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Sample records for adnexal skin carcinomas

  1. Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the skin with adnexal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Wick, M R; Swanson, P E; LeBoit, P E; Strickler, J G; Cooper, P H

    1991-04-01

    Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the skin (LELCS) is a recently-described tumor entity with a microscopic resemblance to undifferentiated carcinoma of the nasopharynx. Only five cases of this lesion have been reported heretofore. We document three additional examples of LELCS that were composed of clustered dermal arrays of cytologically malignant, mitotically active polygonal cells, without connections to the overlying epidermis or skin appendages. Chronic inflammatory cells were interspersed throughout each of the tumors. Two of them demonstrated multiple foci of trichilemmal-type keratinization among the neoplastic cells, whereas the other exhibited focal eccrine ductal or glandular differentiation. None of the neoplasms was found to contain nucleic acid of Epstein-Barr virus by in situ hybridization. It is postulated that LELCS represents a primitive cutaneous appendage tumor. Based on the results of a prior publication and those of the current assessment, this neoplasm is thought to have the potential for both sweat glandular and follicular differentiation. PMID:1649848

  2. Microcystic adnexal carcinoma following radiotherapy in childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Borenstein, A.; Seidman, D.S.; Trau, H.; Tsur, H. )

    1991-04-01

    A 36-year-old man was treated by radiotherapy for tinea capitis many years before discovery of microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC). Because of patient's refusal of any surgical intervention, we were able to follow the natural course of this tumor for 13 years. This case emphasizes the typical slow development of (MAC). The implication of the association of MAC and radiotherapy are discussed.

  3. Treatment of nasal microcystic adnexal carcinoma with an expanded rotational forehead skin flap: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, RONG-RONG; ZHAO, QI-MING; ZHANG, XU-DONG; GAN, JING-BING

    2015-01-01

    Microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC) is a rare and locally aggressive adenocarcinoma with low-grade malignancy. The present study describes the first reported case and treatment of a Chinese male with a MAC located on the nasal dorsum and nosewing. A 44-year-old man presented with a nasal deformity caused by local repeated infections following an accidental injury to the nose 20 years previously. The nose had been injured by a brick, and treatment at a local hospital 12 years previously had resulted in a nasal scar and a gradually enlarging mass. A physical examination revealed a hypertrophic deformity of the nose and an indurated scar plaque, measuring 2.0×2.0 cm, on the nasal dorsum and nosewing. Microscopic examination revealed a tumor consisting of solid cell nests and a cystic structure with a capsular space. In addition, ductal cells of an adnexal cell origin were visible in the outer epithelium. The medial portion exhibited a microductal structure and invasion of deeper tissues without evident atypia. The tumor cells presented normal nuclear to cytoplasmic ratios and minimal mitotic activity. Pathological examination verified that the tumor was a MAC of low-grade malignancy. A complete surgical resection was performed via Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS), and reconstruction was achieved using an expanded rotational forehead skin flap. No tumor recurrence was detected after a three-year follow-up period. Therefore, for effective treatment of similar MAC cases, complete surgical resection using MMS is recommended, and successful reconstruction may be achieved using an expanded skin flap. PMID:26622465

  4. Skin adnexal neoplasms—part 2: An approach to tumours of cutaneous sweat glands

    PubMed Central

    Obaidat, Nidal A; Alsaad, Khaled O; Ghazarian, Danny

    2007-01-01

    Tumours of cutaneous sweat glands are uncommon, with a wide histological spectrum, complex classification and many different terms often used to describe the same tumour. Furthermore, many eccrine/apocrine lesions coexist within hamartomas or within lesions with composite/mixed differentiation. In addition to the eccrine and apocrine glands, two other skin sweat glands have recently been described: the apoeccrine and the mammary‐like glands of the anogenital area. In this review (the second of two articles on skin adnexal neoplasms), common as well as important benign and malignant lesions of cutaneous sweat glands are described, and a summary for differentiating primary adnexal neoplasms from metastatic carcinoma is outlined, striving to maintain a common and acceptable terminology in this complex subject. Composite/mixed adnexal tumours are also discussed briefly. PMID:16882695

  5. Dermoscopy of Skin Adnexal Neoplasms:A Continuous Challenge.

    PubMed

    di Meo, Nicola; Stinco, Giuseppe; Gatti, Alessandro; Fadel, Mattia; Vichi, Silvia; Trevisan, Giusto

    2016-06-01

    Dear Editor, Apocrine hidradenoma is a rare benign adnexal tumor related to the more common poroma, as they both originate from sweat glands. Hidradenoma usually has an eccrine differentiation, but an apocrine differentiation is possible. Due to its rarity and non-specific clinical appearance it is difficult to differentiate it from other malignant cutaneous lesions. In this challenging task, dermatoscopy could be particularly helpful to better describe, recognize, and differentiate these lesions. Unfortunately, the literature offers only few dermatoscopic descriptions of this rare cutaneous neoplasm. A 70-year-old woman in fair general condition was referred to our Department for an asymptomatic 10×8 mm single nodule on her left scapula. This nodule was red, dome shaped, well circumscribed, firm, and mildly tender (Figure 1). The patient reported that it had been present since approximately 7 months. The lesion was neither painful nor itchy and there was no bleeding. A skin examination did not show any other lesions with the same features or other suspicious lesions. Dermatoscopy revealed milky-pinkish areas with dotted vessels, linear-irregular vessels, and hairpin vessels: some of these aspects can also be found in amelanotic melanoma (1). There were also homogeneous blue areas similar to lacunae, characteristic but not exclusive to vascular or sarcomatous neoplasms and basal cell carcinoma (1,2). Furthermore, small ulcerations covered by an amber crust were identified, which can usually be found in basal cell carcinoma. Regarding the background of the lesion, we noticed peculiar, translucent, pinkish, soft, large lobular areas (Figure 2). On the basis of this analysis, we suspected an atypical presentation of a basal cell carcinoma, an amelanotic melanoma, or a sarcomatous skin neoplasm. A metastasis of an unknown solid tumor was also taken into consideration. The histological examination revealed an adnexal neoplasm and specifically an apocrine hidradenoma

  6. Immunohistochemical study of calretinin in normal skin and cutaneous adnexal proliferations.

    PubMed

    González-Guerra, Elena; Kutzner, Heinz; Rutten, Arno; Requena, Luis

    2012-07-01

    Calretinin is a calcium-binding protein member of the EF-hand family. The presence of calretinin has been demonstrated in certain stages of the cellular cycle in a wide variety of normal and neoplastic tissues. The main aims of our study were (1) to investigate what structures of the normal skin and cutaneous adnexal proliferations express immunoreactivity for calretinin and (2) to determine the value of immunohistochemical expression for calretinin as a marker for follicular, sebaceous, apocrine, and eccrine differentiation in cutaneous adnexal proliferations. We studied 139 biopsy specimens, including 10 cases of normal skin of different locations and 129 benign and malignant cutaneous adnexal proliferations. In normal skin, we found that calretinin is expressed in the innermost cell layer of the outer root sheath in anagen hair follicle, in both the duct and sebolemma of the sebaceous gland, in the secretory portion of eccrine glands, and in mast cells of the stroma. In cutaneous adnexal proliferations, we found strong immunoreactivity for calretinin in tricholemmal cysts, tricholemmomas/inverted follicular keratoses, tumors of follicular infundibulum, and in some basal cell carcinomas. Focal positivity was also seen in trichoadenomas, trichoblastomas/trichoepitheliomas, pilomatricomas, proliferating tricholemmal tumors, pilar sheath acanthomas, trichofolliculomas, follicular hybrid cysts, cutaneous mixed tumors, steatocystomas, sebaceous hyperplasias, and sebaceomas. These results demonstrate that immunohistochemical study for calretinin may be helpful to identify the innermost cell layer of the outer root sheath in anagen hair follicle and the cutaneous adnexal proliferations showing differentiation toward this structure. Calretinin immunoreactivity supports eccrine differentiation in some sweat gland neoplasms, and it is also useful in identifying neoplasms with ductal sebaceous differentiation. PMID:22343111

  7. GATA3 Expression in Normal Skin and in Benign and Malignant Epidermal and Cutaneous Adnexal Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    de Peralta-Venturina, Mariza N.; Balzer, Bonnie L.; Frishberg, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Initial investigations reported GATA3 to be a sensitive and relatively specific marker for mammary and urothelial carcinomas. Recently, GATA3 expression has been described in several other epithelial tumors. However, there has been only limited investigation of GATA3 expression in cutaneous epithelial tumors. The objective of this study was to examine the immunohistochemical expression of GATA3 in a wide variety of cutaneous epithelial neoplasms. GATA3 expression was evaluated in 99 benign and 63 malignant cutaneous epithelial tumors. GATA3 was consistently and usually strongly expressed in clear cell acanthoma, trichofolliculoma, trichoepithelioma, trichilemmoma, sebaceous adenoma, sebaceoma, apocrine hidrocystoma, apocrine tubular papillary adenoma, hidradenoma papilliferum, and syringocystadenoma papilliferum. Hidradenomas exhibited variable positive staining. Most poromas, syringomas, chondroid syringomas, cylindromas, and spiradenomas were negative or only focally and weakly positive. Focal staining was present in all pilomatrixomas. Thirteen of 14 basal cell carcinomas, 21 of 24 squamous carcinomas, and all 6 sebaceous carcinomas exhibited positive staining. The 1 apocrine carcinoma, both mucinous carcinomas, and 2 of 3 microcystic adnexal carcinomas also exhibited positive staining, whereas the 1 eccrine porocarcinoma and the 1 adenoid cystic carcinoma were negative. One of 11 Merkel cell carcinomas exhibited focal weak staining. Our findings demonstrate that GATA3 is expressed in a wide variety of benign and malignant cutaneous epithelial neoplasms. In addition to carcinomas of breast and urothelial origin and other more recently described GATA3-positive tumors, the differential diagnosis of a metastatic tumor of unknown primary origin that expresses GATA3 should also include a carcinoma of cutaneous epithelial origin. PMID:26595821

  8. Rare Skin Adnexal and Melanocytic Tumors Arising in Ovarian Mature Cystic Teratomas: A Report of 3 Cases and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Moulla, Alexandra A; Magdy, Nesreen; Francis, Nicholas; Taube, Janis; Ronnett, Brigitte M; El-Bahrawy, Mona

    2016-09-01

    Mature teratoma of the ovary is the most common primary ovarian tumor accounting for 15% (10%-20%) of all ovarian neoplasms. Skin and skin adnexal structures are the most common elements identified in mature teratomas. Benign and malignant skin tumors can arise in ovarian teratomas, the most common being epithelial tumors. Melanocytic and adnexal tumors developing in a teratoma are rare and can be easily overlooked. We report 3 cases and review melanocytic and skin adnexal tumors encountered in ovarian teratomas. PMID:26974995

  9. Adnexal germ cell carcinoma with bone metastases in pregnant women: case report and review.

    PubMed

    Tenorio-Guadalupe, María Del Rosario; Arsentales-Montalva, Valeria; Yonz-Buendía, Yessabell Sonia; Fiestas-Saldarriaga, Fabián; Pimentel-Álvarez, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Germ cell carcinoma during pregnancy is rare. However, its detection has increased due to the use of ultrasound fetal monitoring in the antenatal care program. In this article, we present the case of a Germ cell carcinoma during pregnancy is rare. However, its detection has increased due to the use of ultrasound fetal monitoring in the antenatal care program. In this article, we present the case of a pregnant 27-year-old diagnosed with an adnexal germ cell carcinoma at six weeks of gestation, whose initial approach was local resection (suboptimal cytoreduction). Four weeks after surgery, the patient presented with grade IV peripheral neuropathy in the lower limbs; magnetic resonance imaging scan indicated an infiltrative lesion at D5. The local medical board decided on chemotherapy starting on the 19th week of gestation. The rest of the pregnancy period was uneventful and the patient had a cesarean section at 34 weeks of gestation and a live newborn with no complications. Unfortunately, four days after caesarean section, the patient died of a septic shock with respiratory focus. PMID:27602713

  10. Microcystic adnexal carcinoma in a non-Caucasian patient: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, JINGXIN; YANG, SHIPING; CHEN, JIMIN; LIAO, TIANAN; DENG, WEI; LI, WEIZHONG

    2016-01-01

    Microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC) is extremely rare among Asians, with the majority of cases presenting in Caucasian individuals. The current study describes the case of a 38-year-old Chinese woman who presented with a 10 year history of a mass in the upper lip. A biopsy resulted in a diagnosis of MAC. The patient underwent complete surgical resection and the tumor was successfully excised. During 6 months of follow-up, there was no evidence of recurrence. To the best of our knowledge, the present case is the first Chinese case to be reported in the English literature, and is presented with the aim of increasing the awareness and aiding in the management of MAC in non-Caucasian populations. PMID:27073500

  11. Carcinoma of skin of penis.

    PubMed

    Onuigbo, W I

    1985-08-01

    Like the Jews, the Ibos or Igbos of Nigeria ritually circumcise males on the eighth day of birth. A retrospective review of approximately 15,000 surgical specimens collected from this ethnic group over a period of 13 years revealed 32 cases of carcinoma of the prostate but only 4 cases of penile carcinoma. One tumour arose on the glans penis. This localisation pattern suggests that, in circumcised males, smegma-induced squamous carcinoma of the glans can be abolished but not the ordinary squamous carcinoma that can develop by chance on the rest of the penis as well as on the glans. International urology would benefit from careful documentation of squamous carcinoma affecting various parts of the neonatally circumcised penile skin. PMID:4027519

  12. Primary cutaneous extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the eyelid skin: Diagnostic clues and distinction from other ocular adnexal diseases.

    PubMed

    Stagner, Anna M; Jakobiec, Frederick A; Freitag, Suzanne K

    2016-01-01

    A 60-year-old man developed a rubbery thickening and erythema of his left lateral upper and lower eyelids and lateral canthus over several months. He was treated for an extended period of time for blepharitis and chalazia. Incisional biopsy eventually disclosed microscopically a hypercellular lymphoid population sparing the epidermis that surrounded adnexal structures and infiltrated between orbicularis muscle fibers. Immunohistochemically, the lesion was found to be composed of neoplastic, kappa-restricted B cells with an equal number of reactive T cells and small reactive follicles. The diagnosis was a primary cutaneous extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the eyelid skin (EMZL). We review the distinguishing clinical, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical features of cutaneous EMZL and contrast those with EMZL of other ocular adnexal sites. Also offered is a differential diagnosis of cutaneous lymphomas of the eyelid skin, which are predominately T-cell lesions. PMID:26545575

  13. Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin: epidemiology, classification, management, and novel trends.

    PubMed

    Kallini, Joseph R; Hamed, Nouran; Khachemoune, Amor

    2015-02-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the second most common non-melanoma skin cancer. It originates from epidermal keratinocytes or adnexal structures (such as eccrine glands or pilosebaceous units). We describe the salient features of cutaneous SCC. We also review novel classification schemes proposed during the last decade which attempt to stratify SCC lesions based on prognosis. Biopsy leads to definitive diagnosis. Treatment includes surgical excision; Mohs micrographic surgery produces excellent cure rates and spares the maximal amount of tissue. Other modalities include electrodessication and curettage, cryosurgery, radiotherapy, topical medications, photodynamic therapy, and systemic therapy. Management and follow-up depend on the risk stratification of individual lesions. PMID:25428226

  14. [Merkel cell carcinoma (trabecular carcinoma) of the skin].

    PubMed

    Zala, L; Armagni, C; Krebs, A

    1983-04-01

    The Merkel cell carcinoma was first designated some years ago by the descriptive term trabecular carcinoma. Both names refer to a skin tumor occurring in elderly patients. This is another example where ultrastructural differentiating criteria are necessary for a definite diagnosis i.e., identification of so-called neurosecretory-like granules by electron microscopy. We report clinical, histological, ultrastructural, and histogenetic aspects of such a disease in a woman suffering from a metastasizing Merkel cell carcinoma. PMID:6853165

  15. Focus of tricholemmal differentiation (tricholemmal carcinoma) within Bowen's disease/carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Misago, Noriyuki; Toda, Shuji; Nakao, Tomokazu

    2016-04-01

    Bowen's disease (BD)/carcinoma is a type of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, however, the possibility of adnexal differentiation (the development of sebaceous carcinoma or porocarcinoma) occurring in BD/carcinoma has been suggested. We herein describe a case of BD with superficial invasive carcinoma, which showed a clear cell focus, demonstrating tricholemmal differentiation. This clear cell focus showed the following findings: primarily composed of clear cells, somewhat columnar clear cells aligned in a palisade along a discernible basement membrane, tricholemmal keratinization and glycogen contained within the cells. In addition, the immunohistochemical profile in this clear cell focus, namely, negative staining for cytokeratin (CK)1 and positive staining for CK17 and calretinin in the inner cells of the neoplastic lobule, corresponded to that of the outer root sheath cells. This case suggested that adnexal differentiation can rarely occur within true BD/carcinoma, although adnexal carcinomas are commonly associated with a simple bowenoid change. PMID:26365015

  16. [Clinial picture and localization of skin metastasis of visceral carcinomas].

    PubMed

    Chadlou, R; Biess, B; Ehring, F

    1978-05-01

    Seven cases with secondary skin carcinomas are described. The primary tumor was located at the tongue, the larynx, the thyroid, the abdomen, the ovaries, the collum uteri and the rectum. From the literature 60 other patients with secundary skin carcinomas and 100 primary carcinomas were evaluated. Clinical evidences for a secundary skin carcinoma are: unusual localization, multiple occurrence and an even surface. It was examined whether the localization of the secundary skin tumor refers to the localization of the primary tumor. PMID:207659

  17. Brain and Skin Metastasis From Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Hoon; Lee, Joo Yong; Pyo, Ju Yeon; Oh, Young Ha; Lee, Seung Wook; Moon, Hong Sang

    2013-01-01

    Brain and skin metastasis from urothelial carcinoma of the bladder is rare. There have been few case reports of the clinical course of patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma of the brain and skin. In the present case, a 60-year-old man had undergone radical cystectomy with an ileal conduit owing to urothelial carcinoma (T1N0M0). The patient developed dizziness 9 years later and a solitary brain tumor was discovered in his left cerebellar hemisphere. The tumor was totally resected and the mass was verified to be metastatic urothelial carcinoma. One year after the metastasectomy of the brain lesion, multiple erythematous nodular lesions developed on his abdominal skin. The skin lesions were excised and verified to be metastatic urothelial carcinoma. This report describes this case of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder that metastasized to the brain and abdominal skin. PMID:23362451

  18. Distant Skin Metastases from Carcinoma Buccal Mucosa: A Rare Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Shashank; Leekha, Nitin; Gupta, Sweety; Mithal, Umang; Arora, Vandana; De, Sudarsan

    2016-01-01

    Cancer of the oral cavity makes up approximately 30% of all head and neck region tumors. Skin metastasis is rare with an incidence ranging between 0.7% and 2.4%. Skin metastasis usually occurs in the neck, scalp, and over the skin near the primary site. We report a patient with carcinoma left buccal mucosa who presented with distant skin metastases to the right side chest wall. PMID:27512210

  19. Distant Skin Metastases from Carcinoma Buccal Mucosa: A Rare Presentation.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Shashank; Leekha, Nitin; Gupta, Sweety; Mithal, Umang; Arora, Vandana; De, Sudarsan

    2016-01-01

    Cancer of the oral cavity makes up approximately 30% of all head and neck region tumors. Skin metastasis is rare with an incidence ranging between 0.7% and 2.4%. Skin metastasis usually occurs in the neck, scalp, and over the skin near the primary site. We report a patient with carcinoma left buccal mucosa who presented with distant skin metastases to the right side chest wall. PMID:27512210

  20. Rare emerging malignant skin tumours.

    PubMed

    Rongioletti, F; Ferreli, C; Pinna, A L; Atzori, L

    2015-08-01

    As clinical skills improve and innovative diagnostic techniques become available in the field of dermatology and dermatopathology, new types or additional variants of malignant skin tumors are described. This article reviews the current nomenclature, clinico-pathological features, differential diagnosis, prognostic and therapeutic implications of some new dermato(patho)logical rare emerging skin tumors, including epithelial tumors (squamous cell carcinoma with mucinous metaplasia), adnexal tumors (endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma), soft tissue tumors of vascular differentiation (pseudolymphomatous cutaneous angiosarcoma, pseudomyogenic hemangioendothelioma), hematopoietic tumors (blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm) and mixed epithelial/melanocytic tumor (squamomelanocytic tumor). PMID:26086411

  1. Primary adenoid cystic carcinoma of the skin metastatic to the lymph nodes: immunohistochemical study of a new case and literature review.

    PubMed

    Rocas, Delphine; Asvesti, Catherine; Tsega, Artemis; Katafygiotis, Patroklos; Kanitakis, Jean

    2014-03-01

    Primary cutaneous adenoid cystic carcinoma (PCACC) is a rare adnexal skin tumor first described in 1975, of which merely 62 cases have so far been studied in detail and reported in the English literature. PCACC is usually regarded as apocrine in origin/differentiation, but its precise histogenesis is still not well known. PCACC has in most cases a rather indolent course but can produce local recurrences and, more rarely, regional (lymph node) and distant (pulmonary) metastases. We report herein a Greek woman with a long-standing PCACC that grew slowly over several years and produced metastasis in the regional lymph nodes, highlighting the potentially aggressive course of this tumor. The primary and metastatic tumors were studied immunohistochemically and proved to express several (sweat gland-related) antigens (such as keratin 7, epithelial membrane antigen, CD10, and CD117) but neither hormonal receptors nor p63 or Gross Cystic disease Fluid Protein 15. The salient clinicopathologic features of this rare cutaneous adnexal tumor are reviewed. PMID:23812021

  2. Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin (non-metastatic)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is a malignant tumour of keratinocytes arising in the epidermis, with histological evidence of dermal invasion. Incidence varies by country, skin colour, and outdoor behaviour, and is as high as 400/100,000 in Australia. People with fair skin colour who have high sun exposure and sunburn easily with little or no tanning, people with xeroderma pigmentosum, and people who are immunosuppressed are most susceptible to squamous cell carcinoma. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: Does the use of sunscreen help prevent cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and actinic (solar) keratosis? What is the optimal margin for primary excision of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (non-metastatic)? Does radiotherapy after surgery affect local recurrence of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in people with squamous cell carcinoma of the skin (non-metastatic)? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to August 2013 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found five studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: sunscreens, primary excision, and radiotherapy after surgery. PMID:25137222

  3. Histomorphological and Immunohistochemical Reappraisal of Cutaneous Adnexal Tumours: A Hospital Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Fatima, Uroos; Malaviya, Anil K.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Diagnosing adnexal tumours of the skin is a challenge due to their wide variety, infrequent occurrence in practice, and confusing morphological picture. Aims and Objectives. The present study aims to observe the spectrum of adnexal tumours at our institute and to evaluate them based on histomorphological, histochemical, and immunohistochemical methods either alone or in combination for proper identification and classification. Materials and Methods. A partly retrospective and partly prospective study was conducted on adnexal skin tumours over a period of 6 years. Relevant clinical profile was recorded. Histopathological examination was carried out and special stains were applied as and when required. Immunohistochemistry was performed where diagnosis with routine stains was not possible. Results. A total of 150 skin tumour biopsies were received. There were 87 keratotic tumours, 39 adnexal tumours, and 24 melanocytic tumours. Amongst the adnexal tumours, 51.3% eccrine, 30.8% follicular, and 17.9% sebaceous tumours were seen. In five cases, histological diagnosis was troublesome where immunohistochemistry helped in making final diagnosis. Limitations. The sample size is small. Conclusion. Histomorphology is confirmatory in majority of the adnexal tumours but few rare lesions that mimic internal malignancy require a panel of immunomarkers to rule out other possible differentials. PMID:27034895

  4. Sebaceous Gland Carcinoma of the Lower Eyelid Reconstructed with a Composite Flap: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Durairaj, Alagar Raja; Kothandaraman, Kanmani; Rajamanohar, Vimal Chander; Prabakaran, Aarthi

    2016-01-01

    Sebaceous gland carcinomas are skin adnexal tumours occurring in the periocular region of elderly females. It is an uncommon malignancy usually involving the upper eyelid and has an indolent course. Mainstay of treatment is surgical excision. Here we present a case of a sebaceous gland carcinoma of the lower eyelid for which wide local excision was done and the lower eyelid reconstructed using a composite flap of nasal chondromucosal graft with a nasolabial flap. PMID:27504351

  5. Radiation-induced skin carcinomas of the head and neck

    SciTech Connect

    Ron, E.; Modan, B.; Preston, D.; Alfandary, E.; Stovall, M.; Boice, J.D. Jr. )

    1991-03-01

    Radiation exposures to the scalp during childhood for tinea capitis were associated with a fourfold increase in skin cancer, primarily basal cell carcinomas, and a threefold increase in benign skin tumors. Malignant melanoma, however, was not significantly elevated. Overall, 80 neoplasms were identified from an extensive search of the pathology logs of all major hospitals in Israel and computer linkage with the national cancer registry. Radiation dose to the scalp was computed for over 10,000 persons irradiated for ringworm (mean 7 Gy), and incidence rates were contrasted with those observed in 16,000 matched comparison subjects. The relative risk of radiogenic skin cancer did not differ significantly between men or women or by time since exposure; however, risk was greatest following exposures in early childhood. After adjusting for sex, ethnic origin, and attained age, the estimated excess relative risk was 0.7 per Gy and the average excess risk over the current follow-up was 0.31/10(4) PY-Gy. The risk per Gy of radiation-induced skin cancer was intermediate between the high risk found among whites and no risk found among blacks in a similar study conducted in New York City. This finding suggests the role that subsequent exposure to uv radiation likely plays in the expression of a potential radiation-induced skin malignancy.

  6. "Secretory" Carcinoma of the Skin Mimicking Secretory Carcinoma of the Breast: Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sixia; Liu, Yan; Su, Jing; Liu, Jianying; Guo, Xiaoning; Mei, Fang; Zheng, Jie; Liao, Songlin

    2016-09-01

    Secretory carcinoma is a unique kind of adenocarcinoma. It has distinct histological features and a special genetic change, that is, t (12; 15) (p13; q25) translocation which leads to the expression of the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion gene. Secretory carcinoma has been found to occur both in the breast and salivary gland. Here the authors present a case of 22-year-old woman with a unique cutaneous neoplasm located at the axilla. The tumor was characterized histologically with the formation of round to ovoid microcysts and papillary structure, which was similar to the secretory carcinoma of the breast and salivary gland. Furthermore, the gene sequence analysis of reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction products demonstrated the expression of the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion gene. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of secretory carcinoma from the skin which has the same genetic change as those from the breast and salivary gland. Local excision was performed on this patient. She had been followed up for nearly 1 year. No recurrence or metastasis was found yet. PMID:26981741

  7. Anterior Orbit and Adnexal Amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Al Hussain, Hailah; Edward, Deepak P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To describe six cases of anterior orbital and adnexal amyloidosis and to report on proteomic analysis to characterize the nature of amyloid in archived biopsies in two cases. Materials and Methods: The clinical features, radiological findings, pathology, and outcome of six patients with anterior orbit and adnexal amyloidosis were retrieved from the medical records. The biochemical nature of the amyloid was determined using liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy archived paraffin-embedded tissue in two cases. Results: Of the six cases, three had unilateral localized anterior orbit and lacrimal gland involvement. Four of the six patients were female with an average duration of 12.8 years from the time of onset to presentation eyelid infiltration by amyloid caused ptosis in five cases. CT scan in patients with lacrimal gland involvement (n = 3) demonstrated calcified deformable anterior orbital masses and on pathological exmaintionamyloid and calcific deposits replaced the lacrimal gland acini. Ptosis repair was performed in three patients with good outcomes. One patient required repeated debulking of the mass and one patient had recurrenct disease. Proteomic analysis revealed polyclonal IgG-associated amyloid deposition in one patient and AL kappa amyloid in the second patient. Conclusion: Amyloidosis of the anterior orbit and lacrimal gland can present with a wide spectrum of findings with good outcomes after surgical excision. The nature of amyloid material can be precisely determined in archival pathology blocks using diagnostic proteomic analysis. PMID:24014979

  8. Diagnosis and Management of Adnexal Masses.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Wendy S; Marks, Sarah Tully

    2016-04-15

    Adnexal masses can have gynecologic or nongynecologic etiologies, ranging from normal luteal cysts to ovarian cancer to bowel abscesses. Women who report abdominal or pelvic pain, increased abdominal size or bloating, difficulty eating, or rapid satiety that occurs more than 12 times per month in less than a year should be evaluated for ovarian cancer. Pelvic examination has low sensitivity for detecting an adnexal mass; negative pelvic examination findings in a symptomatic woman should not deter further workup. Ectopic pregnancy must be ruled out in women of reproductive age. A cancer antigen 125 (CA 125) test may assist in the evaluation of an adnexal mass in appropriate patients. CA 125 levels are elevated in conditions other than ovarian cancer. Because substantial overlap in CA 125 levels between pre- and postmenopausal women may occur, this level alone is not recommended for differentiating between a benign and a malignant adnexal mass. Transvaginal ultrasonography is the first choice for imaging of an adnexal mass. Large mass size, complexity, projections, septation, irregularity, or bilaterality may indicate cancer. If disease is suspected outside of the ovary, computed tomography may be indicated; magnetic resonance imaging may better show malignant characteristics in the ovary. Serial ultrasonography and periodic measurement of CA 125 levels may help in differentiating between benign or potentially malignant adnexal masses. If an adnexal mass larger than 6 cm is found on ultrasonography, or if findings persist longer than 12 weeks, referral to a gynecologist or gynecologic oncologist is indicated. PMID:27175840

  9. The Role of Infectious Agents in the Etiology of Ocular Adnexal Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Varun; Shen, Defen; Sieving, Pamela C.; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2008-01-01

    Given the fact that infectious agents contribute to around 18% of human cancers worldwide, it would seem prudent to explore their role in neoplasms of the ocular adnexa: primary malignancies of the conjunctiva, lacrimal glands, eyelids, and orbit. By elucidating the mechanisms by which infectious agents contribute to oncogenesis, the management, treatment, and prevention of these neoplasms may one day parallel what is already in place for cancers such as cervical cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and gastric adenocarcinoma. Antibiotic treatment and vaccines against infectious agents may herald a future with a curtailed role for traditional therapies of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Unlike other malignancies for which large epidemiological studies are available, analyzing ocular adnexal neoplasms is challenging as they are relatively rare. Additionally, putative infectious agents seemingly display an immense geographic variation that has led to much debate regarding the relative importance of one organism versus another. This review discusses the pathogenetic role of several microorganisms in different ocular adnexal malignancies, including human papilloma virus in conjunctival papilloma and squamous cell carcinoma, human immunodeficiency virus in conjunctival squamous carcinoma, Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes virus or human herpes simplex virus-8 (KSHV/HHV-8) in conjunctival Kaposi sarcoma, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori,), Chlamydia, and hepatitis C virus in ocular adnexal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas. Unlike cervical cancer where a single infectious agent, human papilloma virus, is found in greater than 99% of lesions, multiple organisms may play a role in the etiology of certain ocular adnexal neoplasms by acting through similar mechanisms of oncogenesis, including chronic antigenic stimulation and the action of infectious oncogenes. However, similar to other human malignancies

  10. A Case of Trichilemmal Carcinoma Treated with Mohs Micrographic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Hun; Lee, Yeong-Kyu; Choi, Kyu-Won; Lee, Chae-Young

    2008-01-01

    Trichilemmal carcinoma is a cutaneous adnexal tumor originating from the outer root sheath of hair follicle, and it was first described by Headington in 1976. Clinically, it usually occurs as an asymptomatic solitary papule, nodule or mass on the face or scalp. This neoplasm is a malignant counterpart of trichilemmoma, and it has been reported in the literature as trichilemmal carcinoma, tricholemmal carcinoma, malignant trichilemmoma, and tricholemmocarcinoma. Although histologically, trichilemmal carcinoma frequently has maliganant features, it has a relatively benign clinical behavior. We think Mohs micrographic surgery is a useful treatment modality in trichilemmal carcinoma because the final skin defect is smaller than a wide excision. We report a case of primary trichilemmal carcinoma which had developed on the face, treated with Mohs micrographic surgery. PMID:27303183

  11. Neglected skin cancer in the elderly: a case of basosquamous cell carcinoma of the right shoulder.

    PubMed

    Bisgaard, Erika; Tarakji, Michael; Lau, Frank; Riker, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Skin cancer remains the most common cancer worldwide, and basal cell carcinoma represents the largest portion of non-melanomatous skin cancers with over 3 million cases diagnosed annually. Locally advanced disease is frequently seen in the elderly posing clinical challenges regarding proper treatment.We report on an 86-year-old female presenting with fatigue, anemia and a large ulcerated skin lesion along the right upper back. A biopsy of the lesion revealed a basosquamous cell carcinoma. She underwent a wide local excision with complex wound reconstruction.Neglected skin cancers in the elderly can present difficult clinical scenarios. There are associated adjuvant therapies that should be considered following resection, such as local radiation therapy and other novel therapies. Newer therapies, such as with vismodegib, may also be considered. A comprehensive, multimodal approach to treatment should be considered in most cases of locally advanced, non-melanoma skin cancers. PMID:27534889

  12. Citrus consumption and risk of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaowei; Cho, Eunyoung; Feskanich, Diane; Li, Wen-Qing; Sun, Qi; Han, Jiali; Qureshi, Abrar A

    2015-10-01

    Animal experiments have demonstrated the photocarcinogenic properties of furocoumarins, a group of naturally occurring chemicals that are rich in citrus products. We conducted a prospective study for citrus consumption and risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin based on data from 41530 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2010) and 63759 women in the Nurses' Health Study (1984-2010) who were free of cancers at baseline. Over 24-26 years of follow-up, we documented 20840 incident BCCs and 3544 incident SCCs. Compared to those who consumed citrus products less than twice per week, the pooled multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios were 1.03 [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.99-1.08] for BCC and 1.14 (95% CI: 1.00-1.30) for SCC for those who consumed two to four times per week, 1.06 (95% CI: 1.01-1.11) for BCC and 1.15 (95% CI: 1.02-1.28) for SCC for five to six times per week, 1.11 (95% CI: 1.06-1.16) for BCC and 1.22 (95% CI: 1.08-1.37) for SCC for once to 1.4 times per day and 1.16 (95% CI: 1.09-1.23) for BCC and 1.21 (95% Cl: 1.06-1.38) for SCC for 1.5 times per day or more (P trend = 0.001 for BCC and 0.04 for SCC). In contrast, consumption of non-citrus fruit and juice appeared to be inversely associated with risk of BCC and SCC. Our findings support positive associations between citrus consumption and risk of cutaneous BCC and SCC in two cohorts of men and women, and call for further investigations to better understand the potential photocarcinogenesis associated with dietary intakes. PMID:26224304

  13. [Merkel cell carcinoma of the skin in a patient with myasthenia gravis].

    PubMed

    Gianfreda, M; Caiffi, S; De Franceschi, T; Dodero, C; Durante, R; Faletti, P; Rebuttato, A; Schivo, A; Tassara, R

    2002-06-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare, aggressive neuroendocrine tumor of the skin commonly seen in the elderly on the head, neck and extremities, with a predisposition for local regional and distant spreading. A case of Merkel cell carcinoma occurred in a woman treated with immunosuppressive therapy for myasthenia gravis, is described and the possibility of a link between the immunosuppressive and/or oncogenic therapy and this tumor is suggested. PMID:12094153

  14. Recurrent carcinoma in situ of the vagina following split-thickness skin graft vaginoplasty.

    PubMed

    Gallup, D G; Castle, C A; Stock, R J

    1987-01-01

    A patient who developed squamous cell carcinoma in situ in a split-thickness skin graft neovagina is presented. This is the third reported case in the English literature of a patient previously treated for carcinoma in situ of the vagina who later developed an identical lesion in the graft. Management of this neoplasm is discussed, and follow-up for patients with neovaginas is emphasized. PMID:3539716

  15. Clinical management of incidental findings on pelvic adnexal masses.

    PubMed

    Dias, Daniel Spadoto; Bueloni-Dias, Flávia Neves; Delmanto, Armando; Tonon, Ângela Favorito Santarém; Tayfour, Najla Mohamad; Traiman, Paulo; Dias, Rogério

    2015-01-01

    Due to widespread use of pelvic and transvaginal ultrasound in routine gynecological evaluation, the incidental finding of adnexal masses has led to discussions about management in asymptomatic patients regarding the risk of ovarian cancer. Transvaginal ultrasonography remains the modality of choice in the evaluation of suspicious characteristics. The combined analysis of ultrasound morphological parameters with Doppler study, serum carcinoma antigen 125 and investigation of a symptom index may improve diagnosis. Surgical approach should be considered whenever there are suspicious images, rapid growth of cysts, changes in the appearance compared to the initial evaluation or when the patient has symptoms. Future studies on genetic and molecular mechanisms may help explain the pathophysiology of ovarian cancer, improving early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26603011

  16. Skin metastasis, an uncommon course of prostate carcinoma: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Telis, L; Wolf, V; Yaskiv, O; Pearson, B J; Katsigeorgis, M; Jazayeri, S B; Samadi, D B; Unger, P D

    2016-08-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers among men worldwide and in the USA. Most prostate cancer progression either locally invades to seminal vesicles or metastasizes distally to bone. Skin is not a common site of metastasis for the majority of malignancies including prostate cancer. This paper reports two extremely rare cases of prostate carcinoma metastatic to the skin: a 74-year-old man previously treated with radiation for prostate cancer with cutaneous metastases to the shoulder and a 68-year-old man with prostate adenocarcinoma and cutaneous metastases to the groin. Both patients were diagnosed with skin punch biopsy and later confirmed with immunohistochemical staining for PSA and prostate specific acid phosphatase, specific for prostatic carcinoma. Although unusual, development of multiple skin lesions in patients with prostate adenocarcinoma should raise the flags of cutaneous metastases. PMID:27568675

  17. Radiation therapy for carcinoma of the skin of the face and neck

    SciTech Connect

    Chahbazian, C.M.; Brown, G.S.

    1980-09-05

    Approximately 300,000 new cases of carcinomas of the skin are diagnosed each year in the Unied States. The great majority of these lesions are on the skin of the face and neck. The proximity of these neoplasms to important structures such as the eyes, nose, and ears has prompted this discussion of the role of radiation therapy in their management. Most carcinomas of the skin of the nose and eyelids are basal cell carcinomas, while most tumors arising on the pinna are squamous cell carcinomas. Despite the fact that cutaneous carcinomas of the face and neck are essentially totally curable, hundreds of patients in the United States annually die or become horribly disfigured through neglect or improper treatment. Radiotherapy of cutaneous carcinomas can be rewarding when the proper care and expertise are applied. The radiation therapist is afforded an unusual opportunity to deal with a highly curable malignant neoplasm, but at the same time he can model his means to obtain the best aesthetic results. Many carcinomas of the skin are expeditiously and effectively cured by simple excision, but others, regardless of size, may be treated best by radiotherapy because of better aesthetic results. The use of acids, caustics, or electrocoagulation offers no particular advantage and is seldom as satisfactory as a clean excision. The surgical procedure often may be an excisional biopsy, which offers the opportunity of adequate histopathologic study of the specimen. Various modalities of radiation therapy may be successfully utilized, but none has the elasticity and definite advantage of relatively low kilovoltage roentgen therapy.

  18. How to Check Your Skin for Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Cancer Types Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Patient Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer Prevention Skin Cancer Screening Health Professional Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer ...

  19. Skin Carcinoma in the Process of `Stanford Jointing'

    PubMed Central

    Spink, M. S.; Baynes, A. H.; Tombleson, J. B. L.

    1964-01-01

    Three cases of squamous carcinoma resulting from exposure to mineral oil in the process of treatment of pipes known as `Stanford jointing' are described, being the first to be noted in this process. The process itself is described with illustrations, and attention is drawn to the importance of realizing that such cases may occur in industrial processes where there is considerable exposure to mineral oil. Images PMID:14142521

  20. Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Penis: An HPV-related Variant of Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Report of 3 Cases.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Diego F; Rodriguez, Ingrid M; Piris, Adriano; Cañete, Sofía; Lezcano, Cecilia; Velazquez, Elsa F; Fernandez-Nestosa, Maria J; Mendez-Pena, Javier E; Hoang, Mai P; Cubilla, Antonio L

    2016-07-01

    Penile clear cell carcinoma originating in skin adnexal glands has been previously reported. Here, we present 3 morphologically distinctive penile tumors with prominent clear cell features originating not in the penile skin but in the mucosal tissues of the glans surface squamous epithelium. Clinical and pathologic features were evaluated. Immunohistochemical stains were GATA3 and p16. Human papilloma virus (HPV) detection by in situ hybridization was performed in 3 cases, and whole-tissue section-polymerase chain reaction was performed in 1 case. Patients' ages were 52, 88, and 95 years. Tumors were large and involved the glans and coronal sulcus in all cases. Microscopically, nonkeratinizing clear cells predominated. Growth was in solid nests with comedo-like or geographic necrosis. Focal areas of invasive warty or basaloid carcinomas showing in addition warty or basaloid penile intraepithelial neoplasia were present in 2 cases. There was invasion of corpora cavernosa, lymphatic vessels, veins, and perineural spaces in all cases. p16 was positive, and GATA3 stain was negative in the 3 cases. HPV was detected in 3 cases by in situ hybridization and in 1 case by polymerase chain reaction. Differential diagnoses included other HPV-related penile carcinomas, skin adnexal tumors, and metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Features that support primary penile carcinoma were tumor location, concomitant warty and/or basaloid penile intraepithelial neoplasia, and HPV positivity. Clinical groin metastases were present in all cases, pathologically confirmed in 1. Two patients died from tumor dissemination at 9 and 12 months after penectomy. Clear cell carcinoma, another morphologic variant related to HPV, originates in the penile mucosal surface and is probably related to warty carcinomas. PMID:26848799

  1. Adnexal torsion: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kirsten J; Miller, Charles E

    2014-01-01

    Adnexal torsion is one of a few gynecologic surgical emergencies. Misdiagnosis or delay in treatment can have permanent sequelae including loss of an ovary with effect on future fertility, peritonitis, and even death. A PubMed search was performed between 1985 and 2012 for reviews, comparative studies, and case reports to provide a review of the epidemiology, risk factors, clinical presentation, common laboratory and imaging findings, and treatments of adnexal torsion. Common symptoms of torsion include pain, nausea, and vomiting, with associated abdominal or pelvic tenderness, and may differ in premenarchal and pregnant patients. Laboratory and imaging findings including ultrasound with Doppler analysis, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging can assist in making the diagnosis but should not trump clinical judgment; normal Doppler flow can be observed in up to 60% of adnexal torsion cases. Treatment depends on the individual patient but commonly includes detorsion, even if the adnexae initially seem necrotic, with removal of any associated cysts or salpingo-oophorectomy, because recurrence rates are higher with detorsion alone or detorsion with only cyst aspiration. PMID:24126258

  2. Measurement of skin dose in primary irradiation of maxillary sinus carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Janjan, N.A.; Zellmer, D.; Gillin, M.; Kengchon, W.; Campbell, B. )

    1991-03-01

    Subcutaneous involvement frequently occurs in maxillary sinus carcinoma. Radical resection does not include removal of the skin at risk. In standard postoperative wedge-pair treatment plans, the surface dose is dependent upon beam weighting, beam energy, and patient contour. Thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) measurements were performed to evaluate the surface dose of patients undergoing postoperative irradiation of maxillary sinus carcinoma following primary resection. When 60 Gy was delivered to isocenter with a 45 degrees wedge pair and 6 MV photons with 1 cm bolus, the subcutaneous tissues at risk received {approximately} 30 Gy. Based upon presented TLD measurements, supplemental electron beam therapy to the subcutaneous tissues if primarily involved should be considered.

  3. Interstitial brachytherapy of periorificial skin carcinomas of the face: A retrospective study of 97 cases

    SciTech Connect

    Rio, Emmanuel . E-mail: e-rio@nantes.fnclcc.fr; Bardet, Etienne; Ferron, Christophe; Peuvrel, Patrick; Supiot, Stephane; Campion, Loic; Beauvillain De Montreuil, Claude; Mahe, Marc Andre; Dreno, Brigitte

    2005-11-01

    Purpose: To analyze outcomes after interstitial brachytherapy of facial periorificial skin carcinomas. Patients and Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 97 skin carcinomas (88 basal cell carcinomas, 9 squamous cell carcinomas) of the nose, periorbital areas, and ears from 40 previously untreated patients (Group 1) and 57 patients who had undergone surgery (Group 2). The average dose was 55 Gy (range, 50-65 Gy) in Group 1 and 52 Gy (range, 50-60 Gy) in Group 2 (mean implantation times: 79 and 74 hours, respectively). We calculated survival rates and assessed functional and cosmetic results de visu. Results: Median age was 71 years (range, 17-97 years). There were 29 T1, 8 T2, 1 T3, and 2 Tx tumors in Group 1. Tumors were <2 cm in Group 2. Local control was 92.5% in Group 1 and 88% in Group 2 (median follow-up, 55 months; range, 6-132 months). Five-year disease-free survival was better in Group 1 (91%; range, 75-97) than in Group 2 (80%; range, 62-90; p = 0.23). Of the 34 patients whose results were reassessed, 8 presented with pruritus or epiphora; 1 Group 2 patient had an impaired eyelid aperture. Cosmetic results were better in Group 1 than in Group 2 with, respectively, 72% (8/11) vs. 52% (12/23) good results and 28 (3/11) vs. 43% (10/23) fair results. Conclusions: Brachytherapy provided a high level of local control and good cosmetic results for facial periorificial skin carcinomas that pose problems of surgical reconstruction. Results were better for untreated tumors than for incompletely excised tumors or tumors recurring after surgery.

  4. Adnexal mass evaluation in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Morgan, A

    2001-08-01

    Female patients who have stable vital signs presenting to the emergency department with abdominopelvic pain and an adnexal mass can be extremely difficult to manage. However, by performing a rapid problem-oriented history and physical with emphasis on the age of patient, menstrual history, and pelvic exam, a detailed differential diagnosis can be compiled. With the addition of a complete blood count and HCG, if appropriate, and a CA-125 for your consultant, additional information can be obtained while a ultrasound examination is being performed. With the above information, consultation and disposition should be readily accomplished. PMID:11554288

  5. Surgical management of carcinoma of eyelids and periorbital skin.

    PubMed

    Mehta, H

    1979-08-01

    An appraisal of a personal series of 115 unselected and surgically treated cutaneous cancers of palpebral region is presented. Histological confirmation of the diagnosis and adequacy of excision was obtained for all lesions. Seven of the 8 patients with doubtful clearance were successfully treated with further surgery very soon. Complications were few, the incidence of reoperations low, and cosmetic as well as functional results were mostly satisfactory. Tumour recurred in 1 case (0.87%). Two patients had a poor cosmetic result. Seventy-nine cases (69%) were treated as day cases under local anaesthesia even for major repairs like full-thickness reconstruction of two-thirds of the lower eyelid and repairs with large full-thickness skin grafts of up to 20 x 55 mm by a new simple technique of graft fixation. The use of longer-acting local anaesthetics in oculoplastic surgery is described. Attention is drawn to the dangers of using direct wound closure for repair. PMID:383135

  6. Reduction in squamous cell carcinomas in mouse skin by dietary zinc supplementation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jin; Shen, Rulong; Schrock, Morgan S; Liu, James; Pan, Xueliang; Quimby, Donald; Zanesi, Nicola; Druck, Teresa; Fong, Louise Y; Huebner, Kay

    2016-08-01

    Inadequate dietary Zn consumption increases susceptibility to esophageal and other cancers in humans and model organisms. Since Zn supplementation can prevent cancers in rodent squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) models, we were interested in determining if it could have a preventive effect in a rodent skin cancer model, as a preclinical basis for considering a role for Zn in prevention of human nonmelanoma skin cancers, the most frequent cancers in humans. We used the 7,12-dimethyl benzanthracene carcinogen/phorbol myristate acetate tumor promoter treatment method to induce skin tumors in Zn-sufficient wild-type and Fhit (human or mouse protein) knockout mice. Fhit protein expression is lost in >50% of human cancers, including skin SCCs, and Fhit-deficient mice show increased sensitivity to carcinogen induction of tumors. We hypothesized that: (1) the skin cancer burdens would be reduced by Zn supplementation; (2) Fhit(-/-) (Fhit, murine fragile histidine triad gene) mice would show increased susceptibility to skin tumor induction versus wild-type mice. 30 weeks after initiating treatment, the tumor burden was increased ~2-fold in Fhit(-/-) versus wild-type mice (16.2 versus 7.6 tumors, P < 0.001); Zn supplementation significantly reduced tumor burdens in Fhit(-/-) mice (males and females combined, 16.2 unsupplemented versus 10.3 supplemented, P = 0.001). Most importantly, the SCC burden was reduced after Zn supplementation in both strains and genders of mice, most significantly in the wild-type males (P = 0.035). Although the mechanism(s) of action of Zn supplementation in skin tumor prevention is not known in detail, the Zn-supplemented tumors showed evidence of reduced DNA damage and some cohorts showed reduced inflammation scores. The results suggest that mild Zn supplementation should be tested for prevention of skin cancer in high-risk human cohorts. PMID:27185213

  7. Oblimersen in Treating Patients With Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    Recurrent Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage I Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage II Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage III Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage IV Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin

  8. Necessity of Distinguishing Verrucous Carcinoma From Verrucous Skin Lesion Overlaying Residual Skin Staples in an Area of Sensory Loss: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Tokiyoshi, Takahiro; Hashikawa, Kazunobu; Terashi, Hiroto

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Verrucous skin lesions on the feet in diabetic neuropathy is a condition usually induced by chronic mechanical stimulation of the feet of patients with diabetic neuropathy and usually occurs at weight-bearing sites. We here present a rare case involving a man with verrucous skin lesions on the feet in diabetic neuropathy at an unusual, non–weight-bearing site. Methods: A 58-year-old man with diabetic neuropathy presented with a verrucous skin lesion overlaying residual skin staples and an amputation stump of the second metatarsal bone on the dorsal foot. Results: The biopsy findings were inconclusive and suggested the necessity of distinguishing the lesion from verrucous carcinoma. The lesion was resected, and the residual skin staples were simultaneously removed. Investigation of the excisional biopsy confirmed our diagnosis of verrucous skin lesions on the feet in diabetic neuropathy. Conclusions: Verrucous skin lesions on the feet in diabetic neuropathy is often difficult to distinguish from verrucous carcinoma; in this case, the unusual location of the lesion could be attributed not only to sensory loss but also to the presence of an amputation stump and the persistence of the residual skin staples. PMID:26171095

  9. Cysteine protease and its inhibitor in experimentally produced squamous cell carcinomas in hairless mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Alidina, R; Kikuchi, M; Kashima, M; Epstein, J H; Fukuyama, K

    1988-08-01

    Squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) were experimentally produced in hairless mouse skin, and cysteine protease and its inhibitor were simultaneously purified from extracts of 1 g of tissue of SCC and normal skin. Activity of cysteine proteinases, Mr greater than 50,000 and Mr 28,000, increased in SCC compared to those in normal skin. SCC also showed elevation of cysteine proteinase inhibitor activity and Mr 13,000 and Mr 82,000 inhibitors were purified. Mr 13,000 inhibitor was found to have biochemical properties which were the same as those of the inhibitor present in normal skin. Mr 82,000 inhibitor was not detectable in normal skin and it differed from a serum inhibitor with a similar Mr in terms of activity and stability at acidic pH. The findings suggest that the increased activity of both cysteine proteases and endogenous inhibitors may be involved in the regulatory mechanisms of malignant cell metabolism and tissue remodeling associated with SCC development. PMID:3396664

  10. PKK Suppresses Tumor Growth and is Decreased in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin

    PubMed Central

    Poligone, Brian; Gilmore, Elaine S.; Alexander, Carolina; Oleksyn, David; Gillespie, Kathleen; Zhao, Jiyong; Ibrahim, Sherrif; Pentland, Alice P.; Brown, Marc; Chen, Luojing

    2014-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) represents the most common cancer in the United States. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin is a sub-type of NMSC that shows a greater potential for invasion and metastasis. The current study identifies the Protein Kinase C-associated Kinase (PKK), which is also known as the Receptor-Interacting Protein Kinase 4 (RIPK4), as a suppressor of tumor growth in SCC of the skin. We show that expression of PKK is decreased in human SCC of the skin compared to normal skin. Further, suppression of PKK in human keratinocytes leads to increased cell proliferation. Use of RNA interference to reduce PKK expression in keratinocytes leads to an increase in S phase and in proteins that promote cell cycle progression. Consistent with the results obtained from cell culture, there is a dramatic increased tumorigenesis after PKK knockdown in a xenotransplant model and in soft agar assays. The loss of tumor suppression involves the NF-κB and p63 pathways. NF-κB is inhibited through inhibition of IKK function and there is increased nuclear TP63 activity after PKK knockdown. This study opens new avenues both in the discovery of disease pathogenesis and for potential treatments. PMID:25285922

  11. Hair follicle defects and squamous cell carcinoma formation in Smad4 conditional knockout mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Qiao, W; Li, A G; Owens, P; Xu, X; Wang, X-J; Deng, C-X

    2006-01-12

    Smad4 is the common mediator for TGFbeta signals, which play important functions in many biological processes. To study the role of Smad4 in skin development and epidermal tumorigenesis, we disrupted this gene in skin using the Cre-loxP approach. We showed that absence of Smad4 blocked hair follicle differentiation and cycling, leading to a progressive hair loss of mutant (MT) mice. MT hair follicles exhibited diminished expression of Lef1, and increased proliferative cells in the outer root sheath. Additionally, the skin of MT mice exhibited increased proliferation of basal keratinocytes and epidermal hyperplasia. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the absence of Smad4 resulted in a block of both TGFbeta and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathways, including p21, a well-known cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. Consequently, all MT mice developed spontaneous malignant skin tumors from 3 months to 13 months of age. The majority of tumors are malignant squamous cell carcinomas. A most notable finding is that tumorigenesis is accompanied by inactivation of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (Pten), activation of AKT, fast proliferation and nuclear accumulation of cyclin D1. These observations revealed the essential functions of Smad4-mediated signals in repressing skin tumor formation through the TGFbeta/BMP pathway, which interacts with the Pten signaling pathway. PMID:16170355

  12. Molecular classification of basal cell carcinoma of skin by gene expression profiling.

    PubMed

    Jee, Byul A; Lim, Hyoseob; Kwon, So Mee; Jo, Yuna; Park, Myong Chul; Lee, Il Jae; Woo, Hyun Goo

    2015-12-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) including basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are more common kinds of skin cancer. Although these tumors share common pathological and clinical features, their similarity and heterogeneity at molecular levels are not fully elaborated yet. Here, by performing comparative analysis of gene expression profiling of BCC, SCC, and normal skin tissues, we could classify the BCC into three subtypes of classical, SCC-like, and normal-like BCCs. Functional enrichment and pathway analyses revealed the molecular characteristics of each subtype. The classical BCC showed the enriched expression and transcription signature with the activation of Wnt and Hedgehog signaling pathways, which were well known key features of BCC. By contrast, the SCC-like BCC was enriched with immune-response genes and oxidative stress-related genes. Network analysis revealed the PLAU/PLAUR as a key regulator of SCC-like BCC. The normal-like BCC showed prominent activation of metabolic processes particularly the fatty acid metabolism. The existence of these molecular subtypes could be validated in an independent dataset, which demonstrated the three subgroups of BCC with distinct functional enrichment. In conclusion, we suggest a novel molecular classification of BCC providing insights on the heterogeneous progression of BCC. PMID:25328065

  13. Saffron suppresses oxidative stress in DMBA-induced skin carcinoma: A histopathological study.

    PubMed

    Das, Ila; Das, Sukta; Saha, Tapas

    2010-07-01

    Cancer chemoprevention is the use of natural, synthetic or biological substances to reverse or prevent the development of cancer. Saffron is a naturally derived plant product that acts as an antispasmodic, diaphoretic, carminative, emmenagogic and sedative. Our aim in this study was to investigate the chemopreventive effect of aqueous saffron on chemically induced skin carcinogenesis using a histopathological approach. Mice were divided into five groups: carcinogen control (CC), normal control (NC) and saffron-treated Groups A, B and C. Groups A, B, C and CC mice received three topical applications of 7,12 dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) followed by croton oil on shaven dorsal skin for 8 weeks. NC mice received topical skin applications of the vehicle, acetone, only. Saffron infusion was fed orally to three groups of mice either before (Group A) or after (Group C) or both before and after (Group B) DMBA applications. The activities of antioxidant enzymes glutathione-S transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver tissue samples taken at 0, 6, 10 and 12 weeks from all groups were assessed. Standard histological examination of skin demonstrated a beneficial action of saffron in mice where saffron treatments were given both before and after the induction of skin carcinogenesis. Saffron ingestion inhibited the formation of skin papillomas in animals and simultaneously reduced their size. In conclusion, saffron inhibits DMBA-induced skin carcinoma in mice when treated early. This may be due, at least in part, to the induction of cellular defense systems. PMID:19328523

  14. Fingertips squamous cell carcinoma: Treatment outcomes with surgical excision and full thickness skin graft.

    PubMed

    Alghamdi, I; Robert, N; Revol, M

    2016-02-01

    Fingertips squamous cell carcinoma is a rare disease. An often missed or delayed diagnosis, the affected finger could result in an amputation. Our aim is to focus on the results of surgical excision of fingertips squamous cell carcinoma. Between 2005 and 2011, eighteen fingers on eight patients with a mean age of 62.5 years underwent surgery. The surgical excision margin was 5mm and the defect was covered by a full thickness skin graft. Three fingers were revised for having a non-secure margin with an enlarged excision and two fingers were amputated at the distal phalange. The diagnosis is often missed or delayed, resulting in an amputation of the affected finger. Aesthetic outcomes range from very good to good satisfaction except for one, which was bad. PMID:25301287

  15. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin and Coal Tar Creosote Exposure in a Railroad Worker

    PubMed Central

    Carlsten, Chris; Hunt, Stephen Carl; Kaufman, Joel D.

