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Sample records for adnexal skin carcinomas

  1. [Adnexal neoplasms in the context of skin cancer: trichilemmal carcinoma. Apropos of a case].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Martínez, Ignacio Jaime; Mantilla-Morales, Alejandra; Cruz-Esquivel, Iván; Gallegos-Hernández, José Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Antecedente: el carcinoma triquilemal es una neoplasia maligna poco frecuente originada en los anexos de la piel. Debido a su escasa prevalencia suele confundirse con otros tumores dérmicos, su presentación clínica no favorece el diagnóstico diferencial y generalmente éste se hace por exclusión. En teoría, su comportamiento es lento, con poca tendencia a enviar metástasis regionales ganglionares y sistémicas. Debido al escaso número de casos no existe consenso en relación con el pronóstico, aunque generalmente se estima bueno. El objetivo de este reporte es mostrar un caso que, contrario a lo informado, es de manifestación agresiva en un paciente sin factores de riesgo para cáncer de piel, con gran infiltración tumoral de los tejidos blandos alrededor del sitio de origen. Caso clínico: paciente masculino de 65 años de edad que acudió con diagnóstico citológico de carcinoma en un tumor facial preparotídeo; al momento del diagnóstico motraba infiltración de la piel de la cara, del pabellón auricular y de la glándula parótida. Se efectuó resección completa de la neoplasia en bloque con isla de piel facial, parotidectomía total y disección radical del cuello; el defecto de partes blandas fue cubierto con un colgajo pediculado. La evolución ha sido satisfactoria; sin embargo, el seguimiento es corto. Se evalúa la experiencia asentada en la bibliografía en relación con el pronóstico y tratamiento de estos pacientes. Conclusión: el carcinoma triquilemal puede tener comportamiento localmente invasor lo que hace difícil determinar el pronóstico, que quizá dependa de la etapa clínica al momento del diagnóstico.

  2. Treatment of nasal microcystic adnexal carcinoma with an expanded rotational forehead skin flap: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, RONG-RONG; ZHAO, QI-MING; ZHANG, XU-DONG; GAN, JING-BING

    2015-01-01

    Microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC) is a rare and locally aggressive adenocarcinoma with low-grade malignancy. The present study describes the first reported case and treatment of a Chinese male with a MAC located on the nasal dorsum and nosewing. A 44-year-old man presented with a nasal deformity caused by local repeated infections following an accidental injury to the nose 20 years previously. The nose had been injured by a brick, and treatment at a local hospital 12 years previously had resulted in a nasal scar and a gradually enlarging mass. A physical examination revealed a hypertrophic deformity of the nose and an indurated scar plaque, measuring 2.0×2.0 cm, on the nasal dorsum and nosewing. Microscopic examination revealed a tumor consisting of solid cell nests and a cystic structure with a capsular space. In addition, ductal cells of an adnexal cell origin were visible in the outer epithelium. The medial portion exhibited a microductal structure and invasion of deeper tissues without evident atypia. The tumor cells presented normal nuclear to cytoplasmic ratios and minimal mitotic activity. Pathological examination verified that the tumor was a MAC of low-grade malignancy. A complete surgical resection was performed via Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS), and reconstruction was achieved using an expanded rotational forehead skin flap. No tumor recurrence was detected after a three-year follow-up period. Therefore, for effective treatment of similar MAC cases, complete surgical resection using MMS is recommended, and successful reconstruction may be achieved using an expanded skin flap. PMID:26622465

  3. Urothelial Carcinoma with shadow cell, lipid cell and sebaceous (skin adnexal) differentiation: Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study of 10 cases.

    PubMed

    Behzatoğlu, Kemal

    2015-10-01

    We discuss the histological and immunohistochemical features of 6 cases of urothelial carcinomas of lipid cell variant and 4 cases with shadow cell differentiation, one of which showed additionally sebaceous differentiation, one of which shows additional sebaceous differentiation, from our archive cases from the last 15 years. Conventional urothelial carcinoma (UC) was seen in all lipid cell variant cases, and micropapillary carcinoma was seen in 3. The ratio of the lipid cell component was between 10% and 40% in these 6 cases. Typical histologic features of the lipid cell variant include lipoblast-like cells with a notched nuclear appearance, abundant vacuoles, an eccentric nucleus, and pagetoid spread in some areas. GATA3 and pancytokeratin AE1/AE3 immunohistochemical staining were positive in all cases. Adipophilin was positive in various degrees in 5 of the 6 lipid cell variant cases but was also positive in the case with sebaceous differentiation. α-methylacyl-CoA racemase was positive in the lipid cell areas and negative or focal weakly positive in the conventional UC areas in 4 of the 6 cases. Vimentin, S-100 protein, and PAX8 were negative in the lipid cell component. Follow-up information was available for all cases with follow-up ranging from 6 to 84 months (mean, 34 months). Four patients died of the disease. One pT4 patient who had been followed up for 6 months lives with the disease, whereas another is disease free. In conclusion, the lipid cell variant is a rare UC variant that usually presents at an advanced stage, and tumor cells are histologically similar to lipoblasts, resemble sebaceous differentiation, and show positive immunohistochemical staining with adipophilin.

  4. Immunohistochemical study of calretinin in normal skin and cutaneous adnexal proliferations.

    PubMed

    González-Guerra, Elena; Kutzner, Heinz; Rutten, Arno; Requena, Luis

    2012-07-01

    Calretinin is a calcium-binding protein member of the EF-hand family. The presence of calretinin has been demonstrated in certain stages of the cellular cycle in a wide variety of normal and neoplastic tissues. The main aims of our study were (1) to investigate what structures of the normal skin and cutaneous adnexal proliferations express immunoreactivity for calretinin and (2) to determine the value of immunohistochemical expression for calretinin as a marker for follicular, sebaceous, apocrine, and eccrine differentiation in cutaneous adnexal proliferations. We studied 139 biopsy specimens, including 10 cases of normal skin of different locations and 129 benign and malignant cutaneous adnexal proliferations. In normal skin, we found that calretinin is expressed in the innermost cell layer of the outer root sheath in anagen hair follicle, in both the duct and sebolemma of the sebaceous gland, in the secretory portion of eccrine glands, and in mast cells of the stroma. In cutaneous adnexal proliferations, we found strong immunoreactivity for calretinin in tricholemmal cysts, tricholemmomas/inverted follicular keratoses, tumors of follicular infundibulum, and in some basal cell carcinomas. Focal positivity was also seen in trichoadenomas, trichoblastomas/trichoepitheliomas, pilomatricomas, proliferating tricholemmal tumors, pilar sheath acanthomas, trichofolliculomas, follicular hybrid cysts, cutaneous mixed tumors, steatocystomas, sebaceous hyperplasias, and sebaceomas. These results demonstrate that immunohistochemical study for calretinin may be helpful to identify the innermost cell layer of the outer root sheath in anagen hair follicle and the cutaneous adnexal proliferations showing differentiation toward this structure. Calretinin immunoreactivity supports eccrine differentiation in some sweat gland neoplasms, and it is also useful in identifying neoplasms with ductal sebaceous differentiation.

  5. Expression of p75 neurotrophin receptor in desmoplastic trichoepithelioma, infiltrative basal cell carcinoma, and microcystic adnexal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jedrych, Jaroslaw; McNiff, Jennifer M

    2013-05-01

    The histological discrimination between desmoplastic trichoepithelioma, infiltrative basal cell carcinoma, and microcystic adnexal carcinoma encountered in small biopsies is challenging when only morphological criteria are applied. The objective of this study is to test the use of p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) as an adjunct aid in classification of these tumors. Immunohistochemistry for p75NTR antigen was performed on routinely processed biopsies of 37 desmoplastic trichoepitheliomas, 11 infiltrative basal cell carcinomas, and 9 microcystic adnexal carcinomas diagnosed by morphological criteria in conjunction with results of CK20 immunostains. Cases were analyzed for the extent and intensity of p75NTR expression. Diffuse immunoreactivity was defined as involving >90% of tumor cells. Of the 37 desmoplastic trichoepitheliomas, 35 (94%) displayed strong diffuse immunoreactivity of tumor cells, proving high sensitivity of the marker to detect this tumor. However, despite the fact that diffuse p75NTR expression reached statistical significance in differentiating desmoplastic trichoepithelioma from infiltrative basal cell carcinoma (Fisher exact test P < 0.0001) and microcystic adnexal carcinoma (P < 0.0016), specificity of the stain is unsatisfactory because strong diffuse expression of p75NTR by neoplastic cells was observed in 4 (36%) cases of infiltrative basal cell carcinomas and 4 (44%) cases of microcystic adnexal carcinoma. This study demonstrates a significant difference in p75NTR expression in selected sclerosing neoplasms of the skin. Nevertheless, the practical value of p75NTR as an adjunct marker in the differential diagnosis of these tumors seems to be limited because of significant overlap in amount of p75NTR immunoreactivity.

  6. Skin adnexal neoplasms—part 1: An approach to tumours of the pilosebaceous unit

    PubMed Central

    Alsaad, K O; Obaidat, N A; Ghazarian, D

    2007-01-01

    Skin adnexal neoplasms comprise a wide spectrum of benign and malignant tumours that exhibit morphological differentiation towards one or more types of adnexal structures found in normal skin. Most adnexal neoplasms are relatively uncommonly encountered in routine practice, and pathologists can recognise a limited number of frequently encountered tumours. In this review, the first of two, the normal histology of the skin adnexal structures is reviewed, and the histological features of selected but important benign and malignant tumours and tumour‐like lesions of pilosebaceous origin discussed, with emphasis on the diagnostic approach and pitfalls in histological diagnosis. PMID:16882696

  7. A salivary gland adenocarcinoma mimicking a microcystic adnexal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Basile, John R; Lin, Yi-Ling

    2010-04-01

    The microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC) is a rare, slow-growing but locally aggressive neoplasm arising in the midface and lips of middle-aged adults. The MAC is histologically characterized by deeply infiltrating nests and islands of basaloid or squamous cells forming cysts and ductal structures, proliferating in a dense sclerotic stroma and occasionally exhibiting perineural invasion. We describe a salivary gland adenocarcinoma arising in the lower lip, characterized by ductal structures and cords, 3-5 cell layers in thickness, set in a dense fibrous stroma and also invading nerves, thus mimicking a MAC in both its clinical and its histopathologic appearance. The diagnostic dilemma presented by this lesion is discussed, along with a differential diagnosis and brief review of the literature.

  8. Microcystic adnexal carcinoma of the cheek—a case report with dermatoscopy and dermatopathology

    PubMed Central

    Inskip, Mike; Magee, Jill

    2015-01-01

    We present a case report of a microcystic adnexal carcinoma on the cheek of a 67-year-old man. Clinical, dermatoscopic and dermatopathologic images are presented. A search of the literature has not discovered any previously published dermatoscopy images of microcystic adenexal carcinoma. PMID:25692080

  9. Rare Skin Adnexal and Melanocytic Tumors Arising in Ovarian Mature Cystic Teratomas: A Report of 3 Cases and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Moulla, Alexandra A; Magdy, Nesreen; Francis, Nicholas; Taube, Janis; Ronnett, Brigitte M; El-Bahrawy, Mona

    2016-09-01

    Mature teratoma of the ovary is the most common primary ovarian tumor accounting for 15% (10%-20%) of all ovarian neoplasms. Skin and skin adnexal structures are the most common elements identified in mature teratomas. Benign and malignant skin tumors can arise in ovarian teratomas, the most common being epithelial tumors. Melanocytic and adnexal tumors developing in a teratoma are rare and can be easily overlooked. We report 3 cases and review melanocytic and skin adnexal tumors encountered in ovarian teratomas.

  10. T-Cadherin Expression in the Epidermis and Adnexal Structures of Normal Skin

    PubMed Central

    Buechner, Stanislaw; Erne, Paul; Resink, Therese J.

    2016-01-01

    Background T-cadherin is an atypical glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored member of the cadherin superfamily of adhesion molecules. The role of T-cadherin in biology of the skin is poorly understood. Expression of T-cadherin in basal keratinocytes and dermal blood vessels of the healthy epidermis has been demonstrated, but studies on expression in skin appendages are rare. Methods We conducted an immunohistochemical analysis of T-cadherin expression in the epidermis and adnexal structures of normal skin. Results T-cadherin expression is restricted to basal keratinocytes of the epidermis. The basal cell layer of sebaceous glands was T-cadherin positive, whereas sebocytes were negative. Within apocrine glands, only myoepithelial cells were T-cadherin positive. In contrast, both the secretory coils and excretory ducts of eccrine glands were T-cadherin positive. In terminal hair follicles, the outer root sheath layers strongly expressed T-cadherin throughout different regions of the follicle, with the strongest immunoreactivity at the bulge and suprabulbar regions. T-cadherin and CK15 stem cell marker similarly localized within the bulge and suprabulbar region. T-cadherin and CD34 stem cell marker similarly localized at the suprabulbar level. Conclusion The specific patterns of T-cadherin expression in the epidermis and adnexal structures suggest an important guardian role in skin homeostasis. PMID:27904857

  11. GATA3 Expression in Normal Skin and in Benign and Malignant Epidermal and Cutaneous Adnexal Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Richard B; de Peralta-Venturina, Mariza N; Balzer, Bonnie L; Frishberg, David P

    2015-12-01

    Initial investigations reported GATA3 to be a sensitive and relatively specific marker for mammary and urothelial carcinomas. Recently, GATA3 expression has been described in several other epithelial tumors. However, there has been only limited investigation of GATA3 expression in cutaneous epithelial tumors. The objective of this study was to examine the immunohistochemical expression of GATA3 in a wide variety of cutaneous epithelial neoplasms. GATA3 expression was evaluated in 99 benign and 63 malignant cutaneous epithelial tumors. GATA3 was consistently and usually strongly expressed in clear cell acanthoma, trichofolliculoma, trichoepithelioma, trichilemmoma, sebaceous adenoma, sebaceoma, apocrine hidrocystoma, apocrine tubular papillary adenoma, hidradenoma papilliferum, and syringocystadenoma papilliferum. Hidradenomas exhibited variable positive staining. Most poromas, syringomas, chondroid syringomas, cylindromas, and spiradenomas were negative or only focally and weakly positive. Focal staining was present in all pilomatrixomas. Thirteen of 14 basal cell carcinomas, 21 of 24 squamous carcinomas, and all 6 sebaceous carcinomas exhibited positive staining. The 1 apocrine carcinoma, both mucinous carcinomas, and 2 of 3 microcystic adnexal carcinomas also exhibited positive staining, whereas the 1 eccrine porocarcinoma and the 1 adenoid cystic carcinoma were negative. One of 11 Merkel cell carcinomas exhibited focal weak staining. Our findings demonstrate that GATA3 is expressed in a wide variety of benign and malignant cutaneous epithelial neoplasms. In addition to carcinomas of breast and urothelial origin and other more recently described GATA3-positive tumors, the differential diagnosis of a metastatic tumor of unknown primary origin that expresses GATA3 should also include a carcinoma of cutaneous epithelial origin.

  12. Adnexal germ cell carcinoma with bone metastases in pregnant women: case report and review.

    PubMed

    Tenorio-Guadalupe, María Del Rosario; Arsentales-Montalva, Valeria; Yonz-Buendía, Yessabell Sonia; Fiestas-Saldarriaga, Fabián; Pimentel-Álvarez, Patricia

    2016-08-24

    Germ cell carcinoma during pregnancy is rare. However, its detection has increased due to the use of ultrasound fetal monitoring in the antenatal care program. In this article, we present the case of a Germ cell carcinoma during pregnancy is rare. However, its detection has increased due to the use of ultrasound fetal monitoring in the antenatal care program. In this article, we present the case of a pregnant 27-year-old diagnosed with an adnexal germ cell carcinoma at six weeks of gestation, whose initial approach was local resection (suboptimal cytoreduction). Four weeks after surgery, the patient presented with grade IV peripheral neuropathy in the lower limbs; magnetic resonance imaging scan indicated an infiltrative lesion at D5. The local medical board decided on chemotherapy starting on the 19th week of gestation. The rest of the pregnancy period was uneventful and the patient had a cesarean section at 34 weeks of gestation and a live newborn with no complications. Unfortunately, four days after caesarean section, the patient died of a septic shock with respiratory focus.

  13. CD3+ and BLA.36+ cells do not occur in the epidermis and adnexal epithelia of normal skin from the dorsolateral trunk of cats.

    PubMed

    Tranchina, Michelle M; Scott, Danny W; McDonough, Sean P

    2010-10-01

    A small population of resident T-lymphocytes is present in the normal epidermis of humans, mice, and rats. However, resident epidermal lymphocytes have not been reported in the normal skin of the cat. Skin-biopsy specimens from the normal skin of the dorsolateral trunk from 30 cats were examined histologically and immunohistochemically for the presence of lymphocytes, CD3+ cells, and BLA.36+ cells in epidermis and adnexal epithelia. All examinations were negative. It appears that lymphocytes occur rarely, if at all, in the epidermis and adnexal epithelial of normal cat skin. Hence, the presence of lymphocytes in these structures should be considered abnormal.

  14. Prophylactic salpingectomy and prophylactic salpingoophorectomy for adnexal high-grade serous epithelial carcinoma: A reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Oliver Perez, M Reyes; Magriñá, Javier; García, Alvaro Tejerizo; Jiménez Lopez, Jesus Salvador

    2015-12-01

    At present, there is no effective screening of ovarian cancer. Primary prevention may be the only strategy to decrease the mortality from ovarian cancer, not only in women at high risk but also at low risk. Several recent studies have identified the distal fimbriae end of the fallopian tubes as primary precursor of High-grade serous carcinoma. Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas and occult invasive serous carcinomas have been identified in 2-17% of the fallopian tubes of BRCA1/2 positive women undergoing risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy. Removal of the fallopian tubes with ovarian preservation has been suggested as a reasonable strategy that could reduce the risk of developing ovarian carcinoma in both low and high-risk women. It has been proposed after childbearing in women at high risk to be followed by bilateral oophorectomy at a later date. Bilateral salpingectomy is also suggested for low risk women, at the time of other benign gynaecologic surgery as a primary preventive strategy. Some studies have shown a risk reduction of ovarian cancer in women with bilateral prophylactic salpingectomy. Current research regarding bilateral salpingoophorectomy as primary prevention approach of ovarian cancer is reviewed here. In addition, the potential use of bilateral salpingectomy as prevention approach of ovarian cancer is discussed.

  15. An extraordinary case of axillary contracture: trapped healthy skin and its adnexes under contracted scar.

    PubMed

    Nisanci, Mustafa; Sahin, Ismail; Guzey, Serbulent

    2014-01-01

    Although striking improvements have been achieved in overall management of burn injury, postburn contractures are still an ongoing challenge to burn surgeons. Axillary adduction contracture is one of the most common types of these disabling postburn complications that usually result from suboptimal treatment after acute burns. An unusual and complicated case of axillary contracture in which the unburned, healthy axillary dome skin was trapped as a cystic mass under the scarred area was reconstructed by transfer of a big (17×13-cm) thoracodorsal artery perforator flap after contracture release. The result was satisfactory in terms of function and acceptable cosmetically. The underlying reasons for the inadequate treatment the patient received after surviving a severe electrical injury were discussed.

  16. Talimogene Laherparepvec and Nivolumab in Treating Patients With Refractory Lymphomas or Advanced or Refractory Non-melanoma Skin Cancers

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-31

    Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Adnexal Carcinoma; Apocrine Carcinoma; Eccrine Porocarcinoma; Extraocular Cutaneous Sebaceous Carcinoma; Hidradenocarcinoma; Keratoacanthoma; Malignant Sweat Gland Neoplasm; Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Microcystic Adnexal Carcinoma; NK-Cell Lymphoma, Unclassifiable; Non-Melanomatous Lesion; Paget Disease; Papillary Adenocarcinoma; Primary Cutaneous Mucinous Carcinoma; Refractory Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Mature T-Cell and NK-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Mycosis Fungoides; Refractory T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Sezary Syndrome; Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma; Skin Basal Cell Carcinoma; Skin Basosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Skin Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Spiradenocarcinoma; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Origin; Stage III Skin Cancer; Stage IV Skin Cancer; Sweat Gland Carcinoma; Trichilemmocarcinoma; Vulvar Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  17. Secondary mucinous carcinoma of the skin.

    PubMed

    Frances, Laura; Cuesta, Laura; Leiva-Salinas, Maria; Bañuls, Jose

    2014-04-16

    We report a case of a woman who presented with a cystic-appearing nodule on her left nipple. After cutaneous biopsy and gynecological staging study, she was diagnosed with skin invasion of mucinous carcinoma of the breast. We describe the main features of this rare tumor and the controversies in its diagnosis because primary and metastatic mucinous carcinomas in skin are histologically indistinguishable.

  18. [Adnexal torsion: three cases].

    PubMed

    Sánez, Henry Aristóteles Mateo; Taboada-Pérez, Grecia Carolina; Hernández-Arroyo, Lysandra; Mateo-Madrigal, Melissa; Mateo-Madrigal, Victoria

    2013-05-01

    Adnexal torsion is a gynecological emergency caused by the torsion of the ovary over its pedicle producing lymphatic and venous stasis, later it develops into ischemia and necrosis, when is not treated. Until recently, the treatment for adnexal torsion has been adnexectomy. This paper report three cases treated successfully with conservative treatment. It is essential to establish a protocol for adnexal torsion management where radical treatments are abandoned and conservative surgeries, such as detorsion and plication, are performed. We suggest as a first choice management adnexal detorsion, in case malignity is suspected to have intraoperative pathologic analysis, and based on the results to decide to preserve the adnexal or remove it for definitive cure.

  19. Secretory Carcinoma of the Skin Harboring ETV6 Gene Fusions: A Cutaneous Analogue to Secretory Carcinomas of the Breast and Salivary Glands.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Justin A; Taube, Janis M; Su, Albert; Binder, Scott W; Kazakov, Dmitry V; Michal, Michal; Westra, William H

    2017-01-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma is a low-grade salivary gland carcinoma that exhibits analogous features to secretory carcinoma of the breast including the presence of a t(12;15) translocation resulting in the ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion. Rare cases of purported secretory carcinoma of the skin adnexa have been reported, but their relationship to true secretory carcinoma of the breast and salivary glands is unclear, as they generally do not harbor ETV6 rearrangements. Cases of cutaneous neoplasms with histologic features identical to secretory carcinoma of the breast and salivary glands were identified from the consultation files of 3 academic medical institutions. Immunohistochemistry was performed for S100 protein, mammaglobin and STAT5a. Break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization was used evaluate for disruption of the ETV6 gene. Six cases of cutaneous secretory carcinoma were identified. The tumors arose in 4 women and 2 men, ranging from 24 to 71 years in age (mean, 47 y). The carcinomas presented in the skin of the axilla (n=4), ventral neck (n=1), and cheek (n=1). The tumors arose in the superficial dermis in association with adnexal structures. None of the patients had a prior or concurrent breast or salivary gland tumor. They were histologically characterized by well-circumscribed but unencapsulated proliferations of bland, eosinophilic cells arranged in microcysts and follicles with intraluminal secretions. Ectopic breast or salivary gland tissue was not identified. The cases were diffusely positive for S100 protein (6 of 6), mammaglobin (6 of 6), and STAT5a (5 of 5). All 6 cases harbored rearrangements of ETV6. All tumors were treated by simple excision alone. No recurrences or metastases developed in the 2 cases with follow-up. Secretory carcinoma of the skin represents a phenotypic, immunohistochemical, and genetic counterpart to secretory carcinoma of the breast and salivary glands. This tumor entity is less anatomically restricted than previously

  20. Nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Dubas, Lauren E; Ingraffea, Adam

    2013-02-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common form of malignancy in humans. The incidence of NMSC continues to increase despite increased awareness and sun-protective measures. If neglected or mismanaged, NMSC can cause significant morbidity and even death. The most common forms of NMSC on the head and neck include basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, sebaceous carcinoma, eccrine porocarcinoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, atypical fibroxanthoma, and microcystic adnexal carcinoma. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment (standard excision, Mohs micrographic surgery, curettage); however, other modalities exist, including radiation, topical immunomodulators, photodynamic therapy, and new systemic medications.

  1. Expression of gelatinase A and TIMP-2 mRNAs in desmoplastic fibroblasts in both mammary carcinomas and basal cell carcinomas of the skin.

    PubMed Central

    Poulsom, R; Hanby, A M; Pignatelli, M; Jeffery, R E; Longcroft, J M; Rogers, L; Stamp, G W

    1993-01-01

    AIMS--To compare the localisation of mRNAs for the basement membrane degrading enzyme gelatinase A (72 kilodalton type IV collagenase) and its inhibitor TIMP-2 in carcinomas of the breast and basal cell carcinomas of the skin which have little or no ability to metastasize. METHODS--In situ hybridisation was performed on formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded blocks using 35S-labelled riboprobes on 16 mammary carcinomas, three fibroadenomas, and a benign phyllodes tumour, and on 15 basal cell carcinomas of the skin (BCC). RESULTS--Labelling for both mRNAs was detectable in 14 of 16 mammary carcinomas and in 13 of 15 BCC, most often over organising desmoplastic fibroblasts in the stroma around invasive epithelial aggregates. Some sparse labelling was seen over malignant epithelial cells in six of the mammary carcinomas but not in the BCC. Some expression of gelatinase A mRNA was also seen in fibroblasts of breast lobules adjacent to the mammary carcinomas and around engulfed adnexal elements in the BCC, but not in unaffected breast tissues, fibroadenomas, the phyllodes tumour or unaffected skin. CONCLUSIONS--Maximal expression of gelatinase A and TIMP-2 mRNAs occurs in malignant neoplasms as part of the host response to the presence of established neoplastic cells rather than as an initial response to invasion. The degree to which this is present suggests this may be a highly relevant mechanism modulating tumour differentiation, growth and progression, possibly entailing uptake via specific receptors on the tumour cell surface. Images PMID:8391548

  2. Metallothionein immunolocalization in actinic skin nonmelanoma carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Borges Júnior, Paulo C; Ribeiro, Rosy I M A; Cardoso, Sérgio V; Berbet, Alceu L C; Rocha, Ademir; Espindola, Foued S; Loyola, Adriano M

    2007-06-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are the most frequent skin cancer. Its pathogeny is linked to genotoxic effects of actinic radiation exposure, especially to ultraviolet wavelength. Metallothionein (MT) is a low-molecular weight protein with high affinity for heavy metal. Its intracellular function has been related to heavy metals and free-radical detoxification, although many studies linked MT to protective action against actinic mutagenesis. In other way, overexpression in malignant tumors has been related to worse prognosis. We aimed to evaluate MT immunohistochemical expression in skin cancer associated to actinic radiation. Twenty-six BCC cases, 20 SCC, and 6 normal skin fragments were investigated. Immunohistochemical assay were performed by streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase technique with standard monoclonal antibody (E9). In normal skin, immunostaining was observed in basal layer of the epithelium. In the epithelium adjacent to tumors, suprabasal layer was also intensely labeled. Mean MT immunostaining indices were 18.5+21.2% for BCC and 69.1+14.4% for SCC. This difference was statistically significant. Higher MT expression in SCC as compared with BCC suggests association with tumoral aggressiveness.

  3. Distant Skin Metastases from Carcinoma Buccal Mucosa: A Rare Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Shashank; Leekha, Nitin; Gupta, Sweety; Mithal, Umang; Arora, Vandana; De, Sudarsan

    2016-01-01

    Cancer of the oral cavity makes up approximately 30% of all head and neck region tumors. Skin metastasis is rare with an incidence ranging between 0.7% and 2.4%. Skin metastasis usually occurs in the neck, scalp, and over the skin near the primary site. We report a patient with carcinoma left buccal mucosa who presented with distant skin metastases to the right side chest wall. PMID:27512210

  4. Vismodegib induces significant clinical response in locally advanced trichoblastic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lepesant, P; Crinquette, M; Alkeraye, S; Mirabel, X; Dziwniel, V; Cribier, B; Mortier, L

    2015-10-01

    Patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma due to local extension or metastatic disease were previously at a therapeutic impasse. Targeted inhibition of the sonic hedgehog pathway by vismodegib represents a new therapeutic strategy. Adnexal carcinomas are rare malignant skin tumours derived from epithelial annexes. Conventional treatment of adnexal tumours is based on surgical excision. Although the radiosensitivity of adnexal carcinomas has not been established, radiotherapy could be offered alone or in combination in locally advanced or inoperable disease. Chemotherapy represents a therapeutic option in the treatment of metastatic adnexal tumours. Currently there is no effective treatment for these tumours when they become metastatic or unresectable, and treatment is palliative. Sunitinib represents a new therapeutic strategy, with efficiency described in the literature for a small number of patients. However, its efficacy is partial, and its tolerance is not always good. We report a patient with trichoblastic carcinoma, initially diagnosed as basal cell carcinoma, treated effectively with vismodegib. The remarkable response we have observed in this patient suggests an encouraging therapeutic role of vismodegib in trichoblastic carcinoma that should be evaluated in a carefully designed trial.

  5. Skin metastasis of hypopharyngeal carcinoma to the nasal tip.

    PubMed

    Shindo, Masahisa; Yoshida, Yuichi; Tominaga, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Osamu

    2013-06-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) rarely metastasizes to the skin. Metastases to the nasal tip from hypopharyngeal malignancies are extremely rare. We present a patient with nasal tip metastasis from hypopharyngeal SCC. A 74-year-old man with hypopharyngeal and esophageal carcinomas had a red nodule on his nasal tip (so-called "clown nose"). Histopathologically, atypical squamoid cell nests had proliferated in a lobular fashion from the dermis to subcutaneous tissue. Those atypical cells were identical to primary tumor cells in the hypopharynx. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of skin metastasis from hypopharyngeal SCC was made. In patients with malignant disease, biopsy should be performed for any suspicious skin lesion. In a patient like ours, "clown nose" might be a symptom of cutaneous metastasis. When clinicians note a "clown nose", they should consider malignancies in the neck and chest areas.

  6. Rippled Pattern Extraocular Sebaceous Carcinoma: A Rare Case Report with Brief Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    K., Amita; S., Vijayshankar; S.N., Shobha

    2013-01-01

    Sebaceous carcinoma (SC) is a highly aggressive malignant adnexal tumor of sebaceous gland origin, accounting for less than 1% of cutaneous. Extraocular sebaceous carcinomas are more aggressive than their ocular counterpart with a predilection for the skin of head and neck, trunk, salivary glands and extremities in decreasing order of frequency. Rippled effect literally means “gradually spreading effect”. In histopathology it describes the unique arrangement of tumor cells in palisading pattern. The tumors in which rippled effect has been reported include adnexal tumors like trichoblastoma, trichomatricoma, trichoblastoma with sebaceous differentiation, trichoblastoma with apocrine differentiation, sebaceoma, basal cell carcinoma, fibrohistiocytic tumors, mesenchymal tumors and melanocytic tumors. We report the first case of extra ocular sebaceous carcinoma with rippled effect with emphasis on the fact that differentiation from other tumors demonstrating rippled effect is important in view of different treatment protocols. PMID:24298500

  7. Metastatic transitional cell carcinoma presenting with skin metastasis.

    PubMed

    Açıkgöz, Onur; Ölçücüoğlu, Erkan; Kasap, Yusuf; Yığman, Metin; Güneş, Zeki Ender; Gazel, Eymen

    2015-01-01

    Transitional cell carcinomas (TCC) of upper urinary system account for 5% of all TCCs. The incidence of such metastases ranges from 0.18% to 2%. Experimental studies reported a general unsatisfactory survival time following skin metastasis. We report in this paper a case of metastatic urinary system TCC, which had become evident with a skin lesion in the right hypogastric region. A 60-year-old female patient with a history of being operated upon due to renal pelvic TCC was admitted to our outpatient clinic with complaints of red skin lesion in the near vicinity of the operational incision scar for 3 months. Her medical history revealed nothing but nephroureterectomy operation on the upper urinary system; moreover, it was learned that she had been ignoring what was recommended to her for routine controls. Thoraco-abdominal computed tomographic (CT) examination performed on the basis of aforementioned findings depicted a mass lesion of 24*20 mm dimension with high contrast uptake detected within the subcutaneous fat tissue in the right abdominal wall. The skin lesion depicted in CT was surgically excised. The pathological examination of the excised material was reported to be compatible with TCC. The patient was referred due to abdominal lesion to medical oncology after the operation. Followed up under chemotherapy protocol, the patient died 3 months after the metastasectomy operation. Skin metastasis of upper urinary system TCCs, especially renal pelvic TCCs, are quite rare conditions. Among the likely skin sites of metastasis for genitourinary system TCCs are head, face, extremities, suprapubic region and abdomen. Taking into consideration the low survival rates, the importance of early diagnosis of recurrences and/or distant metastases should be better appreciated. These patients die soon after the skin metastasis even with the administration of aggressive therapy. Similarly, our patient died 90 days after the diagnosis of skin metastasis despite the oncologic

  8. Metastatic transitional cell carcinoma presenting with skin metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Açıkgöz, Onur; Ölçücüoğlu, Erkan; Kasap, Yusuf; Yığman, Metin; Güneş, Zeki Ender; Gazel, Eymen

    2015-01-01

    Transitional cell carcinomas (TCC) of upper urinary system account for 5% of all TCCs. The incidence of such metastases ranges from 0.18% to 2%. Experimental studies reported a general unsatisfactory survival time following skin metastasis. We report in this paper a case of metastatic urinary system TCC, which had become evident with a skin lesion in the right hypogastric region. A 60-year-old female patient with a history of being operated upon due to renal pelvic TCC was admitted to our outpatient clinic with complaints of red skin lesion in the near vicinity of the operational incision scar for 3 months. Her medical history revealed nothing but nephroureterectomy operation on the upper urinary system; moreover, it was learned that she had been ignoring what was recommended to her for routine controls. Thoraco-abdominal computed tomographic (CT) examination performed on the basis of aforementioned findings depicted a mass lesion of 24*20 mm dimension with high contrast uptake detected within the subcutaneous fat tissue in the right abdominal wall. The skin lesion depicted in CT was surgically excised. The pathological examination of the excised material was reported to be compatible with TCC. The patient was referred due to abdominal lesion to medical oncology after the operation. Followed up under chemotherapy protocol, the patient died 3 months after the metastasectomy operation. Skin metastasis of upper urinary system TCCs, especially renal pelvic TCCs, are quite rare conditions. Among the likely skin sites of metastasis for genitourinary system TCCs are head, face, extremities, suprapubic region and abdomen. Taking into consideration the low survival rates, the importance of early diagnosis of recurrences and/or distant metastases should be better appreciated. These patients die soon after the skin metastasis even with the administration of aggressive therapy. Similarly, our patient died 90 days after the diagnosis of skin metastasis despite the oncologic

  9. Radiation-induced skin carcinomas of the head and neck

    SciTech Connect

    Ron, E.; Modan, B.; Preston, D.; Alfandary, E.; Stovall, M.; Boice, J.D. Jr. )

    1991-03-01

    Radiation exposures to the scalp during childhood for tinea capitis were associated with a fourfold increase in skin cancer, primarily basal cell carcinomas, and a threefold increase in benign skin tumors. Malignant melanoma, however, was not significantly elevated. Overall, 80 neoplasms were identified from an extensive search of the pathology logs of all major hospitals in Israel and computer linkage with the national cancer registry. Radiation dose to the scalp was computed for over 10,000 persons irradiated for ringworm (mean 7 Gy), and incidence rates were contrasted with those observed in 16,000 matched comparison subjects. The relative risk of radiogenic skin cancer did not differ significantly between men or women or by time since exposure; however, risk was greatest following exposures in early childhood. After adjusting for sex, ethnic origin, and attained age, the estimated excess relative risk was 0.7 per Gy and the average excess risk over the current follow-up was 0.31/10(4) PY-Gy. The risk per Gy of radiation-induced skin cancer was intermediate between the high risk found among whites and no risk found among blacks in a similar study conducted in New York City. This finding suggests the role that subsequent exposure to uv radiation likely plays in the expression of a potential radiation-induced skin malignancy.

  10. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in previously burned or irradiated skin

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, M.J.; Hirsch, R.M.; Broadwater, J.R.; Netscher, D.T.; Ames, F.C.

    1989-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising in previously burned or irradiated skin was reviewed in 66 patients treated between 1944 and 1986. Healing of the initial injury was complicated in 70% of patients. Mean interval from initial injury to diagnosis of SCC was 37 years. The overwhelming majority of patients presented with a chronic intractable ulcer in previously injured skin. The regional relapse rate after surgical excision was very high, 58% of all patients. Predominant patterns of recurrence were in local skin and regional lymph nodes (93% of recurrences). Survival rates at 5, 10, and 20 years were 52%, 34%, and 23%, respectively. Five-year survival rates in previously burned and irradiated patients were not significantly different (53% and 50%, respectively). This review, one of the largest reported series, better defines SCC arising in previously burned or irradiated skin as a locally aggressive disease that is distinct from SCC arising in sunlight-damaged skin. An increased awareness of the significance of chronic ulceration in scar tissue may allow earlier diagnosis. Regional disease control and survival depend on surgical resection of all known disease and may require radical lymph node dissection or amputation.

  11. Low-Molecular-Weight Hydrophilic and Lipophilic Antioxidants in Nonmelanoma Skin Carcinomas and Adjacent Normal-Looking Skin.

    PubMed

    Grammenandi, Konstantina; Kyriazi, Maria; Katsarou-Katsari, Alexandra; Papadopoulos, Othon; Anastassopoulou, Ioanna; Papaioannou, Georgios T; Sagriotis, Alexandros; Rallis, Michail; Maibach, Howard I

    2016-01-01

    Low-molecular-weight antioxidants are some of the most efficient agents of the skin defense mechanism against environmental factors, such as cosmic rays, smoke, and pollutants. The total skin concentrations of hydrophilic ascorbic and uric acids, as well as lipophilic α-tocopherol, β-carotene, and ubiquinol-10 antioxidants were determined by an HPLC-EC detector from 18 biopsies of human nonmelanoma skin carcinomas and 18 biopsies from skin areas adjacent to carcinomas. No significant differences in the concentrations of lipophilic antioxidants in both carcinomas and normal-looking skin areas adjacent to carcinomas were observed. On the contrary, ascorbic and uric acid concentrations were found to be 18 and 36% lower in carcinomas than in normal-looking skin areas, respectively. No statistical significance was observed between antioxidant concentrations and age, sex, phototype, profession, site of tumor, frequency, and time of UV light exposure either. Accordingly the antioxidant concentrations in both cancerous skin and adjacent normal-looking areas were found to be much higher than in normal skin, in contrast to literature data.

  12. Skin cancer in organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Kempf, Werner; Mertz, Kirsten D; Hofbauer, Günther F L; Tinguely, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Organ transplant recipients (OTR) are at a significantly increased risk for developing a wide variety of skin cancers, particularly epithelial skin cancer, Merkel cell carcinoma and Kaposi's sarcoma. Melanoma, skin adnexal neoplasm and cutaneous lymphomas are also more common in OTR and may differ in their clinicopathologic presentation from tumors in immunocompetent patients. The accuracy of clinical diagnosis of suspected premalignant and malignant skin lesions in OTR is modest. Therefore, histopathological diagnosis is an essential element for the diagnostic workup of skin cancers and, in addition, provides important information on prognosis. Squamous cell carcinoma and intraepithelial neoplasias (actinic keratosis, squamous cell carcinoma in situ or Bowen's disease) are the most common forms of skin cancer in OTR. The risk of Merkel cell carcinoma and Kaposi's sarcoma is dramatically increased in OTR. Merkel cell carcinoma shows a highly aggressive course. Kaposi's sarcoma tends to spread to extracutaneous sites. Primary cutaneous lymphomas developing after organ transplantation are rare. The spectrum of cutaneous B cell lymphomas in OTR, in particular, differs significantly from that of the general population, with a predominance of Epstein-Barr virus-driven posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder. This review discusses the clinical and histopathological aspects of skin cancers in OTR, the impact of dermatopathological analysis on prognosis and the understanding of the pathogenesis of these neoplasms.

  13. The Role of Infectious Agents in the Etiology of Ocular Adnexal Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Varun; Shen, Defen; Sieving, Pamela C.; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2008-01-01

    Given the fact that infectious agents contribute to around 18% of human cancers worldwide, it would seem prudent to explore their role in neoplasms of the ocular adnexa: primary malignancies of the conjunctiva, lacrimal glands, eyelids, and orbit. By elucidating the mechanisms by which infectious agents contribute to oncogenesis, the management, treatment, and prevention of these neoplasms may one day parallel what is already in place for cancers such as cervical cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and gastric adenocarcinoma. Antibiotic treatment and vaccines against infectious agents may herald a future with a curtailed role for traditional therapies of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Unlike other malignancies for which large epidemiological studies are available, analyzing ocular adnexal neoplasms is challenging as they are relatively rare. Additionally, putative infectious agents seemingly display an immense geographic variation that has led to much debate regarding the relative importance of one organism versus another. This review discusses the pathogenetic role of several microorganisms in different ocular adnexal malignancies, including human papilloma virus in conjunctival papilloma and squamous cell carcinoma, human immunodeficiency virus in conjunctival squamous carcinoma, Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes virus or human herpes simplex virus-8 (KSHV/HHV-8) in conjunctival Kaposi sarcoma, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori,), Chlamydia, and hepatitis C virus in ocular adnexal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas. Unlike cervical cancer where a single infectious agent, human papilloma virus, is found in greater than 99% of lesions, multiple organisms may play a role in the etiology of certain ocular adnexal neoplasms by acting through similar mechanisms of oncogenesis, including chronic antigenic stimulation and the action of infectious oncogenes. However, similar to other human malignancies

  14. [Current recommendations in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin].

    PubMed

    Kunte, C; Konz, B

    2007-05-01

    The incidence of the most common tumors of the skin, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, has risen rapidly in recent years. Dermatologists see in their daily practice many different clinical and histological variants of these tumors. They must be able to develop therapeutic strategies adapted to the tumor and the patient. Surgical excision remains the standard treatment. Micrographic histological evaluation should be employed in difficult locations, for large tumors and when there is increased risk of recurrence or metastasis. For initial or superficial lesions, other approaches such as radiation therapy, as well as curettage, cryosurgery, laser therapy and photodynamic therapy can be employed. An additional option is topical treatment with imiquimod or 5-flourouracil.

  15. Papillary thyroid carcinoma with an uncommon spread of hematogenous metastases to the choroid and the skin.

    PubMed

    Bucerius, Jan; Meyka, Susanne; Michael, Bangard; Biersack, Hans-Jürgen; Eter, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Papillary carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the thyroid gland with initial lymphogenic metastatic spread in many cases. Hematogenous spread may affect the lung, bone and brain. We present a case of hematogenous metastases of papillary thyroid carcinoma both in the choroid and the skin, which are reported in the literature to be rare sites of metastases in primary differentiated thyroid carcinoma. This finding is even more remarkable, as the reported patient presented without any other disseminated hematogenous metastases at the time of diagnosis of both of these metastases. With this background, papillary carcinoma of the thyroid should be considered in the differential diagnosis of choroidal or skin metastasis of unknown origin.

  16. Impaired skin barrier function in mice with colon carcinoma induced by azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Satoshi; Hiramoto, Keiichi; Koyama, Mayu; Ooi, Kazuya

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported that impaired skin barrier function was induced by small intestinal injury in mice. Therefore, we postulated that other intestinal diseases might also influence skin barrier function. In this study, we evaluated the skin barrier function of hairless mice with colon carcinoma that was induced by azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). In mice treated with these drugs, we observed elevated transepidermal water loss and reduced skin hydration levels, compared to those in the control mice. In addition, plasma nitrogen di/trioxide (NO2(-)/NO3(-)) levels were significantly elevated, and expression of type I collagen was significantly reduced in the treated mice, compared to those in control. These results suggest that impaired skin barrier function occurs in mice when colon carcinoma is present.

  17. Neglected skin cancer in the elderly: a case of basosquamous cell carcinoma of the right shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Bisgaard, Erika; Tarakji, Michael; Lau, Frank; Riker, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Skin cancer remains the most common cancer worldwide, and basal cell carcinoma represents the largest portion of non-melanomatous skin cancers with over 3 million cases diagnosed annually. Locally advanced disease is frequently seen in the elderly posing clinical challenges regarding proper treatment. We report on an 86-year-old female presenting with fatigue, anemia and a large ulcerated skin lesion along the right upper back. A biopsy of the lesion revealed a basosquamous cell carcinoma. She underwent a wide local excision with complex wound reconstruction. Neglected skin cancers in the elderly can present difficult clinical scenarios. There are associated adjuvant therapies that should be considered following resection, such as local radiation therapy and other novel therapies. Newer therapies, such as with vismodegib, may also be considered. A comprehensive, multimodal approach to treatment should be considered in most cases of locally advanced, non-melanoma skin cancers. PMID:27534889

  18. Neglected skin cancer in the elderly: a case of basosquamous cell carcinoma of the right shoulder.

    PubMed

    Bisgaard, Erika; Tarakji, Michael; Lau, Frank; Riker, Adam

    2016-08-17

    Skin cancer remains the most common cancer worldwide, and basal cell carcinoma represents the largest portion of non-melanomatous skin cancers with over 3 million cases diagnosed annually. Locally advanced disease is frequently seen in the elderly posing clinical challenges regarding proper treatment.We report on an 86-year-old female presenting with fatigue, anemia and a large ulcerated skin lesion along the right upper back. A biopsy of the lesion revealed a basosquamous cell carcinoma. She underwent a wide local excision with complex wound reconstruction.Neglected skin cancers in the elderly can present difficult clinical scenarios. There are associated adjuvant therapies that should be considered following resection, such as local radiation therapy and other novel therapies. Newer therapies, such as with vismodegib, may also be considered. A comprehensive, multimodal approach to treatment should be considered in most cases of locally advanced, non-melanoma skin cancers.

  19. Endocrine Mucin-Producing Sweat Gland Carcinoma, a Histological Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Salama, Samih; Gohla, Gabriella; Alowami, Salem

    2017-01-01

    Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma (EMPSGC) is a rare adnexal tumor of the skin with low-grade cytological features and neuroendocrine differentiation. It has a predilection for the skin of the eyelid, but has also been reported in the face and rarely extra-facial locations. The tumor is seen more frequently in women and on average affects the elderly. It is histologically and immunohistochemically analogous to solid papillary carcinoma of the breast/endocrine ductal carcinoma in situ with a nodular, solid, papillary, and/or cribriforming architecture, neuroendocrine differentiation, and mucin production. Since it was first described by Flieder et al. in 1997, less than 60 cases have been reported in literature. We describe the morphological and immunohistochemical features of another case with a review of the common histological differential diagnoses and emphasize the salient features that help distinguish this rare neoplasm. PMID:28299221

  20. Merkel cell polyomavirus is present in common warts and carcinoma in situ of the skin.

    PubMed

    Mertz, Kirsten D; Pfaltz, Madeleine; Junt, Tobias; Schmid, Mirka; Fernandez Figueras, Maria Teresa; Pfaltz, Katrin; Barghorn, André; Kempf, Werner

    2010-10-01

    Polyomaviruses have been linked to diseases of immunosuppressed patients. We sought to determine the prevalence of Merkel cell polyomavirus in benign epithelial skin neoplasms and nonmelanoma skin cancer of immunosuppressed renal transplant recipients and long-term dialysis patients. Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 2 (10%) of 20 patients, in carcinomas in situ (Bowen's disease). In one of our patients with Merkel cell polyomavirus-positive carcinoma in situ, 9 (39.1%) of 23 skin lesions at various anatomical locations tested positive for Merkel cell polyomavirus sequences by PCR, including all of his common warts (4/4), half of his carcinoma in situ lesions (3/6), and 2 of his 3 seborrheic keratoses. In a second cohort of immunosuppressed renal transplant recipients, Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA was found in 1 (6.3%) of 16 common warts and in 2 (9.5%) of 21 carcinomas in situ. In immunocompetent individuals, Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA was found in 2 (6.7%) of 30 common warts and in 2 (8.3%) of 24 carcinomas in situ. DNA of other human polyomaviruses was not detected in any of the investigated skin neoplasms. We conclude that common warts and carcinomas in situ can be positive for Merkel cell polyomavirus in immunosuppressed as well as immunocompetent individuals. Remarkably, some of the Merkel cell polyomavirus-positive common warts did not contain human papillomavirus. Furthermore, Merkel cell polyomavirus can be found in various skin neoplasms of the same individual.

  1. Distribution of lectin UEA-I in trichilemmal carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and other epithelial tumors of the skin.

    PubMed

    Ko, T; Muramatsu, T; Shirai, T

    1996-06-01

    Trichilemmal carcinoma (TLC) is a cutaneous appendage tumor. In some cases, the histological distinction between TLC and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is difficult with hematoxylin & eosin staining. In the present study, in order to establish a simple and reliable method for distinguishing between TLC and SCC, we examined the lectin Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I)-binding patterns of TLC (4 cases), SCC (10 cases), malignant proliferating trichilemmal cyst (MPTC) (3 cases), Bowen's disease (4 cases), Bowen's carcinoma (4 cases), actinic keratosis (4 cases), basal cell carcinoma (8 cases), and eccrine porocarcinoma (1 case). In normal skin samples, UEA-I was strongly positive in the outer root sheath cells of the hair follicle and weakly positive in the granular layers of the epidermis. UEA-I stained the tumor cells of TLC clearly and some MPTC and Bowen's disease cells weakly. This result indicates that histochemical staining with UEA-I is a simple and useful method for distinguishing between TLC and SCC of the skin.

  2. Depth and Patterns of Adnexal Involvement in Primary Extramammary (Anogenital) Paget Disease: A Study of 178 Lesions From 146 Patients.

    PubMed

    Konstantinova, Anastasia M; Shelekhova, Ksenya V; Stewart, Colin J; Spagnolo, Dominic V; Kutzner, Heinz; Kacerovska, Denisa; Plaza, Jose A; Suster, Saul; Bouda, Jiri; Pavlovsky, Michal; Kyrpychova, Liubov; Michal, Michal; Guenova, Emmanuella; Kazakov, Dmitry V

    2016-11-01

    Extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) is a rare neoplasm usually presenting in the anogenital area, most commonly in the vulva. Adnexal involvement in primary EMPD is a very common feature and serves as a pathway for carcinoma to spread into deeper tissue. The depth of carcinomatous spread along the appendages and the patterns of adnexal involvement were studied in 178 lesions from 146 patients with primary EMPD. Hair follicles and eccrine ducts were the adnexa most commonly affected by carcinoma cells. The maximal depth of involvement was 3.6 mm in this series. When planning topical therapy or developing novel local treatment modalities for EMPD, this potential for significant deep spread along adnexa should be taken into account.

  3. Signet-ring cell carcinoma of the gallbladder with skin metastases.

    PubMed

    Krunic, Aleksandar L; Chen, Helen M; Lopatka, Keith

    2007-08-01

    Cutaneous metastasis from gallbladder cancer is extremely rare. We present a case of signet-ring cell carcinoma of the gallbladder metastatic to the skin in a 38-year-old man. The skin nodules on the face, scalp and perianal area occurred approximately 1 year after the resection of the neoplasm. Skin metastases from gastrointestinal cancers are usually detected around surgical scars or on the abdominal wall, especially in the periumbilical region, and rarely present at other sites. Multiple imaging studies revealed the presence of metastatic bony involvement in the spine and left orbit. Visceral metastases have not been demonstrated in our patient in 20 months of follow up since the initial diagnosis of gallbladder cancer was made. We also briefly discuss other primary and metastatic skin tumours with signet-ring cell morphology.

  4. [Carcinoma of the skin of the external auditory meatus].

    PubMed

    Jesić, S; Radulović, R; Djerić, D; Nesić, V; Dimitrijević, M; Petrović, Z; Arsović, N; Arsić-Mandarić, Z

    2004-01-01

    Carcinoma of the external meatus is a rare disease and a challenge to treat. Demographic and clinical characteristics of this disease are discussed for 14 patients treated in the Institute of Otorhinolaryngonlogy and Maxillofacial Surgery during the period 1993-2003. using four different clasification of the disease. All patients were treated surgically with postoperative radiotherapy. Five years survival is 100% for the II and II stage of the disease for all clasifications, and 75% for the III stage according to Pitsburg clasiffication. Reccurence of the disease in the first year after treatment is 66.6% and, 84% in the second year. The diagnostic protocol is clinical examination, computed tomography of the temporal bone, nuclear magnetic resonance of the temporal bone and endocranium, ultrasound examination of the neck and parotid region and tumor biopsy. The surgical approach could be less radical, through mastoid, with postoperative

  5. Interstitial brachytherapy of periorificial skin carcinomas of the face: A retrospective study of 97 cases

    SciTech Connect

    Rio, Emmanuel . E-mail: e-rio@nantes.fnclcc.fr; Bardet, Etienne; Ferron, Christophe; Peuvrel, Patrick; Supiot, Stephane; Campion, Loic; Beauvillain De Montreuil, Claude; Mahe, Marc Andre; Dreno, Brigitte

    2005-11-01

    Purpose: To analyze outcomes after interstitial brachytherapy of facial periorificial skin carcinomas. Patients and Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 97 skin carcinomas (88 basal cell carcinomas, 9 squamous cell carcinomas) of the nose, periorbital areas, and ears from 40 previously untreated patients (Group 1) and 57 patients who had undergone surgery (Group 2). The average dose was 55 Gy (range, 50-65 Gy) in Group 1 and 52 Gy (range, 50-60 Gy) in Group 2 (mean implantation times: 79 and 74 hours, respectively). We calculated survival rates and assessed functional and cosmetic results de visu. Results: Median age was 71 years (range, 17-97 years). There were 29 T1, 8 T2, 1 T3, and 2 Tx tumors in Group 1. Tumors were <2 cm in Group 2. Local control was 92.5% in Group 1 and 88% in Group 2 (median follow-up, 55 months; range, 6-132 months). Five-year disease-free survival was better in Group 1 (91%; range, 75-97) than in Group 2 (80%; range, 62-90; p = 0.23). Of the 34 patients whose results were reassessed, 8 presented with pruritus or epiphora; 1 Group 2 patient had an impaired eyelid aperture. Cosmetic results were better in Group 1 than in Group 2 with, respectively, 72% (8/11) vs. 52% (12/23) good results and 28 (3/11) vs. 43% (10/23) fair results. Conclusions: Brachytherapy provided a high level of local control and good cosmetic results for facial periorificial skin carcinomas that pose problems of surgical reconstruction. Results were better for untreated tumors than for incompletely excised tumors or tumors recurring after surgery.

  6. Human skin carcinoma arising from kidney transplant-derived tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Verneuil, Laurence; Varna, Mariana; Ratajczak, Philippe; Leboeuf, Christophe; Plassa, Louis-François; Elbouchtaoui, Morad; Schneider, Pierre; Sandid, Wissam; Lebbé, Celeste; Peraldi, Marie-Noelle; Sigaux, François; de Thé, Hugues; Janin, Anne

    2013-09-01

    Tumor cells with donor genotype have been identified in human skin cancer after allogeneic transplantation; however, the donor contribution to the malignant epithelium has not been established. Kidney transplant recipients have an increased risk of invasive skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), which is associated with accumulation of the tumor suppressor p53 and TP53 mutations. In 21 skin SCCs from kidney transplant recipients, we systematically assessed p53 expression and donor/recipient origin in laser-microdissected p53+ tumor cells. In one patient, molecular analyses demonstrated that skin tumor cells had the donor genotype and harbored a TP53 mutation in codon 175. In a kidney graft biopsy performed 7 years before the skin SCC diagnosis, we found p53+ cells in the renal tubules. We identified the same TP53 mutation in these p53+ epithelial cells from the kidney transplant. These findings provide evidence for a donor epithelial cell contribution to the malignant skin epithelium in the recipient in the setting of allogeneic kidney transplantation. This finding has theoretical implications for cancer initiation and progression and clinical implications in the context of prolonged immunosuppression and longer survival of kidney transplant patients.

  7. Human skin carcinoma arising from kidney transplant–derived tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Verneuil, Laurence; Varna, Mariana; Ratajczak, Philippe; Leboeuf, Christophe; Plassa, Louis-François; Elbouchtaoui, Morad; Schneider, Pierre; Sandid, Wissam; Lebbé, Celeste; Peraldi, Marie-Noelle; Sigaux, François; de Thé, Hugues; Janin, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Tumor cells with donor genotype have been identified in human skin cancer after allogeneic transplantation; however, the donor contribution to the malignant epithelium has not been established. Kidney transplant recipients have an increased risk of invasive skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), which is associated with accumulation of the tumor suppressor p53 and TP53 mutations. In 21 skin SCCs from kidney transplant recipients, we systematically assessed p53 expression and donor/recipient origin in laser-microdissected p53+ tumor cells. In one patient, molecular analyses demonstrated that skin tumor cells had the donor genotype and harbored a TP53 mutation in codon 175. In a kidney graft biopsy performed 7 years before the skin SCC diagnosis, we found p53+ cells in the renal tubules. We identified the same TP53 mutation in these p53+ epithelial cells from the kidney transplant. These findings provide evidence for a donor epithelial cell contribution to the malignant skin epithelium in the recipient in the setting of allogeneic kidney transplantation. This finding has theoretical implications for cancer initiation and progression and clinical implications in the context of prolonged immunosuppression and longer survival of kidney transplant patients. PMID:23979160

  8. Oblimersen in Treating Patients With Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    Recurrent Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage I Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage II Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage III Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage IV Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin

  9. ETV6 rearrangement in a case of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of the skin.

    PubMed

    Chang, Michael D; Arthur, Allison K; García, Joaquín J; Sukov, William R; Shon, Wonwoo

    2016-11-01

    Mammary analog secretory carcinoma of salivary glands is a relatively recently recognized entity that harbors the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion transcript. To date, only rare cases of mammary analog secretory carcinoma of the skin have been reported. A 57-year-old man presented with a 6.0 cm cystic mass in the axilla, involving the dermis and superficial subcutis. Microscopically, the tumor exhibited nodular aggregation of tubular and microcystic structures embedded in the dense fibrotic and hyalinized stroma. Characteristic 'colloid-like' eosinophilic secretory material was present within intraluminal spaces. Tumor cells were largely characterized by vesicular nuclei with inconspicuous nucleoli and pink vacuolated cytoplasm. With respect to immunohistochemistry, tumor cells were intensely positive for AE1/AE3, Cam 5.2, and CK7, whereas Ber-EP4 and CEA were completely negative. A dual color break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization probe identified rearrangement of the ETV6 gene locus on chromosome 12. The patient is alive with no evidence of recurrent disease or metastasis 3 years after the initial surgery. In conclusion, we report a rare example of mammary analog secretory carcinoma of the skin with ETV6 rearrangement. Awareness of this unique cutaneous tumor and subsequent reporting of additional cases is necessary for better characterization of its completely clinicopathologic spectrum.

  10. Diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of human skin by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Riziene d. M. F.; Martin, Airton A.; Tierra-Criollo, Carlos J.; Santos, Ivan D.

    2004-07-01

    The development of a technique that gives early diagnosis and is non-invasive is of crucial importance for public health. Raman spectroscopy is a technique that can full fill these requirements. The main goal of this work was to use the FT-Raman spectroscopy to differentiate between normal skin and the squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) tissues in vitro. The samples used in this study were collected by traditional human biopsy of skin tissue. The samples removed from the patients were washed in physiologic serum and frozen in liquid nitrogen. The FT-Raman device used was the RFS 100- Bruker, with a 1064nm from the Nd:YAG as an excitation source. After the Raman measurement the samples were submitted for histopathological study for comparation. The Raman spectra in the normal tissue showed the presence of vibrational bands in 860 cm-1 and 939 cm-1 with higher intensity than in the carcinoma spectra. These modes were assigned to the vibration of proline and hydroxiproline. The shift region of 1555 to 1560 cm-1 showed a difference of intensity to the samples of squamous cell carcinoma, which were attributed to the nucleic acid.

  11. PKK suppresses tumor growth and is decreased in squamous cell carcinoma of the skin.

    PubMed

    Poligone, Brian; Gilmore, Elaine S; Alexander, Carolina V; Oleksyn, David; Gillespie, Kathleen; Zhao, Jiyong; Ibrahim, Sherrif F; Pentland, Alice P; Brown, Marc D; Chen, Luojing

    2015-03-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer represents the most common cancer in the United States. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin is a subtype of NMSC that shows a greater potential for invasion and metastasis. The current study identifies the protein kinase C-associated kinase (PKK), which is also known as the receptor-interacting protein kinase 4, as a suppressor of tumor growth in SCC of the skin. We show that expression of PKK is decreased in human SCC of the skin compared with normal skin. Further, suppression of PKK in human keratinocytes leads to increased cell proliferation. The use of RNA interference to reduce PKK expression in keratinocytes leads to an increase in S phase and in proteins that promote cell cycle progression. Consistent with the results obtained from cell culture, there is a marked increased tumorigenesis after PKK knockdown in a xenotransplant model and in soft agar assays. The loss of tumor suppression involves the NF-κB and p63 pathways. NF-κB is inhibited through inhibition of inhibitor of NF-κB kinase function and there is increased nuclear TP63 activity after PKK knockdown. This study opens new avenues both in the discovery of disease pathogenesis and for potential treatments.

  12. PKK Suppresses Tumor Growth and is Decreased in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin

    PubMed Central

    Poligone, Brian; Gilmore, Elaine S.; Alexander, Carolina; Oleksyn, David; Gillespie, Kathleen; Zhao, Jiyong; Ibrahim, Sherrif; Pentland, Alice P.; Brown, Marc; Chen, Luojing

    2014-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) represents the most common cancer in the United States. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin is a sub-type of NMSC that shows a greater potential for invasion and metastasis. The current study identifies the Protein Kinase C-associated Kinase (PKK), which is also known as the Receptor-Interacting Protein Kinase 4 (RIPK4), as a suppressor of tumor growth in SCC of the skin. We show that expression of PKK is decreased in human SCC of the skin compared to normal skin. Further, suppression of PKK in human keratinocytes leads to increased cell proliferation. Use of RNA interference to reduce PKK expression in keratinocytes leads to an increase in S phase and in proteins that promote cell cycle progression. Consistent with the results obtained from cell culture, there is a dramatic increased tumorigenesis after PKK knockdown in a xenotransplant model and in soft agar assays. The loss of tumor suppression involves the NF-κB and p63 pathways. NF-κB is inhibited through inhibition of IKK function and there is increased nuclear TP63 activity after PKK knockdown. This study opens new avenues both in the discovery of disease pathogenesis and for potential treatments. PMID:25285922

  13. Molecular classification of basal cell carcinoma of skin by gene expression profiling.

    PubMed

    Jee, Byul A; Lim, Hyoseob; Kwon, So Mee; Jo, Yuna; Park, Myong Chul; Lee, Il Jae; Woo, Hyun Goo

    2015-12-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) including basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are more common kinds of skin cancer. Although these tumors share common pathological and clinical features, their similarity and heterogeneity at molecular levels are not fully elaborated yet. Here, by performing comparative analysis of gene expression profiling of BCC, SCC, and normal skin tissues, we could classify the BCC into three subtypes of classical, SCC-like, and normal-like BCCs. Functional enrichment and pathway analyses revealed the molecular characteristics of each subtype. The classical BCC showed the enriched expression and transcription signature with the activation of Wnt and Hedgehog signaling pathways, which were well known key features of BCC. By contrast, the SCC-like BCC was enriched with immune-response genes and oxidative stress-related genes. Network analysis revealed the PLAU/PLAUR as a key regulator of SCC-like BCC. The normal-like BCC showed prominent activation of metabolic processes particularly the fatty acid metabolism. The existence of these molecular subtypes could be validated in an independent dataset, which demonstrated the three subgroups of BCC with distinct functional enrichment. In conclusion, we suggest a novel molecular classification of BCC providing insights on the heterogeneous progression of BCC.

