple, systematic approach for developing accident scenarios using generic accident types. Result is a necessary and sufficient set of accident scenarios that can be used to establish the safety envelope for a facility or operation. Us of this approach along with the methodology of SAND95-0320 will yield more consistent accident analyses between facilities and provide a sound basis for allocating limited risk reduction resources.

  1. Chinmo is sufficient to induce male fate in somatic cells of the adult Drosophila ovary.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qing; de Cuevas, Margaret; Matunis, Erika L

    2016-03-01

    Sexual identity is continuously maintained in specific differentiated cell types long after sex determination occurs during development. In the adult Drosophila testis, the putative transcription factor Chronologically inappropriate morphogenesis (Chinmo) acts with the canonical male sex determinant DoublesexM (Dsx(M)) to maintain the male identity of somatic cyst stem cells and their progeny. Here we find that ectopic expression of chinmo is sufficient to induce a male identity in adult ovarian somatic cells, but it acts through a Dsx(M)-independent mechanism. Conversely, the feminization of the testis somatic stem cell lineage caused by loss of chinmo is enhanced by expression of the canonical female sex determinant Dsx(F), indicating that chinmo acts in parallel with the canonical sex determination pathway to maintain the male identity of testis somatic cells. Consistent with this finding, ectopic expression of female sex determinants in the adult testis disrupts tissue morphology. The miRNA let-7 downregulates chinmo in many contexts, and ectopic expression of let-7 in the adult testis is sufficient to recapitulate the chinmo loss-of-function phenotype, but we find no apparent phenotypes upon removal of let-7 in the adult ovary or testis. Our finding that chinmo is necessary and sufficient to promote a male identity in adult gonadal somatic cells suggests that the sexual identity of somatic cells can be reprogrammed in the adult Drosophila ovary as well as in the testis. PMID:26811385

  2. Quantum Markov chains, sufficiency of quantum channels, and Rényi information measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Nilanjana; Wilde, Mark M.

    2015-12-01

    A short quantum Markov chain is a tripartite state {ρ }{ABC} such that system A can be recovered perfectly by acting on system C of the reduced state {ρ }{BC}. Such states have conditional mutual information I(A;B| C) equal to zero and are the only states with this property. A quantum channel {N} is sufficient for two states ρ and σ if there exists a recovery channel using which one can perfectly recover ρ from {N}(ρ ) and σ from {N}(σ ). The relative entropy difference D(ρ \\parallel σ )-D({N}(ρ )\\parallel {N}(σ )) is equal to zero if and only if {N} is sufficient for ρ and σ. In this paper, we show that these properties extend to Rényi generalizations of these information measures which were proposed in (Berta et al 2015 J. Math. Phys. 56 022205; Seshadreesan et al 2015 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 48 395303), thus providing an alternate characterization of short quantum Markov chains and sufficient quantum channels. These results give further support to these quantities as being legitimate Rényi generalizations of the conditional mutual information and the relative entropy difference. Along the way, we solve some open questions of Ruskai and Zhang, regarding the trace of particular matrices that arise in the study of monotonicity of relative entropy under quantum operations and strong subadditivity of the von Neumann entropy.

  3. Vimentin is sufficient and required for wound repair and remodeling in alveolar epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Rogel, Micah R.; Soni, Pritin N.; Troken, James R.; Sitikov, Albert; Trejo, Humberto E.; Ridge, Karen M.

    2011-01-01

    The physiological and pathophysiological implications of the expression of vimentin, a type III intermediate filament protein, in alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) are unknown. We provide data demonstrating that vimentin is regulated by TGFβ1, a major cytokine released in response to acute lung injury and that vimentin is required for wound repair and remodeling of the alveolar epithelium. Quantitative real-time PCR shows a 16-fold induction of vimentin mRNA in TGFβ1-treated transformed AECs. Luciferase assays identify a Smad-binding element in the 5′ promoter of vimentin responsible for TGFβ1-induced transcription. Notably, TGFβ1 induces vimentin protein expression in AECs, which is associated with a 2.5-fold increase in cell motility, resulting in increased rates of migration and wound closure. These effects are independent of cell proliferation. TGFβ1-mediated vimentin protein expression, cell migration, and wound closure are prevented by a pharmacological inhibitor of the Smad pathway and by expression of Ad-shRNA against vimentin. Conversely, overexpression of mEmerald-vimentin is sufficient for increased cell-migration and wound-closure rates. These results demonstrate that vimentin is required and sufficient for increased wound repair in an in vitro model of lung injury.—Rogel, M. R., Soni, P. N., Troken, J. R., Sitikov, A., Trejo, H. E., Ridge, K. M. Vimentin is sufficient and required for wound repair and remodeling in alveolar epithelial cells. PMID:21803859

  4. A novel class of self-sufficient cytochrome P450 monooxygenases in prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    De Mot, René; Parret, Annabel H A

    2002-11-01

    The Bacillus cytochrome P450 BM3 integrates an entire P450 system in one polypeptide and represents a convenient prokaryotic model for microsomal P450s. This self-sufficient class II P450 is also present in actinomycetes and fungi. By genome analysis we have identified additional homologues in the pathogenic species Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus, and in Ralstonia metallidurans. This analysis also revealed a novel class of putative self-sufficient P450s, P450 PFOR, comprising a class I P450 that is related to Rhodococcus erythropolis CYP116, and a phthalate family oxygenase reductase (PFOR) module. P450 PFOR genes are found in a Rhodococcus strain, three pathogenic Burkholderia species and in the R. metallidurans strain that possesses a P450 BM3 homologue. Co-evolution of P450 and reductase domains is apparent in both types of self-sufficient enzymes. The new class of P450 enzymes is of potential interest for various biotechnological applications. PMID:12419614

  5. MSEBAG: a dynamic classifier ensemble generation based on `minimum-sufficient ensemble' and bagging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lei; Kamel, Mohamed S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a dynamic classifier system, MSEBAG, which is characterised by searching for the 'minimum-sufficient ensemble' and bagging at the ensemble level. It adopts an 'over-generation and selection' strategy and aims to achieve a good bias-variance trade-off. In the training phase, MSEBAG first searches for the 'minimum-sufficient ensemble', which maximises the in-sample fitness with the minimal number of base classifiers. Then, starting from the 'minimum-sufficient ensemble', a backward stepwise algorithm is employed to generate a collection of ensembles. The objective is to create a collection of ensembles with a descending fitness on the data, as well as a descending complexity in the structure. MSEBAG dynamically selects the ensembles from the collection for the decision aggregation. The extended adaptive aggregation (EAA) approach, a bagging-style algorithm performed at the ensemble level, is employed for this task. EAA searches for the competent ensembles using a score function, which takes into consideration both the in-sample fitness and the confidence of the statistical inference, and averages the decisions of the selected ensembles to label the test pattern. The experimental results show that the proposed MSEBAG outperforms the benchmarks on average.

  6. Resource Utilization and Site Selection for a Self-Sufficient Martian Outpost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, Donald; Chamitoff, Gregory; James, George

    1998-01-01

    As a planet with striking similarities to Earth, Mars is an important focus for scientific research aimed at understanding the processes of planetary evolution and the formation of our solar system. Fortunately, Mars is also a planet with abundant natural resources, including assessible materials that can be used to support human life and to sustain a self-sufficient martian outpost. Resources required include water, breathable air, food, shelter, energy, and fuel. Through a mission design based on in situ resource development, we can establish a permanent outpost on Mars beginning with the first manned mission. This paper examines the potential for supporting the first manned mission with the objective of achieving self-sufficiency through well-understood resource development and a program of rigorous scientific research aimed at extending that capability. We examine the potential for initially extracting critical resources from the martian environment, and discuss the scientific investigations required to identify additional resources in the atmosphere, on the surface, and within the subsurface. We also discuss our current state of knowledge of Mars, technical considerations of resource utilization, and using unmanned missions' data for selecting an optimal site. The primary goal of achieving self-sufficiency on Mars would accelerate the development of human colonization beyond Earth, while providing a robust and permanent martian base from which humans can explore and conduct long-term research on planetary evolution, the solar system, and life itself.

  7. Purified TMEM16A is sufficient to form Ca2+-activated Cl− channels

    PubMed Central

    Terashima, Hiroyuki; Picollo, Alessandra; Accardi, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    Ca2+-activated Cl− channels (CaCCs) are key regulators of numerous physiological functions, ranging from electrolyte secretion in airway epithelia to cellular excitability in sensory neurons and muscle fibers. Recently, TMEM16A (ANO1) and -B were shown to be critical components of CaCCs. It is still unknown whether they are also sufficient to form functional CaCCs, or whether association with other subunits is required. Recent reports suggest that the Ca2+ sensitivity of TMEM16A is mediated by its association with calmodulin, suggesting that functional CaCCs are heteromultimers. To test whether TMEM16A is necessary and sufficient to form functional CaCCs, we expressed, purified, and reconstituted human TMEM16A. The purified protein mediates Ca2+-dependent Cl− transport with submicromolar sensitivity to Ca2+, consistent with what is seen in patch–clamp experiments. The channel is synergistically gated by Ca2+ and voltage, so that opening is promoted by depolarizing potentials. Mutating two conserved glutamates in the TM6-7 intracellular loop selectively abolishes the Ca2+ dependence of reconstituted TMEM16A, in a manner similar to what was reported for the heterologously expressed channel. Well-characterized CaCC blockers inhibit Cl− transport with Kis comparable to those measured for native and heterologously expressed CaCCs. Finally, direct physical interactions between calmodulin and TMEM16A could not be detected in copurification experiments or in functional assays. Our results demonstrate that purified TMEM16A is necessary and sufficient to recapitulate the biophysical and pharmacological properties of native and heterologously expressed CaCCs. Our results also show that association of TMEM16A with other proteins, such as calmodulin, is not required for function. PMID:24167264

  8. On the role of budget sufficiency, cost efficiency, and uncertainty in species management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van der Burg, Max Post; Bly, Bartholomew B.; Vercauteren, Tammy; Grand, James B.; Tyre, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Many conservation planning frameworks rely on the assumption that one should prioritize locations for management actions based on the highest predicted conservation value (i.e., abundance, occupancy). This strategy may underperform relative to the expected outcome if one is working with a limited budget or the predicted responses are uncertain. Yet, cost and tolerance to uncertainty rarely become part of species management plans. We used field data and predictive models to simulate a decision problem involving western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) using prairie dog colonies (Cynomys ludovicianus) in western Nebraska. We considered 2 species management strategies: one maximized abundance and the other maximized abundance in a cost-efficient way. We then used heuristic decision algorithms to compare the 2 strategies in terms of how well they met a hypothetical conservation objective. Finally, we performed an info-gap decision analysis to determine how these strategies performed under different budget constraints and uncertainty about owl response. Our results suggested that when budgets were sufficient to manage all sites, the maximizing strategy was optimal and suggested investing more in expensive actions. This pattern persisted for restricted budgets up to approximately 50% of the sufficient budget. Below this budget, the cost-efficient strategy was optimal and suggested investing in cheaper actions. When uncertainty in the expected responses was introduced, the strategy that maximized abundance remained robust under a sufficient budget. Reducing the budget induced a slight trade-off between expected performance and robustness, which suggested that the most robust strategy depended both on one's budget and tolerance to uncertainty. Our results suggest that wildlife managers should explicitly account for budget limitations and be realistic about their expected levels of performance.

  9. The Autonomous House: A Bio-Hydrogen Based Energy Self-Sufficient Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shang-Yuan; Chu, Chen-Yeon; Cheng, Ming-jen; Lin, Chiu-Yue

    2009-01-01

    In the wake of the greenhouse effect and global energy crisis, finding sources of clean, alternative energy and developing everyday life applications have become urgent tasks. This study proposes the development of an “autonomous house” emphasizing the use of modern green energy technology to reduce environmental load, achieve energy autonomy and use energy intelligently in order to create a sustainable, comfortable living environment. The houses’ two attributes are: (1) a self-sufficient energy cycle and (2) autonomous energy control to maintain environmental comfort. The autonomous house thus combines energy-conserving, carbon emission-reducing passive design with active elements needed to maintain a comfortable environment. PMID:19440531

  10. Self-Sufficient Formaldehyde-to-Methanol Conversion by Organometallic Formaldehyde Dismutase Mimic.

    PubMed

    van der Waals, Dominic; Heim, Leo E; Vallazza, Simona; Gedig, Christian; Deska, Jan; Prechtl, Martin H G

    2016-08-01

    The catalytic networks of methylotrophic organisms, featuring redox enzymes for the activation of one-carbon moieties, can serve as great inspiration in the development of novel homogeneously catalyzed pathways for the interconversion of C1 molecules at ambient conditions. An imidazolium-tagged arene-ruthenium complex was identified as an effective functional mimic of the bacterial formaldehyde dismutase, which provides a new and highly selective route for the conversion of formaldehyde to methanol in absence of any external reducing agents. Moreover, secondary amines are reductively methylated by the organometallic dismutase mimic in a redox self-sufficient manner with formaldehyde acting both as carbon source and reducing agent.

  11. Self sufficient wireless transmitter powered by foot-pumped urine operating wearable MFC.

    PubMed

    Taghavi, M; Stinchcombe, A; Greenman, J; Mattoli, V; Beccai, L; Mazzolai, B; Melhuish, C; Ieropoulos, I A

    2016-02-01

    The first self-sufficient system, powered by a wearable energy generator based on microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology is introduced. MFCs made from compliant material were developed in the frame of a pair of socks, which was fed by urine via a manual gaiting pump. The simple and single loop cardiovascular fish circulatory system was used as the inspiration for the design of the manual pump. A wireless programmable communication module, engineered to operate within the range of the generated electricity, was employed, which opens a new avenue for research in the utilisation of waste products for powering portable as well as wearable electronics.

  12. Self sufficient wireless transmitter powered by foot-pumped urine operating wearable MFC.

    PubMed

    Taghavi, M; Stinchcombe, A; Greenman, J; Mattoli, V; Beccai, L; Mazzolai, B; Melhuish, C; Ieropoulos, I A

    2016-02-01

    The first self-sufficient system, powered by a wearable energy generator based on microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology is introduced. MFCs made from compliant material were developed in the frame of a pair of socks, which was fed by urine via a manual gaiting pump. The simple and single loop cardiovascular fish circulatory system was used as the inspiration for the design of the manual pump. A wireless programmable communication module, engineered to operate within the range of the generated electricity, was employed, which opens a new avenue for research in the utilisation of waste products for powering portable as well as wearable electronics. PMID:26657063

  13. Necessary and Sufficient Process leading to Work Smart Standards. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The Necessary and Sufficient Process leading to Work Smart Standards is a Department of Energy initiative to assure adequate protection for workers, the public, and the environment. The Work Smart Standards initiative directs the Laboratory to develop a set of ES and H standards based on the work performed at the Laboratory and the hazards associated with the work. Berkeley Lab`s set of Work Smart Standards includes required Federal, State and local laws and, additionally, national and international standards which represent the highest operating standards of industrial and commercial institutions.

  14. The autonomous house: a bio-hydrogen based energy self-sufficient approach.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shang-Yuan; Chu, Chen-Yeon; Cheng, Ming-Jen; Lin, Chiu-Yue

    2009-04-01

    In the wake of the greenhouse effect and global energy crisis, finding sources of clean, alternative energy and developing everyday life applications have become urgent tasks. This study proposes the development of an "autonomous house" emphasizing the use of modern green energy technology to reduce environmental load, achieve energy autonomy and use energy intelligently in order to create a sustainable, comfortable living environment. The houses' two attributes are: (1) a self-sufficient energy cycle and (2) autonomous energy control to maintain environmental comfort. The autonomous house thus combines energy-conserving, carbon emission-reducing passive design with active elements needed to maintain a comfortable environment.

  15. A computation using mutually exclusive processing is sufficient to identify specific Hedgehog signaling components

    PubMed Central

    Spratt, Spencer J.

    2013-01-01

    A system of more than one part can be deciphered by observing differences between the parts. A simple way to do this is by recording something absolute displaying a trait in one part and not in another: in other words, mutually exclusive computation. Conditional directed expression in vivo offers processing in more than one part of the system giving increased computation power for biological systems analysis. Here, I report the consideration of these aspects in the development of an in vivo screening assay that appears sufficient to identify components specific to a system. PMID:24391661

  16. Active ERK2 is sufficient to mediate growth arrest and differentiation signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Pui-Kei; Hong, Seung-Keun; Yoon, Seung-Hee; Park, Jong-In

    2015-01-01

    Although extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) ½ has been shown for its necessity for a variety of the Raf/MEK/ERK pathway signaling, its sufficiency in mediating the pathway signaling has not been firmly established. In an effort to address this, we evaluated previously reported ERK2 mutants that exhibit enhanced activity of autophosphorylation of TEY sites in the activation loop for their ability to induce growth arrest and differentiation in LNCaP and PC12 cells. Here, we demonstrate that expression of ERK2-L73P/S151D, containing Lys73Pro and Ser151Asp replacements that synergistically promote ERK autophosphorylation, is sufficient to induce growth arrest and differentiation whereas ERK2-I84A and ERK2-R65S/D319N are not as effective. When compared to the constitutively active MEK1-ΔN3/S218E/S222D, expression of ERK2-L73P/S151D could only mildly increase ERK kinase activity in cells, as determined by the ERK substrates, p90RSK and ELK1. Nevertheless, ERK2-L73P/S151D expression effectively induced downregulation of androgen receptor, Rb and E2F1, and upregulation of p16INK4A and p21CIP1, which were accompanied by cell cycle arrest and morphological differentiation, in LNCaP cells and neurite-like processing in PC12 cells. These effects and TEY site phosphorylation of ERK2-L73P/S151D were abrogated upon introducing the active site-disabling Lys52Arg mutation, confirming its sufficiency in this signaling. Moreover, introduction of the mutations (producing Asp316/319Ala or Asp319Asn) that impair the common docking site/D-domain-based physical interaction of ERK did not significantly affect the ERK2-L73P/S151D signaling, suggesting that ERK2 can mediate growth arrest and differentiation independently of the conventional ERK-target interaction mechanism. Our study presents a convincing example of ERK sufficiency for Raf/MEK/ERK signaling. PMID:25639353

  17. Efficient AID targeting of switch regions is not sufficient for optimal class switch recombination.

    PubMed

    Bonaud, Amélie; Lechouane, Fabien; Le Noir, Sandrine; Monestier, Olivier; Cogné, Michel; Sirac, Christophe

    2015-07-06

    Antibody affinity maturation relies on activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-dependent somatic hypermutation (SHM) of immunoglobulin (Ig) loci. Class switch recombination (CSR) can in parallel occur between AID-targeted, transcribed, spliced and repetitive switch (S) regions. AID thus initiates not only mutations but also double-strand breaks (DSBs). What governs the choice between those two outcomes remains uncertain. Here we explore whether insertion of transcribed intronic S regions in a locus (Igκ) strongly recruiting AID is sufficient for efficient CSR. Although strongly targeted by AID and carrying internal deletions, the knocked-in S regions only undergo rare CSR-like events. This model confirms S regions as exquisite SHM targets, extending AID activity far from transcription initiation sites, and shows that such spliced and repetitive AID targets are not sufficient by themselves for CSR. Beyond transcription and AID recruitment, additional IgH elements are thus needed for CSR, restricting this hazardous gene remodelling to IgH loci.

  18. Application of nitrogen sufficiency conversion strategy for microalgae-based ammonium-rich wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinghan; Zhou, Wenguang; Yang, Haizhen; Ruan, Roger

    2016-10-01

    Ammonium ([Formula: see text]-N)-rich wastewater, a main cause for eutrophication, can serve as a promising medium for fast microalgae cultivation with efficient [Formula: see text]-N removal. To achieve this goal, a well-controlled three-stage treatment process was developed. Two trophic modes (mixotrophy and heterotrophy) in Stage 1 and Stage 2, with two nitrogen availability conditions (N sufficient and N deprived) in Stage 2, and different [Formula: see text]-N concentrations in Stage 3 were compared to investigate the effects of nitrogen sufficiency conversion on indigenous strain UMN266 for [Formula: see text]-N removal. Results showed that mixotrophic cultures in the first two stages with N deprivation in Stage 2 was the optimum treatment strategy, and higher [Formula: see text]-N concentration in Stage 3 facilitated both microalgal growth and [Formula: see text]-N removal, with average and maximum biomass productivity of 55.3 and 161.0 mg L(-1) d(-1), and corresponding removal rates of 4.2 and 15.0 mg L(-1) d(-1), respectively, superior to previously published results. Observations of intracellular compositions confirmed the optimum treatment strategy, discovering excellent starch accumulating property of strain UMN266 as well. Combination of bioethanol production with the proposed three-stage process using various real wastewater streams at corresponding stages was suggested for future application.

  19. Calcium influx is sufficient to induce muscular dystrophy through a TRPC-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Millay, Douglas P.; Goonasekera, Sanjeewa A.; Sargent, Michelle A.; Maillet, Marjorie; Aronow, Bruce J.; Molkentin, Jeffery D.

    2009-01-01

    Muscular dystrophy is a general term encompassing muscle disorders that cause weakness and wasting, typically leading to premature death. Membrane instability, as a result of a genetic disruption within the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC), is thought to induce myofiber degeneration, although the downstream mechanism whereby membrane fragility leads to disease remains controversial. One potential mechanism that has yet to be definitively proven in vivo is that unregulated calcium influx initiates disease in dystrophic myofibers. Here we demonstrate that calcium itself is sufficient to cause a dystrophic phenotype in skeletal muscle independent of membrane fragility. For example, overexpression of transient receptor potential canonical 3 (TRPC3) and the associated increase in calcium influx resulted in a phenotype of muscular dystrophy nearly identical to that observed in DGC-lacking dystrophic disease models, including a highly similar molecular signature of gene expression changes. Furthermore, transgene-mediated inhibition of TRPC channels in mice dramatically reduced calcium influx and dystrophic disease manifestations associated with the mdx mutation (dystrophin gene) and deletion of the δ-sarcoglycan (Scgd) gene. These results demonstrate that calcium itself is sufficient to induce muscular dystrophy in vivo, and that TRPC channels are key disease initiators downstream of the unstable membrane that characterizes many types of muscular dystrophy. PMID:19864620

  20. Necessary and sufficient liveness condition of GS3PR Petri nets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, GaiYun; Barkaoui, Kamel

    2015-05-01

    Structural analysis is one of the most important and efficient methods to investigate the behaviour of Petri nets. Liveness is a significant behavioural property of Petri nets. Siphons, as structural objects of a Petri net, are closely related to its liveness. Many deadlock control policies for flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) modelled by Petri nets are implemented via siphon control. Most of the existing methods design liveness-enforcing supervisors by adding control places for siphons based on their controllability conditions. To compute a liveness-enforcing supervisor with as much as permissive behaviour, it is both theoretically and practically significant to find an exact controllability condition for siphons. However, the existing conditions, max, max‧, and max″-controllability of siphons are all overly restrictive and generally sufficient only. This paper develops a new condition called max*-controllability of the siphons in generalised systems of simple sequential processes with resources (GS3PR), which are a net subclass that can model many real-world automated manufacturing systems. We show that a GS3PR is live if all its strict minimal siphons (SMS) are max*-controlled. Compared with the existing conditions, i.e., max-, max‧-, and max″-controllability of siphons, max*-controllability of the SMS is not only sufficient but also necessary. An example is used to illustrate the proposed method.

  1. The promoter of the cereal VERNALIZATION1 gene is sufficient for transcriptional induction by prolonged cold.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Peral, Maria M; Oliver, Sandra N; Casao, M Cristina; Greenup, Aaron A; Trevaskis, Ben

    2011-01-01

    The VERNALIZATION1 (VRN1) gene of temperate cereals is transcriptionally activated by prolonged cold during winter (vernalization) to promote flowering. To investigate the mechanisms controlling induction of VRN1 by prolonged cold, different regions of the VRN1 gene were fused to the GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN (GFP) reporter and expression of the resulting gene constructs was assayed in transgenic barley (Hordeum vulgare). A 2 kb segment of the promoter of VRN1 was sufficient for GFP expression in the leaves and shoot apex of transgenic barley plants. Fluorescence increased at the shoot apex prior to inflorescence initiation and was subsequently maintained in the developing inflorescence. The promoter was also sufficient for low-temperature induction of GFP expression. A naturally occurring insertion in the proximal promoter, which is associated with elevated VRN1 expression and early flowering in some spring wheats, did not abolish induction of VRN1 transcription by prolonged cold, however. A translational fusion of the promoter and transcribed regions of VRN1 to GFP, VRN1::GFP, was localised to nuclei of cells at the shoot apex of transgenic barley plants. The distribution of VRN1::GFP at the shoot apex was similar to the expression pattern of the VRN1 promoter-GFP reporter gene. Fluorescence from the VRN1::GFP fusion protein increased in the developing leaves after prolonged cold treatment. These observations suggest that the promoter of VRN1 is targeted by mechanisms that trigger vernalization-induced flowering in economically important temperate cereal crops.

  2. Spindle assembly checkpoint is sufficient for complete Cdc20 sequestering in mitotic control

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Bashar

    2015-01-01

    The spindle checkpoint assembly (SAC) ensures genome fidelity by temporarily delaying anaphase onset, until all chromosomes are properly attached to the mitotic spindle. The SAC delays mitotic progression by preventing activation of the ubiquitin ligase anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C) or cyclosome; whose activation by Cdc20 is required for sister-chromatid separation marking the transition into anaphase. The mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC), which contains Cdc20 as a subunit, binds stably to the APC/C. Compelling evidence by Izawa and Pines (Nature 2014; 10.1038/nature13911) indicates that the MCC can inhibit a second Cdc20 that has already bound and activated the APC/C. Whether or not MCC per se is sufficient to fully sequester Cdc20 and inhibit APC/C remains unclear. Here, a dynamic model for SAC regulation in which the MCC binds a second Cdc20 was constructed. This model is compared to the MCC, and the MCC-and-BubR1 (dual inhibition of APC) core model variants and subsequently validated with experimental data from the literature. By using ordinary nonlinear differential equations and spatial simulations, it is shown that the SAC works sufficiently to fully sequester Cdc20 and completely inhibit APC/C activity. This study highlights the principle that a systems biology approach is vital for molecular biology and could also be used for creating hypotheses to design future experiments. PMID:25977749

  3. Sufficient oxygen for animal respiration 1,400 million years ago

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuichang; Wang, Xiaomei; Wang, Huajian; Bjerrum, Christian J.; Hammarlund, Emma U.; Costa, M. Mafalda; Connelly, James N.; Zhang, Baomin; Su, Jin; Canfield, Donald E.

    2016-01-01

    The Mesoproterozoic Eon [1,600–1,000 million years ago (Ma)] is emerging as a key interval in Earth history, with a unique geochemical history that might have influenced the course of biological evolution on Earth. Indeed, although this time interval is rather poorly understood, recent chromium isotope results suggest that atmospheric oxygen levels were <0.1% of present levels, sufficiently low to have inhibited the evolution of animal life. In contrast, using a different approach, we explore the distribution and enrichments of redox-sensitive trace metals in the 1,400 Ma sediments of Unit 3 of the Xiamaling Formation, North China Block. Patterns of trace metal enrichments reveal oxygenated bottom waters during deposition of the sediments, and biomarker results demonstrate the presence of green sulfur bacteria in the water column. Thus, we document an ancient oxygen minimum zone. We develop a simple, yet comprehensive, model of marine carbon−oxygen cycle dynamics to show that our geochemical results are consistent with atmospheric oxygen levels >4% of present-day levels. Therefore, in contrast to previous suggestions, we show that there was sufficient oxygen to fuel animal respiration long before the evolution of animals themselves. PMID:26729865

  4. Increasing Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis is Sufficient to Reduce Anxiety and Depression-Like Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hill, Alexis S; Sahay, Amar; Hen, René

    2015-09-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is increased by antidepressants, and is required for some of their behavioral effects. However, it remains unclear whether expanding the population of adult-born neurons is sufficient to affect anxiety and depression-related behavior. Here, we use an inducible transgenic mouse model in which the pro-apoptotic gene Bax is deleted from neural stem cells and their progeny in the adult brain, and thereby increases adult neurogenesis. We find no effects on baseline anxiety and depression-related behavior; however, we find that increasing adult neurogenesis is sufficient to reduce anxiety and depression-related behaviors in mice treated chronically with corticosterone (CORT), a mouse model of stress. Thus, neurogenesis differentially affects behavior under baseline conditions and in a model of chronic stress. Moreover, we find no effect of increased adult hippocampal neurogenesis on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation, either at baseline or following chronic CORT administration, suggesting that increasing adult hippocampal neurogenesis can affect anxiety and depression-related behavior through a mechanism independent of the HPA axis. The use of future techniques to specifically inhibit BAX in the hippocampus could be used to augment adult neurogenesis, and may therefore represent a novel strategy to promote antidepressant-like behavioral effects.

  5. Non-self-sufficiency as a primary outcome measure in ALS trials.

    PubMed

    Marin, Benoît; Bianchi, Elisa; Pupillo, Elisabetta; Lunetta, Christian; Tremolizzo, Lucio; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Chiò, Adriano; Preux, Pierre Marie; Beghi, Ettore

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to assess non-self-sufficiency (NSS) in ALS as an outcome measure in therapeutic trials. Using data from the control arm of two randomized trials and an observational study, associations between NSS (score ≤2 in the ALSFRS-R items for swallowing, cutting food and handling utensils, or walking) and the total ALSFRS-R score, forced vital capacity (FVC), and survival at selected time-points until death or 48 weeks, were assessed. These measures were used as surrogates of relevant functional impairment. Of 82 self-sufficient (SS) patients at baseline, 32 (39.0%) became NSS at four weeks and increased to 72 (87.8%) at the end of follow-up. A significant association was found between NSS, ALSFRS-R score and FVC at 24, 36 and 48 weeks. Thirty-four subjects died (41.5%). Compared to SS patients (median survival, 27.9 months), individuals becoming NSS at four weeks were at increased risk to die (median survival, 23.6 months, p = 0.02). NSS status at four weeks predicted survival even after adjustment for ALSFRS-R total score, age, gender, site of onset, disease duration, BMI, and FVC. 'Walking' was the only predictor of survival when adjusting for all covariates. In conclusion, NSS status is a possible endpoint to investigate short-term efficacy of treatments of ALS. PMID:26470831

  6. Manipulation of BK channel expression is sufficient to alter auditory hair cell thresholds in larval zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Rohmann, Kevin N.; Tripp, Joel A.; Genova, Rachel M.; Bass, Andrew H.

    2014-01-01

    Non-mammalian vertebrates rely on electrical resonance for frequency tuning in auditory hair cells. A key component of the resonance exhibited by these cells is an outward calcium-activated potassium current that flows through large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels. Previous work in midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus) has shown that BK expression correlates with seasonal changes in hearing sensitivity and that pharmacologically blocking these channels replicates the natural decreases in sensitivity during the winter non-reproductive season. To test the hypothesis that reducing BK channel function is sufficient to change auditory thresholds in fish, morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs) were used in larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) to alter expression of slo1a and slo1b, duplicate genes coding for the pore-forming α-subunits of BK channels. Following MO injection, microphonic potentials were recorded from the inner ear of larvae. Quantitative real-time PCR was then used to determine the MO effect on slo1a and slo1b expression in these same fish. Knockdown of either slo1a or slo1b resulted in disrupted gene expression and increased auditory thresholds across the same range of frequencies of natural auditory plasticity observed in midshipman. We conclude that interference with the normal expression of individual slo1 genes is sufficient to increase auditory thresholds in zebrafish larvae and that changes in BK channel expression are a direct mechanism for regulation of peripheral hearing sensitivity among fishes. PMID:24803460

  7. Application of nitrogen sufficiency conversion strategy for microalgae-based ammonium-rich wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinghan; Zhou, Wenguang; Yang, Haizhen; Ruan, Roger

    2016-10-01

    Ammonium ([Formula: see text]-N)-rich wastewater, a main cause for eutrophication, can serve as a promising medium for fast microalgae cultivation with efficient [Formula: see text]-N removal. To achieve this goal, a well-controlled three-stage treatment process was developed. Two trophic modes (mixotrophy and heterotrophy) in Stage 1 and Stage 2, with two nitrogen availability conditions (N sufficient and N deprived) in Stage 2, and different [Formula: see text]-N concentrations in Stage 3 were compared to investigate the effects of nitrogen sufficiency conversion on indigenous strain UMN266 for [Formula: see text]-N removal. Results showed that mixotrophic cultures in the first two stages with N deprivation in Stage 2 was the optimum treatment strategy, and higher [Formula: see text]-N concentration in Stage 3 facilitated both microalgal growth and [Formula: see text]-N removal, with average and maximum biomass productivity of 55.3 and 161.0 mg L(-1) d(-1), and corresponding removal rates of 4.2 and 15.0 mg L(-1) d(-1), respectively, superior to previously published results. Observations of intracellular compositions confirmed the optimum treatment strategy, discovering excellent starch accumulating property of strain UMN266 as well. Combination of bioethanol production with the proposed three-stage process using various real wastewater streams at corresponding stages was suggested for future application. PMID:26979571

  8. Sufficient and necessary conditions for discrete-time nonlinear switched systems with uniform local exponential stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Junjie; She, Zhikun

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate sufficient and necessary conditions of uniform local exponential stability (ULES) for the discrete-time nonlinear switched system (DTNSS). We start with the definition of T-step common Lyapunov functions (CLFs), which is a relaxation of traditional CLFs. Then, for a time-varying DTNSS, by constructing such a T-step CLF, a necessary and sufficient condition for its ULES is provided. Afterwards, we strengthen it based on a T-step Lipschitz continuous CLF. Especially, when the system is time-invariant, by the smooth approximation theorem, the Lipschitz continuity condition of T-step CLFs can further be replaced by continuous differentiability; and when the system is time-invariant and homogeneous, due to the extension of Weierstrass approximation theorem, T-step continuously differentiable CLFs can even be strengthened to be T-step polynomial CLFs. Furthermore, three illustrative examples are additionally used to explain our main contribution. In the end, an equivalence between time-varying DTNSSs and their corresponding linearisations is discussed.

  9. Is fluorescence under an alternate light source sufficient to accurately diagnose subclinical bruising?

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Maria; Canter, Jennifer; Patrick, Patricia A; Altman, Robin

    2015-03-01

    This single-blinded, randomized validation study was conducted to evaluate whether fluorescence under alternate light sources (ALS) is sufficient to diagnose subclinical bruising (bruising not visible under white light). Standardized trauma was induced on randomly selected ventral forearms. On days 1, 7, and 14 investigators independently examined case forearms under white light for perceived bruising and under ALS for fluorescence and compared body maps. 56 case and 62 control forearms (n = 118) were examined. Sensitivity of ALS on days 1, 7, and 14 was 76.8%, 69.6%, and 60.7%, respectively, compared to 69.6%, 60.0%, and 32.1% for white light. The specificity of ALS on days 1, 7, and 14 was 51.6%, 59.7%, and 53.2%, respectively, compared to 71.0%, 81.4%, and 86.9% for white light. ALS has increased sensitivity yet low specificity compared to white light in accurately detecting bruises. Fluorescence under ALS is not sufficient to accurately or responsibly diagnose subclinical bruising. PMID:25677469

  10. Is fluorescence under an alternate light source sufficient to accurately diagnose subclinical bruising?

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Maria; Canter, Jennifer; Patrick, Patricia A; Altman, Robin

    2015-03-01

    This single-blinded, randomized validation study was conducted to evaluate whether fluorescence under alternate light sources (ALS) is sufficient to diagnose subclinical bruising (bruising not visible under white light). Standardized trauma was induced on randomly selected ventral forearms. On days 1, 7, and 14 investigators independently examined case forearms under white light for perceived bruising and under ALS for fluorescence and compared body maps. 56 case and 62 control forearms (n = 118) were examined. Sensitivity of ALS on days 1, 7, and 14 was 76.8%, 69.6%, and 60.7%, respectively, compared to 69.6%, 60.0%, and 32.1% for white light. The specificity of ALS on days 1, 7, and 14 was 51.6%, 59.7%, and 53.2%, respectively, compared to 71.0%, 81.4%, and 86.9% for white light. ALS has increased sensitivity yet low specificity compared to white light in accurately detecting bruises. Fluorescence under ALS is not sufficient to accurately or responsibly diagnose subclinical bruising.

  11. Lactase synthesis is pretranslationally regulated in protein-deficient pigs fed a protein-sufficient diet.

    PubMed

    Dudley, M A; Schoknecht, P A; Dudley, A W; Jiang, L; Ferraris, R P; Rosenberger, J N; Henry, J F; Reeds, P J

    2001-04-01

    The in vivo effects of protein malnutrition and protein rehabilitation on lactase phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) synthesis were examined. Five-day-old pigs were fed isocaloric diets containing 10% (deficient, n = 12) or 24% (sufficient, n = 12) protein. After 4 wk, one-half of the animals in each dietary group were infused intravenously with [(13)C(1)]leucine for 6 h, and the jejunum was analyzed for enzyme activity, mRNA abundance, and LPH polypeptide isotopic enrichment. The remaining animals were fed the protein-sufficient diet for 1 wk, and the jejunum was analyzed. Jejunal mass and lactase enzyme activity per jejunum were significantly lower in protein-deficient vs. control animals but returned to normal with rehabilitation. Protein malnutrition did not affect LPH mRNA abundance relative to elongation factor-1alpha, but rehabilitation resulted in a significant increase in LPH mRNA relative abundance. Protein malnutrition significantly lowered the LPH fractional synthesis rate (FSR; %/day), whereas the FSR of LPH in rehabilitated and control animals was similar. These results suggest that protein malnutrition decreases LPH synthesis by altering posttranslational events, whereas the jejunum responds to rehabilitation by increasing LPH mRNA relative abundance, suggesting pretranslational regulation.

  12. Necessary and sufficient conditions for multipartite Bell violations with only one trusted device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taddei, M. M.; Nery, R. V.; Aolita, L.

    2016-09-01

    We study multipartite Bell nonlocality in a framework native of multipartite Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering scenarios with a single trusted measurement device. We derive a closed-form necessary and sufficient criterion for systems composed of a qubit and N -1 untrusted black-box measurement devices to violate, under general dichotomic measurements on the qubit, a generic Bell inequality from a broad family of linear inequalities with arbitrarily many outputs for the N -1 untrusted devices and inputs for all N parties. The optimal quantum measurements for maximal violation are also obtained. For two users and two inputs and two outputs per user, our criterion becomes necessary and sufficient for Bell nonlocality. Furthermore, in that setting, its form generalizes recently obtained steering inequalities, which allows us to provide useful feedback from nonlocality to the detection of steering. Our findings constitute a practical tool for the study of the interplay between EPR steering and Bell nonlocality, with potential applications in multipartite information processing.