    2005-01-01

    A 50-year-old male railroad worker presented to his primary care physician with an erythematous, tender skin lesion on the right knee; a biopsy of this lesion revealed squamous cell carcinoma in situ. The site of the lesion was sun-protected but had been associated with 30 years of creosote-soaked clothing. In this article, we review dermal and other malignancies associated with creosote, along with creosote occupational exposures and exposure limits. This is a unique case, given the lack of other, potentially confounding, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and the sun-protected location of the lesion. PMID:15626654

  16. Eccrine or apocrine poroma? Six poromas with divergent adnexal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Harvell, J D; Kerschmann, R L; LeBoit, P E

    1996-02-01

    We describe six cases of benign eccrine poroma-like neoplasms with divergent adnexal differentiation. Four cases exhibited sebaceous differentiation in the form of individual or clustered sebocytes with or without sebaceous ducts. One case showed both sebaceous and hair follicle differentiation, and one case showed sebaceous and possible apocrine secretory differentiation. Clinically, most were skin-colored, red, or purple papules or nodules. One patient had a preoperative diagnosis of Bowen's disease, with an erythematous plaque. None recurred following biopsy. Previous reports of similar lesions have suggested a possible role for human papilloma virus (HPV) in their pathogenesis; however, immunohistochemical staining for HPV structural antigens was negative in all six of these cases. Similarities to previously reported cases of eccrine poroma-like neoplasms with sebaceous differentiation are discussed. Given the evidence of sebaceous and follicular differentiation seen in this study and the common embryologic origin of follicular, sebaceous, and apocrine structures, it follows that at least some benign neoplastic proliferations with histopathologic features of "eccrine" poroma could be of apocrine origin. PMID:8721584

  17. Oculocutaneous Albinism and Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin of the Head and Neck in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Lekalakala, P T; Khammissa, R A G; Kramer, B; Ayo-Yusuf, O A; Lemmer, J; Feller, L

    2015-01-01

    Oculocutaneous albinism which is characterised by impaired melanin biosynthesis is the most common inherited pigmentary disorder of the skin and it is common among Blacks in sub-Saharan Africa. All albinos are at great risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma of sun-exposed skin, and Black albinos in sub-Saharan Africa are at about a 1000-fold higher risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma of the skin than the general population. In Black albinos, skin carcinoma tends to run an aggressive course and is likely to recur after treatment, very probably because the aetiology and predisposing factors have not changed. Prevention or reduction of occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin in Black albinos might be achieved through educating the population to increase awareness of the harmful effects of exposure to sunlight and at the same time making available effective screening programs for early detection of premalignant and malignant skin lesions in schools and communities and for early treatment. PMID:26347819

  18. Oculocutaneous Albinism and Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin of the Head and Neck in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Lekalakala, P. T.; Khammissa, R. A. G.; Kramer, B.; Ayo-Yusuf, O. A.; Lemmer, J.; Feller, L.

    2015-01-01

    Oculocutaneous albinism which is characterised by impaired melanin biosynthesis is the most common inherited pigmentary disorder of the skin and it is common among Blacks in sub-Saharan Africa. All albinos are at great risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma of sun-exposed skin, and Black albinos in sub-Saharan Africa are at about a 1000-fold higher risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma of the skin than the general population. In Black albinos, skin carcinoma tends to run an aggressive course and is likely to recur after treatment, very probably because the aetiology and predisposing factors have not changed. Prevention or reduction of occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin in Black albinos might be achieved through educating the population to increase awareness of the harmful effects of exposure to sunlight and at the same time making available effective screening programs for early detection of premalignant and malignant skin lesions in schools and communities and for early treatment. PMID:26347819

  19. Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC)

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Squamous cell carcinoma typically develops in sun-damaged skin in fair-skinned patients. Overview Squamous ... skin cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma usually occurs on sun-damaged skin, especially in light-skinned individuals with ...

  20. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor: May Mimic Adnexal Mass

    PubMed Central

    Karaca, Nilay; Akpak, Yaşam Kemal; Tatar, Zeynep; Batmaz, Gonca; Erken, Aslihan

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are rare tumor of the gastrointestinal tract. GISTs occur in the entire gastrointestinal tract and may also arise from the retroperitoneum, omentum and mesenteries. They are originated from gastrointestinal pacemaker cells (Cajal’s interstitial cells) and range from benign tumors to sarcomas at all sites of occurrence. Diagnosis of GIST could be deceptive because of their similarity in appearance to gynecological neoplasms. We would like to present a case of a woman with GIST in the small intestine giving a imprint of an adnexal mass was diagnosed correctly during surgery. The diagnosis and treatment of GIST has been reformed over the past years. It is crucial to separate GISTs from possible misdiagnosis because their prognosis and treatment could be unlike clearly. The purpose of this case is to evaluate this rarely seen clinical entity, and thus, make some contribution to the literature. PMID:26383211

  1. Treatment options for ocular adnexal lymphoma (OAL)

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Victoria Mary Lendrum

    2009-01-01

    Most lymphomas that involve the ocular adnexal structure are low grade, B cell, non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. The treatment depends upon the grade and stage of the disease. High grade lymhoma requires treatment with systemic chemotherapy whereas the localized low grade (extranodal marginal zone lymphoma) can be successfully managed with local radiotherapy. Chlamydia psittaci infection is associated with low grade ocular lymphoma; however there is wide geographic variation in the strength of this association. Blanket antibiotic therapy is not advised unless there is proof of an infective agent. The monoclonal antibody, rituximab, may be successful for CD20 positive lymphoma, although it is likely that rituximab will have better long-term results when used in combination with systemic chemotherapy. PMID:20054418

  2. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor: May Mimic Adnexal Mass.

    PubMed

    Karaca, Nilay; Akpak, Yasam Kemal; Tatar, Zeynep; Batmaz, Gonca; Erken, Aslihan

    2016-02-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are rare tumor of the gastrointestinal tract. GISTs occur in the entire gastrointestinal tract and may also arise from the retroperitoneum, omentum and mesenteries. They are originated from gastrointestinal pacemaker cells (Cajal's interstitial cells) and range from benign tumors to sarcomas at all sites of occurrence. Diagnosis of GIST could be deceptive because of their similarity in appearance to gynecological neoplasms. We would like to present a case of a woman with GIST in the small intestine giving a imprint of an adnexal mass was diagnosed correctly during surgery. The diagnosis and treatment of GIST has been reformed over the past years. It is crucial to separate GISTs from possible misdiagnosis because their prognosis and treatment could be unlike clearly. The purpose of this case is to evaluate this rarely seen clinical entity, and thus, make some contribution to the literature. PMID:26383211

  3. Tetraspanin CD151 plays a key role in skin squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qinglin; Yang, Xiuwei H.; Xu, Fenghui; Sharma, Chandan; Wang, Hong-Xing; Knoblich, Konstantin; Rabinovitz, Isaac; Granter, Scott R.; Hemler, Martin E.

    2012-01-01

    Here we provide the first evidence that tetraspanin CD151 can support de novo carcinogenesis. During two-stage mouse skin chemical carcinogenesis, CD151 reduces tumor lag time and increases incidence, multiplicity, size, and progression to malignant squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), while supporting both cell survival during tumor initiation and cell proliferation during the promotion phase. In human skin SCC, CD151 expression is selectively elevated compared to other skin cancer types. CD151 support of keratinocyte survival and proliferation may depend on activation of transcription factor STAT3, a regulator of cell proliferation and apoptosis. CD151 also supports PKCα-α6β4 integrin association and PKC-dependent β4 S1424 phosphorylation, while regulating α6β4 distribution. CD151-PKCα effects on integrin β4 phosphorylation and subcellular localization are consistent with epithelial disruption to a less polarized, more invasive state. CD151 ablation, while minimally affecting normal cell and normal mouse functions, markedly sensitized mouse skin and epidermoid cells to chemicals/drugs including DMBA (mutagen) and camptothecin (topoisomerase inhibitor), as well as to agents targeting EGFR, PKC, Jak2/Tyk2, and STAT3. Hence, CD151 ‘co-targeting’ may be therapeutically beneficial. These findings not only support CD151 as a potential tumor target, but also should apply to other cancers utilizing CD151-laminin-binding integrin complexes. PMID:22824799

  4. Automatic detection of basal cell carcinoma using telangiectasia analysis in dermoscopy skin lesion images

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Beibei; Erdos, David; Stanley, Ronald J.; Stoecker, William V.; Calcara, David A.; Gómez, David D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Telangiectasia, dilated blood vessels near the surface of the skin of small, varying diameter, are critical dermoscopy structures used in the detection of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Distinguishing these vessels from other telangiectasia, that are commonly found in sun-damaged skin, is challenging. Methods Image analysis techniques are investigated to find vessels structures found in BCC automatically. The primary screen for vessels uses an optimized local color drop technique. A noise filter is developed to eliminate false-positive structures, primarily bubbles, hair, and blotch and ulcer edges. From the telangiectasia mask containing candidate vessel-like structures, shape, size and normalized count features are computed to facilitate the discrimination of benign skin lesions from BCCs with telangiectasia. Results Experimental results yielded a diagnostic accuracy as high as 96.7% using a neural network classifier for a data set of 59 BCCs and 152 benign lesions for skin lesion discrimination based on features computed from the telangiectasia masks. Conclusion In current clinical practice, it is possible to find smaller BCCs by dermoscopy than by clinical inspection. Although almost all of these small BCCs have telangiectasia, they can be short and thin. Normalization of lengths and areas helps to detect these smaller BCCs. PMID:23815446

  5. ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy for the Assessment of Biochemical Changes in Skin Due to Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Cássio A.; Goulart, Viviane P.; Côrrea, Luciana; Pereira, Thiago M.; Zezell, Denise M.

    2015-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancers represent 95% of cutaneous neoplasms. Among them, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the more aggressive form and shows a pattern of possible metastatic profile. In this work, we used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy to assess the biochemical changes in normal skin caused by squamous cell carcinoma induced by multi-stage chemical carcinogenesis in mice. Changes in the absorption intensities and shifts were observed in the vibrational modes associated to proteins, indicating changes in secondary conformation in the neoplastic tissue. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to evaluate the potential of the technique to differentiate the spectra of neoplastic and normal skin tissue, so that the accuracy obtained for this classification was 86.4%. In this sense, attenuated total reflection (ATR)-FTIR spectroscopy provides a useful tool to complement histopathological analysis in the clinical routine for the diagnosis of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25811925

  6. Asymptomatic renal cell carcinoma with metastasis to the skin and duodenum: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Adhip; Littler, Yvonne; Libertiny, Gabor

    2012-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is known to have blood-borne metastasis. This is usually to the bone, lungs and brain. Other unusual metastatic presentations such as skin and bowel metastasis have also been described. In most cases, the metastasis occurs as a late manifestation in a patient with known primary renal cell carcinoma. A rare synchronous presentation of skin and duodenal metastasis in an otherwise asymptomatic patient is reported here. This patient presented with a skin lesion that, on excision, brought up the diagnosis of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. While the patient was waiting for surgery, she also developed melena that, on gastroscopy, confirmed a duodenal metastasis. This case highlights the importance of early recognition of otherwise unrelated lesions as presentations for an advanced renal malignancy. PMID:22684828

  7. Isolated adnexal torsion in a 20-week spontaneous twin pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Kahramanoglu, Ilker; Eroglu, Vasfiye; Turan, Hasan; Kaval, Gizem; Sal, Veysel; Tokgozoglu, Nedim

    2016-01-01

    Background Adnexal torsion can be a life-threatning condition in pregnancy, while the risk of late diagnosis is increased, in second and third trimester in particular. Laparoscopy is an effective approach in diagnosis and treatment of adnexal torsion. However, entry to abdomen may be challenging in more advanced pregnancies. Case report Herein, we report a case of adnexal torsion during 20th week of twin pregnancy, which was detorsioned laparoscopically. The woman delivered healthy infants at her 36th week of pregnancy. Discussion Adnexal torsion as a cause of acute abdomen may be kept in mind in pregnants, even if there is no predisposing factor. Laparoscopy may be performed safely in 2nd trimester for acute abdomen. PMID:27129134

  8. Increased Incidence of Squamous Cell Carcinomas in Mastomys natalensis Papillomavirus E6 Transgenic Mice during Two-Stage Skin Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Helfrich, Iris; Chen, Min; Schmidt, Rainer; Fürstenberger, Gerhard; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Trick, David; Gröne, Hermann-Josef; zur Hausen, Harald; Rösl, Frank

    2004-01-01

    Papillomaviruses cause certain forms of human cancers, most notably carcinomas of the uterine cervix. In contrast to the well-established involvement of papillomavirus infection in the etiology of cervical carcinomas and in carcinomas of a rare hereditary condition, epidermodysplasia verruciformis, a causative role for cutaneous human papillomavirus types in the development of nonmelanoma skin cancer has not been proven. In order to better understand the functions of individual genes of cutaneous papillomavirus types, we generated transgenic mice carrying oncogene E6 of the Mastomys natalensis papillomavirus (MnPV), which causes keratoacanthomas of the skin in its natural host. In the present study, we demonstrate that under conditions of experimental two-stage skin carcinogenesis, fast-paced squamous cell carcinomas develop in nearly 100% of MnPV E6 transgenic mice in comparison to 10% in their nontransgenic littermates (log rank test; P < 0.0001). Therefore, we conclude that the MnPV E6 transgene favors the malignant progression of chemically induced tumors. Whereas an activating H-ras mutation is a consistent feature in benign and malignant tumors in wild-type mice, the majority of papillomas and keratoacanthomas and all squamous cell carcinomas obtained in MnPV E6 transgenic mice contain nonmutated ras alleles. These results indicate that the development of squamous cell carcinomas in MnPV E6 transgenic mice does not depend on an activated H-ras oncogene. PMID:15078961

  9. Quality of life and self-esteem in patients submitted to surgical treatment of skin carcinomas: long-term results*

    PubMed Central

    Maciel, Paula Curitiba; Veiga-Filho, Joel; de Carvalho, Marcelo Prado; Fonseca, Fernando Elias Martins; Ferreira, Lydia Masako; Veiga, Daniela Francescato

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cancer is a multifactorial disease and skin carcinomas are the most common type of cancer. Assessing quality of life and self-esteem outcomes in skin cancer patients is important because these are indicators of the results of the treatment, translating how patients face their lives and their personal relationships. OBJECTIVE To assess the late impact of the surgical treatment of head and/or neck skin carcinomas on quality of life and self-esteem of the patients. METHODS Fifty patients with head or neck skin carcinomas were enrolled. Their age ranged between 30 and 75 years, 27 were men and 23 were women. Patients were assessed with regard to quality of life and self-esteem, preoperatively and five years postoperatively. Validated instruments were used: the MOS 36-item Short-form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Rosenberg Self-esteem/EPM-UNIFESP Scale. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used for the statistical analysis. RESULTS Twenty-two patients completed the five-year follow-up, 54.5% women and 45.5% men. Compared to the preoperative assessment, patients had an improvement in mental health (p=0.011) and in self-esteem (p=0.002). There was no statistical difference with regard to the other domains of the SF-36. CONCLUSION Patients submitted to surgical treatment of skin carcinoma improved mental health and self-esteem in the late postsurgical testing. PMID:25054746

  10. Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. Clinicopathologic study of 18 cases.

    PubMed

    Bayrou, O; Avril, M F; Charpentier, P; Caillou, B; Guillaume, J C; Prade, M

    1991-02-01

    The clinical and pathologic features of primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin in 18 elderly patients are reported. The carcinomas arose in the dermis and subcutaneous tissues, particularly on the head and the upper extremities. One tumor occurred in an irradiated area. Using Gould's clinicopathologic classification, we have found four trabecular types, eleven intermediate cell types, and two small cell types. One tumor could not be classified. Other noteworthy pathologic features were association with invasive squamous cell carcinoma, lentiginous melanocytic hyperplasia, and presence of intratumoral melanocytes. Immunoreactivity for cytokeratins (56 kD), neurofilaments, neuron-specific enolase, and epithelial membrane antigen was observed. The paranuclear globular staining pattern of cytokeratins and neurofilaments was conspicuous. The ultrastructural features revealed paranuclear intermediate filament aggregates (fibrous bodies), neurosecretory granules, and cell junctions. In two metastatic tumors, high levels of catecholamines were found. The trabecular types were characterized by localized disease and a good prognosis. The patients with the small cell types died of distant metastases. Postoperative radiotherapy seemed to reduce the rate of local recurrences. PMID:2007664

  11. Laser-induced fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy for the discrimination of basal cell carcinoma from the surrounding normal skin tissue.

    PubMed

    Drakaki, E; Kaselouris, E; Makropoulou, M; Serafetinides, A A; Tsenga, A; Stratigos, A J; Katsambas, A D; Antoniou, C

    2009-01-01

    The object of this study was to investigate whether laser-induced skin autofluorescence (LIF) and/or light reflectance spectra could provide a useful contrast between basal cell carcinoma (BCC) tissues and the surrounding healthy skin. Unstained human skin samples, excised from humans undergoing biopsy examination, were irradiated with a nitrogen laser (lambda = 337 nm) for excitation of autofluorescence and a tungsten halogen lamp for the reflectance measurements. The ex vivo spectroscopic results were correlated with the histopathology images to distinguish the areas of BCC from those of the surrounding health skin. A simple spectral analysis technique was also applied for better skin diagnosis. In conclusion, it seems that LIF and reflectance spectra could be used to differentiate neoplastic from normal skin tissue using an appropriate classification model analysis. PMID:19365155

  12. Nonlinear spectral imaging of human normal skin, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma based on two-photon excited fluorescence and second-harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, S. Y.; Yang, J. G.; Zhuang, J.

    2011-10-01

    In this work, we use nonlinear spectral imaging based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) for analyzing the morphology of collagen and elastin and their biochemical variations in basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and normal skin tissue. It was found in this work that there existed apparent differences among BCC, SCC and normal skin in terms of their thickness of the keratin and epithelial layers, their size of elastic fibers, as well as their distribution and spectral characteristics of collagen. These differences can potentially be used to distinguish BCC and SCC from normal skin, and to discriminate between BCC and SCC, as well as to evaluate treatment responses.

  13. Testosterone metabolism of fibroblasts grown from prostatic carcinoma, benign prostatic hyperplasia and skin fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Schweikert, H.U.; Hein, H.J.; Romijn, J.C.; Schroeder, F.H.

    1982-02-01

    The metabolism of (1,2,6,7-3H)testosterone was assessed in fibroblast monolayers derived from tissue of 5 prostates with benign hyperplasia (BPH), 4 prostates with carcinoma (PC), and 3 biopsy samples of skin, 2 nongenital skin (NG) and 1 genital skin. The following metabolites could be identified: androstanedione androstenedione, dihydrotestosterone, androsterone, epiandrosterone, androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol and androstane-3 beta, 17 beta-diol. Testosterone was metabolized much more rapidly in fibroblasts originating from prostatic tissue than in fibroblasts derived from NG. A significantly higher formation of 5 alpha-androstanes and 3 alpha-hydroxysteroids could be observed in fibroblasts from BPH as compared to PC. 17-ketosteroid formation exceeded 5 alpha-androstane formation in BPH, whereas 5 alpha-reduction was the predominant pathway in fibroblasts grown from PC and NG. Since testosterone metabolism in fibroblasts of prostatic origin therefore resembles in many aspects that in whole prostatic tissue, fibroblasts grown from prostatic tissues might be a valuable tool for further investigation of the pathogenesis of human BPH and PC.

  14. RasGRP1 Transgenic Mice Develop Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinomas in Response to Skin Wounding

    PubMed Central

    Diez, Federico R.; Garrido, Ann A.; Sharma, Amrish; Luke, Courtney T.; Stone, James C.; Dower, Nancy A.; Cline, J. Mark; Lorenzo, Patricia S.

    2009-01-01

    Models of epidermal carcinogenesis have demonstrated that Ras is a critical molecule involved in tumor initiation and progression. Previously, we have shown that RasGRP1 increases the susceptibility of mice to skin tumorigenesis when overexpressed in the epidermis by a transgenic approach, related to its ability to activate Ras. Moreover, RasGRP1 transgenic mice develop spontaneous papillomas and cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas, some of which appear to originate in sites of injury, suggesting that RasGRP1 may be responding to signals generated during the wound-healing process. In this study, we examined the response of the RasGRP1 transgenic animals to full-thickness incision wounding of the skin, and demonstrated that they respond by developing tumors along the wounded site. The tumors did not present mutations in the H-ras gene, but Rasgrp1 transgene dosage correlated with tumor susceptibility and size. Analysis of serum cytokines showed increased levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in transgenic animals after wounding. Furthermore, in vitro experiments with primary keratinocytes showed that granulocyte colony-stimulating factor stimulated Ras activation, although RasGRP1 was dispensable for this effect. Since granulocyte colony-stimulating factor has been recently associated with proliferation of skin cancer cells, our results may help in the elucidation of pathways that activate Ras in the epidermis during tumorigenesis in the absence of oncogenic ras mutations. PMID:19497993

  15. Injury-Driven Stiffening of the Dermis Expedites Skin Carcinoma Progression.

    PubMed

    Mittapalli, Venugopal R; Madl, Josef; Löffek, Stefanie; Kiritsi, Dimitra; Kern, Johannes S; Römer, Winfried; Nyström, Alexander; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena

    2016-02-15

    Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) is a genetic skin fragility disorder characterized by injury-driven blister formation, progressive soft-tissue fibrosis, and a highly elevated risk of early-onset aggressive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC). However, the mechanisms underlying the unusually rapid progression of RDEB to cSCC are unknown. In this study, we investigated the contribution of injury-induced skin alterations to cSCC development by using a genetic model of RDEB and organotypic skin cultures. Analysis of RDEB patient samples suggested that premalignant changes to the dermal microenvironment drive tumor progression, which led us to subject a collagen VII hypomorphic mouse model of RDEB to chemical carcinogenesis. Carcinogen-treated RDEB mice developed invasive tumors phenocopying human RDEB-cSCC, whereas wild-type mice formed papillomas, indicating that the aggressiveness of RDEB-cSCC is mutation-independent. The inherent structural instability of the RDEB dermis, combined with repeated injury, increased the bioavailability of TGFβ, which promoted extracellular matrix production, cross-linking, thickening of dermal fibrils, and tissue stiffening. The biophysically altered dermis increased myofibroblast activity and integrin β1/pFAK/pAKT mechanosignaling in tumor cells, further demonstrating that cSCC progression is governed by pre-existing injury-driven changes in the RDEB tissue microenvironment. Treatment of three-dimensional organotypic RDEB skin cultures with inhibitors of TGFβ signaling, lysyl oxidase, or integrin β1-mediated mechanosignaling reduced or bypassed tissue stiffness and limited tumor cell invasion. Collectively, these findings provide a new mechanism by which RDEB tissue becomes malignant and offer new druggable therapeutic targets to prevent cSCC onset. Cancer Res; 76(4); 940-51. ©2015 AACR. PMID:26676755

  16. The role of DAMPS in ALA-PDT for skin squamous cell carcinoma (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiuli; Wang, Xiaojie; Ji, Jie; Zhang, Haiyan; Shi, Lei

    2016-03-01

    5-Aminolevulinic acid mediated photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) is an established local approach for skin squamous cell carcinoma. It is believed that dangerous signals damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) play an important role in ALA-PDT. In this study, we evaluated in vitro and in vivo expressions of major DAMPs, calreticulin (CRT), heat shock proteins 70 (HSP70), and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), induced by ALA-PDT using immunohistochemistry, western blot, and ELISA in a squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) mouse model. The role of DAMPs in the maturation of DCs potentiated by ALA-PDT-treated tumor cells was detected by FACS and ELISA. Our results showed that ALA-PDT enhanced the expression of CRT, HSP70, and HMGB1. These induced DAMPs played an important role in activating DCs by PDT-treated tumor cells, including phenotypic maturation (upregulation of surface expression of MHC-II, CD80, and CD86) and functional maturation (enhanced capability to secrete IFN-γ and IL-12). Furthermore, injecting ALA-PDT-treated tumor cells into naïve mice resulted in complete protection against cancer cells of the same origin. Our findings indicate that ALA-PDT can upregulate DAMPs and enhance tumor immunogenicity, providing a promising strategy for inducing a systemic anticancer immune response.

  17. 21 CFR 866.6050 - Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system... immunological Test Systems § 866.6050 Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system. (a) Identification. An ovarian/adnexal mass assessment test system is a device that measures one or more proteins in serum...

  18. 21 CFR 866.6050 - Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system... immunological Test Systems § 866.6050 Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system. (a) Identification. An ovarian/adnexal mass assessment test system is a device that measures one or more proteins in serum...

  19. 21 CFR 866.6050 - Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system... immunological Test Systems § 866.6050 Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system. (a) Identification. An ovarian/adnexal mass assessment test system is a device that measures one or more proteins in serum...

  20. 21 CFR 866.6050 - Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system... immunological Test Systems § 866.6050 Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system. (a) Identification. An ovarian/adnexal mass assessment test system is a device that measures one or more proteins in serum...

  1. Ovarian function, reproduction, and later operations following adnexal surgery.

    PubMed

    Ranney, B; Chastain, D

    1978-05-01

    Among 3102 patients who had major gynecologic operations, only 223 (7.18%) needed adnexal operations during which reproductive potential was preserved. Operations involved ovaries (156), tubes (55), and embryologic cysts (32). After recovery 53.69% of these patients had viable babies (64.46% of patients under age 30). Patients were examined up to 28 years after operations, an average 11.32 years. When last examined. most patients still retained physiologic evidence of ovarian hormonal function; 20 patients had passed through spontaneous menopause, at an average age of 49.4 years. Fifty-two patients needed subsequent pelvic operations, but only 7 for possibly related conditions (4 repeat tubal pregnancies and 3 cyst-adenomas). All but one twisted adnexal mass, with gangrene, originated as a paramesonephric duct cyst. Seventeen adnexal operations were associated with pregnancy: 15 mothers had healthy babies, and 2 aborted. Details concerning numbers and characteristics of specific lesions are included in the paper. PMID:652198

  2. Single-Site Laparoscopic Management of a Large Adnexal Mass

    PubMed Central

    Scribner, Dennis R.; Weiss, Patrice M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Single-site laparoscopy is gaining acceptance in many surgical fields including gynecology. The purpose of this report is to demonstrate the technique and outcome for removing a large adnexal mass through a single site. Case Description: A 41-y-old female was referred to gynecology oncology for increased abdominal girth for 3 mo. An ultrasound confirmed a benign-appearing, 37-cm left adnexal mass. The mass was removed through a single-site laparoscopic incision with the aid of drainage and a morcellator. The operating time was 84 min. The patient was discharged 2 h and 35 min later with full return to normal activity in 5 d. Conclusion: Large, benign-appearing adnexal masses can be managed safely with superior cosmetic results using single-site laparoscopy. PMID:23925036

  3. Fertility following laparoscopic management of benign adnexal cysts.

    PubMed

    Canis, M; Bassil, S; Wattiez, A; Pouly, J L; Manhes, H; Mage, G; Bruhat, M A

    1992-04-01

    Fertility following laparoscopic treatment of benign adnexal cysts without ovarian suture was studied retrospectively. Patients with endometriomas or who were previously infertile were excluded. Thirty-eight patients treated conservatively were included, 10 after partial resection of functional cysts, 23 after an ovarian cystectomy and six after treatment of a paraovarian cyst. One patient had two cysts. The overall intrauterine pregnancy rate was 92%; one patient had an ectopic pregnancy (2.6%). From these results, we conclude that fertility following laparoscopic treatment of adnexal cysts appears to be normal. Technical guidelines to improve laparoscopic cystectomy are proposed. PMID:1387882

  4. For Some Skin Cancers, Targeted Drug Hits the Mark

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Types Skin Cancer Research Skin Cancer Patient Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer Prevention Skin Cancer Screening Health Professional Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer ...

  5. Spectrum of cutaneous and soft tissue lesions in two Carney complex patients-adnexal induction versus authentic adnexal neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Kacerovska, Denisa; Requena, Luis; Michal, Michal; Grossmann, Petr; Treskova, Inka; Roucka, Patrik; Kazakov, Dmitry V

    2012-10-01

    Two unusual Carney complex patients are described. In one of them, several cutaneous biopsies revealed myxoid lesions that were rather more close to authentic adnexal neoplasms with myxoid stroma than to a "myxoma with an epithelial component." These included lesions resembling trichofolliculoma, infundibular cyst, and trichodiscoma. Additionally, 1 soft tissue myxoma was unique in the sense that it greatly resembled a cardiac myxoma, begging the question whether this could represent an embolus from the patient's cardiac myxoma. Given the large size and complexity and heterogeneity of the cutaneous lesions, the authors suggest that these may represent authentic cutaneous neoplasms accompanied by myxoid stroma and not adnexal elements induced by the stroma. However, the latter mechanism is well recognized and demonstrated by our second patient in whom adnexal-type elements in the cutaneous lesion were clearly induced by the myxoid stroma but were unusually complex by manifesting panfollicular and also sebaceous differentiation. PMID:22588545

  6. Co-encapsulation of imiquimod and copaiba oil in novel nanostructured systems: promising formulations against skin carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Venturini, Cristina G; Bruinsmann, Franciele A; Contri, Renata V; Fonseca, Francisco N; Frank, Luiza A; D'Amore, Camilo M; Raffin, Renata P; Buffon, Andréia; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Guterres, Silvia S

    2015-11-15

    In this study, two types of cutaneous-directed nanoparticles are proposed for the co-encapsulation of imiquimod (a drug approved for the treatment of basal cell carcinoma) and copaiba oil (oil that exhibits anti-proliferative properties). Nanostructured copaiba capsules (NCCImq) were prepared using the interfacial deposition method, and nanostructured Brazilian lipids (NBLImq) were prepared by high-pressure homogenization. The formulations exhibited average diameter, zeta potential, pH and drug content of approximately 200nm, -12mV, 6 and 1mgmL(-1), respectively. In addition, the formulations exhibited homogeneity regarding particle size, high encapsulation efficiency and stability. Both nanocarriers controlled imiquimod release, and NBLImq exhibited slower drug release (p < 0.05), likely due to increased interaction of the drug with the solid lipid (cupuaçu seed butter). The in vitro evaluation of the imiquimod-loaded nanocarriers was performed using healthy skin cells (keratinocytes, HaCaT); no alteration was observed, suggesting the biocompatibility of the nanocarriers. In addition, in vitro skin permeation/penetration using pig skin was performed, and NCCImq led to increased drug retention in the skin layers and reduced amounts of drug found in the receiver solution. Thus, NCCImq is considered the most promising nanoformulation for the treatment of skin carcinoma. PMID:26342772

  7. Enhanced effectiveness of tocotrienol-based nano-emulsified system for topical delivery against skin carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Pham, Jimmy; Nayel, Amy; Hoang, Christina; Elbayoumi, Tamer

    2016-06-01

    The potent anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic actions of tocotrienols (T3) against cancer, but not normal tissues, have been hampered by their limited systemic bioavailabilty. Recent expansive development of diverse nanoemulsion (NE) vehicles emphasized their vast potential to improve the effective dosing of different clinical and experimental drugs of lipophilic nature, such as T3. The emphasis of the present work is to develop a pharmaceutically scalable, low-energy nano-emulsification approach for optimized incorporation of T3-rich palm oil (Tocomin®), possessing anticancer activity as a potential cutaneous delivery platform for adjunctive therapy of skin carcinomas, either alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. Different Tocomin®-NEs, obtained with different homogenization strategies, were screened based on physicochemical uniformity (droplet size, charge and polydispersity) and subjected to stress physical stability testing, along with chemical content analysis (≥90% Tocomin® - incorporation efficiency). Adopted hybrid nano-emulsification of Tocomin®, correlated with highest preservation of DPPH-radical scavenging capacity of active T3 in prototype formulation, Tocomin®-NE, which effectively permeated diffusion cell membranes 4-folds higher than propyleneglycol (PG)-admixed Tocomin® control. Against two different cell models of human cutaneous carcinoma, Tocomin®-hybrid NE demonstrated significantly stronger cytotoxic profiles (p ≤ 0.01), visible in both concentration- and time- dependent manners, with at least 5-folds lower IC50 values, compared to those estimated for the closest Tocomin®-control. The proposed hybrid nano-emulsified formulation of Tocomin® provides simple and stable delivery platform, for effective topical application against keratinocyte tumors. PMID:25293973

  8. Criteria for the diagnosis of primary endocrine carcinoma of the skin (Merkel cell carcinoma). A histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study of 13 cases.

    PubMed

    Leong, A S; Phillips, G E; Pieterse, A S; Milios, J

    1986-10-01

    Thirteen cases of primary endocrine carcinoma of the skin (Merkel cell carcinoma) were reviewed with the aim of defining the morphological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural criteria for diagnosis. The tumour cells were characterized by their scanty cytoplasm, generally small uniform nuclei with finely dispersed chromatin and multiple small nucleoli. Nuclear shapes varied from round to spindle, with larger and pleomorphic forms predominating in 2 tumours. A striking feature seen in 12 tumours was the occurrence of a "ball-in-mitt" pattern represented by 1 or 2 crescentic tumour cells closely wrapped around an oval cell. Staining for neuron-specific enolase was the most consistent marker of the tumour and the characteristic juxtanuclear globular staining for keratin and cytokeratin and the occasional coexpression of neurofilament set this tumour apart from other cutaneous neoplasms, in particular, metastatic carcinoid tumours and oat cell carcinoma from the lung. The fine structural features of note were striking paranuclear or juxtanuclear whorls of intermediate filaments, seen in 7 cases, the presence of variable numbers of membrane-bound dense core granules of 80-150 nm diameter in all cases and cytoplasmic spinous or microvillous projections containing microfilaments in 4 cases. Less consistent characteristics of primary endocrine carcinomas of the skin included cell moulding, argyrophilia and immunohistochemical staining for ACTH, VIP and calcitonin. The high frequency of vessel invasion in this series is in keeping with the high rate of local recurrence, lymph node metastases and visceral dissemination reported. The distinction from other similar appearing tumours in the skin is discussed. PMID:2434904

  9. Oral Rigosertib for Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-18

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Anal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Skin Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Penile Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  10. [Epithelial tumor-like changes, precancerous conditions and skin neoplasms (standardization study)].

    PubMed

    Bednár, B; Stanová, M

    1976-05-01

    A retrospective study of bioptic material was used to design the following outline of a histological classification of epithelial skin tumours tentatively compared with handbooks published by the WHO (1) and AFIP (2): I. Tumour-like changes: 1. senile verruca (mixed, acanthotic, melanoacanthotic, hyperkeratonic, reticular, inverted). 2. Virus verrucosities (v. vulgaris, v. plana, c. accuminatum, molluscom contagiosum). 3. Hamartogenic verrucosities (naevus verrucosus, n. comedonicus, fibroepithelial papilloma. 4. Genetically undefined verrucosities (acanthosis nigricans, light cell acanthoma, verrucous dyskeratosis). 5. Cysts (atheroma, epidermoid cyst, dermoid cyst, others). 6. Unclassified. II. Precanceroses: 1. Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasis, 2. keratosis senilis, 3. Radiation dermatosis, 4. Unclassified. III. Epithelial tumours A. From surface epithelium 1. Spinocellular carcinoma (basic type, anaplastic, adenoid, sarcomatoid, clear cell carcinoma, intraepidermal). 2. Basocellular carcinoma: a) varieties derived from surface epithelium (intraepithelial, superficial, solid, cystic, invasive), b) varieties with adenoid features (cylindromatous, fibroepithelia), c) varieties with trichoepithelial features (keratinizing, pigment-type, clear cell type), d) naevus varieties (basocellular naevi). 3. Spinobasocellular carcinoma. 4. Unclassifiable. B. Sweat gland tumours: 1. syringocystadenoma papilliferum, 2. hidradenoma papillare, 3. nodular hidradenoma (eccrine spiradenoma, eccrine acrospiroma, myxochondroepithelioma, myoepithelioma, mucinous epithelioma), 4. syringoma, 5. eccrine cylindroma, 6. hidrocystoma, 7. eccrine poroma, 8. carcinomas (so called extramammary Paget carcinoma), 9. unclassifiable. C. Sebaceous gland tumours: 1. adenoma sebaceum, 2. carcinoma sebaceum, 3. quasi tumours (naevus sebaceus, Pringle's hamartoma, steatocystoma multiplex, hyperplasia), 4. unclassifiable. D. Trichoepithelial tumours: 1. trichofolliculoma, 2. follicular poroma, 3

  11. Screening of urocanic acid isomers in human basal and squamous cell carcinoma tumors compared with tumor periphery and healthy skin.

    PubMed

    Decara, Juan Manuel; Aguilera, José; Abdala, Roberto; Sánchez, Purificación; Figueroa, Félix L; Herrera, Enrique

    2008-10-01

    Trans-urocanic acid is a major chromophore for ultraviolet (UV) radiation in human epidermis. The UV induces photoisomerization of trans-urocanic acid (tUCA) form to cis-urocanic acid (cUCA) and has been reported as an important mediator in the immunosuppression induced by UV. This immunomodulation has been recognized as an important factor related to skin cancer development. This is the first time that UCA isomers have been measured in epidermis of skin biopsies from patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and compared with the tumor periphery and biopsies of healthy photoexposed and non-photoexposed skin as controls. The UCA isomers were separated and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. Analysis of UCA in healthy skin showed significant increase in total UCA content in non-photoexposed body sites compared with highly exposed skins. In contrast, the percentage of cUCA was higher in photoexposed body sites. Maximal levels of cUCA were found in cheek, forehead and forearm and lower levels in abdomen and thigh. No differences were found in total UCA concentration between the tumor samples and healthy photoexposed skin. However, differences were found in relation between isomers. Higher levels of cUCA were detected in SCC biopsies (44% of total UCA) compared with samples of BCC and that of healthy photoexposed skin (30%). These results suggest that the UV radiation exposure, a main factor in development of SCC can be mediated, apart from direct effect to cells (DNA damage), by immunosuppression pathways mediated by high production of cUCA. PMID:18312386

  12. MMP13 as a stromal mediator in controlling persistent angiogenesis in skin carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lederle, Wiltrud; Hartenstein, Bettina; Meides, Alice; Kunzelmann, Heike; Werb, Zena; Angel, Peter; Mueller, Margareta M.

    2010-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) such as MMP13 promote tumour growth and progression by mediating extracellular matrix (ECM) reorganization and regulating the biological activity of cytokines. Using Mmp13−/− mice, we demonstrate an essential role of this single collagenase for highly malignant and invasive growth in skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Lack of host MMP13 strongly impaired tumour growth of malignant SCC cells, leading to small, mostly avascular cysts. While initial stromal activation in tumour transplants of Mmp13+/+ and Mmp13−/− animals was similar, MMP13 was essential for maintenance of angiogenesis and for invasion. MMP13 was induced in fibroblasts of the wild-type animals at the onset of invasion and correlated with a strong increase in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein and its association with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 on endothelial cells in invasive areas. In contrast, VEGF protein in the stroma was barely detectable and tumour invasion was downregulated in Mmp13−/− animals, despite ongoing VEGF messenger RNA expression. Taken together with in vitro data showing the release of VEGF from the ECM by MMP13 expressing fibroblasts, these data strongly suggest a crucial role of MMP13 in promoting angiogenesis via releasing VEGF from the ECM and thus allowing the invasive growth of the SCC cells. PMID:19892798

  13. MMP13 as a stromal mediator in controlling persistent angiogenesis in skin carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lederle, Wiltrud; Hartenstein, Bettina; Meides, Alice; Kunzelmann, Heike; Werb, Zena; Angel, Peter; Mueller, Margareta M

    2010-07-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) such as MMP13 promote tumour growth and progression by mediating extracellular matrix (ECM) reorganization and regulating the biological activity of cytokines. Using Mmp13-/- mice, we demonstrate an essential role of this single collagenase for highly malignant and invasive growth in skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Lack of host MMP13 strongly impaired tumour growth of malignant SCC cells, leading to small, mostly avascular cysts. While initial stromal activation in tumour transplants of Mmp13+/+ and Mmp13-/- animals was similar, MMP13 was essential for maintenance of angiogenesis and for invasion. MMP13 was induced in fibroblasts of the wild-type animals at the onset of invasion and correlated with a strong increase in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein and its association with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 on endothelial cells in invasive areas. In contrast, VEGF protein in the stroma was barely detectable and tumour invasion was downregulated in Mmp13-/- animals, despite ongoing VEGF messenger RNA expression. Taken together with in vitro data showing the release of VEGF from the ECM by MMP13 expressing fibroblasts, these data strongly suggest a crucial role of MMP13 in promoting angiogenesis via releasing VEGF from the ECM and thus allowing the invasive growth of the SCC cells. PMID:19892798

  14. Inhibitory effect of berberine on human skin squamous cell carcinoma A431 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, D X; Zhang, J; Zhang, Y; Zhao, P W; Yang, L M

    2015-01-01

    Berberine (BBR) is a natural alkaloid with significant anti-tumor activity against many types of cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms employed by BBR to repress the proliferation and growth of skin squamous cell carcinoma A431 cells. Berberine was reported to inhibit the proliferation of A431 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner and was observed to induce a series of biochemical events, including the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome-c to cytosol, induction of proteins of the Bcl-2 family and caspases, and the cleavage of poly(ADP)-ribose polymerase. This suggested its ability to induce apoptosis. The results of a wound healing test revealed that berberine inhibited the migration of A431 cells. Ezrin was transfected into A431 cells by RNA interference. The level of expression of Ezrin in the transfected A431 cells was observed to decrease with berberine treatment, which suggested that berberine might inhibit the invasion of A431 cells through Ezrin. The results of this study demonstrated that berberine could potentially inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, and inhibit the invasion of A431 cells. PMID:26400287

  15. Photodynamic therapy of murine non-melanoma skin carcinomas with diode laser after topical application of aluminum phthalocyanine chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyriazi, Maria; Alexandratou, Eleni; Yova, Dido; Rallis, Michail; Trebst, Tilmann

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this work is to study pharmacokinetics and photodynamic efficiency of aluminium phthalocyanine chloride (AlClPc) in dimethylsulfoxide/Tween 80/water solution, after topical application on hairless mice bearing non-melanoma skin carcinomas. The concentration of photosensitizer in normal skin and tumor biopsies 1-6 hours after application was assessed by fluorescence spectroscopy of chemical extractions. The concentration of photosensitizer was 40 times higher in tumor than in normal skin even 1 h after application. For photodynamic therapy (PDT) AlClPc was excited by a diode laser emitting at 670 nm, 1 h after application. Seven different combinations of therapeutic parameters were chosen. The efficiency was assessed as the percentage of complete tumor remission, the tumor growth retardation and the cosmetic outcomes. The highest complete remission 60% was achieved with the combination of 75 mW/cm2 with 150 J/cm2. No recurrence rate was observed in any treatment parameters group and the cosmetic outcome in all completely treated tumors was excellent. The results show that the effectiveness of PDT is highly dependent on fluence rate. In addition, they are promising for further investigation of this PDT scheme in preclinical studies mainly in non-melanoma skin carcinomas up to 7mm.

  16. Localization of integrin receptors for fibronectin, collagen, and laminin in human skin. Variable expression in basal and squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Peltonen, J; Larjava, H; Jaakkola, S; Gralnick, H; Akiyama, S K; Yamada, S S; Yamada, K M; Uitto, J

    1989-01-01

    VLA integrins in human skin were examined by indirect immunofluorescence utilizing antibodies recognizing the beta 1, alpha 2, alpha 3, or alpha 5 subunits. Staining of fetal, newborn, or adult skin with antibodies to beta 1, alpha 2, or alpha 3 subunits gave essentially similar staining patterns: intense staining was associated with the basal layer of the epidermis, hair follicles, and blood vessel walls. The alpha 5 subunit could be detected only in epidermis and the inner root sheath of hair follicles in fetal skin. In epidermis, the staining reaction for the beta 1 subunit was not only found in sites interfacing with the basement membrane zone, but also around the entire periphery of these cells. We speculate that these receptors might have previously unrecognized functions in cell-cell interactions or that these findings may suggest the presence of previously unrecognized ligands in the intercellular spaces of keratinocytes. Examination of nine nodular basal cell carcinomas revealed a prominent staining reaction with anti-beta 1 and anti-alpha 3 antibodies at the periphery of the tumor islands. In contrast, staining of five squamous cell carcinomas revealed either the absence of integrins or altered and variable expression. Thus, matrix components and their receptors may participate in modulation of growth, development, and organization of human skin. Images PMID:2556449

  17. A Novel Aspartic Proteinase-Like Gene Expressed in Stratified Epithelia and Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin

    PubMed Central

    Rhiemeier, Verena; Breitenbach, Ute; Richter, Karl Hartmut; Gebhardt, Christoffer; Vogt, Ingeborg; Hartenstein, Bettina; Fürstenberger, Gerhard; Mauch, Cornelia; Hess, Jochen; Angel, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Homeostasis of stratified epithelia, such as the epidermis of the skin, is a sophisticated process that represents a tightly controlled balance between proliferation and differentiation. Alterations of this balance are associated with common human diseases including cancer. Here, we report the cloning of a novel cDNA sequence, from mouse back skin, that is induced by the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and codes for a hitherto unknown aspartic proteinase-like protein (Taps). Taps represents a potential AP-1 target gene because TPA-induced expression in epidermal keratinocytes critically depends on c-Fos, and co-treatment with dexamethasone, a potent inhibitor of AP-1-mediated gene regulation, resulted in impaired activation of Taps expression. Taps mRNA and protein are restricted to stratified epithelia in mouse embryos and adult tissues, implicating a crucial role for this aspartic proteinase-like gene in differentiation and homeostasis of multilayered epithelia. During chemically induced carcinogenesis, transient elevation of Taps mRNA and protein levels was detected in benign skin tumors. However, its expression is negatively associated with dedifferentiation and malignant progression in squamous cell carcinomas of the skin. Similar expression was observed in squamous skin tumors of patients, suggesting that detection of Taps levels represents a novel strategy to discriminate the progression state of squamous skin cancers. PMID:16565508

  18. The multicentre south European study 'Helios'. I: Skin characteristics and sunburns in basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin.

    PubMed Central

    Zanetti, R.; Rosso, S.; Martinez, C.; Navarro, C.; Schraub, S.; Sancho-Garnier, H.; Franceschi, S.; Gafà, L.; Perea, E.; Tormo, M. J.; Laurent, R.; Schrameck, C.; Cristofolini, M.; Tumino, R.; Wechsler, J.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate constitutional and environmental determinants of non-melanocytic skin cancer among different populations from south Europe. Between 1989 and 1993 we interviewed incident cases and a random population sample of controls from five centres where a cancer registry was operating, whereas we selected a sample of hospital-based cases and controls from three other centres. Controls were stratified according to the age and sex distribution of cases. In all, 1549 cases of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), 228 of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 1795 controls were interviewed. Both cancers affected primarily sun-exposed sites such as face, head and neck, but the prevalence of BCC on the trunk was higher than for SCC. Pigmentary traits such as hair and eye colour as well as tendency to sunburn were strong and independent indicators of risk for both BCC and SCC. In SCC, adjusted odds ratios (ORs) ranged from 1.6 for fair hair colour to 12.5 for red hair. Light-blonde hair entailed a risk of about 2 for BCC. Pale eye colour was associated with a risk of 1.8 for SCC and 1.4 for BCC. Subjects who always burn and never tan showed an adjusted OR of 2.7 for BCC and 2.0 for SCC. A history of sunburns and a young age at first sunburn were associated with an increased risk for BCC only (OR 1.7). Pigmentary traits and sun sensitivity of the skin confirmed their role as risk indicators. The effect of sunburns, as an indicator of both exposure and sun sensitivity of the skin, is less clear. Nevertheless, its association with BCC suggests, by analogy with melanoma, a relationship with intense sun exposure. Conversely, SCC would require prolonged exposure to sunlight. PMID:8645595

  19. Loss of CRABP-II Characterizes Human Skin Poorly Differentiated Squamous Cell Carcinomas and Favors DMBA/TPA-Induced Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Passeri, Daniela; Doldo, Elena; Tarquini, Chiara; Costanza, Gaetana; Mazzaglia, Donatella; Agostinelli, Sara; Campione, Elena; Di Stefani, Alessandro; Giunta, Alessandro; Bianchi, Luca; Orlandi, Augusto

    2016-06-01

    Retinol and its derivatives play an important role in epidermal growth and differentiation and represent chemopreventive agents in nonmelanoma skin cancer. Retinoic acid binding protein II (CRABP-II) is a cytoplasmic receptor that critically regulates all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) trafficking. We documented the marked reduced expression of CRABP-II and its promoter methylation in human poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinomas. To investigate the role of CRABP-II in skin carcinogenesis we used skin lesion induction by dimethylbenz[a]anthracene/12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate in CRABP-II-knockout C57BL/6 mice. We observed earlier and more diffuse epidermal dysplasia, greater incidence and severity of tumors, reduced expression of cytokeratin 1/cytokeratin 10 and involucrin, increased proliferation, and impaired ATRA inhibition of tumor promotion compared with wild-type animals. CRABP-II-transfected HaCaT, FaDu, and A431 cells showed expression of differentiation markers, retinoic acid receptor-β/-γ signaling, ATRA sensitivity, and suppression of EGFR/v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 (AKT) pathways in a fatty acid binding protein 5/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/-δ-independent manner. The opposite was true in keratinocytes isolated from CRABP-II-knockout mice. Finally, CRABP-II accumulation induced ubiquitination-associated reduction of EGFR. Our results showed reduced CRABP-II expression in human poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinomas, and its gene deletion favored experimental skin carcinogenesis and impaired ATRA antitumor efficacy, likely modulating EGFR/AKT pathways and retinoic acid receptor-β/-γ signaling. Therapeutic interventions aimed at restoring CRABP-II-mediated signaling may amplify therapeutic retinoid efficacy in nonmelanoma skin cancer. PMID:26945879

  20. Reflectance confocal microscopy and dermoscopy for in vivo, non-invasive skin imaging of superficial basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    GHITA, MIHAELA A.; CARUNTU, CONSTANTIN; ROSCA, ADRIAN E.; KALESHI, HARILLAQ; CARUNTU, ANA; MORARU, LILIANA; DOCEA, ANCA OANA; ZURAC, SABINA; BODA, DANIEL; NEAGU, MONICA; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.; TSATSAKIS, ARISTIDIS M.

    2016-01-01

    Superficial basal cell carcinoma (sBCC) is the second most frequent histological type of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), usually requiring a skin biopsy to confirm the diagnosis. It usually appears on the upper trunk and shoulders as erythematous and squamous lesions. Although it has a slow growth and seldom metastasizes, early diagnosis and management are of crucial importance in preventing local invasion and subsequent disfigurement. Dermoscopy is nowadays an indispensable tool for the dermatologist when evaluating skin tumors. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a novel imaging technique that allows the non-invasive, in vivo quasi-microscopic morphological and dynamic assessment of superficial skin tumors. Moreover, it offers the advantage of performing infinite repeatable determinations to monitor disease progression and non-surgical treatment for sBCC. Herein, we present three lesions of sBCC evaluated using in vivo and non-invasive imaging techniques, emphasizing the usefulness of combining RCM with dermoscopy for increasing the diagnostic accuracy of sBCC. PMID:27123056

  1. A pelvic retroperitoneal Schwannoma presenting as an adnexal mass.

    PubMed

    Khatib, R A; Khalil, A M; Saba, M I; Aswad, N K; Mroueh, A M

    1994-05-01

    Solitary nerve sheath tumors such as benign schwannomas arising in the pelvic retroperitoneum are infrequently reported. We report a case of a benign retroperitoneal pelvic schwannoma that presented with pelvic pain and an adnexal mass. Complete surgical excision was achieved only after transection of the S1 nerve root on the left side. The adjacent vascular and urinary channels sustained no injuries and the patient had minimal neurologic deficit. PMID:8188087

  2. Added Value of Assessing Adnexal Masses with Advanced MRI Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Thomassin-Naggara, I.; Balvay, D.; Rockall, A.; Carette, M. F.; Ballester, M.; Darai, E.; Bazot, M.

    2015-01-01

    This review will present the added value of perfusion and diffusion MR sequences to characterize adnexal masses. These two functional MR techniques are readily available in routine clinical practice. We will describe the acquisition parameters and a method of analysis to optimize their added value compared with conventional images. We will then propose a model of interpretation that combines the anatomical and morphological information from conventional MRI sequences with the functional information provided by perfusion and diffusion weighted sequences. PMID:26413542

  3. Squamous cell skin cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cell; NMSC - squamous cell; Squamous cell skin cancer; Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin ... squamous cell cancer is called Bowen disease (or squamous cell carcinoma in situ). This type does not spread to ...

  4. PTCH1+/− Dermal Fibroblasts Isolated from Healthy Skin of Gorlin Syndrome Patients Exhibit Features of Carcinoma Associated Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Thomas; Ripoche, Hugues; Brellier, Florence; Chevallier-Lagente, Odile; Avril, Marie-Françoise; Magnaldo, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    Gorlin's or nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) causes predisposition to basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the commonest cancer in adult human. Mutations in the tumor suppressor gene PTCH1 are responsible for this autosomal dominant syndrome. In NBCCS patients, as in the general population, ultraviolet exposure is a major risk factor for BCC development. However these patients also develop BCCs in sun-protected areas of the skin, suggesting the existence of other mechanisms for BCC predisposition in NBCCS patients. As increasing evidence supports the idea that the stroma influences carcinoma development, we hypothesized that NBCCS fibroblasts could facilitate BCC occurence of the patients. WT (n = 3) and NBCCS fibroblasts bearing either nonsense (n = 3) or missense (n = 3) PTCH1 mutations were cultured in dermal equivalents made of a collagen matrix and their transcriptomes were compared by whole genome microarray analyses. Strikingly, NBCCS fibroblasts over-expressed mRNAs encoding pro-tumoral factors such as Matrix Metalloproteinases 1 and 3 and tenascin C. They also over-expressed mRNA of pro-proliferative diffusible factors such as fibroblast growth factor 7 and the stromal cell-derived factor 1 alpha, known for its expression in carcinoma associated fibroblasts. These data indicate that the PTCH1+/− genotype of healthy NBCCS fibroblasts results in phenotypic traits highly reminiscent of those of BCC associated fibroblasts, a clue to the yet mysterious proneness to non photo-exposed BCCs in NBCCS patients. PMID:19287498

  5. Purification of high-molecular-weight subfraction from porcine skin inhibiting proliferation of A431 human carcinoma epidermoid cells.

    PubMed

    Belova, O V; Sergienko, V I; Arion, V Ya; Lukanidina, T A; Moskvina, S N; Zimina, I V; Borisenko, G G; Lutsenko, G V; Grechikhina, M V; Kovaleva, E V; Klyuchnikova, Zh I

    2014-07-01

    Subfraction with a molecular weight >250 kDa isolated from porcine skin and inhibiting the proliferation of A431 human carcinoma epidermoid cells was purified by DEAE 32 anion exchange chromatography with NaCl concentration step-gradient. The effects of the initial subfraction and fractions obtained by separation in DEAE 32 on the proliferation of A431 human carcinoma epidermoid cells were studied in vitro in two tests (MTT and fluorescent test). The more sensitive fluorescent test showed the highest inhibitory activity of fraction No. 2 released from the column at 0.15 M NaCl. One major protein component and a series of minor protein components were detected in this fraction by vertical PAAG-SDS electrophoresis. PMID:25070165

  6. Basaloid Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Scalp From A Pre-Existing Cylindroma Metastasising To Brain: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Srinivas, Teerthanath; Kolakebail, Jayaram Shetty; Shetty, Jayaprakash; Kukreja, Prachi

    2016-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the second most common non-melanoma skin cancer and accounts for 90% of head and neck malignancies. Intracranial metastases of SCC are extremely rare. We are reporting a case of 55-year-old female with history of recurrent swelling over right side of forehead which was previously reported as cylindroma. CT scan of head revealed irregular lytic areas in right frontal bone suggestive of erosion. There were multiple small, rim enhancing lesions in bilateral parietal regions. Clinically it was diagnosed as malignant adnexal tumour. Wide excision of the lesion revealed features of invasive basaloid squamous cell carcinoma, probably a malignant transformation of the pre-existing cylindroma. PMID:27437239

  7. Discrimination between basal cell carcinoma and hair follicles in skin tissue sections by Raman micro-spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larraona-Puy, M.; Ghita, A.; Zoladek, A.; Perkins, W.; Varma, S.; Leach, I. H.; Koloydenko, A. A.; Williams, H.; Notingher, I.

    2011-05-01

    Skin cancer is the most common human malignancy and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) represents approximately 80% of the non-melanoma cases. Current methods of treatment require histopathological evaluation of the tissues by qualified personnel. However, this method is subjective and in some cases BCC can be confused with other structures in healthy skin, including hair follicles. In this preliminary study, we investigated the potential of Raman micro-spectroscopy (RMS) to discriminate between hair follicles and BCC in skin tissue sections excised during Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS). Imaging and diagnosis of skin sections was automatically generated using ' a priori'-built spectral model based on LDA. This model had 90 ± 9% sensitivity and 85 ± 9% specificity for discrimination of BCC from dermis and epidermis. The model used selected Raman bands corresponding to the largest spectral differences between the Raman spectra of BCC and the normal skin regions, associated mainly with nucleic acids and collagen type I. Raman spectra corresponding to the epidermis regions of the hair follicles were found to be closer to those of healthy epidermis rather than BCC. Comparison between Raman spectral images and the gold standard haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) histopathology diagnosis showed good agreement. Some hair follicle regions were misclassified as BCC; regions corresponded mainly to the outermost layer of hair follicle (basal cells) which are expected to have higher nucleic acid concentration. This preliminary study shows the ability of RMS to distinguish between BCC and other tissue structures associated to healthy skin which can be confused with BCC due to their similar morphology.

  8. Immunosuppressive Medications and Squamous Cell Skin Carcinoma: Nested Case-Control Study Within the Skin Cancer after Organ Transplant (SCOT) Cohort.

    PubMed

    Coghill, A E; Johnson, L G; Berg, D; Resler, A J; Leca, N; Madeleine, M M

    2016-02-01

    Organ transplant recipients (OTRs) have a substantially elevated risk of squamous cell skin carcinoma (SCSC), largely attributed to immunosuppressive medications used to prevent graft rejection, although data to support the role of newer drugs in SCSC risk are sparse. We investigated the association between immunosuppressive medications and SCSC risk among cardiac and renal transplant recipients in the SCOT cohort study. Incident cases were ascertained through medical record review after self-report of skin biopsy (n = 170). Controls without SCSC (n = 324) were matched to cases on sex, age, race, transplant year, hospital, donor type, organ transplanted, and time between transplantation and interview. Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between specific medications and SCSC. Users of the antimetabolite azathioprine were more than twice as likely to develop SCSC (odds ratio [OR] = 2.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.23-5.76). In contrast, the newer antimetabolite preparations (i.e., mycophenolic acid [MPA]) were associated with lower SCSC risk (OR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.29-0.69). This inverse association between MPA and SCSC persisted among OTRs with no history of azathioprine use, even after adjustment for simultaneous use of the calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus (OR = 0.52, 95% CI 0.32-0.84). Our data suggest that the increased risk of SCSC historically associated with azathioprine is not seen in OTRs prescribed newer regimens, including MPA and tacrolimus. PMID:26824445

  9. Concomitant cetuximab and radiation therapy: A possible promising strategy for locally advanced inoperable non-melanoma skin carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    DELLA VITTORIA SCARPATI, GIUSEPPINA; PERRI, FRANCESCO; PISCONTI, SALVATORE; COSTA, GIUSEPPE; RICCIARDIELLO, FILIPPO; DEL PRETE, SALVATORE; NAPOLITANO, ALBERTO; CARRATURO, MARCO; MAZZONE, SALVATORE; ADDEO, RAFFAELE

    2016-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) include a heterogeneous group of malignancies arising from the epidermis, comprising squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), basal cell carcinoma (BCC), Merkel cell carcinoma and more rare entities, including malignant pilomatrixoma and sebaceous gland tumours. The treatment of early disease depends primarily on surgery. In addition, certain patients present with extensive local invasion or metastasis, which renders these tumours surgically unresectable. Improving the outcome of radiotherapy through the use of concurrent systemic therapy has been demonstrated in several locally advanced cancer-treatment paradigms. Recently, agents targeting the human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have exhibited a consolidated activity in phase II clinical trials and case series reports. Cetuximab is a monoclonal antibody that binds to and completely inhibits the EGFR, which has been revealed to be up-regulated in a variety of SCCs, including NMSCs. The present review aimed to summarize the role of anti-EGFR agents in the predominant types of NMSC, including SCC and BCC, and focuses on the cetuximab-based studies, highlighting the biological rationale of this therapeutic option. In addition, the importance of the association between cetuximab and radiotherapy for locally advanced NMSC is discussed. PMID:27073643

  10. 76 FR 16350 - Medical Devices; Ovarian Adnexal Mass Assessment Score Test System; Labeling; Black Box Restrictions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 866 Medical Devices; Ovarian Adnexal Mass... regulation classifying ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test systems to restrict these devices so that a... mass assessment score test system into class II (special controls). DATES: Submit either electronic...

