Science.gov

Sample records for adobe acrobat format

  1. Adobe acrobat: an alternative electronic teaching file construction methodology independent of HTML restrictions.

    PubMed

    Katzman, G L

    2001-03-01

    The goal of the project was to create a method by which an in-house digital teaching file could be constructed that was simple, inexpensive, independent of hypertext markup language (HTML) restrictions, and appears identical on multiple platforms. To accomplish this, Microsoft PowerPoint and Adobe Acrobat were used in succession to assemble digital teaching files in the Acrobat portable document file format. They were then verified to appear identically on computers running Windows, Macintosh Operating Systems (OS), and the Silicon Graphics Unix-based OS as either a free-standing file using Acrobat Reader software or from within a browser window using the Acrobat browser plug-in. This latter display method yields a file viewed through a browser window, yet remains independent of underlying HTML restrictions, which may confer an advantage over simple HTML teaching file construction. Thus, a hybrid of HTML-distributed Adobe Acrobat generated WWW documents may be a viable alternative for digital teaching file construction and distribution.

  2. Using built-in functions of Adobe Acrobat Pro DC to help the selection process in systematic reviews of randomised trials.

    PubMed

    Nur, Selin; Adams, Clive E; Brailsford, David F

    2016-02-18

    This letter describes a simple way of using Adobe Acrobat Pro DC to help select and auto-extract data from Portable Document Format (PDFs) of randomised trials in order to assist swift early selection of trials for a systematic review.

  3. Evaluation of Adobe[R] Presenter as a Teaching Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabowski, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Adobe[R] Presenter software provides educators with a tool to create narrated distance learning presentations. This article describes Adobe[R] Presenter's many features and explains which most strongly affect learning. Six Adobe[R] Presenter trainings were presented to 62 volunteers preparing to provide information at a public outreach event. One…

  4. Desktop document delivery using portable document format (PDF) files and the Web.

    PubMed Central

    Shipman, J P; Gembala, W L; Reeder, J M; Zick, B A; Rainwater, M J

    1998-01-01

    Desktop access to electronic full-text literature was rated one of the most desirable services in a client survey conducted by the University of Washington Libraries. The University of Washington Health Sciences Libraries (UW HSL) conducted a ten-month pilot test from August 1996 to May 1997 to determine the feasibility of delivering electronic journal articles via the Internet to remote faculty. Articles were scanned into Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (PDF) files and delivered to individuals using Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) standard e-mail attachments and the Web. Participants retrieved scanned articles and used the Adobe Acrobat Reader software to view and print files. The pilot test required a special programming effort to automate the client notification and file deletion processes. Test participants were satisfied with the pilot test despite some technical difficulties. Desktop delivery is now offered as a routine delivery method from the UW HSL. PMID:9681165

  5. Adobe Boxes: Locating Object Proposals Using Object Adobes.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhiwen; Cao, Zhiguo; Xiao, Yang; Zhu, Lei; Yuan, Junsong

    2016-09-01

    Despite the previous efforts of object proposals, the detection rates of the existing approaches are still not satisfactory enough. To address this, we propose Adobe Boxes to efficiently locate the potential objects with fewer proposals, in terms of searching the object adobes that are the salient object parts easy to be perceived. Because of the visual difference between the object and its surroundings, an object adobe obtained from the local region has a high probability to be a part of an object, which is capable of depicting the locative information of the proto-object. Our approach comprises of three main procedures. First, the coarse object proposals are acquired by employing randomly sampled windows. Then, based on local-contrast analysis, the object adobes are identified within the enlarged bounding boxes that correspond to the coarse proposals. The final object proposals are obtained by converging the bounding boxes to tightly surround the object adobes. Meanwhile, our object adobes can also refine the detection rate of most state-of-the-art methods as a refinement approach. The extensive experiments on four challenging datasets (PASCAL VOC2007, VOC2010, VOC2012, and ILSVRC2014) demonstrate that the detection rate of our approach generally outperforms the state-of-the-art methods, especially with relatively small number of proposals. The average time consumed on one image is about 48 ms, which nearly meets the real-time requirement.

  6. Attentional Focus Effects in Balance Acrobats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulf, Gabriele

    2008-01-01

    Performing and learning motor skills has been shown to be enhanced if the performer adopts an external relative to internal focus (or no focus) of attention (Wulf, 2007). The present study examined the generalizability of this effect to top-level performers (balance acrobats). Participants performed a balance task (standing on an inflated rubber…

  7. 47 CFR 1.913 - Application and notification forms; electronic and manual filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... notifications whenever possible. The files, other than the ASCII table of contents, should be in Adobe Acrobat... possible. The attachment should be uploaded via ULS in Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (PDF... the table of contents, should be in Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (PDF) whenever...

  8. Shock Compression of Simulated Adobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braithwaite, C. H.; Church, P. D.; Gould, P. J.; Stewart, B.; Jardine, A. P.

    2015-06-01

    A series of plate impact experiments were conducted to investigate the shock response of a simulant for adobe, a traditional form of building material widely used around the world. Air dried bricks were sourced from the London brick company, dry machined and impacted at a range of velocities in a single stage gas gun. The shock Hugoniot was determined (Us = 2.26up + 0.33) as well as release information. The material was found to behave in a manner which was similar to that of loose sand and considerably less stiff than a weak porous sandstone. The effect of any cementing of the grains was examined by shocking powdered samples contained within a cell arrangement. The research was funded by DSTL through a WSTC contract.

  9. Preservation of adobe buildings. Study of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velosa, A.; Rocha, F.; Costa, C.; Varum, H.

    2012-04-01

    Adobe buildings are common in the central region of Portugal due to the lack of natural stone in the surrounding area. This type of construction technique lasted until the 20th Century, at which time cementitious materials, with faster hardening and greater structural capacity substituted traditional materials and techniques. Currently, a significant percentage of these buildings is vacant and many are degraded and in need of conservation actions. Adobes from central Portugal are distinctive as they are lightly coloured and made from air lime and quarry sand. Although some adobes were manufactured locally, most were produced almost 'industrially' and sold to nearby regions. In order to preserve this heritage, conservation actions must be undertaken. So as to ensure the adequacy of these actions and compatibility between original materials and new ones, a thorough study of adobe compostion is mandatory. The current study is an initial step in the characterization of earth based construction materials from central Portugal. Adobe samples were collected from residential buildings in two different locations. The determination of the composition of adobe blocks encompassed the determination of the binder fraction and of their chemical composition and also the particle size analysis of the aggregate. For this purpose FRX analysis, acid dissolution and dry sieving were performed. Methylene blue test was also executed in order to determine the clay fraction. Additionally, the mineral composition of powder samples and oriented samples was performed using XRD analysis in order to determine the clay minerals present in the blocks. As adobe blocks are extremely prone to the action of water the Geelong test was undertaken in order to provide information in terms of durability. It was concluded that air lime was generally used in adobe compositions. However, the clay content varies in adobes from different regions, providing distinct durability characteristics to these materials.

  10. Active tails enhance arboreal acrobatics in geckos

    PubMed Central

    Jusufi, Ardian; Goldman, Daniel I.; Revzen, Shai; Full, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Geckos are nature's elite climbers. Their remarkable climbing feats have been attributed to specialized feet with hairy toes that uncurl and peel in milliseconds. Here, we report that the secret to the gecko's arboreal acrobatics includes an active tail. We examine the tail's role during rapid climbing, aerial descent, and gliding. We show that a gecko's tail functions as an emergency fifth leg to prevent falling during rapid climbing. A response initiated by slipping causes the tail tip to push against the vertical surface, thereby preventing pitch-back of the head and upper body. When pitch-back cannot be prevented, geckos avoid falling by placing their tail in a posture similar to a bicycle's kickstand. Should a gecko fall with its back to the ground, a swing of its tail induces the most rapid, zero-angular momentum air-righting response yet measured. Once righted to a sprawled gliding posture, circular tail movements control yaw and pitch as the gecko descends. Our results suggest that large, active tails can function as effective control appendages. These results have provided biological inspiration for the design of an active tail on a climbing robot, and we anticipate their use in small, unmanned gliding vehicles and multisegment spacecraft. PMID:18347344

  11. Digital Imaging: An Adobe Photoshop Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Kristine

    2007-01-01

    This article introduces digital imaging, an Adobe Photoshop course at Shrewsbury High School in Shrewsbury, Massachusetts. Students are able to earn art credits to graduate by successfully completing the course. Digital imaging must cover art criteria as well as technical skills. The course begins with tutorials created by the instructor and other…

  12. Astronaut Alan Bean doing acrobatics in OWS dome area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Skylab 3 commander, doing acrobatics in the dome area of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) on the space station cluster in Earth orbit. The dome area is about 22 feet in diameter and 19 feet from top to bottom.

  13. Astronaut Jack Lousma doing acrobatics in OWS dome area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, doing acrobatics in the dome area of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) on the space station cluster in Earth orbit. The dome area is about 22 feet in diameter and 19 feet from top to bottom.

  14. Protein Synthesis Inhibition Blocks Consolidation of an Acrobatic Motor Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaelin-Lang, Alain; Dichgans, Johannes; Schulz, Jorg B.; Luft, Andreas R.; Buitrago, Manuel M.

    2004-01-01

    To investigate whether motor skill learning depends on de novo protein synthesis, adult rats were trained in an acrobatic locomotor task (accelerating rotarod) for 7 d. Animals were systemically injected with cycloheximide (CHX, 0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 h before sessions 1 and 2 or sessions 2 and 3. Control rats received vehicle injections before…

  15. Phosphatic Permian rocks of the Adobe Range, Nevada, and their environment of deposition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ketner, Keith Brindley

    1979-01-01

    Permian sedimentary rocks in the Adobe range, northern Nevada, are phosphatic, and although the particles of phosphate are relatively more disseminated, they closely resemble the rocks of the Phosphoria Formation. In the northern Adobe Range, where the entire Permian sequence is approximately correlative with the Phosphoria Formation, it is 200 m thick and averages 1.7 percent P2O5 . In the southern Adobe Range, the Permian sequence is more than 1,700 m thick, and the upper half which is roughly correlative with the Phosphoria Formation averages more than 2 percent P2O5. Some thin beds in rocks of Permian age contain more than 20 percent P2O5. Phosphatic rocks of the Adobe Range were deposited in shallow water among islands in the western part of the epicontinental Phosphoria sea. The continental margin and the open ocean lay far to the west. At the same time, the Phosphoria Formation was being deposited in the eastern and central parts of the Phosphoria sea. Theories based on the work of Kasakov done in 1937 relating phosphate deposition directly to sites of upwelling oceanic waters are questioned. Nondeposition of diluent materials such as detritus and carbonate is probably of more importance in producing phosphate in economic concentrations than is geographic position with respect to upwelling waters.

  16. Centre of pressure correlates with pyramid performance in acrobatic gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Floría, Pablo; Gómez-Landero, Luis Arturo; Harrison, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Acrobatic gymnasts need excellent balance control to execute pyramids where one gymnast is supported by another. The objectives of this study were: (1) to describe balance performance by assessing the centre of pressure displacement in a group of acrobatic gymnasts executing pyramids; (2) to determine the relationship between the parameters describing the centre of pressure oscillations and pyramid score; and (3) to examine the role of each foot in providing a solid base of support to maintain the balance of the pyramid. Sixteen acrobatic gymnasts grouped in pairs performed a Half pyramid and a Straddle pyramid held for 7 s on two force platforms. Path length, variance, range trajectory, and surface area of the centre of pressure of each foot were examined to analyse the balance of the pyramid. The path length was correlated with the pyramid score (Straddle: p = 0.692 [large]; Half: p = 0.407 [moderate]). There were differences in the functions of each leg to maintain balance, with the non-preferred leg supporting a higher weight of the pyramid while the preferred leg performed control movements to maintain balance. The results suggested that quantitative analysis of balance can provide important information on pyramid performance.

  17. Acrobatic courtship display coevolves with brain size in manakins (Pipridae).

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Willow R; Houck, Justin T; Giuliano, Claire E; Day, Lainy B

    2015-01-01

    Acrobatic display behaviour is sexually selected in manakins (Pipridae) and can place high demands on many neural systems. Manakin displays vary across species in terms of behavioural complexity, differing in number of unique motor elements, production of mechanical sounds, cooperation between displaying males, and construction of the display site. Historically, research emphasis has been placed on neurological specializations for vocal aspects of courtship, and less is known about the control of physical, non-vocal displays. By examining brain evolution in relation to extreme acrobatic feats such as manakin displays, we can vastly expand our knowledge of how sexual selection acts on motor behaviour. We tested the hypothesis that sexual selection for complex motor displays has selected for larger brains across the Pipridae. We found that display complexity positively predicts relative brain weight (adjusted for body size) after controlling for phylogeny in 12 manakin species and a closely related flycatcher. This evidence suggests that brain size has evolved in response to sexual selection to facilitate aspects of display such as motor, sensorimotor, perceptual, and cognitive abilities. We show, for the first time, that sexual selection for acrobatic motor behaviour can drive brain size evolution in avian species and, in particular, a family of suboscine birds. PMID:25660714

  18. Centre of pressure correlates with pyramid performance in acrobatic gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Floría, Pablo; Gómez-Landero, Luis Arturo; Harrison, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Acrobatic gymnasts need excellent balance control to execute pyramids where one gymnast is supported by another. The objectives of this study were: (1) to describe balance performance by assessing the centre of pressure displacement in a group of acrobatic gymnasts executing pyramids; (2) to determine the relationship between the parameters describing the centre of pressure oscillations and pyramid score; and (3) to examine the role of each foot in providing a solid base of support to maintain the balance of the pyramid. Sixteen acrobatic gymnasts grouped in pairs performed a Half pyramid and a Straddle pyramid held for 7 s on two force platforms. Path length, variance, range trajectory, and surface area of the centre of pressure of each foot were examined to analyse the balance of the pyramid. The path length was correlated with the pyramid score (Straddle: p = 0.692 [large]; Half: p = 0.407 [moderate]). There were differences in the functions of each leg to maintain balance, with the non-preferred leg supporting a higher weight of the pyramid while the preferred leg performed control movements to maintain balance. The results suggested that quantitative analysis of balance can provide important information on pyramid performance. PMID:26715236

  19. 77 FR 4998 - List of Correspondence

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... this Department published in the Federal Register, in text or Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF). To use PDF you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader, which is available free at the site. You may also...

  20. 78 FR 16664 - List of Correspondence From October 1, 2012, Through December 31, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... well as all other documents of this Department published in the Federal Register, in text or Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF). To use PDF you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader, which is available free...

  1. 78 FR 66865 - Negotiated Rulemaking Committee, Notice of Change to Schedule of Committee Meetings-Title IV...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... INFORMATION: On June 12, 2013, we published a notice in the Federal Register (78 FR 35179) announcing our... Register, in text or Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF). To use PDF you must have Adobe Acrobat...

  2. 78 FR 22535 - President's Advisory Commission on Educational Excellence for Hispanics

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... Department published in the Federal Register, in text or Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) on the Internet at: www.ed.gov/fedregister/index.html . To use PDF, you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader, which...

  3. 78 FR 45917 - National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... well as all other documents of this Department published in the Federal Register, in text or Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF). To use PDF, you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader, which is available free...

  4. 76 FR 34969 - Investing in Innovation Fund

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... notices inviting applications for the i3 program in the Federal Register on June 3, 2011 (76 FR 32148..., in text or Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF). To use PDF you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader,...

  5. 76 FR 28426 - Withdrawal of Notice Inviting Applications for New Awards for Fiscal Year (FY) 2011...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... other documents of this Department published in the Federal Register, in text or Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF). To use PDF you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader, which is available free at the site. You...

  6. 76 FR 5567 - Service Contract Inventory for Fiscal Year (FY) 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-01

    ... Register, in text or Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) on the Internet at the following site: http://www.ed.gov/news/fedregister . To use PDF you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader, which is available free...

  7. 77 FR 29621 - President's Board of Advisors on Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... Federal Register, in text or Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) on the Internet at the following site: www.ed.gov/fedregister/index.html . To use PDF you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader, which is...

  8. 78 FR 10611 - Service Contract Inventory for Fiscal Year (FY) 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... Register, in text or Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) on the Internet at the following site: www.ed.gov/news/fedregister . To use PDF you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader, which is available free at this...

  9. 78 FR 64929 - National Advisory Committee on Institutional Quality and Integrity (NACIQI)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... may prescribe. SUMMARY: This meeting notice is an update to the previous notice (78 FR 50401... Register, in text or Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF). To use PDF, you must have Adobe Acrobat...

  10. 78 FR 39717 - Reopening; Applications for New Awards; Training and Information for Parents of Children With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... Register (78 FR 24395-24401) because there have been significant problems with the interface between the... Register, in text or Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF). To use PDF you must have Adobe Acrobat...

  11. 77 FR 4550 - President's Advisory Commission on Educational Excellence for Hispanics

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... Department published in the Federal Register, in text or Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) on the Internet at: www.ed.gov/fedregister/index.html . To use PDF, you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader, which...

  12. 78 FR 24401 - President's Advisory Commission on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders; Notice of an Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ... text or Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) on the Internet at the following site: www.ed.gov/news/fedregister/index.html . To use PDF you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader, which is available free at this...

  13. 76 FR 64081 - National Advisory Council on Indian Education (NACIE)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) on the Internet at the following site: http://www.ed.gov/news/fedregister/index.html To use PDF you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader, which is available free at this site....

  14. 77 FR 17050 - List of Correspondence From October 1, 2011, through December 31, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... published in the Federal Register, in text or Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF). To use PDF you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader, which is available free at the site. You may also access documents of...

  15. 77 FR 54904 - Notice Inviting Publishers To Submit Tests for a Determination of Suitability for Use in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... published in the Federal Register, in text or Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF). To use PDF you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader, which is available free at the site. You may also access documents of...

  16. 78 FR 17647 - Annual Notice of Interest Rates of Federal Student Loans Made Under the Federal Family Education...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... published in the Federal Register (78 FR 5433) a notice announcing the interest rates for the period July 1... Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF). To use PDF you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader, which is...

  17. 76 FR 58789 - National Board for Education Sciences; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... Register, in text or Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) on the Internet at the following site: http://www.ed.gov/news/fed-register/index.html . To use PDF you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader, which...

  18. 76 FR 74779 - List of Correspondence

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... documents of this Department published in the Federal Register, in text or Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF). To use PDF you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader, which is available free at the site. You may...

  19. Apparatus for forming adobe bricks and drilling wells

    SciTech Connect

    Kinnamon, H. D.

    1985-02-12

    An improved apparatus for the continuous and relatively labor-free fabrication of adobe bricks and the forcing of well casings into the earth. With regard to forming adobe bricks, a rotating table carries the bricks being processed from one station to the next and a novel means for applying unusually high forming pressures permits immediate forming and ejection of the bricks from the forms while at the same time producing adobe bricks of improved quality and hardness characteristics.

  20. Residential mercury contamination in adobe brick homes in Huancavelica, Peru.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Nicole; Robins, Nicholas; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Halabi, Susan; Espinoza Gonzales, Ruben Dario; Richter, Daniel deB; Vandenberg, John

    2013-01-01

    This is the first study of adobe brick contamination anywhere in the world. Huancavelica, Peru is the site of historic cinnabar refining and one of the most mercury (Hg) contaminated urban areas in the world. Over 80% of homes in Huancavelica are constructed with adobe bricks made from Hg contaminated soil. In this study we measured total Hg concentrations in adobe brick, dirt floor, surface dust, and air samples from the interior of 60 adobe brick houses located in four neighborhoods. Concentrations of total Hg in adobe bricks, dirt floors, and surface dust ranged from 8.00 to 1070 µg/g, 3.06 to 926 µg/g, and 0.02 to 9.69 µg/wipe, respectively, with statistically significant differences between the four neighborhoods. Concentrations of Hg in adobe brick and dirt floor samples in Huancavelica were orders of magnitude higher than in Ayacucho, a non-mining town in Peru. A strong correlation exists between total Hg concentrations in adobe bricks and dirt floors which confirms that adobe bricks were being made on-site and not purchased from an off-site source. A strong correlation between surface dust and adobe bricks and dirt floors indicates that walls and floors serve as indoor sources of Hg contamination. Elemental Hg vapor concentrations were below detection (<0.5 µg/m(3)) in most homes; however in homes with detectable levels, concentrations up to 5.1 µg/m(3) were observed. No statistically significant differences in Hg vapor measurements were observed between neighborhoods. This study demonstrates that building materials used widely in developing communities, such as adobe bricks, may be a substantial source of residential Hg exposure in silver or gold refining communities where Hg is produced or used for amalgamation in artisanal gold production.

  1. Residential Mercury Contamination in Adobe Brick Homes in Huancavelica, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Hagan, Nicole; Robins, Nicholas; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Halabi, Susan; Espinoza Gonzales, Ruben Dario; Richter, Daniel deB.; Vandenberg, John

    2013-01-01

    This is the first study of adobe brick contamination anywhere in the world. Huancavelica, Peru is the site of historic cinnabar refining and one of the most mercury (Hg) contaminated urban areas in the world. Over 80% of homes in Huancavelica are constructed with adobe bricks made from Hg contaminated soil. In this study we measured total Hg concentrations in adobe brick, dirt floor, surface dust, and air samples from the interior of 60 adobe brick houses located in four neighborhoods. Concentrations of total Hg in adobe bricks, dirt floors, and surface dust ranged from 8.00 to 1070 µg/g, 3.06 to 926 µg/g, and 0.02 to 9.69 µg/wipe, respectively, with statistically significant differences between the four neighborhoods. Concentrations of Hg in adobe brick and dirt floor samples in Huancavelica were orders of magnitude higher than in Ayacucho, a non-mining town in Peru. A strong correlation exists between total Hg concentrations in adobe bricks and dirt floors which confirms that adobe bricks were being made on-site and not purchased from an off-site source. A strong correlation between surface dust and adobe bricks and dirt floors indicates that walls and floors serve as indoor sources of Hg contamination. Elemental Hg vapor concentrations were below detection (<0.5 µg/m3) in most homes; however in homes with detectable levels, concentrations up to 5.1 µg/m3 were observed. No statistically significant differences in Hg vapor measurements were observed between neighborhoods. This study demonstrates that building materials used widely in developing communities, such as adobe bricks, may be a substantial source of residential Hg exposure in silver or gold refining communities where Hg is produced or used for amalgamation in artisanal gold production. PMID:24040399

  2. Residential mercury contamination in adobe brick homes in Huancavelica, Peru.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Nicole; Robins, Nicholas; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Halabi, Susan; Espinoza Gonzales, Ruben Dario; Richter, Daniel deB; Vandenberg, John

    2013-01-01

    This is the first study of adobe brick contamination anywhere in the world. Huancavelica, Peru is the site of historic cinnabar refining and one of the most mercury (Hg) contaminated urban areas in the world. Over 80% of homes in Huancavelica are constructed with adobe bricks made from Hg contaminated soil. In this study we measured total Hg concentrations in adobe brick, dirt floor, surface dust, and air samples from the interior of 60 adobe brick houses located in four neighborhoods. Concentrations of total Hg in adobe bricks, dirt floors, and surface dust ranged from 8.00 to 1070 µg/g, 3.06 to 926 µg/g, and 0.02 to 9.69 µg/wipe, respectively, with statistically significant differences between the four neighborhoods. Concentrations of Hg in adobe brick and dirt floor samples in Huancavelica were orders of magnitude higher than in Ayacucho, a non-mining town in Peru. A strong correlation exists between total Hg concentrations in adobe bricks and dirt floors which confirms that adobe bricks were being made on-site and not purchased from an off-site source. A strong correlation between surface dust and adobe bricks and dirt floors indicates that walls and floors serve as indoor sources of Hg contamination. Elemental Hg vapor concentrations were below detection (<0.5 µg/m(3)) in most homes; however in homes with detectable levels, concentrations up to 5.1 µg/m(3) were observed. No statistically significant differences in Hg vapor measurements were observed between neighborhoods. This study demonstrates that building materials used widely in developing communities, such as adobe bricks, may be a substantial source of residential Hg exposure in silver or gold refining communities where Hg is produced or used for amalgamation in artisanal gold production. PMID:24040399

  3. Physico-mechanical characterization of adobe bricks from Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioannou, I.; Illampas, R.; Charmpis, D. C.

    2012-04-01

    Adobe bricks have been used in the construction of buildings for thousands of years. In our days, adobe masonry is no longer a prevailing form of construction. However, a great number of earthen buildings still survives in most regions of the world and constitutes an essential part of the international architectural and cultural heritage. Furthermore, efforts are currently being made to reintroduce adobes as an environmentally-friendly building material to contemporary architecture within the context of sustainable development. Despite the long-term use of adobes and their importance for the society, our knowledge of many aspects of this material is still rather limited. As a result, there are many ongoing research initiatives worldwide aiming to investigate the physicochemical and mechanical properties of adobe bricks and related durability problems. In this paper, we present our work (which is funded by the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation Project EΠIXEIPHΣEIΣ/ΠPOION/0609/41, the Republic of Cyprus and the European Regional Development Fund) on the physico-mechanical characterization of adobes from Cyprus. In the absence of standardized procedures for most of the tests carried out, testing methodologies that either refer to other types of masonry materials and/or are encountered in the literature are adopted. The results show that adobes are mostly composed of random quantities of silt and clay. Calcite is also predominant in the X-ray diffraction analyses patterns. The average capillary water absorption coefficient of the test specimens rarely exceeds 1 mm/min1/2 (when measured against a saturated sponge surface), while their thermal conductivity is around 0.55 W/mK. Extensive experimental data on the material's mechanical behaviour show that adobes' response to compression is characterized by intense deformability. The average value of compressive strength depends greatly on the form of specimen examined (cube, cylinder, prism) and the failure criterion

  4. Characterization, reproduction and optimization of traditional adobe bricks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioannou, Ioannis; Eftychiou, Marina; Costi de Castrillo, Maria; Illampas, Rogiros

    2013-04-01

    Adobe bricks were first introduced 10-12,000 years ago. Extensive use of the material throughout the centuries has led to strong local traditions of building with earth and has established adobe masonry as an important feature of the international architectural heritage. Today, despite no longer being a prevalent building material, adobes are still in use, since a number of earthen structures survive worldwide. Furthermore, the simplicity, low cost and almost negligible embodied energy associated with the production of adobes, as well as their good thermal and acoustic properties, render them an attractive option for use in contemporary sustainable construction. Therefore, several ongoing research projects internationally investigate the physicochemical and mechanical properties of traditional adobe bricks and the design/production of optimized adobes, with improved characteristics, for use in contemporary architecture. Here, we present ongoing research on adobe bricks carried out in the framework of the project E& IXEIPH EI / POION/0609/41, which is co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund and the Republic of Cyprus, through the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation. Our work focuses on the characterization of traditional adobes, their reproduction and optimization in the laboratory to produce materials with improved physicomechanical properties. Results up-to-date show that traditional adobes are mostly composed of random quantities of silt and clay. Calcite is also predominant in relevant X-ray diffraction analyses. The average capillary water absorption coefficient (measured against a saturated sponge surface) of samples collected from market suppliers rarely exceeds 1 mm/min1 -2, while their thermal conductivity is around 0.55 W/mK. The response of traditional adobes to compression is characterized by intense deformability. The average compressive strength recorded depends on the form of test specimen (cube, cylinder, prism). Samples with aspect

  5. Design and Implementation of a Self-Directed Stereochemistry Lesson Using Embedded Virtual Three-Dimensional Images in a Portable Document Format

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cody, Jeremy A.; Craig, Paul A.; Loudermilk, Adam D.; Yacci, Paul M.; Frisco, Sarah L.; Milillo, Jennifer R.

    2012-01-01

    A novel stereochemistry lesson was prepared that incorporated both handheld molecular models and embedded virtual three-dimensional (3D) images. The images are fully interactive and eye-catching for the students; methods for preparing 3D molecular images in Adobe Acrobat are included. The lesson was designed and implemented to showcase the 3D…

  6. [Use of Adobe Photoshop software in medical criminology].

    PubMed

    Nikitin, S A; Demidov, I V

    2000-01-01

    Describes the method of comparative analysis of various objects in practical medical criminology and making of high-quality photographs with the use of Adobe Photoshop software. Options of the software needed for expert evaluations are enumerated.

  7. 20. This adobe building, housing the Phoenix Herald in 1879, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. This adobe building, housing the Phoenix Herald in 1879, stood on the site later occupied by the Stroud Building. The Salt River Herald, Phoenix's first newspaper, was founded in 1878; in 1879, it became the Phoenix Herald. Prior to 1879, the adobe building served as the office for a stagecoach line operating between Maricopa and Prescott via Phoenix. Credit PPL. - Stroud Building, 31-33 North Central Avenue, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  8. DICOM to print, 35-mm slides, web, and video projector: tutorial using Adobe Photoshop.

    PubMed

    Gurney, Jud W

    2002-10-01

    Preparing images for publication has dealt with film and the photographic process. With picture archiving and communications systems, many departments will no longer produce film. This will change how images are produced for publication. DICOM, the file format for radiographic images, has to be converted and then prepared for traditional publication, 35-mm slides, the newest techniques of video projection, and the World Wide Web. Tagged image file format is the common format for traditional print publication, whereas joint photographic expert group is the current file format for the World Wide Web. Each medium has specific requirements that can be met with a common image-editing program such as Adobe Photoshop (Adobe Systems, San Jose, CA). High-resolution images are required for print, a process that requires interpolation. However, the Internet requires images with a small file size for rapid transmission. The resolution of each output differs and the image resolution must be optimized to match the output of the publishing medium.

  9. 77 FR 71009 - Framework for Pharmacy Compounding: State and Federal Roles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-28

    .../meeting_test.htm . Get a quick overview at: http://www.adobe.com/go/connectpro_overview . Adobe, the Adobe logo, Acrobat and Acrobat Connect are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Adobe...

  10. Technical report on semiautomatic segmentation using the Adobe Photoshop.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Seo; Chung, Min Suk; Hwang, Sung Bae; Lee, Yong Sook; Har, Dong-Hwan

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this research is to enable users to semiautomatically segment the anatomical structures in magnetic resonance images (MRIs), computerized tomographs (CTs), and other medical images on a personal computer. The segmented images are used for making 3D images, which are helpful to medical education and research. To achieve this purpose, the following trials were performed. The entire body of a volunteer was scanned to make 557 MRIs. On Adobe Photoshop, contours of 19 anatomical structures in the MRIs were semiautomatically drawn using MAGNETIC LASSO TOOL and manually corrected using either LASSO TOOL or DIRECT SELECTION TOOL to make 557 segmented images. In a similar manner, 13 anatomical structures in 8,590 anatomical images were segmented. Proper segmentation was verified by making 3D images from the segmented images. Semiautomatic segmentation using Adobe Photoshop is expected to be widely used for segmentation of anatomical structures in various medical images.

  11. 14 CFR 21.183 - Issue of standard airworthiness certificates for normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... complied with. (2) For normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, or transport category propeller driven small... materials to which § 36.1583 of this chapter does not apply) that have not had any flight time before the... affecting § 21.183, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of...

  12. 14 CFR 21.183 - Issue of standard airworthiness certificates for normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... complied with. (2) For normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, or transport category propeller driven small... materials to which § 36.1583 of this chapter does not apply) that have not had any flight time before the... affecting § 21.183, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of...

  13. 14 CFR 21.183 - Issue of standard airworthiness certificates for normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., utility, acrobatic, commuter, or transport category propeller driven small airplanes (except for those..., as effective on January 1, 1966) or for dispensing fire fighting materials to which § 36.1583 of this... § 21.183, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of...

  14. 14 CFR 21.183 - Issue of standard airworthiness certificates for normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... complied with. (2) For normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, or transport category propeller driven small... materials to which § 36.1583 of this chapter does not apply) that have not had any flight time before the... affecting § 21.183, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of...

  15. 14 CFR 21.183 - Issue of standard airworthiness certificates for normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., utility, acrobatic, commuter, or transport category propeller driven small airplanes (except for those..., as effective on January 1, 1966) or for dispensing fire fighting materials to which § 36.1583 of this... § 21.183, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of...

  16. 76 FR 81790 - Airworthiness Standards: Normal, Utility, Acrobatic, and Commuter Category Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION 14 CFR Part 23 Airworthiness Standards: Normal, Utility, Acrobatic, and Commuter Category Airplanes CFR Correction In Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 1 to 59, revised as...

  17. Techniques on semiautomatic segmentation using the Adobe Photoshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin Seo; Chung, Min Suk; Hwang, Sung Bae

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to enable anybody to semiautomatically segment the anatomical structures in the MRIs, CTs, and other medical images on the personal computer. The segmented images are used for making three-dimensional images, which are helpful in medical education and research. To achieve this purpose, the following trials were performed. The entire body of a volunteer was MR scanned to make 557 MRIs, which were transferred to a personal computer. On Adobe Photoshop, contours of 19 anatomical structures in the MRIs were semiautomatically drawn using MAGNETIC LASSO TOOL; successively, manually corrected using either LASSO TOOL or DIRECT SELECTION TOOL to make 557 segmented images. In a likewise manner, 11 anatomical structures in the 8,500 anatomcial images were segmented. Also, 12 brain and 10 heart anatomical structures in anatomical images were segmented. Proper segmentation was verified by making and examining the coronal, sagittal, and three-dimensional images from the segmented images. During semiautomatic segmentation on Adobe Photoshop, suitable algorithm could be used, the extent of automatization could be regulated, convenient user interface could be used, and software bugs rarely occurred. The techniques of semiautomatic segmentation using Adobe Photoshop are expected to be widely used for segmentation of the anatomical structures in various medical images.

  18. Collecting response times using Amazon Mechanical Turk and Adobe Flash.

    PubMed

    Simcox, Travis; Fiez, Julie A

    2014-03-01

    Crowdsourcing systems like Amazon's Mechanical Turk (AMT) allow data to be collected from a large sample of people in a short amount of time. This use has garnered considerable interest from behavioral scientists. So far, most experiments conducted on AMT have focused on survey-type instruments because of difficulties inherent in running many experimental paradigms over the Internet. This study investigated the viability of presenting stimuli and collecting response times using Adobe Flash to run ActionScript 3 code in conjunction with AMT. First, the timing properties of Adobe Flash were investigated using a phototransistor and two desktop computers running under several conditions mimicking those that may be present in research using AMT. This experiment revealed some strengths and weaknesses of the timing capabilities of this method. Next, a flanker task and a lexical decision task implemented in Adobe Flash were administered to participants recruited with AMT. The expected effects in these tasks were replicated. Power analyses were conducted to describe the number of participants needed to replicate these effects. A questionnaire was used to investigate previously undescribed computer use habits of 100 participants on AMT. We conclude that a Flash program in conjunction with AMT can be successfully used for running many experimental paradigms that rely on response times, although experimenters must understand the limitations of the method.

  19. The development of a new edition of the gamma-ray spectrum catalogues designed for presentation in electronic format

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, R.L.

    1997-11-01

    New editions of the original Gamma-ray Spectrum Catalogues are being prepared for publication in electronic format. The objective of this program is to produce versions of the Catalogues in CD-ROM format and as an Internet resource. Additions to the original content of the Catalogues will include integrated decay scheme drawings, tables of related decay data, and updated text on the techniques of gamma-ray spectrometry. Related decay data from the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) are then added, and all data converted to the Adobe Acrobat (PDF) format for CD-ROM production and availability on the large-volume Ge detectors, alpha-particle spectra, prompt neutron capture and inelastic scattering gamma-ray spectra, and gross fission product spectra characteristic of fuel cycle waste materials. Characterization of radioactivity in materials is a requirement in many phases of radioactive waste management. Movement, shipping, treatment, all activities which involve handling of mixed waste or TRU categories of waste at all DOE sites will require that measurements and assessment documentation utilize basic nuclear data which are tracable to internationally accepted standard values. This program will involve the identification of data needs unique to the development and application of specialized detector systems for radioactive waste characterization. 8 refs., 8 figs.

  20. Prosthetic Feet

    MedlinePlus

    « View More Amputee Coalition Publications Click here for optional PDF format. Requires Adobe Acrobat Reader Text size Larger text Smaller text ... no single foot that is perfect for every amputee. You and your doctor or prosthetist should choose ...

  1. Rehabilitation of adobe buildings. Understanding different materials from Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Cristiana; Rocha, Fernando; Velosa, Ana

    2016-04-01

    Earth construction is the oldest building material known, with documented cases of the use of earth bricks since Mesopotamia around 10 000 BC (Heathcote, 1995). The earth construction exists throughout the majority of the world in different cultures, and for some countries, nowadays it continues to be the main process of construction (Vega et al, 2011). Around 30% of the world's population lives in buildings made of earth materials. Earthen construction is an environmentally friendly technique with a social and cultural contribution; this advantage is increased when this type of construction is applied in developing countries where the material costs counterbalance with labour costs, and where other materials and techniques cannot be available (Ciancio et al, 2013). Studies of materials characterization are required in order to understand the composition and specific properties of the earth buildings, their heterogeneity and their degradation mechanisms. Some adobes from different buildings, ages and regions of Portugal were collected in order to characterize them (mineralogically, chemically and physically). It was possible to understand the composition of these materials and their differences. Main minerals are quartz, feldspars, calcite and phyllosilicates (mica and kaolinite). The mechanical behaviour of these materials isn't the best, but it is possible to improve it with some simple and cheap natural additives (kaolinitic soils). The characterization of these materials allows us to understand the differences between the materials from the different regions (controlled by locally available raw materials). Understanding these materials, and their properties, it is possible to formulate new ones for repair, conservation and rehabilitation works. The adobe bricks are an alternative of kiln baked bricks which has several advantages and one of the most important is that these materials are recyclable. Adobes are an excellent option for building rehabilitation, if

  2. Adobe photoshop quantification (PSQ) rather than point-counting: A rapid and precise method for quantifying rock textural data and porosities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuefeng; Liu, Bo; Wang, Jieqiong; Zhang, Zhe; Shi, Kaibo; Wu, Shuanglin

    2014-08-01

    Commonly used petrological quantification methods are visual estimation, counting, and image analyses. However, in this article, an Adobe Photoshop-based analyzing method (PSQ) is recommended for quantifying the rock textural data and porosities. Adobe Photoshop system provides versatile abilities in selecting an area of interest and the pixel number of a selection could be read and used to calculate its area percentage. Therefore, Adobe Photoshop could be used to rapidly quantify textural components, such as content of grains, cements, and porosities including total porosities and different genetic type porosities. This method was named as Adobe Photoshop Quantification (PSQ). The workflow of the PSQ method was introduced with the oolitic dolomite samples from the Triassic Feixianguan Formation, Northeastern Sichuan Basin, China, for example. And the method was tested by comparing with the Folk's and Shvetsov's "standard" diagrams. In both cases, there is a close agreement between the "standard" percentages and those determined by the PSQ method with really small counting errors and operator errors, small standard deviations and high confidence levels. The porosities quantified by PSQ were evaluated against those determined by the whole rock helium gas expansion method to test the specimen errors. Results have shown that the porosities quantified by the PSQ are well correlated to the porosities determined by the conventional helium gas expansion method. Generally small discrepancies (mostly ranging from -3% to 3%) are caused by microporosities which would cause systematic underestimation of 2% and/or by macroporosities causing underestimation or overestimation in different cases. Adobe Photoshop could be used to quantify rock textural components and porosities. This method has been tested to be precise and accurate. It is time saving compared with usual methods.

  3. Asian Rhinoplasty: Preoperative Simulation and Planning Using Adobe Photoshop.

    PubMed

    Kiranantawat, Kidakorn; Nguyen, Anh H

    2015-11-01

    A rhinoplasty in Asians differs from a rhinoplasty performed in patients of other ethnicities. Surgeons should understand the concept of Asian beauty, the nasal anatomy of Asians, and common problems encountered while operating on the Asian nose. With this understanding, surgeons can set appropriate goals, choose proper operative procedures, and provide an outcome that satisfies patients. In this article the authors define the concept of an Asian rhinoplasty-a paradigm shift from the traditional on-top augmentation rhinoplasty to a structurally integrated augmentation rhinoplasty-and provide a step-by-step procedure for the use of Adobe Photoshop as a preoperative program to simulate the expected surgical outcome for patients and to develop a preoperative plan for surgeons.

  4. Building code challenging the ethics behind adobe architecture in North Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Hurol, Yonca; Yüceer, Hülya; Şahali, Öznem

    2015-04-01

    Adobe masonry is part of the vernacular architecture of Cyprus. Thus, it is possible to use this technology in a meaningful way on the island. On the other hand, although adobe architecture is more sustainable in comparison to other building technologies, the use of it is diminishing in North Cyprus. The application of Turkish building code in the north of the island has created complications in respect of the use of adobe masonry, because this building code demands that reinforced concrete vertical tie-beams are used together with adobe masonry. The use of reinforced concrete elements together with adobe masonry causes problems in relation to the climatic response of the building as well as causing other technical and aesthetic problems. This situation makes the design of adobe masonry complicated and various types of ethical problems also emerge. The objective of this article is to analyse the ethical problems which arise as a consequence of the restrictive character of the building code, by analysing two case studies and conducting an interview with an architect who was involved with the use of adobe masonry in North Cyprus. According to the results of this article there are ethical problems at various levels in the design of both case studies. These problems are connected to the responsibilities of architects in respect of the social benefit, material production, aesthetics and affordability of the architecture as well as presenting distrustful behaviour where the obligations of architects to their clients is concerned.

  5. Distinct neuroplasticity processes are induced by different periods of acrobatic exercise training.

    PubMed

    Salame, Samira; Garcia, Priscila C; Real, Caroline C; Borborema, Juliana; Mota-Ortiz, Sandra R; Britto, Luiz R G; Pires, Raquel S

    2016-07-15

    Short and long-term physical exercise induce physiological and structural changes in brain motor areas. The relationship between changes of structural and synaptic proteins in brain motor areas and acrobatic exercise is less understood. Our aim was to evaluate the expression of synapsin I (SYS), synaptophysin (SYP), microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), neurofilament (NF), and a marker for recent neuronal activity (Egr-1) in the motor cortex, striatum and cerebellum of adult rats subjected to acrobatic exercise (AE, for 1-4 weeks). We used adult Wistar rats, divided into 4 groups based on duration of acrobatic training, namely 1 week (AE1, n=15), 2 weeks (AE2, n=15), 4 weeks (AE4, n=15), and sedentary (SED, n=15). In AE groups, the rats covered 5 times a circuit that was composed of obstacles, three times a week. The protein levels were analyzed by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. The results revealed that short-term AE (AE1 and AE2) induced MAP2 decreases and NF, SYP and Egr-1 increases in the motor cortex; an increase of MAP2, SYS and SYP in the dorsolateral striatum, whereas the dorsomedial striatum showed increased NF, SYS, SYP and Egr-1. Granular cerebellar layer showed increased NF and Egr-1, with increased NF and SYP in the molecular layer. Long-term AE (AE4) promoted an increase of MAP2, SYP and Egr-1 in motor cortex; MAP2, SYS and SYP in the dorsomedial striatum; and NF and Egr-1 in the cerebellar granular layer. In conclusion, our data suggest that different durations of AE induce distinct plastic responses among distinct cortical and subcortical circuits. PMID:27126278

  6. Speciation and bioaccessibility of mercury in adobe bricks and dirt floors in Huancavelica, Peru

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Huancavelica, Peru, a historic cinnabar refining site, is one of the most mercury (Hg) contaminated urban areas in the world. Residents’ exposures are amplified because residents build their adobe brick homes from contaminated soil. Objectives: The objectives of th...

  7. 77 FR 40805 - Federal Pell Grant Program; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-11

    ... on May 2, 2012 (77 FR 25893). We waived rulemaking and the delayed effective date under the... this Department published in the Federal Register, in text or Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF). To use PDF, you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader, which is available free at the site. You may also...

  8. 75 FR 16763 - Ready-to-Learn Television Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... March 22, 2010, we published in the Federal Register (75 FR 13515) a notice inviting applications for... published in the Federal Register, in text or Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) on the Internet at the following site: http://www.ed.gov/news/fedregister . To use PDF you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader, which...

  9. 75 FR 4794 - National Assessment Governing Board; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... published a document in the Federal Register of January 15, 2010, FR DOCID: fr15ja10-47, Volume 75, Number... Federal Register, in text or Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) on the Internet at the following site: http://www.ed.gov/news/fedregister/index.html . To use PDF you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader, which...

  10. 78 FR 22869 - Credit Enhancement for Charter School Facilities Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... INFORMATION: Background On March 11, 2011, we published a notice in the Federal Register (76 FR 13365... all other documents of this Department published in the Federal Register, in text or Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF). To use PDF you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader, which is available free at the...

  11. 78 FR 31535 - Assistive Technology Alternative Financing Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... On August 8, 2012, we published a notice in the Federal Register (77 FR 47375) inviting applications... all other documents of this Department published in the Federal Register, in text or Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF). To use PDF you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader, which is available free at the...

  12. 78 FR 60268 - Race to the Top-District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... Affected Counties. All other information in the August 6, 2013, Notice Inviting Applications (78 FR 48006... published in the Federal Register, in text or Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF). To use PDF you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader, which is available free at the site. You may also access documents of...

  13. 75 FR 49484 - Office of Postsecondary Education; Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander-Serving...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... published in the Federal Register (74 FR 64059-64062) a notice inviting applications for eligibility for the... Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF), on the Internet at the following site: http://www.ed.gov/news/fedregister . To use PDF, you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader, which is available free at this site. Note:...

  14. 77 FR 41394 - Notice Reopening the Request for Information (RFI) To Gather Technical Expertise Pertaining to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... May 4, 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR 26531) an RFI that established a July 3, 2012...: Background On May 4, 2012, we published an RFI in the Federal Register (77 FR 26531) to collect information... Register, in text or Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF). To use PDF, you must have Adobe Acrobat...

  15. 75 FR 18170 - Ready-to-Learn Television Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... March 22, 2010, we published in the Federal Register (75 FR 13515) a notice inviting applications for... published in the Federal Register, in text or Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) on the Internet at the following site: http://www.ed.gov/news/fedregister . To use PDF you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader, which...

  16. 75 FR 36066 - Promise Neighborhoods Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-24

    ... application deadline. SUMMARY: On May 5, 2010, we published in the Federal Register (75 FR 10492) a notice... published in the Federal Register, in text or Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) on the Internet at the following site: http://www.ed.gov/news/fedregister . To use PDF you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader, which...

  17. 78 FR 25235 - Negotiated Rulemaking Committee; Public Hearings; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... 16, 2013 (78 FR 22467), on page 22467, in the first column, in the headings for the notice, we... in the Federal Register, in text or Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF). To use PDF you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader, which is available free at the site. You may also access documents of...

  18. GrinLine identification using digital imaging and Adobe Photoshop.

    PubMed

    Bollinger, Susan A; Brumit, Paula C; Schrader, Bruce A; Senn, David R

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to outline a method by which an antemortem photograph of a victim can be critically compared with a postmortem photograph in an effort to facilitate the identification process. Ten subjects, between 27 and 55 years old provided historical pictures of themselves exhibiting a broad smile showing anterior teeth to some extent (a grin). These photos were termed "antemortem" for the purpose of the study. A digital camera was used to take a current photo of each subject's grin. These photos represented the "postmortem" images. A single subject's "postmortem" photo set was randomly selected to be the "unknown victim." These combined data of the unknown and the 10 antemortem subjects were digitally stored and, using Adobe Photoshop software, the images were sized and oriented for comparative analysis. The goal was to devise a technique that could facilitate the accurate determination of which "antemortem" subject was the "unknown." The generation of antemortem digital overlays of the teeth visible in a grin and the comparison of those overlays to the images of the postmortem dentition is the foundation of the technique. The comparisons made using the GrinLine Identification Technique may assist medical examiners and coroners in making identifications or exclusions.