  14. Basal cell carcinoma vs basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the skin: an immunohistochemical reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Webb, David V; Mentrikoski, Mark J; Verduin, Lindsey; Brill, Louis B; Wick, Mark R

    2015-04-01

    Typical cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are morphologically dissimilar. It is well known, however, that poorly differentiated SCC may assume a basaloid phenotype, complicating the histologic distinction between these 2 neoplasms. Selected immunohistochemical stains have been used in the past to aid in that differential diagnosis. In the current study, additional markers were evaluated to determine whether they would be helpful in that regard. Twenty-nine cases of metatypical (squamoid) BCC (MBCC) and 25 examples of basaloid SCC (BSCC) were studied using the antibodies Ber-EP4 and MOC-31 as well as a plant lectin preparation from Ulex europaeus I (UEA-1). The resulting immunostains were interpreted independently by 3 pathologists, and the results showed that MBCCs demonstrated strong and diffuse staining for Ber-EP4 (25/29) and MOC-31 (29/29). In contrast, BSCCs tended to be only sporadically reactive for both markers (4/25 and 1/25 cases, respectively). Labeling for UEA-1 was observed in almost all BSCCs (24/25), but only 6 of 29 cases of MBCC showed limited, focal staining with that lectin. These data suggest that MOC-31 is a useful marker in the specified differential diagnosis, especially when used together with UEA-1.

  15. Association between pregnancy and adnexal torsion

    PubMed Central

    Yuk, Jin-Sung; Shin, Ji-Yeon; Park, Won I.; Kim, Dae Woon; Shin, Jung Whan; Lee, Jung Hun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of pregnancy on adnexal torsion (AT). We conducted a matched case-control study using the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service–National Inpatients Sample (HIRA-NIS) from 2009 to 2011. AT patients were defined as women with both a diagnostic code (N835) and a surgical code for AT. The AT patients were randomly matched 1:4 with women without AT by age and year of claim. In total, 545 AT cases and 2180 controls were enrolled from a total of 1,843,451 women. After adjustment for such covariates as age, pregnancy was found to be associated with a lower rate of AT (adjusted odds ratio 0.314, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.237–0.416, P value <0.01) and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome was associated with a higher rate of AT (adjusted odds ratio 20.091, 95% CI 3.607–111.908, P value <0.01). We found that pregnancy is a negative risk factor for AT. However, a further study is needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying these results. PMID:27310967

  16. Basal cell carcinoma of the skin (part 1): epidemiology, pathology and genetic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Correia de Sá, Tiago Ribeiro; Silva, Roberto; Lopes, José Manuel

    2015-11-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer worldwide with increasing incidence, but difficult to assess due to the current under registration practice. Despite the low mortality rate, BCC is a cause of great morbidity and an economic burden to health services. There are several risk factors that increase the risk of BCC and partly explain its incidence. Low-penetrance susceptibility alleles, as well as genetic alterations in signaling pathways, namely SHH pathway, also contribute to the carcinogenesis. BCC associate with several genetic syndromes, of which basal cell nevus syndrome is the most common.

  17. 21 CFR 866.6050 - Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system... immunological Test Systems § 866.6050 Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system. (a) Identification. An ovarian/adnexal mass assessment test system is a device that measures one or more proteins in serum...

  18. 21 CFR 866.6050 - Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system... immunological Test Systems § 866.6050 Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system. (a) Identification. An ovarian/adnexal mass assessment test system is a device that measures one or more proteins in serum...

  19. 21 CFR 866.6050 - Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system... immunological Test Systems § 866.6050 Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system. (a) Identification. An ovarian/adnexal mass assessment test system is a device that measures one or more proteins in serum...

  20. ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy for the Assessment of Biochemical Changes in Skin Due to Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Cássio A.; Goulart, Viviane P.; Côrrea, Luciana; Pereira, Thiago M.; Zezell, Denise M.

    2015-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancers represent 95% of cutaneous neoplasms. Among them, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the more aggressive form and shows a pattern of possible metastatic profile. In this work, we used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy to assess the biochemical changes in normal skin caused by squamous cell carcinoma induced by multi-stage chemical carcinogenesis in mice. Changes in the absorption intensities and shifts were observed in the vibrational modes associated to proteins, indicating changes in secondary conformation in the neoplastic tissue. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to evaluate the potential of the technique to differentiate the spectra of neoplastic and normal skin tissue, so that the accuracy obtained for this classification was 86.4%. In this sense, attenuated total reflection (ATR)-FTIR spectroscopy provides a useful tool to complement histopathological analysis in the clinical routine for the diagnosis of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25811925

  1. Tetraspanin CD151 plays a key role in skin squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qinglin; Yang, Xiuwei H.; Xu, Fenghui; Sharma, Chandan; Wang, Hong-Xing; Knoblich, Konstantin; Rabinovitz, Isaac; Granter, Scott R.; Hemler, Martin E.

    2012-01-01

    Here we provide the first evidence that tetraspanin CD151 can support de novo carcinogenesis. During two-stage mouse skin chemical carcinogenesis, CD151 reduces tumor lag time and increases incidence, multiplicity, size, and progression to malignant squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), while supporting both cell survival during tumor initiation and cell proliferation during the promotion phase. In human skin SCC, CD151 expression is selectively elevated compared to other skin cancer types. CD151 support of keratinocyte survival and proliferation may depend on activation of transcription factor STAT3, a regulator of cell proliferation and apoptosis. CD151 also supports PKCα-α6β4 integrin association and PKC-dependent β4 S1424 phosphorylation, while regulating α6β4 distribution. CD151-PKCα effects on integrin β4 phosphorylation and subcellular localization are consistent with epithelial disruption to a less polarized, more invasive state. CD151 ablation, while minimally affecting normal cell and normal mouse functions, markedly sensitized mouse skin and epidermoid cells to chemicals/drugs including DMBA (mutagen) and camptothecin (topoisomerase inhibitor), as well as to agents targeting EGFR, PKC, Jak2/Tyk2, and STAT3. Hence, CD151 ‘co-targeting’ may be therapeutically beneficial. These findings not only support CD151 as a potential tumor target, but also should apply to other cancers utilizing CD151-laminin-binding integrin complexes. PMID:22824799

  2. Single-Site Laparoscopic Management of a Large Adnexal Mass

    PubMed Central

    Scribner, Dennis R.; Weiss, Patrice M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Single-site laparoscopy is gaining acceptance in many surgical fields including gynecology. The purpose of this report is to demonstrate the technique and outcome for removing a large adnexal mass through a single site. Case Description: A 41-y-old female was referred to gynecology oncology for increased abdominal girth for 3 mo. An ultrasound confirmed a benign-appearing, 37-cm left adnexal mass. The mass was removed through a single-site laparoscopic incision with the aid of drainage and a morcellator. The operating time was 84 min. The patient was discharged 2 h and 35 min later with full return to normal activity in 5 d. Conclusion: Large, benign-appearing adnexal masses can be managed safely with superior cosmetic results using single-site laparoscopy. PMID:23925036

  3. Excision repair of pyrimidine dimers induced by simulated solar radiation in the skin of patients with basal cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Alcalay, J.; Freeman, S.E.; Goldberg, L.H.; Wolf, J.E. )

    1990-11-01

    One prominent lesion induced in DNA by ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimer formed between adjacent pyrimidines on the same DNA strand. We investigated whether people who have developed basal cell carcinoma on sun-exposed skin have an altered ability to repair UV-induced pyrimidine dimers in DNA. Twenty-two patients with at least one basal cell carcinoma, aged 31-84 years, and 19 healthy volunteers, aged 25-61 years, took part in the study. Both groups were given one minimal erythema dose (MED) of simulated solar radiation on the lower back. DNA was extracted from the irradiated skin 0 to 6 h later, and the number of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers was determined using a dimer-specific endonuclease. At time 0, the average number of dimers per unit of DNA was similar in the two groups. After 6 h, an average of 22 +/- 4% of the dimers were removed in the group with basal cell carcinoma compared to 33 +/- 4% in the cancer-free group. In the basal cell carcinoma group, only 23% of the patients repaired more than 30% of the dimers after 6 h, compared with 53% of the cancer-free subjects (p less than 0.05). We conclude that patients who develop basal cell carcinoma on sun-exposed skin may have a decreased ability to repair pyrimidine dimers induced in skin exposed to simulated solar radiation.

  4. Quality of life and self-esteem in patients submitted to surgical treatment of skin carcinomas: long-term results*

    PubMed Central

    Maciel, Paula Curitiba; Veiga-Filho, Joel; de Carvalho, Marcelo Prado; Fonseca, Fernando Elias Martins; Ferreira, Lydia Masako; Veiga, Daniela Francescato

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cancer is a multifactorial disease and skin carcinomas are the most common type of cancer. Assessing quality of life and self-esteem outcomes in skin cancer patients is important because these are indicators of the results of the treatment, translating how patients face their lives and their personal relationships. OBJECTIVE To assess the late impact of the surgical treatment of head and/or neck skin carcinomas on quality of life and self-esteem of the patients. METHODS Fifty patients with head or neck skin carcinomas were enrolled. Their age ranged between 30 and 75 years, 27 were men and 23 were women. Patients were assessed with regard to quality of life and self-esteem, preoperatively and five years postoperatively. Validated instruments were used: the MOS 36-item Short-form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Rosenberg Self-esteem/EPM-UNIFESP Scale. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used for the statistical analysis. RESULTS Twenty-two patients completed the five-year follow-up, 54.5% women and 45.5% men. Compared to the preoperative assessment, patients had an improvement in mental health (p=0.011) and in self-esteem (p=0.002). There was no statistical difference with regard to the other domains of the SF-36. CONCLUSION Patients submitted to surgical treatment of skin carcinoma improved mental health and self-esteem in the late postsurgical testing. PMID:25054746

  5. Nonlinear spectral imaging of human normal skin, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma based on two-photon excited fluorescence and second-harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, S. Y.; Yang, J. G.; Zhuang, J.

    2011-10-01

    In this work, we use nonlinear spectral imaging based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) for analyzing the morphology of collagen and elastin and their biochemical variations in basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and normal skin tissue. It was found in this work that there existed apparent differences among BCC, SCC and normal skin in terms of their thickness of the keratin and epithelial layers, their size of elastic fibers, as well as their distribution and spectral characteristics of collagen. These differences can potentially be used to distinguish BCC and SCC from normal skin, and to discriminate between BCC and SCC, as well as to evaluate treatment responses.

  6. A case of epidermodysplasia verruciformis with squamous cell carcinomas on non-sun-exposed areas of skin.

    PubMed

    Ansarin, Habib; Tajziehchi, Leila; Shaianfar, Nasrin

    2007-04-01

    Epidermodysplasia verruciformis is an inherited disorder, characterized by multiple plane warts, pityriasis versicolor-like lesions, defects of cell-mediated immunity, and tendency to develop skin malignancies, primarily on sun-exposed areas. In this article, we present a case of epidermodysplasia verruciformis with multiple plane warts, pityriasis versicolor-like lesions, and squamous cell carcinomas on non-sun-exposed areas of skin. After acitretin prescription, significant improvement was found in plane warts, but not in pityriasis versicolor-like lesions.

  7. Testosterone metabolism of fibroblasts grown from prostatic carcinoma, benign prostatic hyperplasia and skin fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Schweikert, H.U.; Hein, H.J.; Romijn, J.C.; Schroeder, F.H.

    1982-02-01

    The metabolism of (1,2,6,7-3H)testosterone was assessed in fibroblast monolayers derived from tissue of 5 prostates with benign hyperplasia (BPH), 4 prostates with carcinoma (PC), and 3 biopsy samples of skin, 2 nongenital skin (NG) and 1 genital skin. The following metabolites could be identified: androstanedione androstenedione, dihydrotestosterone, androsterone, epiandrosterone, androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol and androstane-3 beta, 17 beta-diol. Testosterone was metabolized much more rapidly in fibroblasts originating from prostatic tissue than in fibroblasts derived from NG. A significantly higher formation of 5 alpha-androstanes and 3 alpha-hydroxysteroids could be observed in fibroblasts from BPH as compared to PC. 17-ketosteroid formation exceeded 5 alpha-androstane formation in BPH, whereas 5 alpha-reduction was the predominant pathway in fibroblasts grown from PC and NG. Since testosterone metabolism in fibroblasts of prostatic origin therefore resembles in many aspects that in whole prostatic tissue, fibroblasts grown from prostatic tissues might be a valuable tool for further investigation of the pathogenesis of human BPH and PC.

  8. RasGRP1 Transgenic Mice Develop Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinomas in Response to Skin Wounding

    PubMed Central

    Diez, Federico R.; Garrido, Ann A.; Sharma, Amrish; Luke, Courtney T.; Stone, James C.; Dower, Nancy A.; Cline, J. Mark; Lorenzo, Patricia S.

    2009-01-01

    Models of epidermal carcinogenesis have demonstrated that Ras is a critical molecule involved in tumor initiation and progression. Previously, we have shown that RasGRP1 increases the susceptibility of mice to skin tumorigenesis when overexpressed in the epidermis by a transgenic approach, related to its ability to activate Ras. Moreover, RasGRP1 transgenic mice develop spontaneous papillomas and cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas, some of which appear to originate in sites of injury, suggesting that RasGRP1 may be responding to signals generated during the wound-healing process. In this study, we examined the response of the RasGRP1 transgenic animals to full-thickness incision wounding of the skin, and demonstrated that they respond by developing tumors along the wounded site. The tumors did not present mutations in the H-ras gene, but Rasgrp1 transgene dosage correlated with tumor susceptibility and size. Analysis of serum cytokines showed increased levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in transgenic animals after wounding. Furthermore, in vitro experiments with primary keratinocytes showed that granulocyte colony-stimulating factor stimulated Ras activation, although RasGRP1 was dispensable for this effect. Since granulocyte colony-stimulating factor has been recently associated with proliferation of skin cancer cells, our results may help in the elucidation of pathways that activate Ras in the epidermis during tumorigenesis in the absence of oncogenic ras mutations. PMID:19497993

  9. TIPE2 regulates tumor-associated macrophages in skin squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin

    2016-04-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play an essential role in the immunology, growth, invasion, and metastases of skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the activation and regulation of TAMs by SCC are not completely understood. Here, in a Transwell co-culture system, we found that SCC cells induced polarization of macrophages to a M2 phenotype, evident by expression of surface markers CD163, CD206, and CD301, as well as reduction of cellular iNOS levels and augmentation of cellular arginase levels. Moreover, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-induced protein 8-like 2 (TIPE2) was induced in macrophages by co-culturing with SCC cells. Depletion of TIPE2 in macrophages abolished the effects of co-cultured SCC cells on phenotypic modification of macrophages. Furthermore, patients with SCC were divided into two groups based on TIPE2 levels in TAMs at the time of tumor resection. We found that patients with high-TIPE2 TAMs had an overall poor 5-year survival. Together, our data suggest a previously unappreciated role of TIPE2 in the crosstalk between skin SCC and TAMs and highlight TIPE2 as a promising novel target for skin SCC treatment.

  10. Pigmented squamous cell carcinoma of the cheek skin probably arising from solar keratosis.

    PubMed

    Terada, Tadashi; Yamagami, Jun; Fugimoto, Atsushi; Tanaka, Kyoko; Sugiura, Makoto

    2003-07-01

    We report a rare case of pigmented squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the cheek skin probably arising from solar keratosis. An 80-year-old man was referred to our clinic because of a black skin nodule in the right cheek. The nodular lesion was 1 cm in diameter, dome-shaped, hard, sharply demarcated, partially erosive and telangiectatic at the border. The lesion was completely excised under the clinical diagnosis of probable seborrheic keratosis. Microscopically, cutaneous horn and mildly atypical squamous epithelia suggestive of previous solar keratosis were present in the surface of the lesion. The lesion consisted of atypical squamous cells with keratinization and intercellular bridges, and it was regarded as SCC. The SCC cells were seen to invade lightly into the upper dermis, where lymphocytic infiltrations and melanophages were noted. Characteristically, heavy deposition of melanin pigment was recognized in the SCC cells as well as in proliferated dendritic and pigment blockade melanocytes that were scattered or colonized within the SCC cell nests. Masson-Fontana stain revealed numerous melanin granules in the SCC cells, as well as in dendritic and pigment blockade melanocytes. Immunohistochemically, the SCC cells were positive for cytokeratins and epithelial membrane antigen, and negative for S-100 protein and HMB45 antigen. Dendritic and pigment blockade melanocytes were negative for cytokeratins, epithelial membrane antigen, and HMB45 antigen, but positive for S-100 protein. The present case suggests that SCC cells of the skin may induce proliferation of melanocytes. The differential diagnosis and the histogenesis of pigmented SCC of the skin are discussed.

  11. Clear cell variant of squamous cell carcinoma of skin: A report of a case.

    PubMed

    Lawal, Ahmed Oluwatoyin; Adisa, Akinyele Olumuyiwa; Olajide, Mofoluwaso A; Olusanya, Adeola Adenike

    2013-01-01

    Clear cell squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a rare variant of SCC of skin in which ultraviolet radiation has been suggested as possible etiology. This case is that of a 62-year-old male concrete block maker/bricklayer who presented with a 6 months history of a non-healing ulcer on the left side of his face. Histology showed features of malignant epithelial neoplasm composed of islands of large oval to polyhedral malignant squamous cells with eosinophilic to amphophilic cytoplasm and vesicular nuclei and there were areas showing clear cell differentiation and isolated areas of keratin pearl formation. The lesion was also negative for periodic acid schiff, mucicarmine, and alcian blue stains but was strongly positive for AE1/AE3 (immuno-stain). This case showed an aggressive and bizarre clinical presentation but more report of cases are needed to have a better characterization of the clinical presentation and prognosis of this variant of SCC.

  12. Toad skin extract cinobufatini inhibits migration of human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells into a model stromal tissue.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Munehiro; Mori, Shuya; Kamoshida, Yo; Kawaguchi, Shota; Fujita-Yamaguchi, Yoko; Gao, Bo; Tang, Wei

    2015-08-01

    Toad skin extract cinobufatini study has been focused on anticancer activity, especially apoptosis-inducing activity by bufosteroids. The present study examined effect of the toad skin extract on cancer cell migration into model stromal tissues. Human breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-231 was incubated in the presence or absence of toad skin extract on a surface of reconstituted type I collagen gel as a model stromal tissue allowing the cells to migrate into the gel. Frozen sections were microscopically observed after azan staining. Data showed a decrease of cell number in a microscopic field and shortening of cell migration into the model stromal tissue in a dose dependent manner. This suggests that toad skin extract may possess migration-preventing activity in addition to cell toxicity such as apoptosis-inducing activity. The multifaceted effects including apoptosis-inducing and cancer cell migration-preventing activities would improve usefulness of toad skin extract cinobufatini as an anticancer medicine.

  13. The role of DAMPS in ALA-PDT for skin squamous cell carcinoma (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiuli; Wang, Xiaojie; Ji, Jie; Zhang, Haiyan; Shi, Lei

    2016-03-01

    5-Aminolevulinic acid mediated photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) is an established local approach for skin squamous cell carcinoma. It is believed that dangerous signals damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) play an important role in ALA-PDT. In this study, we evaluated in vitro and in vivo expressions of major DAMPs, calreticulin (CRT), heat shock proteins 70 (HSP70), and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), induced by ALA-PDT using immunohistochemistry, western blot, and ELISA in a squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) mouse model. The role of DAMPs in the maturation of DCs potentiated by ALA-PDT-treated tumor cells was detected by FACS and ELISA. Our results showed that ALA-PDT enhanced the expression of CRT, HSP70, and HMGB1. These induced DAMPs played an important role in activating DCs by PDT-treated tumor cells, including phenotypic maturation (upregulation of surface expression of MHC-II, CD80, and CD86) and functional maturation (enhanced capability to secrete IFN-γ and IL-12). Furthermore, injecting ALA-PDT-treated tumor cells into naïve mice resulted in complete protection against cancer cells of the same origin. Our findings indicate that ALA-PDT can upregulate DAMPs and enhance tumor immunogenicity, providing a promising strategy for inducing a systemic anticancer immune response.

  14. Immunomodulatory Effectiveness of Fish Oil and omega-3 Fatty Acids in Human Non-melanoma Skin Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Khurram; Mohd Amin, Mohd Cairul Iqbal; Yuen, Ng Pei; Zulfakar, Mohd Hanif

    2016-01-01

    Fish oil is composed of various fatty acids among which omega-3 fatty acids are considered as most beneficial. The effects of fish oil on the activity of a topical anticancer drug, imiquimod, and the immunomodulatory activity of omega-3 fatty acids was investigated in human basal and squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. Imiquimod-fish oil mixture exhibited higher carcinoma cell growth inhibition and immunomodulatory activity than imiquimod alone, especially against squamous cell carcinoma cells. Omega-3 fatty acids exhibited growth inhibition of both basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and modulated the immune response. Omega-3 fatty acids of fish oil serve as inducers of interleukin-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, and as suppressors of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, which not only depress tumor growth but also adequately control the inflammatory side effects of imiquimod. Thus, imiquimod administration with fish oil could be beneficial for inhibition of non-melanoma skin carcinoma cells but further in vivo studies are needed to understand their role in skin cancer.

  15. Oral Rigosertib for Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-18

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Anal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Skin Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Penile Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  16. Updates on the Molecular Pathology of Selected Ocular and Ocular Adnexal Tumors: Potential Targets for Future Therapy.

    PubMed

    Stagner, Anna M; Jakobiec, Frederick A

    2016-01-01

    Ophthalmic pathologic studies of retinoblastoma first definitively elucidated a genetic etiology for cancer three decades ago. Advances in DNA sequencing, protein expression profiling, and the exploration of epigenetics have since led to categorization of tumors and clinical prognostication based on genetic aberrancy. There are now many neoplasms that are defined by a characteristic genetic signature. In the past several years alone, much has been discovered in regard to the original tumor-suppressor gene initially defined in retinoblastoma as well as in other intraocular tumors such as medulloepithelioma. Our further understanding of ocular adnexal tumors that result in substantial morbidity and mortality, such as sebaceous carcinoma, has also benefited from a genetic approach. In this article, we review the clinicopathologic features of the foregoing three entities--retinoblastoma, medulloepithelioma, and sebaceous carcinoma--in order to highlight discoveries in their underlying abnormal molecular genetic functioning.

  17. First International Consensus Report on Adnexal Masses: Management Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Glanc, Phyllis; Benacerraf, Beryl; Bourne, Tom; Brown, Douglas; Coleman, Beverly G; Crum, Christopher; Dodge, Jason; Levine, Deborah; Pavlik, Edward; Timmerman, Dirk; Ueland, Frederick R; Wolfman, Wendy; Goldstein, Steven R

    2017-03-07

    The First International Consensus Conference on Adnexal Masses was convened to thoroughly examine the state of the science and to formulate recommendations for clinical assessment and management. The panel included representatives of societies in the fields of gynecology, gynecologic oncology, radiology, and pathology and clinicians from Europe, Canada, and the United States. In the United States, there are approximately 9.1 surgeries per malignancy compared to the European International Ovarian Tumor Analysis center trials, with only 2.3 (oncology centers) and 5.9 (other centers) reported surgeries per malignancy, suggesting that there is room to improve our preoperative assessments. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Practice Bulletin on "Management of Adnexal Masses," reaffirmed in 2015 (Obstet Gynecol 2007; 110:201-214), still states, "With the exception of simple cysts on a transvaginal ultrasound finding, most pelvic masses in postmenopausal women will require surgical intervention." The panel concluded that patients would benefit not only from a more conservative approach to many benign adnexal masses but also from optimization of physician referral patterns to a gynecologic oncologist in cases of suspected ovarian malignancies. A number of next-step options were offered to aid in management of cases with sonographically indeterminate adnexal masses. This process would provide an opportunity to improve risk stratification for indeterminate masses via the provision of alternatives, including but not limited to evidence-based risk-assessment algorithms and referral to an "expert sonologist" or to a gynecologic oncologist. The panel believed that these efforts to improve clinical management and preoperative triage patterns would ultimately improve patient care.

  18. A giant ancient schwannoma mimicking an adnexal mass

    PubMed Central

    Karaköse, Oktay; Pülat, Hüseyin; Oğuz, Serhat; Zihni, İsmail; Özçelik, Kazım Çağlar; Yalta, Tülin Deniz; Eken, Hüseyin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Ancient schwannoma is a rare tumor of the peripheral nerve sheath. As degenerative properties are defined histologically, it can be wrongly interpreted as malignant. Case presentation: The case presented here is of a giant ancient schwannoma with a pelvic retroperitoneal location, which was mimicking an adnexal mass. Conclusion: In the rarely seen cases in the retroperitoneum, it may reach very large dimensions. PMID:27472696

  19. IMP-3 expression in keratoacanthomas and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin: an immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Soddu, S.; Di Felice, E.; Cabras, S.; Castellanos, M.E.; Atzori, L.; Faa, G.; Pilloni, L.

    2013-01-01

    The protein insulin-like growth factor II mRNA binding protein 3 (IMP-3) is an important factor for cell migration and adhesion in malignancies. Recent studies have shown a remarkable overexpression of IMP-3 in different human malignant neoplasms and also revealed it as an important prognostic marker in some tumor entities. The purpose of this study is to compare IMP-3 immunostaining in cutaneous squamous cell tumors and determine whether IMP-3 can aid in the differential diagnosis of these lesions. To our knowledge, IMP-3 expression has not been investigated in skin squamous cell proliferations thus far. Immunohi-stochemical staining for IMP-3 was performed on slides organized by samples from 67 patients, 34 with keratoacanthoma (KA) and 33 with primary cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (16 invasive and 17 in situ). Seventyfour percent of KAs (25/34) were negative for IMP-3 staining, while 57% of SCCs (19/33) were positive for IMP-3 staining. The percentage of IMP-3 positive cells increased significantly in the invasive SCC group (P=0.0111), and particularly in the SCC in situ group (P=0.0021) with respect to the KA group. IMP-3 intensity staining was significantly higher in invasive SCCs (P=0.0213), and particularly in SCCs in situ (P=0.008) with respect to KA. Our data show that IMP-3 expression is different in keratoacanthoma with respect to squamous cell carcinoma. IMP-3 assessment and staining pattern, together with a careful histological study, can be useful in the differential diagnosis between KA e SCC. PMID:23549465

  20. UV-specific p53 and PTCH mutations in sporadic basal cell carcinoma of sun-exposed skin.

    PubMed

    Ratner, D; Peacocke, M; Zhang, H; Ping, X L; Tsou, H C

    2001-02-01

    UVB irradiation is known to produce DNA damage at mutation hotspots in the p53 tumor suppressor gene, leading to the development of skin cancers. Mutations in the PTCH tumor suppressor gene, which is known to be responsible for the development of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, have also been identified in sporadic basal cell carcinomas (BCCs). We describe the case of an 80-year-old welder in whom 3 novel p53 mutations, as well as UV-specific PTCH mutations, were detected in two BCC samples from sun-exposed skin. The simultaneous presence of UV-specific p53 and PTCH mutations in the same BCC sample has not previously been reported.

  1. Host characteristics, sun exposure, indoor tanning and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin.

    PubMed

    Veierød, Marit B; Couto, Elisabeth; Lund, Eiliv; Adami, Hans-Olov; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2014-07-15

    Use of indoor tanning devices increases risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma, but the association with risk of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin is unclear. Cohort studies of SCC risk are rare and we aimed to assess the association between SCC risk and host characteristics, sun exposure, and indoor tanning in a population-based cohort of Norwegian and Swedish women conjunctly with SCC incidence data from national cancer registries. Host characteristics and exposure to sun and indoor tanning devices before 50-years old were recorded by questionnaire at inclusion (30-50 years) in 1991/92. Multivariable relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by Poisson regression. During follow-up of 106,548 women through December 2009, SCC was diagnosed in 141 women. Skin sensitivity to acute sun exposure was the most important pigmentation characteristic (RR = 2.73, 95% CI 1.47-5.05, for red with pain/red with pain and blisters versus brown). We found no consistent associations with sunburns and bathing vacations in the first five age decades, but a significant positive trend for bathing vacations summarized over ages 10-49 years (Ptrend  = 0.02). We also found significantly increased risks of SCC following indoor tanning at age 40-49 years (RR = 2.17, 95% CI 1.29-3.67, for ≥ 1 time/month versus never) and indoor tanning summarized over ages 10-49 years (Ptrend  = 0.001). RR for ever versus never use of indoor tanning over ages 10-49 years was 1.93 (95% CI 1.27-2.95). Propensity to burn was an important host characteristic, and bathing vacations and indoor tanning summarized over ages 10-49 years increased SCC risk.

  2. Lgr5-positive cells are cancer stem cells in skin squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shunli; Gong, Zhenyu; Chen, Mingrui; Liu, Benli; Bian, Donghui; Wu, Kai

    2014-11-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) in most human tumors are commonly identified and enriched using similar strategies for identifying normal stem cells, including flow cytometry assays for side population, high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, and CD133 positivity. Thus, development of a method for isolating a specific cancer using cancer-specific characteristic appears to be potentially important. Here, we reported extremely high Lgr5 levels in the specimen from skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in patients. Using SCC cell line A431, we detected high Lgr5 and CD133 levels in ALDH-high or side population from these cancer cells. To figure out whether Lgr5 is a marker of CSCs in SCC, we transfected A431 cells with a Lgr5-creERT-2A-DTR/Cag-Loxp-GFP-STOP-Loxp-RFP plasmid and purified transfected cells (tA431) based on GFP by flow cytometry. 4-Hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) was given to label Lgr5-positive cells with RFP, for comparison to GFP-positive Lgr5-negative cells. Lgr5-positive cells grew significantly faster than Lgr5-negative cells, and the fold increase in growth of Lgr5-positive vs Lgr5-negative cells is significantly higher than SP vs non-SP, or ALDH-high vs ALDH-low, or CD133-positive vs CD133-negative cells. Moreover, in Lgr5-negative population, Lgr5-positive re-appeared in culture with time, suggesting that Lgr5-positive cells can be regenerated from Lgr5-negative cells. Furthermore, the growth of tA431 cells significantly decreased upon a single dose of diphtheria toxin (DT)/4-OHT to eliminate Lgr5-positive cell lineage, while multiple doses of DT/4-OHT nearly completely inhibited tA431 cell growth. Taken together, our data provide compelling data to demonstrate that Lgr5-positive cells are CSCs in skin SCC.

  3. Survival after squamous cell and basal cell carcinoma of the skin: A retrospective cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Rees, Judy R; Zens, M Scot; Celaya, Maria O; Riddle, Bruce L; Karagas, Margaret R; Peacock, Janet L

    2015-08-15

    A retrospective cohort analysis of survival after keratinocyte cancer (KC) was conducted using data from a large, population-based case-control study of KC in New Hampshire. The original study collected detailed information during personal interviews between 1993 and 2002 from individuals with squamous (SCC) and basal (BCC) cell carcinoma, and controls identified through the Department of Transportation, frequency-matched on age and sex. Participants without a history of non-skin cancer at enrolment were followed as a retrospective cohort to assess survival after either SCC or BCC, or a reference date for controls. Through 2009, cancers were identified from the New Hampshire State Cancer Registry and self-report; death information was obtained from state death certificate files and the National Death Index. There were significant differences in survival between those with SCC, BCC and controls (p = 0.040), with significantly greater risk of mortality after SCC compared to controls (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.25; 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.54). Mortality after BCC was not significantly altered (HR 0.96; 95% CI 0.77-1.19). The excess mortality after SCC persisted after adjustment for numerous personal risk factors including time-varying non-skin cancer occurrence, age, sex and smoking. Survival from the date of the intervening cancer, however, did not vary (HR for SCC 0.98; 95% CI 0.70-1.38). Mortality also remained elevated when individuals with subsequent melanoma were excluded (HR for SCC 1.30; 95% CI 1.05-1.61). Increased mortality after SCC cannot be explained by the occurrence of intervening cancers, but may reflect a more general predisposition to life threatening illness that merits further investigation.

  4. Screening of urocanic acid isomers in human basal and squamous cell carcinoma tumors compared with tumor periphery and healthy skin.

    PubMed

    Decara, Juan Manuel; Aguilera, José; Abdala, Roberto; Sánchez, Purificación; Figueroa, Félix L; Herrera, Enrique

    2008-10-01

    Trans-urocanic acid is a major chromophore for ultraviolet (UV) radiation in human epidermis. The UV induces photoisomerization of trans-urocanic acid (tUCA) form to cis-urocanic acid (cUCA) and has been reported as an important mediator in the immunosuppression induced by UV. This immunomodulation has been recognized as an important factor related to skin cancer development. This is the first time that UCA isomers have been measured in epidermis of skin biopsies from patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and compared with the tumor periphery and biopsies of healthy photoexposed and non-photoexposed skin as controls. The UCA isomers were separated and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. Analysis of UCA in healthy skin showed significant increase in total UCA content in non-photoexposed body sites compared with highly exposed skins. In contrast, the percentage of cUCA was higher in photoexposed body sites. Maximal levels of cUCA were found in cheek, forehead and forearm and lower levels in abdomen and thigh. No differences were found in total UCA concentration between the tumor samples and healthy photoexposed skin. However, differences were found in relation between isomers. Higher levels of cUCA were detected in SCC biopsies (44% of total UCA) compared with samples of BCC and that of healthy photoexposed skin (30%). These results suggest that the UV radiation exposure, a main factor in development of SCC can be mediated, apart from direct effect to cells (DNA damage), by immunosuppression pathways mediated by high production of cUCA.

  5. Primary cutaneous histiocytoid carcinoma with distant metastasis.

    PubMed

    Philips, Rebecca; Langston, Leila; Hwang, Helena; Vandergriff, Travis; Trynosky, Tanya; Berlingeri-Ramos, Alma C

    2017-04-01

    Distinguishing primary cutaneous adnexal carcinoma from metastatic carcinoma of unknown primary can be a diagnostic challenge due to the frequent overlap of histologic and immunohistochemical features. A 58-year-old man presented with a tender, indurated plaque on axillary skin. Biopsy revealed infiltrating atypical cells throughout the dermis, without connection to the epidermis. Tumor cells had a histiocytoid appearance and displayed mild pleomorphism. The tumor was discohesive and had areas with a single file pattern. Signet ring cells were also present. Cells were reactive with CK7, CK5/6, p63, GATA3, GCDFP-15 and Her 2-neu. Additional studies were negative, including TTF-1, CDX2, E-cadherin, mammaglobin, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor. Thorough clinical and radiologic evaluation failed to identify an occult primary extracutaneous malignancy; however, regional lymphadenopathy, widespread osteoblastic lesions and multiple subcentimeter liver hypodensities were noted. Considering the clinical and histopathologic features, the diagnosis of primary cutaneous histiocytoid carcinoma with distant metastasis was favored.

  6. Inhibitory effect of berberine on human skin squamous cell carcinoma A431 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, D X; Zhang, J; Zhang, Y; Zhao, P W; Yang, L M

    2015-09-08

    Berberine (BBR) is a natural alkaloid with significant anti-tumor activity against many types of cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms employed by BBR to repress the proliferation and growth of skin squamous cell carcinoma A431 cells. Berberine was reported to inhibit the proliferation of A431 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner and was observed to induce a series of biochemical events, including the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome-c to cytosol, induction of proteins of the Bcl-2 family and caspases, and the cleavage of poly(ADP)-ribose polymerase. This suggested its ability to induce apoptosis. The results of a wound healing test revealed that berberine inhibited the migration of A431 cells. Ezrin was transfected into A431 cells by RNA interference. The level of expression of Ezrin in the transfected A431 cells was observed to decrease with berberine treatment, which suggested that berberine might inhibit the invasion of A431 cells through Ezrin. The results of this study demonstrated that berberine could potentially inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, and inhibit the invasion of A431 cells.

  7. Added Value of Using a CT Coronal Reformation to Diagnose Adnexal Torsion

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sung Il; Park, Hee Sun; Yim, Younghee; Jeon, Hae Jeong; Yu, Mi Hye; Kim, Young Jun

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the increased value of using coronal reformation of a transverse computed tomography (CT) scan for detecting adnexal torsion. Materials and Methods This study included 106 woman suspected of having adnexal torsion who underwent CT with coronal reformations and subsequent surgical exploration. Two readers independently recorded the CT findings, such as the thickening of a fallopian tube, twisting of the adnexal pedicle, eccentric smooth wall thickening of the torsed adnexal mass, eccentric septal thickening of the torsed adnexal mass, eccentric poor enhancement of the torsed adnexal mass, uterine deviation to the twisted side, ascites or infiltration of pelvic fat, and the overall impression of adnexal torsion with a transverse scan alone or combined with coronal reformation and a transverse scan. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs), sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value were used to compare diagnostic performance. Results Fifty-two patients were confirmed to have adnexal torsion. The addition of coronal reformations to the transverse scan improved AUCs for readers 1 and 2 from 0.74 and 0.75 to 0.92 and 0.87, respectively, for detecting adnexal torsion (p < 0.001 and p = 0.004, respectively). Sensitivity of CT for detecting twisting of the adnexal pedicle increased significantly for readers 1 and 2 from 0.27 and 0.29 with a transverse scan alone to 0.79 and 0.77 with a combined coronal reformation and a transverse scan, respectively (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Conclusion Use of a coronal reformation with transverse CT images improves detection of adnexal torsion. PMID:26175583

  8. Chromosome 17 aneusomy detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization in vulvar squamous cell carcinomas and synchronous vulvar skin.

    PubMed

    Carlson, J A; Healy, K; Tran, T A; Malfetano, J; Wilson, V L; Rohwedder, A; Ross, J S

    2000-09-01

    Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) affects a spectrum of women with granulomatous vulvar diseases, human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, and chronic inflammatory vulvar dermatoses. To determine whether there is evidence of chromosomal instability occurring in synchronous skin surrounding vulvar SCCs, we investigated abnormalities in chromosome 17 copy number. Samples of SCC, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN), and surrounding vulvar skin were obtained from all vulvar excisions performed for squamous neoplasia at Albany Medical College from 1996 to 1997. Histological categorization, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for the alpha satellite region of chromosome 17, DNA content by image analysis, and Ki-67 labeling were evaluated. Controls of normal vulvar skin not associated with cancer were used for comparison. One hundred ten specimens were obtained from 33 patients with either SCC or VIN 3 and consisted of 49 neoplastic, 52 nonneoplastic, and 9 histologically normal vulvar skin samples. The majority of SCCs (88%) and a minority (18%) of VIN 3 excisions were associated with lichen sclerosus. Normal vulvar skin controls did not exhibit chromosome 17 polysomy (cells with more than four FISH signals), whereas 56% of normal vulvar skin associated with cancer did. Moreover, the frequency of polysomy significantly increased as the histological classification progressed from normal to inflammatory to neoplastic lesions. The largest mean value and variance for chromosome 17 copy number was identified in SCCs (2.4 +/- 1.0) with intermediate values identified, in decreasing order, for SCC in situ (2.1 +/- 1.0), VIN 2 (2.1 +/- 0.8), lichen sclerosus (2.0 +/- 0.5), lichen simplex chronicus (1.9 +/- 0.4), and normal skin associated with SCC (1.8 +/- 0.4) compared with control vulvar skin (1.5 +/- 0. 05). Concordance of chromosome 17 aneusomy between cancers and synchronous skin lesions was found in 48% of patients. Loss of chromosome 17 was identified 5% of all

  9. Photodynamic therapy of murine non-melanoma skin carcinomas with diode laser after topical application of aluminum phthalocyanine chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyriazi, Maria; Alexandratou, Eleni; Yova, Dido; Rallis, Michail; Trebst, Tilmann

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this work is to study pharmacokinetics and photodynamic efficiency of aluminium phthalocyanine chloride (AlClPc) in dimethylsulfoxide/Tween 80/water solution, after topical application on hairless mice bearing non-melanoma skin carcinomas. The concentration of photosensitizer in normal skin and tumor biopsies 1-6 hours after application was assessed by fluorescence spectroscopy of chemical extractions. The concentration of photosensitizer was 40 times higher in tumor than in normal skin even 1 h after application. For photodynamic therapy (PDT) AlClPc was excited by a diode laser emitting at 670 nm, 1 h after application. Seven different combinations of therapeutic parameters were chosen. The efficiency was assessed as the percentage of complete tumor remission, the tumor growth retardation and the cosmetic outcomes. The highest complete remission 60% was achieved with the combination of 75 mW/cm2 with 150 J/cm2. No recurrence rate was observed in any treatment parameters group and the cosmetic outcome in all completely treated tumors was excellent. The results show that the effectiveness of PDT is highly dependent on fluence rate. In addition, they are promising for further investigation of this PDT scheme in preclinical studies mainly in non-melanoma skin carcinomas up to 7mm.

  10. Basal Cell Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Basal cell carcinoma Overview Basal cell carcinoma: This skin cancer ... that has received years of sun exposure. Basal cell carcinoma: Overview Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the ...

  11. Disappearance of an adnexal mass with Saam acupuncture: a case report.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jung Chul; Kwon, Oh-Chang; Kwon, Hyo-Jung; Chung, Dae-Kyoo; Cho, Yoon-Jeong; Lee, Geon Ho

    2014-02-01

    We report the case of a 30-year-old woman with a right adnexal mass resembling an ovarian cyst who declined diagnostic laparoscopy and requested treatment with acupuncture. The patient was treated with Saam acupuncture for 14 weeks. After treatment, transvaginal sonography revealed disappearance of the right adnexal mass. No adverse effects of the Saam acupuncture treatment were reported.

  12. Family History of Skin Cancer is Associated with Early-Onset Basal Cell Carcinoma Independent of MC1R Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Berlin, Nicholas L.; Cartmel, Brenda; Leffell, David J.; Bale, Allen E.; Mayne, Susan T.; Ferrucci, Leah M.

    2015-01-01

    Background As a marker of genetic susceptibility and shared lifestyle characteristics, family history of cancer is often used to evaluate an individual’s risk for developing a particular malignancy. With comprehensive data on pigment characteristics, lifestyle factors, and melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene sequence, we sought to clarify the role of family history of skin cancer in early-onset basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Materials and Methods Early onset BCC cases (n=376) and controls with benign skin conditions (n=383) under age 40 were identified through Yale Dermatopathology. Self-report data on family history of skin cancer (melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer), including age of onset in relatives, was available from a structured interview. Participants also provided saliva samples for sequencing of MC1R. Results A family history of skin cancer was associated with an increased risk of early-onset BCC (OR 2.49, 95% CI 1.80–3.45). In multivariate models, family history remained a strong risk factor for early-onset BCC after adjustment for pigment characteristics, UV exposure, and MC1R genotype (OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.74–3.35). Conclusions Risk for BCC varied based upon the type and age of onset of skin cancer among affected relatives; individuals with a first-degree relative diagnosed with skin cancer prior to age 50 were at highest risk for BCC (OR 4.79, 95% CI 2.90–7.90). Even after taking into account potential confounding effects of MC1R genotype and various lifestyle factors that close relatives may share, family history of skin cancer remained strongly associated with early-onset BCC. PMID:26381319

  13. Multistep carcinogenesis in the formation of basal cell carcinoma of the skin

    SciTech Connect

    Gailani, M.; Leffell, D.; Ziegler, A.

    1994-09-01

    Basal cell carcinoma of the skin (BCC) is the most common cancer in humans, a slow growing tumor whose incidence strongly correlates with exposure to UV light. Although the molecular basis of BCC formation is not well understood, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) for markers on chromosome 9q in 70% of BCCs suggests that inactivation of a tumor suppressor on 9q22 is an important early step. UV induced mutations in the p53 gene have also been found in over 50% of sporadic BCCs. We analyzed 18 sporadic BCCs for allelic loss on chromosome 9 and point mutations in the p53 gene and attempted to correlate genetic alteration with pathological subtype and relative UV light exposure. Eight of eighteen tumors (45%) showed LOH on chromosome 9 as well as point mutation of the p53 gene, three of eighteen tumors (17%) showed mutation of the p53 gene without LOH on chromosome 9, five of eighteen tumors (27%) showed LOH for chromosome 9 without evidence of mutation in the p53 gene, and two of eighteen tumors (11%) showed neither LOH on chromosome 9 nor mutation in the p53 gene. Tumor pathology showed no obvious correlation between mutation and tumor aggressiveness. However, one tumor of a unique, aggressive growth subtype had no genetic alteration suggesting a different genetic mechanism in this particular subgroup. 38% of tumors from areas of greatest sun-exposure showed both mutations. The data suggests a strong correlation between inactivation of a tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 9 and mutation in the p53 gene though the sequence of events cannot be determined. Because carcinogenesis is a multistep process and genetic injury from UV light is only one factor, further correlation with degree of tumor differentiation may clarify the genetic process in BCCs.

  14. Reflectance confocal microscopy and dermoscopy for in vivo, non-invasive skin imaging of superficial basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    GHITA, MIHAELA A.; CARUNTU, CONSTANTIN; ROSCA, ADRIAN E.; KALESHI, HARILLAQ; CARUNTU, ANA; MORARU, LILIANA; DOCEA, ANCA OANA; ZURAC, SABINA; BODA, DANIEL; NEAGU, MONICA; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.; TSATSAKIS, ARISTIDIS M.

    2016-01-01

    Superficial basal cell carcinoma (sBCC) is the second most frequent histological type of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), usually requiring a skin biopsy to confirm the diagnosis. It usually appears on the upper trunk and shoulders as erythematous and squamous lesions. Although it has a slow growth and seldom metastasizes, early diagnosis and management are of crucial importance in preventing local invasion and subsequent disfigurement. Dermoscopy is nowadays an indispensable tool for the dermatologist when evaluating skin tumors. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a novel imaging technique that allows the non-invasive, in vivo quasi-microscopic morphological and dynamic assessment of superficial skin tumors. Moreover, it offers the advantage of performing infinite repeatable determinations to monitor disease progression and non-surgical treatment for sBCC. Herein, we present three lesions of sBCC evaluated using in vivo and non-invasive imaging techniques, emphasizing the usefulness of combining RCM with dermoscopy for increasing the diagnostic accuracy of sBCC. PMID:27123056

  15. Early Skin Toxicity as a Predictive Factor for Tumor Control in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients Treated with Sorafenib

    PubMed Central

    Vincenzi, Bruno; Santini, Daniele; Addeo, Raffaele; Giuliani, Francesco; Montella, Liliana; Rizzo, Sergio; Venditti, Olga; Frezza, Anna Maria; Caraglia, Michele; Colucci, Giuseppe; Del Prete, Salvatore; Tonini, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Sorafenib is an oral multikinase inhibitor that targets Raf kinase and receptor tyrosine kinases and has led to a longer median overall survival (OS) time and time to progression (TTP) in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study was conducted to assess the link between the antitumor efficacy of sorafenib and its early cutaneous side effects in advanced HCC patients. Materials and Methods. All patients received 800 mg daily of sorafenib until progression or unacceptable toxicities. We retrospectively analyzed the incidence of rash and hand–foot skin reactions (HFSR) during the first month of treatment, comparing tumor control (partial response plus stable disease) and TTP. Results. Sixty-five HCC patients treated with sorafenib were included in this analysis: 47 (73.3%) received sorafenib after failure of some local treatment, whereas 18 (27.7%) received it as first-line treatment. Twenty-nine patients developed at least grade 1 skin toxicity (rash, 13; HFSR, 16). In patients who developed skin toxicity, the tumor control rate was 48.3%, versus 19.4% in patients without cutaneous side effects. The median TTP was 8.1 months in the group of patients with skin toxicity versus 4.0 months in those without skin toxicity. This difference was also statistically significant on multivariate analysis. A borderline statistically significant difference was also observed in terms of OS in patients with early skin toxicity. Conclusions. Skin toxicity should be closely monitored in HCC patients treated with sorafenib in relation to its potential role as a surrogate marker of efficacy. PMID:20051477

  16. Primary sources of pelvic serous cancer in patients with endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lin; Yuan, Zeng; Wang, Yiying; Cragun, Janiel M; Kong, Beihua; Zheng, Wenxin

    2015-01-01

    Serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma is often associated with extrauterine disease. It is currently unclear where does the extrauterine disease come from. This study addressed this issue. A total of 135 samples from 21 serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma patients were studied. Cellular lineage relationships between intrauterine and extrauterine serous carcinomas were determined by TP53-mutation analysis and correlated to the clinicopathologic features. There were three conditions contributing the extrauterine disease: metastasis from serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (n=10) showed identical TP53 mutation between intrauterine lesions and extrauterine disease, cases of adnexal origin (n=5) had discordant TP53 mutations, and the mixed cellular origin cases (n=6) with both identical and discordant mutation status. Patients with extrauterine disease from serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma metastasis typically had small tumor masses (<2 cm) in extrauterine sites and without finding of serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma, while extrauterine disease with adnexal or tubal origin commonly had larger tumor masses in extrauterine sites including ovary and omentum and serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma. The majority of extrauterine diseases associated with serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma are metastasized from the endometrium. Serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma is frequently associated with serous cancers of adnexal or tubal origin, indicating that endometrial and adnexal or tubal serous cancers may share similar etiologies. TP53-mutation analysis provides a strong linkage for cellular lineage analysis. Tumor size in extrauterine disease and presence of serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma or not are useful clinicopathologic features to determine primary cancer site, which helps in clinical management.

  17. Overexpression of the human homologue of Drosophila patched (PTCH) in skin tumours: specificity for basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nagano, T; Bito, T; Kallassy, M; Nakazawa, H; Ichihashi, M; Ueda, M

    1999-02-01

    The human homologue of the Drosophila segment polarity gene patched (PTCH) has been identified as the gene for the naevoid basal cell carcinoma (BCC) syndrome and has also been shown to be mutated in sporadic BCC. In order to elucidate the specificity of the PTCH abnormality in BCC, we examined normal skin and 12 BCC and 24 other types of tumour from Japanese patients for expression of the PTCH transcript by competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, as mutational inactivation of PTCH leads to overexpression of the mutant transcript owing to failure of a negative feedback mechanism. We found a high level of PTCH expression in all 12 BCCs, while 23 of the other tumours and four specimens of normal skin showed no or weak expression of the gene, with the exception of one specimen from a patient with Bowen's disease which had high expression. These results indicate that the PTCH abnormality plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of BCC.

  18. Discrimination between basal cell carcinoma and hair follicles in skin tissue sections by Raman micro-spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larraona-Puy, M.; Ghita, A.; Zoladek, A.; Perkins, W.; Varma, S.; Leach, I. H.; Koloydenko, A. A.; Williams, H.; Notingher, I.

    2011-05-01

    Skin cancer is the most common human malignancy and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) represents approximately 80% of the non-melanoma cases. Current methods of treatment require histopathological evaluation of the tissues by qualified personnel. However, this method is subjective and in some cases BCC can be confused with other structures in healthy skin, including hair follicles. In this preliminary study, we investigated the potential of Raman micro-spectroscopy (RMS) to discriminate between hair follicles and BCC in skin tissue sections excised during Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS). Imaging and diagnosis of skin sections was automatically generated using ' a priori'-built spectral model based on LDA. This model had 90 ± 9% sensitivity and 85 ± 9% specificity for discrimination of BCC from dermis and epidermis. The model used selected Raman bands corresponding to the largest spectral differences between the Raman spectra of BCC and the normal skin regions, associated mainly with nucleic acids and collagen type I. Raman spectra corresponding to the epidermis regions of the hair follicles were found to be closer to those of healthy epidermis rather than BCC. Comparison between Raman spectral images and the gold standard haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) histopathology diagnosis showed good agreement. Some hair follicle regions were misclassified as BCC; regions corresponded mainly to the outermost layer of hair follicle (basal cells) which are expected to have higher nucleic acid concentration. This preliminary study shows the ability of RMS to distinguish between BCC and other tissue structures associated to healthy skin which can be confused with BCC due to their similar morphology.

  19. A role for sunlight in skin cancer: UV-induced p53 mutations in squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Brash, D E; Rudolph, J A; Simon, J A; Lin, A; McKenna, G J; Baden, H P; Halperin, A J; Pontén, J

    1991-01-01

    Sunlight is a carcinogen to which everyone is exposed. Its UV component is the major epidemiologic risk factor for squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. Of the multiple steps in tumor progression, those that are sunlight-related would be revealed if they contained mutations specific to UV. In a series of New England and Swedish patients, we find that 14/24 (58%) of invasive squamous cell carcinomas of the skin contain mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene, each altering the amino acid sequence. Involvement of UV light in these p53 mutations is indicated by the presence in three of the tumors of a CC----TT double-base change, which is only known to be induced by UV. UV is also implicated by a UV-like occurrence of mutations exclusively at dipyrimidine sites, including a high frequency of C----T substitutions. p53 mutations in internal malignancies do not show these UV-specific mutations. The dipyrimidine specificity also implicates dipyrimidine photoproducts containing cytosine as oncogenic photoproducts. We believe these results identify a carcinogen-related step in a gene involved in the subsequent human cancer. Images PMID:1946433

  20. A role for sunlight in skin cancer: UV-induced p53 mutations in squamous cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Brash, D.E.; Rudolph, J.A.; Simon, J.A.; Lin, A.; McKenna, G.J. ); Baden, H.P. ); Ponten, J. )

    1991-11-15

    Sunlight is a carcinogen to which everyone is exposed. Its UV component is the major epidemiologic risk factor for squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. Of the multiple steps in tumor progression, those that are sunlight-related would be revealed if they contained mutations specific to UV. In a series of New England and Swedish patients, the authors find that 14/24 (58%) of invasive squamous cell carcinomas of the skin contain mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene, each altering the amino acid sequence. Involvement of UV light in these p53 mutations is indicated by the presence in three of the tumors of a CC {yields} TT double-base change, which is only known to be induced by UV. UV is also implicated by a UV-like occurrence of mutations exclusively at dipyrimidine sites, including a high frequency of C {yields} T substitutions. p53 mutations in internal malignancies do not show these UV-specific mutations. The dipyrimidine specificity also implicates dipyrimidine photoproducts containing cytosine as oncogenic photoproducts. They believe these results identify a carcinogen-related step in a gene involved in the subsequent human cancer.

  1. Snai1 and Snai2 collaborate on tumor growth and metastasis properties of mouse skin carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Olmeda, D; Montes, A; Moreno-Bueno, G; Flores, J M; Portillo, F; Cano, A

    2008-08-07

    Snai1 (Snail) and Snai2 (Slug), the two main members of Snail family factors, are important mediators of epithelial-mesenchymal transitions and involved in tumor progression. We recently reported that Snai1 plays a major role in tumor growth, invasion and metastasis, but the contribution of Snai2 to tumorigenesis is not yet well understood. To approach this question we have silenced Snai2 and/or Snai1 by stable RNA interference in two independent mouse skin carcinoma (HaCa4 and CarB) cell lines. We demonstrate that Snai2 knockdown has a milder effect, but collaborates with Snai1 silencing in reduction of tumor growth potential of either carcinoma cell line when injected into nude mice. Importantly, Snai1 or Snai2 silencing dramatically influences the metastatic ability of squamous carcinoma HaCa4 cells, inducing a strong reduction in liver and lung distant metastasis. However, only Snai1 knockdown has an effective action on invasiveness and fully abolishes tumor cell dissemination into the spleen. These results demonstrate that Snai1 and Snai2 collaborate on primary tumor growth and specifically contribute to site-specific metastasis of HaCa4 cells. These data also indicate that Snai1 is the major regulator of local invasion, supporting a hierarchical participation of both factors in the metastatic process.

  2. Concomitant cetuximab and radiation therapy: A possible promising strategy for locally advanced inoperable non-melanoma skin carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    DELLA VITTORIA SCARPATI, GIUSEPPINA; PERRI, FRANCESCO; PISCONTI, SALVATORE; COSTA, GIUSEPPE; RICCIARDIELLO, FILIPPO; DEL PRETE, SALVATORE; NAPOLITANO, ALBERTO; CARRATURO, MARCO; MAZZONE, SALVATORE; ADDEO, RAFFAELE

    2016-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) include a heterogeneous group of malignancies arising from the epidermis, comprising squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), basal cell carcinoma (BCC), Merkel cell carcinoma and more rare entities, including malignant pilomatrixoma and sebaceous gland tumours. The treatment of early disease depends primarily on surgery. In addition, certain patients present with extensive local invasion or metastasis, which renders these tumours surgically unresectable. Improving the outcome of radiotherapy through the use of concurrent systemic therapy has been demonstrated in several locally advanced cancer-treatment paradigms. Recently, agents targeting the human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have exhibited a consolidated activity in phase II clinical trials and case series reports. Cetuximab is a monoclonal antibody that binds to and completely inhibits the EGFR, which has been revealed to be up-regulated in a variety of SCCs, including NMSCs. The present review aimed to summarize the role of anti-EGFR agents in the predominant types of NMSC, including SCC and BCC, and focuses on the cetuximab-based studies, highlighting the biological rationale of this therapeutic option. In addition, the importance of the association between cetuximab and radiotherapy for locally advanced NMSC is discussed. PMID:27073643

  3. Investigation and Management of Adnexal Masses in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Cavaco-Gomes, João; Jorge Moreira, Cátia; Rocha, Anabela; Mota, Raquel; Paiva, Vera; Costa, Antónia

    2016-01-01

    Adnexal masses can be found in 0.19 to 8.8% of all pregnancies. Most masses are functional and asymptomatic and up to 70% resolve spontaneously in the second trimester. The main predictors of persistence are the size (>5 cm) and the imagiological morphocomplexity. Those that persist carry a low risk of malignancy (0 to 10%). Most malignant masses are diagnosed at early stages and more than 50% are borderline epithelial neoplasms. Ultrasound is the preferred method to stratify the risk of complications and malignancy, allowing medical approach planning. Pregnancy and some gestational disorders may modify the levels of tumor markers, whereby their interpretation during pregnancy should be cautious. Large masses are at increased risk of torsion, rupture, and dystocia. When surgery is indicated, laparoscopy is a safe technique and should ideally be carried out in the second trimester of pregnancy. PMID:27119043

  4. Immunohistochemical analysis of TIMP-3 and MMP-9 in actinic keratosis, squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, and basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Poswar, Fabiano O; Fraga, Carlos A C; Farias, Lucyana C; Feltenberger, John D; Cruz, Vitória P D; Santos, Sérgio H S; Silveira, Christine M; de Paula, Alfredo M B; Guimarães, André L S

    2013-11-01

    The expression of metalloproteinases and their inhibitors has been related to different invasive and metastatic potentials in cancer. This study aims to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of TIMP-3 and MMP-9 in samples of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma of the skin (SCC), and actinic keratosis (AK). Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate the expression of TIMP-3 and MMP-9 in samples of BCC (n=22), SCC (n=10), and AK (n=15). Ten fields of both tumor parenchyma and tumor stroma were photographed and counted in image software. The ratio of positive cells to total cells was used to quantify the staining. A higher expression of MMP-9 was found in tumor stroma of SCC compared to BCC and AK. No significant differences in TIMP-3 expression were observed among the groups. Considering the well-described differences between these neoplasms, these results provide additional evidence of the role of MMP-9 in tumor invasiveness of keratinocyte-derived tumors.

  5. Protein expression of MMP-2 and MT1-MMP in actinic keratosis, squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, and basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Poswar, Fabiano; de Carvalho Fraga, Carlos Alberto; Gomes, Emisael Stênio Batista; Farias, Lucyana Conceição; Souza, Linton Wallis Figueiredo; Santos, Sérgio Henrique Souza; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago; de-Paula, Alfredo Maurício Batista; Guimarães, André Luiz Sena

    2015-02-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are 2 skin neoplasms with distinct potentials to invasion and metastasis. Actinic keratosis (AK) is a precursor lesion of SCC. Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate the expression of MMP-2 and MT1-MMP in samples of BCC (n = 29), SCC (n = 12), and AK (n = 13). The ratio of positive cells to total cells was used to quantify the staining. Statistical significance was considered under the level P < .05. We found a higher expression of MMP-2 in tumor stroma and parenchyma of SCC as compared to BCC. The expression of this protein was also similar between SCC and its precursor actinic keratosis, and it was higher in the stroma of high-risk BCC when compared to low-risk BCC. MT1-MMP, which is an activator of MMP-2, was similarly expressed in all groups. Our results suggest that MMP-2 expression may contribute to the distinct invasive patterns seen in SCC and BCC.

  6. Surgical Treatment of Squamous Carcinoma in an Antethoracic Skin Tube Used for Esophageal Replacement.

    PubMed

    Fox, Matthew P; Mathisen, Douglas J

    2017-04-01

    Occasionally, enteric conduits are unavailable or impractical for esophageal replacement. Cutaneous tubes are rarely employed alternatives that remain useful in specific circumstances. We present the case of a patient with a long standing skin tube complicated by malignancy that was replaced with a new skin tube.