  11. Beta-radiation-induced resistance to MNNG initiation of papilloma but not carcinoma formation in mouse skin

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchel, R.E.; Gragtmans, N.J.; Morrison, D.P. )

    1990-02-01

    We have shown previously that the risk of tumor initiation, promotion, and progression in animals initiated with alkylating agents can be drastically altered by hyperthermia treatments. We show here that ionizing radiation can also alter the risk of tumor initiation by alkylating agents. Using a two-step skin tumorigenesis protocol in female SENCAR mice (initiation by MNNG, promotion with TPA), we exposed the dorsal skin of the mice to various doses of 90Sr/90Y beta radiation near the time of initiation. The radiation produced a dose-dependent reduction in the number of papillomas which appeared after TPA promotion, with about a 20% reduction in animals receiving 0.5 Gy surface dose just before initiation, about 50% reduction after 2.5 Gy, and greater than 80% at doses above 5 Gy. A dose of 2.5 Gy in animals initiated with DMBA produced no significant reduction. One skin hyperthermia treatment along with radiation in MNNG-initiated animals partially blocked the protective effect of radiation and increased the papilloma frequency. Radiation (2.5 Gy) given either 6 days before or after MNNG initiation was less effective but still reduced papilloma frequency about 20%. In sharp contrast to the marked reduction in papilloma formation, these same animals showed no change in carcinoma frequency with any of the doses or schedules of beta radiation. MNNG initiation alone produced three types of initiated cells. One type, produced in low yield, was promotion-independent with a high probability of progression to a carcinoma and appeared unaffected by the radiation. A second type, produced in intermediate yield, was promotion-dependent and also had a high progression probability, but was likewise unaffected by the radiation. The third and most abundant type was promotion-dependent with a very low progression probability.

  12. Skin Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer ... carcinoma include the following: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  13. Stages of Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer ... carcinoma include the following: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  14. Divergence between the high rate of p53 mutations in skin carcinomas and the low prevalence of anti-p53 antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Moch, C; Moysan, A; Lubin, R; Salmonière, P de La; Soufir, N; Galisson, F; Vilmer, C; Venutolo, E; Pelletier, F Le; Janin, A; Basset-Séguin, N

    2001-01-01

    Circulating anti-p53 antibodies have been described and used as tumoural markers in patients with various cancers and strongly correlate with the p53 mutated status of the tumours. No study has yet looked at the prevalence of such antibodies in skin carcinoma patients although these tumours have been shown to be frequently p53 mutated. Most skin carcinoma can be diagnosed by examination or biopsy, but aggressive, recurrent and/or non-surgical cases' follow up would be helped by a biological marker of residual disease. We performed a prospective study looking at the prevalence of anti-p53 antibodies using an ELISA technique in a series of 105 skin carcinoma patients in comparison with a sex- and age-matched control skin carcinoma-free group (n = 130). Additionally, p53 accumulation was studied by immunohistochemistry to confirm p53 protein altered expression in a sample of tumours. Anti-p53 antibodies were detected in 2.9% of the cases, with a higher prevalence in patients suffering from the more aggressive squamous cell type (SCC) of skin carcinoma (8%) than for the more common and slowly growing basal cell carcinoma type or BCC (1.5%). p53 protein stabilization could be confirmed in 80% of tumours studied by IHC. This low level of anti-p53 antibody detection contrasts with the high rate of p53 mutations reported in these tumours. This observation shows that the anti-p53 humoral response is a complex and tissue-specific mechanism. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11747330

  15. Skin cancer and photoaging in ethnic skin.

    PubMed

    Halder, Rebat M; Ara, Collette J

    2003-10-01

    Skin cancer prevalence in ethnic skin is low. Squamous cell carcinoma, hypopigmented mycosis fungoides, and acral lentiginous melanoma are the most serious types of skin cancer noted in the darker-skinned population. Photoaging occurs less frequently and is less severe in ethnic skin. PMID:14717413

  16. Polarimetry based partial least square classification of ex vivo healthy and basal cell carcinoma human skin tissues.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Iftikhar; Ahmad, Manzoor; Khan, Karim; Ikram, Masroor

    2016-06-01

    Optical polarimetry was employed for assessment of ex vivo healthy and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) tissue samples from human skin. Polarimetric analyses revealed that depolarization and retardance for healthy tissue group were significantly higher (p<0.001) compared to BCC tissue group. Histopathology indicated that these differences partially arise from BCC-related characteristic changes in tissue morphology. Wilks lambda statistics demonstrated the potential of all investigated polarimetric properties for computer assisted classification of the two tissue groups. Based on differences in polarimetric properties, partial least square (PLS) regression classified the samples with 100% accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. These findings indicate that optical polarimetry together with PLS statistics hold promise for automated pathology classification. PMID:27083851

  17. Discrimination of Basal Cell Carcinoma from Normal Skin Tissue Using High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning 1H NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Mun, Je-Ho; Lee, Heonho; Yoon, Dahye; Kim, Byung-Soo; Kim, Moon-Bum; Kim, Shukmann

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (HR-MAS NMR) spectroscopy is a useful tool for investigating the metabolism of various cancers. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer. However, to our knowledge, data on metabolic profiling of BCC have not been reported in the literature. The objective of the present study was to investigate the metabolic profiling of cutaneous BCC using HR-MAS 1H NMR spectroscopy. HR-MAS 1H NMR spectroscopy was used to analyze the metabolite profile and metabolite intensity of histopathologically confirmed BCC tissues and normal skin tissue (NST) samples. The metabolic intensity normalized to the total spectral intensities in BCC and NST was compared, and multivariate analysis was performed with orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Univariate analysis revealed 9 metabolites that showed statistically significant difference between BCC and NST. In multivariate analysis, the OPLS-DA models built with the HR-MAS NMR metabolic profiles revealed a clear separation of BCC from NST. The receiver operating characteristic curve generated from the results revealed an excellent discrimination of BCC from NST with an area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.961. The present study demonstrated that the metabolite profile and metabolite intensity differ between BCC and NST, and that HR-MAS 1H NMR spectroscopy can be a valuable tool in the diagnosis of BCC. PMID:26934749

  18. Autosomal-recessive SASH1 variants associated with a new genodermatosis with pigmentation defects, palmoplantar keratoderma and skin carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Courcet, Jean-Benoît; Elalaoui, Siham Chafai; Duplomb, Laurence; Tajir, Mariam; Rivière, Jean-Baptiste; Thevenon, Julien; Gigot, Nadège; Marle, Nathalie; Aral, Bernard; Duffourd, Yannis; Sarasin, Alain; Naim, Valeria; Courcet-Degrolard, Emilie; Aubriot-Lorton, Marie-Hélène; Martin, Laurent; Abrid, Jamal Eddin; Thauvin, Christel; Sefiani, Abdelaziz; Vabres, Pierre; Faivre, Laurence

    2015-07-01

    SASH1 (SAM and SH3 domain-containing protein 1) is a tumor suppressor gene involved in the tumorigenesis of a spectrum of solid cancers. Heterozygous SASH1 variants are known to cause autosomal-dominant dyschromatosis. Homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing were performed in a consanguineous Moroccan family with two affected siblings presenting an unclassified phenotype associating an abnormal pigmentation pattern (hypo- and hyperpigmented macules of the trunk and face and areas of reticular hypo- and hyperpigmentation of the extremities), alopecia, palmoplantar keratoderma, ungueal dystrophy and recurrent spinocellular carcinoma. We identified a homozygous variant in SASH1 (c.1849G>A; p.Glu617Lys) in both affected individuals. Wound-healing assay showed that the patient's fibroblasts were better able than control fibroblasts to migrate. Following the identification of SASH1 heterozygous variants in dyschromatosis, we used reverse phenotyping to show that autosomal-recessive variants of this gene could be responsible for an overlapping but more complex phenotype that affected skin appendages. SASH1 should be added to the list of genes responsible for autosomal-dominant and -recessive genodermatosis, with no phenotype in heterozygous patients in the recessive form, and to the list of genes responsible for a predisposition to skin cancer. PMID:25315659

  19. The ratio of Mcl-1 and Noxa determines ABT737 resistance in squamous cell carcinoma of the skin

    PubMed Central

    Geserick, P; Wang, J; Feoktistova, M; Leverkus, M

    2014-01-01

    Tumour progression and therapy resistance in squamous cell carcinoma of the skin (SCC) is strongly associated with resistance to intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis. We thus investigated the role of various anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins for apoptosis protection in SCC using the BH3 agonist ABT737 that can overcome multidomain Bcl-2 protein protection. Sensitive SCC cells underwent rapid loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), subsequent apoptosis concomitant with caspase-3 activation and an early release of mitochondria-derived cytochrome c and smac/DIABLO. In contrast, ABT737 resistance in subsets of SCC cells was not explained by XIAP, important for protection from DR-induced apoptosis in SCC. Of note, ABT737 did not prime SCC cells to DR-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, the ratio of Mcl-1 and Noxa determined sensitivity to ABT737: loss of Mcl-1 rendered resistant cells sensitive to ABT737, whereas loss of Noxa promoted resistance in sensitive cells. In line, suppression of Mcl-1 by the pan-Bcl-2 inhibitor Obatoclax or overexpression of Noxa rendered resistant SCC cells sensitive to BH3 mimetics. Our data indicate that targeting of the Mcl-1/Noxa axis is important to overcome resistance to mitochondrial apoptosis in SCC. Therefore, combination treatment of ABT737 or derivatives with Mcl-1 inhibitors, or inducers of Noxa, may represent a novel option of targeted therapy in metastatic SCC of the skin. PMID:25210795

  20. Skin Cancers of the Feet

    MedlinePlus

    ... common cancers of the feet are: Basal Cell Carcinoma : Basal cell carcinoma frequently is seen on sun-exposed skin surfaces. ... damage but only rarely spreads beyond the skin. Basal cell cancers may appear as pearly white bumps or patches ...

  1. Investigation and Management of Adnexal Masses in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Cavaco-Gomes, João; Jorge Moreira, Cátia; Rocha, Anabela; Mota, Raquel; Paiva, Vera; Costa, Antónia

    2016-01-01

    Adnexal masses can be found in 0.19 to 8.8% of all pregnancies. Most masses are functional and asymptomatic and up to 70% resolve spontaneously in the second trimester. The main predictors of persistence are the size (>5 cm) and the imagiological morphocomplexity. Those that persist carry a low risk of malignancy (0 to 10%). Most malignant masses are diagnosed at early stages and more than 50% are borderline epithelial neoplasms. Ultrasound is the preferred method to stratify the risk of complications and malignancy, allowing medical approach planning. Pregnancy and some gestational disorders may modify the levels of tumor markers, whereby their interpretation during pregnancy should be cautious. Large masses are at increased risk of torsion, rupture, and dystocia. When surgery is indicated, laparoscopy is a safe technique and should ideally be carried out in the second trimester of pregnancy. PMID:27119043

  2. Case report: Ovarian cavernous haemangioma presenting as a heavily calcified adnexal mass.

    PubMed

    Kim, M Y; Rha, S E; Oh, S N; Lee, Y J; Jung, E S; Byun, J Y

    2008-11-01

    Haemangioma is an extremely rare tumour of the ovary. We describe the CT and MRI findings of a heavily calcified ovarian haemangioma in a 69-year-old woman presenting with adnexal torsion. CT showed a well-circumscribed mass with extensive punctate calcifications, located posterior to the uterus. MR images showed dark signal intensities of the mass on both T(1) and T(2) weighted images, with poor enhancement of the mass on contrast-enhanced T(1) weighted images. MR images also demonstrated a beak-like protrusion from the adnexal mass, representing the adnexal torsion. This is the first case report of a heavily calcified ovarian haemangioma in the English literature. Although rare, ovarian haemangioma should be included in the differential diagnosis of a heavily calcified adnexal mass. PMID:18941040

  3. Ocular adnexal non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: a review of epidemiology and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Moslehi, Roxana; Schymura, Maria J; Nayak, Seema; Coles, F Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Ocular adnexal non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL), the most common form of ophthalmic NHL, has a unique incidence pattern showing a steady and rapid increase in the past few decades, nearly equal rates among both genders, and predominance among Asians/Pacific Islanders. No major cause for ocular adnexal NHL has been identified, although infectious agents, immune disorders and genetic/epigenetic factors have all been implicated in its etiology. Identifying putative risk factors and biologic mechanisms leading to carcinogenesis in ocular adnexal NHL may enable implementation of effective preventive and/or therapeutic approaches for this malignancy. This article summarizes current knowledge on epidemiology of ocular adnexal NHL and the role of various potential risk factors in its etiology. PMID:23976898

  4. Nuclear shape descriptors by automated morphometry may distinguish aggressive variants of squamous cell carcinoma from relatively benign skin proliferative lesions: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weixi; Tian, Rong; Xue, Tongqing

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated whether degrees of dysplasia may be consistently accessed in an automatic fashion, using different kinds of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) as a validatory model. Namely, we compared Bowen disease, actinic keratosis, basal cell carcinoma, low-grade squamous cell carcinoma, and invasive squamous cell carcinoma. We hypothesized that characterizing the shape of nuclei may be important to consistently diagnose the aggressiveness of a skin tumor. While basal cell carcinoma is comparatively relatively benign, management of squamous cell carcinoma is controversial because of its potential to recur and intraoperative dilemma regarding choice of the margin or the depth for the excision. We provide evidence here that progressive nuclear dysplasia may be automatically estimated through the thresholded images of skin cancer and quantitative parameters estimated to provide a quasi-quantitative data, which can thenceforth guide the management of the particular cancer. For circularity, averaging more than 2500 nuclei in each group estimated the means ± SD as 0.8 ± 0.007 vs. 0.78 ± 0.0063 vs. 0.42 ± 0.014 vs. 0.63 ± 0.02 vs. 0.51 ± 0.02 (F = 318063.56, p < 0.0001, one-way analyses of variance). The mean aspect ratios were (means ± SD) 0.97 ± 0.0014 vs. 0.95 ± 0.002 vs. 0.38 ± 0.018 vs. 0.84 ± 0.0035 vs. 0.74 ± 0.019 (F = 1022631.931, p < 0.0001, one-way analyses of variance). The Feret diameters averaged over 2500 nuclei in each group were the following: 1 ± 0.0001 vs. 0.9 ± 0.002 vs. 5 ± 0.031 vs. 1.5 ± 0.01 vs. 1.9 ± 0.004 (F = 33105614.194, p < 0.0001, one-way analyses of variance). Multivariate analyses of composite parameters potentially detect aggressive variants of squamous cell carcinoma as the most dysplastic form, in comparison to locally occurring squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma, or benign skin lesions. PMID:25753477

  5. Dose evaluation for skin and organ in hepatocellular carcinoma during angiographic procedure

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to evaluate the radiation dose in patients undergoing liver angiographic procedure and verify the usefulness of different dose measurements to prevent deterministic effects. Gafchromic film, MicroMOSFET data and DIAMENTOR device of the X-ray system were used to characterize the examined interventional radiology (IR) procedure. Materials and methods A liver embolization procedure, the SIRT (Selective Internal Radiation Therapy), was investigated. The exposure parameters from the DIAMENTOR as well as patient and geometrical data were registered. Entrance skin dose map obtained using Gafchromic film (ESDGAF) in a standard phantom as well as in 12 patients were used to calculate the maximum skin dose (MSDGAF). MicroMOSFETs were used to assess ESD in relevant points/areas. Moreover, the maximum value of five MicroMOSFETs array, due to the extension of treated area and to the relative distance of 2–3 cm of two adjacent MicroMOSFETs, was useful to predict the MSD without interfering with the clinical practice. PCXMC vers.1.5 was used to calculate effective dose (E) and equivalent dose (H). Results The mean dose-area product (DAPDIAMENTOR) for SIRT procedures was 166 Gycm2, although a wide range was observed. The mean MSDGAF for SIRT procedures was 1090 mGy, although a wide range was experienced. A correlation was found between the MSDGAF measured on a patient and the DAPDIAMENTOR value for liver embolizations. MOSFET and Gafchromic data were in agreement within 5% in homogeneous area and within 20% in high dose gradient regions. The mean equivalent dose in critical organs was 89.8 mSv for kidneys, 22.9 mSv for pancreas, 20.2 mSv for small intestine and 21.0 mSv for spleen. Whereas the mean E was 3.7 mSv (range: 0.5-13.7). Conclusions Gafchromic films result useful to study patient exposure and determine localization and amplitude of high dose skin areas to better predict the skin injuries. Then, DAPDIAMENTOR or MOSFET data

  6. Recommendations for Solid Organ Transplantation for Transplant Candidates With a Pretransplant Diagnosis of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Merkel Cell Carcinoma and Melanoma: A Consensus Opinion From the International Transplant Skin Cancer Collaborative (ITSCC).

    PubMed

    Zwald, F; Leitenberger, J; Zeitouni, N; Soon, S; Brewer, J; Arron, S; Bordeaux, J; Chung, C; Abdelmalek, M; Billingsley, E; Vidimos, A; Stasko, T

    2016-02-01

    Advancements in solid organ transplantation successfully extend the lives of thousands of patients annually. The tenet of organ stewardship aims to prevent the futile expenditure of scarce donor organs in patient populations with high mortality risk, to the detriment of potential recipients with greater predicted life expectancy. The development of skin cancer posttransplantation portends tremendous morbidity, adversely affecting quality of life for many transplant recipients. This special article, provided by of members of the International Transplant Skin Cancer Collaborative (ITSCC), will provide the transplant professional with a consensus opinion and recommendations as to an appropriate wait period pretransplantation for transplant candidates with a history of either cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma, or Merkel cell carcinoma. PMID:26820755

  7. PKCε overexpression, irrespective of genetic background, sensitizes skin to ultraviolet radiation-induced development of squamous cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Sand, Jordan Marshall; Aziz, Moammir Hasan; Dreckschmidt, Nancy Ellen; Havighurst, Thomas; Kim, KyungMann; Verma, Ajit Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Chronic exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the major etiologic factor in the development of human skin cancers including squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We have shown that PKCε transgenic mice on FVB/N background, which overexpress PKCε protein approximately 8-fold over endogenous levels in epidermis, exhibit about 3-fold more sensitivity than wild-type littermates to UVR-induced development of SCC (Cancer Research, 64, 7756, 2004). To determine whether it is PKCε and not the mouse genetic background, that determines susceptibility to UVR carcinogenesis, we cross-bred PKCε FVB/N transgenic mice with SKH-1 hairless mice to generate PKCε overexpressing SKH-1 hairless mice. To evaluate the susceptibility of PKCε SKH-1 hairless transgenic mice to UVR carcinogenesis, the mice were exposed to UVR (1–2 KJ/m2) three times weekly from a bank of six kodacel-filtered FS40 sunlamps. As compared to the wild-type hairless mice, PKCε overexpression in SKH-1 hairless mice decreased the latency (12 weeks) while increased the incidence (2-fold) and multiplicity (4-fold) of SCC. The SKH hairless transgenic mice were observed to be as sensitive as FVB/N transgenic mice to UVR-induced development of SCC and expression of proliferative markers (PCNA, Stat3 and ERK1/2). The results indicate that PKCε level dictates susceptibility, irrespective of genetic background, to UVR carcinogenesis. PMID:19626035

  8. RalA Function in Dermal Fibroblasts is Required for the Progression of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin

    PubMed Central

    Sowalsky, Adam G.; Alt-Holland, Addy; Shamis, Yulia; Garlick, Jonathan A.; Feig, Larry A.

    2011-01-01

    A large body of evidence has shown that stromal cells play a significant role in determining the fate of neighboring tumor cells through the secretion of various cytokines. How cytokine secretion by stromal cells is regulated in this context is poorly understood. In this study, we used a bioengineered human tissue model of skin squamous cell carcinoma progression to reveal that RalA function in dermal fibroblasts is required for tumor progression of neighboring neoplastic keratinocytes. This conclusion is based on the observations that suppression of RalA expression in dermal fibroblasts blocked tumorigenic keratinocytes from invading into the dermal compartment of engineered tissues, and suppressed more advanced tumor progression after these tissues were transplanted onto the dorsum of mice. RalA executes this tumor-promoting function of dermal fibroblasts, at least in part, by mediating HGF secretion through its effector proteins, the Sec5 and Exo84 subunits of the exocyst complex. These findings reveal a new level of HGF regulation and highlight the RalA signaling cascade in dermal fibroblasts as a potential anti-cancer target. PMID:21159665

  9. Squamoid Eccrine Ductal Carcinoma: A Clinicopathologic Study of 30 Cases.

    PubMed

    van der Horst, Michiel P J; Garcia-Herrera, Adriana; Markiewicz, Dorota; Martin, Blanca; Calonje, Eduardo; Brenn, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma is a poorly documented skin adnexal carcinoma showing squamous and duct differentiation. It is regarded to be of low-grade malignant potential, but limited follow-up information is available. To study their clinical behavior and histologic features, 30 squamoid eccrine ductal carcinomas were identified from departmental and referral files. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections were reviewed, and immunohistochemistry for carcinoembryonic antigen and epithelial membrane antigen was examined to confirm duct differentiation. Clinical follow-up was obtained from patient records and referring pathologists. The tumors presented as nodules or plaques (median size, 1.0 cm; range, 0.5 to 2.5 cm) with a predilection for the head and neck (77%). The patients were elderly (median age, 79.5 y; range, 10 to 96 y) with a male predominance. Histologically, these poorly demarcated tumors were characterized by an infiltrative growth pattern within the dermis and additional invasion of subcutis in 70%. Median tumor thickness was 4.3 mm (range, 1.5 to 18 mm). Superficially, the tumors resembled well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. In the deeper reaches, they were organized in cords and strands showing duct differentiation in a desmoplastic stroma. Cytologic atypia was moderate to severe. Ulceration (47%), necrosis (23%), and perineural and lymphovascular infiltration (27% and 6%, respectively) were additional features. Follow-up data (median, 29 mo; range, 7 to 99), available for 24 patients (80%), revealed a local recurrence rate of 25%. Three patients had lymph node metastasis, and 1 patient died of metastatic disease. Our study outlines the histologic characteristics of squamoid eccrine carcinoma and emphasizes its clinical behavior with risk for local recurrence and potential for more aggressive behavior with metastasis and rare disease-related mortality. PMID:26796504

  10. Distribution of apoptosis-mediating Fas antigen in human skin and effects of anti-Fas monoclonal antibody on human epidermal keratinocyte and squamous cell carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Oishi, M; Maeda, K; Sugiyama, S

    1994-01-01

    Fast antigen is a cell surface protein that mediates apoptosis. Using immunohistological, flow cytometry and electron microscopic analyses, we investigated the expression of Fas antigen on various skin tissues, and on cultured SV40-transformed human epidermal keratinocyte cell line KJD and human skin squamous cell carcinoma cell line HSC. The Fas antigen was widely distributed in skin components such as the keratinocytes in the lower portion of the epidermis, epidermal dendritic cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, apocrine glands, eccrine sweat glands, sebaceous glands, some normal melanocytes and infiltrating lymphoid cells. It was also strongly expressed on the keratinocytes of lichenoid eruptions seen in lupus erythematosus and lichen planus, and on the spongiotic or acanthotic epidermis seen in chronic eczema, adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ATLL) and atopic dermatitis. Its expression was closely correlated with lymphoid infiltrating cells and it was strongly expressed in lymphoid neoplastic cells, particularly ATLL cells, and fibroblasts seen in dermatofibroma. However, the antigen was not detected on basal cell epithelioma cells, some malignant melanomas or any junctional naevi. The cell lines KJD and HSC strongly expressed the Fas antigen, and crosslinking of the Fas antigen by an anti-Fas monoclonal antibody induced apoptosis of these cell lines. These results indicate that the apoptosis-mediating Fas antigen may play an important role in normal skin turnover and cell differentiation, in immune regulation of skin tumours, and in the pathogenesis of various skin diseases. PMID:7529480

  11. Intake of high-fat diet stimulates the risk of ultraviolet radiation-induced skin tumors and malignant progression of papillomas to carcinoma in SKH-1 hairless mice

    SciTech Connect

    Vaid, Mudit; Singh, Tripti; Prasad, Ram; Katiyar, Santosh K.

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we showed that administration of a high-fat diet (HF-diet) to C57BL/6 mice exacerbates their response to short-term UVB radiation-induced inflammation in the skin. To explore the effects of an HF-diet on UVB-induced tumorigenesis, we have used the SKH-1 hairless mouse model in which the mice are exposed to UVB radiation (180 mJ/cm{sup 2}) three times a week for 24 weeks. The development of UVB-induced skin tumors was rapid and the tumor multiplicity and tumor size were significantly higher (P < 0.01–0.005) in the mice fed an HF-diet than the mice fed a control-diet (C-diet). Moreover, the malignant progression of UVB-induced papillomas to carcinomas was higher in HF-diet-fed mice. On analysis of tumors and tumor-uninvolved skin samples from the tumor-bearing mice, we found that administration of an HF-diet significantly enhanced the levels of UVB-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E{sub 2} (P < 0.01), and PGE{sub 2} receptors, and activation of NF-κB in the UVB-exposed skin as well as in tumors. In addition the HF-diet enhanced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (P < 0.01), interleukin (IL)-1β (P < 0.01) and IL-6 (P < 0.05) in the UVB-exposed skin as well as in tumors. Western blot analysis revealed that HF-diet enhanced the levels of epidermal cell proliferation, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and phosphorylation of Akt at Ser{sup 473} in UVB-exposed skin and skin tumors. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the regular consumption of an HF-diet increases the risk of photocarcinogenesis in mice and that this is associated with enhanced expression of inflammatory mediators in the UVB-exposed skin and tumors. - Highlights: • Consumption of high-fat diet increases UVB-induced skin tumor development in mice. • Intake of high-fat diet stimulates progression of UV-induced papilloma to carcinoma. • Intake of high-fat diet enhances inflammation in UV-exposed skin • Regular

  12. Functional Protein Pathway Activation Mapping of the Progression of Normal Skin to Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Einspahr, Janine G.; Calvert, Valerie; Alberts, David S.; Curiel-Lewandrowski, Clara; Warneke, James; Krouse, Robert; Stratton, Steven P; Liotta, Lance; Longo, Caterina; Pellicani, Giovanni; Prasad, Anil; Sagerman, Paul; Bermudez, Yira; Deng, Jianghong; Bowden, G. Timothy; Petricoin, Emanuel F.

    2012-01-01

    Reverse Phase Protein Microarray analysis was used to identify cell-signaling derangements in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) compared to actinic keratosis (AK) and upper inner arm (UIA). We analyzed 2 independent tissue sets with isolation and enrichment of epithelial cells by Laser Capture Microdissection. Set 1 served as a pilot and a means to identify protein pathway activation alterations that could be further validated in a second independent set. Set 1 was comprised of 4 AK, 13 SCC, and 20 UIA. Set 2 included 15 AK, 9 SCC and 20 UIA. Activation of 51 signaling proteins known to be involved in tumorigenesis were assessed for set 1 and demonstrated the MEK-ERK pathway was activated in SCC compared to AK and UIA, that EGFR and mTOR pathways were aberrantly activated in SCC. Unsupervised two-way hierarchical clustering revealed that AK and UIA shared a common signaling network activation architecture while SCC was dramatically different. Statistical analysis found that pro-survival signaling through phosphorylation of ASK and 4EBP1 as well as increased Bax and Bak expression was higher in AK compared to UIA. We expanded pathway network activation mapping in Set 2 to 101 key signaling proteins, which corroborated activation of MEK-ERK, EGFR, and mTOR pathways through discovery of a number of upstream, and downstream signaling molecules within these pathways to conclude that SCC is indeed a pathway activation-driven disease. Pathway activation mapping of SCC compared to AK revealed several interconnected networks that could be targeted with drug therapy for potential chemoprevention and therapeutic applications. PMID:22389437

  13. Quiz: Test Your Skin Cancer IQ | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... most dangerous form of skin cancer is melanoma squamous cell carcinoma basal cell carcinoma 4. The most common type of skin cancer is melanoma squamous cell carcinoma basal cell carcinoma 5. Men tend to develop ...

  14. Skin Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nevi Melanoma Merkel Cell Carcinoma Squamous Cell Carcinoma Skin Cancer Treatment Glossary Facts & Statistics Ask the Experts Early Detection ... About Us | Store The Skin Cancer ... prevention, early detection, and prompt treatment of the world’s most common cancer. Take your ...

  15. Benign Vulvar Adnexal Tumours - A 5 year Study in a Tertiary Care Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Tiwana, Kanwardeep Kaur; Nibhoria, Sarita; Kaur, Harpreet; Bajaj, Akanksha; Phutela, Richa

    2015-01-01

    Despite of the fact that the vulva contains a high density of apocrine and anogenital mammary glands in addition to eccrine glands and folliculosebaceous units, the benign vulvar adnexal tumours are rare. Though the varied clinical presentation and diverse histopathological spectrum of vulvar neoplasms has amazed the pathologists, only few studies have been reported in literature. The present five year study consists of only five cases of benign vulvar neoplasms depicting their rarity. Hidradenoma papilliferum and syringoma were the most common entities followed by Chondroid syringoma. The aim of our study is to explore and highlight the histopathological diversity of benign vulvar adnexal tumours reflecting the relative frequency of these structures. PMID:27047567

  16. Effect of Cuscuta chinensis water extract on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced skin papillomas and carcinomas in mice.

    PubMed

    Nisa, M; Akbar, S; Tariq, M; Hussain, Z

    1986-10-01

    Cuscuta chinensis, known as Aftimun, is reputed to have antitumour activity in the Unani system of medicine in India. The effect of a hot water extract of C. chinensis on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced skin papillomas and carcinomas in Swiss albino mice was studied. Oral administration of the extract (1 g/kg body wt) thrice a week in 22 mice, started on the tenth day after the first application of DMBA to the 252nd day, markedly delayed the appearance and retarded the growth of papillomas and the incidence of carcinoma, relative to a control group with 28 mice, in a two-stage system of tumorigenesis. Its prophylactic effect was found to be statistically significant. PMID:3102856

  17. Noninvasive Optical Imaging of UV-Induced Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Murine Skin: Studies of Early Tumor Development and Vitamin D Enhancement of Protoporphyrin IX Production.

    PubMed

    Rollakanti, Kishore R; Anand, Sanjay; Davis, Scott C; Pogue, Brian W; Maytin, Edward V

    2015-11-01

    Better noninvasive techniques are needed to monitor protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) levels before and during photodynamic therapy (PDT) of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin. Our aim was to evaluate (1) multispectral fluorescent imaging of ultraviolet light (UV)-induced cancer and precancer in a mouse model of SCC and (2) multispectral imaging and probe-based fluorescence detection as a tool to study vitamin D (VD) effects on aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced PpIX synthesis. Dorsal skin of hairless mice was imaged weekly during a 24-week UV carcinogenesis protocol. Hot spots of PpIX fluorescence were detectable by multispectral imaging beginning at 14 weeks of UV exposure. Many hot spots disappeared after cessation of UV at week 20, but others persisted or became visible after week 20, and corresponded to tumors that eventually became visible by eye. In SCC-bearing mice pretreated with topical VD before ALA application, our optical techniques confirmed that VD preconditioning induces a tumor-selective increase in PpIX levels. Fluorescence-based optical imaging of PpIX is a promising tool for detecting early SCC lesions of the skin. Pretreatment with VD can increase the ability to detect early tumors, providing a potential new way to improve efficacy of ALA-PDT. PMID:26223149

  18. Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer This page lists cancer ... in skin cancer that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Basal Cell Carcinoma Aldara (Imiquimod) Efudex ( ...

  19. Treatment Options for Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer ... carcinoma include the following: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  20. Ultraviolet Light and Skin Cancer in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Shannon C.; Bergfeld, Wilma F.

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers is increasing worldwide. Ultraviolet light exposure is the most important risk factor for cutaneous melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Nonmelanoma skin cancer includes basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Constitutive skin color and genetic factors, as well as immunological factors, play a role in the development of skin cancer. Ultraviolet light also causes sunburn and photoaging damage to the skin. PMID:23015891

  1. Ultrasound Image Discrimination between Benign and Malignant Adnexal Masses Based on a Neural Network Approach.

    PubMed

    Aramendía-Vidaurreta, Verónica; Cabeza, Rafael; Villanueva, Arantxa; Navallas, Javier; Alcázar, Juan Luis

    2016-03-01

    The discrimination between benign and malignant adnexal masses in ultrasound images represents one of the most challenging problems in gynecologic practice. In the study described here, a new method for automatic discrimination of adnexal masses based on a neural networks approach was tested. The proposed method first calculates seven different types of characteristics (local binary pattern, fractal dimension, entropy, invariant moments, gray level co-occurrence matrix, law texture energy and Gabor wavelet) from ultrasound images of the ovary, from which several features are extracted and collected together with the clinical patient age. The proposed technique was validated using 106 benign and 39 malignant images obtained from 145 patients, corresponding to its probability of appearance in general population. On evaluation of the classifier, an accuracy of 98.78%, sensitivity of 98.50%, specificity of 98.90% and area under the curve of 0.997 were calculated. PMID:26715189

  2. Using a Hydroquinone/Tretinoin-based Skin Care System Before and After Electrodesiccation and Curettage of Superficial Truncal Basal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    James, Spencer; Brian, Berman; Suzanne, Bruce; Lisa, Parr; Kenneth, Gross

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of using a 4% hydroquinone/0.05% tretinoin skin care system compared with standard treatment of cleanser plus healing ointment to enhance aesthetic outcomes resulting from electrodesiccation and curettage treatment for superficial truncal basal cell carcinomas. Design: Multicenter, investigator-masked, randomized, parallel-group study. Patients received either the hydroquinone/tretinoin system or the standard treatment twice daily for three weeks before and after electrodesiccation and curettage (postelectrodesiccation and curettage, lesions received standard treatment until reepithelialization was >75 percent; assigned treatment regimens then resumed). Setting: Patients attending academic, institutional, and private dermatology clinics. Participants: 51 patients with 1 to 3 superficial truncal basal cell carcinomas. Measurements: The primary efficacy outcome was the incidence of treatment success for scar cosmesis, defined as a global assessment of excellent or good wound appearance (on a scale of excellent, good, fair, and poor), as evaluated by the investigators. After the end of the study, seven expert masked graders (dermatologists or plastic surgeons) reviewed the photographs from all of the lesions and also evaluated global assessment. Results: The incidence of treatment success in the hydroquinone/tretinoin and standard treatment groups was 72 percent versus 63 percent according to the masked investigators and 45 to 68 percent versus 20 to 44 percent, respectively, according to the seven expert masked graders. All the expert graders reported a higher incidence of treatment success with the hydroquinone/ tretinoin system than with standard treatment and this difference was statistically significant for five of the seven graders. Conclusion: The adjunctive use of the hydroquinone/tretinoin skin care system may offer enhanced aesthetic results postelectrodesiccation and curettage compared with standard

  3. Laparoscopic surgery for treating adnexal masses during the first trimester of pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Minig, Lucas; Otaño, Lucas; Cruz, Pilar; Patrono, María Guadalupe; Botazzi, Cecilia; Zapardiel, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic surgery for treating adnexal masses during the first trimester of pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: An observational study of a prospective collection of data of all pregnant women who underwent laparoscopic surgery for adnexal masses during the first trimester of pregnancy between January 1999 and November 2012 at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of the Italian Hospital of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina was performed. RESULTS: A total of 13 women were included. The median (range) gestational age at the moment of surgical procedure was 7 weeks (range: 5-12 weeks). The main indication of surgery was cyst torsion in four cases (30.7%) and rupture of ovarian cysts in four cases (30.7%). Other indications included persistent ovarian cyst in three patients (23%) and heterotopic pregnancy in two cases (15.3%). Neither surgical complications nor spontaneous abortions occurred in any of the cases and the post-operative period was uneventful in all the cases. No cases of intrauterine growth retardation, preterm delivery, congenital defects, or neonatal complications were registered. CONCLUSION: The treatment of complicated adnexal masses by laparoscopic surgery during the first trimester of pregnancy appears to be a safe procedure both for the mother and for the foetus. Additional research on a larger number of cases is still needed to support these conclusions. PMID:26917915

  4. Usefulness of T2*-weighted MRI in the detection of adnexal torsion

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Kawaguchi, Shimpei; Kojima, Toshihisa; Furui, Tatsuro; Morishige, Ken-ichirou; Matsuo, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Background The usefulness of T2*-weighted (T2*W) imaging for the detection of adnexal torsion has yet to be determined. Purpose To assess the usefulness of T2*W imaging for detecting and differentiating adnexal torsion. Material and Methods Eight patients with eight ovaries with torsion and 44 patients with 72 ovaries without torsion were included in this study. All patients underwent 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including T2*W images. The frequency and distribution of hypointensity on T2*W images were compared between ovaries with torsion and ovaries without torsion. Results Hypointensity on T2*W images was significantly more frequent in ovaries with torsion than in ovaries without torsion (75% vs. 36%; P < 0.05). Among patients with hypointensity on T2*W images, the frequency of diffuse hypointensity was significantly higher in ovaries with torsion than in ovaries without torsion (83% vs. 0%; P < 0.01); whereas the frequency of focal hypointensity was significantly lower in ovaries with torsion than in ovaries without torsion (17% vs. 100%; P < 0.01). Conclusion The presence and distribution of hypointensity on T2*W images may play a supplementary role in the detection of adnexal torsion. PMID:27478621

  5. Role of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology as a Diagnostic Tool in Orbital and Adnexal Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Lubna; Malukani, Kamal; Malaiya, Siddharth; Yeshwante, Prashant; Ishrat, Saba; Nandedkar, Shirish S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of fine needle aspiration (FNAC) as a diagnostic tool in cases of orbital and ocular adnexal masses. Cytological findings were correlated with histopathological diagnosis wherever possible. Methods: FNAC was performed in 29 patients of different age groups presenting with orbital and ocular adnexal masses. Patients were evaluated clinically and investigated by non-invasive techniques before fine needle aspiration of the masses. Smears were analyzed by a cytologist in all cases. Further, results of cytology were compared with the histopathological diagnosis. Results: The age of patients ranged from 1 to 68 years (mean: 29.79±19.29). There were 14 males and 15 females with a male to female ratio of 0.93:1. Out of 29 cases, 26 aspirates were cellular. Cellularity was insufficient in three (10.34%) aspirates. Out of 26 cellular aspirates, 11 were non-neoplastic while 15 were neoplastic on cytology. Subsequent histopathologic examination was done in 21/26 cases. Concordance rate of FNAC in orbital and ocular adnexal mass lesions with respect to the precise histologic diagnosis was 90%. Conclusion: When properly used in well-indicated patients (in cases where a diagnosis cannot be made by clinical and imaging findings alone), FNAC of orbital and periorbital lesions is an invaluable and suitable adjunct diagnostic technique that necessitates close cooperation between the ophthalmologist and cytologist. However, nondiagnostic aspirates may sometimes be obtained, and an inconclusive FNAC should not always be ignored. PMID:27621787

  6. Ultrasound follow up of an adnexal mass has the potential to save lives.

    PubMed

    Ormsby, Eleanor L; Pavlik, Edward J; van Nagell, John R

    2015-11-01

    Ovarian cancer is among the most dreaded cancers since it is often found at a late stage where the opportunity for extended survival is poor. Ultrasound has been utilized in several ovarian cancer screening trials in asymptomatic women in order to detect ovarian cancer at early stages where survival rates are high. Efforts to improve screening for ovarian cancer are ongoing. While ovarian cancer screening in asymptomatic women is not recommended for clinical application currently, the care of women with adnexal masses found by ultrasound in clinical practice can benefit from close evaluation of the evidence obtained from large prospective ovarian cancer screening trials and by relating this evidence to recent advances in the understanding of different types of ovarian cancer. Post-menopausal women who have an adnexal mass discovered by ultrasound have a much higher risk of developing ovarian cancer than women with normal ultrasound. The preponderance of reported evidence indicates that ultrasound monitoring of an adnexal mass is safe, cost effective and can achieve an improved positive predictive value in detecting ovarian cancer when ovarian abnormalities resolve during surveillance. Proposals to arbitrarily discontinue ultrasound monitoring can negatively impact patient care and generate medical-legal actions, especially because there is no evidence to support safe discontinuation. In this review, we outline a rationale for continuing ultrasound surveillance of ovarian abnormalities. PMID:26116103

  7. Treatment of advanced, recurrent, resistant to previous treatments basal and squamous cell skin carcinomas with a synergistic formulation of interferons. Open, prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Aggressive non-melanoma skin cancer (deeply infiltrating, recurrent, and morphea form lesions) are therapeutically challenging because they require considerable tissue loss and may demand radical disfiguring surgery. Interferons (IFN) may provide a non-surgical approach to the management of these tumors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of a formulation containing IFNs-α and -γ in synergistic proportions on patients with recurrent, advanced basal cell (BCC) or squamous cell skin carcinomas (SCSC). Methods Patients with extensive, recurrent, resistant to other procedures BCC or SCSC received the IFN formulation peri- and intralesionally, three times per week for 3 weeks. They had been previously treated with surgery and/or radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Thirteen weeks after the end of treatment, the original lesion sites were examined for histological evidence of remaining tumor. Results Sixteen elder (median 70 years-old) patients were included. They beared 12 BCC and 4 SCSC ranging from 1.5 to 12.5 cm in the longest dimension. At the end of treatment 47% CR (complete tumor elimination), 40% PR (>30% tumor reduction), and 13% stable disease were obtained. None of the patients relapsed during the treatment period. The median duration of the response was 38 months. Only one patient with complete response had relapsed until today. Principal adverse reactions were influenza-like symptoms well known to occur with interferon therapy, which were well tolerated. Conclusion The peri- and intralesional combination of IFNs-α and -γ was safe and showed effect for the treatment of advanced, recurrent and resistant to previous treatments of BCC and SCSC in elder patients. This is the first report of such treatment in patients with advance non-melanoma skin cancer. The encouraging result justifies further confirmatory trials. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials RPCEC00000052. PMID:19643007

  8. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this disorder is a type of skin cancer called basal cell carcinoma , that develops around the time of puberty. Other ... if: You or any family members have nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, especially if you are planning to have ...

  9. Sleeping Beauty transposon system harboring HRAS, c-Myc and shp53 induces sarcomatoid carcinomas in mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sunyoung; Ro, Simon Weonsang; Jung, Geunyoung; Ju, Hye-Lim; Yu, Eun-Sil; Son, Woo-Chan

    2013-04-01

    The Sleeping Beauty transposon system is used as a tool for insertional mutagenesis and oncogenesis. However, little is known about the exact histological phenotype of the tumors induced. Thus, we used immunohistochemical markers to enable histological identification of the type of tumor induced by subcutaneous injection of the HRAS, c-Myc and shp53 oncogenes in female C57BL/6 mice. The tumor was removed when it reached 100 mm3 in volume. Subsequently, we used 13 immunohistochemical markers to histologically identify the tumor type. The results suggested that the morphology of the tumor was similar to that of sarcomatoid carcinoma. PMID:23380875

  10. Sleeping Beauty transposon system harboring HRAS, c-Myc and shp53 induces sarcomatoid carcinomas in mouse skin

    PubMed Central

    JUNG, SUNYOUNG; RO, SIMON WEONSANG; JUNG, GEUNYOUNG; JU, HYE-LIM; YU, EUN-SIL; SON, WOO-CHAN

    2013-01-01

    The Sleeping Beauty transposon system is used as a tool for insertional mutagenesis and oncogenesis. However, little is known about the exact histological phenotype of the tumors induced. Thus, we used immunohistochemical markers to enable histological identification of the type of tumor induced by subcutaneous injection of the HRAS, c-Myc and shp53 oncogenes in female C57BL/6 mice. The tumor was removed when it reached 100 mm3 in volume. Subsequently, we used 13 immunohistochemical markers to histologically identify the tumor type. The results suggested that the morphology of the tumor was similar to that of sarcomatoid carcinoma. PMID:23380875

  11. Sex differences and pathology status correlated to the toxicity of some common carcinogens in experimental skin carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dehelean, Cristina A; Soica, Codruta; Pinzaru, Iulia; Coricovac, Dorina; Danciu, Corina; Pavel, Ioana; Borcan, Florin; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Baderca, Flavia

    2016-09-01

    The increased susceptibility of men as compared to women to develop different types of cancer, including skin cancer, is well known; however, the mechanisms involved in this process are still a matter of debate. This study aimed to obtain animal models of photo-chemically-induced skin carcinogenesis by exposure to ultraviolet radiation B (UVB) coupled with topical applications of a tumor initiator (7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, DMBA) and a tumor promoter (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, TPA) in order to characterize the gender disparities regarding the skin lesions developed by the female and male SKH-1 hairless mice included in this study. Histopathological analysis confirmed the presence of malignant lesions in both cases, in female and male mice, following chronic exposure (24 weeks) to the noxious effects of the carcinogens applied, whereas the tumors in male mice had a more severe histological grade. In addition, tumor incidence, size and multiplicity were higher in male mice than in female mice. PMID:27417450

  12. Potential harms outweigh benefits of indefinite monitoring of stable adnexal masses.

    PubMed

    Suh-Burgmann, Elizabeth; Kinney, Walter

    2015-12-01

    The management of women with asymptomatic adnexal masses should aim to balance potential benefit with potential harm. While masses with highly worrisome features or other signs of malignancy should be referred for surgery, the vast majority of masses have an indeterminate or benign appearance and are candidates for observation. Evidence supports the use of initial short-term serial ultrasound in distinguishing between benign and malignant masses. However, benefit from prolonged, potentially life-long monitoring of stable masses has not been demonstrated. Since the goal of monitoring an adnexal mass is to observe for worrisome growth or increasing complexity as an indicator of malignancy, if the mass remains stable, the likelihood of malignancy and therefore, the potential benefit of observation wanes with time. The recognition that Type 2 high grade serous cancers, which are responsible for the majority of deaths from ovarian cancer, arise from fallopian tube rather than ovarian precursors, further diminishes the likelihood that monitoring a stable ovarian mass will lead to early diagnosis of high grade disease. While some Type 1 cancers may develop from ovarian precursors, the available data suggest that any measurable benefit of monitoring known lesions for detection of these cancers is realized within the first year of observation. The argument in favor of indefinite, potentially life-long monitoring of stable masses also fails to adequately account for the risks of perpetual imaging, which include the risk of incidental findings, an increased likelihood of unnecessary surgery, patient anxiety and cost. It is not always better to order a test than not order a test. Given the absence of evidence of benefit, observation of stable small adnexal masses should be limited in duration in order to minimize potential harms. PMID:26363476

  13. Comparison of Adnexal Mass in Women Undergoing Mass Excision During the Antepartum Period and Cesarean Section

    PubMed Central

    Saghafi, Nafiseh; Roodsary, Zohreh Yousefi; Kadkhodaeian, Sima; Mofrad, Maliheh Hasanzadeh; Farahabadi, Elham Hosseini; Hoseinyfarahabady, Mohammadreza

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The frequency of adnexal masses in pregnant women ranges from 0.1% to 4%. Selecting the right approach to manage the subsequent intervention remains one of the most controversial challenges among gynecologists. Our aim in this cross-sectional study was to clarify the clinical-pathological differences among the adnexal masses that are excised during either the antepartum period or cesarean section (CS). Methods In this study, we assessed 11,000 pregnancy cases referred to the Qaem Hospital in the Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran, between 2010 and 2014. In total, 53 pregnant women with adnexal masses (other than non-gynecological mass and ectopic pregnancy) were selected for further investigation. We divided patients into two groups (group A and group B). Patients of group A had a diagnosed tumor that was excised antepartum while patients in group B had a mass taken out during CS. We then assembled data based on maternal age, parity, gestational age, surgery type, delivery mode, size and location of the tumor, complications, presentations, histopathological diagnosis, and ultrasonography findings for further analysis. Results The major proportion of masses (62.3%) were excised during CS whereas the remainder (37.7%) were removed antepartum. The mean size of the detected tumor for benign and malignant cases was 10.0 cm and 13.8 cm in group A, and 8.0 cm and 9.3 cm in group B, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference observed between patients in the two groups regarding the benign/malignant status of the mass (p = 0.008), its size (p = 0.019) and simplicity/complexity (p = 0.004). Conclusions The rate of malignant tumors was considerably higher in women who had antepartum mass excision compared to those with mass resection during CS. Also, tumors were larger (and more complex) in patients in group A compared to group B. PMID:27162593

  14. History of Allergy and Atopic Dermatitis in Relation to Squamous Cell and Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Skin

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Judy; Zens, M. Scot; Duell, Eric; Perry, Ann E.; Chapman, M. Shane; Karagas, Margaret R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about whether history of allergies and atopy are related to the occurrence of keratinocyte cancers. Thus, we evaluated the association between history of allergies and atopy and the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and early onset basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Methods As part of a population-based case-control study, interviews were conducted with 1,050 residents of New Hampshire (375 early onset BCC cases and 251 controls, 254 SCC cases and 432 controls). Odds ratios (ORs) of SCC and early onset BCC and history of allergy and atopic dermatitis were computed using logistic regression, while controlling for potential confounding factors. Results An overall inverse association was observed between a history of allergy and early onset BCC (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.38-0.97) but not SCC (OR 1.18, 95% CI 0.78-1.79). Among women, we found reduced ORs of both early onset BCC and for SCC in relation to allergy history (early onset BCC OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.31-0.92 and SCC OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.29-1.19). Among men, we observed no clear association with early onset BCC (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.39-1.99) and an increased risk of SCC (OR 1.58, 95% CI 0.93-2.69). Conclusion Our findings suggest that allergies and atopy may influence risk of early onset BCC and SCC, and that effects may be gender specific. Impact A deeper understanding of the immune mechanisms underlying allergies and atopy may provide new routes of preventing keratinocyte cancer. PMID:25670807

  15. Protein kinase C epsilon, which sensitizes skin to sun's UV radiation-induced cutaneous damage and development of squamous cell carcinomas, associates with Stat3.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Moammir H; Manoharan, Herbert T; Verma, Ajit K

    2007-02-01

    Chronic exposure to UV radiation (UVR) is the major etiologic factor in the development of human skin cancers including squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We have shown that protein kinase C(epsilon) (PKC(epsilon)), a Ca(2+)-independent, phospholipid-dependent serine/threonine kinase, is an endogenous photosensitizer. PKC(epsilon) is among the six isoforms (alpha, delta, epsilon, eta, mu, and zeta) expressed in both mouse and human skin. PKC(epsilon) transgenic mice, which overexpress PKC(epsilon) in the basal epidermal cells and cells of the hair follicle, are highly sensitive to UVR-induced cutaneous damage and development of SCC. We now present that PKC(epsilon)-overexpressing, but not PKC(delta)-overexpressing, transgenic mice, when exposed to a single (4 kJ/m(2)) or repeated (four doses, 2 kJ/m(2)/dose, thrice weekly) UVR, emitted by Kodacel-filtered FS-40 sun lamps, elicit constitutive phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (Stat3) at both Tyr705 and Ser727 residues. UVR-induced phosphorylation of Stat3 accompanied increased expression of Stat3-regulated genes (c-myc, cyclin D1, cdc25A, and COX-2). In reciprocal immunoprecipitation/blotting experiments, phosphorylated Stat3 co-immunoprecipitated with PKC(epsilon). As observed in vivo using PKC(epsilon) knockout mice and in vitro in an immunocomplex kinase assay, PKC(epsilon) phosphorylated Stat3 at Ser727 residue. These results indicate for the first time that (a) PKC(epsilon) is a Stat3Ser727 kinase; (b) PKC(epsilon)-mediated phosphorylation of StatSer727 may be essential for transcriptional activity of Stat3; and (c) UVR-induced phosphorylation of Ser727 may be a key component of the mechanism by which PKC(epsilon) imparts sensitivity to UVR-induced development of SCC. PMID:17283176

  16. Enhancement of tumor responsiveness to aminolevulinate-photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) using differentiation-promoting agents in mouse models of skin carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, Sanjay; Honari, Golara; Paliwal, Akshat; Hasan, Tayyaba; Maytin, Edward V.

    2009-06-01

    Aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) is an emerging treatment for cancers. ALA, given as a prodrug, selectively accumulates and is metabolized in cancer cells to form protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). Targeted local irradiation with light induces cell death. Since the efficacy of ALA-PDT for large or deep tumors is currently limited, we are developing a new approach that combines differentiation-inducing agents with ALA-PDT to improve the clinical response. Here, we tested this new combination paradigm in the following two models of skin carcinoma in mice: 1) tumors generated by topical application of chemical carcinogens (DMBA-TPA); 2) human SCC cells (A431) implanted subcutaneously. To achieve a differentiated state of the tumors, pretreatment with a low concentration of methotrexate (MTX) or Vitamin D (Vit D) was administered for 72 h prior to exposure to ALA. Confocal images of histological sections were captured and digitally analyzed to determine relative PpIX levels. PpIX in the tumors was also monitored by real-time in vivo fluorescence dosimetry. In both models, a significant increase in levels of PpIX was observed following pretreatment with MTX or Vit D, as compared to no-pretreatment controls. This enhancing effect was observed at very low, non-cytotoxic concentrations, and was highly specific to cancer cells as compared to normal cells. These results suggest that use of differentiating agents such as MTX or Vit D, as a short-term combination therapy given prior to ALA-PDT, can increase the production of PpIX photosensitizer and enhance the therapeutic response of skin cancers.

  17. Isolation and evaluation of anticancer efficacy of stigmasterol in a mouse model of DMBA-induced skin carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Huma; Dixit, Savita; Ali, Daoud; Alqahtani, Saeed M; Alkahtani, Saad; Alarifi, Saud

    2015-01-01

    Stigmasterol (99.9% pure) was isolated from Azadirachta indica and its chemopreventive effect on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced skin cancer was investigated in Swiss albino mice. Skin tumors were induced by topical application of DMBA and promoted by croton oil. To assess the chemopreventive potential of stigmasterol, it was orally administered at a concentration of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg three times weekly for 16 weeks. Reduction in tumor size and cumulative number of papillomas were seen as a result of treatment with stigmasterol. The average latency period was significantly increased as compared with the carcinogen-treated control. Stigmasterol induced a significant decrease in the activity of serum enzymes, such as aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and bilirubin as compared with the control. Stigmasterol significantly increased glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase as compared with the control. Elevated levels of lipid peroxide and DNA damage in the control group were significantly inhibited by administration of stigmasterol. From the present study, it can be inferred that stigmasterol has chemopreventive activity in an experimental model of cancer. This chemopreventive activity may be linked to the oxidative stress of stigmasterol. The antigenotoxic properties of stigmasterol are also likely to contribute to its chemopreventive action. PMID:26060396

  18. Preoperative Evaluation of Risk of Ovarian Malignancy Algorithm Index in Prediction of Malignancy of Adnexal Masses

    PubMed Central

    Farzaneh, Farah; Honarvar, Zahra; Yaraghi, Mansoore; Yaseri, Mehdi; Arab, Maliheh; Hosseini, Maryamsadat; Ashrafgangoi, Tahereh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Differentiation between benign and malignant ovarian neoplasms is essential to create a system for patient referrals. Objectives: The aim of the present prospective trial was to analyze the value of the risk of ovarian malignancy algorithm (ROMA) in prediction of adnexal masses malignancy in pre- and post-menopause women before operation. Materials and Methods: Preoperative serum samples were tested for CA125 and HE4 using fully automated methods (Abbott architect) and gained best cutoff. The ROMA index was analyzed in 99 patients (including 68 pre-menopause and 31 menopause) with adnexal masses referred to Imam Hossein Hospital/Tehran/Iran and had been scheduled for operation. The pathological results showed 43 cases (22 menopause) with malignant adnexal masses and 56 cases (9 menopauses) with benign adnexal masses. Demographical data, clinical symptoms and the ROMA index were separately analyzed and contrasted in benign and malignant in both menopause and pre-menopause patients. Results: The only significant difference was the older age of the malignant group vs. benign group (P = 0.001) regarding demographic findings. As concerns the clinical symptoms, presence of abdominal discomfort in pre-diagnosis period was the only significant parameter in malignant group (P = 0.001). Additionally, data analysis of patients as a total group showed that specificity (96.4%), positive predictive value (PPV) (94.1%), area under the curve (AUC) (0.907), and diagnostic accuracy (DA) (86.9%) of the ROMA were higher than HE4 (91.1%, 85.7%, 0.857 and 81.8%. respectively) and CA125 (87.9%, 67.3%, 0.828 and 75.8%, respectively) alone. Besides, negative predictive value (NPV) (86.4%) and sensitivity (86.1%) of CA125 were higher than HE4 (79.7% and 69.8%, respectively). In contrast, specificity of HE4 (91.1%) was higher than CA125 (67.9%). Data analysis of patients as two groups (pre and post menopause groups) showed the same results. Conclusions: Specificity, DA and AUC of

  19. Cystic acantholytic dyskeratosis of the vulva: An unusual presentation of a follicular adnexal neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Kara Melissa Tiangco; Junkins-Hopkins, Jacqueline M.

    2016-01-01

    Acantholytic dyskeratosis (AD) is a histologic pattern seen in Darier's disease or dyskeratosis follicularis, warty dyskeratoma, and transient AD. This pattern is characterized by suprabasilar clefting, acantholysis, and formation of corps ronds and grains. We present a case of AD that is unique based on its genital location and cystic architecture. A 53-year-old woman presented with an otherwise asymptomatic cyst on her left vulva of uncertain duration. On microscopic examination, there were fragments of cystic epithelium with areas of hypergranulosis, acantholysis, corps ronds, and corps grains formation. These features are felt by the authors to be a unique presentation of a follicular adnexal neoplasm. PMID:27559500

  20. Cavernous hemangioma presenting as a right adnexal mass in a child.

    PubMed

    Correa-Rivas, María S; Colón-González, Gloria; Lugo-Vicente, Humberto

    2003-09-01

    This is the case of an 11-year-old girl who presented with a right adnexal mass and vague abdominal symptoms since seven months prior to her hospital admission for surgery. CT-scan and sonographic images were those of a benign lesion, probably ovarian torsion or infarction. Serum tumoral markers were normal. A right salpingo-oophorectomy and appendectomy were performed. Pathology examination revealed a cavernous hemangioma of the ovary. The clinicopathologic presentation of this unusual benign ovarian tumor is discussed. PMID:14619460

  1. Role of tissue thickness on depth of morphologic skin damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    RajaMahmood, T. L. I.; Mat Jafri, M. Z.; Omar, Khalid M.