  19. Peripheral androgen receptors sustain the acrobatics and fine motor skill of elaborate male courtship.

    PubMed

    Fuxjager, Matthew J; Longpre, Kristy M; Chew, Jennifer G; Fusani, Leonida; Schlinger, Barney A

    2013-09-01

    Androgenic hormones regulate many aspects of animal social behavior, including the elaborate display routines on which many species rely for advertisement and competition. One way that this might occur is through peripheral effects of androgens, particularly on skeletal muscles that control complex movements and postures of the body and its limbs. However, the specific contribution of peripheral androgen-muscle interactions to the performance of elaborate behavioral displays in the natural world has never been examined. We study this issue in one of the only natural physiological models of animal acrobatics: the golden-collared manakin (Manacus vitellinus). In this tropical bird, males compete with each other and court females by producing firecracker-like wing- snaps and by rapidly dancing among saplings over the forest floor. To test how activation of peripheral androgen receptors (AR) influences this display, we treat reproductively active adult male birds with the peripherally selective antiandrogen bicalutamide (BICAL) and observe the effects of this manipulation on male display performance. We not only validate the peripheral specificity of BICAL in this species, but we also show that BICAL treatment reduces the frequency with which adult male birds perform their acrobatic display maneuvers and disrupts the overall structure and fine-scale patterning of these birds' main complex wing-snap sonation. In addition, this manipulation has no effect on the behavioral metrics associated with male motivation to display. Together, our findings help differentiate the various effects of peripheral and central AR on the performance of a complex sociosexual behavioral phenotype by indicating that peripheral AR can optimize the motor skills necessary for the production of an elaborate animal display. PMID:23782945

  20. Kinematic and kinetic analysis of two gymnastics acrobatic series to performing the backward stretched somersault.

    PubMed

    Mkaouer, Bessem; Jemni, Monèm; Amara, Samiha; Chaabène, Helmi; Tabka, Zouhair

    2013-01-01

    Back swing connections during gymnastics acrobatic series considerably influence technical performance and difficulties, particularly in the back somersault. The aim of this study was to compare the take-off's kinetic and kinematic variables between two acrobatic series leading to perform the backward stretched somersault (also called salto): round-off, flic-flac to stretched salto versus round-off, tempo-salto to stretched salto. Five high level male gymnasts (age 23.17 ± 1.61 yrs; body height 1.65 ± 0.05 m; body mass 56.80 ± 7.66 kg) took part in this investigation. A force plate synchronized with a two dimensional movement analysis system was used to collect kinetic and kinematic data. Statistical analysis via the non-parametric Wilcoxon Rank-sum test showed significant differences between the take-offs' variables. The backswing connections were different in the take-off angle, linear momentum, vertical velocity and horizontal and vertical displacements. In conclusion, considering that the higher elevation of the centre of mass in the flight phase would allow best performance and lower the risk of falls, particularly when combined to a great angular momentum, this study demonstrated that the optimal connection series was round-off, flic-flac to stretched salto which enabled the best height in the somersault. Analysis of the results suggests that both connections facilitate the performance of single and double (or triple) backward somersaults with or without rotations around the longitudinal axis. Gymnasts could perform these later while gaining height if they chose the round-off, flic-flac technique or gaining some backward displacement if they choose the round-off, salto tempo. PMID:24146701

  1. Kinematic and Kinetic Analysis of Two Gymnastics Acrobatic Series to Performing the Backward Stretched Somersault

    PubMed Central

    Mkaouer, Bessem; Jemni, Monèm; Amara, Samiha; Chaabène, Helmi; Tabka, Zouhair

    Back swing connections during gymnastics acrobatic series considerably influence technical performance and difficulties, particularly in the back somersault. The aim of this study was to compare the take-off’s kinetic and kinematic variables between two acrobatic series leading to perform the backward stretched somersault (also called salto): round-off, flic-flac to stretched salto versus round-off, tempo-salto to stretched salto. Five high level male gymnasts (age 23.17 ± 1.61 yrs; body height 1.65 ± 0.05 m; body mass 56.80 ± 7.66 kg) took part in this investigation. A force plate synchronized with a two dimensional movement analysis system was used to collect kinetic and kinematic data. Statistical analysis via the non-parametric Wilcoxon Rank-sum test showed significant differences between the take-offs’ variables. The backswing connections were different in the take-off angle, linear momentum, vertical velocity and horizontal and vertical displacements. In conclusion, considering that the higher elevation of the centre of mass in the flight phase would allow best performance and lower the risk of falls, particularly when combined to a great angular momentum, this study demonstrated that the optimal connection series was round-off, flic-flac to stretched salto which enabled the best height in the somersault. Analysis of the results suggests that both connections facilitate the performance of single and double (or triple) backward somersaults with or without rotations around the longitudinal axis. Gymnasts could perform these later while gaining height if they chose the round-off, flic-flac technique or gaining some backward displacement if they choose the round-off, salto tempo. PMID:24146701

  2. Staying on Top of Your Game and Scoring Big with Adobe Presenter Multimedia Tutorials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koury, Regina; Francis, Marcia J.; Gray, Catherine J.; Jardine, Spencer J.; Guo, Ruiling

    2010-01-01

    In order to reach distance students in times of financial uncertainty, librarians must be creative. While much has been written about Camtasia, Captivate and Jing tutorial software, Adobe Presenter, a Microsoft PowerPoint plug-in, has not been discussed. This article describes how our library team created multimedia tutorial projects at Idaho…

  3. Using Adobe Connect to Deliver Online Library Instruction to the RN to BSN Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    This paper takes a look at how one academic health sciences librarian brought mediated literature searching to the distance RN to BSN nursing students. It takes a look at why Adobe Connect was the webinar software that was selected to deliver online instruction to the students. The article explains how students participated in a pre-class survey…

  4. Enriching Learning for First Year Chemistry Students: Introduction of Adobe Connect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Erica; Lye, Peter; Greatrex, Ben; Taylor, Michelle; Stupans, Ieva

    2013-01-01

    The study of chemistry is central within science and other associated degrees. At the University of New England in Armidale academics need to provide chemistry teaching in both a distance and the traditional on-campus mode within science and other degrees. This study explores the contribution that the adoption of Adobe Connect technology can make…

  5. Building on Tradition: The Art of Adobe and the Revival of Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocker, Amanda; Swan, Susan

    2001-01-01

    A New Mexico foundation helps primarily Hispanic and American Indian communities restore adobe churches by supplying technical assistance and matching grants. Community leadership of the projects enhances volunteer commitment. The projects build community cohesiveness and pride, maintain local culture, foster intergenerational relations, teach…

  6. Vector Graphics for Web Lectures: Experiences with Adobe Flash 9 and SVG

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketterl, Markus; Mertens, Robert; Vornberger, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe vector graphics for web lectures, focusing on the experiences with Adobe Flash 9 and SVG. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents experiences made during the development and everyday use of two versions of the lecture-recording system virtPresenter. The first of these versions is based on…

  7. Using Adobe Flash Animations of Electron Transport Chain to Teach and Learn Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teplá, Milada; Klímová, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Teaching the subject of the electron transport chain is one of the most challenging aspects of the chemistry curriculum at the high school level. This article presents an educational program called "Electron Transport Chain" which consists of 14 visual animations including a biochemistry quiz. The program was created in the Adobe Flash…

  8. Energetics of the acrobatic courtship in male golden-collared manakins (Manacus vitellinus)

    PubMed Central

    Barske, J.; Fusani, L.; Wikelski, M.; Feng, N. Y.; Santos, M.; Schlinger, B. A.

    2014-01-01

    In lek mating systems, females choose mates through indicators of quality, which males may exhibit by their performance of courtship displays. In temperate regions, displaying seasons are brief (one to two months), whereas in the tropics courtship seasons may be prolonged. Moreover, in temperate-breeding animals lekking behaviour can be energetically demanding, but little is known about the energy costs of lekking in tropical animals. Daily, over the course of a nearly seven-month-long breeding season, male golden-collared manakins (Manacus vitellinus) of Panamanian rainforests perform acrobatic courtship displays that markedly elevate heart rates, suggesting that they require high energy investment. Typically, animals of tropical lowland forests (such as manakins) exhibit a ‘slow pace of life’ metabolic strategy. We investigated whether male manakin courtship is indeed metabolically costly or whether the birds retain a low daily energy expenditure (DEE), as seen in other tropical species. To assess these questions, we calibrated manakin heart rate against metabolic rate, examined daily lek activity and, using telemetry, obtained heart rates of individual wild, lekking male manakins. Although metabolic rates peak during courtship displays, we found that males actually invest minimal time (only approx. 5 min d−1) performing displays. As a consequence, the DEE of approximately 39 kJ d−1 for male manakins is comparable to other lowland tropical species. The short, intense bursts of courtship by these birds make up only approximately 1.2% of their total DEE. Presumably, this cost is negligible, enabling them to perform daily at their arenas for months on end. PMID:24352944

  9. Energetics of the acrobatic courtship in male golden-collared manakins (Manacus vitellinus).

    PubMed

    Barske, J; Fusani, L; Wikelski, M; Feng, N Y; Santos, M; Schlinger, B A

    2014-02-01

    In lek mating systems, females choose mates through indicators of quality, which males may exhibit by their performance of courtship displays. In temperate regions, displaying seasons are brief (one to two months), whereas in the tropics courtship seasons may be prolonged. Moreover, in temperate-breeding animals lekking behaviour can be energetically demanding, but little is known about the energy costs of lekking in tropical animals. Daily, over the course of a nearly seven-month-long breeding season, male golden-collared manakins (Manacus vitellinus) of Panamanian rainforests perform acrobatic courtship displays that markedly elevate heart rates, suggesting that they require high energy investment. Typically, animals of tropical lowland forests (such as manakins) exhibit a 'slow pace of life' metabolic strategy. We investigated whether male manakin courtship is indeed metabolically costly or whether the birds retain a low daily energy expenditure (DEE), as seen in other tropical species. To assess these questions, we calibrated manakin heart rate against metabolic rate, examined daily lek activity and, using telemetry, obtained heart rates of individual wild, lekking male manakins. Although metabolic rates peak during courtship displays, we found that males actually invest minimal time (only approx. 5 min d(-1)) performing displays. As a consequence, the DEE of approximately 39 kJ d(-1) for male manakins is comparable to other lowland tropical species. The short, intense bursts of courtship by these birds make up only approximately 1.2% of their total DEE. Presumably, this cost is negligible, enabling them to perform daily at their arenas for months on end. PMID:24352944

  10. Van earthquakes (23 October 2011 and 9 November 2011) and performance of masonry and adobe structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güney, D.

    2012-11-01

    Earthquakes, which are unavoidable natural phenomena in Turkey, have often produced economic and social disaster. The latest destructive earthquakes happened in Van city. Van, Turkey, earthquakes with M = 7.2 occurred on 23 October 2011 at 13:41 (local time), whose epicenter was about 16 km north of Van (Tabanlı village) and M = 5.6 on 9 November 2011 epicentered near the town of Edremit south of Van in eastern Turkey and caused the loss of life and heavy damages. Both earthquakes killed 644 people and 2608 people were injured. Approximately 4000 buildings collapsed or were seriously damaged. The majority of the damaged structures were seismically insufficient, unreinforced masonry and adobe buildings in rural areas. In this paper, site surveys of the damaged masonry and adobe buildings are presented and the reasons for the caused damages are discussed in detail.

  11. Speciation and bioaccessibility of mercury in adobe bricks and dirt floors in Huancavelica, Peru.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Nicole; Robins, Nicholas; Gonzales, Ruben Dario Espinoza; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

    2015-04-01

    Huancavelica, Peru, a historic cinnabar refining site, is one of the most mercury (Hg)-contaminated urban areas in the world. Exposure is amplified because residents build their adobe brick homes from contaminated soil. The objectives of this study were to compare two Hg-leaching procedures, and their application as risk-assessment screening tools in Hg-contaminated adobe brick homes in Huancavelica. The purpose was to evaluate potential health implications, particularly for children, after ingestion of Hg-contaminated particles. Hg was measured in adobe brick and dirt floor samples from 60 households by total Hg extraction, simulated gastric fluid (GF) extraction, and sequential selective extraction (SSE), which provides more detailed data but is resource-intensive. Most of the Hg present in samples was relatively insoluble, although in some households soluble Hg species were present at concentrations that may be of concern after ingestion. A strong correlation was identified between results from simulated GF extraction of adobe bricks and dirt floors and the more soluble fractions of Hg from SSE. Simulated GF extraction data were combined with ingestion and body mass characteristics for small children to compare potential risk of ingestion of Hg-contaminated soil with current health standards. Simulated GF extraction can be used as a risk assessment screening tool for effective allocation of time and resources to households that have measurable concentrations of bioaccessible Hg. Combining simulated GF extraction data with health standards enables intervention strategies targeted at households with the greatest potential health threat from ingestion of Hg-contaminated particles.

  12. Image editing with Adobe Photoshop 6.0.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Ronald D; Postel, Gregory C

    2002-01-01

    The authors introduce Photoshop 6.0 for radiologists and demonstrate basic techniques of editing gray-scale cross-sectional images intended for publication and for incorporation into computerized presentations. For basic editing of gray-scale cross-sectional images, the Tools palette and the History/Actions palette pair should be displayed. The History palette may be used to undo a step or series of steps. The Actions palette is a menu of user-defined macros that save time by automating an action or series of actions. Converting an image to 8-bit gray scale is the first editing function. Cropping is the next action. Both decrease file size. Use of the smallest file size necessary for the purpose at hand is recommended. Final file size for gray-scale cross-sectional neuroradiologic images (8-bit, single-layer TIFF [tagged image file format] at 300 pixels per inch) intended for publication varies from about 700 Kbytes to 3 Mbytes. Final file size for incorporation into computerized presentations is about 10-100 Kbytes (8-bit, single-layer, gray-scale, high-quality JPEG [Joint Photographic Experts Group]), depending on source and intended use. Editing and annotating images before they are inserted into presentation software is highly recommended, both for convenience and flexibility. Radiologists should find that image editing can be carried out very rapidly once the basic steps are learned and automated.

  13. FES Documentation - Cancer Imaging Program

    Cancer.gov

    The FES documentation files are presented in Adobe Acrobat or Word files, either in executable or ZIP format to be maximally compatible with the computer system being downloaded into. The files are large in any format and should be downloaded with a fast Internet link.

  14. Cooling and welding history of the Bishop Tuff in Adobe Valley and Chidago Canyon, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, Michael F.; Wang, Yunpeng

    2005-04-01

    A numerical model for cooling and welding of ash-flow tuffs was developed to obtain a quantitative understanding of the welding compaction that occurs during the cooling of ash-flow sheets and to evaluate the relative effects of emplacement temperature, thickness, and emplacement histories on compaction zonation (density profiles) of large ash-flow sheets. This model includes a set of two-phase, compressible Navier-Stokes equations for the transport of mass, momentum, and energy for a variable density volatile outfluxing through a porous media (ash-flow tuff). With this model we calculated theoretical compaction profiles (density vs. elevation) to match actual data measured in sections of Bishop Tuff. Compaction profiles from the Adobe basin indicate that there were 3 periods of non-deposition (5, 10, and 40 days) separating 4 distinct rapidly emplaced packets (REP) of pyroclastic flow deposition. In contrast, the 3 periods of quiescence (400, 20, and 800 days) between the 4 REPs in Chidago Canyon were considerably longer. These data constrain models of eruption for the Bishop Tuff by implying an eruption cycle that lasted longer than 3 years. The average calculated deposition temperatures for all 4 REPs in the Adobe basin are fairly uniform at 667±33 °C. In Chidago Canyon two of the REPs had a higher deposition temperature (˜660 °C) than the other two (534 °C).

  15. How to optimize radiological images captured from digital cameras, using the Adobe Photoshop 6.0 program.

    PubMed

    Chalazonitis, A N; Koumarianos, D; Tzovara, J; Chronopoulos, P

    2003-06-01

    Over the past decade, the technology that permits images to be digitized and the reduction in the cost of digital equipment allows quick digital transfer of any conventional radiological film. Images then can be transferred to a personal computer, and several software programs are available that can manipulate their digital appearance. In this article, the fundamentals of digital imaging are discussed, as well as the wide variety of optional adjustments that the Adobe Photoshop 6.0 (Adobe Systems, San Jose, CA) program can offer to present radiological images with satisfactory digital imaging quality.

  16. Adobe InDesign vs. QuarkXPress and PageMaker: The Best of Both Worlds?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Bradley

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates the newly released Adobe InDesign software, finding that while it brings new life into desktop publishing, it is not yet a "must buy" for publications advisers. Compares specific features that are relevant for student publications, including: character, paragraph, drop caps, define styles, page setup, text wrap, defining and using…

  17. Adobe Flash as a medium for online experimentation: a test of reaction time measurement capabilities.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Stian; Stewart, Neil

    2007-08-01

    Adobe Flash can be used to run complex psychological experiments over the Web. We examined the reliability of using Flash to measure reaction times (RTs) using a simple binary-choice task implemented both in Flash and in a Linux-based system known to record RTs with millisecond accuracy. Twenty-four participants were tested in the laboratory using both implementations; they also completed the Flash version on computers of their own choice outside the lab. RTs from the trials run on Flash outside the lab were approximately 20 msec slower than those from trials run on Flash in the lab, which in turn were approximately 10 msec slower than RTs from the trials run on the Linux-based system (baseline condition). RT SDs were similar in all conditions, suggesting that although Flash may overestimate RTs slightly, it does not appear to add significant noise to the data recorded.

  18. Prosthetic Knee Systems

    MedlinePlus

    « View More Amputee Coalition Publications Click here for optional PDF format. Requires Adobe Acrobat Reader Text size Larger text Smaller text ... from. Doctors, prosthetists and rehabilitation specialists consider an amputee’s age, health, activity level, and lifestyle when making ...

  19. The ABCs of PDFs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Explains the use of Adobe Acrobat's Portable Document Format (PDF) for school Web sites and Intranets. Explains the PDF workflow; components for Web-based PDF delivery, including the Web server, preparing content of the PDF files, and the browser; incorporating PDFs into the Web site; incorporating multimedia; and software. (LRW)

  20. Surgical Correction of Posttraumatic Scapulothoracic Bursitis, Rhomboid Major Muscle Injury, Ipsilateral Glenohumeral Instability, and Headaches Resulting from Circus Acrobatic Maneuvers.

    PubMed

    Skedros, John G; Langston, Tanner D; Phippen, Colton M

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 28-year-old transgender (male-to-female) patient that had a partial tear of the rhomboid major tendon, scapulothoracic bursitis, and glenohumeral instability on the same side. These conditions resulted from traumatic events during circus acrobatic maneuvers. Additional aspects of this case that make it unique include (1) the main traumatic event occurred during a flagpole exercise, where the patient's trunk was suspended horizontally while a vertical pole was grasped with both hands, (2) headaches were associated with the periscapular injury and they improved after scapulothoracic bursectomy and rhomboid tendon repair, (3) surgical correction was done during the same operation with an open anterior capsular-labral reconstruction, open scapulothoracic bursectomy without bone resection, and rhomboid tendon repair, (4) a postoperative complication of tearing of the serratus anterior and rhomboid muscle attachments with recurrent scapulothoracic pain occurred from patient noncompliance, and (5) the postoperative complication was surgically corrected and ultimately resulted in an excellent outcome at the one-year final follow-up. PMID:26273484

  1. Surgical Correction of Posttraumatic Scapulothoracic Bursitis, Rhomboid Major Muscle Injury, Ipsilateral Glenohumeral Instability, and Headaches Resulting from Circus Acrobatic Maneuvers

    PubMed Central

    Skedros, John G.; Langston, Tanner D.; Phippen, Colton M.

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 28-year-old transgender (male-to-female) patient that had a partial tear of the rhomboid major tendon, scapulothoracic bursitis, and glenohumeral instability on the same side. These conditions resulted from traumatic events during circus acrobatic maneuvers. Additional aspects of this case that make it unique include (1) the main traumatic event occurred during a flagpole exercise, where the patient's trunk was suspended horizontally while a vertical pole was grasped with both hands, (2) headaches were associated with the periscapular injury and they improved after scapulothoracic bursectomy and rhomboid tendon repair, (3) surgical correction was done during the same operation with an open anterior capsular-labral reconstruction, open scapulothoracic bursectomy without bone resection, and rhomboid tendon repair, (4) a postoperative complication of tearing of the serratus anterior and rhomboid muscle attachments with recurrent scapulothoracic pain occurred from patient noncompliance, and (5) the postoperative complication was surgically corrected and ultimately resulted in an excellent outcome at the one-year final follow-up. PMID:26273484

  2. Residential metal contamination and potential health risks of exposure in adobe brick houses in Potosí, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Abigail R; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Robins, Nicholas A; Hagan, Nicole A; Halabi, Susan; Barras, Olivo; Richter, Daniel deB; Vandenberg, John J

    2016-08-15

    Potosí, Bolivia, is the site of centuries of historic and present-day mining of the Cerro Rico, a mountain known for its rich polymetallic deposits, and was the site of large-scale Colonial era silver refining operations. In this study, the concentrations of several metal and metalloid elements were quantified in adobe brick, dirt floor, and surface dust samples from 49 houses in Potosí. Median concentrations of total mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and arsenic (As) were significantly greater than concentrations measured in Sucre, Bolivia, a non-mining town, and exceeded US-based soil screening levels. Adobe brick samples were further analyzed for bioaccessible concentrations of trace elements using a simulated gastric fluid (GF) extraction. Median GF extractable concentrations of Hg, As, and Pb were 0.085, 13.9, and 32.2% of the total element concentration, respectively. Total and GF extractable concentrations of Hg, As, and Pb were used to estimate exposure and potential health risks to children following incidental ingestion of adobe brick particles. Risks were assessed using a range of potential ingestion rates (50-1000mg/day). Overall, the results of the risk assessment show that the majority of households sampled contained concentrations of bioaccessible Pb and As, but not Hg, that represent a potential health risk. Even at the lowest ingestion rate considered, the majority of households exceeded the risk threshold for Pb, indicating that the concentrations of this metal are of particular concern. To our knowledge, this is the first study to quantify key trace elements in building materials in adobe brick houses and the results indicate that these houses are a potential source of exposure to metals and metalloids in South American mining communities. Additional studies are needed to fully characterize personal exposure and to understand potential adverse health outcomes within the community.

  3. Residential metal contamination and potential health risks of exposure in adobe brick houses in Potosí, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Abigail R; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Robins, Nicholas A; Hagan, Nicole A; Halabi, Susan; Barras, Olivo; Richter, Daniel deB; Vandenberg, John J

    2016-08-15

    Potosí, Bolivia, is the site of centuries of historic and present-day mining of the Cerro Rico, a mountain known for its rich polymetallic deposits, and was the site of large-scale Colonial era silver refining operations. In this study, the concentrations of several metal and metalloid elements were quantified in adobe brick, dirt floor, and surface dust samples from 49 houses in Potosí. Median concentrations of total mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and arsenic (As) were significantly greater than concentrations measured in Sucre, Bolivia, a non-mining town, and exceeded US-based soil screening levels. Adobe brick samples were further analyzed for bioaccessible concentrations of trace elements using a simulated gastric fluid (GF) extraction. Median GF extractable concentrations of Hg, As, and Pb were 0.085, 13.9, and 32.2% of the total element concentration, respectively. Total and GF extractable concentrations of Hg, As, and Pb were used to estimate exposure and potential health risks to children following incidental ingestion of adobe brick particles. Risks were assessed using a range of potential ingestion rates (50-1000mg/day). Overall, the results of the risk assessment show that the majority of households sampled contained concentrations of bioaccessible Pb and As, but not Hg, that represent a potential health risk. Even at the lowest ingestion rate considered, the majority of households exceeded the risk threshold for Pb, indicating that the concentrations of this metal are of particular concern. To our knowledge, this is the first study to quantify key trace elements in building materials in adobe brick houses and the results indicate that these houses are a potential source of exposure to metals and metalloids in South American mining communities. Additional studies are needed to fully characterize personal exposure and to understand potential adverse health outcomes within the community. PMID:27100004

  4. Creating an Interactive PDF

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branzburg, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    There are many ways to begin a PDF document using Adobe Acrobat. The easiest and most popular way is to create the document in another application (such as Microsoft Word) and then use the Adobe Acrobat software to convert it to a PDF. In this article, the author describes how he used Acrobat's many tools in his project--an interactive…

  5. Evaluation of chronic periapical lesions by digital subtraction radiography by using Adobe Photoshop CS: a technical report.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Fabiola B; Gonçalves, Marcelo; Tanomaru-Filho, Mário

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe a new technique by using Adobe Photoshop CS (San Jose, CA) image-analysis software to evaluate the radiographic changes of chronic periapical lesions after root canal treatment by digital subtraction radiography. Thirteen upper anterior human teeth with pulp necrosis and radiographic image of chronic periapical lesion were endodontically treated and radiographed 0, 2, 4, and 6 months after root canal treatment by using a film holder. The radiographic films were automatically developed and digitized. The radiographic images taken 0, 2, 4, and 6 months after root canal therapy were submitted to digital subtraction in pairs (0 and 2 months, 2 and 4 months, and 4 and 6 months) choosing "image," "calculation," "subtract," and "new document" tools from Adobe Photoshop CS image-analysis software toolbar. The resulting images showed areas of periapical healing in all cases. According to this methodology, the healing or expansion of periapical lesions can be evaluated by means of digital subtraction radiography by using Adobe Photoshop CS software.

  6. Radon and thoron levels, their spatial and seasonal variations in adobe dwellings - a case study at the great Hungarian plain.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Zsuzsanna; Jordan, Gyozo; Szabó, Csaba; Horváth, Ákos; Holm, Óskar; Kocsy, Gábor; Csige, István; Szabó, Péter; Homoki, Zsolt

    2014-06-01

    Radon and thoron isotopes are responsible for approximately half of the average annual effective dose to humans. Although the half-life of thoron is short, it can potentially enter indoor air from adobe walls. Adobe was a traditional construction material in the Great Hungarian Plain. Its major raw materials are the alluvial sediments of the area. Here, seasonal radon and thoron activity concentrations were measured in 53 adobe dwellings in 7 settlements by pairs of etched track detectors. The results show that the annual average radon and thoron activity concentrations are elevated in these dwellings and that the proportions with values higher than 300 Bq m(-3) are 14-17 and 29-32% for radon and thoron, respectively. The calculated radon inhalation dose is significantly higher than the world average value, exceeding 10 mSv y(-1) in 7% of the dwellings of this study. Thoron also can be a significant contributor to the inhalation dose with about 30% in the total inhalation dose. The changes of weather conditions seem to be more relevant in the variation of measurement results than the differences in the local sedimentary geology. Still, the highest values were detected on clay. Through the year, radon follows the average temperature changes and is affected by the ventilation, whereas thoron rather seems to follow the amount of precipitation.

  7. Auditory presentation and synchronization in Adobe Flash and HTML5/JavaScript Web experiments.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Stian; Stewart, Neil

    2016-09-01

    Substantial recent research has examined the accuracy of presentation durations and response time measurements for visually presented stimuli in Web-based experiments, with a general conclusion that accuracy is acceptable for most kinds of experiments. However, many areas of behavioral research use auditory stimuli instead of, or in addition to, visual stimuli. Much less is known about auditory accuracy using standard Web-based testing procedures. We used a millisecond-accurate Black Box Toolkit to measure the actual durations of auditory stimuli and the synchronization of auditory and visual presentation onsets. We examined the distribution of timings for 100 presentations of auditory and visual stimuli across two computers with difference specs, three commonly used browsers, and code written in either Adobe Flash or JavaScript. We also examined different coding options for attempting to synchronize the auditory and visual onsets. Overall, we found that auditory durations were very consistent, but that the lags between visual and auditory onsets varied substantially across browsers and computer systems.

  8. Using Adobe Flash animations of electron transport chain to teach and learn biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Teplá, Milada; Klímová, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Teaching the subject of the electron transport chain is one of the most challenging aspects of the chemistry curriculum at the high school level. This article presents an educational program called "Electron Transport Chain" which consists of 14 visual animations including a biochemistry quiz. The program was created in the Adobe Flash CS3 Professional animation program and is designed for high school chemistry students. Our goal is to develop educational materials that facilitate the comprehension of this complex subject through dynamic animations which show the course of the electron transport chain and simultaneously explain its nature. We record the process of the electron transport chain, including connections with oxidative phosphorylation, in such a way as to minimize the occurrence of discrepancies in interpretation. The educational program was evaluated in high schools through the administration of a questionnaire, which contained 12 opened-ended items and which required participants to evaluate the graphics of the animations, chemical content, student preferences, and its suitability for high school biochemistry teaching.

  9. Using Adobe Flash animations of electron transport chain to teach and learn biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Teplá, Milada; Klímová, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Teaching the subject of the electron transport chain is one of the most challenging aspects of the chemistry curriculum at the high school level. This article presents an educational program called "Electron Transport Chain" which consists of 14 visual animations including a biochemistry quiz. The program was created in the Adobe Flash CS3 Professional animation program and is designed for high school chemistry students. Our goal is to develop educational materials that facilitate the comprehension of this complex subject through dynamic animations which show the course of the electron transport chain and simultaneously explain its nature. We record the process of the electron transport chain, including connections with oxidative phosphorylation, in such a way as to minimize the occurrence of discrepancies in interpretation. The educational program was evaluated in high schools through the administration of a questionnaire, which contained 12 opened-ended items and which required participants to evaluate the graphics of the animations, chemical content, student preferences, and its suitability for high school biochemistry teaching. PMID:25846233

  10. Auditory presentation and synchronization in Adobe Flash and HTML5/JavaScript Web experiments.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Stian; Stewart, Neil

    2016-09-01

    Substantial recent research has examined the accuracy of presentation durations and response time measurements for visually presented stimuli in Web-based experiments, with a general conclusion that accuracy is acceptable for most kinds of experiments. However, many areas of behavioral research use auditory stimuli instead of, or in addition to, visual stimuli. Much less is known about auditory accuracy using standard Web-based testing procedures. We used a millisecond-accurate Black Box Toolkit to measure the actual durations of auditory stimuli and the synchronization of auditory and visual presentation onsets. We examined the distribution of timings for 100 presentations of auditory and visual stimuli across two computers with difference specs, three commonly used browsers, and code written in either Adobe Flash or JavaScript. We also examined different coding options for attempting to synchronize the auditory and visual onsets. Overall, we found that auditory durations were very consistent, but that the lags between visual and auditory onsets varied substantially across browsers and computer systems. PMID:27421976

  11. Presentation and response timing accuracy in Adobe Flash and HTML5/JavaScript Web experiments.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Stian; Stewart, Neil

    2015-06-01

    Web-based research is becoming ubiquitous in the behavioral sciences, facilitated by convenient, readily available participant pools and relatively straightforward ways of running experiments: most recently, through the development of the HTML5 standard. Although in most studies participants give untimed responses, there is a growing interest in being able to record response times online. Existing data on the accuracy and cross-machine variability of online timing measures are limited, and generally they have compared behavioral data gathered on the Web with similar data gathered in the lab. For this article, we took a more direct approach, examining two ways of running experiments online-Adobe Flash and HTML5 with CSS3 and JavaScript-across 19 different computer systems. We used specialist hardware to measure stimulus display durations and to generate precise response times to visual stimuli in order to assess measurement accuracy, examining effects of duration, browser, and system-to-system variability (such as across different Windows versions), as well as effects of processing power and graphics capability. We found that (a) Flash and JavaScript's presentation and response time measurement accuracy are similar; (b) within-system variability is generally small, even in low-powered machines under high load; (c) the variability of measured response times across systems is somewhat larger; and (d) browser type and system hardware appear to have relatively small effects on measured response times. Modeling of the effects of this technical variability suggests that for most within- and between-subjects experiments, Flash and JavaScript can both be used to accurately detect differences in response times across conditions. Concerns are, however, noted about using some correlational or longitudinal designs online.

  12. Presentation and response timing accuracy in Adobe Flash and HTML5/JavaScript Web experiments.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Stian; Stewart, Neil

    2015-06-01

    Web-based research is becoming ubiquitous in the behavioral sciences, facilitated by convenient, readily available participant pools and relatively straightforward ways of running experiments: most recently, through the development of the HTML5 standard. Although in most studies participants give untimed responses, there is a growing interest in being able to record response times online. Existing data on the accuracy and cross-machine variability of online timing measures are limited, and generally they have compared behavioral data gathered on the Web with similar data gathered in the lab. For this article, we took a more direct approach, examining two ways of running experiments online-Adobe Flash and HTML5 with CSS3 and JavaScript-across 19 different computer systems. We used specialist hardware to measure stimulus display durations and to generate precise response times to visual stimuli in order to assess measurement accuracy, examining effects of duration, browser, and system-to-system variability (such as across different Windows versions), as well as effects of processing power and graphics capability. We found that (a) Flash and JavaScript's presentation and response time measurement accuracy are similar; (b) within-system variability is generally small, even in low-powered machines under high load; (c) the variability of measured response times across systems is somewhat larger; and (d) browser type and system hardware appear to have relatively small effects on measured response times. Modeling of the effects of this technical variability suggests that for most within- and between-subjects experiments, Flash and JavaScript can both be used to accurately detect differences in response times across conditions. Concerns are, however, noted about using some correlational or longitudinal designs online. PMID:24903687

  13. Influence of geological features (geochemistry and mineralogy) of soil wich constitutes adobes in their durability - Huambo, Angola.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Isabel; Pedro, Elsa; Varum, Humberto; Mirão, José; Pinho, António

    2014-05-01

    After long years of war, great efforts have been made for the socio-economic development of Angola, mainly in the construction industry. Among the construction techniques, the Adobe is the most used in the province of Huambo, especially by low-income families, which constitute the majority. This technique was established as a historical heritage in the culture of that population. The Huambo province is located in the central region of Angola (Central Plateau) and is bounded on the northeast and east by the province of Bié, on the south and southern by province of Huila, and on the west by the province of Benguela and on the northwest by the province of Kwanza Sul. Has an area of 35,771 km2 and approximately 2,301,524 inhabitants, which corresponds to 58 inhabitants per km2 (Government of the Province of Huambo, 2006). The buildings in this province, particularly in rural areas, were deeply marked by war. Given the current scenario of development of the country and considering the possibility of integrate systems and traditional building materials, that respect the environment and fit harmoniously into its natural habitat, one of the alternative options in the actual construction, undergoes resume old solutions and traditional materials such as adobe construction.It is in this context that this project is part of a scientific research in order to permit the improvement and optimization of these traditional solutions, responding to current demands for social, economic and environmental sustainability. The adobe is a building element with potential degradation by water. Due to the climate, subtropical, hot and humid, and geomorphology of the province, about 1000 to 2000 meters of altitude and an extensive river system, these buildings can be vulnerable and present early degradation, exacerbated by lack of knowledge of the properties of geomaterials used and techniques that allow their stabilization and conservation. This paper aims to study the influence of

  14. Selected data from eleven wildcat wells in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zihlman, F.N.; Oliver, H.L.

    1999-01-01

    Between 1978 and 1981, the U.S. Geological Survey drilled 27 wells in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska. This publication presents the following data from eleven of those 27 wells: general information, well core images, depths to specific stratigraphic units, well core gamma ray logs in LAS format, well log information in LAS format, geological and drilling history reports in Adobe Acrobat PDF format, and permeability and porosity data.

  15. 78 FR 11865 - President's Board of Advisors on Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... other documents of this Department published in the Federal Register, in text or Adobe Portable Document... must have Adobe Acrobat Reader, which is available free at this site. If you have questions about...

  16. 76 FR 61348 - President's Advisory Commission on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... other documents of this Department published in the Federal Register, in text or Adobe Portable Document... use PDF you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader, which is available free at this site. If you...

  17. 77 FR 4555 - Service Contract Inventory for Fiscal Year (FY) 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ..., as well as all other documents of this Department published in the Federal Register, in text or Adobe... PDF you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader, which is available free at this site. Note: The...

  18. 76 FR 45236 - Advisory Commission on Accessible Instructional Materials in Postsecondary Education for Students...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... well as all other documents of this Department published in the Federal Register, in text or Adobe.../index.html . To use PDF you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader, which is available free at this site. If...

  19. Economic assessment and pathogenic bacteria inhibition of bovine hide presoaking solutions formulated with enzymes that can remove adobe-type manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presoaking formulations that have recently been developed are effective in removing the damaging adobe type bovine manure and eco-friendly because the ingredients used are recycled and required only a quarter of the amount of biocide and surfactant that the industry is commonly using. The goal ...

  20. Using Adobe Flash Lite on mobile phones for psychological research: Reaction time measurement reliability and interdevice variability.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Stian; Stewart, Neil

    2008-11-01

    Mobile telephones have significant potential for use in psychological research, possessing unique characteristics-not least their ubiquity--that may make them useful tools for psychologists. We examined whether it is possible to measure reaction times (RTs) accurately using Adobe Flash Lite on mobile phones. We ran simple and choice RT experiments on two widely available mobile phones, a Nokia 6110 Navigator and a Sony Ericsson W810i, using a wireless application protocol (WAP) connection to access the Internet from the devices. RTs were compared within subjects with those obtained using a Linux-based millisecond-accurate measurement system. Results show that measured RTs were significantly longer on mobile devices, and that overall RTs and distribution of RTs varied across devices.

  1. The Rules of Aggression: How Genetic, Chemical and Spatial Factors Affect Intercolony Fights in a Dominant Species, the Mediterranean Acrobat Ant Crematogaster scutellaris.

    PubMed

    Frizzi, Filippo; Ciofi, Claudio; Dapporto, Leonardo; Natali, Chiara; Chelazzi, Guido; Turillazzi, Stefano; Santini, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    Nest-mate recognition plays a key role in the biology of ants. Although individuals coming from a foreign nest are, in most cases, promptly rejected, the degree of aggressiveness towards non nest-mates may be highly variable among species and relies on genetic, chemical and environmental factors. We analyzed intraspecific relationships among neighboring colonies of the dominant Mediterranean acrobat ant Crematogaster scutellaris integrating genetic, chemical and behavioral analyses. Colony structure, parental relationships between nests, cuticular hydrocarbons profiles (CHCs) and aggressive behavior against non nest-mates were studied in 34 nests located in olive tree trunks. Bayesian clustering analysis of allelic variation at nine species-specific microsatellite DNA markers pooled nests into 14 distinct clusters, each representing a single colony, confirming a polydomous arrangement of nests in this species. A marked genetic separation among colonies was also detected, probably due to long distance dispersion of queens and males during nuptial flights. CHCs profiles varied significantly among colonies and between nests of the same colony. No relationship between CHCs profiles and genetic distances was detected. The level of aggressiveness between colonies was inversely related to chemical and spatial distance, suggesting a 'nasty neighbor' effect. Our findings also suggest that CHCs profiles in C. scutellaris may be linked to external environmental factors rather than genetic relationships. PMID:26445245

  2. Vertical Tail Buffeting Alleviation Using Piezoelectric Actuators: Some Results of the Actively Controlled Response of Buffet-Affected Tails (ACROBAT) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Robert W.

    1997-01-01

    A 1/6-scale F-18 wind-tunnel model was tested in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center as part of the Actively Controlled Response Of Buffet Affected Tails (ACROBAT) program to assess the use of active controls in reducing vertical tail buffeting. The starboard vertical tail was equipped with an active rudder and the port vertical tail was equipped with piezoelectric actuators. The tunnel conditions were atmospheric air at a dynamic pressure of 14 psf. By using single-input-single-output control laws at gains well below the physical limits of the actuators, the power spectral density of the root strains at the frequency of the first bending mode of the vertical tail was reduced by as much as 60 percent up to angles of attack of 37 degrees. Root mean square (RMS) values of root strain were reduced by as much as 19 percent. Buffeting alleviation results when using the rudder are presented for comparison. Stability margins indicate that a constant gain setting in the control law may be used throughout the range of angle of attack tested.

  3. The Rules of Aggression: How Genetic, Chemical and Spatial Factors Affect Intercolony Fights in a Dominant Species, the Mediterranean Acrobat Ant Crematogaster scutellaris

    PubMed Central

    Frizzi, Filippo; Ciofi, Claudio; Dapporto, Leonardo; Natali, Chiara; Chelazzi, Guido; Turillazzi, Stefano; Santini, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    Nest-mate recognition plays a key role in the biology of ants. Although individuals coming from a foreign nest are, in most cases, promptly rejected, the degree of aggressiveness towards non nest-mates may be highly variable among species and relies on genetic, chemical and environmental factors. We analyzed intraspecific relationships among neighboring colonies of the dominant Mediterranean acrobat ant Crematogaster scutellaris integrating genetic, chemical and behavioral analyses. Colony structure, parental relationships between nests, cuticular hydrocarbons profiles (CHCs) and aggressive behavior against non nest-mates were studied in 34 nests located in olive tree trunks. Bayesian clustering analysis of allelic variation at nine species-specific microsatellite DNA markers pooled nests into 14 distinct clusters, each representing a single colony, confirming a polydomous arrangement of nests in this species. A marked genetic separation among colonies was also detected, probably due to long distance dispersion of queens and males during nuptial flights. CHCs profiles varied significantly among colonies and between nests of the same colony. No relationship between CHCs profiles and genetic distances was detected. The level of aggressiveness between colonies was inversely related to chemical and spatial distance, suggesting a ‘nasty neighbor’ effect. Our findings also suggest that CHCs profiles in C. scutellaris may be linked to external environmental factors rather than genetic relationships. PMID:26445245

  4. On the detection of adobe buried archaeological structures using multiscale remote sensing techniques : Piramide Naranja in Cahuachi (Peru)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masini, N.; Rizzo, E.; Lasaponara, R.; Orefici, G.

    2009-04-01

    The detection of buried adobe structures is a crucial issue for the remote sensing (ground, aerial and satellite) applied to archaeology for the widespread of sun-dried earth as building material in several ancient civilizations in Central and Southern America, Middle East and North Africa. Moreover it is complex, due to the subtle contrast existing between the archaeological features and the surrounding, especially in arid setting, as in the case of the well know Nazca Ceremonial Centre of Cahuachi, located in the desert of Nazca (Southern Peru) . During the last two decades of excavations adobe monuments dating back from the 6th century B.C. to the 4th century A.D have been highlighted by the Centro de Estudios Arqueológicos Precolombinos (CEAP), an italian-peruvian mission directed by Giuseppe Orefici. Actually, the archaeologists are excavating and restoring the core of the Ceremonial centre where is located a great pyramid (kown as Gran Piramide). Beginning from 2007 the two institutes of CNR, IMAA and IBAM, have been involved by CEAP, in order to provide a scientific and technological support for the archaeological research. Therefore, a multi-scale approach based on the integration of aerial and satellite remote sensing with geophysical techniques was employed in order to provide data useful for archaeological excavations. The abstract refers to the last investigations performed on a mound, known as "Piramide Naranja", during the 2008. The processing of an aerial imagery time series and two QuickBird satellite images acquired in 2002 and 2005, allowed for identifying some features related to shallow and buried structures. Such features were verified by means of geophysical prospections, performed by using the magnetometric method which observed changes in the magnetic field within the first few metres beneath the subsurface detecting buried walls and anomalies linked to ceramic deposits referable to possible tombs. Finally, the integration of all data

  5. Electrical Resistivity Tomographies on the detection of adobe buried archaeological structures in Piramide Sur in Cahuachi (Peru)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozzoli, L.; Masini, N.; Rizzo, E.; Lasaponara, R.; Orefici, G.

    2012-04-01

    During the last two decades of excavations, adobe pyramids dating back from the 6th century B.C. to the 4th century A.D have been unearthed in the ancient Ceremonial Centre of Cahuachi near Nasca (Peru) by an Italian-Peruvian mission directed by Giuseppe Orefici. One of the archaeological sectors, called sector A, has been almost excavated and restored. To complete sector A only a terraced mound named "Piramide Sur" needs to be excavated. In order to provide useful information on the presence of buried structures and platforms as well on the geological stratigraphy a multi-scale approach based on the integration of satellite remote sensing with geophysical techniques was employed. Such investigations were carried out by the Italian mission ITACA, funded by the Italian Ministry Affairs and composed of researchers of two institutes of CNR (IMAA and IBAM), which provides a scientific support for archaeological research, since 2007. In particular, the subsurface features were investigated by Geoelectrical prospecting, performed by using a georesistivimeter for tomography which observe the resistivity value along sections. Several tomographies were carried out to investigate the shallow and deep structure of the pyramid both along the main flank at Nord and on the top. Finally, the integration of all data acquired by the different remote sensing techniques allowed for spatially characterizing the archaeological features, thus providing important information for the planning of the next archaeological campaign.

  6. PSTOOLS - FOUR PROGRAMS THAT INTERPRET/FORMAT POSTSCRIPT FILES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, D.

    1994-01-01

    PSTOOLS is a package of four programs that operate on files written in the page description language, PostScript. The programs include a PostScript previewer for the IRIS workstation, a PostScript driver for the Matrix QCRZ film recorder, a PostScript driver for the Tektronix 4693D printer, and a PostScript code beautifier that formats PostScript files to be more legible. The three programs PSIRIS, PSMATRIX, and PSTEK are similar in that they all interpret the PostScript language and output the graphical results to a device, and they support color PostScript images. The common code which is shared by these three programs is included as a library of routines. PSPRETTY formats a PostScript file by appropriately indenting procedures and code delimited by "saves" and "restores." PSTOOLS does not use Adobe fonts. PSTOOLS is written in C-language for implementation on SGI IRIS 4D series workstations running IRIX 3.2 or later. A README file and UNIX man pages provide information regarding the installation and use of the PSTOOLS programs. A six-page manual which provides slightly more detailed information may be purchased separately. The standard distribution medium for this package is one .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format. PSIRIS (the largest program) requires 1.2Mb of main memory. PSMATRIX requires the "gpib" board (IEEE 488) available from Silicon Graphics. Inc. The programs with graphical interfaces require that the IRIS have at least 24 bit planes. This package was developed in 1990 and updated in 1991. SGI, IRIS 4D, and IRIX are trademarks of Silicon Graphics, Inc. Matrix QCRZ is a registered trademark of the AGFA Group. Tektronix 4693D is a trademark of Tektronix, Inc. Adobe is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated. PostScript is a registered trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated. UNIX is a registered trademark of AT&T Bell Laboratories.

  7. Vertical Tail Buffeting Alleviation Using Piezoelectric Actuators-Some Results of the Actively Controlled Response of Buffet-Affected Tails (ACROBAT) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Robert W.

    1997-01-01

    Buffet is an aeroelastic phenomenon associated with high performance aircraft especially those with twin vertical tails. In particular, for the F/A-18 aircraft at high angles of attack, vortices emanating from wing/fuselage leading edge extensions burst, immersing the vertical tails in their wake. The resulting buffet loads on the vertical tails are a concern from fatigue and inspection points of view. Recently, a 1/6-scale F-18 wind-tunnel model was tested in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center as part of the Actively Controlled Response Of Buffet Affected Tails (ACROBAT) Program to assess the use of active controls in reducing vertical tail buffeting. The starboard vertical tail was equipped with an active rudder and the port vertical tail was equipped with piezoelectric actuators. The tunnel conditions were atmospheric air at Mach 0.10. By using single-input-single-output control laws at gains well below the physical limits of the actuators, the power spectral density of the root strains at the frequency of the first bending mode of the vertical tail was reduced by as much as 60 percent up to angles of attack of 37 degrees. Root mean square (RMS) values of root strain were reduced by as much as 19 percent. The results herein illustrate that buffet alleviation of vertical tails can be accomplished using simple active control of the rudder or piezoelectric actuators. In fact, as demonstrated herein, a fixed gain single input single output control law that commands piezoelectric actuators may be active throughout the high angle-of-attack maneuver without requiring any changes during the maneuver. Future tests are mentioned for accentuating the international interest in this area of research.

  8. The Effect of Air Density on Sand Transport Structures and the Adobe Abrasion Profile: A Field Wind-Tunnel Experiment Over a Wide Range of Altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Qingjie; Qu, Jianjun; Dong, Zhibao; Zu, Ruiping; Zhang, Kecun; Wang, Hongtao; Xie, Shengbo

    2013-11-01

    Aeolian sand transport results from interactions between the surface and the airflow above. Air density strongly constrains airflow characteristics and the resulting flow of sand, and therefore should not be neglected in sand transport models. In the present study, we quantify the influence of air density on the sand flow structure, sand transport rate, adobe abrasion profiles, and abrasion rate using a portable wind-tunnel in the field. For a given wind speed, the flow's ability to transport sand decreases at low air density, so total sand transport decreases, but the saltation height increases. Thus, the damage to human structures increases compared with what occurs at lower altitudes. The adobe abrasion rate by the cloud of blowing sand decreases exponentially with increasing height above the surface, while the wind erosion and dust emission intensity both increase with increasing air density. Long-term feedback processes between air density and wind erosion suggest that the development of low-altitude areas due to long-term deflation plays a key role in dust emission, and will have a profound significance for surface Aeolian processes and geomorphology.

  9. Processed Thematic Mapper Satellite Imagery for Selected Areas within the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dohrenwend, John C.; Gray, Floyd; Miller, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    The study is summarized in the Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (PDF) file OF00-309.PDF. This publication also contain satellite full-scene images of selected areas along the U.S.-Mexico border. These images are presented as high-resolution images in jpeg format (IMAGES). The folder LOCATIONS in contains TIFF images showing exact positions of easily-identified reference locations for each of the Landsat TM scenes located at least partly within the U.S. A reference location table (BDRLOCS.DOC in MS Word format) lists the latitude and longitude of each reference location with a nominal precision of 0.001 minute of arc

  10. Three-dimensional portable document format: a simple way to present 3-dimensional data in an electronic publication.

    PubMed

    Danz, Jan C; Katsaros, Christos

    2011-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) models of teeth and soft and hard tissues are tessellated surfaces used for diagnosis, treatment planning, appliance fabrication, outcome evaluation, and research. In scientific publications or communications with colleagues, these 3D data are often reduced to 2-dimensional pictures or need special software for visualization. The portable document format (PDF) offers a simple way to interactively display 3D surface data without additional software other than a recent version of Adobe Reader (Adobe, San Jose, Calif). The purposes of this article were to give an example of how 3D data and their analyses can be interactively displayed in 3 dimensions in electronic publications, and to show how they can be exported from any software for diagnostic reports and communications among colleagues.

  11. Extra Dimensions: 3D in PDF Documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Norman A.

    2012-12-01

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) and the ISO PRC file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. Until recently, Adobe's Acrobat software was also capable of incorporating 3D content into PDF files from a variety of 3D file formats, including proprietary CAD formats. However, this functionality is no longer available in Acrobat X, having been spun off to a separate company. Incorporating 3D content now requires the additional purchase of a separate plug-in. In this talk we present alternatives based on open source libraries which allow the programmatic creation of 3D content in PDF format. While not providing the same level of access to CAD files as the commercial software, it does provide physicists with an alternative path to incorporate 3D content into PDF files from such disparate applications as detector geometries from Geant4, 3D data sets, mathematical surfaces or tesselated volumes.

  12. Energy map of southwestern Wyoming - Energy data archived, organized, integrated, and accessible

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biewick, Laura R.H.; Jones, Nicholas R.; Wilson, Anna B.

    2013-01-01

    The Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI) focuses on conserving world-class wildlife resources while facilitating responsible energy development in southwestern Wyoming. To further advance the objectives of the WLCI long-term, science-based effort, a comprehensive inventory of energy resource and production data is being published in two parts. Energy maps, data, documentation and spatial data processing capabilities are available in geodatabase, published map file (pmf), ArcMap document (mxd), Adobe Acrobat PDF map, and other digital formats that can be downloaded at the USGS website.