  13. Zinc is sufficiently abundant within mammalian sperm nuclei to bind stoichiometrically with protamine 2.

    PubMed

    Bench, G; Corzett, M H; Kramer, C E; Grant, P G; Balhorn, R

    2000-08-01

    Although studies have demonstrated that zinc can bind to sperm nuclear proteins, specifically protamine 2, it has not been shown that the metal is sufficiently abundant inside the sperm nucleus to interact stoichiometrically with these proteins. In this study proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) has been used to measure the amount of sulfur and zinc within the nuclei of individual sperm cells to infer the stoichiometry of zinc binding to protamine 2 in six species of mammal: bull, chinchilla, stallion, hamster, human, and mouse (protamine 2 comprises from 0% (bull) to 67% (mouse) of the protamine present in the sperm of these animals). Using the sulfur mass and electrophoretic data on the relative proportion of protamine 1 and protamine 2 in the sperm chromatin of these species, the protamine 1, protamine 2, and total protamine contents within each species sperm nuclei have been determined. The PIXE measurements reveal that the zinc content of the sperm nucleus varies proportionately with the protamine 2 content of sperm chromatin. PIXE analyses of hamster protamines extracted under conditions that appear to at least partially preserve zinc binding also confirm that the majority of the metal is bound to protamine. In five of the species examined, sufficient zinc is present for each protamine 2 molecule to bind one zinc. The results obtained for chinchilla sperm, conversely, indicate the chinchilla protamine 2 molecule may interact differently with zinc. Chinchilla sperm only contain enough zinc for one atom to be bound to two protamine 2 molecules.

  14. Sufficient oxygen for animal respiration 1,400 million years ago.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuichang; Wang, Xiaomei; Wang, Huajian; Bjerrum, Christian J; Hammarlund, Emma U; Costa, M Mafalda; Connelly, James N; Zhang, Baomin; Su, Jin; Canfield, Donald E

    2016-02-16

    The Mesoproterozoic Eon [1,600-1,000 million years ago (Ma)] is emerging as a key interval in Earth history, with a unique geochemical history that might have influenced the course of biological evolution on Earth. Indeed, although this time interval is rather poorly understood, recent chromium isotope results suggest that atmospheric oxygen levels were <0.1% of present levels, sufficiently low to have inhibited the evolution of animal life. In contrast, using a different approach, we explore the distribution and enrichments of redox-sensitive trace metals in the 1,400 Ma sediments of Unit 3 of the Xiamaling Formation, North China Block. Patterns of trace metal enrichments reveal oxygenated bottom waters during deposition of the sediments, and biomarker results demonstrate the presence of green sulfur bacteria in the water column. Thus, we document an ancient oxygen minimum zone. We develop a simple, yet comprehensive, model of marine carbon-oxygen cycle dynamics to show that our geochemical results are consistent with atmospheric oxygen levels >4% of present-day levels. Therefore, in contrast to previous suggestions, we show that there was sufficient oxygen to fuel animal respiration long before the evolution of animals themselves.

  15. Measuring what latent fingerprint examiners consider sufficient information for individualization determinations.

    PubMed

    Ulery, Bradford T; Hicklin, R Austin; Roberts, Maria Antonia; Buscaglia, JoAnn

    2014-01-01

    Latent print examiners use their expertise to determine whether the information present in a comparison of two fingerprints (or palmprints) is sufficient to conclude that the prints were from the same source (individualization). When fingerprint evidence is presented in court, it is the examiner's determination--not an objective metric--that is presented. This study was designed to ascertain the factors that explain examiners' determinations of sufficiency for individualization. Volunteer latent print examiners (n = 170) were each assigned 22 pairs of latent and exemplar prints for examination, and annotated features, correspondence of features, and clarity. The 320 image pairs were selected specifically to control clarity and quantity of features. The predominant factor differentiating annotations associated with individualization and inconclusive determinations is the count of corresponding minutiae; other factors such as clarity provided minimal additional discriminative value. Examiners' counts of corresponding minutiae were strongly associated with their own determinations; however, due to substantial variation of both annotations and determinations among examiners, one examiner's annotation and determination on a given comparison is a relatively weak predictor of whether another examiner would individualize. The extensive variability in annotations also means that we must treat any individual examiner's minutia counts as interpretations of the (unknowable) information content of the prints: saying "the prints had N corresponding minutiae marked" is not the same as "the prints had N corresponding minutiae." More consistency in annotations, which could be achieved through standardization and training, should lead to process improvements and provide greater transparency in casework.

  16. Eyes only? Perceiving eye contact is neither sufficient nor necessary for attentional capture by face direction.

    PubMed

    Böckler, Anne; van der Wel, Robrecht P R D; Welsh, Timothy N

    2015-09-01

    Direct eye contact and motion onset both constitute powerful cues that capture attention. Recent research suggests that (social) gaze and (non-social) motion onset influence information processing in parallel, even when combined as sudden onset direct gaze cues (i.e., faces suddenly establishing eye contact). The present study investigated the role of eye visibility for attention capture by these sudden onset face cues. To this end, face direction was manipulated (away or towards onlooker) while faces had closed eyes (eliminating visibility of eyes, Experiment 1), wore sunglasses (eliminating visible eyes, but allowing for the expectation of eyes to be open, Experiment 2), and were inverted with visible eyes (disrupting the integration of eyes and faces, Experiment 3). Participants classified targets appearing on one of four faces. Initially, two faces were oriented towards participants and two faces were oriented away from participants. Simultaneous to target presentation, one averted face became directed and one directed face became averted. Attention capture by face direction (i.e., facilitation for faces directed towards participants) was absent when eyes were closed, but present when faces wore sunglasses. Sudden onset direct faces can, hence, induce attentional capture, even when lacking eye cues. Inverted faces, by contrast, did not elicit attentional capture. Thus, when eyes cannot be integrated into a holistic face representation they are not sufficient to capture attention. Overall, the results suggest that visibility of eyes is neither necessary nor sufficient for the sudden direct face effect.

  17. Is docosahexaenoic acid synthesis from α-linolenic acid sufficient to supply the adult brain?

    PubMed

    Domenichiello, Anthony F; Kitson, Alex P; Bazinet, Richard P

    2015-07-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is important for brain function, and can be obtained directly from the diet or synthesized in the body from α-linolenic acid (ALA). Debate exists as to whether DHA synthesized from ALA can provide sufficient DHA for the adult brain, as measures of DHA synthesis from ingested ALA are typically <1% of the oral ALA dose. However, the primary fate of orally administered ALA is β-oxidation and long-term storage in adipose tissue, suggesting that DHA synthesis measures involving oral ALA tracer ingestion may underestimate total DHA synthesis. There is also evidence that DHA synthesized from ALA can meet brain DHA requirements, as animals fed ALA-only diets have brain DHA concentrations similar to DHA-fed animals, and the brain DHA requirement is estimated to be only 2.4-3.8 mg/day in humans. This review summarizes evidence that DHA synthesis from ALA can provide sufficient DHA for the adult brain by examining work in humans and animals involving estimates of DHA synthesis and brain DHA requirements. Also, an update on methods to measure DHA synthesis in humans is presented highlighting a novel approach involving steady-state infusion of stable isotope-labeled ALA that bypasses several limitations of oral tracer ingestion. It is shown that this method produces estimates of DHA synthesis that are at least 3-fold higher than brain uptake rates in rats.

  18. Sufficient oxygen for animal respiration 1,400 million years ago.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuichang; Wang, Xiaomei; Wang, Huajian; Bjerrum, Christian J; Hammarlund, Emma U; Costa, M Mafalda; Connelly, James N; Zhang, Baomin; Su, Jin; Canfield, Donald E

    2016-02-16

    The Mesoproterozoic Eon [1,600-1,000 million years ago (Ma)] is emerging as a key interval in Earth history, with a unique geochemical history that might have influenced the course of biological evolution on Earth. Indeed, although this time interval is rather poorly understood, recent chromium isotope results suggest that atmospheric oxygen levels were <0.1% of present levels, sufficiently low to have inhibited the evolution of animal life. In contrast, using a different approach, we explore the distribution and enrichments of redox-sensitive trace metals in the 1,400 Ma sediments of Unit 3 of the Xiamaling Formation, North China Block. Patterns of trace metal enrichments reveal oxygenated bottom waters during deposition of the sediments, and biomarker results demonstrate the presence of green sulfur bacteria in the water column. Thus, we document an ancient oxygen minimum zone. We develop a simple, yet comprehensive, model of marine carbon-oxygen cycle dynamics to show that our geochemical results are consistent with atmospheric oxygen levels >4% of present-day levels. Therefore, in contrast to previous suggestions, we show that there was sufficient oxygen to fuel animal respiration long before the evolution of animals themselves. PMID:26729865

  19. Increasing Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis is Sufficient to Reduce Anxiety and Depression-Like Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hill, Alexis S; Sahay, Amar; Hen, René

    2015-09-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is increased by antidepressants, and is required for some of their behavioral effects. However, it remains unclear whether expanding the population of adult-born neurons is sufficient to affect anxiety and depression-related behavior. Here, we use an inducible transgenic mouse model in which the pro-apoptotic gene Bax is deleted from neural stem cells and their progeny in the adult brain, and thereby increases adult neurogenesis. We find no effects on baseline anxiety and depression-related behavior; however, we find that increasing adult neurogenesis is sufficient to reduce anxiety and depression-related behaviors in mice treated chronically with corticosterone (CORT), a mouse model of stress. Thus, neurogenesis differentially affects behavior under baseline conditions and in a model of chronic stress. Moreover, we find no effect of increased adult hippocampal neurogenesis on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation, either at baseline or following chronic CORT administration, suggesting that increasing adult hippocampal neurogenesis can affect anxiety and depression-related behavior through a mechanism independent of the HPA axis. The use of future techniques to specifically inhibit BAX in the hippocampus could be used to augment adult neurogenesis, and may therefore represent a novel strategy to promote antidepressant-like behavioral effects. PMID:25833129

  20. Human papillomavirus causes an angiogenic switch in keratinocytes which is sufficient to alter endothelial cell behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, W.; Li, F.; Mead, L.; White, H.; Walker, J.; Ingram, D.A.; Roman, A.

    2007-10-10

    One of the requirements for tumor growth is the ability to recruit a blood supply, a process known as angiogenesis. Angiogenesis begins early in the progression of cervical disease from mild to severe dysplasia and on to invasive cancer. We have previously reported that expression of human papillomavirus type 16 E6 and E7 (HPV16 E6E7) proteins in primary foreskin keratinocytes (HFKs) decreases expression of two inhibitors and increases expression of two angiogenic inducers [Toussaint-Smith, E., Donner, D.B., Roman, A., 2004. Expression of human papillomavirus type 16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins in primary foreskin keratinocytes is sufficient to alter the expression of angiogenic factors. Oncogene 23, 2988-2995]. Here we report that HPV-induced early changes in the keratinocyte phenotype are sufficient to alter endothelial cell behavior both in vitro and in vivo. Conditioned media from HPV16 E6E7 expressing HFKs as well as from human cervical keratinocytes containing the intact HPV16 were able to stimulate proliferation and migration of human microvascular endothelial cells. In addition, introduction of the conditioned media into immunocompetent mice using a Matrigel plug model resulted in a clear angiogenic response. These novel data support the hypothesis that HPV proteins contribute not only to the uncontrolled keratinocyte growth seen following HPV infection but also to the angiogenic response needed for tumor formation.

  1. Secondary Rearrangements and Hypermutation Generate Sufficient B Cell Diversity to Mount Protective Antiviral Immunoglobulin Responses

    PubMed Central

    López-Macías, Constantino; Kalinke, Ulrich; Cascalho, Marilia; Wabl, Matthias; Hengartner, Hans; Zinkernagel, Rolf M.; Lamarre, Alain

    1999-01-01

    Variable (V) region gene replacement was recently implicated in B cell repertoire diversification, but the contribution of this mechanism to antibody responses is still unknown. To investigate the role of V gene replacements in the generation of antigen-specific antibodies, we analyzed antiviral immunoglobulin responses of “quasimonoclonal” (QM) mice. The B cells of QM mice are genetically committed to exclusively express the anti-(4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl) acetyl specificity. However, ∼20% of the peripheral B cells of QM mice undergo secondary rearrangements and thereby potentially acquire new specificities. QM mice infected with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, or poliovirus mounted virus-specific neutralizing antibody responses. In general, kinetics of the antiviral immunoglobulin responses were delayed in QM mice; however, titers similar to control animals were eventually produced that were sufficient to protect against VSV-induced lethal disease. VSV neutralizing single-chain Fv fragments isolated from phage display libraries constructed from QM mice showed VH gene replacements and extensive hypermutation. Thus, our data demonstrate that secondary rearrangements and hypermutation can generate sufficient B cell diversity in QM mice to mount protective antiviral antibody responses, suggesting that these mechanisms might also contribute to the diversification of the B cell repertoire of normal mice. PMID:10359583

  2. Eyes only? Perceiving eye contact is neither sufficient nor necessary for attentional capture by face direction.

    PubMed

    Böckler, Anne; van der Wel, Robrecht P R D; Welsh, Timothy N

    2015-09-01

    Direct eye contact and motion onset both constitute powerful cues that capture attention. Recent research suggests that (social) gaze and (non-social) motion onset influence information processing in parallel, even when combined as sudden onset direct gaze cues (i.e., faces suddenly establishing eye contact). The present study investigated the role of eye visibility for attention capture by these sudden onset face cues. To this end, face direction was manipulated (away or towards onlooker) while faces had closed eyes (eliminating visibility of eyes, Experiment 1), wore sunglasses (eliminating visible eyes, but allowing for the expectation of eyes to be open, Experiment 2), and were inverted with visible eyes (disrupting the integration of eyes and faces, Experiment 3). Participants classified targets appearing on one of four faces. Initially, two faces were oriented towards participants and two faces were oriented away from participants. Simultaneous to target presentation, one averted face became directed and one directed face became averted. Attention capture by face direction (i.e., facilitation for faces directed towards participants) was absent when eyes were closed, but present when faces wore sunglasses. Sudden onset direct faces can, hence, induce attentional capture, even when lacking eye cues. Inverted faces, by contrast, did not elicit attentional capture. Thus, when eyes cannot be integrated into a holistic face representation they are not sufficient to capture attention. Overall, the results suggest that visibility of eyes is neither necessary nor sufficient for the sudden direct face effect. PMID:26245915

  3. Food Self-Sufficiency across scales: How local can we go?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Prajal; Lüdeke, Matthias K. B.; Reusser, Dominik E.; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2013-04-01

    "Think global, act local" is a phrase often used in sustainability debates. Here, we explore the potential of regions to go for local supply in context of sustainable food consumption considering both the present state and the plausible future scenarios. We analyze data on the gridded crop calories production, the gridded livestock calories production, the gridded feed calories use and the gridded food calories consumption in 5' resolution. We derived these gridded data from various sources: Global Agro-ecological Zone (GAEZ v3.0), Gridded Livestock of the World (GLW), FAOSTAT, and Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project (GRUMP). For scenarios analysis, we considered changes in population, dietary patterns and possibility of obtaining the maximum potential yield. We investigate the food self-sufficiency multiple spatial scales. We start from the 5' resolution (i.e. around 10 km x 10 km in the equator) and look at 8 levels of aggregation ranging from the plausible lowest administrative level to the continental level. Results for the different spatial scales show that about 1.9 billion people live in the area of 5' resolution where enough calories can be produced to sustain their food consumption and the feed used. On the country level, about 4.4 billion population can be sustained without international food trade. For about 1 billion population from Asia and Africa, there is a need for cross-continental food trade. However, if we were able to achieve the maximum potential crop yield, about 2.6 billion population can be sustained within their living area of 5' resolution. Furthermore, Africa and Asia could be food self-sufficient by achieving their maximum potential crop yield and only round 630 million populations would be dependent on the international food trade. However, the food self-sufficiency status might differ under consideration of the future change in population, dietary patterns and climatic conditions. We provide an initial approach for investigating the

  4. Combustion of available fossil fuel resources sufficient to eliminate the Antarctic Ice Sheet

    PubMed Central

    Winkelmann, Ricarda; Levermann, Anders; Ridgwell, Andy; Caldeira, Ken

    2015-01-01

    The Antarctic Ice Sheet stores water equivalent to 58 m in global sea-level rise. We show in simulations using the Parallel Ice Sheet Model that burning the currently attainable fossil fuel resources is sufficient to eliminate the ice sheet. With cumulative fossil fuel emissions of 10,000 gigatonnes of carbon (GtC), Antarctica is projected to become almost ice-free with an average contribution to sea-level rise exceeding 3 m per century during the first millennium. Consistent with recent observations and simulations, the West Antarctic Ice Sheet becomes unstable with 600 to 800 GtC of additional carbon emissions. Beyond this additional carbon release, the destabilization of ice basins in both West and East Antarctica results in a threshold increase in global sea level. Unabated carbon emissions thus threaten the Antarctic Ice Sheet in its entirety with associated sea-level rise that far exceeds that of all other possible sources. PMID:26601273

  5. Necessary and sufficient conditions of stationary average consensus for second-order multi-agent systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Yongquan; Sun, Jitao

    2016-11-01

    This paper investigates the stationary average consensus problem for second-order discrete-time multi-agent systems (SDMAS). A stationary consensus problem is to find a control algorithm that brings the state of a group of agents to a common constant value which is called the collective decision. We introduce the concept of stationary average consensus of SDMAS and propose a consensus algorithm. Based on the polynomial stability and the graph theory, we obtain two necessary and sufficient conditions of stationary average consensus of SDMAS. The last theorem provides an algebraic criterion of stationary average consensus, and can help us to determine the parameters in the consensus algorithm. Furthermore, in this consensus algorithm, only the states of the agents are transferred among the agents. Therefore, this algorithm can not only solve the stationary average consensus problem but also reduce the amount of transferred data. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the efficiency of our results.

  6. Self-Monitoring Artificial Red Cells with Sufficient Oxygen Supply for Enhanced Photodynamic Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zhenyu; Zheng, Mingbin; Zhao, Pengfei; Chen, Ze; Siu, Fungming; Gong, Ping; Gao, Guanhui; Sheng, Zonghai; Zheng, Cuifang; Ma, Yifan; Cai, Lintao

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy has been increasingly applied in clinical cancer treatments. However, native hypoxic tumoural microenvironment and lacking oxygen supply are the major barriers hindering photodynamic reactions. To solve this problem, we have developed biomimetic artificial red cells by loading complexes of oxygen-carrier (hemoglobin) and photosensitizer (indocyanine green) for boosted photodynamic strategy. Such nanosystem provides a coupling structure with stable self-oxygen supply and acting as an ideal fluorescent/photoacoustic imaging probe, dynamically monitoring the nanoparticle biodistribution and the treatment of PDT. Upon exposure to near-infrared laser, the remote-triggered photosensitizer generates massive cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) with sufficient oxygen supply. Importantly, hemoglobin is simultaneously oxidized into the more active and resident ferryl-hemoglobin leading to persistent cytotoxicity. ROS and ferryl-hemoglobin synergistically trigger the oxidative damage of xenograft tumour resulting in complete suppression. The artificial red cells with self-monitoring and boosted photodynamic efficacy could serve as a versatile theranostic platform.

  7. Absence of CCL2 is sufficient to restore hippocampal neurogenesis following cranial irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Star W.; Haditsch, Ursula; Cord, Branden J.; Guzman, Raphael; Kim, Soo Jeong; Boettcher, Chotima; Priller, Josef; Ormerod, Brandi K.; Palmer, Theo D.

    2012-01-01

    Cranial irradiation for the treatment of brain tumors causes a delayed and progressive cognitive decline that is pronounced in young patients. Dysregulation of neural stem and progenitor cells is thought to contribute to these effects by altering early childhood brain development. Earlier work has shown that irradiation creates a chronic neuroinflammatory state that severely and selectively impairs postnatal and adult neurogenesis. Here we show that irradiation induces a transient non-classical cytokine response with selective upregulation of CCL2/monocyte chemoattractant protein–1(MCP-1). Absence of CCL2 signaling in the hours after irradiation is alone sufficient to attenuate chronic microglia activation and allow the recovery of neurogenesis in the weeks following irradiation. This identifies CCL2 signaling as a potential clinical target for moderating the long-term defects in neural stem cell function following cranial radiation in children. PMID:23041279

  8. Beneficial but not sufficient: effects of condom packaging instructions on condom use skills.

    PubMed

    Lindemann, Dana F; Harbke, Colin R; Huntoon, Alishia

    2012-01-01

    Among those who are sexually active, condom use is the only method of protection against HIV/AIDS. Poor condom skills may lead to condom use failures, which can lead to risk of exposure. Despite the wide availability of condom use instructional leaflets, it is unclear whether these instructions sufficiently teach condom use skills. Ninety-two male and 113 female undergraduates were randomly assigned to a control condition (read non-condom instructions) or a treatment condition (read condom instructions). Participants completed self-report measures related to condom use and performed a condom demonstration task. Participants who read the condom instructions did not perform significantly better on the demonstration task, F (1, 203) = 2.90, P = 0.09, η(2) = 0.014. At the item level, those who read the condom instructions better performed two of the seven condom use steps correctly. These data suggest that condom packaging instructions do not effectively teach condom use skills.

  9. Beneficial but not sufficient: effects of condom packaging instructions on condom use skills

    PubMed Central

    Lindemann, Dana F; Harbke, Colin R; Huntoon, Alishia

    2012-01-01

    Among those who are sexually active, condom use is the only method of protection against HIV/AIDS. Poor condom skills may lead to condom use failures, which can lead to risk of exposure. Despite the wide availability of condom use instructional leaflets, it is unclear whether these instructions sufficiently teach condom use skills. Ninety-two male and 113 female undergraduates were randomly assigned to a control condition (read non-condom instructions) or a treatment condition (read condom instructions). Participants completed self-report measures related to condom use and performed a condom demonstration task. Participants who read the condom instructions did not perform significantly better on the demonstration task, F (1, 203) = 2.90, P = 0.09, η2 = 0.014. At the item level, those who read the condom instructions better performed two of the seven condom use steps correctly. These data suggest that condom packaging instructions do not effectively teach condom use skills. PMID:22334800

  10. Senseless, a Zn finger transcription factor, is necessary and sufficient for sensory organ development in Drosophila

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolo, R.; Abbott, L. A.; Bellen, H. J.

    2000-01-01

    The senseless (sens) gene is required for proper development of most cell types of the embryonic and adult peripheral nervous system (PNS) of Drosophila. Sens is a nuclear protein with four Zn fingers that is expressed and required in the sensory organ precursors (SOP) for proper proneural gene expression. Ectopic expression of Sens in many ectodermal cells causes induction of PNS external sensory organ formation and is able to recreate an ectopic proneural field. Hence, sens is both necessary and sufficient for PNS development. Our data indicate that proneural genes activate sens expression. Sens is then in turn required to further activate and maintain proneural gene expression. This feedback mechanism is essential for selective enhancement and maintenance of proneural gene expression in the SOPs.

  11. A signal sequence is sufficient for green fluorescent protein to be routed to regulated secretory granules.

    PubMed

    El Meskini, R; Jin, L; Marx, R; Bruzzaniti, A; Lee, J; Emeson, R; Mains, R

    2001-02-01

    To investigate trafficking in neuroendocrine cells, green fluorescent protein (GFP) tags were fused to various portions of the preproneuropeptide Y (NPY) precursor. Two neuroendocrine cell lines, AtT-20 corticotrope tumor cells and PC-12 pheochromocytoma cells, along with primary anterior pituitary cells, were examined. Expression of chimeric constructs did not disrupt trafficking or regulated secretion of endogenous ACTH and prohormone convertase 1 in AtT-20 cells. Western blot and immunocytochemical analyses demonstrated that the chimeric constructs remained intact, as long as the Lys-Arg cleavage site within preproNPY was deleted. GFP was stored in, and released from, regulated granules in cells expressing half of the NPY precursor fused to GFP, and also in cells in which only the signal sequence of preproNPY was fused to GFP. Thus, in neuroendocrine cells, entering the lumen of the secretory pathway is sufficient to target GFP to regulated secretory granules.

  12. An Arntl2-Driven Secretome Enables Lung Adenocarcinoma Metastatic Self-Sufficiency.

    PubMed

    Brady, Jennifer J; Chuang, Chen-Hua; Greenside, Peyton G; Rogers, Zoë N; Murray, Christopher W; Caswell, Deborah R; Hartmann, Ursula; Connolly, Andrew J; Sweet-Cordero, E Alejandro; Kundaje, Anshul; Winslow, Monte M

    2016-05-01

    The ability of cancer cells to establish lethal metastatic lesions requires the survival and expansion of single cancer cells at distant sites. The factors controlling the clonal growth ability of individual cancer cells remain poorly understood. Here, we show that high expression of the transcription factor ARNTL2 predicts poor lung adenocarcinoma patient outcome. Arntl2 is required for metastatic ability in vivo and clonal growth in cell culture. Arntl2 drives metastatic self-sufficiency by orchestrating the expression of a complex pro-metastatic secretome. We identify Clock as an Arntl2 partner and functionally validate the matricellular protein Smoc2 as a pro-metastatic secreted factor. These findings shed light on the molecular mechanisms that enable single cancer cells to form allochthonous tumors in foreign tissue environments. PMID:27150038

  13. Sufficient conditions for a local minimum of the Bolza problem with multiple terminal point constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Lincoln J.

    1991-01-01

    Sufficient conditions for a weak relative minimum are derived for a form of the Bolza problem of variational calculus. The derivation ties together first-order and second-order conditions in a unified consistent manner, addresses controllability considerations in some detail, and clarifies some small inconsistencies in earlier work. The resulting second-order conditions of optimality involve the integration of fewer backward-sweep matrix elements than the standard conditions in the literature for problems with an unspecified final time. As a result, the backward-sweep matrices have the same general structure and dimensionality whether the final time is specified or free, with the terminal values of two of three sweep matrices being more complicated in the latter case.

  14. Combustion of available fossil-fuel resources sufficient to eliminate the Antarctic Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, R.; Levermann, A.; Ridgwell, A.; Caldeira, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Antarctic Ice Sheet stores water equivalent to 58 meters in global sea-level rise. Here we show in simulations with the Parallel Ice Sheet Model that burning the currently attainable fossil-fuel resources is sufficient to eliminate the ice sheet. With cumulative fossil-fuel emissions of 10 000 GtC, Antarctica is projected to become almost ice-free with an average contribution to sea-level rise exceeding 3 meters per century during the first millennium. Consistent with recent observations and simulations, the West Antarctic Ice Sheet becomes unstable with 600 to 800 GtC of additional carbon emissions. Beyond this additional carbon release, the destabilization of ice basins in both West- and East Antarctica results in a threshold-increase in global sea level. Unabated carbon emissions thus threaten the Antarctic Ice Sheet in its entirety with associated sea-level rise that far exceeds that of all other possible sources.

  15. Necessary and sufficient quantum information characterization of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering.

    PubMed

    Piani, Marco; Watrous, John

    2015-02-13

    Steering is the entanglement-based quantum effect that embodies the "spooky action at a distance" disliked by Einstein and scrutinized by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen. Here we provide a necessary and sufficient characterization of steering, based on a quantum information processing task: the discrimination of branches in a quantum evolution, which we dub subchannel discrimination. We prove that, for any bipartite steerable state, there are instances of the quantum subchannel discrimination problem for which this state allows a correct discrimination with strictly higher probability than in the absence of entanglement, even when measurements are restricted to local measurements aided by one-way communication. On the other hand, unsteerable states are useless in such conditions, even when entangled. We also prove that the above steering advantage can be exactly quantified in terms of the steering robustness, which is a natural measure of the steerability exhibited by the state.

  16. Policy Capacity Is Necessary but Not Sufficient Comment on "Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity".

    PubMed

    Gen, Sheldon; Wright, Amy Conley

    2015-01-01

    Policy capacity focuses on the managerial and organizational abilities to inform policy decisions with sound research and analysis, and facilitate policy implementation with operational efficiency. It stems from a view of the policy process that is rational and positivistic, in which optimal policy choices can be identified, selected, and implemented with objectivity. By itself, however, policy capacity neglects the political aspects of policy-making that can dominate the process, even in health policies. These technical capabilities are certainly needed to advance reforms in health policies, but they are not sufficient. Instead, they must be complemented with public engagement and policy advocacy to ensure support from the public that policies are meant to serve. PMID:26673469

  17. Biological Form is Sufficient to Create a Biological Motion Sex Aftereffect.

    PubMed

    Hiris, Eric; Mirenzi, Aaron; Janis, Katie

    2016-10-01

    In a series of five experiments we sought to determine what causes the biological motion sex aftereffect-adaptation of a general representation of the stimulus sex, adaptation to the motion in the stimulus, or adaptation to the form in the stimulus. The experiments showed that (a) adaptation to gendered faces and gendered full body images did not create a biological motion sex aftereffect; (b) adaptation to moving partial biological motion displays containing the most important motion cues for sex discrimination (shoulders and hips or shoulders, hips, and feet) did not create a biological motion sex aftereffect; and (c) adaptation to a static frame or shapes derived from a static frame did create a biological motion sex aftereffect. These results suggest that form information is sufficient to create a biological motion sex aftereffect and suggests that biological motion sex aftereffects may be a result of lower level rather than higher level adaptation in the visual system.

  18. Sufficiency of care in disasters: ventilation, ventilator triage, and the misconception of guideline-driven treatment.

    PubMed

    Trotter, Griffin

    2010-01-01

    This essay examines the management of ventilatory failure in disaster settings where clinical needs overwhelm available resources. An ethically defensible approach in such settings will adopt a "sufficiency of care" perspective that is: (1) adaptive, (2) resource-driven, and (3) responsive to the values of populations being served. Detailed, generic, antecedently written guidelines for "ventilator triage" or other management issues typically are of limited value, and may even impede ethical disaster response if they result in rescuers' clumsily interpreting events through the lens of the guideline, rather than customizing tactics to the actual context. Especially concerning is the tendency of some expert planners to mistakenly assume that medical treatment of respiratory failure: (1) always requires full-feature mechanical ventilators, (2) will always occur in hospitals, and (3) can be planned in advance without sophisticated public consultation about likely ethical dilemmas.

  19. Arbitrarily small amount of measurement independence is sufficient to manifest quantum nonlocality.

    PubMed

    Pütz, Gilles; Rosset, Denis; Barnea, Tomer Jack; Liang, Yeong-Cherng; Gisin, Nicolas

    2014-11-01

    The use of Bell's theorem in any application or experiment relies on the assumption of free choice or, more precisely, measurement independence, meaning that the measurements can be chosen freely. Here, we prove that even in the simplest Bell test-one involving 2 parties each performing 2 binary-outcome measurements-an arbitrarily small amount of measurement independence is sufficient to manifest quantum nonlocality. To this end, we introduce the notion of measurement dependent locality and show that the corresponding correlations form a convex polytope. These correlations can thus be characterized efficiently, e.g., using a finite set of Bell-like inequalities-an observation that enables the systematic study of quantum nonlocality and related applications under limited measurement independence. PMID:25415887

  20. Children's sleep needs: is there sufficient evidence to recommend optimal sleep for children?

    PubMed

    Matricciani, Lisa; Blunden, Sarah; Rigney, Gabrielle; Williams, Marie T; Olds, Tim S

    2013-04-01

    It is widely recognized that sleep is important for children's health and well-being and that short sleep duration is associated with a wide range of negative health outcomes. Recently, there has been much interest in whether or not there are sufficient data to support the specific recommendations made for how much sleep children need. In this article we explore concepts related to children's sleep need, discuss the theory, rationale, and empirical evidence for contemporary sleep recommendations, and outline future research directions for sleep recommendations. If sleep is to be treated as a therapeutic intervention, then consensus guidelines, statements, and evidence-based best-practice documents are needed to underpin sleep recommendations for children.

  1. Cargo surface hydrophobicity is sufficient to overcome the nuclear pore complex selectivity barrier.

    PubMed

    Naim, Bracha; Zbaida, David; Dagan, Shlomi; Kapon, Ruti; Reich, Ziv

    2009-09-16

    To fulfil their function, nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) must discriminate between inert proteins and nuclear transport receptors (NTRs), admitting only the latter. This specific permeation is thought to depend on interactions between hydrophobic patches on NTRs and phenylalanine-glycine (FG) or related repeats that line the NPC. Here, we tested this premise directly by conjugating different hydrophobic amino-acid analogues to the surface of an inert protein and examining its ability to cross NPCs unassisted by NTRs. Conjugation of as few as four hydrophobic moieties was sufficient to enable passage of the protein through NPCs. Transport of the modified protein proceeded with rates comparable to those measured for the innate protein when bound to an NTR and was relatively insensitive both to the nature and density of the amino acids used to confer hydrophobicity. The latter observation suggests a non-specific, small, and plant interaction network between cargo and FG repeats.

  2. Optically-Induced Neuronal Activity Is Sufficient to Promote Functional Motor Axon Regeneration In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Patricia J.; Jones, Laura N.; Mulligan, Amanda; Goolsby, William; Wilhelm, Jennifer C.; English, Arthur W.

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries are common, and functional recovery is very poor. Beyond surgical repair of the nerve, there are currently no treatment options for these patients. In experimental models of nerve injury, interventions (such as exercise and electrical stimulation) that increase neuronal activity of the injured neurons effectively enhance axon regeneration. Here, we utilized optogenetics to determine whether increased activity alone is sufficient to promote motor axon regeneration. In thy-1-ChR2/YFP transgenic mice in which a subset of motoneurons express the light-sensitive cation channel, channelrhodopsin (ChR2), we activated axons in the sciatic nerve using blue light immediately prior to transection and surgical repair of the sciatic nerve. At four weeks post-injury, direct muscle EMG responses evoked with both optical and electrical stimuli as well as the ratio of these optical/electrical evoked EMG responses were significantly greater in mice that received optical treatment. Thus, significantly more ChR2+ axons successfully re-innervated the gastrocnemius muscle in mice that received optical treatment. Sections of the gastrocnemius muscles were reacted with antibodies to Synaptic Vesicle Protein 2 (SV2) to quantify the number of re-occupied motor endplates. The number of SV2+ endplates was greater in mice that received optical treatment. The number of retrogradely-labeled motoneurons following intramuscular injection of cholera toxin subunit B (conjugated to Alexa Fluor 555) was greater in mice that received optical treatment. Thus, the acute (1 hour), one-time optical treatment resulted in robust, long-lasting effects compared to untreated animals as well as untreated axons (ChR2-). We conclude that neuronal activation is sufficient to promote motor axon regeneration, and this regenerative effect is specific to the activated neurons. PMID:27152611

  3. Overexpression of ERβ is sufficient to inhibit hypoxia-inducible factor-1 transactivation

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Choa; Lee, YoungJoo

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • We examined the effect of ERβ specific ligand on HIF-1 inhibition. • DPN down-regulates the ARNT protein levels in PC3 cells. • DPN did not show additional effect in ERβ transfected MCF-7 cells. • Our study shows that unliganded ERβ is sufficient to inhibit HIF-1 in systems of overexpression. - Abstract: Estrogen receptor (ER) β is predicted to play an important role in the prevention of breast cancer development and progression. We have previously shown that ERβ suppresses hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1-mediated transcription through aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) degradation via ubiquitination processes. In this study, we attempted to examine the effect of ERβ specific ligand on HIF-1 inhibition in ERβ positive PC3 cells and ERβ transfected MCF-7 cells. ERβ specific agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN) stimulated estrogen response element (ERE)-luciferase activity in a similar fashion to estradiol in PC3 cells. We observed that DPN down-regulates the ARNT protein levels leading to an attenuation of hypoxia-induced hypoxia response element (HRE)-driven luciferase reporter gene activation in PC3 cells. Treatment of DPN reduced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and co-treatment with ERβ specific antagonist PHTPP abrogated the effect in PC3 cells. We then examined the effect of DPN in ERβ transfected MCF-7 cells. HIF-1 transcriptional activity repression by ERβ was not further reduced by DPN, as examined by HRE-driven luciferase assays. Expression of ERβ significantly decreased VEGF secretion and ARNT expression under hypoxic conditions. However, DPN did not additionally affect this suppression in MCF-7 cells transfected with ERβ. This result shows that unliganded ERβ is sufficient to inhibit HIF-1 in systems of overexpression.