  7. Divergence between the high rate of p53 mutations in skin carcinomas and the low prevalence of anti-p53 antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Moch, C; Moysan, A; Lubin, R; Salmonière, P de La; Soufir, N; Galisson, F; Vilmer, C; Venutolo, E; Pelletier, F Le; Janin, A; Basset-Séguin, N

    2001-01-01

    Circulating anti-p53 antibodies have been described and used as tumoural markers in patients with various cancers and strongly correlate with the p53 mutated status of the tumours. No study has yet looked at the prevalence of such antibodies in skin carcinoma patients although these tumours have been shown to be frequently p53 mutated. Most skin carcinoma can be diagnosed by examination or biopsy, but aggressive, recurrent and/or non-surgical cases' follow up would be helped by a biological marker of residual disease. We performed a prospective study looking at the prevalence of anti-p53 antibodies using an ELISA technique in a series of 105 skin carcinoma patients in comparison with a sex- and age-matched control skin carcinoma-free group (n = 130). Additionally, p53 accumulation was studied by immunohistochemistry to confirm p53 protein altered expression in a sample of tumours. Anti-p53 antibodies were detected in 2.9% of the cases, with a higher prevalence in patients suffering from the more aggressive squamous cell type (SCC) of skin carcinoma (8%) than for the more common and slowly growing basal cell carcinoma type or BCC (1.5%). p53 protein stabilization could be confirmed in 80% of tumours studied by IHC. This low level of anti-p53 antibody detection contrasts with the high rate of p53 mutations reported in these tumours. This observation shows that the anti-p53 humoral response is a complex and tissue-specific mechanism. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11747330

  8. Recurrence of breast carcinoma as Paget disease of the skin at a prior core needle biopsy site: Case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Calvillo, Katherina Zabicki; Guo, Lifei; Brostrom, Valerie; Schnitt, Stuart J.; Hong, Xuefei; Raza, Sughra; Lester, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Core needle biopsy has become the preferred method of diagnosing breast carcinomas prior to definitive surgery. The possibility of displacing tumor cells into the needle track is a concern. Presentation of case A 38 year old woman was diagnosed with right breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) with microinvasion by core needle biopsy. Bilateral skin sparing mastectomies with immediate autologous reconstruction were performed. One and a half years later the patient noted erythema and a scaling crust on the skin of the right breast that progressed over several months. Punch biopsy revealed Paget disease restricted to the epidermis. Subsequent comparison to initial clinical photographs confirmed the cancer was associated with the skin puncture site of the needle biopsy. The patient underwent complete excision with skin grafting and remains free of disease three years later. Discussion Only 13 cases of needle track recurrences have been reported. The majority presented as invasive carcinoma forming a subcutaneous mass. In the current case, detection was delayed due to not initially noting that a skin lesion was at the puncture site of the original needle biopsy. This is the only case of recurrence as tumor limited to the epidermis. Conclusion Although recurrence in a needle track occurs very infrequently, clinicians should be aware of this phenomenon and investigate any changes, particularly when occurring at a needle biopsy site. Recording the skin puncture site can aid in early detection of recurrences. Recognition of a recurrence is important for prompt treatment and optimal prognosis. PMID:26395914

  9. Dietary immunosuppressants do not enhance UV-induced skin carcinogenesis, and reveal discordance between p53-mutant early clones and carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Voskamp, Pieter; Bodmann, Carolien A; Koehl, Gudrun E; Rebel, Heggert G; Van Olderen, Marjolein G E; Gaumann, Andreas; El Ghalbzouri, Abdoel; Tensen, Cornelis P; Bavinck, Jan N Bouwes; Willemze, Rein; Geissler, Edward K; De Gruijl, Frank R

    2013-02-01

    Immunosuppressive drugs are thought to cause the dramatically increased risk of carcinomas in sun-exposed skin of organ transplant recipients. These drugs differ in local effects on skin. We investigated whether this local impact is predictive of skin cancer risk and may thus provide guidance on minimizing the risk. Immunosuppressants (azathioprine, cyclosporine, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and rapamycin) were assessed on altering the UV induction of apoptosis in human skin models and of p53 mutant cell clones (putative tumor precursors) and ensuing skin carcinomas (with mutant p53) in the skin of hairless mice. Rapamycin was found to increase apoptosis (three-fold), whereas cyclosporine decreased apoptosis (three-fold). Correspondingly, a 1.5- to five-fold reduction (P = 0.07) or a two- to three-fold increase (P < 0.001) was found in cell clusters overexpressing mutant p53 in chronically UV-exposed skin of mice that had been fed rapamycin or cyclosporine, respectively. Deep sequencing showed, however, that the allelic frequency (∼5%) of the hotspot mutations in p53 (codons 270 and 275) remained unaffected. The majority of cells with mutated p53 seemed not to overexpress the mutated protein. Unexpectedly, none of the immunosuppressants admixed in high dosages to the diet accelerated tumor development, and cyclosporine even delayed tumor onset by approximately 15% (P < 0.01). Thus, in contrast to earlier findings, the frequency of p53-mutant cells was not predictive of the incidence of skin carcinoma. Moreover, the lack of any accelerative effect on tumor development suggests that immunosuppressive medication is not the sole cause of the dramatic increase in skin cancer risk in organ transplant recipients.

  10. Stages of Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer ... carcinoma include the following: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  11. Skin Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer ... carcinoma include the following: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  12. Ultraviolet light induction of skin carcinoma in the mouse; influence of cAMP modifying agents.

    PubMed

    Zajdela, F; Latarjet, R

    1978-01-01

    A short review of pathogenic factors in U.V. light skin carcinogenesis in the mouse is presented. Caffeine and theophylline applied locally during U.V. irradiation caused a 50 percent reduction of skin tumour induction in Swiss mice. These two chemicals are inhibitors of DNA postreplication repair, but they also raise the intracellular level of cyclic AMP by inhibiting cAMP phosphodiesterase with, as a consequence, a possible slowing down of cellular growth. Control experiments using three different chemicals capable of raising the cAMP level in epidermal cells gave negative results. These experimental data are compatible with our original hypothesis according to which production of skin cancers by U.V. radiation is in same way related to DNA repair which helps the cell to survive but allows or favours the occurrence of errors in cellular DNA.

  13. From Normal Skin to Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Quest for Novel Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Ghita, Mihaela; Moraru, Liliana; Voiculescu, Suzana; Greabu, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Squamous cells carcinoma (SCC) is the second most frequent of the keratinocyte-derived malignancies after basal cell carcinoma and is associated with a significant psychosocial and economic burden for both the patient himself and society. Reported risk factors for the malignant transformation of keratinocytes and development of SCC include ultraviolet light exposure, followed by chronic scarring and inflammation, exposure to chemical compounds (arsenic, insecticides, and pesticides), and immune-suppression. Despite various available treatment methods and recent advances in noninvasive or minimal invasive diagnostic techniques, the risk recurrence and metastasis are far from being negligible, even in patients with negative histological margins and lymph nodes. Analyzing normal, dysplastic, and malignant keratinocyte proteome holds special promise for novel biomarker discovery in SCC that could be used in the future for early detection, risk assessment, tumor monitoring, and development of targeted therapeutic strategies. PMID:27642215

  14. A case of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin due to the molecularly confirmed Lynch Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sorscher, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Patients with Lynch Syndrome are at high risk for developing a variety of cancers including cancers of the colon or rectum, small bowel, stomach, uterus, renal pelvis, ureter, biliary tract, ovaries, brain and pancreas (N Engl J Med 348: 919-32, 2003; Gut 57:1097-101, 2008; NCCN, Inc Guideline. Ft. Washington, PA. Online Version 2.2014). Lack of MLH-1 and MSH-2 expression commonly result from germline mutations in this inherited cancer syndrome. Here, we report the case of a patient with a molecularly confirmed germline mutation in MLH-1 along with a colon cancer showing lack of expression of MLH-1 as well as a squamous cell cancer of the skin from the abdominal wall also demonstrating lack of expression of MLH-1. This case appears to represent the second case report of a squamous cell skin cancer apparently due to the Lynch Syndrome and further supports a proposed relationship between Lynch Syndrome and these tumors.

  15. Identification of human skin from a tissue fragment by detection of squamous cell carcinoma-related antigen using an enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Kitao, T; Miyaishi, S; Yamamoto, Y; Ishizu, H

    1996-12-02

    A new method of identifying human skin from a tissue fragment by detection of squamous cell carcinoma-related (SCC) antigen, using an enzyme immunoassay, was developed. When an extract was prepared from 0.1 g human skin homogenized with 1 ml of phosphate buffered saline, this method was able to detect SCC antigen in extracts diluted 10(2)-fold. There was no difference in the detection limit between individuals. Species specificity was good, and there was no cross reaction observed with skins from animals. Our method could also discriminate between skin and other organs or tissues, except for esophagus and lung. A practical case to which this method was applied is presented.

  16. Management of high-risk squamous cell carcinoma of the skin.

    PubMed

    Samarasinghe, Venura; Madan, Vishal; Lear, John T

    2011-05-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell cancer (SCC) is the second most common skin cancer, accounting for one-fifth of all cutaneous malignancies. The majority arise on the head and neck skin, and cumulative UV exposure is thought to be the most likely etiological factor. The majority of deaths from SCC occur in a high-risk subgroup of patients. This high-risk subgroup of patients can be identified as those with tumors greater than 2 cm in diameter; tumor thickness over 4 mm; moderately/poorly differentiated or desmoplastic histological SCC subtype; ear, lip, hand, feet or genital tumor site; presence of perineural or lymphovascular invasion; nodal metastasis at presentation; recurrent SCC; SCC arising from scars or chronic skin disease, for example, chronic ulcers; and SCC arising in immunosuppressed patients. It is important to identify and aggressively treat these patients, as high-risk SCC are associated with a greater mortality and morbidity. This article reviews the diagnosis and management of such high-risk SCC.

  17. Recommendations for Solid Organ Transplantation for Transplant Candidates With a Pretransplant Diagnosis of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Merkel Cell Carcinoma and Melanoma: A Consensus Opinion From the International Transplant Skin Cancer Collaborative (ITSCC).

    PubMed

    Zwald, F; Leitenberger, J; Zeitouni, N; Soon, S; Brewer, J; Arron, S; Bordeaux, J; Chung, C; Abdelmalek, M; Billingsley, E; Vidimos, A; Stasko, T

    2016-02-01

    Advancements in solid organ transplantation successfully extend the lives of thousands of patients annually. The tenet of organ stewardship aims to prevent the futile expenditure of scarce donor organs in patient populations with high mortality risk, to the detriment of potential recipients with greater predicted life expectancy. The development of skin cancer posttransplantation portends tremendous morbidity, adversely affecting quality of life for many transplant recipients. This special article, provided by of members of the International Transplant Skin Cancer Collaborative (ITSCC), will provide the transplant professional with a consensus opinion and recommendations as to an appropriate wait period pretransplantation for transplant candidates with a history of either cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma, or Merkel cell carcinoma.

  18. Low-Grade Appendiceal Mucinous Neoplasm Presenting as an Adnexal Mass

    PubMed Central

    Panagopoulos, P.; Domi, V.; Christodoulaki, C.; Sioutis, D.; Papantoniou, N.

    2017-01-01

    Appendiceal tumors are rare, late diagnosed neoplasms that may not be differentiated from adnexal masses even by advanced imaging methods and other diagnostic procedures. They may be asymptomatic and remain undiagnosed until surgery. We report a case of an 80-year-old postmenopausal woman presenting with a pelvic mass and a history of weight loss. The patient underwent laparotomy which revealed an appendiceal mucocele, for which she received a full oncological procedure. The histology report showed a low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm, and the patient underwent six cycles of chemotherapy. Appendiceal tumors should be kept in mind in patients with adnexal mass. PMID:28286683

  19. Dose evaluation for skin and organ in hepatocellular carcinoma during angiographic procedure

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to evaluate the radiation dose in patients undergoing liver angiographic procedure and verify the usefulness of different dose measurements to prevent deterministic effects. Gafchromic film, MicroMOSFET data and DIAMENTOR device of the X-ray system were used to characterize the examined interventional radiology (IR) procedure. Materials and methods A liver embolization procedure, the SIRT (Selective Internal Radiation Therapy), was investigated. The exposure parameters from the DIAMENTOR as well as patient and geometrical data were registered. Entrance skin dose map obtained using Gafchromic film (ESDGAF) in a standard phantom as well as in 12 patients were used to calculate the maximum skin dose (MSDGAF). MicroMOSFETs were used to assess ESD in relevant points/areas. Moreover, the maximum value of five MicroMOSFETs array, due to the extension of treated area and to the relative distance of 2–3 cm of two adjacent MicroMOSFETs, was useful to predict the MSD without interfering with the clinical practice. PCXMC vers.1.5 was used to calculate effective dose (E) and equivalent dose (H). Results The mean dose-area product (DAPDIAMENTOR) for SIRT procedures was 166 Gycm2, although a wide range was observed. The mean MSDGAF for SIRT procedures was 1090 mGy, although a wide range was experienced. A correlation was found between the MSDGAF measured on a patient and the DAPDIAMENTOR value for liver embolizations. MOSFET and Gafchromic data were in agreement within 5% in homogeneous area and within 20% in high dose gradient regions. The mean equivalent dose in critical organs was 89.8 mSv for kidneys, 22.9 mSv for pancreas, 20.2 mSv for small intestine and 21.0 mSv for spleen. Whereas the mean E was 3.7 mSv (range: 0.5-13.7). Conclusions Gafchromic films result useful to study patient exposure and determine localization and amplitude of high dose skin areas to better predict the skin injuries. Then, DAPDIAMENTOR or MOSFET data

  20. Cutaneous Human Papillomavirus Infection and Development of Subsequent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Rhianna A.; Bezalel, Spencer; Cameron, Michael; Cherpelis, Basil; Fenske, Neil; Sondak, Vernon K.; Messina, Jane; Tommasino, Massimo; Gheit, Tarik; Rollison, Dana E.

    2016-01-01

    The role of cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the development of subsequent cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is unknown. Pathologically confirmed cases of SCC (n = 150) enrolled in a previously conducted case-control study were included in a retrospective cohort study to examine the association of cutaneous HPV at the time of SCC diagnosis with the risk of subsequent SCC development. Data on HPV seropositivity, HPV DNA in eyebrow hairs (EB) and SCC tumors were available from the parent study. Incidence of subsequent SCC was estimated using person-years of follow up. Cox Proportional Hazards ratios were estimated to evaluate the associations of both, HPV seropositivity and HPV DNA positivity with subsequent SCC. The five year cumulative incidence of subsequent SCC was 72%. Seropositivity to cutaneous HPV was not associated with the risk of subsequent SCC (HR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.41–1.67). Any beta HPV infection in EB was associated with reduced risk (HR = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.11–0.78) of subsequent SCC among cases who were positive for beta HPV DNA in tumor tissue. Infection with beta HPV type 2 (HR = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.12–0.86) in EB was associated with reduced risk of subsequent SCC among HPV DNA positive SCCs. In conclusion, beta HPV infection was inversely associated with the risk of subsequent SCC. PMID:27891253

  1. Initial basal cell carcinomas diagnosed in the National Campaign for Skin Cancer Prevention are smaller than those identified by the conventional medical referral system*

    PubMed Central

    Wakiyama, Thweicyka Pinheiro; França, Maria Laura Marconi; Carvalho, Larissa Pierri; Marques, Mariangela Esther Alencar; Miot, Hélio Amante; Schmitt, Juliano Vilaverde

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Basal cell carcinoma is the malignant tumor most often diagnosed in the National Campaign for Skin Cancer Prevention (NCSCP). Little is known about the profile of these lesions compared to the profile of lesions diagnosed by conventional routes of public dermatological care. OBJECTIVE To identify if basal cell carcinomas identified in prevention campaigns and referred to surgery are smaller than those routinely removed in a same medical institution. METHODS Cross-sectional study including tumors routed from 2011-2014 campaigns and 84 anatomopathological reports of outpatients. RESULTS The campaigns identified 223 individuals with suspicious lesions among 2,531 examinations (9%), with 116 basal cell carcinomas removed. Anatomopathological examinations revealed that the primary lesions identified in the national campaigns were smaller than those referred to surgery by the conventional routes of public health care (28 [13-50] x 38 [20-113] mm2, p <0.01). On the other hand, after a mean follow-up of 15.6 ± 10.3 months, 31% of cases identified in campaigns showed new basal cell carcinoma lesions. STUDY LIMITATIONS Retrospective study and inaccuracies in the measurements of the lesions. CONCLUSIONS The NCSCP promotes an earlier treatment of basal cell carcinomas compared to patients referred to surgery by the conventional routes of public health care, which can result in lower morbidity rates and better prognosis. PMID:28225952

  2. The expression of miR-124 increases in aged skin to cause cell senescence and it decreases in squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Harada, Miho; Jinnin, Masatoshi; Wang, Zhongzhi; Hirano, Ayaka; Tomizawa, Yukiko; Kira, Tomomi; Igata, Toshikatsu; Masuguchi, Shinichi; Fukushima, Satoshi; Ihn, Hironobu

    2017-01-16

    Skin senescence is induced by various factors including intrinsic aging and extrinsic aging. The current study compared the expression of microRNAs in young facial skin and senescent facial skin, and this study identified skin aging-related microRNAs. According to the results from a microRNA PCR Array, miR-124 was the microRNA that increased the most in senescent skin compared to young skin. Real-time PCR with a greater number of samples indicated that the increase in miR-124 levels in senescent facial skin was statistically significant. In situ hybridization was performed, and results indicated that the signal for miR-124 was evident in keratinocytes of senescent skin but not in those of young skin. The morphology of cultured normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) transfected with a miR-124 mimic changed to an enlarged and irregular shape. In addition, the number of NHEKs positive for senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) increased significantly as a result of the overexpression of the miR-124 mimic. The expression of miR-124 increased in UVB-irradiated NHEKs compared to controls in a dose-dependent manner. Expression of miR-124 in A431, a human cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell line, decreased significantly compared to that in NHEKs. Forced overexpression of miR-124 as a result of the transfection of a miR-124 mimic in A431 resulted in the significant suppression of the proportion of cancer cells. The current results indicated that miR-124 increases as a result of cell senescence and that it decreases during tumorigenesis. The effect of supplementation of miR-124 in an SCC cell line suggests that senescence induction therapy with microRNA may be a new therapeutic approach for treatment of SCC.

  3. Classification of basal cell carcinoma in human skin using machine learning and quantitative features captured by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Marvdashti, Tahereh; Duan, Lian; Aasi, Sumaira Z.; Tang, Jean Y.; Ellerbee Bowden, Audrey K.

    2016-01-01

    We report the first fully automated detection of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most commonly occurring type of skin cancer, in human skin using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT). Our proposed automated procedure entails building a machine-learning based classifier by extracting image features from the two complementary image contrasts offered by PS-OCT, intensity and phase retardation (PR), and selecting a subset of features that yields a classifier with the highest accuracy. Our classifier achieved 95.4% sensitivity and specificity, validated by leave-one-patient-out cross validation (LOPOCV), in detecting BCC in human skin samples collected from 42 patients. Moreover, we show the superiority of our classifier over the best possible classifier based on features extracted from intensity-only data, which demonstrates the significance of PR data in detecting BCC. PMID:27699133

  4. 76 FR 22322 - Medical Devices; Immunology and Microbiology Devices; Classification of Ovarian Adnexal Mass...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 866 Medical Devices; Immunology and Microbiology Devices; Classification of Ovarian Adnexal Mass Assessment Score Test System; Correction AGENCY: Food...

  5. Single port access laparoscopic surgery for large adnexal tumors: Initial 51 cases of a single institute

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Bo Ra; Han, Jae Won; Kim, Tae Hyun; Han, Ae Ra; Hur, Sung Eun; Lee, Sung Ki

    2017-01-01

    Objective Investigation of initial 51 cases of single port access (SPA) laparoscopic surgery for large adnexal tumors and evaluation of safety and feasibility of the surgical technique. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of the first 51 patients who received SPA laparoscopic surgery for large adnexal tumors greater than 10 cm, from July 2010 to February 2015. Results SPA adnexal surgeries were successfully completed in 51 patients (100%). The mean age, body mass index of the patients were 43.1 years and 22.83 kg/m2, respectively. The median operative time, median blood loss were 73.5 (range, 20 to 185) minutes, 54 (range, 5 to 500) mL, and the median tumor diameter was 13.6 (range, 10 to 30) cm. The procedures included bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (n=18, 36.0%), unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (n=14, 27.45%), and paratubal cystectomy (n=1, 1.96%). There were no cases of malignancy and none were insertion of additional ports or conversion to laparotomy. The cases with intraoperative spillage were 3 (5.88%) and benign cystic tumors. No other intraoperative and postoperative complications were observed during hospital days and 6-weeks follow-up period after discharge. Conclusion Our results suggest that SPA laparoscopic surgery for large adnexal tumors may be a safe and feasible alternative to conventional laparoscopic surgery. PMID:28217669

  6. Intake of high-fat diet stimulates the risk of ultraviolet radiation-induced skin tumors and malignant progression of papillomas to carcinoma in SKH-1 hairless mice

    SciTech Connect

    Vaid, Mudit; Singh, Tripti; Prasad, Ram; Katiyar, Santosh K.

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we showed that administration of a high-fat diet (HF-diet) to C57BL/6 mice exacerbates their response to short-term UVB radiation-induced inflammation in the skin. To explore the effects of an HF-diet on UVB-induced tumorigenesis, we have used the SKH-1 hairless mouse model in which the mice are exposed to UVB radiation (180 mJ/cm{sup 2}) three times a week for 24 weeks. The development of UVB-induced skin tumors was rapid and the tumor multiplicity and tumor size were significantly higher (P < 0.01–0.005) in the mice fed an HF-diet than the mice fed a control-diet (C-diet). Moreover, the malignant progression of UVB-induced papillomas to carcinomas was higher in HF-diet-fed mice. On analysis of tumors and tumor-uninvolved skin samples from the tumor-bearing mice, we found that administration of an HF-diet significantly enhanced the levels of UVB-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E{sub 2} (P < 0.01), and PGE{sub 2} receptors, and activation of NF-κB in the UVB-exposed skin as well as in tumors. In addition the HF-diet enhanced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (P < 0.01), interleukin (IL)-1β (P < 0.01) and IL-6 (P < 0.05) in the UVB-exposed skin as well as in tumors. Western blot analysis revealed that HF-diet enhanced the levels of epidermal cell proliferation, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and phosphorylation of Akt at Ser{sup 473} in UVB-exposed skin and skin tumors. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the regular consumption of an HF-diet increases the risk of photocarcinogenesis in mice and that this is associated with enhanced expression of inflammatory mediators in the UVB-exposed skin and tumors. - Highlights: • Consumption of high-fat diet increases UVB-induced skin tumor development in mice. • Intake of high-fat diet stimulates progression of UV-induced papilloma to carcinoma. • Intake of high-fat diet enhances inflammation in UV-exposed skin • Regular

  7. Differences in the peritumoural inflammatory skin infiltrate between squamous cell carcinomas in organ transplant recipients and immunocompetent patients.

    PubMed

    Krynitz, Britta; Lundh Rozell, Barbro; Lindelöf, Bernt

    2010-07-01

    Organ transplant recipients (OTR) have a greatly increased risk (up to 100 times) of developing squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) in the skin. This is attributed specifically to chronic immunosuppression, causing dysfunctional viral defence and tumour protection. To investigate the possible link between increasing risk of SCCs and type of inflammation in these tumour-prone patients, we analysed the peritumoural infiltrates with regard to cell types and densities. Seven SCCs from immunosuppressed OTR and 14 SCCs from immunocompetent patients were immun-histochemically stained for CD3, CD4, CD8, CD56, CD20, CD138, CD14, CD68, CD1a. Cell counts were performed with the aid of computer-based image analysis of > 100,000 cells. When comparing the percentage distributions, significant differences were detected (outlined as median values (min-max)): T cells (CD3+): OTR 57% (35-78), controls 68% (48-80), p = 0.036; plasma cells (CD138+): OTR 2% (0.7-7), controls 0.2% (0-1.2), p = 0.001; mono-cytes (CD14+): OTR 3.2% (1.1-5.6), controls 9.3% (2.2-17.2), p = 0.014. Surprisingly, no differences in cell densities, i.e. cells/mm2 tumour section area, were detected between the 2 groups. In conclusion, we found that the peritumoural infiltrates in immunosuppressed compared with immunocompetent patients differ in cellular composition, inferring a more tumour-submissive environment in OTR. However, cellular densities were equal, suggesting deviating cellular functionality in OTR.

  8. Photodamage in feline skin: clinical and histomorphometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Almeida, E M P; Caraça, R A; Adam, R L; Souza, E M; Metze, K; Cintra, M L

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate clinical and histomorphometric features of cat skin under long-term solar exposure. Ear skin of 34 Domestic Shorthair cats that were chronically exposed to sun was classified as follows: group 0, normal (n = 13); group 1, initial stage of photodamage (PD) (n = 10); group 2, advanced stage of PD (n = 11). Histologic sections were examined independently by 2 pathologists, and epidermal thickness, adnexal unit area, and dermal cellularity were assessed by morphometry. A positive correlation was obtained between age, degree of edema and sclerosis in the upper dermis, telangiectases, squamatization of basal keratinocytes, and epidermis thickness and the degree of PD. The area occupied by adnexal structures in the dermis diminished with increased PD. Dermal sclerosis and edema best separated the 3 groups. The results indicated a high level of skin hypersensitivity to sun rays in cats. The findings may be useful for clinical testing and in general veterinary pathology and dermatology.

  9. Effect of Cuscuta chinensis water extract on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced skin papillomas and carcinomas in mice.

    PubMed

    Nisa, M; Akbar, S; Tariq, M; Hussain, Z

    1986-10-01

    Cuscuta chinensis, known as Aftimun, is reputed to have antitumour activity in the Unani system of medicine in India. The effect of a hot water extract of C. chinensis on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced skin papillomas and carcinomas in Swiss albino mice was studied. Oral administration of the extract (1 g/kg body wt) thrice a week in 22 mice, started on the tenth day after the first application of DMBA to the 252nd day, markedly delayed the appearance and retarded the growth of papillomas and the incidence of carcinoma, relative to a control group with 28 mice, in a two-stage system of tumorigenesis. Its prophylactic effect was found to be statistically significant.

  10. Validation of a diagnostic algorithm for the discrimination of actinic keratosis from normal skin and squamous cell carcinoma by means of high-definition optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Marneffe, Alice; Suppa, Mariano; Miyamoto, Makiko; Del Marmol, Véronique; Boone, Marc

    2016-09-01

    Actinic keratoses (AKs) commonly arise on sun-damaged skin. Visible lesions are often associated with subclinical lesions on surrounding skin, giving rise to field cancerization. To avoid multiple biopsies to diagnose subclinical/early invasive lesions, there is an increasing interest in non-invasive diagnostic tools, such as high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT). We previously developed a HD-OCT-based diagnostic algorithm for the discrimination of AK from squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and normal skin. The aim of this study was to test the applicability of HD-OCT for non-invasive discrimination of AK from SCC and normal skin using this algorithm. Three-dimensional (3D) HD-OCT images of histopathologically proven AKs and SCCs and images of normal skin were collected. All images were shown in a random sequence to three independent observers with different experience in HD-OCT, blinded to the clinical and histopathological data and with different experience with HD-OCT. Observers classified each image as AK, SCC or normal skin based on the diagnostic algorithm. A total of 106 (38 AKs, 16 SCCs and 52 normal skin sites) HD-OCT images from 71 patients were included. Sensitivity and specificity for the most experienced observer were 81.6% and 92.6% for AK diagnosis and 93.8% and 98.9% for SCC diagnosis. A moderate interobserver agreement was demonstrated. HD-OCT represents a promising technology for the non-invasive diagnosis of AKs. Thanks to its high potential in discriminating SCC from AK, HD-OCT could be used as a relevant tool for second-level examination, increasing diagnostic confidence and sparing patients unnecessary excisions.

  11. Principle component analysis and linear discriminant analysis of multi-spectral autofluorescence imaging data for differentiating basal cell carcinoma and healthy skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernomyrdin, Nikita V.; Zaytsev, Kirill I.; Lesnichaya, Anastasiya D.; Kudrin, Konstantin G.; Cherkasova, Olga P.; Kurlov, Vladimir N.; Shikunova, Irina A.; Perchik, Alexei V.; Yurchenko, Stanislav O.; Reshetov, Igor V.

    2016-09-01

    In present paper, an ability to differentiate basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and healthy skin by combining multi-spectral autofluorescence imaging, principle component analysis (PCA), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) has been demonstrated. For this purpose, the experimental setup, which includes excitation and detection branches, has been assembled. The excitation branch utilizes a mercury arc lamp equipped with a 365-nm narrow-linewidth excitation filter, a beam homogenizer, and a mechanical chopper. The detection branch employs a set of bandpass filters with the central wavelength of spectral transparency of λ = 400, 450, 500, and 550 nm, and a digital camera. The setup has been used to study three samples of freshly excised BCC. PCA and LDA have been implemented to analyze the data of multi-spectral fluorescence imaging. Observed results of this pilot study highlight the advantages of proposed imaging technique for skin cancer diagnosis.

  12. Accuracy of Pelvic Mass Score in Pre-operative Determination of Malignancy in Adnexal Masses

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Arun; Ullal, Sonali; Krishna, Gowtham

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Suspicious adnexal masses are common clinical problems in gynaecological practice. A reliable diagnostic tool for the early detection of the ovarian malignancy is essential. Aim To validate a new scoring system –Pelvic Mass Score (PMS) in predicting the nature of the adnexal mass pre-operatively. Materials and Methods A prospective observational study was carried out in 100 consenting women with an undiagnosed adnexal mass requiring operative intervention. Among them 62 patients had mass with a feeding vessel in which the Doppler velocimetry study values were available. The PMS was determined in these 62 patients. A score of 29 or more was taken as suggestive of malignancy. The results were compared with the histopathological diagnosis to confirm malignancy. The chi-square test was applied to test the significance. Results Among the 62 patients with vascular mass, 31 had histopathological diagnosis of malignancy. The statistical analysis of the data with PMS with 29 as cut-off revealed 100% sensitivity and 100% Negative Predictive Value (NPV) as there was no false negative case detected. But the specificity and Positive Predictive Value (PPV) was poor; 45.2% and 64.6% respectively. Based on the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, if we redefine cut-off as 69, specificity increases to 80.6% with a sensitivity of 90.3%, the PPV and NPV being 82.35 and 89.29 respectively. Conclusion The present study concludes that, in suspicious vascular adnexal masses PMS can be used as a reliable diagnostic score to predict malignancy if we redefine the existing cut-off of 29 to 69. PMID:28050448

  13. Usefulness of T2*-weighted MRI in the detection of adnexal torsion

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Kawaguchi, Shimpei; Kojima, Toshihisa; Furui, Tatsuro; Morishige, Ken-ichirou; Matsuo, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Background The usefulness of T2*-weighted (T2*W) imaging for the detection of adnexal torsion has yet to be determined. Purpose To assess the usefulness of T2*W imaging for detecting and differentiating adnexal torsion. Material and Methods Eight patients with eight ovaries with torsion and 44 patients with 72 ovaries without torsion were included in this study. All patients underwent 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including T2*W images. The frequency and distribution of hypointensity on T2*W images were compared between ovaries with torsion and ovaries without torsion. Results Hypointensity on T2*W images was significantly more frequent in ovaries with torsion than in ovaries without torsion (75% vs. 36%; P < 0.05). Among patients with hypointensity on T2*W images, the frequency of diffuse hypointensity was significantly higher in ovaries with torsion than in ovaries without torsion (83% vs. 0%; P < 0.01); whereas the frequency of focal hypointensity was significantly lower in ovaries with torsion than in ovaries without torsion (17% vs. 100%; P < 0.01). Conclusion The presence and distribution of hypointensity on T2*W images may play a supplementary role in the detection of adnexal torsion. PMID:27478621

  14. Laparoscopic surgery for treating adnexal masses during the first trimester of pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Minig, Lucas; Otaño, Lucas; Cruz, Pilar; Patrono, María Guadalupe; Botazzi, Cecilia; Zapardiel, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic surgery for treating adnexal masses during the first trimester of pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: An observational study of a prospective collection of data of all pregnant women who underwent laparoscopic surgery for adnexal masses during the first trimester of pregnancy between January 1999 and November 2012 at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of the Italian Hospital of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina was performed. RESULTS: A total of 13 women were included. The median (range) gestational age at the moment of surgical procedure was 7 weeks (range: 5-12 weeks). The main indication of surgery was cyst torsion in four cases (30.7%) and rupture of ovarian cysts in four cases (30.7%). Other indications included persistent ovarian cyst in three patients (23%) and heterotopic pregnancy in two cases (15.3%). Neither surgical complications nor spontaneous abortions occurred in any of the cases and the post-operative period was uneventful in all the cases. No cases of intrauterine growth retardation, preterm delivery, congenital defects, or neonatal complications were registered. CONCLUSION: The treatment of complicated adnexal masses by laparoscopic surgery during the first trimester of pregnancy appears to be a safe procedure both for the mother and for the foetus. Additional research on a larger number of cases is still needed to support these conclusions. PMID:26917915

  15. Role of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology as a Diagnostic Tool in Orbital and Adnexal Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Lubna; Malukani, Kamal; Malaiya, Siddharth; Yeshwante, Prashant; Ishrat, Saba; Nandedkar, Shirish S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of fine needle aspiration (FNAC) as a diagnostic tool in cases of orbital and ocular adnexal masses. Cytological findings were correlated with histopathological diagnosis wherever possible. Methods: FNAC was performed in 29 patients of different age groups presenting with orbital and ocular adnexal masses. Patients were evaluated clinically and investigated by non-invasive techniques before fine needle aspiration of the masses. Smears were analyzed by a cytologist in all cases. Further, results of cytology were compared with the histopathological diagnosis. Results: The age of patients ranged from 1 to 68 years (mean: 29.79±19.29). There were 14 males and 15 females with a male to female ratio of 0.93:1. Out of 29 cases, 26 aspirates were cellular. Cellularity was insufficient in three (10.34%) aspirates. Out of 26 cellular aspirates, 11 were non-neoplastic while 15 were neoplastic on cytology. Subsequent histopathologic examination was done in 21/26 cases. Concordance rate of FNAC in orbital and ocular adnexal mass lesions with respect to the precise histologic diagnosis was 90%. Conclusion: When properly used in well-indicated patients (in cases where a diagnosis cannot be made by clinical and imaging findings alone), FNAC of orbital and periorbital lesions is an invaluable and suitable adjunct diagnostic technique that necessitates close cooperation between the ophthalmologist and cytologist. However, nondiagnostic aspirates may sometimes be obtained, and an inconclusive FNAC should not always be ignored. PMID:27621787

  16. Radiation therapy of carcinomas of the skin of nose and nasal vestibule: a report of 1676 cases by the Groupe Europeen de Curiethérapie.

    PubMed

    Mazeron, J J; Chassagne, D; Crook, J; Bachelot, F; Brochet, F; Brune, D; Brunin, F; Bunescu, U; Daly, N; Danczak, S

    1988-11-01

    A retrospective multicentric analysis of the results of irradiation of 1676 carcinomas of the skin of the nose and nasal vestibule was performed by the Groupe Européen de Curiethérapie (Tunis, May 1986). Overall local control was 93% with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. Local control is dependent on the tumor size (diameter less than 2 cm: 96%, 2-3.9 cm: 88%, greater than or equal to 4 cm: 81%), and tumor site (external surface of the nose: 94%, vestibule: 75%). Local control was independent of histology for smaller tumors, but for those larger than 4 cm, basal cell carcinomas were more frequently controlled than squamous cell carcinomas. Recurrent tumors are less frequently controlled than those being treated for the first time (88 vs. 95%). There were few complications and cosmetic results were generally satisfactory. The results of implantation, orthovoltage and megavoltage irradiation are compared with respect to local control, complication rate and cosmesis. Implantation is usually the treatment of choice for vestibular tumors but for those of the external surface the choice depends on the tumor diameter. Implantation and orthovoltage irradiation are equivalent for tumors less than 2 cm. For those from 2 to 3.9 cm, the results of orthovoltage irradiation may be satisfactory in a selected population but implantation is usually more suitable for tumors with rapidly changing contour.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Papillomaviral DNA and increased p16CDKN2A protein are frequently present within feline cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas in ultraviolet-protected skin.

    PubMed

    Munday, John S; Gibson, Isobel; French, Adrienne F

    2011-08-01

    Squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are common feline skin tumours. While exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light causes some SCCs, a subset develop in UV-protected skin. In cats, papillomaviruses (PVs) cause viral plaques and Bowenoid in situ carcinomas (BISCs). As both may progress to SCC, it was hypothesized that SCCs in UV-protected skin may represent neoplastic transformation of a PV-induced lesion. To investigate this hypothesis, PCR was used to amplify PV DNA from 25 UV-protected and 45 UV-exposed SCCs. Oncogenic human PVs cause neoplasia by mechanisms that also increase p16(CDKN2A) protein (p16). As increased p16 is present in feline viral plaques and BISCs, immunohistochemistry was used to detect p16 within the SCCs. Papillomaviral DNA was amplified from 76% of UV-protected SCCs, but only 42% of UV-exposed SCCs. Increased p16 was present in 84% of UV-protected SCCs, but only 40% of UV-exposed SCCs. The more frequent detection of PV DNA and increased p16 within UV-protected SCCs supports the hypothesis that some develop from a PV-induced plaque or BISC. Felis domesticus PV-2 is thought to cause viral plaques and BISCs. This PV was detected most frequently within the UV-protected SCCs, supporting development from a PV-induced lesion. Increased p16 and PV DNA were less frequent within UV-exposed SCCs, presumably because these developed from actinic keratosis rather than a PV-induced lesion. The results support the hypothesis that some feline cutaneous SCCs are caused by PV infection and suggest that PVs may cause neoplasia by mechanisms that also increase p16.

  18. Inhibition of skin squamous cell carcinoma proliferation and promote apoptosis by dual silencing of NET-1 and survivin.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhou-Jing; Wang, Jian-Li; Chen, Li

    2015-08-01

    The simultaneous silencing of multiple upregulated genes is an attractive and viable strategy to treat many incurable diseases including cancer. In the present study, skin squamous cell carcinoma (SSCC) tissue microarray was constructed and the expression of NET-1 and survivin was identified. The high expression of NET-1 and survivin gene in SSCC was confirmed as an important event for the formation and development of the cancer. A total of 100 primary SSCC patients were included in the present study. Expression of NET-1 and survivin in cancer cells was evaluated immunohistochemically in tissue microarrays. The interaction between NET-1 and survivin in SSCC by co-immunoprecipitation was subsequently verified by producing the siRNA sequence targeting the single gene (siRNA-NET-1 and siRNA-survivin) as well as NET-1 and survivin gene (one-chain-double-target siRNA). The levels of NET-1 and survivin mRNA and protein expression in A431 cells were detected by RT-qPCR and western blotting, and the expression of related genes including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), cortactin, Bcl-2, caspase-3 and -8 was identified using RT-qPCR. The protein localization and expression of NET-1 and survivin in A431 cells were documented by immunohistochemistry and immuno-fluorescence staining. The proliferation and apoptosis of A431 cells were detected by CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry (FCM). The tissue microarray showed that NET-1 and survivin were highly expressed in SSCC, while the correlation analysis showed NET-1 expression was positively associated with survivin. In addition, we reported that using the one-chain-double-target siRNA conjugate composed of NET-1 and survivin siRNA sequences in the same backbone inhibited proliferation and promoted apoptosis of SSCC. The one-chain-double-target siRNA showed further downregulation on NET-1 and survivin mRNA and protein levels compared with NET-1 siRNA or survivin siRNA. It also exhibited greater suppression on proliferation

  19. A case of allergic contact dermatitis from propylene glycol in an ultrasonic gel, sensitized at a leakage skin injury due to transcatheter arterial chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Yuji; Honda, Tetsuya; Fujii, Shinobu; Matsushima, Satoko; Osaki, Yukio

    2005-08-01

    A 63-year-old man with hepatocellular carcinoma consequent to chronic viral hepatitis C presented with severe dermatitis on the lower right side of the back after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) via the 10th intercostal artery, because his hepatic artery had already collapsed due to repeated usage for TACE. The regional skin showed redness and hardness with pustules. Histologically, there was epidermal and appendage necrosis, as well as exocytosis of red blood cells. With a diagnosis of skin injury due to leakage of lipiodol ultrafluid, mitomycin, and epirubicin, administered via the 10th intercostal artery, onto the skin tissue, topical application of 0.06% fluocinonide-containing cream was prescribed. After several weeks of conservative local treatment, the leakage skin injury improved significantly, leaving pigmentation, hardness, and a small necrotic mass, as reported elsewhere (Honda T, Matsushima S, Fujii S, et al. A case of skin injury following transcatheter arterial chemotherapy through intercostal artery for hepatocellular carcinoma. Skin Res 2003; 2: 18-22). Subsequently, the patient again consulted the Dermatology Department with further dermatitis in an almost identical skin region on the right side of the abdomen (irregularly spreading erythematous and edematous eruptions with itching; Fig. 1). As he had undergone an ultrasonic examination 2 days earlier, allergic contact dermatitis from the ultrasonic gel was suspected. The contact dermatitis was treated with a topical corticosteroid hormone-containing ointment. Patch testing was performed with Ultra Phonic Conductivity Gel (Pharmaceutical Innovations Inc., Newark, NJ, USA), with which the patient had undergone a series of ultrasonic examinations, and Sono Jelly (Toshiba Medical Supply Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) as a reference, as well as white petroleum as a negative control. A positive result was obtained for Ultra Phonic Conductivity Gel, whereas Sono Jelly was negative (Fig. 2a

  20. Noninvasive Optical Imaging of UV-Induced Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Murine Skin: Studies of Early Tumor Development and Vitamin D Enhancement of Protoporphyrin IX Production

    PubMed Central

    Rollakanti, Kishore R.; Anand, Sanjay; Davis, Scott C.; Pogue, Brian W.; Maytin, Edward V.

    2015-01-01

    Better noninvasive techniques are needed to monitor protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) levels before and during photodynamic therapy (PDT) of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin. Our aim was to evaluate: (1) multispectral fluorescent imaging of ultraviolet light (UV)-induced cancer and precancer in a mouse model of SCC; (2) multispectral imaging and probe-based fluorescence detection as a tool to study Vitamin D (VD) effects on aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced PpIX synthesis. Dorsal skin of hairless mice was imaged weekly during a 24-week UV carcinogenesis protocol. Hot spots of PpIX fluorescence were detectable by multispectral imaging beginning at 14 weeks of UV exposure. Many hot spots disappeared after cessation of UV at week 20, but others persisted or became visible after week 20, and corresponded to tumors that eventually became visible by eye. In SCC-bearing mice pretreated with topical VD before ALA application, our optical techniques confirmed that VD preconditioning induces a tumor-selective increase in PpIX levels. Fluorescence-based optical imaging of PpIX is a promising tool for detecting early SCC lesions of the skin. Pretreatment with VD can increase the ability to detect early tumors, providing a potential new way to improve efficacy of ALA-PDT. PMID:26223149

  1. Radiation Therapy for Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... than in African-Americans. TYPES OF SKIN CANCER Basal cell carcinoma: This is the most common form of skin ... epidermis ). Radiation therapy is very effective for treating basal cell cancers that have not spread elsewhere. Other common treatments ...

  2. Treatment Options for Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer ... carcinoma include the following: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  3. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Papulonodular Lesions of Skin: A Study of 50 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Mahadevappa, Asha; Manjunath, Gubbanna Vimalambike

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Skin is one of the frequent site of disease in human body. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) is a safe diagnostic method in these cases. FNAC has some limitation, particularly related to representativity of samples, exact typing of skin adnexal tumours and classifying the nature of metastatic cutaneous nodules. Thus, FNAC alone may not give a confirmative diagnosis regarding few skin lesions. Hence, histopathological study has been the standard technique for the diagnosis of skin lesions. Aim To study the FNAC findings in various papulonodular lesions and to correlate them with histopathological findings wherever possible. Materials and Methods In the present study, 50 cases of clinically diagnosed papulonodular lesions were evaluated by FNAC and correlated with histopathology wherever possible. Results There was 100% correlation in cases of epidermal cyst, leprosy, tuberculosis, actinomycosis, acute and chronic inflammatory lesions and 67% accuracy was seen in adnexal tumours. Aspiration cytology along with radiological studies proved very useful in classifying the nature of metastatic cutaneous nodules and suggesting the possible site of unknown primary. Sensitivity of FNAC for epidermal cyst and inflammatory lesions was 100%. In case of adnexal tumours, sensitivity and specificity was 67% and 50% respectively. Conclusion FNAC is a rapid, efficient, cost effective, relatively painless procedure and produces a speedy result with high diagnostic accuracy. It has high rates of sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing papulonodular lesions of skin and hence, is a valuable tool in the diagnosis and management of patients with papulonodular skin lesions. PMID:28208863

  4. Ultraviolet Light and Skin Cancer in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Shannon C.; Bergfeld, Wilma F.

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers is increasing worldwide. Ultraviolet light exposure is the most important risk factor for cutaneous melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Nonmelanoma skin cancer includes basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Constitutive skin color and genetic factors, as well as immunological factors, play a role in the development of skin cancer. Ultraviolet light also causes sunburn and photoaging damage to the skin. PMID:23015891

  5. Mammalian target of rapamycin activator RHEB is frequently overexpressed in human carcinomas and is critical and sufficient for skin epithelial carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhi Hong; Shvartsman, Mark B; Lee, Andrew Y; Shao, Jenny M; Murray, Mollianne M; Kladney, Raleigh D; Fan, Dong; Krajewski, Stan; Chiang, Gary G; Mills, Gordon B; Arbeit, Jeffrey M

    2010-04-15

    Small GTPase Ras homologue enriched in brain (RHEB) binds and activates the key metabolic regulator mTORC1, which has an important role in cancer cells, but the role of RHEB in cancer pathogenesis has not been shown. By performing a meta-analysis of published cancer cytogenetic and transcriptome databases, we defined a gain of chromosome 7q36.1-q36.3 containing the RHEB locus, an overexpression of RHEB mRNA in several different carcinoma histotypes, and an association between RHEB upregulation and poor prognosis in breast and head and neck cancers. To model gain of function in epithelial malignancy, we targeted Rheb expression to murine basal keratinocytes of transgenic mice at levels similar to those that occur in human squamous cancer cell lines. Juvenile transgenic epidermis displayed constitutive mTORC1 pathway activation, elevated cyclin D1 protein, and diffuse skin hyperplasia. Skin tumors subsequently developed with concomitant stromal angio-inflammatory foci, evidencing induction of an epidermal hypoxia-inducible factor-1 transcriptional program, and paracrine feed-forward activation of the interleukin-6-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway. Rheb-induced tumor persistence and neoplastic molecular alterations were mTORC1 dependent. Rheb markedly sensitized transgenic epidermis to squamous carcinoma induction following a single dose of Ras-activating carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. Our findings offer direct evidence that RHEB facilitates multistage carcinogenesis through induction of multiple oncogenic mechanisms, perhaps contributing to the poor prognosis of patients with cancers overexpressing RHEB.

  6. Comparative Effectiveness of Robotically Assisted Compared With Laparoscopic Adnexal Surgery for Benign Gynecologic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Jason D.; Kostolias, Alessandra; Ananth, Cande V.; Burke, William M.; Tergas, Ana I.; Prendergast, Eri; Ramsey, Scott D.; Neugut, Alfred I.; Hershman, Dawn L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To perform a population-based analysis to compare the complications and cost of laparoscopic and robotically assisted adnexal surgery. Methods A nationwide database was utilized to analyze the use and outcomes of robotically assisted adnexal surgery from 2009–2012. Multivariable mixed effects regression models were developed to examine predictors of use of robotic surgery. After propensity score matching, complications and cost were compared between robotically assisted and laparoscopic surgery. Results 87,514 women were identified. From 2009 to 2012, performance of robotic-assisted oophorectomy increased from 3.5% (95% CI, 3.2–3.8%) to 15.0% (95% CI, 14.4–15.6%), while robotically assisted cystectomy rose from 2.4% (95% CI, 2.0–2.7%) to 12.9% (95% CI, 12.2–13.5%). The overall complication rate was 7.1% (95% CI, 4.0–10.2%) for robotically assisted vs. 6.0% (95% CI, 2.9–9.1%) for laparoscopic oophorectomy (OR=1.20; 95% CI, 1.00–1.45) (P=0.052). Robotic-assisted oophorectomy was associated with a higher rate of intraoperative complications (3.4% vs. 2.1%, OR=1.60; 95% CI, 1.21–2.13). The overall complication rate was 3.7% (95% CI −0.8–8.2%) after robotically assisted versus 2.7% (95% CI, −1.8–7.2%) for laparoscopic cystectomy (OR=1.38; 95% CI, 0.95–1.99). The intraoperative complication rate was higher for robotically assisted cystectomy (2.0% vs. 0.9%, OR=2.40; 95% CI, 1.31–4.38). Compared to laparoscopy, robotically assisted oophorectomy was associated with $2504 (95% CI, $2356–$2652) increased total costs and robotically assisted cystectomy $3310 (95% CI, $3082–$3581) higher costs. Conclusion Use of robotically assisted adnexal surgery increased rapidly. Compared to laparoscopic surgery, robotically assisted adnexal surgery is associated with substantially greater costs and a small, but statistically significant, increase in intraoperative complications. PMID:25437715

  7. Cystic acantholytic dyskeratosis of the vulva: An unusual presentation of a follicular adnexal neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Kara Melissa Tiangco; Junkins-Hopkins, Jacqueline M.

    2016-01-01

    Acantholytic dyskeratosis (AD) is a histologic pattern seen in Darier's disease or dyskeratosis follicularis, warty dyskeratoma, and transient AD. This pattern is characterized by suprabasilar clefting, acantholysis, and formation of corps ronds and grains. We present a case of AD that is unique based on its genital location and cystic architecture. A 53-year-old woman presented with an otherwise asymptomatic cyst on her left vulva of uncertain duration. On microscopic examination, there were fragments of cystic epithelium with areas of hypergranulosis, acantholysis, corps ronds, and corps grains formation. These features are felt by the authors to be a unique presentation of a follicular adnexal neoplasm. PMID:27559500

  8. Topical (+)-catechin emulsified gel prevents DMBA/TPA-induced squamous cell carcinoma of the skin by modulating antioxidants and inflammatory biomarkers in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Monga, Jitender; Aggarwal, Vaibhav; Suthar, Sharad Kumar; Monika; Nongalleima, Khumukcham; Sharma, Manu

    2014-12-01

    An emulsified gel of (+)-catechin was developed and evaluated topically against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-promoted (DMBA-induced and TPA-promoted) squamous cell carcinoma of the skin in BALB/c mice. The biological evaluation outcome indicated that the (+)-catechin emulsified gel increased the activity of oxidative stress biomarkers glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), whereas it decreased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA). The mechanistic study showed that genes implicated in the inflammation and cancer, such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), and inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS), were down-regulated by (+)-catechin emulsified gel while inhibiting an inflammatory mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The (+)-catechin emulsified gel further suppressed the activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines, viz. tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The in vitro permeation study revealed that release of (+)-catechin from an emulsified gel base reached a steady state after 6 h, while pH of the entire emulsified gel was found to be between 6.2 and 6.5 that falls well within the normal pH range of the skin.

  9. Anti-angiogenic and anti-cancer evaluation of betulin nanoemulsion in chicken chorioallantoic membrane and skin carcinoma in Balb/c mice.

    PubMed

    Dehelean, Cristina A; Feflea, Stefana; Gheorgheosu, Dorina; Ganta, Srinivas; Cimpean, Anca M; Muntean, Danina; Amiji, Mansoor M

    2013-04-01

    Betulin (Bet), the main component of birch tree bark, has been recently reported to exert anticancer activity in several cell lines; however the underlying mechanisms are only partially elucidated. The aims of the present work were to assess the in vivo effects of betulin administered as nanoemulsion (NE) in two experimental models: (i) the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay for the study of anti-angiogenic effects and (ii) the two-stage model of skin carcinoma induced in mice for the study of anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory effects, respectively. On the CAM of the chicken betulin in nanoemulsion (BetNE) shows a good penetrability at extra-embryonic tissue level, affecting both the chorioallantoic membrane as well as the yolk sac by reducing the capillary density. In the animal model, the potential impact of local application of betulin on the respiratory function of isolated liver mitochondria was further assessed. Topical application of betulin nanoemulsion for 12 weeks together with DMBA (7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene) and TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate), as tumor initiator and promoter, enhanced the active respiration of isolated liver mitochondria. Betulin also inhibit skin tumor apparition and promotion, proved by histological results and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) expression correlated to non-invasive measurements. Betulin is active in nanoemulsion formulation as a potential inhibitory on the angiogenic process in CAM assay. BetNE can develop a potent anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic activity with a low toxicity at skin level. It can also influence the penetration of carcinogens and reduce damage in main organs (e.g., liver).

  10. The Value of Ultrasound Monitoring of Adnexal Masses for Early Detection of Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Suh-Burgmann, Elizabeth; Kinney, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Although ultrasound has so far been found to be ineffective as a screening tool for ovarian cancer, it is commonly used as a means of evaluating or following ovarian or adnexal masses once they are detected. We review the use of serial ultrasound for the management of adnexal masses and propose an approach to monitoring based on an understanding of the overall risk of cancer among the population in question and an assessment of how the potential benefit of monitoring compares with potential risk. In our approach, masses that are symptomatic, large (>10 cm), associated with an elevated CA 125 level or overt signs of malignancy, or that are determined to have a worrisome appearance by stringent ultrasound criteria should be evaluated surgically. Women with masses that have none of these characteristics should be offered monitoring. Short-term initial ultrasound monitoring carries significant potential benefit in terms of aiding detection of early malignancy and avoidance of unnecessary surgery. However, if a mass remains stable but persistent, the potential benefit of ongoing monitoring wanes with time, whereas the potential harms, in terms of patient anxiety, cost, and the risk of incidental findings and unnecessary surgery increase. Therefore, monitoring of stable lesions should be limited in duration in order to limit potential harms from overtreatment and overdiagnosis. PMID:26904503

  11. Common Skin Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Vincent C.

    1992-01-01

    Melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma are the three most common forms of skin cancer. The incidence of skin cancer is increasing at an alarming rate. Early detection is the key to successful management. In this article, the salient clinical features and diagnostic clues for these tumors and their precursor lesions are presented. Current management guidelines are also discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figures 2-3Figures 4-6Figures 7-9 PMID:21221380

  12. Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis reveals system-wide signaling pathways regulated by site-specific phosphorylation on Keratin-8 in skin squamous cell carcinoma derived cell- line.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Richa; Sahu, Indrajit; Soni, Bihari Lal; Sathe, Gajanan J; Datta, Keshava K; Thapa, Pankaj; Sinha, Shruti; Vadivel, Chella Krishna; Dhaka, Bharti; Gowda, Harsha; Vaidya, Milind M

    2017-02-07

    Keratin 8/18, a simple epithelia specific keratin pair, is often aberrantly expressed in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) where its expression is correlated with increased invasion and poor prognosis. Majority of Keratin 8 (K8) functions are governed by its phosphorylation at Serine(73) (head-domain) and Serine(431) (tail-domain) residues. Although, deregulation of K8 phosphorylation is associated with progression of different carcinomas, its role in skin-SCC and the underlying mechanism is obscure. In this direction, we performed TMT-based quantitative phosphoproteomics by expressing K8 wild type, phosphodead and phosphomimetic mutants in K8-deficient A431 cells. Further analysis of our phosphoproteomics data showed a significant proportion of total phosphoproteome associated with migratory, proliferative and invasive potential of these cells to be differentially phosphorylated. Differential phosphorylation of CDK1(T14,Y15) , EIF4EBP1(T46,T50) , EIF4B(S422) , AKT1S1T246,S247, CTTN1(T401,S405,) Y421 & CAP1(S307/309) in K8-S73A/D mutant and CTTN1(T401,S405,Y421) , BUB1B(S1043) & CARHSP1(S30,S32) in K8-S431A/D mutants as well as some anonymous phosphosites including MYC(S176) , ZYX(S344) and PNN(S692) could be potential candidates associated with K8 phosphorylation mediated tumorigenicity. Biochemical validation followed by phenotypic analysis further confirmed our quantitative phosphoproteomics data. In conclusion, our study provides the first global picture of K8 site- specific phosphorylation function in neoplastic progression of A431 cells and suggests various potential starting points for further mechanistic studies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. The multicentre south European study 'Helios'. II: Different sun exposure patterns in the aetiology of basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin.

    PubMed Central

    Rosso, S.; Zanetti, R.; Martinez, C.; Tormo, M. J.; Schraub, S.; Sancho-Garnier, H.; Franceschi, S.; Gafà, L.; Perea, E.; Navarro, C.; Laurent, R.; Schrameck, C.; Talamini, R.; Tumino, R.; Wechsler, J.

    1996-01-01

    The role of sun exposure in development of basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas among different populations from south Europe was investigated. Between 1989 and 1993 we interviewed incident cases and a random population sample of controls from five centres where a cancer registry was operating, whereas we selected a sample of hospital-based cases and controls from the other three centres. We gathered information on life-long exposure to sunlight during different activities. Results are analysed for 1549 basal cell carcinoma (BCC) cases and 228 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cases compared with 1795 controls. We observed a statistically significant increase of risk of SCC with increasing sun exposure beyond a threshold of 70,000 cumulated hours of exposure in a lifetime. Sun exposures during work and holidays were, however, inversely correlated. Odds ratios (ORs) of SCC were up to eight or nine times the reference for the highest exposures (200,000 cumulated hours or more). BCC exhibited a 2-fold increase of risk for lower exposure (8000-10,000 cumulated hours in a lifetime) with a plateau and a slight decrease of risk for the highest exposures (100,000 cumulated hours or more). Outdoor work showed a significantly increased risk of SCC (OR 1.6 for more than 54,000 cumulated hours of exposure in a lifetime), whereas recreational activities such as sun exposure during holidays at the beach (OR 1.6 for more than 2600 cumulated hours of exposure in a lifetime) or during water sports (OR 1.6 for more than 2600 cumulated hours of exposure in a lifetime) were associated with an increased risk of BCC. Risk patterns were different in poor or good tanners with a significant risk trend for good tanners, whereas poor tanners were on a plateau of increased risk at any level of exposure. Solar radiation is associated with a risk of BCC even for relatively short periods of exposure such as during holidays and sports, whereas SCC develops later if exposure continues. The skin

  14. Enhancement of tumor responsiveness to aminolevulinate-photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) using differentiation-promoting agents in mouse models of skin carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, Sanjay; Honari, Golara; Paliwal, Akshat; Hasan, Tayyaba; Maytin, Edward V.

    2009-06-01

    Aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) is an emerging treatment for cancers. ALA, given as a prodrug, selectively accumulates and is metabolized in cancer cells to form protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). Targeted local irradiation with light induces cell death. Since the efficacy of ALA-PDT for large or deep tumors is currently limited, we are developing a new approach that combines differentiation-inducing agents with ALA-PDT to improve the clinical response. Here, we tested this new combination paradigm in the following two models of skin carcinoma in mice: 1) tumors generated by topical application of chemical carcinogens (DMBA-TPA); 2) human SCC cells (A431) implanted subcutaneously. To achieve a differentiated state of the tumors, pretreatment with a low concentration of methotrexate (MTX) or Vitamin D (Vit D) was administered for 72 h prior to exposure to ALA. Confocal images of histological sections were captured and digitally analyzed to determine relative PpIX levels. PpIX in the tumors was also monitored by real-time in vivo fluorescence dosimetry. In both models, a significant increase in levels of PpIX was observed following pretreatment with MTX or Vit D, as compared to no-pretreatment controls. This enhancing effect was observed at very low, non-cytotoxic concentrations, and was highly specific to cancer cells as compared to normal cells. These results suggest that use of differentiating agents such as MTX or Vit D, as a short-term combination therapy given prior to ALA-PDT, can increase the production of PpIX photosensitizer and enhance the therapeutic response of skin cancers.

  15. Adnexal Torsion

    MedlinePlus

    ... abdomen (abdominal cavity) and the tissues lining it. Did You Know... The ovary sometimes twists, causing sudden, ... is removed (called oophorectomy). Resources In This Article Did You Know 1 Did You Know... Noncancerous Gynecologic ...

  16. Tumefactive intramural gossypiboma of the urinary bladder mimicking an invasive adnexal malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Shivi; Verma, Ashish; Jain, Madhu; Trivedi, Sameer; Shukla, Ram C; Srivastava, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    A surgical swab retained in the body after surgery is known as ‘Gossypiboma’. The purpose of this report is to highlight an intramural vesical gossypiboma mimicking an invasive adnexal malignancy. A 28-year-old multiparous, with open-tubal ligation three years ago, presented with painless hematuria and a nontender mass on vaginal examination. USG suggested ‘pelvic endometriosis’ infiltrating into the bladder and cystoscopy showed no intraluminal extension of the mass. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) misdiagnosed it as invasive malignancy of the fallopian tube. Exploratory laparotomy found it to be an intramural vesical gossypiboma. A pelvic gossypiboma infiltrating into the wall of the urinary bladder may easily be misinterpreted as an invasive pelvic malignancy on imaging and may make one consider unwarranted radical surgery. PMID:25969644

  17. Adnexal Incarceration in a Posterior Pelvic Peritoneal Defect Mimics Ovarian Torsion.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Amanda M; Hope, Erica R; Phippen, Neil T

    2015-01-01

    Surgery for suspected ovarian torsion sometimes reveals unexpected sources of pelvic pain, such as internal hernias, adhesions, or anatomic defects. A 23-year-old nulligravida with Alagille syndrome was taken to the operating room with suspected ovarian torsion. Intraoperatively, the right adnexa bulged out of a right-sided, posterior peritoneal cleft that incarcerated most of the enlarged ovary. No ovarian torsion was identified. The left adnexa appeared to be normal; however, it dwelled within a left-sided posterior peritoneal cleft. The bilateral posterior peritoneal defects that housed the adnexa were likely of congenital etiology. Although adnexal incarceration is a rare finding at surgery for suspected ovarian torsion, it should be part of the differential diagnosis when evaluating acute pelvic pain.

  18. Ocular adnexal marginal zone B cell lymphoma: a clinical and pathologic study of 23 cases.

    PubMed

    Charlotte, Frédéric; Doghmi, Kamal; Cassoux, Nathalie; Ye, Hongtao; Du, Ming-Qing; Kujas, Michèle; Lesot, Annette; Mansour, George; Lehoang, Phuc; Vignot, Nicole; Capron, Frédérique; Leblond, Véronique

    2006-04-01

    To better characterize ocular adnexal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MZL-MALT), we analyzed the clinical and pathologic features of 23 patients (11 men, 12 women, median age 66 years). The tumor was confined to one ocular structure in 18 cases (conjunctiva, n=8; orbit, n=8; or lacrimal gland, n=2). Concurrent extraorbital disease was detected by the staging procedure in five patients, and preferentially involved other MALT sites. Histogenetic B cell marker studies, available in 13 cases, showed an early post-germinal center (GC) phenotype (BCL-6(-)/IRF4(+)/CD138(-)) (n=5) or a late post-GC phenotype (BCL-6(-)/IRF4(+)/CD138(+)) (n=8), which could be helpful for discrimination from other types of small-B cell lymphoma. BCL10 was positive in 12 of 13 patients tested, with nuclear (n=4) or cytoplasmic (n=8) immunoreactivity. These staining patterns ruled out t(1;14)(p22;q32) translocation. T(11;18)(q21;q21), another MZL-MALT-specific translocation, was detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in four of 15 patients tested. Clinical outcome was excellent but the overall relapse rate was 26.1% with a median follow-up of 39 months (range 6-132 months). Regardless of the disease stage at diagnosis, combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy seemed to be more effective than chemotherapy alone in ocular adnexal MZL-MALT, as persistent complete remission was achieved in nine patients receiving combination therapy, while six of 14 patients treated with chemotherapy alone relapsed.

  19. Correlation of distribution of sulphonated aluminium phthalocyanines with their photodynamic effect in tumour and skin of mice bearing CaD2 mammary carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Q.; Moan, J.

    1995-01-01

    A chemical extraction assay and fluorescence microscopy incorporating a light-sensitive thermoelectrically cooled charge-coupled device (CCD) camera was used to study the kinetics of uptake, retention and localisation of disulphonated aluminium phthalocyanine (A1PcS2) and tetrasulphonated aluminium phthalocyanine (A1PcS4) at different time intervals after an i.p. injection at a dose of 10 mg kg-1 body weight (b.w.) in tumour and surrounding normal skin and muscle of female C3D2/F1 mice bearing CaD2 mammary carcinoma. Moreover, the photodynamic effect on the tumour and normal skin using sulphonated aluminium phthalocyanines (A1PcS1, A1PcS2, A1pcS4) and Photofrin was compared with respect to dye, dye dose and time interval between dye administration and light exposure. The maximal concentrations of A1PcS2 in the tumour tissue were reached 2-24 h after injection of the dye, while the amounts of A1PcS4 peaked 1-2 h after the dye administration. A1PcS2 was simultaneously localised in the interstitium and in the neoplastic cells of the tumour, whereas A1PcS4 appeared to localise only in the stroma of the tumour. The photodynamic efficiency (light was applied 24 h after dye injection at a dose of 10 mg kg-1 b.w.) of the tumours was found to decrease in the following order: A1PcS2 > A1PcS4 > Photofrin > A1PcS1. Furthermore, photodynamic efficacy was strongly dependent upon dye doses and time intervals between dye administration and light exposure: the higher the dose, the higher the photodynamic efficiency. The most efficient photodynamic therapy (PDT) of the tumour was reached (day 20 tumour-free) when light exposure took place 2 h after injection of A1PcS2 (10 mg kg-1). A dual intratumoral localisation pattern of the dye, as found for A1PcS2, seems desirable to obtain a high photodynamic efficiency. The kinetic patterns of uptake, retention and localisation of A1PcS2 and A1PcS4 are roughly correlated with their photodynamic effect on the tumour and normal skin. Images

  20. Patched (ptch)-associated preferential expression of smoothened (smoh) in human basal cell carcinoma of the skin.

    PubMed

    Kallassy, M; Toftgård, R; Ueda, M; Nakazawa, K; Vorechovský, I; Yamasaki, H; Nakazawa, H

    1997-11-01

    The discovery of specific overexpression of a gatekeeper gene, ptch, in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) led to a hypothesis that the human homologue of patched (PTCH) normally functions as a negative regulator of the signaling pathway that is initiated by hedgehogs (HHs) and activated by the human homologue of smoothened (SMOH); however, no evidence for the involvement of smoh and hhs has been provided. Here, we show novel evidence that smoh is also preferentially overexpressed in BCC, together with ptch (P < 0.002), and that Sonic hh was expressed in only some BCCs. Our data, therefore, indicate that such overexpression of smoh may be associated with overexpression or mutation of PTCH and that this overexpression subsequently stimulates the PTCH/SMOH signaling pathway. In an investigation of a possible regulation of ptch and smoh, we demonstrated that expression of exogenous p21WAF1 in immortalized keratinocytes down-regulates both ptch and smoh and that the down-regulation is accompanied by growth arrest, which suggests the involvement of p21WAF1 in regulation of the PTCH/SMOH signaling pathway.