  13. Magnetismo 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardús, J. O.; Curto, J. J.; Sanclement, E.; Torta, J. M.

    This CD-ROM presents the digital version of the Boletin del Observatorio del Ebro Magnetismo. It contains data obtained in the Magnetic Station of the Ebre Observatory during the year 2001. The structure of the CD-ROM consists of one directory numbered with the year of the measurement. There, it could be found the bulletin as printable sheets (Year.pdf) generate with Adobe Acrobat and data files in plain ASCII text (Year.wdc) readable with any text editor. These data files were compiled according to the data exchange format recommended by the IAGA-2002.

  14. Magnetismo 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardús, J. O.; Curto, J. J.; Sanclement, E.; Torta, J. M.

    This CD-ROM presents the digital version of the Boletin del Observatorio del Ebro Magnetismo. It contains data obtained in the Magnetic Station of the Ebre Observatory during the year 2002. The structure of the CD-ROM consists of one directory numbered with the year of the measurement. There, it could be found the bulletin as printable sheets (Year.pdf) generate with Adobe Acrobat and data files in plain ASCII text (Year.wdc) readable with any text editor. These data files were compiled according to the data exchange format recommended by the IAGA-2002.

  15. Magnetismo 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardús, J. O.; Curto, J. J.; Sanclement, E.; Torta, J. M.

    This CD-ROM presents the digital version of the Boletin del Observatorio del Ebro Magnetismo. It contains data obtained in the Magnetic Station of the Ebre Observatory during the year 2003. The structure of the CD-ROM consists of one directory numbered with the year of the measurement. There, it could be found the bulletin as printable sheets (Year.pdf) generate with Adobe Acrobat and data files in plain ASCII text (Year.wdc) readable with any text editor. These data files were compiled according to the data exchange format recommended by the IAGA-2002.

  16. Magnetismo 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardús, J. O.; Curto, J. J.; Sanclement, E.; Torta, J. M.

    This CD-ROM presents the digital version of the Boletin del Observatorio del Ebro Magnetismo. It contains data obtained in the Magnetic Station of the Ebre Observatory during the year 2000. The structure of the CD-ROM consists of one directory numbered with the year of the measurement. There, it could be found the bulletin as printable sheets (Year.pdf) generate with Adobe Acrobat and data files in plain ASCII text (Year.wdc) readable with any text editor. These data files were compiled according to the data exchange format recommended by the IAGA-2002.

  17. 76 FR 11435 - Privacy Act of 1974; Computer Matching Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... Register on June 19, 1989 (54 FR 25818), and OMB Circular No. A-130, Transmittal Memorandum 4, Management..., as well as all other documents of this Department published in the Federal Register, in text or Adobe... . To use PDF you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader, which is available free at this site. Note:...

  18. 75 FR 26742 - Investing in Innovation Fund

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    .../2010 (75 FR 5/12/2010 5/19/2010 7/12/2010 7/19/2010 in Innovation Fund (Scale-up, 12072). Validation... all other Department of Education documents published in the Federal Register, in text or Adobe.../index.html . To use PDF you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader, which is available free at this site....

  19. 76 FR 18538 - Applications for New Awards; National Professional Development Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ...: On March 18, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 14954-14959) a notice inviting..., as well as all other documents of this Department published in the Federal Register, in text or Adobe... . To use PDF you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader, which is available free at this site. Note:...

  20. Aerial Population Estimates of Wild Horses (Equus caballus) in the Adobe Town and Salt Wells Creek Herd Management Areas Using an Integrated Simultaneous Double-Count and Sightability Bias Correction Technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lubow, Bruce C.; Ransom, Jason I.

    2007-01-01

    An aerial survey technique combining simultaneous double-count and sightability bias correction methodologies was used to estimate the population of wild horses inhabiting Adobe Town and Salt Wells Creek Herd Management Areas, Wyoming. Based on 5 surveys over 4 years, we conclude that the technique produced estimates consistent with the known number of horses removed between surveys and an annual population growth rate of 16.2 percent per year. Therefore, evidence from this series of surveys supports the validity of this survey method. Our results also indicate that the ability of aerial observers to see horse groups is very strongly dependent on skill of the individual observer, size of the horse group, and vegetation cover. It is also more modestly dependent on the ruggedness of the terrain and the position of the sun relative to the observer. We further conclude that censuses, or uncorrected raw counts, are inadequate estimates of population size for this herd. Such uncorrected counts were all undercounts in our trials, and varied in magnitude from year to year and observer to observer. As of April 2007, we estimate that the population of the Adobe Town /Salt Wells Creek complex is 906 horses with a 95 percent confidence interval ranging from 857 to 981 horses.

  1. HAZPAC; an interactive map of Pacific Rim natural hazards, population, and infrastructure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bemis, B.L.; Goss, H.V.; Yurkovich, E.S.; Perron, T.J.; Howell, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    This is an online version of a CD-ROM publication. The text files that describe using this publication make reference to software provided on the disc. For this online version the software can be downloaded for free from Adobe Systems and Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI). Welcome to HAZPAC! HAZPAC is an interactive map about natural hazard risk in the Pacific Rim region. It is intended to communicate to a broad audience the ideas of 'Crowding the Rim,' which is an international, public-private partnership that fosters collaborative solutions for regional risks. HAZPAC, which stands for 'HAZards of the PACific,' uses Geographic Information System (GIS) technology to help people visualize the socioeconomic connections and shared hazard vulnerabilities among Pacific Rim countries, as well as to explore the general nature of risk. Please refer to the 'INTRODUCTION TO HAZPAC' section of the readme file below to determine which HAZPAC project will be right for you. Once you have decided which HAZPAC project is suitable for you, please refer to the 'GETTING STARTED' sections in the readme file for some basic information that will help you begin using HAZPAC. Also, we highly recommend that you follow the Tutorial exercises in the project-specific HAZPAC User Guides. The User Guides are PDF (Portable Document Format) files that must be read with Adobe Acrobat Reader (a free copy of Acrobat Reader is available using the link near the bottom of this page).

  2. Web-based X-ray quality control documentation.

    PubMed

    David, George; Burnett, Lou Ann; Schenkel, Robert

    2003-01-01

    The department of radiology at the Medical College of Georgia Hospital and Clinics has developed an equipment quality control web site. Our goal is to provide immediate access to virtually all medical physics survey data. The web site is designed to assist equipment engineers, department management and technologists. By improving communications and access to equipment documentation, we believe productivity is enhanced. The creation of the quality control web site was accomplished in three distinct steps. First, survey data had to be placed in a computer format. The second step was to convert these various computer files to a format supported by commercial web browsers. Third, a comprehensive home page had to be designed to provide convenient access to the multitude of surveys done in the various x-ray rooms. Because we had spent years previously fine-tuning the computerization of the medical physics quality control program, most survey documentation was already in spreadsheet or database format. A major technical decision was the method of conversion of survey spreadsheet and database files into documentation appropriate for the web. After an unsatisfactory experience with a HyperText Markup Language (HTML) converter (packaged with spreadsheet and database software), we tried creating Portable Document Format (PDF) files using Adobe Acrobat software. This process preserves the original formatting of the document and takes no longer than conventional printing; therefore, it has been very successful. Although the PDF file generated by Adobe Acrobat is a proprietary format, it can be displayed through a conventional web browser using the freely distributed Adobe Acrobat Reader program that is available for virtually all platforms. Once a user installs the software, it is automatically invoked by the web browser whenever the user follows a link to a file with a PDF extension. Although no confidential patient information is available on the web site, our legal

  3. Web-based X-ray quality control documentation.

    PubMed

    David, George; Burnett, Lou Ann; Schenkel, Robert

    2003-01-01

    The department of radiology at the Medical College of Georgia Hospital and Clinics has developed an equipment quality control web site. Our goal is to provide immediate access to virtually all medical physics survey data. The web site is designed to assist equipment engineers, department management and technologists. By improving communications and access to equipment documentation, we believe productivity is enhanced. The creation of the quality control web site was accomplished in three distinct steps. First, survey data had to be placed in a computer format. The second step was to convert these various computer files to a format supported by commercial web browsers. Third, a comprehensive home page had to be designed to provide convenient access to the multitude of surveys done in the various x-ray rooms. Because we had spent years previously fine-tuning the computerization of the medical physics quality control program, most survey documentation was already in spreadsheet or database format. A major technical decision was the method of conversion of survey spreadsheet and database files into documentation appropriate for the web. After an unsatisfactory experience with a HyperText Markup Language (HTML) converter (packaged with spreadsheet and database software), we tried creating Portable Document Format (PDF) files using Adobe Acrobat software. This process preserves the original formatting of the document and takes no longer than conventional printing; therefore, it has been very successful. Although the PDF file generated by Adobe Acrobat is a proprietary format, it can be displayed through a conventional web browser using the freely distributed Adobe Acrobat Reader program that is available for virtually all platforms. Once a user installs the software, it is automatically invoked by the web browser whenever the user follows a link to a file with a PDF extension. Although no confidential patient information is available on the web site, our legal

  4. 78 FR 48048 - Student Assistance General Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... System (OES) permits documents to be submitted electronically in an Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF... the Federal Register, in text or Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF). To use PDF you must have Adobe... provide a hard copy of the document. (6) Electronic documents must be formatted in Adobe Portable...

  5. A Web-based Quantum Mechanics Course for first Year Graduate Students in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breinig, M.

    1996-11-01

    All class materials for the 1996 graduate Quantum Mechanics course at the University of Tennessee are distributed over the Internet (http://electron4.phys.utk.edu). Complete class notes are available in PDF format. Homework problems and solutions are distributed in PDF format or as scanned notes. Students need Web access using a graphical browser with a PDF reader plug-in (Adobe Acrobat) installed. The news and mail clients must be able to display attachments, such as graphics files, inline. A class news group has been set up. Students use this news group to discus class material, homework problems, and anything else of interest among themselves. Numerical solutions are presented in the form of Java programs.

  6. Magnetismo 1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardús, J. O.; Curto, J. J.; Sanclement, E.; Torta, J. M.

    This CD-ROM presents the new digital version of the Boletin del Observatorio del Ebro Magnetismo (formerly ISSN 1139-5745). It contains data obtained in the Magnetic Station of the Ebre Observatory during the 1999 year. This corresponds to the 87 volume, in agreement with the former numbering. The structure of the CD-ROM consists of one directory numbered with the year of the measurement. There, it could be found the bulletin as printable sheets (Year.pdf) generate with Adobe Acrobat and data files in plain ASCII text (Year.wdc) readable with any text editor. These data files were compiled according to the data exchange format recommended by the IAGA-2002.

  7. Tira Sujanpur: An Adobe of Katoch Dynasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shree, Venu; Sharma, Puneet

    2015-06-01

    Image of any ancient settlement can be interpreted through a continuous study of its Historical and Architectural developments. The best way to map this image is to analyze and explore old monuments, palaces and religious places of that city. This work is an attempt to showcase the glorious era of Art and Architecture which flourished during Katoch dynasty in north Himalayan region of India during 18th century. Being one of the most known examples of Katoch Dynasty Tira Sujanpur has been documented in detail in this paper. This documentation covers the detail study of relationship between townscape and public places. Architecture style of Katoch Dynasty, Splendid along the cluster of the buildings, Temples and palaces has also been giving due consideration in the paper.

  8. Comet formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, J.

    2014-07-01

    There has been vast progress in our understanding of planetesimal formation over the past decades, owing to a number of laboratory experiments as well as to refined models of dust and ice agglomeration in protoplanetary disks. Coagulation rapidly forms cm-sized ''pebbles'' by direct sticking in collisions at low velocities (Güttler et al. 2010; Zsom et al. 2010). For the further growth, two model approaches are currently being discussed: (1) Local concentration of pebbles in nebular instabilities until gravitational instability occurs (Johansen et al. 2007). (2) A competition between fragmentation and mass transfer in collisions among the dusty bodies, in which a few ''lucky winners'' make it to planetesimal sizes (Windmark et al. 2012a,b; Garaud et al. 2013). Predictions of the physical properties of the resulting bodies in both models allow a distinction of the two formation scenarios of planetesimals. In particular, the tensile strength (i.e, the inner cohesion) of the planetesimals differ widely between the two models (Skorov & Blum 2012; Blum et al. 2014). While model (1) predicts tensile strengths on the order of ˜ 1 Pa, model (2) results in rather compactified dusty bodies with tensile strengths in the kPa regime. If comets are km-sized survivors of the planetesimal-formation era, they should in principle hold the secret of their formation process. Water ice is the prime volatile responsible for the activity of comets. Thermophysical models of the heat and mass transport close to the comet-nucleus surface predict water-ice sublimation temperatures that relate to maximum sublimation pressures well below the kPa regime predicted for formation scenario (2). Model (1), however, is in agreement with the observed dust and gas activity of comets. Thus, a formation scenario for cometesimals involving gravitational instability is favored (Blum et al. 2014).

  9. Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klahr, Hubert; Brandner, Wolfgang

    2011-02-01

    1. Historical notes on planet formation Bodenheimer; 2. The formation and evolution of planetary systems Bouwman et al.; 3. Destruction of protoplanetary disks by photoevaporation Richling, Hollenbach and Yorke; 4. Turbulence in protoplanetary accretion disks Klahr, Rozyczka, Dziourkevitch, Wunsch and Johansen; 5. The origin of solids in the early solar system Trieloff and Palme; 6. Experiments on planetesimal formation Wurm and Blum; 7. Dust coagulation in protoplanetary disks Henning, Dullemond, Wolf and Dominik; 8. The accretion of giant planet cores Thommes and Duncan; 9. Planetary transits: direct vision of extrasolar planets Lecavelier des Etangs and Vidal-Madjar; 10. The core accretion - gas capture model Hubickyj; 11. Properties of exoplanets Marcy, Fischer, Butler and Vogt; 12. Giant planet formation: theories meet observations Boss; 13. From hot Jupiters to hot Neptures … and below Lovis, Mayor and Udry; 14. Disk-planet interaction and migration Masset and Kley; 15. The Brown Dwarf - planet relation Bate; 16. From astronomy to astrobiology Brandner; 17. Overview and prospective Lin.

  10. Concepts & Procedures. [SITE 2001 Section].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauder, Deborah Y., Ed.; Mullick, Rosemary, Ed.; Sarner, Ronald, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on concepts and procedures from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2001 conference: "Using School District Standards To Develop Thematic Lessons for Electronic Portfolios" (Cindy L. Anderson and others); "Using Adobe Acrobat for Electronic Portfolio Development" (Helen C.…

  11. Use of the Webinar Tool (Elluminate) to Support Training: The Effects of Webinar-Learning Implementation from Student-Trainers' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shiang-Kwei; Hsu, Hui-Yin

    2008-01-01

    Recently, webinar (web seminar) tools (e.g., Elluminate, Adobe Acrobat Connect, Live Meeting) have been attracting more and more attention with the advancement of online learning technologies because webinar tools facilitate real-time communication and enrich the interactivity in an online learning environment. Corporations have long adopted…

  12. 40 CFR 63.9632 - What are the installation, operation, and maintenance requirements for my monitoring equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... evaluation of each COMS according to § 63.8 and Performance Specification 1 in appendix B to 40 CFR part 60... (Adobe Acrobat version) or http://www.epa.gov/ttn/emc/cem/tribo.wpd (WordPerfect version). You...

  13. PDF Lecture Materials for Online and ``Flipped'' Format Astronomy Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kary, D. M.; Eisberg, J.

    2013-04-01

    Online astronomy courses typically rely on students reading the textbook and/or a set of text-based lecture notes to replace the “lecture” material. However, many of our students report that this is much less engaging than in-person lectures, especially given the amount of interactive work such as “think-pair-share” problems done in many astronomy classes. Students have similarly criticized direct lecture-capture. To address this, we have developed a set of PowerPoint-style presentations with embedded lecture audio combined with prompts for student interaction including think-pair-share questions. These are formatted PDF packages that can be used on a range of different computers using free software. The presentations are first developed using Microsoft PowerPoint software. Audio recordings of scripted lectures are then synchronized with the presentations and the entire package is converted to PDF using Adobe Presenter. This approach combines the ease of editing that PowerPoint provides along with the platform-independence of PDF. It's easy to add, remove, or edit individual slides as needed, and PowerPoint supports internal links so that think-pair-share questions can be inserted with links to feedback based on the answers selected. Modern PDF files support animated visuals with synchronized audio and they can be read using widely available free software. Using these files students in an online course can get many of the benefits of seeing and hearing the course material presented in an in-person lecture format. Students needing extra help in traditional lecture classes can use these presentations to help review the materials covered in lecture. Finally, the presentations can be used in a “flipped” format in which students work through the presentations outside of class time while spending the “lecture” time on in-class interaction.

  14. 3D PDF - a means of public access to geological 3D - objects, using the example of GTA3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaby, Mark-Fabian; Reimann, Rüdiger

    2013-04-01

    In geology, 3D modeling has become very important. In the past, two-dimensional data such as isolines, drilling profiles, or cross-sections based on those, were used to illustrate the subsurface geology, whereas now, we can create complex digital 3D models. These models are produced with special software, such as GOCAD ®. The models can be viewed, only through the software used to create them, or through viewers available for free. The platform-independent PDF (Portable Document Format), enforced by Adobe, has found a wide distribution. This format has constantly evolved over time. Meanwhile, it is possible to display CAD data in an Adobe 3D PDF file with the free Adobe Reader (version 7). In a 3D PDF, a 3D model is freely rotatable and can be assembled from a plurality of objects, which can thus be viewed from all directions on their own. In addition, it is possible to create moveable cross-sections (profiles), and to assign transparency to the objects. Based on industry-standard CAD software, 3D PDFs can be generated from a large number of formats, or even be exported directly from this software. In geoinformatics, different approaches to creating 3D PDFs exist. The intent of the Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology to allow free access to the models of the Geotectonic Atlas (GTA3D), could not be realized with standard software solutions. A specially designed code converts the 3D objects to VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language). VRML is one of the few formats that allow using image files (maps) as textures, and to represent colors and shapes correctly. The files were merged in Acrobat X Pro, and a 3D PDF was generated subsequently. A topographic map, a display of geographic directions and horizontal and vertical scales help to facilitate the use.

  15. Galaxy formation.

    PubMed

    Peebles, P J

    1998-01-01

    It is argued that within the standard Big Bang cosmological model the bulk of the mass of the luminous parts of the large galaxies likely had been assembled by redshift z approximately 10. Galaxy assembly this early would be difficult to fit in the widely discussed adiabatic cold dark matter model for structure formation, but it could agree with an isocurvature version in which the cold dark matter is the remnant of a massive scalar field frozen (or squeezed) from quantum fluctuations during inflation. The squeezed field fluctuations would be Gaussian with zero mean, and the distribution of the field mass therefore would be the square of a random Gaussian process. This offers a possibly interesting new direction for the numerical exploration of models for cosmic structure formation.

  16. Galaxy formation

    PubMed Central

    Peebles, P. J. E.

    1998-01-01

    It is argued that within the standard Big Bang cosmological model the bulk of the mass of the luminous parts of the large galaxies likely had been assembled by redshift z ∼ 10. Galaxy assembly this early would be difficult to fit in the widely discussed adiabatic cold dark matter model for structure formation, but it could agree with an isocurvature version in which the cold dark matter is the remnant of a massive scalar field frozen (or squeezed) from quantum fluctuations during inflation. The squeezed field fluctuations would be Gaussian with zero mean, and the distribution of the field mass therefore would be the square of a random Gaussian process. This offers a possibly interesting new direction for the numerical exploration of models for cosmic structure formation. PMID:9419326

  17. The table of isotopes-8th edition and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, R.B.

    1996-12-31

    A new edition of the Table of Isotopes has been published this year by John Wiley and Sons, Inc. This edition is the eighth in a series started by Glenn T. Seaborg in 1940. The two-volume, 3168-page, cloth-bound edition is twice the size of the previous edition published in 1978. It contains nuclear structure and decay data, based mainly on the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF), for >3100 isotopes and isomers. Approximately 24000 references are cited, and the appendices have been updated and extended. The book is packaged with an interactive CD-ROM that contains the Table of Isotopes in Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format for convenient viewing on personal computer (PC) and UNIX workstations. The CD-ROM version contains a chart of the nuclides graphical index and separate indices organized for radioisotope users and nuclear structure physicists. More than 100000 hypertext links are provided to move the user quickly through related information free from the limitations of page size. Complete references with keyword abstracts are provided. The CD-ROM also contains the Table of Super-deformed Nuclear Bands and Fission Isomers; Tables of Atoms, Atomic Nuclei, and Subatomic Particles by Ivan P. Selinov; the ENSDF and nuclear structure reference (NSR) databases; the ENSDF manual by Jagdish K. Tuli; and Abode Acrobat Reader software.

  18. Amphiplex Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Shannon; Laaser, Jennifer; Lodge, Timothy

    2015-03-01

    Polymer-micelle complexes are currently under heavy investigation due to their potential applications in targeted drug delivery and gene therapy, yet the dynamics of the complex formation is still relatively unstudied. By varying the ratios of poly(styrene sulfonate) chains and cationic poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate)-b-poly(styrene) micelles and the ionic strength of the system, we created a variety of complex configurations of different sizes and charges. The complexes were characterized dynamic light scattering and zeta potential measurements which provided information regarding the hydrodynamic radius, distribution of sizes, and effective charge.

  19. Worldwide experiences of endoscopic submucosal dissection: Not just Eastern acrobatics

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kwang Bum; Jeon, Won Joong; Kim, Jae J

    2011-01-01

    The high incidence of gastric cancer has led to the initiation of cancer screening programs. As a result, the number of early gastric cancer cases has increased and consequentially, the cancer mortality rate has decreased. Moreover, the development of minimally invasive endoscopic treatment has been introduced for these early lesions. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is now recognized as one of the preferred treatment modalities for premalignant gastrointestinal epithelial lesions and early gastric cancer without lymph node metastasis. We review the results of ESD including experiences in Japan and Korea, as well as western countries. PMID:21677828

  20. Limb muscles are androgen targets in an acrobatic tropical bird.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ni Y; Katz, Amnon; Day, Lainy B; Barske, Julia; Schlinger, Barney A

    2010-03-01

    Spectacular athleticism is a conspicuous feature of many animal courtship displays yet surprisingly little is known about androgen dependence of skeletal muscles underlying these displays. Testosterone (T) acts through androgen receptors (ARs) to stimulate muscular male Golden-collared manakins of Panama to perform a remarkably athletic courtship display that includes loud wingsnaps generated by the rapid and forceful lifting of the wings. We tested the hypothesis that androgen sensitivity, reflected in the expression levels of AR mRNA, is a muscular adaptation supporting these courtship displays. Quantitative PCR showed substantially greater AR mRNA expression in all limb muscles of wild male and female manakins compared with two other avian species that do not perform athletic displays, zebra finches and ochre-bellied flycatchers. AR expression levels in the massive skeletal muscles were comparable with the minute oscine syringeal muscle but greater than levels in nonmuscular androgen targets that did not differ across species. Compared with zebra finches, male manakins also had greater activity of the T-activating enzyme 5 alpha-reductase in a wing-lifting muscle. In addition, low levels of estrogen receptor alpha (ER) mRNA were detected in all muscles of control, T-treated, and estradiol-treated manakins. Treatment of manakins with T, but not estradiol, significantly increased skeletal muscle ER expression, suggesting that ER expression is AR-dependent. These results confirm manakin limb muscles as important androgen targets where T may act to promote the speed, force, and/or endurance required for the manakin display. Androgen-sensitive muscular phenotypes may adapt males of many species to perform impressive athletic displays. PMID:20080872

  1. Habit formation

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kyle S.; Graybiel, Ann M.

    2016-01-01

    Habits, both good ones and bad ones, are pervasive in animal behavior. Important frameworks have been developed to understand habits through psychological and neurobiological studies. This work has given us a rich understanding of brain networks that promote habits, and has also helped us to understand what constitutes a habitual behavior as opposed to a behavior that is more flexible and prospective. Mounting evidence from studies using neural recording methods suggests that habit formation is not a simple process. We review this evidence and take the position that habits could be sculpted from multiple dissociable changes in neural activity. These changes occur across multiple brain regions and even within single brain regions. This strategy of classifying components of a habit based on different brain signals provides a potentially useful new way to conceive of disorders that involve overly fixed behaviors as arising from different potential dysfunctions within the brain's habit network. PMID:27069378

  2. Habit formation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kyle S; Graybiel, Ann M

    2016-03-01

    Habits, both good ones and bad ones, are pervasive in animal behavior. Important frameworks have been developed to understand habits through psychological and neurobiological studies. This work has given us a rich understanding of brain networks that promote habits, and has also helped us to understand what constitutes a habitual behavior as opposed to a behavior that is more flexible and prospective. Mounting evidence from studies using neural recording methods suggests that habit formation is not a simple process. We review this evidence and take the position that habits could be sculpted from multiple dissociable changes in neural activity. These changes occur across multiple brain regions and even within single brain regions. This strategy of classifying components of a habit based on different brain signals provides a potentially useful new way to conceive of disorders that involve overly fixed behaviors as arising from different potential dysfunctions within the brain's habit network.

  3. Pattern Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyle, Rebecca

    2006-03-01

    From the stripes of a zebra and the spots on a leopard's back to the ripples on a sandy beach or desert dune, regular patterns arise everywhere in nature. The appearance and evolution of these phenomena has been a focus of recent research activity across several disciplines. This book provides an introduction to the range of mathematical theory and methods used to analyse and explain these often intricate and beautiful patterns. Bringing together several different approaches, from group theoretic methods to envelope equations and theory of patterns in large-aspect ratio-systems, the book also provides insight behind the selection of one pattern over another. Suitable as an upper-undergraduate textbook for mathematics students or as a fascinating, engaging, and fully illustrated resource for readers in physics and biology, Rebecca Hoyle's book, using a non-partisan approach, unifies a range of techniques used by active researchers in this growing field. Accessible description of the mathematical theory behind fascinating pattern formation in areas such as biology, physics and materials science Collects recent research for the first time in an upper level textbook Features a number of exercises - with solutions online - and worked examples

  4. Barrier Formation

    PubMed Central

    Lyaruu, D.M.; Medina, J.F.; Sarvide, S.; Bervoets, T.J.M.; Everts, V.; DenBesten, P.; Smith, C.E.; Bronckers, A.L.J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Enamel fluorosis is an irreversible structural enamel defect following exposure to supraoptimal levels of fluoride during amelogenesis. We hypothesized that fluorosis is associated with excess release of protons during formation of hypermineralized lines in the mineralizing enamel matrix. We tested this concept by analyzing fluorotic enamel defects in wild-type mice and mice deficient in anion exchanger-2a,b (Ae2a,b), a transmembrane protein in maturation ameloblasts that exchanges extracellular Cl− for bicarbonate. Defects were more pronounced in fluorotic Ae2a,b−/− mice than in fluorotic heterozygous or wild-type mice. Phenotypes included a hypermineralized surface, extensive subsurface hypomineralization, and multiple hypermineralized lines in deeper enamel. Mineral content decreased in all fluoride-exposed and Ae2a,b−/− mice and was strongly correlated with Cl−. Exposure of enamel surfaces underlying maturation-stage ameloblasts to pH indicator dyes suggested the presence of diffusion barriers in fluorotic enamel. These results support the concept that fluoride stimulates hypermineralization at the mineralization front. This causes increased release of protons, which ameloblasts respond to by secreting more bicarbonates at the expense of Cl− levels in enamel. The fluoride-induced hypermineralized lines may form barriers that impede diffusion of proteins and mineral ions into the subsurface layers, thereby delaying biomineralization and causing retention of enamel matrix proteins. PMID:24170372

  5. Embedding and publishing interactive, 3-dimensional, scientific figures in Portable Document Format (PDF) files.

    PubMed

    Barnes, David G; Vidiassov, Michail; Ruthensteiner, Bernhard; Fluke, Christopher J; Quayle, Michelle R; McHenry, Colin R

    2013-01-01

    With the latest release of the S2PLOT graphics library, embedding interactive, 3-dimensional (3-d) scientific figures in Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) files is simple, and can be accomplished without commercial software. In this paper, we motivate the need for embedding 3-d figures in scholarly articles. We explain how 3-d figures can be created using the S2PLOT graphics library, exported to Product Representation Compact (PRC) format, and included as fully interactive, 3-d figures in PDF files using the movie15 LaTeX package. We present new examples of 3-d PDF figures, explain how they have been made, validate them, and comment on their advantages over traditional, static 2-dimensional (2-d) figures. With the judicious use of 3-d rather than 2-d figures, scientists can now publish, share and archive more useful, flexible and faithful representations of their study outcomes. The article you are reading does not have embedded 3-d figures. The full paper, with embedded 3-d figures, is recommended and is available as a supplementary download from PLoS ONE (File S2). PMID:24086243

  6. Embedding and Publishing Interactive, 3-Dimensional, Scientific Figures in Portable Document Format (PDF) Files

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, David G.; Vidiassov, Michail; Ruthensteiner, Bernhard; Fluke, Christopher J.; Quayle, Michelle R.; McHenry, Colin R.

    2013-01-01

    With the latest release of the S2PLOT graphics library, embedding interactive, 3-dimensional (3-d) scientific figures in Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) files is simple, and can be accomplished without commercial software. In this paper, we motivate the need for embedding 3-d figures in scholarly articles. We explain how 3-d figures can be created using the S2PLOT graphics library, exported to Product Representation Compact (PRC) format, and included as fully interactive, 3-d figures in PDF files using the movie15 LaTeX package. We present new examples of 3-d PDF figures, explain how they have been made, validate them, and comment on their advantages over traditional, static 2-dimensional (2-d) figures. With the judicious use of 3-d rather than 2-d figures, scientists can now publish, share and archive more useful, flexible and faithful representations of their study outcomes. The article you are reading does not have embedded 3-d figures. The full paper, with embedded 3-d figures, is recommended and is available as a supplementary download from PLoS ONE (File S2). PMID:24086243

  7. 76 FR 67129 - Notice of Request for Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... format. If you want to attach a document that is a scanned Adobe PDF file, it must be scanned as text and... questions regarding attaching a document that is a scanned Adobe PDF file, please contact the RMA...

  8. MedlinePlus: Viewers & Players

    MedlinePlus

    ... Download NLM podcasts and applications. mp3 mp4 mov Adobe Reader Read and print Portable Document Format (PDF) from your Web browser. pdf Adobe Flash Player View applications, content, and videos developed ...

  9. 76 FR 2674 - Committee on Measures of Student Success

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... published in the Federal Register, in text or Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) on the Internet at the following site: http://www.ed.gov/news/fed-register/index.html . To use PDF you must have Adobe...

  10. Pica during pregnancy among Mexican-born women: a formative study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Janice; Temple, Luisa; Trujillo, Celina; Mejia-Rodriquez, Fabiola; Rosas, Lisa Goldman; Fernald, LIa; Young, Sera Lewise

    2014-01-01

    Although pica, the craving and purposive consumption of non-food substances, is common among many populations, especially during pregnancy, the health consequences are not well understood. Further, very little is known about pica among Mexican populations in the US and Mexico. Therefore, we conducted formative research to understand pica in this understudied population. Our objectives were to identify the frequency and types of pica behaviors, understand perceived etiologies and consequences of pica, and to ascertain if the behavior was common enough to warrant a larger study. We held 9 focus group discussions (FGDs, 3 in the Salinas Valley, California, 6 in Xoxocotla, Morelos, Mexico) with 76 Mexican-born women who were currently pregnant or had delivered within the past two years. Earth, adobe, bean stones, and ice were the most commonly reported pica substances. Twenty-eight of the 76 participants (37%) reported ever engaging in pica; 22 participants (29%) reported doing so during pregnancy. The proportion of women reporting pica in the US was 43% and 34% in Mexico. Women attributed pica to the overwhelming organoleptic appeal of pica substances (especially smell and texture) and to micronutrient deficiencies. Perceived consequences of unfulfilled pica cravings were birthmarks or fetal loss; fulfilled pica cravings were also thought to be generally harmful to the mother or child, with several women specifying toxic lead, pesticides, or “worms”. In sum, pica among Mexican women is common enough to warrant a larger epidemiologic study of its socio-demographic correlates and physiological consequences. PMID:24784797

  11. Pica during pregnancy among Mexican-born women: a formative study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Janice W; Temple, Luisa; Trujillo, Celina; Mejia-Rodriquez, Fabiola; Rosas, Lisa Goldman; Fernald, Lia; Young, Sera L

    2015-10-01

    Although pica, the craving and purposive consumption of non-food substances, is common among many populations, especially during pregnancy, the health consequences are not well understood. Further, very little is known about pica among Mexican populations in the United States and Mexico. Therefore, we conducted formative research to understand pica in this understudied population. Our objectives were to identify the frequency and types of pica behaviours, to understand perceived aetiologies and consequences of pica and to ascertain if the behaviour was common enough to warrant a larger study. We held nine focus group discussions (three in the Salinas Valley, California; six in Xoxocotla, Morelos, Mexico) with 76 Mexican-born women who were currently pregnant or had delivered within the past 2 years. Earth, adobe, bean stones and ice were the most commonly reported pica substances. Twenty-eight of the 76 participants (37%) reported ever engaging in pica; 22 participants (29%) reported doing so during pregnancy. The proportion of women reporting pica in the United States and Mexico was 43% and 34%, respectively. Women attributed pica to the overwhelming organoleptic appeal of pica substances (especially smell and texture) and to micronutrient deficiencies. Perceived consequences of unfulfilled pica cravings were birthmarks or fetal loss; fulfilled pica cravings were also thought to be generally harmful to the mother or child, with several women specifying toxic lead, pesticides or 'worms'. In sum, pica among Mexican women is common enough to warrant a larger epidemiologic study of its sociodemographic correlates and physiological consequences.

  12. Common File Formats.

    PubMed

    Mills, Lauren

    2014-03-21

    An overview of the many file formats commonly used in bioinformatics and genome sequence analysis is presented, including various data file formats, alignment file formats, and annotation file formats. Example workflows illustrate how some of the different file types are typically used.

  13. Formate Formation and Formate Conversion in Biological Fuels Production

    PubMed Central

    Crable, Bryan R.; Plugge, Caroline M.; McInerney, Michael J.; Stams, Alfons J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Biomethanation is a mature technology for fuel production. Fourth generation biofuels research will focus on sequestering CO2 and providing carbon-neutral or carbon-negative strategies to cope with dwindling fossil fuel supplies and environmental impact. Formate is an important intermediate in the methanogenic breakdown of complex organic material and serves as an important precursor for biological fuels production in the form of methane, hydrogen, and potentially methanol. Formate is produced by either CoA-dependent cleavage of pyruvate or enzymatic reduction of CO2 in an NADH- or ferredoxin-dependent manner. Formate is consumed through oxidation to CO2 and H2 or can be further reduced via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway for carbon fixation or industrially for the production of methanol. Here, we review the enzymes involved in the interconversion of formate and discuss potential applications for biofuels production. PMID:21687599

  14. Design of new electronic edition of gamma-ray spectrum catalogues for Internet presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, R.L.

    1997-12-31

    New editions of the original Gamma-ray Spectrum Catalogues are being prepared for publication in electronic format. The Catalogues will be available on CD-ROM and as an Internet resource from the INEL. All material is formatted in Adobe Acrobat. Additions to the original content of the Catalogues include integrated decay schemes, and tables of related decay data from the ENSDF file. Spectra representing the response of large-volume Ge detectors, alpha-particle spectra, prompt neutron capture and inelastic scattering gamma-ray spectra, and gross fission product spectra are being developed for future addition. All numerical data are available in relational database format with an advanced graphic user interface (GUI), designed for retreival of both graphics and data for general laboratory use. The major emphasis of the presentation will be on technology applied in the design of material for screen presentation, incorporating color, advanced database technology, and graphics formatting to overcome bandwidth limitations on the internet. The first edition of the Catalogues in CD-ROM format is currently in the beta test phase. The web site content presently available will be described.

  15. The Format Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oder, Norman

    2002-01-01

    Reports results of a survey of public libraries that investigated trends in audiovisual materials. Highlights include format issues; audiobooks; media budgets for various formats; video collections; DVDs; circulation; collection sizes; music CDs; and future possibilities. (LRW)

  16. Star Formation in Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Topics addressed include: star formation; galactic infrared emission; molecular clouds; OB star luminosity; dust grains; IRAS observations; galactic disks; stellar formation in Magellanic clouds; irregular galaxies; spiral galaxies; starbursts; morphology of galactic centers; and far-infrared observations.

  17. Simple Ontology Format (SOFT)

    SciTech Connect

    Sorokine, Alexandre

    2011-10-01

    Simple Ontology Format (SOFT) library and file format specification provides a set of simple tools for developing and maintaining ontologies. The library, implemented as a perl module, supports parsing and verification of the files in SOFt format, operations with ontologies (adding, removing, or filtering of entities), and converting of ontologies into other formats. SOFT allows users to quickly create ontologies using only a basic text editor, verify it, and portray it in a graph layout system using customized styles.

  18. Record Formatting: MARC AMC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Lisa B.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses how archivists use the MARC AMC (Archival and Manuscripts Control) format for descriptive information about archival materials. Modifications that MARC AMC introduced to the standard MARC bibliographic formats are explained, and examples of a record in AMC formats on different bibliographic utilities are given. (24 references) (LRW)

  19. Medical image file formats.

    PubMed

    Larobina, Michele; Murino, Loredana

    2014-04-01

    Image file format is often a confusing aspect for someone wishing to process medical images. This article presents a demystifying overview of the major file formats currently used in medical imaging: Analyze, Neuroimaging Informatics Technology Initiative (Nifti), Minc, and Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (Dicom). Concepts common to all file formats, such as pixel depth, photometric interpretation, metadata, and pixel data, are first presented. Then, the characteristics and strengths of the various formats are discussed. The review concludes with some predictive considerations about the future trends in medical image file formats.

  20. Medical image file formats.

    PubMed

    Larobina, Michele; Murino, Loredana

    2014-04-01

    Image file format is often a confusing aspect for someone wishing to process medical images. This article presents a demystifying overview of the major file formats currently used in medical imaging: Analyze, Neuroimaging Informatics Technology Initiative (Nifti), Minc, and Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (Dicom). Concepts common to all file formats, such as pixel depth, photometric interpretation, metadata, and pixel data, are first presented. Then, the characteristics and strengths of the various formats are discussed. The review concludes with some predictive considerations about the future trends in medical image file formats. PMID:24338090

  1. Star Formation for Predictive Primordial Galaxy Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milosavljević, Miloš; Safranek-Shrader, Chalence

    The elegance of inflationary cosmology and cosmological perturbation theory ends with the formation of the first stars and galaxies, the initial sources of light that launched the phenomenologically rich process of cosmic reionization. Here we review the current understanding of early star formation, emphasizing unsolved problems and technical challenges. We begin with the first generation of stars to form after the Big Bang and trace how they influenced subsequent star formation. The onset of chemical enrichment coincided with a sharp increase in the overall physical complexity of star forming systems. Ab-initio computational treatments are just now entering the domain of the predictive and are establishing contact with local observations of the relics of this ancient epoch.

  2. Preliminary compilation of descriptive geoenvironmental mineral deposit models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    du Bray, Edward A.

    1995-01-01

    Summary: This book was released in paper form in June, 1996. After its release, it was converted to digital form as Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) files using Acrobat version 2.1. The Acrobat presentation you are accessing is a facsimile of the published book. A few minor editorial changes were made to the book to correct errors and some of the figures have been enhanced. The figures are the same as those in the book, but some have been reprocessed or redrafted and others converted from grayscale to color to make them more useable. In January 2004, the book was enhanced with the creation of a Navigation page, plus the addition of links, web links and bookmarks to improve ease of use.

  3. Tropical cyclone formation

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, M.T.; Farrell, B.F. )

    1993-01-15

    The physics of tropical cyclone formation is not well understood, and more is known about the mature hurricane than the formative mechanisms that produce it. It is believed part of the reason for this can be traced to insufficient upper-level atmospheric data. Recent observations suggest that tropical cyclones are initiated by asymmetric interactions associated with migratory upper-level potential vorticity disturbances and low-level disturbances. Favored theories of cyclones formation, however, focus on internal processes associated with cumulus convection and/or air-sea interaction. This work focuses on external mechanisms of cyclone formation and, using both a two- and three-dimensional moist geostrophic momentum model, investigates the role of upper-level potential vorticity disturbances on the formation process. A conceptual model of tropical cyclone formation is proposed, and implications of the theory are discussed. 71 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Geologic map of the San Bernardino North 7.5' quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, F.K.; Matti, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    3. Portable Document Format (.pdf) files of: a. This Readme; includes an Appendix, containing data found in sbnorth_met.txt . b. The Description of Map Units identical to that found on the plot of the PostScript file. c. The same graphic as plotted in 2 above. (Test plots from this .pdf do not produce 1:24,000-scale maps. Use Adobe Acrobat pagesize setting to control map scale.) The Correlation of Map Units and Description of Map Units is in the editorial format of USGS Miscellaneous Investigations Series (I-series) maps. Within the geologic map data package, map units are identified by standard geologic map criteria such as formation-name, age, and lithology. Even though this is an author-prepared report, every attempt has been made to closely adhere to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U. S. Geological Survey. Descriptions of units can be obtained by viewing or plotting the .pdf file (3b above) or plotting the postscript file (2 above). If roads in some areas, especially forest roads that parallel topographic contours, do not show well on plots of the geologic map, we recommend use of the USGS San Bernardino North 7.5’ topographic quadrangle in conjunction with the geologic map.

  5. Reprocessing of multi-channel seismic-reflection data collected in the Beaufort Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Agena, W.F.; Lee, Myung W.; Hart, P.E.

    2000-01-01

    Contained on this set of two CD-ROMs are stacked and migrated multi-channel seismic-reflection data for 65 lines recorded in the Beaufort Sea by the United States Geological Survey in 1977. All data were reprocessed by the USGS using updated processing methods resulting in improved interpretability. Each of the two CD-ROMs contains the following files: 1) 65 files containing the digital seismic data in standard, SEG-Y format; 2) 1 file containing navigation data for the 65 lines in standard SEG-P1 format; 3) an ASCII text file with cross-reference information for relating the sequential trace numbers on each line to cdp numbers and shotpoint numbers; 4) 2 small scale graphic images (stacked and migrated) of a segment of line 722 in Adobe Acrobat (R) PDF format; 5) a graphic image of the location map, generated from the navigation file; 6) PlotSeis, an MS-DOS Application that allows PC users to interactively view the SEG-Y files; 7) a PlotSeis documentation file; and 8) an explanation of the processing used to create the final seismic sections (this document).

  6. Possible costs associated with investigating and mitigating geologic hazards in rural areas of western San Mateo County, California with a section on using the USGS website to determine the cost of developing property for residences in rural parts of San Mateo County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabb, Earl E.; Roberts, Sebastian; Cotton, William R.; Kropp, Alan L.; Wright, Robert H.; Zinn, Erik N.; Digital database by Roberts, Sebastian; Mills, Suzanne K.; Barnes, Jason B.; Marsolek, Joanna E.

    2000-01-01

    This publication consists of a digital map database on a geohazards web site, http://kaibab.wr.usgs.gov/geohazweb/intro.htm, this text, and 43 digital map images available for downloading at this site. The report is stored as several digital files, in ARC export (uncompressed) format for the database, and Postscript and PDF formats for the map images. Several of the source data layers for the images have already been released in other publications by the USGS and are available for downloading on the Internet. These source layers are not included in this digital database, but rather a reference is given for the web site where the data can be found in digital format. The exported ARC coverages and grids lie in UTM zone 10 projection. The pamphlet, which only describes the content and character of the digital map database, is included as Postscript, PDF, and ASCII text files and is also available on paper as USGS Open-File Report 00-127. The full versatility of the spatial database is realized by importing the ARC export files into ARC/INFO or an equivalent GIS. Other GIS packages, including MapInfo and ARCVIEW, can also use the ARC export files. The Postscript map image can be used for viewing or plotting in computer systems with sufficient capacity, and the considerably smaller PDF image files can be viewed or plotted in full or in part from Adobe ACROBAT software running on Macintosh, PC, or UNIX platforms.

  7. Simple Ontology Format (SOFT)

    2011-10-01

    Simple Ontology Format (SOFT) library and file format specification provides a set of simple tools for developing and maintaining ontologies. The library, implemented as a perl module, supports parsing and verification of the files in SOFt format, operations with ontologies (adding, removing, or filtering of entities), and converting of ontologies into other formats. SOFT allows users to quickly create ontologies using only a basic text editor, verify it, and portray it in a graph layoutmore » system using customized styles.« less

  8. GLOBAL STAR FORMATION REVISITED

    SciTech Connect

    Silk, Joseph; Norman, Colin E-mail: norman@stsci.edu

    2009-07-20

    A general treatment of disk star formation is developed from a dissipative multiphase model, with the dominant dissipation due to cloud collisions. The Schmidt-Kennicutt (SK) law emerges naturally for star-forming disks and starbursts. We predict that there should be an inverse correlation between Tully-Fisher law and SK law residuals. The model is extended to include a multiphase treatment of supernova feedback that leads to a turbulent pressure-regulated generalization of the star formation law and is applicable to gas-rich starbursts. Enhanced pressure, as expected in merger-induced star formation, enhances star formation efficiency. An upper limit is derived for the disk star formation rate in starbursts that depends on the ratio of global ISM to cloud pressures. We extend these considerations to the case where the interstellar gas pressure in the inner galaxy is dominated by outflows from a central active galactic nucleus (AGN). During massive spheroid formation, AGN-driven winds trigger star formation, resulting in enhanced supernova feedback and outflows. The outflows are comparable to the AGN-boosted star formation rate and saturate in the super-Eddington limit. Downsizing of both SMBH and spheroids is a consequence of AGN-driven positive feedback. Bondi accretion feeds the central black hole with a specific accretion rate that is proportional to the black hole mass. AGN-enhanced star formation is mediated by turbulent pressure and relates spheroid star formation rate to black hole accretion rate. The relation between black hole mass and spheroid velocity dispersion has a coefficient (Salpeter time to gas consumption time ratio) that provides an arrow of time. Highly efficient, AGN-boosted star formation can occur at high redshift.

  9. [Measuring thrombin formation].

    PubMed

    Hemker, H C

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of thrombin formation makes it possible to estimate the risk of haemorrhage or thrombosis much more accurately than by using clotting time. This new technique allows better monitoring of the effect of prophylactic and therapeutic anticoagulant therapy. Thrombin formation is, however, not yet routinely measured. PMID:27650017

  10. Ice Formation on Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritz, L

    1939-01-01

    This report makes use of the results obtained in the Gottingen ice tunnel in which the atmospheric conditions are simulated and the process of ice formation photographed. The effect of ice formation is threefold: 1) added weight to the airplane; 2) a change in the lift and drag forces; 3) a change in the stability characteristics.

  11. School Formative Feedback Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halverson, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Data-driven instructional improvement relies on developing coherent systems that allow school staff to generate, interpret, and act upon quality formative information on students and school programs. This article offers a formative feedback system model that captures how school leaders and teachers structure artifacts and practices to create…

  12. Entering the Formative Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Keith

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses formative assessment--classroom strategies that ensure students are understanding music concepts. Unlike summative assessments (end-of-process evaluations like final exams, SATs, or auditions), formative assessments need to be non-threatening, helpful, and most of all, effective. The process starts with a teacher…

  13. Formative Assessment Probes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberle, Francis; Keeley, Page

    2008-01-01

    Formative assessment probes can be effective tools to help teachers build a bridge between students' initial ideas and scientific ones. In this article, the authors describe how using two formative assessment probes can help teachers determine the extent to which students make similar connections between developing a concept of matter and a…

  14. Intergalactic Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boquien, Médéric

    2007-11-01

    The work presented here is about star formation in the unusual environment of collisional debris studied for the first time as such. These peculiar regions have an interstellar medium, and in particular a metallicity, similar to that of star forming regions in galactic discs while not undergoing similar environment effects such as density waves in the spiral arms for instance. This study has been conducted with a selection of exceptional systems that have ejected large quantities of gas into the intergalactic medium while also showing some intergalactic star forming regions. Principal Investigator as well as archive spectroscopy and imaging from multi-wavelength observations ranging from far ultraviolet to mid-infrared have been used. Withal a model has been built in order to reproduce the spectral energy distributions of intergalactic star forming regions and constrain the star formation histories, their extinctions and their fraction of stars coming from the parent galaxies' discs. Comparisons have been performed on the estimation of star formation rates between infrared, Halpha and ultraviolet wavelengths. This thesis has brought the following main new results: * some regions seem to be deprived of any old stellar population, and these are ideal laboratories in which to study star formation ; * the mid-infrared star formation rate estimator is as reliable as it is in spiral galaxies ; * the scatter in the estimation of star formation rates in various bands is similar to that of spiral galaxies and is mainly due to age effects ; * the combination of the extinction uncorrected Halpha line with mid-infrared yields a good estimation of the actual star formation rate ; * an important part of star formation, which can be as high as 85%, takes place in the intergalactic medium showing that in a young universe, in which this type of system is much more common than in the nearby universe, star formation from collisional debris can be an important factor of enrichment of

  15. Sparse Image Format

    2007-04-12

    The Sparse Image Format (SIF) is a file format for storing spare raster images. It works by breaking an image down into tiles. Space is savid by only storing non-uniform tiles, i.e. tiles with at least two different pixel values. If a tile is completely uniform, its common pixel value is stored instead of the complete tile raster. The software is a library in the C language used for manipulating files in SIF format. Itmore » supports large files (> 2GB) and is designed to build in Windows and Linux environments.« less

  16. Sparse Image Format

    SciTech Connect

    Eads, Damian Ryan

    2007-04-12

    The Sparse Image Format (SIF) is a file format for storing spare raster images. It works by breaking an image down into tiles. Space is savid by only storing non-uniform tiles, i.e. tiles with at least two different pixel values. If a tile is completely uniform, its common pixel value is stored instead of the complete tile raster. The software is a library in the C language used for manipulating files in SIF format. It supports large files (> 2GB) and is designed to build in Windows and Linux environments.