  4. Optically-Induced Neuronal Activity Is Sufficient to Promote Functional Motor Axon Regeneration In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Ward, Patricia J; Jones, Laura N; Mulligan, Amanda; Goolsby, William; Wilhelm, Jennifer C; English, Arthur W

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries are common, and functional recovery is very poor. Beyond surgical repair of the nerve, there are currently no treatment options for these patients. In experimental models of nerve injury, interventions (such as exercise and electrical stimulation) that increase neuronal activity of the injured neurons effectively enhance axon regeneration. Here, we utilized optogenetics to determine whether increased activity alone is sufficient to promote motor axon regeneration. In thy-1-ChR2/YFP transgenic mice in which a subset of motoneurons express the light-sensitive cation channel, channelrhodopsin (ChR2), we activated axons in the sciatic nerve using blue light immediately prior to transection and surgical repair of the sciatic nerve. At four weeks post-injury, direct muscle EMG responses evoked with both optical and electrical stimuli as well as the ratio of these optical/electrical evoked EMG responses were significantly greater in mice that received optical treatment. Thus, significantly more ChR2+ axons successfully re-innervated the gastrocnemius muscle in mice that received optical treatment. Sections of the gastrocnemius muscles were reacted with antibodies to Synaptic Vesicle Protein 2 (SV2) to quantify the number of re-occupied motor endplates. The number of SV2+ endplates was greater in mice that received optical treatment. The number of retrogradely-labeled motoneurons following intramuscular injection of cholera toxin subunit B (conjugated to Alexa Fluor 555) was greater in mice that received optical treatment. Thus, the acute (1 hour), one-time optical treatment resulted in robust, long-lasting effects compared to untreated animals as well as untreated axons (ChR2-). We conclude that neuronal activation is sufficient to promote motor axon regeneration, and this regenerative effect is specific to the activated neurons. PMID:27152611

  5. Measuring What Latent Fingerprint Examiners Consider Sufficient Information for Individualization Determinations

    PubMed Central

    Ulery, Bradford T.; Hicklin, R. Austin; Roberts, Maria Antonia; Buscaglia, JoAnn

    2014-01-01

    Latent print examiners use their expertise to determine whether the information present in a comparison of two fingerprints (or palmprints) is sufficient to conclude that the prints were from the same source (individualization). When fingerprint evidence is presented in court, it is the examiner's determination—not an objective metric—that is presented. This study was designed to ascertain the factors that explain examiners' determinations of sufficiency for individualization. Volunteer latent print examiners (n = 170) were each assigned 22 pairs of latent and exemplar prints for examination, and annotated features, correspondence of features, and clarity. The 320 image pairs were selected specifically to control clarity and quantity of features. The predominant factor differentiating annotations associated with individualization and inconclusive determinations is the count of corresponding minutiae; other factors such as clarity provided minimal additional discriminative value. Examiners' counts of corresponding minutiae were strongly associated with their own determinations; however, due to substantial variation of both annotations and determinations among examiners, one examiner's annotation and determination on a given comparison is a relatively weak predictor of whether another examiner would individualize. The extensive variability in annotations also means that we must treat any individual examiner's minutia counts as interpretations of the (unknowable) information content of the prints: saying “the prints had N corresponding minutiae marked” is not the same as “the prints had N corresponding minutiae.” More consistency in annotations, which could be achieved through standardization and training, should lead to process improvements and provide greater transparency in casework. PMID:25372036

  6. Interaction of pneumolysin-sufficient and -deficient isogenic variants of Streptococcus pneumoniae with human respiratory mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Rayner, C F; Jackson, A D; Rutman, A; Dewar, A; Mitchell, T J; Andrew, P W; Cole, P J; Wilson, R

    1995-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia, and pneumolysin, a hemolytic toxin, is thought to be an important virulence factor. We have studied the interaction of a pneumolysin-sufficient type II S. pneumoniae strain (PL+) and an otherwise identical pneumolysin-deficient derivative (PL-) with human respiratory mucosa in an organ culture with an air interface for up to 48 h. Ciliary beat frequency (CBF) was measured by a photometric technique, and adherence to and invasion of the epithelium were assessed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. PL+ and PL- caused a progressive fall in CBF compared with the control which became significant (P < 0.01) at 24 h for PL+ and at 48 h for PL-. At 24 h, there was a significant increase in the percentage of the mucosa of the organ culture that was damaged for PL+ compared with the control (P < 0.01) and PL- (P < 0.02). At 48 h, there was a significant increase in mucosal damage for both PL+ (P < 0.005) and PL- (P < 0.05) compared with the control. At 24 and 48 h, PL+ and PL- adhered predominantly to mucus and damaged cells. PL+ infection alone caused separation of tight junctions between epithelial cells, and at 48 h PL+ cells were adherent to the separated edges of otherwise healthy unciliated cells. PL+ and PL- both caused damage to the epithelial cell ultrastructure. S. pneumoniae infection caused patchy damage to the respiratory mucosa and a lowered CBF. These changes were more severe and occurred earlier with the pneumolysin-sufficient variant. PMID:7822008

  7. Darwin's passionate environmentalism or the dangerous fallacy of the 'All-sufficiency of natural selection' theory.

    PubMed

    Marsh, David

    2012-01-01

    Following his last edition of the Origin of Species in 1872, Darwin spent much of the rest of his life searching for possible mechanisms, such as the pangenes in the blood, which would communicate information from the environment to the genome. In each of his six editions of the 'Origin', he stated that there were two forces in evolution - natural selection and conditions of existence. Of the two, he claims that the latter is the more powerful. In so doing, he recognized that natural selection could only operate within the bounds of possibility, that is the environment. August Weismann claimed that conditions of existence had no place in evolution. His publication, the 'All-sufficiency of natural selection', was based on mutilation (cutting tails of rodents and watching the next generation grow tails), which has nothing to do with Darwin's concept of conditions of existence. Nonetheless, evolutionary biologists in general followed the line of the 'all sufficiency' theory and ignored Darwin's conditions of existence, which in other words means the environment. Natural selection has a weak predictive power as it is based on random events. However, the conditions of existence have, by contrast, strong predictive powers that can be tested. The environmental views of two of the greatest evolutionists, Lamarck and Darwin, have been consistently ignored by most evolution theorists who came after them, continuing for over 200 years. Looking at the fossil record through the eyes of Darwin's conditions of existence, not to mention the recent changes in height and shape over the last century, it is possible to draw important conclusions about the past and predictions of the future. With new knowledge of epigenetics, it is perhaps time that Darwin's conditions of existence were given a second hearing. PMID:22544777

  8. A peptide zipcode sufficient for anterograde transport within amyloid precursor protein

    PubMed Central

    Satpute-Krishnan, Prasanna; DeGiorgis, Joseph A.; Conley, Michael P.; Jang, Marcus; Bearer, Elaine L.

    2006-01-01

    Fast anterograde transport of membrane-bound organelles delivers molecules synthesized in the neuronal cell body outward to distant synapses. Identification of the molecular “zipcodes” on organelles that mediate attachment and activation of microtubule-based motors for this directed transport is a major area of inquiry. Here we identify a short peptide sequence (15 aa) from the cytoplasmic C terminus of amyloid precursor protein (APP-C) sufficient to mediate the anterograde transport of peptide-conjugated beads in the squid giant axon. APP-C beads travel at fast axonal transport rates (0.53 μm/s average velocity, 0.9 μm/s maximal velocity) whereas beads coupled to other peptides coinjected into the same axon remain stationary at the injection site. This transport appears physiologic, because it mimics behavior of endogenous squid organelles and of beads conjugated to C99, a polypeptide containing the full-length cytoplasmic domain of amyloid precursor protein (APP). Beads conjugated to APP lacking the APP-C domain are not transported. Coinjection of APP-C peptide reduces C99 bead motility by 75% and abolishes APP-C bead motility, suggesting that the soluble peptide competes with protein-conjugated beads for axoplasmic motor(s). The APP-C domain is conserved (13/15 aa) from squid to human, and peptides from either squid or human APP behave similarly. Thus, we have identified a conserved peptide zipcode sufficient to direct anterograde transport of exogenous cargo and suggest that one of APP's roles may be to recruit and activate axonal machinery for endogenous cargo transport. PMID:17062754

  9. Pancreatic GLP-1 receptor activation is sufficient for incretin control of glucose metabolism in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lamont, Benjamin J.; Li, Yazhou; Kwan, Edwin; Brown, Theodore J.; Gaisano, Herbert; Drucker, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) circulates at low levels and acts as an incretin hormone, potentiating glucose-dependent insulin secretion from islet β cells. GLP-1 also modulates gastric emptying and engages neural circuits in the portal region and CNS that contribute to GLP-1 receptor–dependent (GLP-1R–dependent) regulation of glucose homeostasis. To elucidate the importance of pancreatic GLP-1R signaling for glucose homeostasis, we generated transgenic mice that expressed the human GLP-1R in islets and pancreatic ductal cells (Pdx1-hGLP1R:Glp1r–/– mice). Transgene expression restored GLP-1R–dependent stimulation of cAMP and Akt phosphorylation in isolated islets, conferred GLP-1R–dependent stimulation of β cell proliferation, and was sufficient for restoration of GLP-1–stimulated insulin secretion in perifused islets. Systemic GLP-1R activation with the GLP-1R agonist exendin-4 had no effect on food intake, hindbrain c-fos expression, or gastric emptying but improved glucose tolerance and stimulated insulin secretion in Pdx1-hGLP1R:Glp1r–/– mice. i.c.v. GLP-1R blockade with the antagonist exendin(9–39) impaired glucose tolerance in WT mice but had no effect in Pdx1-hGLP1R:Glp1r–/– mice. Nevertheless, transgenic expression of the pancreatic GLP-1R was sufficient to normalize both oral and i.p. glucose tolerance in Glp1r–/– mice. These findings illustrate that low levels of endogenous GLP-1 secreted from gut endocrine cells are capable of augmenting glucoregulatory activity via pancreatic GLP-1Rs independent of communication with neural pathways. PMID:22182839

  10. Darwin's passionate environmentalism or the dangerous fallacy of the 'All-sufficiency of natural selection' theory.

    PubMed

    Marsh, David

    2012-01-01

    Following his last edition of the Origin of Species in 1872, Darwin spent much of the rest of his life searching for possible mechanisms, such as the pangenes in the blood, which would communicate information from the environment to the genome. In each of his six editions of the 'Origin', he stated that there were two forces in evolution - natural selection and conditions of existence. Of the two, he claims that the latter is the more powerful. In so doing, he recognized that natural selection could only operate within the bounds of possibility, that is the environment. August Weismann claimed that conditions of existence had no place in evolution. His publication, the 'All-sufficiency of natural selection', was based on mutilation (cutting tails of rodents and watching the next generation grow tails), which has nothing to do with Darwin's concept of conditions of existence. Nonetheless, evolutionary biologists in general followed the line of the 'all sufficiency' theory and ignored Darwin's conditions of existence, which in other words means the environment. Natural selection has a weak predictive power as it is based on random events. However, the conditions of existence have, by contrast, strong predictive powers that can be tested. The environmental views of two of the greatest evolutionists, Lamarck and Darwin, have been consistently ignored by most evolution theorists who came after them, continuing for over 200 years. Looking at the fossil record through the eyes of Darwin's conditions of existence, not to mention the recent changes in height and shape over the last century, it is possible to draw important conclusions about the past and predictions of the future. With new knowledge of epigenetics, it is perhaps time that Darwin's conditions of existence were given a second hearing.

  11. The Development of University Students' Self-Sufficiency Based on Interactive Technologies by Their Immersion in the Professional Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ljubimova, Elena Mikhaelovna; Galimullina, Elvira Zufarovna; Ibatullin, Rinat Rivkatovich

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses the problems of using web technologies in the development of self-sufficiency of University students. We hypothesize that real professional situations in which he/she is obliged to work independently on the basis of web technologies contribute to the development of students' self-sufficiency. It is shown that the activity…

  12. Adenosine A2A receptors are necessary and sufficient to trigger memory impairment in adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Pagnussat, N; Almeida, A S; Marques, D M; Nunes, F; Chenet, G C; Botton, P H S; Mioranzza, S; Loss, C M; Cunha, R A; Porciúncula, L O

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Caffeine (a non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist) prevents memory deficits in aging and Alzheimer’s disease, an effect mimicked by adenosine A2A receptor, but not A1 receptor, antagonists. Hence, we investigated the effects of adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists on memory performance and scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. Experimental Approach We determined whether A2A receptors are necessary for the emergence of memory impairments induced by scopolamine and whether A2A receptor activation triggers memory deficits in naïve mice, using three tests to assess short-term memory, namely the object recognition task, inhibitory avoidance and modified Y-maze. Key Results Scopolamine (1.0 mg·kg−1, i.p.) impaired short-term memory performance in all three tests and this scopolamine-induced amnesia was prevented by the A2A receptor antagonist (SCH 58261, 0.1–1.0 mg·kg−1, i.p.) and by the A1 receptor antagonist (DPCPX, 0.2–5.0 mg·kg−1, i.p.), except in the modified Y-maze where only SCH58261 was effective. Both antagonists were devoid of effects on memory or locomotion in naïve rats. Notably, the activation of A2A receptors with CGS 21680 (0.1–0.5 mg·kg−1, i.p.) before the training session was sufficient to trigger memory impairment in the three tests in naïve mice, and this effect was prevented by SCH 58261 (1.0 mg·kg−1, i.p.). Furthermore, i.c.v. administration of CGS 21680 (50 nmol) also impaired recognition memory in the object recognition task. Conclusions and Implications These results show that A2A receptors are necessary and sufficient to trigger memory impairment and further suggest that A1 receptors might also be selectively engaged to control the cholinergic-driven memory impairment. PMID:25939452

  13. [Sufficiency with water-soluble vitamins and state of bone in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Vrzhesinskaya, O A; Pereverzeva, O G; Gmoshinskaya, M V; Kodentsova, V M; Safronova, A I; Korosteleva, M M; Aleshina, I V; Fandeeva, T A

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin status and bone strength have been estimated in 91 pregnant women (29.3 ± 4.6 years old) from Moscow by non-invasive methods. Sufficiency with vitamins C, B2, B6 has been evaluated by morning urinary excretion of ascorbic acid, riboflavin and 4-piridoxic acid determined by visual titration and fluorimetric methods. The rate of bone resorption has been measured by the ratio of urinary calcium and creatinine, determined by complexometric titration and spectrophotometrically. The study of the bone strength has been conducted using an ultrasonic densitometer (the speed of the ultrasonic waves along the cortical layer). The lack of vitamin C was found in 20.4% .of the women surveyed, vitamin B2--in 27.4%. Vitamin B6 deficiency was detected most frequently (90%). Excretion of vitamins B2 and B6 in women in the third trimester of pregnancy was lower as compared with the women in the first and second trimester. In 53.3% of the women surveyed an increase in urinary excretion of calcium per creatinine has been observed. Excretion of group B vitamins (especially vitamin B6, 1.75 fold, p < 0.05) in women taking vitamin supplements was higher compared to non-taking vitamins that indicates the better sufficiency of the organism with these vitamins. Among women who took vitamin complexes, inadequate supply with water-soluble vitamins C, B2 and B6 was detected less frequently (the difference was significant for vitamin B2) than among women who did not intake vitamin complexes (in 11.9, 27.7 and 42.4% vs 16.1, 54.8 and 48.8 %). The rate of bone resorption (Ca/creatinine) in women taking vitamins was smaller (0.19 ± 0.09 vs 0.24 ± 0.14, p > 0.05). Ca/creatinine ratio was within normal range in 40% of women who intake vitamins, while in women not taking vitamins--only in 22.2%; this value exceeded the upper limit of norm in the rest. The strength of bone was broken in women in the second and third trimester of pregnancy, having worse supply of vitamins. The percentage of

  14. Are typical human serum BPA concentrations measurable and sufficient to be estrogenic in the general population?

    PubMed

    Teeguarden, Justin; Hanson-Drury, Sesha; Fisher, Jeffrey W; Doerge, Daniel R

    2013-12-01

    Mammalian estrogen receptors modulate many physiological processes. Chemicals with structural features similar to estrogens can interact with estrogen receptors to produce biological effects similar to those caused by endogenous estrogens in the body. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a structural analogue of estrogen that binds to estrogen receptors. Exposure to BPA in humans is virtually ubiquitous in industrialized societies, but BPA is rapidly detoxified by metabolism and does not accumulate in the body. Whether or not serum concentrations of BPA in humans are sufficiently high to disrupt normal estrogen-related biology is the subject of intense political and scientific debate. Here we show a convergence of robust methods for measuring or calculating serum concentrations of BPA in humans from 93 published studies of more than 30,000 individuals in 19 countries across all life stages. Typical serum BPA concentrations are orders of magnitude lower than levels measurable by modern analytical methods and below concentrations required to occupy more than 0.0009% of Type II Estrogen Binding Sites, GPR30, ERα or ERβ receptors. Occupancies would be higher, but ≤0.04%, for the highest affinity receptor, ERRγ. Our results show limited or no potential for estrogenicity in humans, and question reports of measurable BPA in human serum.

  15. On the enduring and substantial influence of Carl Rogers' not-quite necessary nor sufficient conditions.

    PubMed

    Farber, Barry A

    2007-09-01

    Carl Rogers' 1957 paper (see record 2007-14639-002) is arguably the most successful of his many attempts to clarify and render testable the ideas behind client-centered therapy. While each of the conditions that Rogers postulated has been linked to positive therapeutic outcome, taken together they have never been conclusively proved (nor disproved) to be either necessary or sufficient for positive outcome. Nevertheless, the overriding "take-home" message in this classic paper--that the therapist's attitude and caring presence is critical for therapeutic success--is one that has had virtually unparalleled influence in every segment of the psychotherapeutic community. Clinical and theoretical innovations in the psychoanalytic community serve as examples of the following proposition: that Rogers' concepts, while accepted more than ever by a remarkably wide variety of psychotherapists, remain essentially unacknowledged as originating with him or in the tradition of humanistic and client-centered therapy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Sufficient conditions for the avoidance of spectral dispersion in optical prisms.

    PubMed

    Lin, Psang Dain

    2016-07-01

    Prisms are common optical elements consisting of only flat boundary surfaces. Two conditions need to be fulfilled to avoid chromatic aberration for a prism, namely, no mutual image tilt and no mutual image shift for different wavelengths. Mutual image tilt occurs when the unit directional vector of the exit ray varies as a function of the prism's refractive index, resulting in spectral dispersion. In a previous study by the present group [Appl. Opt.45, 3951 (2006)APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.45.003951], it was shown that when the rays enter and exit a prism perpendicularly, image reorientation is achieved without spectral dispersion. The present study derives a further sufficient condition to avoid spectral dispersion caused by refraction. The condition explains the ability of Dove prisms and solid glass corner cubes to produce the required image orientation even when the entrance and exit rays are not normal to the respective boundary surfaces. In general, the proposed condition provides a useful analytical guideline for avoiding spectral dispersion in a wide variety of optical systems. PMID:27409681

  17. IL-10 is necessary and sufficient for autoimmune diabetes in conjunction with NOD MHC homozygosity

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Contrary to expectations based on in vitro experiments, we previously found that pancreatic IL-10 did not inhibit autoimmune diabetes but accelerated it in an MHC-dependent manner. Therefore, the ability of IL- 10 to overcome the absence of all non-MHC diabetes susceptibility (Idd) alleles was studied in transgenic mice expressing pancreatic IL-10 backcrossed to B10.H2g7 congenic mice, which have no Idd alleles other than NOD MHC (H2g7). IL-10 transgenic backcross 1 (BC1) mice with H2g7/g7 haplotype developed clear-cut insulitis and diabetes, but neither transgenic mice with the H2g/b haplotype nor nontransgenic BC1 mice did so. Further implicating IL-10 in autoimmune diabetes, anti-IL- 10 antibody treatment inhibited the development of insulitis in NOD mice. These results suggest that IL-10 may be necessary and sufficient for producing autoimmune diabetes in conjunction with NOD MHC homozygosity and that some Idd genes may be related to the regulation of IL-10. PMID:8676087

  18. Fragile X premutation RNA is sufficient to cause primary ovarian insufficiency in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Cuiling; Lin, Li; Tan, Huiping; Wu, Hao; Sherman, Stephanie L.; Gao, Fei; Jin, Peng; Chen, Dahua

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous 46,XX primary ovarian insufficiency (POI), also known as ‘premature menopause’ or ‘premature ovarian failure’, refers to ovarian dysfunction that results in a range of abnormalities, from infertility to early menopause as the end stage. The most common known genetic cause of POI is the expansion of a CGG repeat to 55–199 copies (premutation) in the 5′ untranslated region in the X-linked fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. POI associated with the FMR1 premutation is referred to as fragile X-associated POI (FXPOI). Here, we characterize a mouse model carrying the human FMR1 premutation allele and show that FMR1 premutation RNA can cause a reduction in the number of growing follicles in ovaries and is sufficient to impair female fertility. Alterations in selective serum hormone levels, including FSH, LH and 17β-estradiol, are seen in this mouse model, which mimics findings in humans. In addition, we also find that LH-induced ovulation-related gene expression is specifically altered. Finally, we show that the FMR1 premutation allele can lead to reduced phosphorylation of Akt and mTOR proteins. These results together suggest that FMR1 premutation RNA could cause the POI associated with FMR1 premutation carriers, and the Akt/mTOR pathway may serve as a therapeutic target for FXPOI. PMID:22914733

  19. Maternal and Pediatric Health Outcomes in relation to Gestational Vitamin D Sufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Genuis, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Juxtaposed with monumental improvement in maternal-fetal outcomes over the last century, there has been the recent emergence of rising rates of gestational complications including preterm birth, operative delivery, and gestational diabetes. At the same time, there has been a burgeoning problem with widespread vitamin D deficiency among populations of many developed nations. This paper provides a brief review of potential health outcomes recently linked to gestational vitamin D deficiency, including preterm birth, cesarean delivery, and gestational diabetes. Although immediate costs for obstetric complications related to gestational vitamin D insufficiency may be modest, the short- and long-term costs for pediatric healthcare resulting from such gestational complications may be enormous and present an enduring burden on healthcare systems. With increasing evidence pointing to fetal origins of some later life disease, securing vitamin D sufficiency in pregnancy appears to be a simple, safe, and cost-effective measure that can be incorporated into routine preconception and prenatal care in the offices of primary care clinicians. Education on gestational nutritional requirements should be a fundamental part of medical education and residency training, instruction that has been sorely lacking to date. PMID:26770200

  20. Construction and engineering of a thermostable self-sufficient cytochrome P450

    SciTech Connect

    Mandai, Takao; Fujiwara, Shinsuke; Imaoka, Susumu

    2009-06-19

    CYP175A1 is a thermophilic cytochrome P450 and hydroxylates {beta}-carotene. We previously identified a native electron transport system for CYP175A1. In this report, we constructed two fusion proteins consisting of CYP175A1, ferredoxin (Fdx), and ferredoxin-NADP{sup +} reductase (FNR): H{sub 2}N-CYP175A1-Fdx-FNR-COOH (175FR) and H{sub 2}N-CYP175A1-FNR-Fdx-COOH (175RF). Both 175FR and 175RF were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The V{sub max} value for {beta}-carotene hydroxylation was 25 times higher with 175RF than 175FR and 9 times higher with 175RF than CYP175A1 (non-fused protein), although the k{sub m} values of these enzymes were similar. 175RF retained 50% residual activity even at 80 {sup o}C. Furthermore, several mutants of the CYP175A1 domain of 175RF were prepared and one mutant (Q67G/Y68I) catalyzed the hydroxylation of an unnatural substrate, testosterone. Thus, this is the first report of a thermostable self-sufficient cytochrome P450 and the engineering of a thermophilic cytochrome P450 for the oxidation of an unnatural substrate.

  1. Infant photometry: are mean adult isoluminance values a sufficient approximation to individual infant values?

    PubMed

    Pereverzeva, Maria; Hui-Lin Chien, Sarina; Palmer, John; Teller, Davida Y

    2002-06-01

    Individual differences in isoluminance values were studied in infants and adults using a motion nulling paradigm. Two luminance-modulated sinusoidal grating components (spatial frequency=0.25 cpd, temporal frequency=5.6 Hz, speed=22.4 deg/s) were superimposed and moved in opposite directions across a color video screen. The contrasts of the two components were traded off to determine motion nulls. Two conditions were used: red/black vs. green/black, and red/black vs. blue/black grating components. An eye movement based response measure was used for infant subjects, and an average of 308 trials per infant were obtained. As observed in earlier studies, the mean motion null values for infants and adults were highly similar in each condition. The standard errors of motion null values for individual subjects were very small. Individual differences among infants were also small, and were clearly measurable only in the red/black vs. blue/black condition. The close similarity of mean null values, combined with the small individual differences among infants, supports the idea that under the right circumstances mean adult isoluminance values can be used as a sufficient approximation to individual infant isoluminance values in studies of infant color vision. These circumstances are discussed and evaluated in detail.

  2. Root morphological and proteomic responses to growth restriction in maize plants supplied with sufficient N.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huifeng; Li, Ke; Ding, Hong; Liao, Chengsong; Li, Xuexian; Yuan, Lixing; Li, Chunjian

    2011-07-01

    The primary objective of this study was to better understand how root morphological alteration stimulates N uptake in maize plants after root growth restriction, by investigating the changes in length and number of lateral roots, (15)NO(3)(-) influx, the expression level of the low-affinity Nitrate transporter ZmNrt1.1, and proteomic composition of primary roots. Maize seedlings were hydroponically cultured with three different types of root systems: an intact root system, embryonic roots only, or primary roots only. In spite of sufficient N supply, root growth restriction stimulated compensatory growth of remaining roots, as indicated by the increased lateral root number and root density. On the other hand, there was no significant difference in (15)NO(3)(-) influx between control and primary root plants; neither in ZmNrt1.1 expression levels in primary roots of different treatments. Our data suggested that increased N uptake by maize seedlings experiencing root growth restriction is attributed to root morphological adaptation, rather than explained by the variation in N uptake activity. Eight proteins were differentially accumulated in embryonic and primary root plants compared to control plants. These differentially accumulated proteins were closely related to signal transduction and increased root growth.

  3. Hippocampal Wnt3a is Necessary and Sufficient for Contextual Fear Memory Acquisition and Consolidation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ning; Zhou, Wen-Juan; Wang, Yue; Huang, Shu-Hong; Li, Xian; Chen, Zhe-Yu

    2015-11-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway plays critical roles in development. However, to date, the role of Wnts in learning and memory in adults is still not well understood. Here, we aimed to investigate the roles and mechanisms of Wnts in hippocampal-dependent contextual fear conditioning (CFC) memory formation in adult mice. CFC training induced the secretion and expression of Wnt3a and the activation of its downstream Wnt/Ca(2+) and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways in the dorsal hippocampus (DH). Intrahippocampal infusion of Wnt3a antibody impaired CFC acquisition and consolidation, but not expression. Using the Wnt antagonist sFRP1 or the canonical Wnt inhibitor Dkk1, we found that Wnt/Ca(2+) and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways were involved in acquisition and consolidation, respectively. Moreover, we found Wnt3a signaling is not only necessary but also sufficient for CFC memory. Intrahippocampal infusion of exogenous Wnt3a could enhance acquisition and consolidation of CFC. Overexpression of constitutively active β-catenin in the DH could rescue the deficit in CFC memory consolidation, but not acquisition induced by Wnt3a antibody injection, which suggests β-catenin signaling pathway acts downstream of Wnt3a to mediate CFC memory consolidation. Our study may help further the understanding of the precise regulation of Wnt3a in differential memory phases depending on divergent signaling pathways.

  4. Two kinase activities are sufficient for sea urchin sperm chromatin decondensation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Stephens, S; Beyer, B; Balthazar-Stablein, U; Duncan, R; Kostacos, M; Lukoma, M; Green, G R; Poccia, D

    2002-08-01

    Decondensation of compact and inactive sperm chromatin by egg cytoplasm at fertilization is necessary to convert the male germ cell chromatin to an active somatic form. We studied decondensation of sea urchin sperm nuclei in a cell-free extract of sea urchin eggs to define conditions promoting decondensation. We find that egg cytosol specifically phosphorylates two sperm-specific (Sp) histones in vitro in the same regions as in vivo. This activity is blocked by olomoucine, an inhibitor of cdc2-like kinases, but not by chelerythrine, an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC). PKC phosphorylates and solubilizes the sperm nuclear lamina, one requirement for decondensation. Olomoucine, which does not inhibit lamina removal, blocks sperm nuclear decondensation in the same concentration range over which it is effective in blocking Sp histone phosphorylation. In a system free of other soluble proteins, neither PKC nor cdc2 alone elicit sperm chromatin decondensation, but the two act synergistically to decondense sperm nuclei. We conclude that two kinases activities are sufficient for sea urchin male pronuclear decondensation in vitro, a lamin kinase (PKC) and a cdc2-like Sp histone kinase.

  5. Necessary and Sufficient Standards Closure Process pilot: F- and H-Area groundwater remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Bullington, M.

    1995-09-25

    The DOE Standards Committee`s Necessary and Sufficient (N and S) Standards Closure Process was piloted at SRS on the F- and H- Area Seepage Basins Groundwater Remediation Project. For this existing Environmental Restoration project, the set of N and S standards for design and safety documentation were identified, independently confirmed and approved. Implementation of these standards on the project can lead to a $2.8 Million cost savings on the design, construction/installation, and safety documentation scope of $18 Million. These savings were primarily from site design of power distribution and piping for the water treatment units. Also contributing to the savings were a more appropriate level of safety documentation and the alternate ``commercial`` bids made by vendors in response to a request for proposals for water treatment units. The use of the N and S Process on an ER activity, details on the cost savings, lessons learned and recommendations for broader implementation of the N and S Process are described herein.

  6. Identifying Pathways for Improving Household Food Self-Sufficiency Outcomes in the Hills of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Karki, Tika B; Sah, Shrawan K; Thapa, Resam B; McDonald, Andrew J; Davis, Adam S

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining and improving household food self-sufficiency (FSS) in mountain regions is an ongoing challenge. There are many facets to the issue, including comparatively high levels of land fragmentation, challenging terrain and transportation bottlenecks, declining labor availability due to out-migration, and low technical knowledge, among others. Using a nonparametric multivariate approach, we quantified primary associations underlying current levels of FSS in the mid-hills of Nepal. A needs assessment survey was administered to 77 households in Lungaun (Baglung District), Pang (Parbat District), and Pathlekhet (Myagdi District), with a total of 80 variables covering five performance areas; resulting data were analyzed using Classification and Regression Trees. The most parsimonious statistical model for household FSS highlighted associations with agronomic management, including yields of maize and fingermillet within a relay cropping system and adoption of improved crop cultivars. Secondary analyses of the variables retained in the first model again focused primarily on crop and livestock management. It thus appears that continued emphasis on technical agricultural improvements is warranted, independent of factors such as land holding size that, in any case, are very difficult to change through development interventions. Initiatives to increase household FSS in the mid-hills of Nepal will benefit from placing a primary focus on methods of agricultural intensification to improve crop yields and effective technology transfer to increase adoption of these methods. PMID:26047508

  7. Spirituality, hope, and self-sufficiency among low-income job seekers.

    PubMed

    2015-04-01

    Self-sufficiency (SS) is an important social welfare policy goal in the United States, yet little is known about the process that leads to SS. To address this gap in the literature, this study examined the relationship between spirituality, hope, and SS among a sample of low-income job seekers (N = 116). It was hypothesized that spirituality would be related to hope, and that hope, in turn, would be related to SS. Using survey data from two workforce development agencies, this hypothesis was confirmed-hope fully mediated the relationship between spirituality and SS. Of the two factors through which hope is commonly operationalized-agency and pathways-supplemental analysis suggested that spirituality only affects SS through the agency channel. To help foster hope in direct practice settings, it is suggested that social workers might employ spiritually modified cognitive-behavioral therapy protocols. Macrostructural interventions that block the pathway component of hope are also suggested to help reverse exclusion from labor market entry. As such, hope needs to be addressed comprehensively-intrapsychically and macrostructurally-to effect bottom-up change for SS. Engendering hope may assist clients overcome some of the many challenges they encounter on the journey to SS. PMID:25929013

  8. Stable kinetochore–microtubule attachment is sufficient to silence the spindle assembly checkpoint in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Tauchman, Eric C.; Boehm, Frederick J.; DeLuca, Jennifer G.

    2015-01-01

    During mitosis, duplicated sister chromatids attach to microtubules emanating from opposing sides of the bipolar spindle through large protein complexes called kinetochores. In the absence of stable kinetochore–microtubule attachments, a cell surveillance mechanism known as the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) produces an inhibitory signal that prevents anaphase onset. Precisely how the inhibitory SAC signal is extinguished in response to microtubule attachment remains unresolved. To address this, we induced formation of hyper-stable kinetochore–microtubule attachments in human cells using a non-phosphorylatable version of the protein Hec1, a core component of the attachment machinery. We find that stable attachments are sufficient to silence the SAC in the absence of sister kinetochore bi-orientation and strikingly in the absence of detectable microtubule pulling forces or tension. Furthermore, we find that SAC satisfaction occurs despite the absence of large changes in intra-kinetochore distance, suggesting that substantial kinetochore stretching is not required for quenching the SAC signal. PMID:26620470

  9. Strategies for regeneration of nicotinamide coenzymes emphasizing self-sufficient closed-loop recycling systems.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Werner; Gröger, Harald

    2014-12-10

    Biocatalytic reduction reactions depending on nicotinamide coenzymes require an additional reaction to regenerate the consumed cofactor. For preparative application the preferred method is the simultaneous coupling of an in situ regeneration reaction. There are different strategically advantageous routes to achieve this goal. The standard method uses a second enzyme and a second co-substrate, for example formate and formate dehydrogenase or glucose and glucose dehydrogenase. Alternatively, a second substrate is employed which is converted by the same enzyme used for the primary reaction. For example, alcohol dehydrogenase catalyzed reactions are often coupled with excess 2-propanol which is oxidized to acetone during the regeneration of NAD(P)H. A third method utilizes a reaction-internal sequence by the direct coupling of an oxidizing and a reducing enzyme reaction. Neither an additional substrate nor a further regenerating enzyme are required for the recycling reaction. This kind of "closed-loop" or "self-sufficient" redox process for cofactor regeneration has been used rarely so far. Its most intriguing advantage is that even redox reactions with unstable precursors can be realized provided that this compound is produced in situ by an opposite redox reaction. This elegant method is applicable in special cases only but increasing numbers of examples have been published during the last years.

  10. A simple threshold rule is sufficient to explain sophisticated collective decision-making.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Elva J H; Franks, Nigel R; Ellis, Samuel; Okuda, Saki; Marshall, James A R

    2011-01-01

    Decision-making animals can use slow-but-accurate strategies, such as making multiple comparisons, or opt for simpler, faster strategies to find a 'good enough' option. Social animals make collective decisions about many group behaviours including foraging and migration. The key to the collective choice lies with individual behaviour. We present a case study of a collective decision-making process (house-hunting ants, Temnothorax albipennis), in which a previously proposed decision strategy involved both quality-dependent hesitancy and direct comparisons of nests by scouts. An alternative possible decision strategy is that scouting ants use a very simple quality-dependent threshold rule to decide whether to recruit nest-mates to a new site or search for alternatives. We use analytical and simulation modelling to demonstrate that this simple rule is sufficient to explain empirical patterns from three studies of collective decision-making in ants, and can account parsimoniously for apparent comparison by individuals and apparent hesitancy (recruitment latency) effects, when available nests differ strongly in quality. This highlights the need to carefully design experiments to detect individual comparison. We present empirical data strongly suggesting that best-of-n comparison is not used by individual ants, although individual sequential comparisons are not ruled out. However, by using a simple threshold rule, decision-making groups are able to effectively compare options, without relying on any form of direct comparison of alternatives by individuals. This parsimonious mechanism could promote collective rationality in group decision-making.

  11. Morphospecies and taxonomic sufficiency of benthic megafauna in scientific bottom trawl surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brind'Amour, Anik; Laffargue, Pascal; Morin, Jocelyne; Vaz, Sandrine; Foveau, Aurélie; Le Bris, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Scientific fisheries surveys routinely identify a large diversity of commercial and non-commercial benthic megainvertebrates that could provide useful information for Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) descriptors. Species is obviously the basic taxonomic level to which most ecological studies and theories refer. Identification at this level of organization is indeed always preferred over any other taxonomic level. Nevertheless, aggregation of species to higher taxonomic levels may be unavoidable sometimes, since errors of identification are known or suspected to occur in many surveys. Using analyses of taxonomic sufficiency (identification of organisms at various taxonomic resolutions) and groups of morphospecies (taxa identified easily by non-experts on the basis of evident morphological traits), this study aims to quantify the loss of ecological information incurred by partial identification of benthic megafauna in bottom trawl surveys in order to put such data to good use. The analyses were conducted on five scientific surveys representing a large range of geographical areas (from 150 km2 to 150 000 km2) and environmental conditions. Results show that genus, family and, particularly, morphospecies are good surrogates for species identification in community analyses. We suggest that bottom trawl surveys can provide reliable megafauna data that may usefully complete those obtained by grab surveys. The use of morphospecies could lead to new strategies, combining different datasets to provide indicators for MSFD descriptors (e.g. D6).

  12. Neuronal ensembles sufficient for recovery sleep and the sedative actions of α2 adrenergic agonists.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhe; Ferretti, Valentina; Güntan, İlke; Moro, Alessandro; Steinberg, Eleonora A; Ye, Zhiwen; Zecharia, Anna Y; Yu, Xiao; Vyssotski, Alexei L; Brickley, Stephen G; Yustos, Raquel; Pillidge, Zoe E; Harding, Edward C; Wisden, William; Franks, Nicholas P

    2015-04-01

    Do sedatives engage natural sleep pathways? It is usually assumed that anesthetic-induced sedation and loss of righting reflex (LORR) arise by influencing the same circuitry to lesser or greater extents. For the α2 adrenergic receptor agonist dexmedetomidine, we found that sedation and LORR were in fact distinct states, requiring different brain areas: the preoptic hypothalamic area and locus coeruleus (LC), respectively. Selective knockdown of α2A adrenergic receptors from the LC abolished dexmedetomidine-induced LORR, but not sedation. Instead, we found that dexmedetomidine-induced sedation resembled the deep recovery sleep that follows sleep deprivation. We used TetTag pharmacogenetics in mice to functionally mark neurons activated in the preoptic hypothalamus during dexmedetomidine-induced sedation or recovery sleep. The neuronal ensembles could then be selectively reactivated. In both cases, non-rapid eye movement sleep, with the accompanying drop in body temperature, was recapitulated. Thus, α2 adrenergic receptor-induced sedation and recovery sleep share hypothalamic circuitry sufficient for producing these behavioral states.

  13. Self-sufficient redox biotransformation of lignin-related benzoic acids with Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed

    Palazzolo, Martín A; Mascotti, María L; Lewkowicz, Elizabeth S; Kurina-Sanz, Marcela

    2015-12-01

    Aromatic carboxylic acids are readily obtained from lignin in biomass processing facilities. However, efficient technologies for lignin valorization are missing. In this work, a microbial screening was conducted to find versatile biocatalysts capable of transforming several benzoic acids structurally related to lignin, employing vanillic acid as model substrate. The wild-type Aspergillus flavus growing cells exhibited exquisite selectivity towards the oxidative decarboxylation product, 2-methoxybenzene-1,4-diol. Interestingly, when assaying a set of structurally related substrates, the biocatalyst displayed the oxidative removal of the carboxyl moiety or its reduction to the primary alcohol whether electron withdrawing or donating groups were present in the aromatic ring, respectively. Additionally, A. flavus proved to be highly tolerant to vanillic acid increasing concentrations (up to 8 g/L), demonstrating its potential application in chemical synthesis. A. flavus growing cells were found to be efficient biotechnological tools to perform self-sufficient, structure-dependent redox reactions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a biocatalyst exhibiting opposite redox transformations of the carboxylic acid moiety in benzoic acid derivatives, namely oxidative decarboxylation and carboxyl reduction, in a structure-dependent fashion.

  14. Safety Sufficiency for NextGen: Assessment of Selected Existing Safety Methods, Tools, Processes, and Regulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Xidong; Ulrey, Mike L.; Brown, John A.; Mast, James; Lapis, Mary B.

    2013-01-01

    NextGen is a complex socio-technical system and, in many ways, it is expected to be more complex than the current system. It is vital to assess the safety impact of the NextGen elements (technologies, systems, and procedures) in a rigorous and systematic way and to ensure that they do not compromise safety. In this study, the NextGen elements in the form of Operational Improvements (OIs), Enablers, Research Activities, Development Activities, and Policy Issues were identified. The overall hazard situation in NextGen was outlined; a high-level hazard analysis was conducted with respect to multiple elements in a representative NextGen OI known as OI-0349 (Automation Support for Separation Management); and the hazards resulting from the highly dynamic complexity involved in an OI-0349 scenario were illustrated. A selected but representative set of the existing safety methods, tools, processes, and regulations was then reviewed and analyzed regarding whether they are sufficient to assess safety in the elements of that OI and ensure that safety will not be compromised and whether they might incur intolerably high costs.