  1. [Early diagnosis of skin cancer].

    PubMed

    Kolm, Isabell; Hofbauer, Günther; Braun, Ralph P

    2010-09-01

    The skin is the most affected organ by cancer. The incidence rates of skin cancer are steadily increasing, both for melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers (squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma). Over 90 % of the death cases from skin cancers attribute to melanoma. Survival from melanoma is strongly related to tumour thickness. Therefore early detection is the most important step to improve prognosis. In the last years a number of new non invasive techniques for the early diagnosis of melanoma have been developed which are superior to the naked eye examination. In this overview article we present some non-invasive diagnostic techniques like total body photography, digital dermoscopy and confocal microscopy which in addition to dermoscopy assist the dermatologist in differentiating nevi from early melanomas.Non-melanoma skin cancer can be prevented by accurate sun protection. Early squamous cell carcinomas and basal cell carcinomas can be treated either invasively or non-invasively with excellent prognosis.

  2. Lysyl oxidase-like 2 represses Notch1 expression in the skin to promote squamous cell carcinoma progression

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Alberto; Salvador, Fernando; Moreno-Bueno, Gema; Floristán, Alfredo; Ruiz-Herguido, Cristina; Cuevas, Eva P; Morales, Saleta; Santos, Vanesa; Csiszar, Katalin; Dubus, Pierre; Haigh, Jody J; Bigas, Anna; Portillo, Francisco; Cano, Amparo

    2015-01-01

    Lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) is involved in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes, including fibrosis and tumor progression, implicating intracellular and extracellular functions. To explore the specific in vivo role of LOXL2 in physiological and tumor contexts, we generated conditional gain- and loss-of-function mouse models. Germ-line deletion of Loxl2 promotes lethality in half of newborn mice mainly associated to congenital heart defects, while Loxl2 overexpression triggers male sterility due to epididymal dysfunction caused by epithelial disorganization, fibrosis and acute inflammation. Remarkably, when challenged to chemical skin carcinogenesis, Loxl2-overexpressing mice increased tumor burden and malignant progression, while Loxl2-deficient mice exhibit the opposite phenotypes. Loxl2 levels in premalignant tumors negatively correlate with expression of epidermal differentiation markers and components of the Notch1 pathway. We show that LOXL2 is a direct repressor of NOTCH1. Additionally, we identify an exclusive expression pattern between LOXL2 and members of the canonical NOTCH1 pathway in human HNSCC. Our data identify for the first time novel LOXL2 roles in tissue homeostasis and support it as a target for SCC therapy. PMID:25759215

  3. Single Port Transumbilical Laparoscopic Surgery versus Conventional Laparoscopic Surgery for Benign Adnexal Masses: A Retrospective Study of Feasibility and Safety

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Si-Yun; Yin, Ling; Guan, Xiao-Ming; Xiao, Bing-Bing; Zhang, Yan; Delgado, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Single port laparoscopic surgery (SPLS) is an innovative approach that is rapidly gaining recognition worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility and safety of SPLS compared to conventional laparoscopic surgery for the treatment of benign adnexal masses. Methods: In total, 99 patients who underwent SPLS for benign adnexal masses between December 2013 and March 2015 were compared to a nonrandomized control group comprising 104 conventional laparoscopic adnexal surgeries that were performed during the same period. We retrospectively analyzed multiple clinical characteristics and operative outcomes of all the patients, including age, body mass index, size and pathological type of ovarian mass, operative time, estimated blood loss (EBL), duration of postoperative hospital stay, etc. Results: No significant difference was observed between the two groups regarding preoperative baseline characteristics. However, the pathological results between the two groups were found to be slightly different. The most common pathological type in the SPLS group was mature cystic teratoma, whereas endometrioma was more commonly seen in the control group. Otherwise, the two groups had comparable surgical outcomes, including the median operation time (51 min vs. 52 min, P = 0.909), the median decreased level of hemoglobin from preoperation to postoperation day 3 (10 g/L vs. 10 g/L, P = 0.795), and the median duration of postoperative hospital stay (3 days vs. 3 days, P = 0.168). In SPLS groups, the median EBL and the anal exsufflation time were significantly less than those of the conventional group (5 ml vs. 10 ml, P < 0.001; 10 h vs. 22 h, P < 0.001). Conclusions: SPLS is a feasible and safe approach for the treatment of benign adnexal masses. Further study is required to better determine whether SPLS has significant benefits compared to conventional techniques. PMID:27231167

  4. Tomotherapy concomitant with cetuximab, followed by cetuximab as single-agent therapy for unresectable squamous cell carcinoma of the skin: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the second most frequency of all skin tumors. Incidence of SCC has risen significantly due to an increased sun exposure and the number of immunodeficient patients. Cutaneous SCC is characterized by high Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression with low frequency of RAS mutations. Generally, locoregional surgery is curative and systemic therapy is not indicated. We evaluated the activity and toxicity profile of tomotherapy concomitant with Cetuximab, followed by Cetuximab as single agent therapy in a patient affected by unresectable, locally advanced cutaneous SCC. Case presentation At our institution, on March 2012 we treated a 45 years-old patient affected by locally advanced, unresectable G1 SCC of the lumbar region. At our first observation, the patient was asthenic, with severe pain and functional limitations. There was also a superinfection due to Pseudomonas Aeruginosa resistant to antibiotics, and a G3 anemia secondary to the bleeding lesion. ECOG Performance Status was 2. Tomotherapy has been performed concomitant with the Cetuximab (400 mg/m2, followed by weekly doses of 250 mg/m2) at the total dose of 60 Gy (2 Gy/fx), followed by Cetuximab monotherapy. The lesion reduced progressively until disappear even after the suspension of the treatment and the patient achieved complete response. Toxicity resulted in G1 cutaneous rash and G2 toxicity to the nails, appeared after 5 months of treatment, typical toxicity profile of the anti-EGFR therapies. After one month of therapy the Pseudomonas Aeruginosa superinfection totally disappeared. Quality of life resulted significantly improved with reduction until discontinuation of the anti-pain drugs, and progressive increase of the hemoglobin levels. At follow up of 15 months there was no evidence of active disease and the ECOG Performance Status was 0 (zero). Conclusion The treatment was effective and feasible. Considering these excellent results

  5. Diagnosis and treatment of invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the skin: European consensus-based interdisciplinary guideline.

    PubMed

    Stratigos, Alexander; Garbe, Claus; Lebbe, Celeste; Malvehy, Josep; del Marmol, Veronique; Pehamberger, Hubert; Peris, Ketty; Becker, Jürgen C; Zalaudek, Iris; Saiag, Philippe; Middleton, Mark R; Bastholt, Lars; Testori, Alessandro; Grob, Jean-Jacques

    2015-09-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is one of the most common cancers in Caucasian populations, accounting for 20% of all cutaneous malignancies. A unique collaboration of multi-disciplinary experts from the European Dermatology Forum (EDF), the European Association of Dermato-Oncology (EADO) and the European Organization of Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) was formed to make recommendations on cSCC diagnosis and management, based on a critical review of the literature, existing guidelines and the expert's experience. The diagnosis of cSCC is primarily based on clinical features. A biopsy or excision and histologic confirmation should be performed in all clinically suspicious lesions in order to facilitate the prognostic classification and correct management of cSCC. The first line treatment of cutaneous SCC is complete surgical excision with histopathological control of excision margins. The EDF-EADO-EORTC consensus group recommends a standardised minimal margin of 5 mm even for low-risk tumours. For tumours, with histological thickness of >6 mm or in tumours with high risk pathological features, e.g. high histological grade, subcutaneous invasion, perineural invasion, recurrent tumours and/or tumours at high risk locations an extended margin of 10 mm is recommended. As lymph node involvement by cSCC increases the risk of recurrence and mortality, a lymph node ultrasound is highly recommended, particularly in tumours with high-risk characteristics. In the case of clinical suspicion or positive findings upon imaging, a histologic confirmation should be sought either by fine needle aspiration or by open lymph node biopsy. In large infiltrating tumours with signs of involvement of underlying structures, additional imaging tests, such as CT or MRI imaging may be required to accurately assess the extent of the tumour and the presence of metastatic spread. Current staging systems for cSCC are not optimal, as they have been developed for head and neck

  6. Differential responses of skin cancer-chemopreventive agents silibinin, quercetin, and epigallocatechin 3-gallate on mitogenic signaling and cell cycle regulators in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, N; Agarwal, C; Agarwal, R

    2001-01-01

    Silibinin, quercetin, and epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG) have been shown to be skin cancer-preventive agents, albeit by several different mechanisms. Here, we assessed whether these agents show their cancer-preventive potential by a differential effect on mitogenic signaling molecules and cell cycle regulators. Treatment of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells with these agents inhibited the activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor and the downstream adapter protein Shc, but only silibinin showed a marked inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase-extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and -2 activation. In terms of cell cycle regulators, silibinin treatment showed an induction of Cip1/p21 and Kip1/p27 together with a significant decrease in cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-4, CDK2, and cyclin D1. Quercetin treatment, however, resulted in a moderate increase in Cip1/p21 with no change in Kip1/p27 and a decrease in CDK4 and cyclin D1. EGCG treatment also led to an induction of Cip1/p21 but no change in Kip1/27, CDK2, and cyclin D1 and a decrease in CDK4 only at low doses. Treatment of cells with these agents resulted in a strong dose- and time-dependent cell growth inhibition. A high dose of silibinin and low and high doses of quercetin and EGCG also led to cell death by apoptosis, suggesting that a lack of their inhibitory effect on mitogen-activated protein kinase-extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and -2 activation possibly "turns on" an apoptotic cell death response associated with their cancer-preventive and anticarcinogenic effects. Together, these results suggest that silibinin, quercetin, and EGCG exert their cancer-preventive effects by differential responses on mitogenic signaling and cell cycle regulators.

  7. Suppression of the metastatic phenotype of a mouse skin carcinoma cell line independent of E-cadherin expression and correlated with reduced Ha-ras oncogene products.

    PubMed

    Caulín, C; López-Barcons, L; Gonzáles-Garrigues, M; Navarro, P; Lozano, E; Rodrigo, I; Gamallo, C; Cano, A; Fabra, A; Quintanilla, M

    1996-02-01

    The HaCa4 cell line, derived from a mouse skin carcinoma induced by Harvey murine sarcoma virus, is highly tumorigenic when injected into nude mice and produces multiple metastases in the lungs. HaCa4 cells express high levels of viral Ha-ras oncogene products, anomalously synthesize the embryonic/simple epithelial keratin K8, and have lost the expression of the cell-cell adhesion receptor E-cadherin (E-CD). E-CD(+) cell clones (E62 and E24), obtained by transfection of an exogenous E-CD cDNA into HaCa4 cells, had a decreased ability to migrate through type IV collagen matrices. However, the E-CD (+) E62 clone remained as metastatic as the parental cell line, whereas the E24 clone, which does not take up the exogenous cDNA but spontaneously switches on the endogenous E-CD gene, suppressed the metastatic phenotype although it maintained its tumorigenicity. E24 cells had fivefold to sixfold lower levels of viral Ha-ras mRNA and p21 protein than the other cell lines. In addition, they did not synthesize K8 but rather switched on keratin K19. The comparison of E-CD proteins synthesized by E62 and E24 cell lines revealed no structural or functional differences because both localized at cell-cell contacts and associated with alpha-catenin, beta-catenin, and plakoglobin. Furthermore, E-CD was still expressed in metastatic lung nodules produced by E62 cells. These results suggest that suppression of the metastatic phenotype in E24 cells occurs independently of E-CD expression and correlates with decreased levels of the oncogenic ras p21 protein.

  8. [Case with hairy cell leukemia-Japanese variant following radiotherapy for orbital adnexal MALT lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yuichi; Kayano, Hidekazu; Kakegawa, Emi; Uchida, Yumiko; Shimada, Tsuneyuki; Wakimoto, Naoki; Ito, Yoshihiro; Bessho, Masami

    2010-11-01

    We report a patient with hairy cell leukemia Japanese variant (HCL-Jv) that developed after radiotherapy for orbital adnexal MALT lymphoma. A 78-year-old man was diagnosed as having MALT lymphoma in the left conjunctiva in December 2003. The patient was treated by local radiotherapy and the tumor disappeared. Thereafter, he gradually developed leukocytosis and mild splenomegaly. In May 2009, the leukocyte count was 34,300 with 80% lymphoid cells. A diagnosis of HCL-Jv was made since the lymphoid cells showed a hairy morphology with round nuclei and indistinct nucleoli. These cells expressed CD11c, CD19, CD20, CD103 and showed weak reaction for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). Bone marrow was infiltrated by atypical cells with an intrasinusoidal pattern. No treatment was needed as the patient was asymptomatic without anemia, thrombocytopenia or lymphadenopathy. Results of the immunoglobulin light chain expression and the heavy chain rearrangement in the tumor cells indicated that the two mature B-lymphoid neoplasms, MALT lymphoma and HCL-Jv, in this patient were derived from independent clones. This appears to be the first reported case of HCL-Jv associated with other lymphoid tumor. Further analysis is needed to clarify the risk of secondary malignancy in HCL-Jv.

  9. Uncommon Implantation Sites of Ectopic Pregnancy: Thinking beyond the Complex Adnexal Mass.

    PubMed

    Chukus, Anjeza; Tirada, Nikki; Restrepo, Ricardo; Reddy, Neelima I

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy occurs when implantation of the blastocyst takes place in a site other than the endometrium of the uterine cavity. Uncommon implantation sites of ectopic pregnancy include the cervix, interstitial segment of the fallopian tube, scar from a prior cesarean delivery, uterine myometrium, ovary, and peritoneal cavity. Heterotopic and twin ectopic pregnancies are other rare manifestations. Ultrasonography (US) plays a central role in diagnosis of uncommon ectopic pregnancies. US features of an interstitial ectopic pregnancy include an echogenic interstitial line and abnormal bulging of the myometrial contour. A gestational sac that is located below the internal os of the cervix and that contains an embryo with a fetal heartbeat is indicative of a cervical ectopic pregnancy. In a cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy, the gestational sac is implanted in the anterior lower uterine segment at the site of the cesarean scar, with thinning of the myometrium seen anterior to the gestational sac. An intramural gestational sac implants in the uterine myometrium, separate from the uterine cavity and fallopian tubes. In an ovarian ectopic pregnancy, a gestational sac with a thick hyperechoic circumferential rim is located in or on the ovarian parenchyma. An intraperitoneal gestational sac is present in an abdominal ectopic pregnancy. Intra- and extrauterine gestational sacs are seen in a heterotopic pregnancy. Two adnexal heartbeats suggest a live twin ectopic pregnancy. Recognition of the specific US features will help radiologists diagnose these uncommon types of ectopic pregnancy.

  10. Adnexal masses associated with peritoneal involvement: diagnosis with CT and MRI.

    PubMed

    Ognong-Boulemo, Audrey; Dohan, Anthony; Hoeffel, Christine; Stanek, Agatha; Golfier, François; Glehen, Olivier; Valette, Pierre-Jean; Rousset, Pascal

    2017-03-18

    Given the unique intra-peritoneal anatomic location of the adnexa, tubo-ovarian diseases can commonly spread into the peritoneal cavity. Peritoneal seeding may occur in a spectrum of adnexal conditions including infectious diseases, endometriosis, and benign or malignant primary or secondary ovarian tumors. CT is usually the imaging modality on which the concomitant involvement of the peritoneum and the ovary is depicted. The first diagnosis to be considered by the radiologist is generally peritoneal carcinomatosis from ovarian cancer but other conditions cited above have also to be borne in mind and may be suggested on the basis of careful assessment of CT findings or on further MR findings. MRI may indeed help characterize the lesions in some cases. The purpose of this review is to describe the clinical and imaging patterns of peritoneal involvement that may be found in association with different ovarian lesions. Familiarity with these patterns and diagnoses will help the radiologist narrow the differential diagnosis and make an accurate diagnosis, thus facilitating patient management and avoiding unnecessary invasive treatment.

  11. Skin Dictionary

    MedlinePlus

    ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ...

  12. A case report of peritoneal tuberculosis with multiple miliary peritoneal deposits mimicking advanced ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yazdani, Shahla; Sadeghi, Mahmod; Alijanpour, Abolhasan; Naeimi-rad, Mojgan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Peritoneal tuberculosis accounts 1-2% of all forms of tuberculosis. Peritoneal tuberculosis is an important differential diagnosis for ovarian cancer in women with ascites, adnexal mass and elevated cancer antigen 125 (CA125) levels. We report a case of a 32- year -old woman with multiple miliary peritoneal deposits mimicking advanced ovarian carcinoma. Case Presentation: A 32-year-old drug addicted woman presented with menometrorrhagia, fever and shivering, ascites and pelvis mass. Ultrasonography revealed a 53×65 mm cyst in left ovary and ascites. Multiple miliary peritoneal deposits were observed during laparatomy without any mass, histologic examination confirmed tuberculosis of uterus, tubes, omentum, liver and external surfaces of small intestine. Finally, the patient recovered with anti-tuberculosis treatment. Conclusion: These findings highlight considering tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis of any patients with adnexal mass, ascitis and elevated serum CA125 even with negative cytology and bacteriology test results. PMID:26958336

  13. Vismodegib in basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Amaria, R N; Bowles, D W; Lewis, K D; Jimeno, A

    2012-07-01

    Vismodegib is a novel, small-molecule inhibitor of smoothened, a key component of the hedgehog signaling pathway. Increased hedgehog pathway signaling is critical in the development of hereditary and spontaneous basal cell carcinomas of the skin, and has been implicated in the development of a number of other tumors. In preclinical models, vismodegib demonstrated potent antitumor activity in hedgehog-dependent tumors, particularly basal cell carcinomas. Clinically, phase I and II studies showed dramatic anticancer activity in patients with advanced basal cell carcinomas. In January 2012, vismodegib was approved by the FDA for the treatment of unresectable or metastatic basal cell carcinomas of the skin.

  14. A cross-sectional survey of the association between bilateral topical prostaglandin analogue use and ocular adnexal features.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mamta; Lee, Grace; Lefebvre, Daniel R; Kronberg, Benjamin; Loomis, Stephanie; Brauner, Stacey C; Turalba, Angela; Rhee, Douglas J; Freitag, Suzanne K; Pasquale, Louis R

    2013-01-01

    We studied the relation between prostaglandin analogue use and ocular adnexal features. We used a prospective, cross-sectional study involving 157 current, 15 past, and 171 never users of prostaglandin analogues. Patients 50 years of age or older and without conditions affecting ocular adnexal anatomy underwent glaucoma medication use history, external digital photography and systematic external adnexal exam. Two masked readers assessed the digital photos for upper lid dermatochalasis and lower lid steatoblepharon using a validated grading scheme. Another masked clinical examiner also assessed upper lid ptosis, levator muscle function, and inferior scleral show. We performed ordinal logistic regression analysis accounting for multiple covariates to assess the relation between prostaglandin analogue use and adnexal features. Multivariable analyses indicated there was a 230-fold increased risk of incremental involution of dermatochalasis (odds ratio (OR) = 2.30; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.43-3.69; p = 5.44E-04) and a 249-fold increased risk of incremental loss of lower lid steatoblepharon (OR = 2.49; 95% CI, 1.54-4.03; p= 1.98E-04) associated with current prostaglandin analogue use (bimatoprost 0.03%, travoprost 0.005%, or latanoprost 0.004%) versus prostaglandin analogue never or past users. Upper lid ptosis (OR = 4.04; 95% CI, 2.43-6.72; p = 7.37E-08), levator dysfunction (OR = 7.51; 95% CI, 3.39-16.65; p = 6.74E-07) and lower lid retraction (OR = 2.60; 95% CI, 1.58-4.28; p = 1.72E-04) were highly associated with current prostaglandin analogue use versus prostaglandin analogue never or past users. The associations between prostaglandin analogue use and deepening of the upper lid sulci and between prostaglandin analogue use and loss of inferior periorbital fat are confirmed in this multivariable analysis. The associations between prostaglandin analogue use and levator muscle dysfunction and between prostaglandin analogue use and upper lid ptosis represent

  15. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin Health and Skin Diseases Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... acne to wrinkles Did you know that your skin is the largest organ of your body? It ...

  16. [Skin cancer screening program in the population of Bydgoszcz].

    PubMed

    Mierzwa, Tomasz; Zegarski, Wojciech; Placek, Waldemar; Zegarska, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    The results of prophylactic medical skin examinations in inhabitants of Bydgoszcz were estimated. A prophylactic skin examination in asymptomatic patients was performed, and the most suspicion lesions were selected to excision. 750 persons were examined (age 15-93 years). 133 persons were operated. 173 skin lesions were removed. 32 skin cancers (18.53%), 3 melanomas (1.73%) and 34 skin lesions (which are base for melanoma) were confirmed. Detected carcinomas and melanomas were in early state of development. Prophylactic medical skin examination enable the detection of skin neoplasms in early state of development. Percent of detected carcinomas and melanomas of skin justify continuation this kinds of screening.

  17. Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) versus conventional laparoscopic surgery for adnexal preservation: a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yeon Jean; Kim, Mi-La; Lee, Soo Yoon; Lee, Hee Suk; Kim, Joo Myoung; Joo, Kwan Young

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the operative outcomes, postoperative pain, and subsequent convalescence after laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) or conventional laparoscopic surgery for adnexal preservation. Study design From December 2009 to September 2010, 63 patients underwent LESS (n = 33) or a conventional laparoscopic surgery (n = 30) for cyst enucleation. The overall operative outcomes including postoperative pain measurement using the visual analog scale (VAS) were evaluated (time points 6, 24, and 24 hours). The convalescence data included data obtained from questionnaires on the need for analgesics and on patient-reported time to recovery end points. Results The preoperative characteristics did not significantly differ between the two groups. The postoperative hemoglobin drop was higher in the LESS group than in the conventional laparoscopic surgery group (P = 0.048). Postoperative pain at each VAS time point, oral analgesic requirement, intramuscular analgesic requirement, and the number of days until return to work were similar in both groups. Conclusion In adnexa-preserving surgery performed in reproductive-age women, the operative outcomes, including satisfaction of the patients and convalescence after surgery, are comparable for LESS and conventional laparoscopy. LESS may be a feasible and a promising alternative method for scarless abdominal surgery in the treatment of young women with adnexal cysts PMID:22448110

  18. Unexpected ovarian malignancy found after laparoscopic surgery in patients with adnexal masses--a single institutional experience.

    PubMed

    Saito, Shigeko; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Miwa, Yoko; Mizuno, Mika; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Tanaka, Shiho; Okamoto, Tomomitsu

    2014-02-01

    Laparoscopy has become the standard surgery for the treatment of benign ovarian tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the appropriateness of laparoscopy for ovarian tumors, including those with malignant potential. A total of 487 patients with adnexal masses underwent laparoscopic surgery in Social Insurance Chukyo Hospital from January 2000 to December 2012. We reviewed 471 cases that fulfilled the criteria set for this study, and examined 10 cases with unexpected ovarian malignancy to analyze their preoperative diagnosis, second surgery, postoperative chemotherapy, and prognosis. The ages of the 471 patients ranged from 13 to 50 years, with a median of 31. Nulliparous patients numbered 321(68.1%). Of all, 436 patients mostly consisted of those with endometrioma, benign ovarian neoplasm or functional cyst. In all, we histologically identified 10 women with malignancy: 6 with borderline ovarian tumors (BOT), 2 with ovarian cancer, and 2 with histologically rare tumors (immature teratoma and granulosa cell tumor). All patients with BOT were diagnosed with a mucinous histology. Two patients underwent both second radical surgery (hysterectomy and contra- or bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy) and chemotherapies that consisted of CBDCA and PTX or DTX. Thus, 2 patients underwent staging procedures, but the remaining 8 cases did not. None of them had evidence of recurrences. With accurate staging and careful postoperative follow-up, laparoscopic surgery could be a feasible initial operation for patients with adnexal masses including early-stage ovarian malignancy.

  19. Steroidogenesis in the skin: implications for local immune functions

    PubMed Central

    Slominski, Andrzej; Zbytek, Bazej; Nikolakis, Georgios; Manna, Pulak R.; Skobowiat, Cezary; Zmijewski, Michal; Li, Wei; Janjetovic, Zorica; Postlethwaite, Arnold; Zouboulis, Christos C.; Tuckey, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    The skin has developed a hierarchy of systems that encompasses the skin immune and local steroidogenic activities in order to protect the body against the external environment and biological factors and to maintain local homeostasis. Most recently it has been established that skin cells contain the entire biochemical apparatus necessary for production of glucocorticoids, androgens and estrogens either from precursors of systemic origin or, alternatively, through the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone and its subsequent transformation to biologically active steroids. Examples of these products are corticosterone, cortisol, testosterone, dihydrotesterone and estradiol. Their local production can be regulated by locally produced corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or cytokines. Furthermore the production of glucocorticoids is affected by ultraviolet B radiation. The level of production and nature of the final steroid products are dependent on the cell type or cutaneous compartment, e.g., epidermis, dermis, adnexal structures or adipose tissue. Locally produced glucocorticoids, androgens and estrogens affect functions of the epidermis and adnexal structures as well as local immune activity. Malfunction of these steroidogenic activities can lead to inflammatory disorders or autoimmune diseases. The cutaneous steroidogenic system can also have systemic effects, which are emphasized by significant skin contribution to circulating androgens and/or estrogens. Furthermore, local activity of CYP11A1 can produce novel 7 -steroids and secosteroids that are biologically active. Therefore, modulation of local steroidogenic activity may serve as a new therapeutic approach for treatment of inflammatory disorders, autoimmune processes or other skin disorders. In conclusion, the skin can be defined as an independent steroidogenic organ, whose activity can affect its functions and the development of local or systemic inflammatory or

  20. Steroidogenesis in the skin: implications for local immune functions.

    PubMed

    Slominski, Andrzej; Zbytek, Blazej; Nikolakis, Georgios; Manna, Pulak R; Skobowiat, Cezary; Zmijewski, Michal; Li, Wei; Janjetovic, Zorica; Postlethwaite, Arnold; Zouboulis, Christos C; Tuckey, Robert C

    2013-09-01

    The skin has developed a hierarchy of systems that encompasses the skin immune and local steroidogenic activities in order to protect the body against the external environment and biological factors and to maintain local homeostasis. Most recently it has been established that skin cells contain the entire biochemical apparatus necessary for production of glucocorticoids, androgens and estrogens either from precursors of systemic origin or, alternatively, through the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone and its subsequent transformation to biologically active steroids. Examples of these products are corticosterone, cortisol, testosterone, dihydrotesterone and estradiol. Their local production can be regulated by locally produced corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or cytokines. Furthermore the production of glucocorticoids is affected by ultraviolet B radiation. The level of production and nature of the final steroid products are dependent on the cell type or cutaneous compartment, e.g., epidermis, dermis, adnexal structures or adipose tissue. Locally produced glucocorticoids, androgens and estrogens affect functions of the epidermis and adnexal structures as well as local immune activity. Malfunction of these steroidogenic activities can lead to inflammatory disorders or autoimmune diseases. The cutaneous steroidogenic system can also have systemic effects, which are emphasized by significant skin contribution to circulating androgens and/or estrogens. Furthermore, local activity of CYP11A1 can produce novel 7Δ-steroids and secosteroids that are biologically active. Therefore, modulation of local steroidogenic activity may serve as a new therapeutic approach for treatment of inflammatory disorders, autoimmune processes or other skin disorders. In conclusion, the skin can be defined as an independent steroidogenic organ, whose activity can affect its functions and the development of local or systemic inflammatory or

  1. Stages of Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Version General Information About Merkel Cell Carcinoma Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Merkel cell carcinoma is a very rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the skin. Sun exposure and having a weak immune system can ...

  2. Signet-ring Cells in the Skin: A Case of Late-onset Cutaneous Metastasis of Gastric Carcinoma and a Brief Review of Histological Approach.

    PubMed

    Gündüz, Özgür; Emeksiz, Mehmet Can; Atasoy, Pinar; Kidir, Mehtap; Yalçin, Selim; Demirkan, Serkan

    2016-06-15

    Up to 10% of patients with visceral malignancies develop skin metastases during their clinical course and these metastases constitute about 2% of all skin cancers. Skin metastasis may be the first sign of a clinically silent visceral cancer or represent recurrence of an internal malignancy. In both situations, they are associated with poor prognosis, which can partly be attributed to underdiagnosis. In this paper, a case of relapsing gastric adenocarcinoma, which manifested itself as asymptomatic cutaneous papules and nodules on a patient's head and neck, is reported and histopathological approach to the cutaneous lesions containing signet-ring cell is briefly reviewed.

  3. Signet-ring Cells in the Skin: A Case of Late-onset Cutaneous Metastasis of Gastric Carcinoma and a Brief Review of Histological Approach

    PubMed Central

    Gündüz, Özgür; Emeksiz, Mehmet Can; Atasoy, Pinar; Kidir, Mehtap; Yalçin, Selim; Demirkan, Serkan

    2017-01-01

    Up to 10% of patients with visceral malignancies develop skin metastases during their clinical course and these metastases constitute about 2% of all skin cancers. Skin metastasis may be the first sign of a clinically silent visceral cancer or represent recurrence of an internal malignancy. In both situations, they are associated with poor prognosis, which can partly be attributed to underdiagnosis. In this paper, a case of relapsing gastric adenocarcinoma, which manifested itself as asymptomatic cutaneous papules and nodules on a patient’s head and neck, is reported and histopathological approach to the cutaneous lesions containing signet-ring cell is briefly reviewed. PMID:28326183

  4. A Distinct and Replicable Squamous Cell Carcinoma Gene INPPA5 Variant Modifies Susceptibility of Arsenic-Associated Skin Lesions in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Seow, Wei Jie; Pan, Wen-Chi; Kile, Molly L.; Lin, Tong; Baccarelli, Andrea; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Mostofa, Golam; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Kibriya, Muhammad; Ahsan, Habibul; Lin, Xihong; Christiani, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in inflammation, one-carbon metabolism and skin cancer genes might influence susceptibility to arsenic-induced skin lesions. Methods A case-control study was conducted in Pabna, Bangladesh (2001-2003) and drinking water arsenic concentration was measured for each participant. A panel of twenty-five candidate SNPs was analyzed in 540 cases and 400 controls. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between each SNP and the potential for gene-environment interactions in skin lesion risk adjusting for relevant covariates. Replication testing was conducted in an independent Bangladesh population with 488 cases and 2,794 controls. Results In the discovery population, genetic variants in the one-carbon metabolism genes PEMT (rs2278952, P for interaction = 0.004; rs897453, P for interaction = 0.05) and DHFR (rs1650697, P for interaction = 0.02), inflammation gene IL10 (rs3024496, P for interaction = 0.04), and skin cancer genes INPP5A (rs1133400, P for interaction = 0.03) and XPC (rs2228000, P for interaction = 0.01) significantly modified the association between arsenic and skin lesions after adjusting for multiple comparisons. The significant gene-environment interaction between a SNP in INPP5A gene (rs1133400) and water arsenic on skin lesion risk was successfully replicated in an independent population (P for interaction = 0.03). Conclusion Minor allele carriers of skin cancer gene INPP5A modified odds of arsenic-induced skin lesions in both main and replicative populations. Genetic variation in INPP5A appears to have a role in susceptibility to arsenic toxicity. PMID:25759212

  5. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Skin Cancer What is Skin Cancer? Skin cancer is the most common type ... of approximately 9,480 Americans in 2013. Can Skin Cancer Be Treated? Most basal cell and squamous ...

  6. Phase I/II Study of Postoperative Adjuvant Chemoradiation for Advanced-Stage Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck (cSCCHN)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-11-17

    Recurrent Skin Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity

  7. Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma of the head and face.

    PubMed

    Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Kramer, B; Altini, M; Lemmer, J

    2016-02-05

    Ultraviolet light (UV) is an important risk factor for cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma of the skin. These cancers most commonly affect persons with fair skin and blue eyes who sunburn rather than suntan. However, each of these cancers appears to be associated with a different pattern of UV exposure and to be mediated by different intracellular molecular pathways.Some melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene variants play a direct role in the pathogenesis of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma apart from their role in determining a cancer-prone pigmentory phenotype (fair skin, red hair, blue eyes) through their interactions with other genes regulating immuno-inflammatory responses, DNA repair or apoptosis.In this short review we focus on the aetiological role of UV in cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma of the skin, and on some associated biopathological events.

  8. Prolonged Survival (>48 months) in a Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Cervix After Late Skin Metastasis (>5 year) to Incision Site: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ozmen, Batuhan; Sükür, Yavuz Emre; Atabekoğlu, Cem; Güngör, Mete

    2009-01-01

    Metastasis to the incision site of squamous cervical cancer (SCC) is an extremely rare entity which is strictly related with extremely poor prognosis. The vast majority of the reported cases died in a year due to distant recurrences, whereby skin metastases were predominantly observed close to the primary tumor site. A SCC with skin metastasis which was diagnosed 5 years after the radical surgery and postoperative radiotherapy which involved the midline incision site was reported. Large surgical excision of the metastasis with remaining surgical free margins (>2 cm) and combined chemo-radiotherapy with single agent (cisplatinum) was performed. The patient did not show any recurrences for 4 years follow-up. Apparently, palliative combined chemo-radiotherapy along with large excision seems favorable for controlling symptoms and progression of skin metastasis of squamous cervical cancer.

  9. Lymphoepithelioma-Like Carcinoma of the Skin Treated with Wide Local Excision and Chemoradiation Therapy: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    cases of LELCS. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report (SAR) 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 4 19a...negative for Epstein-Barr virus ( EBV ) [5], although a recent case report noted an association of LELCS with EBV [9]. Immunohistochemical staining is positive...absence of EBV , notwithstanding the recent uncommon case report. It differs from squamous cell carcinoma in that it does not typically involve the

  10. Towards an evidence-based approach for diagnosis and management of adnexal masses: findings of the International Ovarian Tumour Analysis (IOTA) studies.

    PubMed

    Kaijser, J

    2015-01-01

    Whilst the outcomes for patients with ovarian cancer clearly benefit from centralised, comprehensive care in dedicated cancer centres, unfortunately the majority of patients still do not receive appropriate specialist treatment. Any improvement in the accuracy of current triaging and referral pathways whether using new imaging tests or biomarkers would therefore be of value in order to optimise the appropriate selection of patients for such care. An analysis of current evidence shows that such tests are now available, but still await recognition, acceptance and widespread adoption. It is therefore to be hoped that present guidance relating to the classification of ovarian masses will soon become more "evidence-based". These promising tests include the International Ovarian Tumour Analysis (IOTA) LR2 model and ultrasound-based Simple Rules (SR). Based on a comprehensive recent meta-analysis both currently offer the optimal "evidence-based" approach to discriminating between cancer and benign conditions in women with adnexal tumours needing surgery. LR2 and SR are reliable tests having been shown to maintain a high sensitivity for cancer after independent external and temporal validation by the IOTA group in the hands of examiners with various levels of ultrasound expertise. They also offer more accurate triage compared to the existing Risk of Malignancy Index (RMI). The development of the IOTA ADNEX model represents an important step forward towards more individualised patient care in this area. ADNEX is a novel test that enables the more specific subtyping of adnexal cancers (i.e. borderline, stage 1 invasive, stage II-IV invasive, and secondary metastatic malignant tumours) and shares similar levels of accuracy to IOTA LR2 and SR for basic discrimination between cancer and benign disease. The IOTA study has made significant progress in relation to the classification of adnexal masses, however what is now needed is to see if these or new diagnostic tools can assist

  11. Inherited mouse mutations as models of human adnexal, cornification, and papulosquamous dermatoses.

    PubMed

    Sundberg, J P; Beamer, W G; Shultz, L D; Dunstan, R W

    1990-11-01

    Nearly 100 mouse mutations have been described as causing some type of abnormality of the skin or hair. As only a few of these mutations have been studied in detail, they remain an untapped resource for furthering knowledge of basic cutaneous physiology and understanding the pathophysiology of analogous diseases in humans. Several diverse murine mutations are discussed. These include "asebia," a mildly hyperkeratotic disorder with sebaceous gland hypoplasia; "ichthyosis," an example of abnormal hair growth associated with hyperkeratosis; "rhino" and "hairless," two related examples of congenital follicular malformations; and "flaky skin", a potential animal model of eruptive psoriasis.

  12. Skin cancer in the elderly

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, S.V.

    1987-11-01

    Skin cancer is a major concern in geriatric populations. Cumulative exposure to carcinogens and age-related factors both contribute to the high prevalence of cutaneous malignancy in the elderly. Although mortality rates from skin cancer are relatively low, morbidity can be significant, particularly if lesions are neglected. Physicians can have a major impact on the course of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and malignant melanoma by nurturing a high index of suspicion for malignancy when unexplained cutaneous lesions are encountered. 56 references.

  13. Expression of heparanase in basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma*

    PubMed Central

    Pinhal, Maria Aparecida Silva; Almeida, Maria Carolina Leal; Costa, Alessandra Scorse; Theodoro, Thérèse Rachell; Serrano, Rodrigo Lorenzetti; Machado Filho, Carlos D'Apparecida Santos

    2016-01-01

    Background Heparanase is an enzyme that cleaves heparan sulfate chains. Oligosaccharides generated by heparanase induce tumor progression. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma comprise types of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Objectives Evaluate the glycosaminoglycans profile and expression of heparanase in two human cell lines established in culture, immortalized skin keratinocyte (HaCaT) and squamous cell carcinoma (A431) and also investigate the expression of heparanase in basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and eyelid skin of individuals not affected by the disease (control). Methods Glycosaminoglycans were quantified by electrophoresis and indirect ELISA method. The heparanase expression was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRTPCR). Results The A431 strain showed significant increase in the sulfated glycosaminoglycans, increased heparanase expression and decreased hyaluronic acid, comparing to the HaCaT lineage. The mRNA expression of heparanase was significantly higher in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma compared with control skin samples. It was also observed increased heparanase expression in squamous cell carcinoma compared to the Basal cell carcinoma. Conclusion The glycosaminoglycans profile, as well as heparanase expression are different between HaCaT and A431 cell lines. The increased expression of heparanase in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma suggests that this enzyme could be a marker for the diagnosis of such types of non-melanoma cancers, and may be useful as a target molecule for future alternative treatment. PMID:27828631

  14. Genetics of Skin Cancer (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the genetics of skin cancer — basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma — including information about specific gene mutations and related cancer syndromes. The summary also contains information about interventions that may influence the risk of developing skin cancer in individuals who may be genetically susceptible to these syndromes.

  15. Skin Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...

  16. Aging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... email address Submit Home > Healthy Aging > Wellness Healthy Aging Aging skin More information on aging skin When it ... treated early. Return to top More information on Aging skin Read more from womenshealth.gov Varicose Veins ...

  17. A comparison of clinical and surgical outcomes between laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery and traditional multiport laparoscopic surgery for adnexal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, In Ok; Yoon, Jung Won; Chung, Dawn; Yim, Ga Won; Nam, Eun Ji; Kim, Sunghoon; Kim, Sang Wun

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to compare clinical and surgical outcomes between laparo-endoscopic single-site (LESS) surgery and traditional multiport laparoscopic (TML) surgery for treatment of adnexal tumors. Methods Medical records were reviewed for patients undergoing surgery for benign adnexal tumors between January 2008 and April 2012 at our institution. All procedures were performed by the same surgeon. Clinical and surgical outcomes for patients undergoing LESS surgery using Glove port were compared with those patients undergoing TML surgery. Results A review of 129 patient cases undergoing LESS surgery using Glove port and 100 patient cases undergoing TML surgery revealed no significant differences in the baseline characteristics of the two groups. The median operative time was shorter in the LESS group using Glove port at 44 minutes (range, 19-126 minutes) than the TML group at 49 minutes (range, 20-196 minutes) (P=0.0007). There were no significant differences between in the duration of postoperative hospital stay, change in hemoglobin levels, pain score or the rate of complications between the LESS and TML groups. Conclusion LESS surgery showed comparable clinical and surgical outcomes to TML surgery, and required less operative time. Future prospective trials are warranted to further define the benefits of LESS surgery for adnexal tumor treatment. PMID:25264529

  18. A new scoring model for characterization of adnexal masses based on two-dimensional gray-scale and colour Doppler sonographic features

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, A.M.; Zahran, K.M.; Nasr, A.; Kamel, H.S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the most discriminating two-dimensional gray-scale and colour Doppler sonographic features that allow differentiation between malignant and benign adnexal masses, and to develop a scoring model that would enable more accurate diagnosis with those features. Methods: A cross sectional prospective study was conducted on patients scheduled for surgery due to presence of adnexal masses at Woman’s Health Center, Assiut University, Egypt between October 2012 and October 2013. All patients were evaluated by 2D ultrasound for morphological features of the masses combined with colour Doppler examination of their vessels. The final diagnosis, based on histopathological analysis, was used as a gold standard. Results: One hundred forty-six patients were recruited, 104 with benign masses, 42 with malignant masses. Features that allowed statistically significant discrimination of benignity from malignancy were; volume of mass, type of mass, presence and thickness of septae, presence and length of papillary projections, location of vessels at colour Doppler and colour score. A scoring model was formulated combining these features together; Assiut Scoring Model (ASM). The cut-off level with the highest accuracy in detection of malignancy, was ≥6, had a sensitivity of 93.5% and specificity of 92.2%. Conclusion: Our Scoring Model; a multiparameter scoring using four gray-scale ultrasound and two colour Doppler features, had shown a high sensitivity and specificity for prediction of malignancy in adnexal masses compared with previous scoring systems. PMID:25009729

  19. Skin abscess

    MedlinePlus

    Abscess - skin; Cutaneous abscess; Subcutaneous abscess; MRSA - abscess; Staph infection - abscess ... Skin abscesses are common and affect people of all ages. They occur when an infection causes pus ...

  20. Skin Biomes.

    PubMed

    Fyhrquist, N; Salava, A; Auvinen, P; Lauerma, A

    2016-05-01

    The cutaneous microbiome has been investigated broadly in recent years and some traditional perspectives are beginning to change. A diverse microbiome exists on human skin and has a potential to influence pathogenic microbes and modulate the course of skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis. In addition to the known dysfunctions in barrier function of the skin and immunologic disturbances, evidence is rising that frequent skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis, might be connected to a dysbiosis of the microbial community and changes in the skin microbiome. As a future perspective, examining the skin microbiome could be seen as a potential new diagnostic and therapeutic target in inflammatory skin disorders.

  1. In-vivo fluorescence detection and imaging of porphyrin-producing bacteria in the human skin and in the oral cavity for diagnosis of acne vulgaris, caries, and squamous cell carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Karsten; Schneckenburger, Herbert; Hemmer, Joerg; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Steiner, Rudolf W.

    1994-05-01

    Certain bacteria are able to synthesize metal-free fluorescent porphyrins and can therefore be detected by sensitive autofluorescence measurements in the red spectral region. The porphyrin-producing bacterium Propionibacterium acnes, which is involved in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris, was localized in human skin. Spectrally resolved fluorescence images of bacteria distribution in the face were obtained by a slow-scan CCD camera combined with a tunable liquid crystal filter. The structured autofluorescence of dental caries and dental plaque in the red is caused by oral bacteria, like Bacteroides or Actinomyces odontolyticus. `Caries images' were created by time-gated imaging in the ns-region after ultrashort laser excitation. Time-gated measurements allow the suppression of backscattered light and non-porphyrin autofluorescence. Biopsies of oral squamous cell carcinoma exhibited red autofluorescence in necrotic regions and high concentrations of the porphyrin-producing bacterium Pseudomonas aerigunosa. These studies suggest that the temporal and spectral characteristics of bacterial autofluorescence can be used in the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of diseases.

  2. Evaluation of the Diagnostic Accuracy of Serum D-Dimer Levels in Pregnant Women with Adnexal Torsion.

    PubMed

    Topçu, Hasan Onur; İskender, Can Tekin; Ceran, Ufuk; Kaymak, Oktay; Timur, Hakan; Uygur, Dilek; Danışman, Nuri

    2015-01-05

    We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of serum D-dimer levels in pregnant women with adnexal torsion (AT). The pregnant women with ovarian cysts who suffered from pelvic pain were divided into two groups; the first group consisted of the cases with surgically proven as AT (n = 17) and the second group consisted of the cases whose pain were resolved in the course of follow-up period without required surgery (n = 34). The clinical characteristics and serum D-dimer levels were compared between the groups. Patients with AT had a higher rate of elevated serum white blood cell (WBC) count (57% vs. 16%, p = 0.04) and serum D-dimer levels (77% vs. 21%, p < 0.01) on admission in the study group than in the control group. Elevated D-dimer and cyst diameter larger than 5 cm yielded highest sensitivity (82% for each); whereas the presence of nausea and vomiting and elevated CRP had the highest specificity (85% and 88%, respectively). This is the first study that evaluates the serum D-dimer levels in humans in the diagnosis of AT, and our findings supported the use of D-dimer for the early diagnosis of AT in pregnant women.

  3. Potential O-acyl-substituted (-)-Epicatechin gallate prodrugs as inhibitors of DMBA/TPA-induced squamous cell carcinoma of skin in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Sandeep; Manon, Benu; Vir Singh, Tej; Dev Sharma, Pritam; Sharma, Manu

    2011-04-01

    (-)-Epicatechin-3-gallate (1) is one of the principal catechins of green tea and exhibits cancer-preventive activities in various animal models. However, this compound is unstable in neutral or alkaline medium and, therefore, has a poor bioavailability. To improve its stability, O-acyl derivatives of 1 were prepared by isolating the partially purified tea catechin fraction from green tea extract and treating it with a variety of acylating agents. The resulting derivatives, compounds 2-6, were screened for their antitumor potential against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced squamous cell carcinogenesis of skin in mice. The results showed that the antitumor activity decreased with the increase in size of the chain length of the acyl groups, i.e., from compound 2, derivative with an Ac group, to compound 6, possessing a valeryl group. Moreover, the C(4) derivative with a branched acyl chain, 5, had a lower activity than the linear C(4) derivative 4. This reduction in the inhibitory activity may be due to the steric hindrance by the two Me groups. Moreover, significant increases in the protein levels analyzed by ELISA of c-Jun, p65, and p53 were observed in the skin of DMBA/TPA treated mice, whereas mice treated with 2 and DMBA/TPA had a similar expression of these transcription factors than the control mice. The prodrug potential of the O-acyl derivatives 2-6 showed that they were adequately stable to be absorbed intact from the intestine, more stable at gastric pH, and suitable for oral administration.

  4. Vitamin D for combination photodynamic therapy of skin cancer in individuals with vitamin D deficiency: Insights from a preclinical study in a mouse model of squamous cell carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, Sanjay; Thomas, Erik; Hasan, Tayyaba; Maytin, Edward V.

    2016-03-01

    Combination photodynamic therapy (cPDT) in which vitamin D (VD) is given prior to aminolevulinate, a precursor (pro-drug) for protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), is an approach developed in our laboratory. We previously showed that 1α,25- dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol), given prior to PDT, enhances accumulation of PpIX and improves cell death post-PDT in a mouse skin cancer model. However, since calcitriol poses a risk for hypercalcemia, we replaced systemic calcitriol with oral cholecalciferol (D3), administered as a high (tenfold, "10K") diet over a ten-day period. Here, we ask whether VD deficiency might alter the response to cPDT. Nude mice were fed a VD-deficient diet for at least 4 weeks ("deficient"); controls were fed a normal 1,000 IU/kg diet ("1K"). Human A431 cells were implanted subcutaneously and mice were switched to the 10K diet or continued on their baseline diets (controls). In other experiments, mice received a human equivalent dose of 50,000 IU D3 by oral gavage, to simulate administration of a single, high-dose VD pill. At various times, tumors were harvested and serum was collected to measure levels of VD metabolic intermediates. A significant increase in PpIX levels and in the expression of differentiation and proliferation markers in tumor tissue was observed after VD supplementation of both the deficient and 1K mice. Further results describing mechanistic details of PpIX enhancement through alteration of heme- and VD-metabolic enzyme levels will be presented. Based on these results, a clinical study using oral vitamin D prior to PDT for human skin cancer should be performed.

  5. [Radiotherapy of skin cancers].

    PubMed

    Hennequin, C; Rio, E; Mahé, M-A

    2016-09-01

    The indications of radiotherapy for skin cancers are not clearly defined because of the lack of randomised trials or prospective studies. For basal cell carcinomas, radiotherapy frequently offers a good local control, but a randomized trial showed that surgery is more efficient and less toxic. Indications of radiotherapy are contra-indications of surgery for patients older than 60, non-sclerodermiform histology and occurring in non-sensitive areas. Adjuvant radiotherapy could be proposed to squamous cell carcinomas, in case of poor prognostic factors. Dose of 60 to 70Gy are usually required, and must be modulated to the size of the lesions. Adjuvant radiotherapy seems beneficial for desmoplastic melanomas but not for the other histological types. Prophylactic nodal irradiation (45 to 50Gy), for locally advanced tumours (massive nodal involvement), decreases the locoregional failure rate but do not increase survival. Adjuvant radiotherapy (50 to 56Gy) for Merckel cell carcinomas increases also the local control rate, as demonstrated by meta-analysis and a large epidemiological study. Nodal areas must be included, if there is no surgical exploration (sentinel lymph node dissection). Kaposi sarcomas are radiosensitive and could be treated with relatively low doses (24 to 30Gy). Also, cutaneous lymphomas are good indications for radiotherapy: B lymphomas are electively treated with limited fields. The role of total skin electron therapy for T-lymphomas is still discussed; but palliative radiotherapy is very efficient in case of cutaneous nodules.

  6. Treatment Option Overview (Merkel Cell Carcinoma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Version General Information About Merkel Cell Carcinoma Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Merkel cell carcinoma is a very rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the skin. Sun exposure and having a weak immune system can ...

  7. General Information about Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Version General Information About Merkel Cell Carcinoma Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Merkel cell carcinoma is a very rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the skin. Sun exposure and having a weak immune system can ...

  8. Treatment Options by Stage (Merkel Cell Carcinoma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Version General Information About Merkel Cell Carcinoma Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Merkel cell carcinoma is a very rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the skin. Sun exposure and having a weak immune system can ...

  9. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the conjunctiva.

    PubMed

    Gamel, J W; Eiferman, R A; Guibor, P

    1984-05-01

    A 73-year-old man had a limbal nodule that, on histopathologic examination, proved to be mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the conjunctiva. Despite radiation therapy and extensive corneoscleral lamellar resection, widespread invasion of the lids and orbit ultimately led to exenteration. Although mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the conjunctiva resembles squamous cell carcinoma clinically and histopathologically, it pursues a more rapid and destructive clinical course. Intraepithelial invasion often leads to tumor involvement of conjunctiva and skin that seem normal on clinical examination. Special stains and a high level of suspicion are required for diagnosis of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the conjunctiva, and proper initial management demands more aggressive surgical resection than is usually indicated for squamous cell carcinoma.

  10. Combination effect of photodynamic and sonodynamic therapy on experimental skin squamous cell carcinoma in C3H/HeN mice.

    PubMed

    Jin, Z H; Miyoshi, N; Ishiguro, K; Umemura, S; Kawabata, K; Yumita, N; Sakata, I; Takaoka, K; Udagawa, T; Nakajima, S; Tajiri, H; Ueda, K; Fukuda, M; Kumakiri, M

    2000-05-01

    We studied a combination of photodynamic therapy (PDT) and sonodynamic therapy (SDT) for improving tumoricidal effects in a transplantable mouse squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) model. Two sensitizers were utilized: the pheophorbide-a derivative PH-1126, which is a newly developed photosensitizer, and the gallium porphyrin analogue ATX-70, a commonly used sonosensitizer. Mice were injected with either PH-1126 or ATX-70 i.p. at doses of 5 or 10 mg/kg.bw. At 24 (ATX-70) or 36 hr (PH-1126) (time of optimum drug concentration in the tumor) after injection, SCCs underwent laser light irradiation (88 J/cm2 of 575 nm for ATX-70; 44J/cm2 of 650 nm for PH-1126) (PDT), ultrasound irradiation (0.51 W/cm2 at 1.0 MHz for 10 minutes) (SDT), or a combination of the two treatments. The combination of PDT and SDT using either PH-1126 or ATX-70 as a sensitizer resulted in significantly improved inhibition of tumor growth (92-98%) (additive effect) as compared to either single treatment (27-77%). The combination using PH-1126 resulted in 25% of the treated mice being tumor free at 20 days after treatment. Moreover, the median survival period (from irradiation to death) of PDT + SDT-treated mice (> 120 days) was significantly greater than that in single treatment groups (77-95 days). Histological changes revealed that combination therapy could induce tumor necrosis 2-3 times as deep as in either of the single modalities. The combination of PDT and SDT could be very useful for treatment of non-superficial or nodular tumors.

  11. Cutaneous metastatic pigmented breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gaitan-Gaona, Francisco; Said, Mirra C; Valdes-Rodriguez, Rodrigo

    2016-03-16

    A 66-year-old woman presented with a 3 cm black, ulcerated nodule located on the skin of the upper abdomen, just below the breast. The lesion was painful to the touch, but the patient reported no other associated symptoms and was otherwise healthy. A 4-mm punch biopsy of the affected skin was obtained and the histological diagnosis was cutaneous metastatic pigmented breast carcinoma.

  12. Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the touch may have yellow drainage Of cellulitis: a red, inflamed area on the skin that is tender to the touch may occur in an area of a scratch or cut redness often spreads rapidly over the skin's surface ...

  13. Skin Pigment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diseases Take Big Slice Out of America's Health, Economy (News) Health Tip: Use Caution When Applying Hair Dye Additional ... Skin Diseases Take Big Slice Out of America's Health, Economy THURSDAY, March 2, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Skin diseases ...

  14. Sagging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose Veins Vitiligo Wrinkles Treatments and Procedures Ambulatory ... Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose Veins Vitiligo Wrinkles Treatments and Procedures Ambulatory ...

  15. Surgery and electrochemotherapy treatment of incompletely excised mammary carcinoma in two male pet rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    PubMed Central

    LANZA, Andrea; PETTORALI, Michela; BALDI, Alfonso; SPUGNINI, Enrico P.

    2017-01-01

    Two male rats (Rattus norvegicus; 18 and 24 months old), were referred for treatment of large masses located in the axillary area. Following total body radiography and hematological and serum biochemical analysis, the rats were anesthetized, and the masses were surgically removed. Both lesions were diagnosed as mammary carcinoma based on histopathological diagnosis. The tumor beds were treated with two sessions of electrochemotherapy (ECT), two weeks apart. ECT involved cisplatin administration in the tumor bed, followed by a series of eight biphasic electric pulses. The treatment was well tolerated, and the rats were disease-free after 10 and 14 months. Therefore, adjuvant ECT resulted in good local control of mammary carcinoma and can potentially be used for adjuvant treatment of pet rats with cutaneous and adnexal tumors. PMID:28216544

  16. UV Radiation and the Skin

    PubMed Central

    D’Orazio, John; Jarrett, Stuart; Amaro-Ortiz, Alexandra; Scott, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    UV radiation (UV) is classified as a “complete carcinogen” because it is both a mutagen and a non-specific damaging agent and has properties of both a tumor initiator and a tumor promoter. In environmental abundance, UV is the most important modifiable risk factor for skin cancer and many other environmentally-influenced skin disorders. However, UV also benefits human health by mediating natural synthesis of vitamin D and endorphins in the skin, therefore UV has complex and mixed effects on human health. Nonetheless, excessive exposure to UV carries profound health risks, including atrophy, pigmentary changes, wrinkling and malignancy. UV is epidemiologically and molecularly linked to the three most common types of skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, which together affect more than a million Americans annually. Genetic factors also influence risk of UV-mediated skin disease. Polymorphisms of the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene, in particular, correlate with fairness of skin, UV sensitivity, and enhanced cancer risk. We are interested in developing UV-protective approaches based on a detailed understanding of molecular events that occur after UV exposure, focusing particularly on epidermal melanization and the role of the MC1R in genome maintenance. PMID:23749111

  17. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  18. Orbital and ocular adnexal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT) lymphomas: a single-center 10-year experience.

    PubMed

    Smiljanic, M; Milosevic, R; Antic, D; Andjelic, B; Djurasinovic, V; Todorovic, M; Bila, J; Bogdanovic, A; Mihaljevic, B

    2013-12-01

    Orbital and ocular andexal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma (MALT) or ocular adnexal MALT lymphoma (OAML) is the most common of all eye non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Autoimmune inflammatory disorders and chronic infections are important etiological factors and CD5 and CD43 (sialophorin) tumor markers are significant negative prognostic factors. Disease signs and symptoms can occur a long time before diagnosis. Varieties of treatment options are available. The aim of this retrospective analysis was to compare the efficiency of different treatment options and to investigate disease outcome. Twenty OAML patients, diagnosed in the Clinic of Hematology, Clinical Centre of Serbia, between 2003 and 2013, were enrolled. In most cases, OAML developed in the eighth decade with greater incidence in the male population. Median age was 67.5 years. The median period between the appearance of local signs and symptoms and diagnosis was 7 months. The dominant sign at presentation was swelling of involved tissue (40%). The most common was orbital involvement (55%). All patients had localized disease. Observed laboratory parameters on presentation showed low disease activity. Sialophorin prognostic significance was not registered. Our patients were initially treated differently but there was no significant difference in progression-free survival (PFS) due to initial treatment option (p = 0.2957). Median PFS was 22 months (3-89), and 5-year PFS was 60%. Median overall survival (OS) was 43 months (1-105) and 5-year OS 95%. Eight patients (40%) relapsed and one patient died due to non-hematological complications. In our experience, most modern induction treatment options appear to result in the same, favorable outcome.

  19. Pulsed laser radiation therapy of skin tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlov, A.P.; Moskalik, K.G.

    1980-11-15

    Radiation from a neodymium laser was used to treat 846 patients with 687 precancerous lesions or benign tumors of the skin, 516 cutaneous carcinomas, 33 recurrences of cancer, 51 melanomas, and 508 metastatic melanomas in the skin. The patients have been followed for three months to 6.5 years. No relapses have been observed during this period. Metastases to regional lymph nodes were found in five patients with skin melanoma. Pulsed laser radiation may be successfully used in the treatment of precancerous lesions and benign tumors as well as for skin carcinoma and its recurrences, and for skin melanoma. Laser radiation is more effective in the treatment of tumors inaccessible to radiation therapy and better in those cases in which surgery may have a bad cosmetic or even mutilating effect. Laser beams can be employed in conjunction with chemo- or immunotherapy.

  20. Skin features in myotonic dystrophy type 1: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Campanati, A; Giannoni, M; Buratti, L; Cagnetti, C; Giuliodori, K; Ganzetti, G; Silvestrini, M; Provinciali, L; Offidani, A

    2015-05-01

    Poor data regarding skin involvement in Myotonic Dystrophy, also named Dystrophia Myotonica type 1, have been reported. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and types of skin disorders in adult patients with Myotonic Dystrophy type 1. Fifty-five patients and one hundred age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were referred to a trained dermatologist for a complete skin examination to check for potential cutaneous hallmarks of disease. No difference in prevalence of preneoplastic, neoplastic, and cutaneous lesions was detected between the two groups. Among morphofunctional, proliferative and inflammatory lesions, focal hyperhidrosis (p < 0.0001), follicular hyperkeratosis (p = 0.0003), early androgenic alopecia (p = 0.01), nail pitting (p = 0.003), pedunculus fibromas (p = 0. 01), twisted hair (p = 0.01), seborrheic dermatitis (p = 0.02), macules of hyperpigmentation (p = 0.03) were significantly more frequent in patients compared with controls. In patients with Myotonic Dystrophy type 1 significant differences according to sex were found for: early androgenic alopecia, twisted hair and seborrheic dermatitis, whose prevalence was higher in males (p < 0.0001). Our preliminary results seem to rule out an increased prevalence of pre-neoplastic, and neoplastic skin lesions in Myotonic Dystrophy type 1. On the other hand, an increased prevalence of morphofunctional, inflammatory, and proliferative diseases involving adnexal structures seems to characterize adult patients with Myotonic Dystrophy type 1.

  1. Sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Misery, L; Loser, K; Ständer, S

    2016-02-01

    Sensitive skin is a clinical condition defined by the self-reported facial presence of different sensory perceptions, including tightness, stinging, burning, tingling, pain and pruritus. Sensitive skin may occur in individuals with normal skin, with skin barrier disturbance, or as a part of the symptoms associated with facial dermatoses such as rosacea, atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Although experimental studies are still pending, the symptoms of sensitive skin suggest the involvement of cutaneous nerve fibres and neuronal, as well as epidermal, thermochannels. Many individuals with sensitive skin report worsening symptoms due to environmental factors. It is thought that this might be attributed to the thermochannel TRPV1, as it typically responds to exogenous, endogenous, physical and chemical stimuli. Barrier disruptions and immune mechanisms may also be involved. This review summarizes current knowledge on the epidemiology, potential mechanisms, clinics and therapy of sensitive skin.