  17. Online multimedia teaching tool for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Misiaszek, Greg; Riconscente, Michelle; Henke, Maria; Walsh, John P

    2008-01-01

    We developed an online multimedia tool designed to enhance the student-learning environment in neurosciences through multi-sensory engagement. The combined use of scrolling text, narrations, and visual imagery engages multiple sensory modalities for effective learning, and it assists students in visualizing complex processes in the nervous system. The initial rollout of the online tool is for instruction in Parkinson's disease (PD), but its structure is flexible and can be used for teaching a variety of subjects. The instructor can access the tool online during lecture, and students can access the same information via the internet outside of class. In addition, each chapter is stand-alone and thus can be accessed online by other faculty or students to supplement other courses. Within each chapter or module, information is presented in outline format with greater detail accessible via sequential drop-down menus. This layering of related topics creates a spatial and motor-accessed path for learning. These multiple forms of engagement offer rich information representations to improve students' knowledge encoding, storing, and retrieval via multiple pathways. For instance, the tool includes student-controlled 2-D and 3-D animations, and video clip demonstrations of both patient case studies and on-campus research projects directly related to the subject material. Supplemental readings consist of current research articles (in Adobe Acrobat PDF file format) accessed within each educational topic. The teaching tool for PD is online at http://geroauen.usc.edu/Gero414_Beta/.

  18. Geologic map of the Telegraph Peak 7.5' quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, D.M.; Woodburne, M.O.; Foster, J.H.; Morton, Gregory; Cossette, P.M.

    2001-01-01

    a. This Readme; includes in Appendix I, data contained in fif_met.txt b. The same graphic as plotted in 2 above. Test plots have not produced 1:24,000-scale map sheets. Adobe Acrobat pagesize setting influences map scale. The Correlation of Map Units and Description of Map Units is in the editorial format of USGS Miscellaneous Investigations Series (I-series) maps but has not been edited to comply with I-map standards. Within the geologic map data package, map units are identified by standard geologic map criteria such as formation-name, age, and lithology. Even though this is an author-prepared report, every attempt has been made to closely adhere to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U. S. Geological Survey. Descriptions of units can be obtained by viewing or plotting the .pdf file (3b above) or plotting the postscript file (2 above). If roads in some areas, especially forest roads that parallel topographic contours, do not show well on plots of the geologic map, we recommend use of the USGS Telegraph Peak 7.5’ topographic quadrangle in conjunction with the geologic map.

  19. Results of coal bed methane drilling, Mylan Park, Monongalia County, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Fedorko, Nick; Warwick, Peter D.; Grady, William C.; Crangle, Robert D.; Britton, James Q.

    2004-01-01

    The Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory funded drilling of a borehole (39.64378 deg E , -80.04376 deg N) to evaluate the potential for coal bed methane and carbon dioxide sequestration at Mylan Park, Monongalia County, West Virginia. The drilling commenced on September 23, 2002 and was completed on November 14, 2002. The 2,525 ft deep hole contained 1,483.41 ft of Pennsylvanian coal-bearing strata, 739.67 feet of Mississippian strata, and 301.93 ft. of Devonian strata. The drill site was located directly over abandoned Pittsburgh and Sewickley coal mines. Coal cores from remaining mine pillars were cut and retrieved for desorption from both mines. In addition, coals were cored and desorbed from the Pittsburgh Roof, Little Pittsburgh, Elk Lick, Brush Creek, Upper Kittanning, Middle Kittanning, Clarion, Upper Mercer, Lower Mercer, and Quakertown coal beds. All coals are Pennsylvanian in age and are high-volatile-A bituminous in rank. A total of 34.75 ft of coal was desorbed over a maximum period of 662 days, although most of the coal was desorbed for about 275 days. This report is provided in Adobe Acrobat format. Appendix 3 is provided in Excel format.

  20. Geologic map of the Cucamonga Peak 7.5' quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, D.M.; Matti, J.C.; Digital preparation by Koukladas, Catherine; Cossette, P.M.

    2001-01-01

    a. This Readme; includes in Appendix I, data contained in fif_met.txt b. The same graphic as plotted in 2 above. (Test plots have not produced 1:24,000-scale map sheets. Adobe Acrobat pagesize setting influences map scale.) The Correlation of Map Units and Description of Map Units is in the editorial format of USGS Miscellaneous Investigations Series (I-series) maps but has not been edited to comply with I-map standards. Within the geologic map data package, map units are identified by standard geologic map criteria such as formation-name, age, and lithology. Even though this is an author-prepared report, every attempt has been made to closely adhere to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U. S. Geological Survey. Descriptions of units can be obtained by viewing or plotting the .pdf file (3b above) or plotting the postscript file (2 above). If roads in some areas, especially forest roads that parallel topographic contours, do not show well on plots of the geologic map, we recommend use of the USGS Cucamonga Peak 7.5’ topographic quadrangle in conjunction with the geologic map.

  1. Visual reinforcement audiometry: an Adobe Flash based approach.

    PubMed

    Atherton, Steve

    2010-09-01

    Visual Reinforcement Audiometry (VRA) is a key behavioural test for young children. It is central to the diagnosis of hearing-impaired infants (1) . Habituation to the visual reinforcement can give misleading results. Medical Illustration ABM University Health Board has designed a collection of Flash animations to overcome this.

  2. Quantitative measurement of holographic image quality using Adobe Photoshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesly, E.

    2013-02-01

    Measurement of the characteristics of image holograms in regards to diffraction efficiency and signal to noise ratio are demonstrated, using readily available digital cameras and image editing software. Illustrations and case studies, using currently available holographic recording materials, are presented.

  3. Plant Formate Dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    John Markwell

    2005-01-10

    The research in this study identified formate dehydrogenase, an enzyme that plays a metabolic role on the periphery of one-carbon metabolism, has an unusual localization in Arabidopsis thaliana and that the enzyme has an unusual kinetic plasticity. These properties make it possible that this enzyme could be engineered to attempt to engineer plants with an improved photosynthetic efficiency. We have produced transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants with increased expression of the formate dehydrogenase enzyme to initiate further studies.

  4. Display formats manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runnels, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    The standards and procedures for the generation of operational display formats to be used in the Mission Control Center (MCC) display control system are presented. The required effort, forms, and fundamentals for the design, specifications, and production of display formats are identified. The principles of display design and system constraints controlling the creation of optimum operational displays for mission control are explained. The basic two types of MCC display systems for presenting information are described.

  5. Autonomous Formation Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schkolnik, Gerard S.; Cobleigh, Brent

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Strategic Plan for the Aerospace Technology Enterprise includes ambitious objectives focused on affordable air travel, reduced emissions, and expanded aviation-system capacity. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, in cooperation with NASA Ames Research Center, the Boeing Company, and the University of California, Los Angeles, has embarked on an autonomous-formation-flight project that promises to make significant strides towards these goals. For millions of years, birds have taken advantage of the aerodynamic benefit of flying in formation. The traditional "V" formation flown by many species of birds (including gulls, pelicans, and geese) enables each of the trailing birds to fly in the upwash flow field that exists just outboard of the bird immediately ahead in the formation. The result for each trailing bird is a decrease in induced drag and thus a reduction in the energy needed to maintain a given speed. Hence, for migratory birds, formation flight extends the range of the system of birds over the range of birds flying solo. The Autonomous Formation Flight (AFF) Project is seeking to extend this symbiotic relationship to aircraft.

  6. Positronium Formation in Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, D. R.

    1970-01-01

    Positronium formation in muscle at +4°C and -4°C was examined by the measurement of the angular correlation of positron annihilation radiation. Since the positronium formation rate in ice is considerably higher than it is in water, there should be a comparable increase in the positronium formation rate in muscle tissue if recent speculation that cellular water is ordered in a semicrystalline icelike state is correct. Comparison of the angular correlation from muscle at +4°C with that from water at +4°C shows no enhancement of the positronium formation rate. Frozen muscle at -4°C shows an enhancement of the positronium formation rate of approximately half that found in ice at -4°C, indicating that most cellular water undergoes a normal water-ice transition when frozen. It is concluded therefore that cell water in muscle is not ordered in a hexagonal icelike structure. While the results are consistent with the hypothesis that cell water is in the liquid state, the hypothesis that cell water is ordered in an undetermined close packed structure which transforms to the hexagonal ice structure at or near 0°C cannot be ruled out. PMID:5436881

  7. Planet Formation and Habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    alibert, yann

    2016-04-01

    Extrasolar planetary systems show an extreme diversity in mass and orbital architecture, and, very likely, in habitability. Explaining this diversity is one of the key challenges for theoretical models and requires understanding the formation, composition and evolution of planetary systems from the stage of the protoplanetary disk up to the full mature planetary system. I will review in this contribution the different models of planet formation and how they can be related to planetary habitability. In a first part, I will review the main planetary system formation models, and how, from these models, the composition of planets can be predicted. In a second part, I will link the results of these early phases of planetary systems, to the potential planetary habitability. Finally, I will show how it is possible, from transit observations, to put constraints on the water content of extrasolar planets.

  8. Gaussian entanglement of formation

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, M.M.; Giedke, G.; Krueger, O.; Werner, R. F.; Cirac, J.I.

    2004-05-01

    We introduce a Gaussian version of the entanglement of formation adapted to bipartite Gaussian states by considering decompositions into pure Gaussian states only. We show that this quantity is an entanglement monotone under Gaussian operations and provide a simplified computation for states of arbitrary many modes. For the case of one mode per site the remaining variational problem can be solved analytically. If the considered state is in addition symmetric with respect to interchanging the two modes, we prove additivity of the considered entanglement measure. Moreover, in this case and considering only a single copy, our entanglement measure coincides with the true entanglement of formation.

  9. Isolating Triggered Star Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, Elizabeth J.; Arnold, Jacob A.; Zentner, Andrew R.; Bullock, James S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2007-09-12

    Galaxy pairs provide a potentially powerful means of studying triggered star formation from galaxy interactions. We use a large cosmological N-body simulation coupled with a well-tested semi-analytic substructure model to demonstrate that the majority of galaxies in close pairs reside within cluster or group-size halos and therefore represent a biased population, poorly suited for direct comparison to 'field' galaxies. Thus, the frequent observation that some types of galaxies in pairs have redder colors than 'field' galaxies is primarily a selection effect. We use our simulations to devise a means to select galaxy pairs that are isolated in their dark matter halos with respect to other massive subhalos (N= 2 halos) and to select a control sample of isolated galaxies (N= 1 halos) for comparison. We then apply these selection criteria to a volume-limited subset of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey with M{sub B,j} {le} -19 and obtain the first clean measure of the typical fraction of galaxies affected by triggered star formation and the average elevation in the star formation rate. We find that 24% (30.5 %) of these L* and sub-L* galaxies in isolated 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc pairs exhibit star formation that is boosted by a factor of {approx}> 5 above their average past value, while only 10% of isolated galaxies in the control sample show this level of enhancement. Thus, 14% (20 %) of the galaxies in these close pairs show clear triggered star formation. Our orbit models suggest that 12% (16%) of 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc close pairs that are isolated according to our definition have had a close ({le} 30 h{sup -1} kpc) pass within the last Gyr. Thus, the data are broadly consistent with a scenario in which most or all close passes of isolated pairs result in triggered star formation. The isolation criteria we develop provide a means to constrain star formation and feedback prescriptions in hydrodynamic simulations and a very general method of understanding the importance of

  10. Technobabble: File Formats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Bradley

    1999-01-01

    Considers the confusion of over 20 different kinds of graphics programs. Briefly distinguishes between some of the more popular graphics formats (Photoshop, TIFF, JPEG, GIF, PICT, and EPS), and describes the benefits and disadvantages of each in the context of journalism education. (SC)

  11. Formation of planetesimals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weidenschilling, Stuart J.

    1991-01-01

    Formation of planetesimals is discussed. The following subject areas are covered: (1) nebular structure; (2) aerodynamics of the solid bodies in the nebula; (3) problems with gravitational instability; (4) particle growth by coagulation; properties of fractal aggregates; and (5) coagulation and settling of fractal aggregates.

  12. Carrascolendas: A Formative Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laosa, Luis M.

    A formative research project sought to test viewer reactions to two pilot programs of the Carrascolendas series. A total of 360 Puerto Rican-American, Cuban-American, Mexican-American, and Anglo-American children in grades 1, 2, and 3 were observed as they watched the programs. Results indicated that there was high eye contact during the…

  13. Formation of Freirian Facilitators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Phyllis

    This paper is written for people who are already familiar with the philosophy and methodology of Paulo Freire's liberatory education and are interested in creating a formation program for adult education facilitators using his ideas. The author describes the paper as "a collection of thoughts, of things to consider," when organizing such a…

  14. Formation in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennon, Fred; Jacobsen, Douglas; Jacobsen, Rhonda Hustedt; Thatamanil, John J.; Porterfield, Amanda; Moore, Mary Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    What is the relationship between the academic knowledge of the guild and the formation of students in the classroom? This Forum gathers four essays originally presented at a Special Topics Session at the 2009 conference of the American Academy of Religion (Atlanta, Georgia), with a brief introductory essay by Fred Glennon explaining the genesis of…

  15. Concept Formation and Abstraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunzer, Eric A.

    1979-01-01

    This paper examines the nature of concepts and conceptual processes and the manner of their formation. It argues that a process of successive abstraction and systematization is central to the evolution of conceptual structures. Classificatory processes are discussed and three levels of abstraction outlined. (Author/SJL)

  16. Common file formats.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Shonda A; Littlejohn, Timothy G; Baxevanis, Andreas D

    2007-01-01

    This appendix discusses a few of the file formats frequently encountered in bioinformatics. Specifically, it reviews the rules for generating FASTA files and provides guidance for interpreting NCBI descriptor lines, commonly found in FASTA files. In addition, it reviews the construction of GenBank, Phylip, MSF and Nexus files. PMID:18428774

  17. Kepler Planet Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    2015-01-01

    Kepler has vastly increased our knowledge of planets and planetary systems located close to stars. The new data shows surprising results for planetary abundances, planetary spacings and the distribution of planets on a mass-radius diagram. The implications of these results for theories of planet formation will be discussed.

  18. Generic file format

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felgate, Nick

    2002-11-01

    The Generic File Format (GFF) is a file format developed within the UK ASW community for the interchange and storage of underwater sonar data. Originally developed for the interchange of time-series data between analysis systems, it has been extended to provide for storage of processed acoustic data (e.g., power and DEMON spectrum, lofargram grey-scale), nonacoustic data (e.g., own-ship dynamics, sensor configuration) and event data (e.g., tracker output, sonar intercepts). The format employs the chunk concept, as used in the WAV and AIFF file formats, to provide extendability (including local variants) while providing a measure of backward compatability. However, the basic concept has been adapted to allow for the mixing in the one file of multiple channels of different sample-rates and data-types through the inclusion of a data frame concept and multiple data blocks. Chunk cross-referencing has been employed to ensure data consistency. A provision is made in the header of the file to store details of the sensor and processing for the data (e.g., the number of hydrophones, beam direction, FFT size) so that an analysis system does not need to know about the sensor or other system from which the data originated.

  19. The Formation of Trihalomethanes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trussell, R. Rhodes; Umphres, Mark D.

    1978-01-01

    Reviewed are a number of factors important in the formation of trihalomethanes (THM) including the nature of aquatic humus and the influences of preozonation, bromide, pH, and chlorine. A brief investigation is also conducted into the kinetics of the THM reaction. Several major research needs are represented. (CS)

  20. Pattern formation today

    PubMed Central

    Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Richardson, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    Patterns are orders embedded in randomness. They may appear as spatial arrangements or temporal series, and the elements may appear identical or with variations. Patterns exist in the physical world as well as in living systems. In the biological world, patterns can range from simple to complex, forming the basic building blocks of life. The process which generates this ordering in the biological world was termed pattern formation. Since Wolpert promoted this concept four decades ago, scientists from molecular biology, developmental biology, stem cell biology, tissue engineering, theoretical modeling and other disciplines have made remarkable progress towards understanding its mechanisms. It is time to review and re-integrate our understanding. Here, we explore the origin of pattern formation, how the genetic code is translated into biological form, and how complex phenotypes are selected over evolutionary time. We present four topics: Principles, Evolution, Development, and Stem Cells and Regeneration. We have interviewed several leaders in the field to gain insight into how their research and the field of pattern formation have shaped each other. We have learned that both molecular process and physico-chemical principles are important for biological pattern formation. New understanding will emerge through integration of the analytical approach of molecular-genetic manipulation and the systemic approach of model simulation. We regret that we could not include every major investigator in the field, but hope that this Special Issue of the Int. J. Dev. Biol. represents a sample of our knowledge of pattern formation today, which will help to stimulate more research on this fundamental process. PMID:19557673

  1. Mosaic of Digital Raster Soviet Topographic Maps of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chirico, Peter G.; Warner, Michael B.

    2005-01-01

    EXPLANATION The data contained in this publication include scanned, geographically referenced digital raster graphics (DRGs) of Soviet 1:200,000 - scale topographic map quadrangles. The original Afghanistan topographic map series at 1:200,000 scale, for the entire country, was published by the Soviet military between 1985 and 1991(MTDGS, 85-91). Hard copies of these original paper maps were scanned using a large format scanner, reprojected into Geographic Coordinate System (GCS) coordinates, and then clipped to remove the map collars to create a seamless, topographic map base for the entire country. An index of all available topographic map sheets is displayed here: Index_Geo_DD.pdf. This publication also includes the originial topographic map quadrangles projected in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection. The country of Afghanistan spans three UTM Zones: Zone 41, Zone 42, and Zone 43. Maps are stored as GeoTIFFs in their respective UTM zone projection. Indexes of all available topographic map sheets in their respective UTM zone are displayed here: Index_UTM_Z41.pdf, Index_UTM_Z42.pdf, Index_UTM_Z43.pdf. An Adobe Acrobat PDF file of the U.S. Department of the Army's Technical Manual 30-548, is available (U.S. Army, 1958). This document has been translated into English for assistance in reading Soviet topographic map symbols.

  2. Energy map of southwestern Wyoming, Part A - Coal and wind

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biewick, Laura R.H.; Jones, Nicholas R.

    2012-01-01

    To further advance the objectives of the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI) the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Wyoming State Geological Survey (WSGS) have compiled Part A of the Energy Map of Southwestern Wyoming. Focusing primarily on electrical power sources, Part A of the energy map is a compilation of both published and previously unpublished coal (including coalbed gas) and wind energy resources data, presented in a Geographic Information System (GIS) data package. Energy maps, data, documentation and spatial data processing capabilities are available in a geodatabase, published map file (pmf), ArcMap document (mxd), Adobe Acrobat PDF map (plate 1) and other digital formats that can be downloaded at the USGS website. Accompanying the map (plate 1) and the geospatial data are four additional plates that describe the geology, energy resources, and related infrastructure. These tabular plates include coal mine (plate 2), coal field (plate 3), coalbed gas assessment unit (plate 4), and wind farm (plate 5) information with hyperlinks to source publications and data on the internet. The plates can be printed and examined in hardcopy, or accessed digitally. The data represent decades of research by the USGS, WSGS, BLM and others, and can facilitate landscape-level science assessments, and resource management decisionmaking.

  3. Lab Manual & Resources for Materials Science, Engineering and Technology on CD-Rom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, James A.; McKenney, Alfred E.

    2001-01-01

    The National Educators' Workshop (NEW:Update) series of workshops has been in existence since 1986. These annual workshops focus on technical updates and laboratory experiments for materials science, engineering and technology, involving new and traditional content in the field. Scores of educators and industrial and national laboratory personnel have contributed many useful experiments and demonstrations which were then published as NASA Conference Proceedings. This "out poring of riches" creates an ever-expanding shelf of valuable teaching tools for college, university, community college and advanced high school instruction. Now, more than 400 experiments and demonstrations, representing the first thirteen years of NEW:Updates have been selected and published on a CD-ROM, through the collaboration of this national network of materials educators, engineers, and scientists. The CD-ROM examined in this document utilizes the popular Adobe Acrobat Reader format and operates on most popular computer platforms. This presentation provides an overview of the second edition of Experiments in Materials Science, Engineering and Technology (EMSET2) CD-ROM, ISBN 0-13-030534-0.

  4. Using the World Wide Web for GIDEP Problem Data Processing at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPherson, John W.; Haraway, Sandra W.; Whirley, J. Don

    1999-01-01

    Since April 1997, Marshall Space Flight Center has been using electronic transfer and the web to support our processing of the Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP) and NASA ALERT information. Specific aspects include: (1) Extraction of ASCII text information from GIDEP for loading into Word documents for e-mail to ALERT actionees; (2) Downloading of GIDEP form image formats in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) for internal storage display on the MSFC ALERT web page; (3) Linkage of stored GRDEP problem forms with summary information for access from the MSFC ALERT Distribution Summary Chart or from an html table of released MSFC ALERTs (4) Archival of historic ALERTs for reference by GIDEP ID, MSFC ID, or MSFC release date; (5) On-line tracking of ALERT response status using a Microsoft Access database and the web (6) On-line response to ALERTs from MSFC actionees through interactive web forms. The technique, benefits, effort, coordination, and lessons learned for each aspect are covered herein.

  5. Medusae Fossae Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 10 April 2002) The Science This THEMIS visible image was acquired near 7o S, 172o W (188o E) and shows a remarkable martian geologic deposit known as the Medusae Fossae Formation. This Formation, seen here as the raised plateau in the upper two-thirds of the image, is a soft, easily eroded deposit that extends for nearly 1,000 km along the equator of Mars. In this region the deposit has been heavily eroded by the wind to produce a series of linear ridges called yardangs. These parallel ridges point in direction of the prevailing winds that carved them, and demonstrate the power of martian winds to sculpt the dry landscape of Mars. The Medusae Fossae Formation has been completely stripped from the surface in the lower third of the image, revealing a harder layer below that is more resistant to wind erosion. The easily eroded nature of the Medusae Fossae Formation suggests that it is composed of weakly cemented particles, and was most likely formed by the deposition of wind-blown dust or volcanic ash. Several ancient craters that were once completely buried by this deposit are being exposed, or exhumed, as the overlying Medusae Formation is removed. Very few impact craters are visible on this Formation, indicating that the surface seen today is relatively young, and that the processes of erosion are likely to be actively occurring. The Story Medusa of Greek mythology fame, the name-giver to this region, had snaky locks of hair that could turn a person to stone. Wild and unruly, this monster of the underworld could certainly wreak havoc on the world of the human imagination. As scary as she was, Medusa would have no advantage over the fierce, masterful winds blowing across Mars, which once carved the streaky, terrain at the top of this image. Wild and whipping, these winds have slowly eroded away the 'topsoil,' revealing ancient craters and other surface features they once covered. The loosely cemented particles of this 'topsoil' are likely made up of dust

  6. Cosmological structure formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, David N.

    1991-01-01

    A summary of the current forefront problem of physical cosmology, the formation of structures (galaxies, clusters, great walls, etc.) in the universe is presented. Solutions require two key ingredients: (1) matter; and (2) seeds. Regarding the matter, it now seems clear that both baryonic and non-baryonic matter are required. Whether the non-baryonic matter is hot or cold depends on the choice of seeds. Regarding the seeds, both density fluctuations and topological defects are discussed. The combination of isotropy of the microwave background and the recent observations indicating more power on large scales have severly constrained, if not eliminated, Gaussian fluctuations with equal power on all scales, regardless of the eventual resolution of both the matter and seed questions. It is important to note that all current structure formation ideas require new physics beyond SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1).

  7. Emptiness Formation Probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Nicholas; Ng, Stephen; Starr, Shannon

    2016-08-01

    We present rigorous upper and lower bounds on the emptiness formation probability for the ground state of a spin-1/2 Heisenberg XXZ quantum spin system. For a d-dimensional system we find a rate of decay of the order {exp(-c L^{d+1})} where L is the sidelength of the box in which we ask for the emptiness formation event to occur. In the {d=1} case this confirms previous predictions made in the integrable systems community, though our bounds do not achieve the precision predicted by Bethe ansatz calculations. On the other hand, our bounds in the case {d ≥ 2} are new. The main tools we use are reflection positivity and a rigorous path integral expansion, which is a variation on those previously introduced by Toth, Aizenman-Nachtergaele and Ueltschi.

  8. Tetrahedron Formation Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petruzzo, Charles; Guzman, Jose

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers the preliminary development of a general optimization procedure for tetrahedron formation control. The maneuvers are assumed to be impulsive and a multi-stage optimization method is employed. The stages include (1) targeting to a fixed tetrahedron location and orientation, and (2) rotating and translating the tetrahedron. The number of impulsive maneuvers can also be varied. As the impulse locations and times change, new arcs are computed using a differential corrections scheme that varies the impulse magnitudes and directions. The result is a continuous trajectory with velocity discontinuities. The velocity discontinuities are then used to formulate the cost function. Direct optimization techniques are employed. The procedure is applied to the NASA Goddard Magnetospheric Multi-Scale (MMS) mission to compute preliminary formation control fuel requirements.

  9. Prominence Formation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsch, B. T.; DeVore, C. R.; Antiochos, S. K.

    2005-01-01

    Martens and Zwaan (ApJ v. 558 872) have proposed a prominence/ filament formation model in which differential rotation drives reconnection between two initially unconnected active regions to form helical field lines that support mass and are held down by overlying field. Using an MHD solver with adaptive refinement we simulated this process by imposing a shear flow meant to mimic differential rotation on two bipolar flux distributions meant to mimic distinct active regions. In some runs the flux systems are initially potential while in others they have been twisted by footpoint rotation to inject helicity prior to imposing the shear flow. The resulting structures are studied to understand the role of helicity in the formation of prominence-like structures.

  10. Formation of bacterial nanocells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vainshtein, Mikhail; Kudryashova, Ekaterina; Suzina, Natalia; Ariskina, Elena; Voronkov, Vadim

    1998-07-01

    Existence of nanobacteria received increasing attention both in environmental microbiology/geomicro-biology and in medical microbiology. In order to study a production of nanoforms by typical bacterial cells. Effects of different physical factors were investigated. Treatment of bacterial cultures with microwave radiation, or culturing in field of electric current resulted in formation a few types of nanocells. The number and type of nanoforms were determined with type and dose of the treatment. The produced nanoforms were: i) globules, ii) clusters of the globules--probably produced by liaison, iii) nanocells coated with membrane. The viability of the globules is an object opened for doubts. The nanocells discovered multiplication and growth on solidified nutrient media. The authors suggest that formation of nanocells is a common response of bacteria to stress-actions produced by different agents.

  11. Galaxy Formation and Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagamine, Kentaro; Reddy, Naveen; Daddi, Emanuele; Sargent, Mark T.

    2016-07-01

    In this chapter, we discuss the current status of observational and computational studies on galaxy formation and evolution. In particular, a joint analysis of star-formation rates (SFRs), stellar masses, and metallicities of galaxies throughout cosmic time can shed light on the processes by which galaxies build up their stellar mass and enrich the environment with heavy elements. Comparison of such observations and the results of numerical simulations can give us insights on the physical importance of various feedback effects by supernovae and active galactic nuclei. In Sect. 1, we first discuss the primary methods used to deduce the SFRs, stellar masses, and (primarily) gas-phase metallicities in high-redshift galaxies. Then, we show how these quantities are related to each other and evolve with time. In Sect. 2, we further examine the distribution of SFRs in galaxies following the `Main Sequence' paradigm. We show how the so-called `starbursts' display higher specific SFRs and SF efficiencies by an order of magnitude. We use this to devise a simple description of the evolution of the star-forming galaxy population since z ˜3 that can successfully reproduce some of the observed statistics in the infrared (IR) wavelength. We also discuss the properties of molecular gas. In Sect. 3, we highlight some of the recent studies of high-redshift galaxy formation using cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. We discuss the physical properties of simulated galaxies such as luminosity function and escape fraction of ionizing photons, which are important statistics for reionization of the Universe. In particular the escape fraction of ionizing photons has large uncertainties, and studying gamma-ray bursts (which is the main topic of this conference) can also set observational constraints on this uncertain physical parameter as well as cosmic star formation rate density.

  12. Simulations of antihydrogen formation

    SciTech Connect

    Robicheaux, F.

    2004-08-01

    The results of simulations of antihydrogen formation in a Penning trap are reported. The antihydrogen atoms are formed by three-body capture. We find that the arrested nature of the three-body capture in the trap greatly reduces the expected binding energy of the antihydrogen. Typically, the formed antihydrogen has larger velocity along the magnetic field than across the field and a binding energy below k{sub B}T.

  13. Formate-assisted pyrolysis

    DOEpatents

    DeSisto, William Joseph; Wheeler, Marshall Clayton; van Heiningen, Adriaan R. P.

    2015-03-17

    The present invention provides, among other thing, methods for creating significantly deoxygenated bio-oils form biomass including the steps of providing a feedstock, associating the feedstock with an alkali formate to form a treated feedstock, dewatering the treated feedstock, heating the dewatered treated feedstock to form a vapor product, and condensing the vapor product to form a pyrolysis oil, wherein the pyrolysis oil contains less than 30% oxygen by weight.

  14. Mesospheric cloud formations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    Formation of mesospheric clouds as a result of deposition of large amounts of H2O by the heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) of the solar power satellite system is discussed. The conditions which must be met in order to form and maintain clouds near the mesopause are described. The frequency and magnitude of H2O injections from the HLLV rocket exhaust are considered.

  15. Hail Formation in Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, Matthew

    Hail poses a substantial threat to life and property in the state of Florida. These losses could be minimized through better understanding of the relationships between atmospheric variables that impact hail formation in Florida. Improving hail forecasting in Florida requires analyzing a number of meteorological parameters and synoptic data related to hail formation. NOAA archive data was retrieved to create a database that was used to categorize text files of hail days. The text files were entered into the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Earth System Research Laboratory website to create National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research Reanalysis maps of atmospheric variables for Florida hail days as well as days leading to the hail event. These data were then analyzed to determine the relationship between variables that affect hail formation, in general, across different regions and seasons in Florida using Statistical Product and Service Solutions. The reasoning for the differing factors affecting hail formation between regions, seasons and hail sizes were discussed, as well as forecasting suggestions relating to region and month in Florida. The study found that the majority of all hail that occurs in Florida is during the wet season. A low Lifted Index, high Precipitable Water and lower than average Sea Level Pressure, in most cases, is present during hail days in Florida. Furthermore, results show that Vector Wind magnitude increases as hail size increases. Additionally, several atmospheric variables useful to studying hail events, such as Lifted Index, Precipitable Water, Sea Level Pressure, Vector Wind and Temperature have significant correlations with each other depending on the region and season being observed. Strong correlations between low Lifted Index, high Precipitable Water values and the occurrence of hail events are discussed, as well as the relationship between temperature anomalies at various

  16. Tetrahedron Formation Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guzman, Jose J.

    2003-01-01

    Spacecraft flying in tetrahedron formations are excellent instrument platforms for electromagnetic and plasma studies. A minimum of four spacecraft - to establish a volume - is required to study some of the key regions of a planetary magnetic field. The usefulness of the measurements recorded is strongly affected by the tetrahedron orbital evolution. This paper considers the preliminary development of a general optimization procedure for tetrahedron formation control. The maneuvers are assumed to be impulsive and a multi-stage optimization method is employed. The stages include targeting to a fixed tetrahedron orientation, rotating and translating the tetrahedron and/or varying the initial and final times. The number of impulsive maneuvers citn also be varied. As the impulse locations and times change, new arcs are computed using a differential corrections scheme that varies the impulse magnitudes and directions. The result is a continuous trajectory with velocity discontinuities. The velocity discontinuities are then used to formulate the cost function. Direct optimization techniques are employed. The procedure is applied to the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) to compute preliminary formation control fuel requirements.

  17. Terrestrial planet formation.

    PubMed

    Righter, K; O'Brien, D P

    2011-11-29

    Advances in our understanding of terrestrial planet formation have come from a multidisciplinary approach. Studies of the ages and compositions of primitive meteorites with compositions similar to the Sun have helped to constrain the nature of the building blocks of planets. This information helps to guide numerical models for the three stages of planet formation from dust to planetesimals (~10(6) y), followed by planetesimals to embryos (lunar to Mars-sized objects; few 10(6) y), and finally embryos to planets (10(7)-10(8) y). Defining the role of turbulence in the early nebula is a key to understanding the growth of solids larger than meter size. The initiation of runaway growth of embryos from planetesimals ultimately leads to the growth of large terrestrial planets via large impacts. Dynamical models can produce inner Solar System configurations that closely resemble our Solar System, especially when the orbital effects of large planets (Jupiter and Saturn) and damping mechanisms, such as gas drag, are included. Experimental studies of terrestrial planet interiors provide additional constraints on the conditions of differentiation and, therefore, origin. A more complete understanding of terrestrial planet formation might be possible via a combination of chemical and physical modeling, as well as obtaining samples and new geophysical data from other planets (Venus, Mars, or Mercury) and asteroids.

  18. Terrestrial planet formation.

    PubMed

    Righter, K; O'Brien, D P

    2011-11-29

    Advances in our understanding of terrestrial planet formation have come from a multidisciplinary approach. Studies of the ages and compositions of primitive meteorites with compositions similar to the Sun have helped to constrain the nature of the building blocks of planets. This information helps to guide numerical models for the three stages of planet formation from dust to planetesimals (~10(6) y), followed by planetesimals to embryos (lunar to Mars-sized objects; few 10(6) y), and finally embryos to planets (10(7)-10(8) y). Defining the role of turbulence in the early nebula is a key to understanding the growth of solids larger than meter size. The initiation of runaway growth of embryos from planetesimals ultimately leads to the growth of large terrestrial planets via large impacts. Dynamical models can produce inner Solar System configurations that closely resemble our Solar System, especially when the orbital effects of large planets (Jupiter and Saturn) and damping mechanisms, such as gas drag, are included. Experimental studies of terrestrial planet interiors provide additional constraints on the conditions of differentiation and, therefore, origin. A more complete understanding of terrestrial planet formation might be possible via a combination of chemical and physical modeling, as well as obtaining samples and new geophysical data from other planets (Venus, Mars, or Mercury) and asteroids. PMID:21709256

  19. Mars brine formation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.; Bullock, Mark A.; Stoker, Carol R.

    1993-09-01

    Evaporites, particularly carbonates, nitrates, and sulfates, may be major sinks of volatiles scavenged from the martian atmosphere. Mars is thought to have once had a denser, warmer atmosphere that permitted the presence of liquid surface water. The conversion of atmospheric CO2 into carbonate is hypothesized to have degraded the martian climate to its present state of a generally subfreezing, desiccated desert. The rate for such a conversion under martian conditions is poorly known, so the time scale of climate degradation by this process cannot be easily evaluated. If some models are correct, carbonate formation may have been fast at geological time scales. The experiments of Booth and Kieffer also imply fast (106 - 107 yr) removal of the missing CO2 inventory, estimated to be 1 - 5 bar, by means of carbonate formation. The timing of formation of many of the fluvial features observed on Mars is, in large part, dependent on when and how fast the atmosphere changed. A knowledge of the rate at which carbonates and nitrates formed is also essential for assessing the probability that life, or its chemical precursors, could have developed on Mars. No previous experiments have quantitatively evaluated the rate of solution for a suite of mobile anions and cations from unaltered minerals and atmospheric gases into liquid water under Mars-like conditions. Such experiments are the focus of this task.

  20. Terrestrial planet formation

    PubMed Central

    Righter, K.; O’Brien, D. P.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in our understanding of terrestrial planet formation have come from a multidisciplinary approach. Studies of the ages and compositions of primitive meteorites with compositions similar to the Sun have helped to constrain the nature of the building blocks of planets. This information helps to guide numerical models for the three stages of planet formation from dust to planetesimals (∼106 y), followed by planetesimals to embryos (lunar to Mars-sized objects; few × 106 y), and finally embryos to planets (107–108 y). Defining the role of turbulence in the early nebula is a key to understanding the growth of solids larger than meter size. The initiation of runaway growth of embryos from planetesimals ultimately leads to the growth of large terrestrial planets via large impacts. Dynamical models can produce inner Solar System configurations that closely resemble our Solar System, especially when the orbital effects of large planets (Jupiter and Saturn) and damping mechanisms, such as gas drag, are included. Experimental studies of terrestrial planet interiors provide additional constraints on the conditions of differentiation and, therefore, origin. A more complete understanding of terrestrial planet formation might be possible via a combination of chemical and physical modeling, as well as obtaining samples and new geophysical data from other planets (Venus, Mars, or Mercury) and asteroids. PMID:21709256

  1. Model of kimberlite formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrovitsky, Sergey; Fiveyskaya, Lyudmila

    2013-04-01

    The critical goals in recognizing the nature of kimberlites are to find out: (1) the primary composition of melt of these rocks and (2) the principal processes of evolution of primary composition of kimberlites while ascending from mantle depth towards earth surface. Suppose, that the primary composition of kimberlite melt-fluid was in fact the composition of asthenosphere melt geochemically being close to alkaline-basalt (Hi-µ) saturated with high CO2. The genetic relation of kimberlites with basaltoids is indicated by a spatial and temporal affinity of their formation (Carlson et al, 2006; Lehmann et al, 2010; Tappe et al, 2012), similarity of the pattern of incompatible elements distribution, presence of megacryst minerals in alkaline basaltoids, Pyr-Alm garnet included, and finally, model calculation of parent melt composition for low-Cr megacryst minerals; it showed this composition to be typical for the alkaline basaltoid (Jones, 1980). At the asthenosphere level there was differentiation of basaltoid melt-fluid which was responsible for formation of its different parts with varying melt to fluid ratio and possibly varying content of alkalis (K2O). The outbreak of asthenosphere substance through lithosphere mantle proceeded by different scenarios: (a) With a noticeable dominance of fluid component kimberlites were formed by the capture and contamination of high-Mg, high-Cr rocks of lithosphere mantle that caused formation of high-Mg kimberlites. That corresponds to model of Russell (2012). (b) With a considerable proportion of melt phase depending on saturation in fluid there formed magnesium-ferriferous and ferriferous-titaniferous petrochemical types of kimberlites. There is no doubt that in formation of these kimberlite types the contamination of lithosphere material was the case, at the much lower level than in formation of high-Mg kimberlites. This model logically explains steady differences of petrochemistry of kimberlites making up clusters of

  2. Formation of giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magni, G.; Coradini, A.

    2003-04-01

    In this presentation we address the problem of the formation of giant planets and their regular satellites. We study in particular the problem of formation of the Jupiter System comparing the results of the model with the present characteristics of the system, in order to identify what are those better represented by our approach. In fact here, using a 3-D hydro-dynamical code, we study the modalities of gas accretion onto a solid core, believed to be the seed from which Jupiter started. To do that we have modelled three main regions: the central planet, a turbulent accretion disk surrounding it and an extended region from which the gas is collected. In the extended region we treat the gas as a frictionless fluid. Our main goal is to identify what are the characteristics of the planet during its growth and the physical parameters affecting its growth at the expenses of the nebular gas present in the feeding zone. Moreover we want to understand what are the thermodynamical parameters characterizing the gas captured by the planet and swirling around it. Finally, we check if a disk can be formed in prograde rotation around the planet and if this disk can survive the final phases of the planet formation. Due to the interaction between the accreting planet and the disk it has been necessary to develop a complete model of the Jupiter’s structure. In fact the radiation emitted by the growing planet heats up the surrounding gas. In turn the planet’s thermodynamic structure depend on the mass accretion rate onto it. When the accretion is rapid, shock waves in the gas are formed close to the planet. This region cannot be safely treated by a numerical code; for this reason we have developed a semi-analytically model of a a turbulent accretion disk to be considered as transition between the planet and the surrounding disk.

  3. What initiated planetesimal formation?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, J. N.; Dobrovolskis, A. R.; Hogan, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    The physical structure of primitive (chondritic) meteorites, even after some geological processing and modification, is thought by most to contain clues as to the first stage of accretion of solid matter into objects that might be called planetesimals. However, theoretical understanding of the processes responsible for this important stage is shaky. We note what we believe are fundamental obstacles for the Goldreich-Ward version of rapid and direct planetesimal formation via gravitational instability in a settled particle layer, and describe an alternative scenario which might lead from grainy nebula gas to primitive planetesimals in a way that has intriguing connections to the meteorite evidence.

  4. Modeling river delta formation.

    PubMed

    Seybold, Hansjörg; Andrade, José S; Herrmann, Hans J

    2007-10-23

    A model to simulate the time evolution of river delta formation process is presented. It is based on the continuity equation for water and sediment flow and a phenomenological sedimentation/erosion law. Different delta types are reproduced by using different parameters and erosion rules. The structures of the calculated patterns are analyzed in space and time and compared with real data patterns. Furthermore, our model is capable of simulating the rich dynamics related to the switching of the mouth of the river delta. The simulation results are then compared with geological records for the Mississippi River. PMID:17940031

  5. Ultrarelativistic black hole formation.

    PubMed

    East, William E; Pretorius, Frans

    2013-03-01

    We study the head-on collision of fluid particles well within the kinetic energy dominated regime (γ = 8 to 12) by numerically solving the Einstein-hydrodynamic equations. We find that the threshold for black hole formation is lower (by a factor of a few) than simple hoop conjecture estimates, and, moreover, near this threshold two distinct apparent horizons first form postcollision and then merge. We argue that this can be understood in terms of a gravitational focusing effect. The gravitational radiation reaches luminosities of 0.014 c(5)/G, carrying 16 ± 2% of the total energy.

  6. Adiabatic Halo Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Bazzani, A.; Turchetti, G.; Benedetti, C.; Rambaldi, S.; Servizi, G.

    2005-06-08

    In a high intensity circular accelerator the synchrotron dynamics introduces a slow modulation in the betatronic tune due to the space-charge tune depression. When the transverse motion is non-linear due to the presence of multipolar effects, resonance islands move in the phase space and change their amplitude. This effect introduces the trapping and detrapping phenomenon and a slow diffusion in the phase space. We apply the neo-adiabatic theory to describe this diffusion mechanism that can contribute to halo formation.

  7. Flexible formation configuration for terrain following flight: Formation keeping constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latyshev, Simon

    This work suggests a control method for the terrain-following formation motion of a group of communicating autonomous agents. The presented approach centers on defining a suitable set of constraints for formation keeping task that shall be fulfilled while agents are negotiating an unknown terrain toward the predefined goal location. It allows agents to maintain a general geometric formation shape, while allowing each individual formation member freedom of maneuver, required for terrain collision free motion. Formation structure is defined with the use of virtual leader. Formation keeping constraints are defined with plane surfaces, specified relative to position and navigation vector of the virtual leader. Formation navigation and guidance constraints are defined using navigation vectors of formation members and the virtual leader. Alternative designs for the constraints derived with parabolic, cone, and cylindrical surfaces are considered. Formation control is derived using the Udwadia-Kalaba equation, following corresponding approach to the development of control methods for constraint based dynamical systems, including leader-follower systems defined using geometric constraints. Approach to terrain following motion requiring agents to stay within bounds of cylindrical corridor volumes built around their respective navigation vectors is assumed. Individual formation primitives and multi-level, hierarchical, formation structures are considered. Simulations, based on three degrees of freedom nonlinear model of an agent, performed using Mathematica and specifically developed combined Maya-Mathematica modeling and simulation system, demonstrate that a flexible terrain following formation motion is achieved with the presented sets of constraints.

  8. Star Formation in Irregular Galaxies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Deidre; Wolff, Sidney

    1985-01-01

    Examines mechanisms of how stars are formed in irregular galaxies. Formation in giant irregular galaxies, formation in dwarf irregular galaxies, and comparisons with larger star-forming regions found in spiral galaxies are considered separately. (JN)

  9. Standard exercise report format (SERF)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This talk summarizes the reasons for the development of draft SERF the Standard Exercise Report Format used for reporting the results of emergency preparedness exercises, and gives a summary of the format and rational behind it.

  10. Formats for Presenting Procedural Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaiwes, Arthur S.

    1974-01-01

    Thirty male college students performed a mock communication controller's task under three different instructional formats, short sentences, logical tree, and coding. It was concluded that format variations mainly influence the more difficult tasks. (Author/DE)

  11. Tooth formation - delayed or absent

    MedlinePlus

    Delayed or absent tooth formation; Teeth - delayed or absent formation ... The age at which a tooth comes in varies. Most infants get their first tooth between 6 and 9 months, but it may be earlier or later. ...

  12. Fullerene formation and annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Mintmire, J.W.

    1996-04-05

    Why does the highly symmetric carbon cluster C{sub 60} form in such profusion under the right conditions? This question was first asked in 1985, when Kroto suggested that the predominance of the C{sub 60} carbon clusters observed in the molecular beam experiments could be explained by the truncated icosahedral (or soccer ball) form. The name given to this cluster, buckminsterfullerene, led to the use of the term fullerenes for the family of hollow-cage carbon clusters made up of even numbers of triply coordinated carbons arranged with 12 pentagonal rings and an almost arbitrary number of hexagonal rings. More than a decade later, we still lack a completely satisfying understanding of the fundamental chemistry that takes place during fullerene formation. Most current models for fullerene formation require a facile mechanism for ring rearrangement in the fullerene structure, but the simplest proposed mechanisms are believed to have unrealistically high activation barriers. In recent research calculations have suggested that atomic carbon in the reaction mixture could act as a catalyst and allow substantially lower activation barriers for fullerene annealing. This article discusses the background for this research and other adjunct research. 14 refs.

  13. Bubble formation in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antar, Basil N.

    1994-01-01

    Two KC-135 flight campaigns have been conducted to date which are specifically dedicated to study bubble formation in microgravity. The first flight was conducted during March 14-18, 1994, and the other during June 20-24, 1994. The results from the June 1994 flight have not been analyzed yet, while the results from the March flight have been partially analyzed. In the first flight three different experiments were performed, one with the specific aim at determining whether or not cavitation can take place during any of the fluid handling procedures adopted in the shuttle bioprocessing experiments. The other experiments were concerned with duplicating some of the procedures that resulted in bubble formation, namely the NCS filling procedure and the needle scratch of a solid surface. The results from this set of experiments suggest that cavitation did not take place during any of the fluid handling procedures. The results clearly indicate that almost all were generated as a result of the breakup of the gas/liquid interface. This was convincingly demonstrated in the scratch tests as well as in the liquid fill tests.

  14. Method for measuring pollutant formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Annen, Kurt (Inventor); Stickler, David B. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Diagnostic methods for determining an instantaneous rate of pollutant formation in a combustion system are based on measurement of chemiluminescence intensity generated simultaneously with the formation of the pollutant. The chemiluminescent signal is generated by an analog reaction which occurs in parallel with a key step in the formation of a specific pollutant of interest. The connection between the analog reaction and the pollution reaction is such that the chemiluminescent signal indicates the local, instantaneous formation rate of the pollutant of interest.

  15. Formative Assessment: Simply, No Additives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roskos, Kathleen; Neuman, Susan B.

    2012-01-01

    Among the types of assessment the closest to daily reading instruction is formative assessment. In contrast to summative assessment, which occurs after instruction, formative assessment involves forming judgments frequently in the flow of instruction. Key features of formative assessment include identifying gaps between where students are and…

  16. Stratabound copper-silver deposits of the Mesoproterozoic Revett formation, Montana and Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boleneus, David E.; Appelgate, Larry M.; Stewart, John H.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2005-01-01

    deposits. In particular, the gradational zone between the chalcopyrite-ankerite and pyrite-calcite zones is the site of most mineral deposits. Detailed information on the geology and mineral deposits of the Revett Formation is presented in the accompanying files that include (1) a tab-delimited text file providing details of the geologic and mineral-resource data for 57 Revett-subtype stratabound copper-silver deposits, occurrences, and prospects; (2) the stratigraphic records of 40 diamond-drill cores and 86 measured sections, totaling 150,752 ft of true thickness, which are provided in Excel spreadsheet and Adobe Portable Document Format files; and (3) spatial geologic data consisting of geologic maps of the Revett Formation, the subsurface locations of resources in Revett-subtype stratabound copper-silver deposits based on diamond-drill-core data, and the locations of diamond-drill holes and measured sections. The spatial data are contained in Arc/Info interchange files. Spatial information derived from these data includes the locations of mineral zones, a digital database showing untested exploration areas, and a digital database of permissive tracts for undiscovered mineral deposits.