  15. Formation of interference-sensitive meiotic cross-overs requires sufficient DNA leading-strand elongation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiyue; Cheng, Zhihao; Wang, Cong; Hong, Yue; Su, Hang; Wang, Jun; Copenhaver, Gregory P; Ma, Hong; Wang, Yingxiang

    2015-10-01

    Meiosis halves diploid genomes to haploid and is essential for sexual reproduction in eukaryotes. Meiotic recombination ensures physical association of homologs and their subsequent accurate segregation and results in the redistribution of genetic variations among progeny. Most organisms have two classes of cross-overs (COs): interference-sensitive (type I) and -insensitive (type II) COs. DNA synthesis is essential for meiotic recombination, but whether DNA synthesis has a role in differentiating meiotic CO pathways is unknown. Here, we show that Arabidopsis POL2A, the homolog of the yeast DNA polymerase-ε (a leading-strand DNA polymerase), is required for plant fertility and meiosis. Mutations in POL2A cause reduced fertility and meiotic defects, including abnormal chromosome association, improper chromosome segregation, and fragmentation. Observation of prophase I cell distribution suggests that pol2a mutants likely delay progression of meiotic recombination. In addition, the residual COs in pol2a have reduced CO interference, and the double mutant of pol2a with mus81, which affects type II COs, displayed more severe defects than either single mutant, indicating that POL2A functions in the type I pathway. We hypothesize that sufficient leading-strand DNA elongation promotes formation of some type I COs. Given that meiotic recombination and DNA synthesis are conserved in divergent eukaryotes, this study and our previous study suggest a novel role for DNA synthesis in the differentiation of meiotic recombination pathways. PMID:26392549

  16. RNA1 is sufficient to mediate plasmid ColE1 incompatibility in vivo.

    PubMed

    Fitzwater, T; Tamm, J; Polisky, B

    1984-05-25

    The multicopy plasmid ColE1 specifies a small RNA designated RNA1 that has been implicated in copy number control and incompatibility. We have inserted a 148 base-pair ColE1 DNA fragment containing a promoter-less RNA1 gene into a plasmid vector downstream from the tryptophan promoter of Serratia marcesens . The ColE1 RNA1 produced by this plasmid is not functional in vivo due to the presence of 49 nucleotides appended to the 5'-terminus of the wild-type RNA1 sequence. Deletions of these sequences by Bal3l nuclease in vitro and genetic selection for ColE1 incompatibility function in vivo permitted isolation of a plasmid expressing wild-type ColE1 RNA1 initiated properly from the S. marcesens trp promoter. These experiments demonstrate that RNA1 is sufficient to mediate ColE1 incompatibility in vivo. In addition, several plasmids were isolated that contain altered RNA1 genes. These alterations consist of additions or deletions of sequences at the 5'-terminus of RNA1. Analysis of the ability of these altered RNA1 molecules to express incompatibility in vivo suggests that the 5'-terminal region of RNA1 is crucial for its function.

  17. Orexin 2 Receptor Antagonism is Sufficient to Promote NREM and REM Sleep from Mouse to Man.

    PubMed

    Gotter, Anthony L; Forman, Mark S; Harrell, Charles M; Stevens, Joanne; Svetnik, Vladimir; Yee, Ka Lai; Li, Xiaodong; Roecker, Anthony J; Fox, Steven V; Tannenbaum, Pamela L; Garson, Susan L; Lepeleire, Inge De; Calder, Nicole; Rosen, Laura; Struyk, Arie; Coleman, Paul J; Herring, W Joseph; Renger, John J; Winrow, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Orexin neuropeptides regulate sleep/wake through orexin receptors (OX1R, OX2R); OX2R is the predominant mediator of arousal promotion. The potential for single OX2R antagonism to effectively promote sleep has yet to be demonstrated in humans. MK-1064 is an OX2R-single antagonist. Preclinically, MK-1064 promotes sleep and increases both rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep in rats at OX2R occupancies higher than the range observed for dual orexin receptor antagonists. Similar to dual antagonists, MK-1064 increases NREM and REM sleep in dogs without inducing cataplexy. Two Phase I studies in healthy human subjects evaluated safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and sleep-promoting effects of MK-1064, and demonstrated dose-dependent increases in subjective somnolence (via Karolinska Sleepiness Scale and Visual Analogue Scale measures) and sleep (via polysomnography), including increased REM and NREM sleep. Thus, selective OX2R antagonism is sufficient to promote REM and NREM sleep across species, similarly to that seen with dual orexin receptor antagonism. PMID:27256922

  18. MIMO OFDM radar IRCI free range reconstruction with sufficient cyclic prefix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Xiang-gen; Zhang, Tianxian; Kong, Lingjiang

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we propose MIMO OFDM radar with sufficient cyclic prefix (CP), where all OFDM pulses transmitted from different transmitters share the same frequency band and are orthogonal to each other for every subcarrier in the discrete frequency domain. The orthogonality is not affected by time delays from transmitters. Thus, our proposed MIMO OFDM radar has the same range resolution as single transmitter radar and achieves full spatial diversity. Orthogonal designs are used to achieve this orthogonality across the transmitters, with which it is only needed to design OFDM pulses for the first transmitter. We also propose a joint pulse compression and pulse coherent integration for range reconstruction. In order to achieve the optimal SNR for the range reconstruction, we apply the paraunitary filterbank theory to design the OFDM pulses. We then propose a modified iterative clipping and filtering (MICF) algorithm for the designs of OFDM pulses jointly, when other important factors, such as peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) in time domain, are also considered. With our proposed MIMO OFDM radar, there is no interference for the range reconstruction not only across the transmitters but also across the range cells in a swath called inter-range-cell interference (IRCI) free that is similar to our previously proposed CP based OFDM radar for single transmitter. Simulations are presented to illustrate our proposed theory and show that the CP based MIMO OFDM radar outperforms the existing frequency-band shared MIMO radar with polyphase codes and also frequency division MIMO radar.

  19. Non-Ligand-Induced Dimerization is Sufficient to Initiate the Signalling and Endocytosis of EGF Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kourouniotis, George; Wang, Yi; Pennock, Steven; Chen, Xinmei; Wang, Zhixiang

    2016-01-01

    The binding of epidermal growth factor (EGF) to EGF receptor (EGFR) stimulates cell mitogenesis and survival through various signalling cascades. EGF also stimulates rapid EGFR endocytosis and its eventual degradation in lysosomes. The immediate events induced by ligand binding include receptor dimerization, activation of intrinsic tyrosine kinase and autophosphorylation. However, in spite of intensified efforts, the results regarding the roles of these events in EGFR signalling and internalization is still very controversial. In this study, we constructed a chimeric EGFR by replacing its extracellular domain with leucine zipper (LZ) and tagged a green fluorescent protein (GFP) at its C-terminus. We showed that the chimeric LZ-EGFR-GFP was constitutively dimerized. The LZ-EGFR-GFP dimer autophosphorylated each of its five well-defined C-terminal tyrosine residues as the ligand-induced EGFR dimer does. Phosphorylated LZ-EGFR-GFP was localized to both the plasma membrane and endosomes, suggesting it is capable of endocytosis. We also showed that LZ-EGFR-GFP activated major signalling proteins including Src homology collagen-like (Shc), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt. Moreover, LZ-EGFR-GFP was able to stimulate cell proliferation. These results indicate that non-ligand induced dimerization is sufficient to activate EGFR and initiate cell signalling and EGFR endocytosis. We conclude that receptor dimerization is a critical event in EGF-induced cell signalling and EGFR endocytosis. PMID:27463710

  20. B cell antigen presentation is sufficient to drive neuroinflammation in an animal model of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Parker Harp, Chelsea R; Archambault, Angela S; Sim, Julia; Ferris, Stephen T; Mikesell, Robert J; Koni, Pandelakis A; Shimoda, Michiko; Linington, Christopher; Russell, John H; Wu, Gregory F

    2015-06-01

    B cells are increasingly regarded as integral to the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis, in part as a result of the success of B cell-depletion therapy. Multiple B cell-dependent mechanisms contributing to inflammatory demyelination of the CNS have been explored using experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a CD4 T cell-dependent animal model for multiple sclerosis. Although B cell Ag presentation was suggested to regulate CNS inflammation during EAE, direct evidence that B cells can independently support Ag-specific autoimmune responses by CD4 T cells in EAE is lacking. Using a newly developed murine model of in vivo conditional expression of MHC class II, we reported previously that encephalitogenic CD4 T cells are incapable of inducing EAE when B cells are the sole APC. In this study, we find that B cells cooperate with dendritic cells to enhance EAE severity resulting from myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) immunization. Further, increasing the precursor frequency of MOG-specific B cells, but not the addition of soluble MOG-specific Ab, is sufficient to drive EAE in mice expressing MHCII by B cells alone. These data support a model in which expansion of Ag-specific B cells during CNS autoimmunity amplifies cognate interactions between B and CD4 T cells and have the capacity to independently drive neuroinflammation at later stages of disease.

  1. Orexin 2 Receptor Antagonism is Sufficient to Promote NREM and REM Sleep from Mouse to Man.

    PubMed

    Gotter, Anthony L; Forman, Mark S; Harrell, Charles M; Stevens, Joanne; Svetnik, Vladimir; Yee, Ka Lai; Li, Xiaodong; Roecker, Anthony J; Fox, Steven V; Tannenbaum, Pamela L; Garson, Susan L; Lepeleire, Inge De; Calder, Nicole; Rosen, Laura; Struyk, Arie; Coleman, Paul J; Herring, W Joseph; Renger, John J; Winrow, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Orexin neuropeptides regulate sleep/wake through orexin receptors (OX1R, OX2R); OX2R is the predominant mediator of arousal promotion. The potential for single OX2R antagonism to effectively promote sleep has yet to be demonstrated in humans. MK-1064 is an OX2R-single antagonist. Preclinically, MK-1064 promotes sleep and increases both rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep in rats at OX2R occupancies higher than the range observed for dual orexin receptor antagonists. Similar to dual antagonists, MK-1064 increases NREM and REM sleep in dogs without inducing cataplexy. Two Phase I studies in healthy human subjects evaluated safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and sleep-promoting effects of MK-1064, and demonstrated dose-dependent increases in subjective somnolence (via Karolinska Sleepiness Scale and Visual Analogue Scale measures) and sleep (via polysomnography), including increased REM and NREM sleep. Thus, selective OX2R antagonism is sufficient to promote REM and NREM sleep across species, similarly to that seen with dual orexin receptor antagonism.

  2. Cultural factors, caloric intake and micronutrient sufficiency in rural Nepali households.

    PubMed

    Gittelsohn, J; Thapa, M; Landman, L T

    1997-06-01

    This study examined the allocation of food within 105 Nepali households using a combination of recall and observation methods. While a relationship exists between caloric intake and sufficiency of intake of several key micronutrients (i.e., beta carotene, vitamin C and iron) for the study population as a whole this relationship is weaker for certain subgroups. In particular, micronutrient intakes of adolescent girls and adult women are much less likely to be tried to total caloric consumption when compared with the intakes of other household members. This gender differential appears linked in part to specific food beliefs and practices that tend to reduce women's consumption of micronutrient-rich foods, such as dietary restrictions during menstruation, pregnancy and lactation. Overlapping with these beliefs and practices, an overall pattern of disfavoritism of females in the intrahousehold allocation of food is evident in the study communities. While staple food items (i.e. rice, lentil soup, bread, etc.) are distributed fairly equally, side dishes usually containing a higher proportion of micronutrients (i.e. vegetables, meat, yogurt, ghee, etc.) are often preferentially allocated to valued household members, including adult males and small children (of both sexes).

  3. Metatarsal strains are sufficient to cause fatigue fracture during cyclic overloading.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, C; Finestone, A; Sharkey, N; Hamel, A; Mandes, V; Burr, D; Arndt, A; Ekenman, I

    2002-03-01

    Human in vivo tibial strains during vigorous walking have not been found to exceed 1200 microstrains. These values are below those found in ex vivo studies (>3000 microstrains) to cause cortical bone fatigue failure, suggesting that an intermediate bone remodeling response may be associated with tibial stress fractures. Metatarsal stress fractures, however, often develop before there is time for such a response to occur. Simultaneous in vivo axial strains were measured at the mid diaphysis of the second metatarsal and the tibia in two subjects. Peak axial metatarsal compression strains and strain rates were significantly higher than those of the tibia during treadmill walking and jogging both barefoot and with running shoes and during simple calisthenics. During barefoot treadmill walking metatarsal compression strains were greater than 2500 microstrains. During one- and two-leg vertical jumps and broad jumping, both metatarsal compression and tension strains were >3000 microstrains. Compression and tension strains in the metatarsus unlike those of the tibia may be sufficiently high even during moderate exertional activities to cause fatigue failure of bone secondary to the number of loading cycles without an intermediate bone remodeling response. PMID:11934065

  4. Formation of interference-sensitive meiotic cross-overs requires sufficient DNA leading-strand elongation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jiyue; Cheng, Zhihao; Wang, Cong; Hong, Yue; Su, Hang; Wang, Jun; Copenhaver, Gregory P.; Ma, Hong; Wang, Yingxiang

    2015-01-01

    Meiosis halves diploid genomes to haploid and is essential for sexual reproduction in eukaryotes. Meiotic recombination ensures physical association of homologs and their subsequent accurate segregation and results in the redistribution of genetic variations among progeny. Most organisms have two classes of cross-overs (COs): interference-sensitive (type I) and -insensitive (type II) COs. DNA synthesis is essential for meiotic recombination, but whether DNA synthesis has a role in differentiating meiotic CO pathways is unknown. Here, we show that Arabidopsis POL2A, the homolog of the yeast DNA polymerase-ε (a leading-strand DNA polymerase), is required for plant fertility and meiosis. Mutations in POL2A cause reduced fertility and meiotic defects, including abnormal chromosome association, improper chromosome segregation, and fragmentation. Observation of prophase I cell distribution suggests that pol2a mutants likely delay progression of meiotic recombination. In addition, the residual COs in pol2a have reduced CO interference, and the double mutant of pol2a with mus81, which affects type II COs, displayed more severe defects than either single mutant, indicating that POL2A functions in the type I pathway. We hypothesize that sufficient leading-strand DNA elongation promotes formation of some type I COs. Given that meiotic recombination and DNA synthesis are conserved in divergent eukaryotes, this study and our previous study suggest a novel role for DNA synthesis in the differentiation of meiotic recombination pathways. PMID:26392549

  5. Iron sufficient to cause hepatic fibrosis and ascites does not cause cardiac arrhythmias in the gerbil.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Lana; Davis, John M; Patterson, Jon; Johnson, Abby L; Bohart, George; Olivier, N Bari; Schwartz, Kenneth A

    2009-10-01

    Chronic iron overload associated with hereditary hemochromatosis or repeated red cell transfusions is known to cause cardiac failure. Cardiac arrhythmias have been incidentally noted in patients with iron overload, but they are often dismissed as being related to comorbid conditions. Studies with anesthetized iron-loaded gerbils using short recordings suggest a role for iron in the development of arrhythmias. Our goal was to characterize iron-induced arrhythmias in the chronically instrumented, untethered, telemetered gerbil. Electrocardiograms were recorded for 10 s every 30 min for approximately 6 months in iron-loaded (n=23) and control (n=8) gerbils. All gerbils in both groups showed evidence of frequent sinus arrhythmia. There was no difference in heart rate, electrocardiographic parameters, or number of arrhythmias per minute between groups. Gerbils rarely showed significant arrhythmias. Body weight and heart weight were not significantly different between groups, whereas liver weight increased with increasing iron dose in the treated group. Cardiac and hepatic iron concentrations were significantly increased in iron-loaded gerbils. Eight of 14 gerbils loaded to 6.2 g/kg body weight developed ascites. We conclude that an iron load sufficient to cause clinical liver disease does not cause cardiac arrhythmias in the gerbil model of iron overload.

  6. Ideal of food self-sufficiency goes by board in China.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, J E

    1986-05-28

    Recent trends in China have raised questions as to whether self-sufficiency in grain production is a viable longterm development goal. China's grain output dropped by 27 million tons in 1985, and each of 11 townships in south and southwestern China visited by the author reported significant reductions in the amount of land planted in grain in recent years. More profitable crops such as vegetables, cotton, and oilseeds are being grown instead, and many communes have failed to meet their grain quotas. The Government is considering incentives to encourage more farmers to switch back to grain. A broader problem concerns the growing scarcity of farmland as a result of industrial development. In many cases, the nature of the new land uses will damage the land irretrievably. New land management laws are aimed at strict control of any conversion of arable land out of farm use. In addition, the Government is considered to have contributed to the drop in grain production through its neglect of flood control, irrigration, and other public works projects that enable farming in China. Grain growers have become one of the lowest income groups in China. The average daily income of Sichuan grain farmers is less than 1/3 that of workers in rural commerce or industry.

  7. Increasing intracellular trehalose is sufficient to confer desiccation tolerance to Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Tapia, Hugo; Young, Lindsey; Fox, Douglas; Bertozzi, Carolyn R; Koshland, Douglas

    2015-05-12

    Diverse organisms capable of surviving desiccation, termed anhydrobiotes, include species from bacteria, yeast, plants, and invertebrates. However, most organisms are sensitive to desiccation, likely due to an assortment of different stresses such as protein misfolding and aggregation, hyperosmotic stress, membrane fracturing, and changes in cell volume and shape leading to an overcrowded cytoplasm and metabolic arrest. The exact stress(es) that cause lethality in desiccation-sensitive organisms and how the lethal stresses are mitigated in desiccation-tolerant organisms remain poorly understood. The presence of trehalose in anhydrobiotes has been strongly correlated with desiccation tolerance. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, trehalose is essential for survival after long-term desiccation. Here, we establish that the elevation of intracellular trehalose in dividing yeast by its import from the media converts yeast from extreme desiccation sensitivity to a high level of desiccation tolerance. This trehalose-induced tolerance is independent of utilization of trehalose as an energy source, de novo synthesis of other stress effectors, or the metabolic effects of trehalose biosynthetic intermediates, indicating that a chemical property of trehalose is directly responsible for desiccation tolerance. Finally, we demonstrate that elevated intracellular maltose can also make dividing yeast tolerant to short-term desiccation, indicating that other disaccharides have stress effector activity. However, trehalose is much more effective than maltose at conferring tolerance to long-term desiccation. The effectiveness and sufficiency of trehalose as an antagonizer of desiccation-induced damage in yeast emphasizes its potential to confer desiccation tolerance to otherwise sensitive organisms.

  8. The case for neuropsychoanalysis: Why a dialogue with neuroscience is necessary but not sufficient for psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Yovell, Yoram; Solms, Mark; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini

    2015-12-01

    Recent advances in the cognitive, affective and social neurosciences have enabled these fields to study aspects of the mind that are central to psychoanalysis. These developments raise a number of possibilities for psychoanalysis. Can it engage the neurosciences in a productive and mutually enriching dialogue without compromising its own integrity and unique perspective? While many analysts welcome interdisciplinary exchanges with the neurosciences, termed neuropsychoanalysis, some have voiced concerns about their potentially deleterious effects on psychoanalytic theory and practice. In this paper we outline the development and aims of neuropsychoanalysis, and consider its reception in psychoanalysis and in the neurosciences. We then discuss some of the concerns raised within psychoanalysis, with particular emphasis on the epistemological foundations of neuropsychoanalysis. While this paper does not attempt to fully address the clinical applications of neuropsychoanalysis, we offer and discuss a brief case illustration in order to demonstrate that neuroscientific research findings can be used to enrich our models of the mind in ways that, in turn, may influence how analysts work with their patients. We will conclude that neuropsychoanalysis is grounded in the history of psychoanalysis, that it is part of the psychoanalytic worldview, and that it is necessary, albeit not sufficient, for the future viability of psychoanalysis.

  9. Neuronal ensembles sufficient for recovery sleep and the sedative actions of α2 adrenergic agonists

    PubMed Central

    Güntan, İlke; Moro, Alessandro; Steinberg, Eleonora A.; Ye, Zhiwen; Zecharia, Anna Y.; Yu, Xiao; Vyssotski, Alexei L.; Brickley, Stephen G.; Yustos, Raquel; Pillidge, Zoe E.; Harding, Edward C.; Wisden, William; Franks, Nicholas P.

    2015-01-01

    Do sedatives engage natural sleep pathways? It is usually assumed that anesthetic-induced sedation and loss-of-righting-reflex (LORR) arise by influencing the same circuitry to lesser or greater extents. For the α2 adrenergic receptor agonist dexmedetomidine, we find that sedation and LORR are in fact distinct states, requiring different brain areas, the preoptic hypothalamic area and locus coeruleus (LC) respectively. Selective knockdown of α2A adrenergic receptors from the LC abolished dexmedetomidine-induced LORR, but not sedation. Instead, we found that dexmedetomidine-induced sedation resembles the deep recovery sleep that follows sleep deprivation. We used TetTag-pharmacogenetics in mice to functionally mark neurons activated in the preoptic hypothalamus during dexmedetomidine-induced sedation or recovery sleep. The neuronal ensembles could then be selectively reactivated. In both cases NREM sleep, with the accompanying drop in body temperature, was recapitulated. Thus α2 adrenergic receptor-induced sedation and recovery sleep share hypothalamic circuitry sufficient for producing these behavioral states. PMID:25706476

  10. Sufficient conditions for the avoidance of spectral dispersion in optical prisms.

    PubMed

    Lin, Psang Dain

    2016-07-01

    Prisms are common optical elements consisting of only flat boundary surfaces. Two conditions need to be fulfilled to avoid chromatic aberration for a prism, namely, no mutual image tilt and no mutual image shift for different wavelengths. Mutual image tilt occurs when the unit directional vector of the exit ray varies as a function of the prism's refractive index, resulting in spectral dispersion. In a previous study by the present group [Appl. Opt.45, 3951 (2006)APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.45.003951], it was shown that when the rays enter and exit a prism perpendicularly, image reorientation is achieved without spectral dispersion. The present study derives a further sufficient condition to avoid spectral dispersion caused by refraction. The condition explains the ability of Dove prisms and solid glass corner cubes to produce the required image orientation even when the entrance and exit rays are not normal to the respective boundary surfaces. In general, the proposed condition provides a useful analytical guideline for avoiding spectral dispersion in a wide variety of optical systems.

  11. On a numerical sufficiency test for monotonic convergence of finite element models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melosh, R. J.; Lobitz, D. W.

    1975-01-01

    Finite element analyses characterized by monotonic convergence include the discipline for meaningful measurements of convergence rate and consequently economical extrapolation. Few proposers of element models guarantee monotonic convergence for their elements. Thus, a need exists for an automatic test to classify available element models. This paper describes such a test - a test can be performed using a digital computer to guarantee that a particular element model imbues monotonicity. It describes the test and its basis. It examines seven element models for a rectangular membrane to illustrate the value of the tests. Besides confirming results already known, the application yields new data. It 'proves' monotonicity for two improved models, defines the range of element proportions for which another element can be guaranteed to exhibit monotonicity, and suggests that another element is deficient. In the special case of absolutely convergent membrane displacement models, proof of monotonicity is a necessary and sufficient condition to insure that upper bound estimates of strain energy are developed. Accordingly, the test furnishes a proof of bound solutions independently of requirements on displacement continuity the element basis may or may not satisfy.

  12. Kinetochore-microtubule attachment is sufficient to satisfy the human spindle assembly checkpoint.

    PubMed

    Etemad, Banafsheh; Kuijt, Timo E F; Kops, Geert J P L

    2015-01-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is a genome surveillance mechanism that protects against aneuploidization. Despite profound progress on understanding mechanisms of its activation, it remains unknown what aspect of chromosome-spindle interactions is monitored by the SAC: kinetochore-microtubule attachment or the force generated by dynamic microtubules that signals stable biorientation of chromosomes? To answer this, we uncoupled these two processes by expressing a non-phosphorylatable version of the main microtubule-binding protein at kinetochores (HEC1-9A), causing stabilization of incorrect kinetochore-microtubule attachments despite persistent activity of the error-correction machinery. The SAC is fully functional in HEC1-9A-expressing cells, yet cells in which chromosomes cannot biorient but are stably attached to microtubules satisfy the SAC and exit mitosis. SAC satisfaction requires neither intra-kinetochore stretching nor dynamic microtubules. Our findings support the hypothesis that in human cells the end-on interactions of microtubules with kinetochores are sufficient to satisfy the SAC without the need for microtubule-based pulling forces. PMID:26621779

  13. Kinetochore–microtubule attachment is sufficient to satisfy the human spindle assembly checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    Etemad, Banafsheh; Kuijt, Timo E. F.; Kops, Geert J. P. L.

    2015-01-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is a genome surveillance mechanism that protects against aneuploidization. Despite profound progress on understanding mechanisms of its activation, it remains unknown what aspect of chromosome–spindle interactions is monitored by the SAC: kinetochore–microtubule attachment or the force generated by dynamic microtubules that signals stable biorientation of chromosomes? To answer this, we uncoupled these two processes by expressing a non-phosphorylatable version of the main microtubule-binding protein at kinetochores (HEC1-9A), causing stabilization of incorrect kinetochore–microtubule attachments despite persistent activity of the error-correction machinery. The SAC is fully functional in HEC1-9A-expressing cells, yet cells in which chromosomes cannot biorient but are stably attached to microtubules satisfy the SAC and exit mitosis. SAC satisfaction requires neither intra-kinetochore stretching nor dynamic microtubules. Our findings support the hypothesis that in human cells the end-on interactions of microtubules with kinetochores are sufficient to satisfy the SAC without the need for microtubule-based pulling forces. PMID:26621779

  14. Benefits and harms of iron supplementation in iron-deficient and iron-sufficient children.

    PubMed

    Domellöf, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    Due to high iron requirements, young children are at risk for iron deficiency anemia. Iron supplements are therefore often recommended, especially since iron deficiency anemia in children is associated with poor neurodevelopment. However, in contrast to most other nutrients, excess iron cannot be excreted by the human body and it has recently been suggested that excessive iron supplementation of young children may have adverse effects on growth, risk of infections, and even on cognitive development. Recent studies support that iron supplements are beneficial in iron-deficient children but there is a risk of adverse effects in those who are iron replete. In populations with a low prevalence of iron deficiency, general supplementation should therefore be avoided. Iron-fortified foods can still be generally recommended since they seem to be safer than medicinal iron supplements, but the level of iron fortification should be limited. General iron supplementation is recommended in areas with a high prevalence of iron deficiency, with the exception of malarious areas where a cautious supplementation approach needs to be adopted, based either on screening or a combination of iron supplements and infection control measures. More studies are urgently needed to better determine the risks and benefits of iron supplementation and iron-fortified foods given to iron-deficient and iron-sufficient children.

  15. Is the structural diversity of tripeptides sufficient for developing functional food additives with satisfactory multiple bioactivities?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian-Hui; Liu, Yong-Le; Ning, Jing-Heng; Yu, Jian; Li, Xiang-Hong; Wang, Fa-Xiang

    2013-05-01

    Multifunctional peptides have attracted increasing attention in the food science community because of their therapeutic potential, low toxicity and rapid intestinal absorption. However, previous study demonstrated that the limited structural variations make it difficult to optimize dipeptide molecules in a good balance between desirable and undesirable properties (F. Tian, P. Zhou, F. Lv, R. Song, Z. Li, J. Pept. Sci. 13 (2007) 549-566). In the present work, we attempt to answer whether the structural diversity is sufficient for a tripeptide to have satisfactory multiple bioactivities. Statistical test, structural examination and energetic analysis confirm that peptides of three amino acids long can bind tightly to human angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and thus exert significant antihypertensive efficacy. Further quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling and prediction of all 8000 possible tripeptides reveal that their ACE-inhibitory potency exhibits a good (positive) relationship to antioxidative activity, but has only a quite modest correlation with bitterness. This means that it is possible to find certain tripeptide entities possessing the optimal combination of strong ACE-inhibitory potency, high antioxidative activity and weak bitter taste, which are the promising candidates for developing multifunctional food additives with satisfactory multiple bioactivities. The marked difference between dipeptide and tripeptide can be attributed to the fact that the structural diversity of peptides increases dramatically with a slight change in sequence length.

  16. Necessary and sufficient optimality conditions for classical simulations of quantum communication processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montina, Alberto; Wolf, Stefan

    2014-07-01

    We consider the process consisting of preparation, transmission through a quantum channel, and subsequent measurement of quantum states. The communication complexity of the channel is the minimal amount of classical communication required for classically simulating it. Recently, we reduced the computation of this quantity to a convex minimization problem with linear constraints. Every solution of the constraints provides an upper bound on the communication complexity. In this paper, we derive the dual maximization problem of the original one. The feasible points of the dual constraints, which are inequalities, give lower bounds on the communication complexity, as illustrated with an example. The optimal values of the two problems turn out to be equal (zero duality gap). By this property, we provide necessary and sufficient conditions for optimality in terms of a set of equalities and inequalities. We use these conditions and two reasonable but unproven hypotheses to derive the lower bound n ×2n -1 for a noiseless quantum channel with capacity equal to n qubits. This lower bound can have interesting consequences in the context of the recent debate on the reality of the quantum state.

  17. The ubiquitous octamer-binding protein(s) is sufficient for transcription of immunoglobulin genes.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D G; Carayannopoulos, L; Capra, J D; Tucker, P W; Hanke, J H

    1990-03-01

    All immunoglobulin genes contain a conserved octanucleotide promoter element, ATGCAAAT, which has been shown to be required for their normal B-cell-specific transcription. Proteins that bind this octamer have been purified, and cDNAs encoding octamer-binding proteins have been cloned. Some of these proteins (referred to as OTF-2) are lymphoid specific, whereas at least one other, and possibly more (referred to as OTF-1), is found ubiquitously in all cell types. The exact role of these different proteins in directing the tissue-specific expression of immunoglobulin genes is unclear. We have identified two human pre-B-cell lines that contain extremely low levels of OTF-2 yet still express high levels of steady-state immunoglobulin heavy-chain mRNA in vivo and efficiently transcribe an immunoglobulin gene in vitro. Addition of a highly enriched preparation of OTF-1 made from one of these pre-B cells or from HeLa cells specifically stimulated in vitro transcription of an immunoglobulin gene. Furthermore, OFT-1 appeared to have approximately the same transactivation ability as OTF-2 when normalized for binding activity. These results suggest that OTF-1, without OTF-2, is sufficient for transcription of immunoglobulin genes and that OTF-2 alone is not responsible for the B-cell-specific regulation of immunoglobulin gene expression.

  18. Specificity and Sufficiency of EphB1 in Driving the Ipsilateral Retinal Projection

    PubMed Central

    Petros, Timothy J.; Shrestha, Brikha R.; Mason, Carol

    2009-01-01

    At the optic chiasm, retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons make the decision to either avoid or traverse the midline, a maneuver that establishes the binocular pathways. In mice, the ipsilateral retinal projection arises from RGCs in the peripheral ventrotemporal (VT) crescent of the retina. These RGCs express the guidance receptor EphB1, which interacts with ephrin-B2 on radial glia cells at the optic chiasm to repulse VT axons away from the midline and into the ipsilateral optic tract. However, since VT RGCs express more than one EphB receptor, the sufficiency and specificity of the EphB1 receptor in directing the ipsilateral projection is unclear. In this study, we utilize in utero retinal electroporation to demonstrate that ectopic EphB1 expression can redirect RGCs with a normally crossed projection to an ipsilateral trajectory. Moreover, EphB1 is specifically required for rerouting RGC projections ipsilaterally, as introduction of the highly similar EphB2 receptor is much less efficient in redirecting RGC fibers, even when expressed at higher surface levels. Introduction of EphB1-EphB2 chimeric receptors into RGCs reveals that both extracellular and juxtamembrane domains of EphB1 are required to efficiently convert RGC projections ipsilaterally. Taken together, these data describe for the first time functional differences between two highly similar Eph receptors at a decision point in vivo, with EphB1 displaying unique properties that efficiently drives the uncrossed retinal projection. PMID:19295152

  19. Mislocated FUS is sufficient for gain-of-toxic-function amyotrophic lateral sclerosis phenotypes in mice.

    PubMed

    Shiihashi, Gen; Ito, Daisuke; Yagi, Takuya; Nihei, Yoshihiro; Ebine, Taeko; Suzuki, Norihiro

    2016-09-01

    Mutations in RNA-binding proteins, including fused in sarcoma (FUS) and TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43, encoded by TARDBP), are associated with sporadic and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A major question is whether neuronal loss is caused by toxic gain-of-function cytoplasmic aggregates or loss of nuclear RNA-binding protein function. We generated a transgenic mouse overexpressing exogenous FUS without a nuclear localization signal (ΔNLS-FUS), which developed progressive spastic motor deficits and neuronal loss in the motor cortex. The ΔNLS-FUS protein was restricted to the cytoplasm and formed ubiquitin/p62-positive aggregates. Endogenous FUS expression, nuclear localization, and splicing activity were not altered, indicating that mislocated FUS is sufficient for proteinopathy. Crossing ΔNLS-FUS with wild-type human TDP-43 transgenic mice exacerbated pathological and behavioural phenotypes, suggesting that both proteins are involved in a common cascade. RNA-sequence analysis revealed specific transcriptome alterations, including genes regulating dynein-associated molecules and endoplasmic reticulum stress. ΔNLS-FUS mice are promising tools for understanding amyotrophic lateral sclerosis pathogenesis and testing new therapeutic approaches.

  20. Systems mechanobiology: tension-inhibited protein turnover is sufficient to physically control gene circuits.

    PubMed

    Dingal, P C Dave P; Discher, Dennis E

    2014-12-01

    Mechanotransduction pathways convert forces that stress and strain structures within cells into gene expression levels that impact development, homeostasis, and disease. The levels of some key structural proteins in the nucleus, cytoskeleton, or extracellular matrix have been recently reported to scale with tissue- and cell-level forces or mechanical properties such as stiffness, and so the mathematics of mechanotransduction becomes important to understand. Here, we show that if a given structural protein positively regulates its own gene expression, then stresses need only inhibit degradation of that protein to achieve stable, mechanosensitive gene expression. This basic use-it-or-lose-it module is illustrated by application to meshworks of nuclear lamin A, minifilaments of myosin II, and extracellular matrix collagen fibers—all of which possess filamentous coiled-coil/supercoiled structures. Past experiments not only suggest that tension suppresses protein degradation mediated and/or initiated by various enzymes but also that transcript levels vary with protein levels because key transcription factors are regulated by these structural proteins. Coupling between modules occurs within single cells and between cells in tissue, as illustrated during embryonic heart development where cardiac fibroblasts make collagen that cardiomyocytes contract. With few additional assumptions, the basic module has sufficient physics to control key structural genes in both development and disease. PMID:25468352

  1. Orexin 2 Receptor Antagonism is Sufficient to Promote NREM and REM Sleep from Mouse to Man

    PubMed Central

    Gotter, Anthony L.; Forman, Mark S.; Harrell, Charles M.; Stevens, Joanne; Svetnik, Vladimir; Yee, Ka Lai; Li, Xiaodong; Roecker, Anthony J.; Fox, Steven V.; Tannenbaum, Pamela L.; Garson, Susan L.; Lepeleire, Inge De; Calder, Nicole; Rosen, Laura; Struyk, Arie; Coleman, Paul J.; Herring, W. Joseph; Renger, John J.; Winrow, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Orexin neuropeptides regulate sleep/wake through orexin receptors (OX1R, OX2R); OX2R is the predominant mediator of arousal promotion. The potential for single OX2R antagonism to effectively promote sleep has yet to be demonstrated in humans. MK-1064 is an OX2R-single antagonist. Preclinically, MK-1064 promotes sleep and increases both rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep in rats at OX2R occupancies higher than the range observed for dual orexin receptor antagonists. Similar to dual antagonists, MK-1064 increases NREM and REM sleep in dogs without inducing cataplexy. Two Phase I studies in healthy human subjects evaluated safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and sleep-promoting effects of MK-1064, and demonstrated dose-dependent increases in subjective somnolence (via Karolinska Sleepiness Scale and Visual Analogue Scale measures) and sleep (via polysomnography), including increased REM and NREM sleep. Thus, selective OX2R antagonism is sufficient to promote REM and NREM sleep across species, similarly to that seen with dual orexin receptor antagonism. PMID:27256922

  2. On the enduring and substantial influence of Carl Rogers' not-quite necessary nor sufficient conditions.

    PubMed

    Farber, Barry A

    2007-09-01

    Carl Rogers' 1957 paper (see record 2007-14639-002) is arguably the most successful of his many attempts to clarify and render testable the ideas behind client-centered therapy. While each of the conditions that Rogers postulated has been linked to positive therapeutic outcome, taken together they have never been conclusively proved (nor disproved) to be either necessary or sufficient for positive outcome. Nevertheless, the overriding "take-home" message in this classic paper--that the therapist's attitude and caring presence is critical for therapeutic success--is one that has had virtually unparalleled influence in every segment of the psychotherapeutic community. Clinical and theoretical innovations in the psychoanalytic community serve as examples of the following proposition: that Rogers' concepts, while accepted more than ever by a remarkably wide variety of psychotherapists, remain essentially unacknowledged as originating with him or in the tradition of humanistic and client-centered therapy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:22122255

  3. Identifying Pathways for Improving Household Food Self-Sufficiency Outcomes in the Hills of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Karki, Tika B.; Sah, Shrawan K.; Thapa, Resam B.; McDonald, Andrew J.; Davis, Adam S.

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining and improving household food self-sufficiency (FSS) in mountain regions is an ongoing challenge. There are many facets to the issue, including comparatively high levels of land fragmentation, challenging terrain and transportation bottlenecks, declining labor availability due to out-migration, and low technical knowledge, among others. Using a nonparametric multivariate approach, we quantified primary associations underlying current levels of FSS in the mid-hills of Nepal. A needs assessment survey was administered to 77 households in Lungaun (Baglung District), Pang (Parbat District), and Pathlekhet (Myagdi District), with a total of 80 variables covering five performance areas; resulting data were analyzed using Classification and Regression Trees. The most parsimonious statistical model for household FSS highlighted associations with agronomic management, including yields of maize and fingermillet within a relay cropping system and adoption of improved crop cultivars. Secondary analyses of the variables retained in the first model again focused primarily on crop and livestock management. It thus appears that continued emphasis on technical agricultural improvements is warranted, independent of factors such as land holding size that, in any case, are very difficult to change through development interventions. Initiatives to increase household FSS in the mid-hills of Nepal will benefit from placing a primary focus on methods of agricultural intensification to improve crop yields and effective technology transfer to increase adoption of these methods. PMID:26047508

  4. The criterion of subscale sufficiency and its application to the relationship between static capillary pressure, saturation and interfacial areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurzeja, Patrick

    2016-05-01

    Modern imaging techniques, increased simulation capabilities and extended theoretical frameworks, naturally drive the development of multiscale modelling by the question: which new information should be considered? Given the need for concise constitutive relationships and efficient data evaluation; however, one important question is often neglected: which information is sufficient? For this reason, this work introduces the formalized criterion of subscale sufficiency. This criterion states whether a chosen constitutive relationship transfers all necessary information from micro to macroscale within a multiscale framework. It further provides a scheme to improve constitutive relationships. Direct application to static capillary pressure demonstrates usefulness and conditions for subscale sufficiency of saturation and interfacial areas.