  2. Analysis of recurrence and survival rates in grade 3 endometrioid endometrial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jieyu; Jia, Nan; Li, Qing; Wang, Chao; Tao, Xiang; Hua, Keqin; Feng, Weiwei

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine risk factors associated with recurrence and survival in patients with grade 3 endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (G3EEC). A retrospective analysis of 117 patients with G3EEC, who were admitted to the Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University between January 2000 and December 2011, was performed. The χ2 test or Fisher's exact test were used for the comparison of categorical variables. Kaplan-Meier method was used for estimating recurrence-free survival (RFS), disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS) rates. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards model were used to assess the prognostic significance of various patient characteristics. In 117 patients, 16 patients (13.7%) had tumor recurrence, of which 6 (37.5%) developed local-regional recurrence and 10 (62.5%) developed distant recurrence. Out of the 16 patients with tumor recurrence, 14 (87.5%) had a recurrence within 3 years of surgery. Statistically significant characteristics affecting RFS, DSS and OS rates were outer half myometrial invasion (MI ≥50%), advanced International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, positive lymph node metastasis (PLNM), lymph vascular space invasion, adnexal involvement and characterization as a high-risk group, according to the Gynecologic Oncology Group 99 stratification algorithm. RFS was associated with the depth of cervical mucosa (stromal) involvement. Furthermore, in the multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, significant independent adverse factors for RFS and DSS included MI ≥50% and adnexal involvement. For OS, there were no statistically significant prognostic factors. In conclusion, MI ≥50% and adnexal involvement are independent prognostic factors for RFS and DSS in G3EEC patients. PMID:27698871

  3. Skin aging and dry skin.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Hideo

    2004-08-01

    Skin aging appears to be the result of both scheduled and continuous "wear and tear" processes that damage cellular DNA and proteins. Two types of aging, chronological skin aging and photoaging, have distinct clinical and histological features. Chronological skin aging is a universal and inevitable process characterized primarily by physiologic alterations in skin function. In this case, keratinocytes are unable to properly terminally differentiate to form a functional stratum corneum, and the rate of formation of neutral lipids that contribute to the barrier function slows, causing dry, pale skin with fine wrinkles. In contrast, photoaging results from the UVR of sunlight and the damage thus becomes apparent in sun-exposed skin. Characteristics of this aging type are dry and sallow skin displaying fine wrinkles as well as deep furrows, resulting from the disorganization of epidermal and dermal components associated with elastosis and heliodermatitis. Understanding of the functions of the skin and the basic principles of moisturizer use and application is important for the prevention of skin aging. Successful treatment of dry skin with appropriate skin care products gives the impression of eternal youth.

  4. Chemoprevention of Skin Cancer Program Project | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Skin cancer is the most common malignancy in the world. One out of three new cancers is a skin cancer. More than 1 million cases of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) (basal cell carcinoma [BCC] and squamous cell cancers [SCC]) occur annually. While the incidence rates for non-melanoma skin cancers continue to rise, there continues to be a substantial impact on morbidity, health and health care costs. |

  5. Characteristics of the Aging Skin

    PubMed Central

    Farage, Miranda A.; Miller, Kenneth W.; Elsner, Peter; Maibach, Howard I.

    2013-01-01

    Significance Although most researches into the changes in skin with age focus on the unwelcome aesthetic aspects of the aging skin, skin deterioration with age is more than a merely cosmetic problem. Although mortality from skin disease is primarily restricted to melanoma, dermatological disorders are ubiquitous in older people with a significant impact on quality of life. The structural and functional deterioration of the skin that occurs with age has numerous clinical presentations, ranging from benign but potentially excruciating disorders like pruritus to the more threatening carcinomas and melanomas. Recent Advances The degenerative changes that occur in the aging skin are increasingly understood at both the molecular and cellular level, facilitating a deeper understanding of the structural and functional deterioration that these changes produce. Critical Issues A loss of both function and structural stability in skin proceeds unavoidably as individuals age, which is the result of both intrinsic and extrinsic processes, which contribute simultaneously to a progressive loss of skin integrity. Intrinsic aging proceeds at a genetically determined pace, primarily caused by the buildup of damaging products of cellular metabolism as well as an increasing biological aging of the cells. Estrogen levels strongly influence skin integrity in women as well; falling levels in midlife, therefore, produce premature aging as compared with similarly aged men. Extrinsic insults from the environment add to the dermatological signs of aging. Future Directions A deeper understanding of the physiological basis of skin aging will facilitate progress in the treatment of the unwelcome sequelae of aging skin, both cosmetic and pathogenic. PMID:24527317

  6. IgG4-related skin manifestations in patients with IgG4-related disease.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Tetsuya; Oka, Masahiro; Shimizu, Hideki; Hatakeyama, Mayumi; Kanki, Haruhisa; Kunisada, Makoto; Tsuji, Goh; Morinobu, Akio; Kumagai, Shunichi; Azumi, Atsushi; Negi, Akira; Nishigori, Chikako

    2013-04-01

    We describe two cases of IgG4-related disease associated with skin manifestations with IgG4-positive plasma cells. The first patient was a 52-year-old woman with a 3-year history of IgG4-related sialadenitis who presented with pruritic, indurated erythematous lesions on the auricle, postauricular and submandibular regions and neck. A skin biopsy showed infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells in the subcutaneous tissue. The second patient was a 53-year-old woman with IgG4-related lesions in the ocular adnexal tissues and nasal cavity who presented with pruritic, indurated erythema on the cheek and submandibular region. Histopathological examination of a skin biopsy revealed a dense, patchy infiltrate comprised of lymphocytes, IgG4-positive plasma cells and eosinophils around blood vessels and sweat glands in the entire dermis and subcutis. The skin lesions in these cases were considered to be skin manifestations of IgG4-related disease. The findings of these two cases together with the three reported cases of IgG4-related disease with skin manifestations in the literature suggest that IgG4-related skin lesions may appear on the scalp, face, neck, auricle and postauricular regions during the course of IgG4-related disease.

  7. Skin optics

    SciTech Connect

    van Gemert, M.J.; Jacques, S.L.; Sterenborg, H.J.; Star, W.M.

    1989-12-01

    Quantitative dosimetry in the treatment of skin disorders with (laser) light requires information on propagation of light in the skin related to the optical properties of the individual skin layers. This involves the solution of the integro-differential equation of radiative transfer in a model representing skin geometry, as well as experimental methods to determine the optical properties of each skin layer. These activities are unified under the name skin optics. This paper first reviews the current status of tissue optics, distinguishing between the cases of: dominant absorption, dominant scattering, and scattering about equal to absorption. Then, previously published data as well as some current unpublished data on (human) stratum corneum, epidermis and dermis, have been collected and/or (re)analyzed in terms of absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient, and anisotropy factor of scattering. The results are that the individual skin layers show strongly forward scattering (anisotropy factors between 0.7 and 0.9). The absorption and scattering data show that for all wavelengths considered scattering is much more important than absorption. Under such circumstances, solutions to the transport equation for a multilayer skin model and finite beam laser irradiation are currently not yet available. Hence, any quantitative dosimetry for skin treated with (laser) light is currently lacking.

  8. Metastatic giant basal cell carcinoma: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Bellahammou, Khadija; Lakhdissi, Asmaa; Akkar, Othman; Rais, Fadoua; Naoual, Benhmidou; Elghissassi, Ibrahim; M’rabti, Hind; Errihani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer, characterised by a slow growing behavior, metastasis are extremely rare, and it occurs in less than 0, 1% of all cases. Giant basal cell carcinoma is a rare form of basal cell carcinoma, more aggressive and defined as a tumor measuring more than 5 cm at its largest diameter. Only 1% of all basal cell carcinoma develops to a giant basal cell carcinoma, resulting of patient's negligence. Giant basal cell carcinoma is associated with higher potential of metastasis and even death, compared to ordinary basal cell carcinoma. We report a case of giant basal cell carcinoma metastaticin lung occurring in a 79 years old male patient, with a fatal evolution after one course of systemic chemotherapy. Giant basal cell carcinoma is a very rare entity, early detection of these tumors could prevent metastasis occurrence and improve the prognosis of this malignancy. PMID:27795755

  9. Metastatic giant basal cell carcinoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bellahammou, Khadija; Lakhdissi, Asmaa; Akkar, Othman; Rais, Fadoua; Naoual, Benhmidou; Elghissassi, Ibrahim; M'rabti, Hind; Errihani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer, characterised by a slow growing behavior, metastasis are extremely rare, and it occurs in less than 0, 1% of all cases. Giant basal cell carcinoma is a rare form of basal cell carcinoma, more aggressive and defined as a tumor measuring more than 5 cm at its largest diameter. Only 1% of all basal cell carcinoma develops to a giant basal cell carcinoma, resulting of patient's negligence. Giant basal cell carcinoma is associated with higher potential of metastasis and even death, compared to ordinary basal cell carcinoma. We report a case of giant basal cell carcinoma metastaticin lung occurring in a 79 years old male patient, with a fatal evolution after one course of systemic chemotherapy. Giant basal cell carcinoma is a very rare entity, early detection of these tumors could prevent metastasis occurrence and improve the prognosis of this malignancy.

  10. Targets for molecular therapy of skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Green, Cheryl L; Khavari, Paul A

    2004-02-01

    Cancers of the skin encompass the first and second most common neoplasms in the United States, epidermal basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), respectively, as well as the melanocytic malignancy, malignant melanoma (MM). Recently identified alterations in the function of specific genes in these cancers provide new potential therapeutic targets. These alterations affect conserved regulators of cellular proliferation and viability, including the Sonic Hedgehog, Ras/Raf, ARF/p53, p16(INK4A)/CDK4/Rb and NF-kappaB pathways. New modalities designed to target these specific proteins may represent promising approaches to therapy of human skin cancers.

  11. Skin findings in newborns

    MedlinePlus

    Newborn skin characteristics; Infant skin characteristics; Neonatal care - skin ... the first few weeks of the baby's life. Newborn skin will vary, depending on the length of the pregnancy. Premature infants have thin, transparent skin. The skin of a ...

  12. A multispectral imaging approach for diagnostics of skin pathologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lihacova, Ilze; Derjabo, Aleksandrs; Spigulis, Janis

    2013-06-01

    Noninvasive multispectral imaging method was applied for different skin pathology such as nevus, basal cell carcinoma, and melanoma diagnostics. Developed melanoma diagnostic parameter, using three spectral bands (540 nm, 650 nm and 950 nm), was calculated for nevus, melanoma and basal cell carcinoma. Simple multispectral diagnostic device was established and applied for skin assessment. Development and application of multispectral diagnostics method described further in this article.

  13. Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... it can get infected by them. Some common types of skin infections are Bacterial: Cellulitis and impetigo. Staphylococcal infections can also affect the skin. Viral: Shingles, warts, and herpes simplex Fungal: Athlete's foot and yeast infections Parasitic: Body lice, head lice, and scabies ...

  14. A case of Meigs syndrome mimicking metastatic breast carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lanitis, Sophocles; Sivakumar, Sivahamy; Behranwala, Kasim; Zacharakis, Emmanouil; Al Mufti, Ragheed; Hadjiminas, Dimitri J

    2009-01-01

    Background Adnexal masses are not uncommon in patients with breast cancer. Breast cancer and ovarian malignancies are known to be associated. In patients with breast cancer and co-existing pleural effusions, ascites and adnexal masses, the probability of disseminated disease is high. Nevertheless, benign ovarian masses can mimic this clinical picture when they are associated with Meigs' syndrome making the work-up and management of these patients challenging. To our knowledge, there are no similar reports in the literature and therefore we present this case to highlight this entity. Case presentation A 56-year old woman presented with a 4 cm, grade 2, invasive ductal carcinoma of her left breast. Pre-treatment staging investigations showed a 13.5 cm mass in her left ovary, a small amount of ascites and a large right pleural effusion. Serum tumour markers showed a raised CA125 supporting the malignant nature of the ovarian mass. The cytology from the pleural effusion was indeterminate but thoracoscopic biopsy failed to show malignancy. The patient was strongly against mastectomy and she was commenced on neo-adjuvant Letrozole 2.5 mg daily with a view to perform breast conserving surgery. After a good response to the hormone manipulation, the patient had breast conserving surgery, axillary sampling and laparoscopic excision of the ovarian mass which was eventually found to be a benign ovarian fibroma. Conclusion Despite the high probability of disseminated malignancy when an ovarian mass associated with ascites if found in a patient with a breast cancer and pleural effusion, clinicians should be aware about rare benign syndromes, like Meigs', which may mimic a similar picture and mislead the diagnosis and management plan. PMID:19161612

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Characteristics of Ovarian Clear Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Ding, Jianhui; Zhu, Xiaoli; Li, Yuan; Gu, Yajia; Peng, Weijun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To probe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC). Methods This study retrospectively collected MRI data for 21 pathology-confirmed OCCCs from 19 female patients. The MRI findings were analyzed to determine the tumor size, shape/edge, shape and number of protrusions within the cyst, cystic or necrotic components, signal intensity (SI) and enhancement features. Results The age of the 19 patients ranged from 28 to 63 years (mean age: 53 years). Unilateral tumors were found in 17 patients (17/19, 89%); the average size of all tumors was 10.8 cm. The tumors on MRI were classified into two categories: (a) “cystic adnexal mass with solid protrusions” in 12 (57%) and (b) “solid adnexal mass with cystic areas or necrosis” in 9 (43%). For group a, high to very high SI was observed for most tumors (10/12, 83%) on T1-weighted images (T1WIs), and very high SI was observed on T2-weighted images (T2WIs) for all 12 tumors. Most solid protrusions were irregular and few in number and exhibited heterogeneous intermediate SI on T1WIs and T2WIs and prolonged enhanced SI in the contrast study. All 9 OCCCs in group b were predominantly solid masses with unequally sized necrotic or cystic areas in which some cysts were located at the periphery of the tumor (4/9, 44%). The solid components in all 9 tumors showed iso- or slightly high SI on T1WIs, heterogeneous iso-high SI on T2WIs and heterogeneous prolonged enhancement. According to FIGO classification, 14 tumors (14/19, 74%) were stages I-II, and 5 (5/19, 26%) were stages III-IV. Conclusions On MRI, OCCCs present as large unilateral multilocular or unilocular cystic masses with irregular intermediate SI solid protrusions or predominantly solid masses with cysts or necrosis at an early FIGO stage. PMID:26161555

  16. Comprehensive Genomic Profiling of Orbital and Ocular Adnexal Lymphomas Identifies Frequent Alterations in MYD88 and Chromatin Modifiers: New Routes to Targeted Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Cani, Andi K.; Soliman, Moaaz; Hovelson, Daniel H.; Liu, Chia-Jen; McDaniel, Andrew S.; Haller, Michaela J.; Bratley, Jarred; Rahrig, Samantha; Li, Qiang; Briceño, César A.; Tomlins, Scott A.; Rao, Rajesh C.

    2016-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the orbit and ocular adnexa is the most common primary orbital malignancy. Treatments for low- (extra-nodal marginal zone and follicular lymphomas) and high-grade (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma) are associated with local and vision-threatening toxicities. High-grade lymphomas relapse frequently and exhibit poor survival rates. Despite advances in genomic profiling and precision-medicine, orbital and ocular adnexal lymphomas remain poorly characterized molecularly. We performed targeted next-generation sequencing profiling of 38 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, orbital and ocular adnexal lymphomas obtained from a single-center using a panel targeting near-term, clinically-relevant genes. Potentially actionable mutations and copy-number alterations were prioritized based on gain- and loss-of function analyses, catalogued approved and investigational therapies. Of 36 informative samples, including marginal zone lymphomas (n=20), follicular lymphomas (n=9), and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (n=7), 53% harbored a prioritized alteration (median=1, range 0–5/sample). MYD88 was the most frequently altered gene in our cohort, with potentially clinically-relevant hot-spot gain-of-function mutations identified in 71% of diffuse large B-cell and 25% of marginal zone lymphomas. Prioritized alterations in epigenetic modulators were common and included gain-of-function EZH2 and loss-of-function ARID1A mutations (14% of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas and 22% of follicular lymphomas contained alterations in each of these two genes). Single prioritized alterations were also identified in the histone methyltransferases KMT2B (follicular lymphoma) and KMT3B (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma). Loss-of-function mutations and copy-number alterations in the tumor suppressors TP53 (diffuse large B-cell and follicular lymphoma), CDKN2A (all subtypes), PTEN (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma), ATM (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma) and NF1 (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

  17. A 10-year review of outpatient skin biopsy results and skin cancer subtypes.

    PubMed

    DeMarco, Sebastian S; Vos, Paul; Green, Harris; Defazio, Jennifer; Davis, Natalie; Fiz, Lindsey; Phillips, Charles

    2016-01-15

    The results of skin biopsies over a 10 year period were reviewed from the outpatient dermatology clinic at the Brody School of Medicine in Greenville, North Carolina. This research was conducted because there are very few studies that characterize this information over a long-term horizon. The biopsy rate per patient encounter, the clinical reason for the biopsy, the biopsy outcomes, the distribution of cutaneous malignancies per encounter, and the distribution of the subtypes of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma were analyzed. Biopsy logs from January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2010 were reviewed. Our investigation found that 20% of patient encounters resulted in a biopsy. Of these biopsies, 87.9% were performed to rule out malignancy and 12.1% were completed on patients suspected of having inflammatory skin conditions. The basal cell carcinomas diagnosed in Greenville, NC have more aggressive histologic subtypes compared to other studies, whereas the squamous cell carcinomas and melanomas were less aggressive.

  18. Multifocal aggressive squamous cell carcinomas induced by prolonged voriconazole therapy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Morice, C; Acher, A; Soufir, N; Michel, M; Comoz, F; Leroy, D; Verneuil, L

    2010-01-01

    Voriconazole is a treatment for severe fungal infections. Prolonged voriconazole therapy may induce skin reactions, with 1% of severe photosensitivity accidents. Recently the imputability of voriconazole in skin carcinogenesis has been suggested. This report concerns a 55-year-old man suffering from pulmonary aspergillosis who presented a phototoxic reaction a few months after introduction of voriconazole, followed by multiple squamous cell carcinomas of sun-exposed skin areas. After voriconazole discontinuation, no new carcinoma was observed. The detection of EBV and HPV in skin lesions was negative. Exploration of gene mutations involved in skin carcinogenesis showed two variants of the MICR gene. The occurrence of multiple, recurrent, aggressive squamous cell carcinomas is rare with voriconazole, but its imputability is strongly suggested. A plausible hypothesis is that several factors including voriconazole uptake, immunosuppression, and genetic background could explain the phenotype of fast-developing skin carcinomas. Voriconazole therapy should be accompanied by stringent photoprotection and skin monitoring.

  19. Massive zosteriform cutaneous metastasis from rectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Damin, D C; Lazzaron, A R; Tarta, C; Cartel, A; Rosito, M A

    2003-07-01

    A 44-year-old man presented with a large and rapidly growing skin lesion approximately six months after resection of a rectal carcinoma. The lesion measured 40 cm in size, extended from the suprapubic area to the proximal half of the left groin, and showed a particular zosteriform aspect. Biopsy confirmed a metastatic skin adenocarcinoma. Cutaneous metastases from rectal cancer are very uncommon. Their gross appearance is not distinctive, although the skin tumors are usually solid, small (less than 5 cm) and painless nodules or papules. Early biopsies for suspicious skin lesions are needed in patients with a history of colorectal cancer.

  20. Sebaceous Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... a rare skin cancer. It is considered an aggressive skin cancer because it can spread. Found early ... to keep in mind that SC is an aggressive cancer. This cancer can return after treatment. For ...

  1. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... exposure to ultraviolet light, which is found in sunlight and in lights used in tanning salons.What ... the safe-sun guidelines.1. Avoid the sun.Sunlight damages your skin. The sun is strongest during ...

  2. Skin graft

    MedlinePlus

    ... that need skin grafts to heal Venous ulcers, pressure ulcers , or diabetic ulcers that do not heal Very ... chap 17. Read More Burns Patient Instructions Preventing pressure ulcers Surgical wound care - open Review Date 3/13/ ...

  3. Your Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... wear sunscreen and protective clothing, such as a hat, to prevent painful sunburns. Protecting your skin now ... happens in a split second, without you ever thinking about it. previous continue Dermis = Lots of Blood ...

  4. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... States. The two most common types are basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer. They usually form on the head, face, ... If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. Treatments ...

  5. Hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, G A

    1999-05-01

    Hepatitis C infection is associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma, and progress has been made in a number of areas. Transgenic mice lines expressing the hepatitis C core protein develop hepatic steatosis, adenomas, and hepatocellular carcinomas, with no significant hepatitis or fibrosis. This implies that hepatitis C can lead directly to malignant transformation. A new lesion, irregular regeneration, has been described in chronic hepatitis C infection and is associated with a 15-fold increase in the relative risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma. A minority of patients with hepatitis C-related hepatocellular carcinoma have intense lymphocytic infiltration of the cancer, a feature associated with a better prognosis. Several studies have confirmed the association between large cell dysplasia and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, large cell dysplasia may not be a premalignant lesion and instead may be a marker for premalignant alterations elsewhere in the liver. Oral contraceptives previously have been linked to an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. A large multicenter European case-control study has shown minimal increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma with use of steroidal contraception. Tamoxifen had shown promise in the management of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. However, a randomized placebo-controlled study of 477 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma found no benefit from tamoxifen. In a preliminary study, however, octreotide has shown improved survival and quality of life in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Finally, interferon treatment continues to be linked to a reduced risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with hepatitis C. These studies generally are not randomized, and a randomized prospective study is required to address this issue.

  6. Senescent Skin

    PubMed Central

    Kushniruk, William

    1974-01-01

    The cutaneous surface is continually influenced by aging and environmental factors. A longer life span is accompanied by an increase in the frequency of problems associated with aging skin. Although most of these changes and lesions are not life threatening, the premalignant lesions must be recognized and treated. The common aging and actinic skin changes are discussed and appropriate management is described. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:20469067

  7. Expression of WT1, CA 125, and GCDFP-15 as useful markers in the differential diagnosis of primary ovarian carcinomas versus metastatic breast cancer to the ovary.

    PubMed

    Tornos, Carmen; Soslow, Robert; Chen, Shirley; Akram, Muzaffar; Hummer, Amanda J; Abu-Rustum, Nadeen; Norton, Larry; Tan, Lee K

    2005-11-01

    Metastatic breast carcinoma to the ovary is sometimes difficult to differentiate from primary ovarian carcinoma. This problem is often encountered in breast carcinoma patients who develop adnexal masses. ER and PR can be positive in a high percentage of breast and ovarian carcinomas, and therefore cannot be used in the differential diagnosis of these entities. WT1 and CA125 have been identified as possible markers for ovarian cancer. However, no studies have been done that specifically compare the immunophenotype of breast carcinoma metastatic to ovary with that of primary ovarian cancer. Thirty-nine cases of metastatic breast carcinoma to the ovary, 36 primary breast carcinomas, and 42 primary ovarian carcinomas were examined immunohistochemically for the expression of WT1, CA125, carcinoembryonic antigen, MUC2, MUC1, and GCDFP. The percentage of cells stained and the intensity of staining were recorded. Thirty-two ovarian carcinomas (76%) were positive for WT1, including 31 of 33 (94%) serous carcinomas. Most of them had strong and diffuse staining. None of the breast cancers either primary or metastatic to the ovary expressed WT1. Thirty-eight (90%) ovarian carcinomas were positive for CA125, most of them with strong and diffuse staining. Most breast carcinomas were negative for CA125, with only 6 (16%) of the primary ones and 5 (12%) of the metastatic showing weak and focal positivity. All ovarian carcinomas were negative for GCDFP. Five primary breast cancers (14%) and 17 (43%) metastatic to the ovary were positive for GCDFP. Nine (21%) ovarian carcinomas, 8 (22%) primary breast carcinomas, and 13 (33%) metastatic to the ovary were positive for carcinoembryonic antigen. Almost all tumors examined were positive for MUC1 (100% ovarian carcinomas, 100% primary breast carcinomas, and 95% metastatic breast carcinomas to ovary). MUC2 was positive in 10 (24%) ovarian carcinomas, 3 (8%) primary breast cancers, and 12 (30%) metastases to the ovary. The presence of

  8. Childhood Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Sara O

    2010-09-01

    Carcinoma in children differs from that occurring in adults. It is far rarer and represents only a small fraction of all pediatric cancer diagnoses. Pediatric sarcomas were among the first tumors in which recurrent chromosomal aberrations were discovered. Once defined, these recurrent aberrations, many of them translocations, became incorporated into the pathologist's diagnostic armamentarium. In the past several years, defining chromosomal rearrangements have been identified in pediatric carcinomas as well, and this has become a new frontier in pathologic diagnosis. This article provides an overview of pediatric carcinoma as well as a detailed review of selected types of carcinoma that in particular can present diagnostic difficulty to the practicing pathologist and illustrate new and emerging concepts in pediatric carcinoma.

  9. Key Role of CRF in the Skin Stress Response System

    PubMed Central

    Zmijewski, Michal A.; Zbytek, Blazej; Tobin, Desmond J.; Theoharides, Theoharis C.; Rivier, Jean

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or CRH defining the upper regulatory arm of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, along with the identification of the corresponding receptors (CRFRs 1 and 2), represents a milestone in our understanding of central mechanisms regulating body and local homeostasis. We focused on the CRF-led signaling systems in the skin and offer a model for regulation of peripheral homeostasis based on the interaction of CRF and the structurally related urocortins with corresponding receptors and the resulting direct or indirect phenotypic effects that include regulation of epidermal barrier function, skin immune, pigmentary, adnexal, and dermal functions necessary to maintain local and systemic homeostasis. The regulatory modes of action include the classical CRF-led cutaneous equivalent of the central HPA axis, the expression and function of CRF and related peptides, and the stimulation of pro-opiomelanocortin peptides or cytokines. The key regulatory role is assigned to the CRFR-1α receptor, with other isoforms having modulatory effects. CRF can be released from sensory nerves and immune cells in response to emotional and environmental stressors. The expression sequence of peptides includes urocortin/CRF→pro-opiomelanocortin→ACTH, MSH, and β-endorphin. Expression of these peptides and of CRFR-1α is environmentally regulated, and their dysfunction can lead to skin and systemic diseases. Environmentally stressed skin can activate both the central and local HPA axis through either sensory nerves or humoral factors to turn on homeostatic responses counteracting cutaneous and systemic environmental damage. CRF and CRFR-1 may constitute novel targets through the use of specific agonists or antagonists, especially for therapy of skin diseases that worsen with stress, such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. PMID:23939821

  10. Key role of CRF in the skin stress response system.

    PubMed

    Slominski, Andrzej T; Zmijewski, Michal A; Zbytek, Blazej; Tobin, Desmond J; Theoharides, Theoharis C; Rivier, Jean

    2013-12-01

    The discovery of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or CRH defining the upper regulatory arm of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, along with the identification of the corresponding receptors (CRFRs 1 and 2), represents a milestone in our understanding of central mechanisms regulating body and local homeostasis. We focused on the CRF-led signaling systems in the skin and offer a model for regulation of peripheral homeostasis based on the interaction of CRF and the structurally related urocortins with corresponding receptors and the resulting direct or indirect phenotypic effects that include regulation of epidermal barrier function, skin immune, pigmentary, adnexal, and dermal functions necessary to maintain local and systemic homeostasis. The regulatory modes of action include the classical CRF-led cutaneous equivalent of the central HPA axis, the expression and function of CRF and related peptides, and the stimulation of pro-opiomelanocortin peptides or cytokines. The key regulatory role is assigned to the CRFR-1α receptor, with other isoforms having modulatory effects. CRF can be released from sensory nerves and immune cells in response to emotional and environmental stressors. The expression sequence of peptides includes urocortin/CRF→pro-opiomelanocortin→ACTH, MSH, and β-endorphin. Expression of these peptides and of CRFR-1α is environmentally regulated, and their dysfunction can lead to skin and systemic diseases. Environmentally stressed skin can activate both the central and local HPA axis through either sensory nerves or humoral factors to turn on homeostatic responses counteracting cutaneous and systemic environmental damage. CRF and CRFR-1 may constitute novel targets through the use of specific agonists or antagonists, especially for therapy of skin diseases that worsen with stress, such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis.

  11. Atypical Proliferating Trichilemmal Cyst with Malignant Breast Skin Transformation: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Capurso-García, Marino Antonio; Bautista-Piña, Verónica; Pomerantz, Alan; Galnares-Olalde, Javier Andrés; Blachman-Braun, Ruben; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Sergio; Goldberg-Murow, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Proliferating trichilemmal tumors (PTTs) are benign adnexal skin neoplasms that arise from the outer root sheath of the hair follicle. These tumors are most commonly observed on the scalp and occur, most of the time, in elderly women. Malignant transformation of these neoplasms is a rare event; less than 50 cases have been reported in the English medical literature. We present the case of a 39-year-old Hispanic woman with a tumor located on the skin of one of her breasts that in her third surgical procedure the histologic examination revealed the presence of a malignant proliferating trichilemmal tumor (MPTT). Furthermore, a review of the medical literature and a discussion of the clinical and pathologic features of this rare entity are provided. PMID:27403361

  12. Metastatic Basal cell carcinoma accompanying gorlin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bilir, Yeliz; Gokce, Erkan; Ozturk, Banu; Deresoy, Faik Alev; Yuksekkaya, Ruken; Yaman, Emel

    2014-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts), the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome.

  13. Sebaceous carcinoma arising in mature cystic teratoma of ovary.

    PubMed

    An, Hyo Jeong; Jung, Yong Han; Yoon, Hye Kyoung; Jung, Soo Jin

    2013-08-01

    Roughly 1% of mature cystic teratomas undergo malignant transformation. In particular, cutaneous-type adnexal neoplasms may occur in mature cystic teratomas. Sebaceous carcinomas, which arise from mature cystic teratomas, have rarely been observed, with only seven cases previously reported. Here, we present a case of a 69-year-old female who had pelvic pain for two weeks and who subsequently underwent bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and hysterectomy. Her left ovary showed a unilocular cyst, measuring 22.0 cm in diameter, filled with sebaceous material and a few hairs. A luminally-protruding solid mass measuring 4.0 cm in diameter was also noted. Microscopic findings revealed lobular or diffusely arranged basophilic, atypical sebaceous cells connected to a typical mature cystic teratoma. Tumor cells demonstrated positive immunoreactivity for high molecular weight cytokeratin, cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 19, epithelial membrane antigen, and carcinoembryonic antigen. Here, we present a case of sebaceous carcinoma arising from a mature cystic teratoma along with a review of previously published reports.

  14. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas consistently show histologic evidence of in situ changes: a clinicopathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Guenthner, S T; Hurwitz, R M; Buckel, L J; Gray, H R

    1999-09-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma on sun-damaged skin is a malignant neoplasm that evolves from its inception as squamous cell carcinoma in situ, which is commonly referred to as an actinic keratosis. In this study, we reviewed 1011 squamous cell carcinomas on sun-damaged skin and found that nearly 100% of these lesions contained histopathologic changes consistent with squamous cell carcinoma in situ at the periphery or within the confines of the squamous cell carcinoma. These malignant changes began in single layer areas of the lower epidermis and evolved into the epidermis and dermis.

  15. Primary Cutaneous Mammary Analog Secretory Carcinoma With ETV6-NTRK3 Translocation.

    PubMed

    Amin, Sapna M; Beattie, Adam; Ling, Xia; Jennings, Lawrence J; Guitart, Joan

    2016-11-01

    Mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described tumor of the salivary glands named for its morphological and molecular similarity to secretory carcinoma of the breast. Many primary carcinomas arising from the adnexal glands also share similar morphology to those arising from the breast. Brandt et al first described primary cutaneous MASC in 2009 and since then only 2 other cases have been reported. Herein, we describe a long-standing mass on the arm of an otherwise healthy 40-year-old female. Histologic examination revealed a circumscribed but unencapsulated, nodular tumor composed of bland epithelial cells arranged in solid and microcystic growth patterns. The cells showed vacuolated cytoplasm and round to oval nuclei with vesicular chromatin. Intraluminal homogenous eosinophilic secretions were present. Mitotic figures were not identified. The tumor cells stained positive for CK8/18, CK7, and S100 but were negative for other markers performed, including estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER2/neu, paired box 8 (PAX8), and thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF1). As the patient clinically had no other masses or known carcinomas, a diagnosis of primary cutaneous MASC was rendered. The ETV6-NTRK3 fusion transcript was subsequently detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction amplification, further supporting the diagnosis. We present this case to review the histologic features of MASC and highlight the importance of recognizing this lesion not only as a possible cutaneous metastasis but also as a primary cutaneous tumor.

  16. [Skin cancer: from smearing to cutting].

    PubMed

    Kelleners-Smeets, Nicole W J; Bekkenk, Marcel W; de Haas, Ellen R M

    2013-01-01

    The most common skin cancers are basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Conventional excision is still the current treatment of choice for these malignant tumours. Given the many subtypes and high incidence, the treatment of these skin tumours is not only a matter of surgical procedures. There are many different therapeutic options, from smearing to cutting. Those treating patients with non-melanoma skin cancer should have knowledge of the advantages and disadvantages of these many options. Radical surgical treatment is desired, but large margins are preferably avoided. Mohs micrographic surgery is a treatment option available for BCC and SCC in the face. Superficial BCC can be effectively treated with optimal cosmetic outcome in various, non-invasive ways.

  17. Merkel cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Koljonen, Virve

    2006-01-01

    Background Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an unusual primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. MCC is a fatal disease, and patients have a poor chance of survival. Moreover, MCC lacks distinguishing clinical features, and thus by the time the diagnosis is made, the tumour usually have metastasized. MCC mainly affects sun-exposed areas of elderly persons. Half of the tumours are located in the head and neck region. Methods MCC was first described in 1972. Since then, most of the cases reported, have been in small series of patients. Most of the reports concern single cases or epidemiological studies. The present study reviews the world literature on MCC. The purpose of this article is to shed light on this unknown neuroendocrine carcinoma and provide the latest information on prognostic markers and treatment options. Results The epidemiological studies have revealed that large tumour size, male sex, truncal site, nodal/distant disease at presentation, and duration of disease before presentation, are poor prognostic factors. The recommended initial treatment is extensive local excision. Adjuvant radiation therapy has recently been shown to improve survival. Thus far, no chemotherapy protocol have achieved the same objective. Conclusion Although rare, the fatality of this malignancy makes is important to understand the etiology and pathophysiology. During the last few years, the research on MCC has produced prognostic markers, which can be translated into clinical patient care. PMID:16466578

  18. Upper eyelid reconstruction by making a skin defect similar to skin removal in blepharoplasty.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yasuhiro; Mito, Hidenori; Nakamura, Yasuhisa; Kakizaki, Hirohiko

    2014-09-01

    A 49-year-old man had a sebaceous gland carcinoma in the right upper eyelid. The tumor was excised with an additional 5-mm safety margin. The posterior lamellar reconstruction was performed with a reverse modified Hughes flap and residual conjunctiva. The anterior lamellar reconstruction was performed by making a skin defect similar to a skin removal in blepharoplasty. The skin excision part was designed next to the upper portion of the defect, and the excised skin was grafted to the lower portion of the defect. The skin was closed after making 3 buried double eyelid anchors. The conjunctival pedicle was severed 2 weeks postoperatively. Three months later, the appearance was acceptable without a harmful functional outcome. The basic concepts of our procedure were to make an accustomed scenery, such as a defect similar to a skin removal in blepharoplasty, from an unfamiliar one, such as a defect after a tumor excision, and to make good use of the excised tissue.

  19. Hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Nakashima, T.; Kojiro, M.

    1986-01-01

    With the remarkable recent diagnostic and therapeutic advances and the discovery of a possible pathogenetic role of hepatitis B virus, the study and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma are entering a new era. Parallel developments in the pathological study of this malignancy are also to be expected. To coincide with this new era, this book presents the authors' accumulated pathomorphological knowledge of hepatocellular carcinoma. The detailed coverage is based on the examination findings of 439 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma autopsied at the authors' department in the last twenty years.

  20. Cutaneous HPV and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Accardi, Rosita; Gheit, Tarik

    2014-12-01

    Papillomaviruses (HPVs) are small non-enveloped icosahedral viruses that infect the keratinocytes of skin and mucosa. The cutaneous HPV types are represented mainly by the beta and gamma genera, which are widely present in the skin of normal individuals. More than 40 beta-HPV types and 50 gamma-HPV types have been isolated, and these numbers are continuously growing. The main cause of non-melanoma skin cancer is exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). However, cutaneous HPVs that belong to the beta genus may act as a co-carcinogen with UVR. The association between beta-HPVs and skin cancer was first reported in patients with epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV), who frequently develop cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) on sun-exposed areas. Isolation of HPVs from the lesions suggested that HPVs might act as a co-carcinogen with UVR in EV patients. Beta-HPVs may also play a role in cutaneous SCC in immunocompromised non-EV and in immunocompetent individuals. Several studies have reported an association of viral DNA and/or antibodies to beta HPV types with SCC. Interestingly, HPV prevalence and viral load decrease during skin carcinogenesis, being significantly higher in actinic keratosis than in SCC, suggesting that the virus may play a role in the early stages of tumour development (the "hit-and-run" hypothesis). Concordantly, in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that E6 and E7 from certain cutaneous HPV types display transforming activities, further confirming their potential role in carcinogenesis.

  1. Skin lumps

    MedlinePlus

    ... DM. Dermal and subcutaneous tumors. In: James WD, Berger TG, Elston DM, eds. Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical ... Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the ...

  2. Adrenocortical carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a cancer of the adrenal glands . The adrenal glands are two triangle-shaped glands. One gland is ... unknown. Symptoms Symptoms of increased cortisol or other adrenal gland hormones may include: Fatty, rounded hump high on ...

  3. Epidemiology of skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Leiter, Ulrike; Eigentler, Thomas; Garbe, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are now the most common types of cancer in white populations. Both tumor entities show an increasing incidence rate worldwide but a stable or decreasing mortality rate. NMSC is the most common cancer in white-skinned individuals with a worldwide increasing incidence. NMSC is an increasing problem for health care services worldwide which causes significant morbidity. The rising incidence rates of NMSC are probably caused by a combination of increased exposure to ultraviolet (UV) or sun light, increased outdoor activities, changes in clothing style, increased longevity, ozone depletion, genetics and in some cases, immune suppression. An intensive UV exposure in childhood and adolescence was causative for the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) whereas for the etiology of SCC a chronic UV exposure in the earlier decades was accused. Cutaneous melanoma is the most rapidly increasing cancer in white populations, in the last 3 decades incidence rates have risen up to 5-fold. In 2008 melanoma was on place 5 in women and on place 8 in men of the most common solid tumor entities in Germany. The frequency of its occurrence is closely associated with the constitutive color of the skin, and the geographical zone. Changes in outdoor activities and exposure to sunlight during the past 50 years are an important factor for the increasing incidence of melanoma. Mortality rates of melanoma show a stabilization in the USA, Australia and also in European countries. In contrast to SCC, melanoma risk seems to be associated with an intermittent exposure to sunlight. Prevention campaigns aim on reducing incidence and achieving earlier diagnosis, which resulted in an ongoing trend toward thin melanoma since the last two decades. However, the impact of primary prevention measures on incidence rates of melanoma is unlikely to be seen in the near future, rather increasing incidence rates to 40-50/100,000 inhabitants/year should be expected in

  4. Merkel cell carcinoma – description of five cases

    PubMed Central

    Kwiatkowski, Robert; Nenko, Dorota Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare but very aggressive skin cancer that derives from neuroendocrine cells of the skin. Merkel cell carcinoma morbidity has been continuously increasing for the last few years. Increasing reported incidence of MCC is probably connected with increasing occurrence of this kind of malignancy or with development of histological and immunohistochemical methods of sample examinations which have allowed for more precise diagnosis of skin tumor that might have previously not been accurately recognized. Merkel cell carcinoma develops as nodules early recognized as basocellular carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, amelanotic melanoma or skin lymphoma. Merkel cell carcinoma can be morphologically similar to skin metastasis as well as mild changes such as lipoma, cysts, fibroma or vessel changes. Accurate diagnosis is very important because it determines successful management and risk of progression of disease. We describe 5 patients with MCC who underwent surgical excision and then, after estimation of stage of disease, complementary treatment. Our observations prove that every tumor with MCC should be cut out with wide margins and regional lymphadenectomy or sentinel node biopsy is compulsory. After cutting out MCC involved-field radiotherapy is necessary and improves prognosis. Presence of metastases in lymphatic nodes is an indication for complementary chemotherapy. PMID:24596523

  5. Determination of serum CRP, VEGF, Leptin, CK-MB, CA-15-3 and IL-6 levels for malignancy prediction in adnexal masses

    PubMed Central

    Şen, Serhat; Kuru, Oğuzhan; Akbayır, Özgür; Oğuz, Hilal; Yasasever, Vildan; Berkman, Sinan

    2011-01-01

    Objective Investigation of serum markers which could be used in the malignancy prediction of adnexal masses. Material and Methods Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin 6 (IL-6), leptin, C-reactive protein (CRP), creatine-kinase-MB (CK-MB) and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3) levels were determined prospectively in serum samples that were obtained from patients who underwent surgery for an adnexal mass and who were referred to Istanbul University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, between 2009 and 2011, and then were compared with the serum samples of completely healthy outpatient patients as a control group. Based onto the ovarian cancer status, cases were divided into four groups: 13 patients were included in the early-stage malignant group, 12 patients were included in the advanced-stage malignant group, 25 in the benign group and 19 in the healthy control group. Patients with only epithelial ovarian cancer were included into the cancer group. Ethics Commitee approval was obtained for this study. The budget was supported by the Istanbul University Scientific Research Projects Unit. Results Results related with sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and odds ratio (OR), respectively, and the following values were calculated: 48%, 95%, 92%, 59% and +OR 9.6 −OR 0.5 for CA; 15-3; 52%, 75%, 72%, 55%, +OR 2.08 −OR 0.64 for leptin; 72%, 70%, 75%, 66% 2.4-0.5 for IL-6; 24%, 80%, 60%, 45%, 1.2-0.92 for VEGF; 68%, 30%, 55%, 43%, 0.97–1.06 for CRP; and 8%, 70%, 25%, 38%, 026–1.31 for CK-MB. Conclusion CA 15-3, IL-6, Leptin, VEGF and CRP were effective in the prediction of benign and malignant masses; however they may be more suitable in selected cases as they have a limited use because of their inadequate potential regarding sensitivity and specificity. PMID:24591997

  6. Polyphenols: skin photoprotection and inhibition of photocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Afaq, F; Katiyar, S K

    2011-12-01

    Polyphenols are a large family of naturally occurring plant products and are widely distributed in plant foods, such as, fruits, vegetables, nuts, flowers, bark and seeds, etc. These polyphenols contribute to the beneficial health effects of dietary products. Clinical and epidemiological studies suggest that exposure of the skin to environmental factors/pollutants, such as solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation induce harmful effects and leads to various skin diseases including the risk of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers. The incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer, comprising of squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma, is a significant public health concern world-wide. Exposure of the skin to solar UV radiation results in inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA damage, dysregulation of cellular signaling pathways and immunosuppression thereby resulting in skin cancer. The regular intake of natural plant products, especially polyphenols, which are widely present in fruits, vegetables, dry legumes and beverages have gained considerable attention as protective agents against the adverse effects of UV radiation. In this article, we first discussed the impact of polyphenols on human health based on their structure-activity relationship and bioavailability. We then discussed in detail the photoprotective effects of some selected polyphenols on UV-induced skin inflammation, proliferation, immunosuppression, DNA damage and dysregulation of important cellular signaling pathways and their implications in skin cancer management. The selected polyphenols include: green tea polyphenols, pomegranate fruit extract, grape seed proanthocyanidins, resveratrol, silymarin, genistein and delphinidin. The new information on the mechanisms of action of these polyphenols supports their potential use in skin photoprotection and prevention of photocarcinogenesis in humans.

  7. Skin Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Host a Fundraising Event | About Us | Store The Skin Cancer Foundation The Skin Cancer Foundation is the ... Handbook A "Sunscreen Gene"? Skin Cancer Facts & Statistics Skin Cancer Treatment Glossary Information on medications and procedures ...

  8. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...

  9. Design and fabrication of human skin by three-dimensional bioprinting.

    PubMed

    Lee, Vivian; Singh, Gurtej; Trasatti, John P; Bjornsson, Chris; Xu, Xiawei; Tran, Thanh Nga; Yoo, Seung-Schik; Dai, Guohao; Karande, Pankaj

    2014-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting, a flexible automated on-demand platform for the free-form fabrication of complex living architectures, is a novel approach for the design and engineering of human organs and tissues. Here, we demonstrate the potential of 3D bioprinting for tissue engineering using human skin as a prototypical example. Keratinocytes and fibroblasts were used as constituent cells to represent the epidermis and dermis, and collagen was used to represent the dermal matrix of the skin. Preliminary studies were conducted to optimize printing parameters for maximum cell viability as well as for the optimization of cell densities in the epidermis and dermis to mimic physiologically relevant attributes of human skin. Printed 3D constructs were cultured in submerged media conditions followed by exposure of the epidermal layer to the air-liquid interface to promote maturation and stratification. Histology and immunofluorescence characterization demonstrated that 3D printed skin tissue was morphologically and biologically representative of in vivo human skin tissue. In comparison with traditional methods for skin engineering, 3D bioprinting offers several advantages in terms of shape- and form retention, flexibility, reproducibility, and high culture throughput. It has a broad range of applications in transdermal and topical formulation discovery, dermal toxicity studies, and in designing autologous grafts for wound healing. The proof-of-concept studies presented here can be further extended for enhancing the complexity of the skin model via the incorporation of secondary and adnexal structures or the inclusion of diseased cells to serve as a model for studying the pathophysiology of skin diseases.

  10. Design and Fabrication of Human Skin by Three-Dimensional Bioprinting

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Vivian; Singh, Gurtej; Trasatti, John P.; Bjornsson, Chris; Xu, Xiawei; Tran, Thanh Nga; Yoo, Seung-Schik

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting, a flexible automated on-demand platform for the free-form fabrication of complex living architectures, is a novel approach for the design and engineering of human organs and tissues. Here, we demonstrate the potential of 3D bioprinting for tissue engineering using human skin as a prototypical example. Keratinocytes and fibroblasts were used as constituent cells to represent the epidermis and dermis, and collagen was used to represent the dermal matrix of the skin. Preliminary studies were conducted to optimize printing parameters for maximum cell viability as well as for the optimization of cell densities in the epidermis and dermis to mimic physiologically relevant attributes of human skin. Printed 3D constructs were cultured in submerged media conditions followed by exposure of the epidermal layer to the air–liquid interface to promote maturation and stratification. Histology and immunofluorescence characterization demonstrated that 3D printed skin tissue was morphologically and biologically representative of in vivo human skin tissue. In comparison with traditional methods for skin engineering, 3D bioprinting offers several advantages in terms of shape- and form retention, flexibility, reproducibility, and high culture throughput. It has a broad range of applications in transdermal and topical formulation discovery, dermal toxicity studies, and in designing autologous grafts for wound healing. The proof-of-concept studies presented here can be further extended for enhancing the complexity of the skin model via the incorporation of secondary and adnexal structures or the inclusion of diseased cells to serve as a model for studying the pathophysiology of skin diseases. PMID:24188635

  11. Primary cutaneous adenoid carcinoma of the scalp.

    PubMed

    Keck, Meike; Ueberreiter, Klaus; Tanzella, Ursula; Doll, Dietrich; Krapohl, Björn Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Primary adenoid carcinoma are rare skin tumors. We present a 75-year-old female with this primary cutaneous tumor of the scalp with additional bone involvement. Wide scalp excision with bone enclosure, latissimus-dorsi-free-flap defect overage, and subsequent radiation slowed down the disease but could not prevent further skull infiltration.

  12. Presumed choroidal metastasis of Merkel cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Small, K.W.; Rosenwasser, G.O.; Alexander, E. III; Rossitch, G.; Dutton, J.J. )

    1990-05-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare skin tumor of neural crest origin and is part of the amine precursor uptake and decarboxylase system. It typically occurs on the face of elderly people. Distant metastasis is almost uniformly fatal. Choroidal metastasis, to our knowledge, has not been described. We report a patient with Merkel cell carcinoma who had a synchronous solid choroidal tumor and a biopsy-proven brain metastasis. Our 56-year-old patient presented with a rapidly growing, violaceous preauricular skin tumor. Computed tomography of the head disclosed incidental brain and choroidal tumors. Light and electron microscopy of biopsy specimens of both the skin and the brain lesions showed Merkel cell carcinoma. Ophthalmoscopy, fluorescein angiography, and A and B echography revealed a solid choroidal mass. The brain and skin tumors responded well to irradiation. A radioactive episcleral plaque was applied subsequently to the choroidal tumor. All tumors regressed, and the patient was doing well 28 months later. To our knowledge this is the first case of presumed choroidal metastasis of Merkel cell carcinoma.

  13. Pyoderma Vegetans Misdiagnosed as Verrucous Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Aksu Çerman, Aslı; Aktaş, Ezgi; Kıvanç Altunay, İlknur; Demirkesen, Cuyan

    2016-02-01

    Pyoderma vegetans, a rare disorder of the skin, is considered a highly specific marker for inflammatory bowel disease, especially ulcerative colitis. It is clinically characterized by large verrucous plaques with elevated borders and multiple pustules. Here, the authors report the case of a 33-year-old man who was misdiagnosed as having verrucous carcinoma for 4 years.

  14. Cutaneous skin tag

    MedlinePlus

    Skin tag; Acrochordon; Fibroepithelial polyp ... have diabetes. They are thought to occur from skin rubbing against skin. ... The tag sticks out of the skin and may have a short, narrow stalk connecting it to the surface of the skin. Some skin tags are as long as ...

  15. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma mimicking a superficial spreading melanoma.

    PubMed

    Hasbún Acuña, Paula; Cullen Aravena, Roberto; Maturana Donaire, César; Ares Mora, Raúl; Porras Kusmanic, Ninoska

    2016-12-20

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common form of skin cancer, especially in elderly people. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma is a rare subtype and has been described in the literature as a nodular and hyperpigmented lesion; rarely, it can appear as an extensive pigmented plate, which may be clinically indistinguishable from superficial spreading melanoma and Bowen disease. Dermatoscopy has a high sensitivity in the diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma. When Menzies criteria are used; however, the final diagnosis is made by histopathology. The objective of the present report is to analyze the case of a patient with pigmented basal cell carcinoma simulating a superficial spreading melanoma.

  16. Ameloblastic carcinoma with features of ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma in a patient with suspected Gardner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, S G; Hirsch, S A; Listinsky, C M; Lyu, D J-H; Baur, D A

    2015-04-01

    Ameloblastic carcinoma and ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma are rare malignancies arising in odontogenic epithelium within the jaws. Gardner syndrome is a multifaceted autosomal dominant condition, which results in multiple dentofacial anomalies along with premalignant colon polyp formation and tumor formation in the skin and other organs. We report a case of ameloblastic carcinoma with features of ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma and extensive clear cell change and melanin pigmentation in a patient with clinical features of Gardner syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, odontogenic carcinoma arising in a patient with features of Gardner syndrome has not been reported previously. The clinical, radiographic, and histologic features of the case are discussed along with a review of the relevant literature.

  17. Outdoor sports and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Moehrle, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation is estimated to be one of the most important risk factors for nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Athletes practicing outdoor sports receive considerable UV doses because of training and competition schedules with high sun exposure, and in alpine sports, by altitude-related increase of UV radiation and reflection from snow- and ice-covered surfaces. Extreme UV exposure in outdoor sports such as skiing, mountaineering, cycling, or triathlon has been documented in a series of dosimetric studies. Sweating because of physical exercise may contribute to UV-related skin damage as it increases the individual photosensitivity of the skin, facilitating the risk of sunburns. Large epidemiological studies showed that recreational activities such as sun exposure on the beach or during water sports were associated with an increased risk of basal cell carcinoma, whereas skiing has been shown to be at increased risk for squamous cell carcinoma. Risk factors of cutaneous melanoma such as the number of melanocytic nevi and solar lentigines have been found to be more frequent in subjects practicing endurance outdoor sports. An increased risk for cutaneous melanoma may be assumed for these athletes. In addition to the important sun exposure, exercise-induced immunosuppression may increase the risk for nonmelanoma skin cancer and cutaneous melanoma in athletes. Frequently, athletes seem to know little about the risk of sun exposure. Protective means such as avoiding training and competition with considerable sun exposure, choosing adequate clothing, and applying water-resistant sunscreen still need to be propagated in the community of outdoor sportsmen.

  18. Applying laser speckle images to skin science: skin lesion differentiation by polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tim K.; Tchvialeva, Lioudmila; Dhadwal, Gurbir; Sotoodian, Bahman; Kalai, Sunil; Zeng, Haishan; Lui, Harvey; McLean, David I.

    2011-09-01

    Skin cancer is a worldwide health problem. It is the most common cancer in the countries with a large white population; furthermore, the incidence of malignant melanoma, the most dangerous form of skin cancer, has been increasing steadily over the last three decades. There is an urgent need to develop in-vivo, noninvasive diagnostic tools for the disease. This paper attempts to response to the challenge by introducing a simple and fast method based on polarization and laser speckle. The degree of maintaining polarization estimates the fraction of linearly maintaining polarization in the backscattered speckle field. Clinical experiments of 214 skin lesions including malignant melanomas, squamous cell carcinomas, basal cell carcinomas, nevi, and seborrheic keratoses demonstrated that such a parameter can potentially diagnose different skin lesion types. ROC analyses showed that malignant melanoma and seborrheic keratosis could be differentiated by both the blue and red lasers with the area under the curve (AUC) = 0.8 and 0.7, respectively. Also malignant melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma could be separated by the blue laser (AUC = 0.9), while nevus and seborrheic keratosis could be identified using the red laser (AUC = 0.7). These experiments demonstrated that polarization could be a potential in-vivo diagnostic indicator for skin diseases.

  19. Applying laser speckle images to skin science: skin lesion differentiation by polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tim K.; Tchvialeva, Lioudmila; Dhadwal, Gurbir; Sotoodian, Bahman; Kalai, Sunil; Zeng, Haishan; Lui, Harvey; McLean, David I.

    2012-01-01

    Skin cancer is a worldwide health problem. It is the most common cancer in the countries with a large white population; furthermore, the incidence of malignant melanoma, the most dangerous form of skin cancer, has been increasing steadily over the last three decades. There is an urgent need to develop in-vivo, noninvasive diagnostic tools for the disease. This paper attempts to response to the challenge by introducing a simple and fast method based on polarization and laser speckle. The degree of maintaining polarization estimates the fraction of linearly maintaining polarization in the backscattered speckle field. Clinical experiments of 214 skin lesions including malignant melanomas, squamous cell carcinomas, basal cell carcinomas, nevi, and seborrheic keratoses demonstrated that such a parameter can potentially diagnose different skin lesion types. ROC analyses showed that malignant melanoma and seborrheic keratosis could be differentiated by both the blue and red lasers with the area under the curve (AUC) = 0.8 and 0.7, respectively. Also malignant melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma could be separated by the blue laser (AUC = 0.9), while nevus and seborrheic keratosis could be identified using the red laser (AUC = 0.7). These experiments demonstrated that polarization could be a potential in-vivo diagnostic indicator for skin diseases.

  20. TERT promoter mutations are frequent in cutaneous basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Griewank, Klaus G; Murali, Rajmohan; Schilling, Bastian; Schimming, Tobias; Möller, Inga; Moll, Iris; Schwamborn, Marion; Sucker, Antje; Zimmer, Lisa; Schadendorf, Dirk; Hillen, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Activating mutations in the TERT promoter were recently identified in up to 71% of cutaneous melanoma. Subsequent studies found TERT promoter mutations in a wide array of other major human cancers. TERT promoter mutations lead to increased expression of telomerase, which maintains telomere length and genomic stability, thereby allowing cancer cells to continuously divide, avoiding senescence or apoptosis. TERT promoter mutations in cutaneous melanoma often show UV-signatures. Non-melanoma skin cancer, including basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, are very frequent malignancies in individuals of European descent. We investigated the presence of TERT promoter mutations in 32 basal cell carcinomas and 34 cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas using conventional Sanger sequencing. TERT promoter mutations were identified in 18 (56%) basal cell carcinomas and in 17 (50%) cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas. The recurrent mutations identified in our cohort were identical to those previously described in cutaneous melanoma, and showed a UV-signature (C>T or CC>TT) in line with a causative role for UV exposure in these common cutaneous malignancies. Our study shows that TERT promoter mutations with UV-signatures are frequent in non-melanoma skin cancer, being present in around 50% of basal and squamous cell carcinomas and suggests that increased expression of telomerase plays an important role in the pathogenesis of these tumors.

  1. Nonmelanoma skin cancer in India: current scenario.

    PubMed

    Panda, Saumya

    2010-10-01

    Incidence of skin cancers has been increasing since the last few decades worldwide. Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the commonest variety of cutaneous malignancy. Conventional wisdom has it that the incidence of all varieties of skin cancers is lower among Indians due to the protective effects of melanin. Though national surveys and cross-country data in India are unavailable, there are indirect indications from several smaller reports that NMSCs may be on the rise in India. Reports of quite a few atypical cases lead us to hypothesize that factors other than ultraviolet radiation may be important in the occurrences of these cancers, particularly in the skin types prevalent in India. The descriptive epidemiology and clinical characteristics of squamous and basal cell carcinoma in India, including their variants, are discussed here along with hypotheses on their etiopathogenesis. Novel management techniques currently available in India are also highlighted.

  2. NONMELANOMA SKIN CANCER IN INDIA: CURRENT SCENARIO

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Saumya

    2010-01-01

    Incidence of skin cancers has been increasing since the last few decades worldwide. Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the commonest variety of cutaneous malignancy. Conventional wisdom has it that the incidence of all varieties of skin cancers is lower among Indians due to the protective effects of melanin. Though national surveys and cross-country data in India are unavailable, there are indirect indications from several smaller reports that NMSCs may be on the rise in India. Reports of quite a few atypical cases lead us to hypothesize that factors other than ultraviolet radiation may be important in the occurrences of these cancers, particularly in the skin types prevalent in India. The descriptive epidemiology and clinical characteristics of squamous and basal cell carcinoma in India, including their variants, are discussed here along with hypotheses on their etiopathogenesis. Novel management techniques currently available in India are also highlighted. PMID:21430894

  3. Early Detection of Skin Cancer by Microtopography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Carmen López-Pacheco, María; Acevedo-Martínez, Claudia; Pereira da Cunha Martins Costa, Manuel Filipe; Domínguez-Cherit, Judith; Pichardo, Patricia; Pérez-Zapata, Aura Judith; Ramón-Gallegos, Eva

    2004-09-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the ruggedness of the skin with benign and malignant lesions. Latex impressions were taken from lesions of skin's patients and were analyzed by the MICROTOP 03.MFC inspection system. For the melanoma lesion it was observed that the average rugosity of this tumor was increased 67% compared with the rugosity of healthy skin. These measures allow us to distinguish significantly from other tumors, as it is the case of the basal cell carcinoma (49%), and benign lesions as the epidermoid cyst (37%) and the seborrhea keratosis (4%). It was observed a direct relation between the rugosity and the malignancy of the lesions. These results indicate that the rugosity is a characteristic that could be useful in the diagnosis of skin cancer.

  4. Recurrent mutations in NF-κB pathway components, KMT2D, and NOTCH1/2 in ocular adnexal MALT-type marginal zone lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Patricia; Klein-Hitpass, Ludger; Grabellus, Florian; Arnold, Georg; Klapper, Wolfram; Pförtner, Roman; Dührsen, Ulrich; Eckstein, Anja; Dürig, Jan; Küppers, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of ocular adnexal marginal zone lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue-type (OAML) is still poorly understood. We analyzed 63 cases of such lymphomas for non-synonymous mutations in 24 candidate genes by amplicon sequencing. We validated frequent mutations in the NF-κB regulators MYD88, TNFAIP3 and TNIP1 in OAML, but also identified recurrent mutations in several additional components of the NF-κB pathway, including BCL10 and NFKBIA. Overall, 60% of cases had mutations in at least one component of NF-κB signaling, pointing to a central role of its genetic deregulation in OAML pathogenesis. Mutations in NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 were each found in 8% of cases, indicating a pathogenetic function of these factors in OAML. KMT2D was identified as the first epigenetic regulator with mutations in OAML, being mutated in 22% of cases. Mutations in MYD88 were associated with an inferior disease-free survival. Overall, we identified here highly recurrent genetic lesions in components of the NF-κB pathway, of NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 as well as KMT2D in OAML and thereby provide major novel insights into the pathogenesis of this B cell malignancy. PMID:27566587

  5. Evidence for a dualistic model of high-grade serous carcinoma: BRCA mutation status, histology, and tubal intraepithelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Howitt, Brooke E; Hanamornroongruang, Suchanan; Lin, Douglas I; Conner, James E; Schulte, Stephanie; Horowitz, Neil; Crum, Christopher P; Meserve, Emily E

    2015-03-01

    Most early adnexal carcinomas detected in asymptomatic women with germline BRCA mutations (BRCA) present as serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STIC). However, STICs are found in only ∼40% of symptomatic high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSCs) and less frequently in pseudoendometrioid variants of HGSC. Consecutive cases of untreated HGSC from BRCA and BRCA women with detailed fallopian tube examination (SEE-FIM protocol) were compared. STIC status (+/-) was determined, and tumors were classified morphologically as SET ("SET", >50% solid, pseudoendometrioid, or transitional) or classic predominate ("Classic"). SET tumors trended toward a higher frequency in BRCA versus BRCA women (50% vs. 28%, P=0.11), had a significantly younger mean age than those with classic HGSC in BRCA women (mean 56.2 vs. 64.8 y, P=0.04), and displayed a better clinical outcome in both groups combined (P=0.024). STIC was significantly more frequent in tumors from the BRCA cohort (66% vs. 31%, P=0.017) and specifically the BRCA tumors with classic morphology (83%) versus those with SET morphology (22%, P=0.003). Overall, several covariables-histology, BRCA status, age, coexisting STIC, and response to therapy-define 2 categories of HGSC with differences in precursor (STIC) frequency, morphology, and outcome. We introduce a dualistic HGSC model that could shed light on the differences in frequency of STIC between symptomatic and asymptomatic women with HGSC. This model emphasizes the need for further study of HGSC precursors to determine their relevance to the prevention of this lethal malignancy.

  6. Angiotropic syringomatous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Eri; Saruta, Hiroshi; Nanri, Aya; Nakama, Takekuni; Ohata, Chika

    2017-01-11

    Syringomatous carcinoma (SC) is a slow-growing malignant skin tumor that usually affects the face or scalp. An 83-year-old female developed SC on the sole, a rare location. Histopathologically, numerous ducts with few keratinizing cysts were seen in the upper dermis, and cords, strands and nests with sclerotic stroma were seen in the deep dermis and subcutis. In addition to the perineural and intraneural invasion of the tumor, the tumor cells had also invaded the vessel walls. There was no intravasation of tumor cells or interruption of the endothelium. Because melanoma with vascular wall invasion without intravasation of melanoma cells or interruption of the endothelium has been called angiotropic melanoma, we termed the present tumor angiotropic SC. Tumor cells showed wide local invasion.