    2013-05-01

    Different zonal areas of the skins have different thickness and different adnexal composition. For this reason, the power density and exposure duration have to be adjusted to the area that being treated. The effects of laser expose to the different area of the skin has been studied by using the power density of 20.31 W/cm2 and the times when the cracking sound heard is the explosive duration recorded for each area of the skins. As a result, the histologic sections revealed that the explosive duration varied significantly with the difference in thickness of the skin tissue. Also, the expanding spaces between hair follicles and its surrounding tissue as well as denaturation of collagen fiberswere shownin each skin section and were mainly affected by the photothermal effect produced from the CO2 laser-skin tissue interaction.

  2. Correlation of distribution of sulphonated aluminium phthalocyanines with their photodynamic effect in tumour and skin of mice bearing CaD2 mammary carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Q.; Moan, J.

    1995-01-01

    A chemical extraction assay and fluorescence microscopy incorporating a light-sensitive thermoelectrically cooled charge-coupled device (CCD) camera was used to study the kinetics of uptake, retention and localisation of disulphonated aluminium phthalocyanine (A1PcS2) and tetrasulphonated aluminium phthalocyanine (A1PcS4) at different time intervals after an i.p. injection at a dose of 10 mg kg-1 body weight (b.w.) in tumour and surrounding normal skin and muscle of female C3D2/F1 mice bearing CaD2 mammary carcinoma. Moreover, the photodynamic effect on the tumour and normal skin using sulphonated aluminium phthalocyanines (A1PcS1, A1PcS2, A1pcS4) and Photofrin was compared with respect to dye, dye dose and time interval between dye administration and light exposure. The maximal concentrations of A1PcS2 in the tumour tissue were reached 2-24 h after injection of the dye, while the amounts of A1PcS4 peaked 1-2 h after the dye administration. A1PcS2 was simultaneously localised in the interstitium and in the neoplastic cells of the tumour, whereas A1PcS4 appeared to localise only in the stroma of the tumour. The photodynamic efficiency (light was applied 24 h after dye injection at a dose of 10 mg kg-1 b.w.) of the tumours was found to decrease in the following order: A1PcS2 > A1PcS4 > Photofrin > A1PcS1. Furthermore, photodynamic efficacy was strongly dependent upon dye doses and time intervals between dye administration and light exposure: the higher the dose, the higher the photodynamic efficiency. The most efficient photodynamic therapy (PDT) of the tumour was reached (day 20 tumour-free) when light exposure took place 2 h after injection of A1PcS2 (10 mg kg-1). A dual intratumoral localisation pattern of the dye, as found for A1PcS2, seems desirable to obtain a high photodynamic efficiency. The kinetic patterns of uptake, retention and localisation of A1PcS2 and A1PcS4 are roughly correlated with their photodynamic effect on the tumour and normal skin. Images

  3. Antimicrobial peptide LL-37 promotes the proliferation and invasion of skin squamous cell carcinoma by upregulating DNA-binding protein A

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Jia, Jinjing; Li, Changji; Duan, Qiqi; Yang, Jiao; Wang, Xin; Li, Ruilian; Chen, Caifeng; Yan, Huling; Zheng, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The antimicrobial peptide LL-37 not only contributes to the host defence against microbial invasion but also regulates immune activity, angiogenesis and cell proliferation. Studies have shown that LL-37 participates in the development of a variety of tumours, such as lung cancer, ovarian cancer, breast cancer and melanoma. However, the role of LL-37 in the development of skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is not clear. The present study used immunohistochemistry to confirm that the expression of human DNA-binding protein A (dbpA) was increased in SCC tissues. After stimulating SCC A341 cells, LL-37 was shown promote the proliferation, migration and invasion of these malignant cells. LL-37 also promoted the upregulation of dbpA mRNA and protein expression. In addition, after using small interfering RNA to silence the normal dbpA expression in these malignant cells, the proliferation and invasion of the tumor cells were significantly reduced. When the NF-κB inhibitor PDTC was used to inhibit the process of LL-37-stimulated cells, it was found that the original upregulated expression of dbpA was downregulated. Overall, the present demonstrated that by upregulating the expression of dbpA, LL-37 can promote the proliferation and invasion of tumour cells, and that this process depends on the NF-κB signalling pathway. PMID:27588122

  4. Autophagy in human skin squamous cell carcinoma: Inhibition by 3-MA enhances the effect of 5-FU-induced chemotherapy sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Li; Wang, Jianli

    2015-12-01

    Autophagy is an intracellular multi-step catabolic degradation process that involves the degradation and recycling of cellular proteins and cytoplasmic damaged organelles to maintain cellular homeostasis and reduction of metabolic stress. Numerous studies have indicated the importance of autophagy in cancer, but the role of autophagy in human skin squamous cell carcinoma (SSCC) development and response to therapy it is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of autophagy in SSCC and the relationship with chemotherapy sensitivity. The present study demonstrated that autophagy related gene the microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) expression was low in SSCC. The negative correlation with Bcl2 and survivin, and the chemotherapy drug 5-FU increased the level of autophagy and the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA inhibited this effect in SSCC cells, time- and dose-dependently. When SSCC cells were treated first with 3-MA and then with 5-FU, the inhibition of proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis of SSCC cells was enhanced. Our results suggested the possibility of autophagy as a potential target in SSCC therapy and 3-MA and 5-FU combination treatment may be an effective SSCC therapy via autophagy modulating. PMID:26398820

  5. Skin turgor

    MedlinePlus

    Doughy skin; Poor skin turgor; Good skin turgor; Decreased skin turgor ... Call your health care provider if: Poor skin turgor occurs with vomiting, diarrhea, or fever. The skin is very slow to return to normal, or the skin "tents" up ...

  6. Chronic Phototoxicity and Aggressive Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin in Children and Adults During Treatment with Voriconazole

    PubMed Central

    Cowen, Edward W.; Nguyen, Josephine C.; Miller, Daniel D.; McShane, Diana; Arron, Sarah T.; Prose, Neil S.; Turner, Maria L.; Fox, Lindy P.

    2009-01-01

    Background Voriconazole is a broad spectrum antifungal agent associated with photosensitivity and accelerated photoaging. A possible link with aggressive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has also been reported. Objective To determine the incidence and frequency of cutaneous SCC amongst patients undergoing long-term treatment with voriconazole who also manifest features of chronic phototoxicity. Methods A retrospective review of patients who developed one or more squamous cell neoplasms during long-term treatment with voriconazole at three academic dermatology centers. Results 51 cutaneous SCC were identified in 8 patients (median age 34.5 years, range 9–54) treated with chronic voriconazole (median duration 46.5 months, range 13–60). Underlying diagnoses included graft-versus-host disease, HIV, and Wegener’s granulomatosis. Signs of chronic phototoxicity and accelerated photoaging included erythema, actinic keratoses, and lentigo formation. Limitations The retrospective nature of the study cannot determine the true population risk of SCC associated with voriconazole therapy. A prospective cohort study is needed. Conclusion A high index of suspicion for photosensitivity and SCC may be warranted with chronic voriconazole use when utilized in the setting of concurrent immunosuppression. PMID:19896749

  7. The Value of Ultrasound Monitoring of Adnexal Masses for Early Detection of Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Suh-Burgmann, Elizabeth; Kinney, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Although ultrasound has so far been found to be ineffective as a screening tool for ovarian cancer, it is commonly used as a means of evaluating or following ovarian or adnexal masses once they are detected. We review the use of serial ultrasound for the management of adnexal masses and propose an approach to monitoring based on an understanding of the overall risk of cancer among the population in question and an assessment of how the potential benefit of monitoring compares with potential risk. In our approach, masses that are symptomatic, large (>10 cm), associated with an elevated CA 125 level or overt signs of malignancy, or that are determined to have a worrisome appearance by stringent ultrasound criteria should be evaluated surgically. Women with masses that have none of these characteristics should be offered monitoring. Short-term initial ultrasound monitoring carries significant potential benefit in terms of aiding detection of early malignancy and avoidance of unnecessary surgery. However, if a mass remains stable but persistent, the potential benefit of ongoing monitoring wanes with time, whereas the potential harms, in terms of patient anxiety, cost, and the risk of incidental findings and unnecessary surgery increase. Therefore, monitoring of stable lesions should be limited in duration in order to limit potential harms from overtreatment and overdiagnosis. PMID:26904503

  8. The Value of Ultrasound Monitoring of Adnexal Masses for Early Detection of Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Suh-Burgmann, Elizabeth; Kinney, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Although ultrasound has so far been found to be ineffective as a screening tool for ovarian cancer, it is commonly used as a means of evaluating or following ovarian or adnexal masses once they are detected. We review the use of serial ultrasound for the management of adnexal masses and propose an approach to monitoring based on an understanding of the overall risk of cancer among the population in question and an assessment of how the potential benefit of monitoring compares with potential risk. In our approach, masses that are symptomatic, large (>10 cm), associated with an elevated CA 125 level or overt signs of malignancy, or that are determined to have a worrisome appearance by stringent ultrasound criteria should be evaluated surgically. Women with masses that have none of these characteristics should be offered monitoring. Short-term initial ultrasound monitoring carries significant potential benefit in terms of aiding detection of early malignancy and avoidance of unnecessary surgery. However, if a mass remains stable but persistent, the potential benefit of ongoing monitoring wanes with time, whereas the potential harms, in terms of patient anxiety, cost, and the risk of incidental findings and unnecessary surgery increase. Therefore, monitoring of stable lesions should be limited in duration in order to limit potential harms from overtreatment and overdiagnosis. PMID:26904503

  9. Epithelioid angiosarcoma of the skin: a study of 18 cases with emphasis on its clinicopathologic spectrum and unusual morphologic features.

    PubMed

    Bacchi, Carlos E; Silva, Tacio R; Zambrano, Eduardo; Plaza, José; Suster, Saul; Luzar, Bostjan; Lamovec, Janez; Pizzolitto, Stefano; Falconieri, Giovanni

    2010-09-01

    We report 18 cases of cutaneous angiosarcoma with predominant or exclusive epithelioid morphology. Both sexes were similarly affected. Patients' ages ranged from 2 to 97 years, median 77.5 years; 2 were pediatric patients. In elderly patients scalp or facial lesions and cutaneous lesions arising within irradiated breast skin predominated. Limb lesions were seen in younger patients. Microscopically, the tumors were composed of packed polygonal cells with focal evidence of endothelial differentiation. Diverging phenotypes included syncytial growth of large cells with clear nuclei and prominent nucleoli, micronodules of tumor cells scattered in dermis, predominance of discohesive plasmacytoid polygonal cells with abundant bright eosinophilic cytoplasm, sheets of clear cells with coarse granular cytoplasm, trabecular and cord arrangement of tumor cells splaying the dermal collagen, or a pseudoglandular appearance owing to clear cell tubular arrangement with open lumina. These cases posed further diagnostic challenges simulating lymphoma, melanoma, lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma, adnexal carcinoma, and neuroendocrine carcinoma. Immunohistochemical studies showed positivity for CD31 and CD34; no immunoreactivity was documented for other tested antigens including cytokeratins, S100 protein, melanocytic antigens, leukocyte common antigen, and desmin. Therapeutic modalities included combined local excision, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, depending on patient clinical status. Of the 9 patients available for follow-up, 5 were alive and apparently well, 2 had recurrent disease, and 2 had died of tumor. Our data show that epithelioid cutaneous angiosarcoma may have a broad morphological spectrum, raising interpretive challenges on microscopy. In addition, its clinical presentation seems to differ in nonelderly patients, with lesions likely related to lymphedema or vascular malformations. PMID:20697249

  10. Alcohol Intake is Associated with Increased Risk of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin: Three US Prospective Cohort Studies.

    PubMed

    Siiskonen, Satu; Han, Jiali; Li, Tricia; Cho, Eunyoung; Nijsten, Tamar; Qureshi, Abrar

    2016-01-01

    The association between alcohol intake and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is unclear. We studied the association between alcohol intake and incident invasive cSCC in three cohorts of women and men with repeated assessments of alcohol intake in the US. Information on alcohol intake was collected repeatedly during follow-up. Cumulative average of alcohol intakes was used. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models with time-dependent exposure were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals, followed by a meta-analysis. During a follow-up of 4,234,416 person-years, 2,938 cSCC were identified. Alcohol intake was associated with an increased risk of cSCC with a dose-response relationship. Each additional drink (12.8 gram of alcohol) per day was associated with a 22% increased risk of cSCC (RR 1.22, 95% confidence interval: 1.13-1.31). White wine consumption of ≥5 times/wk was associated with an increased risk of cSCC (RR 1.31, 95% confidence interval: 1.09-1.59). We found no increased risk of cSCC with other alcoholic beverages. The population-attributable risk associated with alcohol intake of ≥20 grams/d was 3% of cSCCs. In conclusion, alcohol intake was associated with an elevated risk of cSCC. Among alcoholic beverages, white wine was associated with cSCC. PMID:27145335

  11. Lysyl oxidase-like 2 represses Notch1 expression in the skin to promote squamous cell carcinoma progression.

    PubMed

    Martin, Alberto; Salvador, Fernando; Moreno-Bueno, Gema; Floristán, Alfredo; Ruiz-Herguido, Cristina; Cuevas, Eva P; Morales, Saleta; Santos, Vanesa; Csiszar, Katalin; Dubus, Pierre; Haigh, Jody J; Bigas, Anna; Portillo, Francisco; Cano, Amparo

    2015-04-15

    Lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) is involved in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes, including fibrosis and tumor progression, implicating intracellular and extracellular functions. To explore the specific in vivo role of LOXL2 in physiological and tumor contexts, we generated conditional gain- and loss-of-function mouse models. Germ-line deletion of Loxl2 promotes lethality in half of newborn mice mainly associated to congenital heart defects, while Loxl2 overexpression triggers male sterility due to epididymal dysfunction caused by epithelial disorganization, fibrosis and acute inflammation. Remarkably, when challenged to chemical skin carcinogenesis, Loxl2-overexpressing mice increased tumor burden and malignant progression, while Loxl2-deficient mice exhibit the opposite phenotypes. Loxl2 levels in premalignant tumors negatively correlate with expression of epidermal differentiation markers and components of the Notch1 pathway. We show that LOXL2 is a direct repressor of NOTCH1. Additionally, we identify an exclusive expression pattern between LOXL2 and members of the canonical NOTCH1 pathway in human HNSCC. Our data identify for the first time novel LOXL2 roles in tissue homeostasis and support it as a target for SCC therapy. PMID:25759215

  12. Lysyl oxidase-like 2 represses Notch1 expression in the skin to promote squamous cell carcinoma progression

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Alberto; Salvador, Fernando; Moreno-Bueno, Gema; Floristán, Alfredo; Ruiz-Herguido, Cristina; Cuevas, Eva P; Morales, Saleta; Santos, Vanesa; Csiszar, Katalin; Dubus, Pierre; Haigh, Jody J; Bigas, Anna; Portillo, Francisco; Cano, Amparo

    2015-01-01

    Lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) is involved in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes, including fibrosis and tumor progression, implicating intracellular and extracellular functions. To explore the specific in vivo role of LOXL2 in physiological and tumor contexts, we generated conditional gain- and loss-of-function mouse models. Germ-line deletion of Loxl2 promotes lethality in half of newborn mice mainly associated to congenital heart defects, while Loxl2 overexpression triggers male sterility due to epididymal dysfunction caused by epithelial disorganization, fibrosis and acute inflammation. Remarkably, when challenged to chemical skin carcinogenesis, Loxl2-overexpressing mice increased tumor burden and malignant progression, while Loxl2-deficient mice exhibit the opposite phenotypes. Loxl2 levels in premalignant tumors negatively correlate with expression of epidermal differentiation markers and components of the Notch1 pathway. We show that LOXL2 is a direct repressor of NOTCH1. Additionally, we identify an exclusive expression pattern between LOXL2 and members of the canonical NOTCH1 pathway in human HNSCC. Our data identify for the first time novel LOXL2 roles in tissue homeostasis and support it as a target for SCC therapy. PMID:25759215

  13. Tomotherapy concomitant with cetuximab, followed by cetuximab as single-agent therapy for unresectable squamous cell carcinoma of the skin: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the second most frequency of all skin tumors. Incidence of SCC has risen significantly due to an increased sun exposure and the number of immunodeficient patients. Cutaneous SCC is characterized by high Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression with low frequency of RAS mutations. Generally, locoregional surgery is curative and systemic therapy is not indicated. We evaluated the activity and toxicity profile of tomotherapy concomitant with Cetuximab, followed by Cetuximab as single agent therapy in a patient affected by unresectable, locally advanced cutaneous SCC. Case presentation At our institution, on March 2012 we treated a 45 years-old patient affected by locally advanced, unresectable G1 SCC of the lumbar region. At our first observation, the patient was asthenic, with severe pain and functional limitations. There was also a superinfection due to Pseudomonas Aeruginosa resistant to antibiotics, and a G3 anemia secondary to the bleeding lesion. ECOG Performance Status was 2. Tomotherapy has been performed concomitant with the Cetuximab (400 mg/m2, followed by weekly doses of 250 mg/m2) at the total dose of 60 Gy (2 Gy/fx), followed by Cetuximab monotherapy. The lesion reduced progressively until disappear even after the suspension of the treatment and the patient achieved complete response. Toxicity resulted in G1 cutaneous rash and G2 toxicity to the nails, appeared after 5 months of treatment, typical toxicity profile of the anti-EGFR therapies. After one month of therapy the Pseudomonas Aeruginosa superinfection totally disappeared. Quality of life resulted significantly improved with reduction until discontinuation of the anti-pain drugs, and progressive increase of the hemoglobin levels. At follow up of 15 months there was no evidence of active disease and the ECOG Performance Status was 0 (zero). Conclusion The treatment was effective and feasible. Considering these excellent results

  14. Diagnosis and treatment of invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the skin: European consensus-based interdisciplinary guideline.

    PubMed

    Stratigos, Alexander; Garbe, Claus; Lebbe, Celeste; Malvehy, Josep; del Marmol, Veronique; Pehamberger, Hubert; Peris, Ketty; Becker, Jürgen C; Zalaudek, Iris; Saiag, Philippe; Middleton, Mark R; Bastholt, Lars; Testori, Alessandro; Grob, Jean-Jacques

    2015-09-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is one of the most common cancers in Caucasian populations, accounting for 20% of all cutaneous malignancies. A unique collaboration of multi-disciplinary experts from the European Dermatology Forum (EDF), the European Association of Dermato-Oncology (EADO) and the European Organization of Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) was formed to make recommendations on cSCC diagnosis and management, based on a critical review of the literature, existing guidelines and the expert's experience. The diagnosis of cSCC is primarily based on clinical features. A biopsy or excision and histologic confirmation should be performed in all clinically suspicious lesions in order to facilitate the prognostic classification and correct management of cSCC. The first line treatment of cutaneous SCC is complete surgical excision with histopathological control of excision margins. The EDF-EADO-EORTC consensus group recommends a standardised minimal margin of 5 mm even for low-risk tumours. For tumours, with histological thickness of >6 mm or in tumours with high risk pathological features, e.g. high histological grade, subcutaneous invasion, perineural invasion, recurrent tumours and/or tumours at high risk locations an extended margin of 10 mm is recommended. As lymph node involvement by cSCC increases the risk of recurrence and mortality, a lymph node ultrasound is highly recommended, particularly in tumours with high-risk characteristics. In the case of clinical suspicion or positive findings upon imaging, a histologic confirmation should be sought either by fine needle aspiration or by open lymph node biopsy. In large infiltrating tumours with signs of involvement of underlying structures, additional imaging tests, such as CT or MRI imaging may be required to accurately assess the extent of the tumour and the presence of metastatic spread. Current staging systems for cSCC are not optimal, as they have been developed for head and neck

  15. Skin Dictionary

    MedlinePlus

    ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ...

  16. Skin graft

    MedlinePlus

    Skin transplant; Skin autografting; FTSG; STSG; Split thickness skin graft; Full thickness skin graft ... site. Most people who are having a skin graft have a split-thickness skin graft. This takes ...

  17. TGF-β inhibits metastasis in late stage human squamous cell carcinoma of the skin by a mechanism that does not involve Id1.

    PubMed

    Ganapathy, Anu; Paterson, Ian C; Prime, Stephen S; Eveson, John W; Pring, Miranda; Price, Nicky; Threadgold, Suzy P; Davies, Maria

    2010-12-01

    It is now generally accepted that TGF-β acts as a pro-metastatic factor in advanced human breast cancer. However, it is well documented, that TGF-β is context dependent, and whether the TGF-β pathway switches to promote metastasis during the progression of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is unknown. This study examined the role of TGF-β signalling in SCC using a series of genetically related keratinocyte cell lines representing later stages of the disease, stably transduced with a dominant negative TβRII cDNA (dnTβRII). We demonstrated that clones expressing dnTβRII lost their growth inhibitory response to TGF-βin vitro, while ligand expression remained unchanged. Following transplantation of transduced cells to athymic mice in vivo, we showed that attenuation of the TGF-β signal resulted in a loss of differentiation and increased metastasis. In human tissue samples loss of TGF-β signal transduction as measured by pSmad2 activity also correlated with a loss of differentiation. Id1, previously shown to be down regulated by TGF-β, an inhibitor of differentiation and associated with metastasis, was weakly expressed in focal areas of a small number of human tumours but expression did not correlate with low levels of pSmad2. Our data demonstrate that TGF-β does not switch to promote metastasis in late stage human SCC of the skin and that inhibition of TGF-β signalling results in a loss of differentiation and increased metastasis in the later stages of this disease. PMID:20663607

  18. Aldo-keto Reductase 1C3 (AKR1C3) is overexpressed in skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and affects SCC growth via prostaglandin metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Mantel, Alon; Carpenter-Mendini, Amanda; VanBuskirk, JoAnne; Pentland, Alice P.

    2014-01-01

    Aldo-keto reductase 1C3 (AKR1C3) is an enzyme involved in metabolizing prostaglandins (PGs) and sex hormones. It metabolizes PGD2 to 9α11β-PGF2, diverting the spontaneous conversion of PGD2 to the PPARγ agonist, 15-Deoxy-Delta-12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2). AKR1C3 is overexpressed in various malignancies, suggesting a tumor promoting function. This work investigates AKR1C3 expression in human non-melanoma skin cancers, revealing overexpression in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Effects of AKR1C3 overexpression were then evaluated using 3 SCC cell lines. AKR1C3 was detected in all SCC cell lines and its expression was upregulated in response to its substrate, PGD2. Although attenuating AKR1C3 expression in SCC cells by siRNA did not affect growth, treatment with PGD2 and its dehydration metabolite, 15d-PGJ2, decreased SCC proliferation in a PPARγ-dependent manner. In addition, treatment with the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone profoundly inhibited SCC proliferation. Finally, we generated an SCC cell line that stably overexpressed AKR1C3 (SCC-AKR1C3). SCC-AKR1C3 metabolized PGD2 to 9α11β-PGF2 12 fold faster than the parent cell line and was protected from the anti-proliferative effect mediated by PGD2. This work suggests that PGD2 and its metabolite 15d-PGJ2 attenuate SCC proliferation in a PPARγ-dependent manner, therefore activation of PPARγ by agonists such as Pioglitazone may benefit those at high risk of SCC. PMID:24917395

  19. Adnexal Torsion

    MedlinePlus

    ... abdomen (abdominal cavity) and the tissues lining it. Did You Know... The ovary sometimes twists, causing sudden, ... is removed (called oophorectomy). Resources In This Article Did You Know 1 Did You Know... Noncancerous Gynecologic ...

  20. Pelvic Castleman's disease presenting as an adnexal tumor in a young woman.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jisun; Paek, Jiheum; Lee, Yong Hee; Kong, Tae Wook; Chang, Suk-Joon; Ryu, Hee-Sug

    2015-07-01

    Castleman's disease (CD) is a rare benign disorder of unknown etiology characterized by proliferation of lymphoid tissues. Seventy percent of this tumor occurs in the mediastinum and it is seldom found in neck, pancreas or pelvis. We report a case of asymptomatic pelvic CD initially presenting as an adnexal tumor in a 27-year-old woman. Initial transvaginal sonography revealed 7-cm-sized hyperechoic mass adjacent to the right ovary and the following abdominal computed tomography scanning showed the same sized mass located on the right extraperitoneal pelvic cavity. Laparoscopic mass excision was performed without any complication and pathological diagnosis was made as CD. CD should be included in the differential diagnosis of female pelvic masses which are noted in the pelvic cavity. In this report, we review the clinicopathological findings in a presentation of CD. PMID:26217605

  1. Cutaneous adnexal neoplasms in biopsy specimens processed in the Department of Pathology, University of Malaya.

    PubMed

    Jayalakshmi, P; Looi, L M

    1996-07-01

    A review of consecutive biopsies of adnexal tumours from 112 patients, received by the Department of Pathology, University of Malaya, over a 13-year period was undertaken. The age range of the patients was from 1 to 84 years, with a mean of 29.8 years. Thirty-three (32%) patients were under 20 years of age. There were 68 females with a male to female ratio of 1.0:1.5. In 105 cases (93.7%), the neoplasm was solitary. The tumour measured less than 2 cm in the largest dimension in 103 cases (92%). The common sites of occurrence were the head and neck region (59%) and extremities (25%). Neoplasms of hair follicle origin accounted for 63.4% (71 cases) of all lesions. Intra-tumour deposition of amyloid was noted in one of the 14 cases of trichoepithelioma. PMID:8893922

  2. Adnexal Incarceration in a Posterior Pelvic Peritoneal Defect Mimics Ovarian Torsion.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Amanda M; Hope, Erica R; Phippen, Neil T

    2015-01-01

    Surgery for suspected ovarian torsion sometimes reveals unexpected sources of pelvic pain, such as internal hernias, adhesions, or anatomic defects. A 23-year-old nulligravida with Alagille syndrome was taken to the operating room with suspected ovarian torsion. Intraoperatively, the right adnexa bulged out of a right-sided, posterior peritoneal cleft that incarcerated most of the enlarged ovary. No ovarian torsion was identified. The left adnexa appeared to be normal; however, it dwelled within a left-sided posterior peritoneal cleft. The bilateral posterior peritoneal defects that housed the adnexa were likely of congenital etiology. Although adnexal incarceration is a rare finding at surgery for suspected ovarian torsion, it should be part of the differential diagnosis when evaluating acute pelvic pain. PMID:26044591

  3. Sagging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ...

  4. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... the sun. Photo: PhotoDisc Care for conditions from acne to wrinkles Did you know that your skin ... other skin conditions. Many skin problems, such as acne, also affect your appearance. Your skin can also ...

  5. Single Port Transumbilical Laparoscopic Surgery versus Conventional Laparoscopic Surgery for Benign Adnexal Masses: A Retrospective Study of Feasibility and Safety

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Si-Yun; Yin, Ling; Guan, Xiao-Ming; Xiao, Bing-Bing; Zhang, Yan; Delgado, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Single port laparoscopic surgery (SPLS) is an innovative approach that is rapidly gaining recognition worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility and safety of SPLS compared to conventional laparoscopic surgery for the treatment of benign adnexal masses. Methods: In total, 99 patients who underwent SPLS for benign adnexal masses between December 2013 and March 2015 were compared to a nonrandomized control group comprising 104 conventional laparoscopic adnexal surgeries that were performed during the same period. We retrospectively analyzed multiple clinical characteristics and operative outcomes of all the patients, including age, body mass index, size and pathological type of ovarian mass, operative time, estimated blood loss (EBL), duration of postoperative hospital stay, etc. Results: No significant difference was observed between the two groups regarding preoperative baseline characteristics. However, the pathological results between the two groups were found to be slightly different. The most common pathological type in the SPLS group was mature cystic teratoma, whereas endometrioma was more commonly seen in the control group. Otherwise, the two groups had comparable surgical outcomes, including the median operation time (51 min vs. 52 min, P = 0.909), the median decreased level of hemoglobin from preoperation to postoperation day 3 (10 g/L vs. 10 g/L, P = 0.795), and the median duration of postoperative hospital stay (3 days vs. 3 days, P = 0.168). In SPLS groups, the median EBL and the anal exsufflation time were significantly less than those of the conventional group (5 ml vs. 10 ml, P < 0.001; 10 h vs. 22 h, P < 0.001). Conclusions: SPLS is a feasible and safe approach for the treatment of benign adnexal masses. Further study is required to better determine whether SPLS has significant benefits compared to conventional techniques. PMID:27231167

  6. Cystic adnexal mass in a 16-year-old female: Ovarian pathology or complication of a Müllerian anomaly?

    PubMed Central

    Santacana-Laffitte, Guido; Ruiz, Lorell; Pedrogo, Yasmin; Colon, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    Patient: Female, 16 Final Diagnosis: Pelvic mass Symptoms: None Medication: None Clinical Procedure: CT • MRI Specialty: Diagnostic radiology • pediatrics Objective: Unusual presentation of unknown etiology, Rare disease, Mistake in diagnosis Background: Müllerian anomalies encompass a wide variety of malformations in the female genital tract, usually associated with renal and anorectal malformations. Of these anomalies, approximately 11% are uterus didelphys, which occurs when midline fusion of the müllerian ducts is arrested to a variable extent. Case Report: We report the case of a 16-year-old female with uterine didelphys, jejunal malrotation, hematometra, hematosalpinx, and bilateral subcentimeter homogenous circular cystic-like renal lesions, who initially presented with left lower quadrant abdominal pain, non-bloody vomiting, and a history of irregular menstrual periods. Initial CT was confusing for an adnexal cystic mass, but further imaging disclosed the above müllerian anomalies. Conclusions: Müllerian anomalies may mimic other, more common, adnexal lesions; thus, adequate evaluation of suspicious cystic adnexal masses with multiple and advanced imaging modalities such as MRI is essential for adequate diagnosis and management. PMID:23826455

  7. The treatment of skin carcinoma, induced by UV B radiation, using 1-oxo-5beta, 6beta-epoxy-witha-2-enolide, isolated from the roots of Withania somnifera, in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Mathur, S; Kaur, P; Sharma, M; Katyal, A; Singh, B; Tiwari, M; Chandra, R

    2004-07-01

    Histopathological studies of the cutaneous tissues of Wistar rats exposed to UV B radiation (294 nm) for 20 days and rats exposed to UV B radiation for 20 days, followed by topical treatment with benzoyl peroxide, a tumor promoter (20 mg/animal/0.2 ml acetone) twice a week for 1 month, and kept under observation for 12 weeks, demonstrate the development of malignancy. Pretreatment of the animals with 1-oxo-5beta, 6beta-epoxy-witha-2-enolide (20 mg/kg bwt.), isolated from the roots of Withania somnifera, prior to exposing the animals to UV B radiation, prevents the incidence of skin carcinoma. The administration of 1-oxo-5beta, 6beta-epoxy-witha-2-enolide, to the animals after exposing them to UV B radiation/UV B radiation and benzoyl peroxide also prevents the occurrence of malignancy in the cutaneous tissue. Immunohistochemical staining of the cutaneous tissues of rats exposed to UV B radiation show the presence of p53 + foci (clusters of cells containing the mutated p53 protein), whereas an absence of p53 + foci is observed in animals pretreated with 1-oxo-5beta, 6beta-epoxy-witha-2-enolide. These results prove that 1-oxo-5beta, 6beta-epoxy-witha-2-enolide has the potential for acting as an effective agent to prevent the incidence of skin carcinoma induced by UV B radiation. PMID:15330502

  8. Recent developments in surgical skin planing.

    PubMed

    AYRES, S; WILSON, J W; LUIKART, R

    1958-02-01

    In surgical skin planing steel wire brushes have been largely replaced by the less hazardous diamond chip burs or "fraises" and serrated steel wheels. In addition to acne pits and wrinkling, multiple actinic (senile) keratoses are an important indication for planing. Planing provides a nonscarring method for the treatment of existing keratoses, as well as a prophylaxis against skin cancer by replacing the sun-damaged, precancerous epidermis with new epidermal cells derived from the cutaneous adnexa (pilosebaceous and sweat gland units). There are clinical landmarks indicating the depth of planing which can serve as a guide to the operator and can be correlated with microscopic findings. The results of experiments on the comparative effects of refrigerants on animal and human skin indicate that human facial skin can tolerate considerable freezing with ethyl chloride or dichlorotetrafluoroethane (Freon 114) but that mixtures containing large proportions of the much colder dichlorodifluoromethane (Freon 12) may be undesirable. Refreezing an area of the skin in order to perform a more adequate planing is not considered hazardous.THE REGENERATION OF THE SKIN FOLLOWING PLANING HAS THREE COMPONENTS: Epidermal, adnexal and dermal. The cells of the epidermis and the adnexa are equipotential. A knowledge of the anatomy of the acne pit enables the operator to decide which pits can be benefited by planing and which should be excised before planing. The successful treatment of acne pits of the face by planing in patients having keloids elsewhere on the body is reported. PMID:13500217

  9. Molecular and Genomic Aberrations in Chlamydophila psittaci Negative Ocular Adnexal Marginal Zone Lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Daxing; Ikpatt, Offiong F; Dubovy, Sander R; Lossos, Chen; Natkunam, Yasodha; Chapman-Fredricks, Jennifer R.; Fan, Yao-Shan; Lossos, Izidore S.

    2013-01-01

    The etiology and pathogenesis of ocular adnexal extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (OAEMZL) are still unknown and the association with Chlamydophila psittaci (C. psittaci) has been shown in only some geographic regions. Herein we comprehensively examined the frequency of chromosomal translocations as well as CARD11, MYD88 (L265P) and A20 mutations /deletions in 45 C. psittaci negative OAEMZLs. t(14;18)(q32;q21) IGH-MALT1 and t(11;18)(q21;q21) API2-MALT1 were not detected in any of the analyzed tumors while 3 tumors harbored IGH translocations to an unidentified partner. CARD11 mutations were not found in all the analyzed tumors while MYD88 L265P mutation was detected in 3 (6.7%) tumors. A20 mutations and deletions were each detected in 7(15.6%) and 6(13.3%) of the tumors, respectively. Therefore, the observed genetic aberrations could account for the activation of NF-kB signaling pathway in only a minority of the cases. Further studies are needed to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of OAEMZL. PMID:23720088

  10. Single-Incision Single-Instrument Adnexal Surgery in Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Loux, Tara; Falk, Gavin A.; Gaffley, Michaela; Ortega, Stephanie; Ramos, Carmen; Malvezzi, Leopoldo; Knight, Colin G.; Burnweit, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Pediatric surgeons often practice pediatric gynecology. The single-incision single-instrument (SISI) technique used for appendectomy is applicable in gynecologic surgery. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed the records of patients undergoing pelvic surgery from 2008 to 2013. SISI utilized a 12 mm transumbilical trocar and an operating endoscope. The adnexa can be detorsed intracorporeally or extracorporealized via the umbilicus for lesion removal. Results. We performed 271 ovarian or paraovarian surgeries in 258 patients. In 147 (54%), the initial approach was SISI; 75 cases (51%) were completed in patients aged from 1 day to 19.9 years and weighing 4.7 to 117 kg. Conversion to standard laparoscopy was due to contralateral oophoropexy, solid mass, inability to mobilize the adnexa, large mass, bleeding, adhesions, or better visualization. When SISI surgery was converted to Pfannenstiel, the principal reason was a solid mass. SISI surgery was significantly shorter than standard laparoscopy. There were no major complications and the overall cohort had an 11% minor complication rate. Conclusion. SISI adnexal surgery is safe, quick, inexpensive, and effective in pediatric patients. SISI was successful in over half the patients in whom it was attempted and offers a scarless result. If unsuccessful, the majority of cases can be completed with standard multiport laparoscopy. PMID:26557994

  11. Chlamydophila psittaci-negative ocular adnexal marginal zone lymphomas express self polyreactive B-cell receptors.

    PubMed

    Zhu, D; Bhatt, S; Lu, X; Guo, F; Veelken, H; Hsu, D K; Liu, F-T; Alvarez Cubela, S; Kunkalla, K; Vega, F; Chapman-Fredricks, J R; Lossos, I S

    2015-07-01

    The pathogenesis of Chlamydophila psittaci-negative ocular adnexal extranodal marginal zone lymphomas (OAEMZLs) is poorly understood. OAEMZLs are monoclonal tumors expressing a biased repertoire of mutated surface immunoglobulins. Antigenic activation of the B-cell receptor (BCR) may have a role in the pathogenesis of these lymphomas. We have analyzed the reactivity of recombinant OAEMZL immunoglobulins. OAEMZL antibodies reacted with self-human antigens, as demonstrated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, HEp-2 immunofluorescence and human protein microarrays. All the analyzed recombinant antibodies (rAbs) exhibited polyreactivity by comprehensive protein array antibody reactivity and some rAbs also demonstrated rheumatoid factor activity. The identity of several reactive antigens was confirmed by microcapillary reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography nano-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. The tested rAbs frequently reacted with shared intracellular and extracellular self-antigens (for example, galectin-3). Furthermore, these self-antigens induced BCR signaling in B cells expressing cognate surface immunoglobulins derived from OAEMZLs. These findings indicate that interactions between self-antigens and cognate OAEMZL tumor-derived BCRs are functional, inducing intracellular signaling. Overall, our findings suggest that self-antigen-induced BCR stimulation may be implicated in the pathogenesis of C. psittaci-negative OAEMZLs. PMID:25676418

  12. Ureteral carcinoma presenting as a complex pelvic mass in a post menopausal patient.

    PubMed

    Farley, J H; Douglas, T H; Mcleod, D G; Harrison, C R

    1998-07-01

    This is a report of a low-grade ureteral carcinoma presenting as a pelvic mass in a postmenopausal woman with a prolonged history of lower back pain. A right complex adnexal mass and right hydroureter and hydronephrosis in an atrophic nonfunctioning right kidney was found during evaluation for the back pain. Operative evaluation revealed a normal uterus and ovaries; however, a 2 x 3-cm mass in the right ureter was found at the level of the uterine arteries. A total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and right nephroureterectomy were performed with pathology returning grade I papillary transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter. PMID:9698491

  13. An Update on Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rita V.; Frankel, Amylynne

    2011-01-01

    Estimates from the American Cancer Society suggest that there are more than two million cases of nonmelanoma skin cancer in the United States per year. The following review highlights the topics of actinic keratoses, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, Kaposi's sarcoma, and Merkel cell carcinoma. This update on the cutting-edge clinical and dermpathologic research will assist the dermatologist in approaching, diagnosing, and managing nonmelanoma skin carcinoma. Immunologic and genetic research into nonmelanoma skin carcinoma has paved the way for novel therapeutic options for patients who were previously without any viable treatment alternatives. While still in preliminary stages, agents, such as ingenol mebutate, vismodegib, and sirolumus, may become integral drugs in the armamentarium of managing cutaneous carcinoma. PMID:21386954

  14. Squamous cell carcinoma - invasive (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This irregular red nodule is an invasive squamous cell carcinoma (a form of skin cancer). Initial appearance, shown here, may be very similar to a noncancerous growth called a keratoacanthoma. Squamous cell cancers ...

  15. Squamous cell carcinoma - invasive (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... invasive squamous cell carcinoma (a form of skin cancer). Initial appearance, shown here, may be very similar to a noncancerous growth called a keratoacanthoma. Squamous cell cancers can metastasize (spread) and should be removed surgically ...

  16. A case report of peritoneal tuberculosis with multiple miliary peritoneal deposits mimicking advanced ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yazdani, Shahla; Sadeghi, Mahmod; Alijanpour, Abolhasan; Naeimi-rad, Mojgan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Peritoneal tuberculosis accounts 1-2% of all forms of tuberculosis. Peritoneal tuberculosis is an important differential diagnosis for ovarian cancer in women with ascites, adnexal mass and elevated cancer antigen 125 (CA125) levels. We report a case of a 32- year -old woman with multiple miliary peritoneal deposits mimicking advanced ovarian carcinoma. Case Presentation: A 32-year-old drug addicted woman presented with menometrorrhagia, fever and shivering, ascites and pelvis mass. Ultrasonography revealed a 53×65 mm cyst in left ovary and ascites. Multiple miliary peritoneal deposits were observed during laparatomy without any mass, histologic examination confirmed tuberculosis of uterus, tubes, omentum, liver and external surfaces of small intestine. Finally, the patient recovered with anti-tuberculosis treatment. Conclusion: These findings highlight considering tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis of any patients with adnexal mass, ascitis and elevated serum CA125 even with negative cytology and bacteriology test results. PMID:26958336

  17. Rapidly enlarging cutaneous nodules on a full-thickness skin graft following an excision of a squamous cell carcinoma – a diagnostic clue for multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Sugrue, Conor M.; McInerney, Niall M.; Aalto, Laura; Joyce, Cormac W.; Kelly, Jack L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cutaneous extramedullary plasmacytomas (EMPs) are rare plasma cell neoplasms of the skin occurring in 2–4% of patients with multiple myeloma (MM). We describe a man diagnosed with IgA lambda MM (Stage III) after rapidly enlarging cutaneous nodules developed in the surgical site of recently excised skin malignancies. Cutaneous EMP must be considered for expanding cutaneous nodules at sites of surgery or trauma.

  18. Steroidogenesis in the skin: implications for local immune functions

    PubMed Central

    Slominski, Andrzej; Zbytek, Bazej; Nikolakis, Georgios; Manna, Pulak R.; Skobowiat, Cezary; Zmijewski, Michal; Li, Wei; Janjetovic, Zorica; Postlethwaite, Arnold; Zouboulis, Christos C.; Tuckey, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    The skin has developed a hierarchy of systems that encompasses the skin immune and local steroidogenic activities in order to protect the body against the external environment and biological factors and to maintain local homeostasis. Most recently it has been established that skin cells contain the entire biochemical apparatus necessary for production of glucocorticoids, androgens and estrogens either from precursors of systemic origin or, alternatively, through the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone and its subsequent transformation to biologically active steroids. Examples of these products are corticosterone, cortisol, testosterone, dihydrotesterone and estradiol. Their local production can be regulated by locally produced corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or cytokines. Furthermore the production of glucocorticoids is affected by ultraviolet B radiation. The level of production and nature of the final steroid products are dependent on the cell type or cutaneous compartment, e.g., epidermis, dermis, adnexal structures or adipose tissue. Locally produced glucocorticoids, androgens and estrogens affect functions of the epidermis and adnexal structures as well as local immune activity. Malfunction of these steroidogenic activities can lead to inflammatory disorders or autoimmune diseases. The cutaneous steroidogenic system can also have systemic effects, which are emphasized by significant skin contribution to circulating androgens and/or estrogens. Furthermore, local activity of CYP11A1 can produce novel 7 -steroids and secosteroids that are biologically active. Therefore, modulation of local steroidogenic activity may serve as a new therapeutic approach for treatment of inflammatory disorders, autoimmune processes or other skin disorders. In conclusion, the skin can be defined as an independent steroidogenic organ, whose activity can affect its functions and the development of local or systemic inflammatory or

  19. Merkel cell carcinoma of the abdominal wall

    PubMed Central

    Gaopande, Vandana L.; Joshi, Avinash R.; Khandeparkar, Siddhi G. S.; Deshmukh, Sanjay D.

    2015-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma also known as neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin is a very rare skin tumor. It commonly presents in the old age and the common sites are head, neck and extremities. The diagnosis requires histopathological examination with immunohistochemical correlation. We report a case of Merkel cell carcinoma stage IIIB with bilateral inguinal lymphadenopathy that on FNAB showed metastatic deposits of the tumor. PMID:26225333

  20. Primary alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of fallopian tube masquerading as a unilateral adnexal mass: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Shahin, Nisreen Abu; Alqaisy, Amin; Zheng, Wenxin

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a high-grade sarcoma that predominantly affects children, and rarely, the adult population. RMS demonstrates three major histologic variants: Embryonal, alveolar, and pleomorphic. A limited number of documented pure RMS cases of the gynecologic organs in adult women are found in the literature. Of these reports, the fallopian tube (FT) is reported as the primary site in only three cases, those included one of embryonal and two of the pleomorphic histologic variants. Herein, we report the first case of alveolar RMS arising in the FT of an adult woman and presenting as a unilateral adnexal mass. PMID:26549082

  1. Asian expert recommendation on management of skin and mucosal effects of radiation, with or without the addition of cetuximab or chemotherapy, in treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guopei; Lin, Jin-Ching; Kim, Sung-Bae; Bernier, Jacques; Agarwal, Jai Prakash; Vermorken, Jan B; Thinh, Dang Huy Quoc; Cheng, Hoi-Ching; Yun, Hwan Jung; Chitapanarux, Imjai; Lertsanguansinchai, Prasert; Reddy, Vijay Anand; He, Xia

    2016-01-01

    With increasing numbers of patients with unresectable locoregionally advanced (LA) head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) receiving cetuximab/radiotherapy (RT), several guidelines on the early detection and management of skin-related toxicities have been developed. Considering the existing management guidelines for these treatment-induced conditions, clinical applicability and standardization of grading methods has remained a cause of concern globally, particularly in Asian countries. In this study, we attempted to collate the literature and clinical experience across Asian countries to compile a practical and implementable set of recommendations for Asian oncologists to manage skin- and mucosa-related toxicities arising from different types of radiation, with or without the addition of cetuximab or chemotherapy. In December 2013, an international panel of experts in the field of head and neck cancer management assembled for an Asia-Pacific head and neck cancer expert panel meeting in China. The compilation of discussion outcomes of this meeting and literature data ultimately led to the development of a set of recommendations for physicians with regards to the approach and management of dermatological conditions arising from RT, chemotherapy/RT and cetuximab/RT, and similarly for the approach and management of mucositis resulting from RT, with or without the addition of chemotherapy or cetuximab. These recommendations helped to adapt guidelines published in the literature or text books into bedside practice, and may also serve as a starting point for developing individual institutional side-effect management protocols with adequate training and education. PMID:26817597

  2. Basal cell carcinoma – diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Bowszyc-Dmochowska, Monika; Strzelecka-Węklar, Daria; Dańczak-Pazdrowska, Aleksandra; Adamski, Zygmunt

    2013-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer in the Caucasian population. The cancer arises in sun exposed areas of the skin. The incidence of morbidity is high and it is still growing. The metastatic rate is low, but the enlarging tumor may cause severe tissue disfigurement and a poor cosmetic outcome. The diagnosis is usually clinical but there are many subtypes of this carcinoma and correct diagnosis is the clue to appropriate treatment of the lesion. The main problem in basal cell carcinoma management is the high recurrence rate. PMID:24592119

  3. Skin cancer in the elderly

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, S.V.

    1987-11-01

    Skin cancer is a major concern in geriatric populations. Cumulative exposure to carcinogens and age-related factors both contribute to the high prevalence of cutaneous malignancy in the elderly. Although mortality rates from skin cancer are relatively low, morbidity can be significant, particularly if lesions are neglected. Physicians can have a major impact on the course of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and malignant melanoma by nurturing a high index of suspicion for malignancy when unexplained cutaneous lesions are encountered. 56 references.

  4. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... are specialized skin cells that produce pigment called melanin. The melanin pigment produced by melanocytes gives skin its color. ... absorbing and scattering the energy. People with more melanin have darker skin and better protection from UV ...

  5. Skin Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...

  6. Phase I/II Study of Postoperative Adjuvant Chemoradiation for Advanced-Stage Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck (cSCCHN)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-11-17

    Recurrent Skin Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity

  7. Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) versus conventional laparoscopic surgery for adnexal preservation: a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yeon Jean; Kim, Mi-La; Lee, Soo Yoon; Lee, Hee Suk; Kim, Joo Myoung; Joo, Kwan Young

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the operative outcomes, postoperative pain, and subsequent convalescence after laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) or conventional laparoscopic surgery for adnexal preservation. Study design From December 2009 to September 2010, 63 patients underwent LESS (n = 33) or a conventional laparoscopic surgery (n = 30) for cyst enucleation. The overall operative outcomes including postoperative pain measurement using the visual analog scale (VAS) were evaluated (time points 6, 24, and 24 hours). The convalescence data included data obtained from questionnaires on the need for analgesics and on patient-reported time to recovery end points. Results The preoperative characteristics did not significantly differ between the two groups. The postoperative hemoglobin drop was higher in the LESS group than in the conventional laparoscopic surgery group (P = 0.048). Postoperative pain at each VAS time point, oral analgesic requirement, intramuscular analgesic requirement, and the number of days until return to work were similar in both groups. Conclusion In adnexa-preserving surgery performed in reproductive-age women, the operative outcomes, including satisfaction of the patients and convalescence after surgery, are comparable for LESS and conventional laparoscopy. LESS may be a feasible and a promising alternative method for scarless abdominal surgery in the treatment of young women with adnexal cysts PMID:22448110

  8. Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma of the head and face.

    PubMed

    Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Kramer, B; Altini, M; Lemmer, J

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet light (UV) is an important risk factor for cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma of the skin. These cancers most commonly affect persons with fair skin and blue eyes who sunburn rather than suntan. However, each of these cancers appears to be associated with a different pattern of UV exposure and to be mediated by different intracellular molecular pathways.Some melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene variants play a direct role in the pathogenesis of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma apart from their role in determining a cancer-prone pigmentory phenotype (fair skin, red hair, blue eyes) through their interactions with other genes regulating immuno-inflammatory responses, DNA repair or apoptosis.In this short review we focus on the aetiological role of UV in cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma of the skin, and on some associated biopathological events. PMID:26850723

  9. Cryotherapy - skin

    MedlinePlus

    Cryosurgery - skin; Warts - freezing; Warts - cryotherapy ... Cryotherapy or cryosurgery may be used to: Remove warts Destroy precancerous skin lesions (actinic keratoses or solar keratoses) In rare cases, ...

  10. Genetics of Skin Cancer (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the genetics of skin cancer — basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma — including information about specific gene mutations and related cancer syndromes. The summary also contains information about interventions that may influence the risk of developing skin cancer in individuals who may be genetically susceptible to these syndromes.

  11. [Hereditary renal cell carcinomas].

    PubMed

    Hartmann, A; Stöhr, C G; Junker, K

    2010-10-01

    Renal cell carcinomas occur in several hereditary tumor syndromes. These renal tumors frequently have a specific histopathological appearance which can be a sign for a hereditary cause of the disease. The genetic alterations responsible for most of these tumor syndromes were identified in recent years. Interestingly, renal cell carcinomas show specific histopathological features in each of the hereditary renal cancer syndromes. Clear cell and often cystic renal cell carcinomas occur in von Hippel-Lindau syndrome (VHL), while oncocytomas and chromophobe renal cell carcinomas are found in the Birt-Hugg-Dube syndrome, often also as hybrid tumors. Well differentiated papillary carcinomas (Type 1 according to the WHO) are found in the hereditary papillary renal cell carcinoma (HPRC). In contrast, poorly diffentiated papillary renal cell carcinomas (Type 2 according to the WHO) occur in combination with leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas of the skin and uterus in hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma syndrome (HLRCC). The various genetic causes for these hereditary tumor syndromes open up new therapeutic possibilities, some of which are already being investigated in clinical studies. PMID:20960197

  12. Skin Biomes.

    PubMed

    Fyhrquist, N; Salava, A; Auvinen, P; Lauerma, A

    2016-05-01

    The cutaneous microbiome has been investigated broadly in recent years and some traditional perspectives are beginning to change. A diverse microbiome exists on human skin and has a potential to influence pathogenic microbes and modulate the course of skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis. In addition to the known dysfunctions in barrier function of the skin and immunologic disturbances, evidence is rising that frequent skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis, might be connected to a dysbiosis of the microbial community and changes in the skin microbiome. As a future perspective, examining the skin microbiome could be seen as a potential new diagnostic and therapeutic target in inflammatory skin disorders. PMID:27056560

  13. [Difficulties in differential diagnosis of adnexal masses during pregnancy: the role of greyscale and color doppler sonography].

    PubMed

    Czekierdowski, A; Bednarek, W; Rogowska, W; Kotarski, J

    2001-12-01

    We have attempted to determine the accuracy of greyscale and color Doppler ultrasound in the differentiation of adnexal masses in pregnancy. The studied group included 2245 pregnant women from low risk population. Following criteria were evaluated: maximal diameter and volume of the tumor, echogenicity, presence of septa and papillary projections in grey scale sonography. Color Doppler analysis included blood vessel presence and arrangement and blood flow characteristics with the use of pulsatility (PI), resistive (RI) and systolic/diastolic (S/D) indices. Preoperative CA-125 serum levels were available in 11 patients. In 66 (2.94%) patients adnexal tumors were detected during routine ultrasound scan at the end of the first trimester. Twenty-seven masses (1.2%) persisted beyond 16 weeks of gestation and were subsequently surgically removed. Pathological diagnosis confirmed 19 serous cystadenomas, 4 endometriomas and 2 dermoids, one pedunculated myoma and one fibrothecoma. Mean size of the tumors was 79 Jmm (range: 43-245 mm), mean volume 166. lml (range: 30-1320 ml). Doppler indices values presented as mean, SD and range were as follows: PI = 1.26 +/- 0.71 (range: 0.57-3.84); RI = 0.61 +/- 0.15 (range: 0.33-0.89) and S/D = 2.62 +/- 0.98 (range: 1.17-4.91). Median serum concentration of CA-125 was 17 IU/ml (range: 8.4-1247 IU/ml). Only 3 of these women had elevated (> 35 IU/ml) levels: 2 endometriomas (344 IU/ml and 1247 IU/ml) and one myoma (37 IU/ml), respectively. Based on the sonographic findings two solid tumors were incorrectly classified as probably malignant (fibrothecoma and subserous myoma). Negative predictive value of ultrasound diagnosis in the studied population was therefore 92.6% (25 of 27). We conclude that although prenatal sonography has the potential to correctly classify most of adnexal masses, caution in risk assessment is needed especially when persistent solid tumor is found. PMID:11883264

  14. [Skin metastases revealing a bronchial adenocarcinoma].

    PubMed

    Zemmez, Youssef; Zegmout, Adil; Hamama, Jalal; Bouhamidi, Ahmed; El Amraoui, Mohammed; El Azhari, Jaouad; Boui, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of bronchial carcinoma revealed by metastatic skin nodules on the scalp. This fairly common mode of discovery is often associated with poor prognosis. This study aims to underline the importance of directing the search for a primary lung cancer in cases of secondary skin involvement. PMID:27583066

  15. Skin cancer prevention and screening.

    PubMed

    Holm, Richard P

    2015-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most common and recognizable of all cancers. The human dermis can turn malignant due to excessive solar exposure and chronic injury, with the influence of genetic risk and inherited pigmentation. Basal cell carcinoma, the most common skin cancer in lighter pigmented individuals, spreads locally, and usually appears pearly and often ulcerative. Squamous cell carcinoma, the most common skin cancer in darker pigmented people, metastasizes to lymph nodes 2-5 percent of the time, appears often scaly, smooth, nodular, ulcerative, or even pigmented. Malignant melanoma accounts for 2 percent of skin cancers, but for the vast majority of skin cancer deaths. All three can mimic each other. Solar or ultraviolet (UV) light exposure is the most common carcinogen; however, any chronic irritant can increase the risk, and efforts to avoid such exposure is apropos. Though not yet absolutely proven, skin cancer research strongly supports the following statements: sunscreen is protective, tanning devices are causative, and the routine screening of high-risk individuals is preventative. Authorities strongly recommend avoiding excess sun and UV light, using sunscreen, and keeping a watchful eye for unusual skin lesions. PMID:25985614

  16. Cutaneous glucocorticosteroidogenesis: securing local homeostasis and the skin integrity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Human skin has the ability to synthesize glucocorticoids de novo from cholesterol or from steroid intermediates of systemic origin. By interacting with glucocorticoid receptors, they regulate skin immune functions as well as functions and phenotype of the epidermal, dermal and adnexal compartments. Most of the biochemical (enzyme and transporter activities) and regulatory (neuropeptides mediated activation of cAMP and protein kinase A dependent pathways) principles of steroidogenesis in the skin are similar to those operating in classical steroidogenic organs. However, there are also significant differences determined by the close proximity of synthesis and action (even within the same cells) allowing para-, auto- or intracrine modes of regulation. We also propose that ultraviolet light B (UVB) can regulate the availability of 7-dehydrocholesterol for transformation to cholesterol with its further metabolism to steroids, oxysterols or Δ7 steroids, because of its transformation to vitamin D3. In addition, UVB can rearrange locally produced Δ7 steroids to the corresponding secosteroids with a short- or no-side chain. Thus, different mechanisms of regulation occur in the skin that can be either stochastic or structuralized. We propose that local glucocorticosteroidogenic systems and their regulators, in concert with cognate receptors operate to stabilize skin homeostasis and prevent or attenuate skin pathology. PMID:24888781

  17. Hedgehog signaling in skin cancers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chengxin; Chi, Sumin; Xie, Jingwu

    2011-01-01

    An increasing progress on the role of Hedgehog (Hh) signaling for carcinogenesis has been achieved since the link of Hh pathway to human cancer was firstly established. In particular, the critical role of Hh signaling in the development of Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) has been convincingly demonstrated by genetic mutation analyses, mouse models of BCCs, and successful clinical trials of BCCs using Hh signaling inhibitors. In addition, the Hh pathway activity is also reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC), melanoma and Merkel Cell Carcinoma. These findings have significant new paradigm on Hh signaling transduction, its mechanisms in skin cancer and even therapeutic approaches for BCC. In this review, we will summarize the major advances in the understanding of Hh signaling transduction, the roles of Hh signaling in skin cancer development, and the current implications of “mechanism-based” therapeutic strategies. PMID:21397013

  18. [Genodermatoses with malignant skin tumors].

    PubMed

    Hübinger, L; Frank, J

    2014-06-01

    Cutaneous malignancies can manifest as isolated and sporadic tumors as well as multiple and disseminated tumors. In the latter case they often point to a genetic disease, which either can be restricted to the skin exclusively or also involve extracutaneous organs in the context of a hereditary tumor syndrome. Such hereditary tumor syndromes are clinically and genetically very heterogeneous. Therefore, the prevailing specific skin tumors play an important diagnostic role in the case of complex symptom constellations. Elucidation of the genetic basis of rare monogenetically inherited disorders and syndromes can contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of frequently occurring cutaneous malignancies because the mutated genes often encode proteins, which have a key position in metabolic signaling pathways that are of high significance for the development of targeted therapies. Here we provide an overview of genodermatoses, which are associated with basal cell carcinomas, sebaceous carcinomas, keratoacanthomas, squamous cell carcinomas and malignant melanomas. PMID:24898507

  19. A female adnexal tumor of probable Wolffian origin showing positive O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase methylation

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Min Jung; Yun, Min Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Female adnexal tumor of probable Wolffian origin (FATWO) is a rare disease entity that arises from the mesonephric duct system. FATWO is different than other gynecological cancers in terms of embryology. Here, we describe the case of a 52-year-old woman with malignant FATWO. The patient underwent explorative laparotomy and surgical staging after a frozen section revealed malignancy. Detailed examination of the pathologic findings were consistent with FATWO. Counseling and further testing were provided to the patient to assess the risk of germline mutation and epigenetic change. An O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene methylation test was positive, and all other tests were normal. This is the first study to report a case of O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase methylation with FATWO in Korea. PMID:27462603

  20. [Radiotherapy of skin cancers].