  5. Dietary Iodine Sufficiency and Moderate Insufficiency in the Lactating Mother and Nursing Infant: A Computational Perspective.

    PubMed

    Fisher, W; Wang, Jian; George, Nysia I; Gearhart, Jeffery M; McLanahan, Eva D

    2016-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine recommends that lactating women ingest 290 μg iodide/d and a nursing infant, less than two years of age, 110 μg/d. The World Health Organization, United Nations Children's Fund, and International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders recommend population maternal and infant urinary iodide concentrations ≥ 100 μg/L to ensure iodide sufficiency. For breast milk, researchers have proposed an iodide concentration range of 150-180 μg/L indicates iodide sufficiency for the mother and infant, however no national or international guidelines exist for breast milk iodine concentration. For the first time, a lactating woman and nursing infant biologically based model, from delivery to 90 days postpartum, was constructed to predict maternal and infant urinary iodide concentration, breast milk iodide concentration, the amount of iodide transferred in breast milk to the nursing infant each day and maternal and infant serum thyroid hormone kinetics. The maternal and infant models each consisted of three sub-models, iodide, thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3). Using our model to simulate a maternal intake of 290 μg iodide/d, the average daily amount of iodide ingested by the nursing infant, after 4 days of life, gradually increased from 50 to 101 μg/day over 90 days postpartum. The predicted average lactating mother and infant urinary iodide concentrations were both in excess of 100 μg/L and the predicted average breast milk iodide concentration, 157 μg/L. The predicted serum thyroid hormones (T4, free T4 (fT4), and T3) in both the nursing infant and lactating mother were indicative of euthyroidism. The model was calibrated using serum thyroid hormone concentrations for lactating women from the United States and was successful in predicting serum T4 and fT4 levels (within a factor of two) for lactating women in other countries. T3 levels were adequately predicted. Infant serum thyroid hormone levels were adequately

  6. Dietary Iodine Sufficiency and Moderate Insufficiency in the Lactating Mother and Nursing Infant: A Computational Perspective.

    PubMed

    Fisher, W; Wang, Jian; George, Nysia I; Gearhart, Jeffery M; McLanahan, Eva D

    2016-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine recommends that lactating women ingest 290 μg iodide/d and a nursing infant, less than two years of age, 110 μg/d. The World Health Organization, United Nations Children's Fund, and International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders recommend population maternal and infant urinary iodide concentrations ≥ 100 μg/L to ensure iodide sufficiency. For breast milk, researchers have proposed an iodide concentration range of 150-180 μg/L indicates iodide sufficiency for the mother and infant, however no national or international guidelines exist for breast milk iodine concentration. For the first time, a lactating woman and nursing infant biologically based model, from delivery to 90 days postpartum, was constructed to predict maternal and infant urinary iodide concentration, breast milk iodide concentration, the amount of iodide transferred in breast milk to the nursing infant each day and maternal and infant serum thyroid hormone kinetics. The maternal and infant models each consisted of three sub-models, iodide, thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3). Using our model to simulate a maternal intake of 290 μg iodide/d, the average daily amount of iodide ingested by the nursing infant, after 4 days of life, gradually increased from 50 to 101 μg/day over 90 days postpartum. The predicted average lactating mother and infant urinary iodide concentrations were both in excess of 100 μg/L and the predicted average breast milk iodide concentration, 157 μg/L. The predicted serum thyroid hormones (T4, free T4 (fT4), and T3) in both the nursing infant and lactating mother were indicative of euthyroidism. The model was calibrated using serum thyroid hormone concentrations for lactating women from the United States and was successful in predicting serum T4 and fT4 levels (within a factor of two) for lactating women in other countries. T3 levels were adequately predicted. Infant serum thyroid hormone levels were adequately

  7. Dietary Iodine Sufficiency and Moderate Insufficiency in the Lactating Mother and Nursing Infant: A Computational Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, W.; Wang, Jian; George, Nysia I.; Gearhart, Jeffery M.; McLanahan, Eva D.

    2016-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine recommends that lactating women ingest 290 μg iodide/d and a nursing infant, less than two years of age, 110 μg/d. The World Health Organization, United Nations Children’s Fund, and International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders recommend population maternal and infant urinary iodide concentrations ≥ 100 μg/L to ensure iodide sufficiency. For breast milk, researchers have proposed an iodide concentration range of 150–180 μg/L indicates iodide sufficiency for the mother and infant, however no national or international guidelines exist for breast milk iodine concentration. For the first time, a lactating woman and nursing infant biologically based model, from delivery to 90 days postpartum, was constructed to predict maternal and infant urinary iodide concentration, breast milk iodide concentration, the amount of iodide transferred in breast milk to the nursing infant each day and maternal and infant serum thyroid hormone kinetics. The maternal and infant models each consisted of three sub-models, iodide, thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3). Using our model to simulate a maternal intake of 290 μg iodide/d, the average daily amount of iodide ingested by the nursing infant, after 4 days of life, gradually increased from 50 to 101 μg/day over 90 days postpartum. The predicted average lactating mother and infant urinary iodide concentrations were both in excess of 100 μg/L and the predicted average breast milk iodide concentration, 157 μg/L. The predicted serum thyroid hormones (T4, free T4 (fT4), and T3) in both the nursing infant and lactating mother were indicative of euthyroidism. The model was calibrated using serum thyroid hormone concentrations for lactating women from the United States and was successful in predicting serum T4 and fT4 levels (within a factor of two) for lactating women in other countries. T3 levels were adequately predicted. Infant serum thyroid hormone levels were adequately

  8. The transcension hypothesis: Sufficiently advanced civilizations invariably leave our universe, and implications for METI and SETI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, John M.

    2012-09-01

    The emerging science of evolutionary developmental ("evo devo") biology can aid us in thinking about our universe as both an evolutionary system, where most processes are unpredictable and creative, and a developmental system, where a special few processes are predictable and constrained to produce far-future-specific emergent order, just as we see in the common developmental processes in two stars of an identical population type, or in two genetically identical twins in biology. The transcension hypothesis proposes that a universal process of evolutionary development guides all sufficiently advanced civilizations into what may be called "inner space," a computationally optimal domain of increasingly dense, productive, miniaturized, and efficient scales of space, time, energy, and matter, and eventually, to a black-hole-like destination. Transcension as a developmental destiny might also contribute to the solution to the Fermi paradox, the question of why we have not seen evidence of or received beacons from intelligent civilizations. A few potential evolutionary, developmental, and information theoretic reasons, mechanisms, and models for constrained transcension of advanced intelligence are briefly considered. In particular, we introduce arguments that black holes may be a developmental destiny and standard attractor for all higher intelligence, as they appear to some to be ideal computing, learning, forward time travel, energy harvesting, civilization merger, natural selection, and universe replication devices. In the transcension hypothesis, simpler civilizations that succeed in resisting transcension by staying in outer (normal) space would be developmental failures, which are statistically very rare late in the life cycle of any biological developing system. If transcension is a developmental process, we may expect brief broadcasts or subtle forms of galactic engineering to occur in small portions of a few galaxies, the handiwork of young and immature

  9. Perceived Need for and Perceived Sufficiency of Mental Health Care in the Canadian Armed Forces

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Aihua; Zamorski, Mark A.; Jetly, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Failure to perceive need for care (PNC) is the leading barrier to accessing mental health care. After accessing care, many individuals perceive that their needs were unmet or only partially met, an additional problem related to perceived sufficiency of care (PSC). The Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) invested heavily in workplace mental health in the past decade to improve PNC/PSC; yet, the impact of these investments remains unknown. To assess the impact of these investments, this study 1) captures changes in PNC/PSC over the past decade in the CAF and 2) compares current PNC/PSC between the CAF and civilians. Methods: Data were drawn from the 2013 and 2002 CAF surveys and the 2012 civilian mental health survey (total N = ∼40 000), conducted by Statistics Canada using similar methodology. Exclusions were applied to the civilian sample to make them comparable to the military sample. Prevalence rates for No need, Need met, Need partially met, and Need unmet categories across service types (Information, Medication, Counselling and therapy, Any services) were calculated and compared between 1) the 2 CAF surveys and 2) the 2013 CAF and 2012 civilian surveys after sample matching. Results: Reports of Any need and Need met were higher in the CAF in 2013 than in 2002 by approximately 6% to 8% and 2% to 8%, respectively, and higher in the CAF than in civilians by 3% to 10% and 2% to 8%, respectively. Conclusions: These results suggest that investments in workplace mental health, such as those implemented in the CAF, can lead to improvements in recognizing the need for care (PNC) and subsequently getting those needs met (PSC). PMID:27270740

  10. Neural dynamics necessary and sufficient for transition into pre-sleep induced by EEG neurofeedback.

    PubMed

    Kinreich, Sivan; Podlipsky, Ilana; Jamshy, Shahar; Intrator, Nathan; Hendler, Talma

    2014-08-15

    The transition from being fully awake to pre-sleep occurs daily just before falling asleep; thus its disturbance might be detrimental. Yet, the neuronal correlates of the transition remain unclear, mainly due to the difficulty in capturing its inherent dynamics. We used an EEG theta/alpha neurofeedback to rapidly induce the transition into pre-sleep and simultaneous fMRI to reveal state-dependent neural activity. The relaxed mental state was verified by the corresponding enhancement in the parasympathetic response. Neurofeedback sessions were categorized as successful or unsuccessful, based on the known EEG signature of theta power increases over alpha, temporally marked as a distinct "crossover" point. The fMRI activation was considered before and after this point. During successful transition into pre-sleep the period before the crossover was signified by alpha modulation that corresponded to decreased fMRI activity mainly in sensory gating related regions (e.g. medial thalamus). In parallel, although not sufficient for the transition, theta modulation corresponded with increased activity in limbic and autonomic control regions (e.g. hippocampus, cerebellum vermis, respectively). The post-crossover period was designated by alpha modulation further corresponding to reduced fMRI activity within the anterior salience network (e.g. anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula), and in contrast theta modulation corresponded to the increased variance in the posterior salience network (e.g. posterior insula, posterior cingulate cortex). Our findings portray multi-level neural dynamics underlying the mental transition from awake to pre-sleep. To initiate the transition, decreased activity was required in external monitoring regions, and to sustain the transition, opposition between the anterior and posterior parts of the salience network was needed, reflecting shifting from extra- to intrapersonal based processing, respectively.

  11. Sufficient Numbers of Early Germ Cells Are Essential for Female Sex Development in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiangyan; Jin, Xia; Chen, Xiaowen; He, Jiangyan; Yin, Zhan

    2015-01-01

    The sex determination for zebrafish is controlled by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The determination of sex in zebrafish has been suggested to rely on a mechanism that is affected by germ cell-derived signals. To begin our current study, a simplified and efficient germ cell-specific promoter of the dead end (dnd) gene was identified. Utilizing the metrodinazole (MTZ)/ bacterial nitroreductase (NTR) system for inducible germ cell ablation, several stable Tg (dnd:NTR-EGFP-3'UTR) and Tg (dnd:NTR-EGFP+3'UTR) zebrafish lines were then generated with the identified promoter. A thorough comparison of the expression patterns and tissue distributions of endogenous dnd and ntr-egfp transcripts in vivo revealed that the identified 2032-bp zebrafish dnd promoter can recapitulate dnd expression faithfully in stable transgenic zebrafish. The correlation between the levels of the germ cell-derived signals and requirement for maintaining the female fate has been also explored with different durations of the MTZ treatments. Our results revealed the decreasing ratios of female presented in the treated transgenic group are fairly associated with the reducing levels of the early germ cell-derived signals. After the juvenile transgenic fish treated with 5 mM MTZ for 20 days, all MTZ-treated transgenic fish exclusively developed into males with subfertilities. Taken together, our results identified here a simplified and efficient dnd promoter, and provide clear evidence indicating that it was not the presence but the sufficiency of signals derived from germ cells that is essential for female sex development in zebrafish. Our model also provides a unique system for sex control in zebrafish studies. PMID:25679390

  12. Expression of Phosphophoryn Is Sufficient for the Induction of Matrix Mineralization by Mammalian Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Sfeir, Charles; Lee, Donghyun; Li, Jinhua; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Boskey, Adele L.; Kumta, Prashant N.

    2011-01-01

    Mineralized tissues such as dentin and bone assemble extracellular matrices uniquely rich in a variety of acidic phosphoproteins. Although these proteins are presumed to play a role in the process of biomineralization, key questions regarding the nature of their contributions remain unanswered. First, it is not known whether highly phosphorylated proteins alone can induce matrix mineralization, or whether this activity requires the involvement of other bone/dentin non-collagenous proteins. Second, it remains to be established whether the protein kinases that phosphorylate these acidic proteins are unique to cells responsible for producing mineralized tissues. To begin to address these questions, we consider the case of phosphophoryn (PP), due to its high content of phosphate, high affinity for Ca2+, and its potential role in hydroxyapatite nucleation. We have created a model system of biomineralization in a cellular environment by expressing PP in NIH3T3 fibroblasts (which do not produce a mineralized matrix); as a positive control, PP was expressed in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells, which normally mineralize their matrices. We show that expression of PP in NIH3T3 cells is sufficient for the induction of matrix mineralization. In addition, assessment of the phosphorylation status of PP in these cells reveals that the transfected NIH3T3 cells are able to phosphorylate PP. We suggest that the phosphorylation of PP is essential for mineral formation. The principle goal of this study is to enrich the current knowledge of mineralized tissue phosphorylation events by analyzing them in the context of a complete cellular environment. PMID:21343307

  13. Listeriolysin O Is Necessary and Sufficient to Induce Autophagy during Listeria monocytogenes Infection

    PubMed Central

    Meyer-Morse, Nicole; Robbins, Jennifer R.; Rae, Chris S.; Mochegova, Sofia N.; Swanson, Michele S.; Zhao, Zijiang; Virgin, Herbert W.; Portnoy, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent studies have suggested that autophagy is utilized by cells as a protective mechanism against Listeria monocytogenes infection. Methodology/Principal Findings However we find autophagy has no measurable role in vacuolar escape and intracellular growth in primary cultured bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) deficient for autophagy (atg5−/−). Nevertheless, we provide evidence that the pore forming activity of the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin listeriolysin O (LLO) can induce autophagy subsequent to infection by L. monocytogenes. Infection of BMDMs with L. monocytogenes induced microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) lipidation, consistent with autophagy activation, whereas a mutant lacking LLO did not. Infection of BMDMs that express LC3-GFP demonstrated that wild-type L. monocytogenes was encapsulated by LC3-GFP, consistent with autophagy activation, whereas a mutant lacking LLO was not. Bacillus subtilis expressing either LLO or a related cytolysin, perfringolysin O (PFO), induced LC3 colocalization and LC3 lipidation. Further, LLO-containing liposomes also recruited LC3-GFP, indicating that LLO was sufficient to induce targeted autophagy in the absence of infection. The role of autophagy had variable effects depending on the cell type assayed. In atg5−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts, L. monocytogenes had a primary vacuole escape defect. However, the bacteria escaped and grew normally in atg5−/− BMDMs. Conclusions/Significance We propose that membrane damage, such as that caused by LLO, triggers bacterial-targeted autophagy, although autophagy does not affect the fate of wild-type intracellular L. monocytogenes in primary BMDMs. PMID:20062534

  14. Intra-alveolar tissue factor pathway inhibitor is not sufficient to block tissue factor procoagulant activity.

    PubMed

    Bastarache, Julie A; Wang, Ling; Wang, Zhengming; Albertine, Kurt H; Matthay, Michael A; Ware, Lorraine B

    2008-05-01

    The alveolar compartment in acute lung injury contains high levels of tissue factor (TF) procoagulant activity favoring fibrin deposition. We previously reported that the alveolar epithelium can release TF procoagulant activity in response to a proinflammatory stimulus. To test the hypothesis that the alveolar epithelium further modulates intra-alveolar fibrin deposition through secretion of an endogenous inhibitor to TF, tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), we measured TFPI levels in edema fluid (EF) from patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. To determine whether the alveolar epithelium can release TFPI, both full-length TFPI and truncated TFPI were measured (ELISA) in pulmonary edema fluid from patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and a control group of patients with hydrostatic pulmonary edema (HYDRO). TFPI protein was also measured in conditioned media (CM) and cell lysates (CL) from human alveolar epithelial cells (A549) after exposure to cytomix (TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IFN-gamma). TFPI protein levels were higher in pulmonary edema fluid from patients with ARDS vs. HYDRO. TFPI protein was increased in CM and did not change in CL after cytomix treatment; TFPI mRNA levels (RT-PCR) did not change. Despite the high levels of TFPI, both the EF and CM retained significant TF procoagulant activity as measured by plasma recalcification time. The majority of intra-alveolar TFPI was in a truncated, inactive form, whereas the majority of TFPI released from cells was full length, suggesting different mechanisms of inactivation. In summary, the alveolar epithelium releases TFPI in response to an inflammatory stimulus but does not increase TFPI gene transcription or protein production. Levels of intra-alveolar TFPI in ARDS are not sufficient to block intra-alveolar TF procoagulant activity due to truncation and inactivation of intra-alveolar TFPI. PMID:18310227

  15. The Cell Wall-Associated Mycolactone Polyketide Synthases Are Necessary but Not Sufficient for Mycolactone Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Pidot, Sacha J.; Falgner, Steffen; Tuck, Kellie L.; Vettiger, Andrea; Hong, Hui; Leadlay, Peter F.; Stinear, Timothy P.

    2013-01-01

    Mycolactones are polyketide-derived lipid virulence factors made by the slow-growing human pathogen, Mycobacterium ulcerans. Three unusually large and homologous plasmid-borne genes (mlsA1: 51 kb, mlsB: 42 kb and mlsA2: 7 kb) encode the mycolactone type I polyketide synthases (PKS). The extreme size and low sequence diversity of these genes has posed significant barriers for exploration of the genetic and biochemical basis of mycolactone synthesis. Here, we have developed a truncated, more tractable 3-module version of the 18-module mycolactone PKS and we show that this engineered PKS functions as expected in the natural host M. ulcerans to produce an additional polyketide; a triketide lactone (TKL). Cell fractionation experiments indicated that this 3-module PKS and the putative accessory enzymes encoded by mup045 and mup038 associated with the mycobacterial cell wall, a finding supported by confocal microscopy. We then assessed the capacity of the faster growing, Mycobacterium marinum to harbor and express the 3-module Mls PKS and accessory enzymes encoded by mup045 and mup038. RT-PCR, immunoblotting, and cell fractionation experiments confirmed that the truncated Mls PKS multienzymes were expressed and also partitioned with the cell wall material in M. marinum. However, this heterologous host failed to produce TKL. The systematic deconstruction of the mycolactone PKS presented here suggests that the Mls multienzymes are necessary but not sufficient for mycolactone synthesis and that synthesis is likely to occur (at least in part) within the mycobacterial cell wall. This research is also the first proof-of-principle demonstration of the potential of this enzyme complex to produce tailored small molecules through genetically engineered rearrangements of the Mls modules. PMID:23894666

  16. Rspo1-activated signalling molecules are sufficient to induce ovarian differentiation in XY medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Linyan; Charkraborty, Tapas; Zhou, Qian; Mohapatra, Sipra; Nagahama, Yoshitaka; Zhang, Yueguang

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to our understanding of testicular differentiation, ovarian differentiation is less well understood in vertebrates. In mammals, R-spondin1 (Rspo1), an activator of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, is located upstream of the female sex determination pathway. However, the functions of Rspo1 in ovarian differentiation remain unclear in non-mammalian species. In order to elucidate the detailed functions of Rspo/Wnt signaling pathway in fish sex determination/differentiation, the ectopic expression of the Rspo1 gene was performed in XY medaka (Oryzias latipes). The results obtained demonstrated that the gain of Rspo1 function induced femininity in XY fish. The overexpression of Rspo1 enhanced Wnt4b and β-catenin transcription, and completely suppressed the expression of male-biased genes (Dmy, Gsdf, Sox9a2 and Dmrt1) as well as testicular differentiation. Gonadal reprograming of Rspo1-over-expressed-XY (Rspo1-OV-XY) fish, induced the production of female-biased genes (Cyp19a1a and Foxl2), estradiol-17β production and further female type secondary sexuality. Moreover, Rspo1-OV-XY females were fertile and produced successive generations. Promoter analyses showed that Rspo1 transcription was directly regulated by DM domain genes (Dmy, the sex-determining gene, and Dmrt1) and remained unresponsive to Foxl2. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that Rspo1 is sufficient to activate ovarian development and plays a decisive role in the ovarian differentiation in medaka. PMID:26782368

  17. Social Experience Is Sufficient to Modulate Sleep Need of Drosophila without Increasing Wakefulness.

    PubMed

    Lone, Shahnaz Rahman; Potdar, Sheetal; Srivastava, Manishi; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Organisms quickly learn about their surroundings and display synaptic plasticity which is thought to be critical for their survival. For example, fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster exposed to highly enriched social environment are found to show increased synaptic connections and a corresponding increase in sleep. Here we asked if social environment comprising a pair of same-sex individuals could enhance sleep in the participating individuals. To study this, we maintained individuals of D. melanogaster in same-sex pairs for a period of 1 to 4 days, and after separation, monitored sleep of the previously socialized and solitary individuals under similar conditions. Males maintained in pairs for 3 or more days were found to sleep significantly more during daytime and showed a tendency to fall asleep sooner as compared to solitary controls (both measures together are henceforth referred to as "sleep-enhancement"). This sleep phenotype is not strain-specific as it is observed in males from three different "wild type" strains of D. melanogaster. Previous studies on social interaction mediated sleep-enhancement presumed 'waking experience' during the interaction to be the primary underlying cause; however, we found sleep-enhancement to occur without any significant increase in wakefulness. Furthermore, while sleep-enhancement due to group-wise social interaction requires Pigment Dispersing Factor (PDF) positive neurons; PDF positive and CRYPTOCHROME (CRY) positive circadian clock neurons and the core circadian clock genes are not required for sleep-enhancement to occur when males interact in pairs. Pair-wise social interaction mediated sleep-enhancement requires dopamine and olfactory signaling, while visual and gustatory signaling systems seem to be dispensable. These results suggest that socialization alone (without any change in wakefulness) is sufficient to cause sleep-enhancement in fruit fly D. melanogaster males, and that its neuronal control is context-specific.

  18. IS COMPTON COOLING SUFFICIENT TO EXPLAIN EVOLUTION OF OBSERVED QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATIONS IN OUTBURST SOURCES?

    SciTech Connect

    Mondal, Santanu; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.; Debnath, Dipak E-mail: chakraba@bose.res.in

    2015-01-01

    In outburst sources, quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) frequency is known to evolve in a certain way: in the rising phase, it monotonically goes up until a soft intermediate state is achieved. In the propagating oscillatory shock model, oscillation of the Compton cloud is thought to cause QPOs. Thus, in order to increase QPO frequency, the Compton cloud must collapse steadily in the rising phase. In decline phases, the exact opposite should be true. We investigate cause of this evolution of the Compton cloud. The same viscosity parameter that increases the Keplerian disk rate also moves the inner edge of the Keplerian component, thereby reducing the size of the Compton cloud and reducing the cooling timescale. We show that cooling of the Compton cloud by inverse Comptonization is enough for it to collapse sufficiently so as to explain the QPO evolution. In the two-component advective flow configuration of Chakrabarti-Titarchuk, centrifugal force-induced shock represents the boundary of the Compton cloud. We take the rising phase of 2010 outburst of Galactic black hole candidate H 1743-322 and find an estimation of variation of the α parameter of the sub-Keplerian flow to be monotonically rising from 0.0001 to 0.02, well within the range suggested by magnetorotational instability. We also estimate the inward velocity of the Compton cloud to be a few meters per second, which is comparable to what is found in several earlier studies of our group by empirically fitting the shock locations with the time of observations.

  19. Peroral Estradiol Is Sufficient to Induce Carcinogen-Induced Mammary Tumorigenesis in Ovariectomized Rats without Progesterone.

    PubMed

    Stires, Hillary; Saboya, Mariana; Globerman, Samantha P; Cohick, Wendie S

    2016-01-01

    A role for estrogens in breast cancer is widely accepted, however, recent evidence highlights that timing and exposure levels are important in determining whether they elicit harmful versus beneficial effects. The rat chemical carcinogen model has been widely used to study the effects of estrogens but conclusions on the levels that lead to tumor development and an absolute requirement for progesterone (P4) are lacking. A newer method of hormone administration mixes hormones with nut butter for peroral consumption allowing for a less stressful method of long-term administration with lower spikes in serum estradiol (E2) levels. The present study was designed to determine if estrogens alone at a physiological dose can drive carcinogen-induced tumors in ovariectomized (OVX) rats or if P4 is also required using this method of hormone administration. Short-term studies were conducted to determine the dose of estrogen (E) that would lead to increased uterine weight following OVX. Subsequently, rats were OVX on postnatal day (PND) 40 then treated daily with E (600 μg/kg/day), P4 (15 mg/kg/day), or the combination. On PND 50, all rats were injected with nitrosomethylurea to induce mammary tumors. Uterine weights, body weights, and serum E2 levels were measured to demonstrate the efficacy of the method for increasing E2 levels during long-term treatment. After 26 weeks, tumor incidence was similar in Sham, E, and E + P4 animals indicating that E was sufficient to induce tumorigenesis when hormone levels were normalized by this method. This study demonstrates peroral administration can be used in long-term studies to elucidate relationships between different types and levels of steroid hormones. PMID:27611094

  20. Linear noise approximation is valid over limited times for any chemical system that is sufficiently large.

    PubMed

    Wallace, E W J; Gillespie, D T; Sanft, K R; Petzold, L R

    2012-08-01

    The linear noise approximation (LNA) is a way of approximating the stochastic time evolution of a well-stirred chemically reacting system. It can be obtained either as the lowest order correction to the deterministic chemical reaction rate equation (RRE) in van Kampen's system-size expansion of the chemical master equation (CME), or by linearising the two-term-truncated chemical Kramers-Moyal equation. However, neither of those derivations sheds much light on the validity of the LNA. The problematic character of the system-size expansion of the CME for some chemical systems, the arbitrariness of truncating the chemical Kramers-Moyal equation at two terms, and the sometimes poor agreement of the LNA with the solution of the CME, have all raised concerns about the validity and usefulness of the LNA. Here, the authors argue that these concerns can be resolved by viewing the LNA as an approximation of the chemical Langevin equation (CLE). This view is already implicit in Gardiner's derivation of the LNA from the truncated Kramers-Moyal equation, as that equation is mathematically equivalent to the CLE. However, the CLE can be more convincingly derived in a way that does not involve either the truncated Kramers-Moyal equation or the system-size expansion. This derivation shows that the CLE will be valid, at least for a limited span of time, for any system that is sufficiently close to the thermodynamic (large-system) limit. The relatively easy derivation of the LNA from the CLE shows that the LNA shares the CLE's conditions of validity, and it also suggests that what the LNA really gives us is a description of the initial departure of the CLE from the RRE as we back away from the thermodynamic limit to a large but finite system. The authors show that this approach to the LNA simplifies its derivation, clarifies its limitations, and affords an easier path to its solution.

  1. Ten minutes of dynamic stretching is sufficient to potentiate vertical jump performance characteristics.

    PubMed

    Turki, Olfa; Chaouachi, Anis; Drinkwater, Eric J; Chtara, Moktar; Chamari, Karim; Amri, Mohamed; Behm, David G

    2011-09-01

    The current literature recommends dynamic rather than static stretching for the athletic warm-up. Dynamic stretching and various conditioning stimuli are used to induce potentiation in subsequent athletic performance. However, it is unknown as to which type of activity in conjunction with dynamic stretching within a warm-up provides the optimal potentiation of vertical jump performance. It was the objective of the study to examine the possible potentiating effect of various types of conditioning stimuli with dynamic stretching. Twenty athletes participated in 6 protocols. All the experimental protocols included 10 minutes of dynamic stretching. After the dynamic stretching, the subjects performed a (a) concentric (DS/CON): 3 sets of 3 repetition maximum deadlift exercise; (b) isometric (DS/ISOM): 3 sets of 3-second maximum voluntary contraction back squats; (c) plyometric (DS/PLYO): 3 sets of 3 tuck jumps; (d) eccentric (DS/ECC): 3 modified drop jumps; (e) dynamic stretching only (DS), and (f) control protocol (CON). Before the intervention and at recovery periods of 15 seconds, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 minutes, the participants performed 1-2 maximal countermovement jumps. The DS and DS/CON protocols generally had a 95-99% likelihood of exceeding the smallest worthwhile change for vertical jump height, peak power, velocity and force. However, the addition of the deadlift to the DS did not augment the potentiating effect. Time-to-peak potentiation was variable between individuals but was most consistent between 3 and 5 minutes. Thus, the volume and the intensity associated with 10 minutes of dynamic stretching were sufficient to provide the potentiation of vertical jump characteristics. Additional conditioning activities may promote fatigue processes, which do not permit further potentiation. PMID:21792071

  2. Peroral Estradiol Is Sufficient to Induce Carcinogen-Induced Mammary Tumorigenesis in Ovariectomized Rats without Progesterone

    PubMed Central

    Stires, Hillary; Saboya, Mariana; Globerman, Samantha P.; Cohick, Wendie S.

    2016-01-01

    A role for estrogens in breast cancer is widely accepted, however, recent evidence highlights that timing and exposure levels are important in determining whether they elicit harmful versus beneficial effects. The rat chemical carcinogen model has been widely used to study the effects of estrogens but conclusions on the levels that lead to tumor development and an absolute requirement for progesterone (P4) are lacking. A newer method of hormone administration mixes hormones with nut butter for peroral consumption allowing for a less stressful method of long-term administration with lower spikes in serum estradiol (E2) levels. The present study was designed to determine if estrogens alone at a physiological dose can drive carcinogen-induced tumors in ovariectomized (OVX) rats or if P4 is also required using this method of hormone administration. Short-term studies were conducted to determine the dose of estrogen (E) that would lead to increased uterine weight following OVX. Subsequently, rats were OVX on postnatal day (PND) 40 then treated daily with E (600 μg/kg/day), P4 (15 mg/kg/day), or the combination. On PND 50, all rats were injected with nitrosomethylurea to induce mammary tumors. Uterine weights, body weights, and serum E2 levels were measured to demonstrate the efficacy of the method for increasing E2 levels during long-term treatment. After 26 weeks, tumor incidence was similar in Sham, E, and E + P4 animals indicating that E was sufficient to induce tumorigenesis when hormone levels were normalized by this method. This study demonstrates peroral administration can be used in long-term studies to elucidate relationships between different types and levels of steroid hormones. PMID:27611094

  3. Boosting long-term memory via wakeful rest: intentional rehearsal is not necessary, consolidation is sufficient.

    PubMed

    Dewar, Michaela; Alber, Jessica; Cowan, Nelson; Della Sala, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    People perform better on tests of delayed free recall if learning is followed immediately by a short wakeful rest than by a short period of sensory stimulation. Animal and human work suggests that wakeful resting provides optimal conditions for the consolidation of recently acquired memories. However, an alternative account cannot be ruled out, namely that wakeful resting provides optimal conditions for intentional rehearsal of recently acquired memories, thus driving superior memory. Here we utilised non-recallable words to examine whether wakeful rest boosts long-term memory, even when new memories could not be rehearsed intentionally during the wakeful rest delay. The probing of non-recallable words requires a recognition paradigm. Therefore, we first established, via Experiment 1, that the rest-induced boost in memory observed via free recall can be replicated in a recognition paradigm, using concrete nouns. In Experiment 2, participants heard 30 non-recallable non-words, presented as 'foreign names in a bridge club abroad' and then either rested wakefully or played a visual spot-the-difference game for 10 minutes. Retention was probed via recognition at two time points, 15 minutes and 7 days after presentation. As in Experiment 1, wakeful rest boosted recognition significantly, and this boost was maintained for at least 7 days. Our results indicate that the enhancement of memory via wakeful rest is not dependent upon intentional rehearsal of learned material during the rest period. We thus conclude that consolidation is sufficient for this rest-induced memory boost to emerge. We propose that wakeful resting allows for superior memory consolidation, resulting in stronger and/or more veridical representations of experienced events which can be detected via tests of free recall and recognition.

  4. Partial base flipping is sufficient for strand slippage near DNA duplex termini.

    PubMed

    Banavali, Nilesh K

    2013-06-01

    Strand slippage is a structural mechanism by which insertion-deletion (indel) mutations are introduced during replication by polymerases. Three-dimensional atomic-resolution structural pathways are still not known for the decades-old template slippage description. The dynamic nature of the process and the higher energy intermediates involved increase the difficulty of studying these processes experimentally. In the present study, restrained and unrestrained molecular dynamics simulations, carried out using multiple nucleic acid force fields, are used to demonstrate that partial base-flipping can be sufficient for strand slippage at DNA duplex termini. Such strand slippage can occur in either strand, i.e. near either the 3' or the 5' terminus of a DNA strand, which suggests that similar structural flipping mechanisms can cause both primer and template slippage. In the repetitive mutation hot-spot sequence studied, non-canonical base-pairing with exposed DNA groove atoms of a neighboring G:C base-pair stabilizes a partially flipped state of the cytosine. For its base-pair partner guanine, a similar partially flipped metastable intermediate was not detected, and the propensity for sustained slippage was also found to be lower. This illustrates that a relatively small metastable DNA structural distortion in polymerase active sites could allow single base insertion or deletion mutations to occur, and stringent DNA groove molecular recognition may be required to maintain intrinsic DNA polymerase fidelity. The implications of a close relationship between base-pair dissociation, base unstacking, and strand slippage are discussed in the context of sequence dependence of indel mutations. PMID:23692220

  5. [Effectiveness of the use of iodized milk protein to improve girls' sufficiency with iodine].

    PubMed

    Bol'shakova, L S; Lisitsin, A B; Chernukha, I M; Zubtsov, Iu N; Litvinova, E V

    2014-01-01

    The work presents the results of the research capabilities of the use of iodized milk protein as a component of food supplement and enriched food product for the correction of iodine sufficiency in girls. Milk iodinated protein was produced by the enzyme-effective iodization of amino acid residues of cow's milk whey proteins. The study involved 30 girls, whose average age was 19.9 +/- 1.4 years. Participants of observation were divided into three groups, for 10 people each. The first group received daily serving of meat cutlets (50g), enriched with dairy iodinated protein. Iodine content in the finished minced was 100 mcg. The second group received iodinated milk protein in the form of food supplement with iodine content of 100 mcg. The third group was a control one. The duration of observations was 30 days. To assess the effectiveness of measures the concentration of iodine in urine, blood levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine have been determined, changes in cognitive processes (memory and attention) with the use of psychological tests have been evaluated. Studies have shown the effectiveness of using of iodized milk protein for the correction of iodine deficiency in girls. The use of iodized protein, as part of the enriched product and in the form of food supplement increased urinary iodine level and had a positive influence on the state of the hypophysial-thyroid system. In addition, the use of iodized milk protein helped to improve the cognitive functions of the students, which can be considered as an additional positive effect of correction of iodine deficiency.

  6. School children sufficiently apply life supporting first aid: a prospective investigation

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The usefulness of CPR training in schools has been questioned because young students may not have the physical and cognitive skills needed to correctly perform such complex tasks correctly. Methods In pupils, who received six hours of CPR training from their teachers during a standard school semester at four months post training the following outcome parameters were assessed: CPR effectiveness, AED deployment, accuracy in checking vital signs, correctness of recovery position, and whether the ambulance service was effectively notified. Possible correlations of age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and outcome parameters were calculated. Results Of 147 students (mean age 13 ± 2 years), 86% performed CPR correctly. Median depth of chest compressions was 35 mm (inter quartile range (IQR) 31 to 41), and the median number of compressions per minute was 129 bpm (IQR 108 to 143). Sixty nine percent of the students tilted the mannequin head sufficiently for mouth to mouth resuscitation, and the median air volume delivered was 540 ml (IQR 0 to 750). Scores on other life supporting techniques were at least 80% or higher. Depth of chest compressions showed a correlation with BMI (r = 0.35; P < 0.0001), body weight (r = 0.38; P < 0.0001), and body height (r = 0.31; P = 0.0002) but not with age. All other outcomes were found to be unrelated to gender, age, or BMI. Conclusions Students as young as 9 years are able to successfully and effectively learn basic life support skills including AED deployment, correct recovery position and emergency calling. As in adults, physical strength may limit depth of chest compressions and ventilation volumes but skill retention is good. PMID:19646229

  7. Disparate British Breast Reconstruction Utilization: Is Universal Coverage Sufficient to Ensure Expanded Care?

    PubMed Central

    Offodile, Anaeze C.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Our intent is to improve the understanding of the ability of healthcare providers to deliver high-quality care as we approach an era of universal coverage. We adopted 2 unique vantage points in this article: (1) the mandated coverage for immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) surgery as a microcosmic surrogate for universal coverage overall and (2) we then scrutinized the respective IBR utilization rates in a contemporaneous system of 2 healthcare delivery models in the United Kingdom, that is, the public National Health Service trust versus private-sector hospitals. A literature review was performed for IBR rates across public trust and private-sector hospitals in the United Kingdom. The IBR rate among public trust hospitals was 17% compared with 43% in the private sector. In the trust hospital setting, the enactment of 2 government mandates, intended to increase the access to cancer care, seemed to fall short in maximizing the ability of surgical practitioners to deliver quality care to patients. Among women who did not receive IBR, 65% felt that they had received the sufficient amount of information to appropriately inform their decision. In addition, only 46% of this same cohort reported a consultation with a reconstructive surgeon preoperatively. Private-sector hospitals delivered better IBR care because of the likely presence of infrastructure and financial incentives for physicians. These results serve as a call for a better alignment between policy initiatives designed to expand care access and the perogatives of physicians to ensure an optimized delivery of the expanded care such policy mandates. PMID:27482486

  8. Necessary, sufficient and permissive: A single locomotor command neuron important for intersegmental coordination

    PubMed Central

    Puhl, Joshua G.; Masino, Mark A.; Mesce, Karen A.