  7. Successful Treatment of Advanced Primary Cutaneous Apocrine Carcinoma on the Scrotum with Systemic Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy Followed by Denosumab

    PubMed Central

    Furudate, Sadanori; Fujimura, Taku; Tsukada, Akira; Sato, Yota; Hidaka, Takanori; Tanita, Kayo; Kambayashi, Yumi; Haga, Takahiro; Hashimoto, Akira; Aiba, Setsuya

    2017-01-01

    Primary cutaneous apocrine carcinoma (PCAC) is a rare and highly aggressive cutaneous adnexal type of tumor that has a high metastasis rate and a poor prognosis. Although there are several case reports describing the successful treatment of PCAC with chemoradiotherapy or molecular targeting therapy, no standard therapy for the treatment of advanced PCAC has been established yet. Since receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) is expressed in cancers of apocrine origin, leading to immunosuppression at the tumor site, we hypothesized that targeting RANKL with denosumab might be useful for the treatment of PCAC. In this report, we describe a case with advanced PCAC on the scrotum successfully treated with systemic chemotherapy using carboplatin and paclitaxel, and radiotherapy followed by denosumab. PMID:28203164

  8. Malignant skin lesions in Oshogbo, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oseni, Ganiyu Oyediran; Olaitan, Peter Babatunde; Komolafe, Akinwumi Oluwole; Olaofe, Olaejirinde Olaniyi; Akinyemi, Hezekiah Adebola Morakinyo; Suleiman, Oreoluwa Adeola

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study is to retrospectively assess the prevalence of some of skin malignancies in our environment and to provide a data base for creating awareness for prevention and early detection of the diseases in order to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with these skin lesions in our environment. Methods This is a retrospective study of all histologically diagnosed malignant skin lesions which presented at Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital Osogbo Osun State between January 2006 and December 2010. Results Ninety- eight patients presented with skin cancers out of which 60 (61.2%)were males and 38 (38.8%) were females. Malignant melanoma ranked highest followed by squamous cell carcinoma, dermatofibrosarcoma and basal cell carcinoma in that order. Malignant melanoma affects male more than female and it commonly affects lower limbs. Conclusion Skin malignancies pose a burden to the economy of the country. Efforts should be directed toward prevention, early diagnosis and management in order to abolish or reduce morbidity, as well as mortality associated with late presentation of people in the developing countries. PMID:26161176

  9. Sunlight vitamin D and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Mason, Rebecca S; Reichrath, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Today, there is a controversial debate in many scientific and public communities on how much sunlight is appropriate to balance between the positive and negative effects of solar UV-exposure. UV exposure undoubtedly causes DNA damage of skin cells and is a major environmental risk factor for all types of skin cancers. In geographic terms, living in parts of the world with increased erythemal UV or high average annual bright sun results in increased risks of skin cancers, with the greatest increased risk for squamous cell carcinoma, followed by basal cell carcinoma and then melanoma. On the other hand, sunlight exerts positive effects on human health, that are mediated in part via UV-B-mediated cutaneous photosynthesis of vitamin D. It has been estimated that at present, approximately 1 billion people worldwide are vitamin D-deficient or -insufficient. This epidemic causes serious health problems that are still widely under-recognized. Vitamin D deficiency leads to well documented problems for bone and muscle function. There are also associations between vitamin D-deficiency and increased incidence of and/or unfavourable outcome for a broad variety of independent diseases, including various types of malignancies (e.g. colon-, skin-, and breast cancer), autoimmune diseases, infectious diseases, and cardiovascular diseases. In this review, the present literature is analyzed to summarize our present knowledge about the important relationship of sunlight, vitamin D and skin cancer.

  10. Skin Keratins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fengrong; Zieman, Abigail; Coulombe, Pierre A.

    2016-01-01

    Keratins comprise the type I and type II intermediate filament-forming proteins and occur primarily in epithelial cells. They are encoded by 54 evolutionarily conserved genes (28 type I, 26 type II) and regulated in a pairwise and tissue type-, differentiation-, and context-dependent manner. Keratins serve multiple homeostatic and stress-enhanced mechanical and nonmechanical functions in epithelia, including the maintenance of cellular integrity, regulation of cell growth and migration, and protection from apoptosis. These functions are tightly regulated by posttranslational modifications as well as keratin-associated proteins. Genetically determined alterations in keratin-coding sequences underlie highly penetrant and rare disorders whose pathophysiology reflects cell fragility and/or altered tissue homeostasis. Moreover, keratin mutation or misregulation represents risk factors or genetic modifiers for several acute and chronic diseases. This chapter focuses on keratins that are expressed in skin epithelia, and details a number of basic protocols and assays that have proven useful for analyses being carried out in skin. PMID:26795476

  11. Skin (Pressure) Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatments and Side Effects Managing Cancer-related Side Effects Skin Problems Pressure Sores A skin or pressure sore ... Content Usage Policy . Skin Problems Dry Skin Itching Skin Color Changes Pressure Sores Scars ... and Paying for Treatment Treatments and Side Effects Survivorship: During and After Treatment Caregivers and Family ...

  12. Seminoma in a postmenopausal woman with a Y;15 translocation in peripheral blood lymphocytes and a t(Y;15)/45,X Turner mosaic pattern in skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Hoshi, N; Fujita, M; Mikuni, M; Fujino, T; Okuyama, K; Handa, Y; Yamada, H; Sagawa, T; Hareyama, H; Nakahori, Y; Fujieda, K; Kant, J A; Nagashima, K; Fujimoto, S

    1998-01-01

    We report an unusual case of a 55 year old Japanese woman with a seminoma but relatively normal menses. The patient was a phenotypic female with late onset menarche (18 years of age), who was amenorrhoeic for the first year, followed by menses of one to three days' slight flow with dysmenorrhoea, but an otherwise normal menstrual history. A typical seminoma was removed from the left adnexal region and an immature testis was identified separately as an associated right adnexal mass. Repeated karyotypic studies on peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures showed only 46,X,-Y,t(Y;15)(q12;p13). Cytogenetic examination of the patient's younger brother, who had fathered three healthy children, showed an identical karyotype. Mosaicism of 46,X,-Y,t(Y;15)(q12;p13)/45,X cell lines was found in skin samples from the patient's elbow and genital regions, although there were no clinical stigmata of Turner syndrome. An androgen receptor binding assay of cultured genital skin fibroblasts was negative. Molecular analysis using Southern blot hybridisation, PCR, and direct DNA sequencing showed that neither the patient nor her brother had a detectable deletion or other abnormalities of Y chromosome sequences, including the SRY (sex determining region of the Y chromosome) gene sequence. These findings suggest that Turner mosaicism of the 45,X cell line may have contributed to this atypical presentation in an XY female, although we cannot exclude abnormalities of other genes related to sex differentiation. Images PMID:9783712

  13. Seminoma in a postmenopausal woman with a Y;15 translocation in peripheral blood lymphocytes and a t(Y;15)/45,X Turner mosaic pattern in skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, N; Fujita, M; Mikuni, M; Fujino, T; Okuyama, K; Handa, Y; Yamada, H; Sagawa, T; Hareyama, H; Nakahori, Y; Fujieda, K; Kant, J A; Nagashima, K; Fujimoto, S

    1998-10-01

    We report an unusual case of a 55 year old Japanese woman with a seminoma but relatively normal menses. The patient was a phenotypic female with late onset menarche (18 years of age), who was amenorrhoeic for the first year, followed by menses of one to three days' slight flow with dysmenorrhoea, but an otherwise normal menstrual history. A typical seminoma was removed from the left adnexal region and an immature testis was identified separately as an associated right adnexal mass. Repeated karyotypic studies on peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures showed only 46,X,-Y,t(Y;15)(q12;p13). Cytogenetic examination of the patient's younger brother, who had fathered three healthy children, showed an identical karyotype. Mosaicism of 46,X,-Y,t(Y;15)(q12;p13)/45,X cell lines was found in skin samples from the patient's elbow and genital regions, although there were no clinical stigmata of Turner syndrome. An androgen receptor binding assay of cultured genital skin fibroblasts was negative. Molecular analysis using Southern blot hybridisation, PCR, and direct DNA sequencing showed that neither the patient nor her brother had a detectable deletion or other abnormalities of Y chromosome sequences, including the SRY (sex determining region of the Y chromosome) gene sequence. These findings suggest that Turner mosaicism of the 45,X cell line may have contributed to this atypical presentation in an XY female, although we cannot exclude abnormalities of other genes related to sex differentiation.

  14. Rhabdomyomatous mesenchymal hamartoma presenting as a sacral skin tag in two neonates with spinal dysraphism.

    PubMed

    McKinnon, Elizabeth L; Rand, Andrew J; Selim, M Angelica; Fuchs, Herbert E; Buckley, Anne F; Cummings, Thomas J

    2015-10-01

    Rhabdomyomatous mesenchymal hamartoma (RMH) is a rare congenital malformation involving the dermis and subcutaneous tissue, of which there were 62 reported cases through 2014. We report RMH in two neonates presenting as a sacral skin tag. In both cases, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine showed evidence of spinal dysraphism, including a lipomyelomeningocele and a tethered cord. Surgical repair of the defects was performed. Histopathologic examination of the skin tags showed a haphazard arrangement of mature skeletal muscle fibers and adnexal elements, consistent with RMH. The second patient also had a hemangioma on the sacrum and was diagnosed with LUMBAR (lower body hemangioma and other cutaneous defects, urogenital anomalies/ulceration, myelopathy, bony deformities, anorectal/arterial anomalies, and renal anomalies) syndrome, an association between cutaneous infantile hemangiomas of the lower body and regional congenital anomalies. The apparent association of paraspinal RMH with spinal dysraphism suggests that aberrant migration of mesodermally derived tissues (including skeletal muscle fibers) during neural tube development may be responsible for the pathologic findings in the skin. Additional study of patients with spinal dysraphism and congenital cutaneous lesions may further support this hypothesis.

  15. Ultraviolet radiation effects on the proteome of skin cells.

    PubMed

    Muller, H Konrad; Woods, Gregory M

    2013-01-01

    Proteomic studies to date have had limited use as an investigative tool in the skin's response to UV radiation. These studies used cell lines and reconstructed skin and have shown evidence of cell injury with oxidative damage and stress induced heat shock proteins. Others changes included altered cytokeratin and cytoskeletal proteins with enhanced expression of TRIM29 as the keratinocytes regenerate. The associated DNA repair requires polη, Rad18/Rad16 and Rev1. In the whole animal these events would be associated with inflammation, remodelling of the epidermis and modulation of the immune response. Longer term changes include ageing and skin cancers such as melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma. In the future proteomics will be used to explore these important aspects of photobiology. Better characterisation of the proteins involved should lead to a greater understanding of the skin's response to UV radiation.

  16. Which histological characteristics of basal cell carcinomas influence the quality of optical coherence tomography imaging?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogensen, M.; Thrane, L.; Joergensen, T. M.; Nürnberg, B. M.; Jemec, G. B. E.

    2009-07-01

    We explore how histopathology parameters influence OCT imaging of basal cell carcinomas (BCC) and address whether such parameters correlate with the quality of the recorded OCT images. Our results indicate that inflammation impairs OCT imaging and that sun-damaged skin can sometimes provide more clear-cut images of skin cancer lesions using OCT imaging when compared to skin cancer surrounded by skin without sun-damage.

  17. The Danish Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database

    PubMed Central

    Lamberg, Anna Lei; Sølvsten, Henrik; Lei, Ulrikke; Vinding, Gabrielle Randskov; Stender, Ida Marie; Jemec, Gregor Borut Ernst; Vestergaard, Tine; Thormann, Henrik; Hædersdal, Merete; Dam, Tomas Norman; Olesen, Anne Braae

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The Danish Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database was established in 2008. The aim of this database was to collect data on nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) treatment and improve its treatment in Denmark. NMSC is the most common malignancy in the western countries and represents a significant challenge in terms of public health management and health care costs. However, high-quality epidemiological and treatment data on NMSC are sparse. Study population The NMSC database includes patients with the following skin tumors: basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma, Bowen’s disease, and keratoacanthoma diagnosed by the participating office-based dermatologists in Denmark. Main variables Clinical and histological diagnoses, BCC subtype, localization, size, skin cancer history, skin phototype, and evidence of metastases and treatment modality are the main variables in the NMSC database. Information on recurrence, cosmetic results, and complications are registered at two follow-up visits at 3 months (between 0 and 6 months) and 12 months (between 6 and 15 months) after treatment. Descriptive data In 2014, 11,522 patients with 17,575 tumors were registered in the database. Of tumors with a histological diagnosis, 13,571 were BCCs, 840 squamous cell carcinomas, 504 Bowen’s disease, and 173 keratoakanthomas. Conclusion The NMSC database encompasses detailed information on the type of tumor, a variety of prognostic factors, treatment modalities, and outcomes after treatment. The database has revealed that overall, the quality of care of NMSC in Danish dermatological clinics is high, and the database provides the necessary data for continuous quality assurance. PMID:27822110

  18. Basal cell skin cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur on skin that is regularly exposed to sunlight or other ultraviolet radiation. This type of skin ... skin cancer is to reduce your exposure to sunlight . Always use sunscreen: Apply sunscreen with sun protection ...

  19. Skin Condition Finder

    MedlinePlus

    ... SKIN CONDITIONS HEALTH TOPICS FOR PROFESSIONALS Rash and Skin Condition Finder 1 Select Age Group Infant Child ... Toe Toe Webspace Toe Nail CLOSE About the Skin Condition Finder Have a health question or concern? ...

  20. Skin Complications of IBD

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Resources > Skin Complications of IBD Go Back Skin Complications of IBD Email Print + Share After arthritis, ... about 5% of people with inflammatory bowel disease. SKIN DISORDERS COMMONLY SEEN IN IBD ERHTHEMA NODOSUM The ...

  1. Scalded skin syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Ritter disease; Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSS) ... Scalded skin syndrome (SSS) is caused by infection with certain strains of Staphylococcus bacteria. The bacteria produce a toxin that causes the skin ...

  2. Skin Allergy Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... time. Some common medications that can cause skin allergy include penicillin, sulfa drugs, barbiturates and anticonvulsants just to mention a few. Some of the symptoms from drug allergies might be hives, skin rash, itchy skin or ...

  3. Learning about Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Why Deadly Skin Cancers Spread 2000 News Release Learning About Skin Cancer What are the most common ... skin surface. When a melanoma becomes thick and deep, the disease often spreads to other parts of ...

  4. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, J.H.C.

    1985-07-01

    In this editorial comment, the author presents a review of recent achievements in the diagnosis and treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the nasopharynx. The value of the use of CT scans for differentiating between cranial nerve involvement by recurring tumors and irradiation neuropathy, and between temporal lobe irradiation encephalopathy and other nonneoplastic neurologic disorders and meningeal metastasis is discussed. Magnetic resonance imaging is said to be superior to CT for finding soft tissue involvement or abnormalities in the brain. 13 references.

  5. Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Alex C.; Sabolch, Aaron; Raymond, Victoria M.; Kandathil, Asha; Caoili, Elaine M.; Jolly, Shruti; Miller, Barbra S.; Giordano, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare endocrine malignancy, often with an unfavorable prognosis. Here we summarize the knowledge about diagnosis, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and therapy of ACC. Over recent years, multidisciplinary clinics have formed and the first international treatment trials have been conducted. This review focuses on evidence gained from recent basic science and clinical research and provides perspectives from the experience of a large multidisciplinary clinic dedicated to the care of patients with ACC. PMID:24423978

  6. Localized Ocular Adnexal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Treated With Radiation Therapy: A Long-Term Outcome in 86 Patients With 104 Treated Eyes

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, Ken; Murakami, Naoya; Kitaguchi, Mayuka; Sekii, Shuhei; Takahashi, Kana; Yoshio, Kotaro; Inaba, Koji; Morota, Madoka; Ito, Yoshinori; Sumi, Minako; Suzuki, Shigenobu; Tobinai, Kensei; Uno, Takashi; Itami, Jun

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the natural history, behavior of progression, prognostic factors, and treatment-related adverse effects of primary ocular adnexal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma (POAML). Methods and Materials: Eighty-six patients with histologically proven stage I POAML treated with radiation therapy at National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo between 1990 and 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. The median age was 56 years (range, 18-85 years). The median dose administered was 30 Gy (range, 30-46 Gy). Seventy-seven patients (90%) were treated by radiation therapy alone. Results: The median follow-up duration was 9 years (range, 0.9-22 years). The 5- and 10-year overall survival (OS) rates were 97.6% and 93.5%, respectively, and no patients died of lymphoma. Patients with tumor sizes ≥4 cm showed a greater risk of contralateral relapse (P=.012). Six patients with contralateral relapse were seen and treated by radiation therapy alone, and all the lesions were controlled well, with follow-up times of 3 to 12 years. There was 1 case of local relapse after radiation therapy alone, and 3 cases of relapse occurred in a distant site. Cataracts developed in 36 of the 65 eyes treated without lens shielding and in 12 of the 39 patients with lens shielding (P=.037). Conclusions: The majority of patients with POAML showed behavior consistent with that of localized, indolent diseases. Thirty gray of local irradiation seems to be quite effective. The initial bilateral involvement and contralateral orbital relapses can be also controlled with radiation therapy alone. Lens shielding reduces the risk of cataract.

  7. Long-Term Outcome and Patterns of Failure in Primary Ocular Adnexal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Treated With Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Naoki; Sasaki, Ryohei; Nishimura, Hideki; Yoshida, Kenji; Miyawaki, Daisuke; Nakayama, Masao; Uehara, Kazuyuki; Okamoto, Yoshiaki; Ejima, Yasuo; Azumi, Atsushi; Matsui, Toshimitsu; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term treatment outcome and disease behavior of primary ocular adnexal MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) lymphoma (POAML) after treatment with radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Seventy-eight patients (42 male, 36 female) diagnosed with stage I POAML between 1991 and 2010 at Kobe University Hospital were included. The median age was 60 years (range, 22-85 years). The median radiation dose administered was 30.6 Gy. Rituximab-based targeted therapy and/or chemotherapy was performed in 20 patients (25.6%). Local control (LC), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS) rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The median follow-up duration was 66 months. Major tumor sites were conjunctiva in 37 patients (47.4%), orbita in 29 (37.2%), and lacrimal glands in 12 (15.4%). The 5- and 10-year OS rates were 98.1% and 95.3%, respectively. The 5- and 10-year LC rates were both 100%, and the 5- and 10-year RFS rates were 88.5% and 75.9%, respectively. Patients treated with a combination of radiotherapy and targeted therapy and/or chemotherapy had a trend for a better RFS compared with those treated with radiotherapy alone (p = 0.114). None developed greater than Grade 2 acute morbidity. There were 14 patients who experienced Grade 2 morbidities (cataract: 14; retinal disorders: 7; dry eye: 3), 23 patients who had Grade 3 morbidities (cataract: 23; dry eye: 1), and 1 patient who had Grade 4 glaucoma. Conclusions: Radiotherapy for POAML was shown to be highly effective and safe for LC and OS on the basis of long-term observation. The absence of systemic relapse in patients with combined-modality treatment suggests that lower doses of radiation combined with targeted therapy may be worth further study.

  8. Long-term outcomes of first-line treatment with doxycycline in patients with previously untreated ocular adnexal marginal zone B cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Han, Jae Joon; Kim, Tae Min; Jeon, Yoon Kyung; Kim, Mee Kum; Khwarg, Sang In; Kim, Chul-Woo; Kim, Il Han; Heo, Dae Seog

    2015-04-01

    Ocular adnexal lymphoma (OAL) has been associated with Chlamydophila psittaci infection, for which doxycycline has been suggested as a treatment option. We conducted this study to evaluate the long-term results of first-line doxycycline treatment in patients with OAL. Ninety patients with histologically confirmed OAL with marginal zone B cell lymphoma were enrolled. Each patient received one or two cycles of doxycycline (100 mg bid) for 3 weeks. After a median follow-up period of 40.5 months (8-85), the 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate was 60.9 %. All patients were alive at the last follow-up date. Thirty-one patients (34 %) showed local treatment failure without systemic spread. However, PFS rate in these patients was 100 % after salvage chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. PFS was independently predicted in multivariate analysis by the tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging (hazard ratio [HR], 4.35; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 2.03-9.32; P < 0.001) and number of cycles of doxycycline (HR, 0.31; 95 % CI, 0.14-0.69; P = 0.004). No serious adverse event was reported during doxycycline therapy. In conclusion, first-line doxycycline therapy was effective and safe. Patients who failed to respond to doxycycline therapy were successfully salvaged with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy without compromising long-term outcomes. Patients with T1N0M0 disease could be considered good candidates for first-line doxycycline.

  9. Water content and structure in malignant and benign skin tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gniadecka, M.; Nielsen, O. F.; Wulf, H. C.

    2003-12-01

    Analysis of the low frequency region of Raman spectra enables determination of water structure. It has been previously demonstrated by various techniques that water content and possibly also the water structure is altered in some malignant tumours. To further elucidate possible change in water structure in tumours we performed NIR FT Raman spectroscopy on biopsies from selected benign and malignant skin tumours (benign: seborrheic keratosis, pigmented nevi; malignant: malignant melanoma, basal cell carcinoma). We did not observe any differences in water content between malignant and benign skin tumours with an exception of seborrheic keratosis, in which the water content was decreased. Increase in the tetrahedral (free) water was found in malignant skin tumours and sun-damaged skin relative to normal young skin and benign skin tumours. This finding may add to the understanding of molecular alterations in cancer.

  10. Isolated Abdominal Wall Metastasis of Endometrial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Simões, Jorge; Gonçalves, Matilde; Matos, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    A woman in her mid-60s presented with a bulky mass on the anterior abdominal wall. She had a previous incidental diagnosis of endometrial adenocarcinoma FIGO stage IB following a vaginal hysterectomy. Physical exam and imaging revealed a well circumscribed bulging tumour at the umbilical region, measuring 10 × 9 × 9 cm, with overlying intact skin and subcutaneous tissue. Surgical resection was undertaken, and histological examination showed features of endometrial carcinoma. She began chemotherapy and is alive with no signs of recurrent disease one year after surgery. This case brings up to light an atypical location of a solitary metastasis of endometrial carcinoma. PMID:25349753

  11. Basal cell carcinoma of the nail unit.

    PubMed

    Forman, Seth B; Ferringer, Tammie C; Garrett, Algin B

    2007-05-01

    We report a case of a 70-year-old white male with a basal cell carcinoma of the left thumb nail unit. Excision of the tumor via Mohs micrographic surgery was completed in 2 stages. The defect was repaired with a full thickness skin graft. Five months later the nail unit healed without complications. Prior to this report, 21 cases of basal cell carcinoma have been reported in the world literature. This case, as well as the prior reports, are reviewed with a focus on time to diagnosis, location, excisional technique, and method of repair.

  12. Prevalence of Skin Cancer and Related Skin Tumors in High-Risk Kidney and Liver Transplant Recipients in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Iannacone, Michelle R; Sinnya, Sudipta; Pandeya, Nirmala; Isbel, Nikky; Campbell, Scott; Fawcett, Jonathan; Soyer, Peter H; Ferguson, Lisa; Davis, Marcia; Whiteman, David C; Green, Adèle C

    2016-07-01

    The increased skin cancer incidence in organ transplant recipients is well-known, but the skin cancer burden at any one time is unknown. Our objective was to estimate the period prevalence of untreated skin malignancy and actinic keratoses in high-risk kidney and liver transplant recipients and to assess associated factors. Organ transplant recipients underwent full skin examinations by dermatologically trained physicians. The proportion of examined organ transplant recipients with histopathologically confirmed skin cancer in the 3-month baseline period was estimated. Prevalence ratios with 95% confidence intervals indicated significant associations. Of 495 high-risk organ transplant recipients (average age = 54 years, time immunosuppressed = 8.9 years), 135 (27%) had basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma or Bowen's disease (intraepidermal carcinoma) present and confirmed in the baseline period, with respective prevalence proportions of 10%, 11%, and 18% in kidney transplant recipients and 10%, 9%, and 13% in liver transplant recipients. Over 80% had actinic keratosis present, with approximately 30% having 5 or more actinic keratoses. Organ transplant recipients with the highest skin cancer burden were Australian born, were fair skinned (prevalence ratio = 1.61, 95% confidence interval = [1.07, 2.43]), reported past skin cancer (prevalence ratio =3.39, 95% confidence interval = [1.93, 5.95]), and were receiving the most frequent skin checks (prevalence ratio = 1.76, 95% confidence interval = [1.15, 2.70]). In conclusion, high-risk organ transplant recipients carry a substantial measurable skin cancer burden at any given time and require frequent review through easily accessible, specialized services.

  13. Hyperspectral imaging of skin and lung cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zherdeva, Larisa A.; Bratchenko, Ivan A.; Alonova, Marina V.; Myakinin, Oleg O.; Artemyev, Dmitry N.; Moryatov, Alexander A.; Kozlov, Sergey V.; Zakharov, Valery P.

    2016-04-01

    The problem of cancer control requires design of new approaches for instrumental diagnostics, as the accuracy of cancer detection on the first step of diagnostics in clinics is slightly more than 50%. In this study, we present a method of visualization and diagnostics of skin and lung tumours based on registration and processing of tissues hyperspectral images. In a series of experiments registration of hyperspectral images of skin and lung tissue samples is carried out. Melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, nevi and benign tumours are studied in skin ex vivo and in vivo experiments; adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas are studied in ex vivo lung experiments. In a series of experiments the typical features of diffuse reflection spectra for pathological and normal tissues were found. Changes in tissues morphology during the tumour growth lead to the changes of blood and pigments concentration, such as melanin in skin. That is why tumours and normal tissues maybe differentiated with information about spectral response in 500-600 nm and 600 - 670 nm areas. Thus, hyperspectral imaging in the visible region may be a useful tool for cancer detection as it helps to estimate spectral properties of tissues and determine malignant regions for precise resection of tumours.

  14. Imaging of basal cell carcinoma tissue using en-face OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penmetsa, Bhanu Rakesh; Khandwala, Mona; Bradu, Adrian; Hughes, Michael; Jones, Carole A.; Schofield, John; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2008-09-01

    We have investigated the applicability of en-face OCT in imaging freshly excised biopsies of Basal Cell Carcinoma. Encouraging results have been obtained in identifying tumor features and abnormal skin architecture.

  15. [New light on skin photodynamic therapy].

    PubMed

    Kuonen, François; Gaide, Olivier

    2014-04-02

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) relies on the cellular toxicity of an exogenous porphyrin that is activated by light rays. Its specificity depends on its cellular uptake, which is typically high in cells with a high metabolism, such as cancer cells and several microbial pathogens. Both the diffusion of the substrate and the penetration of the light in the tissue limit its efficiency to the first few millimeters of the skin. This explains why this technique is used for the treatment of superficial skin cancers (actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinomas), but also for selected skin inflammatory diseases (psoriasis) or infections (leishmaniosis). However, at the bedside, the limitations of PDT are rather the complexity and the pain associated with the treatment. Herein, we present the new developments, in particular concerning the new light sources, which make PDT a better option for our patients.

  16. Helicobacter pylori infection and skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Kutlubay, Zekayi; Zara, Tuba; Engin, Burhan; Serdaroğlu, Server; Tüzün, Yalçin; Yilmaz, Erkan; Eren, Bülent

    2014-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that has been linked to peptic ulcer disease, gastric lymphoma, and gastric carcinoma. Apart from its well-demonstrated role in gastroduodenal diseases, some authors have suggested a potential role of Helicobacter pylori infection in several extra-intestinal pathologies including haematological, cardiovascular, neurological, metabolic, autoimmune, and dermatological diseases. Some studies suggest an association between Helicobacter pylori infection and skin diseases such as chronic idiopathic urticaria and rosacea. There have also been few case reports documenting association between Helicobacter pylori and psoriasis vulgaris, Behçet's disease, alopecia areata, Henoch-Schönlein purpura, and Sweet's syndrome. However, more systematic studies are required to clarify the proposed association between Helicobacter pylori and skin diseases; most of the studies do not show relevant relationships of these diseases with Helicobacter pylori infections. This review discusses skin diseases that are believed to be associated with Helicobacter pylori.

  17. Skin to skin care:heat balance.

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, H

    1996-01-01

    Skin to skin care has been practised in primitive and high technology cultures for body temperature preservation in neonates. Regional skin temperature and heat flow was measured in moderately hypothermic term neonates to quantitate the heat transfer occurring during one hour of skin to skin care. Nine healthy newborns with a mean rectal temperature of 36.3 degrees C were placed skin to skin on their mothers' chests. The mean (SD) rectal temperature increased by 0.7 (0.4) degrees C to 37.0 degrees C. The heat loss was high (70 Wm-2) from the unprotected skin of the head to the surrounding air. Minute heat losses occurred from covered areas; and heat was initially gained from areas in contact with the mother's skin. The total dry heat loss during skin to skin care corresponded to heat loss during incubator care at 32-32.5 degrees C. The reduced heat loss, and to a minor extent, the initial heat flux from the mothers allowed heat to be conserved, leading to rewarming. PMID:8949698

  18. [Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the breast: rare form carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Maksimović, Sinisa

    2009-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a rare form of breast carcinoma. Incidence is reported to be 0.1-3.6%. We report a case of a young woman, 37-year-old, with history of a lump in the upper outer quadrant of the left breast with ulceration of the skin surface. Menarche occurred at age of 12. The patient was married, had two deliveries and had her first child at age of 26. She did not use contraceptive pills. Diagnosis of the tumour of the breast was made at the Department of surgery in General Hospital in Bijeljina in September 2007. Clinical examination, mammography and ultrasonography were performed. Physical examination revealed a circumscribed and firm mass measuring 60 x 60 x 80 mm. Mammogram showed a round, high-density mass with almost regular but partially irregular margin. Ultrasonogram of the left breast tumor identified an irregularly shaped hypoechoic lesion. After clinical staging of the disease, we performed incision biopsy of the skin and tumour of the left breast with histopathology examination (standard hematoxylin and eosin). Patient had estrogen and progesteron receptors negative and was HER2/neu negative. After histopathology, patient's case was presented to the working group for breast tumors which decided to start with the neoadjuvant chemotherapy using platinum. After six cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, regression of breast tumor was confirmed. Working group decided that radical mastectomy of left breast should be performed.

  19. Skin Care and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Skin Care and Aging How Aging Affects Skin Your skin changes with age. It becomes thinner, ... to make it feel and look better. Dry Skin and Itching Click for more information Many older ...

  20. Acne in ethnic skin.

    PubMed

    Halder, Rebat M; Brooks, Howard L; Callender, Valerie D

    2003-10-01

    Acne is the most common disorder observed in ethnic skin. Clinical presentation is different than in white skin. Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation is a common sequelae of acne in darker skin. The management of acne in ethnic skin is based largely on the prevention and treatment of hyperpigmentation.

  1. Sun protection education for diverse audiences: need for skin cancer pictures.

    PubMed

    Guevara, Yanina; Gaber, Rikki; Clayman, Marla L; Gordon, Elisa J; Friedewald, John; Robinson, June K

    2015-03-01

    Sun protection education is needed for kidney transplant recipients, whose increased risk of skin cancer could be ameliorated with sun protection. Cognitive interviews with 24 participants equally stratified among non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic/Latino kidney transplant recipients were performed to evaluate a sun protection education workbook. Study participants were recruited over the phone using a registry of 700 kidney transplant recipients. Participants included 12 women and 12 men with a median age of 52. In 16 of the cognitive interviews with non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanic/Latinos, pictures of skin cancer were requested by the participants in order to see the appearance of skin cancer. Kidney transplant recipients with skin of color did not consider themselves at risk to develop skin cancer and wanted to see examples of skin cancer occurring on people with skin of color. Based on these results, the workbook was modified to include pictures of squamous cell carcinoma on varying skin tones. Then, 8 participants evaluated the revised workbook in cognitive interviews and found the photographs acceptable and necessary to demonstrate the severity of skin cancer and personalize their risk of developing skin cancer. The participants progressed from having knowledge of skin cancer to believing that they could develop skin cancer because they observed skin cancers on people with their skin tone. Using pictures of skin cancers occurring on people with similar skin tone may heighten a kidney transplant recipients' sense of vulnerability and possibly improve the use of sun protection.

  2. Polarization speckle imaging as a potential technique for in vivo skin cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Tchvialeva, Lioudmila; Dhadwal, Gurbir; Lui, Harvey; Kalia, Sunil; Zeng, Haishan; McLean, David I; Lee, Tim K

    2013-06-01

    Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the Western world. In order to accurately detect the disease, especially malignant melanoma-the most fatal form of skin cancer-at an early stage when the prognosis is excellent, there is an urgent need to develop noninvasive early detection methods. We believe that polarization speckle patterns, defined as a spatial distribution of depolarization ratio of traditional speckle patterns, can be an important tool for skin cancer detection. To demonstrate our technique, we conduct a large in vivo clinical study of 214 skin lesions, and show that statistical moments of the polarization speckle pattern could differentiate different types of skin lesions, including three common types of skin cancers, malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and two benign lesions, melanocytic nevus and seborrheic keratoses. In particular, the fourth order moment achieves better or similar sensitivity and specificity than many well-known and accepted optical techniques used to differentiate melanoma and seborrheic keratosis.

  3. Polarization speckle imaging as a potential technique for in vivo skin cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchvialeva, Lioudmila; Dhadwal, Gurbir; Lui, Harvey; Kalia, Sunil; Zeng, Haishan; McLean, David I.; Lee, Tim K.

    2013-06-01

    Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the Western world. In order to accurately detect the disease, especially malignant melanoma-the most fatal form of skin cancer-at an early stage when the prognosis is excellent, there is an urgent need to develop noninvasive early detection methods. We believe that polarization speckle patterns, defined as a spatial distribution of depolarization ratio of traditional speckle patterns, can be an important tool for skin cancer detection. To demonstrate our technique, we conduct a large in vivo clinical study of 214 skin lesions, and show that statistical moments of the polarization speckle pattern could differentiate different types of skin lesions, including three common types of skin cancers, malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and two benign lesions, melanocytic nevus and seborrheic keratoses. In particular, the fourth order moment achieves better or similar sensitivity and specificity than many well-known and accepted optical techniques used to differentiate melanoma and seborrheic keratosis.

  4. Carcinoma gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Biswas, P K

    2010-07-01

    Carcinoma gallbladder (CaGb) is a rare disease. The aetiology of CaGb is yet not known. However the risk of CaGb is increased in anomalous pancreaticobiliary duct junction (APBDJ), gall stones, xanthogranulomatus cholecystitis, calcified or porcelain gallbladder, cholelithiasis with typhoid carriers, gallbladder adenoma, red meat consumption and tobacco uses. There are protective effects of vegetables on CaGb. Most of the cases present with advanced disease. In early carcinoma of a gallbladder sign and symptoms mimic benign disease. The diagnosis is established by ultrasonography, computerized tomography and guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Biochemical tests are of very little value in making a diagnosis. The treatment depends on the clinical stage at presentation. Surgery offers the best chance of cure. In stage T1a, laparoscopic or open cholecystectomy alone is curative, and in T1b, cholecystectomy with hepatoduodenal lymph node dissection without combined resection of an adjacent organ is required. Segment S4a+5 hepatectomy combined with extrahepatic bile duct resection (BDR) and D2 lymph node dissection is a highly recommended operation for the treatment of T2 and T3 CaGb. The dye injection method is useful in determining the appropriate extent of hepatic resection for advanced CaGb. Resurgery is required only in those cases where tumour has invaded the serosa and/ or adjacent structures when diagnosed postoperatively. Biliary bypass is required for palliation. Prognosis depends on early diagnosis and appropriate surgical excision.

  5. HPV Carcinomas in Immunocompromised Patients

    PubMed Central

    Reusser, Nicole M.; Downing, Christopher; Guidry, Jacqueline; Tyring, Stephen K.

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease worldwide and can result in pre-malignancies or overt malignancies of the skin and mucosal surfaces. HPV-related illnesses are an important personal and public health problem causing physical, mental, sexual and financial detriments. Moreover, this set of malignancies severely affects the immunosuppressed population, particularly HIV-positive patients and organ-transplant recipients. There is growing incidence of HPV-associated anogenital malignancies as well as a decrease in the average age of affected patients, likely related to the rising number of high-risk individuals. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of HPV-related malignancy. Current treatment options for HPV infection and subsequent disease manifestations include imiquimod, retinoids, intralesional bleomycin, and cidofovir; however, primary prevention with HPV vaccination remains the most effective strategy. This review will discuss anogenital lesions in immunocompromised patients, cutaneous warts at nongenital sites, the association of HPV with skin cancer in immunocompromised patients, warts and carcinomas in organ-transplant patients, HIV-positive patients with HPV infections, and the management of cutaneous disease in the immunocompromised patient. PMID:26239127

  6. Cutaneous invasion from sarcomatoid urothelial carcinoma: clinical and dermatopathologic features*

    PubMed Central

    Bernardes Filho, Fred; de Melo, Alessandro Severo Alves; Pires, Andréa Rodriguez Cordovil; Lupi, Omar; Neves, Daniel Gama das; da Cruz, Margareth Fernandes; Kac, Bernard Kawa

    2016-01-01

    In Brazil, without considering the non-melanoma skin tumors, bladder cancer in men is the eighth most common, and the urothelial carcinoma or transitional cell carcinoma is the most common among these. Cutaneous metastases from urothelial neoplasms appear as single or multiple erythematous, infiltrated nodules or plaques, and like other cases of distant disease, it is indicative of poor prognosis. The invasive urothelial carcinoma is recognized for its ability to present divergent differentiation and morphological variants. The sarcomatoid urothelial carcinoma is a rare cancer that consists of two different components: one composed of epithelial tissue and the other with sarcomatoid features of mesenchymal origin. The authors describe a case of cutaneous metastasis of sarcomatoid urothelial carcinoma in a 63-year-old male patient. PMID:26982782

  7. Advances in the management of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Sonal A.

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most common non-melanoma skin cancers worldwide. While most cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas are easily managed, there is a high-risk subset of tumors that can cause severe morbidity and mortality. Tumor characteristics as well as patient characteristics contribute to the classification of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas as low-risk vs. high-risk. Advances in the treatment of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas largely relate to the management of this high-risk subset. Surgical and non-surgical management options, including newer targeted molecular therapies, will be discussed here. Larger, multicenter studies are needed to determine the exact significance of individual risk factors with respect to aggressive clinical behavior and the risks of metastasis and death, as well as the role of surgical and adjuvant therapies in patients with high-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:25165569

  8. Nursing Management of Advanced Merkel Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lowry, Pamela A; Freeman, Morganna L; Russell, Jeffery S

    2016-11-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and lethal skin cancer with few known treatment options. Management of this disease is challenging, and oncology nurses must understand the medical, physical, and psychosocial burden that MCC places on the patient and family caregivers. Patients must navigate a complex medical and insurance network that often fails to support patients with rare cancers. Nurses must advocate for these patients to ensure quality comprehensive cancer care.

  9. Anogenital squamous cell carcinoma in neglected patient.

    PubMed

    Svecova, D; Havrankova, M; Weismanova, E; Babal, P

    2012-01-01

    Skin squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are arguably the second most common carcinoma of the skin and are responsible for the majority of non-melanoma skin cancer deaths. Gynecologist treated a Caucasian 56-years old female patient for genital wart with podophyllotoxin cream. She did not achieve complete response and therefore she has interrupted the therapy and the collaboration with the gynecologist. At the time of evaluation the lesion had a size of man's palm in anogenital region and showed characteristic features of neoplasm. The regional lymph nodes have produced infiltrated painful bubo. PCR analysis for HPV proved negative. Histopathology revealed well-differentiated squamous cell keratinizing carcinoma from the tumor as well as from the regional lymph node packet. Staging computed tomography scans proved negative and pelvis scans disclosed regional lymphadenopathy underlying the tumor. Palliative radiation therapy (by linear accelerator) was administered for the oversized tumor to the total TD 50.0Gy. The patient died 6 months after diagnostic assessment from cardio-respiratory failure. Staging computed tomography before her death did not disclose distinct metastases in her inner organs. Well-differentiated squamous cell keratinizing carcinoma could be growing endophytically affecting the underlying adipose tissue and musculature, with spreading into the regional lymph nodes. The rate of metastases into inner organs seems to vary according to the aggressiveness and metastatic behavior of each SCC. The case report calls for attention to the importance of collaboration among various specialists assisting in the diagnosis and management of skin neoplasm (Fig. 5, Ref. 12). Full Text in PDF www.elis.sk.

  10. Recent advances in clinical application of optical coherence tomography of human skin

    PubMed Central

    Gambichler, Thilo; Pljakic, Azem; Schmitz, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging noninvasive imaging method that uses infrared light and interferometric techniques. The method has become increasingly popular in skin research as well as daily dermatology practice. In the present brief review, we focused on recent (2009–2014) OCT studies on the human skin, which included a reasonable sample size and statistics. Twenty-five papers were selected and briefly described OCT of epidermal thickness, skin appendages, wound healing, extracellular matrix and skin fibrosis, vascular malformations, and skin tumors such as basal cell carcinoma, actinic keratoses, and malignant melanoma. PMID:26185462

  11. Malignant Neoplasia of the Sex Skin in 2 Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Amanda P; Magden, Elizabeth R; Buchl, Stephanie J; Baze, Wallace B

    2016-01-01

    This report describes 2 cases of spontaneous malignant neoplasia within the sex skin of aged female chimpanzees. In both cases, the initial presentation resembled nonhealing traumatic wounds to the sex skin, with different degrees of infection, ulceration, and tissue necrosis. Histopathology of the lesions confirmed the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma in one case and of adenocarcinoma with metastasis in the other. Advanced age and previous trauma likely contributed to the development of the neoplasias in both cases; long-term sun exposure may also have contributed to the development of the squamous cell carcinoma. To our knowledge, these 2 cases represent the first reports of sex skin neoplasia in chimpanzees. PMID:27053571

  12. Mouse Genetic Models Reveal Surprising Functions of IκB Kinase Alpha in Skin Development and Skin Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Xiaojun; Park, Eunmi; Fischer, Susan M.; Hu, Yinling

    2013-01-01

    Gene knockout studies unexpectedly reveal a pivotal role for IκB kinase alpha (IKKα) in mouse embryonic skin development. Skin carcinogenesis experiments show that Ikkα heterozygous mice are highly susceptible to chemical carcinogen or ultraviolet B light (UVB) induced benign and malignant skin tumors in comparison to wild-type mice. IKKα deletion mediated by keratin 5 (K5).Cre or K15.Cre in keratinocytes induces epidermal hyperplasia and spontaneous skin squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in Ikkα floxed mice. On the other hand, transgenic mice overexpressing IKKα in the epidermis, under the control of a truncated loricrin promoter or K5 promoter, develop normal skin and show no defects in the formation of the epidermis and other epithelial organs, and the transgenic IKKα represses chemical carcinogen or UVB induced skin carcinogenesis. Moreover, IKKα deletion mediated by a mutation, which generates a stop codon in the Ikkα gene, has been reported in a human autosomal recessive lethal syndrome. Downregulated IKKα and Ikkα mutations and deletions are found in human skin SCCs. The collective evidence not only highlights the importance of IKKα in skin development, maintaining skin homeostasis, and preventing skin carcinogenesis, but also demonstrates that mouse models are extremely valuable tools for revealing the mechanisms underlying these biological events, leading our studies from bench side to bedside. PMID:24216703

  13. Merkel Cell Carcinoma with Lymphoepithelioma-Like Pattern: A Case Report of an Exceedingly Rare Variant of Merkel Cell Carcinoma with Lymph Node Metastases at Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Ben Abdelkrim, Soumaya; Dhouibi, Abdelmajid; Moussa, Adnène; Hadhri, Rim; Njim, Leila; Mighri, Khalifa; Zakhama, Abdelfatteh

    2011-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) or primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin is a rare neoplasm with aggressive behavior. Primary lymphoepithelioma-like (LEL) carcinoma of the skin is a recently described exceptional tumor, with a relatively good prognosis, and is characterized by a neoplastic epithelial component associated with a dense lymphoid stroma. Rarely, MCC shows a marked lymphocytic host response or can even mimic a LEL carcinoma. We report a new case of MCC mimicking an LEL carcinoma in a 72-year-old male; the diagnosis of MCC was made on the basis of the morphology and immunohistochemical findings. We present through this case an exceptional pattern of MCC which can be misleading, and we insist on differential diagnoses. PMID:22937395

  14. KeraStat Skin Therapy in Treating Radiation Dermatitis in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage 0-IIIA Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-20

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Skin Reactions Secondary to Radiation Therapy; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer

  15. [The role of sonic hedgehog pathway in skin carcinogenesis].

    PubMed

    Lesiak, Aleksandra; Sysa-Jedrzejowska, Anna; Narbutt, Joanna

    2010-08-01

    Non melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) involving basal (BCC)--and squamosus cell carcinomas (SCC) and are the most frequent skin cancers in Caucasians. Ultraviolet radiation is the main environmental risk factor for NMSC development. The aim of this paper is to review the latest opinions concerning the role of sonic hedgehog pathway in non-melanoma skin cancers development. Experimental data indicate that sonic hedgehog pathway might be involved in skin carcinogenesis. Under physiological conditions sonic hedgehog pathway is responsible for normal embryogenesis, regeneration of damaged tissues and for regulation of cell proliferation. It was revealed that UVR caused inactivated mutation in PATCHED gene encoding Ptch1 protein. These events lead to deregulation of sonic hedgehog pathway trough activation of Smo protein and Gli transcriptional factors what stimulates cell proliferation and in consequence NMSC development. Literature data indicate that understanding of molecular background of skin cancers might be a reason for introduction of new therapeutic approaches including sonic hedgehog pathway inhibitors.

  16. Estrogens and aging skin

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, M. Julie

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen deficiency following menopause results in atrophic skin changes and acceleration of skin aging. Estrogens significantly modulate skin physiology, targeting keratinocytes, fibroblasts, melanocytes, hair follicles and sebaceous glands, and improve angiogenesis, wound healing and immune responses. Estrogen insufficiency decreases defense against oxidative stress; skin becomes thinner with less collagen, decreased elasticity, increased wrinkling, increased dryness and reduced vascularity. Its protective function becomes compromised and aging is associated with impaired wound healing, hair loss, pigmentary changes and skin cancer.   Skin aging can be significantly delayed by the administration of estrogen. This paper reviews estrogen effects on human skin and the mechanisms by which estrogens can alleviate the changes due to aging. The relevance of estrogen replacement, selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and phytoestrogens as therapies for diminishing skin aging is highlighted. Understanding estrogen signaling in skin will provide a basis for interventions in aging pathologies. PMID:24194966

  17. Botanical Agents for the Treatment of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancers, including basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, are common neoplasms worldwide and are the most common cancers in the United States. Standard therapy for cutaneous neoplasms typically involves surgical removal. However, there is increasing interest in the use of topical alternatives for the prevention and treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer, particularly superficial variants. Botanicals are compounds derived from herbs, spices, stems, roots, and other substances of plant origin and may be used in the form of dried or fresh plants, extracted plant material, or specific plant-derived chemicals. They possess multiple properties including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory properties and are, therefore, believed to be possible chemopreventive agents or substances that may suppress or reverse the process of carcinogenesis. Here, we provide a review of botanical agents studied for the treatment and prevention of nonmelanoma skin cancers. PMID:23983679

  18. Controversial role of mast cells in skin cancers.

    PubMed

    Varricchi, Gilda; Galdiero, Maria R; Marone, Giancarlo; Granata, Francescopaolo; Borriello, Francesco; Marone, Gianni

    2017-01-01

    Cancer development is a multistep process characterized by genetic and epigenetic alterations during tumor initiation and progression. The stromal microenvironment can promote tumor development. Mast cells, widely distributed throughout all tissues, are a stromal component of many solid and haematologic tumors. Mast cells can be found in human and mouse models of skin cancers such as melanoma, basal and squamous cell carcinomas, primary cutaneous lymphomas, haemangiomas and Merkel cell carcinoma. However, human and animal studies addressing potential functions of mast cells and their mediators in skin cancers have provided conflicting results. In several studies, mast cells play a pro-tumorigenic role, whereas in others, they play an anti-tumorigenic role. Other studies have failed to demonstrate a clear role for tumor-associated mast cells. Many unanswered questions need to be addressed before we understand whether tumor-associated mast cells are adversaries, allies or simply innocent bystanders in different types and subtypes of skin cancers.

  19. Brachytherapy in Lip Carcinoma: Long-Term Results

    SciTech Connect

    Guibert, Mireille; David, Isabelle; Vergez, Sebastien; Rives, Michel; Filleron, Thomas; Bonnet, Jacques; Delannes, Martine

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of low-dose-rate brachytherapy for local control and relapse-free survival in squamous cell and basal cell carcinomas of the lips. We compared two groups: one with tumors on the skin and the other with tumors on the lip. Patients and methods: All patients had been treated at Claudius Regaud Cancer Centre from 1990 to 2008 for squamous cell or basal cell carcinoma. Low-dose-rate brachytherapy was performed with iridium 192 wires according to the Paris system rules. On average, the dose delivered was 65 Gy. Results: 172 consecutive patients were included in our study; 69 had skin carcinoma (squamous cell or basal cell), and 92 had squamous cell mucosal carcinoma. The average follow-up time was 5.4 years. In the skin cancer group, there were five local recurrences and one lymph node recurrence. In the mucosal cancer group, there were ten local recurrences and five lymph node recurrences. The 8-year relapse-free survival for the entire population was 80%. The 8-year relapse-free survival was 85% for skin carcinoma 75% for mucosal carcinoma, with no significant difference between groups. The functional results were satisfactory for 99% of patients, and the cosmetic results were satisfactory for 92%. Maximal toxicity observed was Grade 2. Conclusions: Low-dose-rate brachytherapy can be used to treat lip carcinomas at Stages T1 and T2 as the only treatment with excellent results for local control and relapse-free survival. The benefits of brachytherapy are also cosmetic and functional, with 91% of patients having no side effects.

  20. IgG4-related disease mimicking chalazion in the upper eyelid with skin manifestations on the trunk.

    PubMed

    Leivo, Tiina; Koskenmies, Sari; Uusitalo, Marita; Tynninen, Olli

    2015-08-01

    IgG4-related disease is a recently defined inflammatory process characterized by IgG4-bearing plasma cells in the involved tissues. The most common sites of involvement are the pancreas, hepatobiliary tract, salivary glands, lymph nodes, retroperitoneum and orbit, especially the lacrimal glands. Other ocular or ocular adnexal sites are rare. To our knowledge, there is one reported case of a conjunctival involvement. We describe a patient, who had an IgG4-RD mimicking chalazion in the upper eyelid, confined to the tarsus, with multiple skin lesions on the trunk. This is a case report of a 55-year-old female. A 55-year-old female presented with an upper eyelid lesion, which was clinically diagnosed as chalazion and drained three times. Histopathological diagnoses were chalazion and inflammation with mixed cells, respectively. Additionally, the patient had had skin nodules on the trunk for several years. Finally, after a third recurrence, the tarsal eyelid lesion was completely excised. The tarsal pathology specimen showed 85 IgG4 positive plasma cells per HPF and the IgG4/IgG ratio was 0.64, suggesting a probable IgG4-related disease. The re-examined skin lesions resembled histologically the eyelid lesion. It is essential to be aware of IgG4-related disease, including in recurrent chalazia.

  1. Radiation therapy - skin care

    MedlinePlus

    ... numbness Skin sores Most of these symptoms will go away after your treatments have stopped. However, your skin may remain darker, drier, and more sensitive to the sun. When your hair grows back, it may be different than before.

  2. Squamous cell skin cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur on skin that is regularly exposed to sunlight or other ultraviolet radiation. The earliest form of ... skin cancer is to reduce your exposure to sunlight . Always use sunscreen: Apply sunscreen with sun protection ...

  3. Components of skin

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... skin layers from the outside environment and contains cells that make keratin, a substance that waterproofs and strengthens the skin. The epidermis also has cells that contain melanin, the dark pigment that gives ...

  4. Skin, Hair, and Nails

    MedlinePlus

    ... thousands of cells and hundreds of sweat glands, oil glands, nerve endings, and blood vessels. Skin is ... empty into hair follicles and pores, produce the oil sebum that lubricates the skin and hair. Sebaceous ...

  5. Bleeding into the skin

    MedlinePlus

    Protect aging skin. Avoid trauma such as bumping or pulling on skin areas. For a cut or scrape, use direct pressure to stop the bleeding. If you have a drug reaction, ask your provider about stopping the drug. Otherwise, follow ...

  6. Bacterial Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diseases Take Big Slice Out of America's Health, Economy (News) Health Tip: Use Caution When Applying Hair Dye Additional ... Skin Diseases Take Big Slice Out of America's Health, Economy THURSDAY, March 2, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Skin diseases ...

  7. Necrotizing Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diseases Take Big Slice Out of America's Health, Economy (News) Health Tip: Use Caution When Applying Hair Dye Additional ... Skin Diseases Take Big Slice Out of America's Health, Economy THURSDAY, March 2, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Skin diseases ...

  8. Neuromodulators for Aging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose Veins Vitiligo Wrinkles Treatments and Procedures Ambulatory ... Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose Veins Vitiligo Wrinkles Treatments and Procedures Ambulatory ...

  9. PPD skin test

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a method used to diagnose silent (latent) tuberculosis (TB) infection. PPD stands for purified protein derivative. ... skin test; Tuberculin skin test; Mantoux test Images Tuberculosis in the kidney Tuberculosis in the lung Positive ...

  10. Examine Your Skin

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Store In Memory Melanoma Info Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding ... video. UPDATED: November 23, 2016 Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding ...

  11. Ovarian carcinoma presenting as cutaneous nasal metastasis*

    PubMed Central

    António, Ana Marta; Alves, João Vitor; Goulão, João; Bártolo, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic ovarian cancer uncommonly presents with skin metastasis. When present, skin metastases of ovarian cancer are usually localized in the vicinity of the primary tumor. We report a case of a 58-year-old woman with a rapid growing erythematous, well-defined nodule localized on the left nasal ala. A skin biopsy was performed and histopathological and immunohistochemical findings were compatible with a cutaneous metastasis of adenocarcinoma. A systematic investigation revealed a bilateral ovarian cystadenocarcinoma associated with visceral dissemination, likely associated with nose cutaneous metastasis. We report a very uncommon case because of the presentation of ovarian carcinoma as cutaneous metastasis. To our knowledge, this atypical localization on the nose has not been described yet in the literature. PMID:28300910

  12. Microtopographic Inspection and Fractal Analysis of Skin Neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Manuel F. M.; Hipolito, Alberto Valencia; Gutierrez, Gustavo Fidel; Chanona, Jorge; Gallegos, Eva Ramón

    2008-04-01

    Early detection of skin cancer is fundamental to a successful treatment. Changes in the shape, including the relief, of skin lesions are an indicator of a possible malignity. Optical microtopographic inspection of skin lesions can be used to identify diagnostic patterns of benign and malign skin' lesions. Statistical parameters like the mean roughness (Ra) may allow the discrimination between different types of lesions and degree of malignity. Fractal analysis of bi-dimensional and 3D images of skin lesions can validate or complement that assessment by calculation of its fractal dimensions (FD). On the study herein reported the microtopographic inspection of the skin lesions were performed using the optical triangulation based microtopographer developed at the Physics Department of the University of Minho, MICROTOP.03.MFC. The patients that participated in this research work were men and women older than 15 years with the clinical and histopathology diagnoses of: melanoma, basocellular carcinoma, epidermoide carcinoma, actinic keratosis, keratoacantosis and benign nevus. Latex impressions of the lesions were taken and microtopographically analyzed. Characteristic information for each type of studied lesion was obtained. For melanoma it was observed that on the average these tumors present an increased roughness of around 67 percent compared to the roughness of the healthy skin. This feature allows the distinction from other tumors as basocellular carcinoma (were the roughness increase was in the average of 49 percent) and benign lesions as the epidermoide cyst (37 percent) or the seborrhea keratosis (4 percent). Tumor size and roughness are directly proportional to the grade of malignality. The characterization of the fractal geometry of 2D (histological slides) and 3D images of skin lesions was performed by obtaining its FD evaluated by means of the Box counting method. Results obtained showed that the average fractal dimension of histological slide images (FDh

  13. [Care of Merkel cell carcinoma and role of the radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Rehailia-Blanchard, Amel; Pigné, Grégoire; Guy, Jean-Baptiste; Vallard, Alexis; El Meddeb Hamrouni, Anis; Rancoule, Chloé; Magné, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare neuro-endocrine tumor of skin with a poor prognosis. Data available in literature are scarce. Current treatment for locoregional disease is based on combined treatment by surgery and radiotherapy. However these treatments are controversial. The aim of the present review is to sum up the different available studies and to compare national and international guidelines.

  14. Ultrasound skin imaging.

    PubMed

    Alfageme Roldán, F

    2014-12-01

    The interaction of high-frequency ultrasound waves with the skin provides the basis for noninvasive, fast, and accessible diagnostic imaging. This tool is increasingly used in skin cancer and inflammatory conditions as well as in cosmetic dermatology. This article reviews the basic principles of skin ultrasound and its applications in the different areas of dermatology.

  15. Skin self-exam

    MedlinePlus

    Skin cancer - self-exam; Melanoma - self-exam; Basal cell cancer - self-exam; Squamous cell - self-exam; Skin mole - self-exam ... Cancer Institute. What You Need To Know About Melanoma and Other Skin Cancers: How To Check Your ...

  16. Psychoneuroimmunology and the Skin.

    PubMed

    Honeyman, Juan F

    2016-08-23

    The nervous, immune, endocrine and integumentary systems are closely related and interact in a number of normal and pathological conditions. Nervous system mediators may bring about direct changes to the skin or may induce the release of immunological or hormonal mediators that cause pathological changes to the skin. This article reviews the psychological mechanisms involved in the development of skin diseases.

  17. Biology of Skin Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcos, Alain

    1983-01-01

    Information from scientific journals on the biology of skin color is discussed. Major areas addressed include: (1) biology of melanin, melanocytes, and melanosomes; (2) melanosome and human diversity; (3) genetics of skin color; and (4) skin color, geography, and natural selection. (JN)

  18. Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC; Thyroid nodule - medullary ... in children and adults. Unlike other types of thyroid cancer, MTC is less likely to be caused by ...

  19. Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    Primary liver cell carcinoma; Tumor - liver; Cancer - liver; Hepatoma ... Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for most liver cancers. This type of cancer occurs more often in men than women. It is usually diagnosed in people age 50 or ...

  20. Hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tang, Z Y

    2000-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has ranked second in cancer mortality in China since the 1990s and is increasing in frequency among males in many countries. Hepatitis B and C viruses, aflatoxin and algal toxin in the contaminated drinking water remain major aetiological factors and hepatitis G virus and transfusion-transmitted virus can not be excluded. A prospective randomized control trial screening for HCC in a high-risk population using alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and ultrasonography has demonstrated a decrease in HCC mortality. Rapidly progressing medical imaging has continuously contributed to the improving treatment results. Surgical resection still plays a major role in influencing prognosis of HCC. Studies on recurrence and metastasis after curative resection have become a key issue for further improvement of the surgical outcome. Regional cancer therapies are progressing rapidly, based on the advances in early diagnosis. The advantages and disadvantages of these are noted. Multimodality combination and sequential treatment has been accepted as an important approach for unresectable HCC and cytoreduction and sequential resection have attracted attention. Conformal radiotherapy has shown important potential for HCC treatment. Intra-arterial chemotherapy has been repeatedly proved effective; however, systemic chemotherapy for HCC remains disappointing. The effects of tamoxifen are questionable, whereas alpha-interferon has been shown to have significant potential, particularly in prevention of recurrence. All of these treatments have resulted in continuing improvement of HCC prognosis in some centres.

  1. CUTANEOUS SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA IN A PANTHER CHAMELEON (FURCIFER PARDALIS) AND TREATMENT WITH CARBOPLATIN IMPLANTABLE BEADS.

    PubMed

    Johnson, James G; Naples, Lisa M; Chu, Caroline; Kinsel, Michael J; Flower, Jennifer E; Van Bonn, William G

    2016-09-01

    A 3-yr-old male panther chameleon (Furcifer pardalis) presented with bilateral raised crusted skin lesions along the lateral body wall that were found to be carcinoma in situ and squamous cell carcinoma. Similar lesions later developed on the caudal body wall and tail. A subcutaneous implantable carboplatin bead was placed in the first squamous cell carcinoma lesion identified. Additional new lesions sampled were also found to be squamous cell carcinomas, and viral polymerase chain reaction was negative for papillomaviruses and herpesviruses. Significant skin loss would have resulted from excision of all the lesions, so treatment with only carboplatin beads was used. No adverse effects were observed. Lesions not excised that were treated with beads decreased in size. This is the first description of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and treatment with carboplatin implantable beads in a panther chameleon.

  2. Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    No matter if your skin is light, dark, or somewhere in between, everyone is at risk for skin cancer. Learn what skin cancer looks like, how to find it early, and how to lower the chance of skin cancer.

  3. Sex differences in the incidence of skin and skin-related diseases in Olmsted County, Minnesota, United States, and a comparison with other rates published worldwide.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Louise K; Davis, Mark D P

    2016-09-01

    Many skin and skin-related diseases affect the sexes unequally, with attendant implications for public health and resource allocation. To evaluate better the incidence of skin and skin-related diseases affecting males vs. females, we reviewed published population-based epidemiology studies of skin disorders performed utilizing Rochester Epidemiology Project data. Females had a higher incidence of the following diseases: connective tissue diseases (scleroderma, morphea, dermatomyositis, primary Sjögren syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus [not in all studies]), pityriasis rosea, herpes progenitalis, condyloma acuminatum, hidradenitis suppurativa, herpes zoster (except in children), erythromelalgia, venous stasis syndrome, and venous ulcers. Males had a higher incidence of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis, basal cell carcinoma (exception, females aged ≤40 years), squamous cell carcinoma, and lentigo maligna. Incidence rates were equal in males and females for cutaneous malignant melanoma (exception, higher in females aged 18-39 years), lower-extremity cellulitis, cutaneous nontuberculous mycobacterial infection, Behçet disease, delusional infestation, alopecia areata, and bullous pemphigoid. Many of the population-based sex-specific incidence rates of skin and skin-related diseases derived from the Rochester Epidemiology Project are strikingly different from those estimated elsewhere. In general, females are more commonly affected by skin and skin-related diseases. The reasons for this imbalance remain to be determined and are likely multifactorial.

  4. Evolving role of skin sparing mastectomy.

    PubMed

    Kasem, Abdul; Mokbel, Kefah

    2014-05-10

    Skin sparing mastectomy (SSM) can facilitate immediate breast reconstruction and is associated with an excellent aesthetic result. The procedure is safe in selected cases; including invasive tumours < 5 cm, multi-centric tumours, ductal carcinoma in situ and for risk-reduction surgery. Inflammatory breast cancers and tumours with extensive involvement of the skin represent contra-indications to SSM due to an unacceptable risk of local recurrence. Prior breast irradiation or the need for post-mastectomy radiotherapy do not preclude SSM, however the aesthetic outcome may be compromised. Preservation of the nipple areola complex is safe for peripherally located node negative tumours. An intraoperative frozen section protocol for the retro-areolar tissue should be considered in these cases. The advent of acellular tissue matrix systems has enhanced the scope of implant-based immediate reconstruction following SSM. Cell-assisted fat transfer is emerging as a promising technique to optimise the aesthetic outcome.

  5. Pattern of skin cancer among Saudi patients attending a tertiary care center in Dhahran, Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. A 20-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Al-Dawsari, Najla A; Amra, Nasir

    2016-12-01

    Skin cancer is the ninth most common malignancy in Saudi Arabia. It represented 3.2% of all newly diagnosed cancer cases in the year 2010. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiology of skin cancer in relation to age, sex, and anatomic location among Saudi patients attending the Johns Hopkins Aramco Healthcare center in Dhahran, Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. We retrospectively reviewed the surgical pathology records of Saudi nationals from 1995 to 2014 at the Johns Hopkins Aramco Healthcare center, which directly provides for the healthcare needs of Saudi Aramco company employees and dependents in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Tumor metastases to skin, skin involvement by primary breast carcinoma, and B-cell leukemia/lymphoma with secondary involvement by skin were excluded. The total number of primary skin tumors was 204. The commonest cutaneous malignancies were basal cell carcinoma (36%) followed by squamous cell carcinoma (23%), with the head and neck being the commonest location for both tumors. Mycosis fungoides (MF) was the third most common malignancy (11%). Malignant melanoma was the fourth commonest skin malignancy (7%) with the lower extremities being the commonest location. The four most common skin cancers in our tertiary center in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia were squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, MF, and malignant melanoma. Other regions of Saudi Arabia report a similar pattern of skin cancers as our center, with MF having a higher frequency at our center.