  17. Statins and bone formation.

    PubMed

    Garrett, I R; Gutierrez, G; Mundy, G R

    2001-05-01

    The main therapy needed most in the bone field is an anabolic agent for the treatment of osteoporosis. Current drugs on the market, which included bisphosphonates, calcitonin, estrogen and related compounds, vitamin D analogues trabecular microarchitecture. Therefore, it would be desirable to have a satisfactory and universally and iprifalvone, are essentially bone resorption inhibitors that mainly act to stabilize bone mass. Patients with established osteoporosis have lost more than 50% of their bone mass at critical sites in the skeleton, and more over have marked disruption of acceptable drug that would stimulate new bone formation and correct this disturbance of trabecular microarchitecture characteristic of established osteoporosis. Recently inhibitors of the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase, which controls the first step in the biosynthesis of cholesterol, have been shown to stimulate bone formation in rodents both in vitro and in vivo. The effect is associated with an increased expression of the bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) gene in bone cells. These statins drugs are widely used agents for lowering cholesterol and reducing heart attacks, however they are also known to elicit numerous pleiotropic effects including inhibition of proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells, inhibition of tumor growth and anti-inflammatory activity. Some of these effects have been attributed to not only to the reduction of cholesterol synthesis by inhibition of the HMG-CoA reductase enzyme but also by the concurrent reduction in downstream metabolites of the mevalonate pathway such as mevalonate, farnesyl pyrophosphate and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate. The findings that statins are capable of increasing bone formation and bone mass in rodents suggests a potential new action for the statins, which may be beneficial in patients with established osteoporosis where marked bone loss has occurred. Recent clinical data suggests that they

  18. Physics of amniote formation.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Vincent; Murukutla, Ameya Vaishnavi; Chevalier, Nicolas R; Gallois, Benjamin; Capellazzi-Resta, Marina; Picquet, Pierre; Peaucelle, Alexis

    2016-08-01

    We present a detailed study of the formation of the amniotic sac in the avian embryo, and a comparison with the crocodile amniotic sac. We show that the amniotic sac forms at a circular line of stiffness contrast, separating rings of cell domains. Cells align at this boundary, and this in turn orients and concentrates the tension forces. The tissue fold which forms the amniotic sac is locked exactly along this line due to the colocalization of the stiffness contrast and of the tensile force. In addition, the tensile force plays a regenerative role when the amniotic sac is cut. The fold forming the ventral side of the embryo displays the same characteristics. This work shows that amniote embryogenesis consists of a cascade of buckling events taking place at the boundaries between regions of differing mechanical properties. Hence, amniote embryogenesis relies on a simple and robust biomechanical scheme used repeatedly, and selected ancestrally.

  19. Physics of amniote formation.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Vincent; Murukutla, Ameya Vaishnavi; Chevalier, Nicolas R; Gallois, Benjamin; Capellazzi-Resta, Marina; Picquet, Pierre; Peaucelle, Alexis

    2016-08-01

    We present a detailed study of the formation of the amniotic sac in the avian embryo, and a comparison with the crocodile amniotic sac. We show that the amniotic sac forms at a circular line of stiffness contrast, separating rings of cell domains. Cells align at this boundary, and this in turn orients and concentrates the tension forces. The tissue fold which forms the amniotic sac is locked exactly along this line due to the colocalization of the stiffness contrast and of the tensile force. In addition, the tensile force plays a regenerative role when the amniotic sac is cut. The fold forming the ventral side of the embryo displays the same characteristics. This work shows that amniote embryogenesis consists of a cascade of buckling events taking place at the boundaries between regions of differing mechanical properties. Hence, amniote embryogenesis relies on a simple and robust biomechanical scheme used repeatedly, and selected ancestrally. PMID:27627351

  20. Mechanism of GEMS formation

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, J P; Dai, Z R

    2004-03-10

    GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfides) in interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) were examined using 200 keV analytical transmission electron microscopy. The morphologies and crystallography of embedded relict grains reveal that GEMS are pseudomorphs formed by irradiation processing of crystals free-floating in space. Some GEMS retain a compositional and morphological ''memory'' of the crystal from which they formed. Pseudomorphism rules out condensation, annealing, flash heating, or shock melting as alternative mechanisms of GEMS formation. A significant and often dominant fraction of the atoms in GEMS were sputtered deposited from other grains. Therefore, a normal (solar) isotopic composition is not a reliable indicator of whether GEMS formed in the solar system or in presolar interstellar or circumstellar environments.

  1. Transitions in biofilm formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Vernita; Thatcher, Travis; Cooley, Benjamin

    2011-03-01

    Biofilms are multicellular, dynamic communities formed by interacting unicellular organisms bound to a surface. Forming a biofilm is a developmental process, characterized by sequential changes in gene expression and behavior as bacteria and yeast progress from discrete, free-swimming cells though stages that arrive at a mature biofilm. We are developing automated metrics to identify key transitions in early biofilm formation as cells attach to a surface, populate that surface, and adhere to each other to form early microcolonies. Our metrics use high-throughput tracking and analysis of microscopy movies to localize these transitions in space and time. Each of these transitions is associated with a loss of entropy in the bacterial system and, therefore, with biological activity that drives this loss of entropy. Better understanding of these transitions will allow automated determination of the strength and turn-on of attractive cell-surface and cell-cell interactions as biofilm development progresses.

  2. DUST FORMATION IN MACRONOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Takami, Hajime; Ioka, Kunihito; Nozawa, Takaya E-mail: kunihito.ioka@kek.jp

    2014-07-01

    We examine dust formation in macronovae (as known as kilonovae), which are the bright ejecta of neutron star binary mergers and one of the leading sites of r-process nucleosynthesis. In light of information about the first macronova candidate associated with GRB 130603B, we find that dust grains of r-process elements have difficulty forming because of the low number density of the r-process atoms, while carbon or elements lighter than iron can condense into dust if they are abundant. Dust grains absorb emission from ejecta with an opacity even greater than that of the r-process elements, and re-emit photons at infrared wavelengths. Such dust emission can potentially account for macronovae without r-process nucleosynthesis as an alternative model. This dust scenario predicts a spectrum with fewer features than the r-process model and day-scale optical-to-ultraviolet emission.

  3. Group Formation in Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demange, Gabrielle; Wooders, Myrna

    2005-01-01

    Broad and diverse ranges of activities are conducted within and by organized groups of individuals, including political, economic and social activities. These activities have recently become a subject of intense interest in economics and game theory. Some of the topics investigated in this collection are models of networks of power and privilege, trade networks, co-authorship networks, buyer-seller networks with differentiated products, and networks of medical innovation and the adaptation of new information. Other topics are social norms on punctuality, clubs and the provision of club goods and public goods, research and development and collusive alliances among corporations, and international alliances and trading agreements. While relatively recent, the literature on game theoretic studies of group formation in economics is already vast. This volume provides an introduction to this important literature on game-theoretic treatments of situations with networks, clubs, and coalitions, including some applications.

  4. Physics of amniote formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Vincent; Murukutla, Ameya Vaishnavi; Chevalier, Nicolas R.; Gallois, Benjamin; Capellazzi-Resta, Marina; Picquet, Pierre; Peaucelle, Alexis

    2016-08-01

    We present a detailed study of the formation of the amniotic sac in the avian embryo, and a comparison with the crocodile amniotic sac. We show that the amniotic sac forms at a circular line of stiffness contrast, separating rings of cell domains. Cells align at this boundary, and this in turn orients and concentrates the tension forces. The tissue fold which forms the amniotic sac is locked exactly along this line due to the colocalization of the stiffness contrast and of the tensile force. In addition, the tensile force plays a regenerative role when the amniotic sac is cut. The fold forming the ventral side of the embryo displays the same characteristics. This work shows that amniote embryogenesis consists of a cascade of buckling events taking place at the boundaries between regions of differing mechanical properties. Hence, amniote embryogenesis relies on a simple and robust biomechanical scheme used repeatedly, and selected ancestrally.

  5. Biofilm formation by enterococci.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Jamal A; Huang, David B

    2007-12-01

    Enterococci are an important global cause of nosocomial infections, being increasingly associated with urinary tract infections, endocarditis, intra-abdominal and pelvic infections, catheter-related infections, surgical wound infections, and central nervous system infections. The two most common enterococci species are Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Both are capable of producing biofilms, which consist of a population of cells attached irreversibly on various biotic and abiotic surfaces, encased in a hydrated matrix of exopolymeric substances. Many environmental and genetic factors are associated or have been proposed to be associated with the production of biofilm. This review discusses recent advances in knowledge about the biology and genetics of biofilm formation and the role of biofilms in enterococci pathogenesis.

  6. Recipes for planet formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Michael R.

    2009-11-01

    Anyone who has ever used baking soda instead of baking powder when trying to make a cake knows a simple truth: ingredients matter. The same is true for planet formation. Planets are made from the materials that coalesce in a rotating disk around young stars - essentially the "leftovers" from when the stars themselves formed through the gravitational collapse of rotating clouds of gas and dust. The planet-making disk should therefore initially have the same gas-to-dust ratio as the interstellar medium: about 100 to 1, by mass. Similarly, it seems logical that the elemental composition of the disk should match that of the star, reflecting the initial conditions at that particular spot in the galaxy.

  7. Medusae Fossae Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 16 April 2002) The Science This THEMIS visible image was acquired near 11o N, 159o W (201o E) and shows examples of the remarkable variations that can be seen in the erosion of the Medusae Fossae Formation. This Formation is a soft, easily eroded deposit that extends for nearly 1,000 km along the equator of Mars. In this region, like many others throughout the Medusae Fossae Formation, the surface has been eroded by the wind into a series of linear ridges called yardangs. These ridges generally point in direction of the prevailing winds that carved them, and demonstrate the power of martian winds to erode the landscape of Mars. The easily eroded nature of the Medusae Fossae Formation suggests that it is composed of weakly cemented particles, and was most likely formed by the deposition of wind-blown dust or volcanic ash. Within this single image it is possible to see differing amounts of erosion and stripping of layers in the Medusae Fossae Formation. Near the bottom (southern) edge of the image a rock layer with a relatively smooth upper surface covers much of the image. Moving upwards (north) in the image this layer becomes more and more eroded. At first there are isolated regions where the smooth unit has been eroded to produce sets of parallel ridges and knobs. Further north these linear knobs increase in number, and only small, isolated patches of the smooth upper surface remain. Finally, at the top of the image, even the ridges have been removed, exposing the remarkably smooth top of hard, resistant layer below. This sequence of layers with differing hardness and resistance to erosion is common on Earth and on Mars, and suggests significant variations in the physical properties, composition, particle size, and/or cementation of these martian layers. As is common throughout the Medusae Fossae Formation, very few impact craters are visible, indicating that the surface exposed is relatively young, and that the process of erosion may be active today

  8. Medusae Fossae Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 16 April 2002) The Science This THEMIS visible image was acquired near 11o N, 159o W (201o E) and shows examples of the remarkable variations that can be seen in the erosion of the Medusae Fossae Formation. This Formation is a soft, easily eroded deposit that extends for nearly 1,000 km along the equator of Mars. In this region, like many others throughout the Medusae Fossae Formation, the surface has been eroded by the wind into a series of linear ridges called yardangs. These ridges generally point in direction of the prevailing winds that carved them, and demonstrate the power of martian winds to erode the landscape of Mars. The easily eroded nature of the Medusae Fossae Formation suggests that it is composed of weakly cemented particles, and was most likely formed by the deposition of wind-blown dust or volcanic ash. Within this single image it is possible to see differing amounts of erosion and stripping of layers in the Medusae Fossae Formation. Near the bottom (southern) edge of the image a rock layer with a relatively smooth upper surface covers much of the image. Moving upwards (north) in the image this layer becomes more and more eroded. At first there are isolated regions where the smooth unit has been eroded to produce sets of parallel ridges and knobs. Further north these linear knobs increase in number, and only small, isolated patches of the smooth upper surface remain. Finally, at the top of the image, even the ridges have been removed, exposing the remarkably smooth top of hard, resistant layer below. This sequence of layers with differing hardness and resistance to erosion is common on Earth and on Mars, and suggests significant variations in the physical properties, composition, particle size, and/or cementation of these martian layers. As is common throughout the Medusae Fossae Formation, very few impact craters are visible, indicating that the surface exposed is relatively young, and that the process of erosion may be active today

  9. Regional seismic lines reprocessed using post-stack processing techniques; National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, John J.; Agena, W.F.; Lee, M.W.; Zihlman, F.N.; Grow, J.A.; Taylor, D.J.; Killgore, Michele; Oliver, H.L.

    2000-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains stacked, migrated, 2-Dimensional seismic reflection data and associated support information for 22 regional seismic lines (3,470 line-miles) recorded in the National Petroleum Reserve ? Alaska (NPRA) from 1974 through 1981. Together, these lines constitute about one-quarter of the seismic data collected as part of the Federal Government?s program to evaluate the petroleum potential of the Reserve. The regional lines, which form a grid covering the entire NPRA, were created by combining various individual lines recorded in different years using different recording parameters. These data were reprocessed by the USGS using modern, post-stack processing techniques, to create a data set suitable for interpretation on interactive seismic interpretation computer workstations. Reprocessing was done in support of ongoing petroleum resource studies by the USGS Energy Program. The CD-ROM contains the following files: 1) 22 files containing the digital seismic data in standard, SEG-Y format; 2) 1 file containing navigation data for the 22 lines in standard SEG-P1 format; 3) 22 small scale graphic images of each seismic line in Adobe Acrobat? PDF format; 4) a graphic image of the location map, generated from the navigation file, with hyperlinks to the graphic images of the seismic lines; 5) an ASCII text file with cross-reference information for relating the sequential trace numbers on each regional line to the line number and shotpoint number of the original component lines; and 6) an explanation of the processing used to create the final seismic sections (this document). The SEG-Y format seismic files and SEG-P1 format navigation file contain all the information necessary for loading the data onto a seismic interpretation workstation.

  10. Gas formation. Formation temperatures of thermogenic and biogenic methane.

    PubMed

    Stolper, D A; Lawson, M; Davis, C L; Ferreira, A A; Santos Neto, E V; Ellis, G S; Lewan, M D; Martini, A M; Tang, Y; Schoell, M; Sessions, A L; Eiler, J M

    2014-06-27

    Methane is an important greenhouse gas and energy resource generated dominantly by methanogens at low temperatures and through the breakdown of organic molecules at high temperatures. However, methane-formation temperatures in nature are often poorly constrained. We measured formation temperatures of thermogenic and biogenic methane using a "clumped isotope" technique. Thermogenic gases yield formation temperatures between 157° and 221°C, within the nominal gas window, and biogenic gases yield formation temperatures consistent with their comparatively lower-temperature formational environments (<50°C). In systems where gases have migrated and other proxies for gas-generation temperature yield ambiguous results, methane clumped-isotope temperatures distinguish among and allow for independent tests of possible gas-formation models. PMID:24970083

  11. Adaptive evolution of a derived radius morphology in manakins (Aves, Pipridae) to support acrobatic display behavior.

    PubMed

    Friscia, Anthony; Sanin, Gloria D; Lindsay, Willow R; Day, Lainy B; Schlinger, Barney A; Tan, Josh; Fuxjager, Matthew J

    2016-06-01

    The morphology of the avian skeleton is often studied in the context of adaptations for powered flight. The effects of other evolutionary forces, such as sexual selection, on avian skeletal design are unclear, even though birds produce diverse behaviors that undoubtedly require a variety of osteological modifications. Here, we investigate this issue in a family of passerine birds called manakins (Pipridae), which have evolved physically unusual and elaborate courtship displays. We report that, in species within the genus Manacus, the shaft of the radius is heavily flattened and shows substantial solidification. Past work anecdotally notes this morphology and attributes it to the species' ability to hit their wings together above their heads to produce loud mechanical sonations. Our results show that this feature is unique to Manacus compared to the other species in our study, including a variety of taxa that produce other sonations through alternate wing mechanisms. At the same time, our data reveal striking similarities across species in total radius volume and solidification. Together, this suggests that supposedly adaptive alterations in radial morphology occur within a conserved framework of a set radius volume and solidness, which in turn is likely determined by natural selection. Further allometric analyses imply that the radius is less constrained by body size and the structural demands that underlie powered flight, compared to other forelimb bones that are mostly unmodified across taxa. These results are consistent with the idea that the radius is more susceptible to selective modification by sexual selection. Overall, this study provides some of the first insight into the osteological evolution of passerine birds, as well as the way in which opposing selective forces can shape skeletal design in these species. J. Morphol. 277:766-775, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27027525

  12. Spinal motor and sensory neurons are androgen targets in an acrobatic bird.

    PubMed

    Fuxjager, Matthew J; Schultz, J Douglas; Barske, Julia; Feng, Ni Y; Fusani, Leonida; Mirzatoni, Anahid; Day, Lainy B; Hau, Michaela; Schlinger, Barney A

    2012-08-01

    Sex steroids affect the motivation to court mates, but less is known about how they influence motor movements associated with courtship behavior. Steroidal control of motor function may be especially important for species in which courtship requires superior strength, stamina, and neuromuscular coordination. Here we use the golden-collared manakin (Manacus vitellinus) to examine whether the neuromuscular circuitry that controls motoric aspects of courtship activity is sensitive to androgens. Males of this tropical species attract mates by rapidly jumping among branches in a courtship arena and using their wings to produce loud wing snaps. Testosterone activates this display via the androgen receptor (AR), and past work reveals that manakins injected with radio-labeled T ((3)H-T) accumulate radioactivity in the spinal cord. Thus, we used quantitative PCR to measure AR, estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) subtype, and aromatase (AROM) mRNA in spinal cords of male and female manakins and zebra finches. Expression of AR, but not ER-α or aromatase, was higher throughout the manakin spinal cord compared with the zebra finch. Next, we tested whether AR-expressing skeletal muscles are innervated by motor and sensory neurons that also express AR. To do this, we backfilled spinal neurons by injecting fluorescent tracers into select AR-sensitive wing and leg muscles of wild caught male and female manakins. We then removed these spinal cords and measured AR expression with in situ hybridization. Both sexes showed abundant AR mRNA in the cervical and lumbosacral spinal enlargements as well as in dorsal root ganglia attached to these enlargements. Together our findings suggest that androgens act widely on peripheral motor and sensory circuits in golden-collared manakins to influence wing snapping displays. PMID:22635677

  13. Acrobats, Contortionists, and Cute Children: The Promise and Perversity of U.S. Women's Gymnastics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Ann

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how the media represents U.S. women's gymnastics, examining the degree to which the manifest promises of gymnastics (veneration of mass-mediated femininity and celebration of flexibility, strength, and agility) function in relation to economies of perversity. Suggests that the promises and perversities embodied by gymnasts are…

  14. Select forelimb muscles have evolved superfast contractile speed to support acrobatic social displays

    PubMed Central

    Fuxjager, Matthew J; Goller, Franz; Dirkse, Annika; Sanin, Gloria D; Garcia, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Many species perform rapid limb movements as part of their elaborate courtship displays. However, because muscle performance is constrained by trade-offs between contraction speed and force, it is unclear how animals evolve the ability to produce both unusually fast appendage movement and limb force needed for locomotion. To address this issue, we compare the twitch speeds of forelimb muscles in a group of volant passerine birds, which produce different courtship displays. Our results show that the two taxa that perform exceptionally fast wing displays have evolved 'superfast' contractile kinetics in their main humeral retractor muscle. By contrast, the two muscles that generate the majority of aerodynamic force for flight show unmodified contractile kinetics. Altogether, these results suggest that muscle-specific adaptations in contractile speed allow certain birds to circumvent the intrinsic trade-off between muscular speed and force, and thereby use their forelimbs for both rapid gestural displays and powered locomotion. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13544.001 PMID:27067379

  15. 75 FR 4442 - Public Meeting on Future Policy and Rulemaking for Normal, Utility, Acrobatic, and Commuter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ..., and operations. Specifically, we would like feedback from manufacturers, pilots, owners, mechanics... public but limited to space availability. Since seating is limited, we ask anyone interested in...

  16. 75 FR 26321 - Public Meeting on Future Policy and Rulemaking for Normal, Utility, Acrobatic, and Commuter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... manufacturers, pilots, owners, mechanics, instructors and anyone else with an interest in the small airplane... public but limited to space availability. Since seating is limited, we ask anyone interested in...

  17. Acromioclavicular joint cyst formation.

    PubMed

    Hiller, Andrew D; Miller, Joshua D; Zeller, John L

    2010-03-01

    Acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) cysts are an uncommon and unusual sequela associated with shoulder pathophysiology. The majority of literature on ACJ cysts consists of individual case reports with no definitive literature review currently available. In addition to a comprehensive literature review, four clinical cases are presented in this report. First described by Craig (1984), a total of 41 cases have been previously reported in the literature. Of these cases, five occurred with the rotator cuff musculature intact. The remaining 36 cases of ACJ cysts occurred in patients with a complete tear/avulsion of the rotator cuff. Previous attempts at compiling a complete record of all reported cases have combined several distinct conditions into a single category. This article presents two distinct etiologies for the pathogenesis of ACJ cyst formation. In the presence of an intact rotator cuff, a Type 1 cyst can form superficially and be limited to the ACJ. Following a massive or traumatic tear of the rotator cuff, mechanical instability of the humeral head can cause a deterioration of the inferior acromioclavicular capsule (cuff tear arthropathy) and an overproduction of synovial fluid. Overtime, a "geyser" of fluid can form between the glenohumeral and the ACJ, forming a Type 2 cyst. This differentiation and categorization is essential for appropriate classification and treatment.

  18. Nuclear ``pasta'' formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, A. S.; Horowitz, C. J.; Hughto, J.; Berry, D. K.

    2013-12-01

    The formation of complex nonuniform phases of nuclear matter, known as nuclear pasta, is studied with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations containing 51200 nucleons. A phenomenological nuclear interaction is used that reproduces the saturation binding energy and density of nuclear matter. Systems are prepared at an initial density of 0.10fm-3 and then the density is decreased by expanding the simulation volume at different rates to densities of 0.01fm-3 or less. An originally uniform system of nuclear matter is observed to form spherical bubbles (“swiss cheese”), hollow tubes, flat plates (“lasagna”), thin rods (“spaghetti”) and, finally, nearly spherical nuclei with decreasing density. We explicitly observe nucleation mechanisms, with decreasing density, for these different pasta phase transitions. Topological quantities known as Minkowski functionals are obtained to characterize the pasta shapes. Different pasta shapes are observed depending on the expansion rate. This indicates nonequilibrium effects. We use this to determine the best ways to obtain lower energy states of the pasta system from MD simulations and to place constraints on the equilibration time of the system.

  19. Bubble formation in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antar, Basil N.

    1996-01-01

    An extensive experimental program was initiated for the purpose of understanding the mechanisms leading to bubble generation during fluid handling procedures in a microgravity environment. Several key fluid handling procedures typical for PCG experiments were identified for analysis in that program. Experiments were designed to specifically understand how such procedures can lead to bubble formation. The experiments were then conducted aboard the NASA KC-135 aircraft which is capable of simulating a low gravity environment by executing a parabolic flight attitude. However, such a flight attitude can only provide a low gravity environment of approximately 10-2go for a maximum period of 30 seconds. Thus all of the tests conducted for these experiments were designed to last no longer than 20 seconds. Several experiments were designed to simulate some of the more relevant fluid handling procedures during protein crystal growth experiments. These include submerged liquid jet cavitation, filling of a cubical vessel, submerged surface scratch, attached drop growth, liquid jet impingement, and geysering experiments. To date, four separate KC-135 flight campaigns were undertaken specifically for performing these experiments. However, different experiments were performed on different flights.

  20. Formation of "bound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, K.; Kästner, M.; Miltner, A.

    2009-04-01

    During degradation of organic pollutants in soil, metabolites, microbial biomass, CO2and "bound" residues ("non-extractable" residues in soil organic matter) are formed. Enhanced transformation of these contaminants into "bound" residues has been proposed as an alternative remediation method for polluted soils. However, this kind of residues may pose a potential risk for the environment due to their chemical structure and possible remobilization under different conditions. Therefore particular attention is given actually to "bound" residues. Part of these non-extractable residues may be "biogenic," because microorganisms use the carbon from the pollutant to form their biomass components (fatty acids, amino acids, amino sugars), which subsequently may be incorporated into soil organic matter. Furthermore, the CO2 originating from mineralization of xenobiotics, can be re-assimilated by microorganisms and also incorporated into "biogenic residue". The hazard posed by "bound" residues may be overestimated because they are "biogenic" (contain microbial fatty acids and amino acids). The knowledge about the pathways of "biogenic residue" formation is necessary for a proper assessment of the fate of tested pollutants and their turnover in the soil environment. Moreover, these data are needed to establish the realistic degradation rates of the contaminants in soil. The main objectives of this study are: to quantify the extent of "biogenic residue" (fatty acids, amino acids, amino sugars) formation during the degradation of a model pollutant (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid = 2,4-D) and during CO2 assimilation by microorganisms and to evaluate which components are mainly incorporated into "bound" residues. To investigate the extent of "biogenic residue" formation in soil during the degradation of 2,4-D, experiments with either 14C-U-ring and 13C6-2,4-D or carboxyl-14C 2,4-D were performed. The incubation experiments were performed according to OECD test guideline 307, in the

  1. Prominence formation and oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, P. F.

    Prominences, or filaments, are a striking phenomenon in the solar atmosphere. Besides their own rich features and dynamics, they are related to many other activities, such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). In the past several years we have been investigating the prominence formation, oscillations, and eruptions through both data analysis and radiative hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. This paper reviews our progress on these topics, which includes: (1) With updated radiative cooling function, the coronal condensation becomes a little faster than previous work; (2) Once a seed condensation is formed, it can grow via siphon flow spontaneously even if the evaporation stops; (3) A scaling law was obtained to relate the length of the prominence thread to various parameters, indicating that higher prominences tend to have shorter threads, which is consistent with the fact that threads are long in active region prominences and short in quiescent prominences; (4) It was proposed that long-time prominence oscillations out of phase might serve as a precursor for prominence eruptions and CMEs; (5) An ensemble of oscillating prominence threads may explain the counter-streaming motion.

  2. Acromioclavicular joint cyst formation.

    PubMed

    Hiller, Andrew D; Miller, Joshua D; Zeller, John L

    2010-03-01

    Acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) cysts are an uncommon and unusual sequela associated with shoulder pathophysiology. The majority of literature on ACJ cysts consists of individual case reports with no definitive literature review currently available. In addition to a comprehensive literature review, four clinical cases are presented in this report. First described by Craig (1984), a total of 41 cases have been previously reported in the literature. Of these cases, five occurred with the rotator cuff musculature intact. The remaining 36 cases of ACJ cysts occurred in patients with a complete tear/avulsion of the rotator cuff. Previous attempts at compiling a complete record of all reported cases have combined several distinct conditions into a single category. This article presents two distinct etiologies for the pathogenesis of ACJ cyst formation. In the presence of an intact rotator cuff, a Type 1 cyst can form superficially and be limited to the ACJ. Following a massive or traumatic tear of the rotator cuff, mechanical instability of the humeral head can cause a deterioration of the inferior acromioclavicular capsule (cuff tear arthropathy) and an overproduction of synovial fluid. Overtime, a "geyser" of fluid can form between the glenohumeral and the ACJ, forming a Type 2 cyst. This differentiation and categorization is essential for appropriate classification and treatment. PMID:20069645

  3. Bead lightning formation

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwig, G.O.; Saba, M.M.F.

    2005-09-15

    Formation of beaded structures in triggered lightning discharges is considered in the framework of both magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and hydrodynamic instabilities. It is shown that the space periodicity of the structures can be explained in terms of the kink and sausage type instabilities in a cylindrical discharge with anomalous viscosity. In particular, the fast growth rate of the hydrodynamic Rayleigh-Taylor instability, which is driven by the backflow of air into the channel of the decaying return stroke, dominates the initial evolution of perturbations during the decay of the return current. This instability is responsible for a significant enhancement of the anomalous viscosity above the classical level. Eventually, the damping introduced at the current channel edge by the high level of anomalous viscous stresses defines the final length scale of bead lightning. Later, during the continuing current stage of the lightning flash, the MHD pinch instability persists, although with a much smaller growth rate that can be enhanced in a M-component event. The combined effect of these instabilities may explain various aspects of bead lightning.

  4. The formation of dew

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beysens, D.

    Dew is the condensation into liquid droplets of water vapor on a substrate. The presence of a substrate is the origin of the peculiarities and richness of the phenomenon. We review the aspects related to heterogeneous nucleation and subsequent growth of water droplets. A key point is the drop interaction through drop fusion or coalescence, which leads to scaling in the growth and gives universality to the process. The effects of substrate heterogeneity and gravity effects are also considered. Coalescence events lead to temporal and spatio-temporal fluctuations in the substrate coverage, drop configuration, etc., which give rise to a very peculiar dynamics. When the substrate is a liquid or a liquid crystal, the drop pattern can exhibit special spatial orders, such as crystalline, hexatic phases and fractal contours. And condensation on a solid substrate near its melting point can make the drop jump. The applications of monitoring dew formation are manyfold. Examples can be found in nanoelectronics and optics (vapor deposition and thin films), medicine (sterilization process), agriculture (green houses). We here discuss in greater details the production of clean water by "atmospheric wells".

  5. Large Format Radiographic Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    J. S. Rohrer; Lacey Stewart; M. D. Wilke; N. S. King; S. A Baker; Wilfred Lewis

    1999-08-01

    Radiographic imaging continues to be a key diagnostic in many areas at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Radiographic recording systems have taken on many form, from high repetition-rate, gated systems to film recording and storage phosphors. Some systems are designed for synchronization to an accelerator while others may be single shot or may record a frame sequence in a dynamic radiography experiment. While film recording remains a reliable standby in the radiographic community, there is growing interest in investigating electronic recording for many applications. The advantages of real time access to remote data acquisition are highly attractive. Cooled CCD camera systems are capable of providing greater sensitivity with improved signal-to-noise ratio. This paper begins with a review of performance characteristics of the Bechtel Nevada large format imaging system, a gated system capable of viewing scintillators up to 300 mm in diameter. We then examine configuration alternatives in lens coupled and fiber optically coupled electro-optical recording systems. Areas of investigation include tradeoffs between fiber optic and lens coupling, methods of image magnification, and spectral matching from scintillator to CCD camera. Key performance features discussed include field of view, resolution, sensitivity, dynamic range, and system noise characteristics.

  6. Beach-cusp formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger, A.H., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Field experiments on beach-cusp formation were undertaken to document how the cuspate form develops and to test the edge-wave hypothesis on the uniform spacing of cusps. These involved observations of cusps forming from an initially plane foreshore. The cuspate form was observed to be a product of swash modification of an intertidal beach ridge as follows. A ridge, cut by a series of channels quasi-equally spaced along its length, was deposited onto the lower foreshore. The ridge migrated shoreward with flood tide, while the longshore positions of the channels remained fixed. On ebb tide, changes in swash circulation over the ridge allowed the upwash to flow shoreward through the channels and the channel mouths were eroded progressively wider until adjacent mouths met, effecting a cuspate shape. Measured spacings of cusps, ranging in size from less than 1 m to more than 12 m, agree well with computed spacings due to either zero-mode subharmonic or zero-mode synchronous edge waves. Edge-wave-induced longshore variations in run up will cause water ponded behind a ridge to converge at points of low swash and flow seaward as relatively narrow currents eroding channels spaced at one edge-wave wavelength for synchronous edge waves or one half wavelength for subharmonic edge waves. The channels are subsequently modified into cusp troughs as described above.

  7. 39 CFR 3001.10 - Form and number of copies of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... service must be printed from a text-based pdf version of the document, where possible. Otherwise, they may... generated in either Acrobat (pdf), Word, or WordPerfect, or Rich Text Format (rtf)....

  8. The KEA image file format

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunting, Peter; Gillingham, Sam

    2013-08-01

    There are a large number of image formats already in use within the remote sensing community but currently there is no format that provides the features of: compression, support for large file sizes, ground control points, raster attribute tables and inbuilt image pyramids. Therefore, a new image format, named KEA, after the New Zealand bird, has been proposed. The KEA format provides a full implementation of the GDAL data model and is implemented within a HDF5 file. A software library with a GDAL driver have been freely provided to the community allowing use through any GDAL based software. The new format has comparable performance with existing formats while producing smaller file sizes and is already within active use for a number of projects within Landcare Research, New Zealand, and the wider community.

  9. Gaining Insight into Star Formation: Resolved Star Formation Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebst, Kelley; Scowen, Paul A.

    2014-06-01

    Until recently astronomers have used star formation laws to measure the star formation rate and star formation efficiency of galaxies only on global scales because of the poor resolution of available data. What I am now capable of producing is a spatially resolved star formation law that can provide direct insight into the physical processes that govern star formation and assess the short-term nature of bursts of star formation and the longer-term nature of larger-scale events that can dictate the global distribution of stars and the ultimate fate of a galaxy as a whole. I am using exquisite narrowband optical data from a variety of sources, including the Hubble Space Telescope, and Kitt Peak National Observatory, etc., in conjunction with infrared data from the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxy Survey and the Spitzer Local Volume Legacy survey, neutral gas data from The HI Nearby Galaxy Survey, and molecular gas data from the Berkeley-Illinois-Maryland Association Survey of Nearby Galaxies, to provide star formation rates and star formation efficiencies on previously inaccessible small spatial scales across a suite of galaxies that represent a range of star formation environments and scales. My sample includes 18 spiral galaxies ranging from 2.1 to 15.1 Mpc in distance and offers a large range of morphological types (i.e. a large range of star formation environments). I am using these data to test different models of star formation modes under a variety of physical conditions and relate the variations I observe to the known local physical conditions and the associated star formation histories for each locale within each galaxy.This is the heart of the matter - that the nature and evolution of the local physical environment intimately influences how stars can form, how quickly and how massive those stars are allowed to form, and as a result how they shape the local conditions for subsequent star formation. It is this tracking of the stellar ecology that is vital for

  10. BACTERIOPHAGE FORMATION WITHOUT BACTERIAL GROWTH

    PubMed Central

    Price, Winston H.

    1947-01-01

    1. Iodoacetate, fluoride, and azide have been found to prevent the formation of phage and to inhibit the synthesis of ATP by Staphylococcus muscae. It is suggested that energy-rich phosphate is needed for the synthesis of phage. 2. Gramicidin prevented the formation of phage. 3. No differences were found between normal bacteria and phage-infected bacteria in the inorganic phosphate, adenosinetriphosphate, ribonucleic acid, and desoxyribonucleic acid content of the cells. 4. The mechanism of phage formation is discussed. PMID:18896936

  11. Binary stars - Formation by fragmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boss, Alan P.

    1988-01-01

    Theories of binary star formation by capture, separate nuclei, fission and fragmentation are compared, assessing the success of theoretical attempts to explain the observed properties of main-sequence binary stars. The theory of formation by fragmentation is examined, discussing the prospects for checking the theory against observations of binary premain-sequence stars. It is concluded that formation by fragmentation is successful at explaining many of the key properties of main-sequence binary stars.

  12. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health (NCEH) Format: Select one PDF [237 KB] File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  13. Medusae Fossae Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    An exotic terrain of wind-eroded ridges and residual smooth surfaces are seen in one of the highest resolution images ever taken of Mars from orbit. The Medusae Fossae formation is believed to be formed of the fragmental ejecta of huge explosive volcanic eruptions. When subjected to intense wind-blasting over hundreds of millions of years, this material erodes easily once the uppermost tougher crust is breached. In the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shown on the right, the crust, or cap rock, can be seen in the upper right part of the picture. The finely-spaced ridges are similar to features on Earth called yardangs, which are formed by intense winds plucking individual grains from, and by wind-driven sand blasting particles off, sedimentary deposits.

    The MOC image was taken on October 30, 1997 at 11:05 AM PST, shortly after the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft's 31st closest approach to Mars. The image covers an area 3.6 X 21.5 km (2.2 X 13.4 miles) at 3.6 m (12 feet) per picture element--craters only 11 m (36 feet, about the size of a swimming pool) across can be seen. The context image (left; the best Viking view of the area; VO 1 387S34) has a resolution of 240 m/pixel, or 67 times lower resolution than the MOC frame.

    Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  14. ANTIBODY FORMATION IN VITRO

    PubMed Central

    Fishman, M.

    1961-01-01

    Neutralizing activity against T2 bacteriophage appeared in cultures of lymph node cells from normal rats in response to their in vitro stimulation with a cell-free filtrate derived from homogenized rat macrophages which had been incubated with T2 bacteriophage. This activity was specifically directed against T2 bacteriophage. It resided in a fraction of the culture fluid which had the salting-out properties of serum globulin. Phage neutralization was inhibited by antibody specific for rat serum gamma globulin. Antibody production against T2 bacteriophage in cultures of lymph node cells from normal animals failed to occur if (a) T2 bacteriophage alone was added, (b) if the incubation period of macrophages and T2 phage was unduly shortened, (c) if the cell-free filtrate was heated at 80–100°C for 15 minutes, (d) if more than an optimal amount of T2 bacteriophage was added to the macrophages. Additional factors which prevented the formation of antibody were the heat inactivation of the lymph node cells or the addition to the culture medium of either streptomycin or ribonuclease. Finally, it was found that macrophages and lymph node cells had to be obtained from animals of one and the same species. All essential findings on the production of antibody to T2 bacteriophage in vitro could be confirmed by substitution of the chick embryo for the tissue culture medium. The results are discussed in terms of a possible mechanism of antibody production in which an RNAse-sensitive substance resulting from the interaction of macrophages and antigen is capable of stimulating antibody synthesis in lymphocytic cells. PMID:13893304

  15. Plasmapause formation at Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, M. F.; Mitchell, D. G.; Jia, X.; Jackman, C. M.; Hospodarsky, G.; Coates, A. J.

    2015-04-01

    Cassini observations during a rapid, high-latitude, dawnside pass from Saturn's lobe to inner magnetosphere on 25 June 2009 provide strong evidence for the formation of a "plasmapause" at Saturn by Vasyliunas-type nightside reconnection of previously mass-loaded flux tubes. A population of hot, tenuous plasma that lies between the lobe and the dense inner magnetospheric plasma is consistent with a region formed by very recent injection from a reconnection region in the tail, including low density, high temperature, supercorotational flow, a significant O+ content, and the near-simultaneous observation of enhanced Saturn kilometric radiation emissions. The sharp boundary between that region and the cool dense inner magnetospheric plasma thus separates flux tubes that were involved in the reconnection from those that successfully traversed the nightside without mass loss. This event demonstrates that tail reconnection can strip off inner magnetospheric plasma in to at least dipole L = 8.6. Clear evidence of flux tube interchange driven by the sharp boundary is found, both inward moving flux tubes of hotter plasma and, for the first time, the outward moving cool population. The outward moving cool regions have azimuthal sizes less than 1 RS, were probably created within the past 1.2 h, and have outflow speeds greater than about 5 km/s. At the outer edge of the reconnected region, there is also a possible signature of Dungey-type lobe reconnection following the initial Vasyliunas-type reconnection. Observations from this event are entirely consistent with previously described global MHD simulations of tail reconnection, plasmoid departure, and Saturnward injection of reconnected flux.

  16. Planet formation and searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Ryan Michael

    2009-08-01

    This thesis explores the possibilities for discovery of terrestrial-mass planets in the habitable zones of their host stars. Towards this aim, we present the results of three projects and discuss another two preliminary studies of further explorations. In so doing, we explore a fairly comprehensive range of possibilities regarding the formation and detection of terrestrial- mass planets in the habitable zone. We first study the potential for terrestrial planets to form in situ in and around the habitable zones of M-dwarf stars. We proceed to explore the feasibility of searches for these planets using the transit method via Monte- Carlo simulations. We find that M-dwarfs pose an interesting challenge for study: being inherently dim, widely spread on the sky, and photometrically variable. We present results of simulated ground-based transit search campaigns as well as simulated searches from a modest satellite mission. Our second project is a straightforward extension of the previous study: a collaborative effort to search for transit signals around the nearest M-dwarf: Proxima Centauri. We describe our observations as well as the Monte-Carlo analysis used to place constraints on the possible planetary radii and periods. Our third project is a search for transiting extra-solar Jovian planets using the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. We search through the private Keck radial- velocity datasets for undiscovered Rossiter-McLaughlin signals. We present our results in the form of both strong null-result datasets as well as potential transiting systems. We then briefly analyze these larger Jovian planets for potential to harbor potentially habitable terrestrial satellites. Our final preliminary analysis looks into the potential for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope to detect transiting Neptune-mass planets orbiting M-dwarfs which could then lead to terrestrial-mass planet detections. The sum of these efforts is a comprehensive investigation into the likelihood and

  17. Formative Assessment Probes: Is It a Rock? Continuous Formative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2013-01-01

    A lesson plan is provided for a formative assessment probe entitled "Is It a Rock?" This probe is designed for teaching elementary school students about rocks through the use of a formative assessment classroom technique (FACT) known as the group Frayer Model. FACT activates students' thinking about a concept and can be used to…

  18. The Formation of Galactic Bulges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carollo, C. Marcella; Ferguson, Henry C.; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    2000-03-01

    Part I. Introduction: What are galactic bulges?; Part II. The Epoch of Bulge Formation: Origin of bulges; Deep sub-mm surveys: High-z ULIRGs and the formation of spheroids; Ages and metallicities for stars in the galactic bulge; Integrated stellar populations of bulges: First results; HST-NICMOS observations of galactic bulges: Ages and dust; Inside-out bulge formation and the origin of the Hubble sequence; Part III. The Timescales of Bulge Formation: Constraints on the bulge formation timescale from stellar populations; Bulge building with mergers and winds; Role of winds, starbursts, and activity in bulge formation; Dynamical timescales of bulge formation; Part IV. Physical Processes in Bulge Formation: the role of bars for secular bulge formation; Bars and boxy/peanut-shaped bulges: an observational point of view; Boxy- and peanut-shaped bulges; A new class of bulges; The role of secondary bars in bulge formation; Radial transport of molecular gas to the nuclei of spiral galaxies; Dynamical evolution of bulge shapes; Two-component stellar systems: Phase-space constraints; Central NGC 2146 - a firehose-type bending instability?; Bulge formation: the role of the multi-phase ISM; Global evolution of a self-gravitating multi-phase ISM in the central kpc region of galaxies; Part V. Bulge Phenomenology: Bulge-disk decomposition of spiral galaxies in the near-infrared; The triaxial bulge of NGC 1371; The bulge-disk orthogonal decoupling in galaxies: NGC 4698 and NGC 4672; The kinematics and the origin of the ionized gas in NGC 4036; Optically thin thermal plasma in the galactic bulge; X-ray properties of bulges; The host galaxies of radio-loud AGN; The centers of radio-loud early-type galaxies with HST; Central UV spikes in two galactic spheroids; Conference summary: where do we stand?

  19. The formation of Pangea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stampfli, G. M.; Hochard, C.; Vérard, C.; Wilhem, C.; vonRaumer, J.

    2013-05-01

    The making of Pangea is the result of large-scale amalgamation of continents and micro-continents, which started at the end of the Neoproterozoic with the formation of Gondwana. As pieces were added to Gondwana on its South-American, Antarctica and Australia side, ribbon-like micro-continents were detached from its African and South-Chinese side: Cadomia in the late Neoproterozoic, Avalonia and Hunia in the Ordovician, Galatia in the Devonian and Cimmeria in the Permian. Cadomia was re-accreted to Gondwana, but the other ribbon-continents were accreted to Baltica, North-China, Laurussia or Laurasia. Finding the origin of these numerous terranes is a major geological challenge. Recently, a global plate tectonic model was developed together with a large geological/geodynamic database, at the Lausanne University, covering the last 600 Ma of the Earth's history. Special attention was given to the placing of Gondwana derived terranes in their original position, using all possible constraints. We propose here a solution for the Variscan terranes, another paper deals with the Altaids. The Galatian super-terrane was detached from Gondwana in the Devonian, during the opening of Paleotethys, and was quickly separated into four sub-terranes that started to by-pass each other. The leading terranes collided at the end of the Devonian with the Hanseatic terrane detached from Laurussia. In the Carboniferous, Gondwana started to impinge onto the amalgamated terranes, creating the Variscan chain and the Pangean super-continent. East of Spain Paleotethys remained opened until the Triassic, subducting northward under Laurasia. Roll-back of the Paleotethyan slab triggered the collapse of most of the European Variscan orogen, which was replaced by series of Permian rifts, some of them becoming oceanized back-arc basins during the Triassic. Major force changes at the Pangean plate limits at the end of the Triassic provoked its break-up, through the opening of the proto

  20. SAS FORMATS: USES AND ABUSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    SAS formats are a very powerful tool. They allow you to display the data in a more readable manner without modifying it. Formats can also be used to group data into categories for use in various procedures like PROC FREQ, PROC TTEST, and PROC MEANS (as a class variable). As ...

  1. SAS FORMATS: USES AND ABUSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    SAS formats are a very powerful tool. They allow you to display the data in a more readable manner without modifying it. Formats can also be used to group data into categories for use in various procedures like PROC FREQ, PROC TTEST, and PROC MEANS (as a class variable). As w...

  2. Portable File Format (PFF) specifications.

    SciTech Connect

    Dolan, Daniel H.,

    2015-02-01

    Created at Sandia National Laboratories, the Portable File Format (PFF) allows binary data transfer across computer platforms. Although this capability is supported by many other formats, PFF files are still in use at Sandia, particularly in pulsed power research. This report provides detailed PFF specifications for accessing data without relying on legacy code.

  3. Bibliography Formatting Software: An Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stigleman, Sue

    1993-01-01

    Discusses software used for formatting bibliographies and describes 52 programs. Information provided includes type of operating system required, publication formats, citation styles, ability to arrange by subject, use of downloaded references, network versions, costs, and plans for future changes. A directory of the programs and producers is…

  4. Formation Algorithms and Simulation Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wette, Matthew; Sohl, Garett; Scharf, Daniel; Benowitz, Edward

    2004-01-01

    Formation flying for spacecraft is a rapidly developing field that will enable a new era of space science. For one of its missions, the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) project has selected a formation flying interferometer design to detect earth-like planets orbiting distant stars. In order to advance technology needed for the TPF formation flying interferometer, the TPF project has been developing a distributed real-time testbed to demonstrate end-to-end operation of formation flying with TPF-like functionality and precision. This is the Formation Algorithms and Simulation Testbed (FAST) . This FAST was conceived to bring out issues in timing, data fusion, inter-spacecraft communication, inter-spacecraft sensing and system-wide formation robustness. In this paper we describe the FAST and show results from a two-spacecraft formation scenario. The two-spacecraft simulation is the first time that precision end-to-end formation flying operation has been demonstrated in a distributed real-time simulation environment.

  5. The Apennine Bench Formation revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spudis, P. D.; Hawke, B. R.

    1985-01-01

    The Apennine Bench Formation consists of pre-mare light plains materials that crop out south of the crater Archimedes, inside the Imbrium basin. This material was ascribed to either impact or volcanic origins. The characteristics of Apollo 15 KREEP basalts and the Apennine Bench Formation are reviewed to determine whether their characteristics are compatible with a volcanic origin.

  6. Star formation in the multiverse

    SciTech Connect

    Bousso, Raphael; Leichenauer, Stefan

    2009-03-15

    We develop a simple semianalytic model of the star formation rate as a function of time. We estimate the star formation rate for a wide range of values of the cosmological constant, spatial curvature, and primordial density contrast. Our model can predict such parameters in the multiverse, if the underlying theory landscape and the cosmological measure are known.

  7. Tariffs Formation on oil transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glyzina, T. S.; Kolbysheva, Yu. V.; Grivtsova, I. S.; Dmitrieva, N. V.

    2016-09-01

    Oil transportation via trunk pipelines is an important part of the oil industry's activity. The main instrument of tariff regulation is the method of tariffs formation. Three methods of tariffs formation such as the method of economically justified costs (the Cost plus method), the method of economically justified return on investment capital (the RAB method), and the method of tariffs indexation were considered.

  8. Formative Assessment: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Randy Elliot

    2011-01-01

    This paper covers six interrelated issues in formative assessment (aka, "assessment for learning"). The issues concern the definition of formative assessment, the claims commonly made for its effectiveness, the limited attention given to domain considerations in its conceptualisation, the under-representation of measurement principles in that…

  9. Sibling similarity in family formation.

    PubMed

    Raab, Marcel; Fasang, Anette Eva; Karhula, Aleksi; Erola, Jani

    2014-12-01

    Sibling studies have been widely used to analyze the impact of family background on socioeconomic and, to a lesser extent, demographic outcomes. We contribute to this literature with a novel research design that combines sibling comparisons and sequence analysis to analyze longitudinal family-formation trajectories of siblings and unrelated persons. This allows us to scrutinize in a more rigorous way whether sibling similarity exists in family-formation trajectories and whether siblings' shared background characteristics, such as parental education and early childhood family structure, can account for similarity in family formation. We use Finnish register data from 1987 through 2007 to construct longitudinal family-formation trajectories in young adulthood for siblings and unrelated dyads (N = 14,257 dyads). Findings show that family formation is moderately but significantly more similar for siblings than for unrelated dyads, also after controlling for crucial parental background characteristics. Shared parental background characteristics add surprisingly little to account for sibling similarity in family formation. Instead, gender and the respondents' own education are more decisive forces in the stratification of family formation. Yet, family internal dynamics seem to reinforce this stratification such that siblings have a higher probability to experience similar family-formation patterns. In particular, patterns that correspond with economic disadvantage are concentrated within families. This is in line with a growing body of research highlighting the importance of family structure in the reproduction of social inequality.

  10. Cyanide Formation by Chromobacterium violaceum

    PubMed Central

    Michaels, Ruth; Corpe, W. A.

    1965-01-01

    Michaels, Ruth (Columbia University, New York, N.Y.), and W. A. Corpe. Cyanide formation by Chromobacterium violaceum. J. Bacteriol. 89:106–112. 1965.—The formation of cyanide by a Chromobacterium violaceum strain was studied with growing cultures and with nonproliferating cells grown in complex and chemically defined media. Most of the cyanide was produced during the log-phase growth of the organism, and accumulated in the culture supernatant fluid. A synergistic effect of glycine and methionine on cyanide formation in a chemically defined medium was observed, and the amount of cyanide formed was found to be dependent on the concentrations of the two substances. Cyanide formation by nonproliferating cells was stimulated by preincubation with glycine and methionine. Cyanide formation by adapted cells in the presence of glycine and methionine was stimulated by succinate, malate, or fumarate, and depressed by azide and 2,4-dinitrophenol. Methionine could be replaced by betaine, dimethylglycine, and choline. PMID:14255648

  11. Physics of primordial star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Naoki

    2012-09-01

    The study of primordial star formation has a history of nearly sixty years. It is generally thought that primordial stars are one of the key elements in a broad range of topics in astronomy and cosmology, from Galactic chemical evolution to the formation of super-massive blackholes. We review recent progress in the theory of primordial star formation. The standard theory of cosmic structure formation posits that the present-day rich structure of the Universe developed through gravitational amplification of tiny matter density fluctuations left over from the Big Bang. It has become possible to study primordial star formation rigorously within the framework of the standard cosmological model. We first lay out the key physical processes in a primordial gas. Then, we introduce recent developments in computer simulations. Finally, we discuss prospects for future observations of the first generation of stars.