    2012-01-01

    In this report we posed the over-arching question: What multiple contributions can a single neuron have on controlling the behavior of an animal, especially within a given context? To address this timely question, we studied the neuron R3b-1 in the medicinal leech. This bilaterally paired neuron descends from the cephalic ganglion and projects uninterrupted through the segmental ganglia comprising the nerve cord; its terminal arbors invade each hemi-ganglion. We discovered that a single R3b-1 neuron functions as a command neuron in the strictest sense, as it was both necessary and sufficient for fictive crawling behavior. Aside from these command-related properties, we determined that R3b-1 modulates the cycle period of crawl motor activity. R3b-1 has previously been shown to activate swimming behavior, but when the CNS was exposed to dopamine (DA), crawling became the exclusive locomotor pattern produced by R3b-1. DA exposure also led to bursting in R3b-1 that matched periods observed during fictive crawling, even when potential ascending inputs from crawl oscillators were removed. Although the above attributes render R3b-1 an intriguing cell, it is its ability to permit the coordination of the segmentally-distributed crawl oscillators that makes this multifunctional neuron so notable. To our knowledge, this cell provides the first biological example of a single command neuron that is also vital for the intersegmental coordination of a locomotor behavior. Furthermore, our study highlights the importance of DA as an internal contextual cue that can integrate functional layers of the nervous system for adaptive behavior. PMID:23223287

  9. Boosting Long-Term Memory via Wakeful Rest: Intentional Rehearsal Is Not Necessary, Consolidation Is Sufficient

    PubMed Central

    Dewar, Michaela; Alber, Jessica; Cowan, Nelson; Della Sala, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    People perform better on tests of delayed free recall if learning is followed immediately by a short wakeful rest than by a short period of sensory stimulation. Animal and human work suggests that wakeful resting provides optimal conditions for the consolidation of recently acquired memories. However, an alternative account cannot be ruled out, namely that wakeful resting provides optimal conditions for intentional rehearsal of recently acquired memories, thus driving superior memory. Here we utilised non-recallable words to examine whether wakeful rest boosts long-term memory, even when new memories could not be rehearsed intentionally during the wakeful rest delay. The probing of non-recallable words requires a recognition paradigm. Therefore, we first established, via Experiment 1, that the rest-induced boost in memory observed via free recall can be replicated in a recognition paradigm, using concrete nouns. In Experiment 2, participants heard 30 non-recallable non-words, presented as ‘foreign names in a bridge club abroad’ and then either rested wakefully or played a visual spot-the-difference game for 10 minutes. Retention was probed via recognition at two time points, 15 minutes and 7 days after presentation. As in Experiment 1, wakeful rest boosted recognition significantly, and this boost was maintained for at least 7 days. Our results indicate that the enhancement of memory via wakeful rest is not dependent upon intentional rehearsal of learned material during the rest period. We thus conclude that consolidation is sufficient for this rest-induced memory boost to emerge. We propose that wakeful resting allows for superior memory consolidation, resulting in stronger and/or more veridical representations of experienced events which can be detected via tests of free recall and recognition. PMID:25333957

  10. Conditions sufficient for nonsynaptic epileptogenesis in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Bikson, Marom; Baraban, Scott C; Durand, Dominique M

    2002-01-01

    Nonsynaptic mechanisms exert a powerful influence on seizure threshold. It is well-established that nonsynaptic epileptiform activity can be induced in hippocampal slices by reducing extracellular Ca(2+) concentration. We show here that nonsynaptic epileptiform activity can be readily induced in vitro in normal (2 mM) Ca(2+) levels. Those conditions sufficient for nonsynaptic epileptogenesis in the CA1 region were determined by pharmacologically mimicking the effects of Ca(2+) reduction in normal Ca(2+) levels. Increasing neuronal excitability, by removing extracellular Mg(2+) and increasing extracellular K(+) (6-15 mM), induced epileptiform activity that was suppressed by postsynaptic receptor antagonists [D-(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid, picrotoxin, and 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione] and was therefore synaptic in nature. Similarly, epileptiform activity induced when neuronal excitability was increased in the presence of K(Ca) antagonists (verruculogen, charybdotoxin, norepinephrine, tetraethylammonium salt, and Ba(2+)) was found to be synaptic in nature. Decreases in osmolarity also failed to induce nonsynaptic epileptiform activity in the CA1 region. However, increasing neuronal excitability (by removing extracellular Mg(2+) and increasing extracellular K(+)) in the presence of Cd(2+), a nonselective Ca(2+) channel antagonist, or veratridine, a persistent sodium conductance enhancer, induced spontaneous nonsynaptic epileptiform activity in vitro. Both novel models were characterized using intracellular and ion-selective electrodes. The results of this study suggest that reducing extracellular Ca(2+) facilitates bursting by increasing neuronal excitability and inhibiting Ca(2+) influx, which might, in turn, enhance a persistent sodium conductance. Furthermore, these data show that nonsynaptic mechanisms can contribute to epileptiform activity in normal Ca(2+) levels. PMID:11784730

  11. Is polychaete family-level sufficient to assess impact on tropical estuarine gradients?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nóbrega-Silva, Climélia; Patrício, Joana; Marques, João Carlos; Olímpio, Monalisa dos Santos; Farias, Jéssica Natyelle Barros; Molozzi, Joseline

    2016-11-01

    Regular, robust monitoring programs set up to assess the environmental conditions of aquatic systems often target different biological groups. And, of these, macroinvertebrate communities and particularly the class Polychaeta are frequently used. Identifying these organisms takes time, money and specialized expertise to ensure correct identification to the lowest possible taxonomic level. Identification errors can lead to an erroneous assessment. The concept of taxonomic sufficiency has been proposed both to minimize errors and to save time and money. This study tested the usefulness of this concept in tropical estuaries in northeast Brazil. We selected two transitional systems with different degrees of human impact due to different land uses and different conservation systems: the Mamanguape estuary, which is in an environmental conservation unit for sustainable use, and the highly impacted, urban Paraíba do Norte estuary. The results clearly showed that nutrient concentrations were markedly higher in the Paraíba do Norte estuary in the dry season and that the composition of the polychaete assemblages differed between the two estuaries as well as along the spatial gradient of each estuary. The use of either genus or family level led to equivalent representation in each system in terms of taxon richness and both the Margalef and Shannon-Wiener diversity indices. Both taxonomic levels described similar changes in the polychaete assemblage along the estuarine gradients. Based on our findings, the use of a coarser taxonomic level (i.e., family) is a good option when the aim is to implement a monitoring program in tropical estuaries with the polychaete assemblages as one of the target groups. This time-efficient taxonomic resolution can help improve sampling designs and allow long-term monitoring studies without losing much vital information.

  12. Disparate British Breast Reconstruction Utilization: Is Universal Coverage Sufficient to Ensure Expanded Care?

    PubMed

    Offodile, Anaeze C; Guo, Lifei

    2016-06-01

    Our intent is to improve the understanding of the ability of healthcare providers to deliver high-quality care as we approach an era of universal coverage. We adopted 2 unique vantage points in this article: (1) the mandated coverage for immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) surgery as a microcosmic surrogate for universal coverage overall and (2) we then scrutinized the respective IBR utilization rates in a contemporaneous system of 2 healthcare delivery models in the United Kingdom, that is, the public National Health Service trust versus private-sector hospitals. A literature review was performed for IBR rates across public trust and private-sector hospitals in the United Kingdom. The IBR rate among public trust hospitals was 17% compared with 43% in the private sector. In the trust hospital setting, the enactment of 2 government mandates, intended to increase the access to cancer care, seemed to fall short in maximizing the ability of surgical practitioners to deliver quality care to patients. Among women who did not receive IBR, 65% felt that they had received the sufficient amount of information to appropriately inform their decision. In addition, only 46% of this same cohort reported a consultation with a reconstructive surgeon preoperatively. Private-sector hospitals delivered better IBR care because of the likely presence of infrastructure and financial incentives for physicians. These results serve as a call for a better alignment between policy initiatives designed to expand care access and the perogatives of physicians to ensure an optimized delivery of the expanded care such policy mandates. PMID:27482486

  13. Antithyroid and goitrogenic effects of coal-water extracts from iodine-sufficient goiter areas.

    PubMed

    Gaitan, E; Cooksey, R C; Legan, J; Cruse, J M; Lindsay, R H; Hill, J

    1993-01-01

    Goiter in iodine-sufficient areas has been linked to water-borne goitrogens in watersheds and aquifers rich in coal and shale. In the present study, the potential antithyroid and goitrogenic effects of coal-water extracts (CWE) were investigated in vivo in rats after chronic and acute oral administration of CWE, and in vitro by a thyroid peroxidase (TPO) enzyme system. CWE was prepared by continuous extraction of ground (40 mesh) Appalachian coal with goitrogen-free water (GFW). Female Buffalo rats fed on Purina iodine-rich diet (12 micrograms I-/day/rat), were given ad lib CWE (50 mg/ml; approximately 20 mL/day/rat) or GFW (controls) for 2 months. At the end of the experiment, 125I 1 microCi, was injected i.p. and 4 h later the thyroid glands were removed, weighed, and analyzed histologically and for total 125I and 125I-labeled compounds. Rats on CWE had larger thyroid glands [7.2 +/- 0.3 mg/100 g (mean +/- SE) vs 5.0 +/- 0.5 controls; p < 0.005] with distinct histological changes of smaller thyroid follicles, some with columnar epithelium, and with more dense colloid than in controls, and had significant inhibition of the coupling mechanism for production of thyroid hormones [125MIT + DIT/125T3 + T4: 5.1 +/- 0.2 vs 3.9 +/- 0.1 controls, p < 0.005; and 125T3 + T4 (%): 10.6 +/- 0.3 vs 12.6 +/- 0.4 controls, p < 0.005]. Female Sprague-Dawley rats under the same conditions as Buffalo rats were given acutely by GI tube 2 mL of CWE (5 g/mL) or GFW (controls).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. 75 FR 31805 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Resident Opportunity and Self-Sufficiency (ROSS)-Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... designed to help Public and Indian housing residents attain economic and housing self- sufficiency. This.......... 3481 North Fanning Drive, 168,762 Flagstaff, AZ 86003. San Carlos Housing Authority...... P.O. Box...

  15. The biostatistical theory versus the harmful dysfunction analysis, part 1: is part-dysfunction a sufficient condition for medical disorder?

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Jerome C

    2014-12-01

    Christopher Boorse's biostatistical theory of medical disorder claims that biological part-dysfunction (i.e., failure of an internal mechanism to perform its biological function), a factual criterion, is both necessary and sufficient for disorder. Jerome Wakefield's harmful dysfunction analysis of medical disorder agrees that part-dysfunction is necessary but rejects the sufficiency claim, maintaining that disorder also requires that the part-dysfunction causes harm to the individual, a value criterion. In this paper, I present two considerations against the sufficiency claim. First, I analyze Boorse's central argument for the sufficiency claim, the "pathologist argument," which takes pathologists' intuitions about pathology as determinative of medical disorder and conclude that it begs the question and fails to support the sufficiency claim. Second, I present four counterexamples from the medical literature in which salient part-dysfunctions are considered nondisorders, including healthy disease carriers, HIV-positive status, benign mutations, and situs inversus totalis, thus falsifying the sufficiency claim and supporting the harm criterion.

  16. Procalcitonin is not sufficiently reliable to be the sole marker of neonatal sepsis of nosocomial origin

    PubMed Central

    López Sastre, José B; Pérez Solís, David; Roqués Serradilla, Vicente; Fernández Colomer, Belén; Coto Cotallo, Gil D; Krauel Vidal, Xavier; Narbona López, Eduardo; García del Río, Manuel; Sánchez Luna, Manuel; Belaustegui Cueto, Antonio; Moro Serrano, Manuel; Urbón Artero, Alfonso; Álvaro Iglesias, Emilio; Cotero Lavín, Ángel; Martínez Vilalta, Eduardo; Jiménez Cobos, Bartolomé

    2006-01-01

    Background It has recently been suggested that serum procalcitonin (PCT) is of value in the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis, with varying results. The aim of this prospective multicenter study was to assess the usefulness of PCT as a marker of neonatal sepsis of nosocomial origin. Methods One hundred infants aged between 4 and 28 days of life admitted to the Neonatology Services of 13 acute-care teaching hospitals in Spain over 1-year with clinical suspicion of neonatal sepsis of nosocomial origin were included in the study. Serum PCT concentrations were determined by a specific immunoluminometric assay. The reliability of PCT for the diagnosis of nosocomial neonatal sepsis at the time of suspicion of infection and at 12–24 h and 36–48 h after the onset of symptoms was calculated by receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curves. The Youden's index (sensitivity + specificity - 1) was used for determination of optimal cutoff values of the diagnostic tests in the different postnatal periods. Sensitivity, specificity, and the likelihood ratio of a positive and negative result with the 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Results The diagnosis of nosocomial sepsis was confirmed in 61 neonates. Serum PCT concentrations were significantly higher at initial suspicion and at 12–24 h and 36–48 h after the onset of symptoms in neonates with confirmed sepsis than in neonates with clinically suspected but not confirmed sepsis. Optimal PCT thresholds according to ROC curves were 0.59 ng/mL at the time of suspicion of sepsis (sensitivity 81.4%, specificity 80.6%); 1.34 ng/mL within 12–24 h of birth (sensitivity 73.7%, specificity 80.6%), and 0.69 ng/mL within 36–48 h of birth (sensitivity 86.5%, specificity 72.7%). Conclusion Serum PCT concentrations showed a moderate diagnostic reliability for the detection of nosocomial neonatal sepsis from the time of suspicion of infection. PCT is not sufficiently reliable to be the sole marker of sepsis, but would be

  17. U.S. Nurse Labor Market Dynamics Are Key to Global Nurse Sufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Aiken, Linda H

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To review estimates of U.S. nurse supply and demand, document trends in nurse immigration to the United States and their impact on nursing shortage, and consider strategies for resolving the shortage of nurses in the United States without adversely affecting health care in lower-income countries. Principal Findings Production capacity of nursing schools is lagging current and estimated future needs, suggesting a worsening shortage and creating a demand for foreign-educated nurses. About 8 percent of U.S. registered nurses (RNs), numbering around 219,000, are estimated to be foreign educated. Eighty percent are from lower-income countries. The Philippines is the major source country, accounting for more than 30 percent of U.S. foreign-educated nurses. Nurse immigration to the United States has tripled since 1994, to close to 15,000 entrants annually. Foreign-educated nurses are located primarily in urban areas, most likely to be employed by hospitals, and somewhat more likely to have a baccalaureate degree than native-born nurses. There is little evidence that foreign-educated nurses locate in areas of medical need in any greater proportion than native-born nurses. Although foreign-educated nurses are ethnically more diverse than native-born nurses, relatively small proportions are black or Hispanic. Job growth for RNs in the United States is producing mounting pressure by commercial recruiters and employers to ease restrictions on nurse immigration at the same time that American nursing schools are turning away large numbers of native applicants because of capacity limitations. Conclusions Increased reliance on immigration may adversely affect health care in lower-income countries without solving the U.S. shortage. The current focus on facilitating nurse immigration detracts from the need for the United States to move toward greater self-sufficiency in its nurse workforce. Expanding nursing school capacity to accommodate qualified native applicants and

  18. Are single odorous components of a predator sufficient to elicit defensive behaviors in prey species?

    PubMed

    Apfelbach, Raimund; Parsons, Michael H; Soini, Helena A; Novotny, Milos V

    2015-01-01

    When exposed to the odor of a sympatric predator, prey animals typically display escape or defensive responses. These phenomena have been well-documented, especially in rodents, when exposed to the odor of a cat, ferret, or fox. As a result of these experiments new discussions center on the following questions: (1) is a single volatile compound such as a major or a minor mixture constituent in urine or feces, emitted by the predator sufficient to cause defensive reactions in a potential prey species or (2) is a whole array of odors required to elicit a response and (3) will the relative size or escapability of the prey as compared to the predator influence responsiveness. Most predator-prey studies on this topic have been performed in the laboratory or under semi-natural conditions. Field studies could help to find answers to these questions. Australian mammals are completely naïve toward the introduced placental carnivores. That offers ideal opportunities to analyze in the field the responses of potential prey species to unknown predator odors. During the last decades researchers have accumulated an enormous amount of data exploring the effects of eutherian predator odors on native marsupial mammals. In this review, we will give a survey about the development of olfactory research, chemical signals and their influence on the behavior and-in some cases-physiology of prey species. In addition, we report on the effects of predator odor experiments performed under natural conditions in Australia. When studying all these literature we learned that data gained under controlled laboratory conditions elucidate the role of individual odors on brain structures and ultimately on a comparatively narrow range behaviors. In contrast to single odors odor arrays mimic much more the situation prey animals are confronted to in nature. Therefore, a broad range of methodology-from chemistry to ecology including anatomy, physiology, and behavior-is needed to understand all the

  19. Are single odorous components of a predator sufficient to elicit defensive behaviors in prey species?

    PubMed Central

    Apfelbach, Raimund; Parsons, Michael H.; Soini, Helena A.; Novotny, Milos V.

    2015-01-01

    When exposed to the odor of a sympatric predator, prey animals typically display escape or defensive responses. These phenomena have been well-documented, especially in rodents, when exposed to the odor of a cat, ferret, or fox. As a result of these experiments new discussions center on the following questions: (1) is a single volatile compound such as a major or a minor mixture constituent in urine or feces, emitted by the predator sufficient to cause defensive reactions in a potential prey species or (2) is a whole array of odors required to elicit a response and (3) will the relative size or escapability of the prey as compared to the predator influence responsiveness. Most predator-prey studies on this topic have been performed in the laboratory or under semi-natural conditions. Field studies could help to find answers to these questions. Australian mammals are completely naïve toward the introduced placental carnivores. That offers ideal opportunities to analyze in the field the responses of potential prey species to unknown predator odors. During the last decades researchers have accumulated an enormous amount of data exploring the effects of eutherian predator odors on native marsupial mammals. In this review, we will give a survey about the development of olfactory research, chemical signals and their influence on the behavior and—in some cases—physiology of prey species. In addition, we report on the effects of predator odor experiments performed under natural conditions in Australia. When studying all these literature we learned that data gained under controlled laboratory conditions elucidate the role of individual odors on brain structures and ultimately on a comparatively narrow range behaviors. In contrast to single odors odor arrays mimic much more the situation prey animals are confronted to in nature. Therefore, a broad range of methodology—from chemistry to ecology including anatomy, physiology, and behavior—is needed to understand all

  20. Genotypic Variation for N2-FIXATION in Voandzou (vigna Subterranea) Under P Deficiency and P Sufficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andry, A.; Mahamadou, M.; Lilia, R.; Laurie, A.; Hélène, V.; Dominique, M.; Christian, M.; Jean-Jacques, D.

    2011-12-01

    Genetic variation associated with N2 fixation exists in numerous legume species (Graham, 2004). High symbiotic N2 fixation under P deficiency is related closely to nodulation which was used in legume selection for N2 fixation (Herridge and Rose, 2000). Until now, study of genetic potential of neglected crops like Vigna subterranea (bambara groundnut or voandzou) is often limited while its agronomic properties is interesting for the farmers of Africa. In order to assess the genotypic variation of voandzou for tolerance to phosphorus deficiency, a physiological approach of cultivar selection was performed with 54 cultivars from Madagascar, Niger and Mali in hydroponic culture under P deficiency and P sufficiency and inoculated with the reference strain of Bradyrhizobium sp. Vigna CB756. The results of nodulation and plant biomass, which are closely related, showed a large dispersion between cultivars (0.05-0.43 g nodule dry weight per plant and 0.50-5.51 g shoot dry weight per plant). The cultivars which presented the maximum growth during the experiment presented a high efficiency in use of the rhizobial symbiosis calculated as the slope of plant biomass regression as a function of nodulation. A large increase in nodulated-root O2 consumption under P deficiency was observed for the two most tolerant cultivars. The microscopic analysis with in situ RT-PCR of the nodule sections showed an increase of a phytase gene expression with tolerance of cultivars to P deficiency. From two most contrasting cultivars, an isotopic exchange method 32P was carried out on rhizosphere soil in rhizotron culture in order to assess the direct effect induced by the roots in terms of phosphorus mobilization. The rhizospheric effect was observed under P deficiency marked by a strong re-supplying capacity of soil solution in the diffusive phosphate ion between solid phase and soil solution leading to great phosphorus nutrition. These results highlight the genotypic variability among voandzou

  1. Aflatoxin is not a probably human carcinogen: the published evidence is sufficient.

    PubMed

    Stoloff, L

    1989-12-01

    infection for aflatoxin could not be ruled out. However, the epidemiological studies of the HBV/PLC relation indicate that an accessory factor is not an essential condition, a conclusion supported by animal models and a laboratory study that specifically found no interaction between aflatoxin and a hepatitis virus in the duck, a species in which liver cancer can be induced by either agent. It was surprising that an IARC Working Group meeting in 1987 concluded, on the basis of much of this evidence that was available at that time, and citing other studies that appear to be irrelevant to the issue, that there was sufficient evidence to consider aflatoxin a probable human carcinogen.

  2. Reliability-based structural optimization using response surface approximations and probabilistic sufficiency factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Xueyong

    Uncertainties exist practically everywhere from structural design to manufacturing, product lifetime service, and maintenance. Uncertainties can be introduced by errors in modeling and simulation; by manufacturing imperfections (such as variability in material properties and structural geometric dimensions); and by variability in loading. Structural design by safety factors using nominal values without considering uncertainties may lead to designs that are either unsafe, or too conservative and thus not efficient. The focus of this dissertation is reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) of composite structures. Uncertainties are modeled by the probabilistic distributions of random variables. Structural reliability is evaluated in term of the probability of failure. RBDO minimizes cost such as structural weight subject to reliability constraints. Since engineering structures usually have multiple failure modes, Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) was used employed to calculate the system probability of failure. Response surface (RS) approximation techniques were used to solve the difficulties associated with MCS. The high computational cost of a large number of MCS samples was alleviated by analysis RS, and numerical noise in the results of MCS was filtered out by design RS. RBDO of composite laminates is investigated for use in hydrogen tanks in cryogenic environments. The major challenge is to reduce the large residual strains developed due to thermal mismatch between matrix and fibers while maintaining the load carrying capacity. RBDO is performed to provide laminate designs, quantify the effects of uncertainties on the optimum weight, and identify those parameters that have the largest influence on optimum design. Studies of weight and reliability tradeoffs indicate that the most cost-effective measure for reducing weight and increasing reliability is quality control. A probabilistic sufficiency factor (PSF) approach was developed to improve the computational

  3. The Singaporean response to the SARS outbreak: knowledge sufficiency versus public trust.

    PubMed

    Deurenberg-Yap, M; Foo, L L; Low, Y Y; Chan, S P; Vijaya, K; Lee, M

    2005-12-01

    knowledge on the one hand and high confidence and trust in the actions of the government on the other suggests that Singaporeans do not require high knowledge sufficiency to be confident in measures undertaken by the government to control the SARS crisis.

  4. The transcension hypothesis: Sufficiently advanced civilizations invariably leave our universe, and implications for METI and SETI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, John M.

    2012-09-01

    The emerging science of evolutionary developmental ("evo devo") biology can aid us in thinking about our universe as both an evolutionary system, where most processes are unpredictable and creative, and a developmental system, where a special few processes are predictable and constrained to produce far-future-specific emergent order, just as we see in the common developmental processes in two stars of an identical population type, or in two genetically identical twins in biology. The transcension hypothesis proposes that a universal process of evolutionary development guides all sufficiently advanced civilizations into what may be called "inner space," a computationally optimal domain of increasingly dense, productive, miniaturized, and efficient scales of space, time, energy, and matter, and eventually, to a black-hole-like destination. Transcension as a developmental destiny might also contribute to the solution to the Fermi paradox, the question of why we have not seen evidence of or received beacons from intelligent civilizations. A few potential evolutionary, developmental, and information theoretic reasons, mechanisms, and models for constrained transcension of advanced intelligence are briefly considered. In particular, we introduce arguments that black holes may be a developmental destiny and standard attractor for all higher intelligence, as they appear to some to be ideal computing, learning, forward time travel, energy harvesting, civilization merger, natural selection, and universe replication devices. In the transcension hypothesis, simpler civilizations that succeed in resisting transcension by staying in outer (normal) space would be developmental failures, which are statistically very rare late in the life cycle of any biological developing system. If transcension is a developmental process, we may expect brief broadcasts or subtle forms of galactic engineering to occur in small portions of a few galaxies, the handiwork of young and immature

  5. The buoyancy of large siliceous magma chambers is sufficient to initiate supereruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malfait, W.; Sanchez-Valle, C.; Seifert, R.; Petitgirard, S.; Perrillat, J.; Ota, T.; Nakamura, E.; Lerch, P.; Mezouar, M.

    2012-12-01

    The geological record shows abundant evidence for rare, but extremely large caldera-forming eruptions of siliceous magmas that dwarf all historical volcanic episodes in erupted volume [1] and environmental impact [2, 3]. Because of the large size of the magma chambers that feed these eruptions, the overpressure generated by magma recharge is insufficient to fracture the cap rock and trigger an eruption [4]. For these thick magma chambers, the buoyancy of the magma potentially creates a sufficient overpressure capable of fracturing the cap rock, but the lack of data on the density of rhyolite melts precludes the appropriate estimation of the overpressure and the role of buoyancy in initiating supervolcano eruptions. The density of rhyolite melts has not been determined at super-liquidus temperatures or elevated pressures because traditional techniques, including Archimedean methods, sink/float experiments and acoustic measurements, are limited by the high melt viscosity. Here, we measured the density of rhyolitic/granitic melts with 0, 4.5 and 7.7 wt% of dissolved water at geologically relevant conditions: 0.9 to 3.6 GPa, 1270 to 1950 K. High pressure and temperature conditions were generated in a Paris-Edinburgh large volume press. Before and after each density measurement, the molten state of the sample was verified by X-ray diffraction. The density of the melt (ρPT) was determined from the X-ray attenuation coefficient of the sample, determined in situ (μPT) and at room conditions (μ0), and the density at room conditions (ρ0): ρPT=ρ0.(μPT/μ0). The acquired data were combined with available ambient pressure data on super-cooled liquids [5, 6] to derive a third order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state that accurately predicts the density of rhyolite melts as a function of pressure, temperature and water content, and the partial molar volume of dissolved water. Application of the melt equation of state to calculate the overpressure at the roof of supervolcano

  6. Vitamin D sufficiency associates with an increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines after intense exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Barker, Tyler; Martins, Thomas B; Hill, Harry R; Kjeldsberg, Carl R; Dixon, Brian M; Schneider, Erik D; Henriksen, Vanessa T; Weaver, Lindell K

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the influence of vitamin D status (insufficient vs. sufficient) on circulating cytokines and skeletal muscle strength after muscular injury. To induce muscular injury, one randomly selected leg (SSC) performed exercise consisting of repetitive eccentric-concentric contractions. The other leg served as the control. An averaged serum 25(OH)D concentration from two blood samples collected before exercise and on separate occasions was used to establish vitamin D insufficiency (<30ng/mL, n=6) and sufficiency (>30ng/mL, n=7) in young, adult males. Serum cytokine concentrations, single-leg peak isometric force, and single-leg peak power output were measured before and during the days following the exercise protocol. The serum IL-10 and IL-13 responses to muscular injury were significantly (both p<0.05) increased in the vitamin D sufficient group. The immediate and persistent (days) peak isometric force (p<0.05) and peak power output (p<0.05) deficits in the SSC leg after the exercise protocol were not ameliorated with vitamin D sufficiency. We conclude that vitamin D sufficiency increases the anti-inflammatory cytokine response to muscular injury. PMID:24388225

  7. Are clinical parameters sufficient to model gait patterns in patients with cerebral palsy using a multilinear approach?

    PubMed

    Bonnefoy-Mazure, Alice; Sagawa, Yoshisama; Pomero, Vincent; Lascombes, Pierre; De Coulon, Geraldo; Armand, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether clinical parameters are sufficient using, a multilinear regression model, to reproduce the sagittal plane joint angles (hip, knee, and ankle) in cerebral palsy gait. A total of 154 patients were included. The two legs were considered (308 observations). Thirty-six clinical parameters were used as regressors (range of motion, muscle strength, and spasticity of the lower). From the clinical gait analysis, the joint angles of the sagittal plane were selected. Results showed that clinical parameter does not provide sufficient information to recover joint angles and/or that the multilinear regression model is not an appropriate solution.

  8. Necessary and sufficient conditions on n-qudit state for perfect teleportation of an arbitrary single qudit state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang-Guan, Li-Ying; Sun, Hong-Xiang; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Zhu, Fu-Chen

    2009-12-01

    Firstly, we investigate the necessary and sufficient conditions that an entangled channel of n-qubits should satisfy to carry out perfect teleportation of an arbitrary single qubit state and dense coding. It is shown that the sender can transmit two classical bits of information by sending one qubit. Further, the case of high-dimension quantum state is also considered. Utilizing n-qudit state as quantum channel, it is proposed that the necessary and sufficient conditions are {(d+2)(d-1)}/{2} in all to teleport an arbitrary single qudit state. The sender can transmit 2log2d classical bits of information to the receiver conditioned on the constraints.

  9. Is Transducer Hygiene sufficient when Vaginal Probes are used in the Clinical Routine?

    PubMed

    Merz, E

    2016-04-01

    probe, after removal of the cover, must undergo disinfection measures providing bactericidal, fungicidal and virucidal effects. Since the transducer handle also poses a significant risk of transmission of germs, this component must likewise be sufficiently disinfected. In the event of perforation or rupture of the latex cover, thus resulting in the probe coming into contact with vaginal secretions or blood, the probe must be not only cleaned, but effectively disinfected with a virucide as well. It should also be noted that infection by bacteria and viruses can be caused not only by a contaminated probe, but by the ultrasound gel as well. According to studies by Heeg and Gauer 15, Buescher et al. as well as Ryndock et al., the fully automatic HLD system operated with hydrogen peroxide is currently the only validated system proven to provide HLD of ultrasound probes in a 7-minute cycle, thus suitable for application in the daily routine. Likewise it can also be presumed that this procedure also offers good material compatibility. PMID:27058433

  10. Is Transducer Hygiene sufficient when Vaginal Probes are used in the Clinical Routine?

    PubMed

    Merz, E

    2016-04-01

    probe, after removal of the cover, must undergo disinfection measures providing bactericidal, fungicidal and virucidal effects. Since the transducer handle also poses a significant risk of transmission of germs, this component must likewise be sufficiently disinfected. In the event of perforation or rupture of the latex cover, thus resulting in the probe coming into contact with vaginal secretions or blood, the probe must be not only cleaned, but effectively disinfected with a virucide as well. It should also be noted that infection by bacteria and viruses can be caused not only by a contaminated probe, but by the ultrasound gel as well. According to studies by Heeg and Gauer 15, Buescher et al. as well as Ryndock et al., the fully automatic HLD system operated with hydrogen peroxide is currently the only validated system proven to provide HLD of ultrasound probes in a 7-minute cycle, thus suitable for application in the daily routine. Likewise it can also be presumed that this procedure also offers good material compatibility.

  11. The Development of Economic Self-Sufficiency among Former Welfare Recipients: Lessons Learned from Wisconsin's Welfare to Work Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfred, Mary V.; Martin, Larry G.

    2007-01-01

    In 1996, the US Congress passed the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, changing the culture of welfare from a system of dependency to one of personal responsibility and economic self-sufficiency through workplace participation. Through the expert views of case managers and area employers of Wisconsin, this research…

  12. Self-Sufficiency in Northern Justice Issues. Proceedings of the Northern Justice Society Meeting (5th, Sitka, Alaska, April 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Curt Taylor, Ed.

    As indigenous peoples in the Arctic move closer to sovereignty, self-sufficiency in the realm of criminal justice assumes paramount importance. This book outlines initiatives and strategies to improve the delivery of justice services to aboriginal peoples in Canada, Alaska, and Greenland. Topics include: social and spiritual causes of alcoholism…

  13. Cystic fibrosis mutations for p.F508del compound heterozygotes predict sweat chloride levels and pancreatic sufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Sebro, R; Levy, H; Schneck, K; Dimmock, D; Raby, BA; Cannon, CL; Broeckel, U; Risch, NJ

    2014-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a monogenetic disease with a complex phenotype. Over 1500 mutations in the CFTR gene have been identified; however, the p.F508del mutation is most common. There has been limited correlation between the CFTR mutation genotype and the disease phenotypes. We evaluated the non-p.F508del mutation of 108 p.F508del compound heterozygotes using the biological classification method, Grantham and Sorting Intolerant from Tolerant (SIFT) scores to assess whether these scoring systems correlated with sweat chloride levels, pancreatic sufficiency, predicted FEV1, and risk of infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the last year. Mutations predicted to be ‘mild’ by the biological classification method are associated with more normal sweat chloride levels (p < 0.001), pancreatic sufficiency (p < 0.001) and decreased risk of infection with Pseudomonas in the last year (p = 0.014). Lower Grantham scores are associated with more normal sweat chloride levels (p < 0.001), and pancreatic sufficiency (p = 0.014). Higher SIFT scores are associated with more normal sweat chloride levels (p < 0.001) and pancreatic sufficiency (p = 0.011). There was no association between pulmonary function measured by predicted FEV1 and the biological classification (p = 0.98), Grantham (p = 0.28) or SIFT scores (p = 0.62), which suggests the pulmonary disease related to CF may involve other modifier genes and environmental factors. PMID:22035343

  14. Tritium self-sufficiency time and inventory evolution for solid-type breeding blanket materials for DEMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packer, L. W.; Pampin, R.; Zheng, S.

    2011-10-01

    One of the primary functions of a fusion blanket is to generate enough tritium to make a fusion power plant (FPP) self-sufficient. To ensure that there is satisfactory tritium production in a real plant the tritium breeding ratio (TBR) in the blanket must be greater than 1 + M, where M is the breeding margin. For solid-type blanket designs, the initial TBR must be significantly higher than 1 + M, since the blanket TBR will be reduced over time as the lithium fuel is consumed. The rate of TBR reduction will impact on the overall blanket self-sufficiency time, the time in which the net tritium inventory of the system is positive. DEMO relevant blanket materials, Li 4SiO 4 and Li 2TiO 3, are investigated by computational simulation using radiation transport tools coupled with time-dependent inventory calculations. The results include tritium inventory assessments and depletion of breeding materials over time, which enable self-sufficiency times and maximum surplus tritium inventories to be evaluated, which are essential quantities to determine to allow one to design a credible FPP using solid-type breeding material concepts. The blanket concepts investigated show self-sufficiency times of several years in some cases and maximum surplus inventories of up to a few tens of kg.

  15. Programs To Enhance the Self-Sufficiency of Welfare Families: Working towards a Model of Effects on Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaslow, Martha; Moore, Kristin; Coiro, Mary Jo; Morrison, Donna Ruane

    Although it has been assumed that increasing maternal education or family income will improve children's well-being, considering the impact on child care arrangements and home environment raises the possibility of negative effects. This paper reviews experimental evaluations of seven programs designed to enhance welfare families' self-sufficiency,…

  16. The Adequacy of the Information that Students Utilize when Choosing a College: An Attribute Importance and Information Sufficiency Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolinsky, Arthur L.

    2010-01-01

    This study employed a college student sample to retrospectively assess the adequacy of the college-related attribute information they received when deciding to attend college. The assessment separately considered males and females in the study's information sufficiency-importance framework with resulting strategies. The results suggest that when…

  17. 37 CFR 1.424 - Assignee, obligated assignee, or person having sufficient proprietary interest as applicant in an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... designates the United States of America. A person who otherwise shows sufficient proprietary interest in the matter may be an applicant in an international application which designates the United States of America... Section 1.424 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT......

  18. 37 CFR 1.424 - Assignee, obligated assignee, or person having sufficient proprietary interest as applicant in an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... designates the United States of America. A person who otherwise shows sufficient proprietary interest in the matter may be an applicant in an international application which designates the United States of America... Section 1.424 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT......

  19. The State of the Science of Employment and Economic Self-Sufficiency for People with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, Derek; Luecking, Richard; Mank, David; Kiernan, William; Wray, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Employment, career advancement, and financial independence are highly valued in the United States. As expectations, they are often instilled at a young age and incentivized throughout adulthood. Despite their importance, employment and economic sufficiency continue to be out of reach for most people with intellectual and developmental disabilities…

  20. Self-Sufficiency, Personal Empowerment, and Community Revitalization: The Impact of a Leadership Program on American Indians in the Southwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassin, Jeanette; Young, Robert S.

    1999-01-01

    A self-empowerment leadership program used a metacognitive approach to provide Native participants with a process for dealing with life's challenges, both personally and within their communities. Interviews with 42 participants explored their move toward self-sufficiency and how far they were able to go in transforming individual self-sufficiency…

  1. The Impact of Population Density on the Likelihood of Aid to Dependent Children (ADC) Clients Becoming Economically Self-Sufficient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bendixen-Noe, Mary K.; And Others

    The impact of population density on the likelihood of Aid to Dependent Children (ADC) clients becoming economically self-sufficient was examined through a study of 2,647 ADC recipients referred to a total of 8 comprehensive vocational assessment centers (CVACs) for ADC clients that were established in Ohio in 1992. Of the CVACs, two were from each…

  2. An empirical approach to sufficient similarity in dose-responsiveness: Utilization of statistical distance as a similarity measure.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using statistical equivalence testing logic and mixed model theory an approach has been developed, that extends the work of Stork et al (JABES,2008), to define sufficient similarity in dose-response for chemical mixtures containing the same chemicals with different ratios ...

  3. Empirical evaluation of sufficient similarity in dose-response for environmental risk assessment of a mixture of 11 pyrethroids.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical mixtures in the environment are often the result of a dynamic process. When dose-response data are available on random samples throughout the process, equivalence testing can be used to determine whether the mixtures are sufficiently similar based on a pre-specified biol...

  4. 49 CFR 40.263 - What happens when an employee is unable to provide a sufficient amount of saliva for an alcohol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... a sufficient amount of saliva for an alcohol screening test? 40.263 Section 40.263 Transportation... sufficient amount of saliva for an alcohol screening test? (a) As the STT, you must take the following steps if an employee is unable to provide sufficient saliva to complete a test on a saliva screening...

  5. 49 CFR 40.265 - What happens when an employee is unable to provide a sufficient amount of breath for an alcohol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... a sufficient amount of breath for an alcohol test? 40.265 Section 40.265 Transportation Office of... sufficient amount of breath for an alcohol test? (a) If an employee does not provide a sufficient amount of breath to permit a valid breath test, you must take the steps listed in this section. (b) As the BAT...

  6. 49 CFR 40.265 - What happens when an employee is unable to provide a sufficient amount of breath for an alcohol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... a sufficient amount of breath for an alcohol test? 40.265 Section 40.265 Transportation Office of... sufficient amount of breath for an alcohol test? (a) If an employee does not provide a sufficient amount of breath to permit a valid breath test, you must take the steps listed in this section. (b) As the BAT...