  6. Sensitive skin: an overview.

    PubMed

    Inamadar, Arun C; Palit, Aparna

    2013-01-01

    Sensitive skin is less tolerant to frequent and prolonged use of cosmetics and toiletries. It is self-diagnosed and typically unaccompanied by any obvious physical signs of irritation. With the change in lifestyle and also with increased opportunity to use many new brands of cosmetics and toiletries, there has been an increase in females complaining of unique sensation in their facial skin. Sensitive skin presents as smarting, burning, stinging, itching, and/or tight sensation in their facial skin. The condition is found in more than 50% of women and 40% of men, creating a sizable demand for products designed to minimize skin sensitivity. Good numbers of invasive and non-invasive tests are designed to evaluate and predict the sensitive skin. Management includes guidelines for selecting suitable cosmetics and toiletries in sensitive skin individuals.

  7. Pursuing prosthetic electronic skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chortos, Alex; Liu, Jia; Bao, Zhenan

    2016-09-01

    Skin plays an important role in mediating our interactions with the world. Recreating the properties of skin using electronic devices could have profound implications for prosthetics and medicine. The pursuit of artificial skin has inspired innovations in materials to imitate skin's unique characteristics, including mechanical durability and stretchability, biodegradability, and the ability to measure a diversity of complex sensations over large areas. New materials and fabrication strategies are being developed to make mechanically compliant and multifunctional skin-like electronics, and improve brain/machine interfaces that enable transmission of the skin's signals into the body. This Review will cover materials and devices designed for mimicking the skin's ability to sense and generate biomimetic signals.

  8. [Skin diseases and obesity].

    PubMed

    Guerra-Segovia, Carolina; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a public health problem worldwide. It predominates in industrialized countries; however, it is prevalent in all nations. It is defined as a condition of excess adipose tissue and is the result of changes in lifestyle, excessive consumption of energy-dense foods with poor nutritional value, physical inactivity and the reduction of open space where one can practice a sport. Although obesity is associated with multiple diseases, it is important to stress that the metabolic changes caused by it affect skin physiology and play a predisposing factor for the development of skin diseases. Very little has been studied on the impact of obesity on the skin. The purpose of this article is to review the most frequently skin diseases in obesity. Some skin pathologies in obesity are caused by changes in skin physiology, others are related to insulin resistance or constitute an exacerbating factor for dermatitis. This article covers the clinical features of obesity related skin disease and its management.

  9. The effect of microneedles on the skin permeability and antitumor activity of topical 5-fluorouracil

    PubMed Central

    Naguib, Youssef W.; Kumar, Amit; Cui, Zhengrong

    2014-01-01

    Topical 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is approved for the treatment of superficial basal cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis. However, 5-FU suffers from poor skin permeation. Microneedles have been successfully applied to improve the skin permeability of small and large molecules, and even nanoparticles, by creating micron-sized pores in the stratum corneum layer of the skin. In this report, the feasibility of using microneedles to increase the skin permeability of 5-FU was tested. Using full thickness mouse skin mounted on Franz diffusion apparatus, it was shown that the flux of 5-FU through the skin was increased by up to 4.5-fold when the skin was pretreated with microneedles (500 μm in length, 50 μm in base diameter). In a mouse model with B16-F10 mouse melanoma cells implanted in the subcutaneous space, the antitumor activity of a commercially available 5-FU topical cream (5%) was significantly enhanced when the cream was applied on a skin area that was pretreated with microneedles, as compared to when the cream was simply applied on a skin area, underneath which the tumor cells were implanted, and without pretreatment of the skin with microneedles. Fluorouracil is not approved for melanoma therapy, but the clinical efficacy of topical 5-FU against tumors such as basal cell carcinoma may be improved by integrating microneedle technology into the therapy. PMID:25313350

  10. The risk of transmitting cutaneous malignancy through skin transplantation: a literature-based risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Bosma, Sarah; Van Wijk, Marja J; Richters, Cornelia D; Beele, Hilde

    2015-12-01

    According to the European Union Tissues and Cells Directives donation of tissue is contraindicated in the presence of or a previous history of malignant disease, with the exception of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma. Skin cancer is the most common cancer. Due to ultraviolet light exposure and increasing life expectancy an increasing prevalence of malignant or premalignant skin lesions is observed, which may result in a decline of the availability of skin for transplantation. A risk assessment based on published studies and expert opinion was performed in order to investigate the risk of transmitting malignant or premalignant skin lesions through tissue transplantation, and more particular through skin transplantation. The scarcity of data concerning cancer transmission in tissue transplantation was challenging. Circumstantial evidence, available for organ transplantation, was used to develop the following policy proposal for skin transplantation and cutaneous tumours. Malignant melanoma is an absolute contraindication for the donation of skin and also of other tissues, whereas, non-lesional skin and other tissues of a donor with non-melanoma skin cancer (basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma) or with a premalignant skin lesion can be considered for transplantation. The above mentioned protocol proposal might serve as a prototype for analogous protocols for non-cutaneous malignancies.

  11. The immune system and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Sherry H; Bordeaux, Jeremy S; Baron, Elma D

    2014-01-01

    Carcinogenesis involves multiple mechanisms that disturb genomic integrity and encourage abnormal proliferation. The immune system plays an integral role in maintaining homeostasis and these mechanisms may arrest or enhance dysplasia. There exists a large body of evidence from organ transplantation literature supporting the significance of the immune suppression in the development of skin cancer. Nonmelanoma skin cancers are the most frequent neoplasms after organ transplantation, with organ transplant recipients having a 65-fold increase in squamous cell carcinoma incidence and 10-fold increase in basal cell carcinoma incidence. Similarly, UV-radiation (UVR) induced immunosuppression is correlated with the development of cutaneous malignancies in a dose-dependent manner. This was first shown several decades ago by Margaret Kripke, when transplanted tumors were rejected in mice with competent immune systems, but grew unchecked in immunosuppressed specimens. After UV exposure, chromophores initiate a cascade that leads to immunosuppression via derangement of Langerhans cells' antigen-presenting capacity. UV-irradiated Langerhans cells present antigens to Th2 cells, but fail to stimulate Th1 cells. A subset of T regulatory cells, specific for the antigen encountered after UVR, is also stimulated to proliferate. In general UV irradiation leads to a greater number of T regulatory cells and fewer effector T cells in the skin, shiftingthe balance from T-cell-mediated immunity to immunosuppression. These regulatory cells have the phenotype CD4+, CD25+, Foxp3+, CTLA-4+. These and many other changes in local immunity lead to a suppressed immune state, which allow for skin cancer development.

  12. Nonfunctioning parathyroid carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Klink, B.K.; Karulf, R.E.; Maimon, W.N.; Peoples, J.B. )

    1991-07-01

    Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare clinical entity accounting for only 4 per cent of all cases of parathyroid neoplasia. Nonfunctioning parathyroid carcinoma is even rarer. Previously, virtually all patients with these lesions were treated for a nonspecific neck mass. However, in the present case, a preoperative diagnosis of nonfunctioning parathyroid carcinoma was made based on the technetium pertechnetate/thallium 201 subtraction scan. The authors report on the 14th case of nonfunctioning parathyroid carcinoma, a review of the literature, and guidelines for the preoperative and operative evaluation of neck masses suspected to be parathyroid carcinoma.22 references.

  13. Pigmented Basal cell carcinoma of nipple and areola in a male breast - a case report with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Kalyani, R; Vani, B R; Srinivas, Murthy V; Veda, P

    2014-03-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is a common skin cancer worldwide. However basal cell carcinoma of nipple and areola complex is rare, commonly seen in males in elderly age group. The tumor has aggressive behavior with increased tendency for metastasis. We present a case in a 78 year male in the left breast.

  14. Tryptophan hydroxylase expression in human skin cells.

    PubMed

    Slominski, Andrzej; Pisarchik, Alexander; Johansson, Olle; Jing, Chen; Semak, Igor; Slugocki, George; Wortsman, Jacobo

    2003-10-15

    We attempted to further characterize cutaneous serotoninergic and melatoninergic pathways evaluating the key biosynthetic enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH). There was wide expression of TPH mRNA in whole human skin, cultured melanocytes and melanoma cells, dermal fibroblasts, squamous cell carcinoma cells and keratinocytes. Gene expression was associated with detection of TPH immunoreactive species by Western blotting. Characterization of the TPH immunoreactive species performed with two different antibodies showed expression of the expected protein (55-60 kDa), and of forms with higher and lower molecular weights. This pattern of broad spectrum of TPH expression including presumed degradation products suggests rapid turnover of the enzyme, as previously reported in mastocytoma cells. RP-HPLC of skin extracts showed fluorescent species with the retention time of serotonin and N-acetylserotonin. Immunocytochemistry performed in skin biopsies localized TPH immunoreactivity to normal and malignant melanocytes. We conclude that while the TPH mRNA and protein are widely expressed in cultured normal and pathological epidermal and dermal skin cells, in vivo TPH expression is predominantly restricted to cells of melanocytic origin.

  15. Photocarcinogenesis and Skin Cancer Prevention Strategies.

    PubMed

    Seebode, Christina; Lehmann, Janin; Emmert, Steffen

    2016-03-01

    In this review the basic principles of UV-induced carcinogenesis are summarized and the state of the art diagnosis and therapeutic strategies are discussed. The prevalent keratinocyte-derived neoplasms of the skin are basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas. Cutaneous melanoma is less frequent but associated with high mortality. Common risk factors for all three tumor entities include sun exposure and DNA-repair deficiencies. Photocarcinogenesis follows a multistep model of cancer development in which ultraviolet-induced DNA damage leads to mutations resulting in activation of oncogenes or silencing of tumor-suppressor genes. This ends in a cellular mutator phenotype even more prone to mutation acquisition. DNA repair, especially the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway, counteracts mutation formation and skin cancer development. This is vividly demonstrated by the NER-defective disorder xeroderma pigmentosum. Primary skin cancer preventative strategies, therefore, include reduction of DNA photodamage by protection from the sun. Secondary preventative strategies include skin cancer screening. This implies standard examination techniques with the naked eye, an epiluminescence microscope, or digital epiluminescence microscopy. More advanced techniques include confocal laser scan microscopy.

  16. Melanocortin-1 receptor gene variants determine the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer independently of fair skin and red hair.

    PubMed

    Bastiaens, M T; ter Huurne, J A; Kielich, C; Gruis, N A; Westendorp, R G; Vermeer, B J; Bavinck, J N

    2001-04-01

    Melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene variants are associated with fair skin and red hair and, independently of these, with cutaneous malignant melanoma. The association of MC1R gene variants with nonmelanoma skin cancer is largely unknown. A total of 838 subjects were included in the present study: 453 patients with nonmelanoma skin cancer and 385 subjects with no skin cancer. The coding sequence of the human MC1R gene was tested using single-stranded conformation polymorphism analysis followed by sequencing of unknown variants. Risk of skin cancer dependent on the various MC1R gene variants was estimated using the exposure odds ratio. We investigated whether subjects with MC1R variant alleles were at increased risk of developing nonmelanoma skin cancer and, if so, whether this increased risk was mediated by fair skin and red hair. A total of 27 MC1R gene variants were found. The number of carriers of one, two, or three MC1R gene variants was 379 (45.2%), 208 (24.8%), and 7 (0.9%), respectively. A strong association between MC1R gene variants and fair skin and red hair was established, especially the variants Arg151Cys and Arg160Trp (P < .0001). Carriers of two variant alleles were at increased risk for developing cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (odds ratio 3.77; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.11-6.78), nodular basal cell carcinoma (odds ratio 2.26; 95% CI 1.45-3.52), and superficial multifocal basal cell carcinoma (odds ratio 3.43; 95% CI 1.92-6.15), compared with carriers of two wild-type alleles. Carriers of one variant allele had half the risk. The highest relative risks of nonmelanoma skin cancer were found in carriers of the Asp84Glu, His260Pro, and Asp294His variant alleles, and the risk was only slightly lower for carriers of the Val60Leu, Val92Met, Arg142His, Arg151Cys, and Arg160Trp variant alleles. When subjects were stratified by skin type and hair color, analysis showed that these factors did not materially change the relative risks. These findings

  17. Squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma*

    PubMed Central

    Saraiva, Maria Isabel Ramos; Vieira, Marcella Amaral Horta Barbosa; Portocarrero, Larissa Karine Leite; Fraga, Rafael Cavanellas; Kakizaki, Priscila; Valente, Neusa Yuriko Sakai

    2016-01-01

    Squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma is an eccrine carcinoma subtype, and only twelve cases have been reported until now. It is a rare tumor and its histopathological diagnosis is difficult. Almost half of patients are misdiagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma by the incisional biopsy. We report the thirteenth case of squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma. Female patient, 72 years old, in the last 6 months presenting erythematous, keratotic and ulcerated papules on the nose. The incisional biopsy diagnosed squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma. After excision, histopathology revealed positive margins. A wideningmargins surgery and grafting were performed, which again resulted in positive margins. The patient was then referred for radiotherapy. After 25 sessions, the injury reappeared. After another surgery, although the intraoperative biopsy showed free surgical margins, the product of resection revealed persistent lesion. Distinction between squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma is important because of the more aggressive nature of the first, which requires wider margins surgery to avoid recurrence. PMID:28099603

  18. Squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Maria Isabel Ramos; Vieira, Marcella Amaral Horta Barbosa; Portocarrero, Larissa Karine Leite; Fraga, Rafael Cavanellas; Kakizaki, Priscila; Valente, Neusa Yuriko Sakai

    2016-01-01

    Squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma is an eccrine carcinoma subtype, and only twelve cases have been reported until now. It is a rare tumor and its histopathological diagnosis is difficult. Almost half of patients are misdiagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma by the incisional biopsy. We report the thirteenth case of squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma. Female patient, 72 years old, in the last 6 months presenting erythematous, keratotic and ulcerated papules on the nose. The incisional biopsy diagnosed squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma. After excision, histopathology revealed positive margins. A wideningmargins surgery and grafting were performed, which again resulted in positive margins. The patient was then referred for radiotherapy. After 25 sessions, the injury reappeared. After another surgery, although the intraoperative biopsy showed free surgical margins, the product of resection revealed persistent lesion. Distinction between squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma is important because of the more aggressive nature of the first, which requires wider margins surgery to avoid recurrence.

  19. In vivo hyperspectral imaging and differentiation of skin cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zherdeva, Larisa A.; Bratchenko, Ivan A.; Myakinin, Oleg O.; Moryatov, Alexander A.; Kozlov, Sergey V.; Zakharov, Valery P.

    2016-10-01

    Results of hyperspectral imaging analysis for in vivo visualization of skin neoplasms are presented. 16 melanomas, 19 basal cell carcinomas and 10 benign tumors with different stages of neoplasm growth were tested. The HSI system provide skin tissue images with 5 nm spectral resolution in the range of 450-750 nm with automatic stabilization of each frame compensating displacement of the scanning area due to spontaneous macro-movements of the patient. The integrated optical densities in 530-600 and 600-670 nm ranges are used for real-time hemoglobin and melanin distribution imaging in skin tissue. It was shown that the total accuracy of skin cancer identification exceeds 90% and 70% for differentiation of melanomas from BCC and begihn tumors. It was demonstrated the possibility for HSI classification of melanomas of different stages.

  20. Three-Dimensional In Vitro Skin and Skin Cancer Models Based on Human Fibroblast-Derived Matrix.

    PubMed

    Berning, Manuel; Prätzel-Wunder, Silke; Bickenbach, Jackie R; Boukamp, Petra

    2015-09-01

    Three-dimensional in vitro skin and skin cancer models help to dissect epidermal-dermal and tumor-stroma interactions. In the model presented here, normal human dermal fibroblasts isolated from adult skin self-assembled into dermal equivalents with their specific fibroblast-derived matrix (fdmDE) over 4 weeks. The fdmDE represented a complex human extracellular matrix that was stabilized by its own heterogeneous collagen fiber meshwork, largely resembling a human dermal in vivo architecture. Complemented with normal human epidermal keratinocytes, the skin equivalent (fdmSE) thereof favored the establishment of a well-stratified and differentiated epidermis and importantly allowed epidermal regeneration in vitro for at least 24 weeks. Moreover, the fdmDE could be used to study the features of cutaneous skin cancer. Complementing fdmDE with HaCaT cells in different stages of malignancy or tumor-derived cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, the resulting skin cancer equivalents (fdmSCEs) recapitulated the respective degree of tumorigenicity. In addition, the fdmSCE invasion phenotypes correlated with their individual degree of tissue organization, disturbance in basement membrane organization, and presence of matrix metalloproteinases. Together, fdmDE-based models are well suited for long-term regeneration of normal human epidermis and, as they recapitulate tumor-specific growth, differentiation, and invasion profiles of cutaneous skin cancer cells, also provide an excellent human in vitro skin cancer model.

  1. Melanocortin 1 receptor variants and skin cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Han, Jiali; Kraft, Peter; Colditz, Graham A; Wong, Jason; Hunter, David J

    2006-10-15

    Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene variants are associated with red hair and fair skin color. We assessed the associations of common MC1R genotypes with the risks of 3 types of skin cancer simultaneously in a nested case-control study within the Nurses' Health Study (219 melanoma, 286 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and 300 basal cell carcinoma (BCC) cases, and 873 controls). We found that the 151Cys, 160Trp and 294His variants were significantly associated with red hair, fair skin color and childhood tanning tendency. The MC1R variants, especially the 151Cys variant, were associated with increased risks of the 3 types of skin cancer, after controlling for hair color, skin color and other skin cancer risk factors. Carriers of the 151Cys variant had an OR of 1.65 (95% CI, 1.04-2.59) for melanoma, 1.67 (1.12-2.49) for SCC and 1.56 (1.03-2.34) for BCC. Women with medium or olive skin color carrying 1 nonred hair color allele and 1 red hair color allele had the highest risk of melanoma. A similar interaction pattern was observed for red hair and carrying at least 1 red hair color allele on melanoma risk. We also observed that the 151Cys variant contributed additional melanoma risk among red-haired women. The information on MC1R status modestly improved the risk prediction; the increase was significant for melanoma and BCC (p, 0.004 and 0.05, respectively). These findings indicated that the effects of the MC1R variants on skin cancer risk were independent from self-reported phenotypic pigmentation.

  2. Altered glucocorticoid receptor expression and function during mouse skin carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Budunova, I V; Carbajal, S; Kang, H; Viaje, A; Slaga, T J

    1997-03-01

    Glucocorticoids are the most potent inhibitors of tumor promotion in mouse skin, when applied with a promoting agent at the early stages of promotion. However, established skin papillomas become resistant to growth inhibition by glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoid control of cellular functions is mediated by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), a well-known transcription factor. Here we present data on GR expression and function in mouse papillomas and squamous cell carcinomas. Tumors were produced in SENCAR mice by a 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate two-stage protocol. In early papillomas (after 15-20 wk of promotion), northern blotting revealed a decrease in the GR mRNA level that was confirmed by a binding assay. However, in late papillomas (after 30-40 wk of promotion), and especially in squamous cell carcinomas, the level of GR in both assays was similar to or higher than the GR level in normal epidermis. To test the functional capability of GR in tumors, we compared the effect of the synthetic glucocorticoid fluocinolone acetonide (FA) on keratinocyte proliferation and on expression of glucocorticoid-responsive genes in normal epidermis, hyperplastic skin surrounding tumors, and mouse skin papillomas. FA strongly inhibited DNA synthesis in keratinocytes in normal skin and tumor-surrounding skin but had no effect on DNA synthesis in papillomas. In addition, FA strongly induced metallothionein 1 expression and inhibited connexin 26 expression in skin but did not affect expression of these genes in tumors. These data suggest that alteration of both the expression and function of GR may be an important mechanism of tumor promotion in skin.

  3. Carcinoma arising in pilonidal sinuses.

    PubMed Central

    Pilipshen, S J; Gray, G; Goldsmith, E; Dineen, P

    1981-01-01

    Pilonidal carcinoma is an infrequent complication of pilonidal disease. The surgeon's suspicion should be raised in cases of longstanding pilonidal inflammation. The disease occurs most frequently in men. The lesion is often a well-differentiated squamous carcinoma. Wide excisions at the initial procedure following a brief period of local wound care, is the optimum treatment and increases the chances for a five-year survival. Definitive closure of the defect is delayed and accomplished by rotational flaps or skin grafts. It palpable nodes are present in the inguinal region they should be biopsied even though this does not necessarily connote metastasis. When inguinal node metastasis is present, this is associated with a poor prognosis. The incidence of occult node metastasis is not known because no prophylactic groin dissections were performed. Staged groin dissections were not associated with any long-term survivals. The series was too small to determine its palliative potential. Radiation therapy may palliate local bone or soft tissue recurrences. Re-excisions of local soft tissue recurrences can provide, in some instances, long disease-free intervals. Both topical and systemic chemotherapy were administered in more recent cases with poor results, but this series is not large enough to form conclusions for this modality of treatment. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:7212813

  4. Skin protection for hairdressers.

    PubMed

    Skudlik, Christoph; John, Swen Malte

    2007-01-01

    The application of protective creams in the hairdressing trade forms part of a complex concept for the prevention of occupational skin disorders. To date, no comparative controlled intervention studies have been carried out using different skin-protective creams. Previously published skin protection plans concerning barrier creams for the hairdressing trade are fairly general or rudimentary, reflecting our still limited knowledge on the subject. Bioengineering studies have even demonstrated a paradoxical effect of a certain skin-protective foam designed for hairdressers. Regarding other barrier creams, a certain protective effect could however be shown in studies concerning exposure to wetness and detergents. Pre-exposition skin protection seems to be of particular relevance. Thus, in principle, the regular application of adequate skin protection creams can be recommended in the hairdressing trade, although the protective effect should not be overvalued.

  5. Serotoninergic and melatoninergic systems are fully expressed in human skin.

    PubMed

    Slominski, Andrzej; Pisarchik, Alexander; Semak, Igor; Sweatman, Trevor; Wortsman, Jacobo; Szczesniewski, Andre; Slugocki, George; McNulty, John; Kauser, Söbia; Tobin, Desmond J; Jing, Chen; Johansson, Olle

    2002-06-01

    We investigated the cutaneous expression of genes and enzymes responsible for the multistep conversion of tryptophan to serotonin and further to melatonin. Samples tested were human skin, normal and pathologic (basal cell carcinoma and melanoma), cultured normal epidermal and follicular melanocytes, melanoma cell lines, normal neonatal and adult epidermal and follicular keratinocytes, squamous cell carcinoma cells, and fibroblasts from dermis and follicular papilla. The majority of the samples showed simultaneous expression of the genes for tryptophan hydroxylase, arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT), and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT). The products of AANAT activity were identified by RP-HPLC with fluorimetric detection in human skin and in cultured normal and malignant melanocytes and immortalized keratinocytes; HIOMT activity was detected in human skin, keratinocytes, and melanoma cells. N-acetylserotonin (NAS) was detected by RP-HPLC in human skin extracts. NAS identity was confirmed further by LC/MS in keratinocytes. In conclusion, we provide evidence that the human skin expresses intrinsic serotonin and melatonin biosynthetic pathways.

  6. BCC skin cancer diagnosis based on texture analysis techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Shao-Hui; Sun, Xiaoyan; Chang, Wen-Yu; Chen, Gwo-Shing; Huang, Adam; Li, Jiang; McKenzie, Frederic D.

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we present a texture analysis based method for diagnosing the Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC) skin cancer using optical images taken from the suspicious skin regions. We first extracted the Run Length Matrix and Haralick texture features from the images and used a feature selection algorithm to identify the most effective feature set for the diagnosis. We then utilized a Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) classifier to classify the images to BCC or normal cases. Experiments showed that detecting BCC cancer based on optical images is feasible. The best sensitivity and specificity we achieved on our data set were 94% and 95%, respectively.

  7. Ultraviolet radiation and skin cancer: molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Mahmoud R

    2005-03-01

    Every living organism on the surface of the earth is exposed to the ultraviolet (UV) fraction of the sunlight. This electromagnetic energy has both life-giving and life-endangering effects. UV radiation can damage DNA and thus mutagenize several genes involved in the development of the skin cancer. The presence of typical signature of UV-induced mutations on these genes indicates that the ultraviolet-B part of sunlight is responsible for the evolution of cutaneous carcinogenesis. During this process, variable alterations of the oncogenic, tumor-suppressive, and cell-cycle control signaling pathways occur. These pathways include (a) mutated PTCH (in the mitogenic Sonic Hedgehog pathway) and mutated p53 tumor-suppressor gene in basal cell carcinomas, (b) an activated mitogenic ras pathway and mutated p53 in squamous cell carcinomas, and (c) an activated ras pathway, inactive p16, and p53 tumor suppressors in melanomas. This review presents background information about the skin optics, UV radiation, and molecular events involved in photocarcinogenesis.

  8. Neuroendocrinology of the skin

    PubMed Central

    Zmijewski, Michal A

    2011-01-01

    The concept on the skin neuro-endocrine has been formulated ten years ago, and recent advances in the field further strengthened this role. Thus, skin forms a bidirectional platform for a signal exchange with other peripheral organs, endocrine and immune systems or brain to enable rapid and selective responses to the environment in order to maintain local and systemic homeostasis. In this context, it is not surprising that the function of the skin is tightly regulated by systemic neuro-endocrine system. Skin cells and skin appendages not only respond to neuropeptides, steroids and other regulatory signals, but also actively synthesis variety of hormones. The stress responses within the skin are tightly regulated by locally synthesized factors and their receptor expression. There is growing evidence for alternative splicing playing an important role in stress signaling. Deregulation of the skin neuro-endocrine signaling can lead or/and be a marker of variety of skin diseases. The major problem in this area relates to their detailed mechanisms of crosstalk between skin and brain and between the local and global endocrine as well as immune systems. PMID:21519402

  9. Skin care and incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    Incontinence - skin care; Incontinence - pressure sore; Incontinence - pressure ulcer ... redness, peeling, irritation, and yeast infections likely. Bedsores ( pressure sores ) may also develop if the person: Has ...

  10. Drinking Water Arsenic Contamination, Skin Lesions, and Malignancies: A Systematic Review of the Global Evidence.

    PubMed

    Karagas, Margaret R; Gossai, Anala; Pierce, Brandon; Ahsan, Habibul

    2015-03-01

    Skin lesions and cancer are known manifestations of chronic exposure to arsenic contaminated drinking water. Epidemiologic data primarily comes from regions with exposures 1-2 orders of magnitude above the current World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines of 10 μg/L. Emerging evidence indicates that more common exposures may also be related to both noncancerous and cancerous changes to the skin. In this review, we focus on the body of epidemiologic literature that encompasses exposures within the WHO guidelines, excluding studies that lacked individual exposure estimates and case reports. For skin lesions and skin cancers, 15 and 10 studies were identified that met our criteria, respectively. For skin lesions, a consistent dose-response relationship with water arsenic has been observed, with increased risk evident at low- to moderate-dose exposure. Of the larger studies of specific histologic types of skin cancers, although with differing exposure definitions, there was evidence of dose-related relationships with both basal cell carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas. The effect of arsenic exposure on skin lesion risk is likely modified by genetic variants that influence arsenic metabolism. Accumulating evidence suggests that arsenic may increase risk of skin lesions and skin cancers at levels not previously considered harmful, and that genetic factors may influence risk.

  11. Physiology of skin.

    PubMed

    Greaves, M W

    1976-07-01

    One of Montagna's greatest contributions to study of the biology of the skin has been his demolition of the artificial walls that traditionally separated the histologist from the physiologist. He has shown that only by relating function with structure can we shed light on the workings of the skin. He has stressed the fallacy of studying a single structural or functional unit in isolation from others. The skin represents an organization of many different functional units, and physiology of skin is the study of this organization. My purpose is to make a personal commentary on the achievements, failures, and prospects of understanding some aspects of the organization of the functional units. Twenty-five years ago, the importance of relating skin to internal organs and systems received much attention. We have long been aware that skin sometimes reacts to internal disease, but only recently has the impact of skin disorders on the circulatory, renal, and gastrointestinal systems been recognized. As a result, our patients are now less likely to suffer from neglect of the whole which follows narrow over-specialized attention to the part. Increased interest in endocrine effects on the skin has revealed that several important physiologic activities of the skin are either partly or wholly regulated by hormones secreted by endocrine glands. Nevertheless, some physiologic activities in skin seems to be independent, their regulation being carried out by local mediating hormones. Other activities involve both central and local regulation. The nature and roles of these two control mechanisms and their interrelation constitute by far the most promising physiologic research in skin.

  12. About Skin: Your Body's Largest Organ

    MedlinePlus

    ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ...

  13. ["Clown nose"--skin metastasis of breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Soyer, H P; Cerroni, L; Smolle, J; Kerl, H

    1990-10-01

    We report on a 74-year-old woman showing a reddish infiltration of the tip of the nose, which had appeared 3 months ago. Clinically, we considered the following differential diagnoses: sarcoidosis, rosacea, pseudolymphoma, and metastasis. Histological and immunohistological investigation proved a cutaneous metastasis of carcinoma of the breast. Our case report gives evidence of the fact that cutaneous metastases of systemic malignancies are frequently located in acral regions of the skin.

  14. Immunohistochemical characterization of mammary squamous cell carcinoma of the dog.

    PubMed

    Sassi, Francesco; Sarli, Giuseppe; Brunetti, Barbara; Morandi, Federico; Benazzi, Cinzia

    2008-11-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the mammary gland is rare in both veterinary and human medicine. Whereas human metaplastic and squamous variants are known, the objectives of the current study were to ascertain the presence of such entities in canine mammary tumors and to distinguish them from other (epidermal, sweat gland) squamous tumors that may develop in the same area. A panel of antibodies (anti-cytokeratin [CK] 19, CK 14, CK 5/6, pancytokeratin, and vimentin) was used on 18 mammary gland malignancies with squamous features and 16 malignant skin tumors (11 squamous cell carcinomas of the skin and 5 sweat glands). Fifteen of the 18 mammary carcinomas were classified as metaplastic carcinomas, and the remaining 3 were classified as squamous cell carcinomas. The 2 most useful markers to establish the histogenesis of mammary tumors were pancytokeratin and CK 19. All other antibodies were equally expressed (CK 14 and 5/6) in all histotypes. The antibody panel discriminated primary epidermal squamous tumors (pancytokeratin positive and CK 19 negative) from gland-derived squamous neoplasms (pancytokeratin positive and CK 19 positive) but failed to distinguish primary mammary tumors from other squamous tumors of glandular origin.

  15. Notch1 functions as a tumor suppressor in mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Michael; Wolfer, Anita; Raj, Kenneth; Kummer, J Alain; Mill, Pleasantine; van Noort, Mascha; Hui, Chi-chung; Clevers, Hans; Dotto, G Paolo; Radtke, Freddy

    2003-03-01

    Notch proteins are important in binary cell-fate decisions and inhibiting differentiation in many developmental systems, and aberrant Notch signaling is associated with tumorigenesis. The role of Notch signaling in mammalian skin is less well characterized and is mainly based on in vitro studies, which suggest that Notch signaling induces differentiation in mammalian skin. Conventional gene targeting is not applicable to establishing the role of Notch receptors or ligands in the skin because Notch1-/- embryos die during gestation. Therefore, we used a tissue-specific inducible gene-targeting approach to study the physiological role of the Notch1 receptor in the mouse epidermis and the corneal epithelium of adult mice. Unexpectedly, ablation of Notch1 results in epidermal and corneal hyperplasia followed by the development of skin tumors and facilitated chemical-induced skin carcinogenesis. Notch1 deficiency in skin and in primary keratinocytes results in increased and sustained expression of Gli2, causing the development of basal-cell carcinoma-like tumors. Furthermore, Notch1 inactivation in the epidermis results in derepressed beta-catenin signaling in cells that should normally undergo differentiation. Enhanced beta-catenin signaling can be reversed by re-introduction of a dominant active form of the Notch1 receptor. This leads to a reduction in the signaling-competent pool of beta-catenin, indicating that Notch1 can inhibit beta-catenin-mediated signaling. Our results indicate that Notch1 functions as a tumor-suppressor gene in mammalian skin.

  16. Biothermomechanics of skin tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, F.; Lu, T. J.; Seffen, K. A.

    Biothermomechanics of skin is highly interdisciplinary involving bioheat transfer, burn damage, biomechanics and neurophysiology. During heating, thermally induced mechanical stress arises due to the thermal denaturation of collagen, resulting in macroscale shrinkage. Thus, the strain, stress, temperature and thermal pain/damage are highly correlated; in other words, the problem is fully coupled. The aim of this study is to develop a computational approach to examine the heat transfer process and the heat-induced mechanical response, so that the differences among the clinically applied heating modalities can be quantified. Exact solutions for temperature, thermal damage and thermal stress for a single-layer skin model were first derived for different boundary conditions. For multilayer models, numerical simulations using the finite difference method (FDM) and finite element method (FEM) were used to analyze the temperature, burn damage and thermal stress distributions in the skin tissue. The results showed that the thermomechanical behavior of skin tissue is very complex: blood perfusion has little effect on thermal damage but large influence on skin temperature distribution, which, in turn, influences significantly the resulting thermal stress field; the stratum corneum layer, although very thin, has a large effect on the thermomechanical behavior of skin, suggesting that it should be properly accounted for in the modeling of skin thermal stresses; the stress caused by non-uniform temperature distribution in the skin may also contribute to the thermal pain sensation.

  17. Sun on Skin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Describes sessions in two schools that focused on recent work with 2,857 children in Europe researching the children's perceptions of sun on skin. Investigates children's ideas about skin on different parts of the body, which was most vulnerable to the sun, and different types and colors. (Author/CCM)

  18. [Radiotherapy of oropharynx carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Servagi Vernat, S; Tochet, F; Vieillevigne, L; Pointreau, Y; Maingon, P; Giraud, P

    2016-09-01

    Indication, doses, technique of radiotherapy and concomitant chemotherapy for oropharynx carcinoma are presented. The recommendations for delineation of the target volumes and organs at risk are detailed.

  19. Postmenopausal skin and estrogen.

    PubMed

    Archer, David F

    2012-10-01

    The aging global population continues to drive increasing demand for cosmaceuticals and cosmetic surgery among older men and women. Since the discovery in the 1990s that estrogen receptors are present in skin cells and decline in number from the onset of menopause in women, researchers have explored a number of ways in which estrogen can improve skin condition. Skin is estrogen responsive, and several studies now exist to support the antiaging properties of estrogen replacement therapies in postmenopausal women. Both systemic and topical estrogens appear to have positive effects on hormonal aging, increasing skin collagen content, thickness, elasticity and hydration. Estrogen therapies may also improve wound healing and reduce the incidence of wound complications. This review explores the potential for targeted estrogen replacement as a therapeutic option for long-term skin management in postmenopausal women.

  20. [Skin and sun exposure].

    PubMed

    Cannavò, Serafinella Patrizia; Borgia, Francesco; Trifirò, Caterina; Aragona, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    Fisherman commonly experience a significant number of cutaneous problems, related to the exposure to environmental factors due to their working conditions. Among these factors, sun exposure is able to determine both acute and chronic skin damage, mostly linked to the effects of the ultraviolet (UV) radiation on epidermal and dermal structures. In particular, UV-A appears to play a major role in the deterioration of dermal structure leading to the photoaged appearance of the skin, while UV-B is mainly responsible for skin cancers. Peculiar clinical features of skin damage in fishermen include dryness, irregular pigmentation, wrinkling, stellate pseudoscars, elastosis, inelasticity, telangiectasia, comedones and sebaceous hyperplasia. Furtheremore, the high incidence of non-melanoma skin cancers, on sun-exposed areas, confirms the need for occupational health policies focusing on issues such as photoprotection.

  1. Thrombospondin-2 overexpression in the skin of transgenic mice reduces the susceptibility to chemically-induced multistep skin carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kunstfeld, Rainer; Hawighorst, Thomas; Streit, Michael; Hong, Young-Kwon; Nguyen, Lynh; Brown, Lawrence F.; Detmar, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background We have previously reported stromal upregulation of the endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor thrombospondin-2 (TSP-2) during multistep carcinogenesis, and we found accelerated and enhanced skin angiogenesis and carcinogenesis in TSP-2 deficient mice. Goals To investigate whether enhanced levels of TSP-2 might protect from skin cancer development. Methods We established transgenic mice with targeted overexpression of TSP-2 in the skin and subjected hemizygous TSP-2 transgenic mice and their wild-type littermates to a chemical skin carcinogenesis regimen. Results TSP-2 transgenic mice showed a significantly delayed onset of tumor formation compared to wild-type mice, whereas the ratio of malignant conversion to squamous cell carcinomas was comparable in both genotypes. Computer-assisted morphometric analysis of blood vessels revealed pronounced tumor angiogenesis already in the early stages of carcinogenesis in wild type mice. TSP-2 overexpression significantly reduced tumor blood vessel density in transgenic mice but had no overt effect on LYVE-1 positive lymphatic vessels. The percentage of desmin surrounded, mature tumor-associated blood vessels and the degree of epithelial differentiation remained unaffected. The antiangiogenic effect of transgenic TSP-2 was accompanied by a significantly increased number of apoptotic tumor cells in transgenic mice. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that enhanced levels of TSP-2 in the skin result in reduced susceptibility to chemically-induced skin carcinogenesis and identify TSP-2 as a new target for the prevention of skin cancer. PMID:24507936

  2. Perineural Spread of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Manifesting as Ophthalmoplegia

    PubMed Central

    Koukkoulli, Antigoni; Koutroumanos, Nikolas; Kidd, Desmond

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT An 89-year-old female presented with horizontal diplopia and was diagnosed with VI nerve palsy attributed to a microvascular event. She subsequently progressed to develop an orbital apex syndrome, with neuroimaging demonstrating tumour invasion. Eighteen months earlier, she had squamous cell carcinoma of the forehead excised with clear margins. Intraneural and perineural spread of squamous carcinoma from the face to the cranial cavity is an important cause of delayed cranial nerve palsies after local excision of the skin tumour. PMID:27928347

  3. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of ...

  4. Urostomy - stoma and skin care

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000477.htm Urostomy - stoma and skin care To use the sharing features on this ... stoma if it is scraped. Caring for the Skin Around Your Stoma After surgery, the skin around ...

  5. Lupus vulgaris with squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Motswaledi, Mojakgomo Hendrick; Doman, Chantal

    2007-12-01

    Tuberculosis is still a significant problem in developing countries. Cutaneous forms of tuberculosis account for approximately 10% of all cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Cutaneous tuberculosis may be because of true infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis or because of tuberculids. Tuberculids are immunological reactions to haematogenously spread antigenic components of M. tuberculosis. True cutaneous tuberculosis may be because of inoculation or haematogenous spread of M. tuberculosis to the skin. Lupus vulgaris is the commonest form of true cutaneous tuberculosis. Other forms of true cutaneous tuberculosis are tuberculous chancre, tuberculosis verrucosa cutis, scrofuloderma, periorificial tuberculosis and miliary tuberculosis of the skin. Lupus vulgaris is usually chronic and progressive. It occurs in patients with moderate to high immunity against M. tuberculosis as evidenced by strongly positive tuberculin test. Long-standing cases of lupus vulgaris may be complicated by squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We describe a patient who had undiagnosed lupus vulgaris for 35 years until she developed SCC on the lesion of lupus vulgaris.

  6. The dermatoscopic universe of basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lallas, Aimilios; Apalla, Zoe; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Longo, Caterina; Moscarella, Elvira; Specchio, Francesca; Raucci, Margaritha; Zalaudek, Iris

    2014-07-01

    Following the first descriptions of the dermatoscopic pattern of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) that go back to the very early years of dermatoscopy, the list of dermatoscopic criteria associated with BCC has been several times updated and renewed. Up to date, dermatoscopy has been shown to enhance BCC detection, by facilitating its discrimination from other skin tumors and inflammatory skin diseases. Furthermore, upcoming evidence suggests that the method is also useful for the management of the tumor, since it provides valuable information about the histopathologic subtype, the presence of clinically undetectable pigmentation, the expansion of the tumor beyond clinically visible margins and the response to non-ablative treatments. In the current article, we provide a summary of the traditional and latest knowledge on the value of dermatoscopy for the diagnosis and management of BCC.

  7. Skin cancer in solid organ transplant recipients: advances in therapy and management: part II. Management of skin cancer in solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Zwald, Fiona O'Reilly; Brown, Marc

    2011-08-01

    The management of skin cancer in solid organ transplant recipients is a challenge to both the dermatologist and transplant physician. Part II of this continuing medical education review offers an approach to the management of this increasing problem. The importance of specialty dermatology clinics providing access to transplant patients, frequent skin cancer screening, patient education, and multidisciplinary care is discussed. The management of low risk squamous cell carcinoma with topical therapies, photodynamic therapy, systemic retinoids, and capecitabine is reviewed. Revision of immunosuppression in the management of high-risk patients is discussed in association with the potential role of sentinel lymph node biopsy for aggressive disease. Finally, management of in-transit and metastatic squamous cell carcinoma is reviewed, with a discussion of the role of more recent innovative therapies, including epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors in advanced squamous cell carcinoma in solid organ transplant recipients.

  8. Optical mapping of nonmelanoma skin cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaroslavsky, Anna N.; Neel, Victor; Anderson, Richard R.

    2004-07-01

    More than two million cases of nonmelanoma skin cancers are diagnosed every year. Therefore, there is a strong need for practical, reliable, rapid, and precise methods for tumor delineation, to guide surgery and other treatments of skin cancer. Once developed, such methods may be useful for squamous cell carcinomas of other organs. Non-invasive optical imaging techniques including polarization sensitive reflectance and fluorescence imaging were evaluated for the demarcation of nonmelanoma skin tumors. Thick freshly excised tumor specimens obtained from Mohs surgery were used for the experiments. Imaging was performed using linearly polarized incident light in the visible and near infrared spectral range from 577 nm to 750 nm. Non-toxic absorbing and fluorescent dyes (Toluidine Blue O, Methylene Blue) were employed to enhance tumor contrast in the images. The images were acquired using the remitted light polarized in the directions parallel and perpendicular to the polarization of incident light. Reflectance and fluorescence polarization images were evaluated. The data were processed and analyzed for dependence of the remitted light polarization on the tissue type (cancerous/normal). The data obtained so far from fresh tumor specimens in vitro using dye-enhanced polarized light reflectance, and exogenous fluorescence polarization imaging suggest that optical mapping can become a valuable guidance tool in nonmelanoma cancer surgery.

  9. Archaea on Human Skin

    PubMed Central

    Probst, Alexander J.; Auerbach, Anna K.; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The recent era of exploring the human microbiome has provided valuable information on microbial inhabitants, beneficials and pathogens. Screening efforts based on DNA sequencing identified thousands of bacterial lineages associated with human skin but provided only incomplete and crude information on Archaea. Here, we report for the first time the quantification and visualization of Archaea from human skin. Based on 16 S rRNA gene copies Archaea comprised up to 4.2% of the prokaryotic skin microbiome. Most of the gene signatures analyzed belonged to the Thaumarchaeota, a group of Archaea we also found in hospitals and clean room facilities. The metabolic potential for ammonia oxidation of the skin-associated Archaea was supported by the successful detection of thaumarchaeal amoA genes in human skin samples. However, the activity and possible interaction with human epithelial cells of these associated Archaea remains an open question. Nevertheless, in this study we provide evidence that Archaea are part of the human skin microbiome and discuss their potential for ammonia turnover on human skin. PMID:23776475

  10. Skin and antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Poljsak, Borut; Dahmane, Raja; Godic, Aleksandar

    2013-04-01

    It is estimated that total sun exposure occurs non-intentionally in three quarters of our lifetimes. Our skin is exposed to majority of UV radiation during outdoor activities, e.g. walking, practicing sports, running, hiking, etc. and not when we are intentionally exposed to the sun on the beach. We rarely use sunscreens during those activities, or at least not as much and as regular as we should and are commonly prone to acute and chronic sun damage of the skin. The only protection of our skin is endogenous (synthesis of melanin and enzymatic antioxidants) and exogenous (antioxidants, which we consume from the food, like vitamins A, C, E, etc.). UV-induced photoaging of the skin becomes clinically evident with age, when endogenous antioxidative mechanisms and repair processes are not effective any more and actinic damage to the skin prevails. At this point it would be reasonable to ingest additional antioxidants and/or to apply them on the skin in topical preparations. We review endogenous and exogenous skin protection with antioxidants.

  11. Archaea on human skin.

    PubMed

    Probst, Alexander J; Auerbach, Anna K; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The recent era of exploring the human microbiome has provided valuable information on microbial inhabitants, beneficials and pathogens. Screening efforts based on DNA sequencing identified thousands of bacterial lineages associated with human skin but provided only incomplete and crude information on Archaea. Here, we report for the first time the quantification and visualization of Archaea from human skin. Based on 16 S rRNA gene copies Archaea comprised up to 4.2% of the prokaryotic skin microbiome. Most of the gene signatures analyzed belonged to the Thaumarchaeota, a group of Archaea we also found in hospitals and clean room facilities. The metabolic potential for ammonia oxidation of the skin-associated Archaea was supported by the successful detection of thaumarchaeal amoA genes in human skin samples. However, the activity and possible interaction with human epithelial cells of these associated Archaea remains an open question. Nevertheless, in this study we provide evidence that Archaea are part of the human skin microbiome and discuss their potential for ammonia turnover on human skin.

  12. Sensitive skin: an overview.

    PubMed

    Berardesca, E; Farage, M; Maibach, H

    2013-02-01

    Sensitive skin is a condition of subjective cutaneous hyper-reactivity to environmental factors. Subjects experiencing this condition report exaggerated reactions when their skin is in contact with cosmetics, soaps and sun screens, and they often report worsening after exposure to dry and cold climate. Although no sign of irritation is commonly detected, itching, burning, stinging and a tight sensation are constantly present. Generally substances that are not commonly considered irritants are involved in this abnormal response.Sensitive skin and subjective irritation are widespread but still far from being completely defined and understood. A correlation between sensitive skin and constitutional anomalies and/or other triggering factors such as occupational skin diseases or chronic exposure to irritants has been hypothesized. Recent findings suggest that higher sensitivity can be due to different mechanisms. Hyper-reactors may have a thinner stratum corneum with a reduced corneocyte area causing a higher transcutaneous penetration of water-soluble chemicals. Alterations in vanilloid receptors and changes in neuronal transmission have been described. Monitoring skin parameters such as barrier function, proclivity to irritation, corneocyte size and sensorial transmission can also be useful to identify regional differences in skin sensitivity.

  13. The Ontogeny of Skin

    PubMed Central

    Visscher, Marty; Narendran, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Significance: During gestation, fetal skin progresses from a single layer derived from ectoderm to a complex, multi-layer tissue with the stratum corneum (SC) as the outermost layer. Innate immunity is a conferred complex process involving a balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, structural proteins, and specific antigen-presenting cells. The SC is a part of the innate immune system as an impermeable physical barrier containing anti-microbial lipids and host defense proteins. Postnatally, the epidermis continually replenishes itself, provides a protective barrier, and repairs injuries. Recent Advances: Vernix caseosa protects the fetus during gestation and facilitates development of the SC in the aqueous uterine environment. The anti-infective, hydrating, acidification, and wound-healing properties post birth provide insights for the development of strategies that facilitate SC maturation and repair in the premature infant. Critical Issues: Reduction of infant mortality is a global health priority. Premature infants have an incompetent skin barrier putting them at risk for irritant exposure, skin compromise and life-threatening infections. Effective interventions to accelerate skin barrier maturation are compelling. Future Directions: Investigations to determine the ontogeny of barrier maturation, that is, SC structure, composition, cohesiveness, permeability, susceptibility to injury, and microflora, as a function of gestational age are essential. Clinicians need to know when the premature skin barrier becomes fully competent and comparable to healthy newborn skin. This will guide the development of innovative strategies for optimizing skin barrier development. PMID:24761361

  14. Pigmented poroma with unusual location and dermatoscopic features

    PubMed Central

    Kassuga, Luiza E. B. P.; Jeunon, Thiago; Sousa, Maria Auxiliadora Jeunon; Campos-do-Carmo, Gabriella

    2012-01-01

    Poroma is a benign adnexal neoplasm with atn “poroid”/ductal differentiation that mimics benign and malignant skin tumors. Histopathology shows circumscribed proliferation of poroid cells intermingled with a variable number of cuticular cells. We report a case of pigmented poroma located on the face that simulated clinically and dermatoscopically a pigmented basal cell carcinoma. The features of pigmented and non-pigmented poromas were revisited in order to assist in the diagnosis. PMID:23785609

  15. Environment and the skin

    PubMed Central

    Suskind, Raymond R.

    1977-01-01

    The skin is an important interface between man and his environment; it is an important portal of entry for hazardous agents and a vulnerable target tissue as well. It is a uniquely accessible model system for detecting hazards and for studying mechanisms of a wide variety of biologic funcitons. Environmental causes of skin reactions comprise a vast array of physical, chemical and biological agents. To appreciate the role of the skin as an interface with man's environment, it is necessary to understand the multiple adaptive mechanisms, and the defenses of the skin against the environmental stresses. The skin is endowed with a versatile group of defenses against penetration, fluid loss from the body, thermal stress, solar radiation, physical trauma and microbial agents. Patterns of adverse response range in quality and intensity from uncomplicated itching to metastatic neoplasia. Environmental problems comprise a large segment of disabling skin disease. Although critical epidemiologic data is limited, cutaneous illnesses comprise a significant segment of occupational disease. This represents a significant loss in productivity and a major cause of disability. The most serious research needs include the development of surveillance systems for identifying skin hazards and determining frequency of environmental skin disease; the development of new models for studying cutaneous penetration; the elucidation of the mechanisms of nonallergic inflammatory reactions (primary irritation) and of the accommodation phenomenon; the development of more sensitive models for predicting adverse responses to marginal irritants; the utilization of modern skills of immunobiology and immunochemistry to elucidate mechanisms of allergic responses; the launching of epidemiologic studies to determine the long term effects of PCBs and associated compounds such as dioxins; and the expansion of research in the mechanisms of skin cancer in relation to susceptibility, genetic and metabolic

  16. Thermal Skin fabrication technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milam, T. B.

    1972-01-01

    Advanced fabrication techniques applicable to Thermal Skin structures were investigated, including: (1) chemical machining; (2) braze bonding; (3) diffusion bonding; and (4) electron beam welding. Materials investigated were nickel and nickel alloys. Sample Thermal Skin panels were manufactured using the advanced fabrication techniques studied and were structurally tested. Results of the program included: (1) development of improved chemical machining processes for nickel and several nickel alloys; (2) identification of design geometry limits; (3) identification of diffusion bonding requirements; (4) development of a unique diffusion bonding tool; (5) identification of electron beam welding limits; and (6) identification of structural properties of Thermal Skin material.

  17. Eicosanoids in skin inflammation.

    PubMed

    Nicolaou, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Eicosanoids play an integral part in homeostatic mechanisms related to skin health and structural integrity. They also mediate inflammatory events developed in response to environmental factors, such as exposure to ultraviolet radiation, and inflammatory and allergic disorders, including psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. This review article discusses biochemical aspects related to cutaneous eicosanoid metabolism, the contribution of these potent autacoids to skin inflammation and related conditions, and considers the importance of nutritional supplementation with bioactives such as omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and plant-derived antioxidants as means of addressing skin health issues.

  18. [Breast carcinoma in men].

    PubMed

    Zigić, B; Balvanović, D; Rac, S; Bilbija, S

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe 8 cases of carcinoma of the male breast treated at the Clinic of Surgery, Clinical Medical Center Banja Luka in the period 1968-1988. In their discussion, the authors review contemporary findings concerning the genesis, evolution and treatment of this carcinoma.

  19. Skin-sparing mastectomy and immediate reconstruction: oncologic risks and aesthetic results in patients with early-stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Slavin, S A; Schnitt, S J; Duda, R B; Houlihan, M J; Koufman, C N; Morris, D J; Troyan, S L; Goldwyn, R M

    1998-07-01

    Skin-sparing mastectomy has been advocated as an oncologically safe approach for the management of patients with early-stage breast cancer that minimizes deformity and improves cosmesis through preservation of the skin envelope of the breast. Because chest wall skin is the most frequent site of local failure after mastectomy, concerns have been raised that inadequate skin excision could result in an increased risk of local recurrence. Precise borders of the skin resection have not been well established, and long-term local recurrence rates after skin-sparing mastectomy are not known. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the oncologic safety and aesthetic results for skin-sparing mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction with a latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap and saline breast prosthesis. Fifty-one patients with early-stage breast cancer (26 with ductal carcinoma in situ and 25 with invasive carcinoma) undergoing primary mastectomy and immediate reconstruction with a latissimus flap were studied from 1991 through 1994. For 32 consecutive patients, skin-sparing mastectomy was defined as a 5-mm margin of skin designed around the border of the nipple-areolar complex. After the mastectomy, biopsies were obtained from the remaining native skin flap edges. Patients were followed for 44.8 months. Histologic examination of 114 native skin flap biopsy specimens failed to demonstrate breast ducts in the dermis of any of the 32 consecutive patients studied. One of 26 patients with ductal carcinoma in situ had metastases to the skin of the lateral chest wall and back. Four other patients, one with stage I disease and three with stage II-B disease, had recurrent breast carcinoma. The stage I patient had a local recurrence in the subcutaneous tissues near the mastectomy specimen. Two patients suffered axillary relapse, and one had distant metastases to the spine. The findings of this study support the technique of skin-sparing mastectomy as an oncologically safe one

  20. [Medullary thyroid carcinoma and other rare types of thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Obara, Takao

    2007-11-01

    Among 4 major traditional groups of thyroid carcinoma, papillary and follicular carcinomas are most common, and other forms, anaplastic and medullary carcinomas, are relatively rare. The 2003 WHO histological classification of thyroid tumor separated 7 other malignant thyroid tumors into distinct pathological entities, such as poorly differentiated, squamous cell, mucinous carcinomas, carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation (CASTLE), etc. Although they are also extremely rare, recognition of their clinicopathologic features are very important. In this review, not only diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for the rare forms of thyroid carcinomas, specifically focussed on medullary carcinoma and CASTLE, but also their histogenetic abnormalities were discussed.

  1. Thermographic diagnostics to discriminate skin lesions: a clinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stringasci, Mirian Denise; Moriyama, Lilian Tan; Salvio, Ana Gabriela; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador; Kurachi, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Cancer is responsible for about 13% of all causes of death in the world. Over 7 million people die annually of this disease. In most cases, the survival rates are greater when diagnosed in early stages. It is known that tumor lesions present a different temperature compared with the normal tissues. Some studies have been performed in an attempt to establish new diagnosis methods, targeting this temperature difference. In this study, we aim to investigate the use of a handheld thermographic camera to discriminate skin lesions. The patients presenting Basal Cell Carcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Actinic Keratosis, Pigmented Seborrheic Keratosis, Melanoma or Intradermal Nevus lesions have been investigated at the Skin Departament of Amaral Carvalho Hospital. Patients are selected by a dermatologist, and the lesion images are recorded using an infrared camera. The images are evaluated taken into account the temperature level, and differences into lesion areas, borders, and between altered and normal skin. The present results show that thermography may be an important tool for aiding in the clinical diagnostics of superficial skin lesions.

  2. Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Todd M; Parekh, Vishwas

    2016-09-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland tumor that shares the same histologic appearance and ETV6 gene (12p13) rearrangement as secretory carcinoma of the breast. Prior to its recognition, MASC cases were commonly labeled acinic cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified. Despite distinctive histologic features, MASC may be difficult to distinguish from other salivary gland tumors, in particular zymogen-poor acinic cell carcinoma and low-grade salivary duct carcinoma. Although characteristic morphologic and immunohistochemical features form the basis of a diagnosis of MASC, the presence of an ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion is confirmatory. Given its recent recognition the true prognostic import of MASC is not yet clearly defined.

  3. Risk factors for skin cancer among Finnish airline cabin crew.

    PubMed

    Kojo, Katja; Helminen, Mika; Pukkala, Eero; Auvinen, Anssi

    2013-07-01

    Increased incidence of skin cancers among airline cabin crew has been reported in several studies. We evaluated whether the difference in risk factor prevalence between Finnish airline cabin crew and the general population could explain the increased incidence of skin cancers among cabin crew, and the possible contribution of estimated occupational cosmic radiation exposure. A self-administered questionnaire survey on occupational, host, and ultraviolet radiation exposure factors was conducted among female cabin crew members and females presenting the general population. The impact of occupational cosmic radiation dose was estimated in a separate nested case-control analysis among the participating cabin crew (with 9 melanoma and 35 basal cell carcinoma cases). No considerable difference in the prevalence of risk factors of skin cancer was found between the cabin crew (N = 702) and the general population subjects (N = 1007) participating the study. The mean risk score based on all the conventional skin cancer risk factors was 1.43 for cabin crew and 1.44 for general population (P = 0.24). Among the cabin crew, the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose was not related to the increased skin cancer risk [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-1.00]. The highest plausible risk of skin cancer for estimated cosmic radiation dose was estimated as 9% per 10 mSv. The skin cancer cases had higher host characteristics scores than the non-cases among cabin crew (adjusted OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.01-2.04). Our results indicate no difference between the female cabin crew and the general female population in the prevalence of factors generally associated with incidence of skin cancer. Exposure to cosmic radiation did not explain the excess of skin cancer among the studied cabin crew in this study.

  4. Skin, Hair, and Nails

    MedlinePlus

    ... and water, helps regulate body temperature through perspiration (sweating), and protects from the sun's damaging ultraviolet rays. ... skin contains thousands of cells and hundreds of sweat glands, oil glands, nerve endings, and blood vessels. ...

  5. Skin Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... the body's largest organ . It protects against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection . Skin also helps control body ... cancer risk factors include: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  6. Skin Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... the body’s largest organ . It protects against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection . Skin also helps control body ... it is most common in areas exposed to sunlight, such as the face, neck, hands, and arms. ...

  7. Healthy Skin Matters

    MedlinePlus

    ... don’t offer a safe alternative to natural sunlight. Exposure to ultraviolet (UV ) (uhl-truh-VYE-uh- ... the exposure comes from tanning beds or natural sunlight. This damage increases the risk of skin cancer ...

  8. Aging changes in skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... sun exposure with areas that are protected from sunlight. Natural pigments seem to provide some protection against ... Exposures to industrial and household chemicals Indoor heating Sunlight can cause: Loss of elasticity (elastosis) Noncancerous skin ...

  9. Acral peeling skin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, K; Hamzavi, I; Tanaka, K; Shwayder, T

    2000-12-01

    Peeling skin syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by widespread painless peeling of the skin in superficial sheets. We describe a 34-year-old man with a lifelong history of spontaneous asymptomatic peeling skin limited to the acral surfaces. This patient probably represents a localized variant of peeling skin syndrome, which has previously been described as a generalized condition. Light and electron microscopic studies of biopsy specimens taken before and after immersion in water were performed. It was concluded that this patient has abnormal keratohyalin granules and inadequate aggregation of keratin filaments that caused the separation of the epidermis in the stratum corneum through the clear zone. Alternatively, unknown keratin species expressed in the clear zone may also cause the abnormality. (J Am Acad Dermatol 2000;43:1112-9.).

  10. Skin lesion KOH exam

    MedlinePlus

    ... is present. The fungus may be related to ringworm , athlete's foot , jock itch , or another fungal infection. ... foot Candida infection of the skin Jock itch Ringworm Ringworm of the body Review Date 4/14/ ...

  11. Allergy testing - skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... may order allergy skin tests if you have: Hay fever ( allergic rhinitis ) and asthma symptoms that are not ... team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Allergy Food Allergy Hay Fever Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  12. An elastic second skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Betty; Kang, Soo-Young; Akthakul, Ariya; Ramadurai, Nithin; Pilkenton, Morgan; Patel, Alpesh; Nashat, Amir; Anderson, Daniel G.; Sakamoto, Fernanda H.; Gilchrest, Barbara A.; Anderson, R. Rox; Langer, Robert

    2016-08-01

    We report the synthesis and application of an elastic, wearable crosslinked polymer layer (XPL) that mimics the properties of normal, youthful skin. XPL is made of a tunable polysiloxane-based material that can be engineered with specific elasticity, contractility, adhesion, tensile strength and occlusivity. XPL can be topically applied, rapidly curing at the skin interface without the need for heat- or light-mediated activation. In a pilot human study, we examined the performance of a prototype XPL that has a tensile modulus matching normal skin responses at low strain (<40%), and that withstands elongations exceeding 250%, elastically recoiling with minimal strain-energy loss on repeated deformation. The application of XPL to the herniated lower eyelid fat pads of 12 subjects resulted in an average 2-grade decrease in herniation appearance in a 5-point severity scale. The XPL platform may offer advanced solutions to compromised skin barrier function, pharmaceutical delivery and wound dressings.

  13. Skin lesion removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... removal; Basal cell cancer - removal; Actinic keratosis - removal; Wart - removal; Squamous cell - removal; Mole - removal; Nevus - removal; ... can remove: Benign or pre-malignant skin lesions Warts Moles Sunspots Hair Small blood vessels in the ...

  14. Allergy Skin Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic rhinitis) Allergic asthma Dermatitis (eczema) Food allergies Penicillin allergy Bee venom allergy Latex allergy Skin tests are ... may recommend this test to check for an allergy to insect venom or penicillin. Patch test Patch testing is generally done to ...

  15. Skin tumors on squirrels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Reilly, J.R.

    1955-01-01

    Skin tumors having the gross appearance of previously reported fibromas are reported on gray squirrels from N. Y., Md., Va., N. C., and W. Va. and from a fox squirrel from W. Va. and a porcupine from Pa.

  16. Genetics and skin aging

    PubMed Central

    Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Bekou, Vassiliki; Zouboulis, Christos C.

    2012-01-01

    Skin aging is a complex process and underlies multiple influences with the probable involvement of heritable and various environmental factors. Several theories have been conducted regarding the pathomechanisms of aged skin, however fundamental mechanisms still remain poorly understood. This article addresses the influence of genetics on skin aging and in particular deals with the differences observed in ethnic populations and between both genders. Recent studies indicate that male and female aged skin differs as far as the type, the consistency and the sensitivity to external factors is concerned. The same has been also documented between elderly people of different origin. Consequently, the aging process taking place in both genders and in diverse ethnic groups should be examined separately and products specialized to each population should be developed in order to satisfy the special needs. PMID:23467395

  17. Skin or nail culture

    MedlinePlus

    Mucosal culture; Culture - skin; Culture - mucosal; Nail culture; Culture - fingernail; Fingernail culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria, ...

  18. Skin Reactions to Cold

    PubMed Central

    Talpash, Orest

    1976-01-01

    Although skin reactions to cold are seen surprisingly infrequently in Canada, it is important to manage them correctly when they do occur. Frostbite, cold urticarias, Raynaud's disease and phenomenon, and several miscellaneous changes are discussed. PMID:21308019

  19. Chromophores in human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Antony R.

    1997-05-01

    Human skin, especially the epidermis, contains several major solar ultraviolet-radiation- (UVR-) absorbing endogenous chromophores including DNA, urocanic acid, amino acids, melanins and their precursors and metabolites. The lack of solubility of melanins prevents their absorption spectra being defined by routine techniques. Indirect spectroscopic methods show that their spectral properties depend on the stimulus for melanogenesis. The photochemical consequences of UVR absorption by some epidermal chromophores are relatively well understood whereas we lack a detailed understanding of the consequent photobiological and clinical responses. Skin action spectroscopy is not a reliable way of relating a photobiological outcome to a specific chromophore but is important for UVR hazard assessment. Exogenous chromophores may be administered to the skin in combination with UVR exposure for therapeutic benefit, or as sunscreens for the prevention of sunburn and possibly skin cancer.