    PubMed

    Hennequin, C; Rio, E; Mahé, M-A

    2016-09-01

    The indications of radiotherapy for skin cancers are not clearly defined because of the lack of randomised trials or prospective studies. For basal cell carcinomas, radiotherapy frequently offers a good local control, but a randomized trial showed that surgery is more efficient and less toxic. Indications of radiotherapy are contra-indications of surgery for patients older than 60, non-sclerodermiform histology and occurring in non-sensitive areas. Adjuvant radiotherapy could be proposed to squamous cell carcinomas, in case of poor prognostic factors. Dose of 60 to 70Gy are usually required, and must be modulated to the size of the lesions. Adjuvant radiotherapy seems beneficial for desmoplastic melanomas but not for the other histological types. Prophylactic nodal irradiation (45 to 50Gy), for locally advanced tumours (massive nodal involvement), decreases the locoregional failure rate but do not increase survival. Adjuvant radiotherapy (50 to 56Gy) for Merckel cell carcinomas increases also the local control rate, as demonstrated by meta-analysis and a large epidemiological study. Nodal areas must be included, if there is no surgical exploration (sentinel lymph node dissection). Kaposi sarcomas are radiosensitive and could be treated with relatively low doses (24 to 30Gy). Also, cutaneous lymphomas are good indications for radiotherapy: B lymphomas are electively treated with limited fields. The role of total skin electron therapy for T-lymphomas is still discussed; but palliative radiotherapy is very efficient in case of cutaneous nodules. PMID:27522189

  1. In-vivo fluorescence detection and imaging of porphyrin-producing bacteria in the human skin and in the oral cavity for diagnosis of acne vulgaris, caries, and squamous cell carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Karsten; Schneckenburger, Herbert; Hemmer, Joerg; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Steiner, Rudolf W.

    1994-05-01

    Certain bacteria are able to synthesize metal-free fluorescent porphyrins and can therefore be detected by sensitive autofluorescence measurements in the red spectral region. The porphyrin-producing bacterium Propionibacterium acnes, which is involved in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris, was localized in human skin. Spectrally resolved fluorescence images of bacteria distribution in the face were obtained by a slow-scan CCD camera combined with a tunable liquid crystal filter. The structured autofluorescence of dental caries and dental plaque in the red is caused by oral bacteria, like Bacteroides or Actinomyces odontolyticus. `Caries images' were created by time-gated imaging in the ns-region after ultrashort laser excitation. Time-gated measurements allow the suppression of backscattered light and non-porphyrin autofluorescence. Biopsies of oral squamous cell carcinoma exhibited red autofluorescence in necrotic regions and high concentrations of the porphyrin-producing bacterium Pseudomonas aerigunosa. These studies suggest that the temporal and spectral characteristics of bacterial autofluorescence can be used in the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of diseases.

  2. Potential O-acyl-substituted (-)-Epicatechin gallate prodrugs as inhibitors of DMBA/TPA-induced squamous cell carcinoma of skin in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Sandeep; Manon, Benu; Vir Singh, Tej; Dev Sharma, Pritam; Sharma, Manu

    2011-04-01

    (-)-Epicatechin-3-gallate (1) is one of the principal catechins of green tea and exhibits cancer-preventive activities in various animal models. However, this compound is unstable in neutral or alkaline medium and, therefore, has a poor bioavailability. To improve its stability, O-acyl derivatives of 1 were prepared by isolating the partially purified tea catechin fraction from green tea extract and treating it with a variety of acylating agents. The resulting derivatives, compounds 2-6, were screened for their antitumor potential against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced squamous cell carcinogenesis of skin in mice. The results showed that the antitumor activity decreased with the increase in size of the chain length of the acyl groups, i.e., from compound 2, derivative with an Ac group, to compound 6, possessing a valeryl group. Moreover, the C(4) derivative with a branched acyl chain, 5, had a lower activity than the linear C(4) derivative 4. This reduction in the inhibitory activity may be due to the steric hindrance by the two Me groups. Moreover, significant increases in the protein levels analyzed by ELISA of c-Jun, p65, and p53 were observed in the skin of DMBA/TPA treated mice, whereas mice treated with 2 and DMBA/TPA had a similar expression of these transcription factors than the control mice. The prodrug potential of the O-acyl derivatives 2-6 showed that they were adequately stable to be absorbed intact from the intestine, more stable at gastric pH, and suitable for oral administration. PMID:21480506

  3. Vitamin D for combination photodynamic therapy of skin cancer in individuals with vitamin D deficiency: Insights from a preclinical study in a mouse model of squamous cell carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, Sanjay; Thomas, Erik; Hasan, Tayyaba; Maytin, Edward V.

    2016-03-01

    Combination photodynamic therapy (cPDT) in which vitamin D (VD) is given prior to aminolevulinate, a precursor (pro-drug) for protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), is an approach developed in our laboratory. We previously showed that 1α,25- dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol), given prior to PDT, enhances accumulation of PpIX and improves cell death post-PDT in a mouse skin cancer model. However, since calcitriol poses a risk for hypercalcemia, we replaced systemic calcitriol with oral cholecalciferol (D3), administered as a high (tenfold, "10K") diet over a ten-day period. Here, we ask whether VD deficiency might alter the response to cPDT. Nude mice were fed a VD-deficient diet for at least 4 weeks ("deficient"); controls were fed a normal 1,000 IU/kg diet ("1K"). Human A431 cells were implanted subcutaneously and mice were switched to the 10K diet or continued on their baseline diets (controls). In other experiments, mice received a human equivalent dose of 50,000 IU D3 by oral gavage, to simulate administration of a single, high-dose VD pill. At various times, tumors were harvested and serum was collected to measure levels of VD metabolic intermediates. A significant increase in PpIX levels and in the expression of differentiation and proliferation markers in tumor tissue was observed after VD supplementation of both the deficient and 1K mice. Further results describing mechanistic details of PpIX enhancement through alteration of heme- and VD-metabolic enzyme levels will be presented. Based on these results, a clinical study using oral vitamin D prior to PDT for human skin cancer should be performed.

  4. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and ...

  5. Skin Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... drugs that can help clear up this condition. Day-to-Day Skin Care See our tips for daily skin ... Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to Know Your ...

  6. Skin lumps

    MedlinePlus

    ... and contains fluid or semisolid material Benign skin growths such as seborrheic keratoses or neurofibromas Boils , painful, red bumps usually involving an infected hair follicle Corn or callus, caused by skin thickening in response ...

  7. Skin Pigment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professional Version Pigment Disorders Overview of Skin Pigment Albinism Vitiligo Hyperpigmentation Melasma Melanin is the brown pigment ... dark-skinned people produce the most. People with albinism have little or no melanin and thus their ...

  8. Towards an evidence-based approach for diagnosis and management of adnexal masses: findings of the International Ovarian Tumour Analysis (IOTA) studies

    PubMed Central

    Kaijser, J.

    2015-01-01

    Whilst the outcomes for patients with ovarian cancer clearly benefit from centralised, comprehensive care in dedicated cancer centres, unfortunately the majority of patients still do not receive appropriate specialist treatment. Any improvement in the accuracy of current triaging and referral pathways whether using new imaging tests or biomarkers would therefore be of value in order to optimise the appropriate selection of patients for such care. An analysis of current evidence shows that such tests are now available, but still await recognition, acceptance and widespread adoption. It is therefore to be hoped that present guidance relating to the classification of ovarian masses will soon become more “evidence-based”. These promising tests include the International Ovarian Tumour Analysis (IOTA) LR2 model and ultrasound-based Simple Rules (SR). Based on a comprehensive recent meta-analysis both currently offer the optimal “evidence-based” approach to discriminating between cancer and benign conditions in women with adnexal tumours needing surgery. LR2 and SR are reliable tests having been shown to maintain a high sensitivity for cancer after independent external and temporal validation by the IOTA group in the hands of examiners with various levels of ultrasound expertise. They also offer more accurate triage compared to the existing Risk of Malignancy Index (RMI). The development of the IOTA ADNEX model represents an important step forward towards more individualised patient care in this area. ADNEX is a novel test that enables the more specific subtyping of adnexal cancers (i.e. borderline, stage 1 invasive, stage II-IV invasive, and secondary metastatic malignant tumours) and shares similar levels of accuracy to IOTA LR2 and SR for basic discrimination between cancer and benign disease. The IOTA study has made significant progress in relation to the classification of adnexal masses, however what is now needed is to see if these or new diagnostic tools

  9. Eosinophilic Skin Diseases: A Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Long, Hai; Zhang, Guiying; Wang, Ling; Lu, Qianjin

    2016-04-01

    Eosinophilic skin diseases, commonly termed as eosinophilic dermatoses, refer to a broad spectrum of skin diseases characterized by eosinophil infiltration and/or degranulation in skin lesions, with or without blood eosinophilia. The majority of eosinophilic dermatoses lie in the allergy-related group, including allergic drug eruption, urticaria, allergic contact dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, and eczema. Parasitic infestations, arthropod bites, and autoimmune blistering skin diseases such as bullous pemphigoid, are also common. Besides these, there are several rare types of eosinophilic dermatoses with unknown origin, in which eosinophil infiltration is a central component and affects specific tissue layers or adnexal structures of the skin, such as the dermis, subcutaneous fat, fascia, follicles, and cutaneous vessels. Some typical examples are eosinophilic cellulitis, granuloma faciale, eosinophilic pustular folliculitis, recurrent cutaneous eosinophilic vasculitis, and eosinophilic fasciitis. Although tissue eosinophilia is a common feature shared by these disorders, their clinical and pathological properties differ dramatically. Among these rare entities, eosinophilic pustular folliculitis may be associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or malignancies, and some other diseases, like eosinophilic fasciitis and eosinophilic cellulitis, may be associated with an underlying hematological disorder, while others are considered idiopathic. However, for most of these rare eosinophilic dermatoses, the causes and the pathogenic mechanisms remain largely unknown, and systemic, high-quality clinical investigations are needed for advances in better strategies for clinical diagnosis and treatment. Here, we present a comprehensive review on the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, and management of these rare entities, with an emphasis on recent advances and current consensus. PMID:25876839

  10. Skin graft

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused a large amount of skin loss Burns Cosmetic reasons or reconstructive surgeries where there has been skin damage or skin ... anesthesia are: Reactions to medicines Problems with breathing Risks for this surgery are: Bleeding Chronic pain (rarely) Infection Loss of ...

  11. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  12. Skin Cancer in the Crosshairs

    PubMed Central

    Sinnya, Sudipta; Zwald, Fiona O.; Colegio, Oscar R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The International Transplant Skin Cancer Collaborative (ITSCC) is an organization comprising of physicians; transplant surgeons and basic science research scientists dedicated in providing optimal care and ongoing research advancements in solid organ transplant recipients to improve patient outcome and quality of life. As medical advances occur, it is anticipated that the sheer number of solid organ transplantations occurring worldwide will continue to increase. The long-term medication associated immunosuppression improves graft survival, but as a consequence, these individuals become increasingly susceptible to various cutaneous malignancies, lymphoproliferative disorders and infections. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most frequently encountered skin cancer and increases 65- to 250-fold [Jensen et al., Skin cancer in kidney and heart transplant recipients and different long-term immunosuppressive therapy regimens. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1999;40:177-186; Lindelöf et al., Incidence of skin cancer in 5356 patients following organ transplantation. Br J Dermatol. 2000; 143:513-519]. However, the rates of basal cell carcinoma, Merkel cell carcinoma and melanoma also increase in organ transplant recipients leading to significant morbidity as well as mortality [Berg and Otley. Skin cancer in organ transplant recipients: epidemiology, pathogenesis, and management. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2002; 47:1-20]. In October 2014, the International Transplant Skin Cancer Collaborative and its equivalent European counterpart, Skin Care in Organ Transplant Recipients Europe held its 10th biennial meeting in Essex, MA to discuss the clinical conundrums and the evolving research pertinent to the field. This meeting report provides a synthesis of all the clinical and research data presented at the 4-day meeting.

  13. Sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Misery, L; Loser, K; Ständer, S

    2016-02-01

    Sensitive skin is a clinical condition defined by the self-reported facial presence of different sensory perceptions, including tightness, stinging, burning, tingling, pain and pruritus. Sensitive skin may occur in individuals with normal skin, with skin barrier disturbance, or as a part of the symptoms associated with facial dermatoses such as rosacea, atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Although experimental studies are still pending, the symptoms of sensitive skin suggest the involvement of cutaneous nerve fibres and neuronal, as well as epidermal, thermochannels. Many individuals with sensitive skin report worsening symptoms due to environmental factors. It is thought that this might be attributed to the thermochannel TRPV1, as it typically responds to exogenous, endogenous, physical and chemical stimuli. Barrier disruptions and immune mechanisms may also be involved. This review summarizes current knowledge on the epidemiology, potential mechanisms, clinics and therapy of sensitive skin. PMID:26805416

  14. A comparison of clinical and surgical outcomes between laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery and traditional multiport laparoscopic surgery for adnexal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, In Ok; Yoon, Jung Won; Chung, Dawn; Yim, Ga Won; Nam, Eun Ji; Kim, Sunghoon; Kim, Sang Wun

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to compare clinical and surgical outcomes between laparo-endoscopic single-site (LESS) surgery and traditional multiport laparoscopic (TML) surgery for treatment of adnexal tumors. Methods Medical records were reviewed for patients undergoing surgery for benign adnexal tumors between January 2008 and April 2012 at our institution. All procedures were performed by the same surgeon. Clinical and surgical outcomes for patients undergoing LESS surgery using Glove port were compared with those patients undergoing TML surgery. Results A review of 129 patient cases undergoing LESS surgery using Glove port and 100 patient cases undergoing TML surgery revealed no significant differences in the baseline characteristics of the two groups. The median operative time was shorter in the LESS group using Glove port at 44 minutes (range, 19-126 minutes) than the TML group at 49 minutes (range, 20-196 minutes) (P=0.0007). There were no significant differences between in the duration of postoperative hospital stay, change in hemoglobin levels, pain score or the rate of complications between the LESS and TML groups. Conclusion LESS surgery showed comparable clinical and surgical outcomes to TML surgery, and required less operative time. Future prospective trials are warranted to further define the benefits of LESS surgery for adnexal tumor treatment. PMID:25264529

  15. Skin aging and dry skin.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Hideo

    2004-08-01

    Skin aging appears to be the result of both scheduled and continuous "wear and tear" processes that damage cellular DNA and proteins. Two types of aging, chronological skin aging and photoaging, have distinct clinical and histological features. Chronological skin aging is a universal and inevitable process characterized primarily by physiologic alterations in skin function. In this case, keratinocytes are unable to properly terminally differentiate to form a functional stratum corneum, and the rate of formation of neutral lipids that contribute to the barrier function slows, causing dry, pale skin with fine wrinkles. In contrast, photoaging results from the UVR of sunlight and the damage thus becomes apparent in sun-exposed skin. Characteristics of this aging type are dry and sallow skin displaying fine wrinkles as well as deep furrows, resulting from the disorganization of epidermal and dermal components associated with elastosis and heliodermatitis. Understanding of the functions of the skin and the basic principles of moisturizer use and application is important for the prevention of skin aging. Successful treatment of dry skin with appropriate skin care products gives the impression of eternal youth. PMID:15492432

  16. Cutaneous metastatic pigmented breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gaitan-Gaona, Francisco; Said, Mirra C; Valdes-Rodriguez, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    A 66-year-old woman presented with a 3 cm black, ulcerated nodule located on the skin of the upper abdomen, just below the breast. The lesion was painful to the touch, but the patient reported no other associated symptoms and was otherwise healthy. A 4-mm punch biopsy of the affected skin was obtained and the histological diagnosis was cutaneous metastatic pigmented breast carcinoma. PMID:27136637

  17. Post-mastectomy benign lymphangioendothelioma of the skin following chronic lymphedema for breast carcinoma: a teaching case mimicking low-grade angiosarcoma and masquerading as Stewart-Treves syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Sohsuke; Yamada, Yoko; Kobayashi, Miwa; Hino, Ryosuke; Nawata, Aya; Noguchi, Hirotsugu; Nakamura, Motonobu; Nakayama, Toshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Benign lymphangioendothelioma (BL) represents a very rare lymphatic vascular proliferation. Our aim is to be aware that owing to its characteristic features, pathologists can easily misinterpret it as cutaneous low-grade angiosarcoma when examining only small specimens. In the present case, multiple small and yellowish to reddish soft nodules were noticed in the edematous left arm of a 54-year-old Japanese female 4 years after the radical mastectomy with axillary lymph nodes dissection and following radiotherapy to the chest for the left breast carcinoma. The biopsy specimen showed an ill-defined lesion composed of a proliferation of irregular and sometimes anastomosing vascular structures in the dermis, lined by endothelial cells having mildly hyperchromatic and pleomorphic nuclei, but no mitotic figures. As the lesion grew within deeper dermis, these proliferating vessels dissected dermal collagenous bands, occasionally arranged in low-papillary projections and/or characteristic hobnail cytomorphology. We first interpreted it as low-grade angiosarcoma following chronic lymphedema due to the operation, i.e., the so-called Stewart-Treves syndrome. Although additional treatments were performed for 7 years, she had neither local invasion nor metastases of these tumors, respectively, and was alive and well. Retrospective immunohistochemical findings demonstrated that these mildly atypical endothelial cells were strongly positive for lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor (LYVE)-1 as well, and MIB-1 labeling index was less than 1%. Therefore, we finally made a diagnosis of BL of the skin. MIB-1 labeling index might be useful and adjunctive aids for reaching the correct diagnosis of cutaneous BL, especially in case of small or inadequate specimens.Virtual Slides: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/13000_2014_197. PMID:25358645

  18. "Basal Cell Blanche": A Diagnostic Maneuver to Increase Early Detection of Basal Cell Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Quach, Olivia Leigh; Barry, Megan; Roberts Cruse, Allison; Wilson, Barbara B

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinomas represent one of the most common skin cancers and often present initially in the primary care setting. Subtle basal cell carcinomas may be difficult to detect, and early detection of these carcinomas remains important in limiting patient morbidity. In this article, we present a simple diagnostic maneuver, "basal cell blanche," to increase early detection of basal cell carcinomas. PMID:27170799

  19. Skin optics

    SciTech Connect

    van Gemert, M.J.; Jacques, S.L.; Sterenborg, H.J.; Star, W.M.

    1989-12-01

    Quantitative dosimetry in the treatment of skin disorders with (laser) light requires information on propagation of light in the skin related to the optical properties of the individual skin layers. This involves the solution of the integro-differential equation of radiative transfer in a model representing skin geometry, as well as experimental methods to determine the optical properties of each skin layer. These activities are unified under the name skin optics. This paper first reviews the current status of tissue optics, distinguishing between the cases of: dominant absorption, dominant scattering, and scattering about equal to absorption. Then, previously published data as well as some current unpublished data on (human) stratum corneum, epidermis and dermis, have been collected and/or (re)analyzed in terms of absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient, and anisotropy factor of scattering. The results are that the individual skin layers show strongly forward scattering (anisotropy factors between 0.7 and 0.9). The absorption and scattering data show that for all wavelengths considered scattering is much more important than absorption. Under such circumstances, solutions to the transport equation for a multilayer skin model and finite beam laser irradiation are currently not yet available. Hence, any quantitative dosimetry for skin treated with (laser) light is currently lacking.

  20. Chemoprevention of Skin Cancer Program Project | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Skin cancer is the most common malignancy in the world. One out of three new cancers is a skin cancer. More than 1 million cases of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) (basal cell carcinoma [BCC] and squamous cell cancers [SCC]) occur annually. While the incidence rates for non-melanoma skin cancers continue to rise, there continues to be a substantial impact on morbidity, health and health care costs. |

  1. Characteristics of the Aging Skin

    PubMed Central

    Farage, Miranda A.; Miller, Kenneth W.; Elsner, Peter; Maibach, Howard I.

    2013-01-01

    Significance Although most researches into the changes in skin with age focus on the unwelcome aesthetic aspects of the aging skin, skin deterioration with age is more than a merely cosmetic problem. Although mortality from skin disease is primarily restricted to melanoma, dermatological disorders are ubiquitous in older people with a significant impact on quality of life. The structural and functional deterioration of the skin that occurs with age has numerous clinical presentations, ranging from benign but potentially excruciating disorders like pruritus to the more threatening carcinomas and melanomas. Recent Advances The degenerative changes that occur in the aging skin are increasingly understood at both the molecular and cellular level, facilitating a deeper understanding of the structural and functional deterioration that these changes produce. Critical Issues A loss of both function and structural stability in skin proceeds unavoidably as individuals age, which is the result of both intrinsic and extrinsic processes, which contribute simultaneously to a progressive loss of skin integrity. Intrinsic aging proceeds at a genetically determined pace, primarily caused by the buildup of damaging products of cellular metabolism as well as an increasing biological aging of the cells. Estrogen levels strongly influence skin integrity in women as well; falling levels in midlife, therefore, produce premature aging as compared with similarly aged men. Extrinsic insults from the environment add to the dermatological signs of aging. Future Directions A deeper understanding of the physiological basis of skin aging will facilitate progress in the treatment of the unwelcome sequelae of aging skin, both cosmetic and pathogenic. PMID:24527317

  2. Hybrid eccrine gland and hair follicle hamartoma: a new entity of adnexal nevus.

    PubMed

    Luo, Di-Qing; Huang, Chang-Zheng; Xie, Wen-Lin; Xu, Feng-Feng; Mo, Li-Qiu

    2015-02-01

    Eccrine nevus shows increase in number or size of eccrine glands, whereas hair follicle nevus is composed of densely packed normal vellus hairs, and eccrine-pilar angiomatous nevus reveals increase of eccrine, pilar, and angiomatous structures. No case with increased number of both eccrine glands and hair follicles only in the dermis has been previously reported. A 10-month-old girl presented with cutaneous hamartoma with overlying skin hyperpigmentation on her left hypochondrium since 3 months of age, in whom the lesion was completely excised. Histopathology demonstrated evidently increased number of both eccrine glands and hair follicles in the dermis with reactive hyperplasia of collagen fibers. No recurrence occurred after the tumor was completely excised. A term "hybrid eccrine gland and hair follicle hamartoma" is proposed for this unique lesion. PMID:24335519

  3. Photodynamic therapy for skin cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panjehpour, Masoud; Julius, Clark E.; Hartman, Donald L.

    1996-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy was used to treat 111 lesions in 27 cases with squamous and basal cell carcinoma. There were 82 squamous cell carcinomas and 29 basal cell carcinomas. Photofrin was administered intravenously at either 1.0 mg/kg or 0.75 mg/kg. An argon/dye laser was used to deliver 630 nm light to the lesion superficially at either 215 J/cm2 or 240 J/cm2. In some cases the laser light was delivered both superficially and interstitially. The laser light was delivered two to four days after the Photofrin injection. There were 105 complete responses and 5 partial responses. One patient was lost to follow-up. Among partial responses were basal cell carcinoma on the tip of the nose and morphea basal cell carcinoma of the left cheek. Another partial response occurred in a basal cell carcinoma patient where insufficient margins were treated due to the proximity to the eye. When 0.75 mg/kg drug dose was used, the selectivity of tumor necrosis was improved. Decreased period of skin photosensitivity was documented in some cases.

  4. Skin features in myotonic dystrophy type 1: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Campanati, A; Giannoni, M; Buratti, L; Cagnetti, C; Giuliodori, K; Ganzetti, G; Silvestrini, M; Provinciali, L; Offidani, A

    2015-05-01

    Poor data regarding skin involvement in Myotonic Dystrophy, also named Dystrophia Myotonica type 1, have been reported. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and types of skin disorders in adult patients with Myotonic Dystrophy type 1. Fifty-five patients and one hundred age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were referred to a trained dermatologist for a complete skin examination to check for potential cutaneous hallmarks of disease. No difference in prevalence of preneoplastic, neoplastic, and cutaneous lesions was detected between the two groups. Among morphofunctional, proliferative and inflammatory lesions, focal hyperhidrosis (p < 0.0001), follicular hyperkeratosis (p = 0.0003), early androgenic alopecia (p = 0.01), nail pitting (p = 0.003), pedunculus fibromas (p = 0. 01), twisted hair (p = 0.01), seborrheic dermatitis (p = 0.02), macules of hyperpigmentation (p = 0.03) were significantly more frequent in patients compared with controls. In patients with Myotonic Dystrophy type 1 significant differences according to sex were found for: early androgenic alopecia, twisted hair and seborrheic dermatitis, whose prevalence was higher in males (p < 0.0001). Our preliminary results seem to rule out an increased prevalence of pre-neoplastic, and neoplastic skin lesions in Myotonic Dystrophy type 1. On the other hand, an increased prevalence of morphofunctional, inflammatory, and proliferative diseases involving adnexal structures seems to characterize adult patients with Myotonic Dystrophy type 1. PMID:25813338

  5. Skin Substitutes

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Nicole; Cohen, George

    2014-01-01

    In a relatively short timespan, a wealth of new skin substitutes made of synthetic and biologically derived materials have arisen for the purpose of wound healing of various etiologies. This review article focuses on providing an overview of skin substitutes including their indications, contraindications, benefits, and limitations. The result of this overview was an appreciation of the vast array of options available for clinicians, many of which did not exist a short time ago. Yet, despite the rapid expansion this field has undergone, no ideal skin substitute is currently available. More research in the field of skin substitutes and wound healing is required not only for the development of new products made of increasingly complex biomolecular material, but also to compare the existing skin substitutes. PMID:25371771

  6. [Heterotopic cloacogenic carcinoma of the lower lip].

    PubMed

    Vulcan, P; Dumitriu, E; Grigore, M

    1994-01-01

    Cloacogenic carcinoma is a tumour which develops from cylindric epithelial cells at the anorectal junction. Besides this usual localization, other sites have been described including the vagina, urethra, sigmoid colon, vulva and perianal skin. We observed a labial localization in a 50-year-old woman. A 15 mm tumorous formation developed rapidly after initial excision without skin or mucosal changes. The clinical diagnosis was epidermoid carcinoma but histological examination revealed an aspect comparable to cloacogenic carcinoma with nodules of basaloid tumour cells showing atypical mitosis within the nodules and the uniformly eosinophilic masses. We considered that this particular histological aspect eliminated the diagnosis of basocellular or epidermoid carcinoma and suggest that the carcinoma developed from embryon reliquats of cloacoanal transition cells in a heterotopic localization. PMID:7979028

  7. A multispectral imaging approach for diagnostics of skin pathologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lihacova, Ilze; Derjabo, Aleksandrs; Spigulis, Janis

    2013-06-01

    Noninvasive multispectral imaging method was applied for different skin pathology such as nevus, basal cell carcinoma, and melanoma diagnostics. Developed melanoma diagnostic parameter, using three spectral bands (540 nm, 650 nm and 950 nm), was calculated for nevus, melanoma and basal cell carcinoma. Simple multispectral diagnostic device was established and applied for skin assessment. Development and application of multispectral diagnostics method described further in this article.

  8. Adrenocortical carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... JavaScript. Adrenocortical carcinoma is a cancer of the adrenal glands . Causes Adrenocortical carcinoma is most common in children ... tumor. Symptoms Symptoms of increased cortisol or other adrenal gland hormones: Fatty, rounded hump high on the back ...

  9. [Skin diseases associated with obesity in children].

    PubMed

    Lau, K; Höger, P H

    2013-04-01

    While the impact of obesity on diabetes, cardiovascular disease and carcinoma development has been studied extensively, only little attention has been paid to its influence on the skin. Obesity alters the skin barrier, can induce skin manifestations, and worsens existing skin diseases like psoriasis. Cutaneous manifestations of obesity may be pseudoacanthosis nigricans, fibroma pendulans (skin tags, fibroepithelial polyps) and striae distensae. Obesity is also associated with hyperandrogenism in women and girls, promoting acne vulgaris, hirsutism, and androgenetic alopecia. In addition, there is a pathogenic association between obesity and psoriasis: the release of pro-inflammatory factors from fat tissue results in the worsening of psoriasis; an association between the severity of psoriasis and the body mass index has been shown. Obesity promotes skin infections like erysipelas and intertrigo. PMID:23529600

  10. Skin Cancer in Skin of Color

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Porcia T.

    2009-01-01

    Skin cancers in skin of color often present atypically or with advanced stage in comparison to Caucasian patients. Health care providers must maintain a high index of suspicion when examining skin lesions in skin of color. PMID:19691228

  11. Hyperelastic skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... is most often seen in people who have Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. People with this disorder have very elastic skin. ... any member of your family been diagnosed with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome? What other symptoms are present?

  12. Your Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Butterflies? Read This Chloe & Nurb Meet The Brain (Movie) Quiz: Do You Need a Flu Shot? Got ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Movie: Skin Acne Myths Blisters, Calluses, and Corns Fungal ...

  13. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Review. 17 Wu S, Han J, Laden F, Qureshi AA. Long-term ultraviolet flux, other potential risk factors, ... MR, Shive ML, Chren MM, Han J, Qureshi AA, Linos E. Indoor tanning and non-melanoma skin ...

  14. Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... nearby What to Do Teach kids not to pop, pick at, or scratch pimples, pus-filled infections, ... Your Skin Abscess Impetigo Ringworm Cellulitis Should I Pop My Pimple? Tips for Taking Care of Your ...

  15. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... exposure to ultraviolet light, which is found in sunlight and in lights used in tanning salons. What ... the safe-sun guidelines. 1. Avoid the sun. Sunlight damages your skin. The sun is strongest during ...

  16. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... early. If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. Treatments ... and a type of laser light to kill cancer cells. Biologic therapy boosts your body's own ability to ...

  17. Hyperelastic skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... is most often seen in people who have Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. People with this disorder have very elastic skin. ... any member of your family been diagnosed with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome? What other symptoms are present? Alternative Names India ...

  18. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... States. The two most common types are basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer. They usually form on the head, face, ... If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. Treatments ...

  19. Senescent Skin

    PubMed Central

    Kushniruk, William

    1974-01-01

    The cutaneous surface is continually influenced by aging and environmental factors. A longer life span is accompanied by an increase in the frequency of problems associated with aging skin. Although most of these changes and lesions are not life threatening, the premalignant lesions must be recognized and treated. The common aging and actinic skin changes are discussed and appropriate management is described. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:20469067

  20. Neuromodulators for Aging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ...

  1. Skin care and incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    Incontinence - skin care ... in a wheelchair, regular chair, or bed TAKING CARE OF THE SKIN Using diapers and other products ... skin. Over time, the skin breaks down. Special care must be taken to keep the skin clean ...

  2. Skin characteristics in newborns

    MedlinePlus

    Newborn skin characteristics; Infant skin characteristics ... the first few weeks of the baby's life. Newborn skin will vary, depending on the length of the pregnancy. Premature infants have thin, transparent skin. The skin of a ...

  3. Inflammatory Breast Carcinoma Presenting with Two Different Patterns of Cutaneous Metastases: Carcinoma Telangiectaticum and Carcinoma Erysipeloides

    PubMed Central

    Yaghoobi, Reza; Talaizade, Abdolhasan; Lal, Karan; Ranjbari, Nastaran; Sohrabiaan, Nasibe

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous metastases can have many different clinical presentations. They are seen in patients with advanced malignant disease; however, they can be the initial manifestation of undetected malignancies. Inflammatory breast carcinoma is a rare and aggressive form of breast cancer that has a nonspecific appearance mimicking many benign conditions including mastitis, breast abscesses, and/or dermatitis. The authors report the case of a 40-year-old woman with inflammatory breast carcinoma presenting with violaceous papulovesicular lesions resembling lymphangioma circumscriptum and erythematous patches resembling erysipelas. These lesions represent two different types of cutaneous metastases, both of which were the initial signs of inflammatory breast carcinoma in the patient described herein. Skin biopsy of lesions confirmed invasive breast cancer and further prompted a work up for inflammatory breast carcinoma. This case demonstrates the importance of follow-up for all breast lesions, even those considered to be of benign nature, for they can be presenting signs of metastatic breast cancer. PMID:26345728

  4. Massive zosteriform cutaneous metastasis from rectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Damin, D C; Lazzaron, A R; Tarta, C; Cartel, A; Rosito, M A

    2003-07-01

    A 44-year-old man presented with a large and rapidly growing skin lesion approximately six months after resection of a rectal carcinoma. The lesion measured 40 cm in size, extended from the suprapubic area to the proximal half of the left groin, and showed a particular zosteriform aspect. Biopsy confirmed a metastatic skin adenocarcinoma. Cutaneous metastases from rectal cancer are very uncommon. Their gross appearance is not distinctive, although the skin tumors are usually solid, small (less than 5 cm) and painless nodules or papules. Early biopsies for suspicious skin lesions are needed in patients with a history of colorectal cancer. PMID:14605930

  5. [Smoking and the skin].

    PubMed

    Just-Sarobé, M

    2008-04-01

    Smoking is the main modifiable cause of disease and death in the developed world. Tobacco consumption is directly linked to cardiovascular disease, chronic bronchitis, and many malignant diseases. Tobacco also has many cutaneous effects, most of which are harmful. Smoking is closely associated with several dermatologic diseases such as psoriasis, pustulosis palmoplantaris, hidrosadenitis suppurativa, and systemic and discoid lupus erythematosus, as well as cancers such as those of the lip, oral cavity, and anogenital region. A more debatable relationship exists with melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, basal cell carcinoma, and acne. In contrast, smoking seems to protect against mouth sores, rosacea, labial herpes simplex, pemphigus vulgaris, and dermatitis herpetiformis. In addition to the influence of smoking on dermatologic diseases, tobacco consumption is also directly responsible for certain dermatoses such as nicotine stomatitis, black hairy tongue, periodontal disease, and some types of urticaria and contact dermatitis. Furthermore, we should not forget that smoking has cosmetic repercussions such as yellow fingers and fingernails, changes in tooth color, taste and smell disorders, halitosis and hypersalivation, and early development of facial wrinkles. PMID:18358192

  6. The Contribution of Qualitative CEUS to the Determination of Malignancy in Adnexal Masses, Indeterminate on Conventional US – A Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinling; Mao, Yongjiang; Zheng, Rongqin; Zheng, Zhijuan; Huang, Zeping; Huang, Dongmei; Zhang, Jing; Dai, Qing; Zhou, Xiaodong; Wen, Yanling

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of qualitative analysis of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in discrimination of adnexal masses which were undetermined by conventional ultrasound (US). A total of 120 patients underwent transabdominal CEUS. The initial enhancement time and intensity compared with the uterine myometrium, contrast agent distribution patterns and dynamic changes of enhancement were assessed. The sensitivity (Sen), specificity (Spe), positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), accuracy (ACC) and Youden’s index were calculated for contrast variables. The gold standard was the histological diagnosis. There were 48 malignant tumors and 72 benign tumors. The enhancement features of malignant masses were different from benign ones. Earlier or simultaneous enhancement with inhomogeneous enhancement yielded the highest capability in differential diagnosis, and Sen, Spe, PPV, NPV, ACC, Youden’s index was 89.6%, 97.2%, 93.2%, 95.6%, 93.3%, and 0.88, respectively. The qualitative evaluation of CEUS is useful in the differential diagnosis of adnexal masses where conventional US is indeterminate. PMID:24736589

  7. Skin cancer - an overview for dentists.

    PubMed

    Steel, B J

    2014-05-01

    Skin cancer is common and an increasing problem in the UK. It frequently occurs on the head and neck skin. A significant proportion of the adult population in the UK visits the dentist each year, thus making dental practitioners ideally placed to identify suspicious lesions, which could be skin cancer, as part of their routine extra-oral examination. These patients can then be referred on to hospital or their GP for further management. The dentist can also give advice on risk factors and self-monitoring to patients. This paper aims to describe the risk factors, pathology, presentation and treatments for the three most common forms of skin cancer - basal and squamous cell carcinomas, and malignant melanoma, to give the dental practitioner the knowledge and confidence to examine for and identify these skin cancers. PMID:24852988

  8. Sebaceous Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... a rare skin cancer. It is considered an aggressive skin cancer because it can spread. Found early ... to keep in mind that SC is an aggressive cancer. This cancer can return after treatment. For ...

  9. Key Role of CRF in the Skin Stress Response System

    PubMed Central

    Zmijewski, Michal A.; Zbytek, Blazej; Tobin, Desmond J.; Theoharides, Theoharis C.; Rivier, Jean

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or CRH defining the upper regulatory arm of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, along with the identification of the corresponding receptors (CRFRs 1 and 2), represents a milestone in our understanding of central mechanisms regulating body and local homeostasis. We focused on the CRF-led signaling systems in the skin and offer a model for regulation of peripheral homeostasis based on the interaction of CRF and the structurally related urocortins with corresponding receptors and the resulting direct or indirect phenotypic effects that include regulation of epidermal barrier function, skin immune, pigmentary, adnexal, and dermal functions necessary to maintain local and systemic homeostasis. The regulatory modes of action include the classical CRF-led cutaneous equivalent of the central HPA axis, the expression and function of CRF and related peptides, and the stimulation of pro-opiomelanocortin peptides or cytokines. The key regulatory role is assigned to the CRFR-1α receptor, with other isoforms having modulatory effects. CRF can be released from sensory nerves and immune cells in response to emotional and environmental stressors. The expression sequence of peptides includes urocortin/CRF→pro-opiomelanocortin→ACTH, MSH, and β-endorphin. Expression of these peptides and of CRFR-1α is environmentally regulated, and their dysfunction can lead to skin and systemic diseases. Environmentally stressed skin can activate both the central and local HPA axis through either sensory nerves or humoral factors to turn on homeostatic responses counteracting cutaneous and systemic environmental damage. CRF and CRFR-1 may constitute novel targets through the use of specific agonists or antagonists, especially for therapy of skin diseases that worsen with stress, such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. PMID:23939821

  10. Key role of CRF in the skin stress response system.

    PubMed

    Slominski, Andrzej T; Zmijewski, Michal A; Zbytek, Blazej; Tobin, Desmond J; Theoharides, Theoharis C; Rivier, Jean

    2013-12-01

    The discovery of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or CRH defining the upper regulatory arm of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, along with the identification of the corresponding receptors (CRFRs 1 and 2), represents a milestone in our understanding of central mechanisms regulating body and local homeostasis. We focused on the CRF-led signaling systems in the skin and offer a model for regulation of peripheral homeostasis based on the interaction of CRF and the structurally related urocortins with corresponding receptors and the resulting direct or indirect phenotypic effects that include regulation of epidermal barrier function, skin immune, pigmentary, adnexal, and dermal functions necessary to maintain local and systemic homeostasis. The regulatory modes of action include the classical CRF-led cutaneous equivalent of the central HPA axis, the expression and function of CRF and related peptides, and the stimulation of pro-opiomelanocortin peptides or cytokines. The key regulatory role is assigned to the CRFR-1α receptor, with other isoforms having modulatory effects. CRF can be released from sensory nerves and immune cells in response to emotional and environmental stressors. The expression sequence of peptides includes urocortin/CRF→pro-opiomelanocortin→ACTH, MSH, and β-endorphin. Expression of these peptides and of CRFR-1α is environmentally regulated, and their dysfunction can lead to skin and systemic diseases. Environmentally stressed skin can activate both the central and local HPA axis through either sensory nerves or humoral factors to turn on homeostatic responses counteracting cutaneous and systemic environmental damage. CRF and CRFR-1 may constitute novel targets through the use of specific agonists or antagonists, especially for therapy of skin diseases that worsen with stress, such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. PMID:23939821

  11. Epidemiology of skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Leiter, Ulrike; Eigentler, Thomas; Garbe, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are now the most common types of cancer in white populations. Both tumor entities show an increasing incidence rate worldwide but a stable or decreasing mortality rate. NMSC is the most common cancer in white-skinned individuals with a worldwide increasing incidence. NMSC is an increasing problem for health care services worldwide which causes significant morbidity. The rising incidence rates of NMSC are probably caused by a combination of increased exposure to ultraviolet (UV) or sun light, increased outdoor activities, changes in clothing style, increased longevity, ozone depletion, genetics and in some cases, immune suppression. An intensive UV exposure in childhood and adolescence was causative for the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) whereas for the etiology of SCC a chronic UV exposure in the earlier decades was accused. Cutaneous melanoma is the most rapidly increasing cancer in white populations, in the last 3 decades incidence rates have risen up to 5-fold. In 2008 melanoma was on place 5 in women and on place 8 in men of the most common solid tumor entities in Germany. The frequency of its occurrence is closely associated with the constitutive color of the skin, and the geographical zone. Changes in outdoor activities and exposure to sunlight during the past 50 years are an important factor for the increasing incidence of melanoma. Mortality rates of melanoma show a stabilization in the USA, Australia and also in European countries. In contrast to SCC, melanoma risk seems to be associated with an intermittent exposure to sunlight. Prevention campaigns aim on reducing incidence and achieving earlier diagnosis, which resulted in an ongoing trend toward thin melanoma since the last two decades. However, the impact of primary prevention measures on incidence rates of melanoma is unlikely to be seen in the near future, rather increasing incidence rates to 40-50/100,000 inhabitants/year should be expected in

  12. Vulvar cancer: a review for dermatologists.

    PubMed

    Chokoeva, Anastasiya Atanasova; Tchernev, Georgi; Castelli, Elena; Orlando, Elisabetta; Verma, Shyam B; Grebe, Markus; Wollina, Uwe

    2015-04-01

    Vulvar malignancies are important tumors of the female reproductive system. They represent a serious health issue with an incidence between 2 and 7 per 100,000 and year. We provide a review about most important cancer entities, i.e., melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, neuroendocrine cancer, and skin adnexal malignancies.Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common vulvar malignancy that can develop from vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia or de novo. Basal cell carcinoma represents only 2% of all vulvar cancers. Melanoma of the vulva exists in two major types-superficial spreading and acral lentiginous. A special feature is the occurrence of multiple vulvar melanomas. Of the adnexal cancer types Paget's disease and carcinoma are seen more frequently than other adnexal malignancies. The dermatologist should be aware of this problem, since he might be the first to be consulted by patients for vulvar disease. Treatment should be interdisciplinary in close association to gynecologists, oncologists, and radiologists. PMID:25930015

  13. Photodynamic therapy of malignancy of skin with He-Ne laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jing; Shi, Hongmin; Zhang, Hui-Guo

    2005-07-01

    Objective: Research on the photodynamic therapy of malignancy of skin with He-Ne Laser. Methods: 35 cases of skin malignancy were treated with photodynamic therapy. He-Ne laser with output power of 600 mW was used and hematoporphyrin derivative (HPD) was applied, at a dose of 5mg/kg of body. 15 patients received simple surface irradiation, 20 patients received both surface and insertion irradiation. 28 patients underwent treatment for one time, 7 patients twice. The 12 cases were basel cell carcinoma, 7 cases were squamous cell carcinoma, 4 cases were skin carcinoma in situ, 8 cases were skin Paget's disease, 1 case was Paget's disease accompanying adenoid carcinoma, 1 case malignant melanoma, 1 case red hypertrophic disease, 1 case recurrent perianal carcinoma deriving from rectum.

  14. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Gorlin Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bilir, Yeliz; Gokce, Erkan; Ozturk, Banu; Deresoy, Faik Alev; Yuksekkaya, Ruken; Yaman, Emel

    2014-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts), the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome. PMID:25506011

  15. Non-melanoma skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Liezel L; Ali, Faisal Rehman; Lear, John T

    2016-02-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) comprises basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma, together with a host of rare tumours. NMSC is the commonest malignancy among Caucasians and its incidence continues to rise annually. Exposure to UV radiation initiates approximately 90% of NMSC, causing malignant transformation of keratinocytes and suppression of the inflammatory response. Risk factors include sun exposure and immunosuppression. There are several subtypes of BCC, although histological overlap is common. Surgery has traditionally been regarded as the 'gold-standard' treatment, offering excellent cure rates and cosmetic results. Other treatment modalities include physical destruction (radiotherapy, curettage and cautery, and cryotherapy), chemical destruction (photodynamic therapy and topical 5-flurouracil) and immunomodulatory therapy (topical imiquimod). The recent development of novel hedgehog pathway inhibitors for high-risk BCC (including oral vismodegib and sonidegib) may represent a paradigm shift towards medical management of NMSC. PMID:26833519

  16. PPD skin test

    MedlinePlus

    Purified protein derivative standard; TB skin test; Tuberculin skin test; Mantoux test ... Berger BJ. Mantoux skin test (PPD test, purified protein derivative test, Tb test, tuberculin skin test, TST, ...

  17. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...

  18. Allergy testing - skin

    MedlinePlus

    Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test ... There are three common methods of allergy skin testing. The skin prick test involves: Placing a small amount of substances that may be causing your symptoms on the skin, ...

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Characteristics of Ovarian Clear Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Ding, Jianhui; Zhu, Xiaoli; Li, Yuan; Gu, Yajia; Peng, Weijun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To probe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC). Methods This study retrospectively collected MRI data for 21 pathology-confirmed OCCCs from 19 female patients. The MRI findings were analyzed to determine the tumor size, shape/edge, shape and number of protrusions within the cyst, cystic or necrotic components, signal intensity (SI) and enhancement features. Results The age of the 19 patients ranged from 28 to 63 years (mean age: 53 years). Unilateral tumors were found in 17 patients (17/19, 89%); the average size of all tumors was 10.8 cm. The tumors on MRI were classified into two categories: (a) “cystic adnexal mass with solid protrusions” in 12 (57%) and (b) “solid adnexal mass with cystic areas or necrosis” in 9 (43%). For group a, high to very high SI was observed for most tumors (10/12, 83%) on T1-weighted images (T1WIs), and very high SI was observed on T2-weighted images (T2WIs) for all 12 tumors. Most solid protrusions were irregular and few in number and exhibited heterogeneous intermediate SI on T1WIs and T2WIs and prolonged enhanced SI in the contrast study. All 9 OCCCs in group b were predominantly solid masses with unequally sized necrotic or cystic areas in which some cysts were located at the periphery of the tumor (4/9, 44%). The solid components in all 9 tumors showed iso- or slightly high SI on T1WIs, heterogeneous iso-high SI on T2WIs and heterogeneous prolonged enhancement. According to FIGO classification, 14 tumors (14/19, 74%) were stages I-II, and 5 (5/19, 26%) were stages III-IV. Conclusions On MRI, OCCCs present as large unilateral multilocular or unilocular cystic masses with irregular intermediate SI solid protrusions or predominantly solid masses with cysts or necrosis at an early FIGO stage. PMID:26161555

  20. A case of Meigs syndrome mimicking metastatic breast carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lanitis, Sophocles; Sivakumar, Sivahamy; Behranwala, Kasim; Zacharakis, Emmanouil; Al Mufti, Ragheed; Hadjiminas, Dimitri J

    2009-01-01

    Background Adnexal masses are not uncommon in patients with breast cancer. Breast cancer and ovarian malignancies are known to be associated. In patients with breast cancer and co-existing pleural effusions, ascites and adnexal masses, the probability of disseminated disease is high. Nevertheless, benign ovarian masses can mimic this clinical picture when they are associated with Meigs' syndrome making the work-up and management of these patients challenging. To our knowledge, there are no similar reports in the literature and therefore we present this case to highlight this entity. Case presentation A 56-year old woman presented with a 4 cm, grade 2, invasive ductal carcinoma of her left breast. Pre-treatment staging investigations showed a 13.5 cm mass in her left ovary, a small amount of ascites and a large right pleural effusion. Serum tumour markers showed a raised CA125 supporting the malignant nature of the ovarian mass. The cytology from the pleural effusion was indeterminate but thoracoscopic biopsy failed to show malignancy. The patient was strongly against mastectomy and she was commenced on neo-adjuvant Letrozole 2.5 mg daily with a view to perform breast conserving surgery. After a good response to the hormone manipulation, the patient had breast conserving surgery, axillary sampling and laparoscopic excision of the ovarian mass which was eventually found to be a benign ovarian fibroma. Conclusion Despite the high probability of disseminated malignancy when an ovarian mass associated with ascites if found in a patient with a breast cancer and pleural effusion, clinicians should be aware about rare benign syndromes, like Meigs', which may mimic a similar picture and mislead the diagnosis and management plan. PMID:19161612

  1. Anatomical and molecular imaging of skin cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Hao; Sun, Jiangtao; Cai, Weibo

    2008-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer types. It is generally divided into two categories: melanoma (∼ 5%) and nonmelanoma (∼ 95%), which can be further categorized into basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and some rare skin cancer types. Biopsy is still the gold standard for skin cancer evaluation in the clinic. Various anatomical imaging techniques have been used to evaluate different types of skin cancer lesions, including laser scanning confocal microscopy, optical coherence tomography, high-frequency ultrasound, terahertz pulsed imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, and some other recently developed techniques such as photoacoustic microscopy. However, anatomical imaging alone may not be sufficient in guiding skin cancer diagnosis and therapy. Over the last decade, various molecular imaging techniques (in particular single photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography) have been investigated for skin cancer imaging. The pathways or molecular targets that have been studied include glucose metabolism, integrin αvβ3, melanocortin-1 receptor, high molecular weight melanoma-associated antigen, and several other molecular markers. Preclinical molecular imaging is thriving all over the world, while clinical molecular imaging has not lived up to the expectations because of slow bench-to-bedside translation. It is likely that this situation will change in the near future and molecular imaging will truly play an important role in personalized medicine of melanoma patients. PMID:21437135

  2. Climate change and human skin cancer.

    PubMed

    van der Leun, Jan C; Piacentini, Rubén D; de Gruijl, Frank R

    2008-06-01

    As part of an inventory of potential interactions between effects of ozone depletion and climate change, a possible effect of ambient temperature on sun-induced skin cancers was suggested. Mouse experiments had shown that increased room temperature enhanced ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced carcinogenesis; the effective UV dose was increased by 3-7% per degrees C. The present investigation was aimed at studying a possible temperature effect on human skin cancer. Existing data on the incidence of human skin cancer were analyzed, as available from two special surveys of non-melanoma skin cancer in the United States. The incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer in the ten regions surveyed not only correlated significantly with the ambient UV dose but also with the average daily maximum temperature in summer. For squamous cell carcinoma the incidence was higher by 5.5% (SE 1.6%) per degrees C and for basal cell carcinoma by 2.9% (SE 1.4%) per degrees C. These values correspond to an increase of the effective UV dose by about 2% per degrees C. Although the precise nature of this correlation with temperature requires further studies, it can be concluded that the temperature rises coming with climate change can indeed amplify the induction of non-melanoma skin cancers by UV radiation in human populations. PMID:18528559

  3. Atypical Proliferating Trichilemmal Cyst with Malignant Breast Skin Transformation: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Capurso-García, Marino Antonio; Bautista-Piña, Verónica; Pomerantz, Alan; Galnares-Olalde, Javier Andrés; Blachman-Braun, Ruben; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Sergio; Goldberg-Murow, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Proliferating trichilemmal tumors (PTTs) are benign adnexal skin neoplasms that arise from the outer root sheath of the hair follicle. These tumors are most commonly observed on the scalp and occur, most of the time, in elderly women. Malignant transformation of these neoplasms is a rare event; less than 50 cases have been reported in the English medical literature. We present the case of a 39-year-old Hispanic woman with a tumor located on the skin of one of her breasts that in her third surgical procedure the histologic examination revealed the presence of a malignant proliferating trichilemmal tumor (MPTT). Furthermore, a review of the medical literature and a discussion of the clinical and pathologic features of this rare entity are provided. PMID:27403361

  4. Atypical Proliferating Trichilemmal Cyst with Malignant Breast Skin Transformation: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Capurso-García, Marino Antonio; Bautista-Piña, Verónica; Pomerantz, Alan; Galnares-Olalde, Javier Andrés; Blachman-Braun, Ruben; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Sergio; Goldberg-Murow, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Proliferating trichilemmal tumors (PTTs) are benign adnexal skin neoplasms that arise from the outer root sheath of the hair follicle. These tumors are most commonly observed on the scalp and occur, most of the time, in elderly women. Malignant transformation of these neoplasms is a rare event; less than 50 cases have been reported in the English medical literature. We present the case of a 39-year-old Hispanic woman with a tumor located on the skin of one of her breasts that in her third surgical procedure the histologic examination revealed the presence of a malignant proliferating trichilemmal tumor (MPTT). Furthermore, a review of the medical literature and a discussion of the clinical and pathologic features of this rare entity are provided. PMID:27403361

  5. Comprehensive genomic profiling of orbital and ocular adnexal lymphomas identifies frequent alterations in MYD88 and chromatin modifiers: new routes to targeted therapies.

    PubMed

    Cani, Andi K; Soliman, Moaaz; Hovelson, Daniel H; Liu, Chia-Jen; McDaniel, Andrew S; Haller, Michaela J; Bratley, Jarred V; Rahrig, Samantha E; Li, Qiang; Briceño, César A; Tomlins, Scott A; Rao, Rajesh C

    2016-07-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the orbit and ocular adnexa is the most common primary orbital malignancy. Treatments for low- (extra-nodal marginal zone and follicular lymphomas) and high-grade (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma) are associated with local and vision-threatening toxicities. High-grade lymphomas relapse frequently and exhibit poor survival rates. Despite advances in genomic profiling and precision medicine, orbital and ocular adnexal lymphomas remain poorly characterized molecularly. We performed targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) profiling of 38 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded orbital and ocular adnexal lymphomas obtained from a single-center using a panel targeting near-term, clinically relevant genes. Potentially actionable mutations and copy number alterations were prioritized based on gain- and loss-of-function analyses, and catalogued, approved, and investigational therapies. Of 36 informative samples, including marginal zone lymphomas (n=20), follicular lymphomas (n=9), and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (n=7), 53% harbored a prioritized alteration (median=1, range 0-5/sample). MYD88 was the most frequently altered gene in our cohort, with potentially clinically relevant hotspot gain-of-function mutations identified in 71% of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas and 25% of marginal zone lymphomas. Prioritized alterations in epigenetic modulators were common and included gain-of-function EZH2 and loss-of-function ARID1A mutations (14% of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas and 22% of follicular lymphomas contained alterations in each of these two genes). Single prioritized alterations were also identified in the histone methyltransferases KMT2B (follicular lymphoma) and KMT3B (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma). Loss-of-function mutations and copy number alterations in the tumor suppressors TP53 (diffuse large B-cell and follicular lymphoma), CDKN2A (diffuse large B-cell and marginal zone lymphoma), PTEN (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma), ATM (diffuse large B

  6. Polyphenols: skin photoprotection and inhibition of photocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Afaq, F; Katiyar, S K

    2011-12-01

    Polyphenols are a large family of naturally occurring plant products and are widely distributed in plant foods, such as, fruits, vegetables, nuts, flowers, bark and seeds, etc. These polyphenols contribute to the beneficial health effects of dietary products. Clinical and epidemiological studies suggest that exposure of the skin to environmental factors/pollutants, such as solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation induce harmful effects and leads to various skin diseases including the risk of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers. The incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer, comprising of squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma, is a significant public health concern world-wide. Exposure of the skin to solar UV radiation results in inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA damage, dysregulation of cellular signaling pathways and immunosuppression thereby resulting in skin cancer. The regular intake of natural plant products, especially polyphenols, which are widely present in fruits, vegetables, dry legumes and beverages have gained considerable attention as protective agents against the adverse effects of UV radiation. In this article, we first discussed the impact of polyphenols on human health based on their structure-activity relationship and bioavailability. We then discussed in detail the photoprotective effects of some selected polyphenols on UV-induced skin inflammation, proliferation, immunosuppression, DNA damage and dysregulation of important cellular signaling pathways and their implications in skin cancer management. The selected polyphenols include: green tea polyphenols, pomegranate fruit extract, grape seed proanthocyanidins, resveratrol, silymarin, genistein and delphinidin. The new information on the mechanisms of action of these polyphenols supports their potential use in skin photoprotection and prevention of photocarcinogenesis in humans. PMID:22070679

  7. Polyphenols: Skin Photoprotection and Inhibition of Photocarcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Afaq, Farrukh; Katiyar, Santosh K.

    2011-01-01

    Polyphenols are a large family of naturally occurring plant products and are widely distributed in plant foods, such as, fruits, vegetables, nuts, flowers, bark and seeds, etc. These polyphenols contribute to the beneficial health effects of dietary products. Clinical and epidemiological studies suggest that exposure of the skin to environmental factors/pollutants, such as solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation induce harmful effects and leads to various skin diseases including the risk of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers. The incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer, comprising of squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma, is a significant public health concern world-wide. Exposure of the skin to solar UV radiation results in inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA damage, dysregulation of cellular signaling pathways and immunosuppression thereby resulting in skin cancer. The regular intake of natural plant products, especially polyphenols, which are widely present in fruits, vegetables, dry legumes and beverages have gained considerable attention as protective agents against the adverse effects of UV radiation. In this article, we first discussed the impact of polyphenols on human health based on their structure-activity relationship and bioavailability. We then discussed in detail the photoprotective effects of some selected polyphenols on UV-induced skin inflammation, proliferation, immunosuppression, DNA damage and dysregulation of important cellular signaling pathways and their implications in skin cancer management. The selected polyphenols include: green tea polyphenols, pomegranate fruit extract, grape seed proanthocyanidins, resveratrol, silymarin, genistein and delphinidin. The new information on the mechanisms of action of these polyphenols supports their potential use in skin photoprotection and prevention of photocarcinogenesis in humans. PMID:22070679

  8. Cutaneous skin tag

    MedlinePlus

    Skin tag; Acrochordon; Fibroepithelial polyp ... have diabetes. They are thought to occur from skin rubbing against skin. ... The tag sticks out of the skin and may have a short, narrow stalk connecting it to the surface of the skin. Some skin tags are as long as ...

  9. Merkel cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Koljonen, Virve

    2006-01-01

    Background Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an unusual primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. MCC is a fatal disease, and patients have a poor chance of survival. Moreover, MCC lacks distinguishing clinical features, and thus by the time the diagnosis is made, the tumour usually have metastasized. MCC mainly affects sun-exposed areas of elderly persons. Half of the tumours are located in the head and neck region. Methods MCC was first described in 1972. Since then, most of the cases reported, have been in small series of patients. Most of the reports concern single cases or epidemiological studies. The present study reviews the world literature on MCC. The purpose of this article is to shed light on this unknown neuroendocrine carcinoma and provide the latest information on prognostic markers and treatment options. Results The epidemiological studies have revealed that large tumour size, male sex, truncal site, nodal/distant disease at presentation, and duration of disease before presentation, are poor prognostic factors. The recommended initial treatment is extensive local excision. Adjuvant radiation therapy has recently been shown to improve survival. Thus far, no chemotherapy protocol have achieved the same objective. Conclusion Although rare, the fatality of this malignancy makes is important to understand the etiology and pathophysiology. During the last few years, the research on MCC has produced prognostic markers, which can be translated into clinical patient care. PMID:16466578

  10. Clinically occult tubal and ovarian high-grade serous carcinomas presenting in uterine samples: diagnostic pitfalls and clues to improve recognition of tumor origin.