  12. Geologic map of the Fifteenmile Valley 7.5' quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, F.K.; Matti, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Open-File Report OF 01-132 contains a digital geologic map database of the Fifteenmile Valley 7.5’ quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California that includes: 1. ARC/INFO (Environmental Systems Research Institute, http://www.esri.com) version 7.2.1 coverages of the various elements of the geologic map. 2. A PostScript file to plot the geologic map on a topographic base, and containing a Correlation of Map Units diagram, a Description of Map Units, an index map, and a regional structure map. 3. Portable Document Format (.pdf) files of: a. This Readme; includes in Appendix I, data contained in fif_met.txt b. The same graphic as plotted in 2 above. (Test plots have not produced 1:24,000-scale map sheets. Adobe Acrobat pagesize setting influences map scale.) The Correlation of Map Units (CMU) and Description of Map Units (DMU) is in the editorial format of USGS Miscellaneous Investigations Series (I-series) maps. Within the geologic map data package, map units are identified by standard geologic map criteria such as formation-name, age, and lithology. Even though this is an author-prepared report, every attempt has been made to closely adhere to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U. S. Geological Survey. Descriptions of units can be obtained by viewing or plotting the .pdf file (3b above) or plotting the postscript file (2 above). If roads in some areas, especially forest roads that parallel topographic contours, do not show well on plots of the geologic map, we recommend use of the USGS Fifteenmile Valley 7.5’ topographic quadrangle in conjunction with the geologic map.

  13. Volcanoes of the Wrangell Mountains and Cook Inlet region, Alaska: selected photographs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neal, Christina A.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Diggles, Michael F.

    2001-01-01

    Alaska is home to more than 40 active volcanoes, many of which have erupted violently and repeatedly in the last 200 years. This CD-ROM contains 97 digitized color 35-mm images which represent a small fraction of thousands of photographs taken by Alaska Volcano Observatory scientists, other researchers, and private citizens. The photographs were selected to portray Alaska's volcanoes, to document recent eruptive activity, and to illustrate the range of volcanic phenomena observed in Alaska. These images are for use by the interested public, multimedia producers, desktop publishers, and the high-end printing industry. The digital images are stored in the 'images' folder and can be read across Macintosh, Windows, DOS, OS/2, SGI, and UNIX platforms with applications that can read JPG (JPEG - Joint Photographic Experts Group format) or PCD (Kodak's PhotoCD (YCC) format) files. Throughout this publication, the image numbers match among the file names, figure captions, thumbnail labels, and other references. Also included on this CD-ROM are Windows and Macintosh viewers and engines for keyword searches (Adobe Acrobat Reader with Search). At the time of this publication, Kodak's policy on the distribution of color-management files is still unresolved, and so none is included on this CD-ROM. However, using the Universal Ektachrome or Universal Kodachrome transforms found in your software will provide excellent color. In addition to PhotoCD (PCD) files, this CD-ROM contains large (14.2'x19.5') and small (4'x6') screen-resolution (72 dots per inch; dpi) images in JPEG format. These undergo downsizing and compression relative to the PhotoCD images.

  14. Surficial geologic maps along the riparian zone of the Animas River and its headwater tributaries, Silverton to Durango, Colorado, with upper Animas River watershed gradient profiles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blair, R.W.; Yager, D.B.; Church, S.E.

    2002-01-01

    This product consists of Adobe Acrobat .PDF format documents for 10 surficial geologic strip maps along the Animas River watershed from its major headwater tributaries, south to Durango, Colorado. The Animas River originates in the San Juan Mountains north of the historic mining town of Silverton, Colorado. The surficial geologic maps identify surficial deposits, such as flood-plain and terrace gravels, alluvial fans, glacial till, talus, colluvium, landslides, and bogs. Sixteen primary units were mapped that included human-related deposits and structures, eight alluvial, four colluvial, one glacial, travertine deposits, and undifferentiated bedrock. Each of the surficial geologic strip maps has .PDF links to surficial geology photographs, which enable the user to take a virtual tour of these deposits. Geochemical data collected from mapped surficial deposits that pre- and postdate mining activity have aided in determining the geochemical baseline in the watershed. Several photographs with their corresponding geochemical baseline profiles are accessible through .PDF links from several of the maps. A single coverage for all surficial deposits mapped is included as an ArcInfo shape file as an Arc Export format .e00 file. A gradient map for major headwater tributary streams to the Animas River is also included. The gradient map has stream segments that are color-coded based on relative variations in slope and .PDF format links to each stream gradient profile. Stream gradients were derived from U.S. Geological Survey 10-m digital elevation model data. This project was accomplished in support of the U.S. Geological Survey's Abandoned Mine Lands Initiative in the San Juan Mountains, Colorado.

  15. Geologic map of the Devore 7.5' quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Douglas M.; Matti, Jonathan C.

    2001-01-01

    This Open-File Report contains a digital geologic map database of the Devore 7.5' quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California, that includes: 1. ARC/INFO (Environmental Systems Research Institute) version 7.2.1 coverages of the various components of the geologic map 2. A PostScript (.ps) file to plot the geologic map on a topographic base, containing a Correlation of Map Units diagram, a Description of Map Units, an index map, and a regional structure map 3. Portable Document Format (.pdf) files of: a. This Readme; includes an Appendix, containing metadata details found in devre_met.txt b. The same graphic as plotted in 2 above. (Test plots from this .pdf do not produce 1:24,000-scale maps. Adobe Acrobat page-size settings control map scale.) The Correlation of Map Units and Description of Map Units are in the editorial format of USGS Miscellaneous Investigations Series maps (I-maps) but have not been edited to comply with I-map standards. Within the geologic-map data package, map units are identified by such standard geologic-map criteria as formation name, age, and lithology. Even though this is an author-prepared report, every attempt has been made to closely adhere to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. Descriptions of units can be obtained by viewing or plotting the .pdf file (3b above) or plotting the postscript file (2 above). If roads in some areas, especially forest roads that parallel topographic contours, do not show well on plots of the geologic map, we recommend use of the USGS Devore 7.5’ topographic quadrangle in conjunction with the geologic map.

  16. Dissipative processes in galaxy formation.

    PubMed Central

    Silk, J

    1993-01-01

    A galaxy commences its life in a diffuse gas cloud that evolves into a predominantly stellar aggregation. Considerable dissipation of gravitational binding energy occurs during this transition. I review here the dissipative processes that determine the critical scales of luminous galaxies and the generation of their morphology. The universal scaling relations for spirals and ellipticals are shown to be sensitive to the history of star formation. Semiphenomenological expressions are given for star-formation rates in protogalaxies and in starbursts. Implications are described for elliptical galaxy formation and for the evolution of disk galaxies. PMID:11607396

  17. Antihydrogen Formation using Cold Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, N.; Bowe, P.D.; Hangst, J.S.; Amoretti, M.; Carraro, C.; Macri, M.; Testera, G.; Variola, A.; Amsler, C.; Johnson, I.; Pruys, H.; Regenfus, C.; Bonomi, G.; Bouchta, A.; Doser, M.; Kellerbauer, A.; Landua, R.; Cesar, C.L.; Charlton, M.; Joergensen, L.V.

    2004-10-20

    Antihydrogen, the antimatter counterpart of the hydrogen atom, can be formed by mixing cold samples of antiprotons and positrons. In 2002 the ATHENA collaboration succeeded in the first production of cold antihydrogen. By observing and imaging the annihilation products of the neutral, non-confined, antihydrogen atoms annihilating on the walls of the trap we can observe the production in quasi-real-time and study the dynamics of the formation mechanism. The formation mechanism strongly influences the final state of the formed antihydrogen atoms, important for future spectroscopic comparison with hydrogen. This paper briefly summarizes the current understanding of the antihydrogen formation in ATHENA.

  18. Dynamics of rock varnish formation

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, R. Jr.; Reneau, S.L.; Guthrie, G.D. Jr.; Bish, D.L.; Harrington, C.D.

    1991-01-01

    Our studies of rock varnish from the southwestern United States suggest that the Mn-phase in rock varnish has neither the chemistry nor the crystal structure of birnessite. Rather, the Mn-rich phase is non-crystalline and contains Ba, Ca, Fe, Al, and P. Unknowns concerning the formation of this non-crystalline Mn phase must be resolved before researchers are able to define chemical parameters of rock varnish formation based upon conditions of formation of the Mn phase. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  19. Formate dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas oxalaticus.

    PubMed

    Müller, U; Willnow, P; Ruschig, U; Höpner, T

    1978-02-01

    Formate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.2) from Pseudomonas oxalaticus has been isolated and characterized. The enzyme (molecular weight 315000) is a complex flavoprotein containing 2 FMN, 18--25 non-heme iron atoms and 15--20 acid-labile sulphides. In the last step of the purification, a sucrose gradient centrifugation, a second catalytically active species has been found apparently originating from a dissociation of the enzyme into two equal subunits. The enzyme is specific toward its natural substrate formate. It transfers electrons to NAD+, oxygen, ferricyanide, and a lot of nonphysiological acceptors (dyes). In addition electrons are transferred from NADH to these acceptors. The (reversible) removal of FMN requires a reduction step. Reincorporation has been followed by the reappearance of the reactivity against formate and by fluorescence titration. The deflavo enzyme also binds FAD and riboflavin. The resulting enzyme species show characteristic catalytic abilities. Activity against formate is peculiar to the FMN species. PMID:631130

  20. Results of Aluminosilicate Formation Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmarth, W.R.

    2001-09-11

    The purpose of this work was to examine several experimental parameters of the formation of aluminosilicates under several tank chemistries, examine the conversion of crystalline phases, and determine inherent solubilities of certain crystal phases.

  1. Ultraviolet Mars Reveals Cloud Formation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Images from MAVEN's Imaging UltraViolet Spectrograph were used to make this movie of rapid cloud formation on Mars on July 9-10, 2016. The ultraviolet colors of the planet have been rendered in fal...

  2. Star Formation Across Galactic Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Jason

    2013-01-01

    I present here parallel investigations of star formation in AGN-free and quasar host galaxies. These environments are both insightful; quasars are among the most violent objects known, reshaping their host galaxies, while my sample of AGN-free star-forming galaxies ranges from systems larger than the Milky Way to dwarf star-forming galaxies. The AGN-free galaxies are drawn from the KPNO International Spectroscopic Survey, an Hα-selected, volume-limited survey was designed to avoid continuum luminosity bias. This work studies the KISS galaxies in mid- and far-IR using Spitzer IRAC and MIPS photometry. These IR bands are interesting because the UV light from young stars is reprocessed into thermal emission in the far-IR (24μm MIPS) by dust and into vibrational transition features in the mid-IR (8.0μm IRAC) by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This work examines the efficiencies of PAH and dust emission as tracers of star-formation. I find that the efficiency of PAH as a star-formation tracer varies with galactic stellar mass, while thermal dust has no systematic dependance on galactic mass. My study of quasar host galaxies utilizes images of eight PG quasars from the WFPC2 and NICMOS instruments aboard HST. I use narrow-band images centered on the Hβ, [OII]λ3727, [OIII]λ5007, and Paα emission lines to construct extinction and star formation maps. Additionally, I use line-ratio maps to distinguish AGN-powered line emission from star formation powered line emission. I find star formation, albeit at rates are lower than expected, suggesting that quasar host galaxies are dynamically more advanced than suspected. Seven of the galaxies have higher mass-specific star-formation rates. Additionally, I see evidence of shocked gas, supporting the hypotheses from earlier works that AGN activity quenches star formation in host galaxies by disrupting gas reservoirs.

  3. Cosmic strings and galaxy formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertschinger, Edmund

    1989-01-01

    The cosmogonical model proposed by Zel'dovich and Vilenkin (1981), in which superconducting cosmic strings act as seeds for the origin of structure in the universe, is discussed, summarizing the results of recent theoretical investigations. Consideration is given to the formation of cosmic strings, the microscopic structure of strings, gravitational effects, cosmic string evolution, and the formation of galaxies and large-scale structure. Simulation results are presented in graphs, and several outstanding issues are listed and briefly characterized.

  4. 77 FR 11483 - Request for Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... format. If you want to attach a document that is a scanned Adobe PDF file, it must be scanned as text and... questions regarding attaching a document that is a scanned Adobe PDF file, please contact the RMA Web... information is estimated to average: 16.75 per response for the Risk Management Education and...

  5. Star formation in dwarf galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Shawfeng

    In this thesis, we examine the star formation history and stellar feedback effects of dwarf galaxies under the influence of extragalactic ultraviolet radiation, as well as the evolution of residual gas within tidally-limited dwarf galaxies and globular clusters. Previous work has indicated that the background UV flux can easily ionize the gas within typical dwarf galaxies, delaying or even preventing cooling and star formation within them. Many dwarf galaxies within the Local Group are, however, observed to contain multiple generations of stars, the oldest of which formed in the early epochs of cosmic evolution, when the background UV flux was intense. In order to address this paradox, we consider the dynamical evolution of gas in dwarf galaxies using a one-dimensional, spherically symmetric, Lagrangian numerical scheme which also computes the effects of radiative transfer and photoionization. We include in the scheme a physically-motivated star formation recipe and consider the effects of feedback. This scheme allows us to follow the history of the gas and of star formation within dwarf galaxies, as influenced by both external and internal UV radiation. Our results indicate that star formation in the severe environment of dwarf galaxies is a difficult and inefficient process. In potentials with total mass less than a few 106 M⊙ , and velocity dispersion less than a few km s-1 , residual gas is efficiently photoionized by cosmic background UV radiation. For intermediate mass systems, such as the dSphs around the Galaxy, star formation can proceed within early cosmic epochs despite the intense background UV flux. Triggering processes such as merger events, collisions, and tidal disturbance can lead to density enhancements, reducing the recombination timescale, allowing gas to cool and star formation to proceed. However, the star formation and gas retention efficiency may vary widely in galaxies with similar dark matter potentials, because they depend on many

  6. Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael

    2010-03-09

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may have one or more karsted zones. Methods may include providing heat from one or more heaters to one or more karsted zones of the tar sands formation to mobilize fluids in the formation. At least some of the mobilized fluids may be produced from the formation.

  7. Isolated star formation: from cloud formation to core collapse.

    PubMed

    Ward-Thompson, Derek

    2002-01-01

    The formation of stars is one of the most fundamental problems in astrophysics, as it underlies many other questions, on scales from the formation of galaxies to the formation of the solar system. The physical processes involve the turbulent behavior of a partially ionized medium containing a non-uniform magnetic field. Current debate centers around the time taken for turbulence to decay and the relative importance of the roles played by magnetic fields and turbulence. Technological advances such as millimeter-wave cameras have made possible observations of the temperature and density profiles, and statistical calculations of the lifetimes, of objects collapsing under their own self-gravity and those on the verge of collapse. Increased computing power allows more complex models to be made that include magnetic and turbulent effects. No current model can reproduce all of the observations. PMID:11778038

  8. An Adaptable Seismic Data Format

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krischer, Lion; Smith, James; Lei, Wenjie; Lefebvre, Matthieu; Ruan, Youyi; de Andrade, Elliott Sales; Podhorszki, Norbert; Bozdağ, Ebru; Tromp, Jeroen

    2016-11-01

    We present ASDF, the Adaptable Seismic Data Format, a modern and practical data format for all branches of seismology and beyond. The growing volume of freely available data coupled with ever expanding computational power opens avenues to tackle larger and more complex problems. Current bottlenecks include inefficient resource usage and insufficient data organization. Properly scaling a problem requires the resolution of both these challenges, and existing data formats are no longer up to the task. ASDF stores any number of synthetic, processed or unaltered waveforms in a single file. A key improvement compared to existing formats is the inclusion of comprehensive meta information, such as event or station information, in the same file. Additionally, it is also usable for any non-waveform data, for example, cross-correlations, adjoint sources or receiver functions. Last but not least, full provenance information can be stored alongside each item of data, thereby enhancing reproducibility and accountability. Any data set in our proposed format is self-describing and can be readily exchanged with others, facilitating collaboration. The utilization of the HDF5 container format grants efficient and parallel I/O operations, integrated compression algorithms and check sums to guard against data corruption. To not reinvent the wheel and to build upon past developments, we use existing standards like QuakeML, StationXML, W3C PROV and HDF5 wherever feasible. Usability and tool support are crucial for any new format to gain acceptance. We developed mature C/Fortran and Python based APIs coupling ASDF to the widely used SPECFEM3D_GLOBE and ObsPy toolkits.

  9. The Dynamics of Latifundia Formation

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Luis Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Land tenure inequity is a major social problem in developing nations worldwide. In societies, where land is a commodity, inequities in land tenure are associated with gaps in income distribution, poverty and biodiversity loss. A common pattern of land tenure inequities through the history of civilization has been the formation of latifundia [Zhuāngyuán in chinese], i.e., a pattern where land ownership is concentrated by a small fraction of the whole population. Here, we use simple Markov chain models to study the dynamics of latifundia formation in a heterogeneous landscape where land can transition between forest, agriculture and recovering land. We systematically study the likelihood of latifundia formation under the assumption of pre-capitalist trade, where trade is based on the average utility of land parcels belonging to each individual landowner during a discrete time step. By restricting land trade to that under recovery, we found the likelihood of latifundia formation to increase with the size of the system, i.e., the amount of land and individuals in the society. We found that an increase of the transition rate for land use changes, i.e., how quickly land use changes, promotes more equitable patterns of land ownership. Disease introduction in the system, which reduced land profitability for infected individual landowners, promoted the formation of latifundia, with an increased likelihood for latifundia formation when there were heterogeneities in the susceptibility to infection. Finally, our model suggests that land ownership reforms need to guarantee an equitative distribution of land among individuals in a society to avoid the formation of latifundia. PMID:24376597

  10. The dynamics of latifundia formation.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Luis Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Land tenure inequity is a major social problem in developing nations worldwide. In societies, where land is a commodity, inequities in land tenure are associated with gaps in income distribution, poverty and biodiversity loss. A common pattern of land tenure inequities through the history of civilization has been the formation of latifundia [Zhuāngyuán in chinese], i.e., a pattern where land ownership is concentrated by a small fraction of the whole population. Here, we use simple Markov chain models to study the dynamics of latifundia formation in a heterogeneous landscape where land can transition between forest, agriculture and recovering land. We systematically study the likelihood of latifundia formation under the assumption of pre-capitalist trade, where trade is based on the average utility of land parcels belonging to each individual landowner during a discrete time step. By restricting land trade to that under recovery, we found the likelihood of latifundia formation to increase with the size of the system, i.e., the amount of land and individuals in the society. We found that an increase of the transition rate for land use changes, i.e., how quickly land use changes, promotes more equitable patterns of land ownership. Disease introduction in the system, which reduced land profitability for infected individual landowners, promoted the formation of latifundia, with an increased likelihood for latifundia formation when there were heterogeneities in the susceptibility to infection. Finally, our model suggests that land ownership reforms need to guarantee an equitative distribution of land among individuals in a society to avoid the formation of latifundia. PMID:24376597

  11. The dynamics of latifundia formation.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Luis Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Land tenure inequity is a major social problem in developing nations worldwide. In societies, where land is a commodity, inequities in land tenure are associated with gaps in income distribution, poverty and biodiversity loss. A common pattern of land tenure inequities through the history of civilization has been the formation of latifundia [Zhuāngyuán in chinese], i.e., a pattern where land ownership is concentrated by a small fraction of the whole population. Here, we use simple Markov chain models to study the dynamics of latifundia formation in a heterogeneous landscape where land can transition between forest, agriculture and recovering land. We systematically study the likelihood of latifundia formation under the assumption of pre-capitalist trade, where trade is based on the average utility of land parcels belonging to each individual landowner during a discrete time step. By restricting land trade to that under recovery, we found the likelihood of latifundia formation to increase with the size of the system, i.e., the amount of land and individuals in the society. We found that an increase of the transition rate for land use changes, i.e., how quickly land use changes, promotes more equitable patterns of land ownership. Disease introduction in the system, which reduced land profitability for infected individual landowners, promoted the formation of latifundia, with an increased likelihood for latifundia formation when there were heterogeneities in the susceptibility to infection. Finally, our model suggests that land ownership reforms need to guarantee an equitative distribution of land among individuals in a society to avoid the formation of latifundia.

  12. Modeling of Mitochondrial Donut Formation

    PubMed Central

    Long, Qi; Zhao, Danyun; Fan, Weimin; Yang, Liang; Zhou, Yanshuang; Qi, Juntao; Wang, Xin; Liu, Xingguo

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are highly dynamic cell organelles. Continual cycles of fusion and fission play an important role in mitochondrial metabolism and cellular signaling. Previously, a novel mitochondrial morphology, the donut, was reported in cells after hypoxia-reoxygenation or osmotic pressure changes. However, the mechanism of donut formation remained elusive. Here, we obtained the distribution of donut diameters (D = 2R) and found that 95% are >0.8 μm. We also performed highly precise measurements of the mitochondrial tubule diameters using superresolution and electron microscopy. Then, we set up a model by calculating the mitochondrial bending energy and osmotic potential during donut formation. It shows that the bending energy is increased as the radius of curvature, R, gets smaller in the process of donut formation, especially for radii <0.4 μm, creating a barrier to donut formation. The calculations also show that osmotic potential energy release can balance the rising bending energy through volume expansion. Finally, we revealed the donut formation process in a Gibbs free-energy-dependent model combining calculations and measurements. PMID:26331247

  13. Star formation in Galactic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smilgys, Romas; Bonnell, Ian A.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the triggering of star formation in clouds that form in Galactic scale flows as the interstellar medium passes through spiral shocks. We use the Lagrangian nature of smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations to trace how the star-forming gas is gathered into self-gravitating cores that collapse to form stars. Large-scale flows that arise due to Galactic dynamics create shocks of the order of 30 km s-1 that compress the gas and form dense clouds (n > several × 102 cm-3) in which self-gravity becomes relevant. These large-scale flows are necessary for creating the dense physical conditions for gravitational collapse and star formation. Local gravitational collapse requires densities in excess of n > 103 cm-3 which occur on size scales of ≈1 pc for low-mass star-forming regions (M < 100 M⊙), and up to sizes approaching 10 pc for higher mass regions (M > 103 M⊙). Star formation in the 250 pc region lasts throughout the 5 Myr time-scale of the simulation with a star formation rate of ≈10-1 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2. In the absence of feedback, the efficiency of the star formation per free-fall time varies from our assumed 100 per cent at our sink accretion radius to values of <10-3 at low densities.

  14. Biofilm Formation by Candida dubliniensis

    PubMed Central

    Ramage, Gordon; Vande Walle, Kacy; Wickes, Brian L.; López-Ribot, José L.

    2001-01-01

    Candida dubliniensis is an opportunistic yeast closely related to Candida albicans that has been recently implicated in oropharyngeal candidiasis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Most manifestations of candidiasis are associated with biofilm formation, with cells in biofilms displaying properties dramatically different from free-living cells grown under normal laboratory conditions. Here, we report on the development of in vitro models of C. dubliniensis biofilms on the surfaces of biomaterials (polystyrene and acrylic) and on the characteristics associated with biofilm formation by this newly described species. Time course analysis using a formazan salt reduction assay to monitor metabolic activities of cells within the biofilm, together with microscopy studies, revealed that biofilm formation by C. dubliniensis occurred after initial focal adherence, followed by growth, proliferation, and maturation over 24 to 48 h. Serum and saliva preconditioning films enhanced the initial attachment of C. dubliniensis and subsequent biofilm formation. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal scanning laser microscopy were used to further characterize C. dubliniensis biofilms. Mature C. dubliniensis biofilms consisted of a dense network of yeasts cells and hyphal elements embedded within exopolymeric material. C. dubliniensis biofilms displayed spatial heterogeneity and an architecture showing microcolonies with ramifying water channels. Antifungal susceptibility testing demonstrated the increased resistance of sessile C. dubliniensis cells, including the type strain and eight different clinical isolates, against fluconazole and amphotericin B compared to their planktonic counterparts. C. dubliniensis biofilm formation may allow this species to maintain its ecological niche as a commensal and during infection with important clinical repercussions. PMID:11526156

  15. VLBI Data Interchange Format (VDIF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, Alan; Kettenis, Mark; Phillips, Chris; Sekido, Mamoru

    2010-01-01

    One important outcome of the 7th International e-VLBI Workshop in Shanghai in June 2008 was the creation of a task force to study and recommend a universal VLBI data format that is suitable for both on-the-wire e-VLBI data transfer, as well as direct disk storage. This task force, called the VLBI Data Interchange Format (VDIF) Task Force, is the first part of a two-part effort, the second of which will address standardization of e-VLBI data-transmission-protocols. The formation of the VDIF Task Force was prompted particularly by increased e-VLBI activity and the difficulties encountered when data arrive at a correlator in different formats from various instruments in various parts of the world. The task force created a streaming packetized data format that may be used for real-time and non-realtime e-VLBI, as well as direct disk storage. The data may contain multiple channels of time-sampled data with an arbitrary number of channels, arbitrary #bits/sample up to 32, and real or complex data; data rates in excess of 100 Gbps are supported. Each data packet is completely self-identifying via a short header, and data may be decoded without reference to any external information. The VDIF task force has completed its work, and the VDIF standard was ratified at the 2009 e-VLBI workshop in Madrid.

  16. Geologic map of the Corona North 7.5' quadrangle, Riverside and San Bernardino counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Douglas M.; Gray, C.H.; Bovard, Kelly R.; Dawson, Michael

    2002-01-01

    a. This Readme; includes in Appendix I, data contained in crn_met.txt b. The same graphic as plotted in 2 above. Test plots have not produced precise 1:24,000- scale map sheets. Adobe Acrobat page size setting influences map scale. The Correlation of Map Units and Description of Map Units is in the editorial format of USGS Geologic Investigations Series (I-series) maps but has not been edited to comply with I-map standards. Within the geologic map data package, map units are identified by standard geologic map criteria such as formation name, age, and lithology. Where known, grain size is indicated on the map by a subscripted letter or letters following the unit symbols as follows: lg, large boulders; b, boulder; g, gravel; a, arenaceous; s, silt; c, clay; e.g. Qyfa is a predominantly young alluvial fan deposit that is arenaceous. Multiple letters are used for more specific identification or for mixed units, e.g., Qfysa is a silty sand. In some cases, mixed units are indicated by a compound symbol; e.g., Qyf2sc. Marine deposits are in part overlain by local, mostly alluvial fan, deposits and are labeled Qomf. Grain size follows f. Even though this is an Open-File Report and includes the standard USGS Open-File disclaimer, the report closely adheres to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. Descriptions of units can be obtained by viewing or plotting the .pdf file (3b above) or plotting the postscript file (2 above).

  17. Geologic map of the Steele Peak 7.5' quadrangle, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Douglas M.; digital preparation by Alvarez, Rachel M.; Diep, Van M.

    2001-01-01

    a. This Readme; includes in Appendix I, data contained in stp_met.txt b. The same graphic as plotted in 2 above. Test plots have not produced 1:24,000-scale map sheets. Adobe Acrobat page size setting influences map scale. The Correlation of Map Units and Description of Map Units is in the editorial format of USGS Geologic Investigations Series (I-series) maps but has not been edited to comply with I-map standards. Within the geologic map data package, map units are identified by standard geologic map criteria such as formation-name, age, and lithology. Where known, grain size is indicated on the map by a subscripted letter or letters following the unit symbols as follows: lg, large boulders; b, boulder; g, gravel; a, arenaceous; s, silt; c, clay; e.g. Qyfa is a predominantly young alluvial fan deposit that is arenaceous. Multiple letters are used for more specific identification or for mixed units, e.g., Qfysa is a silty sand. In some cases, mixed units are indicated by a compound symbol; e.g., Qyf2sc. Marine deposits are in part overlain by local, mostly alluvial fan, deposits and are labeled Qomf. Grain size follows f. Even though this is an Open-File Report and includes the standard USGS Open-File disclaimer, the report closely adheres to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. Descriptions of units can be obtained by viewing or plotting the .pdf file (3b above) or plotting the postscript file (2 above).

  18. Geologic map and digital database of the Bachelor Mountain 7.5' quadrangle, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Douglas M.; Kennedy, Michael P.; Digital preparation by Bovard, Kelly R.; Burns, Diane

    2003-01-01

    Portable Document Format (.pdf) files of: This Readme; includes in Appendix I, data contained in bch_met.txt The same graphic as plotted in 2 above. Test plots have not produced precise 1:24,000- scale map sheets. Adobe Acrobat page size setting influences map scale. The Correlation of Map Units and Description of Map Units is in the editorial format of USGS Geologic Investigations Series (I-series) maps but has not been edited to comply with I-map standards. Within the geologic map data package, map units are identified by standard geologic map criteria such as formationname, age, and lithology. Where known, grain size is indicated on the map by a subscripted letter or letters following the unit symbols as follows: lg, large boulders; b, boulder; g, gravel; a, arenaceous; s, silt; c, clay; e.g. Qyfa is a predominantly young alluvial fan deposit that is arenaceous. Multiple letters are used for more specific identification or for mixed units, e.g., Qfysa is a silty sand. In some cases, mixed units are indicated by a compound symbol; e.g., Qyf2sc. Even though this is an Open-File Report and includes the standard USGS Open-File disclaimer, the report closely adheres to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. Descriptions of units can be obtained by viewing or plotting the .pdf file (3b above) or plotting the postscript file (2 above). This Readme file describes the digital data, such as types and general contents of files making up the database, and includes information on how to extract and plot the map and accompanying graphic file. Metadata information can be accessed at http://geo-nsdi.er.usgs.gov/metadata/open-file/03-102 and is included in Appendix I of this Readme.

  19. Preliminary geologic map of the Perris 7.5' quadrangle, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Douglas M.; Digital preparation by Bovard, Kelly R.; Alvarez, Rachel M.

    2003-01-01

    Open-File Report 03-270 contains a digital geologic map database of the Perris 7.5’ quadrangle, Riverside County, California that includes: 1. ARC/INFO (Environmental Systems Research Institute, http://www.esri.com) version 7.2.1 coverages of the various elements of the geologic map. 2. A Postscript file to plot the geologic map on a topographic base, and containing a Correlation of Map Units diagram (CMU), a Description of Map Units (DMU), and an index map. 3. Portable Document Format (.pdf) files of: a. A Readme file b. The same graphic as described in 2 above. Test plots have not produced precise 1:24,000- scale map sheets. Adobe Acrobat page size setting influences map scale. The Correlation of Map Units and Description of Map Units is in the editorial format of USGS Geologic Investigations Series (I-series) maps but has not been edited to comply with I-map standards. Within the geologic map data package, map units are identified by standard geologic map criteria such as formationname, age, and lithology. Where known, grain size is indicated on the map by a subscripted letter or letters following the unit symbols as follows: lg, large boulders; b, boulder; g, gravel; a, arenaceous; s, silt; c, clay; e.g. Qyfa is a predominantly young alluvial fan deposit that is arenaceous. Multiple letters are used for more specific identification or for mixed units, e.g., Qfysa is a silty sand. In some cases, mixed units are indicated by a compound symbol; e.g., Qyf2sc.

  20. Geologic map and digital database of the Romoland 7.5' quadrangle, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Douglas M.; Digital preparation by Bovard, Kelly R.; Morton, Gregory

    2003-01-01

    Portable Document Format (.pdf) files of: This Readme; includes in Appendix I, data contained in rom_met.txt The same graphic as plotted in 2 above. Test plots have not produced precise 1:24,000- scale map sheets. Adobe Acrobat page size setting influences map scale. The Correlation of Map Units and Description of Map Units is in the editorial format of USGS Geologic Investigations Series (I-series) maps but has not been edited to comply with I-map standards. Within the geologic map data package, map units are identified by standard geologic map criteria such as formationname, age, and lithology. Where known, grain size is indicated on the map by a subscripted letter or letters following the unit symbols as follows: lg, large boulders; b, boulder; g, gravel; a, arenaceous; s, silt; c, clay; e.g. Qyfa is a predominantly young alluvial fan deposit that is arenaceous. Multiple letters are used for more specific identification or for mixed units, e.g., Qfysa is a silty sand. In some cases, mixed units are indicated by a compound symbol; e.g., Qyf2sc. Even though this is an Open-File Report and includes the standard USGS Open-File disclaimer, the report closely adheres to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. Descriptions of units can be obtained by viewing or plotting the .pdf file (3b above) or plotting the postscript file (2 above). This Readme file describes the digital data, such as types and general contents of files making up the database, and includes information on how to extract and plot the map and accompanying graphic file. Metadata information can be accessed at http://geo-nsdi.er.usgs.gov/metadata/open-file/03-102 and is included in Appendix I of this Readme.

  1. Geologic map of the Riverside East 7.5' quadrangle, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Douglas M.; Cox, Brett F.

    2001-01-01

    a. This Readme; includes in Appendix I, data contained in rse_met.txt b. The same graphic as plotted in 2 above. Test plots have not produced 1:24,000-scale map sheets. Adobe Acrobat page size setting influences map scale. The Correlation of Map Units and Description of Map Units is in the editorial format of USGS Geologic Investigations Series (I-series) maps but has not been edited to comply with I-map standards. Within the geologic map data package, map units are identified by standard geologic map criteria such as formation-name, age, and lithology. Where known, grain size is indicated on the map by a subscripted letter or letters following the unit symbols as follows: lg, large boulders; b, boulder; g, gravel; a, arenaceous; s, silt; c, clay; e.g. Qyfa is a predominantly young alluvial fan deposit that is arenaceous. Multiple letters are used for more specific identification or for mixed units, e.g., Qfysa is a silty sand. In some cases, mixed units are indicated by a compound symbol; e.g., Qyf2sc. Marine deposits are in part overlain by local, mostly alluvial fan, deposits and are labeled Qomf. Grain size follows f. Even though this is an Open-File Report and includes the standard USGS Open-File disclaimer, the report closely adheres to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. Descriptions of units can be obtained by viewing or plotting the .pdf file (3b above) or plotting the postscript file (2 above).

  2. Geologic map of the Corona South 7.5' quadrangle, Riverside and Orange counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, C.H.; Morton, Douglas M.; Weber, F. Harold; Digital preparation by Bovard, Kelly R.; O'Brien, Timothy

    2002-01-01

    a. A Readme file; includes in Appendix I, data contained in crs_met.txt b. The same graphic as plotted in 2 above. Test plots have not produced 1:24,000-scale map sheets. Adobe Acrobat page size setting influences map scale. The Correlation of Map Units and Description of Map Units is in the editorial format of USGS Geologic Investigations Series (I-series) maps but has not been edited to comply with I-map standards. Within the geologic map data package, map units are identified by standard geologic map criteria such as formation-name, age, and lithology. Where known, grain size is indicated on the map by a subscripted letter or letters following the unit symbols as follows: lg, large boulders; b, boulder; g, gravel; a, arenaceous; s, silt; c, clay; e.g. Qyfa is a predominantly young alluvial fan deposit that is arenaceous. Multiple letters are used for more specific identification or for mixed units, e.g., Qfysa is a silty sand. In some cases, mixed units are indicated by a compound symbol; e.g., Qyf2sc. Marine deposits are in part overlain by local, mostly alluvial fan, deposits and are labeled Qomf. Grain size follows f. Even though this is an Open-File Report and includes the standard USGS Open-File disclaimer, the report closely adheres to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. Descriptions of units can be obtained by viewing or plotting the .pdf file (3b above) or plotting the postscript file (2 above).

  3. Geologic map of the Lake Mathews 7.5' quadrangle, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Douglas M.; Weber, F. Harold

    2001-01-01

    a. This Readme; includes in Appendix I, data contained in lkm_met.txt b. The same graphic as plotted in 2 above. Test plots have not produced 1:24,000-scale map sheets. Adobe Acrobat page size setting influences map scale. The Correlation of Map Units and Description of Map Units is in the editorial format of USGS Miscellaneous Investigations Series (I-series) maps but has not been edited to comply with I-map standards. Within the geologic map data package, map units are identified by standard geologic map criteria such as formation-name, age, and lithology. Where known, grain size is indicated on the map by a subscripted letter or letters following the unit symbols as follows: lg, large boulders; b, boulder; g, gravel; a, arenaceous; s, silt; c, clay; e.g. Qyfa is a predominantly young alluvial fan deposit that is arenaceous.Multiple letters are used for more specific identification or for mixed units, e.g., Qfysa is a silty sand.In some cases, mixed units are indicated by a compound symbol; e.g., Qyf2sc. Marine deposits are in part overlain by local, mostly alluvial fan, deposits and are labeled Qomf. Grain size follows f. Even though this is an Open-File report and includes the standard USGS Open-File disclaimer, the report closely adheres to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. Descriptions of units can be obtained by viewing or plotting the .pdf file (3b above) or plotting the postscript file (2 above).

  4. Digital geologic map of Fawnskin 7.5' quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, F.K.; Matti, J.C.; Brown, H.J.; Powell, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    a. This Readme; includes in Appendix I, data contained in fskn_met.txt b. The same graphic as plotted in 2 above. (Test plots from this .pdf do not produce 1:24,000-scale maps. Adobe Acrobat page-size settings control map scale.) This release includes features not found in most other digital geologic maps, in that all polygons, lines, and points in the coverage are encoded with detailed, comprehensive geologic data contained in six INFO data tables (.rel). (See Matti and others, 1998a, 1998b, and 1998c, for information on how the encoding may be accessed and utilized.) No paper map is included in the Open-File Report, but a PostScript plot file containing an image of the geologic map sheet, topographic base, Correlation of Map Units (CMU), and detailed Description of Map Units (DMU) is. The Correlation of Map Units and Description of Map Units are in the editorial format of USGS Miscellaneous Investigations Series maps (I-maps) but have not been edited to comply with I-map standards. Within the geologic map data package, map units are identified by such standard geologic-map criteria as formation name, age, and lithology. Even though this is an author-prepared report, every attempt has been made to closely adhere to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. Descriptions of units can be obtained by viewing or plotting the .pdf file (3b above) or plotting the PostScript file (2 above). If roads in some areas, especially roads that parallel topographic contours, do not show well on plots of the geologic map, we recommend use of the USGS Fawnskin 7.5' topographic quadrangle in conjunction with the geologic map.

  5. Geologic map of the Riverside West 7.5' quadrangle, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Douglas M.; Cox, Brett F.

    2001-01-01

    a. This Readme; includes in Appendix I, data contained in rsw_met.txt b. The same graphic as plotted in 2 above. Test plots have not produced 1:24,000-scale map sheets. Adobe Acrobat page size setting influences map scale. The Correlation of Map Units and Description of Map Units is in the editorial format of USGS Geologic Investigations Series (I-series) maps but has not been edited to comply with I-map standards. Within the geologic map data package, map units are identified by standard geologic map criteria such as formation-name, age, and lithology. Where known, grain size is indicated on the map by a subscripted letter or letters following the unit symbols as follows: lg, large boulders; b, boulder; g, gravel; a, arenaceous; s, silt; c, clay; e.g. Qyfa is a predominantly young alluvial fan deposit that is arenaceous. Multiple letters are used for more specific identification or for mixed units, e.g., Qfysa is a silty sand. In some cases, mixed units are indicated by a compound symbol; e.g., Qyf2sc. Marine deposits are in part overlain by local, mostly alluvial fan, deposits and are labeled Qomf. Grain size follows f.Even though this is an Open-File Report and includes the standard USGS Open-File disclaimer, the report closely adheres to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. Descriptions of units can be obtained by viewing or plotting the .pdf file (3b above) or plotting the postscript file (2 above).

  6. Geologic map of the Lakeview 7.5' quadrangle, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Douglas M.; Matti, Jonathan C.

    2001-01-01

    This Open-File Report contains a digital geologic map and map database of the Lakeview 7.5' quadrangle, Riverside County, California, that includes: 1. ARC/INFO (Environmental Systems Research Institute) version 7.2.1 double-precision coverages of the various elements of the geologic map 2. A Postscript file to plot the geologic map on a topographic base, and containing a Correlation of Map Units diagram and a Description of Map Units 3. Portable Document Format (.pdf) files of: a. This Readme; includes, in Appendix I, data contained in lkvw_met.txt b. The same graphic as plotted in 2 above. (Test plots from this .pdf do not produce 1:24,000-scale maps. Adobe Acrobat page size settings control map scale.) This release includes features not found in most other digital geologic maps, in that all polygons, lines, and points in the coverage are encoded with detailed, comprehensive, contained in five INFO data tables (.rel) (see Matti and others, 1998a, 1998b, and 1998c for information on how the encoding may be accessed and utilized). No paper map is included in this report, but a PostScript plot file containing an image of the geologic map sheet, topographic base, Correlation of Map Units (CMU), and detailed Description of Map Units (DMU) is. Within the geologic map data package, map units are identified by standard geologic map criteria such as formation name, age, and lithology. Even though this is an author-prepared report, every attempt has been made to closely adhere to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U. S. Geological Survey. Descriptions of units can be obtained by viewing or plotting the .pdf file (3b above) or plotting the postscript file (2 above). If roads in some areas, especially roads that parallel topographic contours, do not show well on plots of the geologic map, we recommend use of the USGS Lakeview 7.5' topographic quadrangle in conjunction with the geologic map.

  7. Geologic map of the Sunnymead 7.5' quadrangle, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Douglas M.; Matti, Jonathan C.

    2001-01-01

    a. This Readme; includes in Appendix I, data contained in sun_met.txt b. The same graphic as plotted in 2 above. Test plots have not produced 1:24,000-scale map sheets. Adobe Acrobat page size setting influences map scale. The Correlation of Map Units and Description of Map Units is in the editorial format of USGS Geologic Investigations Series (I-series) maps but has not been edited to comply with I-map standards. Within the geologic map data package, map units are identified by standard geologic map criteria such as formation-name, age, and lithology. Where known, grain size is indicated on the map by a subscripted letter or letters following the unit symbols as follows: lg, large boulders; b, boulder; g, gravel; a, arenaceous; s, silt; c, clay; e.g. Qyfa is a predominantly young alluvial fan deposit that is arenaceous. Multiple letters are used for more specific identification or for mixed units, e.g., Qfysa is a silty sand. In some cases, mixed units are indicated by a compound symbol; e.g., Qyf2sc. Marine deposits are in part overlain by local, mostly alluvial fan, deposits and are labeled Qomf. Grain size follows f. Even though this is an Open-File Report and includes the standard USGS Open-File disclaimer, the report closely adheres to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. Descriptions of units can be obtained by viewing or plotting the .pdf file (3b above) or plotting the postscript file (2 above).

  8. Hepatitis Risk Assessment

    MedlinePlus

    ... About the Division of Viral Hepatitis Contact Us File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  9. Giardia & Pets

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vet Parasitol. 2011;187(1-2):93-8. File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  10. FastStats: Influenza

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  11. FastStats: Pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  12. FastStats: Sinus Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  13. FastStats: Alcohol Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  14. CDC Vital Signs: Child Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1.1 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  15. FastStats: Birth Defects or Congenital Anomalies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  16. FastStats: Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  17. FastStats: Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  18. FastStats: Health of American Indian or Alaska Native Population

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  19. FastStats: Obesity and Overweight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  20. Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Related Links About VSPB (Viral Special Pathogens Branch) File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  1. CDC Vital Signs: Recipe for Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... MMWR RSS VitalSigns RSS Error processing SSI file File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  2. FastStats: Self-Inflicted Injury/Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  3. FastStats: Cerebrovascular Disease or Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  4. Hip Fractures among Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  5. Infection Control: The Use and Handling of Toothbrushes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Control in Dental Settings FAQs for Infection Control File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  6. Campylobacter

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2020 and Food Safety Food Safety Modernization Act File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  7. FastStats: Allergies/Hay Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  8. FastStats: Chronic Liver Disease and Cirrhosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  9. FastStats: Viral Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  10. FastStats: Anemia or Iron Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  11. FastStats: Whooping Cough or Pertussis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  12. Measles -- Q&A about Disease & Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Autism Top of Page Related Page Measles Vaccination File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  13. FastStats: Inpatient Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disability Statistics Where to Write for Vital Records File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  14. FastStats: Illegal Drug Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  15. FastStats: Health of Hispanic or Latino Population

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  16. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... place? At CDC, you can make that happen. File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  17. Patient Safety Threat - Syringe Reuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Plan to Prevent HAIs HICPAC One & Only Campaign File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  18. Malaria and Travelers

    MedlinePlus

    ... a CDC Malaria Branch clinician. malaria@cdc.gov File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  19. Malaria Treatment (United States)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a CDC Malaria Branch clinician. malaria@cdc.gov File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  20. Choosing a Drug to Prevent Malaria

    MedlinePlus

    ... a CDC Malaria Branch clinician. malaria@cdc.gov File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  1. Malaria Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... a CDC Malaria Branch clinician. malaria@cdc.gov File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  2. Mission Critical: Preventing Antibiotic Resistance

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  3. Antibiotic / Antimicrobial Resistance Glossary

    MedlinePlus

    ... on the Farm Get Smart About Antibiotics Week File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  4. Home Canning and Botulism

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  5. Antibiotic-Resistant Gonorrhea (ARG)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Follow STD STD on Twitter STD on Facebook File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  6. Strategic National Stockpile (SNS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  7. Antibiotic and Antimicrobial Resistance: Threat Report 2013

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  8. Counterfeit and Substandard Antimalarial Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... a CDC Malaria Branch clinician. malaria@cdc.gov File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  9. SW New Mexico Oil Well Formation Tops

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shari Kelley

    2015-10-21

    Rock formation top picks from oil wells from southwestern New Mexico from scout cards and other sources. There are differing formation tops interpretations for some wells, so for those wells duplicate formation top data are presented in this file.

  10. Characteristics of the Earth's Magnetic Field Prior to the Cretaceous Normal Superchron: New Paleomagnetic Results from Alto Paraguay Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes Solano, M.; Goguitchaichrili, A.

    2011-12-01

    We report a detailed paleomagnetic investigation from 28 lava flows (221 standard paleomagnetic cores) collected in the Paraguayan part of the Paraná Flood Basalts (Alto Paraguay Formation) in order to (i) document the variability of the Earth's magnetic field during the early Cretaceous, (ii) estimate the extrusion rate of Paraná magma and (iii) obtain a new Cretaceous paleomagnetic pole for stable South America. The paleofield direction is precisely determined for 26 sites for which, the remanent magnetization is characterized by a small within-site dispersion and a high directional stability. Nine sites give normal polarity magnetization and other 9 are reversely magnetized while 8 remaining sites show intermediate paleodirections. The mean paleomagnetic direction of normal polarity sites is I=-41.8, D=4.9, k=112, a95=4.9 while reversely magnetized sites give I=37.1, D=181.4, k=23, a95=11.1. These results point to almost antipodal mean directions, since the reversal test is positive. The mean paleomagnetic pole position obtained from 18 sites is Plong= 179.2E, Plat= 86.2S, R=17.74, k=64.56, A95=4.3. The positions of Virtual Geomagnetic Poles show a reasonably good fit with a Fisherian distribution when probability plots as well as formal testing procedures are used. The pole obtained in this study agrees reasonably well with coeval pole positions, in particular with those obtained from CPMP (Central Paraná), Los Adobes, Misiones and SAMC. However, some other similar age paleomagnetic poles show significant departure that may be attributed to local tectonic rotations or insufficient sampling to overcome the paleosecular variation. The paleosecular variation parameters are in agreement with the selected data reported for the Cretaceous Normal Superchron. In contrast, VGP angular dispersions found here are lower with respect to the Jurassic and Plio-Pleistocene data. The intermediate VGPs show a cluster in southern hemisphere of 6 VGPs located near the pacific

  11. Physicochemical regulation of biofilm formation

    PubMed Central

    Renner, Lars D.; Weibel, Douglas B.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the physical and chemical constraints of environments on biofilm formation. We provide a perspective on how materials science and engineering can address fundamental questions and unmet technological challenges in this area of microbiology, such as biofilm prevention. Specifically, we discuss three factors that impact the development and organization of bacterial communities. (1) Physical properties of surfaces regulate cell attachment and physiology and affect early stages of biofilm formation. (2) Chemical properties influence the adhesion of cells to surfaces and their development into biofilms and communities. (3) Chemical communication between cells attenuates growth and influences the organization of communities. Mechanisms of spatial and temporal confinement control the dimensions of communities and the diffusion path length for chemical communication between biofilms, which, in turn, influences biofilm phenotypes. Armed with a detailed understanding of biofilm formation, researchers are applying the tools and techniques of materials science and engineering to revolutionize the study and control of bacterial communities growing at interfaces. PMID:22125358

  12. Jet-Induced Star Formation

    SciTech Connect

    van Breugel, W; Fragile, C; Anninos, P; Murray, S

    2003-12-16

    Jets from radio galaxies can have dramatic effects on the medium through which they propagate. We review observational evidence for jet-induced star formation in low ('FR-I') and high ('FR-II') luminosity radio galaxies, at low and high redshifts respectively. We then discuss numerical simulations which are aimed to explain a jet-induced starburst ('Minkowski's Object') in the nearby FR-I type radio galaxy NGC 541. We conclude that jets can induce star formation in moderately dense (10 cm{sup -3}), warm (10{sup 4} K) gas; that this may be more common in the dense environments of forming, active galaxies; and that this may provide a mechanism for 'positive' feedback from AGN in the galaxy formation process.