  20. Continuous-wave terahertz imaging of nonmelanoma skin cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Cecil Sudhir

    Continuous wave terahertz imaging has the potential to offer a safe, non-invasive medical imaging modality for detecting different types of human skin cancers. Terahertz pulse imaging (TPI) has already shown that there is contrast between basal cell carcinoma and normal skin. Continuous-wave imaging offers a simpler, lower cost alternative to terahertz pulse imaging. This project aims to isolate the optimal contrast frequency for a continuous wave terahertz imaging system and demonstrate transmission based, in-vitro , imaging of thin sections of non-melanoma skin cancers and correlate the images to sample histology. The aim of this project is to conduct a proof-of-principle experiment that establishes whether continuous-wave terahertz imaging can detect differences between cancerous and normal tissue while outlining the basic requirements for building a system capable of performing in vivo tests.

  1. Skin Diseases: Cross-section of human skin

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Cross-section of human skin Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Logical Images, Inc. I n the areas of skin health and skin diseases, the NIH's National Institute ...

  2. Nicotinamide and the skin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L

    2014-08-01

    Nicotinamide, an amide form of vitamin B3, boosts cellular energy and regulates poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase 1, an enzyme with important roles in DNA repair and the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Nicotinamide shows promise for the treatment of a wide range of dermatological conditions, including autoimmune blistering disorders, acne, rosacea, ageing skin and atopic dermatitis. In particular, recent studies have also shown it to be a potential agent for reducing actinic keratoses and preventing skin cancers.

  3. Leishmania Skin Test

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Ninhydrin ), SDS-PAGE and non-viability testing . See Table 3 below: Table 3: Drug Substance Specifications Test Method Specification SDS-PAGE...AD_________________ Award Number: DAMD17-00-C-0030 TITLE: Leishmania Skin Test PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Nielsen, H.S., Jr...TYPE FINAL, PHASE II ADDENDUM 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 1 APR 2009 - 28 FEB 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Leishmania Skin Test 5a

  4. Rheumatologic Skin Disease.

    PubMed

    Kalus, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    In common rheumatologic diseases skin findings are an important diagnostic clue for astute clinicians. Skin manifestations can help identify systemic disease or may require therapy uniquely targeted at the cutaneous problem. This article discusses 3 common rheumatologic conditions seen in adults by dermatologists: cutaneous lupus, dermatomyositis, and morphea. The focus is on the cutaneous findings and clinical presentation. Some approaches to treatment are explored. Clues to help identify systemic disease are also highlighted.

  5. Multidimensional two-photon imaging of diseased skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicchi, R.; Sestini, S.; De Giorgi, V.; Massi, D.; Lotti, T.; Pavone, F. S.

    2008-02-01

    We used combined two photon intrinsic fluorescence (TPE), second harmonic generation microscopy (SHG), fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), and multispectral two photon emission detection (MTPE) to investigate different kinds of human cutaneous ex-vivo skin lesions. Morphological and spectroscopic analyses allowed to characterize both healthy and pathological skin samples, including tumors, as well as to discriminate between healthy and diseased tissue, in a good agreement with common routine histology. In particular, we examined tissue samples from normal and pathological scar tissue (keloid), and skin tumors, including basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and malignant melanoma (MM). By using combined TPE-SHG microscopy we investigated morphological features of different skin regions, as BCC, tumor-stroma interface, healthy dermis, fibroblastic proliferation, and keloids. The SHG to autofluorescence aging index of dermis (SAAID) score was used to characterize each region, finding differences between BCC, healthy skin, tumor-stroma interface, keloids, and fibroblastic proliferation. Further comparative analysis of healthy skin and neoplastic samples was performed using FLIM. In particular, BCC showed a blue-shifted fluorescence emission, a higher absorption at 800 nm excitation wavelength, and a slightly longer mean fluorescence lifetime. MM showed a lifetime distribution similar to the corresponding melanocytic nevus (MN) lifetime distribution for the slow lifetime component, and different for the fast lifetime component.

  6. Ultraflexible organic photonic skin

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Tomoyuki; Zalar, Peter; Kaltenbrunner, Martin; Jinno, Hiroaki; Matsuhisa, Naoji; Kitanosako, Hiroki; Tachibana, Yutaro; Yukita, Wakako; Koizumi, Mari; Someya, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Thin-film electronics intimately laminated onto the skin imperceptibly equip the human body with electronic components for health-monitoring and information technologies. When electronic devices are worn, the mechanical flexibility and/or stretchability of thin-film devices helps to minimize the stress and discomfort associated with wear because of their conformability and softness. For industrial applications, it is important to fabricate wearable devices using processing methods that maximize throughput and minimize cost. We demonstrate ultraflexible and conformable three-color, highly efficient polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) and organic photodetectors (OPDs) to realize optoelectronic skins (oe-skins) that introduce multiple electronic functionalities such as sensing and displays on the surface of human skin. The total thickness of the devices, including the substrate and encapsulation layer, is only 3 μm, which is one order of magnitude thinner than the epidermal layer of human skin. By integrating green and red PLEDs with OPDs, we fabricate an ultraflexible reflective pulse oximeter. The device unobtrusively measures the oxygen concentration of blood when laminated on a finger. On-skin seven-segment digital displays and color indicators can visualize data directly on the body. PMID:27152354

  7. Verrucous carcinoma of the renal pelvis with a focus of conventional squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Baseskioğlu, Barbaros; Yenilmez, Aydın; Acıkalın, Mustafa; Can, Cavit; Dönmez, Turgut

    2012-01-01

    Verrucous carcinoma (VC) is a rare variant of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) with an extremely well-differentiated microscopic appearance. It is able to show extensive local invasion, but practically never metastasizes. VCs mostly occur in the oral cavity, larynx, nasal cavity, esophagus, vulva, vagina, anorectal region, penis and skin. VCs sometimes coexist with conventional SCCs, and in these instances they are associated with a higher recurrence rate than pure VCs. The occurrence of VC in the renal pelvis is very rare and to date only 4 cases have been reported. We report here a case of VC with a focus of conventional SCC in the renal pelvis. The patient showed fistula formation by residual tumor in the follow-up period.

  8. Invasive duct carcinoma of the forearm: a rare case of distant, isolated 'carcinoma en cuirasse'.

    PubMed

    Farahat, Ahmed; Mohamed, Samah; Vijay, Adarsh; Magdy, Nesreen; Elaffandi, Ahmed

    2015-06-17

    Cutaneous metastasis (carcinoma en cuirasse) is a condition that results from a tumor spreading via lymphatic or vascular embolization, direct implant during surgery or skin involvement by contiguity. Contralateral distant cutaneous breast cancer has never been reported before and hence, the nature and management of such rare cases remains challenging. We aim to present a case of left-sided 'distant' cutaneous metastatic invasive duct carcinoma affecting the distal upper extremity (contralateral side) two and half years (disease-free) following treatment for right breast cancer (right mastectomy + chemoradiation). A complete metastatic work-up excluded the presence of any underlying disease. Clinical examination revealed a fungating, irregular ulcer that bled easily on touch involving the left forearm. The ulcer was excised totally and the raw area reconstructed using a split thickness graft. The patient had uneventful postoperative course and now remains disease-free for almost 1 year with no evidence of local recurrence.

  9. Multiphoton imaging of basal cell carcinoma (BCC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicchi, R.; Carli, P.; Massi, D.; Sestini, S.; Stambouli, D.; Pavone, F. S.

    2006-02-01

    We used two-photon microscopy towards the imaging of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Our aim was to evaluate the morphology of BCC using two-photon fluorescence excitation and to establish a correlation with histopathology. We built a custom two-photon microscope and we measured the system capabilities. The system allowed to perform a preliminary measurement on a fresh human skin tissue sample. A human skin tissue sample of BCC excised during dermatological surgery procedures were used. The clinical diagnosis of BCC was confirmed by subsequent histopathological examination. The sample was imaged using endogenous tissue fluorescence within 2-3 hours from the excision with a two photon laser scanning fluorescence microscope. The acquired images allowed an obvious discrimination of the neoplastic areas toward normal tissue, based on morphological differences and aberrations of the intensity of the fluorescence signal. Our results showed that BCC tissue has a more homogeneous structure in comparison to normal tissue as well as a higher fluorescent response. The images obtained by two photon microscopy were further compared to the images acquired by an optical microscope after the conventional histopathological examination on one part of the respective sample. Our suggested method may represent a new diagnostic tool that improves the diagnostic accuracy of clinical examination alone, enabling the accurate discrimination of basal cell carcinoma from normal tissue.

  10. Basosquamous carcinoma with systemic metastasis in a miniature Pinscher.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sang-Kyung; Kim, Tae-Wang; Youm, So-Young; Kim, Gonhyung; Na, Ki-Jeong; Chang, Dongwoo; Ahn, Byeongwoo

    2011-11-01

    Basosquamous carcinoma (BSCC) is a rare malignancy, primarily composed of basal cells with foci of squamous differentiation. It is considered to be histologically an intermediate type between basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, and is known to have aggressive behaviors. BSCC occurred in a 17-year-old female minipin with a history of surgical excision for a mammary tumor. The right upper hindlimb was severely enlarged to 8 x 5 cm. Cross-section showed a homogenous white to yellow-white mass compressing the surrounding muscular tissues. The tumor metastasized also to the lungs, heart, abdominal cavity, liver and salivary gland. Microscopically, basaloid cells were crowded into solid nests or lobules separated by well-developed fibrous tissues with occasional keratinizations. Since there was no skin lesions, the tumor is assumed to be originated from the formerly present tumor in mammary gland. To our literature review, this case is the first BSCC with systemic metastasis in a dog.

  11. Nuclear morphometry and chromatin textural characteristics of basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mendaçolli, Paola Jung; Brianezi, Gabrielli; Schmitt, Juliano Vilaverde; Marques, Mariângela Esther Alencar; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2015-01-01

    Histological subtypes of basal cell carcinoma have biological, evolutionary and distinct prognostic behavior. The analysis of characteristics of the nucleus can provide data on their cellular physiology and behavior. The authors of this study evaluated nuclear morphological parameters and textural patterns of chromatin from different subtypes of basal cell carcinoma: nodular (n=37), superficial (n=28) and sclerodermiform (n=28). The parameters were compared between neoplasms' subtypes and with unaffected adjacent basal epithelium. Nuclear area and diameter of sclerodermiform neoplasms were superior to the other subtypes. Chromatin's color intensity and fractal dimension were less intense in superficial subtypes. Nuclear roundness and chromatin's entropy presented lower values in tumors than in normal epithelium. There was significant correlation between morphological and textural variables of normal skin and tumors. Morphometric elements and textural chromatin's homogeneity of basal cell carcinomas may be related to evolutionary, biological and behavior particularities related to each histotype.

  12. Carcinoma of the hand: a 20-year experience

    SciTech Connect

    Bean, D.J.; Rees, R.S.; O'Leary, J.P.; Lynch, J.B.

    1984-08-01

    The authors reviewed their 20-year experience with cutaneous carcinoma of the hand and identified 70 cases (basal cell 23%, squamous cell 77%). The documented risk factors included solar radiation, trauma, and irradiation. Lesions were treated surgically with amputation, excision, skin graft, or flap closure, and nonsurgically with cryosurgery, curettage, 5-fluorouracil, or irradiation. The recurrence was lower with surgical treatment (3%) than with nonsurgical (33%). Regional lymphadenectomy was required in four patients for metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. Recurrence was greater (9%) and metastasis more common (38%) in patients with Marjolin's type of secondary squamous cell carcinoma than with solar-induced lesions. Cause is an important factor in outcome and should be considered in initial treatment and long-term management.

  13. Carcinoma of the hand: a 20-year experience

    SciTech Connect

    Bean, D.J.; Rees, R.S.; O'Leary, J.P.; Lynch, J.B.

    1984-08-01

    We reviewed our 20-year experience with cutaneous carcinoma of the hand and identified 70 cases (basal cell 23%, squamous cell 77%). The documented risk factors included solar radiation, trauma, and irradiation. Lesions were treated surgically with amputation, excision, skin graft, or flap closure, and nonsurgically with cryosurgery, curettage, 5-fluorouracil, or irradiation. The recurrence was lower with surgical treatment (3%) than with nonsurgical (33%). Regional lymphadenectomy was required in four patients for metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. Recurrence was greater (9%) and metastasis more common (38%) in patients with Marjolin's type of secondary squamous cell carcinoma than with solar-induced lesions. Cause is an important factor in outcome and should be considered in initial treatment and long-term management.

  14. Basal Cell Carcinoma on the Sole: An Easily Missed Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hone, Natalie L.; Grandhi, Radhika; Ingraffea, Adam A.

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer, and solar ultraviolet ray exposure is the most significant risk factor for its development. The plantar foot is infrequently exposed to the sun, thus the presence of BCC on the sole is rare. We report a case of BCC on the sole of the foot and its treatment in the hope to facilitate its detection. PMID:27920679

  15. Subconjunctival "ring" recurrence of Basal cell carcinoma of the globe.

    PubMed

    Lee, Scott; Cnaan, Ran Ben; Paramanathan, Nirosha; Davies, Michael; Benger, Ross; Ghabrial, Raf

    2010-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common indication for orbital exenteration. The recurrence rate of BCC removed with microscopically controlled histology sections is up to 6%. The authors describe the recurrence of a lower eyelid BCC resected with microscopic control that did not manifest itself until 15 years later as a subconjunctival lesion, encircling the globe, and without apparent skin involvement. BCC can present in any manner following surgery, and therefore, judicious follow-up is necessary even after microscopically controlled resection.

  16. Autofluorescence imaging of basal cell carcinoma by smartphone RGB camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lihachev, Alexey; Derjabo, Alexander; Ferulova, Inesa; Lange, Marta; Lihacova, Ilze; Spigulis, Janis

    2015-12-01

    The feasibility of smartphones for in vivo skin autofluorescence imaging has been investigated. Filtered autofluorescence images from the same tissue area were periodically captured by a smartphone RGB camera with subsequent detection of fluorescence intensity decreasing at each image pixel for further imaging the planar distribution of those values. The proposed methodology was tested clinically with 13 basal cell carcinoma and 1 atypical nevus. Several clinical cases and potential future applications of the smartphone-based technique are discussed.

  17. HPV type 16 in conjunctival and junctional papilloma, dysplasia, and squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Saegusa, M; Takano, Y; Hashimura, M; Okayasu, I; Shiga, J

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To clarify the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the development of papilloma, dysplasia, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell epithelioma arising from the eyelids, including the tunica conjunctiva palpebrum (conjunctiva), its junction to epidemis of eyelid skin (junction), and eyelid skin. METHODS--Sixteen cases of papilloma, four of dysplasia, four of squamous cell carcinoma, and 12 of basal cell epithelioma were examined using formalin fixed and paraffin embedded samples. Detection of HPV-DNA was performed by PCR-RFLP and in situ hybridisation (ISH) methods. RESULTS--HPV-16 was detected in 12/16 papillomas (75%), 2/4 dysplasias (50%), and 1/4 squamous cell carcinomas (25%) but in none of the basal cell epitheliomas. No other HPV subtypes were found. ISH assay showed positive signals in only two cases of dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma. The mean age of HPV-16 positive dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma cases (81.7 years) was significantly higher than that of HPV-16 positive papilloma cases (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS--Based on the presence of HPV-16 in both benign and malignant lesions and the age distribution, it seems likely that HPV-16 alone may be incapable of causing development of conjunctival and junctional dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma, and that any correlation between the papilloma-squamous cell carcinoma sequence and HPV infection may be due to rare events. Images PMID:8567996

  18. Accessory Breast Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Hyun Jo; Jung, Sung Hoo

    2009-01-01

    Summary Background Ectopic breast tissue usually develops along the mammary ridges, and the incidence has been reported to be 2–6% of the general population. Occurrence of primary carcinoma in ectopic breast tissue is rare. Case Report We report the case of 59-year-old woman with accessory breast carcinoma in her left axilla. Conclusion Because an accessory areola or nipple is often missing and awareness of physicians and patients about these unsuspicious masses is lacking, clinical diagnosis of accessory breast carcinoma is frequently delayed. Therefore, a mass along the ‘milk line’ should be examined carefully, and any suspicious lesions should be evaluated. PMID:20847887

  19. Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Ruth M; Wallace, Vincent P; Pye, Richard J; Cole, Bryan E; Arnone, Donald D; Linfield, Edmund H; Pepper, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Terahertz pulse imaging has been used for the first time to study basal cell carcinoma ex vivo, the most common form of skin cancer. This noninvasive technique uses part of the electromagnetic spectrum in the frequency range 0.1-2.7 THz. A total of 21 samples were imaged; the study was performed blind and results were compared to histology. Each image consisted of possible diseased tissue and normal tissue from the same patient. The diseased tissue showed an increase in absorption compared to normal tissue, which is attributed to either an increase in the interstitial water within the diseased tissue or a change in the vibrational modes of water molecules with other functional groups. Seventeen of the images showed a significant difference between the normal and the diseased tissue. These were confirmed by histology to be basal cell carcinomas. Of the remaining four cases, three showed no contrast and were confirmed as blind controls of normal tissue; the fourth case was a suspected basal cell carcinoma but showed no contrast, and histology showed no tumor. Cross-sections of the terahertz images, showing the terahertz absorption, were compared to histology. Regions of increased terahertz absorption agreed well with the location of the tumor sites. Resolutions at 1 THz of 350 microm laterally and 40 microm axially in skin were attainable with our system. These results demonstrate the ability of terahertz pulse imaging to distinguish basal cell carcinoma from normal tissue, and this macroscopic technique may, in the future, help plan surgery.

  20. Diversity of human papillomaviruses in skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Ekström, Johanna; Mühr, Laila Sara Arroyo; Bzhalava, Davit; Söderlund-Strand, Anna; Hultin, Emilie; Nordin, Peter; Stenquist, Bo; Paoli, John; Forslund, Ola; Dillner, Joakim

    2013-12-01

    Pools of frozen biopsies from patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (n=29) actinic keratosis (AK) (n=31), keratoacanthoma (n=91) and swab samples from 84 SCCs and 91 AKs were analysed with an extended HPV general primer PCR and high-throughput sequencing of amplimers. We found 273 different HPV isolates (87 known HPV types, 139 previously known HPV sequences (putative types) and 47 sequences from novel putative HPV types). Among the new sequences, five clustered in genus Betapapillomavirus and 42 in genus Gammapapillomavirus. Resequencing of the three pools between 21 to 70 times resulted in the detection of 283 different known or putative HPV types, with 156 different sequences found in only one of the pools. Type-specific PCRs for 37 putative types from an additional 296 patients found only two of these putative types. In conclusion, skin lesions contain a large diversity of HPV types, but most appeared to be rare infections.

  1. Fine-needle aspiration of skin metastasis in ovarian cancer-report of two cases and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Charalampidis, Charalampos; Lampaki, Sofia; Lazaridis, George; Mpaka, Sofia; Kosmidis, Christoforos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pavlidis, Pavlos; Karapantzos, Ilias; Karapantzou, Chrysa; Hohenforst-Schmidt, Wolfgang; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is known to be the first cause of death of gynecological malignancy in Europe and United States. Skin metastases consist of an unusual event during the course of ovarian carcinoma and occur in 2–3.5% of the patients. We report two interested cases of patient with skin metastases, due to ovarian carcinoma, diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration (FNA). The clinical information, cytologic findings and immunocytochemical profile are described and further discussed, according to the relevant bibliographic data. The combination of FNA and thin layer cytology contribute to the accurate clarification of metastatic tumors with a known or unknown origin. It known that skin metastasis tend occurs in most ovarian carcinomas at a late stage course of the disease and it is usually associated with poor prognosis, in some cases the survival can be prolonged with appropriate therapy. So, an accurate cyto-immunodiagnosis is crucial for the best management of these patients. PMID:27999781

  2. Mobile phone use and the risk of skin cancer: a nationwide cohort study in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Friis, Søren; Johansen, Christoffer; Jensen, Allan; Frei, Patrizia; Kjaear, Susanne Krüger; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Schüz, Joachim

    2013-07-15

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified radiofrequency radiation as possibly carcinogenic. Previous studies have focused on intracranial tumors, although the skin receives much radiation. In a nationwide cohort study, 355,701 private mobile phone subscribers in Denmark from 1987 to 1995 were followed up through 2007. We calculated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma by using Poisson regression models adjusted for age, calendar period, educational level, and income. Separate IRRs for head/neck tumors and torso/leg tumors were compared (IRR ratios) to further address potential confounders. We observed no overall increased risk for basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, or melanoma of the head and neck. After a follow-up period of at least 13 years, the IRRs for basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma remained near unity. Among men, the IRR for melanoma of the head and neck was 1.20 (95% confidence interval: 0.65, 2.22) after a minimum 13-year follow-up, whereas the corresponding IRR for the torso and legs was 1.16 (95% confidence interval: 0.91, 1.47), yielding an IRR ratio of 1.04 (95% confidence interval: 0.54, 2.00). A similar risk pattern was seen among women, though it was based on smaller numbers. In this large, population-based cohort study, little evidence of an increased skin cancer risk was observed among mobile phone users.

  3. Early detection of skin cancer via terahertz spectral profiling and 3D imaging.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Anis; Rahman, Aunik K; Rao, Babar

    2016-08-15

    Terahertz scanning reflectometry, terahertz 3D imaging and terahertz time-domain spectroscopy have been used to identify features in human skin biopsy samples diagnosed for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and compared with healthy skin samples. It was found from the 3D images that the healthy skin samples exhibit regular cellular pattern while the BCC skin samples indicate lack of regular cell pattern. The skin is a highly layered structure organ; this is evident from the thickness profile via a scan through the thickness of the healthy skin samples, where, the reflected intensity of the terahertz beam exhibits fluctuations originating from different skin layers. Compared to the healthy skin samples, the BCC samples' profiles exhibit significantly diminished layer definition; thus indicating a lack of cellular order. In addition, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy reveals significant and quantifiable differences between the healthy and BCC skin samples. Thus, a combination of three different terahertz techniques constitutes a conclusive route for detecting the BCC condition on a cellular level compared to the healthy skin.

  4. [A case of squamous cell carcinoma of the hard palate in a patient with basal cell nevus syndrome].

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Mioko; Rikimaru, Fumihide; Higaki, Yuichiro; Masuda, Muneyuki

    2014-06-01

    Basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the developmental malformations and its carcinogenic nature. This syndrome shows various symptoms of multiple cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, ketatocystic odontogenic tumors, and inborn abnormalities in the bone and skin. Although basal cell nevus syndrome itself is a rare disorder, we experienced a very rare case in which squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity developed, and not cutaneous basal cell carcinoma. Only 4 similar cases have been reported in the English literature. The patient was a 33-year-old woman. She was diagnosed as having squamous cell carcinoma of the hard palate, and basal cell nevus syndrome in our hospital. The patient underwent surgery for squamous cell carcinoma of the hard palate, with postoperative chemoradiothetrapy. Since patients with this syndrome tend to form basal cell carcinoma when exposed to X-ray radiation, we perform radiotherapy with care.

  5. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders

    PubMed Central

    Shenefelt, Philip D; Shenefelt, Debrah A

    2014-01-01

    Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, “goose bumps”, redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. PMID:25120377

  6. [Autoimmune bullous skin disorders].

    PubMed

    Hertl, Michael; Niedermeier, Andrea; Borradori, Luca

    2010-09-01

    Autoimmune bullous skin disorders are rare, potentially fatal disorders of skin and mucous membranes which are associated with IgG or IgA autoantibodies against distinct adhesion molecules of the epidermis and dermal epidermal basement membrane zone, respectively. These autoantibodies lead to a loss of skin adhesion which shows up clinically as the formation of blisters or erosions. In pemphigus, loss of adhesion occurs within the epidermis while in the pemphigoids, linear IgA dermatosis, epidermolysis bullosa acquisita and dermatitis herpetiformis, loss of adhesion takes place within or underneath the basement membrane zone. The autoantigens of these disorders are largely identified and characterized. Making the diagnosis of autoimmune bullous skin diseases is based on histology and direct immunofluorescence of perilesional skin and the serological detection of autoantibodides by indirect immunofluorescence and recombinant autoantigens. Therapeutically, systemic treatment with glucocorticoids is combined with immunosuppressive adjuvants which allow for the fast reduction of systemic steroids. A prospective trial in pemphigus showed that adjuvant treatment with azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil and cyclophosphamide, respectively, led to a significant reduction of the cummulative dose of systemic steroids until complete clinical remission was achieved. In bullous pemphigoid, topical treatment with clobetasol led to complete clinical remissions without major side effects seen when glucocorticoids were applied systemically. Therapeutic depletion of B cells by rituximab as a second line therapy has significantly improved the overall prognosis of pemphigus. Comparable controlled therapeutic trials have not yet been performed in dermatitis herpetiformis and epidermolysis bullosa acquisita.

  7. Basal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lanoue, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly occurring cancer in the world and overall incidence is still on the rise. While typically a slow-growing tumor for which metastases is rare, basal cell carcinoma can be locally destructive and disfiguring. Given the vast prevalence of this disease, there is a significant overall burden on patient well-being and quality of life. The current mainstay of basal cell carcinoma treatment involves surgical modalities, such as electrodessication and curettage, excision, cryosurgery, and Mohs micrographic surgery. Such methods are typically reserved for localized basal cell carcinoma and offer high five-year cure rates, but come with the risk of functional impairment, disfigurement, and scarring. Here, the authors review the evidence and indications for nonsurgical treatment modalities in cases where surgery is impractical, contraindicated, or simply not desired by the patient. PMID:27386043

  8. Breast carcinoma metastases.

    PubMed

    Bodzin, G A; Staren, E D; Faber, L P

    1998-02-01

    With careful selection of patients, complete resection of pulmonary metastases from breast carcinoma may be a useful therapeutic option. Such a treatment appears to offer a significant survival benefit when compared with medical treatment alone, or with incomplete resection.

  9. More than skin deep? Potential nicotinamide treatment applications in chronic kidney transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Bostom, Andrew G; Merhi, Basma; Walker, Joanna; Robinson-Bostom, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Non-melanoma cutaneous carcinomas, or skin cancers, predominantly squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), are the most common malignancies occurring in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). Squamous cell carcinoma risk is dramatically elevated in KTRs, occurring at rates of up 45-250 times those reported in general populations. New non-melanoma skin cancers in KTRs with a prior non-melanoma skin cancer also develop at 3-times the rate reported in non-KTRs with the same clinical history. The unique aggressiveness of SCCs in KTRs increases patient morbidity, due to the high rate of new lesions requiring treatment, frequently surgical excision. Oral nicotinamide shows promise in the chemoprevention of the especially aggressive non-melanoma skin cancers which occur in KTRs. This benefit might be conferred via its inhibition of sirtuin enzymatic pathways. Nicotinamide’s concurrent hypophosphatemic effect may also partially ameliorate the disturbed calcium-phosphorus homeostasis in these patients-a putative risk factor for mortality, and graft failure. Conceivably, a phase 3 trial of nicotinamide for the prevention of non-melanoma skin cancers in KTRs, lasting at least 12-mo, could also incorporate imaging and laboratory measures which assess nicotinamide’s impact on subclinical cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease risk, and progression. PMID:28058215

  10. More than skin deep? Potential nicotinamide treatment applications in chronic kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Bostom, Andrew G; Merhi, Basma; Walker, Joanna; Robinson-Bostom, Leslie

    2016-12-24

    Non-melanoma cutaneous carcinomas, or skin cancers, predominantly squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), are the most common malignancies occurring in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). Squamous cell carcinoma risk is dramatically elevated in KTRs, occurring at rates of up 45-250 times those reported in general populations. New non-melanoma skin cancers in KTRs with a prior non-melanoma skin cancer also develop at 3-times the rate reported in non-KTRs with the same clinical history. The unique aggressiveness of SCCs in KTRs increases patient morbidity, due to the high rate of new lesions requiring treatment, frequently surgical excision. Oral nicotinamide shows promise in the chemoprevention of the especially aggressive non-melanoma skin cancers which occur in KTRs. This benefit might be conferred via its inhibition of sirtuin enzymatic pathways. Nicotinamide's concurrent hypophosphatemic effect may also partially ameliorate the disturbed calcium-phosphorus homeostasis in these patients-a putative risk factor for mortality, and graft failure. Conceivably, a phase 3 trial of nicotinamide for the prevention of non-melanoma skin cancers in KTRs, lasting at least 12-mo, could also incorporate imaging and laboratory measures which assess nicotinamide's impact on subclinical cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease risk, and progression.

  11. Drug Delivery Nanoparticles in Skin Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Dianzani, Chiara; Zara, Gian Paolo; Maina, Giovanni; Pettazzoni, Piergiorgio; Pizzimenti, Stefania; Rossi, Federica; Gigliotti, Casimiro Luca; Ciamporcero, Eric Stefano; Daga, Martina; Barrera, Giuseppina

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology involves the engineering of functional systems at nanoscale, thus being attractive for disciplines ranging from materials science to biomedicine. One of the most active research areas of the nanotechnology is nanomedicine, which applies nanotechnology to highly specific medical interventions for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases, including cancer disease. Over the past two decades, the rapid developments in nanotechnology have allowed the incorporation of multiple therapeutic, sensing, and targeting agents into nanoparticles, for detection, prevention, and treatment of cancer diseases. Nanoparticles offer many advantages as drug carrier systems since they can improve the solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs, modify pharmacokinetics, increase drug half-life by reducing immunogenicity, improve bioavailability, and diminish drug metabolism. They can also enable a tunable release of therapeutic compounds and the simultaneous delivery of two or more drugs for combination therapy. In this review, we discuss the recent advances in the use of different types of nanoparticles for systemic and topical drug delivery in the treatment of skin cancer. In particular, the progress in the treatment with nanocarriers of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma has been reported. PMID:25101298

  12. [Multiple primary pulmonary carcinomas].

    PubMed

    Guitart, A C; Gómez, G; Estrada, G; Rodríguez, C; León, C; Cornudella, R

    1991-02-01

    Three cases of multiple simultaneous primary lung carcinomas are presented, in which diagnosis was established by post-surgery pathological exam. In all three cases, chest X-ray showed pulmonary masses suggestive or clinical malignancy, and pre-surgery pathological diagnosis or squamous lung carcinoma. During thoracotomy or in the resected segment, a second lesion we confirmed which made resection necessary being this second lesion classified as lung adenocarcinoma.

  13. [Imaging renal cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Bazan, F; Busto, M

    2014-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is the eighth most common malignancy in adults and the most common malignancy in the kidney. It is thus a very common disease for radiologists. This review aims to provide a general overview of the imaging techniques used to diagnose, characterize, and help plan the treatment of renal cell carcinoma as well as to review basic aspects related to staging, imaging-guided percutaneous treatment, and follow-up in the most common clinical scenarios.

  14. Skin friction balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ping, Tcheng (Inventor); Supplee, Frank H., Jr. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A skin friction balance uses a parallel linkage mechanism to avoid inaccuracies in skin friction measurement attributable to off-center normal forces. The parallel linkage mechanism includes a stationary plate mounted in a cage, and an upper and lower movable plate which are linked to each other and to the stationary plate throught three vertical links. Flexure pivots are provided for pivotally connecting the links and the plates. A sensing element connected to the upper plate moves in response to skin friction, and the lower plate moves in the opposite direction of the upper plate. A force motor maintains a null position of the sensing element by exerting a restoring force in response to a signal generated by a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT).

  15. Update on skin allergy.

    PubMed

    Schlapbach, C; Simon, D

    2014-12-01

    Skin diseases with an allergic background such as atopic dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, and urticaria are very common. Moreover, diseases arising from a dysfunction of immune cells and/or their products often manifest with skin symptoms. This review aims to summarize recently published articles in order to highlight novel research findings, clinical trial results, and current guidelines on disease management. In recent years, an immense progress has been made in understanding the link between skin barrier dysfunction and allergic sensitization initiating the atopic march. In consequence, new strategies for treatment and prevention have been developed. Novel pathogenic insights, for example, into urticaria, angioedema, mastocytosis, led to the development of new therapeutic approaches and their implementation in daily patient care. By understanding distinct pathomechanisms, for example, the role of IL-1, novel entities such as autoinflammatory diseases have been described. Considerable effort has been made to improve and harmonize patient management as documented in several guidelines and position papers.

  16. Sprayed skin turbine component

    DOEpatents

    Allen, David B

    2013-06-04

    Fabricating a turbine component (50) by casting a core structure (30), forming an array of pits (24) in an outer surface (32) of the core structure, depositing a transient liquid phase (TLP) material (40) on the outer surface of the core structure, the TLP containing a melting-point depressant, depositing a skin (42) on the outer surface of the core structure over the TLP material, and heating the assembly, thus forming both a diffusion bond and a mechanical interlock between the skin and the core structure. The heating diffuses the melting-point depressant away from the interface. Subsurface cooling channels (35) may be formed by forming grooves (34) in the outer surface of the core structure, filling the grooves with a fugitive filler (36), depositing and bonding the skin (42), then removing the fugitive material.

  17. Environment and the skin

    SciTech Connect

    Suskind, R.R. )

    1990-03-01

    The skin is an important organ of defense adaptation and a portal of entry for xenobiotics. It is vulnerable to physical, chemical, and biologic agents and capable of expressing responses to these agents in a variety of pathologic patterns. These patterns are characterized by morphologic and functional features which are elicited by careful examination and test procedures. Cutaneous cancer may result from exposure to nonionizing as well as ionizing radiation, to specific identifiable chemical hazards, and may be enhanced by trauma. Cutaneous hazards of chemical sources are largely found in the workplace and among consumer products, including drugs and toilet goods. Environmental skin diseases and injuries are preventable. Prior to use assessment for safety and for possible risks from exposure to an agent, product, or process is of primary importance in the prevention and control of environmental skin disease and injury.

  18. Missense polymorphisms in matrix metalloproteinase genes and skin cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Nan, Hongmei; Niu, Tianhua; Hunter, David J; Han, Jiali

    2008-12-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) degrade various components of the extracellular matrix, and their overexpression has been implicated in tumor progression. Nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) lead to amino acid substitutions that can alter the function of the encoded protein. We evaluated the associations of six nonsynonymous SNPs in the MMP3, MMP8, and MMP9 genes with skin cancer risk in a nested case-control study of Caucasians within the Nurses' Health Study among 218 melanoma cases, 285 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cases, 300 basal cell carcinoma (BCC) cases, and 870 normal controls. We observed that the MMP9 Arg668Gln polymorphism was significantly associated with a decreased risk of SCC. Compared with the Arg/Arg group, the multivariate odds ratio was 0.67 (95% confidence interval, 0.47-0.97) for the Arg/Gln group and 0.21 (95% confidence interval, 0.05-0.97) for the Gln/Gln group (P(trend) = 0.004). We did not observe any association of this SNP with the risks of melanoma and basal cell carcinoma. No associations were found for other SNPs with skin cancer risk. This study provides evidence for the contribution of the MMP9 Arg668Gln to SCC development.

  19. P16INK4a Immunostaining but Lack of Human Papilloma Virus Type 16 in Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Basal Cell Carcinoma: a Report from West Iran.

    PubMed

    Ramezani, Mazaher; Abdali, Elham; Khazaei, Sedigheh; Vaisi-Raygani, Asad; Sadeghi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    The tumor suppressor p16 is a biomarker for transforming human papilloma virus (HPV) infections that can lead to contradictory results in skin carcinomas. The aim of this study was to evaluate p16 expression and HPV-16 infection in the cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). This case-control study was performed on paraffin blocks of BCCs and SCCs and normal skin (53, 36, and 44 cases, respectively), between 2006 to 2015. Initial sections for groups were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H and E). Immunohistochemistry was performed for p16 expression and human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV-16) infection. Normal group was skin of mammoplasty specimens and normal skin tissue in the periphery of tumors. The mean age at diagnosis was 42.1, 61.7 and 71.4 years for normal, BCC and SCC groups, respectively. P16 positivity was more in SCC and BCC groups compared to normal group (P<0.05) and HPV was negative in all patients in three groups. Also, the mean age at diagnosis and P16-positivity were higher for the SCC group than the BCC group (P<0.005). In conclusion, in non-melanoma skin cancers (SCC and BCC), p16-positivity can be a prognostic factor but there is no correlation between HPV-16 and p16 in these tumors.

  20. [Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) : A genetic disease sheds light on UV-induced skin cancer].

    PubMed

    Emmert, B; Hallier, E; Schön, M P; Emmert, S

    2011-02-01

    The recessively inherited nucleotide excision repair (NER) defect syndrome xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) serves as a model disease for UV-induced skin cancer. XP is characterized by sun-sensitivity, freckling, and poikilodermic skin changes in sun-exposed areas, and a more than 1000-fold increased risk of skin cancer including melanoma as well as basal and squamous cell carcinomas. Seven XP complementation groups (XP-A to XP-G) are known to date representing the defective genes in XP patients. An additional "variant" form (XPV) which is clinically indistinguishable from the complementation groups exhibits defective translesional synthesis. An enhanced understanding of skin cancer development in general can help to identify individuals at an increased risk who should take special precautions, for example to avoid occupational exposures. The position of skin cancer induced by UV-light as an occupational disease in the ordinance on industrial diseases (BKV) is currently a topic of research and discussion in Germany.

  1. In vivo spectroscopy of healthy skin and pathology in terahertz frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaytsev, Kirill I.; Kudrin, Konstantin G.; Reshetov, Igor V.; Gavdush, Arseniy A.; Chernomyrdin, Nikita V.; Karasik, Valeriy E.; Yurchenko, Stanislav O.

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical applications of terahertz (THz) technology and, in particular, THz pulsed spectroscopy have attracted considerable interest in the scientific community. A lot of papers have been dedicated to studying the ability for human disease diagnosis, including the diagnosis of human skin cancers. In this paper we have studied the THz material parameters and THz dielectric properties of human skin and pathology in vivo, and THz pulsed spectroscopy has been utilized for this purpose. We have found a contrast between material parameters of basal cell carcinoma and healthy skin, and we have also compared the THz material parameters of dysplastic and non-dysplastic pigmentary nevi in order to study the ability for early melanoma diagnosis. Significant differences between the THz material parameters of healthy skin and pathology have been detected, thus, THz pulsed spectroscopy promises to be become an effective tool for non-invasive diagnosis of skin neoplasms.

  2. Combined autofluorescence and Raman spectroscopy method for skin tumor detection in visible and near infrared regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, V. P.; Bratchenko, I. A.; Artemyev, D. N.; Myakinin, O. O.; Khristoforova, Y. A.; Kozlov, S. V.; Moryatov, A. A.

    2015-07-01

    The combined application of Raman and autofluorescence spectroscopy in visible and near infrared regions for the analysis of malignant neoplasms of human skin was demonstrated. Ex vivo experiments were performed for 130 skin tissue samples: 28 malignant melanomas, 19 basal cell carcinomas, 15 benign tumors, 9 nevi and 59 normal tissues. Proposed method of Raman spectra analysis allows for malignant melanoma differentiating from other skin tissues with accuracy of 84% (sensitivity of 97%, specificity of 72%). Autofluorescence analysis in near infrared and visible regions helped us to increase the diagnostic accuracy by 5-10%. Registration of autofluorescence in near infrared region is realized in one optical unit with Raman spectroscopy. Thus, the proposed method of combined skin tissues study makes possible simultaneous large skin area study with autofluorescence spectra analysis and precise neoplasm type determination with Raman spectroscopy.

  3. Towards label-free evaluation of oxidative stress in human skin exposed to sun filters (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osseiran, Sam; Wang, Hequn; Suita, Yusuke; Roider, Elisabeth; Fisher, David E.; Evans, Conor L.

    2016-02-01

    Skin cancer, including basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma, is the most common form of cancer in North America. Paradoxically, skin cancer incidence is steadily on the rise even despite the growing use of sunscreens over the past decades. One potential explanation for this discrepancy involves the sun filters in sunscreen, which are responsible for blocking harmful ultraviolet radiation. It is proposed that these agents may produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) at the site of application, thereby generating oxidative stress in skin that gives rise to genetic mutations, which may explain the rising incidence of skin cancer. To test this hypothesis, ex vivo human skin was treated with five common chemical sun filters (avobenzone, octocrylene, homosalate, octisalate, and oxybenzone) as well as two physical sun filters (zinc oxide compounds), both with and without UV irradiation. To non-invasively evaluate oxidative stress, two-photon excitation fluorescence (2PEF) and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) of the skin samples were used to monitor levels of NADH and FAD, two key cofactors in cellular redox metabolism. The relative redox state of the skin was assessed based on the fluorescence intensities and lifetimes of these endogenous cofactors. While the sun filters were indeed shown to have a protective effect from UV radiation, it was observed that they also generate oxidative stress in skin, even in the absence of UV light. These results suggest that sun filter induced ROS production requires more careful study, especially in how these reactive species impact the rise of skin cancer.

  4. [Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Antoine, Martine; Vieira, Thibault; Fallet, Vincent; Hamard, Cécile; Duruisseaux, Michael; Cadranel, Jacques; Wislez, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinomas are a rare group of tumors accounting for about one percent of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). In 2015, the World Health Organization classification united under this name all the carcinomas with sarcomatous-like component with spindle cell or giant cell appearance, or associated with a sarcomatous component sometimes heterologous. There are five subtypes: pleomorphic carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, giant cell carcinoma, carcinosarcoma and pulmonary blastoma. Clinical characteristics are not specific from the other subtypes of NSCLC. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition pathway may play a key role. Patients, usually tobacco smokers, are frequently symptomatic. Tumors are voluminous more often peripherical than central, with strong fixation on FDG TEP CT. Distant metastases are frequent with atypical visceral locations. These tumors have poorer prognosis than the other NSCLC subtypes because of great aggressivity, and frequent chemoresistance. Here we present pathological description and a review of literature with molecular features in order to better describe these tumors and perhaps introduce new therapeutics.

  5. Transplantable pancreatic acinar carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, J.R.; Reddy, J.K.

    1981-03-15

    Fragments of the nafenopin-induced pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma of rat have been examined in vitro for patterns of intracellular protein transport and carbamylcholine-induced protein discharge. Continuous incubation of the fragments with (3H)-leucine for 60 minutes resulted in labeling of rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi cisternae, and mature zymogen granules, revealed by electron microscope autoradiography. This result indicates transport of newly synthesized protein from the rough endoplasmic reticulum to mature zymogen granules in approximately 60 minutes. The secretagogue carbamylcholine induced the discharge of radioactive protein by carcinoma fragments pulse-chase labeled with (3H)-leucine. A maximal effective carbamylcholine concentration of 10(-5) M was determined. The acinar carcinoma resembles normal exocrine pancreas in the observed rate of intracellular protein transport and effective secretagogue concentration. However, the acinar carcinoma fragments demonstrated an apparent low rate of carbamylcholine-induced radioactive protein discharge as compared with normal pancreatic lobules or acinar cells. It is suggested that the apparent low rate of radioactive protein discharge reflects functional immaturity of the acinar carcinoma. Possible relationships of functional differentiation to the heterogeneous cytodifferentiation of the pancreatic acinar carcinoma are discussed.

  6. Epidemiology of skin cancer arisen from the burn scars in Nigerian Ibos.

    PubMed

    Onuigbo, Wilson I B

    2006-08-01

    During the period 20 February 1970-19 February 2000, burns resulting in squamous cell carcinoma of the skin were documented by using a histopathology data pool of surgical specimens kept by the author as regards his Ibos ethnic group in Nigeria, West Africa. There were 21 cases. The males outnumbered the females in the ratio of 3:1. The youngest patient was aged 8 years and the oldest 75 years (mean age 39 years). Most of the antecedent injuries occurred during childhood. The two etiologic agents of albinism and burns were combined in one patient while another rarity was the presentation of the cancer within keloids. In conclusion, in dark skinned races, research should be directed on the comparative role of burns in predisposing to squamous cell carcinoma in individuals whose skin is compromised by either albinism or keloids.

  7. Incidence of malignant skin tumors in 14,140 patients after grenz-ray treatment for benign skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Lindelöf, B; Eklund, G

    1986-12-01

    During the years 1949 to 1975, 14,237 patients received therapeutic doses of grenz rays for the treatment of benign skin disorders such as chronic eczema, psoriasis, and warts. The records of 14,140 of these patients (99.3%) formed the basis for an epidemiologic study of the incidence of skin malignancies in this population. Information about the patients, diagnoses, doses, and sites of treatment was obtained from separate records. The follow-up time was 15 years on the average. We searched the Swedish Cancer Registry, Stockholm, for records reporting the incidence of malignant skin tumors in the study population (incidences of basal cell carcinoma are not registered). The expected number of malignancies was calculated on the basis of age- and sex-standardized incidence data from the Swedish Cancer Registry. In 58 patients, a malignant skin tumor was diagnosed more than five years after grenz-ray therapy had first been administered. Nineteen patients had malignant melanomas, and 39 patients had other malignant skin tumors. The expected number of melanomas was 17.8, and that of other malignant skin tumors was 26.9. None of the patients with melanomas, and only eight of the patients with other malignant skin tumors, had received grenz-ray therapy at the site of the tumor. Six of these eight patients had also been exposed to other known carcinogens. Four hundred eighty-one patients had received an accumulated high dose of grenz rays (greater than or equal to 10 000 rad [greater than or equal to 100 Gy]) on one and the same area. No malignancies were found on those areas. Although we cannot exclude grenz-ray therapy as a risk factor in the development of nonmelanoma skin malignancies, this risk, if any, is small, if recommendations for therapy are followed.

  8. Incidence of malignant skin tumors in 14,140 patients after grenz-ray treatment for benign skin disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Lindeloef, B.E.; Eklund, G.

    1986-12-01

    During the years 1949 to 1975, 14,237 patients received therapeutic doses of grenz rays for the treatment of benign skin disorders such as chronic eczema, psoriasis, and warts. The records of 14,140 of these patients (99.3%) formed the basis for an epidemiologic study of the incidence of skin malignancies in this population. Information about the patients, diagnoses, doses, and sites of treatment was obtained from separate records. The follow-up time was 15 years on the average. We searched the Swedish Cancer Registry, Stockholm, for records reporting the incidence of malignant skin tumors in the study population (incidences of basal cell carcinoma are not registered). The expected number of malignancies was calculated on the basis of age- and sex-standardized incidence data from the Swedish Cancer Registry. In 58 patients, a malignant skin tumor was diagnosed more than five years after grenz-ray therapy had first been administered. Nineteen patients had malignant melanomas, and 39 patients had other malignant skin tumors. The expected number of melanomas was 17.8, and that of other malignant skin tumors was 26.9. None of the patients with melanomas, and only eight of the patients with other malignant skin tumors, had received grenz-ray therapy at the site of the tumor. Six of these eight patients had also been exposed to other known carcinogens. Four hundred eighty-one patients had received an accumulated high dose of grenz rays (greater than or equal to 10 000 rad (greater than or equal to 100 Gy)) on one and the same area. No malignancies were found on those areas. Although we cannot exclude grenz-ray therapy as a risk factor in the development of nonmelanoma skin malignancies, this risk, if any, is small, if recommendations for therapy are followed.

  9. Expression and heterodimer‐binding activity of Ku70 and Ku80 in human non‐melanoma skin cancer

    PubMed Central

    Parrella, P; Mazzarelli, P; Signori, E; Perrone, G; Marangi, G F; Rabitti, C; Delfino, M; Prencipe, M; Gallo, A P; Rinaldi, M; Fabbrocini, G; Delfino, S; Persichetti, P; Fazio, V M

    2006-01-01

    Background Experimental data suggest that exposure to ultraviolet radiation may indirectly induce DNA double‐strand breaks. Aim To investigate the contribution of the non‐homologous end‐joining repair pathway in basal and squamous cell carcinomas. Methods Levels of Ku70 and Ku80 proteins were determined by immunohistochemical analysis and Ku70–Ku80 heterodimer‐binding activity by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Matched pathological normal margins and skin from healthy people were used as controls. Results A significant increase in Ku70 and Ku80 protein levels was found for both tumour types as compared with normal skin (p<0.001). Squamous cell carcinoma showed increased immunostaining as compared with basal cell tumours (p<0.02). A direct correlation was found between Ku70 and Ku80 protein levels and expression of the proliferation markers Ki‐67/MIB‐1 (p<0.02 and p<0.002, respectively) in basal cell carcinoma. DNA binding activity was increased in basal cell carcinoma samples as compared with matched skin histopathologically negative for cancer (p<0.006). In squamous cell carcinomas, however, the difference was significant only with normal skin (p<0.02) and not with matched pathologically normal margins. Conclusions Overall, an up regulation of the Ku70 and Ku80 protein levels seems to correlate only with tumour proliferation rate. As non‐homologous end joining is an error‐prone mechanism, its up regulation may ultimately increase genomic instability, contributing to tumour progression. PMID:16497868

  10. [The skin and alopecia].

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Kazuyuki

    2003-06-01

    Adverse skin reactions to anti-tumor agents, can be classified either as general symptoms or as local symptoms. The former type of symptom can manifest as intoxication dermatosis; however, while its occurrence is rare, the symptom that requires the closest attention is toxic epidermal necrolysis, the outcome of which is death in most patients. The latter type of symptom includes extravasation of anti-tumor agents and alopecia. Treatment of extravasation induced skin disorders includes prompt and repeated local injections of steroids, while treatment of alopecia includes scalp cooling and external therapies.

  11. Deletion of epidermal Rac1 inhibits HPV-8 induced skin papilloma formation and facilitates HPV-8- and UV-light induced skin carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Jayesh; Pofahl, Ruth; Pfister, Herbert; Haase, Ingo

    2016-09-06

    Overexpression and increased activity of the small Rho GTPase Rac1 has been linked to squamous cell carcinoma of the epidermis and mucosa in humans. Targeted deletion of Rac1 or inhibition of Rac1 activity in epidermal keratinocytes reduced papilloma formation in a chemical skin carcinogenesis mouse model. However, a potential role of Rac1 in HPV- and UV-light induced skin carcinogenesis has not been investigated so far, solar UV radiation being an important carcinogen to the skin.To investigate this, we deleted Rac1 or modulated its activity in mice with transgenic expression of Human papilloma virus type-8 (HPV-8) in epidermal keratinocytes. Our data show that inhibition or deletion of Rac1 results in reduced papilloma formation upon UV-irradiation with a single dose, whereas constitutive activation of Rac1 strongly increases papilloma frequency in these mice. Surprisingly, we observed that, upon chronic UV-irradiation, the majority of mice with transgenic expression of HPV-8 and epidermis specific Rac1 deletion developed squamous cell carcinomas. Taken together, our data show that Rac1 exerts a dual role in skin carcinogenesis: its activation is, on one hand, required for HPV-8- and UV-light induced papilloma formation but, on the other, suppresses the development of squamous cell carcinomas.

  12. Deletion of epidermal Rac1 inhibits HPV-8 induced skin papilloma formation and facilitates HPV-8- and UV-light induced skin carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Jayesh; Pofahl, Ruth; Pfister, Herbert; Haase, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression and increased activity of the small Rho GTPase Rac1 has been linked to squamous cell carcinoma of the epidermis and mucosa in humans. Targeted deletion of Rac1 or inhibition of Rac1 activity in epidermal keratinocytes reduced papilloma formation in a chemical skin carcinogenesis mouse model. However, a potential role of Rac1 in HPV- and UV-light induced skin carcinogenesis has not been investigated so far, solar UV radiation being an important carcinogen to the skin. To investigate this, we deleted Rac1 or modulated its activity in mice with transgenic expression of Human papilloma virus type-8 (HPV-8) in epidermal keratinocytes. Our data show that inhibition or deletion of Rac1 results in reduced papilloma formation upon UV-irradiation with a single dose, whereas constitutive activation of Rac1 strongly increases papilloma frequency in these mice. Surprisingly, we observed that, upon chronic UV-irradiation, the majority of mice with transgenic expression of HPV-8 and epidermis specific Rac1 deletion developed squamous cell carcinomas. Taken together, our data show that Rac1 exerts a dual role in skin carcinogenesis: its activation is, on one hand, required for HPV-8- and UV-light induced papilloma formation but, on the other, suppresses the development of squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:27506937

  13. The relationship between skin maturation and electrical skin impedance.

    PubMed

    Emery, M M; Hebert, A A; Aguirre Vila-Coro, A; Prager, T C

    1991-09-01

    When performing electrophysiological testing, high electrical impedance values are sometimes found in neonates. Since excessive impedance can invalidate test results, a study was conducted to delineate the relationship between skin maturation and electrical skin impedance. This study investigated the skin impedance in 72 infants ranging from 196 to 640 days of age from conception. Regression analyses demonstrated a significant relationship between impedance and age, with the highest impedance centered around full-term gestation with values falling precipitously at time points on either side. Clinically, impedance values fall to normal levels at approximately four months following full-term gestation. Skin impedance values are low in premature infants, but rapidly increase as the age approaches that of full-term neonates. Low impedance values in premature infants are attributed to greater skin hydration which results from immature skin conditions such as 1) thinner epidermal layers particularly at the transitional and cornified layers; 2) more blood flow to the skin; and 3) higher percentage of water composition. These factors facilitate the diffusion of water vapor through the skin. As the physical barrier to skin water loss matures with gestational age, the skin impedance reaches a maximum value at full term neonatal age. After this peak, a statistically significant inverse relationship exists between electrical skin impedance and age in the first year of life. This drop in skin impedance is attributed to an increase in skin hydration as a result of the greater functional maturity of eccrine sweat glands.

  14. Study of surfactant-skin interactions by skin impedance measurements.

    PubMed

    Lu, Guojin; Moore, David J

    2012-02-01

    The stratum corneum (SC) plays a very critical physiological role as skin barrier in regulating water loss through the skin and protects the body from a wide range of physical and chemical exogenous insults. Surfactant-containing formulations can induce skin damage and irritation owing to surfactant absorption and penetration. It is generally accepted that reduction in skin barrier properties occurs only after surfactants have penetrated/permeated into the skin barrier. To mitigate the harshness of surfactant-based cleansing products, penetration/permeation of surfactants should be reduced. Skin impedance measurements have been taken in vitro on porcine skin using vertical Franz diffusion cells to investigate the impact of surfactants, temperature and pH on skin barrier integrity. These skin impedance results demonstrate excellent correlation with other published methods for assessing skin damage and irritation from different surfactant chemistry, concentration, pH, time of exposure and temperature. This study demonstrates that skin impedance can be utilized as a routine approach to screen surfactant-containing formulations for their propensity to compromise the skin barrier and hence likely lead to skin irritation.

  15. Multifaceted role of TREX2 in the skin defense against UV-induced skin carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Manils, Joan; Gómez, Diana; Salla-Martret, Mercè; Fischer, Heinz; Fye, Jason M.; Marzo, Elena; Marruecos, Laura; Serrano, Inma; Salgado, Rocío; Rodrigo, Juan P.; Garcia-Pedrero, Juana M.; Serafin, Anna M.; Cañas, Xavier; Benito, Carmen; Toll, Agustí; Forcales, Sònia-Vanina; Perrino, Fred W.; Eckhart, Leopold; Soler, Concepció

    2015-01-01

    TREX2 is a 3′-DNA exonuclease specifically expressed in keratinocytes. Here, we investigated the relevance and mechanisms of TREX2 in ultraviolet (UV)-induced skin carcinogenesis. TREX2 expression was up-regulated by chronic UV exposure whereas it was de-regulated or lost in human squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Moreover, we identified SNPs in the TREX2 gene that were more frequent in patients with head and neck SCCs than in healthy individuals. In mice, TREX2 deficiency led to enhanced susceptibility to UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis which was preceded by aberrant DNA damage removal and degradation as well as reduced inflammation. Specifically, TREX2 loss diminished the up-regulation of IL12 and IFNγ, key cytokines related to DNA repair and antitumor immunity. In UV-treated keratinocytes, TREX2 promoted DNA repair and passage to late apoptotic stages. Notably, TREX2 was recruited to low-density nuclear chromatin and micronuclei, where it interacted with phosphorylated H2AX histone, which is a critical player in both DNA repair and cell death. Altogether, our data provide new insights in the molecular mechanisms of TREX2 activity and establish cell autonomous and non-cell autonomous functions of TREX2 in the UVB-induced skin response. PMID:26090614

  16. Multifaceted role of TREX2 in the skin defense against UV-induced skin carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Manils, Joan; Gómez, Diana; Salla-Martret, Mercè; Fischer, Heinz; Fye, Jason M; Marzo, Elena; Marruecos, Laura; Serrano, Inma; Salgado, Rocío; Rodrigo, Juan P; Garcia-Pedrero, Juana M; Serafin, Anna M; Cañas, Xavier; Benito, Carmen; Toll, Agustí; Forcales, Sònia-Vanina; Perrino, Fred W; Eckhart, Leopold; Soler, Concepció

    2015-09-08

    TREX2 is a 3'-DNA exonuclease specifically expressed in keratinocytes. Here, we investigated the relevance and mechanisms of TREX2 in ultraviolet (UV)-induced skin carcinogenesis. TREX2 expression was up-regulated by chronic UV exposure whereas it was de-regulated or lost in human squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Moreover, we identified SNPs in the TREX2 gene that were more frequent in patients with head and neck SCCs than in healthy individuals. In mice, TREX2 deficiency led to enhanced susceptibility to UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis which was preceded by aberrant DNA damage removal and degradation as well as reduced inflammation. Specifically, TREX2 loss diminished the up-regulation of IL12 and IFNγ, key cytokines related to DNA repair and antitumor immunity. In UV-treated keratinocytes, TREX2 promoted DNA repair and passage to late apoptotic stages. Notably, TREX2 was recruited to low-density nuclear chromatin and micronuclei, where it interacted with phosphorylated H2AX histone, which is a critical player in both DNA repair and cell death. Altogether, our data provide new insights in the molecular mechanisms of TREX2 activity and establish cell autonomous and non-cell autonomous functions of TREX2 in the UVB-induced skin response.

  17. Primary retroperitoneal Merkel cell carcinoma: Case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Quiroz-Sandoval, Osvaldo A.; Cuellar-Hubbe, Mario; Lino-Silva, Leonardo S.; Salcedo-Hernández, Rosa A.; López-Basave, Horacio N.; Padilla-Rosciano, Alejandro E.; León-Takahashi, Alberto M.; Herrera-Gómez, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Background Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma that affects elderly patients and typically arises in sun-exposed skin. The disease is very rare and only few cases present with no apparent skin lesion. In the retroperitoneum there are only two cases reported in the literature. Case presentation We report a case of a 54-year-old Mexican male with MCC, which presented as a large retroperitoneal mass. Pathological and immunohistochemical analysis of the transabdominal CT-guided biopsy specimen revealed a MCC. The patient underwent preoperative chemotherapy followed by a laparotomy and the mass was successfully excised. Discussion There are two possible explanations for what occurred in our patient. The most plausible theory is the retroperitoneal mass could be a massively enlarged lymph node where precursor cells became neoplastic. This would be consistent with a presumptive diagnosis of primary nodal disease. Moreover, metastasis to the retroperitoneal lymph nodes has been reported as relatively common when compared to other sites such as liver, bone, brain and skin. The less probable theory is the non-described “regression” phenomena of a cutaneous MCC, but we are not found a primary skin lesion. Conclusion Preoperative chemotherapy and excision of the primary tumor is the surgical treatment of choice for retroperitoneal MCC. We propose that further studies are needed to elucidate the true efficacy of chemotherapy in conventional and unconventional patients with MCC. PMID:26708276

  18. The relationship between skin cancers, solar radiation and ozone depletion.

    PubMed Central

    Moan, J.; Dahlback, A.

    1992-01-01

    During the period 1957-1984 the annual age-adjusted incidence rate of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) increased by 350% for men and 440% for women in Norway. The annual exposure to carcinogenic sunlight in Norway, calculated by use of measured ozone levels, showed no increasing trend during the same period. Thus, ozone depletion is not a cause of the increasing trend of the incidence rates of skin cancers. The incidence rates of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) increase with decreasing latitude in Norway. The same is true for CMM in Norway, Sweden, and Finland. Our data were used to estimate the implications of a future ozone depletion for the incidence rates of skin cancer: a 10% ozone depletion was found to give rise to a 16-18% increase in the incidence rate of SCC (men and women), a 19% increase in the incidence rate of CMM for men and a 32% increase in the incidence rate of CMM for women. The difference between the numbers for men and women is almost significant and may be related to a different intermittent exposure pattern to sunlight of the two sexes. The increasing trend in the incidence rates of CMM is strongest for the trunk and lower extremities of women, followed by that for the trunk of men. The increasing incidence rates of skin cancers as well as the changing pattern of incidence on different parts of the body is most likely due to changing habits of sun exposure. Comparisons of relative densities of CMM, SCC, LMM and SCC falling per unit area of skin at different parts of the body indicate that sun exposure is the main cause of these cancer forms although other unknown factors may play significant roles as well. For the population as a whole sun exposure during vacations to sunny countries has so far been of minor importance in skin cancer induction. PMID:1616864

  19. Current diagnosis and treatment of basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Alter, Mareike; Hillen, Uwe; Leiter, Ulrike; Sachse, Michael; Gutzmer, Ralf

    2015-09-01

    Basal cell carcinoma represents is most common tumor in fair-skinned individuals. In Germany, age-standardized incidence rates are 63 (women) and 80 (men) per 100,000 population per year. Early lesions may be difficult to diagnose merely on clinical grounds. Here, noninvasive diagnostic tools such as optical coherence tomography and confocal laser scanning microscopy may be helpful. The clinical diagnosis is usually confirmed by histology. Standard therapy consists of complete excision with thorough histological examination, either by means of micrographic surgery or, depending on tumor size and location as well as infiltration, using surgical margins of 3-5 mm or more. In particular, multiple basal cell carcinomas (such as in Gorlin-Goltz syndrome) and locally advanced as well as rarely also metastatic basal cell carcinoma may pose a therapeutic challenge. In superficial basal cell carcinoma, nonsurgical therapies such as photodynamic therapy or topical agents may be considered. In case of locally advanced or metastatic basal cell carcinoma, an interdisciplinary tumor board should issue therapeutic recommendations. These include radiation therapy as well as systemic therapy with a hedgehog inhibitor.

  20. Keratinocyte stem cells and the targets for nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ashok; Park, Heuijoon; Kangsamaksin, Thaned; Singh, Anupama; Readio, Nyssa; Morris, Rebecca J

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian skin is a complex dynamic organ composed of thin multilayered epidermis and a thick underlying connective tissue layer dermis. The epidermis undergoes continuous renewal throughout life. The stems cells uniquely express particular surface markers utilized for their identification, isolation and localization in specific niches in epidermis as well as hair follicles (HFs). The two stage skin carcinogenesis model involves stepwise accumulation of genetic alterations and ultimately leading to malignancy. Whereas early research on skin carcinogenesis focused on the molecular nature of carcinogens and tumor promoters, more recent studies have focused on the identification of the target cells and tumor promoting cells for both chemical and physical carcinogens and promoters. Recent studies support the hypothesis that keratinocyte stem cells are the targets in skin carcinogenesis. In this review, we discuss briefly the localization of stem cells in the epidermis and HFs, and review the possibility that skin papillomas and carcinomas are derived from stem cells, as well as from other cells in the cutaneous epithelium whose stem cell properties are not well known.