    PubMed

    Bagby, Christina; Ronnett, Brigitte M; Yemelyanova, Anna; Maleki, Zahra; Kuhn, Elisabetta; Vang, Russell

    2013-09-01

    We report the clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical features in 8 patients with tubal or ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma that was present in uterine samples, in which there was the potential for clinical and morphologic misinterpretation as a primary uterine lesion before hysterectomy/bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Patients ranged in age from 45 to 70 yr (mean, 57 yr). The initial presentation was variable, ranging from incidental findings on routine Pap smears to pleural effusion. During the preoperative clinical investigation, 7 of 8 patients did not have evidence of an adnexal tumor based on physical examination and radiologic imaging, and serum CA-125 levels were normal to low in 4 of 5 patients. Six patients required multiple rounds of uterine samples, and the preoperative uterine specimens that contained lesional tissue and were available for rereview in all 8 patients included endometrial biopsies/curettages (n=6), endocervical curettages (n=3), Pap smears (n=2), and a hysteroscopic myomectomy specimen (n=1). The amount of carcinoma in these specimens was typically scanty. The lesions in most cases were characterized by detached and minute epithelial clusters, small papillae, and/or individual cells. The constituent glandular cells exhibited notable atypia. Psammoma bodies were identified in only 2 cases. Immunostains for WT-1 were positive in 3 of 4 preoperative specimens. All patients ultimately underwent a hysterectomy/bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, which revealed an invasive high-grade serous carcinoma of tubal (n=6) or ovarian (n=2) origin. The mean/median tumor size was 3.2/1.7 cm. Transtubal spread was considered the most likely mechanism resulting in tubal/ovarian carcinoma being found in the preoperative uterine samples. These findings highlight the deceptive clinical features of some tubal/ovarian high-grade serous carcinomas, and demonstrate that small and clinically undetectable adnexal high-grade serous carcinomas can initially

  11. Applying laser speckle images to skin science: skin lesion differentiation by polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tim K.; Tchvialeva, Lioudmila; Dhadwal, Gurbir; Sotoodian, Bahman; Kalai, Sunil; Zeng, Haishan; Lui, Harvey; McLean, David I.

    2012-01-01

    Skin cancer is a worldwide health problem. It is the most common cancer in the countries with a large white population; furthermore, the incidence of malignant melanoma, the most dangerous form of skin cancer, has been increasing steadily over the last three decades. There is an urgent need to develop in-vivo, noninvasive diagnostic tools for the disease. This paper attempts to response to the challenge by introducing a simple and fast method based on polarization and laser speckle. The degree of maintaining polarization estimates the fraction of linearly maintaining polarization in the backscattered speckle field. Clinical experiments of 214 skin lesions including malignant melanomas, squamous cell carcinomas, basal cell carcinomas, nevi, and seborrheic keratoses demonstrated that such a parameter can potentially diagnose different skin lesion types. ROC analyses showed that malignant melanoma and seborrheic keratosis could be differentiated by both the blue and red lasers with the area under the curve (AUC) = 0.8 and 0.7, respectively. Also malignant melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma could be separated by the blue laser (AUC = 0.9), while nevus and seborrheic keratosis could be identified using the red laser (AUC = 0.7). These experiments demonstrated that polarization could be a potential in-vivo diagnostic indicator for skin diseases.

  12. Applying laser speckle images to skin science: skin lesion differentiation by polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tim K.; Tchvialeva, Lioudmila; Dhadwal, Gurbir; Sotoodian, Bahman; Kalai, Sunil; Zeng, Haishan; Lui, Harvey; McLean, David I.

    2011-09-01

    Skin cancer is a worldwide health problem. It is the most common cancer in the countries with a large white population; furthermore, the incidence of malignant melanoma, the most dangerous form of skin cancer, has been increasing steadily over the last three decades. There is an urgent need to develop in-vivo, noninvasive diagnostic tools for the disease. This paper attempts to response to the challenge by introducing a simple and fast method based on polarization and laser speckle. The degree of maintaining polarization estimates the fraction of linearly maintaining polarization in the backscattered speckle field. Clinical experiments of 214 skin lesions including malignant melanomas, squamous cell carcinomas, basal cell carcinomas, nevi, and seborrheic keratoses demonstrated that such a parameter can potentially diagnose different skin lesion types. ROC analyses showed that malignant melanoma and seborrheic keratosis could be differentiated by both the blue and red lasers with the area under the curve (AUC) = 0.8 and 0.7, respectively. Also malignant melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma could be separated by the blue laser (AUC = 0.9), while nevus and seborrheic keratosis could be identified using the red laser (AUC = 0.7). These experiments demonstrated that polarization could be a potential in-vivo diagnostic indicator for skin diseases.

  13. [Acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma of larynx as an uncommon variant of squamous cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Tiken, Elif Eda; Çolpan Öksüz, Didem; Batur, Şebnem; Uzel, Esengül Koçak; Öz, Büge; Öz, Ferhan; Uzel, Ömer; Turkan, Sedat

    2016-01-01

    Acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma is an uncommon variant of squamous cell carcinoma. Acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma occurs in the sun-exposed areas of the skin and lip. It is rarely observed in the respiratory and digestive tract and may present more aggressively. The incidence of distant metastases of squamous cell head and neck cancers is low and the lungs are the most common metastatic sites. Metastasis to the soft tissue, skin, and adrenal glands from the laryngeal region is very uncommon. In this article, we report a 58-year-old female case who underwent postoperative radiation therapy with the diagnosis of acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and developed metastasis to the soft tissue and adrenal gland at the early period. PMID:27107606

  14. [Current surgical and adjuvant therapy concepts of malignant tumors of the facial skin and the pinna].

    PubMed

    Kolk, A; Wermker, K; Bier, H; Götz, C; Eckert, A W

    2015-02-01

    Malignant tumors of the skin had been a rare entity 2 decades ago. Today they are spread rapidly worldwide. Malignant neoplasms of the skin, the largest human organ, may occur from all structures and layers. While previously skin cancer -occurred mainly after the age of 60, the incidence increases now in younger ages. Strong sunburns in the childhood and before the age of 20 are important risk factors for the development of malignancies of the skin. An increased exposure to UV rays is found especially in the facial skin, where basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma and Merkel cell carcinomas are the most common malignancies. Early diagnosis of malignancies and therapy-oriented mostly surgical approaches are crucial for the prognosis of all skin cancers. Therefore under the aspect of the increasing incidence these topics will be pointed out according to the latest findings including current multimodal therapy concepts and future treatment options. PMID:25658862

  15. Skin Keratins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fengrong; Zieman, Abigail; Coulombe, Pierre A.

    2016-01-01

    Keratins comprise the type I and type II intermediate filament-forming proteins and occur primarily in epithelial cells. They are encoded by 54 evolutionarily conserved genes (28 type I, 26 type II) and regulated in a pairwise and tissue type-, differentiation-, and context-dependent manner. Keratins serve multiple homeostatic and stress-enhanced mechanical and nonmechanical functions in epithelia, including the maintenance of cellular integrity, regulation of cell growth and migration, and protection from apoptosis. These functions are tightly regulated by posttranslational modifications as well as keratin-associated proteins. Genetically determined alterations in keratin-coding sequences underlie highly penetrant and rare disorders whose pathophysiology reflects cell fragility and/or altered tissue homeostasis. Moreover, keratin mutation or misregulation represents risk factors or genetic modifiers for several acute and chronic diseases. This chapter focuses on keratins that are expressed in skin epithelia, and details a number of basic protocols and assays that have proven useful for analyses being carried out in skin. PMID:26795476

  16. Design and Fabrication of Human Skin by Three-Dimensional Bioprinting

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Vivian; Singh, Gurtej; Trasatti, John P.; Bjornsson, Chris; Xu, Xiawei; Tran, Thanh Nga; Yoo, Seung-Schik

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting, a flexible automated on-demand platform for the free-form fabrication of complex living architectures, is a novel approach for the design and engineering of human organs and tissues. Here, we demonstrate the potential of 3D bioprinting for tissue engineering using human skin as a prototypical example. Keratinocytes and fibroblasts were used as constituent cells to represent the epidermis and dermis, and collagen was used to represent the dermal matrix of the skin. Preliminary studies were conducted to optimize printing parameters for maximum cell viability as well as for the optimization of cell densities in the epidermis and dermis to mimic physiologically relevant attributes of human skin. Printed 3D constructs were cultured in submerged media conditions followed by exposure of the epidermal layer to the air–liquid interface to promote maturation and stratification. Histology and immunofluorescence characterization demonstrated that 3D printed skin tissue was morphologically and biologically representative of in vivo human skin tissue. In comparison with traditional methods for skin engineering, 3D bioprinting offers several advantages in terms of shape- and form retention, flexibility, reproducibility, and high culture throughput. It has a broad range of applications in transdermal and topical formulation discovery, dermal toxicity studies, and in designing autologous grafts for wound healing. The proof-of-concept studies presented here can be further extended for enhancing the complexity of the skin model via the incorporation of secondary and adnexal structures or the inclusion of diseased cells to serve as a model for studying the pathophysiology of skin diseases. PMID:24188635

  17. Design and fabrication of human skin by three-dimensional bioprinting.

    PubMed

    Lee, Vivian; Singh, Gurtej; Trasatti, John P; Bjornsson, Chris; Xu, Xiawei; Tran, Thanh Nga; Yoo, Seung-Schik; Dai, Guohao; Karande, Pankaj

    2014-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting, a flexible automated on-demand platform for the free-form fabrication of complex living architectures, is a novel approach for the design and engineering of human organs and tissues. Here, we demonstrate the potential of 3D bioprinting for tissue engineering using human skin as a prototypical example. Keratinocytes and fibroblasts were used as constituent cells to represent the epidermis and dermis, and collagen was used to represent the dermal matrix of the skin. Preliminary studies were conducted to optimize printing parameters for maximum cell viability as well as for the optimization of cell densities in the epidermis and dermis to mimic physiologically relevant attributes of human skin. Printed 3D constructs were cultured in submerged media conditions followed by exposure of the epidermal layer to the air-liquid interface to promote maturation and stratification. Histology and immunofluorescence characterization demonstrated that 3D printed skin tissue was morphologically and biologically representative of in vivo human skin tissue. In comparison with traditional methods for skin engineering, 3D bioprinting offers several advantages in terms of shape- and form retention, flexibility, reproducibility, and high culture throughput. It has a broad range of applications in transdermal and topical formulation discovery, dermal toxicity studies, and in designing autologous grafts for wound healing. The proof-of-concept studies presented here can be further extended for enhancing the complexity of the skin model via the incorporation of secondary and adnexal structures or the inclusion of diseased cells to serve as a model for studying the pathophysiology of skin diseases. PMID:24188635

  18. Malignant skin lesions in Oshogbo, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oseni, Ganiyu Oyediran; Olaitan, Peter Babatunde; Komolafe, Akinwumi Oluwole; Olaofe, Olaejirinde Olaniyi; Akinyemi, Hezekiah Adebola Morakinyo; Suleiman, Oreoluwa Adeola

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study is to retrospectively assess the prevalence of some of skin malignancies in our environment and to provide a data base for creating awareness for prevention and early detection of the diseases in order to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with these skin lesions in our environment. Methods This is a retrospective study of all histologically diagnosed malignant skin lesions which presented at Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital Osogbo Osun State between January 2006 and December 2010. Results Ninety- eight patients presented with skin cancers out of which 60 (61.2%)were males and 38 (38.8%) were females. Malignant melanoma ranked highest followed by squamous cell carcinoma, dermatofibrosarcoma and basal cell carcinoma in that order. Malignant melanoma affects male more than female and it commonly affects lower limbs. Conclusion Skin malignancies pose a burden to the economy of the country. Efforts should be directed toward prevention, early diagnosis and management in order to abolish or reduce morbidity, as well as mortality associated with late presentation of people in the developing countries. PMID:26161176

  19. Non-melanoma skin cancer in Portuguese kidney transplant recipients - incidence and risk factors*

    PubMed Central

    Pinho, André; Gouveia, Miguel; Cardoso, José Carlos; Xavier, Maria Manuel; Vieira, Ricardo; Alves, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer is currently among the three leading causes of death after solid organ transplantation and its incidence is increasing. Non-melanoma skin cancer - squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma - is the most common malignancy found in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). The incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer in KTRs has not been extensively studied in Portugal. Objectives To determine the incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer in KTRs from the largest Portuguese kidney transplant unit; and to study risk factors for non-melanoma skin cancer. Methods Retrospective analysis of clinical records of KTRs referred for the first time for a dermatology consultation between 2004 and 2013. A case-control study was performed on KTRs with and without non-melanoma skin cancer. Results We included 288 KTRs with a median age at transplantation of 47 years, a male gender predominance (66%) and a median transplant duration of 3.67 years. One fourth (n=71) of KTRs developed 131 non-melanoma skin cancers, including 69 (53%) squamous cell carcinomas and 62 (47%) basal cell carcinomas (ratio squamous cell carcinoma: basal cell carcinoma 1.11), with a mean of 1.85 neoplasms per patient. Forty percent of invasive squamous cell carcinomas involved at least two clinical or histological high-risk features. The following factors were associated with a higher risk of non-melanoma skin cancer: an older age at transplantation and at the first consultation, a longer transplant duration and the presence of actinic keratosis. KTRs treated with azathioprine were 2.85 times more likely to develop non-melanoma skin cancer (p=0.01). Conclusion Non-melanoma skin cancer was a common reason for dermatology consultation in Portuguese KTRs. It is imperative for KTRs to have access to specialized dermatology consultation for early referral and treatment of skin malignancies. PMID:27579740

  20. TERT Promoter Mutations Are Frequent in Cutaneous Basal Cell Carcinoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Griewank, Klaus G.; Murali, Rajmohan; Schilling, Bastian; Schimming, Tobias; Möller, Inga; Moll, Iris; Schwamborn, Marion; Sucker, Antje; Zimmer, Lisa; Schadendorf, Dirk; Hillen, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Activating mutations in the TERT promoter were recently identified in up to 71% of cutaneous melanoma. Subsequent studies found TERT promoter mutations in a wide array of other major human cancers. TERT promoter mutations lead to increased expression of telomerase, which maintains telomere length and genomic stability, thereby allowing cancer cells to continuously divide, avoiding senescence or apoptosis. TERT promoter mutations in cutaneous melanoma often show UV-signatures. Non-melanoma skin cancer, including basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, are very frequent malignancies in individuals of European descent. We investigated the presence of TERT promoter mutations in 32 basal cell carcinomas and 34 cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas using conventional Sanger sequencing. TERT promoter mutations were identified in 18 (56%) basal cell carcinomas and in 17 (50%) cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas. The recurrent mutations identified in our cohort were identical to those previously described in cutaneous melanoma, and showed a UV-signature (C>T or CC>TT) in line with a causative role for UV exposure in these common cutaneous malignancies. Our study shows that TERT promoter mutations with UV-signatures are frequent in non-melanoma skin cancer, being present in around 50% of basal and squamous cell carcinomas and suggests that increased expression of telomerase plays an important role in the pathogenesis of these tumors. PMID:24260374

  1. Skin (Pressure) Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic Skin dryness Next Topic Sleep problems Skin (pressure) sores A skin or pressure sore develops when the blood supply to an ... is bedridden or always in a wheelchair puts pressure on the same places much of the time. ...

  2. Layers of the Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... produce the skin coloring or pigment known as melanin, which gives skin its tan or brown color ... Sun exposure causes melanocytes to increase production of melanin in order to protect the skin from damaging ...

  3. Learning about Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... have red or blond hair and blue or light-colored eyes - although anyone can get skin cancer. Skin cancer is related to lifetime exposure to UV radiation, therefore most skin cancers appear after age ...

  4. Scalded skin syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Ritter disease; Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSS) ... Scalded skin syndrome (SSS) is caused by infection with certain strains of Staphylococcus bacteria. The bacteria produce a toxin that causes the skin ...

  5. Basal cell skin cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur on skin that is regularly exposed to sunlight or other ultraviolet radiation. This type of skin ... skin cancer is to reduce your exposure to sunlight . Always use sunscreen: Apply sunscreen with sun protection ...

  6. Dry Skin (Xerosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin, which may bleed if severe. Chapped or cracked lips. When dry skin cracks, germs can get ... cause the skin to become dry, raw, and cracked. Swimming : Some pools have high levels of chlorine, ...

  7. [Thymic carcinomas].

    PubMed

    Ströbel, P; Weis, C-A; Marx, A

    2016-09-01

    Thymic carcinomas (TC) are approximately 10 times less prevalent than thymomas but of high clinical relevance because they are more aggressive, less frequently resectable than thymomas and usually refractory to classical and targeted long-term treatment approaches. Furthermore, in children and adolescents TC are more frequent than thymomas and particularly in this age group, germ cell tumors need to be a differential diagnostic consideration. In diagnostic terms pathologists face two challenges: a), the distinction between thymic carcinomas and thymomas with a similar appearance and b), the distinction between TC and histologically similar metastases and tumor extensions from other primary tumors. Overcoming these diagnostic challenges is the focus of the new WHO classification of thymic epithelial tumors. The objectives of this review are to highlight novel aspects of the WHO classification of thymic carcinomas and to address therapeutically relevant diagnostic pitfalls. PMID:27538748

  8. Parathyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Butt, Waqas Tariq; Azim, Asad; Abbas, Ansab; Gauhar, Tooba Mahmud; Afzal, Ameer; Azim, Khawaja Muhammad

    2012-09-01

    Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare endocrine malignancy accounting for less than 1% of all cases of hyperparathyroidism. We present a case of a middle-aged woman who was undiagnosed for 3 years before presenting with renal stones and advanced musculoskeletal disease. Investigations revealed primary hyperparathyroidism. Focused cervical exploration and left inferior parathyroidectomy was carried out based on the pre-operative localization studies. Parathyroid carcinoma was diagnosed on histopathology postoperatively. Subsequent en bloc resection was not performed and the patient is being monitored with serial parathyroid hormone levels which have not shown any increase in 6 months of follow-up. Only two previous cases of parathyroid carcinoma have been reported from Pakistan. PMID:22980615

  9. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Devaraju, Ramaraju; Gantala, Ramlal; Aitha, Harisha; Gotoor, Srikanth Goud

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland tumours comprise almost 5% of head and neck malignancies. Minor salivary gland tumours account for 10–15% of all salivary gland neoplasms and are usually malignant. The second most common minor salivary gland tumour (12–40% globally) is mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is more frequent in females, occurs in the fifth decade of life and is usually found in the parotid gland. However, the palate is a frequent site when it occurs in the minor glands. We report a case of a high-grade variant of mucoepidermoid carcinoma in the right retromolar trigone of a 21-year man which was treated with wide excision of the tumour with a 1.5 cm margin. Reconstruction was done with a buccal fat pad posteriorly with a pedicled lateral tongue flap. Temporal stripping and right coronoidectomy was carried out in case of post-surgical wound contraction. The patient is currently under periodic review. PMID:25085946

  10. Multiple pigmented basal cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Shoji, T; Lee, J; Hong, S H; Oh, C H; Kim, W K; Bhawan, J

    1998-04-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common of all skin cancers and the most prevalent one among Caucasians. Rarely, these tumors are seen in other races. We report a 77-year-old Korean woman who presented with multiple darkly pigmented enlarging nodules on her scalp, face, trunk, and extremities. The patient had first noted a 6-mm pigmented lesion on her left eyebrow 10 years previously. Since then, other lesions had appeared in many locations on her body. She had been otherwise healthy and without a history of exposure to arsenic or radiation. There was no family history of skin cancer, xeroderma pigmentosum, or basal cell nevus syndrome. On physical examination, multiple darkly pigmented dome-shaped papules and nodules were present on her scalp, face, right forearm, lower abdomen, and inguinal areas. They ranged in size from 0.5 mm to 2 cm. The larger ones showed central ulceration. Multiple biopsy specimens from different sites showed pigmented basal cell carcinomas. Clinically, there was no evidence of nevus sebaceus, xeroderma pigmentosum, basal cell nevus syndrome, or immunodeficiency. Clinical workup including chest radiography, abdominal ultrasound, bone scan, and brain computerized axial tomography scan did not demonstrate primary or secondary tumors. The results of serologic and hematologic tests were also within normal limits. This is an unusual case report of multiple pigmented basal cell carcinomas in an Asian woman without any predisposing risk factors. PMID:9557792

  11. Diagnosing Common Benign Skin Tumors.

    PubMed

    Higgins, James C; Maher, Michael H; Douglas, Mark S

    2015-10-01

    Patients will experience a wide range of skin growths and changes over their lifetime. Family physicians should be able to distinguish potentially malignant from benign skin tumors. Most lesions can be diagnosed on the basis of history and clinical examination. Lesions that are suspicious for malignancy, those with changing characteristics, symptomatic lesions, and those that cause cosmetic problems may warrant medical therapy, a simple office procedure (e.g., excision, cryosurgery, laser ablation), or referral. Acrochordons are extremely common, small, and typically pedunculated benign neoplasms. Simple scissor or shave excision, electrodesiccation, or cryosurgery can be used for treatment. Sebaceous hyperplasia presents as asymptomatic, discrete, soft, pale yellow, shiny bumps on the forehead or cheeks, or near hair follicles. Except for cosmesis, they have no clinical significance. Lipomas are soft, flesh-colored nodules that are easily moveable under the overlying skin. Keratoacanthomas are rapidly growing, squamoproliferative benign tumors that resemble squamous cell carcinomas. Early simple excision is recommended. Pyogenic granuloma is a rapidly growing nodule that bleeds easily. Treatment includes laser ablation or shave excision with electrodesiccation of the base. Dermatofibromas are an idiopathic benign proliferation of fibroblasts. No treatment is required unless there is a change in size or color, bleeding, or irritation from trauma. Epidermal inclusion cysts can be treated by simple excision with removal of the cyst and cyst wall. Seborrheic keratoses and cherry angiomas generally do not require treatment. PMID:26447443

  12. Prevalence of Skin Cancer and Related Skin Tumors in High-Risk Kidney and Liver Transplant Recipients in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Iannacone, Michelle R; Sinnya, Sudipta; Pandeya, Nirmala; Isbel, Nikky; Campbell, Scott; Fawcett, Jonathan; Soyer, Peter H; Ferguson, Lisa; Davis, Marcia; Whiteman, David C; Green, Adèle C

    2016-07-01

    The increased skin cancer incidence in organ transplant recipients is well-known, but the skin cancer burden at any one time is unknown. Our objective was to estimate the period prevalence of untreated skin malignancy and actinic keratoses in high-risk kidney and liver transplant recipients and to assess associated factors. Organ transplant recipients underwent full skin examinations by dermatologically trained physicians. The proportion of examined organ transplant recipients with histopathologically confirmed skin cancer in the 3-month baseline period was estimated. Prevalence ratios with 95% confidence intervals indicated significant associations. Of 495 high-risk organ transplant recipients (average age = 54 years, time immunosuppressed = 8.9 years), 135 (27%) had basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma or Bowen's disease (intraepidermal carcinoma) present and confirmed in the baseline period, with respective prevalence proportions of 10%, 11%, and 18% in kidney transplant recipients and 10%, 9%, and 13% in liver transplant recipients. Over 80% had actinic keratosis present, with approximately 30% having 5 or more actinic keratoses. Organ transplant recipients with the highest skin cancer burden were Australian born, were fair skinned (prevalence ratio = 1.61, 95% confidence interval = [1.07, 2.43]), reported past skin cancer (prevalence ratio =3.39, 95% confidence interval = [1.93, 5.95]), and were receiving the most frequent skin checks (prevalence ratio = 1.76, 95% confidence interval = [1.15, 2.70]). In conclusion, high-risk organ transplant recipients carry a substantial measurable skin cancer burden at any given time and require frequent review through easily accessible, specialized services. PMID:26968258

  13. Skin cancer and solar UV radiation.

    PubMed

    de Gruijl, F R

    1999-12-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation in sunlight is the most prominent and ubiquitous physical carcinogen in our natural environment. It is highly genotoxic but does not penetrate the body any deeper than the skin. Like all organisms regularly exposed to sunlight, the human skin is extremely well adapted to continuous UV stress. Well-pigmented skin is clearly better protected than white Caucasian skin. The sun-seeking habits of white Caucasians in developed countries are likely to have contributed strongly to the increase in skin cancer observed over the last century. Skin cancer is by far the most common type of cancer in the U.S.A. and Australia, which appears to be the result of an 'unnatural displacement' of people with sun-sensitive skin to sub-tropical regions. Although campaigns have been successful in informing people about the risks of sun exposure, general attitudes and behaviour do not yet appear to have changed to the extent that trends in skin cancer morbidity and the corresponding burden on public healthcare will be reversed. The relationship between skin cancer and regular sun exposure was suspected by physicians in the late 19th century, and subsequently substantiated in animal experiments in the early part of the 20th century. UV radiation was found to be highly genotoxic, and DNA repair proved to be crucial in fending off detrimental effects such as mutagenesis and cell death. In fact, around 1940 it was shown that the wavelength dependence of mutagenicity paralleled the UV absorption by DNA. In the 1970s research on UV carcinogenesis received a new impetus from the arising concern about a possible future depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer: the resulting increases in ambient UV loads were expected to raise skin cancer incidences. Epidemiological studies in the last decades of the 20th century have greatly refined our knowledge on the aetiology of skin cancers. Analyses of gene mutations in skin carcinomas have identified UV radiation as the cause

  14. CYLD regulates keratinocyte differentiation and skin cancer progression in humans

    PubMed Central

    Alameda, J P; Fernández-Aceñero, M J; Moreno-Maldonado, R; Navarro, M; Quintana, R; Page, A; Ramírez, A; Bravo, A; Casanova, M L

    2011-01-01

    CYLD is a gene mutated in familial cylindromatosis and related diseases, leading to the development of skin appendages tumors. Although the deubiquitinase CYLD is a skin tumor suppressor, its role in skin physiology is unknown. Using skin organotypic cultures as experimental model to mimic human skin, we have found that CYLD acts as a regulator of epidermal differentiation in humans through the JNK signaling pathway. We have determined the requirement of CYLD for the maintenance of epidermal polarity, keratinocyte differentiation and apoptosis. We show that CYLD overexpression increases keratinocyte differentiation while CYLD loss of function impairs epidermal differentiation. In addition, we describe the important role of CYLD in the control of human non-melanoma skin cancer progression. Our results show the reversion of the malignancy of human squamous cell carcinomas that express increased levels of CYLD, while its functional inhibition enhances the aggressiveness of these tumors which progress toward spindle cell carcinomas. We have found that the mechanisms through which CYLD regulates skin cancer progression include the control of tumor differentiation, angiogenesis and cell survival. These findings of the role of CYLD in human skin cancer prognosis make our results relevant from a therapeutic point of view, and open new avenues for exploring novel cancer therapies. PMID:21900959

  15. Prevalence of skin neoplasma amont the atomic bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Michiko; Kodama, Kazunori; Akahoshi, Masazumi

    1996-08-01

    About 7,000 atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors from Hiroshima and Nagasaki who participate in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) Adult Health Study (AHS) were examined to define the relationship between skin neoplasms and exposure to ionizing radiation. Careful clinical inspection of the skin was undertaken to detect not only skin cancer but precancerous lesions such as senile keratosis. Five cases of basal cell carcinoma, five cases of senile keratosis and one case of Bowen`s disease were confirmed histologically among 5955 A-bomb survivors for whom Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) dose estimates are available. The relationship between the combined prevalence of skin cancer and precancerous lesions and DS86 dose was examined together with other factors that might affect skin neoplasms including occupational exposure to ultraviolet (UV) rays, age, sex and city. The prevalence of basal cell carcinoma and senile keratosis increased as the DS86 dose increased. The prevalent of skin cancer and senile keratosis among persons engaged in work involving frequent exposure to UV rays was higher than among those who were not engaged in such work. Sex and city were not significantly related to those skin diseases. Odds ratios of skin neoplasm for a 1-Gy dose, occupational exposure to UV rays and age at time of examination exposure to UV rays and age at time of examination (in 10-year increments) are 1.7, 5.9 and 1.9, respectively. 22 refs., 3 tabs.

  16. Mechanisms of imiquimod skin penetration.

    PubMed

    Telò, Isabella; Pescina, Silvia; Padula, Cristina; Santi, Patrizia; Nicoli, Sara

    2016-09-10

    Imiquimod (IMQ) ia an immunostimulating drug used for the treatment of neoplastic skin diseases, such as actinic keratosis (AK) and superficial basal cell carcinoma (sBCC), and as adjuvant for vaccination. Imiquimod formulation and skin delivery is highly challenging because of its very low solubility in most pharmaceutical excipients and poor penetration properties. Objectives of the work were: (1) to evaluate IMQ solubility in different solvents and pharmaceutical excipients; (2) to evaluate IMQ skin retention after the application of simple saturated solutions; (3) to evaluate the role of stratum corneum and solvent uptake on IMQ skin retention and (4) to formulate IMQ in microemulsions - prepared using previously investigated components - and compare them with the commercial formulation. The results show that IMQ solubility is not related to the solubility parameter of the solvents considered. The highest solubility was found with oleic acid (74mg/ml); in the case of PEGs, the solubility increased linearly with MW (PEG 200: 1.9mg/ml; PEG 400 7.3mg/ml, PEG 600 12.8mg/ml). Imiquimod skin retention from saturated solutions (Tween 80, oleic acid, propylene glycol, PEG 200, PEG 400, PEG 600, Transcutol, 2-pyrrolidone, DMSO) resulted relatively similar, being 1.6μg/cm(2) in case of oleic acid (solubility 74mg/ml) and 0.18μg/cm(2) in case of propylene glycol (solubility 0.60mg/ml). Permeation experiments on stripped skin (no stratum corneum) and isolated dermis as well as uptake experiments on isolated stratum corneum sheets demonstrated that IMQ accumulation is related to skin solvent uptake. Finally, microemulsions (MEs) prepared with the above-studied components demonstrated a very good performance. In particular, a ME composed of 10% oleic acid, 35% Transcutol, 35% Tween 80 and 20% water is able to accumulate the same amount of drug as the commercial formulation but with far more efficiency, since its concentration was 12 times lower. PMID:27452419

  17. A Case of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Mimicking Granuloma Pyogenicum

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Won Woo; Chung, Ji Min; Jung, Kyoung Eun; Park, Jong Wook

    2008-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is well known for its frequent metastasis and particularly to the lungs, liver, bones and brain, but metastasis to the skin is rare. We report here on a case of metastatic RCC in a 73-year-old man who presented with a 1.5 cm sized, moist, beefy-red and exophytic nodule on the scalp. The lesion had grown rapidly for 2 months and it clinically mimicked granuloma pyogenicum. A skin biopsy revealed a solid mass composed of clear cells with clear cytoplasm and oval hyperchromatic nuclei, and they were arranged in an alveolar pattern. As skin metastasis from renal cell carcinoma signals widespread systemic metastasis and a poor prognosis, clinicians should conduct a careful inspection of the skin of a patient with RCC and they should also have a high index of suspicion for finding a primary internal organ malignancy in the RCC patients who present with a skin lesion. PMID:27303209

  18. Melanoma and other skin cancers in circumpolar areas.

    PubMed

    Oikarinen, A; Raitio, A

    2000-01-01

    During the recent decades, the thickness of the ozone layer over the northern hemisphere has declined by 10 to 40 percent during the winter and spring months. Since ozone is the major barrier protecting the earth from dangerous short wave UV-radiation (UVB), the depletion in the ozone layer consequently increases the amount of UV-radiation reaching the earth's surface. As a rule a 10 percent reduction in the ozone layer causes ca. 20% increase in UV-radiation and a 40% increase in skin cancers. Thus relatively minor changes in ozone layer thickness may a have marked impact on the health of humans. Skin cancer is the most common cancer in humans, i.e. in Finland about 4000 new basal cell carcinomas, 700 other skin cancers, mostly spinous cell carcinomas and 500 melanomas occur yearly. Up to recent years the incidence of skin cancers has steadily increased in northern countries. As an explanation, changes in sunbathing habits have been suggested to play a central role. Due to the high mortality rate in melanoma, and marked morbidity in other skin cancers, it is important to try to prevent skin cancers and inform the public about the risks of excessive sun exposure, and of the ways in which the skin can be protected. Proper clothing and use of sunscreens have been shown to reduce the incidence of both melanomas and other skin cancers. Furthermore, it is important to identify those at high risk for acquiring skin cancers, like individuals with type 1 skin character (fair skin which burns easily), or numerous dysplastic nevi, or a family history of skin cancers. PMID:10850007

  19. Hyperspectral imaging of skin and lung cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zherdeva, Larisa A.; Bratchenko, Ivan A.; Alonova, Marina V.; Myakinin, Oleg O.; Artemyev, Dmitry N.; Moryatov, Alexander A.; Kozlov, Sergey V.; Zakharov, Valery P.

    2016-04-01

    The problem of cancer control requires design of new approaches for instrumental diagnostics, as the accuracy of cancer detection on the first step of diagnostics in clinics is slightly more than 50%. In this study, we present a method of visualization and diagnostics of skin and lung tumours based on registration and processing of tissues hyperspectral images. In a series of experiments registration of hyperspectral images of skin and lung tissue samples is carried out. Melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, nevi and benign tumours are studied in skin ex vivo and in vivo experiments; adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas are studied in ex vivo lung experiments. In a series of experiments the typical features of diffuse reflection spectra for pathological and normal tissues were found. Changes in tissues morphology during the tumour growth lead to the changes of blood and pigments concentration, such as melanin in skin. That is why tumours and normal tissues maybe differentiated with information about spectral response in 500-600 nm and 600 - 670 nm areas. Thus, hyperspectral imaging in the visible region may be a useful tool for cancer detection as it helps to estimate spectral properties of tissues and determine malignant regions for precise resection of tumours.

  20. Noninvasive imaging for nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Giavedoni, Priscila; Puig, Susana; Carrera, Cristina

    2016-03-01

    The development of noninvasive optical technologies is revolutionizing the diagnosis of skin tumors. Nonmelanoma skin cancer, the most frequent neoplasm, has become an important health and economic issue, and proper management can avoid unnecessary morbidity and mutilating treatment or relapses. Noninvasive treatment modalities and the recently approved systemic therapies for advanced basal cell carcinoma cases make noninvasive monitoring techniques necessary. Current knowledge, applications, and limitations of the tools most clinically implemented, such as dermoscopy, reflectance confocal microscopy, high frequency ultrasonography, and optical coherence tomography will be reviewed in this article. In addition to the improvement of diagnostic accuracy of skin cancer, using these tools individually or in combination facilitates better management of certain patients and tumors. PMID:26963115

  1. Skin lesion biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... This may include deep layers of skin and fat. The area is closed with stitches to place the skin back together. If a large area is biopsied, the surgeon may use a skin graft or flap to replace the skin that was ...

  2. Stiff skin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Geng, S; Lei, X; Toyohara, J P; Zhan, P; Wang, J; Tan, S

    2006-07-01

    Stiff skin syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by pronounced skin induration, mild hypertrichosis and limited joint mobility, predominantly on the buttocks and thighs. Many heterogeneous cases have been reported under the name of stiff skin syndrome. We present a case of stiff skin syndrome from China, the diagnosis based on the patient's typical clinical and histopathological features. PMID:16836505

  3. The causes of skin cancer: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Saladi, Rao N; Persaud, Andrea N

    2005-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer in fair-skinned populations around the world. The incidence and mortality rates of skin cancers are dramatically increasing and thus pose a threat to public health. Understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of skin cancer remains a goal for healthcare systems. A clearer understanding of causative factors is an essential step in the prevention of skin cancer. This article comprehensively reviews the causative agents which play a role in the development of skin cancer. Ultraviolet radiation (UV) from sun exposure is the most important cause of skin cancer. Sunburns and excessive exposures cause cumulative damage which induces immunosuppression and skin cancers. Ozone depletion, the level of UV light, elevation, latitude, altitude and weather conditions influence the emission of UV radiation reaching the earth's surface. Organ transplant recipients and AIDS patients have an increased incidence of skin cancers. Some treatment modalities, including radiation therapy, phototherapy and psoralen and long-wave ultraviolet radiation (PUVA) can also predispose to skin cancers. Viral infections such as the human papilloma virus can cause squamous cell carcinomas. Individuals with familial genetic syndromes are susceptible to specific types of skin cancers. Ionizing radiation, environmental pollutants, chemical carcinogens and work-related exposures have been associated with skin cancers. Exposure to artificial UV radiation (tanning beds and lamps), aging, skin color, diet and smoking are attributable risks. Skin cancers have been found in dermatoses and various types of keratoses, chronically injured or nonhealing wounds, and scars. This article provides a comprehensive and thorough overview of skin cancer, with an emphasis on understanding its epidemiology, incidence, etiology and related risk factors. PMID:15753968

  4. Skin cancer in skin of color.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Porcia T

    2009-01-01

    In general, skin cancer is uncommon in people of color when compared to Caucasians. When it does occur, it is often associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Differences in survival rates may be attributed to skin cancers being diagnosed at a more advanced stage, and socioeconomic factors such as lack of adequate insurance coverage and lack of transportation can function as barriers to timely diagnosis and early treatment. In addition to advanced stage at presentation, malignant skin lesions in skin of color often present in an atypical fashion. Because skin cancer prevention and screening practices historically have been lower among Hispanics, Blacks, and Asians, and given the changing demographics in the United States, interventions that are tailored to each of these groups will be needed. Public educational campaigns should be expanded to educate people of all skin types with emphasis on skin cancers occurring in areas not exposed to the sun (Byrd-Miles et al., 2007), since sunlight is not as important an etiologic factor in the pathogenesis of skin cancer in people of color. Dermatologists and primary care physicians should instruct their darker-skinned patients on how to perform routine skin self-examinations. Physicians should also encourage patients to ask their specialists such as their gynecologist, dentist, and ophthalmologist to look for abnormal pigmentation during routine exams. To reduce the burden of skin cancer, several prevention methods for all people have been strongly encouraged, including monthly self-examinations, daily use of SPF 30 or greater sunscreen, sunglasses with UV-absorbing lenses, and avoiding tanning booths (American Cancer Society, 2008) (see Table 7). In addition, recommendations for clinicians to promote the prevention of skin cancer in skin of color have also been made, including closely monitoring changing pigmented lesions on the palms and soles and hyperkeratotic or poorly healing ulcers in immunosuppressed patients

  5. Carcinoma of the nasal vestibule

    SciTech Connect

    Mendenhall, N.P.; Parsons, J.T.; Cassisi, N.J.; Million, R.R.

    1984-05-01

    Squamous cell carcinomas of the nasal vestibule are essentially skin cancers that require special therapeutic considerations because of the regional anatomy. They have sometimes been considered poorly suited for treatment by irradiation because of potential or actual cartilage and/or bone invasion and therefore have been treated by surgical resection, sometimes producing defects that are difficult to reconstruct satisfactorily. From 1966 to April 1980, 13 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal vestibule were treated with radiotherapy at the University of Florida. Eight lesions were de novo; 5 were recurrent after 1 or more surgical procedures. Treatment consisted of radium needle implantation and/or external beam therapy. Neck management was individualized. All de novo and 4 of 5 recurrent lesions were controlled locally. Cosmetic resultes were good in patients with de novo lesions. There were no instances of significant cartilage or soft tissue necrosis despite cartilage involvement by tumor in 6 cases.

  6. Carcinoma in accessory axillary breast.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Seema; Mishra, Shashi Prakash; Kumar, Satendra; Khanna, Ajay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of carcinoma developing in an accessory breast. The patient presented with a progressive lump in her right axilla for 1 year. On examination, there was a well-developed nipple areola complex in the right axilla overlying a hard, fixed 5 × 3 cm lump. On investigation, core biopsy revealed poorly differentiated carcinoma of the breast. Mammography also revealed features of a malignant lesion with skin and muscle infiltration. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was administered followed by modified radical mastectomy after three cycles. Immunohistochemistry study showed positive status of oestrogen and progesterone receptors, and negative HER-2 neu. Three more cycles of chemotherapy along with 50 Gy radiotherapy were given in an adjuvant setting followed by hormone therapy. PMID:26260957

  7. Familial skin cancer syndromes: Increased risk of nonmelanotic skin cancers and extracutaneous tumors.

    PubMed

    Jaju, Prajakta D; Ransohoff, Katherine J; Tang, Jean Y; Sarin, Kavita Y

    2016-03-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) represent the most common malignancies worldwide, with reported incidence rising each year. Both cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC), as well as other NMSCs, represent complex diseases with a combination of environmental and genetic risk factors. In general, hereditary cancer syndromes that increase the risk of NMSC fall under several broad categories: those associated with immunodeficiencies, those that affect skin pigmentation, and those that perturb key molecular pathways involved in the pathogenesis of NMSCs. Many of the syndromes are also associated with extracutaneous manifestations, including internal malignancies; therefore, most require a multidisciplinary management approach with a medical geneticist. Finally, dermatologists play a critical role in the diagnosis and management of these conditions, because cutaneous findings are often the presenting manifestations of disease. PMID:26892653

  8. UV radiation-induced skin tumors in Monodelphis domestica.

    PubMed

    Ley, R D; Applegate, L A; Stuart, T D; Fry, R J

    1987-06-01

    Chronic exposure of the skin of the South American opossum (Monodelphis domestica) to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) from an FS-40 sunlamp (280-400 nm) 3 times per week for a total of 200 exposures resulted in the appearance of actinic keratoses, fibrosarcomas, squamous cell carcinomas and keratoacanthomas. At the higher doses of UVR used in this study, moderate to severe hyperplasia was also observed. The susceptibility of this animal to the induction of skin tumors by UVR in conjunction with the capacity to enzymatically photoreactive pyrimidine dimers in cutaneous DNA identifies this animal as a useful model in determining the role of pyrimidine dimers in skin tumor induction by UVR. PMID:3684736

  9. Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC; Thyroid nodule - medullary ... The cause of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MTC) is unknown. ... and adults. Unlike other types of thyroid cancer, MTC is less ...

  10. Medullary carcinoma of thyroid

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC ... The cause of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MTC) is unknown. Unlike other types of thyroid cancer, MTC is less likely to be caused by radiation therapy to the neck given ...

  11. Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC)

    MedlinePlus

    ... carcinomas: Infiltrating basal cell carcinomas can be more aggressive and locally destructive than other types of basal ... to treat them early and with slightly more aggressive techniques. Excision – The basal cell carcinoma is cut ...

  12. Using Aldara, copper peptide, and niacinamide for skin care.

    PubMed

    Carraway, James H

    2004-01-01

    The author states that Aldara can be effective in treating actinic keratosis, Bowen's disease, and basal cell carcinomas; copper peptide has been shown to be useful in wound healing; and topical niacinamide may be beneficial in treating acne. The full therapeutic potential of these agents in a skin care and rejuvenation regimen remains to be explored. PMID:19336143

  13. Polarization speckle imaging as a potential technique for in vivo skin cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchvialeva, Lioudmila; Dhadwal, Gurbir; Lui, Harvey; Kalia, Sunil; Zeng, Haishan; McLean, David I.; Lee, Tim K.

    2013-06-01

    Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the Western world. In order to accurately detect the disease, especially malignant melanoma-the most fatal form of skin cancer-at an early stage when the prognosis is excellent, there is an urgent need to develop noninvasive early detection methods. We believe that polarization speckle patterns, defined as a spatial distribution of depolarization ratio of traditional speckle patterns, can be an important tool for skin cancer detection. To demonstrate our technique, we conduct a large in vivo clinical study of 214 skin lesions, and show that statistical moments of the polarization speckle pattern could differentiate different types of skin lesions, including three common types of skin cancers, malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and two benign lesions, melanocytic nevus and seborrheic keratoses. In particular, the fourth order moment achieves better or similar sensitivity and specificity than many well-known and accepted optical techniques used to differentiate melanoma and seborrheic keratosis.

  14. Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Alex C.; Sabolch, Aaron; Raymond, Victoria M.; Kandathil, Asha; Caoili, Elaine M.; Jolly, Shruti; Miller, Barbra S.; Giordano, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare endocrine malignancy, often with an unfavorable prognosis. Here we summarize the knowledge about diagnosis, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and therapy of ACC. Over recent years, multidisciplinary clinics have formed and the first international treatment trials have been conducted. This review focuses on evidence gained from recent basic science and clinical research and provides perspectives from the experience of a large multidisciplinary clinic dedicated to the care of patients with ACC. PMID:24423978

  15. Imaging of basal cell carcinoma tissue using en-face OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penmetsa, Bhanu Rakesh; Khandwala, Mona; Bradu, Adrian; Hughes, Michael; Jones, Carole A.; Schofield, John; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2008-09-01

    We have investigated the applicability of en-face OCT in imaging freshly excised biopsies of Basal Cell Carcinoma. Encouraging results have been obtained in identifying tumor features and abnormal skin architecture.

  16. Recent advances in clinical application of optical coherence tomography of human skin

    PubMed Central

    Gambichler, Thilo; Pljakic, Azem; Schmitz, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging noninvasive imaging method that uses infrared light and interferometric techniques. The method has become increasingly popular in skin research as well as daily dermatology practice. In the present brief review, we focused on recent (2009–2014) OCT studies on the human skin, which included a reasonable sample size and statistics. Twenty-five papers were selected and briefly described OCT of epidermal thickness, skin appendages, wound healing, extracellular matrix and skin fibrosis, vascular malformations, and skin tumors such as basal cell carcinoma, actinic keratoses, and malignant melanoma. PMID:26185462

  17. Recent advances in clinical application of optical coherence tomography of human skin.

    PubMed

    Gambichler, Thilo; Pljakic, Azem; Schmitz, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging noninvasive imaging method that uses infrared light and interferometric techniques. The method has become increasingly popular in skin research as well as daily dermatology practice. In the present brief review, we focused on recent (2009-2014) OCT studies on the human skin, which included a reasonable sample size and statistics. Twenty-five papers were selected and briefly described OCT of epidermal thickness, skin appendages, wound healing, extracellular matrix and skin fibrosis, vascular malformations, and skin tumors such as basal cell carcinoma, actinic keratoses, and malignant melanoma. PMID:26185462

  18. Human papillomavirus status in extragenital nonmelanoma skin cancers.

    PubMed

    Drvar, Daniela Ledic; Lipozenčić, Jasna; Sabol, Ivan; Mokos, Zrinka Bukvic; Ilic, Ivana; Grce, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    About 5% of all cancers worldwide can be attributed to human papillomaviruses (HPVs); namely, six sites are strongly associated with HPV infections: cervix, penis, vulva, vagina, anus, and oropharynx. Nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSC), basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are the most common malignancies in Caucasians. In fact, there is an intense connection between sunlight exposure, fair skin, HPV, and development of NMSC. We have conducted a pilot study that included tissue samples from 26 carcinoma patients, of which there were 13 BCC and 13 SCC. HPV detection and typing was done with DNA amplification and sequencing, respectively. In total, 23.1% of SCC samples (3/13) and 7.7% of BCC samples (1/13) were positive for HPV DNA. The importance of understanding all aspects of NMSC carcinogenesis may be to reveal novel therapeutic options or preventive measures for HPV containing NMSC patients. PMID:24559560

  19. Seminoma in a postmenopausal woman with a Y;15 translocation in peripheral blood lymphocytes and a t(Y;15)/45,X Turner mosaic pattern in skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Hoshi, N; Fujita, M; Mikuni, M; Fujino, T; Okuyama, K; Handa, Y; Yamada, H; Sagawa, T; Hareyama, H; Nakahori, Y; Fujieda, K; Kant, J A; Nagashima, K; Fujimoto, S

    1998-01-01

    We report an unusual case of a 55 year old Japanese woman with a seminoma but relatively normal menses. The patient was a phenotypic female with late onset menarche (18 years of age), who was amenorrhoeic for the first year, followed by menses of one to three days' slight flow with dysmenorrhoea, but an otherwise normal menstrual history. A typical seminoma was removed from the left adnexal region and an immature testis was identified separately as an associated right adnexal mass. Repeated karyotypic studies on peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures showed only 46,X,-Y,t(Y;15)(q12;p13). Cytogenetic examination of the patient's younger brother, who had fathered three healthy children, showed an identical karyotype. Mosaicism of 46,X,-Y,t(Y;15)(q12;p13)/45,X cell lines was found in skin samples from the patient's elbow and genital regions, although there were no clinical stigmata of Turner syndrome. An androgen receptor binding assay of cultured genital skin fibroblasts was negative. Molecular analysis using Southern blot hybridisation, PCR, and direct DNA sequencing showed that neither the patient nor her brother had a detectable deletion or other abnormalities of Y chromosome sequences, including the SRY (sex determining region of the Y chromosome) gene sequence. These findings suggest that Turner mosaicism of the 45,X cell line may have contributed to this atypical presentation in an XY female, although we cannot exclude abnormalities of other genes related to sex differentiation. Images PMID:9783712

  20. Viral Skin Diseases.

    PubMed

    Ramdass, Priya; Mullick, Sahil; Farber, Harold F

    2015-12-01

    In the vast world of skin diseases, viral skin disorders account for a significant percentage. Most viral skin diseases present with an exanthem (skin rash) and, oftentimes, an accompanying enanthem (lesions involving the mucosal membrane). In this article, the various viral skin diseases are explored, including viral childhood exanthems (measles, rubella, erythema infectiosum, and roseola), herpes viruses (herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus, viral zoonotic infections [orf, monkeypox, ebola, smallpox]), and several other viral skin diseases, such as human papilloma virus, hand, foot, and mouth disease, molluscum contagiosum, and Gianotti-Crosti syndrome. PMID:26612372

  1. Malignant Neoplasia of the Sex Skin in 2 Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Beck, Amanda P; Magden, Elizabeth R; Buchl, Stephanie J; Baze, Wallace B

    2016-04-01

    This report describes 2 cases of spontaneous malignant neoplasia within the sex skin of aged female chimpanzees. In both cases, the initial presentation resembled nonhealing traumatic wounds to the sex skin, with different degrees of infection, ulceration, and tissue necrosis. Histopathology of the lesions confirmed the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma in one case and of adenocarcinoma with metastasis in the other. Advanced age and previous trauma likely contributed to the development of the neoplasias in both cases; long-term sun exposure may also have contributed to the development of the squamous cell carcinoma. To our knowledge, these 2 cases represent the first reports of sex skin neoplasia in chimpanzees. PMID:27053571

  2. Skin Cancer in the Crosshairs: Highlights from the Biennial Scientific Retreat of International Transplant Skin Cancer Collaborative and Skin Care in Organ Transplant Recipients Europe.

    PubMed

    Sinnya, Sudipta; Zwald, Fiona O; Colegio, Oscar R

    2015-08-01

    The International Transplant Skin Cancer Collaborative (ITSCC) is an organization comprising of physicians; transplant surgeons and basic science research scientists dedicated in providing optimal care and ongoing research advancements in solid organ transplant recipients to improve patient outcome and quality of life. As medical advances occur, it is anticipated that the sheer number of solid organ transplantations occurring worldwide will continue to increase. The long-term medication associated immunosuppression improves graft survival, but as a consequence, these individuals become increasingly susceptible to various cutaneous malignancies, lymphoproliferative disorders and infections. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most frequently encountered skin cancer and increases 65- to 250-fold [Jensen et al., Skin cancer in kidney and heart transplant recipients and different long-term immunosuppressive therapy regimens. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1999;40:177-186; Lindelöf et al., Incidence of skin cancer in 5356 patients following organ transplantation. Br J Dermatol. 2000; 143:513-519]. However, the rates of basal cell carcinoma, Merkel cell carcinoma and melanoma also increase in organ transplant recipients leading to significant morbidity as well as mortality [Berg and Otley. Skin cancer in organ transplant recipients: epidemiology, pathogenesis, and management. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2002; 47:1-20]. In October 2014, the International Transplant Skin Cancer Collaborative and its equivalent European counterpart, Skin Care in Organ Transplant Recipients Europe held its 10th biennial meeting in Essex, MA to discuss the clinical conundrums and the evolving research pertinent to the field. This meeting report provides a synthesis of all the clinical and research data presented at the 4-day meeting. PMID:27500228

  3. Botanical Agents for the Treatment of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancers, including basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, are common neoplasms worldwide and are the most common cancers in the United States. Standard therapy for cutaneous neoplasms typically involves surgical removal. However, there is increasing interest in the use of topical alternatives for the prevention and treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer, particularly superficial variants. Botanicals are compounds derived from herbs, spices, stems, roots, and other substances of plant origin and may be used in the form of dried or fresh plants, extracted plant material, or specific plant-derived chemicals. They possess multiple properties including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory properties and are, therefore, believed to be possible chemopreventive agents or substances that may suppress or reverse the process of carcinogenesis. Here, we provide a review of botanical agents studied for the treatment and prevention of nonmelanoma skin cancers. PMID:23983679

  4. Dhoti cancer: a waistline skin cancer with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Murtaza A; Saxena, Divish K; Chikhlikar, Akanksha A; Bangde, Akshay P; Rangwala, Murtuza

    2015-01-01

    Skin cancers account for less than 1 % of all malignancies in India. Squamous cell carcinomas occurring over the waistline due to tying of cotton cloth called dhoti in males and sarees in females are predominantly seen in traditional Indian population. On wearing of these clothes for years, there is a constant irritation which produces depigmentation, glazing of the skin, acanthosis, scar formation, and later on malignant transformation. Presenting a case of a 65-year-old male with 7 × 5 cm ulceroproliferative growth over the right waistline with a history of prolonged use of dhoti. Wide local excision of the growth with 2-cm margin and primary closure of wound by mobilizing the skin was carried out. Histopathology showed well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. The patient is clinically disease free after postoperative follow-up of 1 year. PMID:26391587

  5. Botanical agents for the treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Millsop, Jillian W; Sivamani, Raja K; Fazel, Nasim

    2013-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancers, including basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, are common neoplasms worldwide and are the most common cancers in the United States. Standard therapy for cutaneous neoplasms typically involves surgical removal. However, there is increasing interest in the use of topical alternatives for the prevention and treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer, particularly superficial variants. Botanicals are compounds derived from herbs, spices, stems, roots, and other substances of plant origin and may be used in the form of dried or fresh plants, extracted plant material, or specific plant-derived chemicals. They possess multiple properties including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory properties and are, therefore, believed to be possible chemopreventive agents or substances that may suppress or reverse the process of carcinogenesis. Here, we provide a review of botanical agents studied for the treatment and prevention of nonmelanoma skin cancers. PMID:23983679

  6. Spontaneous Regression of Primitive Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive skin tumor that mainly occurs in the elderly with a generally poor prognosis. Like all skin cancers, its incidence is rising. Despite the poor prognosis, a few reports of spontaneous regression have been published. We describe the case of a 89-year-old male patient who presented two MCC lesions of the scalp. Following biopsy the lesions underwent complete regression with no clinical evidence of residual tumor up to 24 months. The current knowledge of MCC and the other cases of spontaneous regression described in the literature are reviewed. PMID:26788270

  7. Basal cell carcinomas in elderly patients treated by cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Chiriac, Anca; Mihaila, Doina; Foia, Liliana; Solovan, Caius

    2013-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is a malignant skin tumor with high incidence in our country, especially in rural areas, on sun-exposed skin (particularly on the face) in elderly patients. We present three cases of basal cell carcinoma with good results with cryotherapy. This report aims to outline and to prove that in some difficult situations, a simple, inexpensive, easy-to-perform procedure with no contraindications and with minimal side effects (erythema, mild pain) can be applied and resolve such cases. PMID:23569366

  8. Basal cell carcinomas in elderly patients treated by cryotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Chiriac, Anca; Mihaila, Doina; Foia, Liliana; Solovan, Caius

    2013-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is a malignant skin tumor with high incidence in our country, especially in rural areas, on sun-exposed skin (particularly on the face) in elderly patients. We present three cases of basal cell carcinoma with good results with cryotherapy. This report aims to outline and to prove that in some difficult situations, a simple, inexpensive, easy-to-perform procedure with no contraindications and with minimal side effects (erythema, mild pain) can be applied and resolve such cases. PMID:23569366

  9. [Skin tumors in facial plastic surgery].

    PubMed

    Heppt, W

    2009-04-01

    As the incidence of facial skin tumors is rising, otorhinolaryngologists are becoming more and more involved in the field of facial plastic surgery. The most common tumor locations on the head are the sun-exposed areas such as the nose, forehead, cheek, and auricle. The most common histologic findings are actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma. In planning tumor resection and defect repair, many factors, including histology, size, and localization of the tumor as well as conditions of the adjacent skin, must be considered. The key to defect repair after tumor resection is to choose the most appropriate technique from a range of possibilities. Because of skin laxity, most small and midsize facial defects can be closed directly or with high-tension sutures under skin expansion. More extensive defects and those located in critical areas require pedicled flaps or free grafts transferring skin from adjacent or distant areas. In patients with recurrent or deeply infiltrative tumors, reconstructive procedures of the facial nerve, parotid duct, and lacrimal duct might be needed. This is also true for reconstruction of the anatomic framework of the eyelids, the nose, and the pinna. PMID:19347378

  10. KeraStat Skin Therapy in Treating Radiation Dermatitis in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage 0-IIIA Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-11-28

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Skin Reactions Secondary to Radiation Therapy; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer

  11. Scaly Skin (Ichthyosis Vulgaris)

    MedlinePlus

    ... should improve by restoring moisture (hydration) to the skin. Creams and ointments are better moisturizers than lotions, and ... Physician May Prescribe To treat the dry, scaly skin of ichthyosis ... cream or lotion containing the following: Prescription-strength alpha- ...

  12. CSD skin test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003385.htm CSD skin test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The cat scratch disease (CSD) skin test was once used to help ...

  13. Squamous cell skin cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur on skin that is regularly exposed to sunlight or other ultraviolet radiation. The earliest form of ... skin cancer is to reduce your exposure to sunlight . Always use sunscreen: Apply sunscreen with sun protection ...

  14. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or unhealthy, it affects melanin production. Some pigmentation disorders affect just patches of ...

  15. Fungal Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fungal Skin Infections Overview of Fungal Skin Infections Candidiasis Overview of Dermatophytoses (Ringworm, Tinea) Athlete's Foot Jock ... are caused by yeasts (such as Candida —see Candidiasis ) or dermatophytes, such as Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton ( ...

  16. Skin color - patchy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Injury Exposure to radiation (such as from the sun) Exposure to heavy metals Changes in hormone levels Exposure ... example, lighter-skinned people are more sensitive to sun exposure and damage, which raises the risk of skin ...

  17. Components of skin

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... skin layers from the outside environment and contains cells that make keratin, a substance that waterproofs and strengthens the skin. The epidermis also has cells that contain melanin, the dark pigment that gives ...

  18. Treatment of Basal Cell Carcinoma with Curettage Followed by Imiquimod 3.75% Cream

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rita V.; Birge, Miriam B.

    2011-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common form of nonmelanoma skin cancer in the United States. Treatment modalities include both surgical, medical, or combination therapy. In the following case, the authors report the successful treatment of a basal cell carcinoma on the nose with curettage followed by topical imiquimod 3.75% cream. PMID:21607193

  19. Friction induced skin tags.

    PubMed

    Allegue, Francisco; Fachal, Carmen; Pérez-Pérez, Lidia

    2008-01-01

    Skin tags are common benign neoplasm located predominantly in intertriginous skin. Generally of cosmetic concern, they can be easily treated with cryotherapy, electrodessication or snip-excision. Despite their high incidence data about their etiopathogenesis are scarce in the medical literature. We describe a patient who developed multiple skin tags arranged in a linear fashion suggesting an etiopathogenic role for friction. PMID:18627719

  20. Skin self-exam

    MedlinePlus

    Skin cancer - self-exam; Melanoma - self-exam; Basal cell cancer - self-exam; Squamous cell - self-exam; Skin mole - self-exam ... do not agree on whether or not skin self-exams should be performed. So there is no ...