  7. 49 CFR 40.265 - What happens when an employee is unable to provide a sufficient amount of breath for an alcohol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... a sufficient amount of breath for an alcohol test? 40.265 Section 40.265 Transportation Office of... sufficient amount of breath for an alcohol test? (a) If an employee does not provide a sufficient amount of breath to permit a valid breath test, you must take the steps listed in this section. (b) As the BAT...

  8. 49 CFR 40.265 - What happens when an employee is unable to provide a sufficient amount of breath for an alcohol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... a sufficient amount of breath for an alcohol test? 40.265 Section 40.265 Transportation Office of... sufficient amount of breath for an alcohol test? (a) If an employee does not provide a sufficient amount of breath to permit a valid breath test, you must take the steps listed in this section. (b) As the BAT...

  9. 49 CFR 40.265 - What happens when an employee is unable to provide a sufficient amount of breath for an alcohol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... a sufficient amount of breath for an alcohol test? 40.265 Section 40.265 Transportation Office of... sufficient amount of breath for an alcohol test? (a) If an employee does not provide a sufficient amount of breath to permit a valid breath test, you must take the steps listed in this section. (b) As the BAT...

  10. 49 CFR 40.263 - What happens when an employee is unable to provide a sufficient amount of saliva for an alcohol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... a sufficient amount of saliva for an alcohol screening test? 40.263 Section 40.263 Transportation... sufficient amount of saliva for an alcohol screening test? (a) As the STT, you must take the following steps if an employee is unable to provide sufficient saliva to complete a test on a saliva screening...

  11. 49 CFR 40.263 - What happens when an employee is unable to provide a sufficient amount of saliva for an alcohol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... a sufficient amount of saliva for an alcohol screening test? 40.263 Section 40.263 Transportation... sufficient amount of saliva for an alcohol screening test? (a) As the STT, you must take the following steps if an employee is unable to provide sufficient saliva to complete a test on a saliva screening...

  12. 49 CFR 40.263 - What happens when an employee is unable to provide a sufficient amount of saliva for an alcohol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... a sufficient amount of saliva for an alcohol screening test? 40.263 Section 40.263 Transportation... sufficient amount of saliva for an alcohol screening test? (a) As the STT, you must take the following steps if an employee is unable to provide sufficient saliva to complete a test on a saliva screening...

  13. 49 CFR 40.263 - What happens when an employee is unable to provide a sufficient amount of saliva for an alcohol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... a sufficient amount of saliva for an alcohol screening test? 40.263 Section 40.263 Transportation... sufficient amount of saliva for an alcohol screening test? (a) As the STT, you must take the following steps if an employee is unable to provide sufficient saliva to complete a test on a saliva screening...

  14. Stable operation of a 300-m laser interferometer with sufficient sensitivity to detect gravitational-wave events within our galaxy.

    PubMed

    Ando, M; Arai, K; Takahashi, R; Heinzel, G; Kawamura, S; Tatsumi, D; Kanda, N; Tagoshi, H; Araya, A; Asada, H; Aso, Y; Barton, M A; Fujimoto, M K; Fukushima, M; Futamase, T; Hayama, K; Horikoshi, G; Ishizuka, H; Kamikubota, N; Kawabe, K; Kawashima, N; Kobayashi, Y; Kojima, Y; Kondo, K; Kozai, Y; Kuroda, K; Matsuda, N; Mio, N; Miura, K; Miyakawa, O; Miyama, S M; Miyoki, S; Moriwaki, S; Musha, M; Nagano, S; Nakagawa, K; Nakamura, T; Nakao, K; Numata, K; Ogawa, Y; Ohashi, M; Ohishi, N; Okutomi, S; Oohara, K; Otsuka, S; Saito, Y; Sasaki, M; Sato, S; Sekiya, A; Shibata, M; Somiya, K; Suzuki, T; Takamori, A; Tanaka, T; Taniguchi, S; Telada, S; Tochikubo, K; Tomaru, T; Tsubono, K; Tsuda, N; Uchiyama, T; Ueda, A; Ueda, K; Waseda, K; Watanabe, Y; Yakura, H; Yamamoto, K; Yamazaki, T

    2001-04-30

    TAMA300, an interferometric gravitational-wave detector with 300-m baseline length, has been developed and operated with sufficient sensitivity to detect gravitational-wave events within our galaxy and sufficient stability for observations; the interferometer was operated for over 10 hours stably and continuously. With a strain-equivalent noise level of h approximately 5x10(-21)/sqrt[Hz], a signal-to-noise ratio of 30 is expected for gravitational waves generated by a coalescence of 1.4M-1.4M binary neutron stars at 10 kpc distance. We evaluated the stability of the detector sensitivity with a 2-week data-taking run, collecting 160 hours of data to be analyzed in the search for gravitational waves.

  15. A combined system of microbial fuel cell and intermittently aerated biological filter for energy self-sufficient wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yue; Feng, Yujie; Qu, Youpeng; Du, Yue; Zhou, Xiangtong; Liu, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Energy self-sufficiency is a highly desirable goal of sustainable wastewater treatment. Herein, a combined system of a microbial fuel cell and an intermittently aerated biological filter (MFC-IABF) was designed and operated in an energy self-sufficient manner. The system was fed with synthetic wastewater (COD = 1000 mg L(-1)) in continuous mode for more than 3 months at room temperature (~25 °C). Voltage output was increased to 5 ± 0.4 V using a capacitor-based circuit. The MFC produced electricity to power the pumping and aeration systems in IABF, concomitantly removing COD. The IABF operating under an intermittent aeration mode (aeration rate 1000 ± 80 mL h(-1)) removed the residual nutrients and improved the water quality at HRT = 7.2 h. This two-stage combined system obtained 93.9% SCOD removal and 91.7% TCOD removal (effluent SCOD = 61 mg L(-1), TCOD = 82.8 mg L(-1)). Energy analysis indicated that the MFC unit produced sufficient energy (0.27 kWh m(-3)) to support the pumping system (0.014 kWh m(-3)) and aeration system (0.22 kWh m(-3)). These results demonstrated that the combined MFC-IABF system could be operated in an energy self-sufficient manner, resulting to high-quality effluent. PMID:26666392

  16. A combined system of microbial fuel cell and intermittently aerated biological filter for energy self-sufficient wastewater treatment

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yue; Feng, Yujie; Qu, Youpeng; Du, Yue; Zhou, Xiangtong; Liu, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Energy self-sufficiency is a highly desirable goal of sustainable wastewater treatment. Herein, a combined system of a microbial fuel cell and an intermittently aerated biological filter (MFC-IABF) was designed and operated in an energy self-sufficient manner. The system was fed with synthetic wastewater (COD = 1000 mg L−1) in continuous mode for more than 3 months at room temperature (~25 °C). Voltage output was increased to 5 ± 0.4 V using a capacitor-based circuit. The MFC produced electricity to power the pumping and aeration systems in IABF, concomitantly removing COD. The IABF operating under an intermittent aeration mode (aeration rate 1000 ± 80 mL h−1) removed the residual nutrients and improved the water quality at HRT = 7.2 h. This two-stage combined system obtained 93.9% SCOD removal and 91.7% TCOD removal (effluent SCOD = 61 mg L−1, TCOD = 82.8 mg L−1). Energy analysis indicated that the MFC unit produced sufficient energy (0.27 kWh m−3) to support the pumping system (0.014 kWh m−3) and aeration system (0.22 kWh m−3). These results demonstrated that the combined MFC-IABF system could be operated in an energy self-sufficient manner, resulting to high-quality effluent. PMID:26666392

  17. Using Paraffin PCM to Make Optical Communication Type of Payloads Thermally Self-Sufficient for Operation in Orion Crew Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    An innovative concept of using paraffin phase change material with a melting point of 28 C to make Optical Communication type of payload thermally self-sufficient for operation in the Orion Crew Module is presented. It stores the waste heat of the payload and permits it to operate for about one hour by maintaining its temperature within the maximum operating limit. It overcomes the problem of relying on the availability of cold plate heat sink in the Orion Crew Module.

  18. Retrocausal Effects As A Consequence of Orthodox Quantum Mechanics Refined To Accommodate The Principle Of Sufficient Reason

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapp, Henry P.

    2011-11-01

    The principle of sufficient reason asserts that anything that happens does so for a reason: no definite state of affairs can come into being unless there is a sufficient reason why that particular thing should happen. This principle is usually attributed to Leibniz, although the first recorded Western philosopher to use it was Anaximander of Miletus. The demand that nature be rational, in the sense that it be compatible with the principle of sufficient reason, conflicts with a basic feature of contemporary orthodox physical theory, namely the notion that nature's response to the probing action of an observer is determined by pure chance, and hence on the basis of absolutely no reason at all. This appeal to pure chance can be deemed to have no rational fundamental place in reason-based Western science. It is argued here, on the basis of the other basic principles of quantum physics, that in a world that conforms to the principle of sufficient reason, the usual quantum statistical rules will naturally emerge at the pragmatic level, in cases where the reason behind nature's choice of response is unknown, but that the usual statistics can become biased in an empirically manifest way when the reason for the choice is empirically identifiable. It is shown here that if the statistical laws of quantum mechanics were to be biased in this way then the basically forward-in-time unfolding of empirical reality described by orthodox quantum mechanics would generate the appearances of backward-time-effects of the kind that have been reported in the scientific literature.

  19. Sampling sufficiency for analyzing taxonomic relatedness of periphytic ciliate communities using an artificial substratum in coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Henglong; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Yong; Zhu, Mingzhuang; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A. S.

    2012-08-01

    Taxonomic relatedness measures of ciliated protozoan communities have successively been used as useful indicators for assessing water quality in marine ecosystems with a number of desirable properties. Sampling sufficiency for analyzing taxonomic relatedness indices of periphytic ciliate communities was studied in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea, northern China, from May to June, 2010. Samples were collected at two depths of 1 m and 3 m using an artificial substratum (glass slides), and were analyzed based on different sampling strategies (slide replicates). For achieving a dissimilarity of < 10%, more slide replicates were required with shortening community ages: 3-10 slide replicates were sufficient for the young (1-7 days) communities while 2-4 slide replicates were for the mature (10-28 days). The standard errors of four taxonomic relatedness indices due to the sample sizes were increased only in the young communities with shortening colonization times. For achieving a standard error of < 10%, 1 slide replicate was generally sufficient for the mature communities, whereas 4-10 were required for the young. These findings suggested that low slide replicates were required for measuring taxonomic relatedness indices compared to analyzing the community patterns, and that these indices were more sensitive to the sample sizes of a young community than a mature one of periphytic ciliates in marine ecosystems.

  20. Necessary but Not Sufficient...

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Gill; Kitson, Alison

    2015-01-01

    The challenge of mobilizing knowledge to improve patient care, population health and ensure effective use of resources is an enduring one in healthcare systems across the world. This commentary reflects on an earlier paper by Ferlie and colleagues that proposes the resource-based view (RBV) of the firm as a useful theoretical lens through which to study knowledge mobilization in healthcare. Specifically, the commentary considers 3 areas that need to be addressed in relation to the proposed application of RBV: the definition of competitive advantage in healthcare; the contribution of macro level theory to understanding knowledge mobilization in healthcare; and the need to embrace and align multiple theories at the micro, meso, and macro levels of implementation. PMID:26673476

  1. Tensor sufficient dimension reduction

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Wenxuan; Xing, Xin; Suslick, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Tensor is a multiway array. With the rapid development of science and technology in the past decades, large amount of tensor observations are routinely collected, processed, and stored in many scientific researches and commercial activities nowadays. The colorimetric sensor array (CSA) data is such an example. Driven by the need to address data analysis challenges that arise in CSA data, we propose a tensor dimension reduction model, a model assuming the nonlinear dependence between a response and a projection of all the tensor predictors. The tensor dimension reduction models are estimated in a sequential iterative fashion. The proposed method is applied to a CSA data collected for 150 pathogenic bacteria coming from 10 bacterial species and 14 bacteria from one control species. Empirical performance demonstrates that our proposed method can greatly improve the sensitivity and specificity of the CSA technique. PMID:26594304

  2. Self sufficient world

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Lynn

    1974-01-01

    Described the efforts of Sietze Leeflang, a Dutch scientific journalist, and his group of young scientists to take a practical stand on environmental pollution by working their small farm in innovative fashion. (RK)

  3. Neuronal overexpression of Glo1 or amygdalar microinjection of methylglyoxal is sufficient to regulate anxiety-like behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    McMurray, K M J; Du, X; Brownlee, M; Palmer, A A

    2016-03-15

    GLO1 (Glyoxalase1) is a ubiquitous cellular enzyme that detoxifies methylglyoxal (MG), which is a byproduct of glycolysis. Previously, we showed that ubiquitous overexpression of Glo1 reduced concentrations of MG and increased anxiety-like behavior, whereas systemic injection of MG reduced anxiety-like behavior. We further showed that MG is a competitive partial agonist at GABA-A receptors. Based on those data we hypothesized that modulation of GABAergic signaling by MG underlies Glo1 and MG's effects on anxiety-like behavior. As previous studies used ubiquitous overexpression, we sought to determine whether neuronal Glo1 overexpression was sufficient to increase anxiety-like behavior. We generated ROSA26 knock-in mice with a floxed-stop codon upstream from human Glo1 (FLOXGlo1KI) and bred them with mice expressing CRE recombinase under the direction of the Synapsin 1 promoter (Syn-CRE) to limit overexpression of Glo1 specifically to neurons. Furthermore, since previous administration of MG had been systemic, we sought to determine if direct microinjection of MG into the basolateral amygdala (BLA) was sufficient to reduce anxiety-like behavior. Thus, we performed bilateral microinjections of saline, MG (12μM or 24μM), or the positive control midazolam (4mM) directly into the BLA. FLOXGlo1KIxSyn-CRE mice showed significantly increased anxiety-like behavior compared to their FLOXGLO1xWT littermates. In addition, bilateral microinjection of MG and midazolam significantly decreased anxiety-like behavior compared to saline treated mice. These studies suggest that anatomically specific manipulations of Glo1 and MG are sufficient to induce changes in anxiety-like behavior.

  4. Some sufficient conditions for persistency and permanency of two stages DNA splicing languages via Yusof-Goode approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudaber, Mohammad Hassan; Yusof, Yuhani; Mohamad, Mohd Sham

    2014-07-01

    Splicing system that was first introduced by Head makes a connection between field of formal language theory and molecular biology. This system modeled the biological process of splitting and ligating on double stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules under effect of restriction enzymes and appropriate ligase. In this paper, the concept of two stages DNA splicing languages is introduced. Some sufficient conditions for persistency and permanency of the above DNA splicing languages focusing on two rules and two initial strings will be investigated by usingYusof-Good (Y-G) approach.

  5. The need for a sufficient number of low level sera in comparisons of different serum vitamin B12 assays.

    PubMed

    Gijzen, A H; de Kock, H W; Meulendijk, P N; Schmidt, N A; Schopman, W; Tertoolen, J F; Voogd, C E

    1983-01-24

    Eight radiochemical methods for the assay of vitamin B12 in serum were compared with the microbiological assay with Lactobacillus leichmannii ATCC 7830 using 198 individual sera of patients. There was a good agreement between the results of most samples with some kits and the microbiological assay. However, especially in the sera of vitamin B12-deficient patients large discrepancies between the results could occur. These variations were due to both the kits used and the performance of the assays in different laboratories. A sufficient number of non-pooled sera of vitamin B12-deficient patients should be included in investigations to validate radiochemical methods. PMID:6825315

  6. Play It, Learn It, Make It Last: Developing an Online Game to Create Self-Sufficient Library Information Users.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Lindsay M

    2016-01-01

    Library orientation at an academic health sciences library consisted of a five-minute overview within new student orientation. Past experience indicated this brief presentation was insufficient for students to learn about library resources. In 2014, an effort was made to supplement orientation by developing an online game aimed at enabling students to become self-sufficient through hands-on learning. A gaming model was chosen with expectations that competition and rewards would motivate students. Although the pilots suffered from low participation rates, the experience merits further research into the potential of a broader model of online library instruction in the health sciences environment. PMID:27391178

  7. Normal fertilization in men with high antibody sperm binding by the addition of sufficient unbound sperm in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, F; Gutlay-Yeo, A L; Meldrum, D R

    1989-12-01

    A high incidence of fertilization failure has been reported in men with over 70% of their sperm bound with isoantibodies. In three men with greater than 80% antisperm antibody binding with IgG and IgA immunoglobulins, a normal rate of fertilization (29/46 oocytes; 63%) was achieved by adding a sufficient number of motile sperm to provide at least 50,000 unbound sperm per oocyte. This method appears to be simpler and more effective than attempting to separate unbound sperm in vitro.

  8. Giving Economically Disadvantaged, Minority Food Pantry Patrons' a Voice: Implications for Equitable Access to Sufficient, Nutritious Food.

    PubMed

    Greer, Anna E; Cross-Denny, Bronwyn; McCabe, Michelle; Castrogivanni, Brianna

    2016-01-01

    This study provides economically disadvantaged, minority food pantry patrons (hereafter, patrons) a meaning-ful voice by examining their experiences trying to obtain sufficient, nutritious food. Five focus groups were conducted using a semistructured discussion guide. Atlast.ti software was used to manage and analyze the data. Patrons reported that pantry staff who preserved their dignity by showing compassion were highly valued. Stigma and shame associated with pantry use were major concerns. Patrons suggested environmental and policy changes to improve their food acquisition experiences. These findings suggest that multilevel interventions addressing food access, food distribution policies, and patron-staff interactions are warranted.

  9. Play It, Learn It, Make It Last: Developing an Online Game to Create Self-Sufficient Library Information Users.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Lindsay M

    2016-01-01

    Library orientation at an academic health sciences library consisted of a five-minute overview within new student orientation. Past experience indicated this brief presentation was insufficient for students to learn about library resources. In 2014, an effort was made to supplement orientation by developing an online game aimed at enabling students to become self-sufficient through hands-on learning. A gaming model was chosen with expectations that competition and rewards would motivate students. Although the pilots suffered from low participation rates, the experience merits further research into the potential of a broader model of online library instruction in the health sciences environment.

  10. Evidence that a single monolayer tubulin-GTP cap is both necessary and sufficient to stabilize microtubules.

    PubMed Central

    Caplow, M; Shanks, J

    1996-01-01

    Evidence that 13 or 14 contiguous tubulin-GTP subunits are sufficient to cap and stabilize a microtubule end and that loss of only one of these subunits results in the transition to rapid disassembly(catastrophe) was obtained using the slowly hydrolyzable GTP analogue guanylyl-(a,b)-methylene-diphosphonate (GMPCPP). The minus end of microtubules assembled with GTP was transiently stabilized against dilution-induced disassembly by reaction with tubulin-GMPCPP subunits for a time sufficient to cap the end with an average 40 subunits. The minimum size of a tubulin-GMPCPP cap sufficient to prevent disassembly was estimated from an observed 25- to 2000-s lifetime of the GMPCPP-stabilized microtubules following dilution with buffer and from the time required for loss of a single tubulin-GMPCPP subunit from the microtubule end (found to be 15 s). Rather than assuming that the 25- to 2000-s dispersion in cap lifetime results from an unlikely 80-fold range in the number of tubulin-GMPCpP subunits added in the 25-s incubation, it is proposed that this results because the minimum stable cap contains 13 to 14 tubulin-GMPCPP subunits. As a consequence, a microtubule capped with 13-14 tubulin-GMPCPP subunits switches to disassembly after only one dissociation event (in about 15 s), whereas the time required for catastrophe of a microtubule with only six times as many subunits (84 subunits) corresponds to 71 dissociation events (84-13). The minimum size of a tubulin-GMPCPP cap sufficient to prevent disassembly was also estimated with microtubules in which a GMPCPP-cap was formed by allowing chance to result in the accumulation of multiple contiguous tubulin-GMPCPP subunits at the end, during the disassembly of microtubules containing both GDP and GMPCPP. Our observation that the disassembly rate was inhibited in proportion to the 13-14th power of the fraction of subunits containing GMPCPP again suggests that a minimum cap contains 13-14 tubulin-GMPCPP subunits. A remeasurement of

  11. An outboard shield design for TIBER-II with potential for tritium self-sufficiency: Appendix A-1

    SciTech Connect

    Sawan, M.E.; Sviatoslavsky, I.N.

    1987-01-01

    The outboard breeding shield design for TIBER-II is described. The design allows for tritium self-sufficiency without compromising magnet protection, design simplicity, and the testing mission of the device. The shield consists of a beryllium pebble front zone backed by a steel pebble zone. The shield is cooled by an aqueous solution containing 16 g LiNO/sub 3/ per 100 cm/sup 3/. A double first wall is used to insure uniform cooling and minimize pressure. The design pressure for the outboard shield is 0.19 MPa and the coolant temperature is less than 75/sup 0/C. 6 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. A psychoacoustic method for studying the necessary and sufficient perceptual cues of American English fricative consonants in noise

    PubMed Central

    Li, Feipeng; Trevino, Andrea; Menon, Anjali; Allen, Jont B.

    2012-01-01

    In a previous study on plosives, the 3-Dimensional Deep Search (3DDS) method for the exploration of the necessary and sufficient cues for speech perception was introduced (Li et al., (2010). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 127(4), 2599–2610). Here, this method is used to isolate the spectral cue regions for perception of the American English fricatives /∫, ʒ, s, z, f, v, θ, ð/ in time, frequency, and intensity. The fricatives are analyzed in the context of consonant-vowel utterances, using the vowel /ɑ/. The necessary cues were found to be contained in the frication noise for /∫, ʒ, s, z, f, v/. 3DDS analysis isolated the cue regions of /s, z/ between 3.6 and 8 [kHz] and /∫, ʒ/ between 1.4 and 4.2 [kHz]. Some utterances were found to contain acoustic components that were unnecessary for correct perception, but caused listeners to hear non-target consonants when the primary cue region was removed; such acoustic components are labeled “conflicting cue regions.” The amplitude modulation of the high-frequency frication region by the fundamental F0 was found to be a sufficient cue for voicing. Overall, the 3DDS method allows one to analyze the effects of natural speech components without initial assumptions about where perceptual cues lie in time-frequency space or which elements of production they correspond to. PMID:23039459

  13. Minimal sufficient balance-a new strategy to balance baseline covariates and preserve randomness of treatment allocation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenle; Hill, Michael D; Palesch, Yuko

    2015-12-01

    In many clinical trials, baseline covariates could affect the primary outcome. Commonly used strategies to balance baseline covariates include stratified constrained randomization and minimization. Stratification is limited to few categorical covariates. Minimization lacks the randomness of treatment allocation. Both apply only to categorical covariates. As a result, serious imbalances could occur in important baseline covariates not included in the randomization algorithm. Furthermore, randomness of treatment allocation could be significantly compromised because of the high proportion of deterministic assignments associated with stratified block randomization and minimization, potentially resulting in selection bias. Serious baseline covariate imbalances and selection biases often contribute to controversial interpretation of the trial results. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke recombinant tissue plasminogen activator Stroke Trial and the Captopril Prevention Project are two examples. In this article, we propose a new randomization strategy, termed the minimal sufficient balance randomization, which will dually prevent serious imbalances in all important baseline covariates, including both categorical and continuous types, and preserve the randomness of treatment allocation. Computer simulations are conducted using the data from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke recombinant tissue plasminogen activator Stroke Trial. Serious imbalances in four continuous and one categorical covariate are prevented with a small cost in treatment allocation randomness. A scenario of simultaneously balancing 11 baseline covariates is explored with similar promising results. The proposed minimal sufficient balance randomization algorithm can be easily implemented in computerized central randomization systems for large multicenter trials.

  14. A small peptide sequence is sufficient for initiating kinesin-1 activation through part of TPR region of KLC1.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Takanori; Araseki, Masahiko; Araki, Yoichi; Kinjo, Masataka; Yamamoto, Tohru; Suzuki, Toshiharu

    2012-06-01

    Kinesin-1 anterogradely transports vesicles containing cargo proteins when a protein-protein interaction activates it from an inhibited state. The C-terminal cytoplasmic region of kinesin-1 cargo protein Alcadeinα (Alcα) interacts with the KLC1 subunit's tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) region, activating kinesin-1's association with vesicles and anterograde transport. We found that either of two 10-amino-acid WD motifs in Alcα cytoplasmic region was necessary and sufficient to initiate this activation. An artificial transmembrane protein containing either WD motif induced kinesin-1's vesicular association and anterograde transport in a KLC-dependent manner, even in the normally inhibiting presence of excess KLC1, thus allowing us to analyze the KLC1 TPR-WD functional interaction in detail in vivo. A part of TPR region was dispensable for the WD motifs' activation of kinesin-1 and transport, indicating that only part of the TPR structure is required for this function in vivo. For a different kinesin-1 cargo protein, JIP1, an 11-amino-acid C-terminal region was sufficient to recruit KLC1 to vesicles, but did not activate transport. These observations suggest that structurally different TPR-interacting peptides may have different effects on kinesin-1. This mechanism may partly explain how kinesin-1 can organize the transport of a wide variety of cargo molecules.

  15. Do street food vendors sell a sufficient variety of foods for a healthful diet? The case of Nairobi.

    PubMed

    Mwangi, Alice Mboganie; den Hartog, Adel P; Mwadime, Robert K N; van Staveren, Wija A; Foeken, Dick W J

    2002-03-01

    This study examined whether street food vendors sell a sufficient variety of foods for a healthful diet. It was hypothesized that vendors sold only low-cost food groups to enable the buyer to afford the food while the vendor also made a profit. A structured questionnaire was administered to 580 vendors in three selected locations. Data included product names, ingredients, methods of preparation, and the sex of the vendor. A little more than half of the vendors (53%) sold food of only one group; 44% sold cereals. Overall, 36% of vendors, mostly men, sold only carbohydrate products. The percentage of vendors selling foods of more than one group was higher in the working area (53%) than in the slum area (43%, p < .05), and it was higher in both of these areas taken together than in the lower-middle income area (21%, p < .001). Micronutrient and mixed-nutrient products were associated with female vendors. Although a slight majority of all street vendors sell foods of only one group, women vendors are capable of supplying a sufficient variety of food groups that consumers can afford. It appears that consumer purchasing power dictates the food groups provided by vendors, especially cereal-based-foods. A policy on micronutrient fortification of cereal flours and fats used in popular street food preparation needs to be considered. This could be coupled with consumer and vendor education programs focusing on the importance of healthful diets. PMID:11975369

  16. Activation of InsP3 receptors is sufficient for inducing graded intrinsic plasticity in rat hippocampal pyramidal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ashhad, Sufyan; Johnston, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The synaptic plasticity literature has focused on establishing necessity and sufficiency as two essential and distinct features in causally relating a signaling molecule to plasticity induction, an approach that has been surprisingly lacking in the intrinsic plasticity literature. In this study, we complemented the recently established necessity of inositol trisphosphate (InsP3) receptors (InsP3R) in a form of intrinsic plasticity by asking if InsP3R activation was sufficient to induce intrinsic plasticity in hippocampal neurons. Specifically, incorporation of d-myo-InsP3 in the recording pipette reduced input resistance, maximal impedance amplitude, and temporal summation but increased resonance frequency, resonance strength, sag ratio, and impedance phase lead. Strikingly, the magnitude of plasticity in all these measurements was dependent on InsP3 concentration, emphasizing the graded dependence of such plasticity on InsP3R activation. Mechanistically, we found that this InsP3-induced plasticity depended on hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels. Moreover, this calcium-dependent form of plasticity was critically reliant on the release of calcium through InsP3Rs, the influx of calcium through N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors and voltage-gated calcium channels, and on the protein kinase A pathway. Our results delineate a causal role for InsP3Rs in graded adaptation of neuronal response dynamics, revealing novel regulatory roles for the endoplasmic reticulum in neural coding and homeostasis. PMID:25552640

  17. Role of exponential type random invexities for asymptotically sufficient efficiency conditions in semi-infinite multi-objective fractional programming.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ram U; Seol, Youngsoo

    2016-01-01

    First a new notion of the random exponential Hanson-Antczak type [Formula: see text]-V-invexity is introduced, which generalizes most of the existing notions in the literature, second a random function [Formula: see text] of the second order is defined, and finally a class of asymptotically sufficient efficiency conditions in semi-infinite multi-objective fractional programming is established. Furthermore, several sets of asymptotic sufficiency results in which various generalized exponential type [Formula: see text]-V-invexity assumptions are imposed on certain vector functions whose components are the individual as well as some combinations of the problem functions are examined and proved. To the best of our knowledge, all the established results on the semi-infinite aspects of the multi-objective fractional programming are new, which is a significantly new emerging field of the interdisciplinary research in nature. We also observed that the investigated results can be modified and applied to several special classes of nonlinear programming problems.

  18. Role of exponential type random invexities for asymptotically sufficient efficiency conditions in semi-infinite multi-objective fractional programming.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ram U; Seol, Youngsoo

    2016-01-01

    First a new notion of the random exponential Hanson-Antczak type [Formula: see text]-V-invexity is introduced, which generalizes most of the existing notions in the literature, second a random function [Formula: see text] of the second order is defined, and finally a class of asymptotically sufficient efficiency conditions in semi-infinite multi-objective fractional programming is established. Furthermore, several sets of asymptotic sufficiency results in which various generalized exponential type [Formula: see text]-V-invexity assumptions are imposed on certain vector functions whose components are the individual as well as some combinations of the problem functions are examined and proved. To the best of our knowledge, all the established results on the semi-infinite aspects of the multi-objective fractional programming are new, which is a significantly new emerging field of the interdisciplinary research in nature. We also observed that the investigated results can be modified and applied to several special classes of nonlinear programming problems. PMID:27652051

  19. The Effect of Herbal Tea Containing Fenugreek Seed on the Signs of Breast Milk Sufficiency in Iranian Girl Infants

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Vida; Kheirkhah, Masoomeh; Vahedi, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the important reasons behind termination of breast-feeding in the first six months after childbirth is insufficient production of breast milk. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of herbal tea containing fenugreek seed on the signs of breast milk sufficiency in Iranian girl infants aged 0 - 4 months, at the medical health centers of Tehran university of medical sciences. Patients and Methods: This study was a clinical trial with a control group. Seventy-eight girl infants, 0 - 4 months old that were exclusively breastfed by their mothers, were randomly assigned to the intervention group (received herbal tea containing 7.5 g fenugreek seed powder in addition to 3 g of black tea, three times a day) and the control group (received herbal tea containing 3 g of black tea powder, three times a day). Before and during the four weeks of study, the signs of breast milk sufficiency were evaluated through measurement of growth parameters and use of follow-up forms for measuring the number of wet diapers in one day, frequency of defecation and infant breast-feeding times in a day. Results: Before the intervention there was no significant difference between weight, height, head circumference, the number of wet diapers and frequency of defecation between the two groups (P > 0.05), yet the number of breast feeding times of the control group was more than the Fenugreek group. At the end of the fourth week in proportion to the pre-intervention conditions, the weight of the infants in the fenugreek group increased significantly from 5282.0513 ± 1021.51121 to 6383.0769 ± 952.06190, while head circumference increased from 38.3103 ± 1.62736 to 39.9256 ± 1.50660, number of wet diapers from 5.2821 ± 0.93044 to 8.1648 ± 1.20620, frequency of defecation from 1.8846 ± 1.08495 to 2.7326 ± 0.94771 and the number of breast feeding times from 9.1795 ± 1.39778 to 15.9597 ± 1.45056 (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant effect on

  20. IS PROTOSTELLAR HEATING SUFFICIENT TO HALT FRAGMENTATION? A CASE STUDY OF THE MASSIVE PROTOCLUSTER G8.68-0.37

    SciTech Connect

    Longmore, S. N.; Pillai, T.; Keto, E.; Zhang, Q.; Qiu, K.

    2011-01-10

    If star formation proceeds by thermal fragmentation and the subsequent gravitational collapse of the individual fragments, how is it possible to form fragments massive enough for O and B stars in a typical star-forming molecular cloud where the Jeans mass is about 1 M{sub sun} at the typical densities (10{sup 4} cm{sup -3}) and temperatures (10 K)? We test the hypothesis that a first generation of low-mass stars may heat the gas enough that subsequent thermal fragmentation results in fragments {>=}10 M{sub sun}, sufficient to form B stars. We combine ATCA and Submillimeter Array observations of the massive star-forming region G8.68-0.37 with radiative transfer modeling to derive the present-day conditions in the region and use this to infer the conditions in the past, at the time of core formation. Assuming that the current mass/separation of the observed cores equals the fragmentation Jeans mass/length and the region's average density has not changed requires the gas temperature to have been 100 K at the time of fragmentation. The postulated first generation of low-mass stars would still be around today, but the number required to heat the cloud exceeds the limits imposed by the observations. Several lines of evidence suggest the observed cores in the region should eventually form O stars yet none have sufficient raw material. Even if feedback may have suppressed fragmentation, it was not sufficient to halt it to this extent. To develop into O stars, the cores must obtain additional mass from outside their observationally defined boundaries. The observations suggest that they are currently fed via infall from the very massive reservoir ({approx}1500 M{sub sun}) of gas in the larger parsec scale cloud around the star-forming cores. This suggests that massive stars do not form in the collapse of individual massive fragments, but rather in smaller fragments that themselves continue to gain mass by accretion from larger scales.

  1. Perspective: hypothesis: serum IgG antibody is sufficient to confer protection against infectious diseases by inactivating the inoculum.

    PubMed

    Robbins, J B; Schneerson, R; Szu, S C

    1995-06-01

    The theory proposed is that a critical level of specific serum IgG is sufficient to confer protection against infectious diseases by inactivating the inoculum of the pathogen. This theory relies heavily on evaluation of licensed vaccines and includes the following: Measurement of serum antibodies only reliably predicts the efficacy of vaccines, according to regulatory agencies. Serum IgG antibodies alone account for the protection conferred by passive immunization. "Herd" immunity conferred by vaccines on viral and bacterial diseases is best explained by serum antibodies that inactivate the inoculum on mucosal surfaces, thus reducing the pathogen's transmission. Once the disease is manifest, serum antibodies induced by active immunization will neither relieve symptoms nor eliminate the pathogen; specific IgG must be present when the host encounters the pathogen in order to confer protective immunity. Information about the initial pathogen-host contact is vital, whereas knowledge of the symptomatology of the disease may not be essential for vaccine development.

  2. Difference between the maximum empirical and field measured peak Watt values of thermal power system under highly sufficient solar conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhussain, O. A.; Abdel-Magid, T. I. M.

    2016-08-01

    Mono-Crystalline solar cell module is experimentally conducted in Khartoum, Sudan to study the difference between maximum empirical value of peak Watt and maximum value of thermal power produced in field under highly sufficient solar conditions. Field measurements are recorded for incident solar radiation, produced voltage, current and temperature at several time intervals during sun shine period. The thermal power system has been calculated using fundamental principles of heat transfer. The study shows that solar power for considered module could not attain the empirical peak power irrespective to maximum value of direct incident solar radiation and maximum temperature gained. A loss of about 6% of power can be considered as the difference between field measurements and the manufacturer's indicated empirical value. Solar cell exhibits 94% efficiency in comparison with manufacturer's provided data, and is 3'% more efficient in thermal energy production than in electrical power extraction for hot-dry climate conditions.

  3. Comparison of serum and plasma taurine values in Bengal tigers with values in taurine-sufficient and -deficient domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Pickett, J P; Chesney, R W; Beehler, B; Moore, C P; Lippincott, S; Sturman, J; Ketring, K L

    1990-01-15

    A white Bengal tiger was determined to have a central retinal lesion and a central visual defect. Because of the known association between feline central retinal degeneration (CRD) and taurine deficiency in domestic cats, plasma concentrations of taurine were measured in this tiger. Serum concentrations of taurine, methionine, and cystine also were measured in white Bengal tigers, orange Bengal tigers, taurine-sufficient domestic cats, and taurine-deprived and tissue-taurine-depleted visually impaired cats with CRD. Hepatic and brain enzymes responsible for taurine synthesis were identified in tissue specimens from an orange Bengal tiger. Serum taurine concentrations were lower in white vs orange tigers, but were not as low as those in cats with CRD. Thus, we concluded that taurine depletion did not account for the central retinal lesion in the white Bengal tiger.

  4. TAK1 is activated in the myocardium after pressure overload and is sufficient to provoke heart failure in transgenic mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, D.; Gaussin, V.; Taffet, G. E.; Belaguli, N. S.; Yamada, M.; Schwartz, R. J.; Michael, L. H.; Overbeek, P. A.; Schneider, M. D.

    2000-01-01

    The transforming-growth-factor-beta-activated kinase TAK1 is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase family, which couples extracellular stimuli to gene transcription. The in vivo function of TAK1 is not understood. Here, we investigated the potential involvement of TAK1 in cardiac hypertrophy. In adult mouse myocardium, TAK1 kinase activity was upregulated 7 days after aortic banding, a mechanical load that induces hypertrophy and expression of transforming growth factor beta. An activating mutation of TAK1 expressed in myocardium of transgenic mice was sufficient to produce p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in vivo, cardiac hypertrophy, interstitial fibrosis, severe myocardial dysfunction, 'fetal' gene induction, apoptosis and early lethality. Thus, TAK1 activity is induced as a delayed response to mechanical stress, and can suffice to elicit myocardial hypertrophy and fulminant heart failure.

  5. A Structure-Preserving Model and Sufficient Condition for Frequency Synchronization of Lossless Droop Inverter-Based AC Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Ainsworth, Nathan G; Grijalva, Prof. Santiago

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for analysis of frequency synchronization of lossless power networks whose sources are frequency-droop controlled inverters. Unlike most existing approaches, our method focuses on the interaction between inverters and the network to provide new physical insight into how those interactions create frequency synchronization. We introduce two structure-preserving models of such a network (one bus-oriented and one line-oriented), and show that frequency synchronization corresponds to convergence to an equilibrium of these models. We derive a necessary condition for existence of such equilibria, and determine a simple test for their local stability. Finally, we introduce a sufficient condition for frequency synchronization of such networks, and show that it consists of a set of local criteria which can each be determined from local measurements.

  6. How close is close: 16S rRNA sequence identity may not be sufficient to guarantee species identity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, G. E.; Wisotzkey, J. D.; Jurtshuk, P. Jr

    1992-01-01

    16S rRNA (genes coding for rRNA) sequence comparisons were conducted with the following three psychrophilic strains: Bacillus globisporus W25T (T = type strain) and Bacillus psychrophilus W16AT, and W5. These strains exhibited more than 99.5% sequence identity and within experimental uncertainty could be regarded as identical. Their close taxonomic relationship was further documented by phenotypic similarities. In contrast, previously published DNA-DNA hybridization results have convincingly established that these strains do not belong to the same species if current standards are used. These results emphasize the important point that effective identity of 16S rRNA sequences is not necessarily a sufficient criterion to guarantee species identity. Thus, although 16S rRNA sequences can be used routinely to distinguish and establish relationships between genera and well-resolved species, very recently diverged species may not be recognizable.