  13. Bundle Formation in Biomimetic Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Jaspers, Maarten; Pape, A C H; Voets, Ilja K; Rowan, Alan E; Portale, Giuseppe; Kouwer, Paul H J

    2016-08-01

    Bundling of single polymer chains is a crucial process in the formation of biopolymer network gels that make up the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton. This bundled architecture leads to gels with distinctive properties, including a large-pore-size gel formation at very low concentrations and mechanical responsiveness through nonlinear mechanics, properties that are rarely observed in synthetic hydrogels. Using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), we study the bundle formation and hydrogelation process of polyisocyanide gels, a synthetic material that uniquely mimics the structure and mechanics of biogels. We show how the structure of the material changes at the (thermally induced) gelation point and how factors such as concentration and polymer length determine the architecture, and with that, the mechanical properties. The correlation of the gel mechanics and the structural parameters obtained from SAXS experiments is essential in the design of future (synthetic) mimics of biopolymer networks.

  14. Spatial competition and price formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, Kai; Shubik, Martin; Paczuski, Maya; Bak, Per

    2000-12-01

    We look at price formation in a retail setting, that is, companies set prices, and consumers either accept prices or go someplace else. In contrast to most other models in this context, we use a two-dimensional spatial structure for information transmission, that is, consumers can only learn from nearest neighbors. Many aspects of this can be understood in terms of generalized evolutionary dynamics. In consequence, we first look at spatial competition and cluster formation without price. This leads to establishement size distributions, which we compare to reality. After some theoretical considerations, which at least heuristically explain our simulation results, we finally return to price formation, where we demonstrate that our simple model with nearly no organized planning or rationality on the part of any of the agents indeed leads to an economically plausible price.

  15. Angular momentum and star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strittmatter, P. A.

    The present investigation is mainly concerned with the importance of high angular resolution observations in studies of star formation and, in particular, with elucidating the role which angular momentum plays in the process. A brief report is included on recent high angular resolution observations made with the Steward Observatory speckle camera system. A consideration of the angular momentum in interstellar clouds indicates that rotation precludes quasi-spherical contraction. A number of solutions to this angular momentum problem are examined, taking into account questions concerning the help provided by high angular resolution observations for an elucidation of the various possible scenarios of star formation. Technical aspects involved in obtaining suitable data are investigated. It is concluded that high angular resolution observations hold considerable promise for solving at least some of the problems associated with the role of angular momentum in star formation.

  16. Formation dynamics in geostationary ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiridonova, Sofya

    2016-08-01

    A relative motion model for a satellite formation composed of two Earth-orbiting spacecraft located in the geostationary ring is developed taking into account major gravitational and non-gravitational forces. A previously existing model featuring perturbation due to J_2 is enhanced by the perturbations due to solar radiation pressure arising from unequal area-to-mass ratios, as well as the secular and long-periodic gravitational perturbations due to the Sun and the Moon. The extended relative motion model is validated using several typical formation geometries against a reference generated by numerical integration of the absolute orbits of the two spacecraft. The results of this work can find application in future on-orbit servicing and formation flying missions in near-geostationary orbit.

  17. Mathematical Models for Somite Formation

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Ruth E.; Schnell, Santiago; Maini, Philip K.

    2009-01-01

    Somitogenesis is the process of division of the anterior–posterior vertebrate embryonic axis into similar morphological units known as somites. These segments generate the prepattern which guides formation of the vertebrae, ribs and other associated features of the body trunk. In this work, we review and discuss a series of mathematical models which account for different stages of somite formation. We begin by presenting current experimental information and mechanisms explaining somite formation, highlighting features which will be included in the models. For each model we outline the mathematical basis, show results of numerical simulations, discuss their successes and shortcomings and avenues for future exploration. We conclude with a brief discussion of the state of modeling in the field and current challenges which need to be overcome in order to further our understanding in this area. PMID:18023728

  18. Granuloma Formation in Pulmonary Sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Broos, Caroline E.; van Nimwegen, Menno; Hoogsteden, Henk C.; Hendriks, Rudi W.; Kool, Mirjam; van den Blink, Bernt

    2013-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disorder of unknown cause, affecting multiple organs, but mainly the lungs. The exact order of immunological events remains obscure. Reviewing current literature, combined with careful clinical observations, we propose a model for granuloma formation in pulmonary sarcoidosis. A tight collaboration between macrophages, dendritic cells, and lymphocyte subsets, initiates the first steps toward granuloma formation, orchestrated by cytokines and chemokines. In a substantial part of pulmonary sarcoidosis patients, granuloma formation becomes an on-going process, leading to debilitating disease, and sometimes death. The immunological response, determining granuloma sustainment is not well understood. An impaired immunosuppressive function of regulatory T cells has been suggested to contribute to the exaggerated response. Interestingly, therapeutical agents commonly used in sarcoidosis, such as glucocorticosteroids and anti-TNF agents, interfere with granuloma integrity and restore the immune homeostasis in autoimmune disorders. Increasing insight into their mechanisms of action may contribute to the search for new therapeutical targets in pulmonary sarcoidosis. PMID:24339826

  19. An XML portable chart format.

    PubMed Central

    Chueh, H. C.; Raila, W. F.; Berkowicz, D. A.; Barnett, G. O.

    1998-01-01

    The clinical chart remains the fundamental record of outpatient clinical care. As this information migrates to electronic form, there is an opportunity to create standard formats for transmitting these charts. This paper describes work toward a Portable Chart Format (PCF) that can represent the relevant aspects of an outpatient chart. The main goal of the format is to provide a packaging medium for outpatient clinical charts in a transfer of care scenario. A secondary goal is to support the aggregation of comparable clinical data for outcomes analysis. The syntax used for PCF is Extended Markup Language (XML), a W3C standard. The structure of the PCF is based on a clinically relevant view of the data. The data definitions and nomenclature used are based primarily on existing clinical standards. PMID:9929315

  20. Pathophysiology of glioma cyst formation.

    PubMed

    Adn, Mahmoudreza; Saikali, Stephan; Guegan, Yvon; Hamlat, Abderrahmane

    2006-01-01

    Fluid filled cystic cavities are accompaniments of some cerebral gliomas. These tumoural cysts together with peritumoural vasogenic brain oedema add to the morbid effects of the gliomas in terms of mass effect and increased intracranial pressure. Although different mechanisms have been suggested as to the pathogenesis of glioma-associated cysts, it is still unclear why these cysts appear in only a limited number of cerebral gliomas while brain oedema, a probable precursor of glioma cysts, is a usual accompaniment of most gliomas. Here, the authors present a two-hit hypothesis of brain glioma cyst formation. We suggest that after the formation of vasogenic tumoural brain oedema, microvascular phenomena may lead to the formation of microcysts, which might later become confluent and grow to form macroscopic cysts. Progress in the understanding of pathogenesis of cerebral glioma cysts might set targets for treatment of brain edema and glioma cysts.

  1. Pattern formation in multiplex networks

    PubMed Central

    Kouvaris, Nikos E.; Hata, Shigefumi; Guilera, Albert Díaz-

    2015-01-01

    The advances in understanding complex networks have generated increasing interest in dynamical processes occurring on them. Pattern formation in activator-inhibitor systems has been studied in networks, revealing differences from the classical continuous media. Here we study pattern formation in a new framework, namely multiplex networks. These are systems where activator and inhibitor species occupy separate nodes in different layers. Species react across layers but diffuse only within their own layer of distinct network topology. This multiplicity generates heterogeneous patterns with significant differences from those observed in single-layer networks. Remarkably, diffusion-induced instability can occur even if the two species have the same mobility rates; condition which can never destabilize single-layer networks. The instability condition is revealed using perturbation theory and expressed by a combination of degrees in the different layers. Our theory demonstrates that the existence of such topology-driven instabilities is generic in multiplex networks, providing a new mechanism of pattern formation. PMID:26042606

  2. Physicochemical regulation of biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Renner, Lars D; Weibel, Douglas B

    2011-05-01

    This article reviews the physical and chemical constraints of environments on biofilm formation. We provide a perspective on how materials science and engineering can address fundamental questions and unmet technological challenges in this area of microbiology, such as biofilm prevention. Specifically, we discuss three factors that impact the development and organization of bacterial communities. (1) Physical properties of surfaces regulate cell attachment and physiology and affect early stages of biofilm formation. (2) Chemical properties influence the adhesion of cells to surfaces and their development into biofilms and communities. (3) Chemical communication between cells attenuates growth and influences the organization of communities. Mechanisms of spatial and temporal confinement control the dimensions of communities and the diffusion path length for chemical communication between biofilms, which, in turn, influences biofilm phenotypes. Armed with a detailed understanding of biofilm formation, researchers are applying the tools and techniques of materials science and engineering to revolutionize the study and control of bacterial communities growing at interfaces.

  3. Formation of the first stars.

    PubMed

    Bromm, Volker

    2013-11-01

    Understanding the formation of the first stars is one of the frontier topics in modern astrophysics and cosmology. Their emergence signalled the end of the cosmic dark ages, a few hundred million years after the Big Bang, leading to a fundamental transformation of the early Universe through the production of ionizing photons and the initial enrichment with heavy chemical elements. We here review the state of our knowledge, separating the well understood elements of our emerging picture from those where more work is required. Primordial star formation is unique in that its initial conditions can be directly inferred from the Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model of cosmological structure formation. Combined with gas cooling that is mediated via molecular hydrogen, one can robustly identify the regions of primordial star formation, the so-called minihalos, having total masses of ~10(6) M⊙ and collapsing at redshifts z ≈ 20-30. Within this framework, a number of studies have defined a preliminary standard model, with the main result that the first stars were predominantly massive. This model has recently been modified to include a ubiquitous mode of fragmentation in the protostellar disks, such that the typical outcome of primordial star formation may be the formation of a binary or small multiple stellar system. We will also discuss extensions to this standard picture due to the presence of dynamically significant magnetic fields, of heating from self-annihalating WIMP dark matter, or cosmic rays. We conclude by discussing possible strategies to empirically test our theoretical models. Foremost among them are predictions for the upcoming James Webb space telescope (JWST), to be launched ~2018, and for 'stellar archaeology', which probes the abundance pattern in the oldest, most-metal poor stars in our cosmic neighborhood, thereby constraining the nucleosynthesis inside the first supernovae.

  4. Conductive Anodic Filament (CAF) Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caputo, Antonio

    Conductive anodic filament (CAF) is a failure mode in printed wiring boards (PWBs) which occurs under high humidity and high voltage gradient conditions. The filament, a copper salt, grows from anode to cathode along the epoxy-glass interface. Ready and Turbini (2000) identified this copper salt as the Cu 2(OH)3Cl, atacamite compound. This work has investigated the influence of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyethylene propylene glycol (PEPG) fluxing agents on the chemical nature of CAF. For coupons processed with PEPG flux, with and without chloride, a copper-chloride containing compound was formed in the polymer matrix. This compound was characterized using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) as CuCl and an electrochemical mechanism for the formation of the chloride-containing CAF has been proposed. For PEG flux, with and without chloride, it has been shown that CAF only formed, but no copper containing compound formed in the matrix. It appears for PEG fluxed coupons, a PEG-Cu-Cl complex forms, binds the available Cu and acts as a barrier to the formation of CuCl in the polymer matrix. Meeker and Lu Valle (1995) have previously proposed that CAF failure is best represented by two competing reactions -- the formation of a copper chloride corrosion compound (now identified as Cu2(OH)3Cl) and the formation of innocuous trapped chlorine compounds. Since no evidence of any trapped chloride compounds has been found, we propose that the formation of CAF is best represented by a single non-reversible reaction. For coupons processed with a high bromide-containing flux, bromide containing CAF was created and characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to be Cu2(OH)3Br. In addition, a copper-containing compound was formed in the polymer matrix and characterized using XPS as CuBr. An electrochemical mechanism for the formation of bromide-containing CAF has been proposed based on the XPS data.

  5. Formation of the first stars.

    PubMed

    Bromm, Volker

    2013-11-01

    Understanding the formation of the first stars is one of the frontier topics in modern astrophysics and cosmology. Their emergence signalled the end of the cosmic dark ages, a few hundred million years after the Big Bang, leading to a fundamental transformation of the early Universe through the production of ionizing photons and the initial enrichment with heavy chemical elements. We here review the state of our knowledge, separating the well understood elements of our emerging picture from those where more work is required. Primordial star formation is unique in that its initial conditions can be directly inferred from the Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model of cosmological structure formation. Combined with gas cooling that is mediated via molecular hydrogen, one can robustly identify the regions of primordial star formation, the so-called minihalos, having total masses of ~10(6) M⊙ and collapsing at redshifts z ≈ 20-30. Within this framework, a number of studies have defined a preliminary standard model, with the main result that the first stars were predominantly massive. This model has recently been modified to include a ubiquitous mode of fragmentation in the protostellar disks, such that the typical outcome of primordial star formation may be the formation of a binary or small multiple stellar system. We will also discuss extensions to this standard picture due to the presence of dynamically significant magnetic fields, of heating from self-annihalating WIMP dark matter, or cosmic rays. We conclude by discussing possible strategies to empirically test our theoretical models. Foremost among them are predictions for the upcoming James Webb space telescope (JWST), to be launched ~2018, and for 'stellar archaeology', which probes the abundance pattern in the oldest, most-metal poor stars in our cosmic neighborhood, thereby constraining the nucleosynthesis inside the first supernovae. PMID:24168986

  6. Optimal Reconfiguration of Tetrahedral Formations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntington, Geoffrey; Rao, Anil V.; Hughes, Steven P.

    2004-01-01

    The problem of minimum-fuel formation reconfiguration for the Magnetospheric Multi-Scale (MMS) mission is studied. This reconfiguration trajectory optimization problem can be posed as a nonlinear optimal control problem. In this research, this optimal control problem is solved using a spectral collocation method called the Gauss pseudospectral method. The objective of this research is to provide highly accurate minimum-fuel solutions to the MMS formation reconfiguration problem and to gain insight into the underlying structure of fuel-optimal trajectories.

  7. Star formation and gas supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catinella, B.

    2016-06-01

    A detailed knowledge of how gas cycles in and around galaxies, and how it depends on galaxy properties such as stellar mass and star formation rate, is crucial to understand galaxy formation and evolution. We take advantage of the most sensitive surveys of cold gas in massive galaxies, GASS and COLD GASS, as well as of the state-of-the-art HI blind survey ALFALFA to investigate how molecular and atomic hydrogen reservoirs vary along and across the main sequence of star-forming galaxies.

  8. Magnetohydrodynamic mechanism for pedestal formation.

    PubMed

    Guazzotto, L; Betti, R

    2011-09-16

    Time-dependent two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations are carried out for tokamak plasmas with edge poloidal flow. Differently from conventional equilibrium theory, a density pedestal all around the edge is obtained when the poloidal velocity exceeds the poloidal sound speed. The outboard pedestal is induced by the transonic discontinuity, the inboard one by mass redistribution. The density pedestal follows the formation of a highly sheared flow at the transonic surface. These results may be relevant to the L-H transition and pedestal formation in high performance tokamak plasmas.

  9. Star formation and extinct radioactivities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, A. G. W.

    1984-01-01

    An assessment is made of the evidence for the existence of now-extinct radioactivities in primitive solar system material, giving attention to implications for the early stages of sun and solar system formation. The characteristics of possible disturbances in dense molecular clouds which can initiate the formation of cloud cores is discussed, with emphasis on these disturbances able to generate fresh radioactivities. A one-solar mass red giant star on the asymptotic giant branch appears to have been the best candidate to account for the short-lived extinct radioactivities in the early solar system.

  10. Pattern formation in the geosciences

    PubMed Central

    Goehring, Lucas

    2013-01-01

    Pattern formation is a natural property of nonlinear and non-equilibrium dynamical systems. Geophysical examples of such systems span practically all observable length scales, from rhythmic banding of chemical species within a single mineral crystal, to the morphology of cusps and spits along hundreds of kilometres of coastlines. This article briefly introduces the general principles of pattern formation and argues how they can be applied to open problems in the Earth sciences. Particular examples are then discussed, which summarize the contents of the rest of this Theme Issue. PMID:24191107

  11. Star formation and its triggers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combes, F.

    2016-06-01

    The relation between star formation and gas density appears linear for galaxies on the main sequence, and when the molecular gas is considered. However, the star formation efficiency (SFE) defined as the ratio of SFR to gas surface densities, can be much higher when SF is triggered by a dynamical process such as galaxy interaction or mergers, or even secular evolution and cold gas accretion. I review recent work showing how the SFE can vary as a function of morphological type, environment, or redshift. Physical processes able to explain positive and negative feedback from supernovae or AGN are discussed.

  12. Star formation across galactic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Jason

    I present here parallel investigations of star formation in typical and extreme galaxies. The typical galaxies are selected to be free of active galactic nuclei (AGN), while the extreme galaxies host quasars (the most luminous class of AGN). These two environments are each insightful in their own way; quasars are among the most violent objects in the universe, literally reshaping their host galaxies, while my sample of AGN-free star-forming galaxies ranges from systems larger than the Milky Way to small galaxies which are forming stars at unsustainably high rates. The current paradigm of galaxy formation and evolution suggests that extreme circumstances are key stepping stones in the assembly of galaxies like our Milky Way. To test this paradigm and fully explore its ramifications, this dual approach is needed. My sample of AGN-free galaxies is drawn from the KPNO International Spectroscopic Survey. This Halpha-selected, volume-limited survey was designed to detect star-forming galaxies without a bias toward continuum luminosity. This type of selection ensures that this sample is not biased toward galaxies that are large or nearby. My work studies the KISS galaxies in the mid- and far-infrared using photometry from the IRAC and MIPS instruments aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. These infrared bands are particularly interesting for star formation studies because the ultraviolet light from young stars is reprocessed into thermal emission in the far-infrared (24mum MIPS) by dust and into vibrational transitions features in the mid-infrared (8.0mum IRAC) by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The work I present here examines the efficiencies of PAH and thermal dust emission as tracers of star-formation rates over a wide range of galactic stellar masses. I find that the efficiency of PAH as a star-formation tracer varies with galactic stellar mass, while thermal dust has a highly variable efficiency that does not systematically depend on galactic stellar mass

  13. Digital version of "Open-File Report 92-182: Geologic map of the Marl Mountains Quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California"

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilshire, Howard G.; Bedford, David R.; Coleman, Teresa

    2002-01-01

    This is a digital map database version of a previous U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report, OF92-182. It contains 3 Arc/Info formatted coverages, distributed in Arc Interchange format, a plottable map representation of the database at 1:24,000 scale in Postscript and Adobe PDF formats, and the original map explanation pamphlet in text, Postscript, and Adobe PDF formats.

  14. SAS FORMATS: USES AND ABUSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    SAS formats are a very powerful tool. They allow you to display the data in a more readable manner without modifying the data. They can also be used to group data into categories for use in various procedures like PROC FREQ, PROC TTEST, and PROC MEANS (as a class variable). ...

  15. Facial Prototype Formation in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inn, Donald; And Others

    This study examined memory representation as it is exhibited in young children's formation of facial prototypes. In the first part of the study, researchers constructed images of faces using an Identikit that provided the features of hair, eyes, mouth, nose, and chin. Images were varied systematically. A series of these images, called exemplar…

  16. Chevrons formation in laminar erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devauchelle, Olivier; Josserand, Christophe; Lagree, Pierre-Yves; Zaleski, Stephane; Nguyen, Khanh-Dang; Malverti, Luce; Lajeunesse, Eric

    2007-11-01

    When eroded by laminar free-surface flows, granular substrates may generate a rich variety of natural patterns. Among them are dunes, similar to the ones observed by Charru and Hinch in a Couette cell (Charru F, Hinch EJ ; Ripple formation on a particle bed sheared by a viscous liquid. Part 1. Steady flow ; JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 550: 111-121 MAR 10 2006). Chevron-shaped instabilities as those found on the sea-shore, can also be observed, sometimes in competition against dunes formation. These were first pointed out by Daerr et al. when pulling a plate covered with granular material out of a bath of water (Daerr A, Lee P, Lanuza J, et al. ; Erosion patterns in a sediment layer ; PHYSICAL REVIEW E 67 (6): Art. No. 065201 Part 2 JUN 2003). Both instabilities can grow in laminar open-channel flows, an experimental set-up which is more easily controlled. The mechanisms leading to the formation of these patterns are investigated and compared. Whereas dunes formation requires vertical inertia effects, we show that chevrons may result from the non-linear evolution of bars instability, which may grow even in purely viscous flows.

  17. Junction formation during desiccation cracking.

    PubMed

    Toga, K B; Alaca, B Erdem

    2006-08-01

    In order to provide a sound physical basis for the understanding of the formation of desiccation crack networks, an experimental study is presented addressing junction formation. Focusing on junctions, basic features of the network determining the final pattern, provides an elemental approach and imparts conceptual clarity to the rather complicated problem of the evolution of crack patterns. Using coffee-water mixtures a clear distinction between junction formation during nucleation and propagation is achieved. It is shown that for the same drying suspension, one can switch from the well-known symmetric triple junctions that are unique to the nucleation phase to propagation junctions that are purely dictated by the variations of the stress state. In the latter case, one can even manipulate the path of a propagating crack in a deterministic fashion by changing the stress state within the suspension. Clear microscopic evidence is provided for the formation of propagation junctions, and material inhomogeneity is observed to be reflected by a broad distribution of angles, in stark contrast to shrinkage cracks in homogeneous solid films.

  18. Formative Assessment in Primary Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughland, Tony; Kilpatrick, Laetitia

    2015-01-01

    This action learning study in a year three classroom explored the implementation of five formative assessment principles to assist students' understandings of the scientific topic of liquids and solids. These principles were employed to give students a greater opportunity to express their understanding of the concepts. The study found that…

  19. Laser-assisted antihydrogen formation

    SciTech Connect

    Chattopadhyay, A.; Sinha, C.

    2006-08-15

    Laser-assisted antihydrogen (H) formation cross sections (differential and total) for collisions of antiprotons with positronium (Ps) are studied in the framework of the eikonal approximation for two geometries, when the field polarization is parallel (parallel{sup L}) or perpendicular (perpendicular{sup r}) to the incident Ps momentum. The variations of the H formation cross sections with respect to the field strength and the laser photon energy are studied for the multiphoton (absorption and emission) processes. The contribution of the atomic (both Ps and H) dressing terms to the enhancement of the H formation cross section is studied for both the geometries (parallel{sup L} and (perpendicular{sup r}). The most important prediction from the present work is the enhancement of the field-free (FF) H formation cross sections particularly at lower incident energies when the system (Ps+p) is irradiated by a single mode, linearly polarized laser, the enhancement being more pronounced for a wider range of incident energy in the perpendicular{sup r} geometry than in the parallel{sup L} one.

  20. Pattern Formation in Convective Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, R.; Bestehorn, M.; Haken, H.

    The present article reviews recent progress in the study of pattern formation in convective instabilities. After a brief discussion of the relevant basic hydrodynamic equations as well as a short outline of the mathematical treatment of pattern formation in complex systems the self-organization of spatial and spatio-temporal structures due to convective instabilities is considered. The formation of various forms of convective patterns arising in the Bénard experiment, i.e. in a horizontal fluid layer heated from below, is discussed. Then the review considers pattern formation in the Bénard instability in spherical geometries. In that case it can be demonstrated how the interaction among several convective cells may lead to time dependent as well as chaotic evolution of the spatial structures. Finally, the convective instability in a binary fluid mixture is discussed. In contrast to the instability in a single component fluid the instability may be oscillatory. In that case convection sets in in the form of travelling wave patterns which in addition to a complicated and chaotic temporal behaviour exhibit more or less spatial irregularity already close to threshold.

  1. Formative Assessment in Dance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Heidi; Lui, Angela; Palma, Maria; Hefferen, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Feedback is crucial to students' growth as dancers. When used within the framework of formative assessment, or assessment for learning, feedback results in actionable next steps that dancers can use to improve their performances. This article showcases the work of two dance specialists, one elementary and one middle school teacher, who have…

  2. A standard audit trail format

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, M.

    1995-02-01

    The central role of audit trails, or (more properly) logs, in security monitoring needs little description, for it is too well known for any to doubt it. Auditing, or the analysis of logs, is a central part of security not only in computer system security but also in analyzing financial and other non-technical systems. As part of this process, it is often necessary to reconcile logs from different sources. This speaks of a need for a standard logging format. A standard log format robust enough to meet the needs of heterogeneity, transportability across various network protocols, and flexibility sufficient to meet a variety of needs in very different environments must satisfy two basic properties: extensibility and portability. This report presents the author`s proposed format for a standard log record. In section 3, he shows how and where the translation should be done, and in section 4 he demonstrates how log records from several disparate systems would be put into this format. Section 5 concludes with some observations and suggestions for future work.

  3. Stereotype Formation: Biased by Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Pelley, Mike E.; Reimers, Stian J.; Calvini, Guglielmo; Spears, Russell; Beesley, Tom; Murphy, Robin A.

    2010-01-01

    We propose that biases in attitude and stereotype formation might arise as a result of learned differences in the extent to which social groups have previously been predictive of behavioral or physical properties. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrate that differences in the experienced predictiveness of groups with respect to evaluatively neutral…

  4. The EPRDATA Format: A Dialogue

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, III, Henry Grady

    2015-08-18

    Recently the Los Alamos Nuclear Data Team has communicated certain issues of concern in relation to the new electron/photon/relaxation ACE data format as released in the eprdata12 library. In this document those issues are parsed, analyzed, and answered.

  5. Formative Assessment: A Cybernetic Viewpoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roos, Bertil; Hamilton, David

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers alternative assessment, feedback and cybernetics. For more than 30 years, debates about the bi-polarity of formative and summative assessment have served as surrogates for discussions about the workings of the mind, the social implications of assessment and, as important, the role of instruction in the advancement of learning.…

  6. Technology Enhanced Distributive Formative Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, David Richard

    2008-01-01

    Quality assurance in instructional development demands an exhaustive formative evaluation effort and applied testing. Unfortunately, this process is expensive and requires large numbers of user testers with characteristics similar to the intended audience. This article presents a procedure for increasing the efficiency of quality assurance efforts…

  7. Multiple cilia suppress tumour formation.

    PubMed

    Eberhart, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Primary cilia are cellular structures that have important functions in development and disease. The suppression of multiciliate differentiation of choroid plexus precursors, and maintenance of a single primary cilium by Notch1, is now shown to be involved in choroid plexus tumour formation. PMID:27027488

  8. Formative Considerations Using Integrative CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Philip; Shaver, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Addresses technical and learning issues relating to a formative implementation of a computer assisted language learning (CALL) browser-based intermediate Russian program. Instruction took place through a distance education implementation and in a grouped classroom using a local-area network. Learners indicated the software was clear, motivating,…

  9. Audiences for Contemporary Radio Formats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lull, James T.; And Others

    A radio audience survey of 110 sample geographic clusters in the Santa Barbara, California, area served a twofold purpose: the construction of a demographic profile of audience types according to radio format choices, and the identification and analysis of various audience subgroups. A skip interval technique of these geographic clusters resulted…

  10. Constraints on galaxy formation theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szalay, A. S.

    1986-01-01

    The present theories of galaxy formation are reviewed. The relation between peculiar velocities, temperature fluctuations of the microwave background and the correlation function of galaxies point to the possibility that galaxies do not form uniformly everywhere. The velocity data provide strong constraints on the theories even in the case when light does not follow mass of the universe.

  11. Amyloid Beta Mediates Memory Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Osta, Ana; Alberini, Cristina M.

    2009-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) undergoes sequential cleavages to generate various polypeptides, including the amyloid [beta] (1-42) peptide (A[beta][1-42]), which is believed to play a major role in amyloid plaque formation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we provide evidence that, in contrast with its pathological role when accumulated,…

  12. Mantle dynamics following supercontinent formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heron, Philip J.

    This thesis presents mantle convection numerical simulations of supercontinent formation. Approximately 300 million years ago, through the large-scale subduction of oceanic sea floor, continental material amalgamated to form the supercontinent Pangea. For 100 million years after its formation, Pangea remained relatively stationary, and subduction of oceanic material featured on its margins. The present-day location of the continents is due to the rifting apart of Pangea, with supercontinent dispersal being characterized by increased volcanic activity linked to the generation of deep mantle plumes. The work presented here investigates the thermal evolution of mantle dynamics (e.g., mantle temperatures and sub-continental plumes) following the formation of a supercontinent. Specifically, continental insulation and continental margin subduction are analyzed. Continental material, as compared to oceanic material, inhibits heat flow from the mantle. Previous numerical simulations have shown that the formation of a stationary supercontinent would elevate sub-continental mantle temperatures due to the effect of continental insulation, leading to the break-up of the continent. By modelling a vigorously convecting mantle that features thermally and mechanically distinct continental and oceanic plates, this study shows the effect of continental insulation on the mantle to be minimal. However, the formation of a supercontinent results in sub-continental plume formation due to the re-positioning of subduction zones to the margins of the continent. Accordingly, it is demonstrated that continental insulation is not a significant factor in producing sub-supercontinent plumes but that subduction patterns control the location and timing of upwelling formation. A theme throughout the thesis is an inquiry into why geodynamic studies would produce different results. Mantle viscosity, Rayleigh number, continental size, continental insulation, and oceanic plate boundary evolution are

  13. Sedimentary pyrite formation: An update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berner, Robert A.

    1984-04-01

    Sedimentary pyrite formation during early diagenesis is a major process for controlling the oxygen level of the atmosphere and the sulfate concentration in seawater over geologic time. The amount of pyrite that may form in a sediment is limited by the rates of supply of decomposable organic matter, dissolved sulfate, and reactive detrital iron minerals. Organic matter appears to be the major control on pyrite formation in normal (non-euxinic) terrigenous marine sediments where dissolved sulfate and iron minerals are abundant. By contrast, pyrite formation in non-marine, freshwater sediments is severely limited by low concentrations of sulfate and this characteristic can be used to distinguish ancient organic-rich fresh water shales from marine shales. Under marine euxinic conditions sufficient H 2S is produced that the dominant control on pyrite formation is the availability of reactive iron minerals. Calculations, based on a sulfur isotope model, indicate that over Phanerozoic time the worldwide average organic carbon-to-pyrite sulfur ratio of sedimentary rocks has varied considerably. High C/S ratios during Permo-Carboniferous time can be explained by a shift of major organic deposition from the oceans to the land which resulted in the formation of vast coal swamps at that time. Low C/S ratios, compared to today, during the early Paleozoic can be explained in terms of a greater abundance of euxinic basins combined with deposition of a more reactive type of organic matter in the remaining oxygenated portions of the ocean. The latter could have been due to lower oceanic oxygen levels and/or a lack of transportation of refractory terrestrial organic matter to the marine environment due to the absence of vascular land plants at that time.

  14. The Black Hole Formation Probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausen, Drew R.; Piro, Anthony; Ott, Christian D.

    2015-01-01

    A longstanding question in stellar evolution is which massive stars produce black holes (BHs) rather than neutron stars (NSs) upon death. It has been common practice to assume that a given zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) mass star (and perhaps a given metallicity) simply produces either an NS or a BH, but this fails to account for a myriad of other variables that may effect this outcome, such as spin, binarity, or even stochastic differences in the stellar structure near core collapse. We argue that instead a probabilistic description of NS versus BH formation may be better suited to account for the current uncertainties in understanding how massive stars die. Using the observed BH mass distribution from Galactic X-ray binaries, we investigate the probability that a star will make a BH as a function of its ZAMS mass. Although the shape of the black hole formation probability function is poorly constrained by current measurements, we believe that this framework is an important new step toward better understanding BH formation. We also consider some of the implications of this probability distribution, from its impact on the chemical enrichment from massive stars, to its connection with the structure of the core at the time of collapse, to the birth kicks that black holes receive. A probabilistic description of BH formation will be a useful input for future population synthesis studies that are interested in the formation of X-ray binaries, the nature and event rate of gravitational wave sources, and answering questions about chemical enrichment.

  15. Inside-Out Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Jonathan; Chatterjee, Sourav

    2013-07-01

    The compact multi-transiting planet systems discovered by Kepler challenge planet formation theory. Formation in situ from disks with radial mass surface density profiles similar to the minimum mass solar nebula (MMSN) but boosted in normalization by factors >10 has been suggested. We propose that a more natural way to create these planets in the inner disk is formation sequentially from the inside-out via creation of successive gravitationally unstable rings fed from a continuous stream of small (~cm-m size) "pebbles", drifting inwards via gas drag. Pebbles collect at the pressure maximum associated with the transition from a magneto-rotational instability (MRI)-inactive ("dead zone") region to an inner MRI-active zone. A pebble ring builds up until it either becomes gravitationally unstable to form an ~1-10M_Earth planet directly or induces gradual planet formation via core accretion. The planet may undergo Type I migration into the active region, allowing a new pebble ring and planet to form behind it. Alternatively if migration is inefficient, the planet may continue to accrete from the disk until it becomes massive enough to isolate itself from the accretion flow. A variety of densities may result depending on the relative importance of residual gas accretion as the planet approaches its isolation mass. The process can repeat with a new pebble ring gathering at the new pressure maximum associated with the retreating dead zone boundary. Our simple theoretical model for this scenario of inside-out planet formation yields planetary masses, relative mass scalings with orbital radius, and minimum orbital separations consistent with those seen by Kepler. It provides an explanation of how massive planets can form with tightly-packed system architectures, starting from typical protoplanetary disk properties.

  16. Inside-out Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Sourav; Tan, Jonathan C.

    2014-01-01

    The compact multi-transiting planet systems discovered by Kepler challenge planet formation theories. Formation in situ from disks with radial mass surface density, Σ, profiles similar to the minimum mass solar nebula but boosted in normalization by factors >~ 10 has been suggested. We propose that a more natural way to create these planets in the inner disk is formation sequentially from the inside-out via creation of successive gravitationally unstable rings fed from a continuous stream of small (~cm-m size) "pebbles," drifting inward via gas drag. Pebbles collect at the pressure maximum associated with the transition from a magnetorotational instability (MRI)-inactive ("dead zone") region to an inner MRI-active zone. A pebble ring builds up until it either becomes gravitationally unstable to form an ~1 M ⊕ planet directly or induces gradual planet formation via core accretion. The planet may undergo Type I migration into the active region, allowing a new pebble ring and planet to form behind it. Alternatively, if migration is inefficient, the planet may continue to accrete from the disk until it becomes massive enough to isolate itself from the accretion flow. A variety of densities may result depending on the relative importance of residual gas accretion as the planet approaches its isolation mass. The process can repeat with a new pebble ring gathering at the new pressure maximum associated with the retreating dead-zone boundary. Our simple analytical model for this scenario of inside-out planet formation yields planetary masses, relative mass scalings with orbital radius, and minimum orbital separations consistent with those seen by Kepler. It provides an explanation of how massive planets can form with tightly packed and well-aligned system architectures, starting from typical protoplanetary disk properties.

  17. Inside-out planet formation

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Sourav; Tan, Jonathan C. E-mail: jt@astro.ufl.edu

    2014-01-01

    The compact multi-transiting planet systems discovered by Kepler challenge planet formation theories. Formation in situ from disks with radial mass surface density, Σ, profiles similar to the minimum mass solar nebula but boosted in normalization by factors ≳ 10 has been suggested. We propose that a more natural way to create these planets in the inner disk is formation sequentially from the inside-out via creation of successive gravitationally unstable rings fed from a continuous stream of small (∼cm-m size) 'pebbles', drifting inward via gas drag. Pebbles collect at the pressure maximum associated with the transition from a magnetorotational instability (MRI)-inactive ('dead zone') region to an inner MRI-active zone. A pebble ring builds up until it either becomes gravitationally unstable to form an ∼1 M {sub ⊕} planet directly or induces gradual planet formation via core accretion. The planet may undergo Type I migration into the active region, allowing a new pebble ring and planet to form behind it. Alternatively, if migration is inefficient, the planet may continue to accrete from the disk until it becomes massive enough to isolate itself from the accretion flow. A variety of densities may result depending on the relative importance of residual gas accretion as the planet approaches its isolation mass. The process can repeat with a new pebble ring gathering at the new pressure maximum associated with the retreating dead-zone boundary. Our simple analytical model for this scenario of inside-out planet formation yields planetary masses, relative mass scalings with orbital radius, and minimum orbital separations consistent with those seen by Kepler. It provides an explanation of how massive planets can form with tightly packed and well-aligned system architectures, starting from typical protoplanetary disk properties.

  18. Wintertime Haze Formation in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy Zamora, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Recent severe haze events in China have attracted significant public attention due to the severely reduced visibility and unprecedentedly high pollutant concentrations. Particular attention has been given to the high concentrations of particulate matter with a diameter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5), which can exceed several hundred micrograms per cubic meter over several days. During January and February of 2015, a suite of aerosol instruments was deployed in Beijing to directly measure a comprehensive set of aerosol properties, including the particle size distribution, effective density, and chemical composition. In this presentation, we will discuss the particulate matter formation mechanisms, the evolution of aerosol properties throughout the event, and how the winter formation mechanisms compare with the warmer seasons. We show that the periodic cycles of severe haze episodes in Beijing are largely driven by meteorological conditions. During haze events, stagnation typically develops as a result of a low planetary boundary layer and weak southerly wind from polluted industrial source regions. Stronger northerly winds were frequently observed during the clean period, which carry unpolluted air masses from the less populated northern mountainous areas. Nucleation consistently occurs on clean days, producing a high number concentration of nano particles. The particle mass concentration exceeding several hundred micrograms per cubic meter is attributed to the continuous size growth from the nucleation-mode particles (diameter less than 10 nm) over multiple days to produce a high concentration of larger particles (diameter greater than 100 nm). The particle chemical composition in Beijing is similar to those commonly measured in other urban centers, which is indicative of chemical constituents dominated by secondary aerosol formation. Our results reveal that the severe haze formation in Beijing during the wintertime is similar to the mechanism of haze formation

  19. Inside-Out Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Jonathan Charles; Chatterjee, Sourav; Hu, Xiao; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Mohanty, Subhanjoy

    2015-08-01

    The Kepler-discovered systems with tightly-packed inner planets (STIPs), typically with several planets of Earth to super-Earth masses on well-aligned, sub-AU orbits may host the most common type of planets in the Galaxy. They pose a great challenge for planet formation theories, which fall into two broad classes: (1) formation further out followed by migration; (2) formation in situ from a disk of gas and planetesimals. I review the pros and cons of these classes, before focusing on a new theory of sequential in situ formation from the inside-out via creation of successive gravitationally unstable rings fed from a continuous stream of small (~cm-m size) "pebbles," drifting inward via gas drag. Pebbles first collect at the pressure trap associated with the transition from a magnetorotational instability (MRI)-inactive ("dead zone") region to an inner MRI-active zone. A pebble ring builds up until it either becomes gravitationally unstable to form an Earth to super-Earth-mass planet directly or induces gradual planet formation via core accretion. The planet continues to accrete until it becomes massive enough to isolate itself from the accretion flow via gap opening. The process repeats with a new pebble ring gathering at the new pressure maximum associated with the retreating dead-zone boundary. I discuss the theory’s predictions for planetary masses, relative mass scalings with orbital radius, and minimum orbital separations, and their comparison with observed systems. Finally I speculate about potential causes of diversity of planetary system architectures, i.e., STIPs versus Solar System analogs.

  20. What Is Formation? A Conceptual Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutphen, Molly; de Lange, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the principles and connotations of the term "formation." In our discussion of formation, we draw on different disciplines in order to widen and deepen our understanding of the concept of formation. We also mirror the formation concept against comparable terms and draw on studies in which it has been applied in…

  1. 40 CFR 1502.10 - Recommended format.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recommended format. 1502.10 Section... § 1502.10 Recommended format. Agencies shall use a format for environmental impact statements which will... following standard format for environmental impact statements should be followed unless the...

  2. Standard Formats for Atomic Data: the APED

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R K; Brickhouse, N S; Liedahl, D A; Raymond, J C

    2001-06-05

    Standardized formats for atomic data used in calculating emission from a collisionally-ionized plasma are described. The formats use the astronomical-standard FITS format, and are extendible to other purposes, such as photoionization data. The formats emphasize storing references to the original data source and keeping the data in as-received form, to aid in checking against the original literature.

  3. 40 CFR 1502.10 - Recommended format.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recommended format. 1502.10 Section... § 1502.10 Recommended format. Agencies shall use a format for environmental impact statements which will... following standard format for environmental impact statements should be followed unless the...

  4. 40 CFR 1502.10 - Recommended format.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recommended format. 1502.10 Section... § 1502.10 Recommended format. Agencies shall use a format for environmental impact statements which will... following standard format for environmental impact statements should be followed unless the...

  5. Method of fracturing a geological formation

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, James O.

    1990-01-01

    An improved method of fracturing a geological formation surrounding a well bore is disclosed. A relatively small explosive charge is emplaced in a well bore and the bore is subsequently hydraulically pressurized to a pressure less than the formation breakdown pressure and preferably greater than the fracture propagation pressure of the formation. The charge is denoted while the bore is so pressurized, resulting in the formation of multiple fractures in the surrounding formation with little or no accompanying formation damage. Subsequent hydraulic pressurization can be used to propagate and extend the fractures in a conventional manner. The method is useful for stimulating production of oil, gas and possibly water from suitable geologic formations.

  6. ASDF: A new data format for astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenfield, P.; Droettboom, M.; Bray, E.

    2015-09-01

    We present the case for developing a successor format for the immensely successful FITS format. We first review existing alternative formats and discuss why we do not believe they provide an adequate solution. The proposed format is called the Advanced Scientific Data Format (ASDF) and is based on an existing text format, YAML, that we believe removes most of the current problems with the FITS format. An overview of the capabilities of the new format is given along with specific examples. This format has the advantage that it does not limit the size of attribute names (akin to FITS keyword names) nor place restrictions on the size or type of values attributes have. Hierarchical relationships are explicit in the syntax and require no special conventions. Finally, it is capable of storing binary data within the file in its binary form. At its basic level, the format proposed has much greater applicability than for just astronomical data.

  7. Treating tar sands formations with dolomite

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael

    2010-06-08

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may include dolomite and hydrocarbons. Methods may include providing heat at less than the decomposition temperature of dolomite from one or more heaters to at least a portion of the formation. At least some of the hydrocarbon fluids are mobilized in the formation. At least some of the hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  8. Engineering biofilm formation and dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Thomas K.; Hong, Seok Hoon; Ma, Qun

    2011-01-01

    Anywhere water is in the liquid state, bacteria will exist as biofilms, which are complex communities of cells cemented together. Although frequently associated with disease and biofouling, biofilms are also important for engineering applications, such as bioremediation, biocatalysis and microbial fuel cells. Here we review approaches to alter genetic circuits and cell signaling toward controlling biofilm formation, and emphasize utilizing these tools for engineering applications. Based on a better understanding of the genetic basis of biofilm formation, we find that biofilms may be controlled by manipulating extracellular signals and that they may be dispersed using conserved intracellular signals and regulators. Biofilms could also be formed at specific locations where they might be engineered to make chemicals or treat human disease. PMID:21131080

  9. Rapid gas hydrate formation process

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Thomas D.; Taylor, Charles E.; Unione, Alfred J.

    2013-01-15

    The disclosure provides a method and apparatus for forming gas hydrates from a two-phase mixture of water and a hydrate forming gas. The two-phase mixture is created in a mixing zone which may be wholly included within the body of a spray nozzle. The two-phase mixture is subsequently sprayed into a reaction zone, where the reaction zone is under pressure and temperature conditions suitable for formation of the gas hydrate. The reaction zone pressure is less than the mixing zone pressure so that expansion of the hydrate-forming gas in the mixture provides a degree of cooling by the Joule-Thompson effect and provides more intimate mixing between the water and the hydrate-forming gas. The result of the process is the formation of gas hydrates continuously and with a greatly reduced induction time. An apparatus for conduct of the method is further provided.

  10. Laser beam pulse formatting method

    DOEpatents

    Daly, T.P.; Moses, E.I.; Patterson, R.W.; Sawicki, R.H.

    1994-08-09

    A method for formatting a laser beam pulse using one or more delay loops is disclosed. The delay loops have a partially reflective beam splitter and a plurality of highly reflective mirrors arranged such that the laser beam pulse enters into the delay loop through the beam splitter and circulates therein along a delay loop length defined by the mirrors. As the laser beam pulse circulates within the delay loop a portion thereof is emitted upon each completed circuit when the laser beam pulse strikes the beam splitter. The laser beam pulse is thereby formatted into a plurality of sub-pulses. The delay loops are used in combination to produce complex waveforms by combining the sub-pulses using additive waveform synthesis. 8 figs.

  11. Laser beam pulse formatting method

    DOEpatents

    Daly, Thomas P.; Moses, Edward I.; Patterson, Ralph W.; Sawicki, Richard H.

    1994-01-01

    A method for formatting a laser beam pulse (20) using one or more delay loops (10). The delay loops (10) have a partially reflective beam splitter (12) and a plurality of highly reflective mirrors (14) arranged such that the laser beam pulse (20) enters into the delay loop (10) through the beam splitter (12) and circulates therein along a delay loop length (24) defined by the mirrors (14). As the laser beam pulse (20) circulates within the delay loop (10) a portion thereof is emitted upon each completed circuit when the laser beam pulse (20) strikes the beam splitter (12). The laser beam pulse (20) is thereby formatted into a plurality of sub-pulses (50, 52, 54 and 56). The delay loops (10) are used in combination to produce complex waveforms by combining the sub-pulses (50, 52, 54 and 56) using additive waveform synthesis.

  12. Formation of Ultracold Polar Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor-Juarros, E.; Côté, R.; Kirby, K.

    2002-05-01

    A variety of experimental techniques have been employed to create a number of ultracold molecules, including CaH, Na_2, K_2, Cs_2, Rb2 and CO. Novel effects are predicted to occur in samples of ultracold polar molecules.(L. Santos et al.), Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1791 (2000). We present calculations of the formation rate of ultracold hydrides (LiH, NaH, KH, RbH, and CsH), using the most accurate molecular potentials and dipole moments available. We show that these polar molecules can be produced in selected vibrational and rotational states by stimulated radiative association in a mixture of ultracold hydrogen and alkali metal atoms. We study the properties of these atomic mixtures as well as those of the hydrides, and explore the effect of shape resonances on the formation rates. [2ex] *Supported by NSF

  13. Formation of quasiparallel Alfven solitons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, R. L.; Kennel, C. F.; Mjolhus, E.

    1992-01-01

    The formation of quasi-parallel Alfven solitons is investigated through the inverse scattering transformation (IST) for the derivative nonlinear Schroedinger (DNLS) equation. The DNLS has a rich complement of soliton solutions consisting of a two-parameter soliton family and a one-parameter bright/dark soliton family. In this paper, the physical roles and origins of these soliton families are inferred through an analytic study of the scattering data generated by the IST for a set of initial profiles. The DNLS equation has as limiting forms the nonlinear Schroedinger (NLS), Korteweg-de-Vries (KdV) and modified Korteweg-de-Vries (MKdV) equations. Each of these limits is briefly reviewed in the physical context of quasi-parallel Alfven waves. The existence of these limiting forms serves as a natural framework for discussing the formation of Alfven solitons.

  14. The dynamics of city formation*

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, J. Vernon; Venables, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines city formation in a country whose urban population is growing steadily over time, with new cities required to accommodate this growth. In contrast to most of the literature there is immobility of housing and urban infrastructure, and investment in these assets is taken on the basis of forward-looking behavior. In the presence of these fixed assets cities form sequentially, without the population swings in existing cities that arise in current models, but with swings in house rents. Equilibrium city size, absent government, may be larger or smaller than is efficient, depending on how urban externalities vary with population. Efficient formation of cities with internalization of externalities involves local government intervention and borrowing to finance development. The paper explores the institutions required for successful local government intervention. PMID:25089087

  15. Two-dimensional simulation of clastic and carbonate sedimentation, consolidation, subsidence, fluid flow, heat flow and solute transport during the formation of sedimentary basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitzer, Klaus

    1999-05-01

    Script format: BASINVIEW is used to display the distribution of parameters in the simulated cross-section of the basin for defined time steps. It is used in conjunction with the Ghostview software, which is freeware and available on most computer systems. AIBASIN provides PostScript output for Adobe Illustrator®, taking advantage of the layer-concept which facilitates further graphic manipulation. BASELINE is used to display parameter distribution at a defined well or to visualize the temporal evolution of individual elements located in the simulated sedimentary basin. The modular structure of the BASIN code allows additional processes to be included. A module to simulate reactive transport and diagenetic reactions is planned for future versions. The program has been applied to existing sedimentary basins, and it has also shown a high potential for classroom instruction, giving the possibility to create hypothetical basins and to interpret basin evolution in terms of sequence stratigraphy or petroleum potential.

  16. Hydrogen Sulfide Inhibits Amyloid Formation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Amyloid fibrils are large aggregates of misfolded proteins, which are often associated with various neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, Huntington’s, and vascular dementia. The amount of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is known to be significantly reduced in the brain tissue of people diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease relative to that of healthy individuals. These findings prompted us to investigate the effects of H2S on the formation of amyloids in vitro using a model fibrillogenic protein hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL). HEWL forms typical β-sheet rich fibrils during the course of 70 min at low pH and high temperatures. The addition of H2S completely inhibits the formation of β-sheet and amyloid fibrils, as revealed by deep UV resonance Raman (DUVRR) spectroscopy and ThT fluorescence. Nonresonance Raman spectroscopy shows that disulfide bonds undergo significant rearrangements in the presence of H2S. Raman bands corresponding to disulfide (RSSR) vibrational modes in the 550–500 cm–1 spectral range decrease in intensity and are accompanied by the appearance of a new 490 cm–1 band assigned to the trisulfide group (RSSSR) based on the comparison with model compounds. The formation of RSSSR was proven further using a reaction with TCEP reduction agent and LC-MS analysis of the products. Intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence study shows a strong denaturation of HEWL containing trisulfide bonds. The presented evidence indicates that H2S causes the formation of trisulfide bridges, which destabilizes HEWL structure, preventing protein fibrillation. As a result, small spherical aggregates of unordered protein form, which exhibit no cytotoxicity by contrast with HEWL fibrils. PMID:25545790

  17. THE BLACK HOLE FORMATION PROBABILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Clausen, Drew; Piro, Anthony L.; Ott, Christian D.