  1. Psychoneuroimmunology and the Skin.

    PubMed

    Honeyman, Juan F

    2016-08-23

    The nervous, immune, endocrine and integumentary systems are closely related and interact in a number of normal and pathological conditions. Nervous system mediators may bring about direct changes to the skin or may induce the release of immunological or hormonal mediators that cause pathological changes to the skin. This article reviews the psychological mechanisms involved in the development of skin diseases. PMID:27282344

  2. Ultrasound skin imaging.

    PubMed

    Alfageme Roldán, F

    2014-12-01

    The interaction of high-frequency ultrasound waves with the skin provides the basis for noninvasive, fast, and accessible diagnostic imaging. This tool is increasingly used in skin cancer and inflammatory conditions as well as in cosmetic dermatology. This article reviews the basic principles of skin ultrasound and its applications in the different areas of dermatology. PMID:24838227

  3. Biology of Skin Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcos, Alain

    1983-01-01

    Information from scientific journals on the biology of skin color is discussed. Major areas addressed include: (1) biology of melanin, melanocytes, and melanosomes; (2) melanosome and human diversity; (3) genetics of skin color; and (4) skin color, geography, and natural selection. (JN)

  4. Skin self-exam

    MedlinePlus

    Skin cancer - self-exam; Melanoma - self-exam; Basal cell cancer - self-exam; Squamous cell - self-exam; Skin mole - self-exam ... Experts do not agree on whether or not skin self-exams should be performed. So there is ...

  5. Thyroid carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, M.; Skolnik, E.M.; Baim, H.M.; Becker, S.P.; Katz, A.H.; Mantravadi, R.V.

    1980-12-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma was studied with regard to mode of presentation, initial findings, treatment and survival. The classic signs, symptoms, physical and scan findings were found to be present in approximately 70% of the patients. Prognosis was found to be dependent on age of presentation more than any other factor. Patients with prior exposure to radiation were found to have more extensive disease and require more extensive surgery but ultimately had the same prognosis for 15-year cure. Treatment for distant metastatic disease by surgery, radioactive iodine and external radiation all resulted in long-term survival in certain cases.

  6. Adrenocortical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Baudin, Eric

    2015-06-01

    Recent developments in the treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) include diagnostic and prognostic risk stratification algorithms, increasing evidence of the impact of historical therapies on overall survival, and emerging targets from integrated epigenomic and genomic analyses. Advances include proper clinical and molecular characterization of all patients with ACC, standardization of proliferative index analyses, referral of these patients to large cancer referral centers at the time of first surgery, and development of new trials in patients with well-characterized ACC. Networking and progress in the molecular characterization of ACC constitute the basis for significant future therapeutic breakthroughs. PMID:26038209

  7. HPV Carcinomas in Immunocompromised Patients

    PubMed Central

    Reusser, Nicole M.; Downing, Christopher; Guidry, Jacqueline; Tyring, Stephen K.

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease worldwide and can result in pre-malignancies or overt malignancies of the skin and mucosal surfaces. HPV-related illnesses are an important personal and public health problem causing physical, mental, sexual and financial detriments. Moreover, this set of malignancies severely affects the immunosuppressed population, particularly HIV-positive patients and organ-transplant recipients. There is growing incidence of HPV-associated anogenital malignancies as well as a decrease in the average age of affected patients, likely related to the rising number of high-risk individuals. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of HPV-related malignancy. Current treatment options for HPV infection and subsequent disease manifestations include imiquimod, retinoids, intralesional bleomycin, and cidofovir; however, primary prevention with HPV vaccination remains the most effective strategy. This review will discuss anogenital lesions in immunocompromised patients, cutaneous warts at nongenital sites, the association of HPV with skin cancer in immunocompromised patients, warts and carcinomas in organ-transplant patients, HIV-positive patients with HPV infections, and the management of cutaneous disease in the immunocompromised patient. PMID:26239127

  8. Long-Term Outcome and Patterns of Failure in Primary Ocular Adnexal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Treated With Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Naoki; Sasaki, Ryohei; Nishimura, Hideki; Yoshida, Kenji; Miyawaki, Daisuke; Nakayama, Masao; Uehara, Kazuyuki; Okamoto, Yoshiaki; Ejima, Yasuo; Azumi, Atsushi; Matsui, Toshimitsu; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term treatment outcome and disease behavior of primary ocular adnexal MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) lymphoma (POAML) after treatment with radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Seventy-eight patients (42 male, 36 female) diagnosed with stage I POAML between 1991 and 2010 at Kobe University Hospital were included. The median age was 60 years (range, 22-85 years). The median radiation dose administered was 30.6 Gy. Rituximab-based targeted therapy and/or chemotherapy was performed in 20 patients (25.6%). Local control (LC), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS) rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The median follow-up duration was 66 months. Major tumor sites were conjunctiva in 37 patients (47.4%), orbita in 29 (37.2%), and lacrimal glands in 12 (15.4%). The 5- and 10-year OS rates were 98.1% and 95.3%, respectively. The 5- and 10-year LC rates were both 100%, and the 5- and 10-year RFS rates were 88.5% and 75.9%, respectively. Patients treated with a combination of radiotherapy and targeted therapy and/or chemotherapy had a trend for a better RFS compared with those treated with radiotherapy alone (p = 0.114). None developed greater than Grade 2 acute morbidity. There were 14 patients who experienced Grade 2 morbidities (cataract: 14; retinal disorders: 7; dry eye: 3), 23 patients who had Grade 3 morbidities (cataract: 23; dry eye: 1), and 1 patient who had Grade 4 glaucoma. Conclusions: Radiotherapy for POAML was shown to be highly effective and safe for LC and OS on the basis of long-term observation. The absence of systemic relapse in patients with combined-modality treatment suggests that lower doses of radiation combined with targeted therapy may be worth further study.

  9. Localized Ocular Adnexal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Treated With Radiation Therapy: A Long-Term Outcome in 86 Patients With 104 Treated Eyes

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, Ken; Murakami, Naoya; Kitaguchi, Mayuka; Sekii, Shuhei; Takahashi, Kana; Yoshio, Kotaro; Inaba, Koji; Morota, Madoka; Ito, Yoshinori; Sumi, Minako; Suzuki, Shigenobu; Tobinai, Kensei; Uno, Takashi; Itami, Jun

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the natural history, behavior of progression, prognostic factors, and treatment-related adverse effects of primary ocular adnexal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma (POAML). Methods and Materials: Eighty-six patients with histologically proven stage I POAML treated with radiation therapy at National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo between 1990 and 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. The median age was 56 years (range, 18-85 years). The median dose administered was 30 Gy (range, 30-46 Gy). Seventy-seven patients (90%) were treated by radiation therapy alone. Results: The median follow-up duration was 9 years (range, 0.9-22 years). The 5- and 10-year overall survival (OS) rates were 97.6% and 93.5%, respectively, and no patients died of lymphoma. Patients with tumor sizes ≥4 cm showed a greater risk of contralateral relapse (P=.012). Six patients with contralateral relapse were seen and treated by radiation therapy alone, and all the lesions were controlled well, with follow-up times of 3 to 12 years. There was 1 case of local relapse after radiation therapy alone, and 3 cases of relapse occurred in a distant site. Cataracts developed in 36 of the 65 eyes treated without lens shielding and in 12 of the 39 patients with lens shielding (P=.037). Conclusions: The majority of patients with POAML showed behavior consistent with that of localized, indolent diseases. Thirty gray of local irradiation seems to be quite effective. The initial bilateral involvement and contralateral orbital relapses can be also controlled with radiation therapy alone. Lens shielding reduces the risk of cataract.

  10. Anogenital squamous cell carcinoma in neglected patient.

    PubMed

    Svecova, D; Havrankova, M; Weismanova, E; Babal, P

    2012-01-01

    Skin squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are arguably the second most common carcinoma of the skin and are responsible for the majority of non-melanoma skin cancer deaths. Gynecologist treated a Caucasian 56-years old female patient for genital wart with podophyllotoxin cream. She did not achieve complete response and therefore she has interrupted the therapy and the collaboration with the gynecologist. At the time of evaluation the lesion had a size of man's palm in anogenital region and showed characteristic features of neoplasm. The regional lymph nodes have produced infiltrated painful bubo. PCR analysis for HPV proved negative. Histopathology revealed well-differentiated squamous cell keratinizing carcinoma from the tumor as well as from the regional lymph node packet. Staging computed tomography scans proved negative and pelvis scans disclosed regional lymphadenopathy underlying the tumor. Palliative radiation therapy (by linear accelerator) was administered for the oversized tumor to the total TD 50.0Gy. The patient died 6 months after diagnostic assessment from cardio-respiratory failure. Staging computed tomography before her death did not disclose distinct metastases in her inner organs. Well-differentiated squamous cell keratinizing carcinoma could be growing endophytically affecting the underlying adipose tissue and musculature, with spreading into the regional lymph nodes. The rate of metastases into inner organs seems to vary according to the aggressiveness and metastatic behavior of each SCC. The case report calls for attention to the importance of collaboration among various specialists assisting in the diagnosis and management of skin neoplasm (Fig. 5, Ref. 12). Full Text in PDF www.elis.sk. PMID:22502759

  11. Application of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Cutaneous Basosquamous Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kovacevic, Predrag; Visnjic, Milan; Jankovic, Dimitrije; Binic, Ivana; Jankovic, Aleksandar; Ilic, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Basosquamous carcinoma of the skin is a relatively rare cutaneous neoplasm that has significant metastatic potential and a metastatic rate greater than that of basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma. We describe the use of lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy in a 63-year-old man after identification of basosquamous carcinoma. Sentinel lymph node biopsy, which is a standard tool to detect regional lymphatic metastasis in cutaneous melanoma, has been rarely employed to detect lymphatic metastasis of basosquamous carcinoma. The approach was successful in detecting a regional lymphatic metastasis of two nodal basins with minor morbidity. Sentinel lymph node biopsy may be useful for certain high-risk lesions of basosquamous carcinoma. PMID:22028558

  12. Cutaneous invasion from sarcomatoid urothelial carcinoma: clinical and dermatopathologic features*

    PubMed Central

    Bernardes Filho, Fred; de Melo, Alessandro Severo Alves; Pires, Andréa Rodriguez Cordovil; Lupi, Omar; Neves, Daniel Gama das; da Cruz, Margareth Fernandes; Kac, Bernard Kawa

    2016-01-01

    In Brazil, without considering the non-melanoma skin tumors, bladder cancer in men is the eighth most common, and the urothelial carcinoma or transitional cell carcinoma is the most common among these. Cutaneous metastases from urothelial neoplasms appear as single or multiple erythematous, infiltrated nodules or plaques, and like other cases of distant disease, it is indicative of poor prognosis. The invasive urothelial carcinoma is recognized for its ability to present divergent differentiation and morphological variants. The sarcomatoid urothelial carcinoma is a rare cancer that consists of two different components: one composed of epithelial tissue and the other with sarcomatoid features of mesenchymal origin. The authors describe a case of cutaneous metastasis of sarcomatoid urothelial carcinoma in a 63-year-old male patient. PMID:26982782

  13. Urostomy - stoma and skin care

    MedlinePlus

    ... it well before you attach the pouch. Avoid skin care products that contain alcohol. These can make your ... the pouch to your skin. Use fewer special skin care products. This will make problems with your skin ...

  14. Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    No matter if your skin is light, dark, or somewhere in between, everyone is at risk for skin cancer. Learn what skin cancer looks like, how to find it early, and how to lower the chance of skin cancer.

  15. Microtopographic Inspection and Fractal Analysis of Skin Neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Manuel F. M.; Hipolito, Alberto Valencia; Gutierrez, Gustavo Fidel; Chanona, Jorge; Gallegos, Eva Ramón

    2008-04-01

    Early detection of skin cancer is fundamental to a successful treatment. Changes in the shape, including the relief, of skin lesions are an indicator of a possible malignity. Optical microtopographic inspection of skin lesions can be used to identify diagnostic patterns of benign and malign skin' lesions. Statistical parameters like the mean roughness (Ra) may allow the discrimination between different types of lesions and degree of malignity. Fractal analysis of bi-dimensional and 3D images of skin lesions can validate or complement that assessment by calculation of its fractal dimensions (FD). On the study herein reported the microtopographic inspection of the skin lesions were performed using the optical triangulation based microtopographer developed at the Physics Department of the University of Minho, MICROTOP.03.MFC. The patients that participated in this research work were men and women older than 15 years with the clinical and histopathology diagnoses of: melanoma, basocellular carcinoma, epidermoide carcinoma, actinic keratosis, keratoacantosis and benign nevus. Latex impressions of the lesions were taken and microtopographically analyzed. Characteristic information for each type of studied lesion was obtained. For melanoma it was observed that on the average these tumors present an increased roughness of around 67 percent compared to the roughness of the healthy skin. This feature allows the distinction from other tumors as basocellular carcinoma (were the roughness increase was in the average of 49 percent) and benign lesions as the epidermoide cyst (37 percent) or the seborrhea keratosis (4 percent). Tumor size and roughness are directly proportional to the grade of malignality. The characterization of the fractal geometry of 2D (histological slides) and 3D images of skin lesions was performed by obtaining its FD evaluated by means of the Box counting method. Results obtained showed that the average fractal dimension of histological slide images (FDh

  16. Parathyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Givi, B.; Shah, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare endocrine malignancy. The reported incidence is from 0.5 to 5% of primary hyperparathyroidism cases in various series. The cause is unknown, but clinical correlations with different genetic syndromes exist. Mutations in the HPRT2 gene seem to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of this disease. Men and women are equally affected, usually in the fourth or fifth decade of life. Most patients will present with signs and symptoms of hypercalcaemia. Cases of non-functioning carcinoma are exceedingly rare. Surgical resection is the most effective method of treatment and palliation. A significant proportion of patients will experience recurrence, and will need further surgical and, eventually, medical management of hypercalcaemia. The disease is progressive but slow growing. Most patients will require multiple operations to resect recurrent disease. The main cause of morbidity and mortality is the sequela of uncontrolled chronic hypercalcaemia rather than tumour burden. The current paper will review the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation and diagnostic work-up of this disease. Surgical management in different scenarios is reviewed in detail, followed by other types of treatment and management of incurable disease. PMID:20510594

  17. Glasses: Hiding or causing skin cancer?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ze; Behshad, Soroosh; Sethi-Patel, Pooja; Valenzuela, Alejandra A

    2016-10-01

    This article evaluates malignant transformation of lesions presenting in the periocular skin under the eye spectacle nose pad. A non-comparative retrospective chart review of clinical features and pathological findings of patients presenting with periocular malignancies in the exact vicinity where the nose pads of their eye spectacles rested was completed. The study took place in one tertiary oculoplastic referral center between 2007-2013. Ten patients were included, six of whom were male. All subjects wore eye spectacles while awake for at least 15 years, and had an evident suspicious lesion in the exact area that coincided with the resting place of the nose pad. The mean age was 73.5 years (range 65-85 years) and all patients had the lesion present for at least one year. Most cases were squamous skin malignancies (five squamous cell carcinomas [SCC], 2 intra-epidermal carcinomas [IEC], while 3 basal cell carcinomas [BCC]). Treatment involved surgical excision of the lesion with frozen section for margin control and reconstruction with a myocutaneous flap. Periocular malignancies of the inferior medial canthal area, where the nose pad of eye spectacle places pressure, can be easily missed or misdiagnosed. Marjolin ulcers (MU) classically present as an aggressive SCC in area of chronic inflammation, which has been previously correlated to constant pressure, repetitive trauma, or non-healing wounds in other areas of the body. We propose that the traumatic chronic pressure in the infero-medial canthal region from long-term eye spectacle nose pad use, may induce poor lymphatic regeneration leading to an immune system deficiency that predisposes this skin to a malignant transformation. The presence of chronic eye spectacle nose pads also prevents proper and timely detection of such malignancies. Complete excision of these lesions with margin control, adequate follow-up for possible recurrence, and surveillance for new lesions on the patient's contralateral side, is

  18. Carcinoma ex spiradenoma/cylindroma confirmed by immunohistochemical and molecular loss-of-heterozygosity profiling.

    PubMed

    Jukic, Drazen M; Drogowski, Laura M; Davie, James R

    2009-10-01

    We present a case of spiradenoma/cylindroma with admixed carcinoma of unknown origin, resolved using immunohistochemical and molecular loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH) profiling. The patient, a woman in her mid-70s, initially presented with separate mammary (ductal) carcinomas of the right and left breasts that were treated with radical mastectomies. For 9 years, the patient remained disease free until complaining of a slow-growing skin nodule on the lower back that was excised under clinical suspicion of metastatic mammary carcinoma. Histopathological exam revealed a benign eccrine spiradenoma/cylindroma and an intermixed carcinoma, with a differential diagnosis of either primary eccrine carcinoma or mammary carcinoma metastatic to the spiradenoma/cylindroma. Histological features and immunohistochemical staining favored eccrine carcinoma but not unequivocally; therefore, LOH profiles were performed on archival paraffin block tissue from the 3 neoplastic lesions (4 components). The mammary carcinomas showed disparate LOH at 5 of 7 (right breast) and 4 of 7 (left breast) informative genetic loci, establishing these carcinomas as separate primary neoplasms. Both the spiradenoma/cylindroma and eccrine carcinoma revealed no LOH at the tested loci, establishing the unknown carcinoma as an independent carcinoma arising within a spiradenoma/cylindroma. This neoplasm is referred to in the literature as carcinoma ex spiradenoma/cylindroma and spiradenocylindrocarcinoma. PMID:19684510

  19. Pursuing prosthetic electronic skin.

    PubMed

    Chortos, Alex; Liu, Jia; Bao, Zhenan

    2016-09-01

    Skin plays an important role in mediating our interactions with the world. Recreating the properties of skin using electronic devices could have profound implications for prosthetics and medicine. The pursuit of artificial skin has inspired innovations in materials to imitate skin's unique characteristics, including mechanical durability and stretchability, biodegradability, and the ability to measure a diversity of complex sensations over large areas. New materials and fabrication strategies are being developed to make mechanically compliant and multifunctional skin-like electronics, and improve brain/machine interfaces that enable transmission of the skin's signals into the body. This Review will cover materials and devices designed for mimicking the skin's ability to sense and generate biomimetic signals. PMID:27376685

  20. Skin Exposure and Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Redlich, Carrie A.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous occupational and environmental exposures that increase asthma risk have been identified. Research and prevention have focused primarily on the respiratory tract. However, recent studies suggest that the skin may also be an important route of exposure and site of sensitization that contributes to asthma development. Factors that impair skin barrier function, such as filaggrin gene mutations or skin trauma, may facilitate allergen entry and promote Th2-like sensitization and subsequent asthma. Animal studies demonstrate that skin exposure to chemical and protein allergens is highly effective at inducing sensitization, with subsequent inhalation challenge eliciting asthmatic responses. A similar role for human skin exposure to certain sensitizing agents, such as isocyanates, is likely. Skin exposure methodologies are being developed to incorporate skin exposure assessment into epidemiology studies investigating asthma risk factors. PMID:20427586

  1. Brachytherapy in Lip Carcinoma: Long-Term Results

    SciTech Connect

    Guibert, Mireille; David, Isabelle; Vergez, Sebastien; Rives, Michel; Filleron, Thomas; Bonnet, Jacques; Delannes, Martine

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of low-dose-rate brachytherapy for local control and relapse-free survival in squamous cell and basal cell carcinomas of the lips. We compared two groups: one with tumors on the skin and the other with tumors on the lip. Patients and methods: All patients had been treated at Claudius Regaud Cancer Centre from 1990 to 2008 for squamous cell or basal cell carcinoma. Low-dose-rate brachytherapy was performed with iridium 192 wires according to the Paris system rules. On average, the dose delivered was 65 Gy. Results: 172 consecutive patients were included in our study; 69 had skin carcinoma (squamous cell or basal cell), and 92 had squamous cell mucosal carcinoma. The average follow-up time was 5.4 years. In the skin cancer group, there were five local recurrences and one lymph node recurrence. In the mucosal cancer group, there were ten local recurrences and five lymph node recurrences. The 8-year relapse-free survival for the entire population was 80%. The 8-year relapse-free survival was 85% for skin carcinoma 75% for mucosal carcinoma, with no significant difference between groups. The functional results were satisfactory for 99% of patients, and the cosmetic results were satisfactory for 92%. Maximal toxicity observed was Grade 2. Conclusions: Low-dose-rate brachytherapy can be used to treat lip carcinomas at Stages T1 and T2 as the only treatment with excellent results for local control and relapse-free survival. The benefits of brachytherapy are also cosmetic and functional, with 91% of patients having no side effects.

  2. Overview on non-melanoma skin cancers in solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Forchetti, G; Suppa, M; Del Marmol, V

    2014-08-01

    The risk of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is significantly increased in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) due to the long-term immunosuppressive treatment. NMSCs can be more aggressive in SOTRs than in the general population, resulting in significantly higher morbidity and mortality. In contrast to the immunocompetent population, skin cancers in SOTRs are dominated by squamous cell carcinoma, followed by basal cell carcinoma. Life-long radiation exposure, male sex, fair skin, history of prior NMSC, genetic factors, age at transplant along with duration and extent of the immunosuppression therapy have been identified as risk factors for NMSC in SOTRs. Photo-protection, skin self-examination, early diagnosis and treatment of skin lesions, reduction of immunotherapy, switch to mammalian target-of-rapamycin inhibitors and chemoprevention with oral retinoids are effective measures for the reduction of the incidence of NMSC in such patients. PMID:25068224

  3. A Model to Predict the Risk of Keratinocyte Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Whiteman, David C; Thompson, Bridie S; Thrift, Aaron P; Hughes, Maria-Celia; Muranushi, Chiho; Neale, Rachel E; Green, Adele C; Olsen, Catherine M

    2016-06-01

    Basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin are the commonest cancers in humans, yet no validated tools exist to estimate future risks of developing keratinocyte carcinomas. To develop a prediction tool, we used baseline data from a prospective cohort study (n = 38,726) in Queensland, Australia, and used data linkage to capture all surgically excised keratinocyte carcinomas arising within the cohort. Predictive factors were identified through stepwise logistic regression models. In secondary analyses, we derived separate models within strata of prior skin cancer history, age, and sex. The primary model included terms for 10 items. Factors with the strongest effects were >20 prior skin cancers excised (odds ratio 8.57, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 6.73-10.91), >50 skin lesions destroyed (odds ratio 3.37, 95% CI 2.85-3.99), age ≥ 70 years (odds ratio 3.47, 95% CI 2.53-4.77), and fair skin color (odds ratio 1.75, 95% CI 1.42-2.15). Discrimination in the validation dataset was high (area under the receiver operator characteristic curve 0.80, 95% CI 0.79-0.81) and the model appeared well calibrated. Among those reporting no prior history of skin cancer, a similar model with 10 factors predicted keratinocyte carcinoma events with reasonable discrimination (area under the receiver operator characteristic curve 0.72, 95% CI 0.70-0.75). Algorithms using self-reported patient data have high accuracy for predicting risks of keratinocyte carcinomas. PMID:26908057

  4. Sex differences in the incidence of skin and skin-related diseases in Olmsted County, Minnesota, United States, and a comparison with other rates published worldwide.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Louise K; Davis, Mark D P

    2016-09-01

    Many skin and skin-related diseases affect the sexes unequally, with attendant implications for public health and resource allocation. To evaluate better the incidence of skin and skin-related diseases affecting males vs. females, we reviewed published population-based epidemiology studies of skin disorders performed utilizing Rochester Epidemiology Project data. Females had a higher incidence of the following diseases: connective tissue diseases (scleroderma, morphea, dermatomyositis, primary Sjögren syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus [not in all studies]), pityriasis rosea, herpes progenitalis, condyloma acuminatum, hidradenitis suppurativa, herpes zoster (except in children), erythromelalgia, venous stasis syndrome, and venous ulcers. Males had a higher incidence of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis, basal cell carcinoma (exception, females aged ≤40 years), squamous cell carcinoma, and lentigo maligna. Incidence rates were equal in males and females for cutaneous malignant melanoma (exception, higher in females aged 18-39 years), lower-extremity cellulitis, cutaneous nontuberculous mycobacterial infection, Behçet disease, delusional infestation, alopecia areata, and bullous pemphigoid. Many of the population-based sex-specific incidence rates of skin and skin-related diseases derived from the Rochester Epidemiology Project are strikingly different from those estimated elsewhere. In general, females are more commonly affected by skin and skin-related diseases. The reasons for this imbalance remain to be determined and are likely multifactorial. PMID:27009931

  5. Skin manifestations associated with kidney cancer.

    PubMed

    Amin, Asim; Burgess, Earle F

    2016-06-01

    Kidney cancer is a heterogenous disease encompassing several distinct clinicopathologic entities with different underlying molecular aberrations and clinical outcomes. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has been shown to evoke immunologic responses that can impact the natural history of disease and clinical presentation. It is important to recognize atypical presentations of disease, including cutaneous manifestations. The incidence of skin metastases from RCC is low, yet needs to be appreciated in the appropriate setting; clinical presentation for these lesions is reviewed briefly. There are several hereditary syndromes that present with well characterized cutaneous lesions and are associated with an increased risk for RCC, including Von Hippel-Lindau and Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndromes. Given that these skin lesions may be the first presenting sign for RCC, timely recognition is of essence and both are discussed in some detail. Several therapeutic options based on immunomodulation are approved for the treatment of advanced RCC. Dermatologic toxicities observed with these agents are also briefly discussed. PMID:27178696

  6. Hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Buendia, Marie-Annick; Neuveut, Christine

    2015-02-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a widespread human pathogen that causes liver inflammation, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recent sequencing technologies have refined our knowledge of the genomic landscape and pathogenesis of HCC, but the mechanisms by which HBV exerts its oncogenic role remain controversial. In a prevailing view, inflammation, liver damage, and regeneration may foster the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic defects leading to cancer onset. However, a more direct and specific contribution of the virus is supported by clinical and biological observations. Among genetically heterogeneous HCCs, HBV-related tumors display high genomic instability, which may be attributed to the ability of HBV to integrate its DNA into the host cell genome, provoking chromosomal alterations and insertional mutagenesis of cancer genes. The viral transactivator HBx may also participate in transformation by deregulating diverse cellular machineries. A better understanding of the complex mechanisms linking HBV to HCC will improve prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:25646384

  7. [Parathyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Poissonnet, Gilles; Castillo, Laurent; Bozec, Alexandre; Peyrottes, Isabelle; Ettore, Francette; Santini, José; Demard, François; Dassonville, Olivier

    2006-03-01

    Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare disease accounting for 1 to 5% of parathyroid neoplasms. This malignant tumour must be suspected when a severe primary hyperparathyroidism occurs with high hypercalcemia and elevated parathormon levels. At this time, a cervical mass is often palpable. Both head and neck ultrasonography and 99mTc-sestamibi scintigraphy are the best preoperative imaging tests to suspect and localize the tumour. Surgical approach with simultaneous tumorectomy and hemithyroidectomy, completed by selective neck dissection (level VI) is the treatment of choice. An elective lateral neck dissection should be performed if necessary. Tumour control should be monitored by regular measurement of calcium and parathormon levels. Local recurrence or metastasis risk is 30 to 70% and the 5 year overall survival about 50 to 80%. In case of recurrence, aggressive surgical management should be applied and adjuvant radiation therapy may be discussed. PMID:16567315

  8. The effect of microneedles on the skin permeability and antitumor activity of topical 5-fluorouracil

    PubMed Central

    Naguib, Youssef W.; Kumar, Amit; Cui, Zhengrong

    2014-01-01

    Topical 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is approved for the treatment of superficial basal cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis. However, 5-FU suffers from poor skin permeation. Microneedles have been successfully applied to improve the skin permeability of small and large molecules, and even nanoparticles, by creating micron-sized pores in the stratum corneum layer of the skin. In this report, the feasibility of using microneedles to increase the skin permeability of 5-FU was tested. Using full thickness mouse skin mounted on Franz diffusion apparatus, it was shown that the flux of 5-FU through the skin was increased by up to 4.5-fold when the skin was pretreated with microneedles (500 μm in length, 50 μm in base diameter). In a mouse model with B16-F10 mouse melanoma cells implanted in the subcutaneous space, the antitumor activity of a commercially available 5-FU topical cream (5%) was significantly enhanced when the cream was applied on a skin area that was pretreated with microneedles, as compared to when the cream was simply applied on a skin area, underneath which the tumor cells were implanted, and without pretreatment of the skin with microneedles. Fluorouracil is not approved for melanoma therapy, but the clinical efficacy of topical 5-FU against tumors such as basal cell carcinoma may be improved by integrating microneedle technology into the therapy. PMID:25313350

  9. The risk of transmitting cutaneous malignancy through skin transplantation: a literature-based risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Bosma, Sarah; Van Wijk, Marja J; Richters, Cornelia D; Beele, Hilde

    2015-12-01

    According to the European Union Tissues and Cells Directives donation of tissue is contraindicated in the presence of or a previous history of malignant disease, with the exception of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma. Skin cancer is the most common cancer. Due to ultraviolet light exposure and increasing life expectancy an increasing prevalence of malignant or premalignant skin lesions is observed, which may result in a decline of the availability of skin for transplantation. A risk assessment based on published studies and expert opinion was performed in order to investigate the risk of transmitting malignant or premalignant skin lesions through tissue transplantation, and more particular through skin transplantation. The scarcity of data concerning cancer transmission in tissue transplantation was challenging. Circumstantial evidence, available for organ transplantation, was used to develop the following policy proposal for skin transplantation and cutaneous tumours. Malignant melanoma is an absolute contraindication for the donation of skin and also of other tissues, whereas, non-lesional skin and other tissues of a donor with non-melanoma skin cancer (basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma) or with a premalignant skin lesion can be considered for transplantation. The above mentioned protocol proposal might serve as a prototype for analogous protocols for non-cutaneous malignancies. PMID:25631853

  10. Bardet-Biedl syndrome with vulva carcinoma presented with acute renal failure: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Sari, F; Sarikaya, A M; Suren, D; Eren, M; Yilmaz, B

    2015-01-01

    Background Bardet-Biedl syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by retinal dystrophy, obesity, kidney dysfunction, polydactyly, hypogonadism and cognitive impairment. It can be accompanied by systemic findings such as malignancy, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, constitutional and functional disorders of urogenital system and liver fibrosis. Case report A 35-year-old woman with Bardet-Biedl syndrome was referred to our outpatient nephrology clinic with dysuria, acute renal failure, and urinary tract infection. A sized 2 x 1 cm mass between labia major and minor was noted, while CT scan showed a lesion that encompassed uterus and extended to the posterior side of the bladder in the left adnexal region and a 3 cm lesion in the liver. Excisional biopsy of the mass revealed a well-differentiated, squamous cell carcinoma. Dysuria resolved with insertion of urinary catheter after bougie dilatation and the patient was referred for radiotherapy. Conclusion It should be kept in the mind that renal failure may develop due to constitutional urogenital anomalies such as vulva carcinoma. This can be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with Bardet-Biedl syndrome.Hippokratia 2015; 19 (2):176-178.

  11. Photocarcinogenesis and Skin Cancer Prevention Strategies.

    PubMed

    Seebode, Christina; Lehmann, Janin; Emmert, Steffen

    2016-03-01

    In this review the basic principles of UV-induced carcinogenesis are summarized and the state of the art diagnosis and therapeutic strategies are discussed. The prevalent keratinocyte-derived neoplasms of the skin are basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas. Cutaneous melanoma is less frequent but associated with high mortality. Common risk factors for all three tumor entities include sun exposure and DNA-repair deficiencies. Photocarcinogenesis follows a multistep model of cancer development in which ultraviolet-induced DNA damage leads to mutations resulting in activation of oncogenes or silencing of tumor-suppressor genes. This ends in a cellular mutator phenotype even more prone to mutation acquisition. DNA repair, especially the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway, counteracts mutation formation and skin cancer development. This is vividly demonstrated by the NER-defective disorder xeroderma pigmentosum. Primary skin cancer preventative strategies, therefore, include reduction of DNA photodamage by protection from the sun. Secondary preventative strategies include skin cancer screening. This implies standard examination techniques with the naked eye, an epiluminescence microscope, or digital epiluminescence microscopy. More advanced techniques include confocal laser scan microscopy. PMID:26977038

  12. Epidemiology of skin cancer: role of some environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Fabbrocini, Gabriella; Triassi, Maria; Mauriello, Maria Chiara; Torre, Guglielma; Annunziata, Maria Carmela; De Vita, Valerio; Pastore, Francesco; D'Arco, Vincenza; Monfrecola, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    The incidence rate of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer entities is dramatically increasing worldwide. Exposure to UVB radiation is known to induce basal and squamous cell skin cancer in a dose-dependent way and the depletion of stratospheric ozone has implications for increases in biologically damaging solar UVB radiation reaching the earth's surface. In humans, arsenic is known to cause cancer of the skin, as well as cancer of the lung, bladder, liver, and kidney. Exposure to high levels of arsenic in drinking water has been recognized in some regions of the world. SCC and BCC (squamous and basal cell carcinoma) have been reported to be associated with ingestion of arsenic alone or in combination with other risk factors. The impact of changes in ambient temperature will influence people's behavior and the time they spend outdoors. Higher temperatures accompanying climate change may lead, among many other effects, to increasing incidence of skin cancer. PMID:24281212

  13. Epidemiology of Skin Cancer: Role of Some Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Fabbrocini, Gabriella; Triassi, Maria; Mauriello, Maria Chiara; Torre, Guglielma; Annunziata, Maria Carmela; Vita, Valerio De; Pastore, Francesco; D’Arco, Vincenza; Monfrecola, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    The incidence rate of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer entities is dramatically increasing worldwide. Exposure to UVB radiation is known to induce basal and squamous cell skin cancer in a dose-dependent way and the depletion of stratospheric ozone has implications for increases in biologically damaging solar UVB radiation reaching the earth’s surface. In humans, arsenic is known to cause cancer of the skin, as well as cancer of the lung, bladder, liver, and kidney. Exposure to high levels of arsenic in drinking water has been recognized in some regions of the world. SCC and BCC (squamous and basal cell carcinoma) have been reported to be associated with ingestion of arsenic alone or in combination with other risk factors. The impact of changes in ambient temperature will influence people’s behavior and the time they spend outdoors. Higher temperatures accompanying climate change may lead, among many other effects, to increasing incidence of skin cancer. PMID:24281212

  14. Microscopic and immunohistochemical analysis of the skin changes of free forearm flaps in intraoral reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Rubino, Corrado; Dessy, Luca A; Farace, Francesco; Ena, Pasquale; Mazzarello, Vittorio

    2002-10-01

    In the literature, few studies based on clinical and histological evaluation analyze skin structural changes after transplantation to the oral cavity. Ten patients affected by squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity who were reconstructed with a free forearm flap were included in the current study to analyze skin alterations. The authors performed a histological and ultrastructural evaluation of skin samples from the free forearm flap before transplantation and 18 months after intraoral reconstruction. They analyzed cytokeratin and involucrin distribution, which represent markers of maturation and differentiation of epithelia. The aim of this study was to demonstrate whether skin "mucosalization" occurs. They found that the skin undergoes some morphological changes induced by the intraoral environment. Cytokeratin and involucrin distribution is mostly unchanged. This aspect is in favor of skin structure preservation. Thus, they found that "mucosalization" of the skin is not evident after 18 months. PMID:12370640

  15. Health system costs of skin cancer and cost-effectiveness of skin cancer prevention and screening: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Louisa G; Rowell, David

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to review the literature for malignant melanoma, basal and squamous cell carcinomas to understand: (a) national estimates of the direct health system costs of skin cancer and (b) the cost-effectiveness of interventions for skin cancer prevention or early detection. A systematic review was performed using Medline, Cochrane Library and the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Databases as well as a manual search of reference lists to identify relevant studies up to 31 August 2013. A narrative synthesis approach was used to summarize the data. National cost estimates were adjusted for country-specific inflation and presented in 2013 euros. The CHEERS statement was used to assess the quality of the economic evaluation studies. Sixteen studies reporting national estimates of skin cancer costs and 11 cost-effectiveness studies on skin cancer prevention or early detection were identified. Relative to the size of their respective populations, the annual direct health system costs for skin cancer were highest for Australia, New Zealand, Sweden and Denmark (2013 euros). Skin cancer prevention initiatives are highly cost-effective and may also be cost-saving. Melanoma early detection programmes aimed at high-risk individuals may also be cost-effective; however, updated analyses are needed. There is a significant cost burden of skin cancer for many countries and health expenditure for this disease will grow as incidence increases. Public investment in skin cancer prevention and early detection programmes show strong potential for health and economic benefits. PMID:25089375

  16. A benign or malignant eyelid lump – can you tell? An unusual collision tumour highlighting the difficulty differentiating a hidrocystoma from a basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jayaprakasam, Anuradha; Rene, Cornelius

    2012-01-01

    Hidrocystoma and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are common eyelid lesions. The former is benign while the latter is malignant and can cause significant destruction of the adnexal structures, orbital invasion and visual loss. The authors describe a case of a 76-year-old female with a slow growing right upper lid lesion which was diagnosed as a hidrocystoma but excision biopsy revealed a collision tumour comprised of a BCC abutting a hidrocystoma in the same lesion. Cystic BCC can masquerade as hidrocystoma but there are no previous case reports of BCC coexisting with hidrocystoma in the same lesion. This case highlights the fact that apparently benign lesions, such as hidrocystomas, may actually be malignant or coexist with malignant pathology. Clinicians should have a low threshold for appropriate excision biopsy and histological examination of such lesions, especially if there are sinister features, such as lash loss, induration, pigmentation or a pearly appearance. PMID:22744259

  17. Bacterial Skin Infections.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Fadi; Khan, Tariq; Pujalte, George G A

    2015-12-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections account for 0.5% of outpatient visits to primary care. Skin and soft tissue infections can usually be managed in an outpatient setting. However, there are certain circumstances as discussed in this article that require more urgent care or inpatient management. Primary care providers should be able to diagnose, manage, and provide appropriate follow-up care for these frequently seen skin infections. This article provides family physicians with a comprehensive review of the assessment and management of common bacterial skin infections. PMID:26612370

  18. Immunohistochemistry of porcine skin.

    PubMed

    Wollina, U; Berger, U; Mahrle, G

    1991-01-01

    The present paper reports immunohistological findings in porcine skin, which were obtained by use of mono- and polyclonal antihuman antibodies and either alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase (APAAP) or peroxidase (POX) technique. Epidermal staining was observed with antibodies to keratins (K 8.12, RSKE 60), filaggrin, and calmodulin (ACAM). Staining of connective tissue and vessels was achieved using antibodies to vimentin (V9(1)), collagen type IV, and fibronectin. In general, these antibodies gave a staining pattern similar to that of normal human skin. The similarities of immunoreactivity to poly- and monoclonal antihuman antibodies in porcine and human skin render porcine skin a reliable model in biomedical research. PMID:1710864

  19. Primary cutaneous mucoepidermoid carcinoma infiltrating the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Minni, A; Roukos, R; De Carlo, A; Di Tillo, G; Illuminati, G; Gallo, P

    2012-10-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the skin is an extremely rare neoplasm but is common in the major and minor salivary glands accounting of approximately 30% of all malignant tumors arising from these glands. Cutaneous involvement should be carefully assessed to exclude the possibility of metastases from distant sites. We report an 81 year-old man presenting a primary cutaneous mucoepidermoid carcinoma infiltrating his left parotid gland. Excision of the affected skin and a total parotidectomy with supraomohyoid neck dissection (level I-III) was performed followed by radiotherapy. No relapse after 2 years follow up has been observed. Since the primary cutaneous mucoepidermoid carcinoma is an aggressive neoplasm that frequently develops metastases it is important to distinguish it from primary MEC originating from the salivary glands for better management and suitable therapeutic decisions. PMID:23090800

  20. Frequent DPH3 promoter mutations in skin cancers

    PubMed Central

    Denisova, Evgeniya; Heidenreich, Barbara; Nagore, Eduardo; Rachakonda, P. Sivaramakrishna; Hosen, Ismail; Akrap, Ivana; Traves, Víctor; García-Casado, Zaida; López-Guerrero, José Antonio; Requena, Celia; Sanmartin, Onofre; Serra-Guillén, Carlos; Llombart, Beatriz; Guillén, Carlos; Ferrando, Jose; Gimeno, Enrique; Nordheim, Alfred; Hemminki, Kari; Kumar, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Recent reports suggested frequent occurrence of cancer associated somatic mutations within regulatory elements of the genome. Based on initial exome sequencing of 21 melanomas, we report frequent somatic mutations in skin cancers in a bidirectional promoter of diphthamide biosynthesis 3 (DPH3) and oxidoreductase NAD-binding domain containing 1 (OXNAD1) genes. The UV-signature mutations occurred at sites adjacent and within a binding motif for E-twenty six/ternary complex factors (Ets/TCF), at −8 and −9 bp from DPH3 transcription start site. Follow up screening of 586 different skin lesions showed that the DPH3 promoter mutations were present in melanocytic nevi (2/114; 2%), melanoma (30/304; 10%), basal cell carcinoma of skin (BCC; 57/137; 42%) and squamous cell carcinoma of skin (SCC; 12/31; 39%). Reporter assays carried out in one melanoma cell line for DPH3 and OXNAD1 orientations showed statistically significant increased promoter activity due to −8/−9CC > TT tandem mutations; although, no effect of the mutations on DPH3 and OXNAD1 transcription in tumors was observed. The results from this study show occurrence of frequent somatic non-coding mutations adjacent to a pre-existing binding site for Ets transcription factors within the directional promoter of DPH3 and OXNAD1 genes in three major skin cancers. The detected mutations displayed typical UV signature; however, the functionality of the mutations remains to be determined. PMID:26416425

  1. Frequent DPH3 promoter mutations in skin cancers.

    PubMed

    Denisova, Evgeniya; Heidenreich, Barbara; Nagore, Eduardo; Rachakonda, P Sivaramakrishna; Hosen, Ismail; Akrap, Ivana; Traves, Víctor; García-Casado, Zaida; López-Guerrero, José Antonio; Requena, Celia; Sanmartin, Onofre; Serra-Guillén, Carlos; Llombart, Beatriz; Guillén, Carlos; Ferrando, Jose; Gimeno, Enrique; Nordheim, Alfred; Hemminki, Kari; Kumar, Rajiv

    2015-11-01

    Recent reports suggested frequent occurrence of cancer associated somatic mutations within regulatory elements of the genome. Based on initial exome sequencing of 21 melanomas, we report frequent somatic mutations in skin cancers in a bidirectional promoter of diphthamide biosynthesis 3 (DPH3) and oxidoreductase NAD-binding domain containing 1 (OXNAD1) genes. The UV-signature mutations occurred at sites adjacent and within a binding motif for E-twenty six/ternary complex factors (Ets/TCF), at -8 and -9 bp from DPH3 transcription start site. Follow up screening of 586 different skin lesions showed that the DPH3 promoter mutations were present in melanocytic nevi (2/114; 2%), melanoma (30/304; 10%), basal cell carcinoma of skin (BCC; 57/137; 42%) and squamous cell carcinoma of skin (SCC; 12/31; 39%). Reporter assays carried out in one melanoma cell line for DPH3 and OXNAD1 orientations showed statistically significant increased promoter activity due to -8/-9CC > TT tandem mutations; although, no effect of the mutations on DPH3 and OXNAD1 transcription in tumors was observed. The results from this study show occurrence of frequent somatic non-coding mutations adjacent to a pre-existing binding site for Ets transcription factors within the directional promoter of DPH3 and OXNAD1 genes in three major skin cancers. The detected mutations displayed typical UV signature; however, the functionality of the mutations remains to be determined. PMID:26416425

  2. Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    Primary liver cell carcinoma; Tumor - liver; Cancer - liver; Hepatoma ... Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for most liver cancers. This type of cancer occurs more often in men than women. It is usually diagnosed in people age 50 or older. Hepatocellular ...

  3. Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    Primary liver cell carcinoma; Tumor - liver; Cancer - liver; Hepatoma ... Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for most liver cancers. This type of cancer occurs more often in men than women. It is usually diagnosed in people age 50 or older. ...

  4. BCC skin cancer diagnosis based on texture analysis techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Shao-Hui; Sun, Xiaoyan; Chang, Wen-Yu; Chen, Gwo-Shing; Huang, Adam; Li, Jiang; McKenzie, Frederic D.

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we present a texture analysis based method for diagnosing the Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC) skin cancer using optical images taken from the suspicious skin regions. We first extracted the Run Length Matrix and Haralick texture features from the images and used a feature selection algorithm to identify the most effective feature set for the diagnosis. We then utilized a Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) classifier to classify the images to BCC or normal cases. Experiments showed that detecting BCC cancer based on optical images is feasible. The best sensitivity and specificity we achieved on our data set were 94% and 95%, respectively.

  5. About Skin: Your Body's Largest Organ

    MedlinePlus

    ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ...

  6. [Hepatocellular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Colombo, Massimo; Sangiovanni, Angelo

    2016-07-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer death and the first in patients with compensated cirrhosis. Chronic infection with hepatitis B and C, alcohol, smoking, exposure to aflatoxin and metabolic syndrome, associated with diabetes and obesity are the main etiological factors. Regardless of etiology, patients with cirrhosis stand as the category at higher risk of developing HCC, and indeed are the target of surveillance programs aimed to the early diagnosis of HCC, the only chance to reduce HCC-related mortality. This notwithstanding, International Scientific Societies have issued recommendations for the management of HCC, a significant number of patients are treated outside guidelines, due to several reasons. Among queries still unsolved, the impact of biological characterization of HCC, along with the biological profiling of patients at risk of developing HCC represent main challenges for the future. Treatment personalization and multimodal treatment being further challenges. This chapter summarizes the recommendations for surveillance, diagnosis and treatment of HCC and focus on future directions. PMID:27571469

  7. The development of squamous cell carcinoma in a patient after kidney transplantation: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowska, Małgorzata; Szychta, Paweł; Sporny, Stanisław; Rykała, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In patients with organ transplantation as compared to the general population the risk of cancer is significantly increased. The most common changes are malignant tumors of the skin, constituting 30-65% of malignant tumors found in recipients. Potential risk factors for skin cancer after a transplant operation are: solar radiation, immunosuppressive therapy, genetic factors, infection with HPV and skin cancer transmission before transplantation. In contrast to the immunocompetent population, skin cancers in transplant recipients are dominated by squamous cell carcinoma, followed by basal cell carcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma in patients after transplantation is characterized by a strong tendency to give local recurrences and distant metastases. Due to the high risk of developing skin cancer in transplant recipients, preventive oncology plays an important role in the long-term care of patients after transplantation. This includes: sun protection, education, and early treatment of patients with precancerous lesions. It is also stressed that systematic dermatologic studies need to be carried out in patients after transplantation surgery. The paper contains basic information about skin cancers in organ transplant recipients: epidemiology, potential risk factors, treatment and prognosis. The paper presents also a case of patient who developed squamous cell carcinoma of the skin 3 years after renal transplantation. PMID:24278050

  8. Shark skin: function in locomotion.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, S A; Vosburgh, F; Hebrank, J H

    1978-11-17

    Hydrostatic pressure under the skin of sharks varies with swimming speed. Stress in the skin varies with the internal pressure, and the skin stress controls skin stiffness. Locomotory muscles attach to the skin which is thus a whole-body exotendon whose mechanical advantage in transmitting muscular contraction is greater than that of the endoskeleton. PMID:17807247

  9. Gorlin's syndrome, or nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, P. J.; Thompson, G. A.

    1982-01-01

    Gorlin's syndrome is a condition inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. It involves many organs, but principally affects the skin, skeleton, and endocrine and nervous systems. The most common features are multiple nervi and basal cell carcinomas of the skin, benign jaw cysts, dyskeratotic pits in the palms and soles, rib and vertebral abnormalities, brachymetacarpalism, and calcification of the falx cerebri. In 14 patients, 4 of whom belonged to one family, the age at the time of diagnosis ranged from 11 to 63 years. Ten patients are alive, but five are severely disfigured by carcinomas. Two patients died of complications resulting from uncontrolled tumours, and two died of other cancers. New skin tumours constantly develop; small ones can be excised, but large ones require extensive surgery with or without radiotherapy. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 9 FIG. 10 FIG. 11 PMID:7116263

  10. Betapapillomavirus in multiple non-melanoma skin cancers of Netherton syndrome: Case report and published work review.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Liliana; Fortugno, Paola; Sinistro, Anna; Proto, Vittoria; Zambruno, Giovanna; Didona, Biagio; Castiglia, Daniele

    2015-08-01

    Netherton syndrome (NS) is a rare genetic disease presenting with ichthyosiform erythroderma, hair alterations and atopy. NS is due to SPINK5 gene mutations, which cause absent or decreased expression of the encoded protein lymphoepithelial Kazal-type-related inhibitor (LEKTI) in all stratified epithelia. We report a 43-year-old man affected with NS, who developed several squamous and basal cell carcinomas on the face, ears and scalp and papillomatous lesions of hips, groin and genitoanal area. Molecular analysis of the SPINK5 gene revealed homozygosity for the recurrent mutation c.238dupG. Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA detection and genotyping on patient skin carcinomas and hyperplastic lesions found betapapillomavirus DNA in 10 of 12 (83%) carcinomas and in a hip papilloma, with multiple betapapillomavirus types being identified. Immunohistochemistry showed upregulated expression of p16(INK4a) protein in nine of 12 (75%) patient carcinomas, in line with findings reported in HPV-related cancers. LEKTI and filaggrin immunostaining was strongly decreased in patient skin. A published work search for NS cases with skin cancers and HPV infection identified 15 NS patients, five of them showing mucosal or cutaneous HPV infection. Overall, our results confirm the increased susceptibility to skin carcinomas of some NS patients and provide further evidence of an association between HPV and non-melanoma skin cancers in NS. The highly impaired skin barrier function, hallmark of NS, could facilitate HPV infection, in turn increasing the risk for cancer development. PMID:25917539

  11. Skin Problems in Construction

    MedlinePlus

    ... 3 Keep skin clean Wash with soap and clean water if your skin comes in contact with hazardous ... caustics like wet cement. DO NOT use the water in the bucket used to clean your tools. DO NOT use hand sanitizers. Wash ...

  12. Complications of skin biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Abhishek, Kumar; Khunger, Niti

    2015-01-01

    Skin biopsy is the most commonly performed procedure by the dermatologist. Though it is a safe and easy procedure yet complications may arise. Post operative complications like wound infection and bleeding may occur. It is essential to keep the potential complications of skin biopsy in mind and be meticulous in the technique, for better patient outcomes. PMID:26865792

  13. Skin Diseases: Skin and Sun—Not a good mix

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin and Sun —Not a good mix Past Issues / Fall 2008 ... turn Javascript on. Good skin care begins with sun safety. Whether it is something as simple as ...

  14. Skin Diseases: Skin and Sun—Not a good mix

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin and Sun —Not a good mix Past Issues / ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Good skin care begins with sun safety. Whether it is ...

  15. Drinking Water Arsenic Contamination, Skin Lesions, and Malignancies: A Systematic Review of the Global Evidence.

    PubMed

    Karagas, Margaret R; Gossai, Anala; Pierce, Brandon; Ahsan, Habibul

    2015-03-01

    Skin lesions and cancer are known manifestations of chronic exposure to arsenic contaminated drinking water. Epidemiologic data primarily comes from regions with exposures 1-2 orders of magnitude above the current World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines of 10 μg/L. Emerging evidence indicates that more common exposures may also be related to both noncancerous and cancerous changes to the skin. In this review, we focus on the body of epidemiologic literature that encompasses exposures within the WHO guidelines, excluding studies that lacked individual exposure estimates and case reports. For skin lesions and skin cancers, 15 and 10 studies were identified that met our criteria, respectively. For skin lesions, a consistent dose-response relationship with water arsenic has been observed, with increased risk evident at low- to moderate-dose exposure. Of the larger studies of specific histologic types of skin cancers, although with differing exposure definitions, there was evidence of dose-related relationships with both basal cell carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas. The effect of arsenic exposure on skin lesion risk is likely modified by genetic variants that influence arsenic metabolism. Accumulating evidence suggests that arsenic may increase risk of skin lesions and skin cancers at levels not previously considered harmful, and that genetic factors may influence risk. PMID:26231242

  16. Drinking Water Arsenic Contamination, Skin Lesions, and Malignancies: A Systematic Review of the Global Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Karagas, Margaret R.; Gossai, Anala; Pierce, Brandon; Ahsan, Habibul

    2015-01-01

    Skin lesions and cancer are known manifestations of chronic exposure to arsenic contaminated drinking water. Epidemiologic data primarily comes from regions with exposures 1–2 orders of magnitude above the current World Health Organization (WHO)’s guidelines of 10 μg/L. Emerging evidence indicates that more common exposures may also be related to both non-cancerous and cancerous changes to the skin. In this review, we focus on the body of epidemiologic literature that encompasses exposures within the WHO guidelines, excluding studies that lacked individual exposure estimates and case reports. For skin lesions and skin cancers, 15 and 10 studies were identified that met our criteria, respectively. For skin lesions, a consistent dose-response relationship with water arsenic has been observed, with increased risk evident at low- to moderate-dose exposure. Of the larger studies of specific histologic types of skin cancers, although with differing exposure definitions, there was evidence of dose-related relationships with both basal cell carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas. The effect of arsenic exposure on skin lesion risk is likely modified by genetic variants that influence arsenic metabolism. Accumulating evidence suggests that arsenic may increase risk of skin lesions and skin cancers at levels not previously considered harmful, and that genetic factors may influence risk. PMID:26231242

  17. Immunohistochemical analysis of CD146 expression in canine skin tumours.

    PubMed

    Abou Asa, S; Anwar, Sh; Yanai, T; Sakai, H

    2016-04-01

    CD146, a cell adhesion molecule, is overexpressed in a variety of carcinomas, including melanoma, prostate cancer, epithelial ovarian cancer, and breast cancer. The level of expression is directly correlated with tumour progression and metastatic potential. The most commonly affected organ for both neoplastic and non-neoplastic tumours is the skin. The objective of this study is to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of CD146 in canine skin tumours of epidermal or follicular origin in 53 squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), 9 squamous papillomas, 7 infundibular keratinizing acanthomas (IKA), 21 trichoepitheliomas, 13 trichoblastomas, and 3 pilomatricomas. Immunohistochemical results showed that SCCs (90.6%), squamous papilloma (33.3%), IKA (85.7%), trichoepithelioma (85.9%), trichoblastoma (30.8%) and pilomatricoma (100%), respectively, were positive for CD146. The significant expression of CD146 in SCCs supports its importance as a useful treatment target. CD146 could also be used in differentiation of trichoepithelioma and trichoblastoma. PMID:26573287

  18. Male skin care needs.

    PubMed

    Weber, Stephen M; Ford, Kay

    2008-08-01

    Male skin care has undergone significant development over the past decade, with many companies now marketing skin care products directly to the male consumer. Despite the claims of many of these companies, few over-the-counter products have data to support their efficacy at a clinical level. A basic, effective regimen for preventive male skin care should include twice-daily facial cleansing and twice-daily moisturizer application, which should include sunscreen during the day. This article focuses on topical therapies directed at the maintenance and repair of photoaged male skin. The future holds promise for new developments in skin care. However, in the absence of significant scientific breakthroughs, the most cost-effective intervention will continue to be prevention. PMID:18620985

  19. Hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J T; Macdonald, G A

    2000-05-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) appears to be declining in Taiwan and potentially in other high-prevalence areas as a consequence of vaccination for hepatitis B virus (HBV). However, there is evidence that the incidence of HCC is increasing in North America and Europe. This appears to be related to the increasing prevalence and duration of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in these countries. There is also growing evidence to support an increase in the risk of HCC in patients with HCV who are coinfected with occult HBV (patients who have lost HBV surface antigen but still have detectable HBV DNA either in blood or liver). Occult HBV infection in patients with HCV may be more common than previously thought, and HCC that occurs in this setting appears to have a worse prognosis. There is continuing interest in the effect of interferon therapy on the incidence of HCC in patients with HCV. Several studies from Japan have shown a benefit in patients without cirrhosis, although there are a number of potentially confounding variables that may partly explain these results. Prospective randomized studies are needed to investigate this important question. The molecular biology of HCC and the events of malignant transformation in the liver continue to be areas of intense study. Recently, there has been considerable interest in telomeres, the repeat units on the ends of chromosomes, and the enzyme that maintains these, telomerase. Telomeres shorten with each cell division and can be used to determine the number of divisions a cell has undergone. Eventually they reach a critical length, with further loss resulting in cellular senescence. Telomerase restores telomere length and may help malignant cells escape senescence. Nearly all HCCs have telomerase activity and assessments of telomeres and telomerase may be clinically useful. PMID:17023886

  20. Transformation of Merkel cell carcinoma to ganglioneuroblastoma in intracranial metastasis.

    PubMed

    Lach, Boleslaw; Joshi, Sangeeta S; Murty, Naresh; Huq, Nasimul

    2014-09-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is an aggressive neuroendocrine tumor occasionally demonstrating aberrant differentiation to other epithelial and nonepithelial cell lines. We describe a case of Merkel cell carcinoma displaying unique patterns of differentiation in the primary focus and brain metastasis. The skin primary was almost uniformly small cell carcinoma positive for epithelial and neuroendocrine markers, with a few glial fibrillary acidic protein- and cytokeratin 20-positive cells. The neoplasm contained giant cells immunoreactive for neurofilament and negative for epithelial markers. The neck lymph node metastasis was a typical neuroendocrine Merkel cell carcinoma positive for cytokeratin 20. A solitary dural intracranial metastasis displayed features of aggressive ganglioneuroblastoma, expressing many neuronal antigens with no evidence of glial or epithelial differentiation. After total gross resection, the tumor recurred within 3 months, and the patient developed skeletal metastases and died 6 months after craniotomy. PMID:24996688

  1. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of ...