  7. Necessary and sufficient condition for average consensus of networked multi-agent systems with heterogeneous time delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurama, Kazunori; Nakano, Kazushi

    2015-04-01

    This paper deals with an average-consensus problem of networked multi-agent systems with heterogeneous time delays. First, a necessary and sufficient condition is derived for multi-agent systems to achieve average consensus. This condition is represented in the form of an algebraic condition by using the delay-transition and the delay-weighted Laplacians. Second, a performance criterion is introduced to evaluate multi-agent systems that do not achieve average consensus. The criterion is represented in terms of the norms with respect to the above Laplacians. These results imply that the introduced Laplacians play important roles in analysing multi-agent systems with heterogeneous time delays. The validity of the analysis results is demonstrated by simulations with six-agent systems.

  8. Behavioral treatment of children with phonological disorder: the efficacy of vocal imitation and sufficient-response-exemplar training.

    PubMed Central

    Eikeseth, Svein; Nesset, Rannveig

    2003-01-01

    This study examined whether sufficient-response-exemplar training of vocal imitation would result in improved articulation in children with phonological disorder, and whether improved articulation established in the context of vocal imitation would transfer to other verbal classes such as object naming and conversational speech. Participant 1 was 6 years old and attended first grade in a regular public school. Participant 2 was 5 years 4 months old and attended a public kindergarten. Both participants had normal hearing and no additional handicaps. A multiple baseline design across behaviors (target sounds or blends) was employed to examine whether the vocal imitation training resulted in improved articulation. Results showed that both participants improved articulation once training was implemented, and that the improved articulation transferred from vocal imitation to more natural speech such as object naming and conversational speech. Improvement established during training was maintained posttraining and at a 6-month follow-up. PMID:14596573

  9. Boiling sheep liver or lung for 30 minutes is necessary and sufficient to kill Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces in hydatid cysts.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Wu, Chuanchuan; Wang, Hui; Liu, Huanyuan; Vuitton, Dominique A; Wen, Hao; Zhang, Wenbao

    2014-01-01

    Proper disposal of carcasses and offal after home slaughter is difficult in poor and remote communities and therefore dogs readily have access to hydatid cysts containing offal from livestock, thus completing the parasite cycle of Echinococcus granulosus and putting communities at risk of cystic echinococcosis. Boiling livers and lungs which contain hydatid cysts could be a simple, efficient and energy- and time-saving way to kill the infectious protoscoleces. The aim of this study was to provide precise practical recommendations to livestock owners. Our results show that boiling the whole sheep liver and/or lung, with single or multiple hydatid cysts, for 30 min is necessary and sufficient to kill E. granulosus protoscoleces in hydatid cysts. Advertising on this simple rule in at-risk communities would be an efficient and cheap complement to other veterinary public health operations to control cystic echinococcosis.

  10. Necessary and sufficient condition for steerability of two-qubit states by the geometry of steering outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau Nguyen, H.; Vu, Thanh

    2016-07-01

    Fully characterizing the steerability of a quantum state of a bipartite system has remained an open problem ever since the concept of steerability was first defined. In this paper, using our recent geometrical approach to steerability, we suggest a necessary and sufficient condition for a two-qubit state to be steerable with respect to projective measurements. To this end, we define the critical radius of local models and show that a state of two qubits is steerable with respect to projective measurements from Alice's side if and only if her critical radius of local models is less than 1. As an example, we calculate the critical radius of local models for the so-called T-states by proving the optimality of a recently suggested local hidden state model.

  11. Use of non-petroleum fuels to reduce military energy vulnerabilities: self-sufficient bases and new weapon propulsion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Freiwald, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    The US fossil synfuels program may not have significant impact on domestic fuel supplies until near the year 2000, resulting in a continuing mobility fuels vulnerability for the US military until then. But there are other mobility fuel options for both propulsion systems and stationary base-energy sources, for which the base technology is commercially available or at least demonstrated. For example, for surface propulsion systems, hydrogen-fuel-cell/battery-electric hybrids may be considered; for weapons systems these may offer some new flexibilities, standardization possibilities, and multiple military-controlled fuel-supply options. Hydrogen-fueled aircraft may provide interesting longer-term possibilities in terms of military energy self-sufficiency and multiple supply options, as well as performance specifications. These scenarios will be discussed, along with possibilities for demonstrations in the MX-system ground vehicles.

  12. Low-level deficits in beat perception: neither necessary nor sufficient for explaining developmental dyslexia in a consistent orthography.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Timothy C; Georgiou, George K; Parrila, Rauno K

    2012-01-01

    This article reports two different studies examining the theoretical account of low-level deficits in beat perception as an alternative explanation of developmental dyslexia in Greek, an orthographically consistent language. Study I examined the relationship of amplitude rise time and frequency discrimination with measures of phonological processing, working memory, and reading fluency in a large unselected sample of Grade 4 children. Study II examined the presence of beat perception deficits in groups of Grade 2, 4, and 6 children with dyslexia and their chronological age controls. The results provided no evidence to support meaningful associations between beat perception tasks and reading or the theoretical account of beat perception deficits as a sufficient explanation or contributing factor to dyslexia. Implications on the importance of auditory processing in reading in orthographically consistent languages are discussed.

  13. Comparison of serum and plasma taurine values in Bengal tigers with values in taurine-sufficient and -deficient domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Pickett, J P; Chesney, R W; Beehler, B; Moore, C P; Lippincott, S; Sturman, J; Ketring, K L

    1990-01-15

    A white Bengal tiger was determined to have a central retinal lesion and a central visual defect. Because of the known association between feline central retinal degeneration (CRD) and taurine deficiency in domestic cats, plasma concentrations of taurine were measured in this tiger. Serum concentrations of taurine, methionine, and cystine also were measured in white Bengal tigers, orange Bengal tigers, taurine-sufficient domestic cats, and taurine-deprived and tissue-taurine-depleted visually impaired cats with CRD. Hepatic and brain enzymes responsible for taurine synthesis were identified in tissue specimens from an orange Bengal tiger. Serum taurine concentrations were lower in white vs orange tigers, but were not as low as those in cats with CRD. Thus, we concluded that taurine depletion did not account for the central retinal lesion in the white Bengal tiger. PMID:2298663

  14. Low levels of glutathione are sufficient for survival of keratinocytes after UV irradiation and for healing of mouse skin wounds.

    PubMed

    Telorack, Michèle; Abplanalp, Jeannette; Werner, Sabine

    2016-08-01

    Reduced levels of the cellular antioxidant glutathione are associated with premature skin aging, cancer and impaired wound healing, but the in vivo functions of glutathione in the skin remain largely unknown. Therefore, we analyzed mice lacking the modifier subunit of the glutamate cysteine ligase (Gclm), the enzyme that catalyzes the rate-limiting step of glutathione biosynthesis. Glutathione levels in the skin of these mice were reduced by 70 %. However, neither skin development and homeostasis, nor UVA- or UVB-induced apoptosis in the epidermis were affected. Histomorphometric analysis of excisional wounds did not reveal wound healing abnormalities in young Gclm-deficient mice, while the area of hyperproliferative epithelium as well as keratinocyte proliferation were affected in aged mice. These findings suggest that low levels of glutathione are sufficient for wound repair in young mice, but become rate-limiting upon aging.

  15. Outlining the Ancestry Landscape of Colombian Admixed Populations

    PubMed Central

    Ossa, Humberto; Aquino, Juliana; Pereira, Rui; Ibarra, Adriana; Ossa, Rafael H; Pérez, Luz Adriana; Granda, Juan David; Lattig, Maria Claudia; Groot, Helena; Fagundes de Carvalho, Elizeu; Gusmão, Leonor

    2016-01-01

    The ancestry of the Colombian population comprises a large number of well differentiated Native communities belonging to diverse linguistic groups. In the late fifteenth century, a process of admixture was initiated with the arrival of the Europeans, and several years later, Africans also became part of the Colombian population. Therefore, the genepool of the current Colombian population results from the admixture of Native Americans, Europeans and Africans. This admixture occurred differently in each region of the country, producing a clearly stratified population. Considering the importance of population substructure in both clinical and forensic genetics, we sought to investigate and compare patterns of genetic ancestry in Colombia by studying samples from Native and non-Native populations living in its 5 continental regions: the Andes, Caribe, Amazonia, Orinoquía, and Pacific regions. For this purpose, 46 AIM-Indels were genotyped in 761 non-related individuals from current populations. Previously published genotype data from 214 Colombian Natives from five communities were used for population comparisons. Significant differences were observed between Native and non-Native populations, among non-Native populations from different regions and among Native populations from different ethnic groups. The Pacific was the region with the highest African ancestry, Amazonia harboured the highest Native ancestry and the Andean and Orinoquían regions showed the highest proportion of European ancestry. The Andean region was further sub-divided into 6 sub-regions: North East, Central West, Central East, West, South West and South East. Among these regions, the South West region showed a significantly lower European admixture than the other regions. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and variance values of ancestry among individuals within populations showed a potential stratification of the Pacific population. PMID:27736937

  16. Nickel immobilization in ceramic matrix admixed with waste nickel hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Osińska, Malgorzata; Stefanowicz, Tadeusz; Paukszta, Dominik

    2003-01-01

    WAXS examinations performed with nickel hydroxide samples heated to various temperatures showed that freshly settled wet nickel hydroxide sample contains some amount of crystalline beta-Ni(OH)(2) structure and its share increased when sample was dried during 3 weeks at ambient temperature. However, the share significantly decreased when the sample was dried at 110 degrees C and more so at 250 degrees C. Crystalline phase traces of Ni(OH)(2) disappeared after sample burning at 980 degrees C and instead the distinct presence of crystalline NiO was determined. The above samples were examined for solubility in stoichiometric amount of sulphuric acid diluted with water to pH 1.9 and 2.8. Solubility was determined by measuring nickel ion concentration in leachate by the AAS method. The dissolving rate was found to decrease with the rise of temperature to which the nickel hydroxide samples were heated. The solubility of Ni(OH)(2) sample burnt at 980 degrees C was undetectable during 90 h solubility-testing time likely due to its transformation into sparingly soluble crystalline NiO. The latter is considered to be the reason for effective immobilization of waste nickel hydroxide in ceramic prepared by blending with clay and sintering at 980 degrees C. PMID:14583250

  17. A chemical biology approach demonstrates G protein βγ subunits are sufficient to mediate directional neutrophil chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Surve, Chinmay R; Lehmann, David; Smrcka, Alan V

    2014-06-20

    Our laboratory has identified a number of small molecules that bind to G protein βγ subunits (Gβγ) by competing for peptide binding to the Gβγ "hot spot." M119/Gallein were identified as inhibitors of Gβγ subunit signaling. Here we examine the activity of another molecule identified in this screen, 12155, which we show that in contrast to M119/Gallein had no effect on Gβγ-mediated phospholipase C or phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) γ activation in vitro. Also in direct contrast to M119/Gallein, 12155 caused receptor-independent Ca(2+) release, and activated other downstream targets of Gβγ including extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK), protein kinase B (Akt) in HL60 cells differentiated to neutrophils. We show that 12155 releases Gβγ in vitro from Gαi1β1γ2 heterotrimers by causing its dissociation from GαGDP without inducing nucleotide exchange in the Gα subunit. We used this novel probe to examine the hypothesis that Gβγ release is sufficient to direct chemotaxis of neutrophils in the absence of receptor or G protein α subunit activation. 12155 directed chemotaxis of HL60 cells and primary neutrophils in a transwell migration assay with responses similar to those seen for the natural chemotactic peptide n-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe. These data indicate that release of free Gβγ is sufficient to drive directional chemotaxis in a G protein-coupled receptor signaling-independent manner.

  18. A simple negative interaction in the positive transcriptional feedback of a single gene is sufficient to produce reliable oscillations.

    PubMed

    Miró-Bueno, Jesús M; Rodríguez-Patón, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    Negative and positive transcriptional feedback loops are present in natural and synthetic genetic oscillators. A single gene with negative transcriptional feedback needs a time delay and sufficiently strong nonlinearity in the transmission of the feedback signal in order to produce biochemical rhythms. A single gene with only positive transcriptional feedback does not produce oscillations. Here, we demonstrate that this single-gene network in conjunction with a simple negative interaction can also easily produce rhythms. We examine a model comprised of two well-differentiated parts. The first is a positive feedback created by a protein that binds to the promoter of its own gene and activates the transcription. The second is a negative interaction in which a repressor molecule prevents this protein from binding to its promoter. A stochastic study shows that the system is robust to noise. A deterministic study identifies that the dynamics of the oscillator are mainly driven by two types of biomolecules: the protein, and the complex formed by the repressor and this protein. The main conclusion of this paper is that a simple and usual negative interaction, such as degradation, sequestration or inhibition, acting on the positive transcriptional feedback of a single gene is a sufficient condition to produce reliable oscillations. One gene is enough and the positive transcriptional feedback signal does not need to activate a second repressor gene. This means that at the genetic level an explicit negative feedback loop is not necessary. The model needs neither cooperative binding reactions nor the formation of protein multimers. Therefore, our findings could help to clarify the design principles of cellular clocks and constitute a new efficient tool for engineering synthetic genetic oscillators.

  19. The S locus glycoprotein and the S receptor kinase are sufficient for self-pollen rejection in Brassica

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yuhai; Bi, Yong-Mei; Brugière, Norbert; Arnoldo, MaryAnne; Rothstein, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Self-incompatibility (SI) is one of several mechanisms that have evolved to prevent inbreeding in plants. SI in Brassica is controlled by the polymorphic S locus complex. Two S locus-encoded proteins are coordinately expressed in the stigma epidermis: the cell wall-localized S locus glycoprotein (SLG) and the plasma membrane-anchored S receptor kinase (SRK). These proteins are thought to recognize a pollen factor that leads to the rejection of self-pollen. Evidence has accumulated that indicates that both proteins are necessary for the ability of the stigma to inhibit self-pollen. However, it has not been possible to prove this necessity definitively or to demonstrate that these genes are sufficient for this phenotype, because previous attempts to transfer this phenotype via transformation have not been successful. In this study, two overlapping S locus genomic clones, which cover ≈55 kilobases of DNA and contain the SLG, SRK, and an anther-expressed gene in the region common to the two, were introduced into a self-compatible Brassica napus line. The resulting transgenic plants were shown to carry the female part of the SI phenotype, rejecting pollen in a haplotype-specific manner. However, the pollen SI phenotype was not found in any of the transgenic plants. These data show that the SLG and SRK are sufficient for the female side but not the male side of the SI phenotype in Brassica and that there must be an independent pollen S factor encoded outside the cloned region. PMID:10725364

  20. Increased long-latency reflex activity as a sufficient explanation for childhood hypertonic dystonia: a neuromorphic emulation study

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Won J.; Niu, Chuanxin M.; Sanger, Terence D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Childhood dystonia is a movement disorder that interferes with daily movements and can have a devastating effect on quality of life for children and their families. Although injury to basal ganglia is associated with dystonia, the neurophysiological mechanisms leading to the clinical manifestations of dystonia are not understood. Previous work suggested that long-latency stretch reflex (LLSR) is hyperactive in children with hypertonia due to secondary dystonia. We hypothesize that abnormal activity in motor cortices may cause an increase in the long-latency stretch reflex leading to hypertonia. Approach We modelled two possibilities of hyperactive LLSR by either creating a tonic involuntary drive to cortex, or increasing the synaptic gain in cortical neurons. Both models are emulated using programmable Very-Large-Scale-Integrated-circuit (VLSI) hardware to test their sufficiency for producing dystonic symptoms. The emulation includes a joint with two Hill-type muscles, realistic muscle spindles, and 2,304 Izhikevich-type spiking neurons. The muscles are regulated by a monosynaptic spinal pathway with 32ms delay and a long-latency pathway with 64ms loop-delay representing transcortical/supra-spinal connections. Main results When the limb is passively stretched, both models produce involuntary resistance with increased antagonist EMG responses similar to human data; also the muscle relaxation is delayed similar to human data. Both models predict reduced range of motion in voluntary movements. Significance Although our model is a highly simplified and limited representation of reflex pathways, it shows that increased activity of the long-latency stretch reflex is by itself sufficient to cause many of the features of hypertonic dystonia. PMID:25946372

  1. Orbital apocenter is not a sufficient condition for HST/STIS detection of Europa's water vapor aurora.

    PubMed

    Roth, Lorenz; Retherford, Kurt D; Saur, Joachim; Strobel, Darrell F; Feldman, Paul D; McGrath, Melissa A; Nimmo, Francis

    2014-12-01

    We report far-ultraviolet observations of Jupiter's moon Europa taken by Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in January and February 2014 to test the hypothesis that the discovery of a water vapor aurora in December 2012 by local hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) emissions with the STIS originated from plume activity possibly correlated with Europa's distance from Jupiter through tidal stress variations. The 2014 observations were scheduled with Europa near the apocenter similar to the orbital position of its previous detection. Tensile stresses on south polar fractures are expected to be highest in this orbital phase, potentially maximizing the probability for plume activity. No local H and O emissions were detected in the new STIS images. In the south polar region where the emission surpluses were observed in 2012, the brightnesses are sufficiently low in the 2014 images to be consistent with any H2O abundance from (0-5)×10(15) cm(-2). Large high-latitude plumes should have been detectable by the STIS, independent of the observing conditions and geometry. Because electron excitation of water vapor remains the only viable explanation for the 2012 detection, the new observations indicate that although the same orbital position of Europa for plume activity may be a necessary condition, it is not a sufficient condition. However, the December 2012 detection of coincident HI Lyman-α and OI 1304-Å emission surpluses in an ∼200-km high region well separated above Europa's limb is a firm result and not invalidated by our 2014 STIS observations. PMID:25404343

  2. Adrenergic α₁ receptor activation is sufficient, but not necessary for phrenic long-term facilitation.

    PubMed

    Huxtable, A G; MacFarlane, P M; Vinit, S; Nichols, N L; Dale, E A; Mitchell, G S

    2014-06-01

    Acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH; three 5-min hypoxic episodes) causes a form of phrenic motor facilitation (pMF) known as phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF); pLTF is initiated by spinal activation of Gq protein-coupled 5-HT2 receptors. Because α1 adrenergic receptors are expressed in the phrenic motor nucleus and are also Gq protein-coupled, we hypothesized that α1 receptors are sufficient, but not necessary for AIH-induced pLTF. In anesthetized, paralyzed, and ventilated rats, episodic spinal application of the α1 receptor agonist phenylephrine (PE) elicited dose-dependent pMF (10 and 100 μM, P < 0.05; but not 1 μM). PE-induced pMF was blocked by the α1 receptor antagonist prazosin (1 mM; -20 ± 20% at 60 min, -5 ± 21% at 90 min; n = 6). Although α1 receptor activation is sufficient to induce pMF, it was not necessary for AIH-induced pLTF because intrathecal prazosin (1 mM) did not alter AIH-induced pLTF (56 ± 9% at 60 min, 78 ± 12% at 90 min; n = 9). Intravenous (iv) prazosin (150 μg/kg) appeared to reduce pLTF (21 ± 9% at 60 min, 26 ± 8% at 90 min), but this effect was not significant. Hypoglossal long-term facilitation was unaffected by intrathecal prazosin, but was blocked by iv prazosin (-4 ± 14% at 60 min, -13 ± 18% at 90 min), suggesting different LTF mechanisms in different motor neuron pools. In conclusion, Gq protein-coupled α1 adrenergic receptors evoke pMF, but they are not necessary for AIH-induced pLTF.

  3. A Small Conserved Domain in the Yeast Spa2p Is Necessary and Sufficient for Its Polarized Localization

    PubMed Central

    Arkowitz, Robert A.; Lowe, Nick

    1997-01-01

    SPA2 encodes a yeast protein that is one of the first proteins to localize to sites of polarized growth, such as the shmoo tip and the incipient bud. The dynamics and requirements for Spa2p localization in living cells are examined using Spa2p green fluorescent protein fusions. Spa2p localizes to one edge of unbudded cells and subsequently is observable in the bud tip. Finally, during cytokinesis Spa2p is present as a ring at the mother–daughter bud neck. The bud emergence mutants bem1 and bem2 and mutants defective in the septins do not affect Spa2p localization to the bud tip. Strikingly, a small domain of Spa2p comprised of 150 amino acids is necessary and sufficient for localization to sites of polarized growth. This localization domain and the amino terminus of Spa2p are essential for its function in mating. Searching the yeast genome database revealed a previously uncharacterized protein which we name, Sph1p (Spa2p homolog), with significant homology to the localization domain and amino terminus of Spa2p. This protein also localizes to sites of polarized growth in budding and mating cells. SPH1, which is similar to SPA2, is required for bipolar budding and plays a role in shmoo formation. Overexpression of either Spa2p or Sph1p can block the localization of either protein fused to green fluorescent protein, suggesting that both Spa2p and Sph1p bind to and are localized by the same component. The identification of a 150–amino acid domain necessary and sufficient for localization of Spa2p to sites of polarized growth and the existence of this domain in another yeast protein Sph1p suggest that the early localization of these proteins may be mediated by a receptor that recognizes this small domain. PMID:9214378

  4. Orbital apocenter is not a sufficient condition for HST/STIS detection of Europa's water vapor aurora.

    PubMed

    Roth, Lorenz; Retherford, Kurt D; Saur, Joachim; Strobel, Darrell F; Feldman, Paul D; McGrath, Melissa A; Nimmo, Francis

    2014-12-01

    We report far-ultraviolet observations of Jupiter's moon Europa taken by Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in January and February 2014 to test the hypothesis that the discovery of a water vapor aurora in December 2012 by local hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) emissions with the STIS originated from plume activity possibly correlated with Europa's distance from Jupiter through tidal stress variations. The 2014 observations were scheduled with Europa near the apocenter similar to the orbital position of its previous detection. Tensile stresses on south polar fractures are expected to be highest in this orbital phase, potentially maximizing the probability for plume activity. No local H and O emissions were detected in the new STIS images. In the south polar region where the emission surpluses were observed in 2012, the brightnesses are sufficiently low in the 2014 images to be consistent with any H2O abundance from (0-5)×10(15) cm(-2). Large high-latitude plumes should have been detectable by the STIS, independent of the observing conditions and geometry. Because electron excitation of water vapor remains the only viable explanation for the 2012 detection, the new observations indicate that although the same orbital position of Europa for plume activity may be a necessary condition, it is not a sufficient condition. However, the December 2012 detection of coincident HI Lyman-α and OI 1304-Å emission surpluses in an ∼200-km high region well separated above Europa's limb is a firm result and not invalidated by our 2014 STIS observations.

  5. Synaptic vesicle exocytosis and increased cytosolic calcium are both necessary but not sufficient for activity-dependent bulk endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Morton, Andrew; Marland, Jamie R K; Cousin, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    Activity-dependent bulk endocytosis (ADBE) is the dominant synaptic vesicle (SV) endocytosis mode in central nerve terminals during intense neuronal activity. By definition this mode is triggered by neuronal activity; however, key questions regarding its mechanism of activation remain unaddressed. To determine the basic requirements for ADBE triggering in central nerve terminals, we decoupled SV fusion events from activity-dependent calcium influx using either clostridial neurotoxins or buffering of intracellular calcium. ADBE was monitored both optically and morphologically by observing uptake of the fluid phase markers tetramethylrhodamine-dextran and horse radish peroxidase respectively. Ablation of SV fusion with tetanus toxin resulted in the arrest of ADBE, but had no effect on other calcium-dependent events such as activity-dependent dynamin I dephosphorylation, indicating that SV exocytosis is necessary for triggering. Furthermore, the calcium chelator EGTA abolished ADBE while leaving SV exocytosis intact, demonstrating that ADBE is triggered by intracellular free calcium increases outside the active zone. Activity-dependent dynamin I dephosphorylation was also arrested in EGTA-treated neurons, consistent with its proposed role in triggering ADBE. Thus, SV fusion and increased cytoplasmic free calcium are both necessary but not sufficient individually to trigger ADBE. Activity-dependent bulk endocytosis (ADBE) is the dominant synaptic vesicle (SV) endocytosis mode in central nerve terminals during intense neuronal activity. To determine the minimal requirements for ADBE triggering, we decoupled SV fusion events from activity-dependent calcium influx using either clostridial neurotoxins or buffering of intracellular calcium. We found that SV fusion and increased cytoplasmic free calcium are both necessary but not sufficient to trigger ADBE.

  6. A simple negative interaction in the positive transcriptional feedback of a single gene is sufficient to produce reliable oscillations.

    PubMed

    Miró-Bueno, Jesús M; Rodríguez-Patón, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    Negative and positive transcriptional feedback loops are present in natural and synthetic genetic oscillators. A single gene with negative transcriptional feedback needs a time delay and sufficiently strong nonlinearity in the transmission of the feedback signal in order to produce biochemical rhythms. A single gene with only positive transcriptional feedback does not produce oscillations. Here, we demonstrate that this single-gene network in conjunction with a simple negative interaction can also easily produce rhythms. We examine a model comprised of two well-differentiated parts. The first is a positive feedback created by a protein that binds to the promoter of its own gene and activates the transcription. The second is a negative interaction in which a repressor molecule prevents this protein from binding to its promoter. A stochastic study shows that the system is robust to noise. A deterministic study identifies that the dynamics of the oscillator are mainly driven by two types of biomolecules: the protein, and the complex formed by the repressor and this protein. The main conclusion of this paper is that a simple and usual negative interaction, such as degradation, sequestration or inhibition, acting on the positive transcriptional feedback of a single gene is a sufficient condition to produce reliable oscillations. One gene is enough and the positive transcriptional feedback signal does not need to activate a second repressor gene. This means that at the genetic level an explicit negative feedback loop is not necessary. The model needs neither cooperative binding reactions nor the formation of protein multimers. Therefore, our findings could help to clarify the design principles of cellular clocks and constitute a new efficient tool for engineering synthetic genetic oscillators. PMID:22205920

  7. A Simple Negative Interaction in the Positive Transcriptional Feedback of a Single Gene Is Sufficient to Produce Reliable Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Miró-Bueno, Jesús M.; Rodríguez-Patón, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    Negative and positive transcriptional feedback loops are present in natural and synthetic genetic oscillators. A single gene with negative transcriptional feedback needs a time delay and sufficiently strong nonlinearity in the transmission of the feedback signal in order to produce biochemical rhythms. A single gene with only positive transcriptional feedback does not produce oscillations. Here, we demonstrate that this single-gene network in conjunction with a simple negative interaction can also easily produce rhythms. We examine a model comprised of two well-differentiated parts. The first is a positive feedback created by a protein that binds to the promoter of its own gene and activates the transcription. The second is a negative interaction in which a repressor molecule prevents this protein from binding to its promoter. A stochastic study shows that the system is robust to noise. A deterministic study identifies that the dynamics of the oscillator are mainly driven by two types of biomolecules: the protein, and the complex formed by the repressor and this protein. The main conclusion of this paper is that a simple and usual negative interaction, such as degradation, sequestration or inhibition, acting on the positive transcriptional feedback of a single gene is a sufficient condition to produce reliable oscillations. One gene is enough and the positive transcriptional feedback signal does not need to activate a second repressor gene. This means that at the genetic level an explicit negative feedback loop is not necessary. The model needs neither cooperative binding reactions nor the formation of protein multimers. Therefore, our findings could help to clarify the design principles of cellular clocks and constitute a new efficient tool for engineering synthetic genetic oscillators. PMID:22205920

  8. Featured Article: Dexamethasone and rosiglitazone are sufficient and necessary for producing functional adipocytes from mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Ezquer, Fernando; Espinosa, Maximiliano; Arango-Rodriguez, Martha; Puebla, Carlos; Sobrevia, Luis; Conget, Paulette

    2015-01-01

    The final product of adipogenesis is a functional adipocyte. This mature cell acquires the necessary machinery for lipid metabolism, loses its proliferation potential, increases its insulin sensitivity, and secretes adipokines. Multipotent mesechymal stromal cells have been recognized as a source of adipocytes both in vivo and in vitro. The in vitro adipogenic differentiation of human MSC (hMSC) has been induced up to now by using a complex stimulus which includes dexamethasone, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, indomethacin, and insulin (a classical cocktail) and evaluated according to morphological changes. The present work was aimed at demonstrating that the simultaneous activation of dexamethasone’s canonical signaling pathways, through the glucocorticoid receptor and CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs) and rosiglitazone through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma) is sufficient yet necessary for inducing hMSC adipogenic differentiation. It was also ascertained that hMSC exposed just to dexamethasone and rosiglitazone (D&R) differentiated into cells which accumulated neutral lipid droplets, expressed C/EBP-alpha, PPAR-gamma, aP2, lipoprotein lipase, acyl-CoA synthetase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, adiponectin, and leptin genes but did not proliferate. Glucose uptake was dose dependent on insulin stimulus and high levels of adipokines were secreted (i.e. displaying not only the morphology but also expressing mature adipocytes’ specific genes and functional characteristics). This work has demonstrated that (i) the activating C/EBPs and PPAR-gamma signaling pathways were sufficient to induce adipogenic differentiation from hMSC, (ii) D&R producing functional adipocytes from hMSC, (iii) D&R induce adipogenic differentiation from mammalian MSC (including those which are refractory to classical adipogenic differentiation stimuli). D&R would thus seem to be a useful tool for MSC characterization, studying adipogenesis pathways and

  9. Synaptic vesicle exocytosis and increased cytosolic calcium are both necessary but not sufficient for activity-dependent bulk endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Morton, Andrew; Marland, Jamie R K; Cousin, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    Activity-dependent bulk endocytosis (ADBE) is the dominant synaptic vesicle (SV) endocytosis mode in central nerve terminals during intense neuronal activity. By definition this mode is triggered by neuronal activity; however, key questions regarding its mechanism of activation remain unaddressed. To determine the basic requirements for ADBE triggering in central nerve terminals, we decoupled SV fusion events from activity-dependent calcium influx using either clostridial neurotoxins or buffering of intracellular calcium. ADBE was monitored both optically and morphologically by observing uptake of the fluid phase markers tetramethylrhodamine-dextran and horse radish peroxidase respectively. Ablation of SV fusion with tetanus toxin resulted in the arrest of ADBE, but had no effect on other calcium-dependent events such as activity-dependent dynamin I dephosphorylation, indicating that SV exocytosis is necessary for triggering. Furthermore, the calcium chelator EGTA abolished ADBE while leaving SV exocytosis intact, demonstrating that ADBE is triggered by intracellular free calcium increases outside the active zone. Activity-dependent dynamin I dephosphorylation was also arrested in EGTA-treated neurons, consistent with its proposed role in triggering ADBE. Thus, SV fusion and increased cytoplasmic free calcium are both necessary but not sufficient individually to trigger ADBE. Activity-dependent bulk endocytosis (ADBE) is the dominant synaptic vesicle (SV) endocytosis mode in central nerve terminals during intense neuronal activity. To determine the minimal requirements for ADBE triggering, we decoupled SV fusion events from activity-dependent calcium influx using either clostridial neurotoxins or buffering of intracellular calcium. We found that SV fusion and increased cytoplasmic free calcium are both necessary but not sufficient to trigger ADBE. PMID:25913068

  10. Orbital apocenter is not a sufficient condition for HST/STIS detection of Europa’s water vapor aurora

    PubMed Central

    Retherford, Kurt D.; Saur, Joachim; Strobel, Darrell F.; Feldman, Paul D.; McGrath, Melissa A.; Nimmo, Francis

    2014-01-01

    We report far-ultraviolet observations of Jupiter’s moon Europa taken by Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in January and February 2014 to test the hypothesis that the discovery of a water vapor aurora in December 2012 by local hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) emissions with the STIS originated from plume activity possibly correlated with Europa’s distance from Jupiter through tidal stress variations. The 2014 observations were scheduled with Europa near the apocenter similar to the orbital position of its previous detection. Tensile stresses on south polar fractures are expected to be highest in this orbital phase, potentially maximizing the probability for plume activity. No local H and O emissions were detected in the new STIS images. In the south polar region where the emission surpluses were observed in 2012, the brightnesses are sufficiently low in the 2014 images to be consistent with any H2O abundance from (0–5)×1015 cm−2. Large high-latitude plumes should have been detectable by the STIS, independent of the observing conditions and geometry. Because electron excitation of water vapor remains the only viable explanation for the 2012 detection, the new observations indicate that although the same orbital position of Europa for plume activity may be a necessary condition, it is not a sufficient condition. However, the December 2012 detection of coincident HI Lyman-α and OI 1304-Å emission surpluses in an ∼200-km high region well separated above Europa’s limb is a firm result and not invalidated by our 2014 STIS observations. PMID:25404343

  11. Increased long-latency reflex activity as a sufficient explanation for childhood hypertonic dystonia: a neuromorphic emulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Won J.; Niu, Chuanxin M.; Sanger, Terence D.

    2015-06-01

    Objective. Childhood dystonia is a movement disorder that interferes with daily movements and can have a devastating effect on quality of life for children and their families. Although injury to basal ganglia is associated with dystonia, the neurophysiological mechanisms leading to the clinical manifestations of dystonia are not understood. Previous work suggested that long-latency stretch reflex (LLSR) is hyperactive in children with hypertonia due to secondary dystonia. We hypothesize that abnormal activity in motor cortices may cause an increase in the LLSR leading to hypertonia. Approach. We modeled two possibilities of hyperactive LLSR by either creating a tonic involuntary drive to cortex, or increasing the synaptic gain in cortical neurons. Both models are emulated using programmable very-large-scale-integrated-circuit hardware to test their sufficiency for producing dystonic symptoms. The emulation includes a joint with two Hill-type muscles, realistic muscle spindles, and 2,304 Izhikevich-type spiking neurons. The muscles are regulated by a monosynaptic spinal pathway with 32 ms delay and a long-latency pathway with 64 ms loop-delay representing transcortical/supra-spinal connections. Main results. When the limb is passively stretched, both models produce involuntary resistance with increased antagonist EMG responses similar to human data; also the muscle relaxation is delayed similar to human data. Both models predict reduced range of motion in voluntary movements. Significance. Although our model is a highly simplified and limited representation of reflex pathways, it shows that increased activity of the LLSR is by itself sufficient to cause many of the features of hypertonic dystonia.

  12. SU-E-J-245: Is Off-Line Adaptive Radiotherapy Sufficient for Head and Neck Cancer with IGRT?

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z; Shang, Q; Liu, H; Greskovich, J; Koyfman, S; Xia, P

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Radiation doses delivered to patients with head and neck cancer (HN) may deviate from the planned doses because of variations in patient setup and anatomy. This study was to evaluate whether off-line Adaptive Radiotherapy (ART) is sufficient. Methods: Ten HN patients, who received IMRT under daily imaging guidance using CT-on-rail/KV-CBCT, were randomly selected for this study. For each patient, the daily treatment setup was corrected with translational only directions. Sixty weekly verification CTs were retrospectively analyzed. On these weekly verification CTs, the tumor volumes and OAR contours were manually delineated by a physician. With the treatment iso-center placed on the verification CTs, according to the recorded clinical shifts, the treatment beams from the original IMRT plans were then applied to these CTs to calculate the delivered doses. The electron density of the planning CTs and weekly CTs were overridden to 1 g/cm3. Results: Among 60 fractions, D99 of the CTVs in 4 fractions decreased more than 5% of the planned doses. The maximum dose of the spinal cord exceeded 10% of the planned values in 2 fractions. A close examination indicated that the dose discrepancy in these 6 fractions was due to patient rotations, especially shoulder rotations. After registering these 6 CTs with the planning CT allowing six degree of freedoms, the maximum rotations around 3 axes were > 1.5° for these fractions. With rotation setup errors removed, 4 out of 10 patients still required off-line ART to accommodate anatomical changes. Conclusion: A significant shoulder rotations were observed in 10% fractions, requiring patient re-setup. Off-line ART alone is not sufficient to correct for random variations of patient position, although ART is effective to adapt to patients' gradual anatomic changes. Re-setup or on-line ART may be considered for patients with large deviations detected early by daily IGRT images. The study is supported in part by Siemens Medical

  13. The Relationship of Social Support and Economic Self-Sufficiency to Substance Abuse Outcomes in a Long-Term Recovery Program for Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregoire, Thomas K.; Snively, Carol

    2001-01-01

    Explores outcomes for 59 women who attended long term substance abuse treatment in a women's facility that emphasized employment and economic self sufficiency. Results revealed that reductions in substance abuse were associated with an increase in economic self sufficiency. Additionally, women living in drug free social environments had high rates…

  14. From Support to Self-Sufficiency: How Successful Are Programs in Advancing the Financial Independence and Well-Being of Welfare Recipients?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, D. A.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews recent evaluation research findings about welfare recipients from a perspective of support-to-self-sufficiency rather than the welfare-to-work viewpoint that denominates the evaluation literature. Recent research suggests that many families have moved from welfare to work, but few of these families have achieved financial self-sufficiency.…

  15. 49 CFR 40.193 - What happens when an employee does not provide a sufficient amount of urine for a drug test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... sufficient amount of urine for a drug test? 40.193 Section 40.193 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Drug Tests § 40.193 What happens when an employee does not provide a sufficient amount of urine for a drug...

  16. 49 CFR 40.193 - What happens when an employee does not provide a sufficient amount of urine for a drug test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... sufficient amount of urine for a drug test? 40.193 Section 40.193 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Drug Tests § 40.193 What happens when an employee does not provide a sufficient amount of urine for a drug...

  17. 49 CFR 40.193 - What happens when an employee does not provide a sufficient amount of urine for a drug test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... sufficient amount of urine for a drug test? 40.193 Section 40.193 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Drug Tests § 40.193 What happens when an employee does not provide a sufficient amount of urine for a drug...

  18. 49 CFR 40.193 - What happens when an employee does not provide a sufficient amount of urine for a drug test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... sufficient amount of urine for a drug test? 40.193 Section 40.193 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Drug Tests § 40.193 What happens when an employee does not provide a sufficient amount of urine for a drug...

  19. 49 CFR 40.193 - What happens when an employee does not provide a sufficient amount of urine for a drug test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... sufficient amount of urine for a drug test? 40.193 Section 40.193 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Drug Tests § 40.193 What happens when an employee does not provide a sufficient amount of urine for a drug...

  20. 49 CFR 40.275 - What is the effect of procedural problems that are not sufficient to cancel an alcohol test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in Alcohol Testing § 40.275 What is the effect of procedural problems that are not sufficient to... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the effect of procedural problems that are not sufficient to cancel an alcohol test? 40.275 Section 40.275 Transportation Office of the...