    2015-02-01

    A longstanding question in stellar evolution is which massive stars produce black holes (BHs) rather than neutron stars (NSs) upon death. It has been common practice to assume that a given zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) mass star (and perhaps a given metallicity) simply produces either an NS or a BH, but this fails to account for a myriad of other variables that may effect this outcome, such as spin, binarity, or even stochastic differences in the stellar structure near core collapse. We argue that instead a probabilistic description of NS versus BH formation may be better suited to account for the current uncertainties in understanding how massive stars die. We present an initial exploration of the probability that a star will make a BH as a function of its ZAMS mass, P {sub BH}(M {sub ZAMS}). Although we find that it is difficult to derive a unique P {sub BH}(M {sub ZAMS}) using current measurements of both the BH mass distribution and the degree of chemical enrichment by massive stars, we demonstrate how P {sub BH}(M {sub ZAMS}) changes with these various observational and theoretical uncertainties. We anticipate that future studies of Galactic BHs and theoretical studies of core collapse will refine P {sub BH}(M {sub ZAMS}) and argue that this framework is an important new step toward better understanding BH formation. A probabilistic description of BH formation will be useful as input for future population synthesis studies that are interested in the formation of X-ray binaries, the nature and event rate of gravitational wave sources, and answering questions about chemical enrichment.

  18. The Black Hole Formation Probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausen, Drew; Piro, Anthony L.; Ott, Christian D.

    2015-02-01

    A longstanding question in stellar evolution is which massive stars produce black holes (BHs) rather than neutron stars (NSs) upon death. It has been common practice to assume that a given zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) mass star (and perhaps a given metallicity) simply produces either an NS or a BH, but this fails to account for a myriad of other variables that may effect this outcome, such as spin, binarity, or even stochastic differences in the stellar structure near core collapse. We argue that instead a probabilistic description of NS versus BH formation may be better suited to account for the current uncertainties in understanding how massive stars die. We present an initial exploration of the probability that a star will make a BH as a function of its ZAMS mass, P BH(M ZAMS). Although we find that it is difficult to derive a unique P BH(M ZAMS) using current measurements of both the BH mass distribution and the degree of chemical enrichment by massive stars, we demonstrate how P BH(M ZAMS) changes with these various observational and theoretical uncertainties. We anticipate that future studies of Galactic BHs and theoretical studies of core collapse will refine P BH(M ZAMS) and argue that this framework is an important new step toward better understanding BH formation. A probabilistic description of BH formation will be useful as input for future population synthesis studies that are interested in the formation of X-ray binaries, the nature and event rate of gravitational wave sources, and answering questions about chemical enrichment.

  19. Method for fracturing subterranean formations

    SciTech Connect

    Almond, S. W.; Conway, M. W.

    1985-11-19

    The present invention relates to a thermally stable crosslinked gel fracturing fluid for use in the treatment of subterranean formations penetrated by a well bore. The fracturing fluid comprises an aqueous liquid, a gelling agent comprising a selected modified cellulose ether, a crosslinking agent and any additional additives that may be present. The fracturing fluid is thermally stable under shear at temperatures in excess of about 200/sup 0/ F.

  20. Memory Formation Shaped by Astroglia

    PubMed Central

    Zorec, Robert; Horvat, Anemari; Vardjan, Nina; Verkhratsky, Alexei

    2015-01-01

    Astrocytes, the most heterogeneous glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS), execute a multitude of homeostatic functions and contribute to memory formation. Consolidation of synaptic and systemic memory is a prolonged process and hours are required to form long-term memory. In the past, neurons or their parts have been considered to be the exclusive cellular sites of these processes, however, it has now become evident that astrocytes provide an important and essential contribution to memory formation. Astrocytes participate in the morphological remodeling associated with synaptic plasticity, an energy-demanding process that requires mobilization of glycogen, which, in the CNS, is almost exclusively stored in astrocytes. Synaptic remodeling also involves bidirectional astroglial-neuronal communication supported by astroglial receptors and release of gliosignaling molecules. Astroglia exhibit cytoplasmic excitability that engages second messengers, such as Ca2+, for phasic, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), for tonic signal coordination with neuronal processes. The detection of signals by astrocytes and the release of gliosignaling molecules, in particular by vesicle-based mechanisms, occurs with a significant delay after stimulation, orders of magnitude longer than that present in stimulus–secretion coupling in neurons. These particular arrangements position astrocytes as integrators ideally tuned to support time-dependent memory formation. PMID:26635551

  1. NSDF: Neuroscience Simulation Data Format.

    PubMed

    Ray, Subhasis; Chintaluri, Chaitanya; Bhalla, Upinder S; Wójcik, Daniel K

    2016-04-01

    Data interchange is emerging as an essential aspect of modern neuroscience. In the areas of computational neuroscience and systems biology there are multiple model definition formats, which have contributed strongly to the development of an ecosystem of simulation and analysis tools. Here we report the development of the Neuroscience Simulation Data Format (NSDF) which extends this ecosystem to the data generated in simulations. NSDF is designed to store simulator output across scales: from multiscale chemical and electrical signaling models, to detailed single-neuron and network models, to abstract neural nets. It is self-documenting, efficient, modular, and scalable, both in terms of novel data types and in terms of data volume. NSDF is simulator-independent, and can be used by a range of standalone analysis and visualization tools. It may also be used to store variety of experimental data. NSDF is based on the widely used HDF5 (Hierarchical Data Format 5) specification and is open, platform-independent, and portable.

  2. Theory of Planetary System Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassen, Patrick

    1996-01-01

    Observations and theoretical considerations support the idea that the Solar System formed by the collapse of tenuous interstellar matter to a disk of gas and dust (the primitive solar nebula), from which the Sun and other components separated under the action of dissipative forces and by the coagulation of solid material. Thus, planets are understood to be contemporaneous byproducts of star formation. Because the circumstellar disks of new stars are easier to observe than mature planetary systems, the possibility arises that the nature and variety of planets might be studied from observations of the conditions of their birth. A useful theory of planetary system formation would therefore relate the properties of circumstellar disks both to the initial conditions of star formation and to the consequent properties of planets to those of the disk. Although the broad outlines of such a theory are in place, many aspects are either untested, controversial, or otherwise unresolved; even the degree to which such a comprehensive theory is possible remains unknown.

  3. The formation of star clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitmore, Bradley C.

    The ability of HST to resolve objects ten times smaller than possible from the ground has re-juvenated the study of young star clusters. A recurrent morphological theme found in nearby resolved systems is the observation of young (typically 1-10 Myr), massive (103 - 104 Msolar), compact (ρ≍105 Msolar pc-3) clusters which have evacuated the gas and dust from a spherical region around themselves. New stars are being triggered into formation along the edges of the envelopes, with pillars (similar to the Eagle Nebula) of molecular gas streaming away from the regions of star formation. The prototype for these objects is 30 Doradus. Another major theme has been the discovery of large numbers of young (typically 1-500 Myr), massive (103 - 108 Msolar), compact star clusters in merging, starbursting, and even some barred and spiral galaxies. The brightest of these clusters have all the attributes expected of protoglobular clusters, hence allowing us to study the formation of globular clusters in the local universe rather than trying to ascertain how they formed ≍14 Gyr ago. The prototype is the Antennae Galaxy.

  4. SCALE FORMATION IN CHRYSOPHYCEAN ALGAE

    PubMed Central

    Brown, R. Malcolm; Franke, Werner W.; Kleinig, Hans; Falk, Heinz; Sitte, Peter

    1970-01-01

    The cell wall of the marine chrysophycean alga Pleurochrysis scherfellii is composed of distinct wall fragments embedded in a gelatinous mass. The latter is a polysaccharide of pectic character which is rich in galactose and ribose. These wall fragments are identified as scales. They have been isolated and purified from the vegetative mother cell walls after zoospore formation. Their ultrastructure is described in an electron microscope study combining sectioning, freeze-etch, and negative staining techniques. The scales consist of a layer of concentrically arranged microfibrils (ribbons with cross-sections of 12 to 25 x 25 to 40 A) and underlying radial fibrils of similar dimensions. Such a network-plate is densely coated with particles which are assumed to be identical to the pectic component. The microfibrils are resistant to strong alkaline treatment and have been identified as cellulose by different methods, including sugar analysis after total hydrolysis, proton resonance spectroscopical examination (NMR spectroscopy) of the benzoylated product, and diverse histochemical tests. The formation and secretion of the scales can be followed along the maturing Golgi cisternae starting from a pronounced dilated "polymerization center" as a completely intracisternal process which ends in the exocytotic extrusion of the scales. The scales reveal the very same ultrastructure within the Golgi cisternae as they do in the cell wall. The present finding represents the first evidence on cellulose formation by the Golgi apparatus and is discussed in relation to a basic scheme for cellulose synthesis in plant cells in general. PMID:5513606

  5. Modeling of Dynamic FRC Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mok, Yung; Barnes, Dan; Dettrick, Sean

    2010-11-01

    We have developed a 2-D resistive MHD code, Lamy Ridge, to simulate the entire FRC formation process in Tri Alpha's C2 device, including initial formation, translation, merging and settling into equilibrium. Two FRC's can be created simultaneously, and then translated toward each other so that they merge into a single FRC. The code couples the external circuits around the formation tubes to the partially ionized plasma inside. Plasma and neutral gas are treated as two fluids. Dynamic and energetic equations, which take into account ionization and charge exchange, are solved in a time advance manner. The geometric shape of the vessel is specified by a set of inputs that defines the boundaries, which are handled by a cut-cell algorithm in the code. Multiple external circuits and field coils can be easily added, removed or relocated through individual inputs. The design of the code is modular and flexible so that it can be applied to future devices. The results of the code are in reasonable agreement with experimental measurements on the C2 device.

  6. Supernova Feedback in Galaxy Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Y.; Teyssier, R.

    2008-06-01

    The hierarchical model of galaxy formation is known to suffer from the ``over-cooling'' problem: the high efficiency of radiative cooling results in too much baryonic matter in a condensed phase (namely, cold gas or stars) when compared to observations. A solution proposed by many authors (see Springel & Hernquist 2003; Fujita et al. 2004; Rasera & Teyssier 2005) is feedback due to supernova (SN) driven winds or active galactic nuclei. Modeling SN feedback by direct injection of thermal energy usually turns out to be inefficient in galaxy-scale simulations, due to the quasi-instantaneous radiation of the SN energy. To avoid this effect, we have developed a new method to incorporate SN feedback in cosmological simulations: using temporary test particles, we reproduce explicitly a local Sedov blast wave solution in the gas distribution. We have performed several self-consistent runs of isolated Navarro, Frenk, & White (1996, hereafter NFW) halos with radiative cooling, star formation, SN feedback and metal enrichment using the adaptive mesh refinement code RAMSES (Teyssier 2002). We have explored the influence of SN feedback on the formation and the evolution of galaxies with different masses. We have studied the efficiency of the resulting galactic winds, as a function of the mass of the parent halo.

  7. Illusory contour formation survives crowding.

    PubMed

    Lau, Jonathan Siu Fung; Cheung, Sing-Hang

    2012-06-12

    Flanked objects are difficult to identify using peripheral vision due to visual crowding, which limits conscious access to target identity. Nonetheless, certain types of visual information have been shown to survive crowding. Such resilience to crowding provides valuable information about the underlying neural mechanism of crowding. Here we ask whether illusory contour formation survives crowding of the inducers. We manipulated the presence of illusory contours through the (mis)alignment of the four inducers of a Kanizsa square. In the inducer-aligned condition, the observers judged the perceived shape (thin vs. fat) of the illusory Kanizsa square, manipulated by small rotations of the inducers. In the inducer-misaligned condition, three of the four inducers (all except the upper-left) were rotated 90°. The observers judged the orientation of the upper-left inducer. Crowding of the inducers worsened observers' performance significantly only in the inducer-misaligned condition. Our findings suggest that information for illusory contour formation survives crowding of the inducers. Crowding happens at a stage where the low-level featural information is integrated for inducer orientation discrimination, but not at a stage where the same information is used for illusory contour formation.

  8. NSDF: Neuroscience Simulation Data Format.

    PubMed

    Ray, Subhasis; Chintaluri, Chaitanya; Bhalla, Upinder S; Wójcik, Daniel K

    2016-04-01

    Data interchange is emerging as an essential aspect of modern neuroscience. In the areas of computational neuroscience and systems biology there are multiple model definition formats, which have contributed strongly to the development of an ecosystem of simulation and analysis tools. Here we report the development of the Neuroscience Simulation Data Format (NSDF) which extends this ecosystem to the data generated in simulations. NSDF is designed to store simulator output across scales: from multiscale chemical and electrical signaling models, to detailed single-neuron and network models, to abstract neural nets. It is self-documenting, efficient, modular, and scalable, both in terms of novel data types and in terms of data volume. NSDF is simulator-independent, and can be used by a range of standalone analysis and visualization tools. It may also be used to store variety of experimental data. NSDF is based on the widely used HDF5 (Hierarchical Data Format 5) specification and is open, platform-independent, and portable. PMID:26585711

  9. Theory of Remote Image Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blahut, Richard E.

    2004-11-01

    In many applications, images, such as ultrasonic or X-ray signals, are recorded and then analyzed with digital or optical processors in order to extract information. Such processing requires the development of algorithms of great precision and sophistication. This book presents a unified treatment of the mathematical methods that underpin the various algorithms used in remote image formation. The author begins with a review of transform and filter theory. He then discusses two- and three-dimensional Fourier transform theory, the ambiguity function, image construction and reconstruction, tomography, baseband surveillance systems, and passive systems (where the signal source might be an earthquake or a galaxy). Information-theoretic methods in image formation are also covered, as are phase errors and phase noise. Throughout the book, practical applications illustrate theoretical concepts, and there are many homework problems. The book is aimed at graduate students of electrical engineering and computer science, and practitioners in industry. Presents a unified treatment of the mathematical methods that underpin the algorithms used in remote image formation Illustrates theoretical concepts with reference to practical applications Provides insights into the design parameters of real systems

  10. Vortex Formation in Shallow Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rockwell, Donald

    2006-11-01

    Vortical structures having a scale much larger than the depth of the flow, which arise in bluff body wakes, jets, and mixing layers generated in shallow layers, show distinctive features due to the influence of bed friction. Cinema techniques of high-image-density particle image velocimetry are employed to characterize quasi-two-dimensional and three-dimensional aspects of the vortex development in terms of: patterns of vorticity; flow topology involving definition of critical points; and global spectral and cross-spectral analyses, based on simultaneous time records at thousands of grid points of the cinema imaging. Taken together, these representations lead to an understanding of the relationship between coherent vortex development and unsteadiness along the bed and, furthermore, provide a basis for exploration of concepts generic to separated shear layers in shallow flows. These concepts include: suppression of a primary mode of vortex formation due to bed friction and emergence of another mode; resonant coupling between a gravity wave of the shallow layer and vortex formation, leading to large-scale vortices; and passive and active (open loop) control, which can either retard or enhance the onset of vortex formation. These studies suggest opportunities for further investigation on both experimental and numerical fronts. Collaboration with Haojun Fu, Alis Ekmekci, Jung-Chang Lin, and Muammer Ozgoren is gratefully acknowledged.

  11. NASA Space Mechanisms Handbook and Reference Guide Expanded Into CD-ROM Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.

    2002-01-01

    Several NASA missions suffered failures and anomalies due to problems in applying space mechanisms technology to specific projects. Research shows that engineers often lack either adequate knowledge of mechanism design or sufficient understanding of how mechanisms affect sensitive systems. The Space Mechanisms Project conducted a Lessons Learned study and published a Space Mechanisms Handbook to help space industry engineers avoid recurring design, qualification, and application problems. The Space Mechanisms Handbook written at the NASA Glenn Research Center details the state-of-the-art in space mechanisms design as of 1998. NASA's objective in developing this Space Mechanisms Handbook was to provide readily accessible information on such areas as space mechanisms design, mechanical component availability and use, testing and qualification of mechanical systems, and a listing of worldwide space mechanisms experts and testing facilities in the United States. This handbook has been expanded into a two-volume CD-ROM set in an Adobe Acrobat format. In addition to the handbook, the CD's include (1) the two volume Space Mechanisms Lessons Learned Study, (2) proceedings from all the NASA hosted Aerospace Mechanisms Symposia held through the year 2000, (3) the Space Materials Handbook, (4) the Lubrication Handbook for the Space Industry, (5) the Structural & Mechanical Systems Long-Life Assurance Design Guidelines, (6) the Space Environments and Effects Source-Book, (7) the Spacecraft Deployable Appendages manual, (8) the Fastener Design Manual, (9) A Manual for Pyrotechnic Design, Development and Qualification, (10) the Report on Alternative Devices to Pyrotechnics on Spacecraft, and (11) Gearing (a manual). In addition, numerous other papers on tribology and lubrication are included.This technical summary of the project provides information on how to obtain the handbook and related information.

  12. Formation mechanisms of metal colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halaciuga, Ionel

    Highly dispersed uniform metallic particles are widely used in various areas of technology and medicine and are likely to be incorporated into many other applications in the future. It is commonly accepted that size, shape and composition of the particles represent critical factors in most applications. Thus, understanding the mechanisms of formation of metal particles and the ways to control the physical (e.g. shape, size) and chemical (e.g. composition) properties is of great importance. In the current research, the formation of uniform silver spheres is investigated experimentally. The parameters that influence the formation of silver particles when concentrated iso-ascorbic acid and silver-polyamine complex solutions are rapidly mixed were studied in the absence of dispersants. We found that by varying the nature of the amine, temperature, concentration of reactants, silver/amine molar ratio, and the nature of the silver salt, the size of the resulting silver particles can be varied in a wide range (0.08--1.5 microm). The silver particles were formed by aggregation of nanosize subunits as substantiated by both electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques and by the vivid rapid color changes during the chemical precipitation process. From the practical standpoint, the goal of this research was to prepare well dispersed spherical silver particles having a relatively smooth surface and a diameter of about 1 microm to satisfy the demands of the current electronic materials market. A two stage particle growth model previously developed to explain the narrow size distribution occurring in synthesis of gold spheres was applied to the present experimental system, and the parameters that control the size distribution characteristics were identified. The kinetic parameter required to match the final particle size was found to be in agreement with the one used previously in modeling formation of gold spheres, suggesting that similar kinetics governs the

  13. Dioxin formation from waste incineration.

    PubMed

    Shibamoto, Takayuki; Yasuhara, Akio; Katami, Takeo

    2007-01-01

    There has been great concern about dioxins-polychlorinated dibenzo dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzo furans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)-causing contamination in the environment because the adverse effects of these chemicals on human health have been known for many years. Possible dioxin-contamination has received much attention recently not only by environmental scientists but also by the public, because dioxins are known to be formed during the combustion of industrial and domestic wastes and to escape into the environment via exhaust gases from incinerators. Consequently, there is a pressing need to investigate the formation mechanisms or reaction pathways of these chlorinated chemicals to be able to devise ways to reduce their environmental contamination. A well-controlled small-scale incinerator was used for the experiments in the core references of this review. These articles report the investigation of dioxin formation from the combustion of various waste-simulated samples, including different kinds of paper, various kinds of wood, fallen leaves, food samples, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyvinylidene chloride, polyethylene tetraphthalate (PET), and various kinds of plastic products. These samples were also incinerated with inorganic chlorides (NaCl, KCl, CuCI2, MgCl2, MnCl2, FeCl2, CoCl2, fly ash, and seawater) or organic chlorides (PVC, chlordane, and pentachlorophenol) to investigate the role of chlorine content and/or the presence of different metals in dioxin formation. Some samples, such as newspapers, were burned after they were impregnated with NaCl or PVC, as well as being cocombusted with chlorides. The roles of incineration conditions, including chamber temperatures, O2 concentrations, and CO concentrations, in dioxin formation were also investigated. Dioxins (PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar-PCBs) formed in the exhaust gases from a controlled small-scale incinerator, where experimental waste

  14. Core formation in silicate bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimmo, F.; O'Brien, D. P.; Kleine, T.

    2008-12-01

    Differentiation of a body into a metallic core and silicate mantle occurs most efficiently if temperatures are high enough to allow at least the metal to melt [1], and is enhanced if matrix deformation occurs [2]. Elevated temperatures may occur due to either decay of short-lived radio-isotopes, or gravitational energy release during accretion [3]. For bodies smaller than the Moon, core formation happens primarily due to radioactive decay. The Hf-W isotopic system may be used to date core formation; cores in some iron meteorites and the eucrite parent body (probably Vesta) formed within 1 My and 1-4~My of solar system formation, respectively [4]. These formation times are early enough to ensure widespread melting and differentiation by 26Al decay. Incorporation of Fe60 into the core, together with rapid early mantle solidification and cooling, may have driven early dynamo activity on some bodies [5]. Iron meteorites are typically depleted in sulphur relative to chondrites, for unknown reasons [6]. This depletion contrasts with the apparently higher sulphur contents of cores in larger planetary bodies, such as Mars [7], and also has a significant effect on the timing of core solidification. For bodies of Moon-size and larger, gravitational energy released during accretion is probably the primary cause of core formation [3]. The final stages of accretion involve large, stochastic collisions [8] between objects which are already differentiated. During each collision, the metallic cores of the colliding objects merge on timescales of a few hours [9]. Each collision will reset the Hf-W isotopic signature of both mantle and core, depending on the degree to which the impactor core re-equilibrates with the mantle of the target [10]. The re-equilibration efficiency depends mainly on the degree to which the impactor emulsifies [11], which is very uncertain. Results from N-body simulations [8,12] suggest that significant degrees of re- equilibration are required [4,10]. Re

  15. Biofilm formation by Staphylococcus haemolyticus.

    PubMed

    Fredheim, Elizabeth Gladys Aarag; Klingenberg, Claus; Rohde, Holger; Frankenberger, Stephanie; Gaustad, Peter; Flaegstad, Trond; Sollid, Johanna Ericson

    2009-04-01

    Infections due to coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) most frequently occur after the implantation of medical devices and are attributed to the biofilm-forming potential of CoNS. Staphylococcus haemolyticus is the second most frequently isolated CoNS from patients with hospital-acquired infections. There is only limited knowledge of the nature of S. haemolyticus biofilms. The aim of this study was to characterize S. haemolyticus biofilm formation. We analyzed the biofilm-forming capacities of 72 clinical S. haemolyticus isolates. A detachment assay with NaIO(4), proteinase K, or DNase was used to determine the main biofilm components. Biofilm-associated genes, including the ica operon, were analyzed by PCR, and the gene products were sequenced. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to elucidate the biofilm structure. Fifty-three isolates (74%) produced biofilms after growth in Trypticase soy broth (TSB) with glucose, but only 22 (31%) produced biofilms after growth in TSB with NaCl. It was necessary to dissolve the biofilm in ethanol-acetone to measure the optical density of the full biofilm mass. DNase, proteinase K, and NaIO(4) caused biofilm detachment for 100%, 98%, and 38% of the isolates, respectively. icaRADBC and polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) production were found in only two isolates. CLSM indicated that the biofilm structure of S. haemolyticus clearly differs from that of S. epidermidis. We conclude that biofilm formation is a common phenotype in clinical S. haemolyticus isolates. In contrast to S. epidermidis, proteins and extracellular DNA are of functional relevance for biofilm accumulation, whereas PIA plays only a minor role. The induction of biofilm formation and determination of the biofilm mass also needed to be optimized for S. haemolyticus.

  16. A Fossil Group in Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Eric D.; Rappaport, Saul A.; McDonald, Michael; Bautz, Mark W.; Grant, Catherine E.; Veilleux, Sylvain

    2016-04-01

    In the current picture of hierarchical structure formation, galaxy groups play a vital role as the seeds from which large assemblies of matter form. Compact groups are also important environments in which to watch the fueling of star formation and AGN activity, as the conditions are ideal for galaxy-galaxy interactions. We have identified a galaxy system that may represent an intermediate or transition stage in group evolution. Shakhbazyan 1 (or SHK 1) is a remarkably compact collection of about ten massive, red-sequence galaxies within a region 100 kpc across. Several of these galaxies show signs of AGN activity, and new, deep optical observations with the Discovery Channel Telescope reveal an extended stellar envelope surrounding the galaxies. This envelope is much more extended than what would be expected from a superposition of normal galaxy envelopes, and it indicates a large amount of intra-group starlight, evidence that the galaxies in SHK 1 are dynamically interacting.We here present new Chandra spectral imaging observations of this unusual system that confirm the presence of an X-ray-emitting diffuse intra-group medium (IGM), with a temperature of 1.5 keV and X-ray luminosity of 1043 erg/s. Assuming hydrostatic equilibrium, the system is about 1/3 as massive as expected from the optical richness. In addition, three of the ten central galaxies exhibit signatures of X-ray AGN. The under-luminous IGM, high density of bright galaxies, and evidence for galaxy-galaxy interaction indicate that this system may be in a transition stage of galaxy merging, similar to that expected in the formation of a fossil group. Alternatively, SHK 1 may consist of multiple poor groups in the final stages of merging along our line of sight. We explore these scenarios and outline paths of future study for this enigmatic system.

  17. WOUND HEALING AND COLLAGEN FORMATION

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Russell; Benditt, Earl P.

    1961-01-01

    The regular sequence encountered in healing guinea pig skin wounds has been examined by methods of light and electron microscopy. Observations on cell populations, their fine structure, and fibril formation in the connective tissue have been made. Linear incisions in the skin of normal female guinea pigs weighing 300 to 350 grams were allowed to heal. The wounds were then excised, fixed with buffered 2 per cent osmium tetroxide, and postfixed in neutral buffered formalin, at 16 and 24 hours and at 3, 5, 9, and 14 days after wounding. They were then embedded in epoxy resin. In the inflammatory phase the exudate observed in the early wounds consists largely of polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes, macrophages, fibrin, and free extracellular organelles from the disrupted inflammatory cells. These organelles later appear in vacuoles in the cytoplasm of the macrophages. Fibroblasts first appear at 24 hours, and show extensive development and dilatation of the endoplasmic reticulum, which sometimes contains moderately dense flocculent material. In addition, these fibroblasts have enlarged mitochondria and condensations of filamentous material within the cytoplasm near the cell surface. Occasional myelin figures and moderately dense, 0.5 to 1.0 micron bodies are found within the cytoplasm of the early fibroblasts. Collagen fibrils are first seen at 3 days extracellularly near the cell surfaces. They appear at the later times in two populations of sizes. With increasing wound age the fibroblasts retain their morphology and the wounds decrease in cellularity concomitantly with the formation of increasing amounts of collagen. Several proposed mechanisms of collagen fibril formation are discussed in relation to the observed phenomena. The problem of correlating fibril diameter with the appearance of the periodic structure of collagen in relation to the minimal size fibril which would be anticipated to display this appearance is discussed. PMID:14494202

  18. Pattern formation in geochemical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsev, Sergei

    2002-08-01

    Compositional patterns are extremely common in natural minerals. While, in many cases, variations in the solid mineral composition reflect the external changes in the environment at the time of the mineral formation, the role of self-organization is increasingly acknowledged. For example, in reaction-transport systems, the patterns may form spontaneously from an unpatterned state at the time of crystal growth and then become preserved by being "frozen" in the solid mineral. In this work, the pattern formation by self-organization is investigated by means of model construction and computer simulations in several minerals from different geologic environments. The impact of environmental noise is investigated on a model of oscillatory zoning in plagioclase feldspar. It is shown that environmental noise can lead to pattern formation such as oscillatory zoning, even when no deterministic periodic solutions exist. Coherence resonance close to the Hopf bifurcation is observed. Oscillatory zoning in barite-celestite system is simulated to quantitatively describe the results of the previously reported nucleation and growth experiments. The zoning is thought to be formed by autocatalytic growth from an aqueous solution. In addition to the description of the reaction-diffusion system in terns of partial and ordinary differential equations, a cellular automata model is proposed for the first time for this oscillatory crystallization type of problems. A quantitative model of banding in Mississippi Valley-type sphalerite is presented. Banded ring-like patterns are shown to arise due to a self-propagating sequence of growth and dissolution (coarsening wave). A two-dimensional model is presented for the first time and the conditions for the pattern generation and preservation are discussed. A number of time series analysis techniques are applied to characterize the compositional patterns observed in natural minerals as well as in the colored rythmites found in the marine clay

  19. Mechanism of formation of hydantoins

    SciTech Connect

    Worman, J.J.; Uhrich, K.; Olson, E.; Diehl, J.; Farnum, S.; Hawthorne, S.

    1985-10-01

    Hydantoins, (I), are biologically active compounds which occur in nature and have been isolated from such sources as sugar beets and butterfly wings. Synthetic analogs have found widespread use as anticonvulsant drugs, bacteriocides, stabilizers in photographic film, and in the preparation of high temperature epoxy resins. Uses, preparation, and reactions of hydantoins have been extensively studied and are reported elsewhere. Recently a number of hydantoin isomers have been detected and identified in coal gasification condensate water from the gasification of Indian Head (ND) lignite in a slagging fixed bed gasifier. The hydantoins constitute a major portion of the organics in the condensate water. In generation the concentrations of hydantoins found in the condensate water from an ash gasifier are smaller than those found from the slagging process. Lignite coal reacting in a slagging gasifier gives the largest concentration of hydantoins in the condensate water. The major isomer in the coal gasification condensate water is 5,5-dimethylhydantoin (DMH). DMH is formed from individual species (acetone, cyanide, ammonia, and carbonate) in the condensate water and does not form directly in the gasifier. The rate of formation of DMH was first order in all of the reactants as expressed by the equation: Rate of formation of DMH = (Acetone) (HCN) (NH/sub 3/) (CO/sub 2/). This kinetic data is valuable in predicting the rate of formation of DMH in coal gasification condensate water, provided the model is applicable. A mechanism consistent with the kinetic data and partially verified by others is shown in Scheme 1. 13 refs.

  20. Biofilm formation by Staphylococcus haemolyticus.

    PubMed

    Fredheim, Elizabeth Gladys Aarag; Klingenberg, Claus; Rohde, Holger; Frankenberger, Stephanie; Gaustad, Peter; Flaegstad, Trond; Sollid, Johanna Ericson

    2009-04-01

    Infections due to coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) most frequently occur after the implantation of medical devices and are attributed to the biofilm-forming potential of CoNS. Staphylococcus haemolyticus is the second most frequently isolated CoNS from patients with hospital-acquired infections. There is only limited knowledge of the nature of S. haemolyticus biofilms. The aim of this study was to characterize S. haemolyticus biofilm formation. We analyzed the biofilm-forming capacities of 72 clinical S. haemolyticus isolates. A detachment assay with NaIO(4), proteinase K, or DNase was used to determine the main biofilm components. Biofilm-associated genes, including the ica operon, were analyzed by PCR, and the gene products were sequenced. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to elucidate the biofilm structure. Fifty-three isolates (74%) produced biofilms after growth in Trypticase soy broth (TSB) with glucose, but only 22 (31%) produced biofilms after growth in TSB with NaCl. It was necessary to dissolve the biofilm in ethanol-acetone to measure the optical density of the full biofilm mass. DNase, proteinase K, and NaIO(4) caused biofilm detachment for 100%, 98%, and 38% of the isolates, respectively. icaRADBC and polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) production were found in only two isolates. CLSM indicated that the biofilm structure of S. haemolyticus clearly differs from that of S. epidermidis. We conclude that biofilm formation is a common phenotype in clinical S. haemolyticus isolates. In contrast to S. epidermidis, proteins and extracellular DNA are of functional relevance for biofilm accumulation, whereas PIA plays only a minor role. The induction of biofilm formation and determination of the biofilm mass also needed to be optimized for S. haemolyticus. PMID:19144798

  1. New Paradigms for Asteroid Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansen, A.; Jacquet, E.; Cuzzi, J. N.; Morbidelli, A.; Gounelle, M.

    Asteroids and meteorites provide key evidence on the formation of planetesimals in the solar system. Asteroids are traditionally thought to form in a bottom-up process by coagulation within a population of initially kilometer-scale planetesimals. However, new models challenge this idea by demonstrating that asteroids of sizes from 100 to 1000 km can form directly from the gravitational collapse of small particles that have organized themselves in dense filaments and clusters in the turbulent gas. Particles concentrate passively between eddies down to the smallest scales of the turbulent gas flow and inside large-scale pressure bumps and vortices. The streaming instability causes particles to take an active role in the concentration, by piling up in dense filaments whose friction on the gas reduces the radial drift compared to that of isolated particles. In this chapter we review new paradigms for asteroid formation and critically compare them against the observed properties of asteroids as well as constraints from meteorites. Chondrules of typical sizes from 0.1 to 1 mm are ubiquitous in primitive meteorites and likely represent the primary building blocks of asteroids. Chondrule-sized particles are nevertheless tightly coupled to the gas via friction and are therefore hard to concentrate in large amounts in the turbulent gas. We review recent progress on understanding the incorporation of chondrules into the asteroids, including layered accretion models where chondrules are accreted onto asteroids over millions of years. We highlight in the end 10 unsolved questions in asteroid formation where we expect that progress will be made over the next decade.

  2. Petrophysical evaluation of subterranean formations

    DOEpatents

    Klein, James D; Schoderbek, David A; Mailloux, Jason M

    2013-05-28

    Methods and systems are provided for evaluating petrophysical properties of subterranean formations and comprehensively evaluating hydrate presence through a combination of computer-implemented log modeling and analysis. Certain embodiments include the steps of running a number of logging tools in a wellbore to obtain a variety of wellbore data and logs, and evaluating and modeling the log data to ascertain various petrophysical properties. Examples of suitable logging techniques that may be used in combination with the present invention include, but are not limited to, sonic logs, electrical resistivity logs, gamma ray logs, neutron porosity logs, density logs, NRM logs, or any combination or subset thereof.

  3. Testing Magnetic Star Formation Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crutcher, Richard M.; Hakobian, Nicholas; Troland, Thomas H.

    2009-02-01

    Zeeman observations of molecular clouds yield the line-of-sight component B LOS of the magnetic vector B, which makes it possible to test the two major extreme-case theories of what drives star formation—ambipolar diffusion or turbulence. However, only one of the three components of B is measurable, so tests have been statistical rather than direct, and they have not been definitive. We report here observations of the Zeeman effect in the 18 cm lines of OH in the envelope regions surrounding four molecular cloud cores toward which detections of B LOS have been achieved in the same lines, and evaluate the ratio of mass-to-magnetic flux, M/Φ, between the cloud core and envelope. This relative M/Φ measurement reduces uncertainties in previous studies, such as the angle between B and the line of sight and the value of [OH/H]. Our result is that for all four clouds, the ratios R of the core to the envelope values of M/Φ are less than 1. Stated another way, the ratios R' of the core to the total cloud M/Φ are less than 1. The extreme case or idealized (no turbulence) ambipolar diffusion theory of core formation requires the ratio of the central to total M/Φ to be approximately equal to the inverse of the original subcritical M/Φ, or R' > 1. The probability that all four of our clouds have R' > 1 is 3 × 10-7 our results are therefore significantly in contradiction with the hypothesis that these four cores were formed by ambipolar diffusion. Highly super-Alfvénic turbulent simulations yield a wide range of relative M/Φ, but favor a ratio R < 1, as we observe. Our experiment is limited to four clouds, and we can only directly test the predictions of the extreme-case "idealized" models of ambipolar-diffusion driven star formation, which have a regular magnetic field morphology. Nonetheless, our experimental results are not consistent with the "idealized" strong field, ambipolar diffusion theory of star formation. Comparisons of our results with more realistic

  4. Formation Flying and Deformable Instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Rio, Yvon

    2009-05-11

    Astronomers have always attempted to build very stable instruments. They fight all that can cause mechanical deformation or image motion. This has led to well established technologies (autoguide, active optics, thermal control, tip/tilt correction), as well as observing methods based on the use of controlled motion (scanning, micro scanning, shift and add, chopping and nodding). Formation flying disturbs this practice. It is neither possible to reduce the relative motion to very small amplitudes, nor to control it at will. Some impacts on Simbol-X instrument design, and operation are presented.

  5. Formation Flying and Deformable Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rio, Yvon

    2009-05-01

    Astronomers have always attempted to build very stable instruments. They fight all that can cause mechanical deformation or image motion. This has led to well established technologies (autoguide, active optics, thermal control, tip/tilt correction), as well as observing methods based on the use of controlled motion (scanning, micro scanning, shift and add, chopping and nodding). Formation flying disturbs this practice. It is neither possible to reduce the relative motion to very small amplitudes, nor to control it at will. Some impacts on Simbol-X instrument design, and operation are presented.

  6. Formation flight astronomical survey telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunemi, Hiroshi

    2012-03-01

    Formation Flight Astronomical Survey Telescope (FFAST) is a project for hard X-ray observation. It consists of two small satellites; one (telescope satellite) has a super mirror covering the energy range up to 80 keV while the other (detector satellite) has an scintillator deposited CCD (SDCCD) having good spatial resolution and high efficiency up to 100 keV. Two satellites will be put into individual Kepler orbits forming an X-ray telescope with a focal length of 20 m. They will be not in pointing mode but in survey mode to cover a large sky region.

  7. Zonal flow as pattern formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Jeffrey B.; Krommes, John A.

    2013-10-01

    Zonal flows are well known to arise spontaneously out of turbulence. We show that for statistically averaged equations of the stochastically forced generalized Hasegawa-Mima model, steady-state zonal flows, and inhomogeneous turbulence fit into the framework of pattern formation. There are many implications. First, the wavelength of the zonal flows is not unique. Indeed, in an idealized, infinite system, any wavelength within a certain continuous band corresponds to a solution. Second, of these wavelengths, only those within a smaller subband are linearly stable. Unstable wavelengths must evolve to reach a stable wavelength; this process manifests as merging jets.

  8. Electrochemical formation of field emitters

    DOEpatents

    Bernhardt, Anthony F.

    1999-01-01

    Electrochemical formation of field emitters, particularly useful in the fabrication of flat panel displays. The fabrication involves field emitting points in a gated field emitter structure. Metal field emitters are formed by electroplating and the shape of the formed emitter is controlled by the potential imposed on the gate as well as on a separate counter electrode. This allows sharp emitters to be formed in a more inexpensive and manufacturable process than vacuum deposition processes used at present. The fabrication process involves etching of the gate metal and the dielectric layer down to the resistor layer, and then electroplating the etched area and forming an electroplated emitter point in the etched area.

  9. Branch formation during organ development

    PubMed Central

    Gjorevski, Nikolce; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2010-01-01

    Invertebrates and vertebrates use branching morphogenesis to build epithelial trees to maximize the surface area of organs within a given volume. Several molecular regulators of branching have recently been discovered, a number of which are conserved across different organs and species. Signals that control branching at the cellular and tissue levels are also starting to emerge, and are rapidly unveiling the physical nature of branch development. Here we discuss the molecular, cellular and physical processes that govern branch formation and highlight the major outstanding questions in the field. PMID:20890968

  10. Zonal flow as pattern formation

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Jeffrey B.; Krommes, John A.

    2013-10-15

    Zonal flows are well known to arise spontaneously out of turbulence. We show that for statistically averaged equations of the stochastically forced generalized Hasegawa-Mima model, steady-state zonal flows, and inhomogeneous turbulence fit into the framework of pattern formation. There are many implications. First, the wavelength of the zonal flows is not unique. Indeed, in an idealized, infinite system, any wavelength within a certain continuous band corresponds to a solution. Second, of these wavelengths, only those within a smaller subband are linearly stable. Unstable wavelengths must evolve to reach a stable wavelength; this process manifests as merging jets.

  11. The formation of interstellar jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tenorio-Tagle, G.; Canto, J.; Rozyczka, M.

    1988-01-01

    The formation of interstellar jets by convergence of supersonic conical flows and the further dynamical evolution of these jets are investigated theoretically by means of numerical simulations. The results are presented in extensive graphs and characterized in detail. Strong radiative cooling is shown to result in jets with Mach numbers 2.5-29 propagating to lengths 50-100 times their original widths, with condensation of swept-up interstellar matter at Mach 5 or greater. The characteristics of so-called molecular outflows are well reproduced by the simulations of low-Mach-number and quasi-adiabatic jets.

  12. Comet Formation in Collapsing Pebble Clouds: Pebble Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorek, Sebastian; Lacerda, Pedro; Blum, Jürgen

    2016-10-01

    The formation of comets by gradual growth from (sub-)micron sized ice and dust monomers to km-sized bodies suffers from growth barriers (bouncing, fragmentation, drift). Growth stalls at sizes between mm and m, rendering it considerably difficult to form km-sized objects. However, the streaming instability and subsequent gravitational collapse of clouds of pebbles (particle agglomerates) provide an alternative. The pebbles require Stokes numbers between 0.01 and 3, which corresponds to sizes between mm and dm, unless the pebbles are very porous. Furthermore, the local solid/gas density ratio must be near unity and the local total mass in solids must be >2-3x higher than the minimum mass solar nebula value (1% of gas mass). The gravitational collapse of the pebble clouds then bypasses the growth barriers, forming km-sized bodies directly. The observed bulk properties of comets, e.g. porosity near 80%, are consistent with this scenario. Okuzumi et al. (2012) showed that including porosity comets can form directly via coagulation from sub-micron monomers. However, this relies on using 0.1 micron monomers and pure sticking collisions. Krijt et al. (2015) included erosion and found that highly porous pebbles around 109 g in mass can form and might trigger the streaming instability. Drazkowska & Dullemond (2014) showed that compact coagulation can lead to triggering the streaming instability. All those studies include only ice and a simplified collision model. However, a large fraction of a comet's mass is dust. Here, we develop a pebble formation model that includes sticking, bouncing, mass transfer/erosion, and fragmentation, as well as porosity. To take dust and ice into account, we extended the collision model for the treatment of mixed pebbles by linearly interpolating the threshold velocities and compression curves between the cases of pure dust and pure ice based on the fractional abundance of dust monomers. Our simulations show that pebble formation with the full

  13. Choosing to write the paper format thesis.

    PubMed

    Morris, H M; Tipples, G

    1998-04-01

    Graduate students today may be faced with the option of writing either a traditional format thesis or a paper format thesis. In contrast to the traditional format in which the text body consists of four or five chapters, the body of the paper format thesis can be comprised of an introductory chapter, two or more papers written as publishable manuscripts, and a conclusion. In this article, an overview of the paper format thesis is presented and contrasted with the traditional format thesis. The description of the paper format thesis is followed by its advantages and disadvantages for writers and readers. It is by weighing all possible pros and cons, as well as considering one's individual situation, that the graduate student will be able to decide which format of thesis to write.

  14. SAR polar format implementation with MATLAB.

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Grant D.; Doerry, Armin Walter

    2005-11-01

    Traditional polar format image formation for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) requires a large amount of processing power and memory in order to accomplish in real-time. These requirements can thus eliminate the possible usage of interpreted language environments such as MATLAB. However, with trapezoidal aperture phase history collection and changes to the traditional polar format algorithm, certain optimizations make MATLAB a possible tool for image formation. Thus, this document's purpose is two-fold. The first outlines a change to the existing Polar Format MATLAB implementation utilizing the Chirp Z-Transform that improves performance and memory usage achieving near realtime results for smaller apertures. The second is the addition of two new possible image formation options that perform a more traditional interpolation style image formation. These options allow the continued exploration of possible interpolation methods for image formation and some preliminary results comparing image quality are given.

  15. XML Format for SESAME and LEOS

    SciTech Connect

    Durrenberger, J K; Neely, J R; Sterne, P A

    2009-04-29

    The objective of this document is to describe the XML format used by LLNL and LANL to represent the equation-of-state and related material information in the LEOS and SESAME data libraries. The primary purpose of this document is to describe a specific XML format for representing EOS data that is tailored to the nature of the underlying data and is amenable to conversion to both legacy SESAME and LEOS binary formats. The secondary purpose is to describe an XML format that lends itself to a 'natural' representation in a binary file format of the SESAME, pdb or hdf5 form so that this format and related tools can be used for the rapid and efficient development and implementation of prototype data structures. This document describes the XML format only. A working knowledge of LEOS and SESAME formats is assumed.

  16. Hydraulic fracturing in subterranean formations

    SciTech Connect

    Borchardt, J.K.

    1991-06-18

    This patent describes a process for the hydraulic fracturing of subterranean formations which comprises a step for the introduction into the formation at fracturing pressure of a fracturing fluid comprising solid particulate suspended in a fluid dispersion. It comprises water, a component selected from the group consisting of supercritical carbon dioxide and gaseous nitrogen, carbon dioxide and C{sub 1} to C{sub 3} hydrocarbons, and mixtures thereof, and one or more polysaccharide surfactants of the formula RO(R{sup 1}O){sub x}Sacc{sub z}, wherein R is a monovalent organic radical having a carbon number in the range from about 7 to 24. R{sup 1} represents a divalent hydrocarbon radical containing from about 2 to about 4 carbon atoms, x is a number having an average value in the range from 0 to about 12.0, and Saccz represents an average number z between about 0.7 and 10.0 of moieties derived from reducing saccharides containing 5 or 6 carbon atoms.

  17. Microbubble formation from plasma polymers.

    PubMed

    Shahravan, Anaram; Yelamarty, Srinath; Matsoukas, Themis

    2012-09-27

    We document the formation of liquid-like particles in a toluene glow discharge that subsequently solidify via a process that releases hydrogen to form a solid microbubble with micrometer-size diameter, nanometer-size shell thickness, and high volume fraction, in excess of 90%. Liquid-like particles are produced in a toluene plasma under conditions that promote low degree of cross-linking (low power, high pressure). When these are transferred for observation in TEM, they are seen to transform under irradiation by the electron beam into solid bubbles with diameter of about 3 μm. This transformation also takes place under laser irradiation of sufficient power and under heating. We present evidence that the formation of these microbubbles is due to solidification of the liquid-like precursor that is accompanied by release of hydrogen. This mechanism is supported by a geometric model that provides a quantitative description of the particle size before and after solidification. These unique stimuli-responsive particles exhibit the potential of using temperature, electron beam, or laser as a source to change their size and structure which may find application in thermal insulators, lightweight materials, and light scattering agents.

  18. Formation mechanism of calcium hexaluminate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun-hong; Chen, Hai-yang; Yan, Ming-wei; Cao, Zheng; Mi, Wen-jun

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the formation mechanism of calcium hexaluminate (CaAl12O19, CA6), the analytically pure alumina and calcia used as raw materials were mixed in CaO/Al2O3 ratio of 12.57:137.43 by mass. The raw materials were ball-milled and shaped into green specimens, and fired at 1300-1600°C. Then, the phase composition and microstructure evolution of the fired specimen were studied, and a first principle calculation was performed. The results show that in the reaction system of CaO and Al2O3, a small amount of CA6 forms at 1300°C, and greater amounts are formed at 1400°C and higher temperatures. The reaction is as follows: CaO·2Al2O3 (CA2) + 4Al2O3 → CA6. The diffusions of Ca2+ in CA2 towards Al2O3 and Al3+ in Al2O3 towards CA2 change the structures in different degrees of difficulty. Compared with the difficulty of structural change and the corresponding lattice energy change, it is deduced that the main formation mechanism is the diffusion of Ca2+ in CA2 towards Al2O3.

  19. Bar Formation from Galaxy Flybys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Lang, Meagan; Sinha, Manodeep

    2016-05-01

    Both simulations and observations reveal that flybys—fast, one-time interactions between two galaxy halos—are surprisingly common, comparable to galaxy mergers. Since these are rapid, transient events with the closest approach well outside the galaxy disk, it is unclear if flybys can transform the galaxy in a lasting way. We conduct collisionless N-body simulations of three coplanar flyby interactions between pure-disk galaxies to take a first look at the effects flybys have on disk structure, with particular focus on stellar bar formation. We find that some flybys are capable of inciting a bar; bars form in both galaxies during our 1:1 interaction and in the secondary during our 10:1 interaction. The bars formed have ellipticities >0.5, sizes on the order of the scale length of the disk, and persist to the end of our simulations, ~5 Gyr after pericenter. The ability of flybys to incite bar formation implies that many processes associated with secular bar evolution may be more closely tied with flyby interactions than previously thought.

  20. Protoporphyrin formation in Rhizobium japonicum.

    PubMed Central

    Keithly, J H; Nadler, K D

    1983-01-01

    The obligately aerobic soybean root nodule bacterium Rhizobium japonicum produces large amounts of heme (iron protoporphyrin) only under low oxygen tensions, such as exist in the symbiotic root nodule. Aerobically incubated suspensions of both laboratory-cultured and symbiotic bacteria (bacteroids) metabolize delta-aminolevulinic acid to uroporphyrin, coproporphyrin, and protoporphyrin. Under anaerobic conditions, suspensions of laboratory-cultured bacteria form greatly reduced amounts of protoporphyrin from delta-aminolevulinic acid, whereas protoporphyrin formation by bacteroid suspensions is unaffected by anaerobiosis, suggesting that bacteroids form protoporphyrin under anaerobic conditions more readily than do free-living bacteria. Oxygen is the major terminal electron acceptor for coproporphyrinogen oxidation in cell-free extracts of both bacteroids and free-living bacteria. In the absence of oxygen, ATP, NADP, Mg2+, and L-methionine are required for protoporphyrin formation in vitro. In the presence of these supplements, coproporphyrinogenase activity under anaerobic conditions is 5 to 10% of that observed under aerobic conditions. Two mechanisms for coproporphyrinogen oxidation exist in R. japonicum: an oxygen-dependent process and an anaerobic oxidation in which electrons are transferred to NADP. The significance of these findings with regard to heme biosynthesis in the microaerophilic soybean root nodule is discussed. PMID:6841317