  2. Occupational skin disease.

    PubMed

    Peate, W E

    2002-09-15

    Contact dermatitis, the most common occupational skin disease, is characterized by clearly demarcated areas of rash at sites of exposure. The rash improves on removal of the offending agent. In allergic contact dermatitis, even minute exposures to antigenic substances can lead to a skin rash. Common sensitizing agents include nickel and members of the Rhus genus (e.g., poison ivy, poison oak). Severe skin irritants tend to cause immediate red blisters or burns, whereas weaker irritants produce eczematous skin changes over time. An occupational cause should be suspected when rash occurs in areas that are in contact with oil, grease, or other substances. Direct skin testing (patch or scratch) or radioallergosorbent testing may help to identify a specific trigger. Skin cancer can have an occupational link in workers with prolonged exposure to sunlight and certain chemicals, although it can take decades for lesions to develop. In workers with occupational skin disease, workplace changes and protective measures are important to prevent future exposure. PMID:12358214

  3. Archaea on human skin.

    PubMed

    Probst, Alexander J; Auerbach, Anna K; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The recent era of exploring the human microbiome has provided valuable information on microbial inhabitants, beneficials and pathogens. Screening efforts based on DNA sequencing identified thousands of bacterial lineages associated with human skin but provided only incomplete and crude information on Archaea. Here, we report for the first time the quantification and visualization of Archaea from human skin. Based on 16 S rRNA gene copies Archaea comprised up to 4.2% of the prokaryotic skin microbiome. Most of the gene signatures analyzed belonged to the Thaumarchaeota, a group of Archaea we also found in hospitals and clean room facilities. The metabolic potential for ammonia oxidation of the skin-associated Archaea was supported by the successful detection of thaumarchaeal amoA genes in human skin samples. However, the activity and possible interaction with human epithelial cells of these associated Archaea remains an open question. Nevertheless, in this study we provide evidence that Archaea are part of the human skin microbiome and discuss their potential for ammonia turnover on human skin. PMID:23776475

  4. Environment and the skin.

    PubMed

    Suskind, R R

    1977-10-01

    The skin is an important interface between man and his environment; it is an important portal of entry for hazardous agents and a vulnerable target tissue as well. It is a uniquely accessible model system for detecting hazards and for studying mechanisms of a wide variety of biologic funcitons. Environmental causes of skin reactions comprise a vast array of physical, chemical and biological agents. To appreciate the role of the skin as an interface with man's environment, it is necessary to understand the multiple adaptive mechanisms, and the defenses of the skin against the environmental stresses. The skin is endowed with a versatile group of defenses against penetration, fluid loss from the body, thermal stress, solar radiation, physical trauma and microbial agents. Patterns of adverse response range in quality and intensity from uncomplicated itching to metastatic neoplasia. Environmental problems comprise a large segment of disabling skin disease. Although critical epidemiologic data is limited, cutaneous illnesses comprise a significant segment of occupational disease. This represents a significant loss in productivity and a major cause of disability. The most serious research needs include the development of surveillance systems for identifying skin hazards and determining frequency of environmental skin disease; the development of new models for studying cutaneous penetration; the elucidation of the mechanisms of nonallergic inflammatory reactions (primary irritation) and of the accommodation phenomenon; the development of more sensitive models for predicting adverse responses to marginal irritants; the utilization of modern skills of immunobiology and immunochemistry to elucidate mechanisms of allergic responses; the launching of epidemiologic studies to determine the long term effects of PCBs and associated compounds such as dioxins; and the expansion of research in the mechanisms of skin cancer in relation to susceptibility, genetic and metabolic

  5. Environment and the skin

    PubMed Central

    Suskind, Raymond R.

    1977-01-01

    The skin is an important interface between man and his environment; it is an important portal of entry for hazardous agents and a vulnerable target tissue as well. It is a uniquely accessible model system for detecting hazards and for studying mechanisms of a wide variety of biologic funcitons. Environmental causes of skin reactions comprise a vast array of physical, chemical and biological agents. To appreciate the role of the skin as an interface with man's environment, it is necessary to understand the multiple adaptive mechanisms, and the defenses of the skin against the environmental stresses. The skin is endowed with a versatile group of defenses against penetration, fluid loss from the body, thermal stress, solar radiation, physical trauma and microbial agents. Patterns of adverse response range in quality and intensity from uncomplicated itching to metastatic neoplasia. Environmental problems comprise a large segment of disabling skin disease. Although critical epidemiologic data is limited, cutaneous illnesses comprise a significant segment of occupational disease. This represents a significant loss in productivity and a major cause of disability. The most serious research needs include the development of surveillance systems for identifying skin hazards and determining frequency of environmental skin disease; the development of new models for studying cutaneous penetration; the elucidation of the mechanisms of nonallergic inflammatory reactions (primary irritation) and of the accommodation phenomenon; the development of more sensitive models for predicting adverse responses to marginal irritants; the utilization of modern skills of immunobiology and immunochemistry to elucidate mechanisms of allergic responses; the launching of epidemiologic studies to determine the long term effects of PCBs and associated compounds such as dioxins; and the expansion of research in the mechanisms of skin cancer in relation to susceptibility, genetic and metabolic

  6. Carcinoma arising in pilonidal sinuses.

    PubMed Central

    Pilipshen, S J; Gray, G; Goldsmith, E; Dineen, P

    1981-01-01

    Pilonidal carcinoma is an infrequent complication of pilonidal disease. The surgeon's suspicion should be raised in cases of longstanding pilonidal inflammation. The disease occurs most frequently in men. The lesion is often a well-differentiated squamous carcinoma. Wide excisions at the initial procedure following a brief period of local wound care, is the optimum treatment and increases the chances for a five-year survival. Definitive closure of the defect is delayed and accomplished by rotational flaps or skin grafts. It palpable nodes are present in the inguinal region they should be biopsied even though this does not necessarily connote metastasis. When inguinal node metastasis is present, this is associated with a poor prognosis. The incidence of occult node metastasis is not known because no prophylactic groin dissections were performed. Staged groin dissections were not associated with any long-term survivals. The series was too small to determine its palliative potential. Radiation therapy may palliate local bone or soft tissue recurrences. Re-excisions of local soft tissue recurrences can provide, in some instances, long disease-free intervals. Both topical and systemic chemotherapy were administered in more recent cases with poor results, but this series is not large enough to form conclusions for this modality of treatment. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:7212813

  7. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Amir, H; Mbonde, M P; Kitinya, J N

    1992-11-01

    The Tanzania Cancer Registry at Muhimbili Medical Centre, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania was reviewed for squamous cell carcinoma of the skin in non-albino African subjects. The data was analysed for age, sex, site and predisposing factors. Our results were then compared with studies previously carried out in Tanzania, elsewhere in Africa and also on Blacks in America. Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin was found to be a common malignancy, and the commonest skin cancer. Its peak was in the 40-49 years age group though it could occur in children under five years of age. The most affected site was the lower limb, followed by the head and the neck. The penis in the male and the vulva in the female were the third most affected sites. The scalp and the lip were more affected in females than males. Chronic trauma, chronic ulcers, and scars were the main predisposing risk factors to the lower limb and the scalp, while ultra violet radiation to the head and neck, and smegma of the uncircumcised penis were thought to be predisposing risk factors. PMID:1308840

  8. Thermal Skin fabrication technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milam, T. B.

    1972-01-01

    Advanced fabrication techniques applicable to Thermal Skin structures were investigated, including: (1) chemical machining; (2) braze bonding; (3) diffusion bonding; and (4) electron beam welding. Materials investigated were nickel and nickel alloys. Sample Thermal Skin panels were manufactured using the advanced fabrication techniques studied and were structurally tested. Results of the program included: (1) development of improved chemical machining processes for nickel and several nickel alloys; (2) identification of design geometry limits; (3) identification of diffusion bonding requirements; (4) development of a unique diffusion bonding tool; (5) identification of electron beam welding limits; and (6) identification of structural properties of Thermal Skin material.

  9. Skin disorders at sea.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Ray; Boniface, Keith; Hite, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the types of skin disorders occurring at sea requiring acute treatment. The case logs of a tele-medicine service for US flagged ships at sea were reviewed from March 1, 2006 until March 1, 2009. Of 1844 total cases, 10% (n = 183) were for skin disorders. Sixty-eight percent (n = 125) were infections, 14% (n = 25) were inflammatory, 7% (n = 13) were environmental, and 11% (n = 20) were non-specific rashes. Cutaneous abscesses and cellulitis (n = 84) were the most common acute skin disorders encountered. In some cases (n = 81), still digital photographs aided in the diagnosis. PMID:20496321

  10. Incidental Serous Tubal Intraepithelial Carcinoma and Non-Neoplastic Conditions of the Fallopian Tubes in Grossly Normal Adnexa: A Clinicopathologic Study of 388 Completely Embedded Cases.

    PubMed

    Seidman, Jeffrey D; Krishnan, Jayashree; Yemelyanova, Anna; Vang, Russell

    2016-09-01

    Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC), the putative precursor of the majority of extrauterine high-grade serous carcinomas, has been reported in both high-risk women (those with a germline BRCA mutation, a personal history of breast carcinoma, and/or family history of breast or ovarian carcinoma) and average risk women from the general population. We reviewed grossly normal adnexal specimens from 388 consecutive, unselected women undergoing surgery, including those with germline BRCA mutation (37 patients), personal history of breast cancer or family history of breast/ovarian cancer (74 patients), endometrial cancer (175 patients), and a variety of other conditions (102 patients). Among 111 high-risk cases and 277 non-high-risk cases, 3 STICs were identified (0.8%), all in non-high-risk women (high risk vs. non-high risk: P=not significant). STIC was found in 2 women with nonserous endometrial carcinoma and 1 with complex atypical endometrial hyperplasia. Salpingoliths (mucosal calcifications), found in 9% of high-risk cases, and fimbrial adenofibromas in 9.9% of high-risk cases, were significantly more common in high-risk as compared with non-high-risk women (1.8% and 2.5%, respectively; P<0.007). Mucinous metaplasia was found in 3.1%, salpingitis isthmica nodosa in 3.4%, hemosiderin or pseudoxanthoma cells in 4.9%, and fibrous luminal nodules in 4.1%. None of these latter features differed significantly in the high-risk versus non-high-risk groups. These findings suggest a possible association between STIC and endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma, and clarify the frequency of non-neoplastic tubal findings in grossly normal fallopian tubes. PMID:26630221

  11. Radiation therapy - skin care

    MedlinePlus

    ... red, peel, or itch. You should treat your skin with care while receiving radiation therapy. ... When you have radiation treatment, a health care provider draws ... they come off, do not redraw them. Tell your provider instead. ...

  12. Skin or nail culture

    MedlinePlus

    Mucosal culture; Culture - skin; Culture - mucosal; Nail culture; Culture - fingernail; Fingernail culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria, ...

  13. Skin Conditions during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... during pregnancy? • What is pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy (PUPPP)? • What is prurigo of pregnancy? • ... itchy skin. What is pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy (PUPPP)? In this condition, small, red ...

  14. Components of skin

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... with immunity against foreign invaders like germs and bacteria. The very bottom layer of the skin is ... glands also helps to soften hair and kill bacteria that get in the skin’s pores. These oil ...

  15. CSD skin test

    MedlinePlus

    The cat scratch disease (CSD) skin test was once used to help diagnose CSD. The test is no longer used today. ... LN, Welch DF, Koehler JE. Bartonella, including cat-scratch disease. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, ...

  16. Skin Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at NCI (Intramural) ... is the body’s largest organ . It protects against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection . Skin also helps control ...

  17. Genetics and skin aging

    PubMed Central

    Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Bekou, Vassiliki; Zouboulis, Christos C.

    2012-01-01

    Skin aging is a complex process and underlies multiple influences with the probable involvement of heritable and various environmental factors. Several theories have been conducted regarding the pathomechanisms of aged skin, however fundamental mechanisms still remain poorly understood. This article addresses the influence of genetics on skin aging and in particular deals with the differences observed in ethnic populations and between both genders. Recent studies indicate that male and female aged skin differs as far as the type, the consistency and the sensitivity to external factors is concerned. The same has been also documented between elderly people of different origin. Consequently, the aging process taking place in both genders and in diverse ethnic groups should be examined separately and products specialized to each population should be developed in order to satisfy the special needs. PMID:23467395

  18. An elastic second skin.

    PubMed

    Yu, Betty; Kang, Soo-Young; Akthakul, Ariya; Ramadurai, Nithin; Pilkenton, Morgan; Patel, Alpesh; Nashat, Amir; Anderson, Daniel G; Sakamoto, Fernanda H; Gilchrest, Barbara A; Anderson, R Rox; Langer, Robert

    2016-08-01

    We report the synthesis and application of an elastic, wearable crosslinked polymer layer (XPL) that mimics the properties of normal, youthful skin. XPL is made of a tunable polysiloxane-based material that can be engineered with specific elasticity, contractility, adhesion, tensile strength and occlusivity. XPL can be topically applied, rapidly curing at the skin interface without the need for heat- or light-mediated activation. In a pilot human study, we examined the performance of a prototype XPL that has a tensile modulus matching normal skin responses at low strain (<40%), and that withstands elongations exceeding 250%, elastically recoiling with minimal strain-energy loss on repeated deformation. The application of XPL to the herniated lower eyelid fat pads of 12 subjects resulted in an average 2-grade decrease in herniation appearance in a 5-point severity scale. The XPL platform may offer advanced solutions to compromised skin barrier function, pharmaceutical delivery and wound dressings. PMID:27159017

  19. Tuberculin Skin Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... perpendicular to the long axis). How Are TST Reactions Interpreted? Skin test interpretation depends on two factors: ... among high-risk groups. What Are False-Positive Reactions? Some persons may react to the TST even ...

  20. Aging changes in skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... hematomas ) may form after even a minor injury. Pressure ulcers can be caused by skin changes, loss of ... up to 4 times slower. This contributes to pressure ulcers and infections. Diabetes , blood vessel changes, lowered immunity, ...

  1. Skin tumors on squirrels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Reilly, J.R.

    1955-01-01

    Skin tumors having the gross appearance of previously reported fibromas are reported on gray squirrels from N. Y., Md., Va., N. C., and W. Va. and from a fox squirrel from W. Va. and a porcupine from Pa.

  2. Dry Skin (Xerosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... by medical conditions, such as atopic dermatitis and malnutrition. Dry skin develops due to a decrease in ... Diabetes Hypothyroidism Down syndrome Liver or kidney disease Malnutrition HIV/AIDS Lymphoma Signs and Symptoms The most ...

  3. Skin Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... the body's largest organ . It protects against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection . Skin also helps control body ... cancer risk factors include: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  4. Healthy Skin Matters

    MedlinePlus

    ... don’t offer a safe alternative to natural sunlight. Exposure to ultraviolet (UV ) (uhl-truh-VYE-uh- ... the exposure comes from tanning beds or natural sunlight. This damage increases the risk of skin cancer ...

  5. Allergy testing - skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... if you are allergic to bee venom or penicillin. Or it may be used if the skin ... sore, or swollen after contact with the substance Penicillin allergy Venom allergy Allergies to penicillin and closely ...

  6. Regionalisation of the skin.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Jeanette A; Headon, Denis J

    2014-01-01

    The skin displays marked anatomical variation in thickness, colour and in the appendages that it carries. These regional distinctions arise in the embryo, likely founded on a combinatorial positional code of transcription factor expression. Throughout adult life, the skin's distinct anatomy is maintained through both cell autonomous epigenetic processes and by mesenchymal-epithelial induction. Despite the readily apparent anatomical differences in skin characteristics across the body, several fundamental questions regarding how such regional differences first arise and then persist are unresolved. However, it is clear that the skin's positional code is at the molecular level far more detailed than that discernible at the phenotypic level. This provides a latent reservoir of anatomical complexity ready to surface if perturbed by mutation, hormonal changes, ageing or experiment. PMID:24361971

  7. Skin lesion removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hair Small blood vessels in the skin Tattoos CRYOTHERAPY Cryotherapy is a method of super-freezing tissue in ... warts, actinic keratoses, solar keratoses, and molluscum contagiosum. Cryotherapy is done using a cotton swab that has ...

  8. PPD skin test

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a method used to diagnose silent (latent) tuberculosis (TB) infection. PPD stands for purified protein derivative. ... derivative test, Tb test, tuberculin skin test, TST, tuberculosis test) - diagnostic. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. ...

  9. [Skin-picking disorder].

    PubMed

    Niemeier, V; Peters, E; Gieler, U

    2015-10-01

    The disorder is characterized by compulsive repetitive skin-picking (SP), resulting in skin lesions. The patients must have undertaken several attempts to reduce or stop SP. The disorder must have led to clinically significant limitations in social, professional, or other important areas of life. The symptoms cannot be better explained by another emotional disorder or any other dermatological disease. In the new DSM-V, skin-picking disorder has been included in the diagnostic system as an independent disorder and describes the self-injury of the skin by picking or scratching with an underlying emotional disorder. SP is classified among the impulse-control disorders and is, thus, differentiated from compulsive disorders as such. There are often emotional comorbidities. In cases of pronounced psychosocial limitation, interdisciplinary cooperation with a psychotherapist and/or psychiatrist is indicated. PMID:26391325

  10. An elastic second skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Betty; Kang, Soo-Young; Akthakul, Ariya; Ramadurai, Nithin; Pilkenton, Morgan; Patel, Alpesh; Nashat, Amir; Anderson, Daniel G.; Sakamoto, Fernanda H.; Gilchrest, Barbara A.; Anderson, R. Rox; Langer, Robert

    2016-08-01

    We report the synthesis and application of an elastic, wearable crosslinked polymer layer (XPL) that mimics the properties of normal, youthful skin. XPL is made of a tunable polysiloxane-based material that can be engineered with specific elasticity, contractility, adhesion, tensile strength and occlusivity. XPL can be topically applied, rapidly curing at the skin interface without the need for heat- or light-mediated activation. In a pilot human study, we examined the performance of a prototype XPL that has a tensile modulus matching normal skin responses at low strain (<40%), and that withstands elongations exceeding 250%, elastically recoiling with minimal strain-energy loss on repeated deformation. The application of XPL to the herniated lower eyelid fat pads of 12 subjects resulted in an average 2-grade decrease in herniation appearance in a 5-point severity scale. The XPL platform may offer advanced solutions to compromised skin barrier function, pharmaceutical delivery and wound dressings.

  11. Skin Care and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Age Spots and Skin Tags Click for more information Age spots, once called "liver spots," are flat, brown ... surface. They are a common occurrence as people age, especially for women. They are ... options, specific conditions, and related issues. ...

  12. Bleeding into the skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... under the tissue in larger flat areas (called purpura ), or in a very large bruised area (called ... in the newborn) Aging skin (ecchymosis) Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (petechiae and purpura) Henoch-Schonlein purpura (purpura) Leukemia ( ...

  13. Skin lesion KOH exam

    MedlinePlus

    ... is present. The fungus may be related to ringworm , athlete's foot , jock itch , or another fungal infection. ... foot Candida infection of the skin Jock itch Ringworm Tinea corporis Update Date 4/14/2015 Updated ...

  14. Skin, Hair, and Nails

    MedlinePlus

    ... special types of cells: Melanocytes produce melanin, the pigment that gives skin its color. All people have ... the epidermis). Hair also contains a yellow-red pigment; people who have blonde or red hair have ...

  15. Lepromin skin test

    MedlinePlus

    ... the skin up. The lump indicates that the antigen has been injected at the correct depth. The ... When the antigen is injected, there may be a slight stinging or burning. There may also be mild itching at the ...

  16. Skin Diseases: Cross-section of human skin

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Cross-section of human skin Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Logical Images, Inc. I n the areas of skin health and skin diseases, the NIH's National Institute ...

  17. Loss of endogenous Nfatc1 reduces the rate of DMBA/TPA-induced skin tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Jill; Roth, Eve; Roberts, Natalie; Zwick, Rachel; Lin, Samantha; Fletcher, Sean; Tadeu, Ana; Wu, Christine; Beck, Amanda; Zeiss, Caroline; Suárez-Fariñas, Mayte; Horsley, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Immunosuppressive therapies using calcineurin inhibitors, such as cyclosporine A, are associated with a higher incidence of squamous cell carcinoma formation in mice and humans. Calcineurin is believed to suppress tumorigenesis in part through Nfatc1, a transcription factor expressed primarily in hair follicle bulge stem cells in mice. However, mice overexpressing a constitutively active Nfatc1 isoform in the skin epithelium developed increased spontaneous skin squamous cell carcinomas. Because follicular stem cells can contribute to skin tumorigenesis, whether the endogenous expression of Nfatc1 inhibits or enhances skin tumorigenesis is unclear. Here we show that loss of the endogenous expression of Nfatc1 suppresses the rate of DMBA/TPA-induced skin tumorigenesis. Inducible deletion of Nfatc1 in follicular stem cells before tumor initiation significantly reduces the rate of tumorigenesis and the contribution of follicular stem cells to skin tumors. We find that skin tumors from mice lacking Nfatc1 display reduced Hras codon 61 mutations. Furthermore, Nfatc1 enhances the expression of genes involved in DMBA metabolism and increases DMBA-induced DNA damage in keratinocytes. Together these data implicate Nfatc1 in the regulation of skin stem cell–initiated tumorigenesis via the regulation of DMBA metabolism. PMID:26310443

  18. Nicotinamide and the skin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L

    2014-08-01

    Nicotinamide, an amide form of vitamin B3, boosts cellular energy and regulates poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase 1, an enzyme with important roles in DNA repair and the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Nicotinamide shows promise for the treatment of a wide range of dermatological conditions, including autoimmune blistering disorders, acne, rosacea, ageing skin and atopic dermatitis. In particular, recent studies have also shown it to be a potential agent for reducing actinic keratoses and preventing skin cancers. PMID:24635573

  19. Ballistic skin simulant.

    PubMed

    Jussila, Jorma; Leppäniemi, Ari; Paronen, Mikael; Kulomäki, Erkki

    2005-05-28

    Hydrogels prepared from water solutions containing 10-20 mass% gelatine are generally accepted muscle tissue simulants in terminal ballistic research. They, however, do not have a surface layer which simulates the effect of human skin. The purpose of this research was to find a suitable skin simulant for enhancing the testing fidelity and the credibility of the results with gelatine-based materials when assessing the injury potential of not only high energy bullets, but also especially that of non-penetrating "less lethal" kinetic impact ammunition and relatively low energy ricochet fragments. A skin simulant also permits the simulation and assessment of exit wounds. The mechanical and ballistic properties of human skin and target simulant were established on the basis of results found in the literature. Some errors in these were found. The corrected values are included in this paper for comparison. The target values of the mechanical properties of the skin simulant were the following: threshold velocity v(th)=94+/-4 m/s, tensile strength 18+/-2 N/mm2 and elongation at break 65+/-5%. A selection of synthetic and natural materials was evaluated as skin simulants by analysing their mechanical and ballistic properties. The results were compared to literature values obtained with human cadavers. The tests showed that the best skin simulant of the ones evaluated was semi-finished chrome tanned upholstery "crust" cowhide of 0.9-1.1 mm nominal thickness. Its threshold velocity was 90.7 m/s, tensile strength 20.89+/-4.11 MPa and elongation at break 61+/-9%. These values are the same as the average values of human skin. Of the synthetic materials evaluated, 1mm thick natural rubber can be used on impact side as a threshold velocity filter with some reservations although its theoretical threshold velocity is only 82.9 m/s. PMID:15837009

  20. Metastatic gallbladder adenosquamous carcinoma to the skin†

    PubMed Central

    Lupinacci, Renato Micelli; Santana, André; Dias, André Roncon

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous metastasis (CM) is an uncommon manifestation of visceral malignancies. Adenosquamous carcinoma of the gallbladder is a rare variation in gallbladder carcinoma (GBC), associated with worse prognosis. We present the case of a 56-year-old woman who presented with an inflamed lump on her abdominal wall. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a large mass from the gallbladder invading the abdominal wall. She underwent liver resection with regional lymphadenectomy. Pathology analysis revealed a 12-cm pT3N0 GBC. Hospital discharge occurred at post-operative Day 20. She recurred and died 10 months after surgery. Survival after the diagnosis of CM is dismal. The present case was a diagnostic trap. First, the patient's skin lesion presented as a cutaneous abscess and biopsy revealed a squamous cell cancer. A CT scan suggested a continuous mass involving the abdominal wall. CM was only suspected during surgery when no continuity between the tumour and the abdominal wall was identified. PMID:25480835

  1. [Improvement of skin moisture and skin texture with urea therapy].

    PubMed

    Puschmann, M; Gogoll, K

    1989-01-01

    A significant increase in skin moisture and an improvement in skin smoothness after application of a urea-containing cream was noticed in a large number of volunteers with healthy skin and in neurodermitis patients compared with untreated skin and with vehicle. The effect was shown after one application (short-term test) as well as after repeated application (long-term test). Regular application of preparation containing urea increases the moisture of a the skin and improves the skin's smoothness compared with its previous condition, with untreated skin, and with placebo preparations. PMID:2807927

  2. Skin penetration enhancers.

    PubMed

    Lane, Majella E

    2013-04-15

    The skin has evolved to prevent excessive water loss from the internal organs and to limit the ability of xenobiotics and hazardous substances to enter the body. Notwithstanding this barrier function, a number of strategies have been developed by scientists to deliver drugs to and through the skin. The aim of this review is to consider the various types of chemical penetration enhancers (CPEs) which have been investigated in the scientific literature. Potential pathways for CPEs to exert their action are examined with reference to the physical chemistry of passive skin transport. The emphasis is on those studies which have focussed on human and porcine skin because of the limitations associated with skin permeation data collated from other species. Where known, the mechanisms of action of these compounds are also discussed. Examples of enhancers used in commercial topical and transdermal formulations are provided. It is proposed that overall the effects of CPEs on the skin barrier may best be explained by a Diffusion-Partition-Solubility theory. Finally, some of the limitations of studies in the literature are considered and the importance of monitoring the fate of the penetration enhancer as well as the active is highlighted. PMID:23462366

  3. Pregnancy and Skin

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Rita V.; Gupta, Rajat; Mehta, Malay J.; Chaudhari, Arvind H.; Pilani, Abhishek P.; Patel, Nidhi

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with complex of endocrinological, immunological, metabolic, and vascular changes that may influence the skin and other organs in various ways. Pregnancy is a period in which more than 90% women have significant and complex skin changes that may have great impact on the woman's life. The dermatoses of pregnancy represent a heterogeneous group of skin diseases related to pregnancy and/or the postpartum period. The dermatoses of pregnancy can be classified into the following three groups: Physiologic skin changes in pregnancy, pre-existing dermatoses affected by pregnancy, and specific dermatoses of pregnancy. Though most of these skin dermatoses are benign and resolve in postpartum period, a few can risk fetal life and require antenatal surveillance. Most of the dermatoses of pregnancy can be treated conservatively but a few require intervention in the form of termination of pregnancy. Correct diagnosis is essential for the treatment of these disorders. This article discusses the current knowledge of various skin changes during pregnancy and the evaluation of the patient with pregnancy dermatoses with special emphasis on clinical features, diagnostic tests, maternal and fetal prognosis, therapy, and management. PMID:25657937

  4. Ultraflexible organic photonic skin

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Tomoyuki; Zalar, Peter; Kaltenbrunner, Martin; Jinno, Hiroaki; Matsuhisa, Naoji; Kitanosako, Hiroki; Tachibana, Yutaro; Yukita, Wakako; Koizumi, Mari; Someya, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Thin-film electronics intimately laminated onto the skin imperceptibly equip the human body with electronic components for health-monitoring and information technologies. When electronic devices are worn, the mechanical flexibility and/or stretchability of thin-film devices helps to minimize the stress and discomfort associated with wear because of their conformability and softness. For industrial applications, it is important to fabricate wearable devices using processing methods that maximize throughput and minimize cost. We demonstrate ultraflexible and conformable three-color, highly efficient polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) and organic photodetectors (OPDs) to realize optoelectronic skins (oe-skins) that introduce multiple electronic functionalities such as sensing and displays on the surface of human skin. The total thickness of the devices, including the substrate and encapsulation layer, is only 3 μm, which is one order of magnitude thinner than the epidermal layer of human skin. By integrating green and red PLEDs with OPDs, we fabricate an ultraflexible reflective pulse oximeter. The device unobtrusively measures the oxygen concentration of blood when laminated on a finger. On-skin seven-segment digital displays and color indicators can visualize data directly on the body. PMID:27152354

  5. Thermographic diagnostics to discriminate skin lesions: a clinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stringasci, Mirian Denise; Moriyama, Lilian Tan; Salvio, Ana Gabriela; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador; Kurachi, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Cancer is responsible for about 13% of all causes of death in the world. Over 7 million people die annually of this disease. In most cases, the survival rates are greater when diagnosed in early stages. It is known that tumor lesions present a different temperature compared with the normal tissues. Some studies have been performed in an attempt to establish new diagnosis methods, targeting this temperature difference. In this study, we aim to investigate the use of a handheld thermographic camera to discriminate skin lesions. The patients presenting Basal Cell Carcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Actinic Keratosis, Pigmented Seborrheic Keratosis, Melanoma or Intradermal Nevus lesions have been investigated at the Skin Departament of Amaral Carvalho Hospital. Patients are selected by a dermatologist, and the lesion images are recorded using an infrared camera. The images are evaluated taken into account the temperature level, and differences into lesion areas, borders, and between altered and normal skin. The present results show that thermography may be an important tool for aiding in the clinical diagnostics of superficial skin lesions.

  6. Running behind a tourist: leisure-related skin cancer prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Tan, S; Sinclair, C; Foley, P

    2012-08-01

    The most important risk factor in the development of skin cancer is exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Cumulative lifetime UV radiation exposure has been shown to be most important in the pathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma, whereas intermittent high-dose UV radiation exposure in childhood and adolescence may be more important in the aetiology of basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma. Using established methodology and best available estimates on UV-related mortality and morbidity, it has been estimated that annually around 1·5 million disability-adjusted life years are lost through excessive exposure to UV radiation. Skin cancer is a significant health problem and its burden is such that it causes the health system more to treat than any other forms of cancer. Prevention is the key action in managing skin cancer at a population level. Investment in prevention programmes such as SunSmart encourages protective behaviours that will reduce the human and financial costs of skin cancer. PMID:22881590

  7. Risk factors for skin cancer among Finnish airline cabin crew.

    PubMed

    Kojo, Katja; Helminen, Mika; Pukkala, Eero; Auvinen, Anssi

    2013-07-01

    Increased incidence of skin cancers among airline cabin crew has been reported in several studies. We evaluated whether the difference in risk factor prevalence between Finnish airline cabin crew and the general population could explain the increased incidence of skin cancers among cabin crew, and the possible contribution of estimated occupational cosmic radiation exposure. A self-administered questionnaire survey on occupational, host, and ultraviolet radiation exposure factors was conducted among female cabin crew members and females presenting the general population. The impact of occupational cosmic radiation dose was estimated in a separate nested case-control analysis among the participating cabin crew (with 9 melanoma and 35 basal cell carcinoma cases). No considerable difference in the prevalence of risk factors of skin cancer was found between the cabin crew (N = 702) and the general population subjects (N = 1007) participating the study. The mean risk score based on all the conventional skin cancer risk factors was 1.43 for cabin crew and 1.44 for general population (P = 0.24). Among the cabin crew, the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose was not related to the increased skin cancer risk [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-1.00]. The highest plausible risk of skin cancer for estimated cosmic radiation dose was estimated as 9% per 10 mSv. The skin cancer cases had higher host characteristics scores than the non-cases among cabin crew (adjusted OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.01-2.04). Our results indicate no difference between the female cabin crew and the general female population in the prevalence of factors generally associated with incidence of skin cancer. Exposure to cosmic radiation did not explain the excess of skin cancer among the studied cabin crew in this study. PMID:23316078

  8. Aberrant expression of a chemokinetic glycoprotein in psoriatic skin.

    PubMed

    Rajaraman, S; Schmalsteig, F C; Brysk, M M; Hendrick, S J; Solomon, A R

    1987-05-01

    Clinically involved and uninvolved skin samples of 6 psoriatic patients, 4 samples each of normal skin specimens, basal cell carcinoma and keratoacanthoma were studied by an indirect immunofluorescence technique. The monospecific antibody used in this study was directed against a 30 kD glycoprotein, normally expressed by the terminally differentiated corneocytes. Functional characterization of this glycoprotein was evaluated by neutrophil cell movement assays. The involved and uninvolved skin of psoriatic patients expressed the 30 kD glycoprotein not only in the stratum corneum but in all the viable epidermal layers as well. Functional studies revealed this glycoprotein to be a potent chemokinetic molecule. These results suggest that the 30 kD glycoprotein is an intrinsic chemokinetic molecule of the terminally differentiated corneocytes, and its precocious and aberrant expression in psoriatic epidermis is potentially responsible for some of the pathophysiologic aspects of psoriasis. PMID:3302266

  9. Continuous-wave terahertz imaging of nonmelanoma skin cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Cecil Sudhir

    Continuous wave terahertz imaging has the potential to offer a safe, non-invasive medical imaging modality for detecting different types of human skin cancers. Terahertz pulse imaging (TPI) has already shown that there is contrast between basal cell carcinoma and normal skin. Continuous-wave imaging offers a simpler, lower cost alternative to terahertz pulse imaging. This project aims to isolate the optimal contrast frequency for a continuous wave terahertz imaging system and demonstrate transmission based, in-vitro , imaging of thin sections of non-melanoma skin cancers and correlate the images to sample histology. The aim of this project is to conduct a proof-of-principle experiment that establishes whether continuous-wave terahertz imaging can detect differences between cancerous and normal tissue while outlining the basic requirements for building a system capable of performing in vivo tests.

  10. Nonmelanoma skin cancer. Risks, treatment options, and tips on prevention.

    PubMed

    Kibarian, M A; Hruza, G J

    1995-12-01

    The incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer is rapidly increasing. With early diagnosis and treatment, almost all basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas can be cured. Premalignant actinic keratoses are treated with cryosurgery; the CO2 laser is the treatment of choice for actinic cheilitis. Generally, nonmelanoma skin cancer can be effectively treated with excision, electrodesiccation and curettage, cryosurgery, or radiation therapy; 5-year cure rates are over 90%. Large, locally recurrent, and aggressive lesions, as well as lesions located in the central face, are best managed with Mohs' surgery; 5-year cure rates as high as 99% have been reported. Patient education about the dangers of sun exposure and tanning salons can potentially reduce the incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer. The use of sunscreens starting early in life should be stressed. PMID:7501580

  11. Malignant skin tumours in patients with inherited ichthyosis.

    PubMed

    Natsuga, K; Akiyama, M; Shimizu, H

    2011-08-01

    Inherited ichthyoses are rare genodermatoses caused by mutations in the genes involved in epidermal development. Although there have been case reports on patients with ichthyosis who developed skin malignancies, it is still unknown whether or not patients with ichthyosis have an increased risk of skin malignancies. Here, we review case series of skin malignancies in patients with ichthyosis and show biological findings which might lead to cancer susceptibility. A survey of the literature revealed 28 cases of inherited ichthyoses with skin malignancy, including 12 cases of keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness (KID) syndrome, seven of autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis, three of Netherton syndrome and six of miscellaneous ichthyosis. Twenty-four of the 28 cases developed single or multiple squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). The age at diagnosis of the first skin malignancy ranged from 15 to 54 years. As patients with these particular subtypes of ichthyosis seem to be prone to skin malignancies, including SCC, at an unusually young age, routine cancer surveillance of these patients is strongly recommended. PMID:21517795

  12. Multidimensional two-photon imaging of diseased skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicchi, R.; Sestini, S.; De Giorgi, V.; Massi, D.; Lotti, T.; Pavone, F. S.

    2008-02-01

    We used combined two photon intrinsic fluorescence (TPE), second harmonic generation microscopy (SHG), fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), and multispectral two photon emission detection (MTPE) to investigate different kinds of human cutaneous ex-vivo skin lesions. Morphological and spectroscopic analyses allowed to characterize both healthy and pathological skin samples, including tumors, as well as to discriminate between healthy and diseased tissue, in a good agreement with common routine histology. In particular, we examined tissue samples from normal and pathological scar tissue (keloid), and skin tumors, including basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and malignant melanoma (MM). By using combined TPE-SHG microscopy we investigated morphological features of different skin regions, as BCC, tumor-stroma interface, healthy dermis, fibroblastic proliferation, and keloids. The SHG to autofluorescence aging index of dermis (SAAID) score was used to characterize each region, finding differences between BCC, healthy skin, tumor-stroma interface, keloids, and fibroblastic proliferation. Further comparative analysis of healthy skin and neoplastic samples was performed using FLIM. In particular, BCC showed a blue-shifted fluorescence emission, a higher absorption at 800 nm excitation wavelength, and a slightly longer mean fluorescence lifetime. MM showed a lifetime distribution similar to the corresponding melanocytic nevus (MN) lifetime distribution for the slow lifetime component, and different for the fast lifetime component.

  13. Cutaneous metastasis from anaplastic thyroid carcinoma exhibiting exclusively a spindle cell morphology. A case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Danialan, Richard; Tetzlaff, Michael T; Torres-Cabala, Carlos A; Mays, Stephen R; Prieto, Victor G; Bell, Diana; Curry, Jonathan L

    2016-03-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is a highly aggressive cancer accounting for 1-2% of thyroid malignancies. Cutaneous metastases from anaplastic thyroid carcinoma are exceedingly rare. We report a 65-year-old woman with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (BRAF V600E mutation) who had lymph node metastases (pT4 N1b) treated by total thyroidectomy, postoperative radiotherapy, adjuvant chemotherapy (paclitaxel and pazopanib) and targeted therapy (vemurafenib). Nine months after initial diagnosis, radiographic studies revealed multiple pulmonary metastases. A dermatologic examination showed a solitary 1.2-cm chest nodule. Skin biopsy from this nodule revealed infiltrative dermal spindle cells arranged in poorly formed fascicles. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated the tumor cells to be PAX-8 (+), pancytokeratin (+, focally), TTF-1 (-) and SOX-10 (-). Comparison with the patient's primary anaplastic thyroid carcinoma revealed focal areas of poorly differentiated spindle cells morphologically similar to the malignant spindle cells in the skin biopsy. Together, these findings confirmed the diagnosis of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma metastatic to skin. Cutaneous metastasis of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma composed exclusively of spindle cells broadens the histologic differential diagnosis of cutaneous spindle cell malignancies and presents further diagnostic challenges. PAX-8 may be useful in discerning the spindle cell component of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma from other spindle cell malignancies in the skin. PMID:26347145

  14. Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma with Invasion through Ear Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Boisen, Julie; Malone, C. Helen; Kelly, Brent; Wagner, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the ear represents a high-risk tumor location with an increased risk of metastasis and local tissue invasion. However, it is uncommon for these cancers to invade through nearby cartilage. Cartilage invasion is facilitated by matrix metalloproteases, specifically collagenase 3. We present the unusual case of a 76-year-old man with an auricular squamous cell carcinoma that exhibited full-thickness perforation of the scapha cartilage. Permanent sections through the eroded cartilage confirmed tumor invasion extending to the posterior ear skin. PMID:27293916

  15. [Paraneoplastic dermatomyositis revealing an undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma: about a case].

    PubMed

    Ziani, Fatima Zahra; Brahmi, Sami Aziz; Najib, Rajae; Kanab, Rajae; Arifi, Samia; Mernissi, Fatima Zahra; Mellas, Nawfal

    2016-01-01

    Dermatomyositis (DM) is an inflammatory disease of unknown origin that manifests as a myopathy associated with typical skin lesions. Association between DM and cancer is frequent (from 18% to 32% according to case series). It was described for the first time by Stertz in 1916 in association with gastric cancer. All histological types and sites of cancer in the general population may be associated with DM. Its association with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is rarely described and the incidence proportion is 1 case of nasopharyngeal carcinoma per 1.000 persons. PMID:27583093

  16. Fulminant hepatitis in a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma related to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis treated with sorafenib.

    PubMed

    Brandi, Giovanni; De Lorenzo, Stefania; Di Girolamo, Stefania; Bellentani, Stefano; Saccoccio, Gioconda; Biasco, Guido

    2015-01-01

    We describe a case of acute liver failure in a patient with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma related to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis during sorafenib treatment. A 74-year-old man with diabetes mellitus and hypertension was diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma associated with fatty liver. Three weeks after sorafenib therapy, at Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 3, he developed jaundice, general weakness, flapping tremor, nausea, and anorexia. Sorafenib was stopped: laboratory tests showed a relevant elevation of transaminases suggesting diagnosis of acute hepatitis. During hospital admission, the patient died of liver failure. Sorafenib is the first successful target therapy effective for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. The most common adverse events are fatigue, hand-foot skin reaction, skin rash/desquamation, diarrhea, and hypertension, whereas liver dysfunction is uncommon. To our knowledge, this is the first patient reported in the literature with hepatocellular carcinoma related to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis who died of rapid worsening of liver function during sorafenib treatment. PMID:25702656

  17. Opportunistic screening for skin cancer using a mobile unit in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Skin cancer is the most common malignancy in the white population worldwide. In Brazil, the National Cancer Institute (INCA) estimates that in 2010 there will be 119,780 and 5,930 new cases of non-melanoma skin cancer and melanoma, respectively. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a mobile unit in the diagnosis and treatment of skin cancer in several poor regions of Brazil. Methods The diagnosis of skin cancer was accomplished through active medical screening in the prevention Mobile Unit (MU) of Barretos Cancer Hospital (BCH). The study population consisted of patients examined in the MU between 2004 and 2007, and their suspicious lesions were subjected to histopathological evaluation. Data were collected prospectively from standardized forms and analyzed. Results During the screening, 17,857 consultations were carried out. A total of 2012 (11.2%) cases of skin cancer were diagnosed. The predominant histological type reported was basal cell carcinoma (n = 1,642 or 81.6%), followed by squamous cell carcinoma (n = 303 or 15.1%), Bowen's disease (n = 25 or 1.2%), malignant melanoma (n = 23 or 1.1%), basosquamous cell carcinoma (n = 3 or 0.1%), miscellaneous lesions (12 or 0.6%), and metatypical carcinoma (n = 4 or 0.2%). Only 0.6% of lesions were stage III. There were no stage IV non-melanoma skin lesions, as well as no melanomas stages III and IV, found. Conclusions It was observed that the MU can be a useful tool for early skin cancer diagnosis and treatment. This program probably is important, especially in developing countries with inadequate public health systems and social inequality. PMID:21645347

  18. Skin cancer screening in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nagano, T; Ueda, M; Suzuki, T; Naruse, K; Nakamura, T; Taguchi, M; Araki, K; Nakagawa, K; Nagai, H; Hayashi, K; Watanabe, S; Ichihashi, M

    1999-04-01

    Depletion of the ozone layer has been observed on a global scale. Ozone depletion increases the amount of biologically harmful solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) that reaches the surface of the Earth, leading to an increased incidence of skin cancer. We previously reported the prevalence and incidence of actinic keratosis (AK) in Kasai City, which is located almost at the center of Japan. To evaluate the effects of different ambient annual UV doses on the prevalence and incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer and AK in Japan, we screened for skin cancer on Ie Island in Okinawa at the southern end of Japan, where the annual cumulative dose of UV is assumed to be the highest in Japan. The island had a population of 5562 in 1993. A prospective 4-year population-based study on the prevalence and incidence of cutaneous neoplasms was conducted by examining the sun-exposed skin of people over 40 years of age living on Ie Island. In 1993 1996, 86 cases of AK, nine of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and two of squamous cell carcinoma were identified. The annual prevalence of AK on Ie Island was 1159.4 in 1993, 572.8 in 1994, 1014.3 in 1995 and 988.9 per 100000 Japanese in 1996. These values were significantly higher than those in Kasai City. The annual age-adjusted odds ratios for AK of Ie Island to Kasai City were 2.79, 1.38, 2.45 and 2.39, respectively. The incidences of AK on Ie Island per 100,000 were 637.0 in 1995 and 625.5 in 1996, which were also significantly higher than those in Kasai City (223.6 in 1993 and 171.2 in 1994). The prevalence of BCC was 123.6 and the incidence was 26.1. Together with our previous reports, the present results show a possible inverse relationship between the prevalence and incidence of AK and latitude among Japanese people. PMID:10215187

  19. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders

    PubMed Central

    Shenefelt, Philip D; Shenefelt, Debrah A

    2014-01-01

    Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, “goose bumps”, redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. PMID:25120377

  20. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Shenefelt, Philip D; Shenefelt, Debrah A

    2014-01-01

    Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, "goose bumps", redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. PMID:25120377

  1. Skin conditions: common skin rashes in infants.

    PubMed

    Zuniga, Ramiro; Nguyen, Tam

    2013-04-01

    Infants exhibit many skin rashes. Erythema toxicum neonatorum presents as erythematous macules, papules, and pustules on the face, trunk, and extremities; it typically resolves spontaneously within 1 week. Neonatal acne presents as comedones or erythematous papules on the face, scalp, chest, and back. Infantile acne is similar but starts after the neonatal period. Both conditions typically resolve spontaneously; failure to resolve within 1 year warrants evaluation for androgen excess. Neonatal cephalic pustulosis is an acne variant caused by hypersensitivity to Malassezia furfur. It is typically self-limited, but severe cases are managed with topical ketoconazole. Miliaria and milia are caused by sweat retention and present as tiny vesicles or papules; they resolve spontaneously. Contact diaper dermatitis is managed by keeping the diaper area clean and with open air exposure. Diaper dermatitis due to Candida albicans is managed with topical antifungals. Seborrheic dermatitis causes scaling on the scalp. Management involves shampooing and removing scales with a soft brush after applying mineral oil or petrolatum; severe cases are managed with tar or ketoconazole shampoo. Atopic dermatitis is related to food allergy in approximately one-third of children. Food allergy can be confirmed with oral food challenges or skin prick tests. Management includes elimination of irritants and triggers and use of low-potency topical steroids. PMID:23600337

  2. Rapidly growing gastric metastasis of Merkel cell carcinoma, an unusual cause of melena.

    PubMed

    Hulstaert, Eva; Smith, Vanessa; Mielants, Herman; Van Praet, Louis; De Kock, Joris; Lambrecht, Valérie; Rasschaert, Gertjan; Van Belle, Simon

    2016-08-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an uncommon, highly aggressive neuroendocrine skin carcinoma that has a tendency for local recurrence and metastatic disease. We report a rare case of recurrent melena in a 77-year-old Caucasian male. Three years earlier, the patient had undergone a radical resection of a para-umbilical MCC. A repeat esophagogastroduodenoscopy proved necessary to identify rapidly proliferating gastric metastasis of MCC as the cause of bleeding. PMID:27075789

  3. Sweat gland carcinoma in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient.

    PubMed

    Toi, M; Kauffman, L; Peterson, L; Golitz, L; Myers, A

    1995-02-01

    Eccrine (sweat gland) carcinoma is a rare form of skin cancer that may be locally destructive. It is known to recur after resection and can metastasize to regional or distant lymph nodes. There have been two reported cases in association with patients immunocompromised as the result of organ transplantation (I. Penn: Prog Allergy. 37: 259, 1986). We report here the first case of sweat gland carcinoma in a patient infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. PMID:7539911

  4. Early detection of skin cancer via terahertz spectral profiling and 3D imaging.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Anis; Rahman, Aunik K; Rao, Babar

    2016-08-15

    Terahertz scanning reflectometry, terahertz 3D imaging and terahertz time-domain spectroscopy have been used to identify features in human skin biopsy samples diagnosed for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and compared with healthy skin samples. It was found from the 3D images that the healthy skin samples exhibit regular cellular pattern while the BCC skin samples indicate lack of regular cell pattern. The skin is a highly layered structure organ; this is evident from the thickness profile via a scan through the thickness of the healthy skin samples, where, the reflected intensity of the terahertz beam exhibits fluctuations originating from different skin layers. Compared to the healthy skin samples, the BCC samples' profiles exhibit significantly diminished layer definition; thus indicating a lack of cellular order. In addition, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy reveals significant and quantifiable differences between the healthy and BCC skin samples. Thus, a combination of three different terahertz techniques constitutes a conclusive route for detecting the BCC condition on a cellular level compared to the healthy skin. PMID:27040943

  5. Skin neoplasms of dogs in Sydney.

    PubMed

    Rothwell, T L; Howlett, C R; Middleton, D J; Griffiths, D A; Duff, B C

    1987-06-01

    In a survey of dogs in Sydney, mastocytomas (16.1%) and histiocytomas (14.0%) were the most common in a total of 1,000 skin neoplasms. The basal cell and appendage group provided 25.5% of the neoplasms. The prevalence of the various neoplasms, the age of affected dogs, the proportion in the sexes, the common sites of occurrence and prevalence in the different breeds were broadly similar to findings in surveys in other countries, except that in the Syndeny dogs there was a greater prevalence of histiocytomas and haemangiopericytomas, a more common occurrence of histiocytomas in mature dogs, an occurrence of histiocytomas in similar numbers on the head, trunk and limbs, and a remarkably common development of squamous cell carcinomas in Dalmatians. PMID:3115242

  6. Environment and the skin

    SciTech Connect

    Suskind, R.R. )

    1990-03-01

    The skin is an important organ of defense adaptation and a portal of entry for xenobiotics. It is vulnerable to physical, chemical, and biologic agents and capable of expressing responses to these agents in a variety of pathologic patterns. These patterns are characterized by morphologic and functional features which are elicited by careful examination and test procedures. Cutaneous cancer may result from exposure to nonionizing as well as ionizing radiation, to specific identifiable chemical hazards, and may be enhanced by trauma. Cutaneous hazards of chemical sources are largely found in the workplace and among consumer products, including drugs and toilet goods. Environmental skin diseases and injuries are preventable. Prior to use assessment for safety and for possible risks from exposure to an agent, product, or process is of primary importance in the prevention and control of environmental skin disease and injury.

  7. Epidermal skin grafting.

    PubMed

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Hughes, Olivia B; Macquhae, Flor; Rakosi, Adele; Kirsner, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Autologous skin grafts, such as full- and split-thickness, have long been part of the reconstructive ladder as an option to close skin defects. Although they are effective in providing coverage, they require the need for a trained surgeon, use of anaesthesia and operating room and creation of a wound at the donor site. These drawbacks can be overcome with the use of epidermal skin grafts (ESGs), which can be harvested without the use of anaesthesia in an office setting and with minimal to no scarring at the donor site. ESGs consist only of the epidermal layer and have emerged as an appealing alternative to other autologous grafts for the treatment of acute and chronic wounds. In this article, we provide an overview of epidermal grafting and its role in wound management. PMID:27547964

  8. Sprayed skin turbine component

    DOEpatents

    Allen, David B

    2013-06-04

    Fabricating a turbine component (50) by casting a core structure (30), forming an array of pits (24) in an outer surface (32) of the core structure, depositing a transient liquid phase (TLP) material (40) on the outer surface of the core structure, the TLP containing a melting-point depressant, depositing a skin (42) on the outer surface of the core structure over the TLP material, and heating the assembly, thus forming both a diffusion bond and a mechanical interlock between the skin and the core structure. The heating diffuses the melting-point depressant away from the interface. Subsurface cooling channels (35) may be formed by forming grooves (34) in the outer surface of the core structure, filling the grooves with a fugitive filler (36), depositing and bonding the skin (42), then removing the fugitive material.

  9. Skin friction balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ping, Tcheng (Inventor); Supplee, Frank H., Jr. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A skin friction balance uses a parallel linkage mechanism to avoid inaccuracies in skin friction measurement attributable to off-center normal forces. The parallel linkage mechanism includes a stationary plate mounted in a cage, and an upper and lower movable plate which are linked to each other and to the stationary plate throught three vertical links. Flexure pivots are provided for pivotally connecting the links and the plates. A sensing element connected to the upper plate moves in response to skin friction, and the lower plate moves in the opposite direction of the upper plate. A force motor maintains a null position of the sensing element by exerting a restoring force in response to a signal generated by a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT).

  10. A Case of Axillary Adenoid Basal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo Ho; Ko, Woo Tae; Lee, Jong Im

    2008-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer with a steadily increasing incidence. Ultraviolet radiation is considered the single most important risk factor for BCC, because the tumor occurs most frequently in sun-exposed areas of the body, with approximately four of five BCCs occurring on the face. BCC occurs infrequently in non-sun-exposed skin. The axilla is one of the most sun-protected areas of the body, and BCC arising at this site is very rare. We herein report a case of adenoid BCC which arose from the axilla in a 33-year-old woman. PMID:27303153

  11. [Skin and hand disinfection].

    PubMed

    Mathis, U

    1991-04-01

    In modern medicine, hygiene has become an issue of ever increasing importance. Disinfection of hands is crucial, since hands are the main vector of bacteria. Successful disinfection depends not only on the appropriate choice of an active agent, but equally so on proper techniques and skin care. The spectre and the time profile of activity as well as the skin-protecting properties of the chosen disinfectant must be known. Basic knowledge of disinfection is necessary for a rational interpretation of the information given in the glossy printed material of advertisement. PMID:1858061

  12. Neck skin rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Duplechain, J Kevin

    2014-05-01

    The author of this article uses the pulsed ablative CO2 laser for resurfacing of the neck and face, based on the gold standard status of the CO2 laser and a novel post-treatment plan that greatly reduces adverse effects traditionally associated with fully ablative resurfacing. The croton oil peel is an inexpensive and effective modality for rejuvenating neck skin. The use of either technique as an adjunct to neck lift surgery, with or without facelift surgery, permits surgeons to fulfill the expectations of patients who want the skin of their face and neck to be homogeneous and more attractive. PMID:24745383

  13. Skin disorders during menopause.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Gleison V; Trigo, Ana Cm; Paim de Oliveira, Mária de Fátima

    2016-02-01

    Menopause is the cessation of menstrual periods due to the loss of ovarian function. Among the various phases of a woman's life, menopause has the greatest impact on health and has been one of the most neglected areas of research. Hormonal changes caused by menopause can lead to problems in the skin and its annexes, and despite the high frequency of dermatologic signs and symptoms, studies on this topic are limited. In this article, we review the skin disorders that result from the hormonal changes of menopause and other common dermatoses observed during this period and assess possible therapeutic approaches. PMID:26919507

  14. Study of surfactant-skin interactions by skin impedance measurements.

    PubMed

    Lu, Guojin; Moore, David J

    2012-02-01

    The stratum corneum (SC) plays a very critical physiological role as skin barrier in regulating water loss through the skin and protects the body from a wide range of physical and chemical exogenous insults. Surfactant-containing formulations can induce skin damage and irritation owing to surfactant absorption and penetration. It is generally accepted that reduction in skin barrier properties occurs only after surfactants have penetrated/permeated into the skin barrier. To mitigate the harshness of surfactant-based cleansing products, penetration/permeation of surfactants should be reduced. Skin impedance measurements have been taken in vitro on porcine skin using vertical Franz diffusion cells to investigate the impact of surfactants, temperature and pH on skin barrier integrity. These skin impedance results demonstrate excellent correlation with other published methods for assessing skin damage and irritation from different surfactant chemistry, concentration, pH, time of exposure and temperature. This study demonstrates that skin impedance can be utilized as a routine approach to screen surfactant-containing formulations for their propensity to compromise the skin barrier and hence likely lead to skin irritation. PMID:21923733

  15. Multiple primary bronchogenic carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Yang, X; Ji, H; Paljarvi, L; Soimakallio, S

    1996-07-01

    Multiple primary bronchogenic carcinomas (MPBCa) are extremely rare. The differentiation of a MPBCa from a pulmonary metastasis due to an extrathoracic neoplasm is sometimes difficult. We reviewed 324 pathologically proved primary pulmonary carcinomas and found six cases of MPBCa (1.9%). We herewith present the series and discuss the diagnosis of MPBCa. PMID:21594435

  16. Squamous cell carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    The hallmarks of squamous cell carcinoma are the differentiation features of the squamous epithelium: keratinization and intercellular bridges. Large central masses of keratin, individual cell keratinization, and/or keratin pearls may form. Necrosis of tumor cell nests and accumulation of acute inflammatory cells are frequent features of poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma.

  17. Drug Delivery Nanoparticles in Skin Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Dianzani, Chiara; Zara, Gian Paolo; Maina, Giovanni; Pettazzoni, Piergiorgio; Pizzimenti, Stefania; Rossi, Federica; Gigliotti, Casimiro Luca; Ciamporcero, Eric Stefano; Daga, Martina; Barrera, Giuseppina

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology involves the engineering of functional systems at nanoscale, thus being attractive for disciplines ranging from materials science to biomedicine. One of the most active research areas of the nanotechnology is nanomedicine, which applies nanotechnology to highly specific medical interventions for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases, including cancer disease. Over the past two decades, the rapid developments in nanotechnology have allowed the incorporation of multiple therapeutic, sensing, and targeting agents into nanoparticles, for detection, prevention, and treatment of cancer diseases. Nanoparticles offer many advantages as drug carrier systems since they can improve the solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs, modify pharmacokinetics, increase drug half-life by reducing immunogenicity, improve bioavailability, and diminish drug metabolism. They can also enable a tunable release of therapeutic compounds and the simultaneous delivery of two or more drugs for combination therapy. In this review, we discuss the recent advances in the use of different types of nanoparticles for systemic and topical drug delivery in the treatment of skin cancer. In particular, the progress in the treatment with nanocarriers of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma has been reported. PMID:25101298

  18. Clinical applications of skin substitutes.

    PubMed

    Nyame, Theodore T; Chiang, H Abraham; Orgill, Dennis P

    2014-08-01

    A unique understanding of the components of mammalian skin has led to the development of numerous skin substitutes. These skin substitutes attempt to compensate for functional and physiologic deficits present in damaged tissue. Skin substitutes, when appropriately applied in optimized settings, offer a promising solution to difficult wound management. The body of literature on skin substitutes increases as the understanding of tissue engineering and molecular biology expands. Given the high cost of these products, future randomized large prospective studies are needed to guide the clinical applications of skin substitutes. PMID:25085091

  19. Incidence of malignant skin tumors in 14,140 patients after grenz-ray treatment for benign skin disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Lindeloef, B.E.; Eklund, G.

    1986-12-01

    During the years 1949 to 1975, 14,237 patients received therapeutic doses of grenz rays for the treatment of benign skin disorders such as chronic eczema, psoriasis, and warts. The records of 14,140 of these patients (99.3%) formed the basis for an epidemiologic study of the incidence of skin malignancies in this population. Information about the patients, diagnoses, doses, and sites of treatment was obtained from separate records. The follow-up time was 15 years on the average. We searched the Swedish Cancer Registry, Stockholm, for records reporting the incidence of malignant skin tumors in the study population (incidences of basal cell carcinoma are not registered). The expected number of malignancies was calculated on the basis of age- and sex-standardized incidence data from the Swedish Cancer Registry. In 58 patients, a malignant skin tumor was diagnosed more than five years after grenz-ray therapy had first been administered. Nineteen patients had malignant melanomas, and 39 patients had other malignant skin tumors. The expected number of melanomas was 17.8, and that of other malignant skin tumors was 26.9. None of the patients with melanomas, and only eight of the patients with other malignant skin tumors, had received grenz-ray therapy at the site of the tumor. Six of these eight patients had also been exposed to other known carcinogens. Four hundred eighty-one patients had received an accumulated high dose of grenz rays (greater than or equal to 10 000 rad (greater than or equal to 100 Gy)) on one and the same area. No malignancies were found on those areas. Although we cannot exclude grenz-ray therapy as a risk factor in the development of nonmelanoma skin malignancies, this risk, if any, is small, if recommendations for therapy are followed.

  20. Squamous cell carcinoma in situ of the external auditory canal.

    PubMed

    Shu, Min-Tsan; Lin, Hung-Ching; Yang, Cheng-Chien; Chang, Kuo-Ming

    2006-08-01

    We report two cases of carcinoma in situ in the external auditory canal (EAC), presenting with symptoms such as pain, long-term itching of the ear, easy contact bleeding, canal otorrhea and hearing loss. Otoscopic examination revealed granulation tissue and a greyish-black tumour with irregular surface. The first patient had previously been diagnosed with otitis externa with persistent ear itching for the past three years. The second patient had received tympanoplasty for treatment of chronic otitis media on the right ear ten years ago. The first case was treated with wide excision, whereas the second patient received resection of the skin of the EAC together with its adjacent soft tissue, followed by skin grafting. No tumour recurrence was noted in the fourth and third post-operative year for the first and second patient respectively. We suggest that EAC carcinoma can be detected early and treated. PMID:16719955